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Sample records for detoxifies lignocellulosic biomass

  1. Method for pretreating lignocellulosic biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzhiyil, Najeeb M.; Brown, Robert C.; Dalluge, Dustin Lee

    2015-08-18

    The present invention relates to a method for pretreating lignocellulosic biomass containing alkali and/or alkaline earth metal (AAEM). The method comprises providing a lignocellulosic biomass containing AAEM; determining the amount of the AAEM present in the lignocellulosic biomass; identifying, based on said determining, the amount of a mineral acid sufficient to completely convert the AAEM in the lignocellulosic biomass to thermally-stable, catalytically-inert salts; and treating the lignocellulosic biomass with the identified amount of the mineral acid, wherein the treated lignocellulosic biomass contains thermally-stable, catalytically inert AAEM salts.

  2. Catalytic Gasification of Lignocellulosic Biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chodimella, Pramod; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Schlaf, Marcel; Zhang, Z. Conrad

    2015-01-01

    Gasification of lignocellulosic biomass has attracted substantial current research interest. Various possible routes to convert biomass to fuels have been explored. In the present chapter, an overview of the gasification processes and their possible products are discussed. Gasification of solid

  3. Biogas from lignocellulosic biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglund Odhner, Peter; Schabbauer, Anna [Grontmij AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Sarvari Horvath, Ilona; Mohseni Kabir, Maryam [Hoegskolan i Boraas, Boraas (Sweden)

    2012-01-15

    Grontmij AB has cooperated with the University of Boraas to evaluate the technological and economical possibilities for biogas production from substrates containing lignocellulose, such as forest residues, straw and paper. The state of knowledge regarding biogas production from cellulosic biomass has been summarized. The research in the field has been described, especially focusing on pretreatment methods and their results on increased gas yields. An investigation concerning commercially available pretreatment methods and the cost of these technologies has been performed. An economic evaluation of biogas production from lignocellulosic materials has provided answers to questions regarding the profitability of these processes. Pretreatment with steam explosion was economically evaluated for three feedstocks - wood, straw and paper - and a combination of steam explosion and addition of NaOH for paper. The presented costs pertain to costs for the pretreatment step as it, in this study, was assumed that the pretreatment would be added to an existing plant and the lignocellulosic substrates would be part of a co-digestion process. The results of the investigation indicate that it is difficult to provide a positive net result when comparing the cost of pretreatment versus the gas yield (value) for two of the feedstocks - forest residues and straw. This is mainly due to the high cost of the raw material. For forest residues the steam pretreatment cost exceeded the gas yield by over 50 %, mainly due to the high cost of the raw material. For straw, the production cost was similar to the value of the gas. Paper showed the best economic result. The gas yield (value) for paper exceeded the pretreatment cost by 15 %, which makes it interesting to study paper further.

  4. Ethanol from lignocellulosic biomasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricci, E.; Viola, E.; Zimbardi, F.; Braccio, G.; Cuna, D.

    2001-01-01

    In this report are presented results achieved on the process optimisation of bioethanol production from wheat straw, carried out within the ENEA's project of biomass exploitation for renewable energy. The process consists of three main steps: 1) biomass pretreatment by means of steam explosion; 2) enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose fraction; 3) fermentation of glucose. To perform the hydrolysis step, two commercial enzymatic mixtures have been employed, mainly composed by β-glucosidase (cellobiase), endo-glucanase and exo-glucanase. The ethanologenic yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been used to ferment the glucose in he hydrolyzates. Hydrolysis yield of 97% has been obtained with steam exploded wheat straw treated at 220 0 C for 3 minutes and an enzyme to substrate ratio of 4%. It has been pointed out the necessity of washing with water the pretreated what straw, in order to remove the biomass degradation products, which have shown an inhibition effect on the yeast. At the best process conditions, a fermentation yield of 95% has been achieved. In the Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation process, a global conversion of 92% has been obtained, which corresponds to the production of about 170 grams of ethanol per kilogram of exploded straw [it

  5. Lignocellulosic Biomass Pretreatment Using AFEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, Venkatesh; Bals, Bryan; Chundawat, Shishir P. S.; Marshall, Derek; Dale, Bruce E.

    Although cellulose is the most abundant organic molecule, its susceptibility to hydrolysis is restricted due to the rigid lignin and hemicellulose protection surrounding the cellulose micro fibrils. Therefore, an effective pretreatment is necessary to liberate the cellulose from the lignin-hemicellulose seal and also reduce cellulosic crystallinity. Some of the available pretreatment techniques include acid hydrolysis, steam explosion, ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX), alkaline wet oxidation, and hot water pretreatment. Besides reducing lignocellulosic recalcitrance, an ideal pretreatment must also minimize formation of degradation products that inhibit subsequent hydrolysis and fermentation. AFEX is an important pretreatment technology that utilizes both physical (high temperature and pressure) and chemical (ammonia) processes to achieve effective pretreatment. Besides increasing the surface accessibility for hydrolysis, AFEX promotes cellulose decrystallization and partial hemicellulose depolymerization and reduces the lignin recalcitrance in the treated biomass. Theoretical glucose yield upon optimal enzymatic hydrolysis on AFEX-treated corn stover is approximately 98%. Furthermore, AFEX offers several unique advantages over other pretreatments, which include near complete recovery of the pretreatment chemical (ammonia), nutrient addition for microbial growth through the remaining ammonia on pretreated biomass, and not requiring a washing step during the process which facilitates high solid loading hydrolysis. This chapter provides a detailed practical procedure to perform AFEX, design the reactor, determine the mass balances, and conduct the process safely.

  6. Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass using Fenton chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretreatment is a necessary step in “biomass to biofuel conversion” due to the recalcitrant nature of lignocellulosic biomass. White-rot fungi utilize peroxidases and hydrogen peroxide (in vivo Fenton chemistry) to degrade lignin. In an attempt to mimic this process, solution phase Fenton chemistry ...

  7. Pretreatments to enhance the digestibility of lignocellulosic biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, A.T.W.M.; Zeeman, G.

    2009-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass represents a rather unused source for biogas and ethanol production. Many factors, like lignin content, crystallinity of cellulose, and particle size, limit the digestibility of the hemicellulose and cellulose present in the lignocellulosic biomass. Pretreatments have as a

  8. An efficient Azorean thermophilic consortium for lignocellulosic biomass degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Rita; Teixeira, Mário; Toubarro, Duarte; Simões, Nelson; Domingues, Lucília; Teixeira, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    [Excerpt] Lignocellulosic plant biomass is being envisioned by biorefinery industry as an alternative to current petroleum platform because of the large scale availability, low cost and environmentally benign production. The industrial bioprocessing designed to transform lignocellulosic biomass into biofuels are harsh and the enzymatic reactions may be severely compromised reducing the production of fermentable sugars from lignocellulosic biomass. Thermophilic bacteria consortium are a potent...

  9. 2G ethanol from the whole sugarcane lignocellulosic biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Sandra Cerqueira; Maehara, Larissa; Machado, Cristina Maria Monteiro; Farinas, Cristiane Sanchez

    2015-01-01

    Background In the sugarcane industry, large amounts of lignocellulosic residues are generated, which includes bagasse, straw, and tops. The use of the whole sugarcane lignocellulosic biomass for the production of second-generation (2G) ethanol can be a potential alternative to contribute to the economic viability of this process. Here, we conducted a systematic comparative study of the use of the lignocellulosic residues from the whole sugarcane lignocellulosic biomass (bagasse, straw, and to...

  10. Preprocessing Moist Lignocellulosic Biomass for Biorefinery Feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal Yancey; Christopher T. Wright; Craig Conner; J. Richard Hess

    2009-06-01

    Biomass preprocessing is one of the primary operations in the feedstock assembly system of a lignocellulosic biorefinery. Preprocessing is generally accomplished using industrial grinders to format biomass materials into a suitable biorefinery feedstock for conversion to ethanol and other bioproducts. Many factors affect machine efficiency and the physical characteristics of preprocessed biomass. For example, moisture content of the biomass as received from the point of production has a significant impact on overall system efficiency and can significantly affect the characteristics (particle size distribution, flowability, storability, etc.) of the size-reduced biomass. Many different grinder configurations are available on the market, each with advantages under specific conditions. Ultimately, the capacity and/or efficiency of the grinding process can be enhanced by selecting the grinder configuration that optimizes grinder performance based on moisture content and screen size. This paper discusses the relationships of biomass moisture with respect to preprocessing system performance and product physical characteristics and compares data obtained on corn stover, switchgrass, and wheat straw as model feedstocks during Vermeer HG 200 grinder testing. During the tests, grinder screen configuration and biomass moisture content were varied and tested to provide a better understanding of their relative impact on machine performance and the resulting feedstock physical characteristics and uniformity relative to each crop tested.

  11. Extrusion Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zheng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass to bioethanol has shown environmental, economic and energetic advantages in comparison to bioethanol produced from sugar or starch. However, the pretreatment process for increasing the enzymatic accessibility and improving the digestibility of cellulose is hindered by many physical-chemical, structural and compositional factors, which make these materials difficult to be used as feedstocks for ethanol production. A wide range of pretreatment methods has been developed to alter or remove structural and compositional impediments to (enzymatic hydrolysis over the last few decades; however, only a few of them can be used at commercial scale due to economic feasibility. This paper will give an overview of extrusion pretreatment for bioethanol production with a special focus on twin-screw extruders. An economic assessment of this pretreatment is also discussed to determine its feasibility for future industrial cellulosic ethanol plant designs.

  12. Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Nanocellulose: Structure and Chemical Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. V. Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic biomass is a complex biopolymer that is primary composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The presence of cellulose in biomass is able to depolymerise into nanodimension biomaterial, with exceptional mechanical properties for biocomposites, pharmaceutical carriers, and electronic substrate’s application. However, the entangled biomass ultrastructure consists of inherent properties, such as strong lignin layers, low cellulose accessibility to chemicals, and high cellulose crystallinity, which inhibit the digestibility of the biomass for cellulose extraction. This situation offers both challenges and promises for the biomass biorefinery development to utilize the cellulose from lignocellulosic biomass. Thus, multistep biorefinery processes are necessary to ensure the deconstruction of noncellulosic content in lignocellulosic biomass, while maintaining cellulose product for further hydrolysis into nanocellulose material. In this review, we discuss the molecular structure basis for biomass recalcitrance, reengineering process of lignocellulosic biomass into nanocellulose via chemical, and novel catalytic approaches. Furthermore, review on catalyst design to overcome key barriers regarding the natural resistance of biomass will be presented herein.

  13. Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Nanocellulose: Structure and Chemical Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H. V.; Hamid, S. B. A.; Zain, S. K.

    2014-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a complex biopolymer that is primary composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The presence of cellulose in biomass is able to depolymerise into nanodimension biomaterial, with exceptional mechanical properties for biocomposites, pharmaceutical carriers, and electronic substrate's application. However, the entangled biomass ultrastructure consists of inherent properties, such as strong lignin layers, low cellulose accessibility to chemicals, and high cellulose crystallinity, which inhibit the digestibility of the biomass for cellulose extraction. This situation offers both challenges and promises for the biomass biorefinery development to utilize the cellulose from lignocellulosic biomass. Thus, multistep biorefinery processes are necessary to ensure the deconstruction of noncellulosic content in lignocellulosic biomass, while maintaining cellulose product for further hydrolysis into nanocellulose material. In this review, we discuss the molecular structure basis for biomass recalcitrance, reengineering process of lignocellulosic biomass into nanocellulose via chemical, and novel catalytic approaches. Furthermore, review on catalyst design to overcome key barriers regarding the natural resistance of biomass will be presented herein. PMID:25247208

  14. Lignocellulosic Biomass: A Sustainable Bioenergy Source for the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatma, Shabih; Hameed, Amir; Noman, Muhammad; Ahmed, Temoor; Shahid, Muhammad; Tariq, Mohsin; Sohail, Imran; Tabassum, Romana

    2018-01-01

    Increasing population and industrialization are continuously oppressing the existing energy resources and depleting the global fuel reservoirs. The elevated pollutions from the continuous consumption of non-renewable fossil fuels also seriously contaminating the surrounding environment. The use of alternate energy sources can be an environment-friendly solution to cope these challenges. Among the renewable energy sources biofuels (biomass-derived fuels) can serve as a better alternative to reduce the reliance on non-renewable fossil fuels. Bioethanol is one of the most widely consumed biofuels of today's world. The main objective of this review is to highlight the significance of lignocellulosic biomass as a potential source for the production of biofuels like bioethanol, biodiesel or biogas. We discuss the application of various methods for the bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass to end products i.e. biofuels. The lignocellulosic biomass must be pretreated to disintegrate lignocellulosic complexes and to expose its chemical components for downstream processes. After pretreatment, the lignocellulosic biomass is then subjected to saccharification either via acidic or enzymatic hydrolysis. Thereafter, the monomeric sugars resulted from hydrolysis step are further processed into biofuel i.e. bioethanol, biodiesel or butanol etc. through the fermentation process. The fermented impure product is then purified through the distillation process to obtain pure biofuel. Renewable energy sources represent the potential fuel alternatives to overcome the global energy crises in a sustainable and eco-friendly manner. In future, biofuels may replenish the conventional non-renewable energy resources due to their renewability and several other advantages. Lignocellulosic biomass offers the most economical biomass to generate biofuels. However, extensive research is required for the commercial production of an efficient integrated biotransformation process for the production of

  15. Inhibitory Compounds in Lignocellulosic Biomass Hydrolysates during Hydrolysate Fermentation Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zha, Y.; Muilwijk, B.; Coulier, L.C.; Punt, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    To compare the composition and performance of various lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates as fermentation media, 8 hydrolysates were generated from a grass-like and a wood biomass. The hydrolysate preparation methods used were 1) dilute acid, 2) mild alkaline, 3) alkaline/peracetic acid, and 4)

  16. Fungal treated lignocellulosic biomass as ruminant feed ingredient: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijk, van S.J.A.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Baars, J.J.P.; Hendriks, W.H.; Cone, J.W.

    2015-01-01

    In ruminant nutrition, there is an increasing interest for ingredients that do not compete with human nutrition. Ruminants are specialists in digesting carbohydrates in plant cell walls; therefore lignocellulosic biomass has potential in ruminant nutrition. The presence of lignin in biomass,

  17. LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS AFTER EXPLOSIVE AUTOHYDROLYSIS AS SUBSTRATE TO BUTANOL OBTAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tigunova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was investigation of the effect of the explosive autohydrolysis on lignocellulosic biomass (saving, switchgrass biomass for consequent use as a substrate to produce biofuels such as butanol. Butanol-producing strains, switchgrass Panicum virgatum L. biomass and its components after autohydrolysis were used in study. The thermobaric pressure pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass was carried out using specially designed equipment. The effect of explosive autohydrolysis on lignocellulosic biomass for further use in producing biofuels using microbial conversion was studied. Components of lignocellulosic biomass were fractionated after undergoing thermobaric treatment. The possibility of using different raw material components after using explosive autohydrolysis processing to produce biobutanol was found. Products of switchgrass biomass autohydrolysis were shown to need further purification before fermentation from furfural formed by thermobaric pretreatment and inhibiting the growth of microorganisms. The ability of strains of the genus Clostridium to use cellulose as a substrate for fermentation was proved. It was found that using explosive autohydrolysis pretreatment to savings allowed boosting the butanol accumulation by 2 times.

  18. Pichia stipitis xylose reductase helps detoxifying lignocellulosic hydrolysate by reducing 5-hydroxymethyl-furfural (HMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Röder Anja

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pichia stipitis xylose reductase (Ps-XR has been used to design Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that are able to ferment xylose. One example is the industrial S. cerevisiae xylose-consuming strain TMB3400, which was constructed by expression of P. stipitis xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase and overexpression of endogenous xylulose kinase in the industrial S. cerevisiae strain USM21. Results In this study, we demonstrate that strain TMB3400 not only converts xylose, but also displays higher tolerance to lignocellulosic hydrolysate during anaerobic batch fermentation as well as 3 times higher in vitro HMF and furfural reduction activity than the control strain USM21. Using laboratory strains producing various levels of Ps-XR, we confirm that Ps-XR is able to reduce HMF both in vitro and in vivo. Ps-XR overexpression increases the in vivo HMF conversion rate by approximately 20%, thereby improving yeast tolerance towards HMF. Further purification of Ps-XR shows that HMF is a substrate inhibitor of the enzyme. Conclusion We demonstrate for the first time that xylose reductase is also able to reduce the furaldehyde compounds that are present in undetoxified lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Possible implications of this newly characterized activity of Ps-XR on lignocellulosic hydrolysate fermentation are discussed.

  19. PRETREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES IN BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanja Janušić

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol is today most commonly produced from corn grain and sugar cane. It is expected that there will be limits to the supply of these raw materials in the near future. Therefore, lignocellulosic biomass, namely agricultural and forest waste, is seen as an attractive feedstock for future supplies of ethanol. Lignocellulosic biomass consists of lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose. Indeed, complexicity of the lignocellulosic biomass structure causes a pretreatment to be applied prior to cellulose and hemicellulose hydrolysis into fermentable sugars. Pretreatment technologies can be physical (mechanical comminution, pyrolysis, physico-chemical (steam explosion, ammonia fiber explosion, CO2 explosion, chemical (ozonolysis, acid hydrolysis, alkaline hydrolysis, oxidative delignification, organosolvent process and biological ones.

  20. Identifying inhibitory compounds in lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates using an exometabolomics approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zha, Y.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Muilwijk, B.; Overkamp, K.M.; Nijmeijer, B.M.; Coulier, L.; Smilde, A.K.; Punt, P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Inhibitors are formed that reduce the fermentation performance of fermenting yeast during the pretreatment process of lignocellulosic biomass. An exometabolomics approach was applied to systematically identify inhibitors in lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates.Results: We studied the

  1. Identifying inhibitory compounds in lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates using an exometabolomics approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zha, Y.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Muilwijk, B.; Overkamp, K.M.; Nijmeijer, B.M.; Coulier, L.; Smilde, A.K.; Punt, P.J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Inhibitors are formed that reduce the fermentation performance of fermenting yeast during the pretreatment process of lignocellulosic biomass. An exometabolomics approach was applied to systematically identify inhibitors in lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates. RESULTS: We studied the

  2. Flow-through biological conversion of lignocellulosic biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Christopher D.; Liu, Chaogang; Bardsley, John

    2014-07-01

    The present invention is directed to a process for biologically converting carbohydrates from lignocellulosic biomass comprising the steps of: suspending lignocellulosic biomass in a flow-through reactor, passing a reaction solution into the reactor, wherein the solution is absorbed into the biomass substrate and at least a portion of the solution migrates through said biomass substrate to a liquid reservoir, recirculating the reaction solution in the liquid reservoir at least once to be absorbed into and migrate through the biomass substrate again. The biological converting of the may involve hydrolyzing cellulose, hemicellulose, or a combination thereof to form oligosaccharides, monomelic sugars, or a combination thereof; fermenting oligosaccharides, monomelic sugars, or a combination thereof to produce ethanol, or a combination thereof. The process can further comprise removing the reaction solution and processing the solution to separate the ethanol produced from non-fermented solids.

  3. An overview of key pretreatment processes for biological conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to bioethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Maurya, Devendra Prasad; Singla, Ankit; Negi, Sangeeta

    2015-01-01

    Second-generation bioethanol can be produced from various lignocellulosic biomasses such as wood, agricultural or forest residues. Lignocellulosic biomass is inexpensive, renewable and abundant source for bioethanol production. The conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to bioethanol could be a promising technology though the process has several challenges and limitations such as biomass transport and handling, and efficient pretreatment methods for total delignification of lignocellulosics. P...

  4. Renewable biofuels bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass by microbial community

    CERN Document Server

    Rana, Vandana

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a complete introduction for novices to understand key concepts of biocatalysis and how to produce in-house enzymes that can be used for low-cost biofuels production. The authors discuss the challenges involved in the commercialization of the biofuel industry, given the expense of commercial enzymes used for lignocellulose conversion. They describe the limitations in the process, such as complexity of lignocellulose structure, different microbial communities’ actions and interactions for degrading the recalcitrant structure of lignocellulosic materials, hydrolysis mechanism and potential for bio refinery. Readers will gain understanding of the key concepts of microbial catalysis of lignocellulosic biomass, process complexities and selection of microbes for catalysis or genetic engineering to improve the production of bioethanol or biofuel.

  5. Methods for producing extracted and digested products from pretreated lignocellulosic biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chundawat, Shishir; Sousa, Leonardo Da Costa; Cheh, Albert M.; Balan; , Venkatesh; Dale, Bruce

    2017-05-16

    Methods for producing extracted and digested products from pretreated lignocellulosic biomass are provided. The methods include converting native cellulose I.sub..beta. to cellulose III.sub.I by pretreating the lignocellulosic biomass with liquid ammonia under certain conditions, and performing extracting or digesting steps on the pretreated/converted lignocellulosic biomass.

  6. Recent updates on lignocellulosic biomass derived ethanol - A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic (or cellulosic biomass derived ethanol is the most promising near/long term fuel candidate. In addition, cellulosic biomass derived ethanol may serve a precursor to other fuels and chemicals that are currently derived from unsustainable sources and/or are proposed to be derived from cellulosic biomass. However, the processing cost for second generation ethanol is still high to make the process commercially profitable and replicable. In this review, recent trends in cellulosic biomass ethanol derived via biochemical route are reviewed with main focus on current research efforts that are being undertaken to realize high product yields/titers and bring the overall cost down.

  7. Lignocellulosic biomass utilization toward biorefinery using meshophilic Clostridial species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamaru, Yutaka; Lopez Contreras, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass such as agricultural, industrial, and forestry residues as well as
    dedicated crops constitute renewable and abundant resources with great potential for a lowcost
    and uniquely sustainable bioconversion to value-added bioproducts. Thus, many
    organic fuels and

  8. Lignocellulose Biomass: Constitutive Polymers. Biological Processes of Lignin Degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, C.; Manzanares, P.

    1994-01-01

    The structure of the lignocellulosic materials and the chemical composition of their main constitutive polymers, cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin are described. The most promising transformation processes according to the type of biomass considered: hardwood, softwood an herbaceous and the perspectives of biotechnological processes for bio pulping, bio bleaching and effluents decolorisation in the paper pulp industry are also discussed. (Author) 7 refs

  9. Fungal treated lignocellulosic biomass as ruminant feed ingredient: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kuijk, S J A; Sonnenberg, A S M; Baars, J J P; Hendriks, W H; Cone, J W

    2015-01-01

    In ruminant nutrition, there is an increasing interest for ingredients that do not compete with human nutrition. Ruminants are specialists in digesting carbohydrates in plant cell walls; therefore lignocellulosic biomass has potential in ruminant nutrition. The presence of lignin in biomass, however, limits the effective utilization of cellulose and hemicellulose. Currently, most often chemical and/or physical treatments are used to degrade lignin. White rot fungi are selective lignin degraders and can be a potential alternative to current methods which involve potentially toxic chemicals and expensive equipment. This review provides an overview of research conducted to date on fungal pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for ruminant feeds. White rot fungi colonize lignocellulosic biomass, and during colonization produce enzymes, radicals and other small compounds to breakdown lignin. The mechanisms on how these fungi degrade lignin are not fully understood, but fungal strain, the origin of lignocellulose and culture conditions have a major effect on the process. Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Pleurotus eryngii are the most effective fungi to improve the nutritional value of biomass for ruminant nutrition. However, conclusions on the effectiveness of fungal delignification are difficult to draw due to a lack of standardized culture conditions and information on fungal strains used. Methods of analysis between studies are not uniform for both chemical analysis and in vitro degradation measurements. In vivo studies are limited in number and mostly describing digestibility after mushroom production, when the fungus has degraded cellulose to derive energy for fruit body development. Optimization of fungal pretreatment is required to shorten the process of delignification and make it more selective for lignin. In this respect, future research should focus on optimization of culture conditions and gene expression to obtain a better understanding of the mechanisms

  10. Processes for pretreating lignocellulosic biomass: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillan, J.D.

    1992-11-01

    This paper reviews existing and proposed pretreatment processes for biomass. The focus is on the mechanisms by which the various pretreatments act and the influence of biomass structure and composition on the efficacy of particular pretreatment techniques. This analysis is used to identify pretreatment technologies and issues that warrant further research.

  11. Enhancing Cellulase Commercial Performance for the Lignocellulosic Biomass Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarnigan, Alisha [Danisco, US Inc., Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2016-06-07

    Cellulase enzyme loading (Bt-G) for the economic conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol is on of the key challenges identified in the Biomass Program of DOE/EERE. The goal of Danisco’s project which ran from 2008 to 2012, was to address the technical challenge by creating more efficient enzyme that could be used at lower doses, thus reducing the enzymes’ cost contribution to the conversio process. We took the approach of protein engineering of cellulase enzymes to overcome the enzymati limitations in the system of cellulosic-hydrolyzing enzymes to improve performance in conversion o biomass, thereby creating a more effective enzyme mix.

  12. Understanding Ionic Liquid Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretreatment of biomass is essential for breaking apart highly ordered and crystalline plant cell walls and loosening the lignin and hemicellulose conjugation to cellulose microfibrills, thereby facilitating enzyme accessibility and adsorption and reducing costs of downstream saccharification proces...

  13. Process for the treatment of lignocellulosic biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Bruce E.; Lynd, Lee R.; Laser, Mark

    2013-03-12

    A process for the treatment of biomass to render structural carbohydrates more accessible and/or digestible using concentrated ammonium hydroxide with or without anhydrous ammonia addition, is described. The process preferably uses steam to strip ammonia from the biomass for recycling. The process yields of monosaccharides from the structural carbohydrates are good, particularly as measured by the enzymatic hydrolysis of the structural carbohydrates. The monosaccharides are used as animal feeds and energy sources for ethanol production.

  14. Pyrolysis based bio-refinery for the production of bioethanol from demineralized ligno-cellulosic biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luque, L.; Westerhof, Roel Johannes Maria; van Rossum, G.; Oudenhoven, Stijn; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Berruti, F.; Rehmann, L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper evaluates a novel biorefinery approach for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass from pinewood. A combination of thermochemical and biochemical conversion was chosen with the main product being ethanol. Fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomasss with fractional condensation of the

  15. Chemical and Physicochemical Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Brodeur, Gary; Yau, Elizabeth; Badal, Kimberly; Collier, John; Ramachandran, K. B.; Ramakrishnan, Subramanian

    2011-01-01

    Overcoming the recalcitrance (resistance of plant cell walls to deconstruction) of lignocellulosic biomass is a key step in the production of fuels and chemicals. The recalcitrance is due to the highly crystalline structure of cellulose which is embedded in a matrix of polymers-lignin and hemicellulose. The main goal of pretreatment is to overcome this recalcitrance, to separate the cellulose from the matrix polymers, and to make it more accessible for enzymatic hydrolysis. Reports have sh...

  16. Biological strategies for enhanced hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass during anaerobic digestion: Current status and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Shilva; Fonoll, Xavier; Khanal, Samir Kumar; Raskin, Lutgarde

    2017-12-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is the most abundant renewable bioresource on earth. In lignocellulosic biomass, the cellulose and hemicellulose are bound with lignin and other molecules to form a complex structure not easily accessible to microbial degradation. Anaerobic digestion (AD) of lignocellulosic biomass with a focus on improving hydrolysis, the rate limiting step in AD of lignocellulosic feedstocks, has received considerable attention. This review highlights challenges with AD of lignocellulosic biomass, factors contributing to its recalcitrance, and natural microbial ecosystems, such as the gastrointestinal tracts of herbivorous animals, capable of performing hydrolysis efficiently. Biological strategies that have been evaluated to enhance hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass include biological pretreatment, co-digestion, and inoculum selection. Strategies to further improve these approaches along with future research directions are outlined with a focus on linking studies of microbial communities involved in hydrolysis of lignocellulosics to process engineering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Enzyme Characterization of Cellulase and Hemicellulases Component Enzymes and Saccharification of Ionic Liquid Pretreated Lignocellulosic Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lignocellulosic biomass is comprised of cellulose and hemicellulose, sources of polysaccharides, and lignin, a macromolecule with extensive aromaticity. Terrestrial biomass can provide a renewable carbon based feedstock for fuel and chemical production. However, recalcitrance of biomass to deconstru...

  18. Conversion of Lignocellulosic Bagasse Biomass into Hydrogel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Amiri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the main objective of developing new hydrogel systems has been to convert biomass into environmentally-friendly hydrogels. Hybrid hydrogels are usually prepared by graft copolymerization of acrylic monomers onto natural polymers or biomass. In this study, sugarcane bagasse was used to prepare semi-synthetic hybrid hydrogels without delignification, which is a costly and timeconsuming process. Sugarcane bagasse as a source of polysaccharide was modified using polymer microgels based on acrylic monomers such as acrylic acid, acrylamide and 2-acrylamido-2-methyl propane sulfonic acid which were prepared through inverse emulsion polymerization. By this process, biomass as a low-value by-product was converted into a valuable semi-synthetic hydrogel. In the following, the effect of latex type¸ the aqueous-to-organic phase ratio in the polymer latex, time and temperature of modification reaction on the swelling capacity of the hybrid hydrogel were evaluated. The chemical reaction between sugarcane bagasse and acrylic latex was carried out during heating of the modified bagasse which led to obtain a semisynthetic hydrogel with 60% natural components and 40% synthetic components. Among the latexes with different structures, poly(AA-NaAA-AM-AMPS was the most suitable polymer latex for the conversion of biomass into hydrogel. The bagasse modified with this latex had a water absorption capacity up to 112 g/g, while the water absorption capacity of primary sugarcane bagasse was only equal to 3.6 g/g. The prepared polymer hydrogels were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, dynamic-mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and determination of the amount of swelling capacity.

  19. Chemical and Physicochemical Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Brodeur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Overcoming the recalcitrance (resistance of plant cell walls to deconstruction of lignocellulosic biomass is a key step in the production of fuels and chemicals. The recalcitrance is due to the highly crystalline structure of cellulose which is embedded in a matrix of polymers-lignin and hemicellulose. The main goal of pretreatment is to overcome this recalcitrance, to separate the cellulose from the matrix polymers, and to make it more accessible for enzymatic hydrolysis. Reports have shown that pretreatment can improve sugar yields to higher than 90% theoretical yield for biomass such as wood, grasses, and corn. This paper reviews different leading pretreatment technologies along with their latest developments and highlights their advantages and disadvantages with respect to subsequent hydrolysis and fermentation. The effects of different technologies on the components of biomass (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin are also reviewed with a focus on how the treatment greatly enhances enzymatic cellulose digestibility.

  20. Chemical and physicochemical pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodeur, Gary; Yau, Elizabeth; Badal, Kimberly; Collier, John; Ramachandran, K B; Ramakrishnan, Subramanian

    2011-01-01

    Overcoming the recalcitrance (resistance of plant cell walls to deconstruction) of lignocellulosic biomass is a key step in the production of fuels and chemicals. The recalcitrance is due to the highly crystalline structure of cellulose which is embedded in a matrix of polymers-lignin and hemicellulose. The main goal of pretreatment is to overcome this recalcitrance, to separate the cellulose from the matrix polymers, and to make it more accessible for enzymatic hydrolysis. Reports have shown that pretreatment can improve sugar yields to higher than 90% theoretical yield for biomass such as wood, grasses, and corn. This paper reviews different leading pretreatment technologies along with their latest developments and highlights their advantages and disadvantages with respect to subsequent hydrolysis and fermentation. The effects of different technologies on the components of biomass (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin) are also reviewed with a focus on how the treatment greatly enhances enzymatic cellulose digestibility.

  1. Development of a commercial enzymes system for lignocellulosic biomass saccharification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Manoj

    2012-12-20

    DSM Innovation Inc., in its four year effort was able to evaluate and develop its in-house DSM fungal cellulolytic enzymes system to reach enzyme efficiency mandates set by DoE Biomass program MYPP goals. DSM enzyme cocktail is uniquely active at high temperature and acidic pH, offering many benefits and product differentiation in 2G bioethanol production. Under this project, strain and process development, ratio optimization of enzymes, protein and genetic engineering has led to multitudes of improvement in productivity and efficiency making development of a commercial enzyme system for lignocellulosic biomass saccharification viable. DSM is continuing further improvement by additional biodiversity screening, protein engineering and overexpression of enzymes to continue to further lower the cost of enzymes for saccharification of biomass.

  2. 2G ethanol from the whole sugarcane lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Sandra Cerqueira; Maehara, Larissa; Machado, Cristina Maria Monteiro; Farinas, Cristiane Sanchez

    2015-01-01

    In the sugarcane industry, large amounts of lignocellulosic residues are generated, which includes bagasse, straw, and tops. The use of the whole sugarcane lignocellulosic biomass for the production of second-generation (2G) ethanol can be a potential alternative to contribute to the economic viability of this process. Here, we conducted a systematic comparative study of the use of the lignocellulosic residues from the whole sugarcane lignocellulosic biomass (bagasse, straw, and tops) from commercial sugarcane varieties for the production of 2G ethanol. In addition, the feasibility of using a mixture of these residues from a selected variety was also investigated. The materials were pretreated with dilute acid and hydrolyzed with a commercial enzymatic preparation, after which the hydrolysates were fermented using an industrial strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The susceptibility to enzymatic saccharification was higher for the tops, followed by straw and bagasse. Interestingly, the fermentability of the hydrolysates showed a different profile, with straw achieving the highest ethanol yields, followed by tops and bagasse. Using a mixture of the different sugarcane parts (bagasse-straw-tops, 1:1:1, in a dry-weight basis), it was possible to achieve a 55% higher enzymatic conversion and a 25% higher ethanol yield, compared to use of the bagasse alone. For the four commercial sugarcane varieties evaluated using the same experimental set of conditions, it was found that the variety of sugarcane was not a significant factor in the 2G ethanol production process. Assessment of use of the whole lignocellulosic sugarcane biomass clearly showed that 2G ethanol production could be significantly improved by the combined use of bagasse, straw, and tops, when compared to the use of bagasse alone. The lower susceptibility to saccharification of sugarcane bagasse, as well as the lower fermentability of its hydrolysates, can be compensated by using it in combination with straw

  3. Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol and Butyl Acrylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binder, Thomas [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States); Erpelding, Michael [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States); Schmid, Josef [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States); Chin, Andrew [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States); Sammons, Rhea [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States); Rockafellow, Erin [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States)

    2015-04-10

    Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol and Butyl Acrylate. The purpose of Archer Daniels Midlands Integrated Biorefinery (IBR) was to demonstrate a modified acetosolv process on corn stover. It would show the fractionation of crop residue to distinct fractions of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The cellulose and hemicellulose fractions would be further converted to ethanol as the primary product and a fraction of the sugars would be catalytically converted to acrylic acid, with butyl acrylate the final product. These primary steps have been demonstrated.

  4. Pyrolysis Strategies for Effective Utilization of Lignocellulosic and Algal Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddi, Balakrishna

    Pyrolysis is a processing technique involving thermal degradation of biomass in the absence of oxygen. The bio-oils obtained following the condensation of the pyrolysis vapors form a convenient starting point for valorizing the major components of lignocellulosic as well as algal biomass feed stocks for the production of fuels and value-added chemicals. Pyrolysis can be implemented on whole biomass or on residues left behind following standard fractionation methods. Microalgae and oil seeds predominantly consist of protein, carbohydrate and triglycerides, whereas lignocellulose is composed of carbohydrates (cellulose and hemicellulose) and lignin. The differences in the major components of these two types of biomass will necessitate different pyrolysis strategies to derive the optimal benefits from the resulting bio-oils. In this thesis, novel pyrolysis strategies were developed that enable efficient utilization of the bio-oils (and/or their vapors) from lignocellulose, algae, as well as oil seed feed stocks. With lignocellulosic feed stocks, pyrolysis of whole biomass as well as the lignin residue left behind following well-established pretreatment and saccharification (i.e., depolymerization of cellulose and hemicellulose to their monomeric-sugars) of the biomass was studied with and without catalysts. Following this, pyrolysis of (lipid-deficient) algae and lignocellulosic feed stocks, under similar reactor conditions, was performed for comparison of product (bio-oil, gas and bio-char) yields and composition. In spite of major differences in component bio-polymers, feedstock properties relevant to thermo-chemical conversions, such as overall C, H and O-content, C/O and H/C molar ratio as well as calorific values, were found to be similar for algae and lignocellulosic material. Bio-oil yields from algae and some lignocellulosic materials were similar; however, algal bio-oils were compositionally different and contained several N-compounds (most likely from

  5. A novel biorefinery integration concept for lignocellulosic biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Özdenkçi, Karhan; De Blasio, Cataldo; Muddassar, Hassan R.; Melin, Kristian; Oinas, Pekka; Koskinen, Jukka; Sarwar, Golam; Järvinen, Mika

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Wide review is provided on supply chain and biomass conversion processes. • The requirements for sustainable biorefinery are listed. • An enhanced version distributed-centralized network is proposed. • A novel hydrothermal process is proposed for biomass conversion. - Abstract: The concept of an integrated biorefinery has increasing importance regarding sustainability aspects. However, the typical concepts have techno-economic issues: limited replacement in co-processing with fossil sources and high investment costs in integration to a specific plant. These issues have directed the current investigations to supply-chain network systems. On the other hand, these studies have the scope of a specific product and/or a feedstock type. This paper proposes a novel biorefinery concept for lignocellulosic biomass: sectoral integration network and a new hydrothermal process for biomass conversion. The sectoral integration concept has the potential for sustainable production from biomass: pre-treatment at the biomass sites, regional distributed conversion of biomass from various sectors (e.g. black liquor, sawdust, straw) and centralized upgrading/separation of crude biofuels. On the other hand, the conversion processes compose the vital part of such a concept. The new conversion involves partial wet oxidation - or simultaneous dissolution with partial wet oxidation for solid biomass- followed by lignin recovery with acidification and a reactor that can perform either hydrothermal liquefaction or supercritical water gasification. The process can intake both liquid and solid biomass to produce lignin as biomaterial and syngas or bio-oil. The new concept can contribute social development of rural areas by utilizing waste as valuable raw material for the production of multiple products and reduce the net greenhouse gas emissions by replacing fossil-based production.

  6. A fundamental review of the relationships between nanotechnology and lignocellulosic biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore Wegner; E. Philip Jones

    2009-01-01

    At first glance, the relationship between nanotechnology and lignocellulosic biomass may seem to be unconnected or at best tenuously connected. It is important to recognize that. at a fundamental level, lignocellulosic biomass is made up of nanometer-size constitutive building block units that provide valuable properties to wood and other types of renewable...

  7. Ranking of lignocellulosic biomass pellets through multicriteria modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sultana, A.; Kumar, A. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    A study was conducted in which pellets from different lignocellulosic biomass sources were ranked using a multicriteria assessment model. Five different pellet alternatives were compared based on 10 criteria. The pair-wise comparison was done in order to develop preference indices for various alternatives. The methodology used in this study was the Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment and Evaluation (PROMETHEE). The biomass included wood pellets, straw pellets, switchgrass pellets, alfalfa pellets and poultry pellets. The study considered both quantitative and qualitative criteria such as energy consumption to produce the pellets, production cost, bulk density, NOx emissions, SOx emissions, deposit formation, net calorific value, moisture content, maturity of technology, and quality of material. A sensitivity analysis was performed by changing weights of criteria and threshold values of the criteria. Different scenarios were developed for ranking cost and environmental impacts. According to preliminary results, the wood pellet is the best energy source, followed by switchgrass pellets, straw pellets, alfalfa pellets and poultry pellets.

  8. Fungal delignification of lignocellulosic biomass improves the saccharification of cellulosics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rishi; Mehta, Girija; Khasa, Yogender Pal; Kuhad, Ramesh Chander

    2011-07-01

    The biological delignification of lignocellulosic feedstocks, Prosopis juliflora and Lantana camara was carried out with Pycnoporus cinnabarinus, a white rot fungus, at different scales under solid-state fermentation (SSF) and the fungal treated substrates were evaluated for their acid and enzymatic saccharification. The fungal fermentation at 10.0 g substrate level optimally delignified the P. juliflora by 11.89% and L. camara by 8.36%, and enriched their holocellulose content by 3.32 and 4.87%, respectively, after 15 days. The fungal delignification when scaled up from 10.0 g to 75.0, 200.0 and 500.0 g substrate level, the fungus degraded about 7.69-10.08% lignin in P. juliflora and 6.89-7.31% in L. camara, and eventually enhanced the holocellulose content by 2.90-3.97 and 4.25-4.61%, respectively. Furthermore, when the fungal fermented L. camara and P. juliflora was hydrolysed with dilute sulphuric acid, the sugar release was increased by 21.4-42.4% and the phenolics content in hydrolysate was decreased by 18.46 and 19.88%, as compared to the unfermented substrate acid hydrolysis, respectively. The reduction of phenolics in acid hydrolysates of fungal treated substrates decreased the amount of detoxifying material (activated charcoal) by 25.0-33.0% as compared to the amount required to reduce almost the same level of phenolics from unfermented substrate hydrolysates. Moreover, an increment of 21.1-25.1% sugar release was obtained when fungal treated substrates were enzymatically hydrolysed as compared to the hydrolysis of unfermented substrates. This study clearly shows that fungal delignification holds potential in utilizing plant residues for the production of sugars and biofuels.

  9. Experimental methods for laboratory-scale ensilage of lignocellulosic biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanjore, Deepti; Richard, Tom L.; Marshall, Megan N.

    2012-01-01

    Anaerobic fermentation is a potential storage method for lignocellulosic biomass in biofuel production processes. Since biomass is seasonally harvested, stocks are often dried or frozen at laboratory scale prior to fermentation experiments. Such treatments prior to fermentation studies cause irreversible changes in the plant cells, influencing the initial state of biomass and thereby the progression of the fermentation processes itself. This study investigated the effects of drying, refrigeration, and freezing relative to freshly harvested corn stover in lab-scale ensilage studies. Particle sizes, as well as post-ensilage drying temperatures for compositional analysis, were tested to identify the appropriate sample processing methods. After 21 days of ensilage the lowest pH value (3.73 ± 0.03), lowest dry matter loss (4.28 ± 0.26 g. 100 g-1DM), and highest water soluble carbohydrate (WSC) concentrations (7.73 ± 0.26 g. 100 g-1DM) were observed in control biomass (stover ensiled within 12 h of harvest without any treatments). WSC concentration was significantly reduced in samples refrigerated for 7 days prior to ensilage (3.86 ± 0.49 g. 100 g −1 DM). However, biomass frozen prior to ensilage produced statistically similar results to the fresh biomass control, especially in treatments with cell wall degrading enzymes. Grinding to decrease particle size reduced the variance amongst replicates for pH values of individual reactors to a minor extent. Drying biomass prior to extraction of WSCs resulted in degradation of the carbohydrates and a reduced estimate of their concentrations. The methods developed in this study can be used to improve ensilage experiments and thereby help in developing ensilage as a storage method for biofuel production. -- Highlights: ► Laboratory-scale methods to assess the influence of ensilage biofuel production. ► Drying, freezing, and refrigeration of biomass influenced microbial fermentation. ► Freshly ensiled stover exhibited

  10. Current Challenges in Commercially Producing Biofuels from Lignocellulosic Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, Venkatesh

    2014-01-01

    Biofuels that are produced from biobased materials are a good alternative to petroleum based fuels. They offer several benefits to society and the environment. Producing second generation biofuels is even more challenging than producing first generation biofuels due the complexity of the biomass and issues related to producing, harvesting, and transporting less dense biomass to centralized biorefineries. In addition to this logistic challenge, other challenges with respect to processing steps in converting biomass to liquid transportation fuel like pretreatment, hydrolysis, microbial fermentation, and fuel separation still exist and are discussed in this review. The possible coproducts that could be produced in the biorefinery and their importance to reduce the processing cost of biofuel are discussed. About $1 billion was spent in the year 2012 by the government agencies in US to meet the mandate to replace 30% existing liquid transportation fuels by 2022 which is 36 billion gallons/year. Other countries in the world have set their own targets to replace petroleum fuel by biofuels. Because of the challenges listed in this review and lack of government policies to create the demand for biofuels, it may take more time for the lignocellulosic biofuels to hit the market place than previously projected. PMID:25937989

  11. Consolidated briefing of biochemical ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyridon Achinas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol production is one pathway for crude oil reduction and environmental compliance. Bioethanol can be used as fuel with significant characteristics like high octane number, low cetane number and high heat of vaporization. Its main drawbacks are the corrosiveness, low flame luminosity, lower vapor pressure, miscibility with water, and toxicity to ecosystems. One crucial problem with bioethanol fuel is the availability of raw materials. The supply of feedstocks for bioethanol production can vary season to season and depends on geographic locations. Lignocellulosic biomass, such as forest-based woody materials, agricultural residues and municipal waste, is prominent feedstock for bioethanol cause of its high availability and low cost, even though the commercial production has still not been established. In addition, the supply and the attentive use of microbes render the bioethanol production process highly peculiar. Many conversion technologies and techniques for biomass-based ethanol production are under development and expected to be demonstrated. In this work a technological analysis of the biochemical method that can be used to produce bioethanol is carried out and a review of current trends and issues is conducted.

  12. Autohydrolysis Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass for Bioethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qiang

    Autohydrolysis, a simple and environmental friendly process, has long been studied but often abandoned as a financially viable pretreatment for bioethanol production due to the low yields of fermentable sugars at economic enzyme dosages. The introduction of mechanical refining can generate substantial improvements for autohydrolysis process, making it an attractive pretreatment technology for bioethanol commercialization. In this study, several lignocellulosic biomass including wheat straw, switchgrass, corn stover, waste wheat straw have been subjected to autohydrolysis pretreatment followed by mechanical refining to evaluate the total sugar recovery at affordable enzyme dosages. Encouraging results have been found that using autohydrolysis plus refining strategy, the total sugar recovery of most feedstock can be as high as 76% at 4 FPU/g enzymes dosages. The mechanical refining contributed to the improvement of enzymatic sugar yield by as much as 30%. Three non-woody biomass (sugarcane bagasse, wheat straw, and switchgrass) and three woody biomass (maple, sweet gum, and nitens) have been subjected to autohydrolysis pretreatment to acquire a fundamental understanding of biomass characteristics that affect the autohydrolysis and the following enzymatic hydrolysis. It is of interest to note that the nonwoody biomass went through substantial delignification during autohydrolysis compared to woody biomass due to a significant amount of p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid. It has been found that hardwood which has a higher S/V ratio in the lignin structure tends to have a higher total sugar recovery from autohydrolysis pretreatment. The economics of bioethanol production from autohydrolysis of different feedstocks have been investigated. Regardless of different feedstocks, in the conventional design, producing bioethanol and co-producing steam and power, the minimum ethanol revenues (MER) required to generate a 12% internal rate of return (IRR) are high enough to

  13. Deconstruction of ionic liquid pretreated lignocellulosic biomass using mono-component cellulases and hemicellulases and commercial mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lignocellulosic biomass is comprised of cellulose and hemicellulose, sources of polysaccharides, and lignin, a macromolecule with extensive aromaticity. Lignocellulose requires pretreatment before biochemical conversion to its monomeric sugars which can provide a renewable carbon based feedstock for...

  14. Energy Opportunities from Lignocellulosic Biomass for a Biorefinery Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Cotana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This work presents some energy considerations concerning a biorefinery case study that has been carried out by the CRB/CIRIAF of the University of Perugia. The biorefinery is the case study of the BIT3G project, a national funded research project, and it uses the lignocellulosic biomass that is available in the territory as input materials for biochemical purposes, such as cardoon and carthamus. The whole plant is composed of several sections: the cardoon and carthamus seed milling, the oil refinement facilities, and the production section of some high quality biochemicals, i.e., bio-oils and fatty acids. The main goal of the research is to demonstrate energy autonomy of the latter section of the biorefinery, while only recovering energy from the residues resulting from the collection of the biomass. To this aim, this work presents the quantification of the energy requirements to be supplied to the considered biorefinery section, the mass flow, and the energy and chemical characterization of the biomass. Afterwards, some sustainability strategies have been qualitatively investigated in order to identify the best one to be used in this case study; the combined heat and power (CHP technology. Two scenarios have been defined and presented: the first with 6 MWt thermal input and 1.2 MWe electrical power as an output and the second with 9 MWt thermal input and 1.8 MWe electrical power as an output. The first scenario showed that 11,000 tons of residual biomass could ensure the annual production of about 34,000 MWht, equal to about the 72% of the requirements, and about 9600 MWhe, equal to approximately 60% of the electricity demand. The second scenario showed that 18,000 tons of the residual biomass could ensure the total annual production of about 56,000 MWht, corresponding to more than 100% of the requirements, and about 14,400 MWhe, equal to approximately 90% of the electricity demand. In addition, the CO2 emissions from the energy valorization

  15. Lignocellulosic Biomass Derived Functional Materials: Synthesis and Applications in Biomedical Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Peng, Xinwen; Zhong, Linxin; Chua, Weitian; Xiang, Zhihua; Sun, Runcang

    2017-09-18

    The pertinent issue of resources shortage arising from global climate change in the recent years has accentuated the importance of materials that are environmental friendly. Despite the merits of current material like cellulose as the most abundant natural polysaccharide on earth, the incorporation of lignocellulosic biomass has the potential to value-add the recent development of cellulose-derivatives in drug delivery systems. Lignocellulosic biomass, with a hierarchical structure, comprised of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. As an excellent substrate that is renewable, biodegradable, biocompatible and chemically accessible for modified materials, lignocellulosic biomass sets forth a myriad of applications. To date, materials derived from lignocellulosic biomass have been extensively explored for new technological development and applications, such as biomedical, green electronics and energy products. In this review, chemical constituents of lignocellulosic biomass are first discussed before we critically examine the potential alternatives in the field of biomedical application. In addition, the pretreatment methods for extracting cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin from lignocellulosic biomass as well as their biological applications including drug delivery, biosensor, tissue engineering etc will be reviewed. It is anticipated there will be an increasing interest and research findings in cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin from natural resources, which help provide important directions for the development in biomedical applications. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. Pinch analysis for bioethanol production process from lignocellulosic biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, S.; Yanagida, T.; Nakaiwa, M.; Tatsumi, H.; Minowa, T.

    2011-01-01

    Bioethanol produced from carbon neutral and renewable biomass resources is an attractive process for the mitigation of greenhouse gases from vehicle exhaust. This study investigated energy utilization during bioethanol production from lignocellulose while avoiding competition with food production from corn and considering the potential mitigation of greenhouse gases. Process design and simulations were performed for bioethanol production using concentrated sulfuric acid. Mass and heat balances were obtained by process simulations, and the heat recovery ratio was determined by pinch analysis. An energy saving of 38% was achieved. However, energy supply and demand were not effectively utilized in the temperature range from 95 to 100 o C. Therefore, a heat pump was used to improve the temperature range of efficient energy supply and demand. Results showed that the energy required for the process could be supplied by heat released during the process. Additionally, the power required was supplied by surplus power generated during the process. Thus, pinch analysis was used to improve the energy efficiency of the process. - Highlights: → Effective energy utilization of bioethanol production was studied by using pinch analysis. → It was found that energy was not effectively utilized in the temperature range from 95 to 100 o C. → Use of a heat pump was considered to improve the ineffective utilization. → Then, remarkable energy savings could be achieved by it. → Pinch analysis effectively improved the energy efficiency of the bioethanol production.

  17. Validation of lignocellulosic biomass carbohydrates determination via acid hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shengfei; Runge, Troy M

    2014-11-04

    This work studied the two-step acid hydrolysis for determining carbohydrates in lignocellulosic biomass. Estimation of sugar loss based on acid hydrolyzed sugar standards or analysis of sugar derivatives was investigated. Four model substrates (starch, holocellulose, filter paper and cotton) and three levels of acid/material ratios (7.8, 10.3 and 15.4, v/w) were studied to demonstrate the range of test artifacts. The method for carbohydrates estimation based on acid hydrolyzed sugar standards having the most satisfactory carbohydrate recovery and relative standard deviation. Raw material and the acid/material ratio both had significant effect on carbohydrate hydrolysis, suggesting the acid to have impacts beyond a catalyst in the hydrolysis. Following optimal procedures, we were able to reach a carbohydrate recovery of 96% with a relative standard deviation less than 3%. The carbohydrates recovery lower than 100% was likely due to the incomplete hydrolysis of substrates, which was supported by scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Soluble inhibitors/deactivators of cellulase enzymes from lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngmi; Ximenes, Eduardo; Mosier, Nathan S; Ladisch, Michael R

    2011-04-07

    Liquid hot water, steam explosion, and dilute acid pretreatments of lignocellulose generate soluble inhibitors which hamper enzymatic hydrolysis as well as fermentation of sugars to ethanol. Toxic and inhibitory compounds will vary with pretreatment and include soluble sugars, furan derivatives (hydroxymethyl fulfural, furfural), organic acids (acetic, formic and, levulinic acid), and phenolic compounds. Their effect is seen when an increase in the concentration of pretreated biomass in a hydrolysis slurry results in decreased cellulose conversion, even though the ratio of enzyme to cellulose is kept constant. We used lignin-free cellulose, Solka Floc, combined with mixtures of soluble components released during pretreatment of wood, to prove that the decrease in the rate and extent of cellulose hydrolysis is due to a combination of enzyme inhibition and deactivation. The causative agents were extracted from wood pretreatment liquid using PEG surfactant, activated charcoal or ethyl acetate and then desorbed, recovered, and added back to a mixture of enzyme and cellulose. At enzyme loadings of either 1 or 25mg protein/g glucan, the most inhibitory components, later identified as phenolics, decreased the rate and extent of cellulose hydrolysis by half due to both inhibition and precipitation of the enzymes. Full enzyme activity occurred when the phenols were removed. Hence detoxification of pretreated woods through phenol removal is expected to reduce enzyme loadings, and therefore reduce enzyme costs, for a given level of cellulose conversion. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Application of next-generation sequencing methods for microbial monitoring of anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozan, Mahir; Akyol, Çağrı; Ince, Orhan; Aydin, Sevcan; Ince, Bahar

    2017-09-01

    The anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic wastes is considered an efficient method for managing the world's energy shortages and resolving contemporary environmental problems. However, the recalcitrance of lignocellulosic biomass represents a barrier to maximizing biogas production. The purpose of this review is to examine the extent to which sequencing methods can be employed to monitor such biofuel conversion processes. From a microbial perspective, we present a detailed insight into anaerobic digesters that utilize lignocellulosic biomass and discuss some benefits and disadvantages associated with the microbial sequencing techniques that are typically applied. We further evaluate the extent to which a hybrid approach incorporating a variation of existing methods can be utilized to develop a more in-depth understanding of microbial communities. It is hoped that this deeper knowledge will enhance the reliability and extent of research findings with the end objective of improving the stability of anaerobic digesters that manage lignocellulosic biomass.

  20. Factors governing dissolution process of lignocellulosic biomass in ionic liquid: current status, overview and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badgujar, Kirtikumar C; Bhanage, Bhalchandra M

    2015-02-01

    The utilisation of non-feed lignocellulosic biomass as a source of renewable bio-energy and synthesis of fine chemical products is necessary for the sustainable development. The methods for the dissolution of lignocellulosic biomass in conventional solvents are complex and tedious due to the complex chemical ultra-structure of biomass. In view of this, recent developments for the use of ionic liquid solvent (IL) has received great attention, as ILs can solubilise such complex biomass and thus provides industrial scale-up potential. In this review, we have discussed the state-of-art for the dissolution of lignocellulosic material in representative ILs. Furthermore, various process parameters and their influence for biomass dissolution were reviewed. In addition to this, overview of challenges and opportunities related to this interesting area is presented. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Process Design and Economics for Biochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-05-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) promotes the production of ethanol and other liquid fuels from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass collection, conversion, and sustainability. As part of its involvement in the program, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) investigates the production economics of these fuels.

  2. Organic solvent pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for biofuels and biochemicals: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ke; Pei, Zhijian; Wang, Donghai

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass represents the largest potential volume and lowest cost for biofuel and biochemical production. Pretreatment is an essential component of biomass conversion process, affecting a majority of downstream processes, including enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation, and final product separation. Organic solvent pretreatment is recognized as an emerging way ahead because of its inherent advantages, such as the ability to fractionate lignocellulosic biomass into cellulose, lignin, and hemicellulose components with high purity, as well as easy solvent recovery and solvent reuse. Objectives of this review were to update and extend previous works on pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for biofuels and biochemicals using organic solvents, especially on ethanol, methanol, ethylene glycol, glycerol, acetic acid, and formic acid. Perspectives and recommendations were given to fully describe implementation of proper organic solvent pretreatment for future research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Laccases as a Potential Tool for the Efficient Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Úrsula Fillat

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The continuous increase in the world energy and chemicals demand requires the development of sustainable alternatives to non-renewable sources of energy. Biomass facilities and biorefineries represent interesting options to gradually replace the present industry based on fossil fuels. Lignocellulose is the most promising feedstock to be used in biorefineries. From a sugar platform perspective, a wide range of fuels and chemicals can be obtained via microbial fermentation processes, being ethanol the most significant lignocellulose-derived fuel. Before fermentation, lignocellulose must be pretreated to overcome its inherent recalcitrant structure and obtain the fermentable sugars. Usually, harsh conditions are required for pretreatment of lignocellulose, producing biomass degradation and releasing different compounds that are inhibitors of the hydrolytic enzymes and fermenting microorganisms. Moreover, the lignin polymer that remains in pretreated materials also affects biomass conversion by limiting the enzymatic hydrolysis. The use of laccases has been considered as a very powerful tool for delignification and detoxification of pretreated lignocellulosic materials, boosting subsequent saccharification and fermentation processes. This review compiles the latest studies about the application of laccases as useful and environmentally friendly delignification and detoxification technology, highlighting the main challenges and possible ways to make possible the integration of these enzymes in future lignocellulose-based industries.

  4. Technological advances and applications of hydrolytic enzymes for valorization of lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manisha; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

    2017-12-01

    Hydrolytic enzymes are indispensable tools in the production of various foodstuffs, drugs, and consumables owing to their applications in almost every industrial process nowadays. One of the foremost areas of interest involving the use of hydrolytic enzymes is in the transformation of lignocellulosic biomass into value added products. However, limitations of the processes due to inadequate enzyme activity and stability with a narrow range of pH and temperature optima often limit their effective usage. The innovative technologies, involving manipulation of enzyme activity and stability through mutagenesis, genetic engineering and metagenomics lead to a major leap in all the fields using hydrolytic enzymes. This article provides recent advancement towards the isolation and use of microbes for lignocellulosic biomass utilisation, microbes producing the hydrolytic enzymes, the modern age technologies used to manipulate and enhance the hydrolytic enzyme activity and the applications of such enzymes in value added products development from lignocellulosic biomass. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. High quality bio-oil from catalytic flash pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass over alumina-supported sodium carbonate

    KAUST Repository

    Imran, Ali; Bramer, Eddy A.; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Brem, Gerrit

    2014-01-01

    Performance of a novel alumina-supported sodium carbonate catalyst was studied to produce a valuable bio-oil from catalytic flash pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass. Post treatment of biomass pyrolysis vapor was investigated in a catalyst fixed

  6. Flow-through pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass with inorganic nanoporous membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhave, Ramesh R.; Lynd, Lee; Shao, Xiongjun

    2018-04-03

    A process for the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is provided. The process generally includes flowing water through a pretreatment reactor containing a bed of particulate ligno-cellulosic biomass to produce a pressurized, high-temperature hydrolyzate exit stream, separating solubilized compounds from the hydrolyzate exit stream using an inorganic nanoporous membrane element, fractionating the retentate enriched in solubilized organic components and recycling the permeate to the pretreatment reactor. The pretreatment process provides solubilized organics in concentrated form for the subsequent conversion into biofuels and other chemicals.

  7. Bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass to xylitol: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswar Rao, Linga; Goli, Jyosthna Khanna; Gentela, Jahnavi; Koti, Sravanthi

    2016-08-01

    Lignocellulosic wastes include agricultural and forest residues which are most promising alternative energy sources and serve as potential low cost raw materials that can be exploited to produce xylitol. The strong physical and chemical construction of lignocelluloses is a major constraint for the recovery of xylose. The large scale production of xylitol is attained by nickel catalyzed chemical process that is based on xylose hydrogenation, that requires purified xylose as raw substrate and the process requires high temperature and pressure that remains to be cost intensive and energy consuming. Therefore, there is a necessity to develop an integrated process for biotechnological conversion of lignocelluloses to xylitol and make the process economical. The present review confers about the pretreatment strategies that facilitate cellulose and hemicellulose acquiescent for hydrolysis. There is also an emphasis on various detoxification and fermentation methodologies including genetic engineering strategies for the efficient conversion of xylose to xylitol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass with animal digestion mechanisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Zhang, Pan-Yue; Guo, Jian-Bin; Wu, Yong-Jie

    2013-02-01

    Lignocellulosic material is the most abundant renewable resource in the earth. Herbivores and wood-eating insects are highly effective in the digestion of plant cellulose, while anaerobic digestion process simulating animal alimentary tract still remains inefficient. The digestion mechanisms of herbivores and wood-eating insects and the development of anaerobic digestion processes of lignocellulose were reviewed for better understanding of animal digestion mechanisms and their application in design and operation of the anaerobic digestion reactor. Highly effective digestion of lignocellulosic materials in animal digestive system results from the synergistic effect of various digestive enzymes and a series of physical and biochemical reactions. Microbial fermentation system is strongly supported by powerful pretreatment, such as rumination of ruminants, cellulase catalysis and alkali treatment in digestive tract of wood-eating insects. Oxygen concentration gradient along the digestive tract may stimulate the hydrolytic activity of some microorganisms. In addition, the excellent arrangement of solid retention time, digesta flow and end product discharge enhance the animal digestion of wood cellulose. Although anaerobic digestion processes inoculated with rumen microorganisms based rumen digestion mechanisms were developed to treat lignocellulose, the fermentation was more greatly limited by the environmental conditions in the anaerobic digestion reactors than that in rumen or hindgut. Therefore, the anaerobic digestion processes simulating animal digestion mechanisms can effectively enhance the degradation of wood cellulose and other organic solid wastes.

  9. 2nd generation lignocellulosic bioethanol: is torrefaction a possible approach to biomass pretreatment?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiaramonti, David; Rizzo, Andrea Maria; Prussi, Matteo [University of Florence, CREAR - Research Centre for Renewable Energy and RE-CORD, Florence (Italy); Tedeschi, Silvana; Zimbardi, Francesco; Braccio, Giacobbe; Viola, Egidio [ENEA - Laboratory of Technology and Equipment for Bioenergy and Solar Thermal, Rotondella (Italy); Pardelli, Paolo Taddei [Spike Renewables s.r.l., Florence (Italy)

    2011-03-15

    Biomass pretreatement is a key and energy-consuming step for lignocellulosic ethanol production; it is largely responsible for the energy efficiency and economic sustainability of the process. A new approach to biomass pretreatment for the lignocellulosic bioethanol chain could be mild torrefaction. Among other effects, biomass torrefaction improves the grindability of fibrous materials, thus reducing energy demand for grinding the feedstock before hydrolysis, and opens the biomass structure, making this more accessible to enzymes for hydrolysis. The aim of the preliminary experiments carried out was to achieve a first understanding of the possibility to combine torrefaction and hydrolysis for lignocellulosic bioethanol processes, and to evaluate it in terms of sugar and ethanol yields. In addition, the possibility of hydrolyzing the torrefied biomass has not yet been proven. Biomass from olive pruning has been torrefied at different conditions, namely 180-280 C for 60-120 min, grinded and then used as substrate in hydrolysis experiments. The bioconversion has been carried out at flask scale using a mixture of cellulosolytic, hemicellulosolitic, {beta}-glucosidase enzymes, and a commercial strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The experiments demonstrated that torrefied biomass can be enzymatically hydrolyzed and fermented into ethanol, with yields comparable with grinded untreated biomass and saving electrical energy. The comparison between the bioconversion yields achieved using only raw grinded biomass or torrefied and grinded biomass highlighted that: (1) mild torrefaction conditions limit sugar degradation to 5-10%; and (2) torrefied biomass does not lead to enzymatic and fermentation inhibition. Energy consumption for ethanol production has been preliminary estimated, and three different pretreatment steps, i.e., raw biomass grinding, biomass-torrefaction grinding, and steam explosion were compared. Based on preliminary results, steam explosion still has a

  10. The Effect of Aqueous Ammonia Soaking Pretreatment on Methane Generation Using Different Lignocellulosic Biomasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonopoulou, Georgia; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    In the present study aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) has been tested as a pretreatment method for the anaerobic digestion of three lignocellulosic biomasses of different origin: one agricultural residue: sunflower straw, one perennial crop: grass and a hardwood: poplar sawdust.The methane production...

  11. Conceptual net energy output for biofuel production from lignocellulosic biomass through biorefining

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.Y. Zhu; X.S. Zhuang

    2012-01-01

    There is a lack of comprehensive information in the retrievable literature on pilot scale process and energy data using promising process technologies and commercially scalable and available capital equipment for lignocellulosic biomass biorefining. This study conducted a comprehensive review of the energy efficiency of selected sugar platform biorefinery process...

  12. Effects of thermo-chemical pre-treatment on anaerobic biodegradability and hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandes, T.; Klaasse Bos, G.J.; Zeeman, G.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Lier, van J.B.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of different thermo-chemical pre-treatment methods were determined on the biodegradability and hydrolysis rate of lignocellulosic biomass. Three plant species, hay, straw and bracken were thermo-chemically pre-treated with calcium hydroxide, ammonium carbonate and maleic acid. After

  13. Statistical prediction of biomethane potentials based on the composition of lignocellulosic biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe; Spliid, Henrik; Østergård, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    Mixture models are introduced as a new and stronger methodology for statistical prediction of biomethane potentials (BPM) from lignocellulosic biomass compared to the linear regression models previously used. A large dataset from literature combined with our own data were analysed using canonical...

  14. Pre-treatment of lignocellulosic feedstocks using biorenewable alcohols: : towards complete biomass valorisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lancefield, Christopher S.; Panovic, Isabella; Deuss, Peter J.; Barta, Katalin; Westwood, Nicholas J.

    2017-01-01

    Here, we report on the ability of the biomass derived solvents ethanol and, in particular, n-butanol to fractionate lignocellulose into its main components. An organosolv system consisting of n-butanol containing 5% water and 0.2 M HCl at reflux was found to remove effectively the lignin and

  15. Biogas Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass : Impact of pre-treatment, co-digestion, harvest time and inoculation

    OpenAIRE

    LI, Chao

    2017-01-01

    Biogas or methane production through anaerobic digestion (AD) is gaining increasing attention worldwide due to concerns over global warming, energy security and the need for sustainable waste management. AD of lignocellulosic biomass is one facet that is highly appreciated since the conflict over biomass for food/feed or energy can be avoided. As a result the need for non-food based lignocellulosic biomass feedstock has emerged as (co-) feedstock of choice for the AD process. Despite these ad...

  16. Analysis of the potential for biodiesel production in Cuba of lignocellulosic biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcalá-Galiano Morell, Diana Deisy; Cujilema Qutio, Mario C.; Leon Revelo, Gualberto; Márquez Peñamaría, Grety; Morell Nápoles, Giselle; Ramos Sánchez, Luis B.; Fikers, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The use of lignocellulosic biomass available in the country is a significant source of renewable energy (RES) to the planned development in the coming years. The relevance of the work in this direction has been endorsed in the new policy on FRE was approved last June. Among the various chemical routes to take to get energy biofuels of great importance it stands to meet growing demand in the transport sector. In this paper the strategy of research and technological development is being followed at the University of Camaguey to create conditions for pilot production of bioethanol and biodiesel lignocellulosic scale is discussed. (full text)

  17. Formation of degradation compounds from lignocellulosic biomass in the biorefinery: sugar reaction mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Helena; Sørensen, Hanne R.; Meyer, Anne S.

    2014-01-01

    , several aldehydes and ketones and many different organic acids and aromatic compounds may be generated during hydrothermal treatment of lignocellulosic biomass. The reaction mechanisms are of interest because the very same compounds that are possible inhibitors for biomass processing enzymes......The degradation compounds formed during pretreatment when lignocellulosic biomass is processed to ethanol or other biorefinery products include furans, phenolics, organic acids, as well as mono- and oligomeric pentoses and hexoses. Depending on the reaction conditions glucose can be converted to 5......-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furaldehyde (HMF) and/or levulinic acid, formic acid and different phenolics at elevated temperatures. Correspondingly, xylose can follow different reaction mechanisms resulting in the formation of furan-2-carbaldehyde (furfural) and/or various C-1 and C-4 compounds. At least four routes...

  18. Laboratory-scale method for enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass at high-solids loadings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibble Clare J

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening new lignocellulosic biomass pretreatments and advanced enzyme systems at process relevant conditions is a key factor in the development of economically viable lignocellulosic ethanol. Shake flasks, the reaction vessel commonly used for screening enzymatic saccharifications of cellulosic biomass, do not provide adequate mixing at high-solids concentrations when shaking is not supplemented with hand mixing. Results We identified roller bottle reactors (RBRs as laboratory-scale reaction vessels that can provide adequate mixing for enzymatic saccharifications at high-solids biomass loadings without any additional hand mixing. Using the RBRs, we developed a method for screening both pretreated biomass and enzyme systems at process-relevant conditions. RBRs were shown to be scalable between 125 mL and 2 L. Results from enzymatic saccharifications of five biomass pretreatments of different severities and two enzyme preparations suggest that this system will work well for a variety of biomass substrates and enzyme systems. A study of intermittent mixing regimes suggests that mass transfer limitations of enzymatic saccharifications at high-solids loadings are significant but can be mitigated with a relatively low amount of mixing input. Conclusion Effective initial mixing to promote good enzyme distribution and continued, but not necessarily continuous, mixing is necessary in order to facilitate high biomass conversion rates. The simplicity and robustness of the bench-scale RBR system, combined with its ability to accommodate numerous reaction vessels, will be useful in screening new biomass pretreatments and advanced enzyme systems at high-solids loadings.

  19. High-throughput microplate technique for enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chundawat, Shishir P S; Balan, Venkatesh; Dale, Bruce E

    2008-04-15

    Several factors will influence the viability of a biochemical platform for manufacturing lignocellulosic based fuels and chemicals, for example, genetically engineering energy crops, reducing pre-treatment severity, and minimizing enzyme loading. Past research on biomass conversion has focused largely on acid based pre-treatment technologies that fractionate lignin and hemicellulose from cellulose. However, for alkaline based (e.g., AFEX) and other lower severity pre-treatments it becomes critical to co-hydrolyze cellulose and hemicellulose using an optimized enzyme cocktail. Lignocellulosics are appropriate substrates to assess hydrolytic activity of enzyme mixtures compared to conventional unrealistic substrates (e.g., filter paper, chromogenic, and fluorigenic compounds) for studying synergistic hydrolysis. However, there are few, if any, high-throughput lignocellulosic digestibility analytical platforms for optimizing biomass conversion. The 96-well Biomass Conversion Research Lab (BCRL) microplate method is a high-throughput assay to study digestibility of lignocellulosic biomass as a function of biomass composition, pre-treatment severity, and enzyme composition. The most suitable method for delivering milled biomass to the microplate was through multi-pipetting slurry suspensions. A rapid bio-enzymatic, spectrophotometric assay was used to determine fermentable sugars. The entire procedure was automated using a robotic pipetting workstation. Several parameters that affect hydrolysis in the microplate were studied and optimized (i.e., particle size reduction, slurry solids concentration, glucan loading, mass transfer issues, and time period for hydrolysis). The microplate method was optimized for crystalline cellulose (Avicel) and ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) pre-treated corn stover. Copyright 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Targets and tools for optimizing lignocellulosic biomass quality of miscanthus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijde, van der R.T.

    2016-01-01

    Miscanthus is a perennial energy grass characterized by a high productivity and resource-use efficiency, making it an ideal biomass feedstock for the production of cellulosic biofuels and a wide range of other biobased value-chains. However, the large-scale commercialization of converting biomass

  1. Fungal treatment of lignocellulosic biomass: Importance of fungal species, colonization and time on chemical composition and in vitro rumen degradability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijk, van S.J.A.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Baars, J.J.P.; Hendriks, W.H.; Cone, J.W.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate fungal treatments to improve in vitro rumen degradability of lignocellulosic biomass. In this study four selective lignin degrading fungi, Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus eryngii and Pleurotus ostreatus, were used to pre-treat lignocellulosic

  2. Yeast derived from lignocellulosic biomass as a sustainable feed resource for use in aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øverland, Margareth; Skrede, Anders

    2017-02-01

    The global expansion in aquaculture production implies an emerging need of suitable and sustainable protein sources. Currently, the fish feed industry is dependent on high-quality protein sources of marine and plant origin. Yeast derived from processing of low-value and non-food lignocellulosic biomass is a potential sustainable source of protein in fish diets. Following enzymatic hydrolysis, the hexose and pentose sugars of lignocellulosic substrates and supplementary nutrients can be converted into protein-rich yeast biomass by fermentation. Studies have shown that yeasts such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida utilis and Kluyveromyces marxianus have favourable amino acid composition and excellent properties as protein sources in diets for fish, including carnivorous species such as Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout. Suitable downstream processing of the biomass to disrupt cell walls is required to secure high nutrient digestibility. A number of studies have shown various immunological and health benefits from feeding fish low levels of yeast and yeast-derived cell wall fractions. This review summarises current literature on the potential of yeast from lignocellulosic biomass as an alternative protein source for the aquaculture industry. It is concluded that further research and development within yeast production can be important to secure the future sustainability and economic viability of intensive aquaculture. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Production of Bioethanol From Lignocellulosic Biomass Using Thermophilic Anaerobic Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva, Tania I.

    2006-01-01

    and xylose and to tolerate the inhibitory compounds present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates is therefore apparent. Several thermophilic anaerobic xylan degrading bacteria from our culture collection (EMB group at BioCentrum-DTU) have been screened for a potential ethanol producer from hemicellulose...... hydrolysates, and out of the screening test, one particular strain (A10) was selected for the best performance. The strain was morphologically and physiologically characterized as Thermoanaerobacter mathranii strain A10. Unlike other thermophilic anaerobic bacteria, the wild-type strain Thermoanaerobacter...... Thermoanaerobacter BG1L1 was further studied. The experiments were carried out in a continuous immobilized reactor system (a fluidized bed reactor), which is likely to be the process design configuration for xylose fermentation in a Danish biorefinery concept for production of fuel ethanol. The immobilization...

  4. Modelling of heat transfer during torrefaction of large lignocellulosic biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regmi, Bharat; Arku, Precious; Tasnim, Syeda Humaira; Mahmud, Shohel; Dutta, Animesh

    2018-07-01

    Preparation of feedstock is a major energy intensive process for the thermochemical conversion of biomass into fuel. By eliminating the need to grind biomass prior to the torrefaction process, there would be a potential gain in the energy requirements as the entire step would be eliminated. In regards to a commercialization of torrefaction technology, this study has examined heat transfer inside large cylindrical biomass both numerically and experimentally during torrefaction. A numerical axis-symmetrical 2-D model for heat transfer during torrefaction at 270°C for 1 h was created in COMSOL Multiphysics 5.1 considering heat generation evaluated from the experiment. The model analyzed the temperature distribution within the core and on the surface of biomass during torrefaction for various sizes. The model results showed similarities with experimental results. The effect of L/D ratio on temperature distribution within biomass was observed by varying length and diameter and compared with experiments in literature to find out an optimal range of cylindrical biomass size suitable for torrefaction. The research demonstrated that a cylindrical biomass sample of 50 mm length with L/D ratio of 2 can be torrefied with a core-surface temperature difference of less than 30 °C. The research also demonstrated that sample length has a negligible effect on core-surface temperature difference during torrefaction when the diameter is fixed at 25 mm. This information will help to design a torrefaction processing system and develop a value chain for biomass supply without using an energy-intensive grinding process.

  5. Modelling of heat transfer during torrefaction of large lignocellulosic biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regmi, Bharat; Arku, Precious; Tasnim, Syeda Humaira; Mahmud, Shohel; Dutta, Animesh

    2018-02-01

    Preparation of feedstock is a major energy intensive process for the thermochemical conversion of biomass into fuel. By eliminating the need to grind biomass prior to the torrefaction process, there would be a potential gain in the energy requirements as the entire step would be eliminated. In regards to a commercialization of torrefaction technology, this study has examined heat transfer inside large cylindrical biomass both numerically and experimentally during torrefaction. A numerical axis-symmetrical 2-D model for heat transfer during torrefaction at 270°C for 1 h was created in COMSOL Multiphysics 5.1 considering heat generation evaluated from the experiment. The model analyzed the temperature distribution within the core and on the surface of biomass during torrefaction for various sizes. The model results showed similarities with experimental results. The effect of L/D ratio on temperature distribution within biomass was observed by varying length and diameter and compared with experiments in literature to find out an optimal range of cylindrical biomass size suitable for torrefaction. The research demonstrated that a cylindrical biomass sample of 50 mm length with L/D ratio of 2 can be torrefied with a core-surface temperature difference of less than 30 °C. The research also demonstrated that sample length has a negligible effect on core-surface temperature difference during torrefaction when the diameter is fixed at 25 mm. This information will help to design a torrefaction processing system and develop a value chain for biomass supply without using an energy-intensive grinding process.

  6. Low-Energy Electron Scattering by Sugarcane Lignocellulosic Biomass Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Eliane; Sanchez, Sergio; Bettega, Marcio; Lima, Marco; Varella, Marcio

    2012-06-01

    The use of second generation (SG) bioethanol instead of fossil fuels could be a good strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, the efficient production of SG bioethanol has being a challenge to researchers around the world. The main barrier one must overcome is the pretreatment, a very important step in SG bioethanol aimed at breaking down the biomass and facilitates the extraction of sugars from the biomass. Plasma-based treatment, which can generate reactive species, could be an interesting possibility since involves low-cost atmospheric-pressure plasma. In order to offer theoretical support to this technique, the interaction of low-energy electrons from the plasma with biomass is investigated. This study was motived by several works developed by Sanche et al., in which they understood that DNA damage arises from dissociative electron attachment, a mechanism in which electrons are resonantly trapped by DNA subunits. We will present elastic cross sections for low-energy electron scattering by sugarcane biomass molecules, obtained with the Schwinger multichannel method. Our calculations indicate the formation of π* shape resonances in the lignin subunits, while a series of broad and overlapping σ* resonances are found in cellulose and hemicellulose subunits. The presence of π* and σ* resonances could give rise to direct and indirect dissociation pathways in biomass. Then, theoretical resonance energies can be useful to guide the plasma-based pretreatment to break down specific linkages of interest in biomass.

  7. Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation and Partial Saccharification and Co-Fermentation of Lignocellulosic Biomass for Ethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran-Peterson, Joy; Jangid, Amruta; Brandon, Sarah K.; Decrescenzo-Henriksen, Emily; Dien, Bruce; Ingram, Lonnie O.

    Ethanol production by fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass-derived sugars involves a fairly ancient art and an ever-evolving science. Production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass is not avant-garde, and wood ethanol plants have been in existence since at least 1915. Most current ethanol production relies on starch- and sugar-based crops as the substrate; however, limitations of these materials and competing value for human and animal feeds is renewing interest in lignocellulose conversion. Herein, we describe methods for both simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) and a similar but separate process for partial saccharification and cofermentation (PSCF) of lignocellulosic biomass for ethanol production using yeasts or pentose-fermenting engineered bacteria. These methods are applicable for small-scale preliminary evaluations of ethanol production from a variety of biomass sources.

  8. Hydrodynamic cavitation as a strategy to enhance the efficiency of lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terán Hilares, Ruly; Ramos, Lucas; da Silva, Silvio Silvério

    2018-01-01

    to accelerate certain chemical reactions. The application of cavitation energy to enhance the efficiency of lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment is an interesting strategy proposed for integration in biorefineries for the production of bio-based products. Moreover, the use of an HC-assisted process...... was demonstrated as an attractive alternative when compared to other conventional pretreatment technologies. This is not only due to high pretreatment efficiency resulting in high enzymatic digestibility of carbohydrate fraction, but also, by its high energy efficiency, simple configuration, and construction...... of systems, besides the possibility of using on the large scale. This paper gives an overview regarding HC technology and its potential for application on the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. The parameters affecting this process and the perspectives for future developments in this area are also...

  9. Review of the direct thermochemical conversion of lignocellulosic biomass for liquid fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianchun JIANG,Junming XU,Zhanqian SONG

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Increased demand for liquid transportation fuels, environmental concerns and depletion of petroleum resources requires the development of efficient conversion technologies for production of second-generation biofuels from non-food resources. Thermochemical approaches hold great potential for conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into liquid fuels. Direct thermochemical processes convert biomass into liquid fuels in one step using heat and catalysts and have many advantages over indirect and biological processes, such as greater feedstock flexibility, integrated conversion of whole biomass, and lower operation costs. Several direct thermochemical processes are employed in the production of liquid biofuels depending on the nature of the feedstock properties: such as fast pyrolysis/liquefaction of lignocellulosic biomass for bio-oil, including upgrading methods, such as catalytic cracking and hydrogenation. Owing to the substantial amount of liquid fuels consumed by vehicular transport, converting biomass into drop-in liquid fuels may reduce the dependence of the fuel market on petroleum-based fuel products. In this review, we also summarize recent progress in technologies for large-scale equipment for direct thermochemical conversion. We focus on the technical aspects critical to commercialization of the technologies for production of liquid fuels from biomass, including feedstock type, cracking catalysts, catalytic cracking mechanisms, catalytic reactors, and biofuel properties. We also discuss future prospects for direct thermochemical conversion in biorefineries for the production of high grade biofuels.

  10. Acid Pre hydrolysis of the Lignocellulose biomass from thistle Onopordum nervosum Boiss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez Contreras, C.; Paz Saa, D.; Diaz Palma, A.

    1983-01-01

    The acid pre hydrolysis of the lignocellulose biomass from thistle O. nervosum has been conducted to determine the conditions for maximum yield of pentoses with minimum yield of hexoses. Variables studied were acid concentration (H 2 SO 4 , 1 , 3, 4 and 5%) , temperature (1000 and 120 degree centigree) time, solid to liquid ratio and degree of fineness of thistle (1 to 65 mesh). (Author) 15 refs

  11. The development of effective pretreatment and saccharification techniques for lignocellulosic biomass using radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Dyung Yeoup; Kim, Jin Hong; Lee, Seung Sik; Bai, Hyoung Woo; Lee, Jae Taek; Hong, Sung Hyun; Lee, Eun Mi; Kim, Mi Ja

    2011-12-01

    The bio-ethanol production from crop resource leads to several problems such as a shortage of provisions, soil acidification, and increase of crop price, whereas lignocellulosic biomass can overcome such problems as mentioned above. That is the reason why, the investigation of ethanol production originated from lignocellulosic materials has carried out all over the world. In present project, we focus on the new method of pretreatment using radiation as well as find out high efficiency process of saccharification through the new microorganisms and enzymes in order to achieve the price competitiveness. The enzymatic hydrolysis in lignocellulosic materials is inhibited by several factors such as crystalline of cellolose, hemicelluloses, and lignin. In order to overcome these obstacles, we devise phyco-chemical and phyco-physical treatments as a combination of 3% sulferic acid and 1000 kGy gamma irradiation and as a popping-1000 kGy gamma irradiation. Most lignocellulosic materials showed above 95% enzymatic hydrolysis using popping or popping-gamma irradiation, while the combination of dilute acid-gamma irradiation showed below 90% enzymatic hydrolysis. Moreover, popping treatment followed by gamma irradiation is much better than gamma irradiation followed by popping for enhancing enzymatic hydrolysis. In conclusions, in case of herbaceous biomass such as wheat straw and switch grass popping treatment, popping treatment only is the best method and in case of woody biomass like a popular fiber and overseas biomass like a coconut fiber, the combination of 1000 kGy gamma irradiation-popping treatments is the most effective method for enzymatic hydrolysis. The achieving 95% of enzymatic hydrolysis is owing to modification of lignin structure, removal of hemicelluloses, and destruction of cellulose crystalline. In addition, we investigated that a new cocktail of enzymes for hydrolysis was designed for boosting enzymatic hydrolysis

  12. The development of effective pretreatment and saccharification techniques for lignocellulosic biomass using radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Dyung Yeoup; Kim, Jin Hong; Lee, Seung Sik; Bai, Hyoung Woo; Lee, Jae Taek; Hong, Sung Hyun; Lee, Eun Mi; Kim, Mi Ja

    2011-12-15

    The bio-ethanol production from crop resource leads to several problems such as a shortage of provisions, soil acidification, and increase of crop price, whereas lignocellulosic biomass can overcome such problems as mentioned above. That is the reason why, the investigation of ethanol production originated from lignocellulosic materials has carried out all over the world. In present project, we focus on the new method of pretreatment using radiation as well as find out high efficiency process of saccharification through the new microorganisms and enzymes in order to achieve the price competitiveness. The enzymatic hydrolysis in lignocellulosic materials is inhibited by several factors such as crystalline of cellolose, hemicelluloses, and lignin. In order to overcome these obstacles, we devise phyco-chemical and phyco-physical treatments as a combination of 3% sulferic acid and 1000 kGy gamma irradiation and as a popping-1000 kGy gamma irradiation. Most lignocellulosic materials showed above 95% enzymatic hydrolysis using popping or popping-gamma irradiation, while the combination of dilute acid-gamma irradiation showed below 90% enzymatic hydrolysis. Moreover, popping treatment followed by gamma irradiation is much better than gamma irradiation followed by popping for enhancing enzymatic hydrolysis. In conclusions, in case of herbaceous biomass such as wheat straw and switch grass popping treatment, popping treatment only is the best method and in case of woody biomass like a popular fiber and overseas biomass like a coconut fiber, the combination of 1000 kGy gamma irradiation-popping treatments is the most effective method for enzymatic hydrolysis. The achieving 95% of enzymatic hydrolysis is owing to modification of lignin structure, removal of hemicelluloses, and destruction of cellulose crystalline. In addition, we investigated that a new cocktail of enzymes for hydrolysis was designed for boosting enzymatic hydrolysis.

  13. Biomass valorisation by staged degasification A new pyrolysis-based thermochemical conversion option to produce value-added chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wild, P. J.; den Uil, H.; Reith, J. H.; Kiel, J. H. A.; Heeres, H. J.

    Pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass leads to an array Of useful solid, liquid and gaseous products. Staged degasification is a pyrolysis-based conversion route to generate value-added chemicals from biomass. Because of different thermal stabilities of the main biomass constituents hemicellulose.

  14. Energy consumption analysis of integrated flowsheets for production of fuel ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardona Alzate, C.A.; Sanchez Toro, O.J.

    2006-01-01

    Fuel ethanol is considered one of the most important renewable fuels due to the economic and environmental benefits of its use. Lignocellulosic biomass is the most promising feedstock for producing bioethanol due to its global availability and to the energy gain that can be obtained when non-fermentable materials from biomass are used for cogeneration of heat and power. In this work, several process configurations for fuel ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass were studied through process simulation using Aspen Plus. Some flowsheets considering the possibilities of reaction-reaction integration were taken into account among the studied process routes. The flowsheet variants were analyzed from the energy point of view utilizing as comparison criterion the energy consumption needed to produce 1 L of anhydrous ethanol. Simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation process with water recycling showed the best results accounting an energy consumption of 41.96 MJ/L EtOH. If pervaporation is used as dehydration method instead of azeotropic distillation, further energy savings can be obtained. In addition, energy balance was estimated using the results from the simulation and literature data. A net energy value of 17.65-18.93 MJ/L EtOH was calculated indicating the energy efficiency of the lignocellulosic ethanol

  15. Characteristics and kinetic study on pyrolysis of five lignocellulosic biomass via thermogravimetric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhihua; Hu, Mian; Zhu, Xiaolei; Guo, Dabin; Liu, Shiming; Hu, Zhiquan; Xiao, Bo; Wang, Jingbo; Laghari, Mahmood

    2015-09-01

    Pyrolysis characteristics and kinetic of five lignocellulosic biomass pine wood sawdust, fern (Dicranopteris linearis) stem, wheat stalk, sugarcane bagasse and jute (Corchorus capsularis) stick were investigated using thermogravimetric analysis. The pyrolysis of five lignocellulosic biomass could be divided into three stages, which correspond to the pyrolysis of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin, respectively. Single Gaussian activation energy distributions of each stage are 148.50-201.13 kJ/mol with standard deviations of 2.60-13.37 kJ/mol. The kinetic parameters of different stages were used as initial guess values for three-parallel-DAEM model calculation with good fitting quality and fast convergence rate. The mean activation energy ranges of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin were 148.12-164.56 kJ/mol, 171.04-179.54 kJ/mol and 175.71-201.60 kJ/mol, with standard deviations of 3.91-9.89, 0.29-1.34 and 23.22-27.24 kJ/mol, respectively. The mass fractions of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin in lignocellulosic biomass were respectively estimated as 0.12-0.22, 0.54-0.65 and 0.17-0.29. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Green Processing of Lignocellulosic Biomass and Its Derivatives in Deep Eutectic Solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xing; Zuo, Miao; Li, Zheng; Liu, Huai; Xiong, Caixia; Zeng, Xianhai; Sun, Yong; Hu, Lei; Liu, Shijie; Lei, Tingzhou; Lin, Lu

    2017-07-10

    The scientific community has been seeking cost-competitive and green solvents with good dissolving capacity for the valorization of lignocellulosic biomass. At this point, deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are currently emerging as a new class of promising solvents that are generally liquid eutectic mixtures formed by self-association (or hydrogen-bonding interaction) of two or three components. DESs are attractive solvents for the fractionation (or pretreatment) of lignocellulose and the valorization of lignin, owing to the high solubility of lignin in DESs. DESs are also employed as effective media for the modification of cellulose to afford functionalized cellulosic materials, such as cellulose nanocrystals. More interestingly, biomassderived carbohydrates, such as fructose, can be used as one of the constituents of DESs and then dehydrated to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in high yield. In this review, a comprehensive summary of recent contribution of DESs to the processing of lignocellulosic biomass and its derivatives is provided. Moreover, further discussion about the challenges of the application of DESs in biomass processing is presented. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Energy consumption analysis of integrated flowsheets for production of fuel ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardona Alzate, C.A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National University of Colombia at Manizales, Cra. 27 No. 64-60, Manizales (Colombia)]. E-mail: ccardonaal@unal.edu.co; Sanchez Toro, O.J. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National University of Colombia at Manizales, Cra. 27 No. 64-60, Manizales (Colombia); Department of Engineering, University of Caldas, Calle 65 No. 26-10, Manizales (Colombia)

    2006-10-15

    Fuel ethanol is considered one of the most important renewable fuels due to the economic and environmental benefits of its use. Lignocellulosic biomass is the most promising feedstock for producing bioethanol due to its global availability and to the energy gain that can be obtained when non-fermentable materials from biomass are used for cogeneration of heat and power. In this work, several process configurations for fuel ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass were studied through process simulation using Aspen Plus. Some flowsheets considering the possibilities of reaction-reaction integration were taken into account among the studied process routes. The flowsheet variants were analyzed from the energy point of view utilizing as comparison criterion the energy consumption needed to produce 1 L of anhydrous ethanol. Simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation process with water recycling showed the best results accounting an energy consumption of 41.96 MJ/L EtOH. If pervaporation is used as dehydration method instead of azeotropic distillation, further energy savings can be obtained. In addition, energy balance was estimated using the results from the simulation and literature data. A net energy value of 17.65-18.93 MJ/L EtOH was calculated indicating the energy efficiency of the lignocellulosic ethanol.

  18. A bionic system with Fenton reaction and bacteria as a model for bioprocessing lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kejing; Si, Mengying; Liu, Dan; Zhuo, Shengnan; Liu, Mingren; Liu, Hui; Yan, Xu; Shi, Yan

    2018-01-01

    The recalcitrance of lignocellulosic biomass offers a series of challenges for biochemical processing into biofuels and bio-products. For the first time, we address these challenges with a biomimetic system via a mild yet rapid Fenton reaction and lignocellulose-degrading bacterial strain Cupriavidus basilensis B-8 (here after B-8) to pretreat the rice straw (RS) by mimicking the natural fungal invasion process. Here, we also elaborated the mechanism through conducting a systematic study of physicochemical changes before and after pretreatment. After synergistic Fenton and B-8 pretreatment, the reducing sugar yield was increased by 15.6-56.6% over Fenton pretreatment alone and 2.7-5.2 times over untreated RS (98 mg g -1 ). Morphological analysis revealed that pretreatment changed the surface morphology of the RS, and the increase in roughness and hydrophilic sites enhanced lignocellulose bioavailability. Chemical components analyses showed that B-8 removed part of the lignin and hemicellulose which caused the cellulose content to increase. In addition, the important chemical modifications also occurred in lignin, 2D NMR analysis of the lignin in residues indicated that the Fenton pretreatment caused partial depolymerization of lignin mainly by cleaving the β- O -4 linkages and by demethoxylation to remove the syringyl (S) and guaiacyl (G) units. B-8 could depolymerize amount of the G units by cleaving the β-5 linkages that interconnect the lignin subunits. A biomimetic system with a biochemical Fenton reaction and lignocellulose-degrading bacteria was confirmed to be able for the pretreatment of RS to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis under mild conditions. The high digestibility was attributed to the destruction of the lignin structure, partial hydrolysis of the hemicellulose and partial surface oxidation of the cellulose. The mechanism of synergistic Fenton and B-8 pretreatment was also explored to understand the change in the RS and the bacterial effects on

  19. Process design and evaluation of production of bioethanol and β-lactam antibiotic from lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Bong; Park, Chulhwan; Kim, Seung Wook

    2014-11-01

    To design biorefinery processes producing bioethanol from lignocellulosic biomass with dilute acid pretreatment, biorefinery processes were simulated using the SuperPro Designer program. To improve the efficiency of biomass use and the economics of biorefinery, additional pretreatment processes were designed and evaluated, in which a combined process of dilute acid and aqueous ammonia pretreatments, and a process of waste media containing xylose were used, for the production of 7-aminocephalosporanic acid. Finally, the productivity and economics of the designed processes were compared. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of Lignocellulosic Biomass as Raw Material for the Production of Porous Carbon-based Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saptadi Darmawan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic biomass is a potential raw material that can be used in the synthesis (manufacture of porous carbon stuffs. The properties of such porous carbon products are affected by the species of the raw material and the manufacturing process, among other things. This paper scrutinizes the related characteristics of lignocellulosic raw materials that indicate potential for the production of porous carbon. Three species were used: pine (Pinus merkusii wood, mangium (Acacia mangium wood, and candlenut (Aleurites moluccana shells, representing softwoods, hardwoods, and non-wood stuffs, respectively. Analyses of their chemical compounds and proximate contents were carried out. Additionally, nano scale scrutiny of the lignocellulosic biomass was also conducted using the nano capable instruments, which consisted of SEM, EDS, XRD, FTIR, and DSC. Results revealed that pine wood had the most potential to produce porous carbon. Morphologically, pine wood afforded the best permeability, whereby at the structure of monoclinic cellulose crystals, there were cellulose-I(alpha structures, which contained less cellulose-I(beta structures. Furthermore, pine wood exhibited greater volatile matter content, as confirmed through the FTIR, which greatly assisted the forming of porosity inside its corresponding carbon.

  1. Ensiling as pretreatment of grass for lignocellulosic biomass conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambye-Jensen, Morten

    for subsequent enzymatic saccharification of cellulose and hemicellulose, by using the temperate grass Festulolium Hykor. The method was additionally combined with hydrothermal treatment, in order to decrease the required severity of an industrial applied pretreatment method. The first part of the project...... conditions providing the best possible pretreatment effect. The parameters were biomass composition, varied by ensiling of four seasonal cuts of grass, different dry matter (DM) content at ensiling, and an addition of different lactic acid bacteria species. First of all, the study confirmed that ensiling can...... act as a method of pretreatment and improve the enzymatic cellulose convertibility of grass. Furthermore, low DM ensiling was found to improve the effects of pretreatment due to a higher production of organic acids in the silage. The effect of applied lactic acid bacteria species was, however...

  2. Key issues in life cycle assessment of ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass: Challenges and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anoop; Pant, Deepak; Korres, Nicholas E; Nizami, Abdul-Sattar; Prasad, Shiv; Murphy, Jerry D

    2010-07-01

    Progressive depletion of conventional fossil fuels with increasing energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have led to a move towards renewable and sustainable energy sources. Lignocellulosic biomass is available in massive quantities and provides enormous potential for bioethanol production. However, to ascertain optimal biofuel strategies, it is necessary to take into account environmental impacts from cradle to grave. Life cycle assessment (LCA) techniques allow detailed analysis of material and energy fluxes on regional and global scales. This includes indirect inputs to the production process and associated wastes and emissions, and the downstream fate of products in the future. At the same time if not used properly, LCA can lead to incorrect and inappropriate actions on the part of industry and/or policy makers. This paper aims to list key issues for quantifying the use of resources and releases to the environment associated with the entire life cycle of lignocellulosic bioethanol production. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Continuous volatile fatty acid production from lignocellulosic biomass by a novel rumen-mimetic bioprocess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agematu, Hitosi; Takahashi, Takehiko; Hamano, Yoshio

    2017-11-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is an attractive source of biofuels and biochemicals, being abundant in various plant sources. However, processing this type of biomass requires hydrolysis of cellulose. The proposed rumen-mimetic bioprocess consists of dry-pulverization of lignocellulosic biomass and pH-controlled continuous cultivation of ruminal bacteria using ammonium as a nitrogen source. In this study, ruminal bacteria were continuously cultivated for over 60 days and used to digest microcrystalline cellulose, rice straw, and Japanese cedar to produce volatile fatty acids (VFAs). The ruminal bacteria grew well in the chemically defined medium. The amounts of VFAs produced from 20 g of cellulose, rice straw, and Japanese cedar were 183 ± 29.7, 69.6 ± 12.2, and 21.8 ± 12.9 mmol, respectively. Each digestion completed within 24 h. The carbon yield was 60.6% when 180 mmol of VFAs was produced from 20 g of cellulose. During the cultivation, the bacteria were observed to form flocs that enfolded the feed particles. These flocs likely contain all of the bacterial species necessary to convert lignocellulosic biomass to VFAs and microbial protein symbiotically. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rDNA fragments revealed that the bacterial community was relatively stable after 1 week in cultivation, though it was different from the original community structure. Furthermore, sequence analysis of the DGGE bands indicates that the microbial community includes a cellulolytic bacterium, a bacterium acting synergistically with cellulolytic bacteria, and a propionate-producing bacterium, as well as other anaerobic bacteria. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Highly thermostable xylanase production from a thermophilic Geobacillus sp. strain WSUCF1 utilizing lignocellulosic biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya eBhalla

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractEfficient enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose to fermentable sugars requires a complete repertoire of biomass deconstruction enzymes. Hemicellulases play an important role in hydrolyzing hemicellulose component of lignocellulose to xylo-oligosaccharides and xylose. Thermostable xylanases have been a focus of attention as industrially important enzymes due to their long shelf life at high temperatures. Geobacillus sp. strain WSUCF1 produced thermostable xylanase activity (crude xylanase cocktail when grown on xylan or various inexpensive untreated and pretreated lignocellulosic biomasses such as prairie cord grass and corn stover. The optimum pH and temperature for the crude xylanase cocktail were 6.5 and 70ºC, respectively. The WSUCF1 crude xylanase was found to be highly thermostable with half-lives of 18 and 12 days at 60 and 70ºC, respectively. At 70ºC, rates of xylan hydrolysis were also found to be better with the WSUCF1 secretome than those with commercial enzymes, i.e., for WSUCF1 crude xylanase, CellicHTec2, and AccelleraseXY, the percent xylan conversions were 68.9, 49.4, and 28.92, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, WSUCF1 crude xylanase cocktail is among the most thermostable xylanases produced by thermophilic Geobacillus spp. and other thermophilic microbes (optimum growth temperature ≤70ºC. High thermostability, activity over wide range of temperatures, and better xylan hydrolysis than commercial enzymes make WSUCF1 crude xylanase suitable for thermophilic lignocellulose bioconversion processes.

  5. High quality bio-oil from catalytic flash pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass over alumina-supported sodium carbonate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali Imran, A.; Bramer, Eduard A.; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Brem, Gerrit

    2014-01-01

    Performance of a novel alumina-supported sodium carbonate catalyst was studied to produce a valuable bio-oil from catalytic flash pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass. Post treatment of biomass pyrolysis vapor was investigated in a catalyst fixed bed reactor at the downstream of the pyrolysis

  6. Lignocellulosic Biomass Transformations via Greener Oxidative Pretreatment Processes: Access to Energy and Value-Added Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Den

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic climate change, principally induced by the large volume of carbon dioxide emission from the global economy driven by fossil fuels, has been observed and scientifically proven as a major threat to civilization. Meanwhile, fossil fuel depletion has been identified as a future challenge. Lignocellulosic biomass in the form of organic residues appears to be the most promising option as renewable feedstock for the generation of energy and platform chemicals. As of today, relatively little bioenergy comes from lignocellulosic biomass as compared to feedstock such as starch and sugarcane, primarily due to high cost of production involving pretreatment steps required to fragment biomass components via disruption of the natural recalcitrant structure of these rigid polymers; low efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of refractory feedstock presents a major challenge. The valorization of lignin and cellulose into energy products or chemical products is contingent on the effectiveness of selective depolymerization of the pretreatment regime which typically involve harsh pyrolytic and solvothermal processes assisted by corrosive acids or alkaline reagents. These unselective methods decompose lignin into many products that may not be energetically or chemically valuable, or even biologically inhibitory. Exploring milder, selective and greener processes, therefore, has become a critical subject of study for the valorization of these materials in the last decade. Efficient alternative activation processes such as microwave- and ultrasound irradiation are being explored as replacements for pyrolysis and hydrothermolysis, while milder options such as advanced oxidative and catalytic processes should be considered as choices to harsher acid and alkaline processes. Herein, we critically abridge the research on chemical oxidative techniques for the pretreatment of lignocellulosics with the explicit aim to rationalize the objectives of the biomass

  7. Lignocellulosic Biomass Transformations via Greener Oxidative Pretreatment Processes: Access to Energy and Value-Added Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Den, Walter; Sharma, Virender K.; Lee, Mengshan; Nadadur, Govind; Varma, Rajender S.

    2018-01-01

    Anthropogenic climate change, principally induced by the large volume of carbon dioxide emission from the global economy driven by fossil fuels, has been observed and scientifically proven as a major threat to civilization. Meanwhile, fossil fuel depletion has been identified as a future challenge. Lignocellulosic biomass in the form of organic residues appears to be the most promising option as renewable feedstock for the generation of energy and platform chemicals. As of today, relatively little bioenergy comes from lignocellulosic biomass as compared to feedstock such as starch and sugarcane, primarily due to high cost of production involving pretreatment steps required to fragment biomass components via disruption of the natural recalcitrant structure of these rigid polymers; low efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of refractory feedstock presents a major challenge. The valorization of lignin and cellulose into energy products or chemical products is contingent on the effectiveness of selective depolymerization of the pretreatment regime which typically involve harsh pyrolytic and solvothermal processes assisted by corrosive acids or alkaline reagents. These unselective methods decompose lignin into many products that may not be energetically or chemically valuable, or even biologically inhibitory. Exploring milder, selective and greener processes, therefore, has become a critical subject of study for the valorization of these materials in the last decade. Efficient alternative activation processes such as microwave- and ultrasound irradiation are being explored as replacements for pyrolysis and hydrothermolysis, while milder options such as advanced oxidative and catalytic processes should be considered as choices to harsher acid and alkaline processes. Herein, we critically abridge the research on chemical oxidative techniques for the pretreatment of lignocellulosics with the explicit aim to rationalize the objectives of the biomass pretreatment step and the

  8. Lignocellulosic Biomass Transformations via Greener Oxidative Pretreatment Processes: Access to Energy and Value-Added Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Den, Walter; Sharma, Virender K; Lee, Mengshan; Nadadur, Govind; Varma, Rajender S

    2018-01-01

    Anthropogenic climate change, principally induced by the large volume of carbon dioxide emission from the global economy driven by fossil fuels, has been observed and scientifically proven as a major threat to civilization. Meanwhile, fossil fuel depletion has been identified as a future challenge. Lignocellulosic biomass in the form of organic residues appears to be the most promising option as renewable feedstock for the generation of energy and platform chemicals. As of today, relatively little bioenergy comes from lignocellulosic biomass as compared to feedstock such as starch and sugarcane, primarily due to high cost of production involving pretreatment steps required to fragment biomass components via disruption of the natural recalcitrant structure of these rigid polymers; low efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of refractory feedstock presents a major challenge. The valorization of lignin and cellulose into energy products or chemical products is contingent on the effectiveness of selective depolymerization of the pretreatment regime which typically involve harsh pyrolytic and solvothermal processes assisted by corrosive acids or alkaline reagents. These unselective methods decompose lignin into many products that may not be energetically or chemically valuable, or even biologically inhibitory. Exploring milder, selective and greener processes, therefore, has become a critical subject of study for the valorization of these materials in the last decade. Efficient alternative activation processes such as microwave- and ultrasound irradiation are being explored as replacements for pyrolysis and hydrothermolysis, while milder options such as advanced oxidative and catalytic processes should be considered as choices to harsher acid and alkaline processes. Herein, we critically abridge the research on chemical oxidative techniques for the pretreatment of lignocellulosics with the explicit aim to rationalize the objectives of the biomass pretreatment step and the

  9. Production of ethanol from sugars and lignocellulosic biomass by Thermoanaerobacter J1 isolated from a hot spring in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessen, Jan Eric; Orlygsson, Johann

    2012-01-01

    Thermophilic bacteria have gained increased attention as candidates for bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. This study investigated ethanol production by Thermoanaerobacter strain J1 from hydrolysates made from lignocellulosic biomass in batch cultures. The effect of increased initial glucose concentration and the partial pressure of hydrogen on end product formation were examined. The strain showed a broad substrate spectrum, and high ethanol yields were observed on glucose (1.70 mol/mol) and xylose (1.25 mol/mol). Ethanol yields were, however, dramatically lowered by adding thiosulfate or by cocultivating strain J1 with a hydrogenotrophic methanogen with acetate becoming the major end product. Ethanol production from 4.5 g/L of lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates (grass, hemp stem, wheat straw, newspaper, and cellulose) pretreated with acid or alkali and the enzymes Celluclast and Novozymes 188 was investigated. The highest ethanol yields were obtained on cellulose (7.5 mM·g(-1)) but the lowest on straw (0.8 mM·g(-1)). Chemical pretreatment increased ethanol yields substantially from lignocellulosic biomass but not from cellulose. The largest increase was on straw hydrolysates where ethanol production increased from 0.8 mM·g(-1) to 3.3 mM·g(-1) using alkali-pretreated biomass. The highest ethanol yields on lignocellulosic hydrolysates were observed with hemp hydrolysates pretreated with acid, 4.2 mM·g(-1).

  10. Production of Ethanol from Sugars and Lignocellulosic Biomass by Thermoanaerobacter J1 Isolated from a Hot Spring in Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Eric Jessen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermophilic bacteria have gained increased attention as candidates for bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. This study investigated ethanol production by Thermoanaerobacter strain J1 from hydrolysates made from lignocellulosic biomass in batch cultures. The effect of increased initial glucose concentration and the partial pressure of hydrogen on end product formation were examined. The strain showed a broad substrate spectrum, and high ethanol yields were observed on glucose (1.70 mol/mol and xylose (1.25 mol/mol. Ethanol yields were, however, dramatically lowered by adding thiosulfate or by cocultivating strain J1 with a hydrogenotrophic methanogen with acetate becoming the major end product. Ethanol production from 4.5 g/L of lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates (grass, hemp stem, wheat straw, newspaper, and cellulose pretreated with acid or alkali and the enzymes Celluclast and Novozymes 188 was investigated. The highest ethanol yields were obtained on cellulose (7.5 mM·g−1 but the lowest on straw (0.8 mM·g−1. Chemical pretreatment increased ethanol yields substantially from lignocellulosic biomass but not from cellulose. The largest increase was on straw hydrolysates where ethanol production increased from 0.8 mM·g−1 to 3.3 mM·g−1 using alkali-pretreated biomass. The highest ethanol yields on lignocellulosic hydrolysates were observed with hemp hydrolysates pretreated with acid, 4.2 mM·g−1.

  11. Optimization of Saccharification Conditions of Lignocellulosic Biomass under Alkaline Pre-Treatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Łukajtis

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Pre-treatment is a significant step in the production of second-generation biofuels from waste lignocellulosic materials. Obtaining biofuels as a result of fermentation processes requires appropriate pre-treatment conditions ensuring the highest possible degree of saccharification of the feed material. An influence of the following process parameters were investigated for alkaline pre-treatment of Salix viminalis L.: catalyst concentration (NaOH, temperature, pre-treatment time and granulation. For this purpose, experiments were carried out in accordance to the Box-Behnken design for four factors. In the saccharification process of the pre-treated biomass, cellulolytic enzymes immobilized on diatomaceous earth were used. Based on the obtained results, a mathematical model for the optimal conditions of alkaline pre-treatment prediction is proposed. The optimal conditions of alkaline pre-treatment are established as follows: granulation 0.75 mm, catalyst concentration 7%, pre-treatment time 6 h and temperature 65 °C if the saccharification efficiency and cost analysis are considered. An influence of the optimized pre-treatment on both the chemical composition and structural changes for six various lignocellulosic materials (energetic willow, energetic poplar, beech, triticale, meadow grass, corncobs was investigated. SEM images of raw and pre-treated biomass samples are included in order to follow the changes in the biomass structure during hydrolysis.

  12. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CELLULOSE AND LIGNIN FROM STEAM-EXPLODED LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS

    OpenAIRE

    Maha M. Ibrahim; Foster A. Agblevor; Waleed K. El-Zawawy

    2010-01-01

    The isolation of cellulose from different lignocellulosic biomass sources such as corn cob, banana plant, cotton stalk, and cotton gin waste, was studied using a steam explosion technology as a pre-treatment process for different times followed by alkaline peroxide bleaching. The agricultural residues were steam-exploded at 220 ºC for 1-4 min for the corn cob, 2 and 4 min for the banana plant, 3-5 min for the cotton gin waste, and for 5 min for the cotton stalk. The steamed fibers were water ...

  13. Rich biotin content in lignocellulose biomass plays the key role in determining cellulosic glutamic acid accumulation by Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jingbai; Xiao, Yanqiu; Liu, Ting; Gao, Qiuqiang; Bao, Jie

    2018-01-01

    Lignocellulose is one of the most promising alternative feedstocks for glutamic acid production as commodity building block chemical, but the efforts by the dominant industrial fermentation strain Corynebacterium glutamicum failed for accumulating glutamic acid using lignocellulose feedstock. We identified the existence of surprisingly high biotin concentration in corn stover hydrolysate as the determining factor for the failure of glutamic acid accumulation by Corynebacterium glutamicum . Under excessive biotin content, induction by penicillin resulted in 41.7 ± 0.1 g/L of glutamic acid with the yield of 0.50 g glutamic acid/g glucose. Our further investigation revealed that corn stover contained 353 ± 16 μg of biotin per kg dry solids, approximately one order of magnitude greater than the biotin in corn grain. Most of the biotin remained stable during the biorefining chain and the rich biotin content in corn stover hydrolysate almost completely blocked the glutamic acid accumulation. This rich biotin existence was found to be a common phenomenon in the wide range of lignocellulose biomass and this may be the key reason why the previous studies failed in cellulosic glutamic acid fermentation from lignocellulose biomass. The extended recording of the complete members of all eight vitamin B compounds in lignocellulose biomass further reveals that the major vitamin B members were also under the high concentration levels even after harsh pretreatment. The high content of biotin in wide range of lignocellulose biomass feedstocks and the corresponding hydrolysates was discovered and it was found to be the key factor in determining the cellulosic glutamic acid accumulation. The highly reserved biotin and the high content of their other vitamin B compounds in biorefining process might act as the potential nutrients to biorefining fermentations. This study creates a new insight that lignocellulose biorefining not only generates inhibitors, but also keeps nutrients

  14. Ensiling – Wet-storage method for lignocellulosic biomass for bioethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr; Thomsen, Anne Belinda; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2011-01-01

    , and consequently by lowing pH, inhibiting other microbes to degrade the polysaccharides. Following silage treatment, enzymatic convertibility tests showed that 51.5%, 36.5%, and 41.9% of the cellulose was converted by cellulytic enzymes in ensiled maize, rye, and clover grass, respectively. In addition, tests......Ensiling of humid biomass samples wrapped in plastic bales has been investigated as a wet-storage for bioethanol production from three lignocellulosic biomass samples i.e. maize, rye, and clover grass. During the silage process, lactic acid bacteria fermented free sugars to lactic acid.......5% (by S. cerevisiae); the yields significantly increased after hydrothermal pretreatment: 77.7%, 72.8%, 79.5% (by K. marxianus) and 72.0%, 80.7%, 75.7% (by S. cerevisiae) of the theoretical based on the C6 sugar contents in maize, rye, and clover grass, respectively....

  15. Novel heat–integrated and intensified biorefinery process for cellulosic ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nhien, Le Cao; Long, Nguyen Van Duc; Lee, Moonyong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A compact biorefinery design was proposed for cellulosic ethanol purification. • Actual fermentation broth from lignocellulosic biomass was considered. • Process integration and intensification achieves competitive biorefinery context. • The response surface method optimizes the complex column structure effectively. • The proposed process could save up to 47.6% of total annual cost. - Abstract: Biofuels have the most potential as an alternative to fossil fuels and overcoming global warming, which has become one of the most serious environmental issues over the past few decades. As the world confronts food shortages due to an increase in world population, the development of biofuels from inedible lignocellulosic feedstock may be more sustainable in the long term. Inspired by the NREL conventional process, this paper proposes a novel heat–integrated and intensified biorefinery design for cellulosic ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. For the preconcentration section, heat pump assisted distillation and double–effect heat integration were evaluated, while a combination of heat–integrated technique and intensified technique, extractive dividing wall column (EDWC), was applied to enhance the process energy and cost efficiency for the purification section. A biosolvent, glycerol, which can be produced from biodiesel production, was used as the extracting solvent in an EDWC to obtain a high degree of integration in a biorefinery context. All configuration alternatives were simulated rigorously using Aspen Plus were based on the energy requirements, total annual costs (TAC), and total carbon dioxide emissions (TCE). In addition, the structure of the EDWC was optimized using the reliable response surface method, which was carried out using Minitab statistical software. The simulation results showed that the proposed heat–integrated and intensified process can save up to 47.6% and 56.9% of the TAC and TCE for the purification

  16. LPMOs in cellulase mixtures affect fermentation strategies for lactic acid production from lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Gerdt; Kalyani, Dayanand Chandrahas; Horn, Svein Jarle

    2017-03-01

    Enzymatic catalysis plays a key role in the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals such as lactic acid. In the last decade, the efficiency of commercial cellulase cocktails has increased significantly, in part due to the inclusion of lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs). However, the LPMOs' need for molecular oxygen to break down cellulose demands reinvestigations of process conditions. In this study, we evaluate the efficiency of lactic acid production from steam-exploded birch using an LPMO-containing cellulase cocktail in combination with lactic acid bacteria, investigating both separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). While the SSF set up generally has been considered to be more efficient because it avoids sugar accumulation which may inhibit the cellulases, the SHF set up in our study yielded 26-32% more lactic acid than the SSF. This was mainly due to competition for oxygen between LPMOs and the fermenting organisms in the SSF process, which resulted in reduced LPMO activity and thus less efficient saccharification of the lignocellulosic substrate. By means of aeration it was possible to activate the LPMOs in the SSF, but less lactic acid was produced due to a shift in metabolic pathways toward production of acetic acid. Overall, this study shows that lactic acid can be produced efficiently from lignocellulosic biomass, but that the use of LPMO-containing cellulase cocktails in fermentation processes demands re-thinking of traditional process set ups due to the requirement of oxygen in the saccharification step. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 552-559. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Process performance and comparative metagenomic analysis during co-digestion of manure and lignocellulosic biomass for biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsapekos, Panagiotis; Kougias, Panagiotis; Treu, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Mechanical pretreatment is considered to be a fast and easily applicable method to prepare the biomass for anaerobic digestion. In the present study, the effect of mechanical pretreatment on lignocellulosic silages biodegradability was elucidated in batch reactors. Moreover, co-digestion of the s......Mechanical pretreatment is considered to be a fast and easily applicable method to prepare the biomass for anaerobic digestion. In the present study, the effect of mechanical pretreatment on lignocellulosic silages biodegradability was elucidated in batch reactors. Moreover, co...

  18. Biochemical Conversion Processes of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Fuels and Chemicals - A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brethauer, Simone; Studer, Michael H

    2015-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass - such as wood, agricultural residues or dedicated energy crops - is a promising renewable feedstock for production of fuels and chemicals that is available at large scale at low cost without direct competition for food usage. Its biochemical conversion in a sugar platform biorefinery includes three main unit operations that are illustrated in this review: the physico-chemical pretreatment of the biomass, the enzymatic hydrolysis of the carbohydrates to a fermentable sugar stream by cellulases and finally the fermentation of the sugars by suitable microorganisms to the target molecules. Special emphasis in this review is put on the technology, commercial status and future prospects of the production of second-generation fuel ethanol, as this process has received most research and development efforts so far. Despite significant advances, high enzyme costs are still a hurdle for large scale competitive lignocellulosic ethanol production. This could be overcome by a strategy termed 'consolidated bioprocessing' (CBP), where enzyme production, enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation is integrated in one step - either by utilizing one genetically engineered superior microorganism or by creating an artificial co-culture. Insight is provided on both CBP strategies for the production of ethanol as well as of advanced fuels and commodity chemicals.

  19. Hydrodynamic cavitation as a strategy to enhance the efficiency of lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terán Hilares, Ruly; Ramos, Lucas; da Silva, Silvio Silvério; Dragone, Giuliano; Mussatto, Solange I; Santos, Júlio César Dos

    2018-06-01

    Hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) is a process technology with potential for application in different areas including environmental, food processing, and biofuels production. Although HC is an undesirable phenomenon for hydraulic equipment, the net energy released during this process is enough to accelerate certain chemical reactions. The application of cavitation energy to enhance the efficiency of lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment is an interesting strategy proposed for integration in biorefineries for the production of bio-based products. Moreover, the use of an HC-assisted process was demonstrated as an attractive alternative when compared to other conventional pretreatment technologies. This is not only due to high pretreatment efficiency resulting in high enzymatic digestibility of carbohydrate fraction, but also, by its high energy efficiency, simple configuration, and construction of systems, besides the possibility of using on the large scale. This paper gives an overview regarding HC technology and its potential for application on the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. The parameters affecting this process and the perspectives for future developments in this area are also presented and discussed.

  20. Literature Review of Physical and Chemical Pretreatment Processes for Lignocellulosic Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmsen, P.; Bakker, R. [Wageningen University and Research centre WUR, Food and Biobased Research WUR-FBR, Wageningen (Netherlands); Huijgen, W.J.J. [ECN Biomass, Coal and Environment, Petten (Netherlands); Bermudez Lopez, L. [Abengoa Bioenergia Nuevas Tecnologias ABNT (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    This literature review was performed within the BioSynergy project (2007-2010). BioSynergy is a European Integrated Project supported through the Sixth Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development (038994-SES6). BioSynergy stands for 'BIOmass for the market competitive and environmentally friendly SYNthesis of bio-products together with the production of secondary enERGY carriers through the biorefinery approach'. Within the BioSynergy project the overall goal of the pretreatment routes being developed is to convert raw lignocellulosic biomass into its composing sugars and lignin in a market competitive and environmentally sustainable way. This report reviews lignocellulose pretreatment in general as well as specific pretreatment technologies that are developed within the BioSynergy project including steam explosion (ABNT), mechanical/alkaline fractionation (WUR) and organosolv fractionation (ECN). In addition to these pretreatment technologies, other pretreatment technologies are studied within the BioSynergy project such as acetic/formic acid pretreatment and mild- and strong acid pretreatment.

  1. Qualitative and kinetic analysis of torrefaction of lignocellulosic biomass using DSC-TGA-FTIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bimal Acharya

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Torrefaction is a thermochemical conversion technique to improve the fuel properties of lignocellulosic biomass by treating at temperature 200 ℃-300 ℃ in the minimum oxygen environment for a reasonable residence time. In this study, thermal decomposition and thermal activities of miscanthus and wheat straw during the torrefaction at 200 ℃, 275 ℃, and 300 ℃ in a nitrogen environment for 45 minutes of residence time are analyzed in a simultaneous thermogravimetric analyzer (micro TGA with a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, and a macro-TGA. The output of the micro TGA is fed into the Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR and qualitative analysis of the gaseous product is carried out. The composition of different gas products during the torrefaction of biomass are compared critically and kinetics were analyzed. It is found that the weight loss due to degradation of initial biomass in second stage (torrefaction process is a much faster conversion process than the weight loss process in the first stage (drying process. The weight loss of biomass increases with increase in the residence time and torrefaction treatment temperatures. The yield after torrefaction is a solid bio-coal product. The torrefied product were less reactive and has nearly 25% better heating value than the raw biomass. Between the two feedstocks studied, torrefied miscanthus proved to be a more stable fuel than the torrefied wheat straw. The major gaseous components observed during torrefaction are water, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, 1,2-Dibromethylene.

  2. Analysis of Casein Biopolymers Adsorption to Lignocellulosic Biomass as a Potential Cellulase Stabilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckard, Anahita Dehkhoda; Muthukumarappan, Kasiviswanathan; Gibbons, William

    2012-01-01

    Although lignocellulosic materials have a good potential to substitute current feedstocks used for ethanol production, conversion of these materials to fermentable sugars is still not economical through enzymatic hydrolysis. High cost of cellulase has prompted research to explore techniques that can prevent from enzyme deactivation. Colloidal proteins of casein can form monolayers on hydrophobic surfaces that alleviate the de-activation of protein of interest. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), capillary electrophoresis (CE), and Kjeldahl and BSA protein assays were used to investigate the unknown mechanism of action of induced cellulase activity during hydrolysis of casein-treated biomass. Adsorption of casein to biomass was observed with all of the analytical techniques used and varied depending on the pretreatment techniques of biomass. FT-IR analysis of amides I and II suggested that the substructure of protein from casein or skim milk were deformed at the time of contact with biomass. With no additive, the majority of one of the cellulase mono-component, 97.1 ± 1.1, was adsorbed to CS within 24 h, this adsorption was irreversible and increased by 2% after 72 h. However, biomass treatment with skim-milk and casein reduced the adsorption to 32.9% ± 6.0 and 82.8% ± 6.0, respectively. PMID:23118515

  3. Analysis of casein biopolymers adsorption to lignocellulosic biomass as a potential cellulase stabilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckard, Anahita Dehkhoda; Muthukumarappan, Kasiviswanathan; Gibbons, William

    2012-01-01

    Although lignocellulosic materials have a good potential to substitute current feedstocks used for ethanol production, conversion of these materials to fermentable sugars is still not economical through enzymatic hydrolysis. High cost of cellulase has prompted research to explore techniques that can prevent from enzyme deactivation. Colloidal proteins of casein can form monolayers on hydrophobic surfaces that alleviate the de-activation of protein of interest. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), capillary electrophoresis (CE), and Kjeldahl and BSA protein assays were used to investigate the unknown mechanism of action of induced cellulase activity during hydrolysis of casein-treated biomass. Adsorption of casein to biomass was observed with all of the analytical techniques used and varied depending on the pretreatment techniques of biomass. FT-IR analysis of amides I and II suggested that the substructure of protein from casein or skim milk were deformed at the time of contact with biomass. With no additive, the majority of one of the cellulase mono-component, 97.1 ± 1.1, was adsorbed to CS within 24 h, this adsorption was irreversible and increased by 2% after 72 h. However, biomass treatment with skim-milk and casein reduced the adsorption to 32.9% ± 6.0 and 82.8% ± 6.0, respectively.

  4. Analysis of Casein Biopolymers Adsorption to Lignocellulosic Biomass as a Potential Cellulase Stabilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Dehkhoda Eckard

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although lignocellulosic materials have a good potential to substitute current feedstocks used for ethanol production, conversion of these materials to fermentable sugars is still not economical through enzymatic hydrolysis. High cost of cellulase has prompted research to explore techniques that can prevent from enzyme deactivation. Colloidal proteins of casein can form monolayers on hydrophobic surfaces that alleviate the de-activation of protein of interest. Scanning electron microscope (SEM, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, capillary electrophoresis (CE, and Kjeldahl and BSA protein assays were used to investigate the unknown mechanism of action of induced cellulase activity during hydrolysis of casein-treated biomass. Adsorption of casein to biomass was observed with all of the analytical techniques used and varied depending on the pretreatment techniques of biomass. FT-IR analysis of amides I and II suggested that the substructure of protein from casein or skim milk were deformed at the time of contact with biomass. With no additive, the majority of one of the cellulase mono-component, 97.1 ± 1.1, was adsorbed to CS within 24 h, this adsorption was irreversible and increased by 2% after 72 h. However, biomass treatment with skim-milk and casein reduced the adsorption to 32.9% ± 6.0 and 82.8% ± 6.0, respectively.

  5. Saccharification of recalcitrant biomass and integration options for lignocellulosic sugars from Catchlight Energy's sugar process (CLE Sugar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Johnway; Anderson, Dwight; Levie, Benjamin

    2013-01-28

    Woody biomass is one of the most abundant biomass feedstocks, besides agriculture residuals in the United States. The sustainable harvest residuals and thinnings alone are estimated at about 75 million tons/year. These forest residuals and thinnings could produce the equivalent of 5 billion gallons of lignocellulosic ethanol annually. Softwood biomass is the most recalcitrant biomass in pretreatment before an enzymatic hydrolysis. To utilize the most recalcitrant lignocellulosic materials, an efficient, industrially scalable and cost effective pretreatment method is needed. Obtaining a high yield of sugar from recalcitrant biomass generally requires a high severity of pretreatment with aggressive chemistry, followed by extensive conditioning, and large doses of enzymes. Catchlight Energy's Sugar process, CLE Sugar, uses a low intensity, high throughput variation of bisulfite pulping to pretreat recalcitrant biomass, such as softwood forest residuals. By leveraging well-proven bisulfite technology and the rapid progress of enzyme suppliers, CLE Sugar can achieve a high yield of total biomass carbohydrate conversion to monomeric lignocellulosic sugars. For example, 85.8% of biomass carbohydrates are saccharified for un-debarked Loblolly pine chips (softwood), and 94.0% for debarked maple chips (hardwood). Furan compound formation was 1.29% of biomass feedstock for Loblolly pine and 1.10% for maple. At 17% solids hydrolysis of pretreated softwood, an enzyme dose of 0.075 g Sigma enzyme mixture/g dry pretreated (unwashed) biomass was needed to achieve 8.1% total sugar titer in the hydrolysate and an overall prehydrolysate liquor plus enzymatic hydrolysis conversion yield of 76.6%. At a much lower enzyme dosage of 0.044 g CTec2 enzyme product/g dry (unwashed) pretreated softwood, hydrolysis at 17% solids achieved 9.2% total sugar titer in the hydrolysate with an overall sugar yield of 85.0% in the combined prehydrolysate liquor and enzymatic hydrolysate. CLE Sugar has

  6. Alkaline/peracetic acid as a pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for ethanol fuel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Lincoln Cambraia

    Peracetic acid is a lignin oxidation pretreatment with low energy input by which biomass can be treated in a silo type system for improving enzymatic digestibility of lignocellulosic materials for ethanol production. Experimentally, ground hybrid poplar wood and sugar cane bagasse are placed in plastic bags and a peracetic acid solution is added to the biomass in different concentrations based on oven-dry biomass. The ratio of solution to biomass is 6:1; after initial mixing of the resulting paste, a seven-day storage period at about 20°C is used in this study. As a complementary method, a series of pre-pretreatments using stoichiometric amounts of sodium hydroxide and ammonium hydroxide based on 4-methyl-glucuronic acid and acetyl content in the biomass is been performed before addition of peracetic acid. The alkaline solutions are added to the biomass in a ratio of 14:1 solution to biomass; the slurry is mixed for 24 hours at ambient temperature. The above procedures give high xylan content substrates. Consequently, xylanase/beta-glucosidase combinations are more effective than cellulase preparations in hydrolyzing these materials. The pretreatment effectiveness is evaluated using standard enzymatic hydrolysis and simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSCF) procedures. Hybrid poplar wood pretreated with 15 and 21% peracetic acid based on oven-dry weight of wood gives glucan conversion yields of 76.5 and 98.3%, respectively. Sugar cane bagasse pretreated with the same loadings gives corresponding yields of 85.9 and 93.1%. Raw wood and raw bagasse give corresponding yields of 6.8 and 28.8%, respectively. The combined 6% NaOH/15% peracetic acid pretreatments increase the glucan conversion yields from 76.5 to 100.0% for hybrid poplar wood and from 85.9 to 97.6% for sugar cane bagasse. Respective ethanol yields of 92.8 and 91.9% are obtained from 6% NaOH/15% peracetic acid pretreated materials using recombinant Zymomonas mobilis CP4/pZB5. Peracetic acid

  7. Understanding changes in cellulose crystalline structure of lignocellulosic biomass during ionic liquid pretreatment by XRD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiafu; Wang, Yixun; Zhang, Liye; Zhang, Ruihong; Liu, Guangqing; Cheng, Gang

    2014-01-01

    X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to understand the interactions of cellulose in lignocellulosic biomass with ionic liquids (ILs). The experiment was designed in such a way that the process of swelling and solubilization of crystalline cellulose in plant cell walls was followed by XRD. Three different feedstocks, switchgrass, corn stover and rice husk, were pretreated using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C4mim][OAc]) at temperatures of 50-130°C for 6h. At a 5 wt.% biomass loading, increasing pretreatment temperature led to a drop in biomass crystallinity index (CrI), which was due to swelling of crystalline cellulose. After most of the crystalline cellulose was swollen with IL molecules, a low-order structure was found in the pretreated samples. Upon further increasing temperature, cellulose II structure started to form in the pretreated biomass samples as a result of solubilization of cellulose in [C4mim][OAc] and subsequent regeneration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Techno-economic assessment of hybrid extraction and distillation processes for furfural production from lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhien, Le Cao; Long, Nguyen Van Duc; Kim, Sangyong; Lee, Moonyong

    2017-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is one of the most promising alternatives for replacing mineral resources to overcome global warming, which has become the most important environmental issue in recent years. Furfural was listed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory as one of the top 30 potential chemicals arising from biomass. However, the current production of furfural is energy intensive and uses inefficient technology. Thus, a hybrid purification process that combines extraction and distillation to produce furfural from lignocellulosic biomass was considered and investigated in detail to improve the process efficiency. This effective hybrid process depends on the extracting solvent, which was selected based on a comprehensive procedure that ranged from solvent screening to complete process design. Various solvents were first evaluated in terms of their extraction ability. Then, the most promising solvents were selected to study the separation feasibility. Eventually, processes that used the three best solvents (toluene, benzene, and butyl chloride) were designed and optimized in detail using Aspen Plus. Sustainability analysis was performed to evaluate these processes in terms of their energy requirements, total annual costs (TAC), and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions. The results showed that butyl chloride was the most suitable solvent for the hybrid furfural process because it could save 44.7% of the TAC while reducing the CO 2 emissions by 45.5% compared to the toluene process. In comparison with the traditional purification process using distillation, this suggested hybrid extraction/distillation process can save up to 19.2% of the TAC and reduce 58.3% total annual CO 2 emissions. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis of the feed composition and its effect on the performance of the proposed hybrid system was conducted. Butyl chloride was found to be the most suitable solvent for the hybrid extraction/distillation process of furfural production. The proposed

  9. Bacterial synergism in lignocellulose biomass degradation : Complementary roles of degraders as influenced by complexity of the carbon source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cortes Tolalpa, Larisa; Falcao Salles, Joana; van Elsas, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass (LCB) is an attractive source of carbon for the production of sugars and other chemicals. Due to its inherent complexity and heterogeneity, efficient biodegradation requires the actions of different types of hydrolytic enzymes. In nature, complex microbial communities that

  10. Lignocellulose Biomass: Constitutive Polymers. Biological Processes of Lignin Degradation; Biomasa lignocelulosica, polimeros constitutivos. Procesos biologicos de degradacion de la lignina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, C; Manzanares, P

    1994-07-01

    The structure of the lignocellulosic materials and the chemical composition of their main constitutive polymers, cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin are described. The most promising transformation processes according to the type of biomass considered: hardwood, softwood an herbaceous and the perspectives of biotechnological processes for bio pulping, bio bleaching and effluents decolorisation in the paper pulp industry are also discussed. (Author) 7 refs.

  11. Elucidating the role of ferrous ion cocatalyst in enhancing dilute acid pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Hui

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently developed iron cocatalyst enhancement of dilute acid pretreatment of biomass is a promising approach for enhancing sugar release from recalcitrant lignocellulosic biomass. However, very little is known about the underlying mechanisms of this enhancement. In the current study, our aim was to identify several essential factors that contribute to ferrous ion-enhanced efficiency during dilute acid pretreatment of biomass and to initiate the investigation of the mechanisms that result in this enhancement. Results During dilute acid and ferrous ion cocatalyst pretreatments, we observed concomitant increases in solubilized sugars in the hydrolysate and reducing sugars in the (insoluble biomass residues. We also observed enhancements in sugar release during subsequent enzymatic saccharification of iron cocatalyst-pretreated biomass. Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy showed that major peaks representing the C-O-C and C-H bonds in cellulose are significantly attenuated by iron cocatalyst pretreatment. Imaging using Prussian blue staining indicated that Fe2+ ions associate with both cellulose/xylan and lignin in untreated as well as dilute acid/Fe2+ ion-pretreated corn stover samples. Analyses by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed structural details of biomass after dilute acid/Fe2+ ion pretreatment, in which delamination and fibrillation of the cell wall were observed. Conclusions By using this multimodal approach, we have revealed that (1 acid-ferrous ion-assisted pretreatment increases solubilization and enzymatic digestion of both cellulose and xylan to monomers and (2 this pretreatment likely targets multiple chemistries in plant cell wall polymer networks, including those represented by the C-O-C and C-H bonds in cellulose.

  12. Liquid transportation fuels via large-scale fluidised-bed gasification of lignocellulosic biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannula, I.; Kurkela, E.

    2013-04-15

    With the objective of gaining a better understanding of the system design trade-offs and economics that pertain to biomass-to-liquids processes, 20 individual BTL plant designs were evaluated based on their technical and economic performance. The investigation was focused on gasification-based processes that enable the conversion of biomass to methanol, dimethyl ether, Fischer-Tropsch liquids or synthetic gasoline at a large (300 MWth of biomass) scale. The biomass conversion technology was based on pressurised steam/O2-blown fluidised-bed gasification, followed by hot-gas filtration and catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons and tars. This technology has seen extensive development and demonstration activities in Finland during the recent years and newly generated experimental data has also been used in our simulation models. Our study included conceptual design issues, process descriptions, mass and energy balances and production cost estimates. Several studies exist that discuss the overall efficiency and economics of biomass conversion to transportation liquids, but very few studies have presented a detailed comparison between various syntheses using consistent process designs and uniform cost database. In addition, no studies exist that examine and compare BTL plant designs using the same front-end configuration as described in this work. Our analysis shows that it is possible to produce sustainable low-carbon fuels from lignocellulosic biomass with first-law efficiency in the range of 49.6-66.7% depending on the end-product and process conditions. Production cost estimates were calculated assuming Nth plant economics and without public investment support, CO2 credits or tax assumptions. They are 58-65 euro/MWh for methanol, 58-66 euro/MWh for DME, 64-75 euro/MWh for Fischer-Tropsch liquids and 68-78 euro/MWh for synthetic gasoline. (orig.)

  13. Systemic analysis of production scenarios for bioethanol produced from ligno-cellulosic biomass [abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghysel, F.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Defining alternatives for non-renewable energy sources constitutes a priority to the development of our societies. One of these alternatives is biofuels production starting from energy crops, agricultural wastes, forest products or wastes. In this context, a "second generation" biofuels production, aiming at utilizing the whole plant, including ligno-cellulosic (hemicelluloses, cellulose, lignin fractions (Ogier et al., 1999 that are not used for human food, would allow the reduction of the drawbacks of bioethanol production (Schoeling, 2007. However, numerous technical, economical, ethical and environmental questions are still pending. One of the aims of the BioEtha2 project, directed by the Walloon Agricultural Research Centre, is to define the position of bioethanol produced from ligno-cellulosic biomass among the different renewable energy alternatives that could be developed in Wallonia towards 2020. With this aim, and in order to answer the numerous questions in this field, the project aims at using tools and methods coming from the concept of "forecasting scenarios" (Sebillotte, 2002; Slegten et al., 2007; For-learn, 2008. This concept, based on a contemporary reality, aims to explore different possible scenarios for the future development of alternative sources of energy production. The principle is to evaluate, explore, possible futures of the studied problematic, through the establishment of possible evolution trajectories. We contribute to this prospective through a systemic approach (Vanloqueren, 2007 that allows lightening the existing interactions within the system "ligno-cellulosic biomass chain" without isolating it from its environment. We explain and sketch the two contexts needed to identify primary stakes. The global context includes inter-dependant and auto-regulating fields such as society, politics, technology and economy. These four fields influence each part of the "chain" with specific tools. However, the interest and

  14. YNL134C from Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a novel protein with aldehyde reductase activity for detoxification of furfural derived from lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xianxian; Tang, Juan; Wang, Xu; Yang, Ruoheng; Zhang, Xiaoping; Gu, Yunfu; Li, Xi; Ma, Menggen

    2015-05-01

    Furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) are the two main aldehyde compounds derived from pentoses and hexoses, respectively, during lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment. These two compounds inhibit microbial growth and interfere with subsequent alcohol fermentation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has the in situ ability to detoxify furfural and HMF to the less toxic 2-furanmethanol (FM) and furan-2,5-dimethanol (FDM), respectively. Herein, we report that an uncharacterized gene, YNL134C, was highly up-regulated under furfural or HMF stress and Yap1p and Msn2/4p transcription factors likely controlled its up-regulated expression. Enzyme activity assays showed that YNL134C is an NADH-dependent aldehyde reductase, which plays a role in detoxification of furfural to FM. However, no NADH- or NADPH-dependent enzyme activity was observed for detoxification of HMF to FDM. This enzyme did not catalyse the reverse reaction of FM to furfural or FDM to HMF. Further studies showed that YNL134C is a broad-substrate aldehyde reductase, which can reduce multiple aldehydes to their corresponding alcohols. Although YNL134C is grouped into the quinone oxidoreductase family, no quinone reductase activity was observed using 1,2-naphthoquinone or 9,10-phenanthrenequinone as a substrate, and phylogenetic analysis indicates that it is genetically distant to quinone reductases. Proteins similar to YNL134C in sequence from S. cerevisiae and other microorganisms were phylogenetically analysed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Evaluation of biogas and syngas as energy vectors for heat and power generation using lignocellulosic biomass as raw material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Camilo Solarte-Toro

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of nonrenewable energy sources to provide the worldwide energy needs has caused different problems such as global warming, water pollution, and smog production. In this sense, lignocellulosic biomass has been postulated as a renewable energy source able to produce energy carriers that can cover this energy demand. Biogas and syngas are two energy vectors that have been suggested to generate heat and power through their use in cogeneration systems. Therefore, the aim of this review is to develop a comparison between these energy vectors considering their main features based on literature reports. In addition, a techno-economic and energy assessment of the heat and power generation using these vectors as energy sources is performed. If lignocellulosic biomass is used as raw material, biogas is more commonly used for cogeneration purposes than syngas. However, syngas from biomass gasification has a great potential to be employed as a chemical platform in the production of value-added products. Moreover, the investment costs to generate heat and power from lignocellulosic materials using the anaerobic digestion technology are higher than those using the gasification technology. As a conclusion, it was evidenced that upgraded biogas has a higher potential to produce heat and power than syngas. Nevertheless, the implementation of both energy vectors into the energy market is important to cover the increasing worldwide energy demand.How to cite: Solarte-Toro JC, Chacón-Pérez Y, Cardona-Alzate CA. Evaluation of biogas and syngas as energy vectors for heat and power generation using lignocellulosic biomass as raw material. Electron J Biotechnol 2018:33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejbt.2018.03.005 Keywords: Anaerobic digestion, Biogas power generation, Biomass gasification, Biomethane, Energy sources, Energy vectors, Heat generation, Lignocellulosic energy production, Power generation, Renewable energy, Syngas production

  16. Treatment of the lignocellulosic biomass by the gamma ray and its effect on lignin degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Abdi, Ines

    2009-01-01

    The development of alternative energies requires many research effort, with an aim of exploiting the lignocellulosic biomass. In fact, the stage of pretreatment makes it possible to facilitate the hydrolysis of the cellulose fractions, to give fermentable sugars by yeasts. However, several methods of pretreatment were identified, among them the treatment by the gamma rays. In this context, we have studied initially the effect of the gamma irradiation on the lignin degradation and on second place we added to the irradiation the treatment by dilute acid in order to optimize the rate of sugars. Thus, from 20 KGy there is a good degradation of lignins to give polyphenols components for about 4 Mg per gram of vegetable matter. However, the irradiation with 100KGy plus the acid treatment 1% has made possible to release 80% of fermentable sugars. (Author)

  17. Upgrading Lignocellulosic Biomasses: Hydrogenolysis of Platform Derived Molecules Promoted by Heterogeneous Pd-Fe Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Espro

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This review provides an overview of heterogeneous bimetallic Pd-Fe catalysts in the C–C and C–O cleavage of platform molecules such as C2–C6 polyols, furfural, phenol derivatives and aromatic ethers that are all easily obtainable from renewable cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin (the major components of lignocellulosic biomasses. The interaction between palladium and iron affords bimetallic Pd-Fe sites (ensemble or alloy that were found to be very active in several sustainable reactions including hydrogenolysis, catalytic transfer hydrogenolysis (CTH and aqueous phase reforming (APR that will be highlighted. This contribution concentrates also on the different synthetic strategies (incipient wetness impregnation, deposition-precipitaion, co-precipitaion adopted for the preparation of heterogeneous Pd-Fe systems as well as on the main characterization techniques used (XRD, TEM, H2-TPR, XPS and EXAFS in order to elucidate the key factors that influence the unique catalytic performances observed.

  18. A new correction method for determination on carbohydrates in lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-Qiang; Xu, Jian

    2013-06-01

    The accurate determination on the key components in lignocellulosic biomass is the premise of pretreatment and bioconversion. Currently, the widely used 72% H2SO4 two-step hydrolysis quantitative saccharification (QS) procedure uses loss coefficient of monosaccharide standards to correct monosaccharide loss in the secondary hydrolysis (SH) of QS and may result in excessive correction. By studying the quantitative relationships of glucose and xylose losses during special hydrolysis conditions and the HMF and furfural productions, a simple correction on the monosaccharide loss from both PH and SH was established by using HMF and furfural as the calibrators. This method was used to the component determination on corn stover, Miscanthus and cotton stalk (raw materials and pretreated) and compared to the NREL method. It has been proved that this method can avoid excessive correction on the samples with high-carbohydrate contents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Biochemical characterization of thermophilic lignocellulose degrading enzymes and their potential for biomass bioprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zambare, Vasudeo; Zambare, Archana; Christopher, Lew P. [Center for Bioprocessing Research & Development, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City 57701, SD (United States); Muthukumarappan, Kasiviswanath [Center for Bioprocessing Research & Development, South Dakota State University, Brookings 57007, SD (United States)

    2011-07-01

    . This could have important implications in the enzymatic breakdown of lignocellulosic biomass for the establishment of a robust and cost-efficient process for production of cellulosic ethanol. To the best of our knowledge, this work represents the first report in literature on biochemical characterization of lignocellulose-degrading enzymes from a thermophilic microbial consortium.

  20. The cost of ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass -- A comparison of selected alternative processes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grethlein, H.E.; Dill, T.

    1993-04-30

    The purpose of this report is to compare the cost of selected alternative processes for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol. In turn, this information will be used by the ARS/USDA to guide the management of research and development programs in biomass conversion. The report will identify where the cost leverages are for the selected alternatives and what performance parameters need to be achieved to improve the economics. The process alternatives considered here are not exhaustive, but are selected on the basis of having a reasonable potential in improving the economics of producing ethanol from biomass. When other alternatives come under consideration, they should be evaluated by the same methodology used in this report to give fair comparisons of opportunities. A generic plant design is developed for an annual production of 25 million gallons of anhydrous ethanol using corn stover as the model substrate at $30/dry ton. Standard chemical engineering techniques are used to give first order estimates of the capital and operating costs. Following the format of the corn to ethanol plant, there are nine sections to the plant; feed preparation, pretreatment, hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation and dehydration, stillage evaporation, storage and denaturation, utilities, and enzyme production. There are three pretreatment alternatives considered: the AFEX process, the modified AFEX process (which is abbreviated as MAFEX), and the STAKETECH process. These all use enzymatic hydrolysis and so an enzyme production section is included in the plant. The STAKETECH is the only commercially available process among the alternative processes.

  1. Microbial Production of Short Chain Fatty Acids from Lignocellulosic Biomass: Current Processes and Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Baumann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological production of organic acids from conversion of biomass derivatives has received increased attention among scientists and engineers and in business because of the attractive properties such as renewability, sustainability, degradability, and versatility. The aim of the present review is to summarize recent research and development of short chain fatty acids production by anaerobic fermentation of nonfood biomass and to evaluate the status and outlook for a sustainable industrial production of such biochemicals. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs such as acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid have many industrial applications and are currently of global economic interest. The focus is mainly on the utilization of pretreated lignocellulosic plant biomass as substrate (the carbohydrate route and development of the bacteria and processes that lead to a high and economically feasible production of VFA. The current and developing market for VFA is analyzed focusing on production, prices, and forecasts along with a presentation of the biotechnology companies operating in the market for sustainable biochemicals. Finally, perspectives on taking sustainable product of biochemicals from promise to market introduction are reviewed.

  2. Evaluating Lignocellulosic Biomass, Its Derivatives, and Downstream Products with Raman Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupoi, Jason S.; Gjersing, Erica; Davis, Mark F.

    2015-01-01

    The creation of fuels, chemicals, and materials from plants can aid in replacing products fabricated from non-renewable energy sources. Before using biomass in downstream applications, it must be characterized to assess chemical traits, such as cellulose, lignin, or lignin monomer content, or the sugars released following an acid or enzymatic hydrolysis. The measurement of these traits allows researchers to gage the recalcitrance of the plants and develop efficient deconstruction strategies to maximize yields. Standard methods for assessing biomass phenotypes often have experimental protocols that limit their use for screening sizeable numbers of plant species. Raman spectroscopy, a non-destructive, non-invasive vibrational spectroscopy technique, is capable of providing qualitative, structural information and quantitative measurements. Applications of Raman spectroscopy have aided in alleviating the constraints of standard methods by coupling spectral data with multivariate analysis to construct models capable of predicting analytes. Hydrolysis and fermentation products, such as glucose and ethanol, can be quantified off-, at-, or on-line. Raman imaging has enabled researchers to develop a visual understanding of reactions, such as different pretreatment strategies, in real-time, while also providing integral chemical information. This review provides an overview of what Raman spectroscopy is, and how it has been applied to the analysis of whole lignocellulosic biomass, its derivatives, and downstream process monitoring. PMID:25941674

  3. Efficient conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to levulinic acid using acidic ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Amir Sada; Man, Zakaria; Bustam, Mohamad Azmi; Nasrullah, Asma; Ullah, Zahoor; Sarwono, Ariyanti; Shah, Faiz Ullah; Muhammad, Nawshad

    2018-02-01

    In the present research work, dicationic ionic liquids, containing 1,4-bis(3-methylimidazolium-1-yl) butane ([C 4 (Mim) 2 ]) cation with counter anions [(2HSO 4 )(H 2 SO 4 ) 0 ], [(2HSO 4 )(H 2 SO 4 ) 2 ] and [(2HSO 4 )(H 2 SO 4 ) 4 ] were synthesised. ILs structures were confirmed using 1 H NMR spectroscopy. Thermal stability, Hammett acidity, density and viscosity of ILs were determined. Various types of lignocellulosic biomass such as rubber wood, palm oil frond, bamboo and rice husk were converted into levulinic acid (LA). Among the synthesized ionic liquids, [C 4 (Mim) 2 ][(2HSO 4 )(H 2 SO 4 ) 4 ] showed higher % yield of LA up to 47.52 from bamboo biomass at 110°C for 60min, which is the better yield at low temperature and short time compared to previous reports. Surface morphology, surface functional groups and thermal stability of bamboo before and after conversion into LA were studied using SEM, FTIR and TGA analysis, respectively. This one-pot production of LA from agro-waste will open new opportunity for the conversion of sustainable biomass resources into valuable chemicals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The prospects of cellulase-producing bacteria for the bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Miranda; Leung, Kam Tin; Qin, Wensheng

    2009-07-29

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a renewable and abundant resource with great potential for bioconversion to value-added bioproducts. However, the biorefining process remains economically unfeasible due to a lack of biocatalysts that can overcome costly hurdles such as cooling from high temperature, pumping of oxygen/stirring, and, neutralization from acidic or basic pH. The extreme environmental resistance of bacteria permits screening and isolation of novel cellulases to help overcome these challenges. Rapid, efficient cellulase screening techniques, using cellulase assays and metagenomic libraries, are a must. Rare cellulases with activities on soluble and crystalline cellulose have been isolated from strains of Paenibacillus and Bacillus and shown to have high thermostability and/or activity over a wide pH spectrum. While novel cellulases from strains like Cellulomonas flavigena and Terendinibacter turnerae, produce multifunctional cellulases with broader substrate utilization. These enzymes offer a framework for enhancement of cellulases including: specific activity, thermalstability, or end-product inhibition. In addition, anaerobic bacteria like the clostridia offer potential due to species capable of producing compound multienzyme complexes called cellulosomes. Cellulosomes provide synergy and close proximity of enzymes to substrate, increasing activity towards crystalline cellulose. This has lead to the construction of designer cellulosomes enhanced for specific substrate activity. Furthermore, cellulosome-producing Clostridium thermocellum and its ability to ferment sugars to ethanol; its amenability to co-culture and, recent advances in genetic engineering, offer a promising future in biofuels. The exploitation of bacteria in the search for improved enzymes or strategies provides a means to upgrade feasibility for lignocellulosic biomass conversion, ultimately providing means to a 'greener' technology.

  5. Exploring the microbiota dynamics related to vegetable biomasses degradation and study of lignocellulose-degrading bacteria for industrial biotechnological application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventorino, Valeria; Aliberti, Alberto; Faraco, Vincenza; Robertiello, Alessandro; Giacobbe, Simona; Ercolini, Danilo; Amore, Antonella; Fagnano, Massimo; Pepe, Olimpia

    2015-02-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the microbial diversity of different lignocellulosic biomasses during degradation under natural conditions and to isolate, select, characterise new well-adapted bacterial strains to detect potentially improved enzyme-producing bacteria. The microbiota of biomass piles of Arundo donax, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Populus nigra were evaluated by high-throughput sequencing. A highly complex bacterial community was found, composed of ubiquitous bacteria, with the highest representation by the Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes phyla. The abundances of the major and minor taxa retrieved during the process were determined by the selective pressure produced by the lignocellulosic plant species and degradation conditions. Moreover, cellulolytic bacteria were isolated using differential substrates and screened for cellulase, cellobiase, xylanase, pectinase and ligninase activities. Forty strains that showed multienzymatic activity were selected and identified. The highest endo-cellulase activity was seen in Promicromonospora sukumoe CE86 and Isoptericola variabilis CA84, which were able to degrade cellulose, cellobiose and xylan. Sixty-two percent of bacterial strains tested exhibited high extracellular endo-1,4-ß-glucanase activity in liquid media. These approaches show that the microbiota of lignocellulosic biomasses can be considered an important source of bacterial strains to upgrade the feasibility of lignocellulose conversion for the `greener' technology of second-generation biofuels.

  6. Relationship between lignocellulosic biomass dissolution and physicochemical properties of ionic liquids composed of 3-methylimidazolium cations and carboxylate anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Preenaa; Smith, Micholas Dean; Abdoulmoumine, Nourredine; Chmely, Stephen C; Smith, Jeremy C; Petridis, Loukas; Labbé, Nicole

    2018-01-24

    The ionic liquid (IL) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([EMIM]Acetate) has been widely used for biomass processing, i.e., to pretreat, activate, or fractionate lignocellulosic biomass to produce soluble sugars and lignin. However, this IL does not achieve high biomass solubility, therefore minimizing the efficiency of biomass processing. In this study, [EMIM]Acetate and three other ILs composed of different 3-methylimidazolium cations and carboxylate anions ([EMIM]Formate, 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium ([AMIM]) formate, and [AMIM]Acetate) were analyzed to relate their physicochemical properties to their biomass solubility performance. While all four ILs are able to dissolve hybrid poplar under fairly mild process conditions (80 °C and 100 RPM stirring), [AMIM]Formate and [AMIM]Acetate have particularly increased biomass solubility of 40 and 32%, respectively, relative to [EMIM]Acetate. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that strong interactions between IL and specific plant biopolymers may contribute to this enhanced solubilization, as the calculated second virial coefficients between ILs and hemicellullose are most favorable for [AMIM]Formate, matching the trend of the experimental solubility measurements. The simulations also reveal that the interactions between the ILs and hemicellulose are an important factor in determining the overall biomass solubility, whereas lignin-IL interactions were not found to vary significantly, consistent with literature. The combined experimental and simulation studies identify [AMIM]Formate as an efficient biomass solvent and explain its efficacy, suggesting a new approach to rationally select ionic liquid solvents for lignocellulosic deconstruction.

  7. Relationship between lignocellulosic biomass dissolution and physicochemical properties of ionic liquids composed of 3-methylimidazolium cations and carboxylate anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyer, Preenaa [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Center for Renewable Carbon. Dept. of Biosystems Engineering and Soil Science; Smith, Micholas Dean [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Molecular Biophysics; Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Cellular and Molecular Biology; Abdoulmoumine, Nourredine [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Center for Renewable Carbon. Dept. of Biosystems Engineering and Soil Science; Chmely, Stephen C. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Center for Renewable Carbon; Smith, Jeremy C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Molecular Biophysics; Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Cellular and Molecular Biology; Petridis, Loukas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Molecular Biophysics; Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Cellular and Molecular Biology; Labbé, Nicole [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Center for Renewable Carbon

    2018-01-02

    The ionic liquid (IL) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([EMIM]Acetate) has been widely used for biomass processing, i.e., to pretreat, activate, or fractionate lignocellulosic biomass to produce soluble sugars and lignin. However, this IL does not achieve high biomass solubility, therefore minimizing the efficiency of biomass processing. In this paper, [EMIM]Acetate and three other ILs composed of different 3-methylimidazolium cations and carboxylate anions ([EMIM]Formate, 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium ([AMIM]) formate, and [AMIM]Acetate) were analyzed to relate their physicochemical properties to their biomass solubility performance. While all four ILs are able to dissolve hybrid poplar under fairly mild process conditions (80 °C and 100 RPM stirring), [AMIM]Formate and [AMIM]Acetate have particularly increased biomass solubility of 40 and 32%, respectively, relative to [EMIM]Acetate. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that strong interactions between IL and specific plant biopolymers may contribute to this enhanced solubilization, as the calculated second virial coefficients between ILs and hemicellullose are most favorable for [AMIM]Formate, matching the trend of the experimental solubility measurements. The simulations also reveal that the interactions between the ILs and hemicellulose are an important factor in determining the overall biomass solubility, whereas lignin–IL interactions were not found to vary significantly, consistent with literature. Finally, the combined experimental and simulation studies identify [AMIM]Formate as an efficient biomass solvent and explain its efficacy, suggesting a new approach to rationally select ionic liquid solvents for lignocellulosic deconstruction.

  8. Solar assisted alkali pretreatment of garden biomass: Effects on lignocellulose degradation, enzymatic hydrolysis, crystallinity and ultra-structural changes in lignocellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabhane, Jagdish; William, S.P.M. Prince; Vaidya, Atul N.; Das, Sera; Wate, Satish R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • SAAP is an efficient and economic means of pretreatment. • SAAP was found to be efficient in lignin and hemicellulose removal. • SAAP enhanced the enzymatic hydrolysis. • FTIR, XRD and SEM provided vivid understanding about the mode of action of SAAP. • Mass balance closer of 98% for pretreated GB confirmed the reliability of SAAP. - Abstract: A comprehensive study was carried out to assess the effectiveness of solar assisted alkali pretreatment (SAAP) on garden biomass (GB). The pretreatment efficiency was assessed based on lignocellulose degradation, conversion of cellulose into reducing sugars, changes in the ultra-structure and functional groups of lignocellulose and impact on the crystallinity of cellulose, etc. SAAP was found to be efficient for the removal of lignin and hemicellulose that facilitated enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. FTIR and XRD studies provided details on the effectiveness of SAAP on lignocellulosic moiety and crystallinity of cellulose. Scanning electron microscopic analysis showed ultra-structural disturbances in the microfibrils of GB as a result of pretreatment. The mass balance closer of 97.87% after pretreatment confirmed the reliability of SAAP pretreatment. Based on the results, it is concluded that SAAP is not only an efficient means of pretreatment but also economical as it involved no energy expenditure for heat generation during pretreatment

  9. Survey of renewable chemicals produced from lignocellulosic biomass during ionic liquid pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varanasi Patanjali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lignin is often overlooked in the valorization of lignocellulosic biomass, but lignin-based materials and chemicals represent potential value-added products for biorefineries that could significantly improve the economics of a biorefinery. Fluctuating crude oil prices and changing fuel specifications are some of the driving factors to develop new technologies that could be used to convert polymeric lignin into low molecular weight lignin and or monomeric aromatic feedstocks to assist in the displacement of the current products associated with the conversion of a whole barrel of oil. We present an approach to produce these chemicals based on the selective breakdown of lignin during ionic liquid pretreatment. Results The lignin breakdown products generated are found to be dependent on the starting biomass, and significant levels were generated on dissolution at 160°C for 6 hrs. Guaiacol was produced on dissolution of biomass and technical lignins. Vanillin was produced on dissolution of kraft lignin and eucalytpus. Syringol and allyl guaiacol were the major products observed on dissolution of switchgrass and pine, respectively, whereas syringol and allyl syringol were obtained by dissolution of eucalyptus. Furthermore, it was observed that different lignin-derived products could be generated by tuning the process conditions. Conclusions We have developed an ionic liquid based process that depolymerizes lignin and converts the low molecular weight lignin fractions into a variety of renewable chemicals from biomass. The generated chemicals (phenols, guaiacols, syringols, eugenol, catechols, their oxidized products (vanillin, vanillic acid, syringaldehyde and their easily derivatized hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, xylene, styrene, biphenyls and cyclohexane already have relatively high market value as commodity and specialty chemicals, green building materials, nylons, and resins.

  10. Compatible ionic liquid-cellulases system for hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Radosevich, Mark; Hayes, Douglas; Labbé, Nicole

    2011-05-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) have been increasingly recognized as novel solvents for dissolution and pretreatment of cellulose. However, cellulases are inactivated in the presence of ILs, even when present at low concentrations. To more fully exploit the benefits of ILs it is critical to develop a compatible IL-cellulases system in which the IL is able to effectively solubilize and activate the lignocellulosic biomass, and the cellulases possess high stability and activity. In this study, we investigated the stability and activity of a commercially available cellulases mixture in the presence of different concentrations of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([Emim][OAc]). A mixture of cellulases and β-glucosidase (Celluclast1.5L, from Trichoderma reesei, and Novozyme188, from Aspergillus niger, respectively) retained 77% and 65% of its original activity after being pre-incubated in 15% and 20% (w/v) IL solutions, respectively, at 50°C for 3 h. The cellulases mixture also retained high activity in 15% [Emim][OAc] to hydrolyze Avicel, a model substrate for cellulose analysis, with conversion efficiency of approximately 91%. Notably, the presence of different amounts of yellow poplar lignin did not interfere significantly with the enzymatic hydrolysis of Avicel. Using this IL-cellulase system (15% [Emim][OAc]), the saccharification of yellow poplar biomass was also significantly improved (33%) compared to the untreated control (3%) during the first hour of enzymatic hydrolysis. Together, these findings provide compelling evidence that [Emim][OAc] was compatible with the cellulase mixture, and this compatible IL-cellulases system is promising for efficient activation and hydrolysis of native biomass to produce biofuels and co-products from the individual biomass components. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Conversion of raw lignocellulosic biomass into branched long-chain alkanes through three tandem steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunrui; Ding, Daqian; Xia, Qineng; Liu, Xiaohui; Wang, Yanqin

    2016-07-07

    Synthesis of branched long-chain alkanes from renewable biomass has attracted intensive interest in recent years, but the feedstock for this synthesis is restricted to platform chemicals. Here, we develop an effective and energy-efficient process to convert raw lignocellulosic biomass (e.g., corncob) into branched diesel-range alkanes through three tandem steps for the first time. Furfural and isopropyl levulinate (LA ester) were prepared from hemicellulose and cellulose fractions of corncob in toluene/water biphasic system with added isopropanol, which was followed by double aldol condensation of furfural with LA ester into C15 oxygenates and the final hydrodeoxygenation of C15 oxygenates into branched long-chain alkanes. The core point of this tandem process is the addition of isopropanol in the first step, which enables the spontaneous transfer of levulinic acid (LA) into the toluene phase in the form of LA ester through esterification, resulting in LA ester co-existing with furfural in the same phase, which is the basis for double aldol condensation in the toluene phase. Moreover, the acidic aqueous phase and toluene can be reused and the residues, including lignin and humins in aqueous phase, can be separated and carbonized to porous carbon materials. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Influence of the crystalline structure of cellulose on the production of ethanol from lignocellulose biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smuga-Kogut, Małgorzata; Zgórska, Kazimiera; Szymanowska-Powałowska, Daria

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, much attention has been devoted to the possibility of using lignocellulosic biomass for energy. Bioethanol is a promising substitute for conventional fossil fuels and can be produced from straw and wood biomass. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to investigate the effect of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium pretreatment on the structure of cellulose and the acquisition of reducing sugars and bioethanol from cellulosic materials. Material used in the study was rye straw and microcrystalline cellulose subjected to ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium pretreatment. The morphology of cellulose fibres in rye straw and microcrystalline cellulose was imaged prior to and after ionic liquid pretreatment. Solutions of ionic liquid-treated and untreated cellulosic materials were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis in order to obtain reducing sugars, which constituted a substrate for alcoholic fermentation. An influence of the ionic liquid on the cellulose structure, accumulation of reducing sugars in the process of hydrolysis of this material, and an increase in ethanol amount after fermentation was observed. The ionic liquid did not affect cellulolytic enzymes negatively and did not inhibit yeast activity. The amount of reducing sugars and ethyl alcohol was higher in samples purified with 1-ethyl-3-methy-limidazolium acetate. A change in the supramolecular structure of cellulose induced by the ionic liquid was also observed.

  13. Post-genomic analyses of fungal lignocellulosic biomass degradation reveal the unexpected potential of the plant pathogen Ustilago maydis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Couturier Marie

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Filamentous fungi are potent biomass degraders due to their ability to thrive in ligno(hemicellulose-rich environments. During the last decade, fungal genome sequencing initiatives have yielded abundant information on the genes that are putatively involved in lignocellulose degradation. At present, additional experimental studies are essential to provide insights into the fungal secreted enzymatic pools involved in lignocellulose degradation. Results In this study, we performed a wide analysis of 20 filamentous fungi for which genomic data are available to investigate their biomass-hydrolysis potential. A comparison of fungal genomes and secretomes using enzyme activity profiling revealed discrepancies in carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes sets dedicated to plant cell wall. Investigation of the contribution made by each secretome to the saccharification of wheat straw demonstrated that most of them individually supplemented the industrial Trichoderma reesei CL847 enzymatic cocktail. Unexpectedly, the most striking effect was obtained with the phytopathogen Ustilago maydis that improved the release of total sugars by 57% and of glucose by 22%. Proteomic analyses of the best-performing secretomes indicated a specific enzymatic mechanism of U. maydis that is likely to involve oxido-reductases and hemicellulases. Conclusion This study provides insight into the lignocellulose-degradation mechanisms by filamentous fungi and allows for the identification of a number of enzymes that are potentially useful to further improve the industrial lignocellulose bioconversion process.

  14. Process systems engineering studies for catalytic production of bio-based platform molecules from lignocellulosic biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jeehoon

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A process-systems engineering study for production of bio-based platform molecules to is presented. • Experimentally verified catalysis studies for biomass conversion are investigated. • New separations for effective recovery of bio-based platform molecules are developed. • Separations are integrated with catalytic biomass conversions. • Proposed process can compete economically with the current production approaches. - Abstract: This work presents a process-system engineering study of an integrated catalytic conversion strategy to produce bio-based platform molecules (levulinic acid (LA), furfural (FF), and propyl guaiacol (PG)) from hemicellulose (C_5), cellulose (C_6), and lignin fractions of lignocellulosic biomass. A commercial-scale process based on the strategy produces high numerical carbon yields (overall yields: 35.2%; C_6-to-LA: 20.4%, C_5-to-FF: 69.2%, and Lignin-to-PG: 13.3%) from a dilute concentration of solute (1.3–30.0 wt.% solids), but a high recovery of these molecules requires an efficient separation system with low energy requirement. A heat exchanger network significantly reduced the total energy requirements of the process. An economic analysis showed that the minimum selling price of LA as the highest value-added product (42.3 × 10"3 t of LA/y using 700 × 10"3 dry t/y of corn stover) is US$1707/t despite using negative economic parameters, and that this system can be cost-competitive with current production approaches.

  15. Comparative lipid production by oleaginous yeasts in hydrolyzates of lignocellulosic biomass and process strategy for high titers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slininger, Patricia J; Dien, Bruce S; Kurtzman, Cletus P; Moser, Bryan R; Bakota, Erica L; Thompson, Stephanie R; O'Bryan, Patricia J; Cotta, Michael A; Balan, Venkatesh; Jin, Mingjie; Sousa, Leonardo da Costa; Dale, Bruce E

    2016-08-01

    Oleaginous yeasts can convert sugars to lipids with fatty acid profiles similar to those of vegetable oils, making them attractive for production of biodiesel. Lignocellulosic biomass is an attractive source of sugars for yeast lipid production because it is abundant, potentially low cost, and renewable. However, lignocellulosic hydrolyzates are laden with byproducts which inhibit microbial growth and metabolism. With the goal of identifying oleaginous yeast strains able to convert plant biomass to lipids, we screened 32 strains from the ARS Culture Collection, Peoria, IL to identify four robust strains able to produce high lipid concentrations from both acid and base-pretreated biomass. The screening was arranged in two tiers using undetoxified enzyme hydrolyzates of ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX)-pretreated cornstover as the primary screening medium and acid-pretreated switch grass as the secondary screening medium applied to strains passing the primary screen. Hydrolyzates were prepared at ∼18-20% solids loading to provide ∼110 g/L sugars at ∼56:39:5 mass ratio glucose:xylose:arabinose. A two stage process boosting the molar C:N ratio from 60 to well above 400 in undetoxified switchgrass hydrolyzate was optimized with respect to nitrogen source, C:N, and carbon loading. Using this process three strains were able to consume acetic acid and nearly all available sugars to accumulate 50-65% of cell biomass as lipid (w/w), to produce 25-30 g/L lipid at 0.12-0.22 g/L/h and 0.13-0.15 g/g or 39-45% of the theoretical yield at pH 6 and 7, a performance unprecedented in lignocellulosic hydrolyzates. Three of the top strains have not previously been reported for the bioconversion of lignocellulose to lipids. The successful identification and development of top-performing lipid-producing yeast in lignocellulose hydrolyzates is expected to advance the economic feasibility of high quality biodiesel and jet fuels from renewable biomass, expanding the market

  16. Integrated dynamic model of the alkaline delignification process of Lignocellulosic biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuertez, John; Ruiz, Angela; Alvarez, Hernan; Molina, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    Although in the public literature there are several studies that describe models of alkaline delignification, they were originally developed for the paper industry, and do not include the effects of important operating variables such as temperature, hydroxide-ion concentration, solid to liquid weight ratio, particle size, biomass composition (hemi cellulose, lignin fraction) and mixing. This lack of detailed models of the pretreatment stages prompted the current study that describes a model which includes the variables listed above and provides an important tool for predicting the degree of lignin removal in lignocellulosic materials such as sugar cane bagasse (Saccharum officinarum L). The model considers kinetic expressions available in the literature. The kinetic parameters were determined by fitting the model to experimental data obtained for that purpose in our lab. The experimental matrix considered eighteen, 24-h isothermal experiments in which bulk and residual delignification stages were observed to occur in a parallel manner. Carbohydrate removal and hydroxide consumption were related to lignin removal by effective stoichiometric coefficients that were calculated by fitting the experimental data. A mixing compartment network model that represented mixing inside the reactor was included into a temporal superstructure based on the similarity between plug flow reactors and ideal batch reactors to model a non-ideally mixed batch reactor. The kinetic model was validated with data obtained in this study.

  17. Powerful peracetic acid-ionic liquid pretreatment process for the efficient chemical hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uju; Goto, Masahiro; Kamiya, Noriho

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this work was to design a new method for the efficient saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass (LB) using a combination of peracetic acid (PAA) pretreatment with ionic liquid (IL)-HCl hydrolysis. The pretreatment of LBs with PAA disrupted the lignin fractions, enhanced the dissolution of LB and led to a significant increase in the initial rate of the IL-HCl hydrolysis. The pretreatment of Bagasse with PAA prior to its 1-buthyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Bmim][Cl])-HCl hydrolysis, led to an improvement in the cellulose conversion from 20% to 70% in 1.5h. Interestingly, the 1-buthyl-3-methylpyridium chloride ([Bmpy][Cl])-HCl hydrolysis of Bagasse gave a cellulose conversion greater than 80%, with or without the PAA pretreatment. For LB derived from seaweed waste, the cellulose conversion reached 98% in 1h. The strong hydrolysis power of [Bmpy][Cl] was attributed to its ability to transform cellulose I to II, and lowering the degree of polymerization of cellulose. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Improved pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass using enzymatically-generated peracetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, DeLu Tyler; Jing, Qing; AlDajani, Waleed Wafa; Duncan, Shona; Tschirner, Ulrike; Schilling, Jonathan; Kazlauskas, Romas J

    2011-04-01

    Release of sugars from lignocellulosic biomass is inefficient because lignin, an aromatic polymer, blocks access of enzymes to the sugar polymers. Pretreatments remove lignin and disrupt its structure, thereby enhancing sugar release. In previous work, enzymatically generated peracetic acid was used to pretreat aspen wood. This pretreatment removed 45% of the lignin and the subsequent saccharification released 97% of the sugars remaining after pretreatment. In this paper, the amount of enzyme needed is reduced tenfold using first, an improved enzyme variant that makes twice as much peracetic acid and second, a two-phase reaction to generate the peracetic acid, which allows enzyme reuse. In addition, the eight pretreatment cycles are reduced to only one by increasing the volume of peracetic acid solution and increasing the temperature to 60 °C and the reaction time to 6h. For the pretreatment step, the weight ratio of peracetic acid to wood determines the amount of lignin removed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. An Integrated Process of Ionic Liquid Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Lignocellulosic Biomass with Immobilised Cellulase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Ungurean

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available An integrated process of lignocellulosic biomass conversion was set up involving pretreatment by an ionic liquid (IL and hydrolysis of cellulose using cellulase immobilised by the sol-gel method, with recovery and reuse of both the IL and biocatalyst. As all investigated ILs, regardless of the nature of the anion and the cation, led to the loss of at least 50% of the hydrolytic activity of cellulase, the preferred solution involved reprecipitation of cellulose and lignin after the pretreatment, instead of performing the enzymatic hydrolysis in the same reaction system. The cellulose recovered after pretreatment with 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([Emim][Ac] and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO (1:1 ratio, v/v was hydrolysed with almost double yield after 8 h of reaction time with the immobilised cellulase, compared to the reference microcrystalline cellulose. The dissolution capacity of the pretreatment mixture was maintained at satisfactory level during five reuse cycles. The immobilised cellulase was recycled in nine reaction cycles, preserving about 30% of the initial activity.

  20. Continuous Ethanol Fermentation of Pretreated Lignocellulosic Biomasses, Waste Biomasses, Molasses and Syrup Using the Anaerobic, Thermophilic Bacterium Thermoanaerobacter italicus Pentocrobe 411

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Rasmus Lund; Jensen, Karen Møller; Mikkelsen, Marie Just

    2015-01-01

    Lignocellosic ethanol production is now at a stage where commercial or semi-commercial plants are coming online and, provided cost effective production can be achieved, lignocellulosic ethanol will become an important part of the world bio economy. However, challenges are still to be overcome throughout the process and particularly for the fermentation of the complex sugar mixtures resulting from the hydrolysis of hemicellulose. Here we describe the continuous fermentation of glucose, xylose and arabinose from non-detoxified pretreated wheat straw, birch, corn cob, sugar cane bagasse, cardboard, mixed bio waste, oil palm empty fruit bunch and frond, sugar cane syrup and sugar cane molasses using the anaerobic, thermophilic bacterium Thermoanaerobacter Pentocrobe 411. All fermentations resulted in close to maximum theoretical ethanol yields of 0.47–0.49 g/g (based on glucose, xylose, and arabinose), volumetric ethanol productivities of 1.2–2.7 g/L/h and a total sugar conversion of 90–99% including glucose, xylose and arabinose. The results solidify the potential of Thermoanaerobacter strains as candidates for lignocellulose bioconversion. PMID:26295944

  1. Quantification of crystalline cellulose in lignocellulosic biomass using sum frequency generation (SFG) vibration spectroscopy and comparison with other analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnette, Anna L; Lee, Christopher; Bradley, Laura C; Schreiner, Edward P; Park, Yong Bum; Shin, Heenae; Cosgrove, Daniel J; Park, Sunkyu; Kim, Seong H

    2012-07-01

    The non-centrosymmetry requirement of sum frequency generation (SFG) vibration spectroscopy allows the detection and quantification of crystalline cellulose in lignocellulose biomass without spectral interferences from hemicelluloses and lignin. This paper shows a correlation between the amount of crystalline cellulose in biomass and the SFG signal intensity. Model biomass samples were prepared by mixing commercially available cellulose, xylan, and lignin to defined concentrations. The SFG signal intensity was found sensitive to a wide range of crystallinity, but varied non-linearly with the mass fraction of cellulose in the samples. This might be due to the matrix effects such as light scattering and absorption by xylan and lignin, as well as the non-linear density dependence of the SFG process itself. Comparison with other techniques such as XRD, FT-Raman, FT-IR and NMR demonstrate that SFG can be a complementary and sensitive tool to assess crystalline cellulose in biomass. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Consequences of poly(vinyl chloride) presence on the thermochemical process of lignocellulosic biomass in CO₂ by thermogravimetric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yao; Ma, Xiaoqian; Zeng, Guangbo

    2015-02-01

    The thermochemical processes of lignocellulosic biomass and its mixtures with poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) fractions were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis in CO2 atmosphere. Superposition property was assumed to examine whether and/or to what extent interactions occurred during the mixture decomposition. Results showed that interactions existed, of which the intensities changed with reaction stage, heating rate and PVC quantity, and they actively behaved toward the decomposition in most cases. With PVC presence, lignocellulosic biomass turned from three-stage to four-stage decomposition process where the reactions occurred at lower temperatures with heightened intensity, especially in the first stage. The measured activation energies calculated by Ozawa-Flynn-Wall and Vyazovkin methods were of minor difference <5 kJ/mol, and comparing them between materials in each stage confirmed the results of interaction impact. This work provides a theoretical basis bringing about the possibilities of recycling CO2 into a reaction medium of thermo-treatment of lignocellulosic material with PVC contaminants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Expression of Trichoderma reesei β-mannanase in tobacco chloroplasts and its utilization in lignocellulosic woody biomass hydrolysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Agrawal

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic ethanol offers a promising alternative to conventional fossil fuels. One among the major limitations in the lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysis is unavailability of efficient and environmentally biomass degrading technologies. Plant-based production of these enzymes on large scale offers a cost-effective solution. Cellulases, hemicellulases including mannanases and other accessory enzymes are required for conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into fermentable sugars. β-mannanase catalyzes endo-hydrolysis of the mannan backbone, a major constituent of woody biomass. In this study, the man1 gene encoding β-mannanase was isolated from Trichoderma reesei and expressed via the chloroplast genome. PCR and Southern hybridization analysis confirmed site-specific transgene integration into the tobacco chloroplast genomes and homoplasmy. Transplastomic plants were fertile and set viable seeds. Germination of seeds in the selection medium showed inheritance of transgenes into the progeny without any Mendelian segregation. Expression of endo-β-mannanase for the first time in plants facilitated its characterization for use in enhanced lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysis. Gel diffusion assay for endo-β-mannanase showed the zone of clearance confirming functionality of chloroplast-derived mannanase. Endo-β-mannanase expression levels reached up to 25 units per gram of leaf (fresh weight. Chloroplast-derived mannanase had higher temperature stability (40 °C to 70 °C and wider pH optima (pH 3.0 to 7.0 than E.coli enzyme extracts. Plant crude extracts showed 6-7 fold higher enzyme activity than E.coli extracts due to the formation of disulfide bonds in chloroplasts, thereby facilitating their direct utilization in enzyme cocktails without any purification. Chloroplast-derived mannanase when added to the enzyme cocktail containing a combination of different plant-derived enzymes yielded 20% more glucose equivalents from pinewood than the

  4. IMPROVING SPECIFIC POWER CONSUMPTION FOR MECHANICAL MIXING OF THE FEEDSTOCK IN A BIOGAS FERMENTER BY MECHANICAL DISINTEGRATION OF LIGNOCELLULOSE BIOMASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Kratky

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic biomass particles in biogas fermenter batch either sediment towards vessel bottom or rise towards batch surface, where they float and form a compact thick scum. These processes have primarily the negative influence on batch homogeneity, on evenness of batch temperature field, on removal of produced biogas bubbles out of liquid batch and also on mass transfer among microorganisms. These facts result in non-effective usage of biomass energy-potential that entails in low biogas yields. Therefore, good mixing of bioreactor batch is very important in order to stabilize anaerobic digestion process. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the impact of wheat straw disintegration and its hydration on hydrodynamic behaviour and on specific power consumption for mechanical mixing of wheat straw-water suspension. Based on experimental results, it was concluded that both hydration and mechanical disintegration of lignocellulosic biomass significantly improve homogeneity and pump-ability of biomass-water batches. Wheat straw hydration itself decreases specific power consumption for batch mixing by 60 % towards untreated straw. Moreover, mechanical disintegration itself decreases specific power consumption by 50 % at least towards untreated hydrated straw.

  5. Ethanol and High-Value Terpene Co-Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass of Cymbopogon flexuosus and Cymbopogon martinii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake L Joyce

    Full Text Available Cymbopogon flexuosus, lemongrass, and C. martinii, palmarosa, are perennial grasses grown to produce essential oils for the fragrance industry. The objectives of this study were (1 to evaluate biomass and oil yields as a function of nitrogen and sulfur fertilization, and (2 to characterize their utility for lignocellulosic ethanol compared to Panicum virgatum (switchgrass. Mean biomass yields were 12.83 Mg lemongrass ha-1 and 15.11 Mg palmarosa ha-1 during the second harvest year resulting in theoretical biofuel yields of 2541 and 2569 L ethanol ha-1 respectively compared to reported 1749-3691 L ethanol ha-1 for switchgrass. Pretreated lemongrass yielded 198 mL ethanol (g biomass-1 and pretreated palmarosa yielded 170 mL ethanol (g biomass-1. Additionally, lemongrass yielded 85.7 kg essential oil ha-1 and palmarosa yielded 67.0 kg ha-1 with an estimated value of USD $857 and $1005 ha-1. These data suggest that dual-use crops such as lemongrass and palmarosa may increase the economic viability of lignocellulosic biofuels.

  6. Ethanol and High-Value Terpene Co-Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass of Cymbopogon flexuosus and Cymbopogon martinii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Blake L; Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Sykes, Robert; Cantrell, Charles L; Hamilton, Choo; Mann, David G J; Rodriguez, Miguel; Mielenz, Jonathan R; Astatkie, Tess; Stewart, C Neal

    2015-01-01

    Cymbopogon flexuosus, lemongrass, and C. martinii, palmarosa, are perennial grasses grown to produce essential oils for the fragrance industry. The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate biomass and oil yields as a function of nitrogen and sulfur fertilization, and (2) to characterize their utility for lignocellulosic ethanol compared to Panicum virgatum (switchgrass). Mean biomass yields were 12.83 Mg lemongrass ha-1 and 15.11 Mg palmarosa ha-1 during the second harvest year resulting in theoretical biofuel yields of 2541 and 2569 L ethanol ha-1 respectively compared to reported 1749-3691 L ethanol ha-1 for switchgrass. Pretreated lemongrass yielded 198 mL ethanol (g biomass)-1 and pretreated palmarosa yielded 170 mL ethanol (g biomass)-1. Additionally, lemongrass yielded 85.7 kg essential oil ha-1 and palmarosa yielded 67.0 kg ha-1 with an estimated value of USD $857 and $1005 ha-1. These data suggest that dual-use crops such as lemongrass and palmarosa may increase the economic viability of lignocellulosic biofuels.

  7. Comparative study on pyrolysis of lignocellulosic and algal biomass using a thermogravimetric and a fixed-bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ting; Tahmasebi, Arash; Yu, Jianglong

    2015-01-01

    Pyrolysis characteristics of four algal and lignocellulosic biomass samples were studied by using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and a fixed-bed reactor. The effects of pyrolysis temperature and biomass type on the yield and composition of pyrolysis products were investigated. The average activation energy for pyrolysis of biomass samples by FWO and KAS methods in this study were in the range of 211.09-291.19kJ/mol. CO2 was the main gas component in the early stage of pyrolysis, whereas H2 and CH4 concentrations increased with increasing pyrolysis temperature. Bio-oil from Chlorellavulgaris showed higher content of nitrogen containing compounds compared to lignocellulosic biomass. The concentration of aromatic organic compounds such as phenol and its derivatives were increased with increasing pyrolysis temperature up to 700°C. FTIR analysis results showed that with increasing pyrolysis temperature, the concentration of OH, CH, CO, OCH3, and CO functional groups in char decreased sharply. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The use of thermostable bacterial hemicellulases improves the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to valuable molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakotoarivonina, Harivony; Revol, Pierre-Vincent; Aubry, Nathalie; Rémond, Caroline

    2016-09-01

    The hydrolysis of xylans, one of the main classes of carbohydrates that constitute lignocellulosic biomass, requires the synergistic action of several enzymes. The development of efficient enzymatic strategies for hydrolysis remains a challenge in the pursuit of viable biorefineries, particularly with respect to the valorisation of pentoses. The approach developed in this work is based on obtaining and characterising hemicellulasic cocktails from Thermobacillus xylanilyticus after culturing this bacterium on the hemicellulose-rich substrates wheat bran and wheat straw, which differ in their chemistries. The two obtained cocktails (WSC and WBC, for cocktails obtained from wheat straw and wheat bran, respectively) were resistant to a broad range of temperature and pH conditions. At 60 °C, both cocktails efficiently liberated pentoses and phenolic acids from wheat bran (liberating more than 60, 30 and 40 % of the total xylose, arabinose and ferulic acid in wheat bran, respectively). They acted to a lesser extent on the more recalcitrant wheat straw, with hydrolytic yields of more than 30 % of the total arabinose and xylose content and 22 % of the ferulic acid content. Hydrolysis is associated with a high rate of sugar monomerisation. When associated with cellulases, high quantities of glucose were also obtained. On wheat bran, total glucose yields were improved by 70 % compared to the action of cellulases alone. This improvement was obtained by cellulase complementation either with WSC or with WBC. On wheat straw, similar levels of total glucose were obtained for cellulases alone or complemented with WSC or WBC. Interestingly, the complementation of cellulases with WSC or WBC induced an increase in the monomeric glucose yield of more than 20 % compared to cellulases alone.

  9. Development of a system for characterizing biomass quality of lignocellulosic feedstocks for biochemical conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Patrick Thomas

    The purpose of this research was twofold: (i) to develop a system for screening lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks for biochemical conversion to biofuels and (ii) to evaluate brown midrib corn stover as feedstock for ethanol production. In the first study (Chapter 2), we investigated the potential of corn stover from bm1-4 hybrids for increased ethanol production and reduced pretreatment intensity compared to corn stover from the isogenic normal hybrid. Corn stover from hybrid W64A X A619 and respective isogenic bm hybrids was pretreated by aqueous ammonia steeping using ammonium hydroxide concentrations from 0 to 30%, by weight, and the resulting residues underwent simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSCF) to ethanol. Dry matter (DM) digested by SSCF increased with increasing ammonium hydroxide concentration across all genotypes (P>0.0001) from 277 g kg-1 DM in the control to 439 g kg-1 DM in the 30% ammonium hydroxide pretreatment. The bm corn stover materials averaged 373 g kg-1 DM of DM digested by SSCF compared with 335 g kg-1 DM for the normal corn stover (Pdetergent fiber (NDF) as a cell-wall isolation procedure, and (iii) elimination of the fermentation organism in the SSCF procedures used to determine biochemically available carbohydrates. The original and the HTP assay methods were compared using corn cobs, hybrid poplar, kenaf, and switchgrass. Biochemically available carbohydrates increased with the HTP methods in the corn cobs, hybrid poplar, and switchgrass, but remained the same in the kenaf. Total available carbohydrates increased and unavailable carbohydrates decreased with the HTP methods in the corn cobs and switchgrass and remained the same in the hybrid poplar and kenaf. There were no differences in total carbohydrates (CT) between the two methods. The final study evaluated the variability of biomass quality parameters in a set of corn stover samples, and developed calibration equations for determining parameter values using near

  10. Exploring critical factors for fermentative hydrogen production from various types of lignocellulosic biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panagiotopoulos, I.; Bakker, R.; Vrije, de G.J.; Niel, van E.W.J.; Koukios, E.; Claassen, P.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Four dilute-acid pretreated and hydrolysed lignocellulosic raw materials were evaluated as substrates for fermentative hydrogen production by Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus. Their fermentability was ranked in the order: barley straw > wheat straw > corn stalk > corn cob. The content

  11. BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION BY MISCANTHUS AS A LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS: FOCUS ON HIGH EFFICIENCY CONVERSION TO GLUCOSE AND ETHANOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minhee Han Mail

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Current ethanol production processes using crops such as corn and sugar cane have been well established. However, the utilization of cheaper lignocellulosic biomass could make bioethanol more competitive with fossil fuels while avoiding the ethical concerns associated with using potential food resources. In this study, Miscanthus, a lignocellulosic biomass, was pretreated using NaOH to produce bioethanol. The pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis conditions were evaluated by response surface methodology (RSM. The optimal conditions were found to be 145.29 °C, 28.97 min, and 1.49 M for temperature, reaction time, and NaOH concentration, respectively. Enzymatic digestibility of pretreated Miscanthus was examined at various enzyme loadings (10 to 70 FPU/g cellulose of cellulase and 30 CbU/g of β-glucosidase. Regarding enzymatic digestibility, 50 FPU/g cellulose of cellulase and 30 CbU/g of β-glucosidase were selected as the test concentrations, resulting in a total glucose conversion rate of 83.92%. Fermentation of hydrolyzed Miscanthus using Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in an ethanol concentration of 59.20 g/L at 20% pretreated biomass loading. The results presented here constitute a significant contribution to the production of bioethanol from Miscanthus.

  12. Unravelling the Interactions between Hydrolytic and Oxidative Enzymes in Degradation of Lignocellulosic Biomass by Sporothrix carnis under Various Fermentation Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusola A. Ogunyewo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism underlying the action of lignocellulolytic enzymes in biodegradation of lignocellulosic biomass remains unclear; hence, it is crucial to investigate enzymatic interactions involved in the process. In this study, degradation of corn cob by Sporothrix carnis and involvement of lignocellulolytic enzymes in biodegradation were investigated over 240 h cultivation period. About 60% degradation of corn cob was achieved by S. carnis at the end of fermentation. The yields of hydrolytic enzymes, cellulase and xylanase, were higher than oxidative enzymes, laccase and peroxidase, over 144 h fermentation period. Maximum yields of cellulase (854.4 U/mg and xylanase (789.6 U/mg were at 96 and 144 h, respectively. Laccase and peroxidase were produced cooperatively with maximum yields of 489.06 U/mg and 585.39 U/mg at 144 h. Drastic decline in production of cellulase at 144 h (242.01 U/mg and xylanase at 192 h (192.2 U/mg indicates that they play initial roles in biodegradation of lignocellulosic biomass while laccase and peroxidase play later roles. Optimal degradation of corn cob (76.6% and production of hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes were achieved with 2.5% inoculum at pH 6.0. Results suggest synergy in interactions between the hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes which can be optimized for improved biodegradation.

  13. Microbial surface displayed enzymes based biofuel cell utilizing degradation products of lignocellulosic biomass for direct electrical energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shuqin; Hou, Chuantao; Liang, Bo; Feng, Ruirui; Liu, Aihua

    2015-09-01

    In this work, a bacterial surface displaying enzyme based two-compartment biofuel cell for the direct electrical energy conversion from degradation products of lignocellulosic biomass is reported. Considering that the main degradation products of the lignocellulose are glucose and xylose, xylose dehydrogenase (XDH) displayed bacteria (XDH-bacteria) and glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) displayed bacteria (GDH-bacteria) were used as anode catalysts in anode chamber with methylene blue as electron transfer mediator. While the cathode chamber was constructed with laccase/multi-walled-carbon nanotube/glassy-carbon-electrode. XDH-bacteria exhibited 1.75 times higher catalytic efficiency than GDH-bacteria. This assembled enzymatic fuel cell exhibited a high open-circuit potential of 0.80 V, acceptable stability and energy conversion efficiency. Moreover, the maximum power density of the cell could reach 53 μW cm(-2) when fueled with degradation products of corn stalk. Thus, this finding holds great potential to directly convert degradation products of biomass into electrical energy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. High quality bio-oil from catalytic flash pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass over alumina-supported sodium carbonate

    KAUST Repository

    Imran, Ali

    2014-11-01

    Performance of a novel alumina-supported sodium carbonate catalyst was studied to produce a valuable bio-oil from catalytic flash pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass. Post treatment of biomass pyrolysis vapor was investigated in a catalyst fixed bed reactor at the downstream of the pyrolysis reactor. In-situ catalytic upgrading of biomass pyrolysis vapor was conducted in an entrained flow pyrolysis reactor by feeding a premixed feedstock of the catalyst and biomass. Na2CO3/gamma-Al2O3 was very effective for de-oxygenation of the pyrolysis liquid and oxygen content of the bio-oil was decreased from 47.5 wt.% to 16.4 wt.%. An organic rich bio-oil was obtained with 5.8 wt.% water content and a higher heating value of 36.1 MJ/kg. Carboxylic acids were completely removed and the bio-oil had almost a neutral pH. This bio-oil of high calorific low, low water and oxygen content may be an attractive fuel precursor. In-situ catalytic upgrading of biomass pyrolysis vapor produced a very similar quality bio-oil compared to post treatment of pyrolysis vapors, and shows the possible application of Na2CO3/gamma-Al2O3 in a commercial type reactor system such as a fluidized bed reactor. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Multifaceted metabolomics approaches for characterization of lignocellulosic biomass degradation products formed during ammonia fiber expansion pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vismeh, Ramin

    Lignocellulosic biomass represents a rather unused resource for production of biofuels, and it offers an alternative to food sources including corn starch. However, structural and compositional impediments limit the digestibility of sugar polymers in biomass cell walls. Thermochemical pretreatments improve accessibility of cellulose and hemicellulose to hydrolytic enzymes. However, most pretreatment methods generate compounds that either inhibit enzymatic hydrolysis or exhibit toxicity to fermentive microorganisms. Characterization and quantification of these products are essential for understanding chemistry of the pretreatment and optimizing the process efficiency to achieve higher ethanol yields. Identification of oligosaccharides released during pretreatment is also critical for choosing hydrolases necessary for cost-effective hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose to fermentable monomeric sugars. Two chapters in this dissertation describe new mass spectrometry-based strategies for characterization and quantification of products that are formed during ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) pretreatment of corn stover. Comparison of Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (LC/MS) profiles of AFEX-treated corn stover (AFEXTCS) and untreated corn stover (UTCS) extract shows that ammonolysis of lignin carbohydrate ester linkages generates a suite of nitrogenous compounds that are present only in the AFEXTCS extract and represent a loss of ammonia during processing. Several of these products including acetamide, feruloyl, coumaroyl and diferuloyl amides were characterized and quantified in the AFEXTCS extracts. The total amount of characterized and uncharacterized phenolic amides measured 17.4 mg/g AFEXTCS. Maillard reaction products including pyrazines and imidazoles were also identified and measured in the AFEXTCS extract totaling almost 1 mg/g AFEXTCS. The total of quantified nitrogenous products that are formed during AFEX was 43.4 mg/g AFEXTCS which was equivalent

  16. Development of a lactic acid production process using lignocellulosic biomass as feedstock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, van der E.C.

    2016-01-01

    The availability of crude oil is finite. Therefore, an alternative feedstock has to be found for the production of fuels and plastics. Lignocellulose is such an alternative feedstock. It is present in large quantities in agricultural waste material such as sugarcane bagasse.

    In this PhD

  17. Techno-economic Analysis for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Gasoline via the Methanol-to-Gasoline (MTG) Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2009-05-01

    Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications. As a widely available biomass form, lignocellulosic biomass can have a major impact on domestic transportation fuel supplies and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). With gasification technology, biomass can be converted to gasoline via methanol synthesis and methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) technologies. Producing a gasoline product that is infrastructure ready has much potential. Although the MTG technology has been commercially demonstrated with natural gas conversion, combining MTG with biomass gasification has not been shown. Therefore, a techno-economic evaluation for a biomass MTG process based on currently available technology was developed to provide information about benefits and risks of this technology. The economic assumptions used in this report are consistent with previous U.S. Department of Energy Office of Biomass Programs techno-economic assessments. The feedstock is assumed to be wood chips at 2000 metric ton/day (dry basis). Two kinds of gasification technologies were evaluated: an indirectly-heated gasifier and a directly-heated oxygen-blown gasifier. The gasoline selling prices (2008 USD) excluding taxes were estimated to be $3.20/gallon and $3.68/gallon for indirectly-heated gasified and directly-heated. This suggests that a process based on existing technology is economic only when crude prices are above $100/bbl. However, improvements in syngas cleanup combined with consolidated gasoline synthesis can potentially reduce the capital cost. In addition, improved synthesis catalysts and reactor design may allow increased yield.

  18. Cellulase production using biomass feed stock and its application in lignocellulose saccharification for bio-ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukumaran, Rajeev K.; Singhania, Reeta Rani; Mathew, Gincy Marina; Pandey, Ashok [Biotechnology Division, National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, CSIR, Trivandrum-695 019 (India)

    2009-02-15

    A major constraint in the enzymatic saccharification of biomass for ethanol production is the cost of cellulase enzymes. Production cost of cellulases may be brought down by multifaceted approaches which include the use of cheap lignocellulosic substrates for fermentation production of the enzyme, and the use of cost efficient fermentation strategies like solid state fermentation (SSF). In the present study, cellulolytic enzymes for biomass hydrolysis were produced using solid state fermentation on wheat bran as substrate. Crude cellulase and a relatively glucose tolerant BGL were produced using fungi Trichoderma reesei RUT C30 and Aspergillus niger MTCC 7956, respectively. Saccharification of three different feed stock, i.e. sugar cane bagasse, rice straw and water hyacinth biomass was studied using the enzymes. Saccharification was performed with 50 FPU of cellulase and 10 U of {beta}-glucosidase per gram of pretreated biomass. Highest yield of reducing sugars (26.3 g/L) was obtained from rice straw followed by sugar cane bagasse (17.79 g/L). The enzymatic hydrolysate of rice straw was used as substrate for ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The yield of ethanol was 0.093 g per gram of pretreated rice straw. (author)

  19. Beneficial synergistic effect on bio-oil production from co-liquefaction of sewage sludge and lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Lijian; Li, Jun; Yuan, Xingzhong; Li, Jingjing; Han, Pei; Hong, Yuchun; Wei, Feng; Zhou, Wenguang

    2018-03-01

    Co-liquefaction of municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and lignocellulosic biomass such as rice straw or wood sawdust at different mixing ratios and the characterization of the obtained bio-oil and bio-char were investigated. Synergistic effects were found during co-processing of MSS with biomass for production of bio-oil with higher yield and better fuel properties than those from individual feedstock. The co-liquefaction of MSS/rice straw (4/4, wt) increased the bio-oil yield from 22.74% (bio-oil yield from liquefaction of MSS individually) or 23.67% (rice straw) to 32.45%. Comparable increase on bio-oil yield was also observed for MSS/wood sawdust mixtures (2/6, wt). The bio-oils produced from MSS/biomass mixtures were mainly composed of esters and phenols with lower boiling points (degradation temperatures) than those from individual feedstock (identified with higher heavy bio-oil fractions). These synergistic effects were probably resulted from the interactions between the intermittent products of MSS and those of biomass during processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Flocculating Zymomonas mobilis is a promising host to be engineered for fuel ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ning; Bai, Yun; Liu, Chen-Guang; Zhao, Xin-Qing; Xu, Jian-Feng; Bai, Feng-Wu

    2014-03-01

    Whereas Saccharomyces cerevisiae uses the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway to metabolize glucose, Zymomonas mobilis uses the Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway. Employing the ED pathway, 50% less ATP is produced, which could lead to less biomass being accumulated during fermentation and an improved yield of ethanol. Moreover, Z. mobilis cells, which have a high specific surface area, consume glucose faster than S. cerevisiae, which could improve ethanol productivity. We performed ethanol fermentations using these two species under comparable conditions to validate these speculations. Increases of 3.5 and 3.3% in ethanol yield, and 58.1 and 77.8% in ethanol productivity, were observed in ethanol fermentations using Z. mobilis ZM4 in media containing ∼100 and 200 g/L glucose, respectively. Furthermore, ethanol fermentation bythe flocculating Z. mobilis ZM401 was explored. Although no significant difference was observed in ethanol yield and productivity, the flocculation of the bacterial species enabled biomass recovery by cost-effective sedimentation, instead of centrifugation with intensive capital investment and energy consumption. In addition, tolerance to inhibitory byproducts released during biomass pretreatment, particularly acetic acid and vanillin, was improved. These experimental results indicate that Z. mobilis, particularly its flocculating strain, is superior to S. cerevisiae as a host to be engineered for fuel ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Characterization of hemicellulase and cellulase from the extremely thermophilic bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor owensensis and their potential application for bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass without pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiaowei; Qiao, Weibo; Mi, Shuofu; Jia, Xiaojing; Su, Hong; Han, Yejun

    2015-01-01

    Pretreatment is currently the common approach for improving the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis on lignocellulose. However, the pretreatment process is expensive and will produce inhibitors such as furan derivatives and phenol derivatives. If the lignocellulosic biomass can efficiently be saccharified by enzymolysis without pretreatment, the bioconversion process would be simplified. The genus Caldicellulosiruptor, an obligatory anaerobic and extreme thermophile can produce a diverse set of glycoside hydrolases (GHs) for deconstruction of lignocellulosic biomass. It gives potential opportunities for improving the efficiency of converting native lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars. Both of the extracellular (extra-) and intracellular (intra-) enzymes of C. owensensis cultivated on corncob xylan or xylose had cellulase (including endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase and β-glucosidase) and hemicellulase (including xylanase, xylosidase, arabinofuranosidase and acetyl xylan esterase) activities. The enzymes of C. owensensis had high ability for degrading hemicellulose of native corn stover and corncob with the conversion rates of xylan 16.7 % and araban 60.0 %. Moreover, they had remarkable synergetic function with the commercial enzyme cocktail Cellic CTec2 (Novoyzmes). When the native corn stover and corncob were respectively, sequentially hydrolyzed by the extra-enzymes of C. owensensis and CTec2, the glucan conversion rates were 31.2 and 37.9 %,which were 1.7- and 1.9-fold of each control (hydrolyzed by CTec2 alone), whereas the glucan conversion rates of the steam-exploded corn stover and corncob hydrolyzed by CTec2 alone on the same loading rate were 38.2 and 39.6 %, respectively. These results show that hydrolysis by the extra-enzyme of C. owensensis made almost the same contribution as steam-exploded pretreatment on degradation of native lignocellulosic biomass. A new process for saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass by sequential hydrolysis

  2. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbons: Dilute-Acid and Enzymatic Deconstruction of Biomass to Sugars and Catalytic Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tao, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scarlata, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tan, E. C. D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ross, J. [Harris Group Inc., New York, NY (United States); Lukas, J. [Harris Group Inc., New York, NY (United States); Sexton, D. [Harris Group Inc., New York, NY (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report describes one potential conversion process to hydrocarbon products by way of catalytic conversion of lignocellulosic-derived hydrolysate. This model leverages expertise established over time in biomass deconstruction and process integration research at NREL, while adding in new technology areas for sugar purification and catalysis. The overarching process design converts biomass to die die diesel- and naphtha-range fuels using dilute-acid pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, purifications, and catalytic conversion focused on deoxygenating and oligomerizing biomass hydrolysates.

  3. Renewable Resources and a Recycled Polymer as Raw Materials: Mats from Electrospinning of Lignocellulosic Biomass and PET Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Passos de Oliveira Santos

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Interest in the use of renewable raw materials in the preparation of materials has been growing uninterruptedly in recent decades. The aim of this strategy is to offer alternatives to the use of fossil fuel-based raw materials and to meet the demand for materials that are less detrimental to the environment after disposal. In this context, several studies have been carried out on the use of lignocellulosic biomass and its main components (cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin as raw materials for polymeric materials. Lignocellulosic fibers have a high content of cellulose, but there has been a notable lack of investigations on application of the electrospinning technique for solutions prepared from raw lignocellulosic biomass, even though the presence of cellulose favors the alignment of the fiber chains during electrospinning. In this investigation, ultrathin (submicrometric and nanoscale aligned fibers were successfully prepared via electrospinning (room temperature of solutions prepared with different contents of lignocellulosic sisal fibers combined with recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET using trifluoroacetic acid (TFA as solvent. The “macro” fibers were deconstructed by the action of TFA, resulting in solutions containing their constituents, i.e., cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin, in addition to PET. The “macro” sisal fibers were reconstructed at the nanometer and submicrometric scale from these solutions. The SEM micrographs of the mats containing the components of sisal showed distinct fiber networks, likely due to differences in the solubility of these components in TFA and in their dielectric constants. The mechanical properties of the mats (dynamic mechanical analysis, DMA, and tensile properties were evaluated with the samples positioned both in the direction (dir of and in opposition (op to the alignment of the nano and ultrathin fibers, which can be considered a novelty in the analysis of this type of material

  4. Lignocellulosic ethanol production from woody biomass: The impact of facility siting on competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephen, James D.; Mabee, Warren E.; Saddler, Jack N.

    2013-01-01

    Just as temperate region pulp and paper companies need to compete with Brazilian eucalyptus pulp producers, lignocellulosic biofuel producers in North America and Europe, in the absence of protectionist trade policies, will need to be competitive with tropical and sub-tropical biofuel producers. This work sought to determine the impact of lignocellulosic ethanol biorefinery siting on economic performance and minimum ethanol selling price (MESP) for both east and west coast North American fuel markets. Facility sites included the pine-dominated Pacific Northwest Interior, the mixed deciduous forest of Ontario and New York, and the Brazilian state of Espírito Santo. Feedstock scenarios included both plantation (poplar, willow, and eucalyptus, respectively) and managed forest harvest. Site specific variables in the techno-economic model included delivered feedstock cost, ethanol delivery cost, cost of capital, construction cost, labour cost, electricity revenues (and co-product credits), and taxes, insurance, and permits. Despite the long shipping distance from Brazil to North American east and west coast markets, the MESP for Brazilian-produced eucalyptus lignocellulosic ethanol, modelled at $0.74 L −1 , was notably lower than that of all North American-produced cases at $0.83–1.02 L −1 . - Highlights: • Lignocellulosic ethanol production costs vary notably by region. • Feedstock cost is the primary site-specific production cost variable. • Woody feedstocks in North America have a higher cost than those in Brazil. • Use of Brazilian eucalyptus resulted in the lowest MESP for considered feedstocks. • MESP ranged from −1 to >$1.00 L −1

  5. The Effects of Noncellulosic Compounds on the Nanoscale Interaction Forces Measured between Carbohydrate-Binding Module and Lignocellulosic Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Baran; Colpan, Mert; Ju, Xiaohui; Zhang, Xiao; Kostyukova, Alla; Abu-Lail, Nehal I

    2016-05-09

    The lack of fundamental understanding of the types of forces that govern how cellulose-degrading enzymes interact with cellulosic and noncellulosic components of lignocellulosic surfaces limits the design of new strategies for efficient conversion of biomass to bioethanol. In a step to improve our fundamental understanding of such interactions, nanoscale forces acting between a model cellulase-a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) of cellobiohydrolase I (CBH I)-and a set of lignocellulosic substrates with controlled composition were measured using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The three model substrates investigated were kraft (KP), sulfite (SP), and organosolv (OPP) pulped substrates. These substrates varied in their surface lignin coverage, lignin type, and xylan and acetone extractives' content. Our results indicated that the overall adhesion forces of biomass to CBM increased linearly with surface lignin coverage with kraft lignin showing the highest forces among lignin types investigated. When the overall adhesion forces were decoupled into specific and nonspecific component forces via the Poisson statistical model, hydrophobic and Lifshitz-van der Waals (LW) forces dominated the binding forces of CBM to kraft lignin, whereas permanent dipole-dipole interactions and electrostatic forces facilitated the interactions of lignosulfonates to CBM. Xylan and acetone extractives' content increased the attractive forces between CBM and lignin-free substrates, most likely through hydrogen bonding forces. When the substrates treated differently were compared, it was found that both the differences in specific and nonspecific forces between lignin-containing and lignin-free substrates were the least for OPP. Therefore, cellulase enzymes represented by CBM would weakly bind to organosolv lignin. This will facilitate an easy enzyme recovery compared to other substrates treated with kraft or sulfite pulping. Our results also suggest that altering the surface hydrophobicity

  6. Ethanol production from maize silage as lignocellulosic biomass in anaerobically digested and wet-oxidized manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr; Lisiecki, P.; Holm-Nielsen, J.B.

    2008-01-01

    was investigated using 2 1 bioreactors. Wet oxidation performed for 20 min at 121 degrees C was found as the most suitable pretreatment conditions for AD manure. High ammonia concentration and significant amount of macro- and micro-nutrients in the AD manure had a positive influence on the ethanol fermentation....... No extra nitrogen source was needed in the fermentation broth. It was shown that the AD manure could successfully substitute process water in SSF of pretreated lignocellulosic fibres. Theoretical ethanol yields of 82% were achieved, giving 30.8 kg ethanol per 100 kg dry mass of maize silage. (C) 2007...

  7. Detoxification of a lignocellulosic biomass slurry by soluble polyelectrolyte adsorption for improved fermentation efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Brian; Squillace, Phillip; Gilcrease, Patrick C; Menkhaus, Todd J

    2011-09-01

    This study investigated the detoxification of a dilute acid pretreated Ponderosa pine slurry using the polyelectrolyte polyethyleneimine (PEI). The addition of polyelectrolyte to remove enzymatic and/or fermentation inhibitory compounds, that is, acetic acid, furfural, and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), was performed either before or after enzymatic hydrolysis to determine the optimal process sequence. Negligible acetic acid, glucose, and xylose were removed regardless of where in the process the polymer addition was made. Maximum furfural and HMF separation was achieved with the addition of PEI to a clarified pre-enzymatic hydrolysis liquor, which showed that 88.3% of furfural and 66.4% of HMF could be removed. On the other hand, only 23.1% and 13.4% of furfural and HMF, respectively, were removed from a post-enzymatic hydrolysis sample; thus, the effects of enzymes, glucose, and wood solids on inhibitor removal were also investigated. The presence of solid particles >0.2 µm and unknown soluble components <10 kDa reduced inhibitory compound removal, but the presence of elevated glucose levels and enzymes (cellulases) did not affect the separation. The fermentability of detoxified versus undetoxified hydrolysate was also investigated. An ethanol yield of 92.6% of theoretical was achieved with Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermenting the detoxified hydrolyzate, while no significant ethanol was produced in the undetoxified hydrolyzate. These results indicate that PEI may provide a practical alternative for furan removal and detoxification of lignocellolosic hydrolysates, and that application before enzymatic hydrolysis minimizes separation interferences. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Isolation and characterization of Cupriavidus basilensis HMF14 for biological removal of inhibitors from lignocellulosic hydrolysatembt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierckx, N.; Koopman, F.; Bandounas, L.; Winde, J.H.de; Ruijssenaars, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    The formation of toxic fermentation inhibitors such as furfural and 5-hydroxy-2-methylfurfural (HMF) during acid (pre-)treatment of lignocellulose, calls for the efficient removal of these compounds. Lignocellulosic hydrolysates can be efficiently detoxified biologically with microorganisms that

  9. Electron beam irradiation enhances the digestibility and fermentation yield of water-soaked lignocellulosic biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Seop Bak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to overcome the limitation of commercial electron beam irradiation (EBI, lignocellulosic rice straw (RS was pretreated using water soaking-based electron beam irradiation (WEBI. This environment-friendly pretreatment, without the formation (or release of inhibitory compounds (especially hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural, significantly increased the enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation yields of RS. Specifically, when water-soaked RS (solid:liquid ratio of 100% was treated with WEBI doses of 1 MeV at 80 kGy, 0.12 mA, the glucose yield after 120 h of hydrolysis was 70.4% of the theoretical maximum. This value was predominantly higher than the 29.5% and 52.1% measured from untreated and EBI-treated RS, respectively. Furthermore, after simultaneous saccharification and fermentation for 48 h, the ethanol concentration, production yield, and productivity were 9.3 g/L, 57.0% of the theoretical maximum, and 0.19 g/L h, respectively. Finally, scanning electron microscopy images revealed that WEBI induced significant ultrastructural changes to the surface of lignocellulosic fibers.

  10. Continuous enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass with simultaneous detoxification and enzyme recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurram, Raghu N; Menkhaus, Todd J

    2014-07-01

    Recovering hydrolysis enzymes and/or alternative enzyme addition strategies are two potential mechanisms for reducing the cost during the biochemical conversion of lignocellulosic materials into renewable biofuels and biochemicals. Here, we show that enzymatic hydrolysis of acid-pretreated pine wood with continuous and/or fed-batch enzyme addition improved sugar conversion efficiencies by over sixfold. In addition, specific activity of the hydrolysis enzymes (cellulases, hemicellulases, etc.) increased as a result of continuously washing the residual solids with removal of glucose (avoiding the end product inhibition) and other enzymatic inhibitory compounds (e.g., furfural, hydroxymethyl furfural, organic acids, and phenolics). As part of the continuous hydrolysis, anion exchange resin was tested for its dual application of simultaneous enzyme recovery and removal of potential enzymatic and fermentation inhibitors. Amberlite IRA-96 showed favorable adsorption profiles of inhibitors, especially furfural, hydroxymethyl furfural, and acetic acid with low affinity toward sugars. Affinity of hydrolysis enzymes to adsorb onto the resin allowed for up to 92 % of the enzymatic activity to be recovered using a relatively low-molar NaCl wash solution. Integration of an ion exchange column with enzyme recovery into the proposed fed-batch hydrolysis process can improve the overall biorefinery efficiency and can greatly reduce the production costs of lignocellulosic biorenewable products.

  11. Accessory enzymes influence cellulase hydrolysis of the model substrate and the realistic lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fubao Fuebiol; Hong, Jiapeng; Hu, Jinguang; Saddler, Jack N; Fang, Xu; Zhang, Zhenyu; Shen, Song

    2015-11-01

    The potential of cellulase enzymes in the developing and ongoing "biorefinery" industry has provided a great motivation to develop an efficient cellulase mixture. Recent work has shown how important the role that the so-called accessory enzymes can play in an effective enzymatic hydrolysis. In this study, three newest Novozymes Cellic CTec cellulase preparations (CTec 1/2/3) were compared to hydrolyze steam pretreated lignocellulosic substrates and model substances at an identical FPA loading. These cellulase preparations were found to display significantly different hydrolytic performances irrelevant with the FPA. And this difference was even observed on the filter paper itself when the FPA based assay was revisited. The analysis of specific enzyme activity in cellulase preparations demonstrated that different accessory enzymes were mainly responsible for the discrepancy of enzymatic hydrolysis between diversified substrates and various cellulases. Such the active role of accessory enzymes present in cellulase preparations was finally verified by supplementation with β-glucosidase, xylanase and lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases AA9. This paper provides new insights into the role of accessory enzymes, which can further provide a useful reference for the rational customization of cellulase cocktails in order to realize an efficient conversion of natural lignocellulosic substrates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Techno-economic Analysis for the Thermochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol via Acetic Acid Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yunhua; Jones, Susanne B.

    2009-04-01

    Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications. As a widely available biomass form, lignocellulosic biomass can have a major impact on domestic transportation fuel supplies and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). This study performs a techno-economic analysis of the thermo chemical conversion of biomass to ethanol, through methanol and acetic acid, followed by hydrogenation of acetic acid to ethanol. The conversion of syngas to methanol and methanol to acetic acid are well-proven technologies with high conversions and yields. This study was undertaken to determine if this highly selective route to ethanol could provide an already established economically attractive route to ethanol. The feedstock was assumed to be wood chips at 2000 metric ton/day (dry basis). Two types of gasification technologies were evaluated: an indirectly-heated gasifier and a directly-heated oxygen-blown gasifier. Process models were developed and a cost analysis was performed. The carbon monoxide used for acetic acid synthesis from methanol and the hydrogen used for hydrogenation were assumed to be purchased and not derived from the gasifier. Analysis results show that ethanol selling prices are estimated to be $2.79/gallon and $2.81/gallon for the indirectly-heated gasifier and the directly-heated gasifier systems, respectively (1stQ 2008$, 10% ROI). These costs are above the ethanol market price for during the same time period ($1.50 - $2.50/gal). The co-production of acetic acid greatly improves the process economics as shown in the figure below. Here, 20% of the acetic acid is diverted from ethanol production and assumed to be sold as a co-product at the prevailing market prices ($0.40 - $0.60/lb acetic acid), resulting in competitive ethanol production costs.

  13. Discovering the desirable alleles contributing to the lignocellulosic biomass traits in Saccharum germplasm collections for energy cane improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jianping [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Sandhu, Hardev [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2017-03-23

    1) The success in crop improvement programs depends largely on the extent of genetic variability available. Germplasm collections assembles all the available genetic resources and are critical for long-term crop improvement. This world sugarcane germplasm collection contains enormous genetic variability for various morphological traits, biomass yield components, adaptation and many quality traits, prospectively imbeds a large number of valuable alleles for biofuel traits such as high biomass yield, quantity and quality of lignocelluloses, stress tolerance, and nutrient use efficiency. The germplasm collection is of little value unless it is characterized and utilized for crop improvement. In this project, we phenotypically and genotypically characterized the sugarcane world germplasm collection (The results were published in two papers already and another two papers are to be published). This data will be made available for public to refer to for germplasm unitization specifically in the sugarcane and energy cane breeding programs. In addition, we are identifying the alleles contributing to the biomass traits in sugarcane germplasm. This part of project is very challenging due to the large genome and highly polyploid level of this crop. We firstly established a high throughput sugarcane genotyping pipeline in the genome and bioinformatics era (a paper is published in 2016). We identified and modified a software for genome-wide association analysis of polyploid species. The results of the alleles associated to the biomass traits will be published soon, which will help the scientific community understand the genetic makeup of the biomass components of sugarcane. Molecular breeders can develop markers for marker assisted selection of biomass traits improvement. Further, the development and release of new energy cane cultivars through this project not only improved genetic diversity but also improved dry biomass yields and resistance to diseases. These new cultivars

  14. Bioethanol Production From Cellulose by Candida tropicalis, as An Alternative Microbial Agent to Produce Ethanol from Lignocellulosic Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermansyah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Candida tropicalis isolated from Tuak is a potentially useful microorganism for the ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass and it can be alterbative agent replacing Saccharomyces cerevisae for fermentation process. Although C.tropicalis could not convert all carbohydrates content of lignocellulosic into bioethanol, however it is able to grow on medium in the presence of either xylose or arabinose as carbon source. Our result showed that fermentation of 10 % (w/v cellulosic as sole carbon source produced 2.88% (v/v ethanol by C.tropicalis. This ethanol production was lower than usage of 10% (w/v dextrose as sole carbon source medium which producing 5.51% (v/v ethanol. Based upon our expreiment indicated that C.tropicalis is able to conduct two main process in converting of cellulosic material- to ethanol which is hydrolysis the degradation of cellulose into glucose, and fermentation the process the conversion glucose into bioethanol. Keywords : Candida tropicalis, bioethanol, fermentation, cellulosic Abstrak (Indonesian: Candida tropicalis yang diisiolasi dari Tuak adalah agen yang berpotensi dalam produksi etanol dari biomasa lignoselulosa dan dapat dijadikan agen alternatif menggantikan Saccharomyces cerevisiae pada proses fernentasi. Walaupun C.tropicalis tidak dapat mengkonversi semua kandungan karbohidrat lignoselulosamenjadi etanol, akan tetapi C.tropicalis mampu tumbuh pada media dengan xilosa atau arabinosa sebagaisumber karbon. Hasil kami menunjukkan bahwa dengan mengguankan C.tropicalis fermentasi 10% (w/v selulosa sebagai satu-satunya sumber karbon menghasilkan 2,88% (v/v etanol, Produksi etanol ini lebih rendah jika menggunakan 10% (w/v dekstrosa sebagai satu satunya sumber karbon yang menghasilkan 5,51% (v/v etanol. Berdasarkan percobaan menunjukkan bahwa C.tropicalis mampu melakukan dua proses utama dalam mengkonversi material selulosa menjadi etanol yaitu hidrolisis degradasi selulosa menjadi glukosa, dan

  15. Bioconversion potential of Trichoderma viride HN1 cellulase for a lignocellulosic biomass Saccharum spontaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqtedar, Mehwish; Nadeem, Mohammad; Naeem, Hira; Abdullah, Roheena; Naz, Shagufta; Qurat ul Ain Syed; Kaleem, Afshan

    2015-01-01

    The industrialisation of lignocellulose conversion is impeded by expensive cellulase enzymes required for saccharification in bioethanol production. Current research undertakes cellulase production from pretreated Saccharum spontaneum through Trichoderma viride HN1 under submerged fermentation conditions. Pretreatment of substrate with 2% NaOH resulted in 88% delignification. Maximum cellulase production (2603 ± 16.39 U/mL/min carboxymethyl cellulase and 1393 ± 25.55 U/mL/min FPase) was achieved at 6% substrate at pH 5.0, with 5% inoculum, incubated at 35°C for 120 h of fermentation period. Addition of surfactant, Tween 80 and metal ion Mn(+2), significantly enhanced cellulase yield. This study accounts proficient cellulase yield through process optimisation by exploiting cheaper substrate to escalate their commercial endeavour.

  16. Surface properties correlate to the digestibility of hydrothermally pretreated lignocellulosic Poaceae biomass feedstocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tristan Djajadi, Demi; Hansen, Aleksander R.; Jensen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    physical and chemical features of the biomass surfaces, specifically contact angle measurements (wettability) and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy (surfacebiopolymer composition) produced data correlating pretreatment severity and enzymatic digestibility......, and they also revealed differences that correlated to enzymatic glucose yield responses among the three different biomass types. Conclusion: The study revealed that to a large extent, factors related to physico-chemical surface properties, namely surface wettability as assessed by contact angle measurements...

  17. Characterization of lignocellulosic biomass thermal degradation and physiochemical structure: Effects of demineralization by diverse acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asadieraghi, Masoud; Wan Daud, Wan Mohd Ashri

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • HF showed interesting results on EFB (empty fruit bunches) and PMF (palm mesocarp fibre) deashing. • HCl indicated maximum ash removal from PKS (palm kernel shell). • Significant pyrolysis reactions took place at ∼250 °C to ∼400 °C. • Inorganics played a considerable catalytic role during the biomasses pyrolysis. • Acid pretreatment introduced some impacts on the biomasses structure. - Abstract: To eliminate the negative impacts of inorganic constituents during biomass thermochemical processes, leaching method by different diluted acid solutions was chosen. The different palm oil biomass samples (palm kernel shell (PKS), empty fruit bunches (EFB) and palm mesocarp fiber (PMF)) were pretreated by various diluted acid solutions (H 2 SO 4 , HClO 4 , HF, HNO 3 , HCl). Acids with the highest degrees of demineralization were selected to investigate the dematerialization impacts on the biomass thermal characteristics and physiochemical structure. Thermogravimetric analysis coupled with mass spectroscopy (TGA-MS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TGA-FTIR) were employed to examine the biomass thermal degradation. TGA and DTG (Derivative thermogravimetry) indicated that the maximum degradation temperatures increased after acid pretreatment due to the minerals catalytic effects. The main permanent evolved gases comprising H 2 , CO 2 , CO were detected online during analysis. The major permanent gases produced at the temperature range of 250–750 °C were attributed to the condensable vapors cracking and probably some secondary reactions. The physiochemical structure change of the acid-treated biomass samples was examined by using Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) method, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and FTIR. The pyrolysis kinetics of the different palm oil biomasses were investigated using first order reaction model

  18. Novel Magnetic Cross-Linked Cellulase Aggregates with a Potential Application in Lignocellulosic Biomass Bioconversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junqi Jia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of renewable biomass resources to produce high-value chemicals by enzymatic processes is beneficial for alternative energy production, due to the accelerating depletion of fossil fuels. As immobilization techniques can improve enzyme stability and reusability, a novel magnetic cross-linked cellulase aggregate has been developed and applied for biomass bioconversion. The crosslinked aggregates could purify and immobilize enzymes in a single operation, and could then be combined with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs, which provides easy separation of the materials. The immobilized cellulase showed a better activity at a wider temperature range and pH values than that of the free cellulase. After six cycles of consecutive reuse, the immobilized cellulase performed successful magnetic separation and retained 74% of its initial activity when carboxylmethyl cellulose (CMC was used as the model substrate. Furthermore, the structure and morphology of the immobilized cellulase were studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Moreover, the immobilized cellulase was shown to hydrolyze bamboo biomass with a yield of 21%, and was re-used in biomass conversion up to four cycles with 38% activity retention, which indicated that the immobilized enzyme has good potential for biomass applications.

  19. Novel Magnetic Cross-Linked Cellulase Aggregates with a Potential Application in Lignocellulosic Biomass Bioconversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Junqi; Zhang, Weiwei; Yang, Zengjie; Yang, Xianling; Wang, Na; Yu, Xiaoqi

    2017-02-10

    The utilization of renewable biomass resources to produce high-value chemicals by enzymatic processes is beneficial for alternative energy production, due to the accelerating depletion of fossil fuels. As immobilization techniques can improve enzyme stability and reusability, a novel magnetic cross-linked cellulase aggregate has been developed and applied for biomass bioconversion. The crosslinked aggregates could purify and immobilize enzymes in a single operation, and could then be combined with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), which provides easy separation of the materials. The immobilized cellulase showed a better activity at a wider temperature range and pH values than that of the free cellulase. After six cycles of consecutive reuse, the immobilized cellulase performed successful magnetic separation and retained 74% of its initial activity when carboxylmethyl cellulose (CMC) was used as the model substrate. Furthermore, the structure and morphology of the immobilized cellulase were studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, the immobilized cellulase was shown to hydrolyze bamboo biomass with a yield of 21%, and was re-used in biomass conversion up to four cycles with 38% activity retention, which indicated that the immobilized enzyme has good potential for biomass applications.

  20. Lignocellulosic biomass-Thermal pretreatment with steam: Pretreatment techniques for biofuels and biorefineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse; Hoffmann, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    With the ever rising demand for more energy and the limited availability of depleted world resources, many are beginning to look for alternatives to fossil fuels. Liquid biofuel, in particular, is of key interest to decrease our dependency on fuels produced from imported petroleum. Biomass pre......-treatment remains one of the most pressing challenges in terms of cost-effective production of biofuels. The digestibility of lingo-cellulosic biomass is limited by different factors such as the lignin content, the crystallinity of cellulose, and the available cellulose accessibility to hydrolytic enzymes. A number...

  1. Acid Pre hydrolysis of the Lignocellulose biomass from thistle Onopordum nervosum Boiss; Prehidrolisis acida de la Biomasa Lignocelulosica del Cardo Onopordum nervosum Boiss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez Contreras, C; Paz Saa, D; Diaz Palma, A

    1983-07-01

    The acid pre hydrolysis of the lignocellulose biomass from thistle O. nervosum has been conducted to determine the conditions for maximum yield of pentoses with minimum yield of hexoses. Variables studied were acid concentration (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, 1 , 3, 4 and 5%) , temperature (1000 and 120 degree centigree) time, solid to liquid ratio and degree of fineness of thistle (1 to 65 mesh). (Author) 15 refs.

  2. Techno-Economic Analysis of Bioethanol Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass in China: Dilute-Acid Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corn Stover

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Lili; Zhang, Xiliang; Xu, Jie; Ou, Xunmin; Chang, Shiyan; Wu, Maorong

    2015-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass-based ethanol is categorized as 2 nd generation bioethanol in the advanced biofuel portfolio. To make sound incentive policy proposals for the Chinese government and to develop guidance for research and development and industrialization of the technology, the paper reports careful techno-economic and sensitivity analyses performed to estimate the current competitiveness of the bioethanol and identify key components which have the greatest impact on its plant-gate price...

  3. Effect of carbon dioxide on the thermal degradation of lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Eilhann E; Jeon, Eui-Chan; Castaldi, Marco J; Jeon, Young Jae

    2013-09-17

    Using biomass as a renewable energy source via currently available thermochemical processes (i.e., pyrolysis and gasification) is environmentally advantageous owing to its intrinsic carbon neutrality. Developing methodologies to enhance the thermal efficiency of these proven technologies is therefore imperative. This study aimed to investigate the use of CO2 as a reaction medium to increase not only thermal efficiency but also environmental benefit. The influence of CO2 on thermochemical processes at a fundamental level was experimentally validated with the main constituents of biomass (i.e., cellulose and xylan) to avoid complexities arising from the heterogeneous matrix of biomass. For instance, gaseous products including H2, CH4, and CO were substantially enhanced in the presence of CO2 because CO2 expedited thermal cracking behavior (i.e., 200-1000%). This behavior was then universally observed in our case study with real biomass (i.e., corn stover) during pyrolysis and steam gasification. However, further study is urgently needed to optimize these experimental findings.

  4. Empirical evaluation of inhibitory product, substrate, and enzyme effects during the enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Benjamin T; Knutsen, Jeffrey S; Davis, Robert H

    2010-05-01

    The cellulose hydrolysis kinetics during batch enzymatic saccharification are typified by a rapid initial rate that subsequently decays, resulting in incomplete conversion. Previous studies suggest that changes associated with the solution, substrate, or enzymes may be responsible. In this work, kinetic experiments were conducted to determine the relative magnitude of these effects. Pretreated corn stover (PCS) was used as a lignocellulosic substrate likely to be found in a commercial saccharification process, while Avicel and Kraft lignin were used to create model substrates. Glucose inhibition was observed by spiking the reaction slurry with glucose during initial-rate experiments. Increasing the glucose concentration from 7 to 48 g/L reduced the cellulose conversion rate by 94%. When product sugars were removed using ultrafiltration with a 10 kDa membrane, the glucose-based conversion increased by 9.5%. Reductions in substrate reactivity with conversion were compared directly by saccharifying PCS and Avicel substrates that had been pre-reacted to different conversions. Reaction of substrate with a pre-conversion of 40% resulted in about 40% reduction in the initial rate of saccharification, relative to fresh substrate with identical cellulose concentration. Overall, glucose inhibition and reduced substrate reactivity appear to be dominant factors, whereas minimal reductions of enzyme activity were observed.

  5. Adsorptive removal of fermentation inhibitors from concentrated acid hydrolyzates of lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainio, Tuomo; Turku, Irina; Heinonen, Jari

    2011-05-01

    Adsorptive purification of concentrated acid hydrolyzate of lignocellulose was investigated. Cation exchange resin (CS16GC), neutral polymer adsorbent (XAD-16), and granulated activated carbon (GAC) were studied to remove furfural, HMF, and acetic acid from a synthetic hydrolyzate containing 20 wt.% H(2)SO(4). Adsorption isotherms were determined experimentally. Loading and regeneration were investigated in a laboratory scale column. GAC has the highest adsorption capacity, but regeneration with water was not feasible. XAD-16 and CS16GC had lower adsorption capacities but also shorter cycle times due to easier regeneration. Productivity increased when regenerating with 50 wt.% EtOH(aq) solution. To compare adsorbents, process performance was quantified by productivity and fraction of inhibitors removed. GAC yields highest performance when high purity is required and ethanol can be used in regeneration. For lower purities, XAD-16 and GAC yield approximately equal performance. When using ethanol must be avoided, CS16GC offers highest productivity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessment of hydrothermal pretreatment of various lignocellulosic biomass with CO2 catalyst for enhanced methane and hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskicioglu, Cigdem; Monlau, Florian; Barakat, Abdellatif; Ferrer, Ivet; Kaparaju, Prasad; Trably, Eric; Carrère, Hélène

    2017-09-01

    Hydrothermal pretreatment of five lignocellulosic substrates (i.e. wheat straw, rice straw, biomass sorghum, corn stover and Douglas fir bark) were conducted in the presence of CO 2 as a catalyst. To maximize disintegration and conversion into bioenergy (methane and hydrogen), pretreatment temperatures and subsequent pressures varied with a range of 26-175 °C, and 25-102 bars, respectively. Among lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses, hydrothermal pretreatment caused the highest reduction (23-42%) in hemicelluloses while delignification was limited to only 0-12%. These reductions in structural integrity resulted in 20-30% faster hydrolysis rates during anaerobic digestion for the pretreated substrates of straws, sorghum, and corn stover while Douglas fir bark yielded 172% faster hydrolysis/digestion due to its highly refractory nature in the control. Furans and phenolic compounds formed in the pretreated hydrolyzates were below the inhibitory levels for methane and hydrogen production which had a range of 98-340 ml CH 4 /g volatile solids (VS) and 5-26 ml H 2 /g VS, respectively. Results indicated that hydrothermal pretreatment is able to accelerate the rate of biodegradation without generating high levels of inhibitory compounds while showing no discernible effect on ultimate biodegradation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Co-solvent pretreatment reduces costly enzyme requirements for high sugar and ethanol yields from lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thanh Yen; Cai, Charles M; Kumar, Rajeev; Wyman, Charles E

    2015-05-22

    We introduce a new pretreatment called co-solvent-enhanced lignocellulosic fractionation (CELF) to reduce enzyme costs dramatically for high sugar yields from hemicellulose and cellulose, which is essential for the low-cost conversion of biomass to fuels. CELF employs THF miscible with aqueous dilute acid to obtain up to 95 % theoretical yield of glucose, xylose, and arabinose from corn stover even if coupled with enzymatic hydrolysis at only 2 mgenzyme  gglucan (-1) . The unusually high saccharification with such low enzyme loadings can be attributed to a very high lignin removal, which is supported by compositional analysis, fractal kinetic modeling, and SEM imaging. Subsequently, nearly pure lignin product can be precipitated by the evaporation of volatile THF for recovery and recycling. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of CELF-pretreated solids with low enzyme loadings and Saccharomyces cerevisiae produced twice as much ethanol as that from dilute-acid-pretreated solids if both were optimized for corn stover. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Beta-Glucosidases from a new Aspergillus species can substitute commercial beta-glucosidases for saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, Annette; Lubeck, Peter Stephensen; Lubeck, Mette; Teller, Philip Johan; Kiaer Ahring, Birgitte

    2011-07-01

    Exploitation of lignocellulosic biomasses for the production of biofuels and biochemicals gives a promising alternative to the world's limited fossil energy resources. Cellulose is of great interest in terms of producing sugars for biofuels and biochemicals, since its hydrolysis product, glucose, can readily be fermented into ethanol or converted into high-value chemicals. The hydrolysis of cellulose involves the synergistic action of cellobiohydrolases, endoglucanases and B-glucosidases, and B-glucosidases is key in ensuring final glucose release and the decrease of the accumulation of cellobiose and shorter cellodextrins, known as product inhibitors of the cellobiohydrolases. The aim of the present work was to search for efficient B-glucosidase-producing fungi using a screening strategy based on wheat bran as fermentation substrate. The fungi selected originated from several different countries and fungal fermentation broth were compared with an onsite enzyme production in mind. The broth of the best strain was tested against commercial enzyme preparations based on enzyme kinetics and it proved to be a valid substitute.

  9. Ultrasound-assisted xanthation of cellulose from lignocellulosic biomass optimized by response surface methodology for Pb(II) sorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chongqing; Wang, Hui; Gu, Guohua

    2018-02-15

    Alkali treatment of lignocellulosic biomass is conducted to remove hemi-cellulose and lignin, further increasing the reactivity and accessibility of cellulose. Ultrasound-assisted xanthation of alkali cellulose is optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) with a Box-Behnken design. A predicting mathematical model is obtained by fitting experimental data, and it is verified by analysis of variance. Response surface plots and the contour plots obtained from the model are applied to determine the interactions of experimental variables. The optimum conditions are NaOH concentration 1.3mol/L, ultrasonic time 71.6min and CS 2 dosage 1.5mL. FTIR, SEM and XPS characterizations confirm the synthesis and sorption mechanism of cellulose xanthate (CX). Biosorption of Pb (II) onto CX obeys pseudo-second order model and Langmuir model. The sorption mechanism is attributed to surface complexation or ion exchange. CX shows good reusability for Pb (II) sorption. The maximum sorption capacity of Pb(II) is 134.41mg/g, higher than that of other biosorbents. CX has great potential as an efficient and low-cost biosorbent for wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A critical review of ionic liquids for the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Reddy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ionic liquids have been the subject of active research over the course of the last decade and have in the past been touted as one of the most promising technologies for revolutionising the chemical and petro-chemical industries. The sheer abundance of potential ionic liquid structures coupled with their tuneable physico-chemical properties has endeared ionic liquids to the scientific community across a broad range of disciplines with potential applications that include pharmaceuticals, electrolytes, thermal energy storage media and liquid mirror telescopes. Within the context of a biorefinery for the production of biofuels and other bio-based products from renewable resources, the unique abilities of some ionic liquids to selectively dissolve biomass components or whole native biomass have been demonstrated. This ability has sparked extensive investigations of ionic liquids for the pretreatment of different biomass types, particularly for the production of cellulosic biofuels. However, the esoteric nature of ionic liquids persists and constructing a fundamental framework for correlating ionic liquid structures with useful applications remains a significant challenge. In addition to the above, the more practical challenges of toxicity, high costs, high viscosities, low solids loading and complex recycling are key factors hindering the wide-scale uptake of ionic liquids as pretreatment solvents in a commercial biorefinery. This critical review provides insights from academic studies and the implications thereof for elevating ionic liquids from the status of �promising� to �commercialisable� in the pretreatment of biomass. It is vital that key hurdles for the commercialisation of ionic liquids in the form of high costs, high viscosities, poor water tolerance, toxicity, low solids loading and recovery/recycling be addressed.

  11. Exploration of soil metagenome diversity for prospection of enzymes involved in lignocellulosic biomass conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, T.M.; Squina, F.M. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Paixao, D.A.A.; Franco Cairo, J.P.L.; Buchli, F.; Ruller, R. [Laboratorio Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Bioetanol (CTBE), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Prade, R. [Oklahoma State University, Sillwater, OK (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: Metagenomics allows access to genetic information encoded in DNA of microorganisms recalcitrant to cultivation. They represent a reservoir of novel biocatalyst with potential application in environmental friendly techniques aiming to overcome the dependence on fossil fuels and also to diminish air and water pollution. The focus of our work is the generation of a tool kit of lignocellulolytic enzymes from soil metagenome, which could be used for second generation ethanol production. Environmental samples were collected at a sugarcane field after harvesting, where it is expected that the microbial population involved on lignocellulose degradation was enriched due to the presence of straws covering the soil. Sugarcane Bagasse-Degrading-Soil (SBDS) metagenome was massively-parallel-454-Roche-sequenced. We identified a full repertoire of genes with significant match to glycosyl hydrolases catalytic domain and carbohydrate-binding modules. Soil metagenomics libraries cloned into pUC19 were screened through functional assays. CMC-agar screening resulted in positive clones, revealing new cellulases coding genes. Through a CMC-zymogram it was possible to observe that one of these genes, nominated as E-1, corresponds to an enzyme that is secreted to the extracellular medium, suggesting that the cloned gene carried the original signal peptide. Enzymatic assays and analysis through capillary electrophoresis showed that E-1 was able to cleave internal glycosidic bonds of cellulose. New rounds of functional screenings through chromogenic substrates are being conducted aiming the generation of a library of lignocellulolytic enzymes derived from soil metagenome, which may become key component for development of second generation biofuels. (author)

  12. Gas quality prediction in ligno-cellulosic biomass gasification in a co-current gas producer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.; Nganhou, J.; Amie Assouh, A.

    2008-01-01

    Our research covers the energetic valuation of the biomass for electricity production. As electrical energy production is the main drive behind a modern economy, we wanted to make our contribution to the debate by describing a tried technique, whose use on an industrial scale can still be perfected, failing control over the basic principles that support the gasification processes called upon in this industry. Our study describes gasification, which is a process to transform a solid combustible into a gas combustible. The resulting gas can be used as combustible in an internal combustion motor and produce electricity. Our work interprets the experimental results of gasification tests conducted on an available and functional experimental centre and the ENSPY's Decentralized Energy Production Lab. The work involved developing a tool to appreciate the results of the gasification of the ligneous biomass from the stoichiometric composition of the combustible to be gasified and the chemical and mathematical bases of the gasification process. It is an investigation with a view to elaborating a mathematical model based on the concept of compatibility. Its original lies in the quality prediction method for the gas obtained through the gasification of a biomass whose chemical composition is known. (authors)

  13. Comparison of common lignin methods and modifications on forage and lignocellulosic biomass materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, Ben M; Murphy, Patrick T; Moore, Kenneth J

    2012-03-15

    A variety of methods have been developed for estimating lignin concentration within plant materials. The objective of this study was to compare the lignin concentrations produced by six methods on a diverse population of forage and biomass materials and to examine the relationship between these concentrations and the portions of these materials that are available for utilisation by livestock or for ethanol conversion. Several methods produced lignin concentrations that were highly correlated with the digestibility of the forages, but there were few relationships between these methods and the available carbohydrate of the biomass materials. The use of Na₂SO₃ during preparation of residues for hydrolysis resulted in reduced lignin concentrations and decreased correlation with digestibility of forage materials, particularly the warm-season grasses. There were several methods that were well suited for predicting the digestible portion of forage materials, with the acid detergent lignin and Klason lignin method giving the highest correlation across the three types of forage. The continued use of Na₂SO₃ during preparation of Van Soest fibres needs to be evaluated owing to its ability to reduce lignin concentrations and effectiveness in predicting the utilisation of feedstuffs and feedstocks. Because there was little correlation between the lignin concentration and the biomass materials, there is a need to examine alternative or develop new methods to estimate lignin concentrations that may be used to predict the availability of carbohydrates for ethanol conversion. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Complex effect of lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid on various aspects of ethanol and fumaric acid production by immobilized cells within SSF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotsenko, Anna S; Dotsenko, Gleb S; Senko, Olga V; Stepanov, Nikolay A; Lyagin, Ilya V; Efremenko, Elena N; Gusakov, Alexander V; Zorov, Ivan N; Rubtsova, Ekaterina A

    2018-02-01

    The pretreatment of softwood and hardwood samples (spruce and hornbeam wood) with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Bmim]Cl) was undertaken for further simultaneous enzymatic saccharification of renewable non-food lignocellulosic biomass and microbial fermentation of obtained sugars to ethanol and fumaric acid. A multienzyme cocktail based on cellulases and yeast or fungus cells producing ethanol and fumaric acid were the main objects of [Bmim]Cl influence studies. A complex effect of lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment with [Bmim]Cl on various aspects of the process (both action of cellulases and microbial conversion of hydrolysates to target products) was revealed. Positive effects of the pretreatment with [Bmim]Cl included decreasing the lignin content in the biomass, and increasing the effectiveness of enzymatic hydrolysis and microbial transformation of pretreated biomass. Immobilized cells of both yeasts and fungi possessed improved productive characteristics in the biotransformation of biomass pretreated with [Bmim]Cl to ethanol and fumaric acid. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Techno-economic analysis of organosolv pretreatment process from lignocellulosic biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues Gurgel da Silva, Andrè; Errico, Massimiliano; Rong, Ben-Guang

    2018-01-01

    data, we propose a feasible process flowsheet for organosolv pretreatment. Simulation of the pretreatment process provided mass and energy balances for a techno-economic analysis, and the values were compared with the most prevalent and mature pretreatment method: diluted acid. Organosolv pretreatment...... required more energy, 578.1 versus 213.8 MW for diluted acid pretreatment, but resulted in a higher ethanol concentration after the biomass fermentation, 11.1% compared to 5.4%. Total annual costs (TACs) calculations showed advantages for diluted acid pretreatment, but future improvements explored...

  16. Kinetics of Enzymatic High-Solid Hydrolysis of Lignocellulosic Biomass Studied by Calorimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Søren Nymand; Rasmussen, Erik Lumby; McFarland, K.C.

    2011-01-01

    analysis of the interrelationships of enzyme load and the rate, time, and extent of the reaction. The results suggest that the hydrolysis rate of pretreated corn stover is limited initially by available attack points on the substrate surface (conversion) but becomes proportional to enzyme dosage......Enzymatic hydrolysis of high-solid biomass (>10% w/w dry mass) has become increasingly important as a key step in the production of second-generation bioethanol. To this end, development of quantitative real-time assays is desirable both for empirical optimization and for detailed kinetic analysis...... rate with a detection limit of about 500 pmol glucose s−1. Hence, calorimetry is shown to be a highly sensitive real-time method, applicable for high solids, and independent on the complexity of the substrate. Dose–response experiments with a typical cellulase cocktail enabled a multidimensional...

  17. Efficient catalytic system for the direct transformation of lignocellulosic biomass to furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luxin; Xi, Guoyun; Zhang, Jiaxin; Yu, Hongbing; Wang, Xiaochang

    2017-01-01

    A feasible approach was developed for the co-production of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) and furfural from corncob via a new porous polytriphenylamine-SO 3 H (SPTPA) solid acid catalyst in lactone solvents. XRD, SEM, XPS, N 2 adsorption-desorption, elemental analysis, TG-DTA, acid-base titration and FTIR spectroscopy techniques were used to characterize the catalyst. This study demonstrates and optimizes the catalytic performance of SPTPA and solvent selection. SPTPA was found to exhibit superior catalytic ability in γ-valerolactone (GVL). Under the optimum reaction conditions, simultaneously encouraging yields of furfural (73.9%) and 5-HMF (32.3%) were achieved at 448K. The main advantages of this process include reasonable yields of both 5-HMF and furfural in the same reaction system, practical simplicity for the raw biomass utilization, and the use of a safe and environmentally benign solvent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparative evaluation of torrefaction and hydrothermal carbonization of lignocellulosic biomass for the production of solid biofuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kambo, Harpreet Singh; Dutta, Animesh

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A comparative characterization of HTC and torrefaction is proposed. • The reaction temperature is the most governing parameter in the HTC process. • The inorganic compositions of biomass were significantly reduced via HTC. • The hydrochar produced at 260 °C shows fuel qualities comparable to that of coal. - Abstract: The work presented in this study demonstrates the potential of using hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) on miscanthus feedstock for the production of a carbon-rich solid fuel, referred to as hydrochar, whose physicochemical properties are comparable to that of coal. The effects of the processing conditions on the mass yield, energy yield and higher heating values (HHVs) were examined by varying the reaction temperature (190, 225, and 260 °C), the reaction time (5, 15, and 30 min) and the feedstock-to-water ratio (1:6 and 1:12). The results show that the reaction temperature is the most significant parameter governing the physicochemical properties of biomass. Increasing reaction temperature reduces the mass yield; however, it also significantly enhances the energy density of solid products. The hydrochar samples produced at 260 °C show a maximum energy density of 26–30 MJ/kg, with 66–74% of energy retained in the solid product. In comparison, the energy density, grindability, and hydrophobicity of the solid samples produced via torrefaction (a conventional thermal pre-treatment) were considerably lower than the hydrochar samples, even if the reaction time was kept much higher than HTC. Furthermore, the inorganic metallic composition of miscanthus feedstock almost remained unaffected after torrefaction; however, it was significantly reduced (30–70%) via HTC.

  19. Biochemical conversions of lignocellulosic biomass for sustainable fuel-ethanol production in the upper Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodeur-Campbell, Michael J.

    Biofuels are an increasingly important component of worldwide energy supply. This research aims to understand the pathways and impacts of biofuels production, and to improve these processes to make them more efficient. In Chapter 2, a life cycle assessment (LCA) is presented for cellulosic ethanol production from five potential feedstocks of regional importance to the upper Midwest — hybrid poplar, hybrid willow, switchgrass, diverse prairie grasses, and logging residues — according to the requirements of Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS). Direct land use change emissions are included for the conversion of abandoned agricultural land to feedstock production, and computer models of the conversion process are used in order to determine the effect of varying biomass composition on overall life cycle impacts. All scenarios analyzed here result in greater than 60% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions relative to petroleum gasoline. Land use change effects were found to contribute significantly to the overall emissions for the first 20 years after plantation establishment. Chapter 3 is an investigation of the effects of biomass mixtures on overall sugar recovery from the combined processes of dilute acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Biomass mixtures studied were aspen, a hardwood species well suited to biochemical processing; balsam, a high-lignin softwood species, and switchgrass, an herbaceous energy crop with high ash content. A matrix of three different dilute acid pretreatment severities and three different enzyme loading levels was used to characterize interactions between pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Maximum glucose yield for any species was 70% of theoretical for switchgrass, and maximum xylose yield was 99.7% of theoretical for aspen. Supplemental β-glucosidase increased glucose yield from enzymatic hydrolysis by an average of 15%, and total sugar recoveries for mixtures could be predicted to within 4% by linear interpolation of the pure

  20. Community Structure and Succession Regulation of Fungal Consortia in the Lignocellulose-Degrading Process on Natural Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoyu Tian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to investigate fungal community structures and dynamic changes in forest soil lignocellulose-degrading process. rRNA gene clone libraries for the samples collected in different stages of lignocellulose degradation process were constructed and analyzed. A total of 26 representative RFLP types were obtained from original soil clone library, including Mucoromycotina (29.5%, unclassified Zygomycetes (33.5%, Ascomycota (32.4%, and Basidiomycota (4.6%. When soil accumulated with natural lignocellulose, 16 RFLP types were identified from 8-day clone library, including Basidiomycota (62.5%, Ascomycota (36.1%, and Fungi incertae sedis (1.4%. After enrichment for 15 days, identified 11 RFLP types were placed in 3 fungal groups: Basidiomycota (86.9%, Ascomycota (11.5%, and Fungi incertae sedis (1.6%. The results showed richer, more diversity and abundance fungal groups in original forest soil. With the degradation of lignocellulose, fungal groups Mucoromycotina and Ascomycota decreased gradually, and wood-rotting fungi Basidiomycota increased and replaced the opportunist fungi to become predominant group. Most of the fungal clones identified in sample were related to the reported lignocellulose-decomposing strains. Understanding of the microbial community structure and dynamic change during natural lignocellulose-degrading process will provide us with an idea and a basis to construct available commercial lignocellulosic enzymes or microbial complex.

  1. Community structure and succession regulation of fungal consortia in the lignocellulose-degrading process on natural biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Baoyu; Wang, Chunxiang; Lv, Ruirui; Zhou, Junxiong; Li, Xin; Zheng, Yi; Jin, Xiangyu; Wang, Mengli; Ye, Yongxia; Huang, Xinyi; Liu, Ping

    2014-01-01

    The study aims to investigate fungal community structures and dynamic changes in forest soil lignocellulose-degrading process. rRNA gene clone libraries for the samples collected in different stages of lignocellulose degradation process were constructed and analyzed. A total of 26 representative RFLP types were obtained from original soil clone library, including Mucoromycotina (29.5%), unclassified Zygomycetes (33.5%), Ascomycota (32.4%), and Basidiomycota (4.6%). When soil accumulated with natural lignocellulose, 16 RFLP types were identified from 8-day clone library, including Basidiomycota (62.5%), Ascomycota (36.1%), and Fungi incertae sedis (1.4%). After enrichment for 15 days, identified 11 RFLP types were placed in 3 fungal groups: Basidiomycota (86.9%), Ascomycota (11.5%), and Fungi incertae sedis (1.6%). The results showed richer, more diversity and abundance fungal groups in original forest soil. With the degradation of lignocellulose, fungal groups Mucoromycotina and Ascomycota decreased gradually, and wood-rotting fungi Basidiomycota increased and replaced the opportunist fungi to become predominant group. Most of the fungal clones identified in sample were related to the reported lignocellulose-decomposing strains. Understanding of the microbial community structure and dynamic change during natural lignocellulose-degrading process will provide us with an idea and a basis to construct available commercial lignocellulosic enzymes or microbial complex.

  2. Process performance and comparative metagenomic analysis during co-digestion of manure and lignocellulosic biomass for biogas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsapekos, P.; Kougias, P.G.; Treu, L.; Campanaro, S.; Angelidaki, I.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Pig manure and ensiled meadow grass were examined in co-digestion process. • Mechanical pretreatment increased the methane yield by 6.4%. • Coprothermobacter proteolyticus was firmly bounded to the digested grass. • Clostridium thermocellum was enriched in the firmly attached grass samples. • The abundance of methanogens was higher in the liquid fraction of digestate. - Abstract: Mechanical pretreatment is considered to be a fast and easily applicable method to prepare the biomass for anaerobic digestion. In the present study, the effect of mechanical pretreatment on lignocellulosic silages biodegradability was elucidated in batch reactors. Moreover, co-digestion of the silages with pig manure in continuously fed biogas reactors was examined. Metagenomic analysis for determining the microbial communities in the pig manure digestion system was performed by analysing unassembled shotgun genomic sequences. A comparative analysis allowed to identify the microbial species firmly attached to the digested grass particles and to distinguish them from the planktonic microbes floating in the liquid medium. It was shown that the methane yield of ensiled grass was significantly increased by 12.3% due to mechanical pretreatment in batch experiments. Similarly, the increment of the methane yield in the co-digestion system reached 6.4%. Regarding the metagenomic study, species similar to Coprothermobacter proteolyticus and to Clostridium thermocellum, known for high proteolytic and cellulolytic activity respectively, were found firmly attached to the solid fraction of digested feedstock. Results from liquid samples revealed clear differences in microbial community composition, mainly dominated by Proteobacteria. The archaeal community was found in higher relative abundance in the liquid fraction of co-digestion experiment compared to the solid fraction. Finally, an unclassified Alkaliphilus sp. was found in high relative abundance in all samples.

  3. Comparative biochemical analysis after steam pretreatment of lignocellulosic agricultural waste biomass from Williams Cavendish banana plant (Triploid Musa AAA group).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamdem, Irénée; Jacquet, Nicolas; Tiappi, Florian Mathias; Hiligsmann, Serge; Vanderghem, Caroline; Richel, Aurore; Jacques, Philippe; Thonart, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    The accessibility of fermentable substrates to enzymes is a limiting factor for the efficient bioconversion of agricultural wastes in the context of sustainable development. This paper presents the results of a biochemical analysis performed on six combined morphological parts of Williams Cavendish Lignocellulosic Biomass (WCLB) after steam cracking (SC) and steam explosion (SE) pretreatments. Solid (S) and liquid (L) fractions (Fs) obtained from SC pretreatment performed at 180°C (SLFSC180) and 210°C (SLFSC210) generated, after diluted acid hydrolysis, the highest proportions of neutral sugar (NS) contents, specifically 52.82 ± 3.51 and 49.78 ± 1.39%w/w WCLB dry matter (DM), respectively. The highest proportions of glucose were found in SFSC210 (53.56 ± 1.33%w/w DM) and SFSC180 (44.47 ± 0.00%w/w DM), while the lowest was found in unpretreated WCLB (22.70 ± 0.71%w/w DM). Total NS content assessed in each LF immediately after SC and SE pretreatments was less than 2%w/w of the LF DM, thus revealing minor acid autohydrolysis consequently leading to minor NS production during the steam pretreatment. WCLB subjected to SC at 210 °C (SC210) generated up to 2.7-fold bioaccessible glucan and xylan. SC and SE pretreatments showed potential for the deconstruction of WCLB (delignification, depolymerization, decrystallization and deacetylation), enhancing its enzymatic hydrolysis. The concentrations of enzymatic inhibitors, such as 2-furfuraldehyde and 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural from LFSC210, were the highest (41 and 21 µg ml(-1), respectively). This study shows that steam pretreatments in general and SC210 in particular are required for efficient bioconversion of WCLB. Yet, biotransformation through biochemical processes (e.g., anaerobic digestion) must be performed to assess the efficiency of these pretreatments. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Irradiation of lignocellulose biomass of annatto seeds (Bixa orellana L.) for application in polymeric composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, Paula S.; Fonseca, Thaís N.; Moura, Eduardo de; Geraldo, Aurea B. C.

    2017-01-01

    The study of polymeric composites reinforced with vegetable fibers has become popular in the last decades since this type of material allows the reduction of both the biomass waste and the final cost of the polymer product. Plant fibers exist in large quantities, are inexpensive and combine biodegradability and renewal. In addition polymer-cellulose composites are more resistant to bending and impact than the same material exclusively made of polymer. Specifically the cellulose contained in the annatto seeds is present in a concentration around 40-45%, which becomes important for industrial use. In this work, the bagasse of annatto seeds after the removal of their reddish pigment was used to obtain high density polyethylene (HDPE) composites. The original material was used without and with a pretreatment which removed components such as residual pigment remnants, sugars, proteins and fatty acids. The remaining fibers were dried, fragmented and irradiated by electron beam at the doses of 10 kGy, 25 kGy, 50 kGy and 75 kGy to verify the effect of radiation on the cellulose structure and its subsequent effect on the polymer matrix

  5. Ionizing Radiation Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass from Sugarcane Bagasse to Production Ethanol Biofuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, C.L.; Mori, M.N.; Oikawa, H.; Finguerut, J.; Galvão, A.; Nagatomi, H.R.; Célia, M.

    2010-01-01

    Sugarcane bagasse has been considered as a substrate for single cell protein, animal feed, and renewable energy production. Sugarcane bagasse generally contain up to 45% glucose polymer cellulose, 40% hemicelluloses, and 20% lignin. Pure cellulose is readily depolymerised by radiation, but in biomass, the cellulose is intimately bonded with lignin, that protect it from radiation effects. The objective of this study is the evaluation of the electron beam irradiation as a pre-treatment to enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose in order to facilitate its fermentation and improves the production of ethanol biofuel. Samples of sugarcane bagasse were obtained in sugar/ethanol Iracema Mill sited in Piracicaba, Brazil, and were irradiated using Radiation Dynamics Electron Beam Accelerator with 1.5 MeV energy and 37kW, in batch systems. The applied absorbed doses of the fist sampling, Bagasse A, were 20 kGy, 50 kGy, 100 kGy and 200 kGy. After the evaluation the preliminary obtained results, it was applied lower absorbed doses in the second assay: 5 kGy, 10 kGy, 20 kGy, 30 kGy, 50 kGy, 70 kGy, 100 kGy and 150 kGy. The electron beam processing took to changes in the sugarcane bagasse structure and composition, lignin and cellulose cleavage. The yield of enzymatic hydrolyzes of cellulose increase about 75 % with 30 kGy of absorbed dose. (author)

  6. Kinetics of enzymatic high-solid hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass studied by calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Søren N; Lumby, Erik; McFarland, Kc; Borch, Kim; Westh, Peter

    2011-03-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of high-solid biomass (>10% w/w dry mass) has become increasingly important as a key step in the production of second-generation bioethanol. To this end, development of quantitative real-time assays is desirable both for empirical optimization and for detailed kinetic analysis. In the current work, we have investigated the application of isothermal calorimetry to study the kinetics of enzymatic hydrolysis of two substrates (pretreated corn stover and Avicel) at high-solid contents (up to 29% w/w). It was found that the calorimetric heat flow provided a true measure of the hydrolysis rate with a detection limit of about 500 pmol glucose s(-1). Hence, calorimetry is shown to be a highly sensitive real-time method, applicable for high solids, and independent on the complexity of the substrate. Dose-response experiments with a typical cellulase cocktail enabled a multidimensional analysis of the interrelationships of enzyme load and the rate, time, and extent of the reaction. The results suggest that the hydrolysis rate of pretreated corn stover is limited initially by available attack points on the substrate surface (conversion) but becomes proportional to enzyme dosage (excess of attack points) at later stages (>10% conversion). This kinetic profile is interpreted as an increase in polymer end concentration (substrate for CBH) as the hydrolysis progresses, probably due to EG activity in the enzyme cocktail. Finally, irreversible enzyme inactivation did not appear to be the source of reduced hydrolysis rate over time.

  7. Feedstock Supply System Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels Conversion Pathway: Fast Pyrolysis and Hydrotreating Bio-Oil Pathway "The 2017 Design Case"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin L. Kenney; Kara G. Cafferty; Jacob J. Jacobson; Ian J. Bonner; Garold L. Gresham; J. Richard Hess; William A. Smith; David N. Thompson; Vicki S. Thompson; Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Neal Yancey

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy promotes the production of liquid fuels from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass sustainable supply, logistics, conversion, and overall system sustainability. As part of its involvement in this program, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) investigates the feedstock logistics economics and sustainability of these fuels. Between 2000 and 2012, INL quantified and the economics and sustainability of moving biomass from the field or stand to the throat of the conversion process using conventional equipment and processes. All previous work to 2012 was designed to improve the efficiency and decrease costs under conventional supply systems. The 2012 programmatic target was to demonstrate a biomass logistics cost of $55/dry Ton for woody biomass delivered to fast pyrolysis conversion facility. The goal was achieved by applying field and process demonstration unit-scale data from harvest, collection, storage, preprocessing, handling, and transportation operations into INL’s biomass logistics model.

  8. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to High Octane Gasoline: Thermochemical Research Pathway with Indirect Gasification and Methanol Intermediate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Talmadge, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dutta, Abhijit [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hensley, Jesse [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schaidle, Josh [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Biddy, Mary J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Humbird, David [DWH Process Consulting, Denver, CO (United States); Snowden-Swan, Lesley J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ross, Jeff [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Sexton, Danielle [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Yap, Raymond [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Lukas, John [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) promotes research for enabling cost-competitive liquid fuels production from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks. The research is geared to advance the state of technology (SOT) of biomass feedstock supply and logistics, conversion, and overall system sustainability. As part of their involvement in this program, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) investigate the economics of conversion pathways through the development of conceptual biorefinery process models. This report describes in detail one potential conversion process for the production of high octane gasoline blendstock via indirect liquefaction (IDL). The steps involve the conversion of biomass to syngas via indirect gasification followed by gas cleanup and catalytic syngas conversion to a methanol intermediate; methanol is then further catalytically converted to high octane hydrocarbons. The conversion process model leverages technologies previously advanced by research funded by the Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) and demonstrated in 2012 with the production of mixed alcohols from biomass. Biomass-derived syngas cleanup via tar and hydrocarbons reforming was one of the key technology advancements as part of that research. The process described in this report evaluates a new technology area with downstream utilization of clean biomass-syngas for the production of high octane hydrocarbon products through a methanol intermediate, i.e., dehydration of methanol to dimethyl ether (DME) which subsequently undergoes homologation to high octane hydrocarbon products.

  9. Phylogeny in Defining Model Plants for Lignocellulosic Ethanol Production: A Comparative Study of Brachypodium distachyon, Wheat, Maize, and Miscanthus x giganteus Leaf and Stem Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meineke, Till; Manisseri, Chithra; Voigt, Christian A.

    2014-01-01

    The production of ethanol from pretreated plant biomass during fermentation is a strategy to mitigate climate change by substituting fossil fuels. However, biomass conversion is mainly limited by the recalcitrant nature of the plant cell wall. To overcome recalcitrance, the optimization of the plant cell wall for subsequent processing is a promising approach. Based on their phylogenetic proximity to existing and emerging energy crops, model plants have been proposed to study bioenergy-related cell wall biochemistry. One example is Brachypodium distachyon, which has been considered as a general model plant for cell wall analysis in grasses. To test whether relative phylogenetic proximity would be sufficient to qualify as a model plant not only for cell wall composition but also for the complete process leading to bioethanol production, we compared the processing of leaf and stem biomass from the C3 grasses B. distachyon and Triticum aestivum (wheat) with the C4 grasses Zea mays (maize) and Miscanthus x giganteus, a perennial energy crop. Lambda scanning with a confocal laser-scanning microscope allowed a rapid qualitative analysis of biomass saccharification. A maximum of 108–117 mg ethanol·g−1 dry biomass was yielded from thermo-chemically and enzymatically pretreated stem biomass of the tested plant species. Principal component analysis revealed that a relatively strong correlation between similarities in lignocellulosic ethanol production and phylogenetic relation was only given for stem and leaf biomass of the two tested C4 grasses. Our results suggest that suitability of B. distachyon as a model plant for biomass conversion of energy crops has to be specifically tested based on applied processing parameters and biomass tissue type. PMID:25133818

  10. Hemicelluloses negatively affect lignocellulose crystallinity for high biomass digestibility under NaOH and H2SO4 pretreatments in Miscanthus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Ning

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lignocellulose is the most abundant biomass on earth. However, biomass recalcitrance has become a major factor affecting biofuel production. Although cellulose crystallinity significantly influences biomass saccharification, little is known about the impact of three major wall polymers on cellulose crystallization. In this study, we selected six typical pairs of Miscanthus samples that presented different cell wall compositions, and then compared their cellulose crystallinity and biomass digestibility after various chemical pretreatments. Results A Miscanthus sample with a high hemicelluloses level was determined to have a relatively low cellulose crystallinity index (CrI and enhanced biomass digestibility at similar rates after pretreatments of NaOH and H2SO4 with three concentrations. By contrast, a Miscanthus sample with a high cellulose or lignin level showed increased CrI and low biomass saccharification, particularly after H2SO4 pretreatment. Correlation analysis revealed that the cellulose CrI negatively affected biomass digestion. Increased hemicelluloses level by 25% or decreased cellulose and lignin contents by 31% and 37% were also found to result in increased hexose yields by 1.3-times to 2.2-times released from enzymatic hydrolysis after NaOH or H2SO4 pretreatments. The findings indicated that hemicelluloses were the dominant and positive factor, whereas cellulose and lignin had synergistic and negative effects on biomass digestibility. Conclusions Using six pairs of Miscanthus samples with different cell wall compositions, hemicelluloses were revealed to be the dominant factor that positively determined biomass digestibility after pretreatments with NaOH or H2SO4 by negatively affecting cellulose crystallinity. The results suggested potential approaches to the genetic modifications of bioenergy crops.

  11. Use of Patent Applications as a Tool for Technology Development Prospection on the Ethanol Production Chain from Lignocellulosic Biomasses in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz André Felizardo Silva Schlittler

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The growing concerns regarding the future of global energy supplies have encouraged R&D in alternative sources to complement the global energy matrix. Brazil has earned notoriety as one of the largest producers of ethanol and biomass. This has aroused other countries’ interest in Brazil’s capabilities. However, the technologies for converting biomass into ethanol are not sufficiently mature, and have been developed in a decentralized manner. The lignocellulosic ethanol technologies can be divided into the following three groups: pretreatment, enzymes and ethanol production. One of the most efficient methods for mapping such technologies is through patent applications because the applications provide important information on trends in long-term technological development. Among all the patent applications deposited in the Brazilian database, pretreatment technologies were the most exploited followed by enzymes and ethanol production. The large number of documents from USA and European countries efforts the importance of Brazil in this technological scenario.

  12. Asparagus stem as a new lignocellulosic biomass feedstock for anaerobic digestion: increasing hydrolysis rate, methane production and biodegradability by alkaline pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaohua; Gu, Yu; Zhou, Xuefei; Zhang, Yalei

    2014-07-01

    Recently, anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass for methane production has attracted considerable attention. However, there is little information regarding methane production from asparagus stem, a typical lignocellulosic biomass, by anaerobic digestion. In this study, alkaline pretreatment of asparagus stem was investigated for its ability to increase hydrolysis rate and methane production and to improve biodegradability (BD). The hydrolysis rate increased with increasing NaOH dose, due to higher removal rates of lignin and hemicelluloses. However, the optimal NaOH dose was 6% (w/w) according to the specific methane production (SMP). Under this condition, the SMP and the technical digestion time of the NaOH-treated asparagus stem were 242.3 mL/g VS and 18 days, which were 38.4% higher and 51.4% shorter than those of the untreated sample, respectively. The BD was improved from 40.1% to 55.4%. These results indicate that alkaline pretreatment could be an efficient method for increasing methane production from asparagus stem. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Utilization of recombinant Trichoderma reesei expressing Aspergillus aculeatus β-glucosidase I (JN11) for a more economical production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treebupachatsakul, Treesukon; Shioya, Koki; Nakazawa, Hikaru; Kawaguchi, Takashi; Morikawa, Yasushi; Shida, Yosuke; Ogasawara, Wataru; Okada, Hirofumi

    2015-12-01

    The capacity of Trichoderma reesei cellulase to degrade lignocellulosic biomass has been enhanced by the construction of a recombinant T. reesei strain expressing Aspergillus aculeatus β-glucosidase I. We have confirmed highly efficient ethanol production from converge-milled Japanese cedar by recombinant T. reesei expressing A. aculeatus β-glucosidase I (JN11). We investigated the ethanol productivity of JN11 and compared it with the cocktail enzyme T. reesei PC-3-7 with reinforced cellobiase activity by the commercial Novozyme 188. Results showed that the ethanol production efficiency under enzymatic hydrolysis of JN11 was comparable to the cocktail enzyme both on simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) or separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) processes. Moreover, the cocktail enzyme required more protein loading for attaining similar levels of ethanol conversion as JN11. We propose that JN11 is an intrinsically economical enzyme that can eliminate the supplementation of BGL for PC-3-7, thereby reducing the cost of industrial ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Pretreating lignocellulosic biomass by the concentrated phosphoric acid plus hydrogen peroxide (PHP) for enzymatic hydrolysis: evaluating the pretreatment flexibility on feedstocks and particle sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Wang, Zhanghong; Shen, Fei; Hu, Jinguang; Sun, Fubao; Lin, Lili; Yang, Gang; Zhang, Yanzong; Deng, Shihuai

    2014-08-01

    In order to seek a high-efficient pretreatment path for converting lignocellulosic feedstocks to fermentable sugars by enzymatic hydrolysis, the concentrated H₃PO₄ plus H₂O₂ (PHP) was attempted to pretreat different lignocellulosic biomass for evaluating the pretreatment flexibility on feedstocks. Meanwhile, the responses of pretreatment to particle sizes were also evaluated. When the PHP-pretreatment was employed (final H₂O₂ and H₃PO₄ concentration of 1.77% and 80.0%), 71-96% lignin and more than 95% hemicellulose in various feedstocks (agricultural residues, hardwood, softwood, bamboo, and their mixture, and garden wastes mixture) can be removed. Consequently, more than 90% glucose conversion was uniformly achieved indicating PHP greatly improved the pretreatment flexibility to different feedstocks. Moreover, when wheat straw and oak chips were PHP-pretreated with different sizes, the average glucose conversion reached 94.9% and 100% with lower coefficient of variation (7.9% and 0.0%), which implied PHP-pretreatment can significantly weaken the negative effects of feedstock sizes on subsequent conversion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Techno-Economic Analysis of Bioethanol Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass in China: Dilute-Acid Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corn Stover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Zhao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic biomass-based ethanol is categorized as 2nd generation bioethanol in the advanced biofuel portfolio. To make sound incentive policy proposals for the Chinese government and to develop guidance for research and development and industrialization of the technology, the paper reports careful techno-economic and sensitivity analyses performed to estimate the current competitiveness of the bioethanol and identify key components which have the greatest impact on its plant-gate price (PGP. Two models were developed for the research, including the Bioethanol PGP Assessment Model (BPAM and the Feedstock Cost Estimation Model (FCEM. Results show that the PGP of the bioethanol ranges $4.68–$6.05/gal (9,550–12,356 yuan/t. The key components that contribute most to bioethanol PGP include the conversion rate of cellulose to glucose, the ratio of five-carbon sugars converted to ethanol, feedstock cost, and enzyme loading, etc. Lignocellulosic ethanol is currently unable to compete with fossil gasoline, therefore incentive policies are necessary to promote its development. It is suggested that the consumption tax be exempted, the value added tax (VAT be refunded upon collection, and feed-in tariff for excess electricity (byproduct be implemented to facilitate the industrialization of the technology. A minimum direct subsidy of $1.20/gal EtOH (2,500 yuan/t EtOH is also proposed for consideration.

  16. A bio-based ‘green’ process for catalytic adipic acid production from lignocellulosic biomass using cellulose and hemicellulose derived γ-valerolactone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jeehoon

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A bio-based ‘green’ process for catalytic conversion of corn stover to adipic acid (ADA) is studied. • New separations for effective recovery of biomass derivatives are developed. • Separations are integrated with cellulose/hemicellulose-to-ADA conversions. • Proposed process can compete economically with the current petro-based process. - Abstract: A bio-based ‘green’ process is presented for the catalytic conversion of corn stover to adipic acid (ADA) based on experimental studies. ADA is used for biobased nylon 6.6 manufacturing from lignocellulosics as carbon and energy source. In this process, the cellulose and hemicellulose fractions are catalytically converted to γ-valerolactone (GVL), using cellulose and hemicellulose-derived GVL as a solvent, and subsequently upgrading to ADA. Experimental studies showed maximal carbon yields (biomass-to-GVL: 41% and GVL-to-ADA: 46%) at low concentrations (below 16 wt% solids) using large volumes of GVL solvents while requiring efficient interstage separations and product recovery. This work presents an integrated process, including catalytic conversion and separation subsystems for GVL and ADA production and recovery, and designs a heat exchanger network to satisfy the total energy requirements of the integrated process via combustion of biomass residues (lignin and humins). Finally, an economic analysis shows that 2000 metric tonnes (Mt) per day of corn stover feedstock processing results in a minimum selling price of $633 per Mt if using the best possible parameters.

  17. Selection of discriminant mid-infrared wavenumbers by combining a naïve Bayesian classifier and a genetic algorithm: Application to the evaluation of lignocellulosic biomass biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammal, Abbas; Perrin, Eric; Vrabie, Valeriu; Assaf, Rabih; Fenniri, Hassan

    2017-07-01

    Infrared spectroscopy provides useful information on the molecular compositions of biological systems related to molecular vibrations, overtones, and combinations of fundamental vibrations. Mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy is sensitive to organic and mineral components and has attracted growing interest in the development of biomarkers related to intrinsic characteristics of lignocellulose biomass. However, not all spectral information is valuable for biomarker construction or for applying analysis methods such as classification. Better processing and interpretation can be achieved by identifying discriminating wavenumbers. The selection of wavenumbers has been addressed through several variable- or feature-selection methods. Some of them have not been adapted for use in large data sets or are difficult to tune, and others require additional information, such as concentrations. This paper proposes a new approach by combining a naïve Bayesian classifier with a genetic algorithm to identify discriminating spectral wavenumbers. The genetic algorithm uses a linear combination of an a posteriori probability and the Bayes error rate as the fitness function for optimization. Such a function allows the improvement of both the compactness and the separation of classes. This approach was tested to classify a small set of maize roots in soil according to their biodegradation process based on their MIR spectra. The results show that this optimization method allows better discrimination of the biodegradation process, compared with using the information of the entire MIR spectrum, the use of the spectral information at wavenumbers selected by a genetic algorithm based on a classical validity index or the use of the spectral information selected by combining a genetic algorithm with other methods, such as Linear Discriminant Analysis. The proposed method selects wavenumbers that correspond to principal vibrations of chemical functional groups of compounds that undergo degradation

  18. Feedstock Supply System Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels: Conversion Pathway: Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons The 2017 Design Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Kenney; Kara G. Cafferty; Jacob J. Jacobson; Ian J Bonner; Garold L. Gresham; William A. Smith; David N. Thompson; Vicki S. Thompson; Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Neal Yancey

    2013-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy promotes the production of a range of liquid fuels and fuel blendstocks from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass collection, conversion, and sustainability. As part of its involvement in this program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) investigates the feedstock logistics economics and sustainability of these fuels. Between 2000 and 2012, INL conducted a campaign to quantify the economics and sustainability of moving biomass from standing in the field or stand to the throat of the biomass conversion process. The goal of this program was to establish the current costs based on conventional equipment and processes, design improvements to the current system, and to mark annual improvements based on higher efficiencies or better designs. The 2012 programmatic target was to demonstrate a delivered biomass logistics cost of $35/dry ton. This goal was successfully achieved in 2012 by implementing field and process demonstration unit-scale data from harvest, collection, storage, preprocessing, handling, and transportation operations into INL’s biomass logistics model. Looking forward to 2017, the programmatic target is to supply biomass to the conversion facilities at a total cost of $80/dry ton and on specification with in-feed requirements. The goal of the 2017 Design Case is to enable expansion of biofuels production beyond highly productive resource areas by breaking the reliance of cost-competitive biofuel production on a single, abundant, low-cost feedstock. If this goal is not achieved, biofuel plants are destined to be small and/or clustered in select regions of the country that have a lock on low-cost feedstock. To put the 2017 cost target into perspective of past accomplishments of the cellulosic ethanol pathway, the $80 target encompasses total delivered feedstock cost, including both grower payment and logistics costs, while meeting all

  19. Wheat straw, household waste and hay as a source of lignocellulosic biomass for bioethanol and biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomczak, Anna; Bruch, Magdalena; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2010-01-01

    To meet the increasing need for bioenergy three lignocellulosic materials: raw hay, pretreated wheat straw and pretreated household waste were considered for the production of bioethanol and biogas. Several mixtures of household waste supplemented with different fractions of wheat straw and hay...... in fermentation process with Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated. Wheat straw and household wastes were pretreated using IBUS technology, patented by Dong Energy, which includes milling, stem explosion treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Methane production was investigated using stillages, the effluents...... from bioethanol fermentation experiment. Previous trial of biogas production from above mentioned household wastes was enclosed....

  20. Utilization of unconventional lignocellulosic waste biomass for the biosorption of toxic triphenylmethane dye malachite green from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvasembian, Rangabhashiyam; P, Balasubramanian

    2018-05-12

    Biosorption potential of novel lignocellulosic biosorbents Musa sp. peel (MSP) and Aegle marmelos shell (AMS) was investigated for the removal of toxic triphenylmethane dye malachite green (MG), from aqueous solution. Batch experiments were performed to study the biosorption characteristics of malachite green onto lignocellulosic biosorbents as a function of initial solution pH, initial malachite green concentration, biosorbents dosage, and temperature. Biosorption equilibrium data were fitted to two and three parameters isotherm models. Three-parameter isotherm models better described the equilibrium data. The maximum monolayer biosorption capacities obtained using the Langmuir model for MG removal using MSP and AMS was 47.61 and 18.86 mg/g, respectively. The biosorption kinetic data were analyzed using pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich and intraparticle diffusion models. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model best fitted the experimental data, indicated the MG biosorption using MSP and AMS as chemisorption process. The removal of MG using AMS was found as highly dependent on the process temperature. The removal efficiency of MG showed declined effect at the higher concentrations of NaCl and CaCl 2 . The regeneration test of the biosorbents toward MG removal was successful up to three cycles.

  1. Hydrotreatment of solvolytically liquefied lignocellulosic biomass over NiMo/Al2O3 catalyst: Reaction mechanism, hydrodeoxygenation kinetics and mass transfer model based on FTIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grilc, M.; Likozar, B.; Levec, J.

    2014-01-01

    Raw residual wood biomass, containing cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, was liquefied at low temperature by ultrasound-assisted solvolysis and acidolysis by glycerol, diethylene glycol and p-toluenesulfonic acid. Liquefied biomass was consequently upgraded by hydrotreatment utilizing heterogeneous catalysis over NiMo/Al 2 O 3 bifunctional catalyst. Effects of temperature (200−350 °C), heating rate (2.5–10.0 K min −1 ), hydrogen/nitrogen pressure (2−8 MPa), mixing (250−1000 min −1 ), hydrogen donor solvent (tetralin) and catalyst contents on deoxygenation were established. Reactions of liquefaction products, such as levulinic acid, were quantified based on their functional groups by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, whereas catalyst was examined by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Chemical kinetics of hydrodeoxygenation (HDO), decarbonylation and decarboxylation were determined by originally developed lumped model, based on reaction mechanisms and pathways, while the external mass transfer resistance proved to be negligible under the applied hydrodynamic conditions. The presence of hydrocracking reactions was confirmed by a decrease in product viscosity, and the upgrade for energetic or fuel applications by measurements of calorific value. - Highlights: • Liquefaction of waste lignocellulosic biomass with glycerol at low temperature. • Hydrotreatment, hydrocracking and hydrodeoxygenation of liquefied waste biomass. • Deoxygenation using heterogeneous catalysis over NiMo/Al 2 O 3 bifunctional catalyst. • Proposal of reaction mechanism; chemical kinetics and mass transfer considerations. • Effect of temperature, heating rate, pressure, mixing, solvent and catalyst content

  2. Flash pyrolysis at high temperature of ligno-cellulosic biomass and its components - production of synthesis gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couhert, C.

    2007-11-01

    Pyrolysis is the first stage of any thermal treatment of biomass and governs the formation of synthesis gas for the production of electricity, hydrogen or liquid fuels. The objective of this work is to establish a link between the composition of a biomass and its pyrolysis gas. We study experimental flash pyrolysis and fix the conditions in which quantities of gas are maximal, while aiming at a regime without heat and mass transfer limitations (particles about 100 μm): temperature of 950 C and residence time of about 2 s. Then we try to predict gas yields of any biomass according to its composition, applicable in this situation where thermodynamic equilibrium is not reached. We show that an additivity law does not allow correlating gas yields of a biomass with fractions of cellulose, hemi-cellulose and lignin contained in this biomass. Several explanations are suggested and examined: difference of pyrolytic behaviour of the same compound according to the biomass from which it is extracted, interactions between compounds and influence of mineral matter. With the aim of industrial application, we study pyrolysis of millimetric and centimetric size particles, and make a numerical simulation of the reactions of pyrolysis gases reforming. This simulation shows that the choice of biomass affects the quantities of synthesis gas obtained. (author)

  3. Growth and enzymatic activity of Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, a mutualistic fungus isolated from the leaf-cutting ant Atta mexicana, on cellulose and lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigueras, G; Paredes-Hernández, D; Revah, S; Valenzuela, J; Olivares-Hernández, R; Le Borgne, S

    2017-08-01

    A mutualistic fungus of the leaf-cutting ant Atta mexicana was isolated and identified as Leucoagaricus gongylophorus. This isolate had a close phylogenetic relationship with L. gongylophorus fungi cultivated by other leaf-cutting ants as determined by ITS sequencing. A subcolony started with ~500 A. mexicana workers could process 2 g day -1 of plant material and generate a 135 cm 3 fungus garden in 160 days. The presence of gongylidia structures of ~35 μm was observed on the tip of the hyphae. The fungus could grow without ants on semi-solid cultures with α-cellulose and microcrystalline cellulose and in solid-state cultures with grass and sugarcane bagasse, as sole sources of carbon. The maximum CO 2 production rate on grass (V max  = 17·5 mg CO 2  L g -1  day -1 ) was three times higher than on sugarcane bagasse (V max  = 6·6 mg CO 2  L g -1 day -1 ). Recoveries of 32·9 mg glucose  g biomass -1 and 12·3 mg glucose  g biomass -1 were obtained from the fungal biomass and the fungus garden, respectively. Endoglucanase activity was detected on carboxymethylcellulose agar plates. This is the first study reporting the growth of L. gongylophorus from A. mexicana on cellulose and plant material. According to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report about the growth of Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, isolated from the colony of the ant Atta mexicana, on semisolid medium with cellulose and solid-state cultures with lignocellulosic materials. The maximum CO 2 production rate on grass was three times higher than on sugarcane bagasse. Endoglucanase activity was detected and it was possible to recover glucose from the fungal gongylidia. The cellulolytic activity could be used to process lignocellulosic residues and obtain sugar or valuable products, but more work is needed in this direction. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Evaluation of the biomass potential for the production of lignocellulosic bioethanol from various agricultural residues in Austria and Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahr, Heike; Steindl, Daniel; Wimberger, Julia; Schürz, Daniel; Jäger, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    Due to the fact that the resources of fossil fuels are steadily decreasing, researchers have been trying to find alternatives over the past few years. As bioethanol of the first generation is based on potential food, its production has become an increasingly controversial topic. Therefore the focus of research currently is on the production of bioethanol of the second generation, which is made from cellulosic and lignocellulosic materials. However, for the production of bioethanol of the second generation the fibres have to be pre-treated. In this work the mass balances of various agricultural residues available in Austria were generated and examined in lab scale experiments for their bioethanol potential. The residues were pretreatment by means of state of the art technology (steam explosion), enzymatically hydrolysed and fermented with yeast to produce ethanol. Special attention was paid the mass balance of the overall process. Due to the pretreatment the proportion of cellulose increases with the duration of the pre-treatment, whereby the amount of hemicellulose decreases greatly. However, the total losses were increasing with the duration of the pre-treatment, and the losses largely consist of hemicellulose. The ethanol yield varied depending on the cellulose content of the substrates. So rye straw 200 °C 20 min reaches an ethanol yield of 169 kg/t, by far the largest yield. As result on the basis of the annual straw yield in Austria, approximately 210 000 t of bioethanol (266 million litres) could be produced from the straw of wheat (Triticum vulgare), rye (Secale cereale), oat (Avena sativa) and corn (Zea mays) as well as elephant grass (Miscanthus sinensis) using appropriate pre-treatment. So the greenhouse gas emissions produced by burning fossil fuels could be reduced significantly. About 1.8 million tons of motor gasoline are consumed in Austria every year. The needed quantity for a transition to E10 biofuels could thus be easily provided by bioethanol

  5. Rheology of concentrated biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.R. Samaniuk; J. Wang; T.W. Root; C.T. Scott; D.J. Klingenberg

    2011-01-01

    Economic processing of lignocellulosic biomass requires handling the biomass at high solids concentration. This creates challenges because concentrated biomass behaves as a Bingham-like material with large yield stresses. Here we employ torque rheometry to measure the rheological properties of concentrated lignocellulosic biomass (corn stover). Yield stresses obtained...

  6. Identification of candidate genes for yeast engineering to improve bioethanol production in very high gravity and lignocellulosic biomass industrial fermentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Francisco B

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The optimization of industrial bioethanol production will depend on the rational design and manipulation of industrial strains to improve their robustness against the many stress factors affecting their performance during very high gravity (VHG or lignocellulosic fermentations. In this study, a set of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes found, through genome-wide screenings, to confer resistance to the simultaneous presence of different relevant stresses were identified as required for maximal fermentation performance under industrial conditions. Results Chemogenomics data were used to identify eight genes whose expression confers simultaneous resistance to high concentrations of glucose, acetic acid and ethanol, chemical stresses relevant for VHG fermentations; and eleven genes conferring simultaneous resistance to stresses relevant during lignocellulosic fermentations. These eleven genes were identified based on two different sets: one with five genes granting simultaneous resistance to ethanol, acetic acid and furfural, and the other with six genes providing simultaneous resistance to ethanol, acetic acid and vanillin. The expression of Bud31 and Hpr1 was found to lead to the increase of both ethanol yield and fermentation rate, while Pho85, Vrp1 and Ygl024w expression is required for maximal ethanol production in VHG fermentations. Five genes, Erg2, Prs3, Rav1, Rpb4 and Vma8, were found to contribute to the maintenance of cell viability in wheat straw hydrolysate and/or the maximal fermentation rate of this substrate. Conclusions The identified genes stand as preferential targets for genetic engineering manipulation in order to generate more robust industrial strains, able to cope with the most significant fermentation stresses and, thus, to increase ethanol production rate and final ethanol titers.

  7. Laccase enzyme detoxifies hydrolysates and improves biogas production from hemp straw and miscanthus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroyen, Michel; Van Hulle, Stijn W H; Holemans, Sander; Vervaeren, Han; Raes, Katleen

    2017-11-01

    The impact of various phenolic compounds, vanillic acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid on anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass (hemp straw and miscanthus) was studied. Such phenolic compounds have been known to inhibit biogas production during anaerobic digestion. The different phenolic compounds were added in various concentrations: 0, 100, 500, 1000 and 2000mg/L. A difference in inhibition of biomethane production between the phenolic compounds was noted. Hydrolysis rate, during anaerobic digestion of miscanthus was inhibited up to 50% by vanillic acid, while vanillic acid had no influence on the initial rate of biogas production during the anaerobic digestion of hemp straw. Miscanthus has a higher lignin concentration (12-30g/100gDM) making it less accessible for degradation, and in combination with phenolic compounds released after harsh pretreatments, it can cause severe inhibition levels during the anaerobic digestion, lowering biogas production. To counter the inhibition, lignin degrading enzymes can be used to remove or degrade the inhibitory phenolic compounds. The interaction of laccase and versatile peroxidase individually with the different phenolic compounds was studied to have insight in the polymerization of inhibitory compounds or breakdown of lignocellulose. Hemp straw and miscanthus were incubated with 0, 100 and 500mg/L of the different phenolic compounds for 0, 6 and 24h and pretreated with the lignin degrading enzymes. A laccase pretreatment successfully detoxified the substrate, while versatile peroxidase however was inhibited by 100mg/L of each of the individual phenolic compounds. Finally a combination of enzymatic detoxification and subsequent biogas production showed that a decrease in phenolic compounds by laccase treatment can considerably lower the inhibition levels of the biogas production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Life cycle assessment of residual lignocellulosic biomass-based jet fuel with activated carbon and lignosulfonate as co-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierobon, Francesca; Eastin, Ivan L; Ganguly, Indroneil

    2018-01-01

    Bio-jet fuels are emerging as a valuable alternative to petroleum-based fuels for their potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and fossil fuel dependence. In this study, residual woody biomass from slash piles in the U.S. Pacific Northwest is used as a feedstock to produce iso-paraffinic kerosene, through the production of sugar and subsequent patented proprietary fermentation and upgrading. To enhance the economic viability and reduce the environmental impacts of iso-paraffinic kerosene, two co-products, activated carbon and lignosulfonate, are simultaneously produced within the same bio-refinery. A cradle-to-grave life cycle assessment (LCA) is performed for the residual woody biomass-based bio-jet fuel and compared against the cradle-to-grave LCA of petroleum-based jet fuel. This paper also discusses the differences in the environmental impacts of the residual biomass-based bio-jet fuel using two different approaches, mass allocation and system expansion, to partition the impacts between the bio-fuel and the co-products, which are produced in the bio-refinery. The environmental assessment of biomass-based bio-jet fuel reveals an improvement along most critical environmental criteria, as compared to its petroleum-based counterpart. However, the results present significant differences in the environmental impact of biomass-based bio-jet fuel, based on the partitioning method adopted. The mass allocation approach shows a greater improvement along most of the environmental criteria, as compared to the system expansion approach. However, independent of the partitioning approach, the results of this study reveal that more than the EISA mandated 60% reduction in the global warming potential could be achieved by substituting petroleum-based jet fuel with residual woody biomass-based jet fuel. Converting residual woody biomass from slash piles into bio-jet fuel presents the additional benefit of avoiding the impacts of slash pile burning in the forest, which

  9. Steam-exploded biomass saccharification is predominately affected by lignocellulose porosity and largely enhanced by Tween-80 in Miscanthus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dan; Alam, Aftab; Tu, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Shiguang; Wang, Yanting; Xia, Tao; Huang, Jiangfeng; Li, Ying; Zahoor; Wei, Xiaoyang; Hao, Bo; Peng, Liangcai

    2017-09-01

    In this study, total ten Miscanthus accessions exhibited diverse cell wall compositions, leading to largely varied hexoses yields at 17%-40% (% cellulose) released from direct enzymatic hydrolysis of steam-exploded (SE) residues. Further supplied with 2% Tween-80 into the enzymatic digestion, the Mis7 accession showed the higher hexose yield by 14.8-fold than that of raw material, whereas the Mis10 had the highest hexoses yield at 77% among ten Miscanthus accessions. Significantly, this study identified four wall polymer features that negatively affect biomass saccharification as pbiomass enzymatic digestion. Hence, this study provides the potential strategy to enhance biomass saccharification using optimal biomass process technology and related genetic breeding in Miscanthus and beyond. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Process Design and Economics Utilizing Co-Current Dilute Acid Prehydrolysis and Enzymatic Hydrolysis for Corn Stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aden, A.; Ruth, M.; Ibsen, K.; Jechura, J.; Neeves, K.; Sheehan, J.; Wallace, B.; Montague, L.; Slayton, A.; Lukas, J.

    2002-06-01

    This report is an update of NREL's ongoing process design and economic analyses of processes related to developing ethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is promoting the development of ethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks as an alternative to conventional petroleum-based transportation fuels. DOE funds both fundamental and applied research in this area and needs a method for predicting cost benefits of many research proposals. To that end, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has modeled many potential process designs and estimated the economics of each process during the last 20 years. This report is an update of the ongoing process design and economic analyses at NREL. We envision updating this process design report at regular intervals; the purpose being to ensure that the process design incorporates all new data from NREL research, DOE funded research and other sources, and that the equipment costs are reasonable and consistent with good engineering practice for plants of this type. For the non-research areas this means using equipment and process approaches as they are currently used in industrial applications. For the last report, published in 1999, NREL performed a complete review and update of the process design and economic model for the biomass-to-ethanol process utilizing co-current dilute acid prehydrolysis with simultaneous saccharification (enzymatic) and co-fermentation. The process design included the core technologies being researched by the DOE: prehydrolysis, simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation, and cellulase enzyme production. In addition, all ancillary areas--feed handling, product recovery and purification, wastewater treatment (WWT), lignin combustor and boiler-turbogenerator, and utilities--were included. NREL engaged Delta-T Corporation (Delta-T) to assist in the process design evaluation, the process equipment costing, and overall plant integration. The process design

  11. Soil-derived microbial consortia enriched with different plant biomass reveal distinct players acting in lignocellulose degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lima Brossi, Maria Julia; Jiménez Avella, Diego; Cortes Tolalpa, Larisa; van Elsas, Jan

    Here, we investigated how different plant biomass, and-for one substrate-pH, drive the composition of degrader microbial consortia. We bred such consortia from forest soil, incubated along nine aerobic sequential - batch enrichments with wheat straw (WS1, pH 7.2; WS2, pH 9.0), switchgrass (SG, pH

  12. Characterization of a thermophilic cellulase from Geobacillus sp. HTA426, an efficient cellulase-producer on alkali pretreated of lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potprommanee, Laddawan; Wang, Xiao-Qin; Han, Ye-Ju; Nyobe, Didonc; Peng, Yen-Ping; Huang, Qing; Liu, Jing-Yong; Liao, Yu-Ling; Chang, Ken-Lin

    2017-01-01

    A themophilic cellulase-producing bacterium was isolated from a hot spring district and identified as Geobacillus sp. HTA426. The cellulase enzyme produced by the Geobacillus sp. HTA426 was purified through ammonium sulfate precipitation and ion exchange chromatography, with the recovery yield and fold purification of 10.14% and 5.12, respectively. The purified cellulase has a molecular weight of 40 kDa. The optimum temperature and pH for carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase) activity of the purified cellulase were 60°C and pH 7.0, respectively. The enzyme was also stable over a wide temperature range of 50°C to 70°C after 5 h of incubation. Moreover, the strain HTA426 was able to grow and produce cellulase on alkali-treated sugarcane bagasse, rice straw and water hyacinth as carbon sources. Enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse, which was regarded as the most effective carbon source for cellulase production (CMCase activity = 103.67 U/mL), followed by rice straw (74.70 U/mL) and water hyacinth (51.10 U/mL). This strain producing an efficient thermostable cellulose is a potential candidate for developing a more efficient and cost-effective process for converting lignocellulosic biomass into biofuel and other industrial process.

  13. Growth of oleaginous Rhodotorula glutinis in an internal-loop airlift bioreactor by using lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysate as the carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Hong-Wei; Chang, Jung-Tzu

    2015-05-01

    The conversion of abundant lignocellulosic biomass (LCB) to valuable compounds has become a very attractive idea recently. This study successfully used LCB (rice straw) hydrolysate as a carbon source for the cultivation of oleaginous yeast-Rhodotorula glutinis in an airlift bioreactor. The lipid content of 34.3 ± 0.6% was obtained in an airlift batch with 60 g reducing sugars/L of LCB hydrolysate at a 2 vvm aeration rate. While using LCB hydrolysate as the carbon source, oleic acid (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2) were the predominant fatty acids of the microbial lipids. Using LCB hydrolysate in the airlift bioreactor at 2 vvm achieved the highest cell mass growth as compared to the agitation tank. Despite the low lipid content of the batch using LCB hydrolysate, this low cost feedstock has the potential of being adopted for the production of β-carotene instead of lipid accumulation in the airlift bioreactor for the cultivation of R. glutinis. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Continuous wet oxidation pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass with subsequent continuous ethanol production; Kontinuerlig vaadoxidationsforbehandling af lignocelluloseholdige biomasser med efterfoelgende kontinuerlig ethanolfremstilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahring, B.K.; Torry-Smith, M.; Loeth, A.H.

    2001-07-01

    In this project the possibility of implementing a UASB-reactor for detoxification of the recirculation water is investigated. Bioethanol- effluent (BEE) made from wet-oxidized wheat straw (60 g-wheat straw/l-water) fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Thermoanaerobacter mathranii A3M4 is in this project used to simulate the effluent from a commercial bioethanol plant. To investigate the gas potential and conversion of inhibitors, BEE is investigated both in batch and in a laboratory scale UASB reactor. In batch tests the conversion of acetovanillon, 2-furan acid and 4-hydroxyacetophenon was investigated with the substances themselves, as single substrat, and by co-digestion with BEE. The experiments show that the conversion of the three substances together with BEE had a positive influence on the decomposition and the inhibition levels. Tests with conversion of BEE in a laboratory scale UASB-reactor showed that by loading up to 29 g-COD/l it was possible to obtain a COD-reduction at 80% (w/w). At the same time GC-analyses of vanillin acid, homo vanillin acid, aceton vanillon, syringon acid, acetosyringon, syringol, 4-hydroxybenzo acid, 4-hydroxbenzaldenhyde, 2-furan acid, and phenol showed that all these substances were converted in the UASB-reactor. Economical calculations carried out on the basis of the results from the experiments indicate that the implementation of a UASB-cleaning step for cleaning the bioethanol process water can be carried out with a economical profit, which among other means a short payback time on the investment. It is things concluded that the implementation of a UASB-cleaning step is a qualified method to detoxify process water for bioethanol production and thereby reduce the total production costs of the commercial bioethanol production based on lignocelluslose materials. The necessity of tests with repeated recirculations are indicated, because continuous reuse of the process water can result in up-concentration of any inhibitors

  15. Intensification of delignification and subsequent hydrolysis for the fermentable sugar production from lignocellulosic biomass using ultrasonic irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhedar, Preeti B; Ray, Pearl; Gogate, Parag R

    2018-01-01

    The present work deals with intensification of delignification and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of sustainable biomass such as groundnut shells, coconut coir and pistachio shells using ultrasound assisted approach so as to develop an economical approach for obtaining bioethanol. Process intensification, in the current context, is referred to as any improvements giving enhanced rates possibly with lower energy and chemical as well as enzyme requirement for delignification and hydrolysis respectively. Conventional processing for both delignification and enzymatic hydrolysis has also been investigated for establishing the degree of intensification. The obtained results for delignification of biomass established that for conventional alkaline treatment, the extent of delignification for the case of groundnut shells, coconut coir and pistachio shells were 41.8, 45.9 and 38% which increased to 71.1, 89.5 and 78.9% respectively giving almost 80-100% increase for the ultrasound assisted approach. Under optimized conditions, the conventional approach resulted in reducing sugar yields as 10.2, 12.1 and 8.1g/L for groundnut shells, coconut coir and pistachio shells respectively whereas for the case of ultrasound-assisted enzymatic hydrolysis, the obtained yields were 21.3, 23.9 and 18.4g/L in same order of biomass. The material samples were characterized by several characterization techniques for establishing the morphological changes obtained due to the use of ultrasound which were found to be favorable for enhanced delignification and hydrolysis for the ultrasound assisted approach. Overall, the results of this work establish the process intensification benefits due to the application of ultrasound for different sustainable biomass with mechanistic understanding based on the morphological analyses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Scale-up study of oxalic acid pretreatment of agricultural lignocellulosic biomass for the production of bioethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jae-Won Lee; Carl J. Houtman; Hye-Yun Kim; In-Gyu Choi; Thomas W. Jeffries

    2011-01-01

    Building on our laboratory-scale optimization, oxalic acid was used to pretreat corncobs on the pilotscale. The hydrolysate obtained after washing the pretreated biomass contained 32.55 g/l of xylose, 2.74 g/l of glucose and low concentrations of inhibitors. Ethanol production, using Scheffersomyces stipitis, from this hydrolysate was 10.3 g/l, which approached the...

  17. Eco-friendly dry chemo-mechanical pretreatments of lignocellulosic biomass: Impact on energy and yield of the enzymatic hydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barakat, Abdellatif; Chuetor, Santi; Monlau, Florian; Solhy, Abderrahim; Rouau, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Innovative dry NaOH chemo-mechanical pretreatment was developed. • Dry (TS dry ) and dilute (TS dilute ) NaOH chemo-mechanical pretreatment were compared. • TS dilute consumed higher amounts of water and energy compared to TS dry . • Energy efficiency obtained for TS dilute was 0.417 kg glucose kW h −1 and 0.888 for TS dry . - Abstract: In this study, we developed an eco-friendly dry alkaline chemomechanical pretreatment of wheat straw without production of waste and liquid fractions with objective to save energy input, to decrease the environmental impact and to increase enzymatic hydrolysis. Wheat straw was pretreated with NH 3 , NaOH-H 2 O 2 , NH 3 -H 2 O 2 and NaOH at high materials concentration (5 kg/L) equivalent to biomass/liquid ratio of 1/5 (dry chemomechanical) and at low materials concentration (0.2 kg/L) equivalent to biomass/liquid ratio of 5/1 (dilute chemomechanical). Untreated and chemical treated wheat straw samples were subjected to grinding and milling following by enzymatic hydrolysis with commercial cellulases. NaOH and NaOH-H 2 O 2 dry chemomechanical pretreatments were found to be more effective in decreasing the particle size and energy consumption and increasing the surface area. However, alkaline dilute-chemomechanical treatments consumed higher amounts of water (5 L water/1 kg biomass) and energy compared to dry-chemomechanical treatments. In point of fact, the lowest energy efficiency obtained was 0.417 kg glucose kW h −1 for dilute-chemomechanical treatments compared to 0.888 kg glucose kW h −1 glucose kW h −1 for dry-chemomechanical treatments. Alkaline dry-chemomechanical pretreatments approach appears more attractive and efficient in terms of glucose, energy efficiency and environmental impact, compared to conventional alkaline chemomechanical pretreatments

  18. One-step production of biocommodities from lignocellulosic biomass by recombinant cellulolytic bacillus subtilis: opportunities and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiao-Zhou [Department of Biological Systems Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Zhang, Yi-Heng P. [Department of Biological Systems Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Institute for Critical Technology and Applied Science, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA (United States); BioEnergy Science Center of Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2010-10-15

    One-step consolidated bioprocessing that integrates cellulase production, cellulose hydrolysis, and product fermentation into a single step for decreasing costly cellulase use, increasing volumetric productivity, and reducing capital investment is widely accepted for low-cost production of biofuels or other value-added biochemicals. Considering the narrow margins between biomass and low-value biocommodities, good physiological performance of industrial microbes is crucial for economically viable production. Bacillus subtilis, the best-characterized Gram-positive microorganism, is a major industrial microorganism with numerous valuable features such as hexose and pentose utilization, low-nutrient needs, fast growth rate, high protein secretion capacity, industrial safety, etc. As compared with other potential consolidated bioprocessing microorganisms such as Clostridium spp., Escherichia coli, and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, recombinant cellulolytic B. subtilis strains would be a potential platform for biocommodity production from nonfood biomass. Here, we review the advances in recombinant cellulolytic B. subtilis development and metabolic engineering for biocommodity production, and discuss the opportunities and challenges of cellulolytic B. subtilis for biocommodity production. (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Process Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol: Thermochemical Pathway by Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, A.; Talmadge, M.; Hensley, J.; Worley, M.; Dudgeon, D.; Barton, D.; Groendijk, P.; Ferrari, D.; Stears, B.; Searcy, E. M.; Wright, C. T.; Hess, J. R.

    2011-05-01

    This design report describes an up-to-date benchmark thermochemical conversion process that incorporates the latest research from NREL and other sources. Building on a design report published in 2007, NREL and its subcontractor Harris Group Inc. performed a complete review of the process design and economic model for a biomass-to-ethanol process via indirect gasification. The conceptual design presented herein considers the economics of ethanol production, assuming the achievement of internal research targets for 2012 and nth-plant costs and financing. The design features a processing capacity of 2,205 U.S. tons (2,000 metric tonnes) of dry biomass per day and an ethanol yield of 83.8 gallons per dry U.S. ton of feedstock. The ethanol selling price corresponding to this design is $2.05 per gallon in 2007 dollars, assuming a 30-year plant life and 40% equity financing with a 10% internal rate of return and the remaining 60% debt financed at 8% interest. This ethanol selling price corresponds to a gasoline equivalent price of $3.11 per gallon based on the relative volumetric energy contents of ethanol and gasoline.

  20. A strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae evolved for fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass displays improved growth and fermentative ability in high solids concentrations and in the presence of inhibitory compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawkins Gary M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Softwoods are the dominant source of lignocellulosic biomass in the northern hemisphere, and have been investigated worldwide as a renewable substrate for cellulosic ethanol production. One challenge to using softwoods, which is particularly acute with pine, is that the pretreatment process produces inhibitory compounds detrimental to the growth and metabolic activity of fermenting organisms. To overcome the challenge of bioconversion in the presence of inhibitory compounds, especially at high solids loading, a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was subjected to evolutionary engineering and adaptation for fermentation of pretreated pine wood (Pinus taeda. Results An industrial strain of Saccharomyces, XR122N, was evolved using pretreated pine; the resulting daughter strain, AJP50, produced ethanol much more rapidly than its parent in fermentations of pretreated pine. Adaptation, by preculturing of the industrial yeast XR122N and the evolved strains in 7% dry weight per volume (w/v pretreated pine solids prior to inoculation into higher solids concentrations, improved fermentation performance of all strains compared with direct inoculation into high solids. Growth comparisons between XR122N and AJP50 in model hydrolysate media containing inhibitory compounds found in pretreated biomass showed that AJP50 exited lag phase faster under all conditions tested. This was due, in part, to the ability of AJP50 to rapidly convert furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural to their less toxic alcohol derivatives, and to recover from reactive oxygen species damage more quickly than XR122N. Under industrially relevant conditions of 17.5% w/v pretreated pine solids loading, additional evolutionary engineering was required to decrease the pronounced lag phase. Using a combination of adaptation by inoculation first into a solids loading of 7% w/v for 24 hours, followed by a 10% v/v inoculum (approximately equivalent to 1 g/L dry cell weight into 17

  1. Discovering the desirable alleles contributing to the lignocellulosic biomass traits in saccharum germplasm collections for energy cane improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, James [USDA ARS Sugarcane Field Station, Canal Point, FL (United States); Comstock, Jack C. [USDA ARS Sugarcane Field Station, Canal Point, FL (United States)

    2015-11-25

    of the cores and the World Collection are similar to each other genotypically and phenotypically, but the core that was selected using only genotypic data was significantly different phenotypically. This indicates that there is not enough association between the genotypic and phenotypic diversity as to select using only genotypic diversity and get the full phenotypic diversity. Core Collection: Creation and Phenotyping Methods: To evaluate this germplasm for breeding purposes, a representative diversity panel selected from the WCSRG of approximately 300 accessions was planted at Canal Point, FL in three replications. These accessions were measured for stalk height and stalk number multiple times throughout the growing season and Brix and fresh biomass during harvest in 2013 and, stalk height, stalk number, stalk diameter, internode length, Brix and fresh and dry biomass was determined in the ratoon crop harvest in 2014. Results: In correlations of multiple measurements, there were higher correlations for early measurements of stalk number and stalk height with harvest traits like Brix and fresh weight. Hybrids had higher fresh mass and Brix while Saccharum spontaneum had higher stalk number and dry mass. The heritability of hybrid mass traits was lower in the ratoon crop. According to the principal component analysis, the diversity panel was divided into two groups. One group had accessions with high stalk number and high dry biomass like S. spontaneum and the other groups contained accessions with higher Brix and fresh biomass like S. officinarum. Mass traits correlated with each other as expected but hybrids had lower correlations between fresh and dry mass. Stalk number and the mass traits correlated with each other except in S. spontaneum and hybrids in the first ratoon. There were 110 accessions not significantly different in Brix from the commercial sugarcane checks including 10 S. spontaneum accessions. There were 27 dry and 6 fresh mass accessions

  2. Comparative biochemical analysis during the anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass from six morphological parts of Williams Cavendish banana (Triploid Musa AAA group) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamdem, Irénée; Hiligsmann, Serge; Vanderghem, Caroline; Bilik, Igor; Paquot, Michel; Thonart, Philippe

    2013-12-01

    We studied banana lignocellulosic biomass (BALICEBIOM) that is abandoned after fruit harvesting, and assessed its biochemical methane potential, because of its potential as an energy source. We monitored biogas production from six morphological parts (MPs) of the "Williams Cavendish" banana cultivar using a modified operating procedure (KOP) using KOH. Volatile fatty acid (VFA) production was measured using high performance liquid chromatography. The bulbs, leaf sheaths, petioles-midribs, leaf blades, rachis stems, and floral stalks gave total biogas production of 256, 205, 198, 126, 253, and 221 ml g⁻¹ dry matter, respectively, and total biomethane production of 150, 141, 127, 98, 162, and 144 ml g⁻¹, respectively. The biogas production rates and yields depended on the biochemical composition of the BALICEBIOM and the ability of anaerobic microbes to access fermentable substrates. There were no significant differences between the biogas analysis results produced using KOP and gas chromatography. Acetate was the major VFA in all the MP sample culture media. The bioconversion yields for each MP were below 50 %, showing that these substrates were not fully biodegraded after 188 days. The estimated electricity that could be produced from biogas combustion after fermenting all of the BALICEBIOM produced annually by the Cameroon Development Corporation-Del Monte plantations for 188 days is approximately 10.5 × 10⁶ kW h (which would be worth 0.80-1.58 million euros in the current market). This bioenergy could serve the requirements of about 42,000 people in the region, although CH₄ productivity could be improved.

  3. Ethanol from lignocellulosic biomasses; Etanolo da biomasse lignocellulosiche. Produzione di etanolo da paglia di grano mediante pretrattamento di steam explosion, idrolisi enzimatica e fermentazione

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricci, E.; Viola, E.; Zimbardi, F.; Braccio, G. [ENEA, Divisione Fonti Rinnovabili di Energia, Centro Ricerche Trisaia, Policoro, Matera (Italy); Cuna, D. [Faucitano Srl, Milan (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    In this report are presented results achieved on the process optimisation of bioethanol production from wheat straw, carried out within the ENEA's project of biomass exploitation for renewable energy. The process consists of three main steps: 1) biomass pretreatment by means of steam explosion; 2) enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose fraction; 3) fermentation of glucose. To perform the hydrolysis step, two commercial enzymatic mixtures have been employed, mainly composed by {beta}-glucosidase (cellobiase), endo-glucanase and exo-glucanase. The ethanologenic yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been used to ferment the glucose in he hydrolyzates. Hydrolysis yield of 97% has been obtained with steam exploded wheat straw treated at 220{sup 0}C for 3 minutes and an enzyme to substrate ratio of 4%. It has been pointed out the necessity of washing with water the pretreated what straw, in order to remove the biomass degradation products, which have shown an inhibition effect on the yeast. At the best process conditions, a fermentation yield of 95% has been achieved. In the Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation process, a global conversion of 92% has been obtained, which corresponds to the production of about 170 grams of ethanol per kilogram of exploded straw. [Italian] Si riportano i risultati di un'attivita' di ricerca finalizzata all'ottimizzazione del processo di produzione di etanolo da paglia di grano. Il processo esaminato consta di un pretrattamento mediante steam explosion della paglia, seguito da idrolisi enzimatica della cellulosa e fermentazione del glucosio ottenuto. Per effettuare l'idrolisi sono stati utilizzati due preparati enzimatici disponibili commercialmente, costituiti da {beta}-glucosidasi, endo-glucanasi ed eso-glucanasi. Per la fermentazione del glucosio negli idrolizzati e' stato impiegato il lievito Saccharomyces cerevisae. E' stata raggiunta un'efficienza massima di idrolisi del 97% utilizzando

  4. Posidonia oceanica as a Renewable Lignocellulosic Biomass for the Synthesis of Cellulose Acetate and Glycidyl Methacrylate Grafted Cellulose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Vismara

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available High-grade cellulose (97% α-cellulose content of 48% crystallinity index was extracted from the renewable marine biomass waste Posidonia oceanica using H2O2 and organic peracids following an environmentally friendly and chlorine-free process. This cellulose appeared as a new high-grade cellulose of waste origin quite similar to the high-grade cellulose extracted from more noble starting materials like wood and cotton linters. The benefits of α-cellulose recovery from P. oceanica were enhanced by its transformation into cellulose acetate CA and cellulose derivative GMA-C. Fully acetylated CA was prepared by conventional acetylation method and easily transformed into a transparent film. GMA-C with a molar substitution (MS of 0.72 was produced by quenching Fenton’s reagent (H2O2/FeSO4 generated cellulose radicals with GMA. GMA grafting endowed high-grade cellulose from Posidonia with adsorption capability. GMA-C removes β-naphthol from water with an efficiency of 47%, as measured by UV-Vis spectroscopy. After hydrolysis of the glycidyl group to glycerol group, the modified GMA-C was able to remove p-nitrophenol from water with an efficiency of 92%, as measured by UV-Vis spectroscopy. α-cellulose and GMA-Cs from Posidonia waste can be considered as new materials of potential industrial and environmental interest.

  5. Parametric study of two-stage hydropyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass for production of gaseous and light aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Nan; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Jie

    2017-11-01

    Non-catalytic hydropyrolysis of pinewood and its components was carried out using a two-stage reactor. The main aim of this work is to investigate the hydrodeoxygenation and hydrogenation of volatile matter in the post hydrocracking reactor for oriented production of gaseous and light aromatic hydrocarbons. A portion of volatile matter, which evolved from hemicellulose, neutral extractives and lignin below 275°C, was found to be thoroughly hydrodeoxygenated preventing the release of CO 2 and CO. Increasing hydrocracking temperature from 600°C to 750°C and pressure from 1.0MPa to 5.0MPa strongly facilitated the hydrogenation reactions to target products. The summed yield of CH 4 and C 2 H 6 (dry biomass basis) reached up to 33.2% at a hydrocracking temperature of 750°C and 5.0MPa, with a concomitant 5.1% yield of BTX. All components in pinewood significantly contributed to the production of CH 4 and BTX by hydropyrolysis, differing from the case of pyrolysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Utilization of biomass in the U.S. for the production of ethanol fuel as a gasoline replacement. I - Terrestrial resource potential. II - Energy requirements, with emphasis on lignocellulosic conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferchak, J. D.; Pye, E. K.

    The paper assesses the biomass resource represented by starch derived from feed corn, surplus and distressed grain, and high-yield sugar crops planted on set-aside land in the U.S. It is determined that the quantity of ethanol produced may be sufficient to replace between 5 to 27% of present gasoline requirements. Utilization of novel cellulose conversion technology may in addition provide fermentable sugars from municipal, agricultural and forest wastes, and ultimately from highly productive silvicultural operations. The potential additional yield of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass appears to be well in excess of liquid fuel requirements of an enhanced-efficiency transport sector at present mileage demands. No conflict with food production would be entailed. A net-energy assessment is made for lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks' conversion to ethanol and an almost 10:1 energy yield/energy cost ratio determined. It is also found that novel cellulose pretreatment and enzymatic conversion methods still under development may significantly improve even that figure, and that both chemical-feedstocks and energy-yielding byproducts such as carbon dioxide, biogas and lignin make ethanol production potentially energy self-sufficient. A final high-efficiency production approach incorporates site-optimized, nonpolluting energy sources such as solar and geothermal.

  7. Thermophilic lignocellulose deconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumer-Schuette, Sara E; Brown, Steven D; Sander, Kyle B; Bayer, Edward A; Kataeva, Irina; Zurawski, Jeffrey V; Conway, Jonathan M; Adams, Michael W W; Kelly, Robert M

    2014-05-01

    Thermophilic microorganisms are attractive candidates for conversion of lignocellulose to biofuels because they produce robust, effective, carbohydrate-degrading enzymes and survive under harsh bioprocessing conditions that reflect their natural biotopes. However, no naturally occurring thermophile is known that can convert plant biomass into a liquid biofuel at rates, yields and titers that meet current bioprocessing and economic targets. Meeting those targets requires either metabolically engineering solventogenic thermophiles with additional biomass-deconstruction enzymes or engineering plant biomass degraders to produce a liquid biofuel. Thermostable enzymes from microorganisms isolated from diverse environments can serve as genetic reservoirs for both efforts. Because of the sheer number of enzymes that are required to hydrolyze plant biomass to fermentable oligosaccharides, the latter strategy appears to be the preferred route and thus has received the most attention to date. Thermophilic plant biomass degraders fall into one of two categories: cellulosomal (i.e. multienzyme complexes) and noncellulosomal (i.e. 'free' enzyme systems). Plant-biomass-deconstructing thermophilic bacteria from the genera Clostridium (cellulosomal) and Caldicellulosiruptor (noncellulosomal), which have potential as metabolic engineering platforms for producing biofuels, are compared and contrasted from a systems biology perspective. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Biomass Scenario Model | Energy Analysis | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomass Scenario Model Biomass Scenario Model The Biomass Scenario Model (BSM) is a unique range of lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks into biofuels. Over the past 25 years, the corn ethanol plant matter (lignocellulosic biomass) to fermentable sugars for the production of fuel ethanol

  9. Engineering sugar utilization and microbial tolerance toward lignocellulose conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizbeth M. Nieves

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Production of fuels and chemicals through a fermentation-based manufacturing process that uses renewable feedstock such as lignocellulosic biomass is a desirable alternative to petrochemicals. Although it is still in its infancy, synthetic biology offers great potential to overcome the challenges associated with lignocellulose conversion. In this review, we will summarize the identification and optimization of synthetic biological parts used to enhance the utilization of lignocellulose-derived sugars and to increase the biocatalyst tolerance for lignocellulose-derived fermentation inhibitors. We will also discuss the ongoing efforts and future applications of synthetic integrated biological systems used to improve lignocellulose conversion.

  10. Fungal treatment of lignocellulosic biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijk, van S.J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary PhD thesis Sandra J.A. van Kuijk

    Carbohydrates in plant cell walls are highly fermentable and could be used as a source for ruminant nutrition or biofuel production. The presence of lignin in cell walls hampers the utilization of these carbohydrates and should thus

  11. Levulinic acid from lignocellulosic biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girisuta, Buana

    2007-01-01

    The primary objective of this thesis is to define optimum catalysts, reaction conditions and reactor configurations for the conversion of water hyacinth plant to LA. The conversion of the C6-sugars present in the water hyacinth plant to LA involves several reactions that together form a complex

  12. Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Process Design and Economics Utilizing Co-Current Dilute Acid Prehydrolysis and Enzymatic Hydrolysis for Corn Stover

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-06-01

    is pumped from the blowdown tank into the hydrolyzate mixing tank (T-205) and mixed with recycled filtrate liquor (from tank T-213) to reduce the...slurrying tank (T-232) where it is mixed with conditioned hydrolyzate liquor and additional recycle water. Product liquor to be conditioned is pumped from...lignin-derived compounds. These reactions detoxify the hydrolyzate and the detoxification is more efficient at higher pH. Investigations into the

  13. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbons via Indirect Liquefaction. Thermochemical Research Pathway to High-Octane Gasoline Blendstock Through Methanol/Dimethyl Ether Intermediates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, E. C. D.; Talmadge, M.; Dutta, A.; Hensley, J.; Schaidle, J.; Biddy, M.; Humbird, D.; Snowden-Swan, L. J.; Ross, J.; Sexton, D.; Yap, R.; Lukas, J.

    2015-03-01

    This report was developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office’s (BETO’s) efforts to enable the development of technologies for the production of infrastructure-compatible, cost-competitive liquid hydrocarbon fuels from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks. The research funded by BETO is designed to advance the state of technology of biomass feedstock supply and logistics, conversion, and overall system sustainability. It is expected that these research improvements will be made within the 2022 timeframe. As part of their involvement in this research and development effort, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory investigate the economics of conversion pathways through the development of conceptual biorefinery process models and techno-economic analysis models. This report describes in detail one potential conversion process for the production of high-octane gasoline blendstock via indirect liquefaction of biomass. The processing steps of this pathway include the conversion of biomass to synthesis gas or syngas via indirect gasification, gas cleanup, catalytic conversion of syngas to methanol intermediate, methanol dehydration to dimethyl ether (DME), and catalytic conversion of DME to high-octane, gasoline-range hydrocarbon blendstock product. The conversion process configuration leverages technologies previously advanced by research funded by BETO and demonstrated in 2012 with the production of mixed alcohols from biomass. Biomass-derived syngas cleanup via reforming of tars and other hydrocarbons is one of the key technology advancements realized as part of this prior research and 2012 demonstrations. The process described in this report evaluates a new technology area for the downstream utilization of clean biomass-derived syngas for the production of high-octane hydrocarbon products through methanol and DME intermediates. In this process, methanol undergoes dehydration to

  14. Biomass recalcitrance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felby, Claus

    2009-01-01

    Alternative and renewable fuels derived from lignocellulosic biomass offer a promising alternative to conventional energy sources, and provide energy security, economic growth, and environmental benefits. However, plant cell walls naturally resist decomposition from microbes and enzymes - this co......Alternative and renewable fuels derived from lignocellulosic biomass offer a promising alternative to conventional energy sources, and provide energy security, economic growth, and environmental benefits. However, plant cell walls naturally resist decomposition from microbes and enzymes...... - this collective resistance is known as "biomass recalcitrance." Breakthrough technologies are needed to overcome barriers to developing cost-effective processes for converting biomass to fuels and chemicals. This book examines the connection between biomass structure, ultrastructure, and composition......, to resistance to enzymatic deconstruction, with the aim of discovering new cost-effective technologies for biorefineries. It contains chapters on topics extending from the highest levels of biorefinery design and biomass life-cycle analysis, to detailed aspects of plant cell wall structure, chemical treatments...

  15. Process Design Report for Stover Feedstock: Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Process Design and Economics Utilizing Co-Current Dilute Acid Prehydrolysis and Enzymatic Hydrolysis for Corn Stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aden, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ruth, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ibsen, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jechura, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Neeves, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sheehan, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wallace, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Montague, L. [Harris Group, Seattle, WA (United States); Slayton, A. [Harris Group, Seattle, WA (United States); Lukas, J. [Harris Group, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2002-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is promoting the development of ethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks as an alternative to conventional petroleum-based transportation fuels. DOE funds both fundamental and applied research in this area and needs a method for predicting cost benefits of many research proposals. To that end, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has modeled many potential process designs and estimated the economics of each process during the last 20 years. This report is an update of the ongoing process design and economic analyses at NREL.

  16. Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard R. Parresol

    2001-01-01

    Biomass, the contraction for biological mass, is the amount of living material provided by a given area or volume of the earth's surface, whether terrestrial or aquatic. Biomass is important for commercial uses (e.g., fuel and fiber) and for national development planning, as well as for scientific studies of ecosystem productivity, energy and nutrient flows, and...

  17. Maleic acid treatment of biologically detoxified corn stover liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daehwan; Ximenes, Eduardo A; Nichols, Nancy N; Cao, Guangli; Frazer, Sarah E; Ladisch, Michael R

    2016-09-01

    Elimination of microbial and enzyme inhibitors from pretreated lignocellulose is critical for effective cellulose conversion and yeast fermentation of liquid hot water (LHW) pretreated corn stover. In this study, xylan oligomers were hydrolyzed using either maleic acid or hemicellulases, and other soluble inhibitors were eliminated by biological detoxification. Corn stover at 20% (w/v) solids was LHW pretreated LHW (severity factor: 4.3). The 20% solids (w/v) pretreated corn stover derived liquor was recovered and biologically detoxified using the fungus Coniochaeta ligniaria NRRL30616. After maleic acid treatment, and using 5 filter paper units of cellulase/g glucan (8.3mg protein/g glucan), 73% higher cellulose conversion from corn stover was obtained for biodetoxified samples compared to undetoxified samples. This corresponded to 87% cellulose to glucose conversion. Ethanol production by yeast of pretreated corn stover solids hydrolysate was 1.4 times higher than undetoxified samples, with a reduction of 3h in the fermentation lag phase. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Catalytic routes from biomass to fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisager, Anders

    2014-01-01

    chain unaffected. This presentation will survey the status of biofuels production from different sources, and discuss the sustainability of making transportation fuels from biomass. Furthermore, recently developed chemocatalytic technologies that allow efficient conversion of lignocellulosic biomass...... the chemical industry to find new feasible chemocatalytic routes to convert the components of lignocellulosic plant biomass (green biomass) as well as aquatic biomass (blue biomass) into potential platform chemicals that can replace the fossil based chemicals in order to leave the chemical supply and value...

  19. Conditioning biomass for microbial growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodie, Elizabeth A; England, George

    2015-03-31

    The present invention relates to methods for improving the yield of microbial processes that use lignocellulose biomass as a nutrient source. The methods comprise conditioning a composition comprising lignocellulose biomass with an enzyme composition that comprises a phenol oxidizing enzyme. The conditioned composition can support a higher rate of growth of microorganisms in a process. In one embodiment, a laccase composition is used to condition lignocellulose biomass derived from non-woody plants, such as corn and sugar cane. The invention also encompasses methods for culturing microorganisms that are sensitive to inhibitory compounds in lignocellulose biomass. The invention further provides methods of making a product by culturing the production microorganisms in conditioned lignocellulose biomass.

  20. Lignin pyrolysis for profitable lignocellulosic biorefineries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wild, de P.J.; Gosselink, R.J.A.; Huijgen, W.J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Bio-based industries (pulp and paper and biorefineries) produce > 50 Mt/yr of lignin that results from fractionation of lignocellulosic biomass. Lignin is world's second biopolymer and a major potential source for production of performance materials and aromatic chemicals. Lignin valorization is

  1. Dry fractionation process as an important step in current and future lignocellulose biorefineries: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Abdellatif; de Vries, Hugo; Rouau, Xavier

    2013-04-01

    The use of lignocellulosic biomass is promising for biofuels and materials and new technologies for the conversion need to be developed. However, the inherent properties of native lignocellulosic materials make them resistant to enzymatic and chemical degradation. Lignocellulosic biomass requires being pretreated to change the physical and chemical properties of lignocellulosic matrix in order to increase cell wall polymers accessibility and bioavailability. Mechanical size reduction may be chemical free intensive operation thanks to decreasing particles size and cellulose crystallinity, and increasing accessible surface area. Changes in these parameters improve the digestibility and the bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass. However, mechanical size reduction requires cost-effective approaches from an energy input point of view. Therefore, the energy consumption in relation to physicochemical properties of lignocellulosic biomass was discussed. Even more, chemical treatments combined with physicochemical size reduction approaches are proposed to reduce energy consumption in this review. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of Pyrolysis Temperature and Type of Ligno-Cellulose and Cellulose Biomass on Yield, Specific Surface Area and Mechanical Resistance of Active Coal

    OpenAIRE

    Pohořelý, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In the Czech Republic, there are many contaminated agricultural soils due to anthropogenic activity and geogenic origin. The contaminated biomass of plants grown on the contaminated soils needs to be appropriately disposed of to prevent the re-releace of heavy metals into the environment. One way of processing contaminated biomass is pyrolysis, where the heavy metals are concentrated in biochar (active coal). This can be applied to soil where it improves the physical properties. The aim of ...

  3. Boosting LPMO-driven lignocellulose degradation by polyphenol oxidase-activated lignin building blocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frommhagen, Matthias; Mutte, Sumanth Kumar; Westphal, Adrie H.; Koetsier, Martijn J.; Hinz, Sandra W.A.; Visser, Jaap; Vincken, Jean Paul; Weijers, Dolf; Berkel, Van Willem J.H.; Gruppen, Harry; Kabel, Mirjam A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Many fungi boost the deconstruction of lignocellulosic plant biomass via oxidation using lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs). The application of LPMOs is expected to contribute to ecologically friendly conversion of biomass into fuels and chemicals. Moreover, applications of

  4. Investigation of adsorption kinetics and isotherm of cellulase and B-Glucosidase on lignocellulosic substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clear understanding of enzyme adsorption during enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass is essential to enhance the cost-efficiency of hydrolysis. However, conclusions from literatures often contradicted each other because enzyme adsorption is enzyme, biomass/pretreatment and experimental co...

  5. Comparison of various milling modes combined to the enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass for bioenergy production: Glucose yield and energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Licari, A.; Monlau, F.; Solhy, A.; Buche, P.; Barakat, A.

    2016-01-01

    Bagasse is an abundant by-product from sugarcane production that can be used for conversion into biofuels. Nonetheless, the recalcitrant structures of lignocellulosic fibers required a pretreatment prior conversion into biofuels. In this study, four mechanical deconstruction methods were compared in terms of energy demand and energy efficiency at lab scale: BM (ball mill), VBM (vibratory ball mill), CM (centrifugal mill) and JM (jet mill). Results indicate that VBM was more effective compared to BM, JM and CM in enzymatic accessibility and sugars solubilization: VBM-3h > BM-72 h > JM-5000 rpm > CM-0.12 mm. However, preliminary energetic assessment showed that at lab scale, the CM (centrifugal mill) as mechanical fractionation process appears to be the most efficient in terms of energy-efficiency (kg glucose/kWh) compared to BM, VBM and JM. A comparison with literature pretreatments data highlighted that fine and/or ultrafine milling process (BM, VBM, CM) are simpler saccharification technologies, which not required any chemical or water inputs, thus minimizing waste generation and treatment. - Highlights: • VBM (vibro ball milling) was the most effective in decreasing of cellulose crystallinity. • BM (ball milling) was the most effective in increasing surface area. • The highest energy efficiency was obtained with CM (centrifugal milling).

  6. The impact of furfural concentrations and substrate-to-biomass ratios on biological hydrogen production from synthetic lignocellulosic hydrolysate using mesophilic anaerobic digester sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akobi, Chinaza; Hafez, Hisham; Nakhla, George

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluated the impact of furfural (a furan derivative) on hydrogen production rates and yields at initial substrate-to-microorganism ratios (S°/X°) of 4, 2, 1, and 0.5gCOD/gVSS and furfural concentrations of 4, 2, 1, and 0.5g/L. Fermentation studies were carried out in batches using synthetic lignocellulosic hydrolysate as substrate and mesophilic anaerobic digester sludge as seed. Contrary to other literature studies where furfural was inhibitory, this study showed that furfural concentrations of up to 1g/L enhanced hydrogen production with yields as high as 19% from the control (batch without furfural). Plots of hydrogen yields against gfurfural/gsugars and hydrogen yields versus gfurfural/gbiomass showed negative linear correlation indicating that these parameters influence biohydrogen production. Regression analysis indicated that gfurfural/gsugars initial exerted a greater effect on the degree of inhibition of hydrogen production than gfurfural/gVSS final . Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels. Thermochemical Research Pathways with In Situ and Ex Situ Upgrading of Fast Pyrolysis Vapors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, A.; Sahir, A.; Tan, E.; Humbird, D.; Snowden-Swan, L. J.; Meyer, P.; Ross, J.; Sexton, D.; Yap, R.; Lukas, J.

    2015-03-01

    This report was developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office’s efforts to enable the development of technologies for the production of infrastructurecompatible, cost-competitive liquid hydrocarbon fuels from biomass. Specifically, this report details two conceptual designs based on projected product yields and quality improvements via catalyst development and process integration. It is expected that these research improvements will be made within the 2022 timeframe. The two conversion pathways detailed are (1) in situ and (2) ex situ upgrading of vapors produced from the fast pyrolysis of biomass. While the base case conceptual designs and underlying assumptions outline performance metrics for feasibility, it should be noted that these are only two of many other possibilities in this area of research. Other promising process design options emerging from the research will be considered for future techno-economic analysis.

  8. Process Design Report for Wood Feedstock: Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Process Desing and Economics Utilizing Co-Current Dilute Acid Prehydrolysis and Enzymatic Hydrolysis Current and Futuristic Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooley, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ruth, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sheehan, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ibsen, Kelly [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Majdeski, Henry [Delta-T Corporation, Lexington, KY (United States); Galves, Adrian [Delta-T Corporation, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1999-07-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has undertaken a complete review and update of the process design and economic model for the biomass-to-ethanol process based on co-current dilute acid prehydrolysis, along with simultaneous saccharification (enzymatic) and co-fermentation. The process design includes the core technologies being researched by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE): prehydrolysis, simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation, and cellulase enzyme production.

  9. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels: Fast Pyrolysis and Hydrotreating Bio-oil Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Susanne [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Meyer, Pimphan [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Snowden-Swan, Lesley [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Padmaperuma, Asanga [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tan, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dutta, Abhijit [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jacobson, Jacob [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cafferty, Kara [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2013-11-01

    This report describes a proposed thermochemical process for converting biomass into liquid transportation fuels via fast pyrolysis followed by hydroprocessing of the condensed pyrolysis oil. As such, the analysis does not reflect the current state of commercially-available technology but includes advancements that are likely, and targeted to be achieved by 2017. The purpose of this study is to quantify the economic impact of individual conversion targets to allow a focused effort towards achieving cost reductions.

  10. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels: Fast Pyrolysis and Hydrotreating Bio-Oil Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Susanne B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Meyer, Pimphan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Snowden-Swan, Lesley J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Padmaperuma, Asanga B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tan, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dutta, Abhijit [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jacobson, Jacob [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cafferty, Kara [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2013-11-01

    This report describes a proposed thermochemical process for converting biomass into liquid transportation fuels via fast pyrolysis followed by hydroprocessing of the condensed pyrolysis oil. As such, the analysis does not reflect the current state of commercially-available technology but includes advancements that are likely, and targeted to be achieved by 2017. The purpose of this study is to quantify the economic impact of individual conversion targets to allow a focused effort towards achieving cost reductions.

  11. The impacts of pretreatment on the fermentability of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass: a comparative evaluation between ammonia fiber expansion and dilute acid pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale Bruce E

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pretreatment chemistry is of central importance due to its impacts on cellulosic biomass processing and biofuels conversion. Ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX and dilute acid are two promising pretreatments using alkaline and acidic pH that have distinctive differences in pretreatment chemistries. Results Comparative evaluation on these two pretreatments reveal that (i AFEX-pretreated corn stover is significantly more fermentable with respect to cell growth and sugar consumption, (ii both pretreatments can achieve more than 80% of total sugar yield in the enzymatic hydrolysis of washed pretreated solids, and (iii while AFEX completely preserves plant carbohydrates, dilute acid pretreatment at 5% solids loading degrades 13% of xylose to byproducts. Conclusion The selection of pretreatment will determine the biomass-processing configuration, requirements for hydrolysate conditioning (if any and fermentation strategy. Through dilute acid pretreatment, the need for hemicellulase in biomass processing is negligible. AFEX-centered cellulosic technology can alleviate fermentation costs through reducing inoculum size and practically eliminating nutrient costs during bioconversion. However, AFEX requires supplemental xylanases as well as cellulase activity. As for long-term sustainability, AFEX has greater potential to diversify products from a cellulosic biorefinery due to lower levels of inhibitor generation and lignin loss.

  12. Flash pyrolysis at high temperature of ligno-cellulosic biomass and its components - production of synthesis gas; Pyrolyse flash a haute temperature de la biomasse ligno-cellulosique et de ses composes - production de gaz de synthese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couhert, C

    2007-11-15

    Pyrolysis is the first stage of any thermal treatment of biomass and governs the formation of synthesis gas for the production of electricity, hydrogen or liquid fuels. The objective of this work is to establish a link between the composition of a biomass and its pyrolysis gas. We study experimental flash pyrolysis and fix the conditions in which quantities of gas are maximal, while aiming at a regime without heat and mass transfer limitations (particles about 100 {mu}m): temperature of 950 C and residence time of about 2 s. Then we try to predict gas yields of any biomass according to its composition, applicable in this situation where thermodynamic equilibrium is not reached. We show that an additivity law does not allow correlating gas yields of a biomass with fractions of cellulose, hemi-cellulose and lignin contained in this biomass. Several explanations are suggested and examined: difference of pyrolytic behaviour of the same compound according to the biomass from which it is extracted, interactions between compounds and influence of mineral matter. With the aim of industrial application, we study pyrolysis of millimetric and centimetric size particles, and make a numerical simulation of the reactions of pyrolysis gases reforming. This simulation shows that the choice of biomass affects the quantities of synthesis gas obtained. (author)

  13. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels: Thermochemical Research Pathways with In Situ and Ex Situ Upgrading of Fast Pyrolysis Vapors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Abhijit [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sahir, A. H. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tan, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Humbird, David [DWH Process Consulting, Denver, CO (United States); Snowden-Swan, Lesley J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Meyer, Pimphan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ross, Jeff [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Sexton, Danielle [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Yap, Raymond [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Lukas, John [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report was developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office’s efforts to enable the development of technologies for the production of infrastructure-compatible, cost-competitive liquid hydrocarbon fuels from biomass. Specifically, this report details two conceptual designs based on projected product yields and quality improvements via catalyst development and process integration. It is expected that these research improvements will be made within the 2022 timeframe. The two conversion pathways detailed are (1) in situ and (2) ex situ upgrading of vapors produced from the fast pyrolysis of biomass. While the base case conceptual designs and underlying assumptions outline performance metrics for feasibility, it should be noted that these are only two of many other possibilities in this area of research. Other promising process design options emerging from the research will be considered for future techno-economic analysis. Both the in situ and ex situ conceptual designs, using the underlying assumptions, project MFSPs of approximately $3.5/gallon gasoline equivalent (GGE). The performance assumptions for the ex situ process were more aggressive with higher distillate (diesel-range) products. This was based on an assumption that more favorable reaction chemistry (such as coupling) can be made possible in a separate reactor where, unlike in an in situ upgrading reactor, one does not have to deal with catalyst mixing with biomass char and ash, which pose challenges to catalyst performance and maintenance. Natural gas was used for hydrogen production, but only when off gases from the process was not sufficient to meet the needs; natural gas consumption is insignificant in both the in situ and ex situ base cases. Heat produced from the burning of char, coke, and off-gases allows for the production of surplus electricity which is sold to the grid allowing a reduction of approximately 5¢/GGE in the MFSP.

  14. Kinetic and Modeling Investigation to Provide Design Guidelines for the NREL Dilute-Acid Process Aimed at Total Hydrolysis/Fractionation of Lignocellulosic Biomass: July 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. Y.; Iyer, P.; Xiang, Q.; Hayes, J.

    2004-08-01

    Following up on previous work, subcontractor investigated three aspects of using NREL ''pretreatment'' technology for total hydrolysis (cellulose as well as hemicellulose) of biomass. Whereas historic hydrolysis of biomass used either dilute acid or concentrated acid technology for hydrolysis of both hemicellulose and cellulose, NREL has been pursuing very dilute acid hydrolysis of hemicellulose followed by enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. NREL's countercurrent shrinking-bed reactor design for hemicellulose hydrolysis (pretreatment) has, however, shown promise for total hydrolysis. For the first task, subcontractor developed a mathematical model of the countercurrent shrinking bed reactor operation and, using yellow poplar sawdust as a feedstock, analyzed the effect of: initial solid feeding rate, temperature, acid concentration, acid flow rate, Peclet number (a measure of backmixing in liquid flow), and bed shrinking. For the second task, subcontractor used laboratory trials, with yellow poplar sawdust and 0.07 wt% sulfuric acid at various temperatures, to verify the hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose (desired) and decomposition of glucose (undesired) and determine appropriate parameters for use in kinetic models. Unlike cellulose and hemicellulose, lignins, the third major component of biomass, are not carbohydrates that can be broken down into component sugars. They are, however, aromatic complex amorphous phenolic polymers that can likely be converted into low-molecular weight compounds suitable for production of fuels and chemicals. Oxidative degradation is one pathway for such conversion and hydrogen peroxide would be an attractive reagent for this, as it would leave no residuals. For the third task, subcontractor reacted lignin with hydrogen peroxide under various conditions and analyzed the resulting product mix.

  15. Analysis of the Effects of Compositional and Configurational Assumptions on Product Costs for the Thermochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Mixed Alcohols -- FY 2007 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yunhua; Gerber, Mark A.; Jones, Susanne B.; Stevens, Don J.

    2008-12-05

    The purpose of this study was to examine alternative biomass-to-ethanol conversion process assumptions and configuration options to determine their relative effects on overall process economics. A process-flow-sheet computer model was used to determine the heat and material balance for each configuration that was studied. The heat and material balance was then fed to a costing spreadsheet to determine the impact on the ethanol selling price. By examining a number of operational and configuration alternatives and comparing the results to the base flow sheet, alternatives having the greatest impact the performance and cost of the overall system were identified and used to make decisions on research priorities.

  16. Acetylation of woody lignocellulose: significance and regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Mohan-Anupama Pawar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Non-cellulosic cell wall polysaccharides constitute approximately one quarter of usable biomass for human exploitation. In contrast to cellulose, these components are usually substituted by O-acetyl groups, which affect their properties and interactions with other polymers, thus affecting their solubility and extractability. However, details of these interactions are still largely obscure. Moreover, polysaccharide hydrolysis to constituent monosaccharides, is hampered by the presence of O-acetyl groups, necessitating either enzymatic (esterase or chemical de-acetylation, increasing the costs and chemical consumption. Reduction of polysaccharide acetyl content in planta is a way to modify lignocellulose towards improved saccharification. In this review we: 1 summarize literature on lignocellulose acetylation in different tree species, 2 present data and current hypotheses concerning the role of O-acetylation in determining woody lignocellulose properties, 3 describe plant proteins involved in lignocellulose O-acetylation, 4 give examples of microbial enzymes capable to de-acetylate lignocellulose, and 5 discuss prospects for exploiting these enzymes in planta to modify xylan acetylation.

  17. Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Process Design and Economics Utilizing Co-Current Dilute Acid Prehydrolysis and Enzymatic Hydrolysis Current and Futuristic Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooley, R.; Ruth, M.; Sheehan, J.; Ibsen, K.; Majdeski, H.; Galvez, A.

    1999-07-20

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has undertaken a complete review and update of the process design and economic model for the biomass-to-ethanol enzymatic based process. The process design includes the core technologies being researched by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE): prehydrolysis, simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation, and cellulase enzyme production. In addition, all ancillary areas--feed handling, product recovery and purification, wastewater treatment lignin burner and boiler--turbogenerator, and utilities--are included. NREL engaged Delta-T Corporation to assist in the process design evaluation, equipment costing, and overall plant integration. The process design and costing for the lignin burner and boiler turbogenerator has been reviewed by Reaction Engineering Inc. and the wastewater treatment by Merrick and Company. An overview of both reviews is included here. The purpose of this update was to ensure that the process design and equipment costs were reasonable and consistent with good engineering practice for plants of this type using available technical data. This work has resulted in an economic model that can be used to predict the cost of producing ethanol from cellulosic biomass using this technology if a plant were to be built in the next few years. The model was also extended using technology improvements that are expected to be developed based on the current DOE research plan. Future process designs and cost estimates are given for the years 2005, 2010, and 2015.

  18. Pretreatments employed in lignocellulosic materials for bioethanol production: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Danay Carrillo-Nieves; Lourdes Zumalacárregui-de Cárdenas; Olga Sánchez-Collazo; Georgina Michelena-Alvarez; Hector Yznaga-Blanco; José Luis Martínez-Hernández; Cristóbal Noé-Aguilar

    2014-01-01

    Lignocellulosic materials are raw materials with high cellulose content and they constitute the most abun- dant sources of biomass on planet. They are attractive for their low cost and high availability in diverse climates and places for the bioethanol production, however, the main impediment for its use is the appro- priate selection from the technological and economic point of view of the stages of pretreatments and hydrolysis, that allow the breaking down of the lignocellulosic matrix to o...

  19. Radioprotective properties of detoxified lipid A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, S.L.; Walden, T.L. Jr.; Patchen, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    Endotoxic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has long been known to possess radioprotective properties. Nevertheless, the toxicity of LPS, or its principal bioactive component, Lipid A, has detracted from its potential use as a radioprotectant. Recently, a relatively non-toxic monophosphoryl Lipid A that retains many of the immunobiological properties of native LPS has been prepared from a polyaccharide-deficient and heptoseless Re mutant strain of S. minnesota. The authors conducted experiments that evaluated and compared the radioprotective efficiency of native endotoxin, as well as the mono (detoxified) and diphosphoryl (toxic) forms of Lipid A, in both responder (CD2F1 and C3H/HeN) and non-responder (C3H/HeJ) mice. It has been found that the optimal dose for the mono- and diphosphoryl Lipid A are approximately the same (800 μg/kg in CD2F1 mice), and that both compounds provide maximum protection when administered 24 h before exposure to an LD100 dose of cobalt - 60 gamma radiation. Possible mechanisms for the radioprotective action of detoxified Lipid A are suggested

  20. Biogas from lignocellulosic biomass - A techno-economic study of pretreatment with NMMO; Biogas fraan lignocellulosa - Tekno-ekonomisk utvaerdering av foerbehandling med NMMO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarvari Horvath, Ilona; Del Pilar Castillo, Maria; Berglund Odhner, Peter; Teghammar, Anna; Mohseni Kabir, Maryam, Olsson, Marcus; Ascue, Johnny

    2013-09-01

    Biogas has been identified as one of the most cost-effective renewable fuels. In order to increase biogas production, yields from traditionally substrates either need to be improved or other alternative substrates must be made available for anaerobic digestion. Cellulose and lignocellulose rich wastes are available in large amounts and have great potential to be utilized for biogas production. This project focused on the optimization of the pretreatment conditions when using the organic solvent N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO) to enhance the methane yield from forest residues and straw. It also focused on a techno-economic evaluation of this pre-treatment technology. NMMO has previously been shown to be effective in dissolving cellulose and, as a consequence, in increasing the methane yield during the subsequent digestion. The goal of this project was to develop a technology that increases energy production from domestic substrates in a cost-effective and environmentally friendly way. The treatment works well at lower temperatures (9 C), which means that water from the district heating system can advantageously be used in the treatment. The results showed that treatment with NMMO at 90 deg C doubles the methane yield from forest residues and increases the methane yield from straw by 50 %. For the techno-economic evaluation, the base case was assumed to be a facility with a capacity of 100 000 tones forest residues/year. After a washing and filtration step, the treated material will be utilized in a co-digestion process where 33 % of the incoming material consists of forest residues and the rest is source-sorted household waste. The scale-up, process design, simulation and calculations were made using the software tool Intelligent SuperPro Design. The total investment costs were calculated to be about 145 million, when forest residues or straw are to be used as raw material. Costs for operation (i.e. raw materials, energy, waste management, maintenance and

  1. The impact of stress-response related transcription factors on lignocellulosic hydrolysate inhibitor tolerance of Saccharomyces strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant biomass is a desirable feedstock for the production of renewable fuels and chemicals. Unfortunately, pretreatment processes to release sugars locked in plant biomass, or lignocellulosic feedstocks, lead to the production of fermentation inhibitors, such as furfural and hydroxymethyl furfural, ...

  2. Process Design and Economics for Biochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol: Dilute-Acid Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corn Stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humbird, D.; Davis, R.; Tao, L.; Kinchin, C.; Hsu, D.; Aden, A.; Schoen, P.; Lukas, J.; Olthof, B.; Worley, M.; Sexton, D.; Dudgeon, D.

    2011-03-01

    This report describes one potential biochemical ethanol conversion process, conceptually based upon core conversion and process integration research at NREL. The overarching process design converts corn stover to ethanol by dilute-acid pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, and co-fermentation. Building on design reports published in 2002 and 1999, NREL, together with the subcontractor Harris Group Inc., performed a complete review of the process design and economic model for the biomass-to-ethanol process. This update reflects NREL's current vision of the biochemical ethanol process and includes the latest research in the conversion areas (pretreatment, conditioning, saccharification, and fermentation), optimizations in product recovery, and our latest understanding of the ethanol plant's back end (wastewater and utilities). The conceptual design presented here reports ethanol production economics as determined by 2012 conversion targets and 'nth-plant' project costs and financing. For the biorefinery described here, processing 2,205 dry ton/day at 76% theoretical ethanol yield (79 gal/dry ton), the ethanol selling price is $2.15/gal in 2007$.

  3. Analysis of the Effects of Compositional and Configurational Assumptions on Product Costs for the Thermochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Mixed Alcohols – FY 2007 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yunhua; Gerber, Mark A.; Jones, Susanne B.; Stevens, Don J.

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine alternative biomass-to-ethanol conversion process assumptions and configuration options to determine their relative effects on overall process economics. A process-flow-sheet computer model was used to determine the heat and material balance for each configuration that was studied. The heat and material balance was then fed to a costing spreadsheet to determine the impact on the ethanol selling price. By examining a number of operational and configuration alternatives and comparing the results to the base flow sheet, alternatives having the greatest impact the performance and cost of the overall system were identified and used to make decisions on research priorities. This report, which was originally published in December 2008, has been revised primarily to correct information presented in Appendix B -- Base Case Flow Sheets and Model Results. The corrections to Appendix B include replacement of several pages in Table B.1 that duplicated previous pages of the table. Other changes were made in Appendix B to correct inconsistencies between stream labels presented in the tables and the stream labels in the figures.

  4. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbons: Dilute-Acid and Enzymatic Deconstruction of Biomass to Sugars and Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.; Tao, L.; Tan, E. C. D.; Biddy, M. J.; Beckham, G. T.; Scarlata, C.; Jacobson, J.; Cafferty, K.; Ross, J.; Lukas, J.; Knorr, D.; Schoen, P.

    2013-10-01

    This report describes one potential conversion process to hydrocarbon products by way of biological conversion of lingnocellulosic-dervied sugars. The process design converts biomass to a hydrocarbon intermediate, a free fatty acid, using dilute-acid pretreatement, enzymatic saccharification, and bioconversion. Ancillary areas--feed handling, hydrolysate conditioning, product recovery and upgrading (hydrotreating) to a final blendstock material, wastewater treatment, lignin combusion, and utilities--are also included in the design.

  5. Gas quality prediction in ligno-cellulosic biomass gasification in a co-current gas producer; Prediction de la qualite du gaz en gazeification de la biomasse ligno-cellulosique dans un gazogene a co-courant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J [Universite Catholique de Louvain (UCL), Faculte des Sciences Appliquees, Dept. de Mecanique, Unite Thermodynamique et Turbomachines, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Nganhou, J [Universite de Yaounde, Ecole National Superieur Polytechnique de Yaounde, Dept. de Genies Mecanique et Industriel (Cameroon); Amie Assouh, A [Ecole National Superieur Polytechnique de Yaounde, Lab. d' Energetique (Cameroon)

    2008-03-15

    Our research covers the energetic valuation of the biomass for electricity production. As electrical energy production is the main drive behind a modern economy, we wanted to make our contribution to the debate by describing a tried technique, whose use on an industrial scale can still be perfected, failing control over the basic principles that support the gasification processes called upon in this industry. Our study describes gasification, which is a process to transform a solid combustible into a gas combustible. The resulting gas can be used as combustible in an internal combustion motor and produce electricity. Our work interprets the experimental results of gasification tests conducted on an available and functional experimental centre and the ENSPY's Decentralized Energy Production Lab. The work involved developing a tool to appreciate the results of the gasification of the ligneous biomass from the stoichiometric composition of the combustible to be gasified and the chemical and mathematical bases of the gasification process. It is an investigation with a view to elaborating a mathematical model based on the concept of compatibility. Its original lies in the quality prediction method for the gas obtained through the gasification of a biomass whose chemical composition is known. (authors)

  6. Can lignocellulosic hydrocarbon liquids rival lignocellulose-derived ethanol as a future transport fuel?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Ding

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Although transport fuels are currently obtained mainly from petroleum, alternative fuels derived from lignocellulosic biomass (LB have drawn much attention in recent years in light of the limited reserves of crude oil and the associated environmental issues. Lignocellulosic ethanol (LE and lignocellulosic hydrocarbons (LH are two typical representatives of the LB-derived transport fuels. This editorial systematically compares LE and LB from production to their application in transport fuels. It can be demonstrated that LH has many advantages over LE relative to such uses. However, most recent studies on the production of the LB-derived transport fuels have focused on LE production. Hence, it is strongly recommended that more research should be aimed at developing an efficient and economically viable process for industrial LH production.

  7. Physicochemical Properties of Fungal Detoxified Cassava Mash and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physicochemical properties of fungal detoxified cassava mash and sensory characteristics of wheat-detoxified cassava composite doughnuts were investigated. Fungal isolates from soils collected at cassava processing sites were isolated, quantified and identified. Cassava mash from grated tuber was partially ...

  8. Lignosulfonate and elevated pH can enhance enzymatic saccharification of lignocelluloses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZJ Wang; TQ Lan; JY Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Nonspecific (nonproductive) binding (adsorption) of cellulase by lignin has been identified as a key barrier to reduce cellulase loading for economical sugar and biofuel production from lignocellulosic biomass. Sulfite Pretreatment to Overcome Recalcitrance of Lignocelluloses (SPORL) is a relatively new process, but demonstrated robust performance for sugar and biofuel...

  9. Avaliação de biocombustível derivado do bio-óleo obtido por pirólise rápida de biomassa lignocelulósica como aditivo para gasolina Evaluation of biofuel derived from lignocellulosic biomass fast pyrolysis bio-oil for use as gasoline addictive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Luisa Barbosa Guedes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A biofuel was prepared from acid aqueous fraction (pH = 2 of bio-oil produced by fast pyrolysis (Bioware Technology of lignocellulosic biomass (sugar cane residue and tested in blends (2, 5, 10 e 20% v/v with gasoline type C (common marketed in Brazil. The specification tests made in the Refinery President Getúlio Vargas (PETROBRAS showed increasing in the octane number (MON and antiknock index (AKI with reduction in the residue generation during the combustion. The physicochemical characteristics of the biofuel were similar that combustible alcohol allowing its use as gasoline additive.

  10. Reviving the carbohydrate economy via multi-product lignocellulose biorefineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y-H Percival

    2008-05-01

    Before the industrial revolution, the global economy was largely based on living carbon from plants. Now the economy is mainly dependent on fossil fuels (dead carbon). Biomass is the only sustainable bioresource that can provide sufficient transportation fuels and renewable materials at the same time. Cellulosic ethanol production from less costly and most abundant lignocellulose is confronted with three main obstacles: (1) high processing costs (dollars /gallon of ethanol), (2) huge capital investment (dollars approximately 4-10/gallon of annual ethanol production capacity), and (3) a narrow margin between feedstock and product prices. Both lignocellulose fractionation technology and effective co-utilization of acetic acid, lignin and hemicellulose will be vital to the realization of profitable lignocellulose biorefineries, since co-product revenues would increase the margin up to 6.2-fold, where all purified lignocellulose co-components have higher selling prices (> approximately 1.0/kg) than ethanol ( approximately 0.5/kg of ethanol). Isolation of large amounts of lignocellulose components through lignocellulose fractionation would stimulate R&D in lignin and hemicellulose applications, as well as promote new markets for lignin- and hemicellulose-derivative products. Lignocellulose resource would be sufficient to replace significant fractionations (e.g., 30%) of transportation fuels through liquid biofuels, internal combustion engines in the short term, and would provide 100% transportation fuels by sugar-hydrogen-fuel cell systems in the long term.

  11. A Weibull statistics-based lignocellulose saccharification model and a built-in parameter accurately predict lignocellulose hydrolysis performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingyu; Han, Lijuan; Liu, Shasha; Zhao, Xuebing; Yang, Jinghua; Loh, Soh Kheang; Sun, Xiaomin; Zhang, Chenxi; Fang, Xu

    2015-09-01

    Renewable energy from lignocellulosic biomass has been deemed an alternative to depleting fossil fuels. In order to improve this technology, we aim to develop robust mathematical models for the enzymatic lignocellulose degradation process. By analyzing 96 groups of previously published and newly obtained lignocellulose saccharification results and fitting them to Weibull distribution, we discovered Weibull statistics can accurately predict lignocellulose saccharification data, regardless of the type of substrates, enzymes and saccharification conditions. A mathematical model for enzymatic lignocellulose degradation was subsequently constructed based on Weibull statistics. Further analysis of the mathematical structure of the model and experimental saccharification data showed the significance of the two parameters in this model. In particular, the λ value, defined the characteristic time, represents the overall performance of the saccharification system. This suggestion was further supported by statistical analysis of experimental saccharification data and analysis of the glucose production levels when λ and n values change. In conclusion, the constructed Weibull statistics-based model can accurately predict lignocellulose hydrolysis behavior and we can use the λ parameter to assess the overall performance of enzymatic lignocellulose degradation. Advantages and potential applications of the model and the λ value in saccharification performance assessment were discussed. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Dynamic Simulation, Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis of a Demonstration Scale Lignocellulosic Enzymatic Hydrolysis Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prunescu, Remus Mihail; Sin, Gürkan

    2014-01-01

    This study presents the uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of a lignocellulosic enzymatic hydrolysis model considering both model and feed parameters as sources of uncertainty. The dynamic model is parametrized for accommodating various types of biomass, and different enzymatic complexes...

  13. Effect of Lignocellulose Related Compounds on Microalgae Growth and Product Biosynthesis: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystian Miazek

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae contain valuable compounds that can be harnessed for industrial applications. Lignocellulose biomass is a plant material containing in abundance organic substances such as carbohydrates, phenolics, organic acids and other secondary compounds. As growth of microalgae on organic substances was confirmed during heterotrophic and mixotrophic cultivation, lignocellulose derived compounds can become a feedstock to cultivate microalgae and produce target compounds. In this review, different treatment methods to hydrolyse lignocellulose into organic substrates are presented first. Secondly, the effect of lignocellulosic hydrolysates, organic substances typically present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, as well as minor co-products, on growth and accumulation of target compounds in microalgae cultures is described. Finally, the possibilities of using lignocellulose hydrolysates as a common feedstock for microalgae cultures are evaluated.

  14. Improved lignocellulose conversion to biofuels with thermophilic bacteria and thermostable enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Aditya; Bansal, Namita; Kumar, Sudhir; Bischoff, Kenneth M; Sani, Rajesh K

    2013-01-01

    Second-generation feedstock, especially nonfood lignocellulosic biomass is a potential source for biofuel production. Cost-intensive physical, chemical, biological pretreatment operations and slow enzymatic hydrolysis make the overall process of lignocellulosic conversion into biofuels less economical than available fossil fuels. Lignocellulose conversions carried out at ≤ 50 °C have several limitations. Therefore, this review focuses on the importance of thermophilic bacteria and thermostable enzymes to overcome the limitations of existing lignocellulosic biomass conversion processes. The influence of high temperatures on various existing lignocellulose conversion processes and those that are under development, including separate hydrolysis and fermentation, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, and extremophilic consolidated bioprocess are also discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corredor, Deisy Y.

    The performance of soybean hulls and forage sorghum as feedstocks for ethanol production was studied. The main goal of this research was to increase fermentable sugars' yield through high-efficiency pretreatment technology. Soybean hulls are a potential feedstock for production of bio-ethanol due to their high carbohydrate content (≈50%) of nearly 37% cellulose. Soybean hulls could be the ideal feedstock for fuel ethanol production, because they are abundant and require no special harvesting and additional transportation costs as they are already in the plant. Dilute acid and modified steam-explosion were used as pretreatment technologies to increase fermentable sugars yields. Effects of reaction time, temperature, acid concentration and type of acid on hydrolysis of hemicellulose in soybean hulls and total sugar yields were studied. Optimum pretreatment parameters and enzymatic hydrolysis conditions for converting soybean hulls into fermentable sugars were identified. The combination of acid (H2SO4, 2% w/v) and steam (140°C, 30 min) efficiently solubilized the hemicellulose, giving a pentose yield of 96%. Sorghum is a tropical grass grown primarily in semiarid and dry parts of the world, especially in areas too dry for corn. The production of sorghum results in about 30 million tons of byproducts mainly composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Forage sorghum such as brown midrib (BMR) sorghum for ethanol production has generated much interest since this trait is characterized genetically by lower lignin concentrations in the plant compared with conventional types. Three varieties of forage sorghum and one variety of regular sorghum were characterized and evaluated as feedstock for fermentable sugar production. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-Ray diffraction were used to determine changes in structure and chemical composition of forage sorghum before and after pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis process. Up to 72% of hexose yield and 94% of pentose yield were obtained using "modified" steam explosion with 2% sulfuric acid at 140°C for 30 min and enzymatic hydrolysis with cellulase (15 FPU/g cellulose) and beta-glucosidase (50 CBU/g cellulose).

  16. PRETREATMENT OF LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS FOR ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doan Thai Hoa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The cost of raw materials continues to be a limiting factor in the production of bio-ethanol from traditional raw materials, such as sugar and starch. At the same time, there are large amount of agricultural residues as well as industrial wastes that are of low or negative value (due to costs of current effluent disposal methods. Dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of elephant grass and wood residues for the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose has been investigated in this study.    Elephant grass (agricultural residue and sawdust (Pulp and Paper Industry waste with a small particulate size were treated using different dilute sulfuric acid concentrations at a temperature  of 140-170°C within 0.5-3 hours. The appropriate pretreatment conditions give the highest yield of soluble saccharides and total reducing sugars.

  17. Lignocellulose deconstruction in the biosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bomble, Yannick J.; Lin, Chien-Yuan; Amore, Antonella; Wei, Hui; Holwerda, Evert K.; Ciesielski, Peter N.; Donohoe, Bryon S.; Decker, Stephen R.; Lynd, Lee R.; Himmel, Michael E.

    2017-12-01

    Microorganisms have evolved different and yet complementary mechanisms to degrade biomass in the biosphere. The chemical biology of lignocellulose deconstruction is a complex and intricate process that appears to vary in response to specific ecosystems. These microorganisms rely on simple to complex arrangements of glycoside hydrolases to conduct most of these polysaccharide depolymerization reactions and also, as discovered more recently, oxidative mechanisms via lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases or non-enzymatic Fenton reactions which are used to enhance deconstruction. It is now clear that these deconstruction mechanisms are often more efficient in the presence of the microorganisms. In general, a major fraction of the total plant biomass deconstruction in the biosphere results from the action of various microorganisms, primarily aerobic bacteria and fungi, as well as a variety of anaerobic bacteria. Beyond carbon recycling, specialized microorganisms interact with plants to manage nitrogen in the biosphere. Understanding the interplay between these organisms within or across ecosystems is crucial to further our grasp of chemical recycling in the biosphere and also enables optimization of the burgeoning plant-based bioeconomy.

  18. Lignocellulose deconstruction in the biosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomble, Yannick J; Lin, Chien-Yuan; Amore, Antonella; Wei, Hui; Holwerda, Evert K; Ciesielski, Peter N; Donohoe, Bryon S; Decker, Stephen R; Lynd, Lee R; Himmel, Michael E

    2017-12-01

    Microorganisms have evolved different and yet complementary mechanisms to degrade biomass in the biosphere. The chemical biology of lignocellulose deconstruction is a complex and intricate process that appears to vary in response to specific ecosystems. These microorganisms rely on simple to complex arrangements of glycoside hydrolases to conduct most of these polysaccharide depolymerization reactions and also, as discovered more recently, oxidative mechanisms via lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases or non-enzymatic Fenton reactions which are used to enhance deconstruction. It is now clear that these deconstruction mechanisms are often more efficient in the presence of the microorganisms. In general, a major fraction of the total plant biomass deconstruction in the biosphere results from the action of various microorganisms, primarily aerobic bacteria and fungi, as well as a variety of anaerobic bacteria. Beyond carbon recycling, specialized microorganisms interact with plants to manage nitrogen in the biosphere. Understanding the interplay between these organisms within or across ecosystems is crucial to further our grasp of chemical recycling in the biosphere and also enables optimization of the burgeoning plant-based bioeconomy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Process Simulation of Biobutanol Production from Lignocellulosic Feedstocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Procentese, A.; Guida, T.; Raganati, F.; Olivieri, G.; Salatino, P.; Marzocchella, A.

    2014-01-01

    A potential flowsheet to produce butanol production by conversion of a lignocellulosic biomass has been simulated by means of the software Aspen Plus®. The flowsheet has included upstream, fermentation, and downstream sections and the attention has been focused on the upstream section. The proposed

  20. Lignocellulosics to ethanol: The future of the chemical and energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Energy and environmental issues are among the major concerns facing the global community today. Biofuel technology is now globally embraced as the promising technology to replace fossil fuels. Lignocellulosic waste biomass from forestry, agriculture and municipal sources are abundant, inexpensive and potential ...

  1. Cellulase-lignin interactions in the enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahikainen, J.

    2013-11-01

    Today, the production of transportation fuels and chemicals is heavily dependent on fossil carbon sources, such as oil and natural gas. Their limited availability and the environmental concerns arising from their use have driven the search for renewable alternatives. Lignocellulosic plant biomass is the most abundant, but currently underutilised, renewable carbon-rich resource for fuel and chemical production. Enzymatic degradation of structural polysaccharides in lignocellulose produces soluble carbohydrates that serve as ideal precursors for the production of a vast amount of different chemical compounds. The difficulty in full exploitation of lignocellulose for fuel and chemical production lies in the complex and recalcitrant structure of the raw material. Lignocellulose is mainly composed of structural polysaccharides, cellulose and hemicellulose, but also of lignin, which is an aromatic polymer. Enzymatic degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose is restricted by several substrate- and enzyme-related factors, among which lignin is considered as one of the most problematic issues. Lignin restricts the action of hydrolytic enzymes and enzyme binding onto lignin has been identified as a major inhibitory mechanism preventing efficient hydrolysis of lignocellulosic feedstocks. In this thesis, the interactions between cellulase enzymes and lignin-rich compounds were studied in detail and the findings reported in this work have the potential to help in controlling the harmful cellulase-lignin interactions, and thus improve the biochemical processing route from lignocellulose to fuels and chemicals.

  2. Bioethanol from lignocellulosics: Status and perspectives in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabee, W E; Saddler, J N

    2010-07-01

    Canada has invested significantly in the development of a domestic bioethanol industry, and it is expected that bioethanol from lignocellulosics will become more desirable to the industry as it expands. Development of the Canadian industry to date is described in this paper, as are examples of domestic research programs focused on both bioconversion and thermochemical conversion to generate biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass. The availability of lignocellulosic residues from agricultural and forestry operations, and the potential biofuel production associated with these residues, is described. The policy tools used to develop the domestic bioethanol industry are explored. A residue-based process could greatly extend the potential of the bioethanol industry in Canada. It is estimated that bioethanol production from residual lignocellulosic feedstocks could provide up to 50% of Canada's 2006 transportation fuel demand, given ideal conversion and full access to these feedstocks. Utilizing lignocellulosic biomass will extend the geographic range of the bioethanol industry, and increase the stability and security of this sector by reducing the impact of localized disruptions in supply. Use of disturbance crops could add 9% to this figure, but not in a sustainable fashion. If pursued aggressively, energy crops ultimately could contribute bioethanol at a volume double that of Canada's gasoline consumption in 2006. This would move Canada towards greater transportation fuel independence and a larger role in the export of bioethanol to the global market. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Enhancing biogas production from recalcitrant lignocellulosic residue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsapekos, Panagiotis

    Lignocellulosic substrates are abundant in agricultural areas around the world and lately, are utilized for biogas production in full-scale anaerobic digesters. However, the anaerobic digestion (AD) of these substrates is associated with specific difficulties due to their recalcitrant nature which...... protects them from enzymatic attack. Hence, the main purpose of this work was to define diverse ways to improve the performance of AD systems using these unconventional biomasses. Thus, mechanical and thermal alkaline pretreatments, microaeration and bioaugmentation with hydrolytic microbes were examined...... conductivity, soluble chemical oxygen demand and enzymatic hydrolysis) as a rapid way to predict the methane production. However, the precision of methane yield prediction was not high (R2

  4. Directed plant cell-wall accumulation of iron: embedding co-catalyst for efficient biomass conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien-Yuan Lin; Joseph E. Jakes; Bryon S. Donohoe; Peter N. Ciesielski; Haibing Yang; Sophie-Charlotte Gleber; Stefan Vogt; Shi-You Ding; Wendy A. Peer; Angus S. Murphy; Maureen C. McCann; Michael E. Himmel; Melvin P. Tucker; Hui Wei

    2016-01-01

    Background: Plant lignocellulosic biomass is an abundant, renewable feedstock for the production of biobased fuels and chemicals. Previously, we showed that iron can act as a co-catalyst to improve the deconstruction of lignocellulosic biomass. However, directly adding iron catalysts into biomass prior to pretreatment is diffusion limited,...

  5. Process and apparatus for conversion of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, R.R.C.; Hazewinkel, J.H.O.; Groenestijn, van J.W.

    2006-01-01

    The invention is directed to a process for the conversion of cellulosic biomass, in particular lignocellulose-containing biomass into fermentable sugars. The invention is further directed to apparatus suitable for carrying out such processes. According to the invention biomass is converted into

  6. Catalytic biomass pyrolysis process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayton, David C.; Gupta, Raghubir P.; Turk, Brian S.; Kataria, Atish; Shen, Jian-Ping

    2018-04-17

    Described herein are processes for converting a biomass starting material (such as lignocellulosic materials) into a low oxygen containing, stable liquid intermediate that can be refined to make liquid hydrocarbon fuels. More specifically, the process can be a catalytic biomass pyrolysis process wherein an oxygen removing catalyst is employed in the reactor while the biomass is subjected to pyrolysis conditions. The stream exiting the pyrolysis reactor comprises bio-oil having a low oxygen content, and such stream may be subjected to further steps, such as separation and/or condensation to isolate the bio-oil.

  7. Melatonin: a protective and detoxifying agent in paraquat toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanem, M.; Gad, H.; Hanan; Aziz, A.; Nasr, M.

    2002-01-01

    The ability of melatonin as a protective and detoxifying agent against paraquat-induced oxidative damage in rat lungs and liver was examined. Changes in reduced glutathione (OSH) concentration and malonaldehyde (MDA) level were measured. Pathological examination to lungs and liver was done. Paraquat in 2 doses (20,70 mg/kg) was injected I.P. into rats with melatonin (10 mg/kg) I. P. either before and after paraquat intoxication or only after it. Melatonin proved its protective role when given before and after paraquat intoxication more than its detoxifying effect when given only after paraquat. The biochemical improvement following melatonin therapy was more evident than the histopathological one. (author)

  8. Methods for treating lignocellulosic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Robert; Travisano, Philip; Madsen, Lee; Matis, Neta; Lawson, James Alan; Lapidot, Noa; Eyal, Aharon M.; Bauer, Timothy Allen; Belman, Ziv-Vladimir; Hallac, Bassem; Zviely, Michael

    2017-10-10

    The present invention relates to methods of processing lignocellulosic material to obtain hemicellulose sugars, cellulose sugars, lignin, cellulose and other high-value products. Also provided are hemicellulose sugars, cellulose sugars, lignin, cellulose, and other high-value products.

  9. Methods for treating lignocellulosic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, Robert; Gregoire, Claire; Travisano, Philip; Madsen, Lee; Matis, Neta; Har-Tal, Yael Miriam; Eliahu, Shay; Lawson, James Alan; Lapidot, Noa; Eyal, Aharon M.; Bauer, Timothy Allen; McWilliams, Paul; Zviely, Michael; Carden, Adam

    2017-05-16

    The present invention relates to methods of processing lignocellulosic material to obtain hemicellulose sugars, cellulose sugars, lignin, cellulose and other high-value products. Also provided are hemicellulose sugars, cellulose sugars, lignin, cellulose, and other high-value products.

  10. Methods for treating lignocellulosic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, Robert; Gregoire, Claire; Travisano, Philip; Madsen, Lee; Matis, Neta; Har-Tal, Yael Miriam; Eliahu, Shay; Lawson, James Alan; Lapidot, Noa; Burke, Luke; Eyal, Aharon M.; Bauer, Timothy Allen; Sade, Hagit; McWilliams, Paul; Zviely, Michael; Carden, Adam

    2017-04-25

    The present invention relates to methods of processing lignocellulosic material to obtain hemicellulose sugars, cellulose sugars, lignin, cellulose and other high-value products. Also provided are hemicellulose sugars, cellulose sugars, lignin, cellulose, and other high-value products.

  11. Biomass pyrolysis for chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Wild, P.

    2011-07-15

    The problems associated with the use of fossil fuels demand a transition to renewable sources (sun, wind, water, geothermal, biomass) for materials and energy where biomass provides the only renewable source for chemicals. In a biorefinery, biomass is converted via different technologies into heat, power and various products. Here, pyrolysis (thermal degradation without added oxygen) of lignocellulosic biomass can play an important role, because it leads to an array of useful chemicals. Examples are furfural and acetic acid from hemicellulose, levoglucosan from cellulose and phenols and biochar from lignin. Since the three major biomass polymers hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin possess dissimilar thermal stabilities and reactivities, type and amount of degradation products are tunable by proper selection of the pyrolysis conditions. To determine if step-wise pyrolysis would be suitable for the production of chemicals, staged degasification of lignocellulosic biomass was studied. Due to limited yields, a hot pressurized water pre-treatment (aquathermolysis) followed by pyrolysis was subsequently developed as an improved version of a staged approach to produce furfural and levoglucosan from the carbohydrate fraction of the biomass. Lignin is the only renewable source for aromatic chemicals. Lignocellulosic biorefineries for bio-ethanol produce lignin as major by-product. The pyrolysis of side-streams into valuable chemicals is of prime importance for a profitable biorefinery. To determine the added-value of lignin side-streams other than their use as fuel for power, application research including techno-economic analysis is required. In this thesis, the pyrolytic valorisation of lignin into phenols and biochar was investigated and proven possible.

  12. LIGNOCELLULOSE NANOCOMPOSITE CONTAINING COPPER SULFIDE

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchi Nenkova; Peter Velev; Mirela Dragnevska; Diyana Nikolova; Kiril Dimitrov

    2011-01-01

    Copper sulfide-containing lignocellulose nanocomposites with improved electroconductivity were obtained. Two methods for preparing the copper sulfide lignocellulose nanocomposites were developed. An optimization of the parameters for obtaining of the nanocomposites with respect to obtaining improved electroconductivity, economy, and lower quantities and concentration of copper and sulfur ions in waste waters was conducted. The mechanisms and schemes of delaying and subsequent connection of co...

  13. Bioethanol - Status report on bioethanol production from wood and other lignocellulosic feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott-Kerr, Chris; Johnson, Tony; Johnson, Barbara; Kiviaho, Jukka

    2010-09-15

    Lignocellulosic biomass is seen as an attractive feedstock for future supplies of renewable fuels, reducing the dependence on imported petroleum. However, there are technical and economic impediments to the development of commercial processes that utilise biomass feedstocks for the production of liquid fuels such as ethanol. Significant investment into research, pilot and demonstration plants is on-going to develop commercially viable processes utilising the biochemical and thermochemical conversion technologies for ethanol. This paper reviews the current status of commercial lignocellulosic ethanol production and identifies global production facilities.

  14. Hyperthermophilic endoglucanase for in planta lignocellulose conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klose Holger

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The enzymatic conversion of lignocellulosic plant biomass into fermentable sugars is a crucial step in the sustainable and environmentally friendly production of biofuels. However, a major drawback of enzymes from mesophilic sources is their suboptimal activity under established pretreatment conditions, e.g. high temperatures, extreme pH values and high salt concentrations. Enzymes from extremophiles are better adapted to these conditions and could be produced by heterologous expression in microbes, or even directly in the plant biomass. Results Here we show that a cellulase gene (sso1354 isolated from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus can be expressed in plants, and that the recombinant enzyme is biologically active and exhibits the same properties as the wild type form. Since the enzyme is inactive under normal plant growth conditions, this potentially allows its expression in plants without negative effects on growth and development, and subsequent heat-inducible activation. Furthermore we demonstrate that the recombinant enzyme acts in high concentrations of ionic liquids and can therefore degrade α-cellulose or even complex cell wall preparations under those pretreatment conditions. Conclusion The hyperthermophilic endoglucanase SSO1354 with its unique features is an excellent tool for advanced biomass conversion. Here we demonstrate its expression in planta and the possibility for post harvest activation. Moreover the enzyme is suitable for combined pretreatment and hydrolysis applications.

  15. Process and apparatus for conversion of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, R.R.C.; Hazewinkel, J.H.O.; Groenestijn, van J.W.

    2006-01-01

    The invention is directed to a process for the conversion of biomass, in particular lignocellulose-containing biomass into a product that may be further processes in a fermentation step. The invention is further directed to apparatus suitable for carrying out such processes. According to the

  16. Cooking with Active Oxygen and Solid Alkali: A Promising Alternative Approach for Lignocellulosic Biorefineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yetao; Zeng, Xianhai; Luque, Rafael; Tang, Xing; Sun, Yong; Lei, Tingzhou; Liu, Shijie; Lin, Lu

    2017-10-23

    Lignocellulosic biomass, a matrix of biopolymers including cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, has gathered increasing attention in recent years for the production of chemicals, fuels, and materials through biorefinery processes owing to its renewability and availability. The fractionation of lignocellulose is considered to be the fundamental step to establish an economical and sustainable lignocellulosic biorefinery. In this Minireview, we summarize a newly developed oxygen delignification for lignocellulose fractionation called cooking with active oxygen and solid alkali (CAOSA), which can fractionate lignocellulose into its constituents and maintain its processable form. In the CAOSA approach, environmentally friendly chemicals are applied instead of undesirable chemicals such as strong alkalis and sulfides. Notably, the alkali recovery for this process promises to be relatively simple and does not require causticizing or sintering. These features make the CAOSA process an alternative for both lignocellulose fractionation and biomass pretreatment. The advantages and challenges of CAOSA are also discussed to provide a comprehensive perspective with respect to existing strategies. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Biodegradation of Lignocelluloses in Sewage Sludge Composting and Vermicomposting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Alidadi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Please cite this article as: Alidadi H, Najafpour AA, Vafaee A, Parvaresh A, Peiravi R. Biodegradation of lignocelluloses in sewage sludge composting and vermicomposting. Arch Hyg Sci 2012;1(1:1-5.   Aims of the Study: The aim of this study was to determine the amount of lignin degradation and biodegradation of organic matter and change of biomass under compost and vermicomposting of sewage sludge. Materials & Methods: Sawdust was added to sewage sludge at 1:3 weight bases to Carbon to Nitrogen ratio of 25:1 for composting or vermicomposting. Lignin and volatile solids were determined at different periods, of 0, 10, 30, 40 and 60 days of composting or vermicomposting period to determine the biodegradation of lignocellulose to lignin. Results were expressed as mean of two replicates and the comparisons among means were made using the least significant difference test calculated (p <0.05. Results: After 60 days of experiment period, the initial lignin increased from 3.46% to 4.48% for compost and 3.46% to 5.27% for vermicompost. Biodegradation of lignocellulose was very slow in compost and vermicompost processes. Vermicomposting is a much faster process than compost to convert lignocellulose to lignin (p <0.05. Conclusions: The organic matter losses in sewage sludge composting and vermicomposting are due to the degradation of the lignin fractions. By increasing compost age, the amount of volatile solids will decrease.

  18. Zero-valent iron pretreatment for detoxifying iodine in liquid crystal display (LCD) manufacturing wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.W.; Cha, D.K.; Oh, Y.K.; Ko, K.B.; Song, J.S.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated reductive transformation of iodine by zero-valent iron (ZVI), and the subsequent detoxification of iodine-laden wastewater. ZVI completely reduced aqueous iodine to non-toxic iodide. Respirometric bioassay illustrated that the presence of iodine increase the lag phase before the onset of oxygen consumption. The length of lag phase was proportional to increasing iodine dosage. The reduction products of iodine by ZVI did not exhibit any inhibitory effect on the biodegradation. The cumulative biological oxidation associated with iodine toxicity was closely fitted to Gompertz model. When iodine-laden wastewater was continuously fed to a bench-scale activated sludge unit, chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies decreased from above 90% to below 80% along with a marked decrease in biomass concentration. On the other hand, the COD removal efficiency and biomass concentration remained constant in the integrated ZVI-activated sludge system. Respirometric bioassay with real iodine-laden LCD manufacturing wastewater demonstrated that ZVI was effective for detoxifying iodine and consequently enhancing biodegradability of wastewater. This result suggested that ZVI pretreatment may be a feasible option for the removal of iodine in LCD processing wastewater, instead of more costly processes such as adsorption and chemical oxidation, which are commonly in the iodine-laden LCD wastewater treatment facility

  19. Complete oxidative conversion of lignocellulose derived non-glucose sugars to sugar acids by Gluconobacter oxydans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ruimiao; Hou, Weiliang; Bao, Jie

    2017-11-01

    Non-glucose sugars derived from lignocellulose cover approximately 40% of the total carbohydrates of lignocellulose biomass. The conversion of the non-glucose sugars to the target products is an important task of lignocellulose biorefining research. Here we report a fast and complete conversion of the total non-glucose sugars from corn stover into the corresponding sugar acids by whole cell catalysis and aerobic fermentation of Gluconobacter oxydans. The conversions include xylose to xylonate, arabinose to arabonate, mannose to mannonate, and galactose to galactonate, as well as with glucose into gluconate. These cellulosic non-glucose sugar acids showed the excellent cement retard setting property. The mixed cellulosic sugar acids could be used as cement retard additives without separation. The conversion of the non-glucose sugars not only makes full use of lignocellulose derived sugars, but also effectively reduces the wastewater treatment burden by removal of residual sugars. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Study of the formation of polyethylene composites and lignocellulose materials by means of irradiation and extrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, Marcos Bertrand de; Romero, Guillermo R.; Gonzalez, Maria Elisa; Smolko, Eduardo E.

    2000-01-01

    One of the greatest opportunities for using of biomass as a precursor in the production of polymeric materials is the lignocellulose composites that can combine high performance with low costs. This work is a initial study on the production of a lignocellulose reinforced polyethylene composite. A compatibilization made by a induced gamma radiation grafting reaction was used to increase the adhesion between the matrix and the reinforced or filled fibers. The lignocellulose materials were exposed to gamma radiation in order to promote a molecular degradation and increase its reactivity. The polymer, the lignocellulose material and the compatibilization were processed by extrusion and the composite produced by this process were characterized by mechanical tests. (author)

  1. Engineering Ligninolytic Consortium for Bioconversion of Lignocelluloses to Ethanol and Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Muhammad; Nawaz, Muhammad Zohaib; Iqbal, Hafiz M N; Hou, Jialin; Mahboob, Shahid; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A; Cheng, Hairong

    2018-01-01

    Rising environmental concerns and recent global scenario of cleaner production and consumption are leading to the design of green industrial processes to produce alternative fuels and chemicals. Although bioethanol is one of the most promising and eco-friendly alternatives to fossil fuels yet its production from food and feed has received much negative criticism. The main objective of this study was to present the noteworthy potentialities of lignocellulosic biomass as an enormous and renewable biological resource. The particular focus was also given on engineering ligninolytic consortium for bioconversion of lignocelluloses to ethanol and chemicals on sustainable and environmentally basis. Herein, an effort has been made to extensively review, analyze and compile salient information related to the topic of interest. Several authentic bibliographic databases including PubMed, Scopus, Elsevier, Springer, Bentham Science and other scientific databases were searched with utmost care, and inclusion/ exclusion criterion was adopted to appraise the quality of retrieved peer-reviewed research literature. Bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass can largely satisfy the possible inconsistency of first-generation ethanol since it utilizes inedible lignocellulosic feedstocks, primarily sourced from agriculture and forestry wastes. Two major polysaccharides in lignocellulosic biomass namely, cellulose and hemicellulose constitute a complex lignocellulosic network by connecting with lignin, which is highly recalcitrant to depolymerization. Several attempts have been made to reduce the cost involved in the process through improving the pretreatment process. While, the ligninolytic enzymes of white rot fungi (WRF) including laccase, lignin peroxidase (LiP), and manganese peroxidase (MnP) have appeared as versatile biocatalysts for delignification of several lignocellulosic residues. The first part of the review is mainly focused on engineering ligninolytic consortium

  2. Efficient hydrogen production from the lignocellulosic energy crop Miscanthus by the extreme thermophilic bacteria Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus and Thermotoga neapolitana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrije, de G.J.; Bakker, R.R.; Budde, M.A.W.; Lai, M.H.; Mars, A.E.; Claassen, P.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    The production of hydrogen from biomass by fermentation is one of the routes that can contribute to a future sustainable hydrogen economy. Lignocellulosic biomass is an attractive feedstock because of its abundance, low production costs and high polysaccharide content. Batch cultures of

  3. Effective release of lignin fragments from lignocellulose by lewis acid metal triflates in the lignin-first approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, X.; Zhu, J.; Koranyi, T.I.; Boot, M.D.; Hensen, E.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Adding value to lignin, the most complex and recalcitrant fraction in lignocellulosic biomass, is highly relevant to costefficient operation of biorefineries. We report the use of homogeneous metal triflates to rapidly release lignin from biomass. Combined with metal-catalyzed hydrogenolysis, the

  4. Process and apparatus for the conversion of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, R.R.C.; Hazewinkel, J.H.O.; Groenestijn, van J.W.

    2008-01-01

    The invention is directed to a process for the conversion of cellulosic biomass, in particular lignocellulose-containing biomass into fermentable sugars. The invention is further directed to apparatus suitable for carrying out such processes. According to the invention biomass is converted into

  5. Enhanced anti-oxidative activity and lignocellulosic ethanol production by biotin addition to medium in Pichia guilliermondii fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Kai; Xia, Xiao-Xia; Zhong, Jian-Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Commercialization of lignocellulosic ethanol fermentation requires its high titer, but the reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation during the bioprocess damaged the cells and compromised this goal. To improve the cellular anti-oxidative activity during non-detoxified corncob residue hydrolysate fermentation, seed cells were prepared to possess a higher level of intracellular biotin pool (IBP), which facilitated the biosyntheses of catalase and porphyrin. As a result, the catalase activity increased by 1.3-folds compared to control while the ROS level reduced by 50%. Cell viability in high-IBP cells was 1.7-folds of control and the final ethanol titer increased from 31.2 to 41.8 g L(-1) in batch fermentation. The high-IBP cells were further used for repeated-batch fermentation in the non-detoxified lignocellulosic hydrolysate, and the highest titer and average productivity of ethanol reached 63.7 g L(-1) and 1.2 g L(-1)h(-1). The results were favorable to future industrial application of this lignocellulosic bioethanol process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Thermophilic ethanol fermentation from lignocellulose hydrolysate by genetically engineered Moorella thermoacetica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayu, Farida; Kawai, Yuto; Iwasaki, Yuki; Yoshida, Koichiro; Kita, Akihisa; Tajima, Takahisa; Kato, Junichi; Murakami, Katsuji; Hoshino, Tamotsu; Nakashimada, Yutaka

    2017-12-01

    A transformant of Moorella thermoacetica was constructed for thermophilic ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass by deleting two phosphotransacetylase genes, pdul1 and pdul2, and introducing the native aldehyde dehydrogenase gene (aldh) controlled by the promoter from glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. The transformant showed tolerance to 540mM and fermented sugars including fructose, glucose, galactose and xylose to mainly ethanol. In a mixed-sugar medium of glucose and xylose, all of the sugars were consumed to produce ethanol at the yield of 1.9mol/mol-sugar. The transformant successfully fermented sugars in hydrolysate prepared through the acid hydrolysis of lignocellulose to ethanol, suggesting that this transformant can be used to ferment the sugars in lignocellulosic biomass for ethanol production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Production of bioethanol from lignocellulosic materials via the biochemical pathway: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balat, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    Bioethanol is by far the most widely used biofuel for transportation worldwide. Production of bioethanol from biomass is one way to reduce both consumption of crude oil and environmental pollution. Bioethanol can be produced from different kinds of raw materials. These raw materials are classified into three categories of agricultural raw materials: simple sugars, starch and lignocellulose. The price of the raw materials is highly volatile, which can highly affect the production costs of the bioethanol. One major problem with bioethanol production is the availability of raw materials for the production. Lignocellulosic biomass is the most promising feedstock considering its great availability and low cost, but the large-scale commercial production of fuel bioethanol from lignocellulosic materials has still not been implemented.

  8. Lignocellulosic ethanol production by starch-base industrial yeast under PEG detoxification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiumei; Xu, Wenjuan; Mao, Liaoyuan; Zhang, Chao; Yan, Peifang; Xu, Zhanwei; Zhang, Z. Conrad

    2016-02-01

    Cellulosic ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass offers a sustainable solution for transition from fossil based fuels to renewable alternatives. However, a few long-standing technical challenges remain to be addressed in the development of an economically viable fermentation process from lignocellulose. Such challenges include the needs to improve yeast tolerance to toxic inhibitory compounds and to achieve high fermentation efficiency with minimum detoxification steps after a simple biomass pretreatment. Here we report an in-situ detoxification strategy by PEG exo-protection of an industrial dry yeast (starch-base). The exo-protected yeast cells displayed remarkably boosted vitality with high tolerance to toxic inhibitory compounds, and with largely improved ethanol productivity from crude hydrolysate derived from a pretreated lignocellulose. The PEG chemical exo-protection makes the industrial S. cerevisiae yeast directly applicable for the production of cellulosic ethanol with substantially improved productivity and yield, without of the need to use genetically modified microorganisms.

  9. Pretreatment Technologies of Lignocellulosic Materials in Bioethanol Production Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Rusdi Hidayat

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol is one type of biofuel that developed significantly. The utilization of bioethanol is not only limited for fuel, but also could be used as material for various industries such as pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and food. With wide utilization and relatively simple production technology has made bioethanol as the most favored biofuel currently. The use of lignocellulosic biomass, microalgae, seaweeds, even GMO (Genetically modified organisms as substrates for bioethanol production has been widely tested. Differences in the materials eventually led to change in the production technology used. Pretreatment technology in the bioethanol production using lignocellulosic currently experiencing rapid development. It is a key process and crucial for the whole next steps. Based on the advantages and disadvantages from all methods, steam explotion and liquid hot water methods are the most promising  pretreatment technology available.

  10. The Effectiveness of Transactional Behavior Analytic Group Therapy on the Prevention of Relapse among Detoxified People

    OpenAIRE

    S Mousa Kafi; Rahim Mollazadeh Esfanaji; Morteza Nori; Ertaj Salehi

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Addiction Phenomenon among detoxified people is an important therapeutic problem for substance abusers. The aim of this research was the study of effectiveness of transactional behavior analytic group therapy on prevention of relapse of detoxified people. Method: the research design was quasi experimental with witness group. By using of available sampling of detoxified people who referred to government centers for maintenance therapy with Methadone, 24 subjects that divided to t...

  11. Polymorphisms in monolignol biosynthetic genes are associated with biomass yield and agronomic traits in European maize (Zea mays L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yongsheng; Zein, Imad; Brenner, Everton A

    2010-01-01

    Background Reduced lignin content leads to higher cell wall digestibility and, therefore, better forage quality and increased conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into ethanol. However, reduced lignin content might lead to weaker stalks, lodging, and reduced biomass yield. Genes encoding enzymes...

  12. Shorten fungal treatment of lignocellulosic waste with additives to improve rumen degradability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijk, van S.J.A.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Baars, J.J.P.; Hendriks, W.H.; Cone, J.W.

    2014-01-01

    Selective lignin degrading fungi can be used as pre-treatment to make cellulose in plant cell walls accessible for rumen microbes. According to previous studies, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Lentinula edodes can increase the in vitro rumen degradability of lignocellulosic biomass in 7 to 8 weeks.

  13. The Chemistry and Technology of Furfural Production in Modern Lignocellulose-Feedstock Biorefineries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcotullio, G.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation deals with biorefinery technology development, i.e. with the development of sustainable industrial methods aimed at the production of chemicals, fuels, heat and power from lignocellulosic biomass. This work is particularly focused on the production of furfural from

  14. A saponin-detoxifying enzyme mediates suppression of plant defences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouarab, K.; Melton, R.; Peart, J.; Baulcombe, D.; Osbourn, A.

    2002-08-01

    Plant disease resistance can be conferred by constitutive features such as structural barriers or preformed antimicrobial secondary metabolites. Additional defence mechanisms are activated in response to pathogen attack and include localized cell death (the hypersensitive response). Pathogens use different strategies to counter constitutive and induced plant defences, including degradation of preformed antimicrobial compounds and the production of molecules that suppress induced plant defences. Here we present evidence for a two-component process in which a fungal pathogen subverts the preformed antimicrobial compounds of its host and uses them to interfere with induced defence responses. Antimicrobial saponins are first hydrolysed by a fungal saponin-detoxifying enzyme. The degradation product of this hydrolysis then suppresses induced defence responses by interfering with fundamental signal transduction processes leading to disease resistance.

  15. Single-step ethanol production from lignocellulose using novel extremely thermophilic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetlitchnyi, Vitali A; Kensch, Oliver; Falkenhan, Doris A; Korseska, Svenja G; Lippert, Nadine; Prinz, Melanie; Sassi, Jamaleddine; Schickor, Anke; Curvers, Simon

    2013-02-28

    Consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol using thermophilic bacteria provides a promising solution for efficient lignocellulose conversion without the need for additional cellulolytic enzymes. Most studies on the thermophilic CBP concentrate on co-cultivation of the thermophilic cellulolytic bacterium Clostridium thermocellum with non-cellulolytic thermophilic anaerobes at temperatures of 55°C-60°C. We have specifically screened for cellulolytic bacteria growing at temperatures >70°C to enable direct conversion of lignocellulosic materials into ethanol. Seven new strains of extremely thermophilic anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria of the genus Caldicellulosiruptor and eight new strains of extremely thermophilic xylanolytic/saccharolytic bacteria of the genus Thermoanaerobacter isolated from environmental samples exhibited fast growth at 72°C, extensive lignocellulose degradation and high yield ethanol production on cellulose and pretreated lignocellulosic biomass. Monocultures of Caldicellulosiruptor strains degraded up to 89-97% of the cellulose and hemicellulose polymers in pretreated biomass and produced up to 72 mM ethanol on cellulose without addition of exogenous enzymes. In dual co-cultures of Caldicellulosiruptor strains with Thermoanaerobacter strains the ethanol concentrations rose 2- to 8.2-fold compared to cellulolytic monocultures. A co-culture of Caldicellulosiruptor DIB 087C and Thermoanaerobacter DIB 097X was particularly effective in the conversion of cellulose to ethanol, ethanol comprising 34.8 mol% of the total organic products. In contrast, a co-culture of Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus DSM 8903 and Thermoanaerobacter mathranii subsp. mathranii DSM 11426 produced only low amounts of ethanol. The newly discovered Caldicellulosiruptor sp. strain DIB 004C was capable of producing unexpectedly large amounts of ethanol from lignocellulose in fermentors. The established co-cultures of new Caldicellulosiruptor

  16. 1-Butyl-3-Methylimidazolium Chloride Pretreatment on Malaysia Lignocellulose Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, L.P.; Nur Hasyareeda Hassan; Muhammad Rahimi Yusop

    2015-01-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are of great interest as potential solvents for the production of fuels from lignocellulose biomass which is a potential source of bio fuels. To study the effects of pretreatment, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([B mim]Cl) was used to pretreat woody plants, kempas (Koompassia malaccensis) and jelutong (Dyera costulata), and non-woody plants, kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) and rice husk (Oryza sativa) at 120 degree Celsius for 24 h. Cellulose was regenerated by the addition of water. The cell wall composition and structure of the lignocellulose bio masses before and after the ILs pretreatment were observed and characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), attenuated total reflectance fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). After the pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out to identify the total reducing sugars (TRS) yields using dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) method. Regenerated lignocellulose bio masses resulted in high TRS yields compared to their counter-parts which are in agreement with the findings of FESEM, ATR FT-IR and XRD that exhibited regenerated cellulose were less crystalline and more amorphous upon IL pretreatment. Therefore, kempas and jelutong can be alternate sources for the bio fuels production. (author)

  17. Factors affecting seawater-based pretreatment of lignocellulosic date palm residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Chuanji; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Frankaer, Christian Grundahl

    2017-01-01

    Seawater-based pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is an innovative process at research stage. With respect to process optimization, factors affecting seawater-based pretreatment of lignocellulosic date palm residues were studied for the first time in this paper. Pretreatment temperature (180...... °C–210 °C), salinity of seawater (0 ppt–50 ppt), and catalysts (H2SO4, Na2CO3, and NaOH) were investigated. The results showed that pretreatment temperature exerted the largest influence on seawater-based pretreatment in terms of the enzymatic digestibility and fermentability of pretreated solids...

  18. Biomass Deconstruction and Recalcitrance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Heng

    This thesis is about the use of an agricultural residue as a feedstock for fermentable sugars to be used for second generation (2G) bioethanol. The main focus of this thesis work is upon the recalcitrance of different anatomical fractions of wheat straw. Biomass recalcitrance is a collective...... of lignocellulosic biomass’ degradability, a high throughput screening (HTS) platform was developed for combined thermochemical pretreatment and enzymatic degradation in Copenhagen laboratory during this thesis work. The platform integrates an automatized biomass grinding and dispensing system, a pressurized heating...... system, a plate incubator and a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system. In comparison with the reported HTS platforms, the Copenhagen platform is featured by the fully automatic biomass sample preparation system, the bench-scale hydrothermal pretreatment setup, and precise sugar measurement...

  19. Fungal Beta-Glucosidases: A Bottleneck in Industrial Use of Lignocellulosic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter S. Lübeck

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Profitable biomass conversion processes are highly dependent on the use of efficient enzymes for lignocellulose degradation. Among the cellulose degrading enzymes, beta-glucosidases are essential for efficient hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass as they relieve the inhibition of the cellobiohydrolases and endoglucanases by reducing cellobiose accumulation. In this review, we discuss the important role beta-glucosidases play in complex biomass hydrolysis and how they create a bottleneck in industrial use of lignocellulosic materials. An efficient beta-glucosidase facilitates hydrolysis at specified process conditions, and key points to consider in this respect are hydrolysis rate, inhibitors, and stability. Product inhibition impairing yields, thermal inactivation of enzymes, and the high cost of enzyme production are the main obstacles to commercial cellulose hydrolysis. Therefore, this sets the stage in the search for better alternatives to the currently available enzyme preparations either by improving known or screening for new beta-glucosidases.

  20. Enzyme recycling in lignocellulosic biorefineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henning; Pinelo, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    platform. Cellulases are the most important enzymes required in this process, but the complex nature of lignocellulose requires several other enzymes (hemicellulases and auxiliary enzymes) for efficient hydrolysis. Enzyme recycling increases the catalytic productivity of the enzymes by reusing them...... for several batches of hydrolysis, and thereby reduces the overall cost associated with the hydrolysis. Research on this subject has been ongoing for many years and several promising technologies and methods have been developed and demonstrated. But only in a very few cases have these technologies been...... upscaled and tested in industrial settings, mainly because of many difficulties with recycling of enzymes from the complex lignocellulose hydrolyzate at industrially relevant conditions, i.e., high solids loadings. The challenges are associated with the large number of different enzymes required...

  1. Process for purifying lignocellulosic feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Matthew; Matthes, Megan; Nelson, Thomas; Held, Andrew

    2018-01-09

    The present invention includes methods for removing mineral acids, mineral salts and contaminants, such as metal impurities, ash, terpenoids, stilbenes, flavonoids, proteins, and other inorganic products, from a lignocellulosic feedstock stream containing organic acids, carbohydrates, starches, polysaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, sugars, sugar alcohols, phenols, cresols, and other oxygenated hydrocarbons, in a manner that maintains a portion of the organic acids and other oxygenated hydrocarbons in the product stream.

  2. LIGNOCELLULOSE NANOCOMPOSITE CONTAINING COPPER SULFIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchi Nenkova

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Copper sulfide-containing lignocellulose nanocomposites with improved electroconductivity were obtained. Two methods for preparing the copper sulfide lignocellulose nanocomposites were developed. An optimization of the parameters for obtaining of the nanocomposites with respect to obtaining improved electroconductivity, economy, and lower quantities and concentration of copper and sulfur ions in waste waters was conducted. The mechanisms and schemes of delaying and subsequent connection of copper sulfides in the lignocellulosic matrix were investigated. The modification with a system of 2 components: cupric sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO4. 5H2O and sodium thiosulfate pentahydrate (Na2S2O3.5H2O for wood fibers is preferred. Optimal parameters were established for the process: 40 % of the reduction system; hydromodule M=1:6; and ratio of cupric sulfate pentahydrate:sodium thiosulfate pentahydrate = 1:2. The coordinative connection of copper ions with oxygen atoms of cellulose OH groups and aromatic nucleus in lignin macromolecule was observed.

  3. How does cellulosome composition influence deconstruction of lignocellulosic substrates in Clostridium (Ruminiclostridium) thermocellum DSM 1313?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoav, Shahar; Barak, Yoav; Shamshoum, Melina; Borovok, Ilya; Lamed, Raphael; Dassa, Bareket; Hadar, Yitzhak; Morag, Ely; Bayer, Edward A

    2017-01-01

    Bioethanol production processes involve enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass into fermentable sugars. Due to the relatively high cost of enzyme production, the development of potent and cost-effective cellulolytic cocktails is critical for increasing the cost-effectiveness of bioethanol production. In this context, the multi-protein cellulolytic complex of Clostridium ( Ruminiclostridium ) thermocellum, the cellulosome, was studied here. C. thermocellum is known to assemble cellulosomes of various subunit (enzyme) compositions, in response to the available carbon source. In the current study, different carbon sources were used, and their influence on both cellulosomal composition and the resultant activity was investigated. Glucose, cellobiose, microcrystalline cellulose, alkaline-pretreated switchgrass, alkaline-pretreated corn stover, and dilute acid-pretreated corn stover were used as sole carbon sources in the growth media of C. thermocellum strain DSM 1313. The purified cellulosomes were compared for their activity on selected cellulosic substrates. Interestingly, cellulosomes derived from cells grown on lignocellulosic biomass showed no advantage in hydrolyzing the original carbon source used for their production. Instead, microcrystalline cellulose- and glucose-derived cellulosomes were equal or superior in their capacity to deconstruct lignocellulosic biomass. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed differential composition of catalytic and structural subunits (scaffoldins) in the different cellulosome samples. The most abundant catalytic subunits in all cellulosome types include Cel48S, Cel9K, Cel9Q, Cel9R, and Cel5G. Microcrystalline cellulose- and glucose-derived cellulosome samples showed higher endoglucanase-to-exoglucanase ratios and higher catalytic subunit-per-scaffoldin ratios compared to lignocellulose-derived cellulosome types. The results reported here highlight the finding that cellulosomes derived from cells grown on glucose

  4. Thermotolerant Yeasts for Bioethanol Production Using Lignocellulosic Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasha, Chand; Rao, L. Venkateswar

    No other sustainable option for production of transportation fuels can match ethanol made from lignocellulosic biomass with respect to its dramatic environmental, economic, strategic and infrastructure advantages. Substantial progress has been made in advancing biomass ethanol (bioethanol) production technology to the point that it now has commercial potential, and several firms are engaged in the demanding task of introducing first-of-a-kind technology into the marketplace to make bioethanol a reality in existing fuel-blending markets. In order to lower pollution India has a long-term goal to use biofuels (bioethanol and biodiesel). Ethanol may be used either in pure form, or as a blend in petrol in different proportions. Since the cost of raw materials, which can account up to 50 % of the total production cost, is one of the most significant factors affecting the economy of alcohol, nowadays efforts are more concentrated on using cheap and abundant raw materials. Several forms of biomass resources exist (starch or sugar crops, weeds, oil plants, agricultural, forestry and municipal wastes) but of all biomass cellulosic resources represent the most abundant global source. The lignocellulosic materials include agricultural residues, municipal solid wastes (MSW), pulp mill refuse, switchgrass and lawn, garden wastes. Lignocellulosic materials contain two types of polysaccharides, cellulose and hemicellulose, bound together by a third component lignin. The principal elements of the lignocellulosic research include: i) evaluation and characterization of the waste feedstock; ii) pretreatment including initial clean up or dewatering of the feedstock; and iii) development of effective direct conversion bioprocessing to generate ethanol as an end product. Pre-treatment of lignocellulosic materials is a step in which some of the hemicellulose dissolves in water, either as monomeric sugars or as oligomers and polymers. The cellulose cannot be enzymatically hydrolyzed to

  5. Acrolein-detoxifying isozymes of glutathione transferase in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Jun'ichi; Ishibashi, Asami; Muneuchi, Hitoshi; Morita, Chihiro; Sakai, Hiroki; Biswas, Md Sanaullah; Koeduka, Takao; Kitajima, Sakihito

    2017-02-01

    Acrolein is a lipid-derived highly reactive aldehyde, mediating oxidative signal and damage in plants. We found acrolein-scavenging glutathione transferase activity in plants and purified a low K M isozyme from spinach. Various environmental stressors on plants cause the generation of acrolein, a highly toxic aldehyde produced from lipid peroxides, via the promotion of the formation of reactive oxygen species, which oxidize membrane lipids. In mammals, acrolein is scavenged by glutathione transferase (GST; EC 2.5.1.18) isozymes of Alpha, Pi, and Mu classes, but plants lack these GST classes. We detected the acrolein-scavenging GST activity in four species of plants, and purified an isozyme showing this activity from spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) leaves. The isozyme (GST-Acr), obtained after an affinity chromatography and two ion exchange chromatography steps, showed the K M value for acrolein 93 μM, the smallest value known for acrolein-detoxifying enzymes in plants. Peptide sequence homology search revealed that GST-Acr belongs to the GST Tau, a plant-specific class. The Arabidopsis thaliana GST Tau19, which has the closest sequence similar to spinach GST-Acr, also showed a high catalytic efficiency for acrolein. These results suggest that GST plays as a scavenger for acrolein in plants.

  6. Energy and Environmental Performance of Bioethanol from Different Lignocelluloses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Luo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and the wish to reduce the dependence on oil are the incentives for the development of alternative energy sources. The use of lignocellulosic biomass together with cellulosic processing technology provides opportunities to produce fuel ethanol with less competition with food and nature. Many studies on energy analysis and life cycle assessment of second-generation bioethanol have been conducted. However, due to the different methodology used and different system boundary definition, it is difficult to compare their results. To permit a direct comparison of fuel ethanol from different lignocelluloses in terms of energy use and environmental impact, seven studies conducted in our group were summarized in this paper, where the same technologies were used to convert biomass to ethanol, the same system boundaries were defined, and the same allocation procedures were followed. A complete set of environmental impacts ranging from global warming potential to toxicity aspects is used. The results provide an overview on the energy efficiency and environmental performance of using fuel ethanol derived from different feedstocks in comparison with gasoline.

  7. Metabolic engineering of yeast for lignocellulosic biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yong-Su; Cate, Jamie Hd

    2017-12-01

    Production of biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass remains an unsolved challenge in industrial biotechnology. Efforts to use yeast for conversion face the question of which host organism to use, counterbalancing the ease of genetic manipulation with the promise of robust industrial phenotypes. Saccharomyces cerevisiae remains the premier host for metabolic engineering of biofuel pathways, due to its many genetic, systems and synthetic biology tools. Numerous engineering strategies for expanding substrate ranges and diversifying products of S. cerevisiae have been developed. Other yeasts generally lack these tools, yet harbor superior phenotypes that could be exploited in the harsh processes required for lignocellulosic biofuel production. These include thermotolerance, resistance to toxic compounds generated during plant biomass deconstruction, and wider carbon consumption capabilities. Although promising, these yeasts have yet to be widely exploited. By contrast, oleaginous yeasts such as Yarrowia lipolytica capable of producing high titers of lipids are rapidly advancing in terms of the tools available for their metabolic manipulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Examination of lignocellulosic fibers for chemical, thermal, and separations properties: Addressing thermo-chemical stability issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Carter David

    Natural fiber-plastic composites incorporate thermoplastic resins with fibrous plant-based materials, sometimes referred to as biomass. Pine wood mill waste has been the traditional source of natural fibrous feedstock. In anticipation of a waste wood shortage other fibrous biomass materials are being investigated as potential supplements or replacements. Perennial grasses, agricultural wastes, and woody biomass are among the potential source materials. As these feedstocks share the basic chemical building blocks; cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, they are collectively called lignocellulosics. Initial investigation of a number of lignocellulosic materials, applied to fiber-plastic composite processing and material testing, resulted in varied results, particularly response to processing conditions. Less thermally stable lignocellulosic filler materials were physically changed in observable ways: darkened color and odor. The effect of biomass materials' chemical composition on thermal stability was investigated an experiment involving determination of the chemical composition of seven lignocellulosics: corn hull, corn stover, fescue, pine, soy hull, soy stover, and switchgrass. These materials were also evaluated for thermal stability by thermogravimetric analysis. The results of these determinations indicated that both chemical composition and pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials can have an effect on their thermal stability. A second study was performed to investigate what effect different pretreatment systems have on hybrid poplar, pine, and switchgrass. These materials were treated with hot water, ethanol, and a 2:1 benzene/ethanol mixture for extraction times of: 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours. This factorial experiment demonstrated that both extraction time and medium have an effect on the weight percent of extractives removed from all three material types. The extracted materials generated in the above study were then subjected to an evaluation of thermal

  9. Biomass energy: progress in the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, J. [CPL Scientific Limited, Newbury (United Kingdom)

    1996-05-01

    A brief overview of the progress in the use of biomass energy in the European Union is presented. Wood fuel, support for renewable energy research, liquid biofuel, wastes and residues, and non-food use of crops such as the production of fuels from lignocellulosic materials are examined. (UK)

  10. Lignocellulosic biorefinery as a model for sustainable development of biofuels and value added products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bhowmick, Goldy; Sarmah, Ajit K; Sen, Ramkrishna

    2018-01-01

    A constant shift of society's dependence from petroleum-based energy resources towards renewable biomass-based has been the key to tackle the greenhouse gas emissions. Effective use of biomass feedstock, particularly lignocellulosic, has gained worldwide attention lately. Lignocellulosic biomass as a potent bioresource, however, cannot be a sustainable alternative if the production cost is too high and/ or the availability is limited. Recycling the lignocellulosic biomass from various sources into value added products such as bio-oil, biochar or other biobased chemicals in a bio-refinery model is a sensible idea. Combination of integrated conversion techniques along with process integration is suggested as a sustainable approach. Introducing 'series concept' accompanying intermittent dark/photo fermentation with co-cultivation of microalgae is conceptualised. While the cost of downstream processing for a single type of feedstock would be high, combining different feedstocks and integrating them in a bio-refinery model would lessen the production cost and reduce CO 2 emission. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Economic and environmental considerations of biomass fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, Roger

    1992-01-01

    The economic and environmental aspects of biomass fuels are considered. Close to source, the cost of useful energy in the form of lignocellulose is often competitive with fossil fuels, say $1-3 per GJ. There are three main options to divert this biomass into commercial energy channels: solid fuels for underboiler use; liquid fuels for automotive use and electric power generation, each of which is discussed. The social, economic and environmental advantages of an afforestation programme are highlighted. (Author)

  12. Lignocellulose biotechnology: issues of bioconversion and enzyme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lignocellulose biotechnology: issues of bioconversion and enzyme production. ... and secondly to highlight some of the modern approaches which potentially could be used to tackle one of the major impediments, namely high enzyme cost, to speed-up the extensive commercialisation of the lignocellulose bioprocessing.

  13. Enzymatic conversion of lignocellulose into fermentable sugars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henning; Kristensen, Jan Bach; Felby, Claus

    2007-01-01

    and hemicelluloses but these are not readily accessible to enzymatic hydrolysis and require a pretreatment, which causes an extensive modification of the lignocellulosic structure. A number of pretreatment technologies are under development and being tested in pilot scale. Hydrolysis of lignocellulose carbohydrates...

  14. Effect of radio-detoxified endotoxin on the liver microsomal drug metabolizing enzyme system in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertok, L.; Szeberenyi, S.

    1983-01-01

    E. coli endotoxin (LPS) depresses the hepatic microsomal mono-oxygenase activity. Radio-detoxified LPS (TOLERIN: 60 Co irradiated endotoxin preparation) decreases this biotransforming activity to a smaller extent. Phenobarbital, an inducer of this mono-oxygenase system, failed to induce in LPS-treated animals. In radio-detoxified LPS-treated rats, phenobarbital induced the mono-oxygenase and almost fully restored the biotransformation

  15. Biodetoxification of toxins generated from lignocellulose pretreatment using a newly isolated fungus, Amorphotheca resinae ZN1, and the consequent ethanol fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Wei

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Degradation of the toxic compounds generated in the harsh pretreatment of lignocellulose is an inevitable step in reducing the toxin level for conducting practical enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation processes. Various detoxification methods have been tried and many negative outcomes were found using these methods, such as the massive freshwater usage and wastewater generation, loss of the fine lignocellulose particles and fermentative sugars and incomplete removal of inhibitors. An alternate method, biodetoxification, which degrades the toxins as part of their normal metabolism, was considered a promising option for the removal of toxins without causing the above problems. Results A kerosene fungus strain, Amorphotheca resinae ZN1, was isolated from the microbial community growing on the pretreated corn stover material. The degradation of the toxins as well as the lignocelluloses-derived sugars was characterized in different ways, and the results show that A. resinae ZN1 utilized each of these toxins and sugars as the sole carbon sources efficiently and grew quickly on the toxins. It was found that the solid-state culture of A. resinae ZN1 on various pretreated lignocellulose feedstocks such as corn stover, wheat straw, rice straw, cotton stalk and rape straw degraded all kinds of toxins quickly and efficiently. The consequent simultaneous saccharification and ethanol fermentation was performed at the 30% (wt/wt solid loading of the detoxified lignocellulosic feedstocks without a sterilization step, and the ethanol titer in the fermentation broth reached above 40 g/L using food crop residues as feedstocks. Conclusions The advantages of the present biodetoxification by A. resinae ZN1 over the known detoxification methods include zero energy input, zero wastewater generation, complete toxin degradation, processing on solid pretreated material, no need for sterilization and a wide lignocellulose feedstock spectrum

  16. The use of isotopes in the production and transformation of biomass for energy purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Gonzalez, J.

    1984-01-01

    Biomass possibilities as an energy source and ''agroenergetica'' concept are described. Then, the possibilities of radiotracers in research on agroenergy, mainly photosynthesis, plant metabolism and soil-plant relations are analyzed. Finally the use of radioactive sources for the treatment of lignocellulosic biomass and the conservation of amylaceus biomass are considered. (author)

  17. Availability of lignocellulosic feedstocks for lactic acid production - Feedstock availability, lactic acid production potential and selection criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, R.R.C.

    2013-01-01

    The overall objective of this study is to assess the worldwide availability and suitability of agricultural residues for lactic acid production, based on fermentation of carbohydrates. The study focuses on lignocellulosic biomass that is produced as a by-product of agricultural production. The

  18. Process economics of renewable biorefineries: butanol and ethanol production in integrated bioprocesses from lignocellulosics and other industrial by-products

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter provides process economic details on production of butanol from lignocellulosic biomass and glycerol in integrated bioreactors where numerous unit operations are combined. In order to compare various processes, economic evaluations were performed using SuperPro Designer Software (versio...

  19. Lignocellulosic ethanol: Technology design and its impact on process efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulova, Leona; Patakova, Petra; Branska, Barbora; Rychtera, Mojmir; Melzoch, Karel

    2015-11-01

    This review provides current information on the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass, with the main focus on relationships between process design and efficiency, expressed as ethanol concentration, yield and productivity. In spite of unquestionable advantages of lignocellulosic biomass as a feedstock for ethanol production (availability, price, non-competitiveness with food, waste material), many technological bottlenecks hinder its wide industrial application and competitiveness with 1st generation ethanol production. Among the main technological challenges are the recalcitrant structure of the material, and thus the need for extensive pretreatment (usually physico-chemical followed by enzymatic hydrolysis) to yield fermentable sugars, and a relatively low concentration of monosaccharides in the medium that hinder the achievement of ethanol concentrations comparable with those obtained using 1st generation feedstocks (e.g. corn or molasses). The presence of both pentose and hexose sugars in the fermentation broth, the price of cellulolytic enzymes, and the presence of toxic compounds that can inhibit cellulolytic enzymes and microbial producers of ethanol are major issues. In this review, different process configurations of the main technological steps (enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation of hexose/and or pentose sugars) are discussed and their efficiencies are compared. The main features, benefits and drawbacks of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), simultaneous saccharification and fermentation with delayed inoculation (dSSF), consolidated bioprocesses (CBP) combining production of cellulolytic enzymes, hydrolysis of biomass and fermentation into one step, together with an approach combining utilization of both pentose and hexose sugars are discussed and compared with separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) processes. The impact of individual technological steps on final process efficiency is emphasized and the potential for use

  20. Value addition to lignocellulosics and biomass-derived sugars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    For the synthesis of important platform chemicals such as sugars (xylose and arabinose) and furans (furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF)) from carbohydrates (hemicellulose and fructose) solid acid catalysts are employed. Similarly, over solid acid catalysts, conversion of lignin into aromatic monomers is performed.

  1. Value addition to lignocellulosics and biomass-derived sugars: An ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    .59 HMF is mainly produced from fructose ... Sn–W oxide catalyst was evaluated in this reaction and it yielded 48% of ... Catalytic cracking of bio-oils is also known over. HZSM-5 ≥ 340 ...... Kim S B and Lee Y Y 1985 Biotechnol. Bioeng. Symp.

  2. Acid hydrolysis of Biomass lignocellulose Onopordum nervosum Boiss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez Contreras, C.; Diaz Palma, A.; Paz, M. D.

    1985-01-01

    Hydrolysis of resistant cellulose of Onopordum nervosum Boiss (thistle) to reducing sugars in dilute sulfuric acid in glass ampoules and long residence times has been studied and kinetic parameters determined. The rate of hydrolysis is similar to that of the cellulose of Douglas fir, but comparatively the effect of the acid is more pronounced than temperature. From kinetic data it can be pre ducted the yield and since it can be obtained at least 45% of the potential glucose (48% as reducing sugars) at 190 degree centigree, 1,6% acid and 6,1 min. residence time, it indicates that the continuous acid hydrolysis of thistle may be a process of commercial interest. (Author) 18 refs

  3. Consolidated briefing of biochemical ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achinas, Spyridon; Euverink, Gerrit Jan Willem

    2016-01-01

    Bioethanol production is one pathway for crude oil reduction and environmental compliance. Bioethanol can be used as fuel with significant characteristics like high octane number, low cetane number and high heat of vaporization. Its main drawbacks are the corrosiveness, low flame luminosity, lower

  4. Structure, functionality and tuning up of laccases for lignocellulose and other industrial applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sitarz, Anna K.; Mikkelsen, Jørn D.; Meyer, Anne S.

    2016-01-01

    Laccases (EC 1.10.3.2) are copper-containing oxidoreductases that have a relatively high redox potential which enables them to catalyze oxidation of phenolic compounds, including lignin-derived phenolics. The laccase-catalyzed oxidation of phenolics is accompanied by concomitant reduction of diox...... but differences in loop conformations. We also evaluate the features and regions of laccases in relation to modification and evolution of laccases for various industrial applications including lignocellulosic biomass processing....

  5. Bioreactors for lignocellulose conversion into fermentable sugars for production of high added value products

    OpenAIRE

    Liguori, Rossana; Ventorino, Valeria; Pepe, Olimpia; Faraco, Vincenza

    2015-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomasses derived from dedicated crops and agro-industrial residual materials are promising renewable resources for the production of fuels and other added value bioproducts. Due to the tolerance to a wide range of environments, the dedicated crops can be cultivated on marginal lands, avoiding conflict with food production and having beneficial effects on the environment. Besides, the agro-industrial residual materials represent an abundant, available, and cheap source of biop...

  6. Comparative environmental performance of lignocellulosic ethanol from different feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, Sara; Moreira, M. Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo [Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    A renewable biofuel economy is projected as a pathway to decrease dependence on fossil fuels as well as to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. Ethanol produced on large-scale from lignocellulosic raw materials is considered the most potential next generation automotive fuel. In this paper, a Life Cycle Assessment model was developed to evaluate the environmental implications of the production of ethanol from five lignocellulosic materials: alfalfa stems, poplar, Ethiopian mustard, flax shives and hemp hurds and its use in passenger cars. Two ethanol-based fuel applications, E10 (a mixture of 10% ethanol and 90% gasoline by volume) and E85 (85% ethanol and 15% gasoline by volume) were assessed and the results were compared to those of conventional gasoline (CG) in an equivalent car. The environmental performance was assessed in terms of fossil fuels requirements, global warming, photochemical oxidant formation, acidification and eutrophication by means of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology in order to identify the best environmental friendly lignocellulosic source. The results show that, compared to CG, life cycle greenhouse gases emissions are lower for etanol blends, specifically up to 145% lower for E85-fueled car derived from Ethiopian mustard. This crop is also the best option in terms of eutrophying emissions regardless the ratio of ethanol in the blend. In the remaining impact categories, other feedstocks are considered beneficial, that is, poplar in the case of photochemical oxidants formation and flax shives for acidification. Concerning fossil fuels requirements, decreases up to 10% and 63% for E10 and E85 derived from hemp hurds and Ethiopian mustard, respectively, were obtained. According to the results, the study clearly demonstrates the importance of using low intensive energy and high biomass yield crops. LCA procedure helps to identify the key areas in the ethanol production life cycle where the researchers and technicians need to work

  7. Recent patents on genetic modification of plants and microbes for biomass conversion to biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubieniechi, Simona; Peranantham, Thinesh; Levin, David B

    2013-04-01

    Development of sustainable energy systems based on renewable biomass feedstocks is now a global effort. Lignocellulosic biomass contains polymers of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, bound together in a complex structure. Liquid biofuels, such as ethanol, can be made from biomass via fermentation of sugars derived from the cellulose and hemicellulose within lignocellulosic materials, but pre-treatment of the biomass to release sugars for microbial conversion is a significant barrier to commercial success of lignocellulosic biofuel production. Strategies to reduce the energy and cost inputs required for biomass pre-treatment include genetic modification of plant materials to reduce lignin content. Significant efforts are also underway to create recombinant microorganisms capable of converting sugars derived from lignocellulosic biomass to a variety of biofuels. An alternative strategy to reduce the costs of cellulosic biofuel production is the use of cellulolytic microorganisms capable of direct microbial conversion of ligno-cellulosic biomass to fuels. This paper reviews recent patents on genetic modification of plants and microbes for biomass conversion to biofuels.

  8. MULTIVARIATE TECHNIQUES APPLIED TO EVALUATION OF LIGNOCELLULOSIC RESIDUES FOR BIOENERGY PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Paula Protásio

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509812361The evaluation of lignocellulosic wastes for bioenergy production demands to consider several characteristicsand properties that may be correlated. This fact demands the use of various multivariate analysis techniquesthat allow the evaluation of relevant energetic factors. This work aimed to apply cluster analysis and principalcomponents analyses for the selection and evaluation of lignocellulosic wastes for bioenergy production.8 types of residual biomass were used, whose the elemental components (C, H, O, N, S content, lignin, totalextractives and ashes contents, basic density and higher and lower heating values were determined. Bothmultivariate techniques applied for evaluation and selection of lignocellulosic wastes were efficient andsimilarities were observed between the biomass groups formed by them. Through the interpretation of thefirst principal component obtained, it was possible to create a global development index for the evaluationof the viability of energetic uses of biomass. The interpretation of the second principal component alloweda contrast between nitrogen and sulfur contents with oxygen content.

  9. Detoxification of Olive Mill Wastewater and Bioconversion of Olive Crop Residues into High-Value-Added Biomass by the Choice Edible Mushroom Hericium erinaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutrotsios, Georgios; Larou, Evangelia; Mountzouris, Konstantinos C; Zervakis, Georgios I

    2016-09-01

    Environmentally acceptable disposal of olive cultivation residues (e.g., olive prunings; olive pruning residues (OLPR)) and olive mill wastes is of paramount importance since they are generated in huge quantities within a short time. Moreover, olive mill wastewater (OMW) or sludge-like effluents ("alperujo"; two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW)) are highly biotoxic. Hericium erinaceus is a white-rot fungus which produces choice edible mushrooms on substrates rich in lignocellulosics, and its suitability for the treatment of olive by-products was examined for the first time. Fungal growth resulted in a notable reduction of OMW's pollution parameters (i.e., 65 % decolorization, 47 % total phenolic reduction, and 52 % phytotoxicity decrease) and correlated with laccase and manganese peroxidase activities. Solid-state fermentation of various mixtures of OLPR, TPOMW, and beech sawdust (control) by H. erinaceus qualified OLPR in subsequent cultivation experiments, where it exhibited high mushroom yields and biological efficiency (31 %). Analyses of proximate composition and bioactive compound content revealed that mushrooms deriving from OLPR substrates showed significantly higher crude fat, total glucan, β-glucan, total phenolics, and ferric-reducing antioxidant potential values than the control. H. erinaceus demonstrated the potential to detoxify OMW and bioconvert OLPR into high-quality biomass, and hence, this fungus could be successfully exploited for the treatment of such by-products.

  10. Utilizing thermophilic microbe in lignocelluloses based bioethanol production: Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriharti, Agustina, Wawan; Ratnawati, Lia; Rahman, Taufik; Salim, Takiyah

    2017-01-01

    The utilization of thermophilic microbe has attracted many parties, particularly in producing an alternative fuel like ethanol. Bioethanol is one of the alternative energy sources substituting for earth oil in the future. The advantage of using bioethanol is that it can reduce pollution levels and global warming because the result of bioethanol burning doesn't bring in a net addition of CO2 into environment. Moreover, decrease in the reserves of earth oil globally has also contributed to the notion on searching renewable energy resources such as bioethanol. Indonesia has a high biomass potential and can be used as raw material for bioethanol. The utilization of these raw materials will reduce fears of competition foodstuffs for energy production. The enzymes that play a role in degrading lignocelluloses are cellulolytic, hemicellulolytic, and lignolytic in nature. The main enzyme with an important role in bioethanol production is a complex enzyme capable of degrading lignocelluloses. The enzyme can be produced by the thermophilik microbes of the groups of bacteria and fungi such as Trichoderma viride, Clostridium thermocellum, Bacillus sp. Bioethanol production is heavily affected by raw material composition, microorganism type, and the condition of fermentation used.

  11. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Algal Biomass to Biofuels: Algal Biomass Fractionation to Lipid-and Carbohydrate-Derived Fuel Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-09-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) promotes the production of a range of liquid fuels and fuel blendstocks from biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass production, conversion, and sustainability. As part of its involvement in this program, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) investigates the conceptual production economics of these fuels. This includes fuel pathways from lignocellulosic (terrestrial) biomass, as well as from algal (aquatic) biomass systems.

  12. Developing symbiotic consortia for lignocellulosic biofuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuroff, Trevor R.; Curtis, Wayne R. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2012-02-15

    The search for petroleum alternatives has motivated intense research into biological breakdown of lignocellulose to produce liquid fuels such as ethanol. Degradation of lignocellulose for biofuel production is a difficult process which is limited by, among other factors, the recalcitrance of lignocellulose and biological toxicity of the products. Consolidated bioprocessing has been suggested as an efficient and economical method of producing low value products from lignocellulose; however, it is not clear whether this would be accomplished more efficiently with a single organism or community of organisms. This review highlights examples of mixtures of microbes in the context of conceptual models for developing symbiotic consortia for biofuel production from lignocellulose. Engineering a symbiosis within consortia is a putative means of improving both process efficiency and stability relative to monoculture. Because microbes often interact and exist attached to surfaces, quorum sensing and biofilm formation are also discussed in terms of consortia development and stability. An engineered, symbiotic culture of multiple organisms may be a means of assembling a novel combination of metabolic capabilities that can efficiently produce biofuel from lignocellulose. (orig.)

  13. Composição lignocelulósica e isótopica da vegetação e da matéria orgânica do solo de uma turfeira tropical: I - composição florística, fitomassa e acúmulo de carbono Lignocellulosic and isotopic composition of vegetation and soil organic matter of a tropical peat: I floristic composition, biomass and carbon stock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Evangelista Silva

    2013-02-01

    ção da do CLU. Os sinais isotópicos e a composição lignocelulósica da vegetação e da matéria orgânica do solo evidenciaram que a turfeira foi formada pela deposição de matéria orgânica da vegetação que a coloniza. O crescimento vertical e a taxa de acúmulo de C foram muito mais elevados sob a FES do que sob o CLU.Soil organic matter (SOM is one of the major reservoirs of carbon on Earth and is one of the key contributors to the carbon cycle. Peatlands are natural accumulators of organic matter commonly derived from decomposing plant residues in water-saturated environments, and represent an initial stage of a much longer pedogenic pathway leading to carbonification. The soil biomass markedly influences the global carbon cycle, accounting for approximately 85 % of all carbon on the Earth's surface. Plant tissues are mainly composed of lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses, representing as much as 85 % of their dry biomass. Plants usually discriminate carbon differentially, according to their photosynthetic cycle (C3, C4 and CAM. The vegetation of the bogs in the southern domain of Serra do Espinhaço (SdEM; Brazil consists mostly of moist grassland (CLU and semideciduous forest (FES, with species of both C3 and C4 cycles. This study was designed to discriminate the contribution of these two vegetation types to the accumulation of soil organic matter by an analysis of the biomass and of the lignocellulosic and carbon isotopic composition and SOM. The studied peat is located in SdEM and covers an area of 81.75ha. Three 0.5x0.5m plots were marked per vegetation type, to delimit the sampling areas, for which biomass of CLU and FES were estimated. All plants per plot were cut and adequately stored to preserve as much of their fresh characteristics as possible. To characterize the isotopic and lignocellulosic composition of the vegetation, the species of each vegetation type were systematically identified according to their main botanic characteristics. Soil

  14. LIGNOCELLULOSE AS AN ALTERNATIVE SOURCE FOR OBTAINING OF BIOBUTANOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Shulga

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Energy and environmental crisis facing the world force us to reconsider the effectiveness or find an alternative use of renewable natural resources, especially organic «waste» by using environmentally friendly technologies. Microbial conversion of renewable resources of biosphere to produce useful products, including biofuels, currently is an actual biotech problem. Anaerobic bacteria of Clostridiaceae family are known as butanol producers, but unfortunately, the microbiological synthesis is currently not economical one. In order to make cost-effective aceton-butanol-ethanol fermentation, solventproducing strains using available cheap raw materials, such as agricultural waste or plant biomass, are required. Opportunities and ways to obtaine economic and ecological processing of lignocellulosic wastes for biobutanol creation are described in the review .

  15. Commercial feasibility of lignocellulose biodegradation: possibilities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Mohamed; Foda, Mohamed; Shahsavari, Esmaeil; Aburto-Medina, Arturo; Adetutu, Eric; Ball, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    The main source of energy supply worldwide is generated from fossil fuels, which undoubtedly are finite and non-environmental friendly resources. Bioethanol generated from edible resources also has economic and environmental concerns. Despite the immense attention to find an alternative (inedible) source of energy in the last two decades, the total commercial production of 1st generation biofuels is limited and equivalent only to approximately 3% of the total road transport fuel consumption. Lignocellulosic waste represents the most abundant biomass on earth and could be a suitable candidate for producing valuable products including biofuels. However, cellulosic bioethanol has not been produced on a large scale due to the technical barriers involved that make the commercial production of cellulosic bioethanol not economically feasible. This review examines some of the current barriers to commercialization of the process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Environmental impacts of a lignocellulose feedstock biorefinery system: An assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uihlein, Andreas; Schebek, Liselotte

    2009-01-01

    Biomass is a sustainable alternative to fossil energy carriers which are used to produce fuels, electricity, chemicals, and other goods. At the moment, the main biobased products are obtained by the conversion of biomass to basic products like starch, oil, and cellulose. In addition, some single chemicals and fuels are produced. Presently, concepts of biorefineries which will produce a multitude of biomass-derived products are discussed. Biorefineries are supposed to contribute to a more sustainable resource supply and to a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. However, biobased products and fuels may also be associated with environmental disadvantages due to, e.g. land use or eutrophication of water. We performed a Life Cycle Assessment of a lignocellulose feedstock biorefinery system and compared it to conventional product alternatives. The biorefinery was found to have the greatest environmental impacts in the three categories: fossil fuel use, respiratory effects, and carcinogenics. The environmental impacts predominantly result from the provision of hydrochloric acid and to a smaller extent also from the provision of process heat. As the final configuration of the biorefinery cannot be determined yet, various variants of the biorefinery system were analysed. The optimum variant (acid and heat recoveries) yields better results than the fossil alternatives, with the total environmental impacts being approx. 41% lower than those of the fossil counterparts. For most biorefinery variants analysed, the environmental performance in some impact categories is better than that of the fossil counterparts while disadvantages can be seen in other categories.

  17. Pretreatment of agricultural biomass for anaerobic digestion: Current state and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Shukra Raj; Banjara, Sushant Prasad; Choi, Oh Kyung; Park, Ki Young; Kim, Young Mo; Lee, Jae Woo

    2017-12-01

    The anaerobic digestion (AD) of agricultural biomass is an attractive second generation biofuel with potential environmental and economic benefits. Most agricultural biomass contains lignocellulose which requires pretreatment prior to AD. For optimization, the pretreatment methods need to be specific to the characteristics of the biomass feedstock. In this review, cereal residue, fruit and vegetable wastes, grasses and animal manure were selected as the agricultural biomass candidates, and the fundamentals and current state of various pretreatment methods used for AD of these feedstocks were investigated. Several nonconventional methods (electrical, ionic liquid-based chemicals, ruminant biological pretreatment) offer potential as targeted pretreatments of lignocellulosic biomass, but each comes with its own challenges. Pursuing an energy-intensive route, a combined bioethanol-biogas production could be a promising a second biofuel refinery option, further emphasizing the importance of pretreatment when lignocellulosic feedstock is used. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Lignosulfonate and elevated pH can enhance enzymatic saccharification of lignocelluloses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang ZJ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nonspecific (nonproductive binding (adsorption of cellulase by lignin has been identified as a key barrier to reduce cellulase loading for economical sugar and biofuel production from lignocellulosic biomass. Sulfite Pretreatment to Overcome Recalcitrance of Lignocelluloses (SPORL is a relatively new process, but demonstrated robust performance for sugar and biofuel production from woody biomass especially softwoods in terms of yields and energy efficiencies. This study demonstrated the role of lignin sulfonation in enhancing enzymatic saccharification of lignocelluloses – lignosulfonate from SPORL can improve enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocelluloses, contrary to the conventional belief that lignin inhibits enzymatic hydrolysis due to nonspecific binding of cellulase. Results The study found that lignosulfonate from SPORL pretreatment and from a commercial source inhibits enzymatic hydrolysis of pure cellulosic substrates at low concentrations due to nonspecific binding of cellulase. Surprisingly, the reduction in enzymatic saccharification efficiency of a lignocellulosic substrate was fully recovered as the concentrations of these two lignosulfonates increased. We hypothesize that lignosulfonate serves as a surfactant to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis at higher concentrations and that this enhancement offsets its inhibitive effect from nonspecific binding of cellulase, when lignosulfonate is applied to lignocellulosic solid substrates. Lignosulfonate can block nonspecific binding of cellulase by bound lignin on the solid substrates, in the same manner as a nonionic surfactant, to significantly enhance enzymatic saccharification. This enhancement is linearly proportional to the amount of lignosulfonate applied which is very important to practical applications. For a SPORL-pretreated lodgepole pine solid, 90% cellulose saccharification was achieved at cellulase loading of 13 FPU/g glucan with the application of its

  19. Enzymatic lignocellulose hydrolysis: Improved cellulase productivity by insoluble solids recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background It is necessary to develop efficient methods to produce renewable fuels from lignocellulosic biomass. One of the main challenges to the industrialization of lignocellulose conversion processes is the large amount of cellulase enzymes used for the hydrolysis of cellulose. One method for decreasing the amount of enzyme used is to recycle the enzymes. In this study, the recycle of enzymes associated with the insoluble solid fraction after the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose was investigated for pretreated corn stover under a variety of recycling conditions. Results It was found that a significant amount of cellulase activity could be recovered by recycling the insoluble biomass fraction, and the enzyme dosage could be decreased by 30% to achieve the same glucose yields under the most favorable conditions. Enzyme productivity (g glucose produced/g enzyme applied) increased between 30 and 50% by the recycling, depending on the reaction conditions. While increasing the amount of solids recycled increased process performance, the methods applicability was limited by its positive correlation with increasing total solids concentrations, reaction volumes, and lignin content of the insoluble residue. However, increasing amounts of lignin rich residue during the recycle did not negatively impact glucose yields. Conclusions To take advantage of this effect, the amount of solids recycled should be maximized, based on a given processes ability to deal with higher solids concentrations and volumes. Recycling of enzymes by recycling the insoluble solids fraction was thus shown to be an effective method to decrease enzyme usage, and research should be continued for its industrial application. PMID:23336604

  20. Enzymatic lignocellulose hydrolysis: Improved cellulase productivity by insoluble solids recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiss Noah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is necessary to develop efficient methods to produce renewable fuels from lignocellulosic biomass. One of the main challenges to the industrialization of lignocellulose conversion processes is the large amount of cellulase enzymes used for the hydrolysis of cellulose. One method for decreasing the amount of enzyme used is to recycle the enzymes. In this study, the recycle of enzymes associated with the insoluble solid fraction after the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose was investigated for pretreated corn stover under a variety of recycling conditions. Results It was found that a significant amount of cellulase activity could be recovered by recycling the insoluble biomass fraction, and the enzyme dosage could be decreased by 30% to achieve the same glucose yields under the most favorable conditions. Enzyme productivity (g glucose produced/g enzyme applied increased between 30 and 50% by the recycling, depending on the reaction conditions. While increasing the amount of solids recycled increased process performance, the methods applicability was limited by its positive correlation with increasing total solids concentrations, reaction volumes, and lignin content of the insoluble residue. However, increasing amounts of lignin rich residue during the recycle did not negatively impact glucose yields. Conclusions To take advantage of this effect, the amount of solids recycled should be maximized, based on a given processes ability to deal with higher solids concentrations and volumes. Recycling of enzymes by recycling the insoluble solids fraction was thus shown to be an effective method to decrease enzyme usage, and research should be continued for its industrial application.

  1. A comprehensive review on pre-treatment strategy for lignocellulosic food industry waste: Challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, Rajeev; Jaiswal, Amit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulose is a generic term used to describe plant biomass. It is the most abundant renewable carbon resource in the world and is mainly composed of lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses. Most of the food and food processing industry waste are lignocellulosic in nature with a global estimate of up to 1.3 billion tons/year. Lignocellulose, on hydrolysis, releases reducing sugars which is used for the production of bioethanol, biogas, organic acids, enzymes and biosorbents. However, structural conformation, high lignin content and crystalline cellulose hinder its use for value addition. Pre-treatment strategies facilitate the exposure of more cellulose and hemicelluloses for enzymatic hydrolysis. The present article confers about the structure of lignocellulose and how it influences enzymatic degradation emphasising the need for pre-treatments along with a comprehensive analysis and categorisation of the same. Finally, this article concludes with a detailed discussion on microbial/enzymatic inhibitors that arise post pre-treatment and strategies to eliminate them. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ethanol production from lignocellulosic hydrolysates using engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae harboring xylose isomerase-based pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Ja Kyong; Um, Youngsoon; Woo, Han Min; Kim, Kyoung Heon; Lee, Sun-Mi

    2016-06-01

    The efficient co-fermentation of glucose and xylose is necessary for the economically feasible bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. Even with xylose utilizing Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the efficiency of the lignocellulosic ethanol production remains suboptimal mainly due to the low conversion yield of xylose to ethanol. In this study, we evaluated the co-fermentation performances of SXA-R2P-E, a recently engineered isomerase-based xylose utilizing strain, in mixed sugars and in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. In a high-sugar fermentation with 70g/L of glucose and 40g/L of xylose, SXA-R2P-E produced 50g/L of ethanol with an yield of 0.43gethanol/gsugars at 72h. From dilute acid-pretreated hydrolysates of rice straw and hardwood (oak), the strain produced 18-21g/L of ethanol with among the highest yield of 0.43-0.46gethanol/gsugars ever reported. This study shows a highly promising potential of a xylose isomerase-expressing strain as an industrially relevant ethanol producer from lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Weedy lignocellulosic feedstock and microbial metabolic engineering. Advancing the generation of 'Biofuel'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandel, Anuj K. [Jawaharlal Nehru Technological Univ., Hyderabad (India). Centre of Biotechnology; Singh, Om V. [Pittsburgh Univ., Bradford, PA (United States). Div. of Biological and Health Sciences

    2011-03-15

    Lignocellulosic materials are the most abundant renewable organic resources ({proportional_to}200 billion tons annually) on earth that are readily available for conversion to ethanol and other value-added products, but they have not yet been tapped for the commercial production of fuel ethanol. The lignocellulosic substrates include woody substrates such as hardwood (birch and aspen, etc.) and softwood (spruce and pine, etc.), agro residues (wheat straw, sugarcane bagasse, corn stover, etc.), dedicated energy crops (switch grass, and Miscanthus etc.), weedy materials (Eicchornia crassipes, Lantana camara etc.), and municipal solid waste (food and kitchen waste, etc.). Despite the success achieved in the laboratory, there are limitations to success with lignocellulosic substrates on a commercial scale. The future of lignocellulosics is expected to lie in improvements of plant biomass, metabolic engineering of ethanol, and cellulolytic enzyme-producing microorganisms, fullest exploitation of weed materials, and process integration of the individual steps involved in bioethanol production. Issues related to the chemical composition of various weedy raw substrates for bioethanol formation, including chemical composition-based structural hydrolysis of the substrate, need special attention. This area could be opened up further by exploring genetically modified metabolic engineering routes in weedy materials and in biocatalysts that would make the production of bioethanol more efficient. (orig.)

  4. Metal Carbides for Biomass Valorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine E. Chan-Thaw

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Transition metal carbides have been utilized as an alternative catalyst to expensive noble metals for the conversion of biomass. Tungsten and molybdenum carbides have been shown to be effective catalysts for hydrogenation, hydrodeoxygenation and isomerization reactions. The satisfactory activities of these metal carbides and their low costs, compared with noble metals, make them appealing alternatives and worthy of further investigation. In this review, we succinctly describe common synthesis techniques, including temperature-programmed reaction and carbothermal hydrogen reduction, utilized to prepare metal carbides used for biomass transformation. Attention will be focused, successively, on the application of transition metal carbide catalysts in the transformation of first-generation (oils and second-generation (lignocellulose biomass to biofuels and fine chemicals.

  5. Comparison of different pretreatment methods for lignocellulosic materials. Part I: conversion of rye straw to valuable products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Thomas; Wörmeyer, Kai; Lima, Juan Carlos Ixcaraguá; Bockemühl, Vera; Antranikian, Garabed; Brunner, Gerd; Smirnova, Irina

    2011-04-01

    The conversion of lignocellulose to valuable products requires I: a fractionation of the major components hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin, II: an efficient method to process these components to higher valued products. The present work compares liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment to the soda pulping process and to the ethanol organosolv pretreatment using rye straw as a single lignocellulosic material. The organosolv pretreated rye straw was shown to require the lowest enzyme loading in order to achieve a complete saccharification of cellulose to glucose. At biomass loadings of up to 15% (w/w) cellulose conversion of LHW and organosolv pretreated lignocellulose was found to be almost equal. The soda pulping process shows lower carbohydrate and lignin recoveries compared to the other two processes. In combination with a detailed analysis of the different lignins obtained from the three pretreatment methods, this work gives an overview of the potential products from different pretreatment processes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Biofuel from "humified" biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kpogbemabou, D.; Lemée, L.; Amblès, A.

    2009-04-01

    In France, 26% of the emissions of greenhouse effect gas originate from transportation which depends for 87% on fossil fuels. Nevertheless biofuels can contribute to the fight against climate change while reducing energetic dependence. Indeed biomass potentially represents in France 30 Mtoe a year that is to say 15% national consumption. But 80% of these resources are made of lignocellulosic materials which are hardly exploitable. First-generation biofuels are made from sugar, starch, vegetable oil, or animal fats. Due to their competition with human food chain, first-generation biofuels could lead to food shortages and price rises. At the contrary second-generation biofuel production can use a variety of non food crops while using the lignocellulosic part of biomass [1]. Gasification, fermentation and direct pyrolysis are the most used processes. However weak yields and high hydrogen need are limiting factors. In France, the National Program for Research on Biofuels (PNRB) aims to increase mobilizable biomass resource and to develop lignocellulosic biomass conversion. In this context, the LIGNOCARB project studies the liquefaction of biodegraded biomass in order to lower hydrogen consumption. Our aim was to develop and optimize the biodegradation of the biomass. Once the reactor was achieved, the influence of different parameters (starting material, aeration, moisture content) on the biotransformation process was studied. The monitored parameters were temperature, pH and carbon /nitrogen ratio. Chemical (IHSS protocol) and biochemical (van Soest) fractionations were used to follow the maturity ("humic acid"/"fulvic acid" ratio) and the biological stability (soluble, hemicelluloses, celluloses, lignin) of the organic matter (OM). In example, the increase in lignin can be related to the stabilization since the OM becomes refractory to biodegradation whereas the increase in the AH/AF ratio traduces "humification". However, contrarily to the composting process, we do

  7. Nitrogen amendment of green waste impacts microbial community, enzyme secretion and potential for lignocellulose decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Chaowei; Harrold, Duff R.; Claypool, Joshua T.; Simmons, Blake A.; Singer, Steven W.; Simmons, Christopher W.; VanderGheynst, Jean S.

    2017-01-01

    Microorganisms involved in biomass deconstruction are an important resource for organic waste recycling and enzymes for lignocellulose bioconversion. The goals of this paper were to examine the impact of nitrogen amendment on microbial community restructuring, secretion of xylanases and endoglucanases, and potential for biomass deconstruction. Communities were cultivated aerobically at 55 °C on green waste (GW) amended with varying levels of NH4Cl. Bacterial and fungal communities were determined using 16S rRNA and ITS region gene sequencing and PICRUSt (Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States) was applied to predict relative abundance of genes involved in lignocellulose hydrolysis. Nitrogen amendment significantly increased secretion of xylanases and endoglucanases, and microbial activity; enzyme activities and cumulative respiration were greatest when nitrogen level in GW was between 4.13–4.56 wt% (g/g), but decreased with higher nitrogen levels. The microbial community shifted to one with increasing potential to decompose complex polymers as nitrogen increased with peak potential occurring between 3.79–4.45 wt% (g/g) nitrogen amendment. Finally, the results will aid in informing the management of nitrogen level to foster microbial communities capable of secreting enzymes that hydrolyze recalcitrant polymers in lignocellulose and yield rapid decomposition of green waste.

  8. Protein Engineering of GRE2 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae for Enhanced Detoxification of 5-Hydroxymethyl Furfural

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) are representative inhibitors generated by lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment such as dilute acid hydrolysis that inhibit microbial growth and subsequent fermentation. It is possible to in situ detoxify these inhibitory compounds using tolerant Saccharomy...

  9. The Effectiveness of Transactional Behavior Analytic Group Therapy on the Prevention of Relapse among Detoxified People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mousa Kafi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Addiction Phenomenon among detoxified people is an important therapeutic problem for substance abusers. The aim of this research was the study of effectiveness of transactional behavior analytic group therapy on prevention of relapse of detoxified people. Method: the research design was quasi experimental with witness group. By using of available sampling of detoxified people who referred to government centers for maintenance therapy with Methadone, 24 subjects that divided to two control and witness groups (12 subjects for each group selected of Bojnord city. Each subjects completed the write's relapse prediction scale as pretest. Post test administered after group therapy and after 5 months follow up test administered among two groups. Morphine test has done with follow up test simultaneously. Independent samples t-test and covariance analysis has run for analyzing of data. Results: The results of covariance showed that tempting of substance use was significantly differed in post test and follow up, but there was not significant difference in probability of substance use. Conclusion: Finding of this research showed, the transactional behavior analytic group therapy may be effective in tempting of substance use among detoxified people and it can considered by specialists.

  10. Ionic liquid-tolerant microorganisms and microbial communities for lignocellulose conversion to bioproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chaowei; Simmons, Blake A; Singer, Steven W; Thelen, Michael P; VanderGheynst, Jean S

    2016-12-01

    Chemical and physical pretreatment of biomass is a critical step in the conversion of lignocellulose to biofuels and bioproducts. Ionic liquid (IL) pretreatment has attracted significant attention due to the unique ability of certain ILs to solubilize some or all components of the plant cell wall. However, these ILs inhibit not only the enzyme activities but also the growth and productivity of microorganisms used in downstream hydrolysis and fermentation processes. While pretreated biomass can be washed to remove residual IL and reduce inhibition, extensive washing is costly and not feasible in large-scale processes. IL-tolerant microorganisms and microbial communities have been discovered from environmental samples and studies begun to elucidate mechanisms of IL tolerance. The discovery of IL tolerance in environmental microbial communities and individual microbes has lead to the proposal of molecular mechanisms of resistance. In this article, we review recent progress on discovering IL-tolerant microorganisms, identifying metabolic pathways and mechanisms of tolerance, and engineering microorganisms for IL tolerance. Research in these areas will yield new approaches to overcome inhibition in lignocellulosic biomass bioconversion processes and increase opportunities for the use of ILs in biomass pretreatment.

  11. Apparent digestibility of nutrients, energy, and amino acid of nontoxic and detoxified physic nut cakes for Nile tilapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton Hisano

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:The objective of this work was to evaluate the apparent digestibility coefficients of nutrients, energy, and amino acids of nontoxic and detoxified physic nut cakes treated with solvent plus posterior extrusion, for Nile tilapia. The apparent digestibility coefficients of crude protein and gross energy were higher for detoxified than for nontoxic physic nut cake. However, the apparent digestibility coefficient of ether extract of the nontoxic physic nut cake was higher than that of the detoxified one. The apparent digestibility coefficient of amino acids of both feed ingredients was superior to 80%, except for glycine, for the nontoxic psychic nut cake, and for threonine, for the detoxified one. Nontoxic and detoxified physic nut cakes show apparent digestibility coefficient values equivalent to those of the other evaluated oilseeds and potential for inclusion in Nile tilapia diets.

  12. Physico-Chemical Alternatives in Lignocellulosic Materials in Relation to the Kind of Component for Fermenting Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Coz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The complete bioconversion of the carbohydrate fraction is of great importance for a lignocellulosic-based biorefinery. However, due to the structure of the lignocellulosic materials, and depending basically on the main parameters within the pretreatment steps, numerous byproducts are generated and they act as inhibitors in the fermentation operations. In this sense, the impact of inhibitory compounds derived from lignocellulosic materials is one of the major challenges for a sustainable biomass-to-biofuel and -bioproduct industry. In order to minimise the negative effects of these compounds, numerous methodologies have been tested including physical, chemical, and biological processes. The main physical and chemical treatments have been studied in this work in relation to the lignocellulosic material and the inhibitor in order to point out the best mechanisms for fermenting purposes. In addition, special attention has been made in the case of lignocellulosic hydrolysates obtained by chemical processes with SO2, due to the complex matrix of these materials and the increase in these methodologies in future biorefinery markets. Recommendations of different detoxification methods have been given.

  13. Commercial Biomass Syngas Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Daniell

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of gas fermentation for the production of low carbon biofuels such as ethanol or butanol from lignocellulosic biomass is an area currently undergoing intensive research and development, with the first commercial units expected to commence operation in the near future. In this process, biomass is first converted into carbon monoxide (CO and hydrogen (H2-rich synthesis gas (syngas via gasification, and subsequently fermented to hydrocarbons by acetogenic bacteria. Several studies have been performed over the last few years to optimise both biomass gasification and syngas fermentation with significant progress being reported in both areas. While challenges associated with the scale-up and operation of this novel process remain, this strategy offers numerous advantages compared with established fermentation and purely thermochemical approaches to biofuel production in terms of feedstock flexibility and production cost. In recent times, metabolic engineering and synthetic biology techniques have been applied to gas fermenting organisms, paving the way for gases to be used as the feedstock for the commercial production of increasingly energy dense fuels and more valuable chemicals.

  14. Enzymatic hydrolyzing performance of Acremonium cellulolyticus and Trichoderma reesei against three lignocellulosic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murakami Katsuji

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bioethanol isolated from lignocellulosic biomass represents one of the most promising renewable and carbon neutral alternative liquid fuel sources. Enzymatic saccharification using cellulase has proven to be a useful method in the production of bioethanol. The filamentous fungi Acremonium cellulolyticus and Trichoderma reesei are known to be potential cellulase producers. In this study, we aimed to reveal the advantages and disadvantages of the cellulase enzymes derived from these fungi. Results We compared A. cellulolyticus and T. reesei cellulase activity against the three lignocellulosic materials: eucalyptus, Douglas fir and rice straw. Saccharification analysis using the supernatant from each culture demonstrated that the enzyme mixture derived from A. cellulolyticus exhibited 2-fold and 16-fold increases in Filter Paper enzyme and β-glucosidase specific activities, respectively, compared with that derived from T. reesei. In addition, culture supernatant from A. cellulolyticus produced glucose more rapidly from the lignocellulosic materials. Meanwhile, culture supernatant derived from T. reesei exhibited a 2-fold higher xylan-hydrolyzing activity and produced more xylose from eucalyptus (72% yield and rice straw (43% yield. Although the commercial enzymes Acremonium cellulase (derived from A. cellulolyticus, Meiji Seika Co. demonstrated a slightly lower cellulase specific activity than Accellerase 1000 (derived from T. reesei, Genencor, the glucose yield (over 65% from lignocellulosic materials by Acremonium cellulase was higher than that of Accellerase 1000 (less than 60%. In addition, the mannan-hydrolyzing activity of Acremonium cellulase was 16-fold higher than that of Accellerase 1000, and the conversion of mannan to mannobiose and mannose by Acremonium cellulase was more efficient. Conclusion We investigated the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials by cellulase derived from two types of filamentous fungi. We

  15. Carbon Fiber from Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milbrandt, Anelia [Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center, Godlen, CO (United States); Booth, Samuel [Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center, Godlen, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Carbon fiber (CF), known also as graphite fiber, is a lightweight, strong, and flexible material used in both structural (load-bearing) and non-structural applications (e.g., thermal insulation). The high cost of precursors (the starting material used to make CF, which comes predominately from fossil sources) and manufacturing have kept CF a niche market with applications limited mostly to high-performance structural materials (e.g., aerospace). Alternative precursors to reduce CF cost and dependence on fossil sources have been investigated over the years, including biomass-derived precursors such as rayon, lignin, glycerol, and lignocellulosic sugars. The purpose of this study is to provide a comprehensive overview of CF precursors from biomass and their market potential. We examine the potential CF production from these precursors, the state of technology and applications, and the production cost (when data are available). We discuss their advantages and limitations. We also discuss the physical properties of biomass-based CF, and we compare them to those of polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based CF. We also discuss manufacturing and end-product considerations for bio-based CF, as well as considerations for plant siting and biomass feedstock logistics, feedstock competition, and risk mitigation strategies. The main contribution of this study is that it provides detailed technical and market information about each bio-based CF precursor in one document while other studies focus on one precursor at a time or a particular topic (e.g., processing). Thus, this publication allows for a comprehensive view of the CF potential from all biomass sources and serves as a reference for both novice and experienced professionals interested in CF production from alternative sources.

  16. Fermentative hydrogen production from agroindustrial lignocellulosic substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reginatto, Valeria; Antônio, Regina Vasconcellos

    2015-01-01

    To achieve economically competitive biological hydrogen production, it is crucial to consider inexpensive materials such as lignocellulosic substrate residues derived from agroindustrial activities. It is possible to use (1) lignocellulosic materials without any type of pretreatment, (2) lignocellulosic materials after a pretreatment step, and (3) lignocellulosic materials hydrolysates originating from a pretreatment step followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. According to the current literature data on fermentative H2 production presented in this review, thermophilic conditions produce H2 in yields approximately 75% higher than those obtained in mesophilic conditions using untreated lignocellulosic substrates. The average H2 production from pretreated material is 3.17 ± 1.79 mmol of H2/g of substrate, which is approximately 50% higher compared with the average yield achieved using untreated materials (2.17 ± 1.84 mmol of H2/g of substrate). Biological pretreatment affords the highest average yield 4.54 ± 1.78 mmol of H2/g of substrate compared with the acid and basic pretreatment - average yields of 2.94 ± 1.85 and 2.41 ± 1.52 mmol of H2/g of substrate, respectively. The average H2 yield from hydrolysates, obtained from a pretreatment step and enzymatic hydrolysis (3.78 ± 1.92 mmol of H2/g), was lower compared with the yield of substrates pretreated by biological methods only, demonstrating that it is important to avoid the formation of inhibitors generated by chemical pretreatments. Based on this review, exploring other microorganisms and optimizing the pretreatment and hydrolysis conditions can make the use of lignocellulosic substrates a sustainable way to produce H2. PMID:26273246

  17. Biomass ignition in mills and storages – is it explained by conventional thermal ignition theory?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarzer, Lars; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Glarborg, Peter

    of the process, which can then be incorporated into refined models of self-ignition for biomass and other organic solids. In the present study, the slow, transient heating of several lignocellulosic biomasses and a bituminous coal from ambient temperature to around 300° C were investigated in a lab scale tube...

  18. Synthesis of polymers from liquefied biomass and their utilization in wood bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    As the sustainable manufacturing concept becomes a mandatory requirement, more and more researchers have devoted to converting biomass as components for polymer or as a substitution for part of petroleum based polymers for different applications. Agricultural and forestry lignocellulosic biomass mat...

  19. A Novel Laccase from Ganoderma Lucidum Capable of Enhancing Enzymatic Degradation of Lignocellulolytic Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    for the hydrolysis of biomass using a laccase derived from Ganoderma lucidum. Further, the invention provides an enzyme composition comprising a laccase derived from Ganoderma lucidum which may be combined with one or more cellulases, and for its use in enhancing lignocellulose biomass hydrolysis....

  20. Recovery of monosaccharides from lignocellulosic hydrolysates by ion exclusion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodi, Gabriele; Pellegrini, Laura Annamaria; Aliverti, Alessandro; Rivas Torres, Beatriz; Bernardi, Marco; Morbidelli, Massimo; Storti, Giuseppe

    2017-05-05

    The production of sugars from lignocellulosic biomass is the key to a sustainable, renewable chemical industry. Glucose, xylose and other monosaccharides can be easily produced by hydrolyzing cellulose and hemicellulose, the primary polysaccharides in biomass. However, the hydrolysis of biomass generates byproducts that, together with the mineral acid normally added in the hydrolysis step, have to be removed before the downstream conversion processes. In this work, the recovery of monosaccharides from lignocellulosic hydrolysates by means of Ion Exclusion Chromatography (IEC) has been studied. The analyzed process relies on new pretreatment and hydrolysis steps, involving the neutralization of the hydrolysate with sodium hydroxide. The adsorption behavior of the main components involved in the separation has been experimentally investigated. Pulse tests at the high loading encountered in preparative conditions have been performed for a selected group of model components found in the hydrolysates. For all the electrolytes, the retention volume fraction was always between the interparticle porosity and the total column porosity, confirming that ion exclusion was the dominant retention mechanism. On the other hand, sugars eluted before the total column porosity, indicating partial steric exclusion from the resin pores. This observation was then confirmed by size-exclusion experiments with polyethylene glycol standards, from which the distribution coefficient of the studied sugars has been determined. The comparison between the elution profiles of the same sugars in pure form and as a mixture present in the hydrolysate showed differences in both peak shape and retention times. Therefore, an investigation of the influence of the main electrolytes contained in the hydrolysates on sugars adsorption has been performed through the pulse on a plateau method. The electrolytes were found to enhance the sugars retention by promoting their adsorption onto the resin. However

  1. Biomass refining for sustainable development : analysis and directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, Lin

    2010-01-01

    To understand the contribution of biomass refining to sustainable development, the technical, environmental and economic aspects are summarized in this thesis. This work begins from life cycle assessment (LCA) of bioethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks such as corn stover, sugarcane and bagasse,

  2. Metagenomic insights into lignocellulose-degrading genes through Illumina-based de novo sequencing of the microbiome in Vietnamese native goats' rumen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Do, Thi Huyen; Le, Ngoc Giang; Dao, Trong Khoa; Nguyen, Thi Mai Phuong; Le, Tung Lam; Luu, Han Ly; Nguyen, Khanh Hoang Viet; Nguyen, Van Lam; Le, Lan Anh; Phung, Thu Nguyet; van Straalen, Nico M; Roelofs, Dick; Truong, Nam Hai

    2018-01-01

    The scarcity of enzymes having an optimal activity in lignocellulose deconstruction is an obstacle for industrial-scale conversion of cellulosic biomass into biofuels. With the aim of mining novel lignocellulolytic enzymes, a ~9 Gb metagenome of bacteria in Vietnamese native goats' rumen was

  3. Techno-economic analysis of a biomass depot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, Jacob Jordan [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lamers, Patrick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Roni, Mohammad Sadekuzzaman [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cafferty, Kara Grace [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kenney, Kevin Louis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Heath, Brendi May [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hansen, Jason K [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) promotes the production of an array of liquid fuels and fuel blendstocks from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass collection, conversion, and sustainability. As part of its involvement in this program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) investigates the technical, economic, and environmental performance of different feedstock supply systems and their impacts on the downstream conversion processes.

  4. Fractionation of organic substances from the South African Eucalyptus grandis biomass by a combination of hot water and mild alkaline treatments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Johakimu, Jonas K

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An alternative way of fractionating lignocellulose biomass into its individual components, hemicelluloses, lignin and cellulose, was investigated. South African Eucalyptus grandis wood chips were fractionated using a combination of hot water...

  5. Lignocellulose-derived thin stillage composition and efficient biological treatment with a high-rate hybrid anaerobic bioreactor system

    OpenAIRE

    Oosterkamp, Margreet J.; M?ndez-Garc?a, Celia; Kim, Chang-H.; Bauer, Stefan; Ib??ez, Ana B.; Zimmerman, Sabrina; Hong, Pei-Ying; Cann, Isaac K.; Mackie, Roderick I.

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aims to chemically characterize thin stillage derived from lignocellulosic biomass distillation residues in terms of organic strength, nutrient, and mineral content. The feasibility of performing anaerobic digestion on these stillages at mesophilic (40??C) and thermophilic (55??C) temperatures to produce methane was demonstrated. The microbial communities involved were further characterized. Results Energy and sugar cane stillage have a high chemical oxygen demand (COD o...

  6. Fully Integrated Lignocellulosic Biorefinery with Onsite Production of Enzymes and Yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Manoj [DSM Innovation, Incorporated, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2010-06-14

    Lignocellulosic biomass is the most abundant, least expensive renewable natural biological resource for the production of biobased products and bioenergy is important for the sustainable development of human civilization in 21st century. For making the fermentable sugars from lignocellulosic biomass, a reduction in cellulase production cost, an improvement in cellulase performance, and an increase in sugar yields are all vital to reduce the processing costs of biorefineries. Improvements in specific cellulase activities for non-complexed cellulase mixtures can be implemented through cellulase engineering based on rational design or directed evolution for each cellulase component enzyme, as well as on the reconstitution of cellulase components. In this paper, we will provide DSM's efforts in cellulase research and developments and focus on limitations. Cellulase improvement strategies based on directed evolution using screening on relevant substrates, screening for higher thermal tolerance based on activity screening approaches such as continuous culture using insoluble cellulosic substrates as a powerful selection tool for enriching beneficial cellulase mutants from the large library. We will illustrate why and how thermostable cellulases are vital for economic delivery of bioproducts from cellulosic biomass using biochemical conversion approach.

  7. Practicability of Lignocellulosic Waste Composite in Controlling Air Pollution from Leaves Litter through Bioethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrsini, Mahadevan; Teoh, Yi Peng; Ng, Qi Hwa; Kunasundari, Balakrishnan; Xian Ooi, Zhong; Siew Shuit, Hoong; Hoo, Peng Yong

    2018-03-01

    Environmental degradation through greenhouse emission have spurred nation’s interest on feedstock-based fuel. Yet, development of this clean biofuel is obstructed by the expensive feedstock which takes up most of the production cost. Therefore, as an alternative, utilization of widely available lignocellulosic residues with relatively no commercial significance has been considered. This present work emphasizes on mango (Mangifera indica) leaves one of the most abundant lignocellulosic waste in Malaysia. Through implementation of this biomass for bioethanol production, continuous allowance of air pollution with a deleterious impact to the country’s environment could be reduced. The high concentration of sugar (16-18%w/v) in the form of cellulose and hemicellulose is ultimately the reason behind the selection of these leaves as a substrate for bioethanol production. Hence, in this study, a comparison of biomass composition in Harum Manis, Sunshine and Chokanan mango leaves were conducted to detect the most suitable substrate source to produce biofuel. At the end of the biomass evaluation, Harum Manis mango leaves turned out to be the most competitive bioethanol crop as these leaves reported to be made up of 34.71% cellulose and 44.02% hemicellulose which summed up to give highest fermentable sugar source with a lignin content of 19.45%.

  8. Textile/metal-organic-framework composites as self-detoxifying filters for chemical-warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Maya, Elena; Montoro, Carmen; Rodríguez-Albelo, L Marleny; Aznar Cervantes, Salvador D; Lozano-Pérez, A Abel; Cenís, José Luis; Barea, Elisa; Navarro, Jorge A R

    2015-06-01

    The current technology of air-filtration materials for protection against highly toxic chemicals, that is, chemical-warfare agents, is mainly based on the broad and effective adsorptive properties of hydrophobic activated carbons. However, adsorption does not prevent these materials from behaving as secondary emitters once they are contaminated. Thus, the development of efficient self-cleaning filters is of high interest. Herein, we report how we can take advantage of the improved phosphotriesterase catalytic activity of lithium alkoxide doped zirconium(IV) metal-organic framework (MOF) materials to develop advanced self-detoxifying adsorbents of chemical-warfare agents containing hydrolysable P-F, P-O, and C-Cl bonds. Moreover, we also show that it is possible to integrate these materials onto textiles, thereby combining air-permeation properties of the textiles with the self-detoxifying properties of the MOF material. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Biomimetic acellular detoxified glutaraldehyde cross-linked bovine pericardium for tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathapati, Santosh; Bishi, Dillip Kumar; Guhathakurta, Soma; Cherian, Kotturathu Mammen; Venugopal, Jayarama Reddy; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Verma, Rama Shanker

    2013-01-01

    Glutaraldehyde (GLUT) processing, cellular antigens, calcium ions in circulation, and phospholipids present in the native tissue are predominantly responsible for calcification, degeneration, and lack of natural microenvironment for host progenitor cell migration in tissue implants. The study presents an improved methodology for adhesion and proliferation of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) without significant changes in biomechanical and biodegradation properties of the processed acellular bovine pericardium. The anti-calcification potential of the processed tissue was enhanced by detoxification of GLUT-cross-linked bovine pericardium by decellularization, pretreating it with ethanol or removing the free aldehydes by citric acid treatment and lyophilization. The treated tissues were assessed for biomechanical properties, GLUT ligand quantification, adhesion, proliferation of EPCs, and biodegradability. The results indicate that there was no significant change in biomechanical properties and biodegradability when enzymatic hydrolysis (p > 0.05) is employed in detoxified acellular GLUT cross-linked tissue (DBP–G–CA–ET), compared with the native detoxified GLUT cross-linked bovine pericardium (NBP–G–CA–ET). DBP–G–CA–ET exhibited a significant (p > 0.05) increase in the viability of EPCs and cell adhesion as compared to acellular GLUT cross-linked bovine pericardium (p < 0.05). Lyophilized acellular detoxified GLUT cross-linked bovine pericardium, employed in our study as an alternative to conventional GLUT cross-linked bovine pericardium, might provide longer durability and better biocompatibility, and reduce calcification. The developed bovine pericardium patches could be used in cardiac reconstruction and repair, arteriotomy, soft tissue repair, and general surgical procedures with tissue regeneration dimensions. - Highlights: ► We improved the quality of patch biomaterial for cardiovascular surgical procedures. ► Bovine pericardium was

  10. Biomimetic acellular detoxified glutaraldehyde cross-linked bovine pericardium for tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathapati, Santosh; Bishi, Dillip Kumar [Stem Cell and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai (India); Frontier Lifeline Pvt Ltd. and Dr. K. M. Cherian Heart Foundation, Mogappair, Chennai (India); Healthcare and Energy Materials Laboratory, NUSNNI, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Guhathakurta, Soma [Departmet of Engineering Design, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai (India); Cherian, Kotturathu Mammen [Frontier Lifeline Pvt Ltd. and Dr. K. M. Cherian Heart Foundation, Mogappair, Chennai (India); Venugopal, Jayarama Reddy; Ramakrishna, Seeram [Healthcare and Energy Materials Laboratory, NUSNNI, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Verma, Rama Shanker, E-mail: vermars@iitm.ac.in [Stem Cell and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai (India)

    2013-04-01

    Glutaraldehyde (GLUT) processing, cellular antigens, calcium ions in circulation, and phospholipids present in the native tissue are predominantly responsible for calcification, degeneration, and lack of natural microenvironment for host progenitor cell migration in tissue implants. The study presents an improved methodology for adhesion and proliferation of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) without significant changes in biomechanical and biodegradation properties of the processed acellular bovine pericardium. The anti-calcification potential of the processed tissue was enhanced by detoxification of GLUT-cross-linked bovine pericardium by decellularization, pretreating it with ethanol or removing the free aldehydes by citric acid treatment and lyophilization. The treated tissues were assessed for biomechanical properties, GLUT ligand quantification, adhesion, proliferation of EPCs, and biodegradability. The results indicate that there was no significant change in biomechanical properties and biodegradability when enzymatic hydrolysis (p > 0.05) is employed in detoxified acellular GLUT cross-linked tissue (DBP–G–CA–ET), compared with the native detoxified GLUT cross-linked bovine pericardium (NBP–G–CA–ET). DBP–G–CA–ET exhibited a significant (p > 0.05) increase in the viability of EPCs and cell adhesion as compared to acellular GLUT cross-linked bovine pericardium (p < 0.05). Lyophilized acellular detoxified GLUT cross-linked bovine pericardium, employed in our study as an alternative to conventional GLUT cross-linked bovine pericardium, might provide longer durability and better biocompatibility, and reduce calcification. The developed bovine pericardium patches could be used in cardiac reconstruction and repair, arteriotomy, soft tissue repair, and general surgical procedures with tissue regeneration dimensions. - Highlights: ► We improved the quality of patch biomaterial for cardiovascular surgical procedures. ► Bovine pericardium was

  11. Biomass of cocoa and sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siswanto; Sumanto; Hartati, R. S.; Prastowo, B.

    2017-05-01

    The role of the agricultural sector is very important as the upstream addressing downstream sectors and national energy needs. The agricultural sector itself is also highly dependent on the availability of energy. Evolving from it then it must be policies and strategies for agricultural development Indonesia to forward particularly agriculture as producers as well as users of biomass energy or bioenergy for national development including agriculture balance with agriculture and food production. Exports of biomass unbridled currently include preceded by ignorance, indifference and the lack of scientific data and potential tree industry in the country. This requires adequate scientific supporting data. This study is necessary because currently there are insufficient data on the potential of biomass, including tree biomasanya detailing the benefits of bioenergy, feed and food is very necessary as a basis for future policy. Measurement of the main estate plants biomass such as cocoa and sugarcane be done in 2015. Measurements were also conducted on its lignocellulose content. Tree biomass sugarcane potential measured consist of leaves, stems and roots, with the weight mostly located on the stem. Nevertheless, not all the potential of the stem is a good raw material for bioethanol. For cocoa turned out leaves more prospective because of its adequate hemicellulose content. For sugarcane, leaf buds contain a good indicator of digestion of feed making it more suitable for feed.

  12. Detoxifying of high strength textile effluent through chemical and bio-oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manekar, Pravin; Patkar, Guarav; Aswale, Pawan; Mahure, Manisha; Nandy, Tapas

    2014-04-01

    Small-scale textile industries (SSTIs) in India struggled for the economic and environmental race. A full-scale common treatment plant (CETP) working on the principle of destabilising negative charge colloidal particles and bio-oxidation of dissolved organic failed to comply with Inland Surface Waters (ISW) standards. Thus, presence of intense colour and organics with elevated temperature inhibited the process stability. Bench scale treatability studies were conducted on chemical and biological processes for its full-scale apps to detoxify a high strength textile process effluent. Colour, SS and COD removals from the optimised chemical process were 88%, 70% and 40%, respectively. Heterotrophic bacteria oxidised COD and BOD more than 84% and 90% at a loading rate 0.0108kgm(-3)d(-1) at 3h HRT. The combined chemical and bio-oxidation processes showed a great promise for detoxifying the toxic process effluent, and implemented in full-scale CETP. The post-assessment of the CETP resulted in detoxify the toxic effluent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Aldo-keto reductase enzymes detoxify glyphosate and improve herbicide resistance in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemanna, Ramu S; Vennapusa, Amaranatha Reddy; Easwaran, Murugesh; Chandrashekar, Babitha K; Rao, Hanumantha; Ghanti, Kirankumar; Sudhakar, Chinta; Mysore, Kirankumar S; Makarla, Udayakumar

    2017-07-01

    In recent years, concerns about the use of glyphosate-resistant crops have increased because of glyphosate residual levels in plants and development of herbicide-resistant weeds. In spite of identifying glyphosate-detoxifying genes from microorganisms, the plant mechanism to detoxify glyphosate has not been studied. We characterized an aldo-keto reductase gene from Pseudomonas (PsAKR1) and rice (OsAKR1) and showed, by docking studies, both PsAKR1 and OsAKR1 can efficiently bind to glyphosate. Silencing AKR1 homologues in rice and Nicotiana benthamiana or mutation of AKR1 in yeast and Arabidopsis showed increased sensitivity to glyphosate. External application of AKR proteins rescued glyphosate-mediated cucumber seedling growth inhibition. Regeneration of tobacco transgenic lines expressing PsAKR1 or OsAKRI on glyphosate suggests that AKR can be used as selectable marker to develop transgenic crops. PsAKR1- or OsAKRI-expressing tobacco and rice transgenic plants showed improved tolerance to glyphosate with reduced accumulation of shikimic acid without affecting the normal photosynthetic rates. These results suggested that AKR1 when overexpressed detoxifies glyphosate in planta. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Fermented wheat powder induces the antioxidant and detoxifying system in primary rat hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Marca, Margherita; Beffy, Pascale; Pugliese, Annalisa; Longo, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Many plants exhibit antioxidant properties which may be useful in the prevention of oxidative stress reactions, such as those mediated by the formation of free radical species in different pathological situations. In recent years a number of studies have shown that whole grain products in particular have strong antioxidant activity. Primary cultures of rat hepatocytes were used to investigate whether and how a fermented powder of wheat (Lisosan G) is able to modulate antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes, and whether or not it can activate Nrf2 transcription factor or inhibit NF-kB activation. All of the antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes studied were significantly up-regulated by 0.7 mg/ml Lisosan G treatment. In particular, quinone oxidoreductase and heme oxygenase-1 were induced, although to different degrees, at the transcriptional, protein and/or activity levels by the treatment. As for the Nrf2 transcription factor, a partial translocation of its protein from the cytosol to the nucleus after 1 h of Lisosan G treatment was revealed by immunoblotting. Lisosan G was also observed to decrease H2O2-induced toxicity Taken together, these results show that this powder of wheat is an effective inducer of ARE/Nrf2-regulated antioxidant and detoxifying genes and has the potential to inhibit the translocation of NF-kB into the nucleus.

  15. Process for whole cell saccharification of lignocelluloses to sugars using a dual bioreactor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jue [Okemos, MI; Okeke, Benedict [Montgomery, AL

    2012-03-27

    The present invention describes a process for saccharification of lignocelluloses to sugars using whole microbial cells, which are enriched from cultures inoculated with paper mill waste water, wood processing waste and soil. A three-member bacterial consortium is selected as a potent microbial inocula and immobilized on inedible plant fibers for biomass saccharification. The present invention further relates the design of a dual bioreactor system, with various biocarriers for enzyme immobilization and repeated use. Sugars are continuously removed eliminating end-product inhibition and consumption by cell.

  16. The effect of aqueous ammonia soaking pretreatment on methane generation uing different lignocellulosic feedstocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonopoulou, Georgia; Jonuzaj, Suela; Gavala, Hariklia N.

    2014-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass including agricultural and forestry residues, perennial crops, softwoods and hardwoods, can be used as feedstock for methane production. Although being abundant and almost zero cost feedstocks, the main obstacles of their use are the low efficiencies and yields attained, d...... methane potential of switchgrass. Transactions of the ASABE. 53, 1921-1927 (2010) [3] Jurado, E., Gavala., H.N., Skiadas, I.V., :Enhancement of methane yield from wheat straw, miscanthus and willow using aqueous ammonia soaking. Environmental Tecnology. 34(13-14), 2069-2075 (2013)...

  17. Lignin- and Hemicellulose-derived Biomass Recalcitrance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deralia, Parveen Kumar

    technology bringing the multitude of chemical and physical changes, which govern the level of biomass recalcitrance. The lignocellulosic biomasses in question are wheat straw and poplar and the hydrothermal pretreatment is used as pretreatment technology. The 2D HSQC NMR and wet chemistry chemical...... degree to the biomass surface, giving a proportional increase in the specific surface area opposite to wheat straw, which has a marked increase in the specific surface area. The distinctly different chemistry of lignin and hemicellulose and different lignin migration and reorganization appear...... to be correlative, helping explain differences in enzymatic saccharification performance across the pretreatment severities and between two biomasses. The main contribution of this work to the current state-of-the-art in the field is the revelation of distinct behaviors of generation of different repolymerized...

  18. YKL071W from Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a novel aldehyde reductase for detoxification of glycolaldehyde and furfural derived from lignocellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hanyu; Ouyang, Yidan; Zhou, Chang; Xiao, Difan; Guo, Yaping; Wu, Lan; Li, Xi; Gu, Yunfu; Xiang, Quanju; Zhao, Ke; Yu, Xiumei; Zou, Likou; Ma, Menggen

    2017-12-01

    Aldehydes generated as by-products during the pretreatment of lignocellulose are the key inhibitors to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is considered as the most promising microorganism for industrial production of biofuel, xylitol as well as other special chemicals from lignocellulose. S. cerevisiae has the inherent ability to in situ detoxify aldehydes to corresponding alcohols by multiple aldehyde reductases. Herein, we report that an uncharacterized open reading frame YKL071W from S. cerevisiae encodes a novel "classical" short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) protein with NADH-dependent enzymatic activities for reduction of furfural (FF), glycolaldehyde (GA), formaldehyde (FA), and benzaldehyde (BZA). This enzyme showed much better specific activities for reduction of GA and FF than FA and BZA, and displayed much higher Km and Kcat/Km but lower Vmax and Kcat for reduction of GA than FF. For this enzyme, the optimum pH was 5.5 and 6.0 for reduction of GA and FF, and the optimum temperature was 30 °C for reduction of GA and FF. Both pH and temperature affected stability of this enzyme in a similar trend for reduction of GA and FF. Cu 2+ , Zn 2+ , Ni 2+ , and Fe 3+ had severe inhibition effects on enzyme activities of Ykl071wp for reduction of GA and FF. Transcription of YKL071W in S. cerevisiae was significantly upregulated under GA and FF stress conditions, and its transcription is most probably regulated by transcription factor genes of YAP1, CAD1, PDR3, and STB5. This research provides guidelines to identify more uncharacterized genes with reductase activities for detoxification of aldehydes derived from lignocellulose in S. cerevisiae.

  19. Inhibition of cellulase-catalyzed lignocellulosic hydrolysis by iron and oxidative metal ions and complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejirian, Ani; Xu, Feng

    2010-12-01

    Enzymatic lignocellulose hydrolysis plays a key role in microbially driven carbon cycling and energy conversion and holds promise for bio-based energy and chemical industries. Cellulases (key lignocellulose-active enzymes) are prone to interference from various noncellulosic substances (e.g., metal ions). During natural cellulolysis, these substances may arise from other microbial activities or abiotic events, and during industrial cellulolysis, they may be derived from biomass feedstocks or upstream treatments. Knowledge about cellulolysis-inhibiting reactions is of importance for the microbiology of natural biomass degradation and the development of biomass conversion technology. Different metal ions, including those native to microbial activity or employed for biomass pretreatments, are often tested for enzymatic cellulolysis. Only a few metal ions act as inhibitors of cellulases, which include ferrous and ferric ions as well as cupric ion. In this study, we showed inhibition by ferrous/ferric ions as part of a more general effect from oxidative (or redox-active) metal ions and their complexes. The correlation between inhibition and oxidation potential indicated the oxidative nature of the inhibition, and the dependence on air established the catalytic role that iron ions played in mediating the dioxygen inhibition of cellulolysis. Individual cellulases showed different susceptibilities to inhibition. It is likely that the inhibition exerted its effect more on cellulose than on cellulase. Strong iron ion chelators and polyethylene glycols could mitigate the inhibition. Potential microbiological and industrial implications of the observed effect of redox-active metal ions on enzymatic cellulolysis, as well as the prevention and mitigation of this effect in industrial biomass conversion, are discussed.

  20. Direct hydrodeoxygenation of raw woody biomass into liquid alkanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qineng; Chen, Zongjia; Shao, Yi; Gong, Xueqing; Wang, Haifeng; Liu, Xiaohui; Parker, Stewart F; Han, Xue; Yang, Sihai; Wang, Yanqin

    2016-03-30

    Being the only sustainable source of organic carbon, biomass is playing an ever-increasingly important role in our energy landscape. The conversion of renewable lignocellulosic biomass into liquid fuels is particularly attractive but extremely challenging due to the inertness and complexity of lignocellulose. Here we describe the direct hydrodeoxygenation of raw woods into liquid alkanes with mass yields up to 28.1 wt% over a multifunctional Pt/NbOPO4 catalyst in cyclohexane. The superior performance of this catalyst allows simultaneous conversion of cellulose, hemicellulose and, more significantly, lignin fractions in the wood sawdust into hexane, pentane and alkylcyclohexanes, respectively. Investigation on the molecular mechanism reveals that a synergistic effect between Pt, NbOx species and acidic sites promotes this highly efficient hydrodeoxygenation of bulk lignocellulose. No chemical pretreatment of the raw woody biomass or separation is required for this one-pot process, which opens a general and energy-efficient route for converting raw lignocellulose into valuable alkanes.

  1. Efficacy and safety testing of mycotoxin-detoxifying agents in broilers following the European Food Safety Authority guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osselaere, A; Devreese, M; Watteyn, A; Vandenbroucke, V; Goossens, J; Hautekiet, V; Eeckhout, M; De Saeger, S; De Baere, S; De Backer, P; Croubels, S

    2012-08-01

    Contamination of feeds with mycotoxins is a worldwide problem and mycotoxin-detoxifying agents are used to decrease their negative effect. The European Food Safety Authority recently stated guidelines and end-points for the efficacy testing of detoxifiers. Our study revealed that plasma concentrations of deoxynivalenol and deepoxy-deoxynivalenol were too low to assess efficacy of 2 commercially available mycotoxin-detoxifying agents against deoxynivalenol after 3 wk of continuous feeding of this mycotoxin at concentrations of 2.44±0.70 mg/kg of feed and 7.54±2.20 mg/kg of feed in broilers. This correlates with the poor absorption of deoxynivalenol in poultry. A safety study with 2 commercially available detoxifying agents and veterinary drugs showed innovative results with regard to the pharmacokinetics of 2 antibiotics after oral dosing in the drinking water. The plasma and kidney tissue concentrations of oxytetracycline were significantly higher in broilers receiving a biotransforming agent in the feed compared with control birds. For amoxicillin, the plasma concentrations were significantly higher for broilers receiving an adsorbing agent in comparison to birds receiving the biotransforming agent, but not to the control group. Mycotoxin-detoxifying agents can thus interact with the oral bioavailability of antibiotics depending on the antibiotic and detoxifying agent, with possible adverse effects on the health of animals and humans.

  2. Sustainable Process Design of Lignocellulose based Biofuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mangnimit, Saranya; Malakul, Pomthong; Gani, Rafiqul

    the production and use of alternative and sustainable energy sources as rapidly as possible. Biofuel is a type of alternative energy that can be produced from many sources including sugar substances (such as sugarcane juice and molasses), starchy materials (such as corn and cassava), and lignocellulosic...... materials such as agricultural residual, straw and wood chips, the residual from wood industry. However, those sugar and starchy materials can be used not only to make biofuels but they are also food sources. Thus, lignocellulosic materials are interesting feed-stocls as they are inexpensive, abundantly...... available, and are also non-food crops. In this respect, Cassava rhizome has several characteristics that make it a potential feedstock for fuel ethanol production. It has high content of cellulose and hemicelluloses . The objective of this paper is to present a study focused on the sustainable process...

  3. Lignocellulosic Biobutanol as Fuel for Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Pexa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy recovery of lignocellulosic waste material in the form of liquid fractions can yield alcohol-based fuels such as bioethanol or biobutanol. This study examined biobutanol derived from lignocellulosic material that was then used as an additive for diesel engines. Biobutanol was used in fuel mixtures with fatty acid methyl ester (FAME obtained by esterification of animal fat (also a waste material in the amounts of 10%, 30%, and 50% butanol. 100% diesel and 100% FAME were used as reference fuels. The evaluation concerned the fuel’s effect on the external speed characteristics, harmful exhaust emissions, and fuel consumption while using the Non-Road Steady Cycle test. When the percentage of butanol was increased, the torque and the power decreased and the brake specific fuel consumption increased. The main advantage of using biobutanol in fuel was its positive effect on reducing the fuel’s viscosity.

  4. Biomass pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Susan Marie; Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T; Tucker, III, Melvin P

    2013-05-21

    A method is provided for producing an improved pretreated biomass product for use in saccharification followed by fermentation to produce a target chemical that includes removal of saccharification and or fermentation inhibitors from the pretreated biomass product. Specifically, the pretreated biomass product derived from using the present method has fewer inhibitors of saccharification and/or fermentation without a loss in sugar content.

  5. Use of a two-chamber reactor to improve enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of lignocellulosic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viola, E.; Zimbardi, F.; Valerio, V.; Nanna, F.; Battafarano, A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A two-chamber reactor is proposed to improve bioethanol production. ► Hydrolysis and fermentation can be made simultaneous at different temperatures. ► The residue of lignin can be easily separated at the end of the process. -- Abstract: A special type of bioreactor was designed and tested in order to improve the bioethanol production from lignocellulosic materials via enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. The reactor consists of two chambers kept at different temperatures and separated by a porous medium, through which the solutes can diffuse. The reactor was tested using as substrate wheat straw previously steam exploded and detoxified. The yields of cellulose hydrolysis and glucose fermentation obtained using this reactor were compared to those obtained by simultaneous enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation (SSF) carried out in only one vessel. The results showed that a significant increase in the ethanol yield (20%) can be achieved by using this bioreactor. An additional advantage of the reactor is the confinement of the solid lignin in one chamber, allowing a simplified separation process between broth and unreacted residue.

  6. Stabilization of wood and lignocellulose materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesek, M.; Dedek, V.; Plander, E.; Jarkovsky, J.

    1973-01-01

    A method is described consisting in impregnation of wood or of lignocellulose materials with a mixture containing the unsaturated monomers styrene and acrylnitrile, organic solvents and swelling agents, and 1,3-butadiene and/or 2-chloro-1,3-butadiene and/or 1,3-cyclopentadiene at an amount of 40 volume per cent in the initial mixture. Polymerization is effected by ionizing radiation. (B.S.)

  7. Profiling microbial lignocellulose degradation and utilization by emergent omics technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosnow, Joshua J; Anderson, Lindsey N; Nair, Reji N; Baker, Erin S; Wright, Aaron T

    2017-08-01

    The use of plant materials to generate renewable biofuels and other high-value chemicals is the sustainable and preferable option, but will require considerable improvements to increase the rate and efficiency of lignocellulose depolymerization. This review highlights novel and emerging technologies that are being developed and deployed to characterize the process of lignocellulose degradation. The review will also illustrate how microbial communities deconstruct and metabolize lignocellulose by identifying the necessary genes and enzyme activities along with the reaction products. These technologies include multi-omic measurements, cell sorting and isolation, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), activity-based protein profiling, and direct measurement of enzyme activity. The recalcitrant nature of lignocellulose necessitates the need to characterize the methods microbes employ to deconstruct lignocellulose to inform new strategies on how to greatly improve biofuel conversion processes. New technologies are yielding important insights into microbial functions and strategies employed to degrade lignocellulose, providing a mechanistic blueprint in order to advance biofuel production.

  8. Aromatic inhibitors derived from ammonia-pretreated lignocellulose hinder bacterial ethanologenesis by activating regulatory circuits controlling inhibitor efflux and detoxification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H. Keating

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Efficient microbial conversion of lignocellulosic hydrolysates to biofuels is a key barrier to the economically viable deployment of lignocellulosic biofuels. A chief contributor to this barrier is the impact on microbial processes and energy metabolism of lignocellulose-derived inhibitors, including phenolic carboxylates, phenolic amides (for ammonia-pretreated biomass, phenolic aldehydes, and furfurals. To understand the bacterial pathways induced by inhibitors present in ammonia-pretreated biomass hydrolysates, which are less well studied than acid-pretreated biomass hydrolysates, we developed and exploited synthetic mimics of ammonia-pretreated corn stover hydrolysate (ACSH. To determine regulatory responses to the inhibitors normally present in ACSH, we measured transcript and protein levels in an Escherichia coli ethanologen using RNA-seq and quantitative proteomics during fermentation to ethanol of synthetic hydrolysates containing or lacking the inhibitors. Our study identified four major regulators mediating these responses, the MarA/SoxS/Rob network, AaeR, FrmR, and YqhC. Induction of these regulons was correlated with a reduced rate of ethanol production, buildup of pyruvate, depletion of ATP and NAD(PH, and an inhibition of xylose conversion. The aromatic aldehyde inhibitor 5-hydroxymethylfurfural appeared to be reduced to its alcohol form by the ethanologen during fermentation, whereas phenolic acid and amide inhibitors were not metabolized. Together, our findings establish that the major regulatory responses to lignocellulose-derived inhibitors are mediated by transcriptional rather than translational regulators, suggest that energy consumed for inhibitor efflux and detoxification may limit biofuel production, and identify a network of regulators for future synthetic biology efforts.

  9. Pyrolysis Dynamics of Biomass Residues in Hot-Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Bergier

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Original data for mass, element, and methane dynamics under controlled pyrolysis are presented for several biomass feedstocks. The experimental system consisted of an environmental (low-vacuum scanning electron microscopy (ESEM with a hot-stage and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS detector. A tunable diode laser (TDL was coupled to the ESEM vacuum pump to measure the methane partial pressure in the exhaust gases. Thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA in a N2 atmosphere was also carried out to assess the thermal properties of each biomass. It was found that biochars were depleted or enriched in specific elements, with distinct methane formation change. Results depended on the nature of the biomass, in particular the relative proportion of lignocellulosic materials, complex organic compounds, and ash. As final temperature was increased, N generally decreased by 30 to 100%, C increased by 20 to 50% for biomass rich in lignocellulose, and P, Mg, and Ca increased for ash-rich biomass. Methane formation also allows discriminating structural composition, providing fingerprints of each biomass. Biomass with low ashes and high lignin contents peaks CH4 production at 330 and 460 °C, whereas those biomasses with high ashes and low lignin peaks CH4 production at 330 and/or 400 °C.

  10. Pyrolysis of biomass for hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinescu, Marius; David, Elena; Bucura, Felicia; Sisu, Claudia; Niculescu, Violeta

    2006-01-01

    Biomass processing is a new technology within the area of renewable energies. Current energy supplies in the world are dominated by fossil fuels (some 80% of the total use of over 400 EJ per year). Nevertheless, about 10-15% of this demand is covered by biomass resources, making biomass by far the most important renewable energy source used to date. On average, in the industrialized countries biomass contributes some 9-13% to the total energy supplies, but in developing countries the proportion is as high as a fifth to one third. In quite a number of countries biomass covers even over 50 to 90% of the total energy demand. Classic application of biomass combustion is heat production for domestic applications. A key issue for bio-energy is that its use should be modernized to fit into a sustainable development path. Especially promising are the production of electricity via advanced conversion concepts (i.e. gasification and state-of-the-art combustion and co-firing) and modern biomass derived fuels like methanol, hydrogen and ethanol from ligno-cellulosic biomass, which can reach competitive cost levels within 1-2 decades (partly depending on price developments with petroleum). (authors)

  11. Analytical Methods for Biomass Characterization during Pretreatment and Bioconversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pu, Yunqiao [ORNL; Meng, Xianzhi [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Yoo, Chang Geun; Li, Mi; Ragauskas, Arthur J [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass has been introduced as a promising resource for alternative fuels and chemicals because of its abundance and complement for petroleum resources. Biomass is a complex biopolymer and its compositional and structural characteristics largely vary depending on its species as well as growth environments. Because of complexity and variety of biomass, understanding its physicochemical characteristics is a key for effective biomass utilization. Characterization of biomass does not only provide critical information of biomass during pretreatment and bioconversion, but also give valuable insights on how to utilize the biomass. For better understanding biomass characteristics, good grasp and proper selection of analytical methods are necessary. This chapter introduces existing analytical approaches that are widely employed for biomass characterization during biomass pretreatment and conversion process. Diverse analytical methods using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy for biomass characterization are reviewed. In addition, biomass accessibility methods by analyzing surface properties of biomass are also summarized in this chapter.

  12. Zeolite-catalyzed biomass conversion to fuels and chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taarning, Esben; Osmundsen, Christian Mårup; Yang, Xiaobo

    2011-01-01

    Heterogeneous catalysts have been a central element in the efficient conversion of fossil resources to fuels and chemicals, but their role in biomass utilization is more ambiguous. Zeolites constitute a promising class of heterogeneous catalysts and developments in recent years have demonstrated...... their potential to find broad use in the conversion of biomass. In this perspective we review and discuss the developments that have taken place in the field of biomass conversion using zeolites. Emphasis is put on the conversion of lignocellulosic material to fuels using conventional zeolites as well...

  13. Lignin-blocking treatment of biomass and uses thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin [Hanover, NH; Wyman, Charles E [Norwich, VT

    2009-10-20

    Disclosed is a method for converting cellulose in a lignocellulosic biomass. The method provides for a lignin-blocking polypeptide and/or protein treatment of high lignin solids. The treatment enhances cellulase availability in cellulose conversion. Cellulase efficiencies are improved by the protein or polypeptide treatment. The treatment may be used in combination with steam explosion and acid prehydrolysis techniques. Hydrolysis yields from lignin containing biomass are enhanced 5-20%, and enzyme utilization is increased from 10% to 50%. Thus, a more efficient and economical method of processing lignin containing biomass materials utilizes a polypeptide/protein treatment step that effectively blocks lignin binding of cellulase.

  14. Lignocellulosic residues for production of electricity, biogas or second generation biofuel: A case study of technical and sustainable potential of rice straw in Mali

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Ivan; Dembelé, Filifing; Daou, Ibrahima

    2016-01-01

    Biomass from agricultural residues, especially lignocellulosic biomass, is not only seen as a sustainable biomass source for the production of electricity, but increasingly as a resource for the production of biogas and second generation biofuel in developing countries. Based on empirical research...... in an irrigated rice-growing area, Office du Niger, in Mali, this article builds scenarios for the sustainable potential of rice straw. The paper concludes that there is great uncertainty regarding the size of the sustainable resources of rice straw available for energy, but that the most likely scenario...

  15. Study of the formation of polyethylene composites and lignocellulose materials by means of irradiation and extrusion; Estudo sobre a formacao de compositos de polietileno e materiais lignocelulosicos mediante irradiacao e extrusao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Marcos Bertrand de [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Romero, Guillermo R.; Gonzalez, Maria Elisa; Smolko, Eduardo E. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Centro Atomico Ezeiza

    2000-07-01

    One of the greatest opportunities for using of biomass as a precursor in the production of polymeric materials is the lignocellulose composites that can combine high performance with low costs. This work is a initial study on the production of a lignocellulose reinforced polyethylene composite. A compatibilization made by a induced gamma radiation grafting reaction was used to increase the adhesion between the matrix and the reinforced or filled fibers. The lignocellulose materials were exposed to gamma radiation in order to promote a molecular degradation and increase its reactivity. The polymer, the lignocellulose material and the compatibilization were processed by extrusion and the composite produced by this process were characterized by mechanical tests. (author)

  16. Ionic Liquids in Biomass Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Suzie Su Yin; Macfarlane, Douglas R.

    Ionic liquids have been studied for their special solvent properties in a wide range of processes, including reactions involving carbohydrates such as cellulose and glucose. Biomass is a widely available and renewable resource that is likely to become an economically viable source of starting materials for chemical and fuel production, especially with the price of petroleum set to increase as supplies are diminished. Biopolymers such as cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin may be converted to useful products, either by direct functionalisation of the polymers or depolymerisation to monomers, followed by microbial or chemical conversion to useful chemicals. Major barriers to the effective conversion of biomass currently include the high crystallinity of cellulose, high reactivity of carbohydrates and lignin, insolubility of cellulose in conventional solvents, as well as heterogeneity in the native lignocellulosic materials and in lignin itself. This combination of factors often results in highly heterogeneous depolymerisation products, which make efficient separation difficult. Thus the extraction, depolymerisation and conversion of biopolymers will require novel reaction systems in order to be both economically attractive and environmentally benign. The solubility of biopolymers in ionic liquids is a major advantage of their use, allowing homogeneous reaction conditions, and this has stimulated a growing research effort in this field. This review examines current research involving the use of ionic liquids in biomass reactions, with perspectives on how it relates to green chemistry, economic viability, and conventional biomass processes.

  17. The effect of nonenzymatic protein on lignocellulose enzymatic hydrolysis and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Kobayashi, Shinichi; Hiraide, Hatsue; Cui, Zongjun; Mochidzuki, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Nonenzymatic protein was added to cellulase hydrolysis and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of different biomass materials. Adding bovine serum albumin (BSA) and corn steep before cellulase enhanced enzyme activity in solution and increased cellulose and xylose conversion rates. The cellulose conversion rate of filter paper hydrolysis was increased by 32.5 % with BSA treatment. When BSA was added before cellulase, the remaining activity in the solution was higher than that in a control without BSA pretreatment. During SSF with pretreated rice straw as the substrate, adding 1.0 mg/mL BSA increased the ethanol yield by 13.6 % and final xylose yield by 42.6 %. The results indicated that lignin interaction is not the only mechanism responsible for the positive BSA effect. BSA had a stabilizing effect on cellulase and relieved cumulative sugar inhibition of enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass materials. Thus, nonenzymatic protein addition represents a promising strategy in the biorefining of lignocellulose materials.

  18. Biobutanol as a Potential Sustainable Biofuel - Assessment of Lignocellulosic and Waste-based Feedstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Niemisto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the production process of an alternative transportation biofuel, biobutanol. European legislation concerning biofuels and their sustainability criteria are also briefly described. The need to develop methods to ensure more sustainable and efficient biofuel production processes is recommended. In addition, the assessment method to evaluate the sustainability of biofuels is considered and sustainability assessment of selected feedstocks for biobutanol production is performed. The benefits and potential of using lignocellulosic and waste materials as feedstocks in the biobutanol production process are also discussed. Sustainability assessment in this paper includes cultivation, harvest/collection and upstream processing (pretreatment of feedstocks, comparing four main biomass sources: food crops, non-food crops, food industry by-product and wood-based biomass. It can be concluded that the highest sustainable potential in Finland is when biobutanol production is integrated into pulp & paper mills.

  19. A lignocellulosic ethanol strategy via nonenzymatic sugar production: process synthesis and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jeehoon; Luterbacher, Jeremy S; Alonso, David Martin; Dumesic, James A; Maravelias, Christos T

    2015-04-01

    The work develops a strategy for the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. In this strategy, the cellulose and hemicellulose fractions are simultaneously converted to sugars using a γ-valerolactone (GVL) solvent containing a dilute acid catalyst. To effectively recover GVL for reuse as solvent and biomass-derived lignin for heat and power generation, separation subsystems, including a novel CO2-based extraction for the separation of sugars from GVL, lignin and humins have been designed. The sugars are co-fermented by yeast to produce ethanol. Furthermore, heat integration to reduce utility requirements is performed. It is shown that this strategy leads to high ethanol yields and the total energy requirements could be satisfied by burning the lignin. The integrated strategy using corn stover feedstock leads to a minimum selling price of $5 per gallon of gasoline equivalent, which suggests that it is a promising alternative to current biofuels production approaches. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Intracellular cellobiose metabolism and its applications in lignocellulose-based biorefineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisutham, Vinuselvi; Chandran, Sathesh-Prabu; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Lee, Sung Kuk; Keasling, Jay D

    2017-09-01

    Complete hydrolysis of cellulose has been a key characteristic of biomass technology because of the limitation of industrial production hosts to use cellodextrin, the partial hydrolysis product of cellulose. Cellobiose, a β-1,4-linked glucose dimer, is a major cellodextrin of the enzymatic hydrolysis (via endoglucanase and exoglucanase) of cellulose. Conversion of cellobiose to glucose is executed by β-glucosidase. The complete extracellular hydrolysis of celluloses has several critical barriers in biomass technology. An alternative bioengineering strategy to make the bioprocessing less challenging is to engineer microbes with the abilities to hydrolyze and assimilate the cellulosic-hydrolysate cellodextrin. Microorganisms engineered to metabolize cellobiose rather than the monomeric glucose can provide several advantages for lignocellulose-based biorefineries. This review describes the recent advances and challenges in engineering efficient intracellular cellobiose metabolism in industrial hosts. This review also describes the limitations of and future prospectives in engineering intracellular cellobiose metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. CO2 gasification of char from lignocellulosic garden waste: Experimental and kinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ankita; Thengane, Sonal K; Mahajani, Sanjay

    2018-04-25

    In this study, the dry leaves litter from jackfruit, raintree, mango and eucalyptus trees, lignin, and cellulose were characterized, pyrolysed, and evaluated for their char reactivity towards CO 2 gasification using TGA. The differences in char reactivity were attributed to the difference in char morphology and the varying inorganic contents. The mineral analysis of biomass ash showed the presence of alkali minerals some of which could act as catalysts. The adverse effect of high silica content was also evident through the experimental results. The kinetic parameters for gasification reaction were determined using three different reaction models. A modified random pore model was investigated to account for the influence of inorganic content. The effect of external catalyst on CO 2 gasification was also studied by adding potassium carbonate to biomass char and pellets. The results obtained from this study can be conveniently used in the design of a gasifier for lignocellulosic garden waste. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Lignin plays a negative role in the biochemical process for producing lignocellulosic biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yining; Zhao, Shuai; Yang, Shihui; Ding, Shi-You

    2014-06-01

    A biochemical platform holds the most promising route toward lignocellulosic biofuels, in which polysaccharides are hydrolyzed by cellulase enzymes into simple sugars and fermented to ethanol by microbes. However, these polysaccharides are cross-linked in the plant cell walls with the hydrophobic network of lignin that physically impedes enzymatic deconstruction. A thermochemical pretreatment process is often required to remove or delocalize lignin, which may also generate inhibitors that hamper enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. Here we review recent advances in understanding lignin structure in the plant cell walls and the negative roles of lignin in the processes of converting biomass to biofuels. Perspectives and future directions to improve the biomass conversion process are also discussed. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Reproductive responses and productive characteristics in ewes supplemented with detoxified castor meal for a long period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Moreira Silva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of supplementation with detoxified castor meal (DCM in the diet of ewes during pregnancy, partum, and post-partum on the weight development of their offspring and at slaughter. The study included 56 ewes with synchronized estrus that were naturally mated. At the beginning of pregnancy and in post-partum, hepatic and renal function-related parameters and progesterone levels were measured. At slaughter, the proximate composition and fatty acid profile were determined in the loin of ewes. There was no effect of diet on reproductive response after estrus synchronization. At the beginning of pregnancy, albumin and creatinine levels were lower in the DCM group. Supplementation with DCM did not alter the weight or body condition of ewes at partum. However, at weaning, the DCM group showed a higher loin-eye area (LEA in relation to the group fed diets without detoxified castor meal (WDCM. At partum, as well as at weaning, the offspring of the ewes supplemented with DCM had a larger LEA than the WDCM group. In post-partum, levels of glucose, urea, protein, and cholesterol were lower in the DCM group. The return to cyclicity was similar in both groups, with an average of 47 days after partum. At slaughter, neither anatomical and carcass components nor the results of the proximate analysis were affected by the type of diet, except for an increase in heptadecanoic acid in the DCM group. Supplementation with detoxified castor meal in the diet of ewes does not affect lambing, pregnancy, prolificacy, return to cyclicity, milk production, blood biochemical parameters, or carcass characteristics.

  4. Efficient eucalypt cell wall deconstruction and conversion for sustainable lignocellulosic biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam L. Healey

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to meet the world’s growing energy demand and reduce the impact of greenhouse gas emissions resulting from fossil fuel combustion, renewable plant-based feedstocks for biofuel production must be considered. First generation biofuels, derived from starches of edible feedstocks such as corn, creates competition between food and fuel resources, both for the crop itself and the land on which it is grown. As such, biofuel synthesized from non-edible plant biomass (lignocellulose generated on marginal agricultural land, will help to alleviate this competition. Eucalypts, the broadly defined taxa encompassing over 900 species of Eucalyptus, Corymbia and Angophora, are the most widely planted hardwood tree in the world, harvested mainly for timber, pulp and paper, and biomaterial products. More recently, due to their exceptional growth rate and amenability to grow under a wide range of environmental conditions, eucalypts are a leading option for the development of a sustainable lignocellulosic biofuels. However, efficient conversion of woody biomass into fermentable monomeric sugars is largely dependent on pretreatment of the cell wall, whose formation and complexity lends itself towards natural recalcitrance against its efficient deconstruction. A greater understanding of this complexity within the context of various pretreatments will allow the design of new and effective deconstruction processes for bioenergy production. In this review, we present the various pretreatment options for eucalypts, including research into understanding structure and formation of the eucalypt cell wall.

  5. Degradation of lignocelluloses in rice straw by BMC-9, a composite microbial system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongyan; Yu, Hairu; Yuan, Xufeng; Piao, Renzhe; Li, Hulin; Wang, Xiaofen; Cui, Zongjun

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the potential utility of pretreatment of raw biomass with a complex microbial system, we investigated the degradation of rice straw by BMC-9, a lignocellulose decomposition strain obtained from a biogas slurry compost environment. The degradation characteristics and corresponding changes in the bacterial community were assessed. The results showed that rapid degradation occurred from day 0 to day 9, with a peak total biomass bacterium concentration of 3.3 × 10(8) copies/ml on day 1. The pH of the fermentation broth declined initially and then increased, and the mass of rice straw decreased steadily. The highest concentrations of volatile fatty acid contents (0.291 mg/l lactic acid, 0.31 mg/l formic acid, 1.93 mg/l acetic acid, and 0.73 mg/l propionic acid) as well as the highest xylanse activity (1.79 U/ml) and carboxymethyl cellulase activity (0.37 U/ml) occurred on day 9. The greatest diversity among the microbial community also occurred on day 9, with the presence of bacteria belonging to Clostridium sp., Bacillus sp., and Geobacillus sp. Together, our results indicate that BMC-9 has a strong ability to rapidly degrade the lignocelluloses of rice straw under relatively inexpensive conditions, and the optimum fermentation time is 9 days.

  6. Ethanol production process from banana fruit and its lignocellulosic residues: Energy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasquez-Arredondo, H.I. [Grupo de Investigacion Bioprocesos y Flujos Reactivos, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellin, Calle 59 A N 63-20 (Colombia); Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, Escola Politecnica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Avenida Professor Mello Moraes 2231 (Brazil); Ruiz-Colorado, A.A. [Grupo de Investigacion Bioprocesos y Flujos Reactivos, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellin, Calle 59 A N 63-20 (Colombia); De Oliveira, S. Jr. [Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, Escola Politecnica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Avenida Professor Mello Moraes 2231 (Brazil)

    2010-07-15

    Tropical countries, such as Brazil and Colombia, have the possibility of using agricultural lands for growing biomass to produce bio-fuels such as biodiesel and ethanol. This study applies an energy analysis to the production process of anhydrous ethanol obtained from the hydrolysis of starch and cellulosic and hemicellulosic material present in the banana fruit and its residual biomass. Four different production routes were analyzed: acid hydrolysis of amylaceous material (banana pulp and banana fruit) and enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic material (flower stalk and banana skin). The analysis considered banana plant cultivation, feedstock transport, hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation, dehydration, residue treatment and utility plant. The best indexes were obtained for amylaceous material for which mass performance varied from 346.5 L/t to 388.7 L/t, Net Energy Value (NEV) ranged from 9.86 MJ/L to 9.94 MJ/L and the energy ratio was 1.9 MJ/MJ. For lignocellulosic materials, the figures were less favorable; mass performance varied from 86.1 to 123.5 L/t, NEV from 5.24 to 8.79 MJ/L and energy ratio from 1.3 to 1.6 MJ/MJ. The analysis showed, however, that both processes can be considered energetically feasible. (author)

  7. Efficient Eucalypt Cell Wall Deconstruction and Conversion for Sustainable Lignocellulosic Biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Adam L; Lee, David J; Furtado, Agnelo; Simmons, Blake A; Henry, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    In order to meet the world's growing energy demand and reduce the impact of greenhouse gas emissions resulting from fossil fuel combustion, renewable plant-based feedstocks for biofuel production must be considered. The first-generation biofuels, derived from starches of edible feedstocks, such as corn, create competition between food and fuel resources, both for the crop itself and the land on which it is grown. As such, biofuel synthesized from non-edible plant biomass (lignocellulose) generated on marginal agricultural land will help to alleviate this competition. Eucalypts, the broadly defined taxa encompassing over 900 species of Eucalyptus, Corymbia, and Angophora are the most widely planted hardwood tree in the world, harvested mainly for timber, pulp and paper, and biomaterial products. More recently, due to their exceptional growth rate and amenability to grow under a wide range of environmental conditions, eucalypts are a leading option for the development of a sustainable lignocellulosic biofuels. However, efficient conversion of woody biomass into fermentable monomeric sugars is largely dependent on pretreatment of the cell wall, whose formation and complexity lend itself toward natural recalcitrance against its efficient deconstruction. A greater understanding of this complexity within the context of various pretreatments will allow the design of new and effective deconstruction processes for bioenergy production. In this review, we present the various pretreatment options for eucalypts, including research into understanding structure and formation of the eucalypt cell wall.

  8. Cognitive performance of detoxified alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome patients remains stable over two years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Esther; Brand, Matthias; Borsutzky, Sabine; Steingass, Hans-P; Markowitsch, Hans J

    2008-07-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption is assumed to promote cognitive decline, eventually increasing the risk of dementia. However, little is known about the time course of cognitive functions in patients with chronic alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome (KS). Therefore, we assessed neuropsychological performance in 20 detoxified chronic KS inpatients at time 1 (T1) with a follow-up after two years (T2). The neuropsychological tests assessed verbal and visual short- and long-term memory, working memory, basic executive functions, language, general knowledge, and visual-spatial abilities. Surveys with caregivers and medical records provided information about current and previous disease-related parameters, drinking history, additional pathologies, as well as psychosocial and cognitive therapy within the two-year period. At both sessions, the majority of the KS patients' results were inferior to those of normal subjects. Comparing T1 and T2 revealed no significant decline in any of the investigated functions. Instead, general knowledge, visual long-term memory, and verbal fluency improved slightly after two years, though they still remained within pathological range. Comparing most improved and most deteriorated patients, better outcome occurred more frequently in men than women and was associated with higher premorbid education and fewer detoxifications in the past. In this sample of detoxified KS patients there was no indication of accelerated cognitive decline or onset of dementia-like symptoms over two years.

  9. Novel Biocatalytic Platform for Ethanol Production from Lignocellulosic Feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chyi-Shin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Tachea, Firehiwot [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Brown, Sarah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Coffman, Philip [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Tanjore, Deepti [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gregg, Allison [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rolison-Welch, Kristina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Shirazi, Fatemeh [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); He, Qian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sun, Ning [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-01-23

    The goals of the CRADA were achieved by illustrating the scalability of immobilized yeast technology, demonstrating lignocellulosic feedstock consumption by the immobilized cells, and confirming Microvi’s proprietary polymer matrix ethanol toxicity tolerance. We conducted fermentations at 2L and 300L scales. For carbon source, we performed pretreatment and saccharification at 100L scale to produce lignocellulosic sugars with glucose and xylose.

  10. Effects of Lignocellulosic Compounds on the Yield, Nanostructure and Reactivity of Soot from Fast Pyrolysis at High Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trubetskaya, Anna; Broström, Markus; Kling, Jens

    reactor. The specific objectives of this study were to: (1) obtain knowledge about lignocellulosic compounds and monolignols influence on the yield, nanostructure, composition, and reactivity of soot during high-temperature gasification, (2) understand the influence of Soxhlet extraction on the soot......Gasification offers the utilization of biomass to a wide variety of applications such as heat, electricity, chemicals and transport fuels in an efficient and sustainable manner. High soot yields in the high-temperature entrained flow gasification lead to intensive gas cleaning and can cause...... primary, secondary and teriary pyrolysis products such as organic acids, aldehydes and phenolics [1]. In this study, therefore, the impacts of lignocellulosic compounds and monolignols (syringol, guaiacol, p-hydroxyphenol) on the yield and characteristics of soot were investigated at 1250°C in a drop tube...

  11. Laccase Enzymology in Relation to Lignocellulose Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sitarz, Anna Katarzyna

    ) and investigated for production of enzymes under such conditions (Paper I). G. lucidum was found to produce high amounts of laccase which corresponded to its exceptional growth on lignocellulosic substrate and lignin. This observation led to a hypothesis that this particular laccase might act in a synergistic way...... cocktail preparation. This discovery is significant considering the fact that the cellulase cocktail preparations, namely Cellic®CTec1 and Cellic®CTec2, are improved in respect to phenolic-derived, and end-substrate inhibitors. Additionally, the molecular dynamics simulations (MD) of the obtained amino...

  12. Method of stabilizing wood or lignocellulose materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesek, M.; Dedek, V.; Plander, E.; Jarkovsky, J.

    1973-01-01

    Stabilization is effected by impregnating wood or lignocellulose materials with unsaturated monomers in a solution of organic solvents in the presence of swelling agents containing at least one organic halo compound with halogen content exceeding 30 wt. % and not exce--eding the amount corresponding to a saturated solution in the impregnation mixture. Polymerization is effected by ionizing radiation and is completed by the action of temperature in a range of 40 to 150 degC; at the same time, the solvents and the swelling agents should be removed. (B.S.)

  13. [Degradation of lignocellulose in the corn straw by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens MN-8].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-ya; Li, Shu-na; Wang, Shu-xiang; Wang, Quan; Xue, Yin-yin; Zhu, Bao-cheng

    2015-05-01

    Microbial degradation of lignocellulose is one of the key problems that need to be solved urgently in the process of utilizing biomass resource. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens MN-8 is our previously isolated bacterium capable of degrading lignin. To determine the capability of strain MN-8 to degrade lignocellulose of corn straw, B. amyloliquefaciens MN-8 was inoculated and fermented with solid-state corn straw powder-MSM culture medium. The changes in the enzyme activity and degradation products of lignocellulose were monitored in the process of fermentation using the FTIR and GC/MS. The results showed that B. amyloliquefaciens MN-8 could produce lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase, cellulase and hemicellulase enzymes. The activities of all these enzymes reached the peak after being incubated for 10-16 days, and the highest enzyme activities were 55.0, 16.7, 45.4 and 60.5 U · g(-1), respectively. After 24 d of incubation, the degradation percentages of lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose were up to 42.9%, 40.6% and 27.1%, respectively. The spectroscopic data by FTIR indicated that the intensities of characteristic absorption peaks of lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose of the corn straw were decreased, indicating that the lignocellulose was degraded partly after being fermented by B. amyloliquefaciens MN-8. GC/MS analysis also demonstrated that strain MN-8 could degrade lignocellulose efficiently. It could depolymerize lignin into some monomeric compounds with retention of phenylpropane structure unit, such as amphetamine, benzene acetone and benzene propanoic acids, by the rupture of β-O-4 bond connected between lignin monomer, and it further oxidized some monomer compounds into Cα carbonyl compounds, such as 2-amino-1-benzeneacetone and 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy-acetophenone. The GC/MS analysis of the degradation products of cellulose and hemicellulose showed that there were not only monosaccharide compounds, such as glucose, mannose and galactose, but also some

  14. Identification of a laccase from Ganoderma lucidum CBS 229.93 having potential for enhancing cellulase catalyzed lignocellulose degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitarz, Anna K; Mikkelsen, Jørn D; Højrup, Peter; Meyer, Anne S

    2013-12-10

    Based on a differential pre-screening of 44 white-rot fungi on a lignocellulose-supplemented minimal medium, four basidiomycetes were selected for further study: Ganoderma lucidum, Polyporus brumalis, Polyporus ciliatus and Trametes versicolor. Only G. lucidum was able to grow vividly on malt extract or minimal media supplemented with alkali lignin. When grown on malt extract or minimal medium supplemented with lignocellulose (sugar cane bagasse), the crude G. lucidum protein extract exhibited high laccase activity, ∼3U/mL toward syringaldazine. This activity was 13-17 fold higher than the corresponding activities of the crude protein extracts of P. brumalis, P. ciliatus and T. versicolor. Native PAGE electrophoresis of the crude G. lucidum extract confirmed the presence of an active laccase. The G. lucidum laccase had a molecular weight of ∼62.5kDa, and a Km value of 0.107mM (determined on ABTS). A partial amino acid sequence analysis of four short de novo sequenced peptides, defined after trypsin digest analysis using MALDI-TOF MS/MS analysis, revealed 64-100% homology to sequences in related laccases in the UniProt database, but also indicated that certain sequence stretches had low homology. Addition of the laccase-rich G. lucidum broth to lignocellulosic biomass (pretreated sugar cane bagasse) together with a state-of-the-art cellulase enzyme preparation (Cellic™CTec1) produced significantly increased cellulolytic yields, which were also better than those obtained with a T. versicolor laccase addition, indicating that the laccase from G. lucidum has unique properties that may be momentous in lignocellulosic biomass conversion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of Alkali-Pretreated Soybean Straw for Lignocellulosic Bioethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seonghun Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybean straw is a renewable resource in agricultural residues that can be used for lignocellulosic bioethanol production. To enhance enzymatic digestibility and fermentability, the biomass was prepared with an alkali-thermal pretreatment (sodium hydroxide, 121°C, 60 min. The delignification yield was 34.1~53%, in proportion to the amount of sodium hydroxide, from 0.5 to 3.0 M. The lignin and hemicellulose contents of the pretreated biomass were reduced by the pretreatment process, whereas the proportion of cellulose was increased. Under optimal condition, the pretreated biomass consisted of 74.0±0.1% cellulose, 10.3±0.1% hemicellulose, and 10.1±0.6% lignin. During enzymatic saccharification using Cellic® CTec2 cellulase, 10% (w/v of pretreated soybean straw was hydrolyzed completely and converted to 67.3±2.1 g/L glucose and 9.4±0.5 g/L xylose with a 90.9% yield efficiency. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of the pretreated biomass by Saccharomyces cerevisiae W303-1A produced 30.5±1.2 g/L ethanol in 0.5 L fermented medium containing 10% (w/v pretreated biomass after 72 h. The ethanol productivity was 0.305 g ethanol/g dry biomass and 0.45 g ethanol/g glucose after fermentation, with a low concentration of organic acid metabolites. Also, 82% of fermentable sugar was used by the yeast for ethanol fermentation. These results show that the combination of alkaline pretreatment and biomass hydrolysate is useful for enhancing bioethanol productivity using delignified soybean straw.

  16. Membrane fractionation of biomass fast pyrolysis oil and impact of its presence on a petroleum gas oil hydrotreatment.

    OpenAIRE

    Pinheiro , Ana; Hudebine , Damien; Dupassieux , Nathalie; Charon , Nadège; Geantet , Christophe

    2013-01-01

    International audience; In order to limit the greenhouse effect causing climate change and reduce the needs of the transport sector for petroleum oils, transformation of lignocellulosic biomass is a promising alternative route to produce automotive fuels, chemical intermediates and energy. Gasification and liquefaction of biomass resources are the two main routes that are under investigation to convert biomass into biofuels. In the case of the liquefaction, due to the unstability of the lique...

  17. Enzymology of lignocellulose bioconversion by Streptomyces viridosporus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramachandra, M.

    1989-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in lignin biodegradation research since 1983, when lignin peroxidases were discovered in fungi. A similar breakthrough in bacterial lignin biodegradation research is anticipated. Several laboratories have successfully demonstrated the ability of bacteria to mineralize [ 14 C]-lignin lignocelluloses as well as 14 C-labelled synthetic lignins. Attempts are being made to identify the key enzymes involved. In this dissertation, two studies are presented which address the enzymology of lignin biodegradation by Streptomyces viridosporus. The first study compares selected extracellular enzyme of wild-type and genetically manipulated strains with enhanced abilities to produced a water soluble lignin degradation intermediate, designated acid-precipitable polymeric lignin (APPL). UV irradiation mutant T7A-81 and protoplast fusion recombinant SR-10 had higher and longer persisting peroxidase, esterase, and endoglucanase activity than did the wild type strain T7A. An extracellular lignocellulose-induced peroxidase with some similarities to fungal ligninases was described for the first time in Streptomyces. The second study describes purification and characterization of an extracellular lignin peroxidase produced by S. viridosporus T7A. This is the first report of a lignin peroxidase in any bacterium

  18. Effective Release of Lignin Fragments from Lignocellulose by Lewis Acid Metal Triflates in the Lignin-First Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoming; Zhu, Jiadong; Korányi, Tamás I; Boot, Michael D; Hensen, Emiel J M

    2016-12-08

    Adding value to lignin, the most complex and recalcitrant fraction in lignocellulosic biomass, is highly relevant to costefficient operation of biorefineries. We report the use of homogeneous metal triflates to rapidly release lignin from biomass. Combined with metal-catalyzed hydrogenolysis, the process separates woody biomass into few lignin-derived alkylmethoxyphenols and cellulose under mild conditions. Model compound studies show the unique catalytic properties of metal triflates in cleaving lignin-carbohydrate interlinkages. The lignin fragments can then be disassembled by hydrogenolysis. The tandem process is flexible and allows obtaining good aromatic monomer yields from different woods (36-48 wt %, lignin base). The cellulose-rich residue is an ideal feedstock for established biorefining processes. The highly productive strategy is characterized by short reaction times, low metal triflate catalyst requirement, and leaving cellulose largely untouched. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Rational design and evolutional fine tuning of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for biomass breakdown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Ishii, Jun; Kondo, Akihiko

    2015-12-01

    Conferring biomass hydrolysis activity on yeast through genetic engineering has paved the way for the development of groundbreaking processes for producing liquid fuels and commodity chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass. However, the overproduction and misfolding of heterologous and endogenous proteins can trigger cellular stress, increasing the metabolic burden and retarding growth. Improving the efficiency of lignocellulosic breakdown requires engineering of yeast secretory pathway based on system-wide metabolic analysis as well as DNA constructs for enhanced cellulase gene expression with advanced molecular biology tools. Also, yeast is subjected to severe stress due to toxic compounds generated during lignocellulose pretreatment in consolidated saccharification and fermentation processes. The prospect for development of robust yeast strains makes combining evolutionary and rational engineering strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Reactor design for minimizing product inhibition during enzymatic lignocellulose hydrolysis: I. Significance and mechanism of cellobiose and glucose inhibition on cellulolytic enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andric, Pavle; Meyer, Anne S.; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2010-01-01

    Achievement of efficient enzymatic degradation of cellulose to glucose is one of the main prerequisites and one of the main challenges in the biological conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to liquid fuels and other valuable products. The specific inhibitory interferences by cellobiose and glucose...... on enzyme-catalyzed cellulose hydrolysis reactions impose significant limitations on the efficiency of lignocellulose conversion especially at high-biomass dry matter conditions. To provide the base for selecting the optimal reactor conditions, this paper reviews the reaction kinetics, mechanisms......, and significance of this product inhibition, notably the cellobiose and glucose inhibition, on enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis. Particular emphasis is put on the distinct complexity of cellulose as a substrate, the multi-enzymatic nature of the cellulolytic degradation, and the particular features of cellulase...

  1. Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Lignocellulosic Ethanol Production: Biochemical Versus Thermochemical Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Dongyan; Seager, Thomas; Rao, P. Suresh; Zhao, Fu

    2010-10-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass can be converted into ethanol through either biochemical or thermochemical conversion processes. Biochemical conversion involves hydrolysis and fermentation while thermochemical conversion involves gasification and catalytic synthesis. Even though these routes produce comparable amounts of ethanol and have similar energy efficiency at the plant level, little is known about their relative environmental performance from a life cycle perspective. Especially, the indirect impacts, i.e. emissions and resource consumption associated with the production of various process inputs, are largely neglected in previous studies. This article compiles material and energy flow data from process simulation models to develop life cycle inventory and compares the fossil fuel consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, and water consumption of both biomass-to-ethanol production processes. The results are presented in terms of contributions from feedstock, direct, indirect, and co-product credits for four representative biomass feedstocks i.e., wood chips, corn stover, waste paper, and wheat straw. To explore the potentials of the two conversion pathways, different technological scenarios are modeled, including current, 2012 and 2020 technology targets, as well as different production/co-production configurations. The modeling results suggest that biochemical conversion has slightly better performance on greenhouse gas emission and fossil fuel consumption, but that thermochemical conversion has significantly less direct, indirect, and life cycle water consumption. Also, if the thermochemical plant operates as a biorefinery with mixed alcohol co-products separated for chemicals, it has the potential to achieve better performance than biochemical pathway across all environmental impact categories considered due to higher co-product credits associated with chemicals being displaced. The results from this work serve as a starting point for developing full life cycle

  2. Impact of Pretreatment Technologies on Saccharification and Isopentenol Fermentation of Mixed Lignocellulosic Feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Jian; George, Kevin W.; Sun, Ning; He, Wei; Li, Chenlin; Stavila, Vitalie; Keasling, Jay D.; Simmons, Blake A.; Lee, Taek Soon; Singh, Seema

    2015-02-28

    In order to enable the large-scale production of biofuels or chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass, a consistent and affordable year-round supply of lignocellulosic feedstocks is essential. Feedstock blending and/or densification offers one promising solution to overcome current challenges on biomass supply, i.e., low energy and bulk densities and significant compositional variations. Therefore, it is imperative to develop conversion technologies that can process mixed pelleted biomass feedstocks with minimal negative impact in terms of overall performance of the relevant biorefinery unit operations: pretreatment, fermentable sugar production, and fuel titers. We processed the mixture of four feedstocks—corn stover, switchgrass, lodgepole pine, and eucalyptus (1:1:1:1 on dry weight basis)—in flour and pellet form using ionic liquid (IL) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, dilute sulfuric acid (DA), and soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA) pretreatments. Commercial enzyme mixtures, including cellulases and hemicellulases, were then applied to these pretreated feedstocks at low to moderate enzyme loadings to determine hydrolysis efficiency. Results show significant variations on the chemical composition, crystallinity, and enzymatic digestibility of the pretreated feedstocks across the different pretreatment technologies studied. The advanced biofuel isopentenol was produced during simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of pretreated feedstocks using an engineered Escherichia coli strain. Results show that IL pretreatment liberates the most sugar during enzymatic saccharification, and in turn led to the highest isopentenol titer as compared to DA and SAA pretreatments. This study provides insights on developing biorefinery technologies that produce advanced biofuels based on mixed feedstock streams.

  3. Biomass energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasztor, J.; Kristoferson, L.

    1992-01-01

    Bioenergy systems can provide an energy supply that is environmentally sound and sustainable, although, like all energy systems, they have an environmental impact. The impact often depends more on the way the whole system is managed than on the fuel or on the conversion technology. The authors first describe traditional biomass systems: combustion and deforestation; health impact; charcoal conversion; and agricultural residues. A discussion of modern biomass systems follows: biogas; producer gas; alcohol fuels; modern wood fuel resources; and modern biomass combustion. The issue of bioenergy and the environment (land use; air pollution; water; socioeconomic impacts) and a discussion of sustainable bioenergy use complete the paper. 53 refs., 9 figs., 14 tabs

  4. Biomass Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decker, Steve [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brunecky, Roman [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lin, Chien-Yuan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Amore, Antonella [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wei, Hui [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chen, Xiaowen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tucker, Melvin P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Czernik, Stefan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sluiter, Amie D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Min [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Magrini, Kimberly A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Himmel, Michael E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sheehan, John [Formerly NREL; Dayton, David C. [Formerly NREL; Bozell, Joseph J. [Formerly NREL; Adney, William S. [Formerly NREL; Aden, Andy [Formerly NREL; Hames, Bonnie [Formerly NREL; Thomas, Steven R. [Formerly NREL; Bain, Richard L. [Formerly NREL

    2017-08-02

    Biomass constitutes all the plant matter found on our planet, and is produced directly by photosynthesis, the fundamental engine of life on earth. It is the photosynthetic capability of plants to utilize carbon dioxide from the atmosphere that leads to its designation as a 'carbon neutral' fuel, meaning that it does not introduce new carbon into the atmosphere. This article discusses the life cycle assessments of biomass use and the magnitude of energy captured by photosynthesis in the form of biomass on the planet to appraise approaches to tap this energy to meet the ever-growing demand for energy.

  5. Increased turnover of dopamine in caudate nucleus of detoxified alcoholic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumakura, Yoshitaka; Gjedde, Albert; Caprioli, Daniele

    2013-01-01

    ventral striatum. We conclude that craving is most pronounced in the individuals with relatively rapid dopamine turnover in the left ventral striatum. The blood-brain clearance rate (K), corrected for subsequent loss of radiolabeled molecules from brain, was completely normal throughout the brain...... of the alcoholics, in whom the volume of distribution (V(d)) was found to be significantly lower in the left caudate nucleus. The magnitude of Vd in the left caudate head was reduced by 43% relative to the 16 controls, consistent with a 58% increase of k(loss). We interpret the findings as indicating that a trait...... for rapid dopamine turnover in the ventral striatum subserves craving and reward-dependence, leading to an acquired state of increased dopamine turnover in the dorsal striatum of detoxified alcoholic patients....

  6. Oxalic acid has an additional, detoxifying function in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annerose Heller

    Full Text Available The mechanism of the diseases caused by the necrotroph plant pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is not well understood. To investigate the role of oxalic acid during infection high resolution, light-, scanning-, transmission electron microscopy and various histochemical staining methods were used. Our inoculation method allowed us to follow degradation of host plant tissue around single hyphae and to observe the reaction of host cells in direct contact with single invading hyphae. After penetration the outer epidermal cell wall matrix appeared degraded around subcuticular hyphae (12-24 hpi. Calcium oxalate crystals were detected in advanced (36-48 hpi and late (72 hpi infection stages, but not in early stages. In early infection stages, surprisingly, no toxic effect of oxalic acid eventually secreted by S. sclerotiorum was observed. As oxalic acid is a common metabolite in plants, we propose that attacked host cells are able to metabolize oxalic acid in the early infection stage and translocate it to their vacuoles where it is stored as calcium oxalate. The effects, observed on healthy tissue upon external application of oxalic acid to non-infected, living tissue and cell wall degradation of dead host cells starting at the inner side of the walls support this idea. The results indicate that oxalic acid concentrations in the early stage of infection stay below the toxic level. In plant and fungi oxalic acid/calcium oxalate plays an important role in calcium regulation. Oxalic acid likely could quench calcium ions released during cell wall breakdown to protect growing hyphae from toxic calcium concentrations in the infection area. As calcium antimonate-precipitates were found in vesicles of young hyphae, we propose that calcium is translocated to the older parts of hyphae and detoxified by building non-toxic, stable oxalate crystals. We propose an infection model where oxalic acid plays a detoxifying role in late infection stages.

  7. Characterization of three plant biomass-degrading microbial consortia by metagenomics- and metasecretomics-based approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiménez, Diego Javier; Brossi, Maria Julia de Lima; Schuckel, Julia; Kracun, Stjepan Kresimir; Willats, William George Tycho; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2016-01-01

    The selection of microbes by enrichment on plant biomass has been proposed as an efficient way to develop new strategies for lignocellulose saccharification. Here, we report an in-depth analysis of soil-derived microbial consortia that were trained to degrade once-used wheat straw (WS1-M),

  8. Butanol biorefineries: simultaneous product removal & process integration for conversion of biomass & food waste to biofuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butanol, a superior biofuel, packs 30% more energy than ethanol on a per gallon basis. It can be produced from various carbohydrates and lignocellulosic (biomass) feedstocks. For cost effective production of this renewable and high energy biofuel, inexpensive feedstocks and economical process techno...

  9. Biomass production and composition of temperate and tropical maize in central Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioethanol production in the Midwestern U.S. has largely focused on corn (Zea mays L.) grain for starch-based ethanol production. There has been growing interest in lignocellulosic biomass as a feedstock for biofuels. Because corn adapted to the tropics does not initiate senescence as early as ada...

  10. Global Expression in Sorghum Brown Midrib Mutants to Improve Biomass for Biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown midrib (bmr) mutants are being investigated for their ability to increase the conversion efficiency of sorghum biomass for lignocellulosic bioenergy. Brown midrib 6 and 12 (bmr6 and 12) are impaired the last two steps of monolignol biosynthesis resulting in reduced lignin content and altered ...

  11. Improved biomass degradation using fungal glucuronoyl-esterases-hydrolysis of natural corn fiber substrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    d'Errico, Clotilde; Börjesson, Johan; Ding, Hanshu

    2016-01-01

    of improved degradation of lignocellulosic biomass by the use of GEs. Improved C5 sugar, glucose and glucuronic acid release was observed when heat pretreated corn fiber was incubated in the presence of GEs from Cerrena unicolor and Trichoderma reesei on top of different commercial cellulase...

  12. Dilute acid/metal salt hydrolysis of lignocellulosics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quang A.; Tucker, Melvin P.

    2002-01-01

    A modified dilute acid method of hydrolyzing the cellulose and hemicellulose in lignocellulosic material under conditions to obtain higher overall fermentable sugar yields than is obtainable using dilute acid alone, comprising: impregnating a lignocellulosic feedstock with a mixture of an amount of aqueous solution of a dilute acid catalyst and a metal salt catalyst sufficient to provide higher overall fermentable sugar yields than is obtainable when hydrolyzing with dilute acid alone; loading the impregnated lignocellulosic feedstock into a reactor and heating for a sufficient period of time to hydrolyze substantially all of the hemicellulose and greater than 45% of the cellulose to water soluble sugars; and recovering the water soluble sugars.

  13. Enzymatic hydrolysis of steam-pretreated lignocellulosic materials with Trichoderma atroviride enzymes produced in-house

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macrelli Stefano

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improvement of the process of cellulase production and development of more efficient lignocellulose-degrading enzymes are necessary in order to reduce the cost of enzymes required in the biomass-to-bioethanol process. Results Lignocellulolytic enzyme complexes were produced by the mutant Trichoderma atroviride TUB F-1663 on three different steam-pretreated lignocellulosic substrates, namely spruce, wheat straw and sugarcane bagasse. Filter paper activities of the enzymes produced on the three materials were very similar, while β-glucosidase and hemicellulase activities were more dependent on the nature of the substrate. Hydrolysis of the enzyme preparations investigated produced similar glucose yields. However, the enzymes produced in-house proved to degrade the xylan and the xylose oligomers less efficiently than a commercial mixture of cellulase and β-glucosidase. Furthermore, accumulation of xylose oligomers was observed when the TUB F-1663 supernatants were applied to xylan-containing substrates, probably due to the low β-xylosidase activity of the enzymes. The efficiency of the enzymes produced in-house was enhanced by supplementation with extra commercial β-glucosidase and β-xylosidase. When the hydrolytic capacities of various mixtures of a commercial cellulase and a T. atroviride supernatant produced in the lab were investigated at the same enzyme loading, the glucose yield appeared to be correlated with the β-glucosidase activity, while the xylose yield seemed to be correlated with the β-xylosidase level in the mixtures. Conclusion Enzyme supernatants produced by the mutant T. atroviride TUB F-1663 on various pretreated lignocellulosic substrates have good filter paper activity values combined with high levels of β-glucosidase activities, leading to cellulose conversion in the enzymatic hydrolysis that is as efficient as with a commercial cellulase mixture. On the other hand, in order to achieve good xylan

  14. Integrating social and value dimensions into sustainability assessment of lignocellulosic biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Sujatha; Mohr, Alison; Helliwell, Richard; Ribeiro, Barbara; Shortall, Orla; Smith, Robert; Millar, Kate

    2015-11-01

    The paper clarifies the social and value dimensions for integrated sustainability assessments of lignocellulosic biofuels. We develop a responsible innovation approach, looking at technology impacts and implementation challenges, assumptions and value conflicts influencing how impacts are identified and assessed, and different visions for future development. We identify three distinct value-based visions. From a techno-economic perspective, lignocellulosic biofuels can contribute to energy security with improved GHG implications and fewer sustainability problems than fossil fuels and first-generation biofuels, especially when biomass is domestically sourced. From socio-economic and cultural-economic perspectives, there are concerns about the capacity to support UK-sourced feedstocks in a global agri-economy, difficulties monitoring large-scale supply chains and their potential for distributing impacts unfairly, and tensions between domestic sourcing and established legacies of farming. To respond to these concerns, we identify the potential for moving away from a one-size-fits-all biofuel/biorefinery model to regionally-tailored bioenergy configurations that might lower large-scale uses of land for meat, reduce monocultures and fossil-energy needs of farming and diversify business models. These configurations could explore ways of reconciling some conflicts between food, fuel and feed (by mixing feed crops with lignocellulosic material for fuel, combining livestock grazing with energy crops, or using crops such as miscanthus to manage land that is no longer arable); different bioenergy applications (with on-farm use of feedstocks for heat and power and for commercial biofuel production); and climate change objectives and pressures on farming. Findings are based on stakeholder interviews, literature synthesis and discussions with an expert advisory group.

  15. Bioconversion of lignocellulose-derived sugars to ethanol by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhavan, Anjali; Srivastava, Aradhana; Kondo, Akihiko; Bisaria, Virendra S

    2012-03-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass from agricultural and agro-industrial residues represents one of the most important renewable resources that can be utilized for the biological production of ethanol. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is widely used for the commercial production of bioethanol from sucrose or starch-derived glucose. While glucose and other hexose sugars like galactose and mannose can be fermented to ethanol by S. cerevisiae, the major pentose sugars D-xylose and L-arabinose remain unutilized. Nevertheless, D-xylulose, the keto isomer of xylose, can be fermented slowly by the yeast and thus, the incorporation of functional routes for the conversion of xylose and arabinose to xylulose or xylulose-5-phosphate in Saccharomyces cerevisiae can help to improve the ethanol productivity and make the fermentation process more cost-effective. Other crucial bottlenecks in pentose fermentation include low activity of the pentose phosphate pathway enzymes and competitive inhibition of xylose and arabinose transport into the cell cytoplasm by glucose and other hexose sugars. Along with a brief introduction of the pretreatment of lignocellulose and detoxification of the hydrolysate, this review provides an updated overview of (a) the key steps involved in the uptake and metabolism of the hexose sugars: glucose, galactose, and mannose, together with the pentose sugars: xylose and arabinose, (b) various factors that play a major role in the efficient fermentation of pentose sugars along with hexose sugars, and (c) the approaches used to overcome the metabolic constraints in the production of bioethanol from lignocellulose-derived sugars by developing recombinant S. cerevisiae strains.

  16. The biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viterbo, J.

    2011-01-01

    Biomass comes mainly from forests and agriculture and is considered as a clean alternative energy that can be valorized as heat, power, bio-fuels and chemical products but its mass production is challenging in terms of adequate technology but also in terms of rethinking the use of lands. Forests can be managed to produce biomass but bio-fuels can also be generated from sea-weeds. Biomass appears very promising but on one hand we have to secure its supplying and assure its economical profitability and on another hand we have to assure a reasonable use of lands and a limited impact on the environment. The contribution of biomass to sustainable development depends on the balance between these 2 ends. (A.C.)

  17. Biomass [updated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Biomass resources and conversion technologies are diverse. Substantial biomass resources exist including woody crops, herbaceous perennials and annuals, forest resources, agricultural residues, and algae. Conversion processes available include fermentation, gasification, pyrolysis, anaerobic digestion, combustion, and transesterification. Bioderived products include liquid fuels (e.g. ethanol, biodiesel, and gasoline and diesel substitutes), gases, electricity, biochemical, and wood pellets. At present the major sources of biomass-derived liquid fuels are from first generation biofuels; ethanol from maize and sugar cane (89 billion L in 2013) and biodiesel from vegetable oils and fats (24 billion liters in 2011). For other than traditional uses, policy in the forms of mandates, targets, subsidies, and greenhouse gas emission targets has largely been driving biomass utilization. Second generation biofuels have been slow to take off.

  18. Efficient hydrogen production from the lignocellulosic energy crop Miscanthus by the extreme thermophilic bacteria Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus and Thermotoga neapolitana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Vrije Truus

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The production of hydrogen from biomass by fermentation is one of the routes that can contribute to a future sustainable hydrogen economy. Lignocellulosic biomass is an attractive feedstock because of its abundance, low production costs and high polysaccharide content. Results Batch cultures of Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus and Thermotoga neapolitana produced hydrogen, carbon dioxide and acetic acid as the main products from soluble saccharides in Miscanthus hydrolysate. The presence of fermentation inhibitors, such as furfural and 5-hydroxylmethyl furfural, in this lignocellulosic hydrolysate was avoided by the mild alkaline-pretreatment conditions at a low temperature of 75°C. Both microorganisms simultaneously and completely utilized all pentoses, hexoses and oligomeric saccharides up to a total concentration of 1