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Sample records for determining measurement periods

  1. Reliability of period of gestation determined by ultrasound scan measurements

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    Chrishantha Abeysena

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Methods: One hundred and eighty pregnant women were divided into three equal groups. Each group was assigned a rater to perform ultrasound scan to measure bi-parietal diameter, femur length, abdominal circumference and head circumference and to compute the respective periods of gestation using these four measurements. Reliability between periods of gestation derived by each rater from above four measurements were analysed using repeated measure ANOVA. Results were expressed as intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs and coefficients of variation (CsOV.Results: For Raters I (F= 6.47; p=0.001 and II, (F= 4.80; p= 0.003, computations using abdominal circumferences resulted in the lowest mean periods of gestation (PsOG. For Rater III, computations using both femur length and abdominal circumference resulted in the lowest mean periods of gestation (F= 7.5; p=0.001. ICCs were 0.73 (95%CI 0.64–0.81 for Rater I, 0.78 (95% CI 0.70–0.85 for Rater II and 0.87 (95% CI 0.81– 0.91 for Rater IIIWhen comparing CsOV, the highest variation for Raters I and III was observed for femur length. For Rater II it was bi-parietal diameter. The lowest variation for Rater I was observed for head circumference and for Raters II and III for abdominal circumference. The highest CsOV of all the PsOG were demonstrated by Rater III.When comparing the differences between the highest and the lowest values for each period of gestation determined, the difference was more than two weeks for 38% (n=23, 24% (n=14 and 22% (n=13 of observations made by Raters I, II and III respectively. Conclusions: Reliability of period of gestation depends on the type of measurement taken, method of assessment and the rater who performs the measurements. Our findings are not conclusive enough to recommend any PsOG based on specific measurement more reliable than others. In-service training of the obstetricians is likely to improve the reliability of PsOG determined using ultra sound scan

  2. Determination of averaging period parameter and its effects analysis for eddy covariance measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN; Xiaomin; ZHU; Zhilin; XU; Jinping; YUAN; Guofu

    2005-01-01

    It is more and more popular to estimate the exchange of water vapor, heat and CO2fluxes between the land surface and the atmosphere using the eddy covariance technique. To get believable fluxes, it is necessary to correct the observations based on the different surface conditions and to determine relevant techinical parameters. The raw 10 Hz eddy covariance data observed in the Yucheng and Changbai Mountains stations were recalculated by various averaging periods (from 1 to 720 min) respectively, and the recalculated results were compared with the results calculated by the averaging period of 30 mins. Meanwhile, the distinctions of fluxes calculated by different averaging periods were analyzed. The continuous 15 days observations over wheat fields in the Yucheng station were mainly analyzed. The results are shown that: (i) In the Yucheng station, compared with the observations by 30 min, when the averaging period changes from 10 to 60 min, the variations of the eddy-covariance estimates of fluxes were less than 2%; when the averaging period changes less than 10 min, the estimate of fluxes reduced obviously with the reduction of the averaging period (the max relative error was -12%); and when the averaging period exceeds 120 min, the eddy covariance estimates of fluxes will be increased and become unsteady (the max relative error is over 10%); (ii) the eddy covariance estimates of fluxes over wheat field in the Yucheng station suggusted that it is much better to take 10 min as an averaging period in studying diurnal change of fluxes, and take 30min for a long-term flux observation; and (iii) normalized ratio was put forward to determine the range of averaging period of eddy covariance measurements. By comparing the observations over farmlands and those over forests, it is indicated that the increase of eddy covariance estimates over tall forest was more than that over short vegetation when the averaging period increased.

  3. Precise Determination of Period of a Torsion Pendulum in Measurement of Gravitational Constant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Jie; WANG Dian-Hong; LIU Qi; SHAO Cheng-Gang

    2005-01-01

    @@ The period of a torsion pendulum would vary under the disturbances of environmental noise factors. In order to subtract the period of the pendulum from external influence, we employ the correlation method to determine the period with a high precision. Theoretical analysis shows that the relative precision is improved to be proportional to 1/m3/2 with the number of the period m, compared with the conventional statistical mean that is proportional to 1/m1/2, which is significant for the determination of gravitational constant with the swing time method.

  4. Consideration of tidal influences in determining measurement periods when monitoring built-environment radon levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crockett, R.G.M.; Phillips, P.S. [Northampton Univ., School of Applied Sciences (United Kingdom); Gillmore, G.K. [Bradford Univ., School of Archaeological, Geographical and Environmental Sciences (United Kingdom); Denman, A.R.; Groves-Kirkby, C.J. [Northampton General Hospital, Medical Physics Dept. (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Using three hourly-sampling continuous radon monitors, deployed at separate locations in and around the town of Northampton, UK, during the period May 2002 to September 2005, evidence has been identified of tidal influences on built environment radon levels. The data-sets from these deployments, together with additional data-sets collected from a house in Devon, UK, over the period May 1994 to October 1996, and made available by the UK Building Research Establishment, have been analysed using a number of analytical techniques, including a novel cortion technique developed during the investigation. Radon concentration levels in all of the investigated sites exhibit cyclic variation with a period of approximately 14-15 days, equivalent to the spring-tide interval, and lag the corresponding new and full moons by varying periods. The tide/radon lag interval for the two public-sector buildings changes abruptly in September/October, indicating that a significant characteristic of these buildings changes at this time. For domestic properties, the lag is relatively unchanged during the year, but is greater in Devon, in the South-West of England, than in Northampton, in the English East Midlands. These differences are attributed to location relative to coastlines (the South-West experiences greater tidal-loading than the Midlands), underlying geology and rock/soil hydration. Depending on its position within the local 14 to 15-day tidally-induced radon cycle, an individual 7-day radon measurement may yield an erroneous estimate of longer term average levels, up to 46% higher or lower than the average level for one of the reported data-sets. Thus a building with a mean radon concentration below the local Action Level could appear to be unsafe if measured around a tidal-cyclic radon maximum: conversely, a building with a mean radon concentration above the Action Level could appear to be safe when measured around a tidal-cyclic radon minimum. A minimum radon-measurement period

  5. Measuring Scars of Periodic Orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, L

    1999-01-01

    The phenomenon of periodic orbit scarring of eigenstates of classically chaotic systems is attracting increasing attention. Scarring is one of the most important ``corrections'' to the ideal random eigenstates suggested by random matrix theory. This paper discusses measures of scars and in so doing also tries to clarify the concepts and effects of eigenfunction scarring. We propose a new, universal scar measure which takes into account an entire periodic orbit and the linearized dynamics in its vicinity. This measure is tuned to pick out those structures which are induced in quantum eigenstates by unstable periodic orbits and their manifolds. It gives enhanced scarring strength as measured by eigenstate overlaps and inverse participation ratios, especially for longer orbits. We also discuss off-resonance scars which appear naturally on either side of an unstable periodic orbit.

  6. Determination of the Fermi velocity by angle-dependent periodic orbit resonance measurements in the organic conductor α-(BEDT-TTF)2KHg(SCN)4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, A. E.; Hill, S.; Qualls, J. S.

    2002-10-01

    We report on detailed angle-dependent studies of the microwave (ν=50-90 GHz) interlayer magnetoelectrodynamics of a single crystal sample of the organic charge-density-wave (CDW) conductor α-(BEDT-TTF)2KHg(SCN)4. Recently developed instrumentation enables both magnetic-field (B) sweeps for a fixed sample orientation and angle sweeps at fixed ν/B. We observe series' of resonant absorptions, which we attribute to periodic orbit resonances (POR)-a phenomenon closely related to cyclotron resonance. The angle dependence of the POR indicates that they are associated with the low-temperature quasi-one-dimensional (Q1D) Fermi surface (FS) of the title compound; indeed, all of the resonance peaks collapse onto a single set of ν/B versus angle curves, generated using a semiclassical magnetotransport theory for a single Q1D FS. We show that Q1D POR measurements provide one of the most direct methods for determining the Fermi velocity, without any detailed assumptions concerning the band structure; our analysis yields an average value of vF=6.5×104 m/s. Quantitative analysis of the POR harmonic content indicates that the Q1D FS is strongly corrugated. This is consistent with the assumption that the low-temperature FS derives from a reconstruction of the high-temperature quasi-two-dimensional FS, caused by the CDW instability. Detailed analysis of the angle dependence of the POR yields parameters associated with the CDW superstructure, which are consistent with published results. Finally, we address the issue as to whether or not the interlayer electrodynamics are coherent in the title compound. We obtain a relaxation time from the POR linewidths, which is considerably longer than the interlayer hopping time, indicating that the transport in this direction is coherent.

  7. Determining Adequate Averaging Periods and Reference Coordinates for Eddy Covariance Measurements of Surface Heat and Water Vapor Fluxes over Mountainous Terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ying Chen Ming-Hsu Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two coordinate rotation approaches (double and planar-fit rotations and no rotation, in association with averaging periods of 15 - 480 min, were applied to compute surface heat and water vapor fluxes using the eddy covariance approach. Measurements were conducted in an experimental watershed, the Lien-Hua-Chih (LHC watershed, located in central Taiwan. For no rotation and double rotation approaches, an adequate averaging period of 15 or 30 min was suggested for better energy closure and small variations on energy closure fractions. For the planar-fit rotation approach, an adequate averaging period of 60 or 120 min was recommended, and a typical averaging period of 30 min is not superior to that of 60 or 120 min in terms of better energy closure and small variations on energy closure fractions. The Ogive function analysis revealed that the energy closure was improved with the increase of averaging time by capturing sensible heat fluxes at low-frequency ranges during certain midday hours at LHC site. Seasonal variations of daily energy closure fractions, high in dry season and low in wet season, were found to be associated with the surface dryness and strength of turbulent development. The mismatching of flux footprint areas among flux sensors was suggested as the cause of larger CF variations during the dry seasons as that indicated by the footprint analysis showing scattered source areas. During the wet season, the underestimation of turbulent fluxes by EC observations at the LHC site was attributed to weak turbulence developments as the source area identified by the footprint analysis was closer to the flux tower than those scattered in dry season.

  8. Measuring stellar rotation periods with Kepler

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, M B; Schunker, H; Karoff, C

    2015-01-01

    We measure rotation periods for 12151 stars in the Kepler field, based on the photometric variability caused by stellar activity. Our analysis returns stable rotation periods over at least six out of eight quarters of Kepler data. This large sample of stars enables us to study the rotation periods as a function of spectral type. We find good agreement with previous studies and vsini measurements for F, G and K stars. Combining rotation periods, B-V color, and gyrochronology relations, we find that the cool stars in our sample are predominantly younger than ~1Gyr.

  9. Rotation Period Determination for 870 Manto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, Frederick; Alvarez, Eduardo Manuel; Ferrero, Andrea; Klinglesmith, Daniel A., III; Vargas, Angelica; Oey, Julian

    2014-04-01

    A consortium of observers from Australia, Europe, North and South America have collaborated to find for 870 Manto a rotation period of 122.30 ± 0.01 hours, amplitude 0.80 ± 0.05 mag. There is no evidence of tumbling.

  10. FT-IR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and porosity measurements to determine the firing temperature of ancient megalithic period potteries excavated at Adichanallur in Tamilnadu, South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velraj, G.; Ramya, R.; Hemamalini, R.

    2012-11-01

    Scientific examination of archaeological pottery mainly aims to determine the style of production and the techniques involved in its manufacture. Technological characterization includes the evaluation of the original firing conditions. Maximum firing temperatures may be evaluated by firing clays of compositions similar to those used for the production of the ancient objects. In the present work, some of the ancient pottery samples were collected from recently excavated site at Adichanallur, Tirunelveli District, Tamilnadu, India to estimate the firing temperature of the pottery samples and atmosphere prevailed at the time of manufacturing those potteries by the ancient artisans. From the Fourier transform infrared spectra of the samples the lower limit of firing temperature have been determined. The upper limit of firing temperature was evaluated by porosimetry method. The scanning electron microscopic analysis is used to narrow down the range of firing temperature and the results are consistent with the results obtained from FT-IR spectroscopic study and porosimetry method.

  11. Rotation Period Determination for 5143 Heracles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, Frederick; Briggs, John W.; Franco, Lorenzo; Inasaridze, Raguli Ya.; Krugly, Yurij N.; Molotiv, Igor E.; Klinglesmith, Daniel A., III; Pollock, Joe; Pravec, Petr

    2012-07-01

    The Earth crossing minor planet 5143 Heracles made in late 2011 its closest approach to Earth since discovery. A consortium of observers found a synodic rotation period near 2.706 hours and amplitude increasing from 0.08 ±0.02 magnitudes at phase angle 20 degrees to 0.18 ±0.03 magnitudes at phase angle 87 degrees, with 3 unequal maxima and minima per cycle. Magnitude parameters H = 14.10 ±0.04 and G = 0.08 ±0.02 are found, and the color index V-R = 0.42 ±0.07. For an asteroid of taxonomic class Q, a suggested albedo pv = 0.20 ±0.05 yields estimated diameter D = 4.5 ±0.7 km. Three possible binary events were recorded, but these are insufficient for binary detection to be secure. Retrograde rotation is suggested.

  12. Attitude measurements and determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foliard, J.

    Satellite attitude determination using an inertial reference system is explained. The utility of being able to determine attitude is outlined. Construction of an attitude matrix from the Euler and Cardan angles of the satellite-Earth system is illustrated. Static and dynamic analysis methods are shown. The sensors employed when using the Sun, Earth's magnetic field, the Earth, and the stars as reference direction are described.

  13. Rotation Period Determination for 3892 Dezso and 14339 Knorre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchini, Alessandro; Papini, Riccardo; Salvaggio, Fabio

    2017-10-01

    Photometric observations of two main-belt asteroids were made from the Astronomical Observatory of the University of Siena (Italy) in order to determine their synodic rotation periods. For 3892 Dezso, we found a period of 3.629 h with an amplitude of 0.47 mag. For 14339 Knorre, the period was 3.795 h with an amplitude of 0.21 mag.

  14. Measurement of the beauty of periodic noises

    CERN Document Server

    Manet, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    In this article indicators to describe the "beauty" of noises are proposed. Rhythmic, tonal and harmonic suavity are introduced. They give a characterization of a noise in terms of rhythmic regularity (rhythmic suavity), of auditory pleasure of the "chords" constituting the signal (tonal suavity) and of the transition between the chords (harmonic suavity). These indicators have been developed for periodic noises typically issued from rotating machines such as engines, compressors... and are now used by our industrial customers since two years.

  15. Determination of Intestinal Enzyme Activities During Infancy Period

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    Emel Örün

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intestinal enzyme activities are indirect indicators that reflect the existence and metabolic activity of bacteria living in the intestinal flora. The purpose of the study was to measure fecal beta (β-glucuronidase, β-glucosidase and urease enzyme activities and to determine the factors that affect levels in 6 week old and 8 month old babies. Materials and Methods: The study comprised 100 healthy infants at 6 weeks of age. Feces samples were collected from all infants. However, 17 of the feces samples were not included due to the lack of particles in the feces. The same samples were also taken from 35 infants at 8 months of age. Twenty-five of the infants had given feces samples at both 6 weeks and 8 months of age. Urease, β-glucuronidase and β-glucosidase enzyme activities (nmol/min-1/mg-protein-1 were measured. Results: In repeated measures, the levels of β-glucuronidase and urease declined over time and β-glucosidase levels increased. At 8 months of age, higher β-glucuronidase levels were obtained in premature infants. At 6 weeks of age, lower levels of urease were measured in babies who were started breastfeeding at the first hour of life and were bottle-fed. Exclusive breastfeeding had no influence on the intestinal enzyme activities. Conclusions: In early infancy period when microflora is structured, intestinal enzyme activities are important that show indirectly functionality of the microflora. However, it is difficult to highlight what affects the levels of intestinal enzymes because activities vary according to the age.

  16. Decadal period external magnetic field variations determined via eigenanalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shore, R. M.; Whaler, K. A.; Macmillan, S.

    2016-01-01

    We perform a reanalysis of hourly mean magnetic data from ground-based observatories spanning 1997-2009 inclusive, in order to isolate (after removal of core and crustal field estimates) the spatiotemporal morphology of the external fields important to mantle induction, on (long) periods of months......-the form of the decomposition is controlled by the data. We apply a spherical harmonic analysis to the EOF outputs in a joint inversion for internal and external coefficients. The results justify our assumption that the EOF procedure responds primarily to the long-period external inducing field...... contributions. Though we cannot determine uniquely the contributory source regions of these inducing fields, we find that they have distinct temporal characteristics which enable some inference of sources. An identified annual-period pattern appears to stem from a north-south seasonal motion of the background...

  17. Orbital period determination in an eclipsing dwarf nova HT Cas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bąkowska, Karolina; Olech, Arkadiusz

    2014-09-01

    HT Cassiopeiae was discovered over seventy years ago (Hoffmeister 1943). Unfortunately, for 35 years this object did not receive any attention, until the eclipses of HT Cas were observed by Bond. After a first analysis, Patterson (1981) called HT Cas "a Rosetta stone among dwarf novae". Since then, the literature on this star is still growing, reaching several dozens of publications. We present an orbital period determination of HT Cas during the November 2010 super-outburst, but also during a longer time span, to check its stability.

  18. Statistical analysis of the ambiguities in the asteroid period determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butkiewicz-Bąk, M.; Kwiatkowski, T.; Bartczak, P.; Dudziński, G.; Marciniak, A.

    2017-09-01

    Among asteroids there exist ambiguities in their rotation period determinations. They are due to incomplete coverage of the rotation, noise and/or aliases resulting from gaps between separate lightcurves. To help to remove such uncertainties, basic characteristic of the lightcurves resulting from constraints imposed by the asteroid shapes and geometries of observations should be identified. We simulated light variations of asteroids whose shapes were modelled as Gaussian random spheres, with random orientations of spin vectors and phase angles changed every 5° from 0° to 65°. This produced 1.4 million lightcurves. For each simulated lightcurve, Fourier analysis has been made and the harmonic of the highest amplitude was recorded. From the statistical point of view, all lightcurves observed at phase angles α 0.2 mag, are bimodal. Second most frequently dominating harmonic is the first one, with the 3rd harmonic following right after. For 1 per cent of lightcurves with amplitudes A < 0.1 mag and phase angles α < 40°, 4th harmonic dominates.

  19. A facile spectrophotometric method for the determination of periodate using azure B

    OpenAIRE

    Narayana, B.; Cherian,Tom

    2005-01-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of periodate in solution and river water samples. The method is based on the reaction of periodate with iodide in an acid medium to liberate iodine. This liberated iodine bleaches the violet color of the azure B and is measured at 644 nm. This decrease in absorbance is directly proportional to the periodate concentration and obeys Beer's law in the range of 0.2 - 5.5 µg mL-1. The molar absorptivit...

  20. Lessons learnt from the first EMEP intensive measurement periods

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    W. Aas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The first EMEP intensive measurement periods were held in June 2006 and January 2007. The measurements aimed to characterize the aerosol chemical compositions, including the gas/aerosol partitioning of inorganic compounds. The measurement program during these periods included daily or hourly measurements of the secondary inorganic components, with additional measurements of elemental- and organic carbon (EC and OC and mineral dust in PM1, PM2.5 and PM10. These measurements have provided extended knowledge regarding the composition of particulate matter and the temporal and spatial variability of PM, as well as an extended database for the assessment of chemical transport models. This paper summarise the first experiences of making use of measurements from the first EMEP intensive measurement periods along with EMEP model results from the updated model version to characterise aerosol composition. We investigated how the PM chemical composition varies between the summer and the winter month and geographically.

    The observation and model data are in general agreement regarding the main features of PM10 and PM2.5 composition and the relative contribution of different components, though the EMEP model tends to give slightly lower estimates of PM10 and PM2.5 compared to measurements. The intensive measurement data has identified areas where improvements are needed. Hourly concurrent measurements of gaseous and particulate components for the first time facilitated testing of modelled diurnal variability of the gas/aerosol partitioning of nitrogen species. In general, the modelled diurnal cycles of nitrate and ammonium aerosols are in fair agreement with the measurements, but the diurnal variability of ammonia is not well captured. The largest differences between model and observations of aerosol mass are seen in Italy during winter, which to a large extent may be

  1. Lessons learnt from the first EMEP intensive measurement periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Aas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The first EMEP intensive measurement periods were held in June 2006 and January 2007. The measurements aimed to characterize the aerosol chemical compositions, including the gas/aerosol partitioning of inorganic compounds. The measurement program during these periods included daily or hourly measurements of the secondary inorganic components, with additional measurements of elemental- and organic carbon (EC and OC and mineral dust in PM1, PM2.5 and PM10. These measurements have provided extended knowledge regarding the composition of particulate matter and the temporal and spatial variability of PM, as well as an extended database for the assessment of chemical transport models. This paper summarise the first experiences of making use of measurements from the first EMEP intensive measurement periods along with EMEP model results from the updated model version to characterise aerosol composition. We investigated how the PM chemical composition varies between the summer and the winter month and geographically.

    The observation and model data are in general agreement regarding the main features of PM10 and PM2.5 composition and the relative contribution of different components, though the EMEP model tends to slightly underestimate PM10 and PM2.5 compared to measurements. The intensive measurement data has identified areas where improvements are needed. In particular, the model description of formation of coarse nitrate on sea salt and dust particles requires further attention. Hourly concurrent measurements of gaseous and particulate components for the first time facilitated testing of modelled diurnal variability of the gas/aerosol partitioning of nitrogen species. In general, the modelled diurnal cycles of nitrate and ammonium aerosols are in good agreement with the measurements. As expected, the diurnal variability of ammonia is not very well captured, but this

  2. Low-frequency Periodic Error Identification and Compensation for Star Tracker Attitude Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jiongqi; XIONG Kai; ZHOU Haiyin

    2012-01-01

    The low-frequency periodic error of star tracker is one of the most critical problems for high-accuracy satellite attitude determination.In this paper an approach is proposed to identify and compensate the low-frequency periodic error for star tracker in attitude measurement.The analytical expression between the estimated gyro drift and the low-frequency periodic error of star tracker is derived firstly.And then the low-frequency periodic error,which can be expressed by Fourier series,is identified by the frequency spectrum of the estimated gyro drift according to the solution of the first step.Furthermore,the compensated model of the low-frequency periodic error is established based on the identified parameters to improve the attitude determination accuracy.Finally,promising simulated experimental results demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the proposed method.The periodic error for attitude determination is eliminated basically and the estimation precision is improved greatly.

  3. Oscillating Gene Expression Determines Competence for Periodic Arabidopsis Root Branching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Risueno, Miguel A.; Van Norman, Jaimie M.; Moreno, Antonio; Zhang, Jingyuan; Ahnert, Sebastian E.; Benfey, Philip N.

    2010-01-01

    Plants and animals produce modular developmental units in a periodic fashion. In plants, lateral roots form as repeating units along the root primary axis; however, the developmental mechanism regulating this process is unknown. We found that cyclic expression pulses of a reporter gene mark the position of future lateral roots by establishing prebranch sites and that prebranch site production and root bending are periodic. Microarray and promoter-luciferase studies revealed two sets of genes oscillating in opposite phases at the root tip. Genetic studies show that some oscillating transcriptional regulators are required for periodicity in one or both developmental processes. This molecular mechanism has characteristics that resemble molecular clock–driven activities in animal species. PMID:20829477

  4. Measurement of Periodical Contraction of Cultured Muscle Tube with Laser

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    Jun Takase

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Periodical contraction of a cultured muscle tube has been measured with laser in vitro. C2C12 (mouse myoblast cell line was cultured with High-glucose Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium on a dish to make muscle tubes. Differentiation from myoblasts to myotubes was induced with an additional horse serum. Repetitive contraction of the tube was generated by electric pulses lower than sixty volts of amplitude with one milli-second of width through the electrodes of platinum, and observed with a phase-contrast microscope. A laser beam of 632.8 nm wavelength was restricted to 0.096 mm diameter, and applied to the muscle tubes on the bottom of the culture dish. Fluctuating intensity of the transmitted laser beam through the periodically contracting muscle tubes was measured, and its spectrum was analyzed. The analyzed data show that the repetitive contraction is synchronized with stimulation of the periodical electric pulses between 0.2 s and 2 s.

  5. Rotation Period Determination for 3760 Poutanen and 14309 Defoy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvaggio, Fabio; Marchini, Alessandro; Papini, Riccardo

    2017-10-01

    Photometric observations of the main-belt asteroids 3760 Poutanen and 14309 Defoy were performed in 2017 April-May. The data revealed a tri-modal lightcurve phased to a period of 2.956 ± 0.001 hours for 3760 Poutanen and a bimodal lightcurve phased to 3.391 ± 0.002 hours for 14309 Defoy.

  6. Rotation Period Determination of Four Main-belt Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Andrea

    2016-10-01

    Observations of four main-belt asteroids (MBA) revealed the following rotation periods and lightcurve amplitudes: 3861 Lorenz, P = 11.91 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.28 mag; 6173 Jimwestphal P = 2.908 ± 0.001 h, A = 0.41 mag; 10259 Osipovyurij, P = 6.356 ± 0.001 h, A = 0.30 mag; 29470 Higgs, P = 36.31 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.48 mag.

  7. Optimal ground motion intensity measure for long-period structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Minsheng; Du, Hongbiao; Cui, Jie; Zeng, Qingli; Jiang, Haibo

    2015-10-01

    This paper aims to select the most appropriate ground motion intensity measure (IM) that is used in selecting earthquake records for the dynamic time history analysis of long-period structures. For this purpose, six reinforced concrete frame-core wall structures, designed according to modern seismic codes, are studied through dynamic time history analyses with a set of twelve selected earthquake records. Twelve IMs and two types of seismic damage indices, namely, the maximum seismic response-based and energy-based parameters, are chosen as the examined indices. Selection criteria such as correlation, efficiency, and proficiency are considered in the selection process. The optimal IM is identified by means of a comprehensive evaluation using a large number of data of correlation, efficiency, and proficiency coefficients. Numerical results illustrate that peak ground velocity is the optimal one for long-period structures and peak ground displacement is also a close contender. As compared to previous reports, the spectral-correlated parameters can only be taken as moderate IMs. Moreover, the widely used peak ground acceleration in the current seismic codes is considered inappropriate for long-period structures.

  8. Indirect spectrophotometric determination of arbutin, whitening agent through oxidation by periodate and complexation with ferric chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsoom, B. N.; Abdelsamad, A. M. E.; Adib, N. M.

    2006-07-01

    A simple and accurate spectrophotometric method for the determination of arbutin (glycosylated hydroquinone) is described. It is based on the oxidation of arbutin by periodate in presence of iodate. Excess periodate causes liberation of iodine at pH 8.0. The unreacted periodate is determined by measurement of the liberated iodine spectrophotometrically in the wavelength range (300-500 nm). A calibration curve was constructed for more accurate results and the correlation coefficient of linear regression analysis was -0.9778. The precision of this method was better than 6.17% R.S.D. ( n = 3). Regression analysis of Bear-Lambert plot shows good correlation in the concentration range 25-125 ug/ml. The identification limit was determined to be 25 ug/ml a detailed study of the reaction conditions was carried out, including effect of changing pH, time, temperature and volume of periodate. Analyzing pure and authentic samples containing arbutin tested the validity of the proposed method which has an average percent recovery of 100.86%. An alternative method is also proposed which involves a complexation reaction between arbutin and ferric chloride solution. The produced complex which is yellowish-green in color was determined spectophotometrically.

  9. New Measurements of Orbital Period Change in Cygnus X-3

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, N S; Paul, B; Agrawal, P C; Rao, A R; Singh, K Y

    2002-01-01

    A nonlinear nature of the binary ephemeris of Cygnus X-3 indicates either a change in the orbital period or an apsidal motion of the orbit. We have made extended observations of Cygnus X-3 with the Pointed Proportional Counters (PPCs) of the Indian X-ray Astronomy Experiment (IXAE) during 1999 July 3-13 and October 11-14. Using the data from these observations and the archival data from ROSAT, ASCA, BeppoSAX and RXTE, we have extended the data base for this source. Adding these new arrival time measurements to the published results, we make a comparison between the various possibilities, (a) orbital decay due to mass loss from the system, (b) mass transfer between the stars, and (c) apsidal motion of the orbit due to gravitational interaction between the two components. Orbital decay due to mass loss from the companion star seems to be the most probable scenario.

  10. High Arctic plant phenology is determined by snowmelt patterns but duration of phenological periods is fixed: an example of periodicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenchuk, Philipp R.; Gillespie, Mark A. K.; Rumpf, Sabine B.; Baggesen, Nanna; Elberling, Bo; Cooper, Elisabeth J.

    2016-12-01

    The duration of specific periods within a plant’s life cycle are critical for plant growth and performance. In the High Arctic, the start of many of these phenological periods is determined by snowmelt date, which may change in a changing climate. It has been suggested that the end of these periods during late-season are triggered by external cues, such as day length, light quality or temperature, leading to the hypothesis that earlier or later snowmelt dates will lengthen or shorten the duration of these periods, respectively, and thereby affect plant performance. We tested whether snowmelt date controls phenology and phenological period duration in High Arctic Svalbard using a melt timing gradient from natural and experimentally altered snow depths. We investigated the response of early- and late-season phenophases from both vegetative and reproductive phenological periods of eight common species. We found that all phenophases follow snowmelt patterns, irrespective of timing of occurrence, vegetative or reproductive nature. Three of four phenological period durations based on these phenophases were fixed for most species, defining the studied species as periodic. Periodicity can thus be considered an evolutionary trait leading to disadvantages compared with aperiodic species and we conclude that the mesic and heath vegetation types in Svalbard are at risk of being outcompeted by invading, aperiodic species from milder biomes.

  11. On Directional Measurement Representation in Orbit Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-13

    small. The unit vector derived cost function is Cu = θ 2. (8) While Equation 8 effectively measures the angular distance between observed and computed...On Directional Measurement Representation in Orbit Determination Evan M. Ward and Greg Carbott U.S. Naval Research Lab, Washington, DC 20375... measurements of a satel- lite are typically represented in spherical coordinates on the observer’s celestial sphere (e.g. azimuth and elevation or right

  12. Importance of moisture determination in studies of infiltration and surface runoff for long periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Fulginiti

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The determination of the natural soil moisture is essential to solve problems related to irrigation water requirements, environmental considerations, and determination of surplus water. For the determination of runoff one can adopt models that consider exclusively the infiltration as a loss or one could use computational models of infiltration to model the infiltrated water. Models based on the infiltration calculation consider well the interaction between infiltration - runoff processes and provide additional information on the phenomenon of infiltration which establishes the existing conditions of moisture in the soil before the occurrence of a new event (simulation for long periods. These models require solving Richards’s equation and for this purpose it is necessary to determine the relation between the soil moisture - suction and hydraulic conductivity - suction which require the determination of the hydraulic properties that can be obtained by measuring the water content by moisture profiles. The aim of this study was the verification of these moisture curves in loessic soils in the south of the city of Cordoba, Argentina. To do this, measurements were done and compared with results of infiltration models based on the determined hydraulic functions. The measurements were done using three probes installed at different depths. The results showed that the values obtained with NETRAIN adequately represent the behavior of wetting and drying conditions of the studied soil.The determination of these curves provided a basis for future studies that include the advancement of agricultural chemicals in the soil and its potential capacity to pollute groundwater, fundamental issue to define environmental management policies.

  13. Long-period grating and its cascaded counterpart in photonic crystal fiber for gas phase measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Fei; Kanka, Jiri; Du, Henry

    2012-09-10

    Regular and cascaded long period gratings (LPG, C-LPG) of periods ranging from 460 to 590 μm were inscribed in an endlessly single mode photonic crystal fiber (PCF) using CO(2) laser for sensing measurements of helium, argon and acetylene. High index sensitivities in excess of 1700 nm/RIU were achieved in both grating schemes with a period of 460 μm. The sharp interference fringes in the transmission spectrum of C-PCF-LPG afforded not only greatly enhanced sensing resolution, but also accuracy when the phase-shift of the fringe pattern is determined through spectral processing. Comparative numerical and experimental studies indicated LP(01) to LP(03) mode coupling as the principal coupling step for both PCF-LPG and C-PCF-LPG with emergence of multi-mode coupling at shorter grating periods or longer resonance wavelengths.

  14. Hot Big Planets Kepler Survey: Measuring the Repopulation Rate of the Shortest-Period Planets

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Stuart F.

    2013-01-01

    By surveying new fields for the shortest-period "big" planets, the Kepler spacecraft could provide the statistics to more clearly measure the occurrence distributions of giant and medium planets. This would allow separate determinations for giant and medium planets of the relationship between the inward rate of tidal migration of planets and the strength of the stellar tidal dissipation (as expressed by the tidal quality factor Q). We propose a "Hot Big Planets Survey" to find new big planets...

  15. 75 FR 19406 - Determination of Regulatory Review Period for Purposes of Patent Extension; AFINITOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ... advanced renal cell carcinoma after failure of treatment with sunitinib or sorafenib. Subsequent to this... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Determination of Regulatory Review Period for Purposes of... and Drug Administration (FDA) has determined the regulatory review period for AFINITOR and...

  16. Periodic H2 Synthesis for Spacecraft Attitude Determination and Control with a Vector Magnetometer and Magnetorquers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2001-01-01

    the expected magnetic field vector and the true magnetometer data is used for the attitude determination. The magnetic attitude control and determination is intrinsically periodic due to periodic nature of the geomagnetic field variation in orbit. The control performance is specified by the generalized H2...

  17. Determination of zones of different plum growing period length in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vulić Todor

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Zoning of Serbia territory was performed according to the length of active period of photosynthesis for plum cv. Požegača. Relations between thermal indicators of location and plum growing period length are examined. It was found that the length of growing period is of great extent, determined by the length of frost-free period, as well as by the mean annual air temperature and the mean air temperature for the growing period. The study was carried out using data from 55 phenological and 26 climatological stations in Serbia for the period from 1961 to 1995.

  18. Improving Tidal Measurements about Europa Using the Properties of Unstable Periodic Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Dylan; Scheeres, D. J.

    2012-10-01

    The NASA Jupiter Europa Orbiter mission requires a circular, near-polar orbit to measure Europa's Love numbers, geophysical coefficients which give insight into whether a liquid ocean exists. This type of orbit about planetary satellites is known to be unstable. The effects of Jupiter's tidal gravity are seen in changes in Europa's gravity field and surface deformation, which are sensed through doppler tracking over time and altimetry measurements respectively. These two measurement types separately determine the h and k Love numbers, a combination of which bounds how thick the ice shell of Europa is and whether liquid water is present. This work shows how the properties of an unstable periodic orbit about Europa generate preferred measurement directions in the orbit determination process for estimating science parameters. We generate an error covariance over seven days for the orbiter state and science parameters and then disperse the orbit initial conditions in a Monte Carlo simulation according to this covariance. The dispersed orbits are shown to have a bias toward longer lifetimes and we discuss this as an effect of the stable and unstable manifolds of the periodic orbit. The stable manifold represents contraction forward in time and the unstable manifold represents expansion forward in time. However, using an epoch formulation of a square-root information filter, measurements aligned with the unstable manifold mapped back in time add more information to the orbit determination process than measurements aligned with the stable manifold. This corresponds to a contraction in the uncertainty of the estimate of the desired parameters, including the Love numbers. Low altitude, near-polar periodic orbits with these characteristics are discussed along with the estimation results for the Love numbers, orbiter state, and orbit lifetime. These results are applicable to other measurements and planetary satellites since the mathematical model is the same.

  19. Variations of Saturn's radio rotation period measured at kilometer wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galopeau, Patrick H. M.; Lecacheux, Alain

    2000-06-01

    The Unified Radio and Plasma Wave (URAP) experiment on the interplanetary spacecraft Ulysses is able to detect the Saturnian kilometric radiation (SKR) thanks to the high sensitivity of the receiver and in spite of the remoteness of the planet (8-13 AU). Our knowledge about Saturn comes essentially from the observations by the two Voyager spacecraft. Ulysses allows us to reassess the main properties of the SKR as they had been observed by Voyager 1 and 2: average flux density, spectrum, periodicity, and polarization. A striking difference between the results obtained from Voyager and those obtained from Ulysses is the periodicity of the radio emission linked to the planetary rotation (10 hours 39 min 24 s): The period deduced from Ulysses' observations is not constant and may differ by 1% from that of Voyager. The northern and southern sources of SKR are distributed along magnetic field lines which are fixed in local time. We interpret the source location by a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability developing on the flanks of Saturn's magnetopause, in the morningside. This instability could be at the origin of the acceleration of the particles responsible for the radio emission. Because of the solar wind fluctuations, the position of the magnetopause and the magnetohydrodynamic flow around it are modified so that the zone of Kelvin-Helmholtz instability slowly moves, implying a drift of the radio sources in local time. We examine and discuss the possibility for this drift to be the cause of the variations observed for the SKR period.

  20. Effects of irrigation deprivation during the harvest period on yield determinants in mature almond trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esparza, G; DeJong, T M; Weinbaum, S A; Klein, I

    2001-09-01

    Effects of irrigation deprivation during the harvest period on yield determinants in mature almond (Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb cv. Nonpareil) trees were investigated during a 3-year field experiment. Return bloom and fruit set were measured on 2185 individually tagged spurs. Water stress resulting from irrigation deprivation during the harvest period, which purportedly coincides with the time of flower initiation, had no effect on the percentage of spurs that flowered or set fruit during subsequent years. Although water stress had no apparent effect on spur mortality, 66% of the tagged spurs died within 3 years. In addition, many spurs were vegetative by the third year, indicating the importance of spur renewal for sustained fruit production. Reductions in nut yield were evident after two successive years of irrigation deprivation during the harvest period. Regression analysis indicated a loss in yield of 7.7 kg tree(-1) in response to each 1 MPa decrease in stem water potential below -1.2 MPa during the previous seasons. The number of fruiting positions per tree (estimated indirectly for whole trees based on weight of current-year shoots > 5 cm in length) was negatively associated with water stress. Yield reduction in response to water stress during harvest appears to be a compound, multiyear effect, associated with reduced annual growth and renewal of fruiting positions.

  1. Soil measurements during HAPEX-Sahel intensive observation period.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuenca, R.H.; Brouwer, J.; Chanzy, A.; Droogers, P.; Galle, S.; Gaze, S.R.; Sicot, M.; Stricker, J.N.M.; Angulo-Jaramillo, R.; Boyle, S.A.; Bromley, J.; Chebhouni, A.G.

    1997-01-01

    This article describes measurements made at each site and for each vegetation cover as part of the soils program for the HAPEX-Sahel regional scale experiment. The measurements were based on an initial sampling scheme and included profile soil water content, surface soil water content, soil water po

  2. Determining seabird body condition using nonlethal measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Shoshanah R; Elliott, Kyle; Guigueno, Mélanie F; Gaston, Anthony J; Redman, Paula; Speakman, John R; Weber, Jean-Michel

    2012-01-01

    Energy stores are critical for successful breeding, and longitudinal studies require nonlethal methods to measure energy stores ("body condition"). Nonlethal techniques for measuring energy reserves are seldom verified independently. We compare body mass, size-corrected mass (SCM), plasma lipids, and isotopic dilution with extracted total body lipid content in three seabird species (thick-billed murres Uria lomvia, all four measures; northern fulmars Fulmarus glacialis, three measures; and black-legged kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla, two measures). SCM and body mass were better predictors of total body lipids for the species with high percent lipids (fulmars; R2 = 0.5-0.6) than for the species with low percent lipids (murres and kittiwakes; R2 = 0.2-0.4). The relationship between SCM and percent body lipids, which we argue is often a better measure of condition, was also poor (R2 SCM be used as an index of energy stores only when lipids exceed 15% of body mass. Across all three species we measured, SCM based on the ordinary least squares regression of mass on the first principal component outperformed other measures. Isotopic dilution was a better predictor of both total body lipids and percent body lipids than were mass, SCM, or plasma lipids in murres. Total body lipids decreased through the breeding season at both sites, while total and neutral plasma lipid concentrations increased at one site but not another, suggesting mobilization of lipid stores for breeding. A literature review showed substantial variation in the reliability of plasma markers, and we recommend isotopic dilution (oxygen-18, plateau) for determination of energy reserves in birds where lipid content is below 15%.

  3. Clock measurements to improve the geopotential determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lion, Guillaume; Panet, Isabelle; Delva, Pacôme; Wolf, Peter; Bize, Sébastien; Guerlin, Christine

    2017-04-01

    Comparisons between optical clocks with an accuracy and stability approaching the 10-18 in term of relative frequency shift are opening new perspectives for the direct determination of geopotential at a centimeter-level accuracy in geoid height. However, so far detailed quantitative estimates of the possible improvement in geoid determination when adding such clock measurements to existing data are lacking. In this context, the present work aims at evaluating the contribution of this new kind of direct measurements in determining the geopotential at high spatial resolution (10 km). We consider the Massif Central area, marked by smooth, moderate altitude mountains and volcanic plateaus leading to variations of the gravitational field over a range of spatial scales. In such type of region, the scarcity of gravity data is an important limitation in deriving accurate high resolution geopotential models. We summarize our methodology to assess the contribution of clock data in the geopotential recovery, in combination with ground gravity measurements. We sample synthetic gravity and disturbing potential data from a spherical harmonics geopotential model, and a topography model, up to 10 km resolution; we also build a potential control grid. From the synthetic data, we estimate the disturbing potential by least-squares collocation. Finally, we assess the quality of the reconstructed potential by comparing it to that of the control grid. We show that adding only a few clock data reduces the reconstruction bias significantly and improves the standard deviation by a factor 3. We discuss the role of different parameters, such as the effect of the data coverage and data quality on these results, the trade-off between the measurement noise level and the number of data, and the optimization of the clock data network.

  4. Determining the amplitude of Mercury's long period librations with the BepiColombo radio science experiment⋆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schettino, Giulia; Cicalò, Stefano; Tommei, Giacomo; Milani, Andrea

    2017-05-01

    The Mercury Orbiter Radio science Experiment (MORE) is one of the experiments on-board the ESA/JAXA BepiColombo mission to Mercury. A crucial goal of MORE is to determine the gravity field and rotational state of Mercury in order to enable a better understanding of the planet's geophysics. The authors have recently reported on the results of a set of simulations of the MORE gravimetry and rotation experiments, carried out with the dedicated ORBIT14 software. Since that time, the launch date has been postponed twice, leading to a shift of more than one year in the orbital phase of the mission. Actually, the updated schedule results in a more suitable planetary configuration to determine the amplitude of the forced librations in longitude induced by Jupiter. In fact, the amplitude can be considerably enhanced due to a near-resonance with the free librations period, a key parameter to constrain the interior structure of Mercury. We show that the newest launch date allows the measurement of the long period librations amplitude forced by Jupiter with an accuracy of some tenth of arcseconds, a significant improvement with respect to the results with the previous mission schedule.

  5. CMS Luminosity Measurements for the 2016 Data Taking Period

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The measurement of the integrated luminosity delivered to the CMS Experiment during the 2016 LHC proton-proton run at a center-of-mass energy of $13~\\mathrm{TeV}$ is presented. The Pixel Cluster Counting method is used and the absolute luminosity scale calibration is derived from an analysis of Van der Meer Scans performed in May 2016. The overall uncertainty of the luminosity measurement is estimated to be $2.5\\%$.

  6. Measurements in Film Cooling Flows with Periodic Wakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    camera, thermocouples, and constant current (cold- wire ) anemometry . Hot - wire anemometry was used for velocity measurements. The local film cooling...and constant temperature hot - wire anemometry were used to measure flow temperature and velocity, respectively. Boundary layer probes with 1.27 m...jet velocity and temperature were documented by Coulthard et al. 26 by traversing the constant current and hot - wire probes over the hole exit plane

  7. Development and testing of interview questions to determine last menstrual period in Mexican immigrant populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeb-Sossa, Natalia; Agans, Robert P; Butron-Riveros, Betzabe C; Balcazar, Hector; Kalsbeek, William D; Buekens, Pierre

    2004-07-01

    The last menstrual period is used to estimate gestational age. This paper examines sources of measurement error related to the recall of last menstrual period among Mexican immigrant women living in the United States. Qualitative analyses (focus groups and cognitive interviews) suggest that last menstrual period recall does not seem to be a large source of measurement error in the calculation of gestational age and the impact of this type of error on the misclassification of preterm births appears to be minimal. Questions for querying about last menstrual period in this population are offered.

  8. A fast algorithm for determining the linear complexity of a binary sequence with period 2npm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏仕民; 肖国镇; 陈钟

    2001-01-01

    An efficient algorithm for determining the linear complexity and the minimal polynomial of a binary sequence with period 2npm is proposed and proved, where 2 is a primitive root modulo p2. The new algorithm generalizes the algorithm for computing the linear complexity of a binary sequence with period 2 n and the algorithm for computing the linear complexity of a binary sequence with period pn,where 2 is a primitive root modulo p2.

  9. Determination of the critical period of weed control in corn using a thermal basis.

    OpenAIRE

    BEDMAR,FRANCISCO; Manetti,Pablo; MONTERUBBIANESI,GLORIA

    1999-01-01

    Field studies were conducted over 3 years in southeast Buenos Aires, Argentina, to determine the critical period of weed control in maize (Zea mays L.). The treatments consisted of two different periods of weed interference, a critical weed-free period, and a critical time of weed removal. The Gompertz and logistic equations were fitted to relative yields representing the critical weed-free and the critical time of weed removal, respectively. Accumulated thermal units were used to describe ea...

  10. Precise timing of the last interglacial period from mass spectrometric determination of thorium-230 in corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J. H.; Wasserburg, G. J.; Ku, T.-L.; Edwards, R. Lawrence

    1987-01-01

    The development of mass spectrometric techniques for determination of Th-230 abundance has made it possible to reduce analytical errors in (U-238)-(U-234)-(Th-230) dating of corals even with very small samples. Samples of 6 x 10 to the 8th atoms of Th-230 can be measured to an accuracy of + or - 3 percent (2sigma), and 3 x 10 to the 10th atoms of Th-230 can be measured to an accuracy of + or - 0.2 percent. The time range over which useful age data on corals can be obtained now ranges from about 50 to about 500,000 years. For young corals, this approach may be preferable to C-14 dating. The precision with which the age of a coral can now be determined should make it possible to critically test the Milankovitch hypothesis concerning Pleistocene climate fluctuations. Analyses of a number of corals that grew during the last interglacial period yield ages of 122,000 to 130,000 years. The ages coincide with, or slightly post-date, the summer solar insolation high at 65 deg N latitude which occurred 128,000 years ago. This supports the idea that changes in Pleistocene climate can be the result of variations in the distribution of solar insolation caused by changes in the geometry of the earth's orbit and rotation axis.

  11. Precise timing of the last interglacial period from mass spectrometric determination of thorium-230 in corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J. H.; Wasserburg, G. J.; Ku, T.-L.; Edwards, R. Lawrence

    1987-01-01

    The development of mass spectrometric techniques for determination of Th-230 abundance has made it possible to reduce analytical errors in (U-238)-(U-234)-(Th-230) dating of corals even with very small samples. Samples of 6 x 10 to the 8th atoms of Th-230 can be measured to an accuracy of + or - 3 percent (2sigma), and 3 x 10 to the 10th atoms of Th-230 can be measured to an accuracy of + or - 0.2 percent. The time range over which useful age data on corals can be obtained now ranges from about 50 to about 500,000 years. For young corals, this approach may be preferable to C-14 dating. The precision with which the age of a coral can now be determined should make it possible to critically test the Milankovitch hypothesis concerning Pleistocene climate fluctuations. Analyses of a number of corals that grew during the last interglacial period yield ages of 122,000 to 130,000 years. The ages coincide with, or slightly post-date, the summer solar insolation high at 65 deg N latitude which occurred 128,000 years ago. This supports the idea that changes in Pleistocene climate can be the result of variations in the distribution of solar insolation caused by changes in the geometry of the earth's orbit and rotation axis.

  12. 26 CFR 1.1223-1 - Determination of period for which capital assets are held.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... are held. 1.1223-1 Section 1.1223-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Losses § 1.1223-1 Determination of period for which capital assets are held. (a) The holding period of... exchanged was held by him, if the property received has the same basis in whole or in part for...

  13. DETERMINATION OF THE PERIOD OF A TORSION PENDULUM BY THE FITTING METHOD IN REAL TIME

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    A phenomenological study on the fitting method in real time has been done, and the method was applied to process and analyze the extensive data of a long period torsion pendulum used to determine Newtonian gravitational constant G. The result shows that the fitting method in real time is effective to determine the period of a torsion pendulum with a relative precision of 10-5 orders.

  14. Determination of rotation periods in solar-like stars with irregular sampling: the Gaia case

    CERN Document Server

    Distefano, E; Lanza, A F; Messina, S; Korn, A J; Eriksson, K; Cuypers, J

    2012-01-01

    We present a study on the determination of rotation periods (P) of solar-like stars from the photometric irregular time-sampling of the ESA Gaia mission, currently scheduled for launch in 2013, taking into account its dependence on ecliptic coordinates. We examine the case of solar-twins as well as thousands of synthetic time-series of solar-like stars rotating faster than the Sun. In the case of solar twins we assume that the Gaia unfiltered photometric passband G will mimic the variability of the total solar irradiance (TSI) as measured by the VIRGO experiment. For stars rotating faster than the Sun, light-curves are simulated using synthetic spectra for the quiet atmosphere, the spots, and the faculae combined by applying semi-empirical relationships relating the level of photospheric magnetic activity to the stellar rotation and the Gaia instrumental response. The capabilities of the Deeming, Lomb-Scargle, and Phase Dispersion Minimisation methods in recovering the correct rotation periods are tested and ...

  15. Thyroid hormone determines the start of the sensitive period of imprinting and primes later learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Shinji; Aoki, Naoya; Kitajima, Takaaki; Iikubo, Eiji; Katagiri, Sachiko; Matsushima, Toshiya; Homma, Koichi J

    2012-01-01

    Filial imprinting in precocial birds is the process of forming a social attachment during a sensitive or critical period, restricted to the first few days after hatching. Imprinting is considered to be part of early learning to aid the survival of juveniles by securing maternal care. Here we show that the thyroid hormone 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T(3)) determines the start of the sensitive period. Imprinting training in chicks causes rapid inflow of T(3), converted from circulating plasma thyroxine by Dio2, type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase, in brain vascular endothelial cells. The T(3) thus initiates and extends the sensitive period to last more than 1 week via non-genomic mechanisms and primes subsequent learning. Even in non-imprinted chicks whose sensitive period has ended, exogenous T(3) enables imprinting. Our findings indicate that T(3) determines the start of the sensitive period for imprinting and has a critical role in later learning.

  16. Measurement of Vehicle Air Conditioning Pull-Down Period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, John F [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL; Moore, Larry G [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL

    2016-08-01

    Air conditioner usage was characterized for high heat-load summer conditions during short driving trips using a 2009 Ford Explorer and a 2009 Toyota Corolla. Vehicles were parked in the sun with windows closed to allow the cabin to become hot. Experiments were conducted by entering the instrumented vehicles in this heated condition and driving on-road with the windows up and the air conditioning set to maximum cooling, maximum fan speed and the air flow setting to recirculate cabin air rather than pull in outside humid air. The main purpose was to determine the length of time the air conditioner system would remain at or very near maximum cooling power under these severe-duty conditions. Because of the variable and somewhat uncontrolled nature of the experiments, they serve only to show that for short vehicle trips, air conditioning can remain near or at full cooling capacity for 10-minutes or significantly longer and the cabin may be uncomfortably warm during much of this time.

  17. Determination of rotation periods in solar-like stars with irregular sampling: the Gaia case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distefano, E.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Lanza, A. F.; Messina, S.; Korn, A. J.; Eriksson, K.; Cuypers, J.

    2012-04-01

    We present a study on the determination of rotation periods (P) of solar-like stars from the photometric irregular time sampling of the European Space Agency Gaia mission, currently scheduled for launch in 2013, taking into account its dependence on ecliptic coordinates. We examine the case of solar twins as well as thousands of synthetic time series of solar-like stars rotating faster than the Sun. In the case of solar twins, we assume that the Gaia unfiltered photometric passband G will mimic the variability of the total solar irradiance as measured by the Variability of solar IRradiance and Gravity Oscillations (VIRGO) experiment. For stars rotating faster than the Sun, light curves are simulated using synthetic spectra for the quiet atmosphere, the spots and the faculae combined by applying semi-empirical relationships relating the level of photospheric magnetic activity to the stellar rotation and the Gaia instrumental response. The capabilities of the Deeming, Lomb-Scargle and phase dispersion minimization methods in recovering the correct rotation periods are tested and compared. The false alarm probability is computed using Monte Carlo simulations and compared with analytical formulae. The Gaia scanning law makes the rate of correct detection of rotation periods strongly dependent on the ecliptic latitude (β). We find that for P≃ 1 d, the rate of correct detection increases with β from 20-30 per cent at β≃ 0 to a peak of 70 per cent at β= 45°; then it abruptly falls below 10 per cent at β > 45°. For P > 5 d, the rate of correct detection is quite low and for solar twins is only 5 per cent on average.

  18. 14 CFR 77.39 - Effective period of determination of no hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... hazard. 77.39 Section 77.39 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Proposed Construction on Navigable Airspace § 77.39 Effective period of determination of no hazard. (a) Unless it is otherwise extended, revised, or terminated, each final determination of no hazard made...

  19. The ratio of intracellular CRY proteins determines the clock period length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yang [College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); National Institute of Biological Sciences, Beijing 102206 (China); Xiong, Wei [National Institute of Biological Sciences, Beijing 102206 (China); School of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhang, Eric Erquan, E-mail: zhangerquan@nibs.ac.cn [National Institute of Biological Sciences, Beijing 102206 (China)

    2016-04-08

    Although a deficiency in CRY1 or CRY2 correlates with a shorter or longer circadian period, the regulation of CRY proteins in the circadian period has not been well studied. In this study, we found that both CRY1 and CRY2 were able to rescue oscillation in CRY null cells and that they displayed different periods. Furthermore, we demonstrated that protein nuclear import rates, not protein stability, regulate the period-length at the cellular level. Co-transfection of CRY1 and CRY2 in various ratios in the same cells gives rise to the predicted period length in a dose-dependent manner. Given the distinct characteristics of the C-terminal tails of the CRY1 and CRY2 proteins, our study addresses a long-standing hypothesis that the ratio of these two CRY molecules affects the clock period. - Highlights: • Rhythmic CRY2, like CRY1, in the correct CRY1 phase is sufficient to rescue clock oscillation in CRY null cells. • The short-period mammalian CRY2 protein is more stable than the CRY1 protein. • The N-terminal polypeptide of CRY2 contributes to its stability and Per2 repression, but it does not affect the period. • The C-terminal tails of CRYs regulate their protein stability and nuclear import, but the import rate governs the period. • The ratio, rather than the absolute amounts of CRY1 and CRY2 proteins, determines the period in mammalian cells.

  20. Determination of the periodicity and synchronization of anticipative agent based supply-demand model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škraba, A.; Bren, M.; Kofjač, D.

    2017-02-01

    The paper presents the transformation of cobweb model by including the anticipation about the supply and demand. Developed transformation leads to oscillatory behaviour. The periodic conditions of the model have been analytically determined by the application of z-transform. Periodic solutions of the system are presented in the form of an inverse Farey tree, where the Golden Ratio path could be observed. The table of periodic conditions is given up to period 8. The agent-based system was developed in order to show the possibility of controlling the system by varying the key parameter, which determines the frequency response of agents and their interaction. A note on application in the stock market has been provided.

  1. Determination of optimal period of absolute encoders with single track cyclic gray code

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张帆; 朱衡君

    2008-01-01

    Low cost and miniaturized rotary encoders are important in automatic and precise production. Presented here is a code called Single Track Cyclic Gray Code (STCGC) that is an image etched on a single circular track of a rotary encoder disk read by a group of even spread reading heads to provide a unique codeword for every angular position and features such that every two adjacent words differ in exactly one component, thus avoiding coarse error. The existing construction or combination methods are helpful but not sufficient in determining the period of the STCGC of large word length and the theoretical approach needs further development to extend the word length. Three principles, such as the seed combination, short code removal and ergodicity examination were put forward that suffice determination of the optimal period for such absolute rotary encoders using STCGC with even spread heads. The optimal periods of STCGC in 3 through 29 bit length were determined and listed.

  2. Periodic H2 Synthesis for Spacecraft Attitude Determination and Control with a Vector Magnetometer and Magnetorquers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2001-01-01

    A control synthesis for a spacecraft equipped with a set of mutually perpendicular coils and a vector magnetometer is addressed in this paper. The interaction between the Earth's magnetic field and an artificial magnetic field generated by the coils produces a control torque. Comparison between...... the expected magnetic field vector and the true magnetometer data is used for the attitude determination. The magnetic attitude control and determination is intrinsically periodic due to periodic nature of the geomagnetic field variation in orbit. The control performance is specified by the generalized H2...... operator norm. The paper proposes an LMI solution to this problem...

  3. MEASURING THE BANK MARKET CONCENTRATION IN ROMANIA IN THE PERIOD 2004-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COPIL CRINA ANGELA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I proposed to analyse the phenomenon of bank concentration on the bank market from Romania in the period 2004-2013, the measurement indicators, the causes that lead to its appearance, and the effects that it has on the bank system. The main motivation for the choosing of this theme is the fact that the Romanian bank system knew a strong evolution of the phenomenon of bank concentration and consolidation along this period, evolution that began with a process of reform and transition to the market economy in which an important role is that of the bank privatization. Afterwards, following our adherence to the European union, the competition in the Romanian bank system increased singnificantly, which determined modifications of structure in the bank system. It appeared foreign bank institutions that determined the increase of the quality of the products and services offered, due to the accentuation of the bank competition on the bank market from Romania. The Romanian bank system knew an accentuated diversification and dynamics determined by the development of the macro economic background from our country, the bank system being oriented to offer competitive products and services according to the European requests. The financial crisis from 2008 placed its imprint on the bank system from Romania affecting in different forms all the participants of the Romanian bank market.

  4. Wealth and the Accounting Period in the Measurement of Means. The Measure of Poverty, Technical Paper VI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steuerle, Eugene; McClung, Nelson

    This technical study is concerned with both the statistical and policy effects of alternative definitions of poverty which result when the definition of means is altered by varying the time period (accounting period) over which income is measured or by including in the measure of means not only realized income, but also unrealized income and…

  5. Usage Level of Non-Farsi Periodicals within Arts Library and Determination of Core Journals

    OpenAIRE

    Saadat Ahmadzadeh

    2007-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the core non-farsi periodicals within the library of the Faculty of Fine Arts in University of Tehran. 125 non-farsi journal subscriptions for 2004 were selected. 150 graduate students and 50 faculty members were surveyed. Bibliometric method along with statistical analysis were employed to determine the core journals. Journals within any given field were ranked by both students and the faculty. Core journals were matched against these ranked journ...

  6. New determination of period and quality factor of Chandler wobble, considering geophysical excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondrák, J.; Ron, C.; Chapanov, Ya.

    2017-03-01

    Polar motion consists of both free (Chandler wobble, with approximately 14-month period) and forced components. The latter are caused by different excitations of geophysical origin. Very long-periodic (or secular) part is most probably due to post-glacial rebound, shorter periodic part (with dominant annual period) are caused mainly by motions of the atmosphere and oceans. Recently it was also proposed that impulse-like excitations due to geomagnetic jerks might be responsible for rapid changes of the amplitude and phase of Chandler wobble. In order to precisely determine the parameters of the free part, it is necessary to consider all these influences. We use the IERS combined solution C04 together with ERA atmospheric/oceanic excitations in the interval 1974.0-2014.0, and also additional excitations due to nine geomagnetic jerks, registered during this interval, to determine the period and quality factor of Chandler wobble, free from these geophysical effects. We obtained solutions for three different time intervals: 1974.0-1994.0, 1994.0-2014.0, and 1974.0-2014.0. The estimated values of Q-factor are much smaller if GMJ excitations are used in addition to atmospheric and oceanic ones, and they are determined with higher accuracy. Our preferred values, valid for the whole interval 1974.0-2014.0, are P = 432.86 ± 0.04 days and Q = 35.0 ± 0.3 .

  7. 77 FR 26556 - Determination of Regulatory Review Period for Purposes of Patent Extension; EQUIDONE GEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... Patent Extension; EQUIDONE GEL AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has determined the regulatory review period for EQUIDONE GEL and is....S.C. 156(g)(4)(B). FDA approved for marketing the animal drug product EQUIDONE GEL...

  8. Determinants of Mobility of Students in Europe: Empirical Evidence for the Period 1998-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Raul; de Wit, Hans

    2015-01-01

    This article studies the economic determinants of intra-European student mobility. We constructed a panel of 33 European countries for the period 1998-2009. The dependent variable is the inflow of foreign students (International Standard Classification of Education [ISCED] 5-6) from European Union (EU)-27, European Economic Area (EEA), and…

  9. Information Measures for Statistical Orbit Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashiku, Alinda K.

    2013-01-01

    The current Situational Space Awareness (SSA) is faced with a huge task of tracking the increasing number of space objects. The tracking of space objects requires frequent and accurate monitoring for orbit maintenance and collision avoidance using methods for statistical orbit determination. Statistical orbit determination enables us to obtain…

  10. Chemiluminescence Sensor for the Determination of Hydroxylamine by Electrostatically Immobilizing Luminol and Periodate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A novel chemiluminescence(CL) sensor, which can be used for hydroxylamine determination in combination with flow injection analysis, was developed by electrostatically immobilizing luminol and periodate on anion-exchange resin respectively. Hydroxylamine was sensed by its enhancing effect on the weak CL reaction between luminol and periodate, which were eluted from the ion exchange column. The response of the sensor to hydroxylamine was linear in the concentration range of 8.0×10-8-2.0×10-6 mol/L with a detection limit of 4.0×10-8 mol/L hydroxylamine(3σ). The relative standard deviation(RSD) was 2.0% for 9 repetitive determinations at a hydroxylamine concentration of 5.0×10-7 mol/L. The sensor could be reused for over 400 times with a good reproducibility and was used to determine hydroxylamine in wastewater.

  11. The acoustic environment of intensive care wards based on long period nocturnal measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Xie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The patients in the Intensive Care Units are often exposed to excessive levels of noise and activities. They can suffer from sleep disturbance, especially at night, but they are often too ill to cope with the poor environment. This article investigates the acoustic environment of typical intensive care wards in the UK, based on long period nocturnal measurements, and examines the differences between singlebed and multibed wards, using statistical analysis. It has been shown that the acoustic environment differs significantly every night. There are also significant differences between the noise levels in the singlebed and multibed wards, where acoustic ceilings are present. Despite the similar background noises in both ward types, more intrusive noises tend to originate from the multibed wards, while more extreme sounds are likely to occur in the single wards. The sound levels in the measured wards for each night are in excess of the World Health Organization′s (WHO guide levels by at least 20 dBA, dominantly at the middle frequencies. Although the sound level at night varies less than that in the daytime, the nocturnal acoustic environment is not dependant on any specific time, thus neither the noisiest nor quietest period can be determined. It is expected that the statistical analysis of the collected data will provide essential information for the development of relevant guidelines and noise reduction strategies.

  12. The acoustic environment of intensive care wards based on long period nocturnal measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hui; Kang, Jian

    2012-01-01

    The patients in the Intensive Care Units are often exposed to excessive levels of noise and activities. They can suffer from sleep disturbance, especially at night, but they are often too ill to cope with the poor environment. This article investigates the acoustic environment of typical intensive care wards in the UK, based on long period nocturnal measurements, and examines the differences between singlebed and multibed wards, using statistical analysis. It has been shown that the acoustic environment differs significantly every night. There are also significant differences between the noise levels in the singlebed and multibed wards, where acoustic ceilings are present. Despite the similar background noises in both ward types, more intrusive noises tend to originate from the multibed wards, while more extreme sounds are likely to occur in the single wards. The sound levels in the measured wards for each night are in excess of the World Health Organization's (WHO) guide levels by at least 20 dBA, dominantly at the middle frequencies. Although the sound level at night varies less than that in the daytime, the nocturnal acoustic environment is not dependant on any specific time, thus neither the noisiest nor quietest period can be determined. It is expected that the statistical analysis of the collected data will provide essential information for the development of relevant guidelines and noise reduction strategies.

  13. Translation-invariant and periodic Gibbs measures for the Potts model on a Cayley tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khakimov, R. M.; Khaydarov, F. Kh.

    2016-11-01

    We study translation-invariant Gibbs measures on a Cayley tree of order k = 3 for the ferromagnetic three-state Potts model. We obtain explicit formulas for translation-invariant Gibbs measures. We also consider periodic Gibbs measures on a Cayley tree of order k for the antiferromagnetic q-state Potts model. Moreover, we improve previously obtained results: we find the exact number of periodic Gibbs measures with the period two on a Cayley tree of order k ≥ 3 that are defined on some invariant sets.

  14. Upper-Mantle Shear Velocities beneath Southern California Determined from Long-Period Surface Waves

    OpenAIRE

    Polet, J.; Kanamori, H.

    1997-01-01

    We used long-period surface waves from teleseismic earthquakes recorded by the TERRAscope network to determine phase velocity dispersion of Rayleigh waves up to periods of about 170 sec and of Love waves up to about 150 sec. This enabled us to investigate the upper-mantle velocity structure beneath southern California to a depth of about 250 km. Ten and five earthquakes were used for Rayleigh and Love waves, respectively. The observed surface-wave dispersion shows a clear Love/Rayleigh-wave d...

  15. Nano-scale islands of ruthenium oxide as an electrochemical sensor for iodate and periodate determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatraei, Fatemeh; Zare, Hamid R

    2013-03-01

    In this study, a promising electrochemical sensor was fabricated by the electrodeposition of nano-scale islands of ruthenium oxide (ruthenium oxide nanoparticles, RuON) on a glassy carbon electrode (RuON-GCE). Then, the electrocatalytic oxidation of iodate and periodate was investigated on it, using cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and amperometry as diagnostic techniques. The charge transfer coefficient, α, and the charge transfer rate constant, ks, for electron transfer between RuON and GCE were calculated as 0.5 ± 0.03 and 9.0 ± 0.7 s(-1) respectively. A comparison of the data obtained from the electrocatalytic reduction of iodate and periodate at a bare GCE (BGCE) and RuON-GCE clearly shows that the unique electronic properties of nanoparticles definitely improve the characteristics of iodate and periodate electrocatalytic reduction. The kinetic parameters such as the electron transfer coefficient, α, and the heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant, k', for the reduction of iodate and periodate at RuON-GCE surface were determined using cyclic voltammetry. Amperometry revealed a good linear relationship between the peak current and the concentration of iodate and periodate. The detection limits of 0.9 and 0.2 μM were calculated for iodate and periodate respectively.

  16. Sap flow measurements to determine the transpiration of facade greenings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölscher, Marie-Therese; Nehls, Thomas; Wessolek, Gerd

    2014-05-01

    Facade greening is expected to make a major contribution to the mitigation of the urban heat-island effect through transpiration cooling, thermal insulation and shading of vertical built structures. However, no studies are available on water demand and the transpiration of urban vertical green. Such knowledge is needed as the plants must be sufficiently watered, otherwise the posited positive effects of vertical green can turn into disadvantages when compared to a white wall. Within the framework of the German Research Group DFG FOR 1736 "Urban Climate and Heat Stress" this study aims to test the practicability of the sap flow technique for transpiration measurements of climbing plants and to obtain potential transpiration rates for the most commonly used species. Using sap flow measurements we determined the transpiration of Fallopia baldschuanica, Parthenocissus tricuspidata and Hedera helix in pot experiments (about 1 m high) during the hot summer period from August 17th to August 30th 2012 under indoor conditions. Sap flow measurements corresponded well to simultaneous weight measurement on a daily base (factor 1.19). Fallopia baldschuanica has the highest daily transpiration rate based on leaf area (1.6 mm d-1) and per base area (5.0 mm d-1). Parthenocissus tricuspidata and Hedera helix show transpiration rates of 3.5 and 0.4 mm d-1 (per base area). Through water shortage, transpiration strongly decreased and leaf temperature measured by infrared thermography increased by 1 K compared to a well watered plant. We transferred the technique to outdoor conditions and will present first results for facade greenings in the inner-city of Berlin for the hottest period in summer 2013.

  17. Color measurement of tea leaves at different drying periods using hyperspectral imaging technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanqi Xie

    Full Text Available This study investigated the feasibility of using hyperspectral imaging technique for nondestructive measurement of color components (ΔL*, Δa* and Δb* and classify tea leaves during different drying periods. Hyperspectral images of tea leaves at five drying periods were acquired in the spectral region of 380-1030 nm. The three color features were measured by the colorimeter. Different preprocessing algorithms were applied to select the best one in accordance with the prediction results of partial least squares regression (PLSR models. Competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS and successive projections algorithm (SPA were used to identify the effective wavelengths, respectively. Different models (least squares-support vector machine [LS-SVM], PLSR, principal components regression [PCR] and multiple linear regression [MLR] were established to predict the three color components, respectively. SPA-LS-SVM model performed excellently with the correlation coefficient (rp of 0.929 for ΔL*, 0.849 for Δa*and 0.917 for Δb*, respectively. LS-SVM model was built for the classification of different tea leaves. The correct classification rates (CCRs ranged from 89.29% to 100% in the calibration set and from 71.43% to 100% in the prediction set, respectively. The total classification results were 96.43% in the calibration set and 85.71% in the prediction set. The result showed that hyperspectral imaging technique could be used as an objective and nondestructive method to determine color features and classify tea leaves at different drying periods.

  18. External Innovation Implementation Determinants and Performance Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coates, Matthew; Bals, Lydia

    2013-01-01

    for innovation implementation based on a case study in the pharmaceutical industry. The results of 25 expert interviews and a survey with 67 respondents led to the resulting framework and a corresponding performance measurement system. The results reveal the importance of supporting systems and show differences...

  19. Determining mental load through measuring brain signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, A.M.; Erp, J.B.F. van

    2012-01-01

    How can you tell whether someone working or gaming is mentally taxed too high or too low? In collaboration with Noldus IT (Wageningen) and the FC Donders Institute (Nijmegen), TNO designed and conducted an experiment to measure mental load through brain signals. 35 participants performed a computer

  20. Chemiluminescence Sensor for the Determination of Hydroxylamine by Electrostatically Immobilizing Luminol and Periodate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGSi-Chun; ZHOUGuo-jun; JUHuang-xian

    2003-01-01

    A novel chemiluminescence(CL)sensor,which can be used for hydroxylamine determination in combination with flow injection analysis.was developed by electrostatically immobilizing luminol and periodate on anion-exchange resin respectively.Hydroxylamine was sensed by its enhacing effect on the weak CL reaction between luminol and periodate,which were eluted from the ion exchange column.the response of the sensor to hydroxylamine was lincar in the concentration range of 8.0×10-3~2.0×10-8mol/L with a detection limit of 4.0×10-8mol/L hydroxylamine(3σ).The relative standard deviation(RSD) was 2.0% for 9 repetitive detimes with a good reproducibility and was used to determine hydroxylamine in wastewater.

  1. Usage Level of Non-Farsi Periodicals within Arts Library and Determination of Core Journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadat Ahmadzadeh

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine the core non-farsi periodicals within the library of the Faculty of Fine Arts in University of Tehran. 125 non-farsi journal subscriptions for 2004 were selected. 150 graduate students and 50 faculty members were surveyed. Bibliometric method along with statistical analysis were employed to determine the core journals. Journals within any given field were ranked by both students and the faculty. Core journals were matched against these ranked journals. Given the foreign currency constraints, acquisition of titles really needed would maximize the existing capabilities as well as preventing unnecessary purchases. The existing periodicals provided only 49.3% of research queries. Students and faculty usage rate of images contained within these journal was 70.6% while only 29.4% was dedicated to printed articles

  2. Determination of circulation and short period fluctuation in Ilha Grande Bay (RJ, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimine Ikeda

    1980-06-01

    Full Text Available A mesosoale study was made of the Ilha Grande area. The local circulation described through -progressive vector diagrams showed a clochwise bottom circulation determined in June 1976, while in the upper 10 m the direction of the flow entering the Ilha Grande Bay was towards the center in the west and towards the Marambaia sandbank in the east side of the Bay. Short periods and amplitude fluctuations were evaluted using power spectral analysis, Fourier and Maximum Entropy Method, which showed that in the upper 10 m predominant periods decrease from 1.1h (A = 6.3cm sec-1 (position = 3C to 1.0h (A = 7.4 cm sec-1 (position = 2D and increase to 5.8h (A = 6.8 cm., sec-1 (position = ID, while at the bottom layer the predominant period increases from 0.4 h (A = 5.0 cm sec-1 (position = 3G to 6.4h (A = 7.0 cm sec-1 (position = 2G and to 4.4h (A = 7.9 cm sec-1 (position = 1G . From the original data it has been possible to determine an "intense pulsation" between 30-70 cm sec-1 in the upper 10 m with about 1.0h period and 10-20 min duration in all the stations.

  3. On Stability and the Spectrum Determined Growth Condition for Spatially Periodic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    On Stability and the Spectrum Determined Growth Condition for Spatially Periodic Systems Makan Fardad and Bassam Bamieh Abstract— We consider...difficult. This work is partially supported by AFOSR Grant FA9550-04-1-0207. M. Fardad and B. Bamieh are with the Department of Me- chanical and...Environmental Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93105-5070. email: fardad @engineering.ucsb.edu, bamieh@engineering.ucsb.edu. In this

  4. Nano-scale islands of ruthenium oxide as an electrochemical sensor for iodate and periodate determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatraei, Fatemeh; Zare, Hamid R., E-mail: hrzare@yazd.ac.ir

    2013-03-01

    In this study, a promising electrochemical sensor was fabricated by the electrodeposition of nano-scale islands of ruthenium oxide (ruthenium oxide nanoparticles, RuON) on a glassy carbon electrode (RuON-GCE). Then, the electrocatalytic oxidation of iodate and periodate was investigated on it, using cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and amperometry as diagnostic techniques. The charge transfer coefficient, {alpha}, and the charge transfer rate constant, k{sub s}, for electron transfer between RuON and GCE were calculated as 0.5 {+-} 0.03 and 9.0 {+-} 0.7 s{sup -1} respectively. A comparison of the data obtained from the electrocatalytic reduction of iodate and periodate at a bare GCE (BGCE) and RuON-GCE clearly shows that the unique electronic properties of nanoparticles definitely improve the characteristics of iodate and periodate electrocatalytic reduction. The kinetic parameters such as the electron transfer coefficient, {alpha}, and the heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant, k Prime , for the reduction of iodate and periodate at RuON-GCE surface were determined using cyclic voltammetry. Amperometry revealed a good linear relationship between the peak current and the concentration of iodate and periodate. The detection limits of 0.9 and 0.2 {mu}M were calculated for iodate and periodate respectively. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ruthenium oxide nanoparticles, RuON, were used for electrocatalytic reduction iodate and periodate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Formal potential, E{sup 0} Prime , of the surface redox couple of RuON is pH-dependent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant values between both analytes and RuON were calculated.

  5. Accurate periodicity measurement of superconducting quantum interference device magnetic flux response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Masakazu

    2010-09-01

    It is theoretically explained that a response of a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) is periodically dependent on total magnetic flux coupling to the SQUID ring (Φ) and its period is a flux quantum (Φ(o)=h/2e, where h and e, respectively, express Planck's constant and elementary charge). For example, the voltage of an electromagnetically oscillated rf-SQUID or a current biased dc-SQUID is thought to be periodically dependent on Φ with a period of Φ(o). In this paper, we propose an accurate method to check the periodicity of a SQUID response by using a set of sensing coils covered with a superconducting sheath. As a demonstration, we measured periodicity of a commercially available thin-film type rf-SQUID response in magnetic flux ranging up to approximately 4300Φ(o). Its flux dependence was periodic below about 3400Φ(o).

  6. Determining the effect of periodic training on the basic psychomotor skills of nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Deniz; Çalışkan, Nurcan; Baykara, Zehra Gocmen; Karadağ, Ayise; Karabulut, Hatice

    2015-02-01

    Basic psychomotor skill training starts in the first year in nursing education. The psychomotor skills taught in the first year of nursing training constitute a foundation for all professional practices. Conducting periodic training for skills with which students are deficient can support mastery learning. The study was conducted as an interventional study for determining the effect of periodic training on the basic psychomotor skills learned in the Fundamentals of Nursing course. The sample consisted of 70 students attending the Fundamentals of Nursing course at nursing students in a university in Ankara, over 4 years between 2010 and 2013. The study was conducted as an interventional study for a period of 4 years. The data were collected through a questionnaire that was applied 4 times at the end of each academic year. According to the results of the forms evaluated at the end of each year, 4 additional laboratory activities were conducted addressing the deficient psychomotor skills of students at the beginning of the new academic semester in the 2nd and 3rd years. In the 4th-year clinic practice, courses were arranged to practice still deficient psychomotor skills. It was determined that students practiced nearly all of the basic psychomotor skills during clinical practice and that the practices with which they felt themselves to be inadequate gradually decreased following periodic training; this decrease was significant (pnursing students was effective. We recommend that students' psychomotor skills be evaluated periodically and repetitive training based on the results of this evaluation be provided throughout the undergraduate nursing education process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Period, epoch and prediction errors of ephemeris from continuous sets of timing measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Deeg, Hans J

    2015-01-01

    Space missions such as Kepler and CoRoT have led to large numbers of eclipse or transit measurements in nearly continuous time series. This paper shows how to obtain the period error in such measurements from a basic linear least-squares fit, and how to correctly derive the timing error in the prediction of future transit or eclipse events. Assuming strict periodicity, a formula for the period error of such time series is derived: sigma_P = sigma_T (12/( N^3-N))^0.5, where sigma_P is the period error; sigma_T the timing error of a single measurement and N the number of measurements. Relative to the iterative method for period error estimation by Mighell & Plavchan (2013), this much simpler formula leads to smaller period errors, whose correctness has been verified through simulations. For the prediction of times of future periodic events, the usual linear ephemeris where epoch errors are quoted for the first time measurement, are prone to overestimation of the error of that prediction. This may be avoided...

  8. Unequal-period combination approach of gray code and phase-shifting for 3-D visual measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shuang; Zhang, Jing; Yu, Xiaoyang; Sun, Xiaoming; Wu, Haibin

    2016-09-01

    Combination of Gray code and phase-shifting is the most practical and advanced approach for the structured light 3-D measurement so far, which is able to measure objects with complex and discontinuous surface. However, for the traditional combination of the Gray code and phase-shifting, the captured Gray code images are not always sharp cut-off in the black-white conversion boundaries, which may lead to wrong decoding analog code orders. Moreover, during the actual measurement, there also exists local decoding error for the wrapped analog code obtained with the phase-shifting approach. Therefore, for the traditional approach, the wrong analog code orders and the local decoding errors will consequently introduce the errors which are equivalent to a fringe period when the analog code is unwrapped. In order to avoid one-fringe period errors, we propose an approach which combines Gray code with phase-shifting according to unequal period. With theoretical analysis, we build the measurement model of the proposed approach, determine the applicable condition and optimize the Gray code encoding period and phase-shifting fringe period. The experimental results verify that the proposed approach can offer a reliable unwrapped analog code, which can be used in 3-D shape measurement.

  9. Determinants of HIV-induced brain changes in three different periods of the early clinical course: A data mining analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bokai Cao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To inform an understanding of brain status in HIV infection, quantitative imaging measurements were derived at structural, microstructural and macromolecular levels in three different periods of early infection and then analyzed simultaneously at each stage using data mining. Support vector machine recursive feature elimination was then used for simultaneous analysis of subject characteristics, clinical and behavioral variables, and immunologic measures in plasma and CSF to rank features associated with the most discriminating brain alterations in each period. The results indicate alterations beginning in initial infection and in all periods studied. The severity of immunosuppression in the initial virus host interaction was the most highly ranked determinant of earliest brain alterations. These results shed light on the initial brain changes induced by a neurotropic virus and their subsequent evolution. The pattern of ongoing alterations occurring during and beyond the period in which virus is suppressed in the systemic circulation supports the brain as a viral reservoir that may preclude eradication in the host. Data mining capabilities that can address high dimensionality and simultaneous analysis of disparate information sources have considerable utility for identifying mechanisms underlying onset of neurological injury and for informing new therapeutic targets.

  10. Determinants of HIV-induced brain changes in three different periods of the early clinical course: A data mining analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Bokai; Kong, Xiangnan; Kettering, Casey; Yu, Philip; Ragin, Ann

    2015-01-01

    To inform an understanding of brain status in HIV infection, quantitative imaging measurements were derived at structural, microstructural and macromolecular levels in three different periods of early infection and then analyzed simultaneously at each stage using data mining. Support vector machine recursive feature elimination was then used for simultaneous analysis of subject characteristics, clinical and behavioral variables, and immunologic measures in plasma and CSF to rank features associated with the most discriminating brain alterations in each period. The results indicate alterations beginning in initial infection and in all periods studied. The severity of immunosuppression in the initial virus host interaction was the most highly ranked determinant of earliest brain alterations. These results shed light on the initial brain changes induced by a neurotropic virus and their subsequent evolution. The pattern of ongoing alterations occurring during and beyond the period in which virus is suppressed in the systemic circulation supports the brain as a viral reservoir that may preclude eradication in the host. Data mining capabilities that can address high dimensionality and simultaneous analysis of disparate information sources have considerable utility for identifying mechanisms underlying onset of neurological injury and for informing new therapeutic targets.

  11. Source parameters of the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake determined from long-period Rayleigh waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiajun; Lay, Thorne

    1990-07-01

    The source parameters of the Loma Prieta earthquake are determined using long-period Rayleigh waves recorded by USGS/ERIS, IDA/IRIS, and GEOSCOPE stations. The source mechanism is well-constrained by the Rayleigh wave radiation pattern, with a dip = 70 (±5)°, strike = 130 (±5)°, rake = 135 (±5)°, and moment = 3.4 (±0.5) × 1019 Nm (Mw = 7.0). This mechanism is generally consistent with independent body wave determinations. The most stable long-period waves, with periods from 200 to 275 s, indicate that the source process has a centroid time of about 10 s, somewhat longer than that indicated by body waves (about 5-6 s). This discrepancy cannot be uniquely attributed to source effects because of uncertainties in the propagation corrections. The importance of using surface waves with short propagation paths for analysis of moderate size earthquakes such as the Loma Prieta event is demonstrated by the unreasonably long source durations inferred from R3 arrivals.

  12. Cataclysmic Variables below the Period Gap: Mass Determinations of 14 Eclipsing Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Savoury, C D J; Dhillon, V S; Marsh, T R; Gaensicke, B T; Copperwheat, C M; Kerry, P; Hickman, R D G; Parsons, S G

    2011-01-01

    We present high-speed, three-colour photometry of the eclipsing cataclysmic variables CTCV 1300, CTCV 2354 and SDSS 1152. All three systems are below the observed "period gap" for cataclysmic variables. For each system we determine the system parameters by fitting a parameterised model to the observed eclipse light curve by chi-squared minimisation. We also present an updated analysis of all other eclipsing systems previously analysed by our group. New donor masses are generally between 1 and 2 sigma of those originally published, with the exception of SDSS 1502 and DV UMa. We note that the donor mass of SDSS 1501 has been revised upwards by 0.024Msun. This system was previously identified as having evolved passed the minimum orbital period for cataclysmic variables, but the new mass determination suggests otherwise. Our new analysis confirms that SDSS 1035 and SDSS 1433 have evolved past the period minimum for cataclysmic variables, corroborating our earlier studies. We find that the radii of donor stars are...

  13. Actual evapotranspiration for a reference crop within measured and future changing climate periods in the Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katerji, Nader; Rana, Gianfranco; Ferrara, Rossana Monica

    2017-08-01

    The study compares two formulas for calculating the daily evapotranspiration ET0 for a reference crop. The first formula was proposed by Allen et al. (AL), while the second one was proposed by Katerji and Perrier with the addition of the carbon dioxide (CO2) effect on evapotranspiration (KP). The study analyses the impact of the calculation by the two formulas on the irrigation requirement (IR). Both formulas are based on the Penman-Monteith equation but adopt different approaches for parameterising the canopy resistance r c . In the AL formula, r c is assumed constant and not sensitive to climate change, whereas in the KP formula, r c is first parameterised as a function of climatic variables, then ET0 is corrected for the air CO2 concentration. The two formulas were compared in two periods. The first period involves data from two sites in the Mediterranean region within a measured climate change period (1981-2006) when all the input climatic variables were measured. The second period (2070-2100) involves data from a future climate change period at one site when the input climatic variables were forecasted for two future climate scenarios (A2 and B2). The annual cumulated values of ET0 calculated by the AL formula are systematically lower than those determined by the KP formula. The differences between the ET0 estimation with the AL and KP formulas have a strong impact on the determination of the IR for the reference crop. In fact, for the two periods, the annual values of IR when ET0 is calculated by the AL formula are systematically lower than those calculated by the KP formula. For the actual measured climate change period, this reduction varied from 26 to 28 %, while for the future climate change period, it varied based on the scenario from 16 % (A2) to 20 % (B2).

  14. Determination of the averaging period of Eddy covariance measurement and its influences on the calculation of fluxes in desert riparian forest%荒漠河岸林涡度相关通量测定中平均时间的确定及其对通量计算的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张佩; 袁国富; 朱治林

    2013-01-01

    situation of the study area for application.Some of the regulations are selecting the suitable sampling and calculation parameters such as sampling frequency and averaging period.In this paper,the impact of averaging period on eddy flux calculation in desert riparian forest has been analyzed.The methodology that the research has adopted was recalculating the latent heat flux (LE),sensible heat flux (H),and CO2 fluxes (Fc) in different averaging period (1~120 rmin),cooperating and analyzing the calculations of flux values in different averaging periods and 30 min averaging period,and revealing the influences of the averaging period on the calculation of fluxes in the research area,based on the original data(sampling frequency was 10 Hz)from Sep 22 to Oct 17.And the Ogive function is applied to determine the low-frequency contribution to eddy fluxes.The results showed as follows:(1) the changing trend of diurnal mean fluxes and diurnal mean energy balance closure rates (EBR)of 17 researching days were different in different length of averaging period.When the averaging period was shorter than 120 min,both values increased as the averaging period rising; when the averaging period was longer than 120 min,both values decreased substantially as the averaging period rising.And when the averaging period was changing from 15 to 60 min,the two values varied slightly,just about 2%.(2) LE,H and FC flux values had a different degree of variation when the averaging period is longer than 60 min.With further analysis on the forenoon EBR of the 5 samples with similar EBR,it is found that either the averaging period was longer than 60 min or shorter than 15 min,the changes of EBR between the sampling days were much larger than those under other averaging periods.Our research showed that the averaging period 60 min was able to promote the energy balance closure,while 15 min was able to gain more information in this region.(3)The Ogive function showed the similar results that the optimal

  15. Uncertainties in the use of periodate oxidation for determination of dextran structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, G J

    1975-05-01

    A glucan of high molecular weight isolated from stale sugar-cane, and previously shown to have a marked effect on sucrose crystallisation processes-1, is a relatively linear dextran. Approximately 96-97% of its D-glucose residues are involved in (1 yields 6)-alpha-D linkages and constitute the linear backbone of the polymer. The remaining 3-4% of D-glucose residues form branch-points by (1 yields 3)-alpha-D linkages. The periodate-oxidation technique, which has been extensively used by other workers to determine dextran structure, gave erroneous results when applied to the dextran from stale sugar-cane.

  16. INTERPOLATION METHODS FOR THE EVALUATION OF 2π-PERIODIC FINITE BAIRE MEASURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nicholas J. Daras

    2001-01-01

    We discuss the definition and effectiveness of a Padé-type approximation to 2π-periodic finite Baire measures on [-π,π]. In the first two sections we recall the definitions and basic properties of the Padé-type approximants to harmonic functions in the unit disk and to Lp-functions on the unit circle. Section 3 deals with the extension of these definitions and properties to a finite 2π-periodic Baire measure. Finally, section 4 is devoted to a study of the convergence of a sequence of such approximants, in the weak star topology of measures.

  17. Spin period and attitude of satellites and space debris measured by using photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakun, Leonid; Koshkin, Nikolay; Korobeynikova, Elena; Strakhova, Svetlana; Melikyants, Seda; Ryabov, Andrey

    2016-07-01

    Photometry is an essential method for studying of the properties of the proper rotation of satellites and space debris. The observation method with high time resolution is used in the Odessa astronomical observatory for observations of artificial satellites. This method provides the measuring of the orbital motion and the proper rotation of satellites. Worth note, that the time resolution of the light curve and the accuracy of positioning in time of the details in the light curve are more important for the interpretation of the brightness variations than the precise measuring of the brightness. The rapid photometry allows not only registering of the flashes caused by mirror surfaces of structure satellite elements but also determining the indicatrix of the corresponding structure satellite element. This principal change of the photometric quality allows significant improving the interpretation of the satellites' light curves. We obtained a large amount of the photometric observations sequences of the satellites with time resolution 0.02 sec on the 50 cm telescope during last 11 years. We used this data for determination of the rotational parameters of several space objects. We present the method and results of the data analysis for the inactive satellites such as Envisat, Cbers-2B, Topex and other. Each of them changes its rotational parameters in its own way. For some satellites, the rotation period increases, for other it decreases. The rotation axis also change their orientation in space. The obtained information about rotation characteristics can be used for the precise numerical models of the satellite orbital motion and for the future Active Debris Removal missions.

  18. Determination of irradiation parameters for laser-induced periodic surface structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichstaedt, J., E-mail: j.eichstadt@utwente.nl [University of Twente, Faculty of Engineering Technology, Chair of Applied Laser Technology, P.O. Box 217, Enschede, 7500 AE (Netherlands); Roemer, G.R.B.E. [University of Twente, Faculty of Engineering Technology, Chair of Applied Laser Technology, P.O. Box 217, Enschede, 7500 AE (Netherlands); Huis in ' t Veld, A.J. [University of Twente, Faculty of Engineering Technology, Chair of Applied Laser Technology, P.O. Box 217, Enschede, 7500 AE (Netherlands); TNO Technical Sciences, Mechatronics, Mechanics and Materials, De Rondom 1, Eindhoven, 5600 HE (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present an approach for the determination of irradiation parameters for laser-induced periodic surface structures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The approach is based on accumulated fluence and consists of two steps. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer (1) Determination of fluence domain boundaries and (2) approximation of irradiation parameters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The approach is required to apply LIPSS for surface functionalization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We provide experimental evidence that the accumulated fluence has a decisive role in the spatial emergence of LIPSS. - Abstract: The spatial emergence of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) on single-crystalline silicon, upon irradiation with linearly polarized picosecond laser pulses (wavelength {lambda} = 1030 nm, pulse duration {tau} = 6.7 ps, pulse repetition frequency f{sub p} = 1 kHz) was studied theoretically and experimentally, under lateral displacement conditions. An experimental approach is presented for the determination of irradiation parameters of extended surface areas homogenously covered with LIPSS. The approach is based on accumulated fluence and consists of two steps, first the empirical determination of accumulated fluence domain boundaries and second the approximation of irradiation parameters. Such an approach is required for the application of LIPSS in the field of surface functionalization. The approach was successfully applied for structuring extended surface areas, which were homogenously covered with LIPSS. The areas, obtained by different irradiation parameter combinations, satisfying accumulated fluence boundary conditions, show the same type of LIPSS. This observation provides evidence, that the accumulated fluence has a decisive role in the spatial emergence of LIPSS. In the future, further experiments are required to verify the validity and boundaries of the approximations applied.

  19. ON MEASURING AMPLITUDES AND PERIODS OF PHYSICAL PENDULUM MICRO-SWINGS WITH ROLLING-CONTACT BEARING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Riznookaya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a method and an instrument for measuring amplitudes and  periods of physical pendulum oscillations with rolling-contact bearing in the regime of micro-swings when the oscillation amplitude is significantly less of an elastic contact angle. It has been established that the main factors limiting a measuring accuracy are noises of the measuring circuit, base vibration and analog-digital conversion. A new measuring methodology based on original algorithms of data processing and application of the well-known methods for statistic processing of a measuring signal is  proposed in the paper. The paper contains error estimations for measuring oscillation amplitudes justified by discreteness of a signal conversion in a photoelectric receptor and also by the influence of measuring circuit noise. The paper reveals that the applied methodologies make it possible to ensure measuring of amplitudes with an error of 0.2 second of arc and measuring of a period with an error of 10–4 s. The original measuring instrument including mechanical and optical devices and also an electric circuit of optical-to-electrical measuring signal conversion is described in the paper. 

  20. [Measurement of steel corrosion in concrete structures by analyzing long-period fiber grating spectrum character].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Liang, Da-Kai; Zhou, Bing

    2008-11-01

    The consideration on the durability of concrete structures with reinforcement corrosion has become a most urgent problem. A new technique to measure the corrosion of steel in concrete structures was proposed in the present paper. It is based on the microbending characteristic of long period optical grating (LPFG). The temperature spectum character and curvature spectrum character of long period optical fiber grating were studied first. It was shown that the transmission spectrum of long period optical fiber grating shifted right and the transmission of the resonance wavelength was invariable when the temperature increased, while the transmission spectrum of long period optical fiber grating became shallow when the curvature increased, the transmission of the resonance wavelength would increase and it was linear with the curvature. On the basis of the characteristic, a notch shaped pedestal was designed and a long period optical fiber grating was laid on the steel surface. With this method the radial expansion of the steel resulting from the steel corrosion would translate into the curvature of the long period optical fiber grating. The curvature of long period optical fiber grating could be obtained by analyzing the change of spectrum, and then the steel corrosion depth could be measured. This method is simple and immediate and is independent of the variety in temperature, strain and refractive index owing to the inimitable spectrum characteristic of long period optical fiber grating. From the experiment it was found that the precision of the corrosion depth was better than 1.2 microm, and the corrosion depth of 3 mm could be achieved. This measurement could be used to monitor the early to metaphase corrosion of reinforcing steel in concrete structures.

  1. Determine the Sun's Rotation Period using D.I.Y Sunspotter and Smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, JongHo; Lim, Jihey; Sohn, Jungjoo; Jo, Hoon

    2016-04-01

    This is an astronomy education program for rotation period of the Sun using a sunspotter of one's own making made by the easy manageable materials and generic smart phone as a detector. Students had immediate chances to understand the principle of the telescope and optical system. Tries to make better product appears during making it. For example, they reduced the number of reflectors to decrease loss of light and changed outer shape of it to make easy for storage. D.I.Y. sunspotter is free to adjust to altazimuth mount and marked the azimuth and altitude to determine viewing direction. The images taken with smartphones were processed by using Pixlr/editor(free web-based image processing program). Rotation period of sun was calculated by using the basic formula. In addition, its accuracy was confirmed by comparison result from the SOHO satellite data. Learning by manufacturing the sunspotter is increased to understanding the principles of solar observation and to concentrate on the project following the scientist's practical study.

  2. Determination of periodic orbits of nonlinear oscillators by means of piecewise-linearization methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, J.I. [Universidad de Malaga, E.T.S. Ingenieros Industriales, Room I-320-D, Plaza El Ejido, s/n, 29013 Malaga (Spain)]. E-mail: jirs@lcc.uma.es

    2006-06-15

    An approximate method based on piecewise linearization is developed for the determination of periodic orbits of nonlinear oscillators. The method is based on Taylor series expansions, provides piecewise analytical solutions in three-point intervals which are continuous everywhere and explicit three-point difference equations which are P-stable and have an infinite interval of periodicity. It is shown that the method presented here reduces to the well-known Stoermer technique, is second-order accurate, and yields, upon applying Taylor series expansion and a Pade approximation, another P-stable technique whenever the Jacobian is different from zero. The method is generalized for single degree-of-freedom problems that contain the velocity, and (approximate) analytical solutions are presented. Finally, by introducing the inverse of a vector and the vector product and quotient, and using Taylor series expansions and a Pade approximation, the method has been generalized to multiple degree-of-freedom problems and results in explicit three-point finite difference equations which only involve vector multiplications.

  3. An Improved Result for Positive Measure Reducibility of Quasi-periodic Linear Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai Long HE; Jian Gong YOU

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, by the KAM method, under weaker small denominator conditions and nondegeneracy conditions, we prove a positive measure reducibility for quasi-periodic linear systems close to constant: X = (A(λ) + F((ψ),λ))X, (ψ)=ω where the parameter λ∈ (a, b), ω is a fixed Diophantine vector, which is a generalization of Jorba & Simó's positive measure reducibility result.

  4. Summary of measurements for the activity density from I-131 for the period September 1950 to July 1951

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paas, H.J.; Soldat, J.K.

    1951-08-21

    This report summarizes the results of measurements for the activity density from I-131 during the period covering the installation of the silver reactors in the off-gas lines of the dissolvers in the separations areas. This period also represented a significant reduction in the cooling period of the irradiated metal which was involved in the dissolving process. The determination of the activity density from I-131 was accomplished by sampling various media which included direct sampling from the 200 West Area stack and sampling of the canyon air exit line, analysis of vegetation samples collected at several environmental locations, and the analysis of aerosol concentrations from samples collected with caustic scrubbers. The results of these various programs are discussed.

  5. Simultaneous measurement of respiration and cardiac period in preterm infants by laser Doppler vibrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalise, Lorenzo; Marchionni, Paolo; Ercoli, Ilaria; Tomasini, Enrico Primo

    2012-06-01

    The paper presents an optical non-contact method for simultaneous measurement of the heart beat and respiration period, based on the assessment of the chest wall movements induced by the pumping action of the heart, and by inspiration/expiration acts of the lungs. The measurement method is applied on 40 patients recovered in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), where the operating conditions are often critical and the contact with the patient's skin needs to be minimized. The method proposed is based on optical recording of the movements of chest wall by means of a laser Doppler vibrometer directly pointed onto the left, frontal part of the thoracic surface. Data measured were compared with reference instrumentation; to reach this goal, the ECG and Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) signals were simultaneously acquired to monitor the heart period (HP), while to measure respiration period (RP) signals from a spirometer and a LDV were collected simultaneously. After LDV signals decomposition, heart and respiration acts were detected and compared in term of beat per minute (bpm). HPs measured by the proposed method showed an uncertainty <6% (respect to ECG), while for RPs data an uncertainty of 3% (respect to spirometer data) was estimated. The proposed method has the intrinsic advantage to be totally without contact and to allow the simultaneous measurement of heart and respiration rate also in critical, clinical environments such as the NICU.

  6. Time-Based Measurement of Personal Mite Allergen Bioaerosol Exposure over 24 Hour Periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovey, Euan R; Liu-Brennan, Damien; Garden, Frances L; Oliver, Brian G; Perzanowski, Matthew S; Marks, Guy B

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis are common in many countries. Globally the most common allergen associated with symptoms is produced by house dust mites. Although the bed has often been cited as the main site of exposure to mite allergens, surprisingly this has not yet been directly established by measurement due to a lack of suitable methods. Here we report on the development of novel methods to determine the pattern of personal exposure to mite allergen bioaerosols over 24-hour periods and applied this in a small field study using 10 normal adults. Air was sampled using a miniature time-based air-sampler of in-house design located close to the breathing zone of the participants, co-located with a miniature time-lapse camera. Airborne particles, drawn into the sampler at 2L/min via a narrow slot, were impacted onto the peripheral surface of a disk mounted on the hour-hand of either a 12 or 24 hour clock motor. The impaction surface was either an electret cloth, or an adhesive film; both novel for these purposes. Following a review of the time-lapse images, disks were post-hoc cut into subsamples corresponding to eight predetermined categories of indoor or outdoor location, extracted and analysed for mite allergen Der p 1 by an amplified ELISA. Allergen was detected in 57.2% of the total of 353 subsamples collected during 20 days of sampling. Exposure patterns varied over time. Higher concentrations of airborne mite allergen were typically measured in samples collected from domestic locations in the day and evening. Indoor domestic Der p 1 exposures accounted for 59.5% of total exposure, whereas total in-bed-asleep exposure, which varied 80 fold between individuals, accounted overall for 9.85% of total exposure, suggesting beds are not often the main site of exposure. This study establishes the feasibility of novel methods for determining the time-geography of personal exposure to many bioaerosols and identifies new areas for future technical

  7. Time-Based Measurement of Personal Mite Allergen Bioaerosol Exposure over 24 Hour Periods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euan R Tovey

    Full Text Available Allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis are common in many countries. Globally the most common allergen associated with symptoms is produced by house dust mites. Although the bed has often been cited as the main site of exposure to mite allergens, surprisingly this has not yet been directly established by measurement due to a lack of suitable methods. Here we report on the development of novel methods to determine the pattern of personal exposure to mite allergen bioaerosols over 24-hour periods and applied this in a small field study using 10 normal adults. Air was sampled using a miniature time-based air-sampler of in-house design located close to the breathing zone of the participants, co-located with a miniature time-lapse camera. Airborne particles, drawn into the sampler at 2L/min via a narrow slot, were impacted onto the peripheral surface of a disk mounted on the hour-hand of either a 12 or 24 hour clock motor. The impaction surface was either an electret cloth, or an adhesive film; both novel for these purposes. Following a review of the time-lapse images, disks were post-hoc cut into subsamples corresponding to eight predetermined categories of indoor or outdoor location, extracted and analysed for mite allergen Der p 1 by an amplified ELISA. Allergen was detected in 57.2% of the total of 353 subsamples collected during 20 days of sampling. Exposure patterns varied over time. Higher concentrations of airborne mite allergen were typically measured in samples collected from domestic locations in the day and evening. Indoor domestic Der p 1 exposures accounted for 59.5% of total exposure, whereas total in-bed-asleep exposure, which varied 80 fold between individuals, accounted overall for 9.85% of total exposure, suggesting beds are not often the main site of exposure. This study establishes the feasibility of novel methods for determining the time-geography of personal exposure to many bioaerosols and identifies new areas for

  8. A Microfluidic Long-Period Fiber Grating Sensor Platform for Chloride Ion Concentration Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Neng Wang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Optical fiber sensors based on waveguide technology are promising and attractive in chemical, biotechnological, agronomy, and civil engineering applications. A microfluidic system equipped with a long-period fiber grating (LPFG capable of measuring chloride ion concentrations of several sample materials is presented. The LPFG-based microfluidic platform was shown to be effective in sensing very small quantities of samples and its transmitted light signal could easily be used as a measurand. The investigated sample materials included reverse osmosis (RO water, tap water, dilute aqueous sample of sea sand soaked in RO water, aqueous sample of sea sand soaked in RO water, dilute seawater, and seawater. By employing additionally a chloride ion-selective electrode sensor for the calibration of chloride-ion concentration, a useful correlation (R2 = 0.975 was found between the separately-measured chloride concentration and the light intensity transmitted through the LPFG at a wavelength of 1,550 nm. Experimental results show that the sensitivity of the LPFG sensor by light intensity interrogation was determined to be 5.0 × 10−6 mW/mg/L for chloride ion concentrations below 2,400 mg/L. The results obtained from the analysis of data variations in time-series measurements for all sample materials show that standard deviations of output power were relatively small and found in the range of 7.413 × 10−5–2.769 × 10−3 mW. In addition, a fairly small coefficients of variations were also obtained, which were in the range of 0.03%–1.29% and decreased with the decrease of chloride ion concentrations of sample materials. Moreover, the analysis of stability performance of the LPFG sensor indicated that the random walk coefficient decreased with the increase of the chloride ion concentration, illustrating that measurement stability using the microfluidic platform was capable of measuring transmitted optical power with accuracy in the range of −0

  9. The Periodic Measurement of the Airborne Radioactivity In Controlled Area of KOMAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jeong-Min; Park, Sung-Kyun; Min, Yi-Sub; Cho, Yong-Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Korea Multipurpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC) to start the performance operation in the second half of 2013, is currently operated in each beamline 20-MeV and 100-MeV. The accelerator operation period is simply divided by three operation cycles which are the maintenance checks period for accelerator device, the performance test period before driving accelerator and the operation period. During this operation period, beam is irradiated to target. At this time, the proton beams collide with the target material and a high dose of radiations such as gamma ray and neutron occurred. Radiation controlled area at the accelerator facility is divided into accelerator tunnel and beam utilization zone. As a result of measuring the airborne radioactivity in the controlled area in accordance with the operating cycle of the proton accelerator KOMAC, It was confirmed that the value of the airborne radioactivity does not significantly differ according to each accelerator operating cycles. And alpha and beta values measured inside the area that workers primarily work is very low indoor radon level than the value of the recommendations in multiple facilities.

  10. Estimation of spatial patterns of urban air pollution over a 4-week period from repeated 5-min measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Jonathan; Masey, Nicola; Heal, Mathew R.; Hamilton, Scott; Beverland, Iain J.

    2017-02-01

    Determination of intra-urban spatial variations in air pollutant concentrations for exposure assessment requires substantial time and monitoring equipment. The objective of this study was to establish if short-duration measurements of air pollutants can be used to estimate longer-term pollutant concentrations. We compared 5-min measurements of black carbon (BC) and particle number (PN) concentrations made once per week on 5 occasions, with 4 consecutive 1-week average nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations at 18 locations at a range of distances from busy roads in Glasgow, UK. 5-min BC and PN measurements (averaged over the two 5-min periods at the start and end of a week) explained 40-80%, and 7-64% respectively, of spatial variation in the intervening 1-week NO2 concentrations for individual weeks. Adjustment for variations in background concentrations increased the percentage of explained variation in the bivariate relationship between the full set of NO2 and BC measurements over the 4-week period from 28% to 50% prior to averaging of repeat measurements. The averages of five 5-min BC and PN measurements made over 5 weeks explained 75% and 33% respectively of the variation in average 1-week NO2 concentrations over the same period. The relatively high explained variation observed between BC and NO2 measured on different time scales suggests that, with appropriate steps to correct or average out temporal variations, repeated short-term measurements can be used to provide useful information on longer-term spatial patterns for these traffic-related pollutants.

  11. Modeled and Measured Dynamics of a Composite Beam with Periodically Varying Foam Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabell, Randolph H.; Cano, Roberto J.; Schiller, Noah H.; Roberts Gary D.

    2012-01-01

    The dynamics of a sandwich beam with carbon fiber composite facesheets and foam core with periodic variations in material properties are studied. The purpose of the study is to compare finite element predictions with experimental measurements on fabricated beam specimens. For the study, three beams were fabricated: one with a compliant foam core, a second with a stiffer core, and a third with the two cores alternating down the length of the beam to create a periodic variation in properties. This periodic variation produces a bandgap in the frequency domain where vibrational energy does not readily propagate down the length of the beam. Mode shapes and natural frequencies are compared, as well as frequency responses from point force input to velocity response at the opposite end of the beam.

  12. Trends in ammonia measurements in the Netherlands over the period 1993-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zanten, M. C.; Wichink Kruit, R. J.; Hoogerbrugge, R.; Van der Swaluw, E.; van Pul, W. A. J.

    2017-01-01

    We present measurements of atmospheric concentrations of ammonia and ammonium in the Netherlands over the period 1993-2014 and measurements of wet deposition of ammonium for 1985-2014. The various time series have been obtained at 16 monitoring stations from the Dutch National Air Quality Monitoring Network. The monitoring stations are geographically homogenously spread over the Netherlands and are equally distributed over regions with relatively low, moderate and high ammonia emission. During the period covered, changes in the monitoring have occurred. To obtain consistent time series, data are revalidated or corrected when necessary, according to current validation procedures or latest technical insights. The time series of ammonia concentrations are gap filled and time series corrected for meteorological influences are constructed. The course in the ammonia concentrations shows roughly two periods. For 1993-2004, the ammonia concentrations show a downward trend of 36%, which is statistically significant with a confidence interval (CI) of 99%. For 2005-2014, an upward trend of 19% (CI 90%) is reported. Correcting time series of ammonia concentrations for meteorological influences enhances the statistical reliability of the derived trends. This resulted in trends of -40% (CI 99%) and 24% (CI 95%) respectively. For the full period there exists no trend in ammonia concentrations due to a trend in atmospheric conditions. For 2005-2014 ammonia concentrations increased especially in springtime, while showing no change in winter months. After correcting for meteorological influences, all seasons in this period show an increase in ammonia concentrations although the increase in the spring months is still the largest. For 1993-2014 the reported ammonia emissions in the Netherlands declined in both periods with respectively 51% and 22%. The trends in emissions and ammonia concentrations correspond in the period 1993-2004 whilst over the period 2005-2014, the trends in

  13. Row Spacing Determines Critical Period of Weed Control in Crop: Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) as a Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Omobolanle Adewale Osipitan; Joseph Aremu Adigun; Rauf Olabisi Kolawole

    2016-01-01

    To further understand the importance of row spacing as an agronomic practice, a study was conducted to evaluate how levels of row spacing determines the critical period of weed control (CPWC) in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). The experiment was laid out as a split-plot design with eight periods of weed interference as the main plots and three row spacing (60, 75 90 cm) as the subplots with three replications of each treatment combination. Period of weed interference consisted of weed removal for...

  14. Examination of the eye as a means to determine the early postmortem period: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar, S; Nokes, L D

    1994-02-01

    Reported are various techniques to determine the early postmortem period by examining the eye. These include corneal opacity, retinal vessel segmentation, pupil reaction, retinal changes and intraocular pressure. All are subjective, requiring experience to implement the techniques.

  15. A summary period measure of immigrant advancement in the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Pitkin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method for summarizing the pace of advancement of the foreign-born population in a given period. The method standardizes for variations in the duration of residence or age composition of immigrant groups, attainments possessed by different groups when first observed after entry, and other temporal effects on measured advances, forming an index of Expected Lifetime Advance based on the pace of change in a period. The measure is applied to Mexican and Asian immigrants. Between the 1980s and the 1990s, the rates of advancement for Mexicans accelerated in six out of seven social, economic, and civic outcomes. Rates of advancement for Asians were similar in both decades.

  16. Determining Storm Surge Return Periods: The Use of Evidence of Historic Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kristine S.; Sørensen, Carlo Sass; Schmith, Torben

    Storm surges are a major concern for many coastal communities, and rising levels of surges is a key concern in relation to climate change. The sea level of a statistical 100-year or 1000-year storm surge event and similar statistical measures are used for spatial planning and emergency preparedness....... These statistics are very sensitive to the assessments of past events, and to future sea level change. The probability of a major storm surge from the Baltic Sea hitting the Copenhagen metropolitan area is officially determined by the Danish Coastal Authority based on tide gauge records. We have a long history......, but with the revised statistics using historic evidence, much larger events can be expected. Further, we assess the very large impact of sea level rise on the storm surge statistics. As an example, according to the official statistics of southern Copenhagen, the flooding of a present day 100 year event...

  17. 20 CFR 1002.267 - How is compensation during the period of service calculated in order to determine the employee's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How is compensation during the period of... compensation? 1002.267 Section 1002.267 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR VETERANS... compensation during the period of service calculated in order to determine the employee's pension benefits, if...

  18. A Simple yet Accurate Method for Students to Determine Asteroid Rotation Periods from Fragmented Light Curve Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beare, R. A.

    2008-01-01

    Professional astronomers use specialized software not normally available to students to determine the rotation periods of asteroids from fragmented light curve data. This paper describes a simple yet accurate method based on Microsoft Excel[R] that enables students to find periods in asteroid light curve and other discontinuous time series data of…

  19. A Simple yet Accurate Method for Students to Determine Asteroid Rotation Periods from Fragmented Light Curve Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beare, R. A.

    2008-01-01

    Professional astronomers use specialized software not normally available to students to determine the rotation periods of asteroids from fragmented light curve data. This paper describes a simple yet accurate method based on Microsoft Excel[R] that enables students to find periods in asteroid light curve and other discontinuous time series data of…

  20. Procedure for Uranium-Molybdenum Density Measurements and Porosity Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhakaran, Ramprashad [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Devaraj, Arun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Joshi, Vineet V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lavender, Curt A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-08-13

    The purpose of this document is to provide guidelines for preparing uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) specimens, performing density measurements, and computing sample porosity. Typical specimens (solids) will be sheared to small rectangular foils, disks, or pieces of metal. A mass balance, solid density determination kit, and a liquid of known density will be used to determine the density of U-Mo specimens using the Archimedes principle. A standard test weight of known density would be used to verify proper operation of the system. By measuring the density of a U-Mo sample, it is possible to determine its porosity.

  1. Precise determinations of C and D periods by flow cytometry in Escherichia coli K-12 and B/r

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Ole; de Mattos, M.J.T.; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal;

    2003-01-01

    The C and D cell cycle periods of seven Escherichia coli K-12 strains and three E, coli B/r strains were determined by computer simulation of DNA histograms obtained by flow cytometry of batch cultures grown at several different generation times. To obtain longer generation times two of the K-12...... strains were cultivated at several different dilution rates in glucose-limited chemostats. The replication period (C period) was found to be similar in K-12 and B/r strains grown at similar generation times. At generation times below 60 min the C period was constant; above 60 min it increased linearly...... with increasing generation time. The period from termination of replication to cell division (D period) was more variable. It was much shorter in B/r than in K-12 strains. Like the C period it was relatively constant at generation times below 60 min and it increased with increasing generation times at longer...

  2. A new measuring method to determine material spectral emissivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, W.; Reicher, R.

    1998-05-01

    Emissivity is a measure of how well a real surface can radiate energy as compared with a blackbody. This characteristic radiative number is usually determined by means of optical pyrometry. By contrast an indirect measurement method has been developed which enables the determination of the normal spectral emissivity of various materials at a specific wavelength. A heat flow induced in a test body by the absorbed irradiation of a laser beam may be correlated with the spectral emissivity of its surface. The theory of the measuring principle is discussed and the feasibility of the method evaluated by means of practical experiments utilizing a thermopile built up using a thick film technique.

  3. The Limiting Spectral Measure for the Ensemble of Symmetric Period m--Circulant Matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Kologlu, Murat; Miller, Steven J

    2010-01-01

    Given an ensemble of N x N random matrices, the first question to ask is whether or not the empirical spectral measures of typical matrices converge to a limiting spectral measure as N tends to infinity. While this has been proved in many thin patterned ensembles sitting inside all real symmetric matrices, frequently there is no nice closed form expression for the limiting measure. Further, current theorems provide few pictures of transitions between ensembles. We consider the ensemble of symmetric period m--circulant matrices with entries i.i.d.r.v. These matrices have toroidal diagonals periodic of period m. We view m as a ``dial'' we can ``turn'' from the highly structured symmetric circulant matrices, whose limiting eigenvalue density is a Gaussian, to the ensemble of all real symmetric matrices, whose limiting eigenvalue density is a semi-circle. The limiting eigenvalue densities f_m show a visually stunning convergence to the semi-circle as m tends to infinity, which we prove. In contrast to most studie...

  4. Low-Earth Orbit Determination from Gravity Gradient Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Xiucong; Macabiau, Christophe; Han, Chao

    2016-01-01

    An innovative orbit determination method which makes use of gravity gradients for Low-Earth-Orbiting satellites is proposed. The measurement principle of gravity gradiometry is briefly reviewed and the sources of measurement error are analyzed. An adaptive hybrid least squares batch filter based on linearization of the orbital equation and unscented transformation of the measurement equation is developed to estimate the orbital states and the measurement biases. The algorithm is tested with the actual flight data from the European Space Agency Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer. The orbit determination results are compared with the GPS-derived orbits. The radial and cross-track position errors are on the order of tens of meters, whereas the along-track position error is over one order of magnitude larger. The gravity gradient based orbit determination method is promising for potential use in GPS-denied spacecraft navigation.

  5. 75 FR 54345 - Determination of Regulatory Review Period for Purposes of Patent Extension; BRYAN CERVICAL DISC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-07

    ... and an approval phase. For medical devices, the testing phase begins with a clinical investigation of... length of a regulatory review period for a medical device will include all of the testing phase and... Patent and Trademark Office that this medical device had undergone a regulatory review period and...

  6. Measurements of periods, relative abundances and absolute yields of delayed neutrons from fast neutron induced fission of {sup 237}Np

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piksaikine, V. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-03-01

    The experimental method for measurements of the delayed neutron yields and period is presented. The preliminary results of the total yield, relative abundances and periods are shown comparing with the previously reported values. (J.P.N.)

  7. Measurements of periods, relative abundances and absolute yields of delayed neutrons from fast neutron induced fission of {sup 237}Np

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piksaikine, V. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-03-01

    The experimental method for measurements of the delayed neutron yields and period is presented. The preliminary results of the total yield, relative abundances and periods are shown comparing with the previously reported values. (J.P.N.)

  8. 75 FR 69063 - Extension of the Period for Preparation of the Clean Water Act Section 404(c) Final Determination...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... AGENCY Extension of the Period for Preparation of the Clean Water Act Section 404(c) Final Determination... signed a Recommended Determination, under Section 404(c) of the Clean Water Act, recommending withdrawal of the specification embodied in DA Permit No. 199800436-3 (Section 10: Coal River) of...

  9. Legal Culture as the Determinant of Value Orientations in Youth in the Society of the Transition Period (Philosophical Analysis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulzhanova, Zhuldizay T.; Kulzhanova, Gulbaram T.

    2016-01-01

    This research is devoted to the philosophical analysis of legal culture as a determinant of value orientations in the transition period society. The purpose of the study is to discover the essence and specificity of legal culture as a determinant of value orientations in a transition society from the philosophical perspective. In accordance with…

  10. MUSCLE-FIBER CONDUCTION-VELOCITY IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF FAMILIAL HYPOKALEMIC PERIODIC PARALYSIS - INVASIVE VERSUS SURFACE DETERMINATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERHOEVEN, JH; LINKS, TP; ZWARTS, MJ; VANWEERDEN, TW

    1994-01-01

    Muscle fiber conduction velocity (MFCV) in the brachial biceps muscle was determined in a large family of patients with hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HOPP) by both a surface and an invasive method. Other surface EMG parameters and the muscle force were also determined. Both the surface and the inv

  11. An Architecture for Measuring Joint Angles Using a Long Period Fiber Grating-Based Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Perez-Ramirez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of signal filters in a real-time form requires a tradeoff between computation resources and the system performance. Therefore, taking advantage of low lag response and the reduced consumption of resources, in this article, the Recursive Least Square (RLS algorithm is used to filter a signal acquired from a fiber-optics-based sensor. In particular, a Long-Period Fiber Grating (LPFG sensor is used to measure the bending movement of a finger. After that, the Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM technique allows us to classify the corresponding finger position along the motion range. For these measures to help in the development of an autonomous robotic hand, the proposed technique can be straightforwardly implemented on real time platforms such as Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA or Digital Signal Processors (DSP. Different angle measurements of the finger’s motion are carried out by the prototype and a detailed analysis of the system performance is presented.

  12. Determination of Contact Potential Difference by the Kelvin Probe (Part I I. Basic Principles of Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilitis O.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Determination of electric potential difference using the Kelvin probe, i.e. vibrating capacitor technique, is one of the most sensitive measuring procedures in surface physics. Periodic modulation of distance between electrodes leads to changes in capacitance, thereby causing current to flow through the external circuit. The procedure of contactless, non-destructive determination of contact potential difference between an electrically conductive vibrating reference electrode and an electrically conductive sample is based on precise control measurement of Kelvin current flowing through a capacitor. The present research is devoted to creation of a new low-cost miniaturised measurement system to determine potential difference in real time and at high measurement resolution. Furthermore, using the electrode of a reference probe, the Kelvin method leads to both the indirect measurement of an electronic work function, or a contact potential of sample, and of a surface potential for insulator type samples.

  13. Age, period, or birth cohort: What determines demographic differences in seafood consumption?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Lund, Eiliv; Trondsen, Torbjørn

    Effects of age, period and birth cohort on consumption of fat fish, lean fish and processed fish were estimated based on panel data from the Norwegian Women and Seafood Consumption Study (NOWAC). Cohorts selected for the present analysis were women born between 1951 and 1966. Survey questionnaires...... fish increased between 1996 and 2001, while consumption of lean fish decreased. All three period effects were stable across birth cohorts. Estimation of polynomial contrasts indicated that birth cohort itself had linear effects on consumption, with older generations consuming significantly more fat...... and lean fish, but less processed fish than younger generations. Finally, the effects of cohort and period on consumption of lean and processed fish remained stable when biological age was controlled for, whilst the effect of period on fat fish consumption vanished. Regarding total consumption of fat fish...

  14. System for controllable magnetic measurement with direct field determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupakov, O.

    2012-02-01

    This work describes a specially designed setup for magnetic hysteresis and Barkhausen noise measurements. The setup combines two main elements: an improved fast algorithm to control the waveform of magnetic induction and simultaneous direct determination of the magnetic field. The digital feedback algorithm uses only the previous measurement cycle to correct the magnetization voltage without any additional correlation parameter; it usually converges after several tens of cycles. The magnetic field is measured at the sample surface using a vertically mounted array of sensitive Hall sensors. Linear extrapolation of the tangential field profile to the sample surface determines the true waveform of the magnetic field. This unique combination of physically based control for both parameters of the magnetization process provides stable and reliable results, which are independent of a specified experimental configuration. This is illustrated for the industrially attractive measurements of non-oriented electrical steels with a 50 Hz sinusoidal induction waveform.

  15. Inter-comparison of radon detectors for one to four week measurement periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunning, G A; Murray, M; Long, S C; Foley, M J; Finch, E C

    2016-03-01

    Seven different types of radon detectors (Atmos 12 dpx, RAD7, RStone, Sun Nuclear 1028, Ramon 2.2, Canary and CR-39) were compared for exposure periods of 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks. The comparison was conducted under two conditions: (a) in a purpose-built radon chamber with an average radon concentration of 2560 Bq m(-3) (b) in a home environment with a radon concentration of 57 Bq m(-3), in both cases measured by the reference detector (Atmos 12 dpx) with a  ±10% uncertainty range. In (a) 5 out of 8 detectors recorded radon concentrations within the Atmos uncertainty range and all detectors recorded within  ±15%; in (b) 3 out of 9 detectors recorded within the Atmos uncertainty range and 6 out of 9 measured within  ±20%, for a 4 week measurement. The results from this study show that radon surveys can be conducted for shorter periods than the recommended 3 months where a rapid indication is needed of whether the radon concentration is above the reference level, such as when assessing the concentration during and after remediation work.

  16. Estimating kinetic mass transfer by resting-period measurements in flow-interruption tracer tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, R; Lu, C; Wu, W-M; Cheng, H; Gu, B; Watson, D B; Criddle, C S; Kitanidis, P K; Brooks, S C; Jardine, P M; Luo, J

    2010-09-20

    Flow-interruption tracer test is an effective approach to identify kinetic mass transfer processes for solute transport in subsurface media. By switching well pumping and resting, one may alter the dominant transport mechanism and generate special concentration patterns for identifying kinetic mass transfer processes. In the present research, we conducted three-phase (i.e., pumping, resting, and pumping) field-scale flow-interruption tracer tests using a conservative tracer bromide in a multiple-well system installed at the US Department of Energy Site, Oak Ridge, TN. A novel modeling approach based on the resting-period measurements was developed to estimate the mass transfer parameters. This approach completely relied on the measured breakthrough curves without requiring detailed aquifer characterization and solving transport equations in nonuniform, transient flow fields. Additional measurements, including hydraulic heads and tracer concentrations in large pumping wells, were taken to justify the assumption that mass transfer processes dominated concentration change during resting periods. The developed approach can be conveniently applied to any linear mass transfer model. Both first-order and multirate mass transfer models were applied to analyze the breakthrough curves at various monitoring wells. The multirate mass transfer model was capable of jointly fitting breakthrough curve behavior, showing the effectiveness and flexibility for incorporating aquifer heterogeneity and scale effects in upscaling effective mass transfer models.

  17. Determining Aerodynamic Loads Based on Optical Deformation Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianshu; Barrows, D. A.; Burner, A. W.; Rhew, R. D.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a videogrammetric technique for determining aerodynamic loads based on optical elastic deformation measurements. The data reduction methods are developed to extract the normal force and pitching moment from beam deformation data. The axial force is obtained by measuring the axial translational motion of a movable shaft in a spring/bearing device. Proof-of-concept calibration experiments are conducted to assess the accuracy of this optical technique.

  18. Phase Determination Method to Directly Measure Intensity and Frequency of Temporal Profiles of Attosecond EUV Pulses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Yu-Cheng

    2005-01-01

    @@ A new method of phase determination is presented to directly measure the intensity and frequency temporalprofiles of attosecond EUV pulses. The profiles can be reconstructed from the photoelectron energy spectra measured with two different laser intensities at 0° and 180° with respect to the linear laser polarization using a cross correlation between the femtosecond laser and the attosecond EUV. The method has a temporal measurement range from a quarter to about half of a laser oscillation period. The time resolution depends on the jitter and control precision of laser and EUV pulses. This method improves the time resolution in measuring attosecond EUV pulses.

  19. Conservative Sample Size Determination for Repeated Measures Analysis of Covariance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Timothy M; Case, L Douglas

    2013-07-05

    In the design of a randomized clinical trial with one pre and multiple post randomized assessments of the outcome variable, one needs to account for the repeated measures in determining the appropriate sample size. Unfortunately, one seldom has a good estimate of the variance of the outcome measure, let alone the correlations among the measurements over time. We show how sample sizes can be calculated by making conservative assumptions regarding the correlations for a variety of covariance structures. The most conservative choice for the correlation depends on the covariance structure and the number of repeated measures. In the absence of good estimates of the correlations, the sample size is often based on a two-sample t-test, making the 'ultra' conservative and unrealistic assumption that there are zero correlations between the baseline and follow-up measures while at the same time assuming there are perfect correlations between the follow-up measures. Compared to the case of taking a single measurement, substantial savings in sample size can be realized by accounting for the repeated measures, even with very conservative assumptions regarding the parameters of the assumed correlation matrix. Assuming compound symmetry, the sample size from the two-sample t-test calculation can be reduced at least 44%, 56%, and 61% for repeated measures analysis of covariance by taking 2, 3, and 4 follow-up measures, respectively. The results offer a rational basis for determining a fairly conservative, yet efficient, sample size for clinical trials with repeated measures and a baseline value.

  20. Determination of critical period of weed control in rice (Oryza sativa L. in Lorestan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    abdolreza ahmadi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Effects of different periods of weed control in paddy rice (Oryza sativa L. were studied in Veysian region of Lorestan province in 2004. The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with four replications and 10 treatments of hand weeding in two series included weed free and weed infested plot up to 14, 28, 42 and 56 days after transplanting, plus weed free and weed infested control. Based on 5 and 10% acceptable yield loses, the critical periods were between 11 to 40 and 14 to 30 days after transplantation, respectively. Weed competition before and/or after these critical periods had negligible effects on grain yield of rice. This period, based on growing degree days (GDD was 198-768 GDD for 5% acceptable yield loss. Increasing periods of weed interference in the early stage of the crop resulted in a steady decline in grain yield. Yield losses equivalent to 47 kg/ha of grain resulted for each day that weed control was delayed between 14 and 28 days after transplanting.

  1. [Quality of life measurement in the postoperative period in general and gastrointestinal surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balongo García, Rafael; Espinosa Guzmán, Eduardo; Naranjo Rodríguez, Pedro; Tejada Gómez, Antonio; Rodríguez Pérez, Margarita; Abreu Sánchez, Ana

    2010-09-01

    Health related quality of life measurement (HRQL) is widely accepted as an appropriate outcome of surgical care for assessing effectiveness and for risk adjusted outcomes. Nevertheless its use in the immediate postoperative period has show limitations. The aim of this study is to prove that is possible, with a specific new tool, to assess the HRQL during this period. The study is designed to create a specific close questionnaire related to the patient's condition after surgery, structured in domains, with the subsequent use of: literature searches, patient interviews (n=30), and a Delphi survey with health care providers. Finally the tool was validated using a pre-test (n=36) and a prospective observational cohort trial (n=250), to assess the discriminant validity for different cohorts of patients, reliability, responsiveness, and convergent validity, and to compare with the widely used generic tool, Short Form 36 (SF-36). The questionnaire was shown to have good sensitivity to change (single index and domains score), as well as good sensitivity to distinguish cohorts of patients, a high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha 0.88), absence of redundancy between domains (Spearman's rho range, 0.29-0.84), and good convergent validity with patient opinion. The SF-36 questionnaire showed poor discriminant validity, and lack of convergent validity with patient opinion. These results support that the created questionnaire is appropriate to assess HRQL in the immediate postoperative period; and was more specific than SF-36. Copyright © 2010 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Determination of atmospheric aerosol properties over land using satellite measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kokhanovsky, A.A.; Leeuw, G. de

    2009-01-01

    Mostly, aerosol properties are poorly understood because the aerosol properties are very sparse. The first workshop on the determination of atmospheric aerosol properties over land using satellite measurements is convened in Bremen, Germany. In this workshop, the topics of discussions included a var

  3. Determining nonsmooth first order terms from partial boundary measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Kim; Salo, Mikko

    We extend results of Dos Santos Ferreira-Kenig-Sjöstrand- Uhlmann (arXiv:math.AP/0601466) to less smooth coefficients, and we show that measurements on part of the boundary for the magnetic Schrödinger operator determine uniquely the magnetic field related to a Hölder continuous potential. We give...

  4. Determining nonsmooth first order terms from partial boundary measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Kim; Salo, Mikko

    2007-01-01

    We extend results of Dos Santos Ferreira-Kenig-Sjöstrand-Uhlmann(arXiv:math.AP/0601466) to less smooth coefficients, and we show that measurements on part of the boundary for the magnetic Schrödinger operator determine uniquely the magnetic field related to a H¨older continuous potential. We give...

  5. Determination of continuous variable entanglement by purity measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Adesso, G; Illuminati, F; Adesso, Gerardo; Serafini, Alessio; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2004-01-01

    We classify the entanglement of two-mode Gaussian states according to their degree of total and partial mixedness. We derive exact bounds that determine maximally and minimally entangled states for fixed global and marginal purities. This characterization allows for an experimentally reliable estimate of continuous variable entanglement based on purity measurements.

  6. Determination of continuous variable entanglement by purity measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Serafini, Alessio; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2004-02-27

    We classify the entanglement of two-mode Gaussian states according to their degree of total and partial mixedness. We derive exact bounds that determine maximally and minimally entangled states for fixed global and marginal purities. This characterization allows for an experimentally reliable estimate of continuous variable entanglement based on measurements of purity.

  7. Determination of solar wind elemental abundances from M/Q observations during three periods in 1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, S.; Bochsler, P.; Geiss, J.; Ogilvie, K. W.; Coplan, M. A.

    1983-10-01

    Mass spectra in the range 2 ≤ M/Q ≤ 3 provided by a high resolution mode of the ISEE-3 Plasma Composition Experiment were evaluated for three selected periods during early 1980. The observed Ne/O ratios are compatible with estimated solar abundance ratios. In two of the three periods, the He/Ne-ratios agree with the Apollo foil results. Freezing-in temperatures for oxygen are similar to those obtained by other groups. Possible reasons for an unexpectedly high flux at M/Q = 2.4 are discussed.

  8. Determination of solar wind elemental abundances from M/Q observations during three periods in 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunz, S.; Bochsler, P.; Geiss, J. (Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Physikalisches Inst.); Ogilvie, K.W. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD (USA). Goddard Space Flight Center); Coplan, M.A. (Maryland Univ., College Park (USA). Inst. for Physical Science and Technology)

    1983-10-01

    Mass spectra in the range 2<=M/Q<=3 provided by a high resolution mode of the ISEE-3 Plasma Composition Experiment were evaluated for three selected periods during early 1980. The observed Ne/O ratios are compatible with estimated solar abundance ratios. In two of the three periods, the He/Ne-ratios agree with the Apollo foil results. Freezing-in temperatures for oxygen are similar to those obtained by other groups. Possible reasons for an unexpectedly high flux at M/Q=2.4 are discussed.

  9. Recursively determined representing measures for bivariate truncated moment sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Curto, Raul E

    2012-01-01

    A theorem of Bayer and Teichmann implies that if a finite real multisequence \\beta = \\beta^(2d) has a representing measure, then the associated moment matrix M_d admits positive, recursively generated moment matrix extensions M_(d+1), M_(d+2),... For a bivariate recursively determinate M_d, we show that the existence of positive, recursively generated extensions M_(d+1),...,M_(2d-1) is sufficient for a measure. Examples illustrate that all of these extensions may be required to show that \\beta has a measure. We describe in detail a constructive procedure for determining whether such extensions exist. Under mild additional hypotheses, we show that M_d admits an extension M_(d+1) which has many of the properties of a positive, recursively generated extension.

  10. First spectral measurements of a cryogenic high-field short-period undulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Holy

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Further development of synchrotron light sources and new concepts for free electron lasers require undulators with short periods and high magnetic fields. A promising approach is the cryogenic permanent magnet undulator concept based on an advanced magnet material. This new rare earth alloy (Pr,Nd_{2}Fe_{14}B, shows an increasing remanent field of up to 1.7 T without the limits of spin reorientation transition. This work presents first spectral measurements of a prototype cryogenic permanent magnet undulator, consisting of 20 periods of 9 mm in length, cooled by a closed cycle cryo-cooler to temperatures below 30 K. The K parameter of 0.837 at RT is increased by more than 15% to 0.966, and an increase of the third harmonics photon flux of up to 66% was achieved. A possible degradation of the on-axis field quality due to thermally induced magnetic field errors, deduced from the measured bandwidth of the spectrum, is below the limits of the detector resolution of 2%.

  11. Determination of Vertical Interproximal Bone Loss Topography: Correlation Between Indirect Digital Radiographic Measurement and Clinical Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeli, Farzad; Shirmohammadi, Adileh; Faramarzie, Masoumeh; Abolfazli, Nader; Rasouli, Hossein; Fallahi, Saied

    2012-01-01

    Background Diagnosis and accuracy in determining the exact location, extent and configuration of bony defects of the jaw are of utmost importance to determine prognosis, treatment planning and long-term preservation of teeth. If relatively accurate diagnosis can be established by radiography, proper treatment planning prior to treatment procedures will be possible. Objectives The aim of the present study was to assess the correlation between indirect digital radiographic measurements and clinical measurements in determining the topography of interproximal bony defects. Patients and Methods Twenty interproximal bony defects, preferably in the mandibular and maxillary 5↔5 area were selected and radiographed using the parallel periapical technique. The radiographs were corrected and digitized on a computer using “Linear Measurement” software; then the three parameters of the base of defect (BD), alveolar crest (AC) and cementoenamel junction (CEJ) were determined using a software. Subsequent to radiographic measurements, clinical measurements were carried out meticulously during flap procedures. Then linear measurements were carried out using a periodontal probe to determine the defect depth and its mesiodistal width. Then the amount of correlation between these two measurements was assessed by Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results The correlation between clinical and radiographic measurements in defect depth determination, in the evaluation of defect angle and in determination of defect width were 88%, 98% and 90%, respectively. Conclusions Indirect digital radiographic technique can be used to diagnose intra-osseous defects, providing a better opportunity to treat bony defects. PMID:23329969

  12. Characterisation of advanced windows. Determination of thermal properties by measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duer, K.

    2001-04-01

    This report describes work carried out with the aim of facilitating a full energy performance characterisation of advanced windows and glazings by means of measurements. The energy performance of windows and glazings are characterised by two parameters: The thermal transmittance (U-value) and the total solar energy transmittance (g-value) and methods to determine these two parameters by measurements have been investigated. This process has included the improvement of existing equipment and existing measuring methods as well as the development of new measuring equipment and new methods of measuring and data treatment. Measurements of the thermal transmittance of windows and glazings in a guarded hot box have been investigated. The calibration and measuring procedures for determining the U-values of facade windows were analysed and a suggestion for a new calibration and measuring procedure for determining the U-values of roof windows in a guarded hot box was elaborated. The accuracy of the guarded hot box measurements was examined by comparisons to measurements in a hot-plate device and excellent agreement between the results was obtained. Analysis showed that the expected uncertainty in the U-value measurement is about 5% for a specimen with a U-value of 1.75 W/m{sup 2}K. The U-values of three different windows were measured in two separate round robin tests applying two different calibration procedures. The windows U-values where ranging from 1.1 to 2.5 W/m{sup 2}K and all measured results were within the expected uncertainties of the measurements. On the basis of the investigations on hot box measurements a high degree of confidence in the measurement accuracy and the measuring procedure of the guarded hot box at the Department of Buildings and Energy has been obtained. Indoor g-value measurements in a calorimetric test facility (the METSET) mounted in a solar simulator have been investigated and a number of problems regarding these measurements have been

  13. A discussion on approximations for the determination of the maximum period of a simple pendulum

    CERN Document Server

    Suave, Rogério Netto

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we deal with the care one must have in adopting approximations in regard with terms he chooses to leave behind in the particular case of the expression valid for the maximum period of a long pendulum oscillating near Earth's surface.

  14. On Heat Transfer through a Solid Slab Heated Uniformly and Periodically: Determination of Thermal Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Trigos, J. B.; Bermejo-Arenas, J. A.; Marin, E.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, some heat transfer characteristics through a sample that is uniformly heated on one of its surfaces by a power density modulated by a periodical square wave are discussed. The solution of this problem has two contributions, comprising a transient term and an oscillatory term, superposed to it. The analytical solution is compared to…

  15. 77 FR 19076 - High Density Traffic Airports; Notice of Determination Regarding Low Demand Periods at Ronald...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ...\\ 33 FR 17896 (Dec. 3, 1968). In 1985, the FAA issued part 93 subpart S (the ``Buy/Sell Rule'').\\2\\ As... the 0600 hour is not a low demand period.\\3\\ \\2\\ 50 FR 52195 (Dec. 20, 1985). \\3\\ 76 FR 58393 (Sept... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 93 High Density Traffic Airports; Notice of...

  16. Rotation Period Determination for 4149 Harrison and (5633) 1978 UL7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papini, Riccardo; Franco, Lorenzo; Marchini, Alessandro; Salvaggio, Fabio

    2015-10-01

    Analysis of photometric observations of two main-belt asteroids were performed by the authors in Italy from 2015 April to June. Assuming bimodal lightcurves, the synodic periods were: 4149 Harrison, P = 3.956 ± 0.001 h and (5633) 1978 UL7 P = 7.212 ± 0.001 h.

  17. 78 FR 12330 - Determination of Regulatory Review Period for Purposes of Patent Extension; SAPIEN TRANSCATHETER...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... and an approval phase. For medical devices, the testing phase begins with a clinical investigation of... length of a regulatory review period for a medical device will include all of the testing phase and... and Trademarks, Department of Commerce, for the extension of a patent which claims that medical...

  18. 75 FR 54887 - Determination of Regulatory Review Period for Purposes of Patent Extension; REPEL-CV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... approval phase. For medical devices, the testing phase begins with a clinical investigation of the device... review period for a medical device will include all of the testing phase and approval phase as specified..., for the extension of a patent which claims that medical device. ADDRESSES: Submit electronic...

  19. 18 CFR 301.4 - Exchange Period Average System Cost determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... identified in paragraph (a)(3)(xii) of this section as the replacement escalator. (b) Calculation of sales...) Major resource additions and reductions and materiality thresholds. (1) During the Exchange Period... paragraph (c)(3) of this section and the materiality threshold described in paragraph (c)(4) of this...

  20. Determination of irradiation parameters for laser-induced periodic surface structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eichstädt, J.; Römer, G.R.B.E.; Huis in 't Veld, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    The spatial emergence of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) on single-crystalline silicon, upon irradiation with linearly polarized picosecond laser pulses (wavelength λ = 1030 nm, pulse duration τ = 6.7 ps, pulse repetition frequency fp = 1 kHz) was studied theoretically and experime

  1. Period Determination of Main-belt Asteroid (26274) 1998 RH75

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Johnny Eugene, Jr.; Linder, Tyler; Puckett, Andrew; Holmes, Robert

    2017-04-01

    Photometric observations of the inner main-belt asteroid (26274) 1998 RH75 were made on three nights in 2016 March. Analysis gave a bimodal lightcurve with a synodic period of 3.1296 ± 0.0001 h and amplitude of 0.55 ± 0.02 mag.

  2. Mathematical Model of Equipment Unit Reliability for Determination of Optimum Overhaul Periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Pasiouk

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a mathematical model of the equipment unit reliability with due account of operational mode effect and main influencing factors.Its application contributes to reduction of operating costs, optimization of overhaul periods, prolongation of life-service and rational usage of fleet resource.

  3. On Heat Transfer through a Solid Slab Heated Uniformly and Periodically: Determination of Thermal Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Trigos, J. B.; Bermejo-Arenas, J. A.; Marin, E.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, some heat transfer characteristics through a sample that is uniformly heated on one of its surfaces by a power density modulated by a periodical square wave are discussed. The solution of this problem has two contributions, comprising a transient term and an oscillatory term, superposed to it. The analytical solution is compared to…

  4. Determination of complex microcalorimeter parameters with impedance measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saab, T. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)]. E-mail: tsaab@phys.ufl.edu; Bandler, S.R. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Chervenak, J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Figueroa-Feliciano, E. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Finkbeiner, F. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Iyomoto, N. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kelley, R.L. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kilbourne, C.A. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Lindeman, M.A. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Porter, F.S. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Sadleir, J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2006-04-15

    The proper understanding and modeling of a microcalorimeter's response requires accurate knowledge of a handful of parameters, such as C, G, {alpha}. While a few of these parameters are directly determined from the IV characteristics, some others, notoriously the heat capacity (C) and {alpha}, appear in degenerate combinations in most measurable quantities. The consideration of a complex microcalorimeter leads to an added ambiguity in the determination of the parameters. In general, the dependence of the microcalorimeter's complex impedance on these various parameters varies with frequency. This dependence allows us to determine individual parameters by fitting the prediction of the microcalorimeter model to impedance data. In this paper we describe efforts at characterizing the Goddard X-ray microcalorimeters. With the parameters determined by this method, we compare the pulse shape and noise spectra predictions to data taken with the same devices.

  5. Classification of periodic, chaotic and random sequences using approximate entropy and Lempel–Ziv complexity measures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Karthi Balasubramanian; Silpa S Nair; Nithin Nagaraj

    2015-03-01

    ‘Complexity’ has several definitions in diverse fields. These measures are indicators of some aspects of the nature of the signal. Such measures are used to analyse and classify signals and as a signal diagnostics tool to distinguish between periodic, quasiperiodic, chaotic and random signals. Lempel–Ziv (LZ) complexity and approximate entropy (ApEn) are such popular complexity measures that are widely used for characterizing biological signals also. In this paper, we compare the utility of ApEn, LZ complexities and Shannon’s entropy in characterizing data from a nonlinear chaotic map (logistic map). In this work, we show that LZ and ApEn complexity measures can characterize the data complexities correctly for data sequences as short as 20 in length while Shannon’s entropy fails for length less than 50. In the case of noisy sequences with 10% uniform noise, Shannon’s entropy works only for lengths greater than 200 while LZ and ApEn are successful with sequences of lengths greater than 30 and 20, respectively.

  6. Determinants of health-related quality of life in the postpartum period after obstetric complications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prick, Babette W.; Bijlenga, Denise; Jansen, A. J. Gerard; Boers, Kim E.; Scherjon, Sicco A.; Koopmans, Corine M.; van Pampus, Marielle G.; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; van Rhenen, Dick J.; Mol, Ben W.; Duvekot, Johannes J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the influence of socio-demographic, clinical parameters and obstetric complications on postpartum health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Study design: We used data of three randomized controlled trials to investigate HRQoL determinants in women after an obstetric complicatio

  7. Determination of Baseline Periods of Record for Selected Streamflow-Gaging Stations in New Jersey for Determining Ecologically Relevant Hydrologic Indices (ERHI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esralew, Rachel A.; Baker, Ronald J.

    2008-01-01

    Hydrologic changes in New Jersey stream basins resulting from human activity can affect the flow and ecology of the streams. To assess future changes in streamflow resulting from human activity an understanding of the natural variability of streamflow is needed. The natural variability can be classified using Ecologically Relevant Hydrologic Indices (ERHIs). ERHIs are defined as selected streamflow statistics that characterize elements of the flow regime that substantially affect biological health and ecological sustainability. ERHIs are used to quantitatively characterize aspects of the streamflow regime, including magnitude, duration, frequency, timing, and rate of change. Changes in ERHI values can occur as a result of human activity, and changes in ERHIs over time at various stream locations can provide information about the degree of alteration in aquatic ecosystems at or near those locations. New Jersey streams can be divided into four classes (A, B, C, or D), where streams with similar ERHI values (determined from cluster analysis) are assigned the same stream class. In order to detect and quantify changes in ERHIs at selected streamflow-gaging stations, a 'baseline' period is needed. Ideally, a baseline period is a period of continuous daily streamflow record at a gaging station where human activity along the contributing stream reach or in the stream's basin is minimal. Because substantial urbanization and other development had already occurred before continuous streamflow-gaging stations were installed, it is not possible to identify baseline periods that meet this criterion for many reaches in New Jersey. Therefore, the baseline period for a considerably altered basin can be defined as a period prior to a substantial human-induced change in the drainage basin or stream reach (such as regulations or diversions), or a period during which development did not change substantially. Index stations (stations with minimal urbanization) were defined as streamflow

  8. Genetic Algorithm Optimization for Determining Fuzzy Measures from Fuzzy Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fuzzy measures and fuzzy integrals have been successfully used in many real applications. How to determine fuzzy measures is a very difficult problem in these applications. Though there have existed some methodologies for solving this problem, such as genetic algorithms, gradient descent algorithms, neural networks, and particle swarm algorithm, it is hard to say which one is more appropriate and more feasible. Each method has its advantages. Most of the existed works can only deal with the data consisting of classic numbers which may arise limitations in practical applications. It is not reasonable to assume that all data are real data before we elicit them from practical data. Sometimes, fuzzy data may exist, such as in pharmacological, financial and sociological applications. Thus, we make an attempt to determine a more generalized type of general fuzzy measures from fuzzy data by means of genetic algorithms and Choquet integrals. In this paper, we make the first effort to define the σ-λ rules. Furthermore we define and characterize the Choquet integrals of interval-valued functions and fuzzy-number-valued functions based on σ-λ rules. In addition, we design a special genetic algorithm to determine a type of general fuzzy measures from fuzzy data.

  9. Drift-corrected trends and periodic variations in MIPAS IMK/IAA ozone measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Eckert

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Drifts, trends and periodic variations were calculated from monthly zonally averaged ozone profiles. The ozone profiles, among many other species, were derived from level-1b data of the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS by means of the scientific level-2 processor run by Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT, Institute for Meteorlogy and Climate Research (IMK. All trend and drift analyses were performed using a multilinear parametric trend model which includes a linear term, several harmonics with period lengths from three to twenty four months and the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO. Drifts at 2-sigma significance level were mainly negative for ozone relative to Aura MLS and Odin OSIRIS and negative or near zero for most of the comparisons to Lidar measurements. Lidar stations used here include those at Hohenpeissenberg (47.8° N, 11.0° E, Lauder (45.0° S, 169.7° E, Mauna Loa (19.5° N, 155.6° W, Observatoire Haute Provence (43.9° N, 5.7° E and Table Mountain (34.4° N, 117.7° W. Drifts against ACE-FTS were found to be mostly insignificant. The assessed MIPAS ozone trends cover the time period of July 2002 to April 2012 and range from -0.5 ppmv decade-1 to +0.5 ppmv decade-1 depending on altitude and latitude. From the drift analyses we derive that the real ozone trends might be slighly more positive/less negative than those calculated from the MIPAS data, by conceding the possibility of MIPAS having a very small (approx. within -0.3 ppmv decade-1 negative drift for ozone. This leads to drift-corrected trends of -0.4 ppmv decade-1 to +0.55 ppmv decade-1 for the time period covered by MIPAS Envisat measurements with very few negative and large areas of positive trends, which is in good agreement with recent literature. Differences of the trends compared with recent literature could be explained by a possible shift of the subtropical mixing barriers. Results for the altitude-latitude distribution of

  10. Determination of sin$^{2}\\vartheta^{eff}_{W}$ using jet charge measurements in hadronic Z decays

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Delfino, M C; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Garrido, L; Juste, A; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Riu, I; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Alemany, R; Bazarko, A O; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Mir, L M; Moneta, L; Oest, T; Palla, Fabrizio; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wagner, A; Wildish, T; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Wäänänen, A; Kyriakis, A; Markou, C; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Casper, David William; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Passalacqua, L; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Curtis, L; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hansper, G; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Abbaneo, D; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Dornan, Peter J; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Williams, M D; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Renk, B; Rohne, E; Sander, H G; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Konstantinidis, N P; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Sadouki, A; Thulasidas, M; Trabelsi, K; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wiedenmann, W; Wolf, G; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Chambers, J T; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Medcalf, T; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Wright, A E; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Black, S N; Dann, J H; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Brew, C A J; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Reeve, J; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Büscher, V; Cowan, G D; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Aleppo, M; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Musolino, G; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Greening, T C; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    The electroweak mixing angle is determined with high precision from measurements of the mean difference between forward and backward hemisphere charges in hadronic decays of the Z. A data sample of 2.5 million hadronic Z decays recorded over the period 1990 to 1994 in the ALEPH detector at LEP is used. The mean charge separation between event hemispheres containing the original quark and antiquark is measured for b-bbar and c-cbar events in subsamples selected by their long lifetimes or using fast D*'s. The corresponding average charge separation for light quarks is measured in an inclusive sample from the anticorrelation between charges of opposite hemispheres and agrees with predictions of hadronisation models with a precision of 2%. It is shown that differences between light quark charge separations and the measured average can be determined using hadronisation models, with systematic uncertainties constrained by measurements of inclusive production of kaons, protons and lambda's. The separations are used ...

  11. Measurement-enhanced determination of BEC phase diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bason, Mark G.; Heck, Robert; Napolitano, Mario

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate how dispersive atom number measurements during evaporative cooling can be used for enhanced determination of the non-linear parameter dependence of the transition to a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). Our analysis demonstrates that conventional averaging of shot-to-shot fluctuations...... introduces systematic errors and reduces precision in comparison with our method. We furthermore compare in-situ images from dispersive probing of a BEC with corresponding absorption images in time-of-flight. This allows for the determination of the transition point in a single experimental realization...

  12. Ultrasonic attenuation measurements determine onset, degree, and completion of recrystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generazio, E. R.

    1988-01-01

    Ultrasonic attenuation was measured for cold worked Nickel 200 samples annealed at increasing temperatures. Localized dislocation density variations, crystalline order and volume percent of recrystallized phase were determined over the anneal temperature range using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and metallurgy. The exponent of the frequency dependence of the attenuation was found to be a key variable relating ultrasonic attenuation to the thermal kinetics of the recrystallization process. Identification of this key variable allows for the ultrasonic determination of onset, degree, and completion of recrystallization.

  13. Determination of Vertical Interproximal Bone Loss Topography: Correlation Between Indirect Digital Radiographic Measurement and Clinical Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Esmaeli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diagnosis and accuracy in determining the exact location, extent and configurationof bony defects of the jaw are of utmost importance to determine prognosis,treatment planning and long-term preservation of teeth. If relatively accurate diagnosiscan be established by radiography, proper treatment planning prior to treatment procedureswill be possible.Objectives: The aim of the present study was to assess the correlation between indirectdigital radiographic measurements and clinical measurements in determining the topographyof interproximal bony defects.Patients and Methods: Twenty interproximal bony defects, preferably in the mandibularand maxillary 5↔5 area were selected and radiographed using the parallel periapical technique.The radiographs were corrected and digitized on a computer using “Linear Measurement”software; then the three parameters of the base of defect (BD, alveolar crest(AC and cementoenamel junction (CEJ were determined using a software. Subsequentto radiographic measurements, clinical measurements were carried out meticulouslyduring flap procedures. Then linear measurements were carried out using a periodontalprobe to determine the defect depth and its mesiodistal width. Then the amount of correlationbetween these two measurements was assessed by Pearson's correlation coefficient.Results: The correlation between clinical and radiographic measurements in defect depthdetermination, in the evaluation of defect angle and in determination of defect widthwere 88%, 98% and 90%, respectively.Conclusions: Indirect digital radiographic technique can be used to diagnose intra-osseousdefects, providing a better opportunity to treat bony defects.

  14. Rotation Period Determination for 396 Aeolia, 298 Admete, 422 Berolina, and 555 Norma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, Frederick

    2017-04-01

    Synodic rotation periods and amplitudes are found for 396 Aeolia 14.353 ± 0.001 hours, 0.36 ± 0.02 magnitudes; 398 Admete 20.993 ± 0.001 hours, 0.07 ± 0.01 magnitudes; 422 Berolina 25.978 ± 0.001 hours, 0.16 ± 0.02 magnitudes; 555 Norma 19.508 ± 0.002 hours, 0.25 ± 0.02 magnitudes.

  15. Comparison of Columnar Water Vapor Measurements During The Fall 1997 ARM Intensive Observation Period: Solar Transmittance Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, B.; Michalsky, J. J.; Slater, D. W.; Barnard, J. C.; Halthore, R. N.; Liljegren, J. C.; Holben, B. N.; Eck, T. F.; Livingston, J. M.; Russell, P. B.

    2000-01-01

    In the fall of 1997, during an Intensive Observation Period (IOP), the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program conducted a study of water vapor abundance measurement at its Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. Among a large number of instruments, four sun-tracking radiometers were present to measure the columnar water vapor (CWV). All four solar radiometers retrieve CWV by measuring total solar transmittance in the 0.94-gm water vapor absorption band and subtracting contributions due to Rayleigh, ozone and aerosol transmittances. The aerosol optical depth comparisons among the same four radiometers has been presented elsewhere (Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 17, 2725-2728, 1999). We have used three different methods to retrieve CWV. In a first round of comparison no attempt was made to standardize on the same radiative transfer model and its underlying water vapor spectroscopy. In the second round of comparison we used the same line-by-line code (which includes recently corrected H2O spectroscopy) to retrieve CAN from all four suntracking radiometers. This decreased the mean CWV by 8% or 13%. The spread of 8% in the solar radiometer results found when using the same model is an indication of the other-than-model uncertainties involved in determining CWV from solar transmittance measurements with current instrumentation.

  16. Buying Time—The Immune System Determinants of the Incubation Period to Respiratory Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Moran

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory viruses cause disease in humans characterized by an abrupt onset of symptoms. Studies in humans and animal models have shown that symptoms are not immediate and appear days or even weeks after infection. Since the initial symptoms are a manifestation of virus recognition by elements of the innate immune response, early virus replication must go largely undetected. The interval between infection and the emergence of symptoms is called the incubation period and is widely used as a clinical score. While incubation periods have been described for many virus infections the underlying mechanism for this asymptomatic phase has not been comprehensively documented. Here we review studies of the interaction between human pathogenic respiratory RNA viruses and the host with a particular emphasis on the mechanisms used by viruses to inhibit immunity. We discuss the concept of the “stealth phase”, defined as the time between infection and the earliest detectable inflammatory response. We propose that the “stealth phase” phenomenon is primarily responsible for the suppression of symptoms during the incubation period and results from viral antagonism that inhibits major pathways of the innate immune system allowing an extended time of unhindered virus replication.

  17. Counting circadian cycles to determine the period of a circasemilunar rhythm in a marine insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soong, Keryea; Chang, Yin-Hao

    2012-12-01

    Semilunar and lunar rhythms are often controlled endogenously, but the mechanisms of their respective free-run periods, when external factors are absent, are mostly unclear. In this investigation, the authors studied the mechanism controlling the period of the circasemilunar emergence rhythm of a marine midge, Pontomyia oceana, in southern Taiwan. Experimental approaches were adopted with various artificial light-dark (LD) periods, or T, from 22 to 28 h per cycle in the first experiment, and 18 to 30 h per cycle in the second experiment, as treatments on the same cohorts of midge larvae. The responses in emergence days were directly proportional to the magnitude of the treatments, just as that predicted by the frequency demultiplication hypothesis. A counting mechanism is thus the only hypothesis supported by this finding. To further test whether it is endogenous oscillations that are counted, submultiples as well as multiples of 24 h, i.e., 6, 12, 24, and 48 h per cycle, were used as T. The midges under all these treatments emerged at similar days. This result supports the hypothesis that endogenous circadian oscillations, not external LD cycles, are counted in this circasemilunar emergence rhythm of the marine midge. This paper reports a first case supporting the frequency demultiplication hypothesis in a circasemilunar rhythm that is based on counting the cycles of endogenous circadian rhythms.

  18. Big data in reciprocal space: Sliding fast Fourier transforms for determining periodicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasudevan, Rama K., E-mail: rvv@ornl.gov; Belianinov, Alex; Baddorf, Arthur P.; Tselev, Alexander; Jesse, S. [Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Institute for Functional Imaging of Materials, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Gianfrancesco, Anthony G. [UT/ORNL Bredesen Center, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States); Kalinin, Sergei V. [Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Institute for Functional Imaging of Materials, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); UT/ORNL Bredesen Center, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States)

    2015-03-02

    Significant advances in atomically resolved imaging of crystals and surfaces have occurred in the last decade allowing unprecedented insight into local crystal structures and periodicity. Yet, the analysis of the long-range periodicity from the local imaging data, critical to correlation of functional properties and chemistry to the local crystallography, remains a challenge. Here, we introduce a Sliding Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) filter to analyze atomically resolved images of in-situ grown La{sub 5/8}Ca{sub 3/8}MnO{sub 3} (LCMO) films. We demonstrate the ability of sliding FFT algorithm to differentiate two sub-lattices, resulting from a mixed-terminated surface. Principal Component Analysis and Independent Component Analysis of the Sliding FFT dataset reveal the distinct changes in crystallography, step edges, and boundaries between the multiple sub-lattices. The implications for the LCMO system are discussed. The method is universal for images with any periodicity, and is especially amenable to atomically resolved probe and electron-microscopy data for rapid identification of the sub-lattices present.

  19. Determination of scattering in intraocular lenses by spectrophotometric measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artigas, José M; Felipe, Adelina; Navea, Amparo; García-Domene, M Carmen; Pons, Álvaro; Mataix, Jorge

    2014-12-01

    This study presents a method for measuring scattering in explanted intraocular lenses (IOLs). Currently, determining scattering in IOLs is usually performed by Scheimpflug cameras and the results are expressed in the units used by this apparatus. The method we propose uses a spectrophotometer and this makes it possible to measure the total transmission of the IOL by using an integrating sphere; the direct transmission is determined by the double-beam mode. The difference between these two transmissions gives a value of the scattering in percentage values of light lost. In addition, by obtaining the spectral transmission curve, information about the most scattered wavelengths is also obtained. The IOL power introduces errors when directly measured, particularly with high powers. This problem can be overcome if a tailor-made cuvette is used that shortens the distance between the IOL and the condensing lens of the spectrophotometer when the IOL powers are below 24 diopters. We checked the effectiveness of this method by measuring the scattering of three explanted IOLs from cornea donors. This method, however, does not make it possible to ascertain whether the scattering measured is caused by surface light scattering or internal light scattering.

  20. 75 FR 75678 - Determination of Regulatory Review Period for Purposes of Patent Extension; STELARA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-06

    ... candidates for phototherapy or systemic therapy. Subsequent to this approval, the Patent and Trademark Office... Centocor Ortho Biotech Inc., and the Patent and Trademark Office requested FDA's assistance in determining...

  1. Measurement Error Effects of Beam Parameters Determined by Beam Profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Jang, Ji-Ho; Jeon, Dong-O

    2015-01-01

    A conventional method to determine beam parameters is using the profile measurements and converting them into the values of twiss parameters and beam emittance at a specified position. The beam information can be used to improve transverse beam matching between two different beam lines or accelerating structures. This work is related with the measurement error effects of the beam parameters and the optimal number of profile monitors in a section between MEBT (medium energy beam transport) and QWR (quarter wave resonator) of RAON linear accelerator.

  2. Determination of time delay between ventricles contraction using impedance measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowska, M.; Poliński, A.; Wtorek, J.

    2013-04-01

    The paper presents a novel approach to assessment of ventricular dyssynchrony basing on multichannel electrical impedance measurements. Using a proper placement of electrodes, the sensitivity approach allows estimating time difference between chambers contraction from over determined nonlinear system of equations. The theoretical considerations which include Finite Element Method simulations were verified using measurements on healthy 28 year's old woman. The nonlinear least squares method was applied to obtain a time difference between heart chambers contraction. The obtained value was in a good agreement with theoretical values found in literature.

  3. Determination of Pole and Rotation Period of not Stabilized Artificial Satellite by Use of Model "diffuse Cylinder"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnik, S. Ya.; Dobrovolsky, A. V.; Paltsev, N. G.

    The algorithm of determination of orientation of rotation axis (pole) and rotation period of satellite, simulated by a cylinder, which is precessing around of vector of angular moment of pulse with constant nutation angle is offered. The Lambert's law of light reflection is accepted. Simultaneously, dependence of light reflection coefficient versus phase angle is determined. The model's simulation confirm applicability of this method. Results of the calculations for artificial satellite No 28506 are carried out.

  4. Methane emission from naturally ventilated livestock buildings can be determined from gas concentration measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerg, Bjarne; Zhang, Guoqiang; Madsen, Jørgen; Rom, Hans B

    2012-10-01

    Determination of emission of contaminant gases as ammonia, methane, or laughing gas from natural ventilated livestock buildings with large opening is a challenge due to the large variations in gas concentration and air velocity in the openings. The close relation between calculated animal heat production and the carbon dioxide production from the animals have in several cases been utilized for estimation of the ventilation air exchange rate for the estimation of ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions. Using this method, the problem of the complicated air velocity and concentration distribution in the openings is avoided; however, there are still some important issues remained unanswered: (1) the precision of the estimations, (2) the requirement for the length of measuring periods, and (3) the required measuring point number and location. The purpose of this work was to investigate how estimated average gas emission and the precision of the estimation are influenced by different calculation procedures, measuring period length, measure point locations, measure point numbers, and criteria for excluding measuring data. The analyses were based on existing data from a 6-day measuring period in a naturally ventilated, 150 milking cow building. The results showed that the methane emission can be determined with much higher precision than ammonia or laughing gas emissions, and, for methane, relatively precise estimations can be based on measure periods as short as 3 h. This result makes it feasible to investigate the influence of feed composition on methane emission in a relative large number of operating cattle buildings and consequently it can support a development towards reduced greenhouse gas emission from cattle production.

  5. Comparison of Columnar Water Vapor Measurements During The Fall 1997 ARM Intensive Observation Period: Optical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Beat; Michalsky, J.; Slater, D.; Barnard, J.; Halthore, R.; Liljegren, J.; Holben, B.; Eck, T.; Livingston, J.; Russell, P.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    In the fall of 1997 the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM program conducted an intensive Observation Period (IOP) to study water vapor at its Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. Among the large number of instruments, four sun-tracking radiometers were present to measure the columnar water vapor (CWV). All four solar radiometers retrieve CWV by measuring solar transmittance in the 0.94-micrometer water vapor absorption band. As one of the steps in the CWV retrievals the aerosol component is subtracted from the total transmittance, in the 0.94-micrometer band. The aerosol optical depth comparisons among the same four radiometers are presented elsewhere. We have used three different methods to retrieve CWV. Without attempting to standardize on the same radiative transfer model and its underlying water vapor spectroscopy we found the CWV to agree within 0.13 cm (rms) for CWV values ranging from 1 to 5 cm. Preliminary results obtained when using the same updated radiative transfer model with updated spectroscopy for all instruments will also be shown. Comparisons to the microwave radiometer results will be included in the comparisons.

  6. Dinosaur incubation periods directly determined from growth-line counts in embryonic teeth show reptilian-grade development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Gregory M.; Zelenitsky, Darla K.; Kay, David Ian; Norell, Mark A.

    2017-01-01

    Birds stand out from other egg-laying amniotes by producing relatively small numbers of large eggs with very short incubation periods (average 11–85 d). This aspect promotes high survivorship by limiting exposure to predation and environmental perturbation, allows for larger more fit young, and facilitates rapid attainment of adult size. Birds are living dinosaurs; their rapid development has been considered to reflect the primitive dinosaurian condition. Here, nonavian dinosaurian incubation periods in both small and large ornithischian taxa are empirically determined through growth-line counts in embryonic teeth. Our results show unexpectedly slow incubation (2.8 and 5.8 mo) like those of outgroup reptiles. Developmental and physiological constraints would have rendered tooth formation and incubation inherently slow in other dinosaur lineages and basal birds. The capacity to determine incubation periods in extinct egg-laying amniotes has implications for dinosaurian embryology, life history strategies, and survivorship across the Cretaceous–Paleogene mass extinction event. PMID:28049837

  7. Influence of the recall period on a beverage-specific weekly drinking measure for alcohol intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekholm, O.; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Grønbæk, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Our knowledge of the association between alcohol intake and alcohol-related health outcomes depends, to a large extent, on the validity and reliability of self-reported alcohol intake. Weekly drinking measures are frequently used in epidemiological surveys, but it has been......-reported weekly alcohol intake. Subjects/Methods: The data is derived from the Danish Health Interview Survey 2005, which is based on a region-stratified random sample of 21¿832 Danish citizens aged =16 years (response rate: 67%). The data were collected via face-to-face interviews. Results: A beverage......-specific question on alcohol intake on each day during the last week did not alter the strong association between the recall period and self-reported alcohol intake. However, the overall self-reported alcohol intake increased substantially when using the beverage-specific question instead of asking for the overall...

  8. Statistical analysis for solar proton events measured by goes spacecraft during the period (1976-1990)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaltout, M. A. Mosalam; Yousef, S.; El-Saied, O. M.

    During the period from January 1976 to January 1990 there were 81 solar proton flares affecting the solar-terrestrial environment, the events measured by GOES spacecraft at Geosynchronous orbit. Proton fluxes are integral 5-minute averages for energies > 10 MeV, given in particle flux unit (pfu) where 1 pfu = 1p/cm^2s^-1sr^-1. The data are published in the comprehensive reports of ``Solar-Geophysical Data'' by NOAA, Boulder - Colorado, USA. Statistical analysis was carried out for 81 solar proton events and their associated solar flares and active regions. The proton flux classified to seven levels from 10 to > 100.000 pfu. The delay time between the maximum flaring on the sun and the maximum proton flux of the event recorded by GOES has been taken into consideration. Also, the correlation between the proton flux and X-ray and radio bursts, and optical importance of the associated flare was performed.

  9. Thermosensitive period of sex determination in the coral-reef damselfish Acanthochromis polyacanthus and the implications of projected ocean warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, G. G.; Donelson, J. M.; Munday, P. L.

    2017-03-01

    Higher temperatures associated with climate change have the potential to significantly alter the population sex ratio of species with temperature-dependent sex determination. Whether or not elevated temperature affects sex determination depends on both the absolute temperature experienced and the stage of development at which the thermal conditions occur. We explored the importance of exposure timing during early development in the coral reef fish, Acanthochromis polyacanthus, by increasing water temperature 1.5 or 3 °C above the summer average (28.5 °C) at different stages of development. We also measured the effect of treatment temperature on fish size and condition, in order to gauge how the thermal threshold for sex-ratio bias may compare with other commonly considered physiological metrics. Increasing grow-out temperature from 28.5 to 30 °C had no effect on the sex ratio of offspring, whereas an increase to 31.5 °C (+3 °C) produced a strong male bias (average 90%). The thermosensitive period for this species lasted between 25 and 60 d post hatching, with the bias in sex ratio greater the earlier that fish experienced warm conditions. Temperatures high enough to bias the sex ratio are likely to be seen first during late summer (January and February) and would affect clutches produced late in the breeding season. There was no change to fish condition in response to temperature; however, the two higher temperature treatments produced significantly smaller fish at sampling. Clutches produced early in the season could buffer the population from a skewed sex ratio, as their development will remain below the thermal threshold; however, continued ocean warming could mean that clutches produced earlier in the breeding season would also be affected in the longer term. A skewed sex ratio could be detrimental to population viability by reducing the number of females in the breeding population.

  10. Determining plasma morphine levels using GC-MS after solid phase extraction to monitor drug levels in the postoperative period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Santos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To implement a selective and sensitive analytical method to quantify morphine in small volumes of plasma by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, aimed at post-operatively monitoring the drug. METHOD: A gas-liquid chromatographic method with mass detection has been developed to determine morphine concentration in plasma after solid phase extraction. Morphine-d3 was used as an internal standard. Only 0.5 mL of plasma is required for the drug solid-phase extraction in the Bond Elut-Certify®, followed by the quantification of morphine derivative by GC-MS using a linear temperature program, a capillary fused silica column, and helium as the carrier and make-up gas. The method was applied to determine morphine content in plasma samples of four patients during the postoperative period of cardiac surgery. Patient-controlled analgesia with morphine was performed by a venous catheter, and a series of venous blood samples were collected. After the oro-After the orotracheal extubation, morphine plasma levels were monitored for up to 36 hours. RESULTS: The run time was 16 minutes because morphine and the internal standard were eluted after 8.8 minutes. The GC-MS method had 0.5 -1000 ng/mL linearity range (r²=0.9995, 0.1 ng/mL limit of detection, intraday and interday precision equivalent to 1.9% and 6.8%, and 0.1% and 0.8% systematic error (intraday and interday, respectively. The analytical method showed optimal absolute (98% and relative (100.7% recoveries. Morphine dose requirements and plasma levels are discussed. CONCLUSION: The analytical gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method is selective and adequate for morphine measurements in plasma for applications in clinical studies.

  11. Determining plasma morphine levels using GC-MS after solid phase extraction to monitor drug levels in the postoperative period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Veronica; López, Karin Jannet Vera; Santos, Luciana Moraes; Yonamine, Mauricio; Carmona, Maria José Carvalho; Santos, Silvia Regina Cavani Jorge

    2008-06-01

    To implement a selective and sensitive analytical method to quantify morphine in small volumes of plasma by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), aimed at post-operatively monitoring the drug. A gas-liquid chromatographic method with mass detection has been developed to determine morphine concentration in plasma after solid phase extraction. Morphine-d3 was used as an internal standard. Only 0.5 mL of plasma is required for the drug solid-phase extraction in the Bond Elut-Certify, followed by the quantification of morphine derivative by GC-MS using a linear temperature program, a capillary fused silica column, and helium as the carrier and make-up gas. The method was applied to determine morphine content in plasma samples of four patients during the postoperative period of cardiac surgery. Patient-controlled analgesia with morphine was performed by a venous catheter, and a series of venous blood samples were collected. After the oro-After the orotracheal extubation, morphine plasma levels were monitored for up to 36 hours. The run time was 16 minutes because morphine and the internal standard were eluted after 8.8 minutes. The GC-MS method had 0.5 -1000 ng/mL linearity range (r(2)=0.9995), 0.1 ng/mL limit of detection, intraday and interday precision equivalent to 1.9% and 6.8%, and 0.1% and 0.8% systematic error (intraday and interday, respectively). The analytical method showed optimal absolute (98%) and relative (100.7%) recoveries. Morphine dose requirements and plasma levels are discussed. The analytical gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method is selective and adequate for morphine measurements in plasma for applications in clinical studies.

  12. Determining the annual periodicity of growth rings in seven tree species of a tropical moist forest in Santa Cruz, Bolivia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez, L.; Villalba, R.; Peña-Claros, M.

    2012-01-01

    To determine the annual periodicity of growth rings in seven tree species from a tropical moist forest in Santa Cruz, Bolivia, a fire scar was used as a marker point to verify the annual nature of tree rings. The number of tree rings formed between the 1995 fire scar and the collection of the cross

  13. Determining Confounding Sensitivities In Eddy Current Thin Film Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gros, Ethan; Udpa, Lalita; Smith, James A.; Wachs, Katelyn

    2016-07-01

    Determining Confounding Sensitivities In Eddy Current Thin Film Measurements Ethan Gros, Lalita Udpa, Electrical Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing MI 48824 James A. Smith, Experiment Analysis, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls ID 83415 Eddy current (EC) techniques are widely used in industry to measure the thickness of non-conductive films on a metal substrate. This is done using a system whereby a coil carrying a high-frequency alternating current is used to create an alternating magnetic field at the surface of the instrument's probe. When the probe is brought near a conductive surface, the alternating magnetic field will induce ECs in the conductor. The substrate characteristics and the distance of the probe from the substrate (the coating thickness) affect the magnitude of the ECs. The induced currents load the probe coil affecting the terminal impedance of the coil. The measured probe impedance is related to the lift off between coil and conductor as well as conductivity of the test sample. For a known conductivity sample, the probe impedance can be converted into an equivalent film thickness value. The EC measurement can be confounded by a number of measurement parameters. It is the goal of this research to determine which physical properties of the measurement set-up and sample can adversely affect the thickness measurement. The eddy current testing is performed using a commercially available, hand held eddy current probe (ETA3.3H spring loaded eddy probe running at 8 MHz) that comes with a stand to hold the probe. The stand holds the probe and adjusts the probe on the z-axis to help position the probe in the correct area as well as make precise measurements. The signal from the probe is sent to a hand held readout, where the results are recorded directly in terms of liftoff or film thickness. Understanding the effect of certain factors on the measurements of film thickness, will help to evaluate how accurate the ETA3.3H spring

  14. Residual Stress Determination from a Laser-Based Curvature Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swank, William David; Gavalya, Rick Allen; Wright, Julie Knibloe; Wright, Richard Neil

    2000-05-01

    Thermally sprayed coating characteristics and mechanical properties are in part a result of the residual stress developed during the fabrication process. The total stress state in a coating/substrate is comprised of the quench stress and the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mismatch stress. The quench stress is developed when molten particles impact the substrate and rapidly cool and solidify. The CTE mismatch stress results from a large difference in the thermal expansion coefficients of the coating and substrate material. It comes into effect when the substrate/coating combination cools from the equilibrated deposit temperature to room temperature. This paper describes a laser-based technique for measuring the curvature of a coated substrate and the analysis required to determine residual stress from curvature measurements. Quench stresses were determined by heating the specimen back to the deposit temperature thus removing the CTE mismatch stress. By subtracting the quench stress from the total residual stress at room temperature, the CTE mismatch stress was estimated. Residual stress measurements for thick (>1mm) spinel coatings with a Ni-Al bond coat on 304 stainless steel substrates were made. It was determined that a significant portion of the residual stress results from the quenching stress of the bond coat and that the spinel coating produces a larger CTE mismatch stress than quench stress.

  15. Measuring rotation periods of solar-like stars using TIGRE. A study of periodic CaII H+K S-index variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempelmann, A.; Mittag, M.; Gonzalez-Perez, J. N.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Schröder, K. P.; Rauw, G.

    2016-02-01

    Context. The rotation period of a star is a key parameter both for the stellar dynamo that generates magnetic fields as well as for stellar differential rotation. Aims: We present the results from the first year of monitoring a sample of solar-like stars by the TIGRE facility in Guanajuato (Mexico), which will study rotation in solar analogs. Methods: TIGRE is an automatically operating 1.2 m telescope equipped with an Échelle spectrograph with a spectral resolution of 20 000, which covers a spectral range of between 3800 and 8800 Å. A main task is the monitoring the stellar activity of cool stars, mainly in the emission cores of the CaII H and K lines. We observed a number of stars with a sampling between 1-3 days over one year. Results: A total number of 95 stars were observed between August 1 2013 and July 31 2014, the total number of spectra taken for this program was appoximately 2700. For almost a third of the sample stars the number of observations was rather low (less than 20), mainly because of bad weather. Fifty-four stars show a periodic signal but often with low significance. Only 24 stars exhibit a significant period. We interpret these signals as stellar rotation. For about half of them the rotation periods were already previously known, in which case our period measurements are usually in good agreement with the literature values. Besides the periodic signals, trends are frequently observed in the time series. Conclusions: TIGRE is obviously able to detect stellar rotation periods in the CaII H+K emission cores when the time series contains a sufficient number of data points. However, this is frequently not achievable during the wet summer season in Guanajuato. Hence, future estimates of rotation periods will concentrate on stars that are observable during the winter season from October until April.

  16. The Determinants of Investor Preferences during the Financial Crisis Periods: A Study on 2001 Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülfen TUNA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study is targeting to examine the effects of 2001 financial crisis on the shares included in the lowest-risk portfolios of Istanbul Stock Exchange. To this end; monthly returns data of all shares traded in Istanbul Stock Exchange between 2000:11-2002:09 term, are evaluated. While portfolio selection is carried out via Markowitz Model, the effects of 2001 financal crisis are examined whereby ratio analysis. The findings display that the firms examined have benefited from the positive impact of exporting, furthermore, the amounts of short term debts are increased. Besides, both stock retention and receivable collection periods of the mentioned firms are decreased.

  17. High Arctic plant phenology is determined by snowmelt patterns but duration of phenological periods is fixed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Semenchuk, Philipp R.; Gillespie, Mark A K; Rumpf, Sabine B.

    2016-01-01

    during late-season are triggered by external cues, such as day length, light quality or temperature, leading to the hypothesis that earlier or later snowmelt dates will lengthen or shorten the duration of these periods, respectively, and thereby affect plant performance. We tested whether snowmelt date...... be considered an evolutionary trait leading to disadvantages compared with aperiodic species and we conclude that the mesic and heath vegetation types in Svalbard are at risk of being outcompeted by invading, aperiodic species from milder biomes....

  18. Determination of Pulsation Periods and Other Parameters of 2875 Stars Classified as MIRA in the All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, N.; Contreras-Quijada, A.; Fuentes-Morales, I.; Vogt-Geisse, S.; Arcos, C.; Abarca, C.; Agurto-Gangas, C.; Caviedes, M.; DaSilva, H.; Flores, J.; Gotta, V.; Peñaloza, F.; Rojas, K.; Villaseñor, J. I.

    2016-11-01

    We have developed an interactive PYTHON code and derived crucial ephemeris data of 99.4% of all stars classified as “Mira” in the ASAS database, referring to pulsation periods, mean maximum magnitudes, and whenever possible, the amplitudes among others. We present a statistical comparison between our results and those given by the International Variable Star Index (VSX) of the American Association of Variable Star Observers, as well as those determined with the machine learning automatic procedure of Richards et al. Our periods are in good agreement with those of the VSX in more than 95% of the stars. However, when comparing our periods with those of Richards et al., the coincidence rate is only 76% and most of the remaining cases refer to aliases. We conclude that automatic codes still require more refinements in order to provide reliable period values. Period distributions of the target stars show three local maxima around 215, 275, and 330 days, apparently of universal validity; their relative strength seems to depend on galactic longitude. Our visual amplitude distribution turns out to be bimodal, however, 1/3 of the targets have rather small amplitudes (A < 2.5 m ) and could refer to semiregular variables (SR). We estimate that about 20% of our targets belong to the SR class. We also provide a list of 63 candidates for period variations and a sample of 35 multiperiodic stars that seem to confirm the universal validity of typical sequences in the double period and in the Petersen diagrams.

  19. DETERMINING THE EFFECTS OF THE FACTORS ON FDI IN GLOBAL CRISIS PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selahattin GURIS

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze factors affecting Foreign Direct Investment (FDI in countries with a high rate of FDI from 2005 to 2011, by examining the effects of the 2008 crisis. A Panel Tobit model is estimated in order to see the effects on the whole period, and classical Tobit models for each year are estimated separately for the purpose of examining the effects prior to, after and during the crisis, in detail. In the Tobit models, estimated separately for each year, the labor rate and inflation rate variables that are significant in panel Tobit models are not found significant for any of the examined years. As the balance of current accounts is found to be significant both prior to and after the crisis, it can be said that the effect of this variable on FDI is not affected by the crisis. Although there are studies examining factors affecting the FDI in the crisis period, to the best of our knowledge this is the only study using panel Tobit and classical Tobit models to that end.

  20. Issues in the measurement of social determinants of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Gavin; Fohtung, Nubong G

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the measurement of the social determinants of health, and specifically on issues relating to two key variables relevant to the analysis of public health information: poverty and inequality. Although the paper has been written from the perspective of economics, the discipline of the two authors, it is also of relevance to researchers in other disciplines. It is argued that there is a need to ensure that, when considering measurement in this largely neglected area of research, sufficient thought is given to the relationships that are being examined or assessed. We argue further that any attempt at measurement in this area must take into account the historical backdrop and the complex nature of the relationships between these key variables.

  1. Myo-inositol, glucose and zinc concentrations determined in the preconceptional period, during and after pregnancy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenen, P.M.; Roes, E.M.; Peer, P.G.M.; Merkus, H.M.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Steegers-Theunissen, R.P.M.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the blood concentrations of myo-inositol, glucose and zinc before, during and after normal pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: Preconceptionally, at 6, 10, 20, 30 and 37 weeks amenorrhea, and 6 weeks after delivery, blood samples of 18 nulliparae and 19 multiparae were obtained and conc

  2. Kinetic spectrophotometric determination of rutin by its inhibitory effect on the oxidation of amaranth by potassium periodate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuhao; Du, Lingyun; Yao, Xingjun; Niu, Xueli; Zhuang, Huisheng

    2005-01-01

    A novel kinetic spectrophotometric method is described for the determination of rutin. The method is based on the inhibitory effect of rutin on the oxidation reaction of amaranth by potassium periodate in acidic media at 100 degrees C. The linear range for the determination of rutin is 0.02 - 0.50 microg/ml, and the detection limit is 0.014 microg/ml. The method has been successfully applied to the determination of rutin in medicine of rutin tablet and traditional Chinese medicine.

  3. Determination of the symmetries of an experimentally determined stiffness tensor; application to acoustic measurements

    CERN Document Server

    François, Marc Louis Maurice; Berthaud, Yves

    2009-01-01

    For most materials, the symmetry group is known a priori and deduced from the realization process. This allows many simplifications for the measurements of the stiffness tensor. We deal here with the case where the symmetry is a priori unknown, as for biological or geological materials, or when the process makes the material symmetry axis uncertain (some composites, monocrystals). The measurements are then more complicated and the raw stiffness tensor obtained does not exhibit any symmetry in the Voigt's matricial form, as it is expressed in the arbitrarily chosen specimen's base. A complete ultrasonic measurement of the stiffness tensor from redundant measurements is proposed. In a second time, we show how to make a plane symmetry pole figure able to give visual information about the quasi-symmetries of a raw stiffness tensor determined by any measurement method. Finally we introduce the concept of distance from a raw stiffness tensor to one of the eight symmetry classes available for a stiffness tensor. The...

  4. Flow—injection Chemiluminescence Sensor for the Determination of Gallic Acid by Immobilizing Luminol and Periodate on Anionexchange Resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鞠Huang先; 张四纯; 周国俊

    2002-01-01

    A novel chemiluminescence (CL) sensor for the determination of gallic acld combined with folw injection analysis was developed by electrostatically immobilizing hminol and periodate on anion-exchange resins respectively.Gallic acid was sensed by its enhancing effect on the weak CL reaction between luminol and periodate,which were eluted from the ion exchange column.The possible reaction mechanism of the CL system was suggested and discussed.The response of the sensor to gallic acid concentration was linear over the range of 8.0×10-—1.0×10-6mol/L with a detection limit of 6.5×10-9 mol/L(3σ).The relative standard deviation (RSD) for 7 repetitive determinations of gallic acid(1.0×10-7mol/L) was 1.8?The sensor could be used for over 400 times determination with a good reproducibility.

  5. Lag time determination in DEC measurements with PTR-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Taipale

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The disjunct eddy covariance (DEC method has emerged as a popular technique for micrometeorological flux measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs. It has usually been combined with proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS, an online technique for VOC concentration measurements. However, the determination of the lag time between wind and concentration measurements has remained an important challenge. To address this issue, we studied the effect of different lag time methods on DEC fluxes. The analysis was based on both actual DEC measurements with PTR-MS and simulated DEC data derived from high frequency H2O measurements with an infrared gas analyzer. Conventional eddy covariance fluxes of H2O served as a reference in the DEC simulation. The individual flux measurements with PTR-MS were rather sensitive to the lag time methods, but typically this effect averaged out when the median fluxes were considered. The DEC simulation revealed that the maximum covariance method was prone to overestimation of the absolute values of fluxes. The constant lag time methods, one based on a value calculated from the sampling flow and the sampling line dimensions and the other on a typical daytime value, had a tendency to underestimate. The visual assessment method and our new averaging approach utilizing running averaged covariance functions did not yield statistically significant errors and thus fared better than the habitual choice, the maximum covariance method. Given this feature and the potential for automatic flux calculation, we recommend using the averaging approach in DEC measurements with PTR-MS. It also seems well suited to conventional eddy covariance applications when measuring fluxes near the detection limit.

  6. Rotation Period Determination for 254 Augusta, 465 Alekto 477 Italia, 515 Athalia, and 1061 Paeonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, Frederick

    2015-04-01

    Synodic rotation periods and amplitudes have been found for 254 Augusta 5.8949 ± 0.0001 hours, 0.75 to 0.58 magnitudes; 465 Alekto, 10.936 ± 0.001 hours, 0.14 ± 0.02 magnitudes with 3 maxima and minima per cycle; 477 Italia 19.413 ± 0.001 hours, 0.20 to 0.15 magnitudes with 3 very unequal maxima and minima per cycle; 515 Athalia 10.636 ± 0.001 hours, 0.21 ± 0.02 magnitudes; and 1061 Paeonia, 7.9971 ± 0.0001 hours, 1.00 ± 0.05 magnitudes.

  7. The Carbon Cycle as the Main Determinant of Glacial-Interglacial Periods

    CERN Document Server

    de la Cuesta, Diego Jiménez; Núñez, Darío; Rumbos, Beatriz; Vergara-Cervantes, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    An intriguing problem in climate science is the existence of Earth's glacial cycle. We show that it is possible to generate these periodic changes in climate by means of the Earth's carbon cycle as the main source factor. The carbon exchange between the Ocean, the Continent and the Atmosphere is modeled by means of a Lotka-Volterra three species system and the resulting atmospheric carbon cycle is used as the unique radiative forcing mechanism. It is shown that the carbon dioxide and temperature paths that are thus obtained have the same qualitative structure as the 100 kyr glacial-interglacial cycles depicted by the Vostok ice core data, reproducing the asymmetries of rapid heating--slow cooling, and short interglacial--long glacial ages.

  8. Metabolism measurements of Aurelia aurita planulae larvae, and calculation of maximal survival period of the free swimming stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, G.; Weisse, T.

    1985-03-01

    Respiration, ammonia and phosphate excretion experiments were performed with planula larvae of Aurelia aurita (Scyphozoa) from Kiel Fjord, Baltic Sea, in summer 1983. The mean respiration measured was 3.22 nl O2 ind-1 h-1 (at ˜ 20 °C). Excretion experiments revealed average values of 11.41 pM NH4-N ind-1, and 0.92 pM PO4-P ind-1h-1, respectively. The atomic C:N:P ratio of excretion products was 133:10:1. The O:N ratio of 25:1 and O:P ratio of 313:1 point to a lipid-carbohydrate-oriented catabolism of the Aurelia larvae. On the basis of experimental results and of biomass determinations, the maximal survival period of the non-feeding free swimming planula stage was calculated. Typically, the value lies in the range of some days to one week.

  9. Determining Route Survey Periodicity for Mine Warfare: Investigation of Bedforms, Waves, Tides, and Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Sonar to Determine Regional Bedload Sediment Transport Patterns in the San Francisco Bay Coastal System. Sedimentology , In: Li, M., Sherwood, C., and...Hill, P. (Eds.), International Association of Sedimentologist’s Special Publication Book on Shelf Sedimentology , 33 pp. Blondeaux, P. (2001...its Relationship to bedforms and Deposition of Mud. Journal of Sedimentology and Petrolium, 41, 89-96. McCave, I. N. (1971b). Sand waves of the

  10. Determination of nutritive changes of canned mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) during storage period

    OpenAIRE

    Necla Caglarlrmak; Kemal Unal; Semih Otles

    2001-01-01

    Mushrooms (A. bisporus) have a high nutritive value. Consuming fresh mushrooms is not productive because of enzyme activity and other limiting factors. The canning process is one food treatment that provides long product shelf-life. The changes of nutrients were determined by proximate composition: fat, protein, moisture, ash, and total carbohydrates. Minerals: Zn, Cu, K, Na, Ca, Cr, and P. Water soluble vitamins: B1 (thiamine), B2 (riboflavin), folic acid, pantothenic acid, ni...

  11. Lag time determination in DEC measurements with PTR-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Taipale

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The disjunct eddy covariance (DEC method has emerged as a popular technique for micrometeorological flux measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs. It has usually been combined with proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS, an online technique for VOC concentration measurements. However, the determination of the lag time between wind and concentration measurements has remained an important challenge. To address this conundrum, we studied the effect of different lag time methods on DEC fluxes. The analysis was based on both actual DEC measurements with PTR-MS and simulated DEC data derived from high frequency H2O measurements with an infrared gas analyzer. Conventional eddy covariance fluxes of H2O served as a reference in the DEC simulation. The individual flux measurements with PTR-MS were rather sensitive to the lag time methods, but typically this effect averaged out when the median fluxes were considered. The DEC simulation revealed that the maximum covariance method was prone to overestimation of the absolute values of fluxes. The constant lag time methods, one resting on a value calculated from the sampling flow and the sampling line dimensions and the other on a typical daytime value, had a tendency to underestimate. The visual assessment method and our new averaging approach based on running averaged covariance functions did not yield statistically significant errors and thus fared better than the habitual choice, the maximum covariance method. Given this feature and the potential for automatic flux calculation, we recommend using the averaging approach in DEC measurements with PTR-MS.

  12. Psychophysical determination of load carrying capacity for a 1-h work period by Chinese males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S P; Chen, C C

    2001-09-15

    This study used the psychophysical approach to examine the effects of container width, the presence or absence of container handles, and different load-carrying frequencies and distances on the maximum acceptable weight carried and the resulting response (heart rate and rating of perceived exertion) by well-conditioned males for a 1-h work period. After training, 12 male subjects performed a load-carrying task at knuckle height. Each subject performed 30 different carrying combinations. The conditions examined were container width, from 15.2 to 55.9 cm; carrying frequency, from 1 carry to 5 carries/min; and carrying distance from 1 to 6 m. The results were compared with prior studies and led to the following conclusions: (1) the use of container handles leads to the subjects carrying a significantly higher maximum acceptable weight than when containers do not have handles, which differs from the results of a previous study by Morrissey and Liou; (2) there were significant reductions in the maximum acceptable carrying weight with increases in container width, frequency and distance; (3) the presence or absence of container handles, different frequencies and load-carrying distances had significant effects on heart rate, although the effect of container width was not significant. In addition, the various frequencies and distances for load carrying had significant interaction effects on heart rate; (4) the effects of various frequencies and load-carrying distances on the rating of perceived exertion were statistically significant. The most stressed body parts were the wrists and arms.

  13. Intracellular pH-determination by fluorescence measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, J W; Jongeling, A A; Tanke, H J

    1979-01-01

    A method was developed to determine the intracellular pH (pHi) of individual cells by use of fluorescence measurements. The method is based on the observation that the fluorescence excitation spectrum of fluorescein is pH-dependent. Fluorescence excitation spectra from individual rat bone marrow cells treated with fluorescein diacetate (FDA) were compared with those of fluorescein solutions of known pH values. Cells which were suspended in media of pH between 4.0 and 8.1 with high to normal buffering capacities had pHi values equal to those of the media. Cells suspended in media with low buffering capacities maintained a pH,i of 6.7 +/- 0.2. Preliminary results indicated that the pHi of individual cells may also be determined by using flow cytometry.

  14. Milks pigmentation with astaxanthin and determination of colour stability during short period cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezquita, Pedro Cerezal; Huerta, Blanca E Barragán; Ramírez, Jenifer C Palma; Hinojosa, Claudia P Ortíz

    2015-03-01

    Astaxanthin has been used as a colorant and antioxidant with excellent results, its application and stability in food matrices to human consumption has been little studied. The aim of this work was the incorporation of astaxanthin oleoresin to milks with different fat content, simulating the red-orange color that can impart apricot fruit. For astaxanthin determination by HPLC, a methodology was implemented for its extraction from the food matrix, followed by saponification with KOH. Milk samples were stored (5 ± 2 °C) and stability of color and astaxanthin content were determined by colorimetry and high performance liquid chromatography each 24 h for a week. Pigment degradation followed first-order kinetic with a constant degradation of 0.259 day(-1) and 0.104 day(-1), in whole and semi-skimmed milk, respectively. Chromaticity coordinates L*, a*, b* for different types of milk showed a low dispersion of their values during the storage time, indicating high stability of astaxanthin within the matrix.

  15. An Electrostatics Approach to the Determination of Extremal Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinguet, Jean [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut Mathematique, Chemin du Cyclotron 2 (Belgium)], E-mail: meinguet@anma.ucl.ac.be

    2000-12-15

    One of the most important aspects of the minimal energy (or induced equilibrium) problem in the presence of an external field - sometimes referred to as the Gauss variation problem - is the determination of the support of its solution (the so-called extremal measure associated with the field). A simple electrostatic interpretation is presented here, which is apparently new and anyway suggests a novel, rather systematic approach to the solution. By way of illustration, the classical results for Jacobi, Laguerre and Freud weights are explicitly recovered by this alternative method.

  16. Determining the quality of water in environmental measuring technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonfig, K.W.; Kramp, E.

    1983-11-01

    The present high degree of pollution of our water resources due to environmental effects endangers the natural cleaning processes. With the growing demand for water from domestic, industrial and other users, certain minimum requirements must be postulated for the quality of water returned to the natural circuit. This requires continuous control and monitoring of the quality of water in many industrial and community areas, such as water treatment plants, for example. Measuring processes and equipment are used to an increasing degree here. This article reports on processes for determining important parameters for the quality of water. Processes with and without treatment of samples are mentioned.

  17. Determination of elastic modulus in nickel alloy from ultrasonic measurements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nikhat Parveen; G V S Murthy

    2011-04-01

    Elastic constants relate technological, structural and safety aspects to various materials phenomena and to their fundamental interatomic forces. Hence, they are of fundamental importance in almost all engineering applications. Thus its determination is of utmost importance. The aim of the present investigation is to study the behaviour of elastic constants and the variation on heat treatment in a nickel base super alloy Nimonic 263 by ultrasonic velocity measurements. From the present study it is evident that the elastic moduli of the material are very sensitive to any minor compositional changes, resulting due to the formation of intermetallic phases on heat treatment and can be effectively monitored by ultrasonic.

  18. Determination of the elastic modulus of snow via acoustic measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerling, Bastian; van Herwijnen, Alec; Löwe, Henning

    2016-04-01

    The elastic modulus of snow is a key quantity from the viewpoint of avalanche research and forecasting, snow engineering or materials science in general. Since it is a fundamental property, many measurements have been reported in the literature. Due to differences in measurement methods, there is a lot of variation in the reported values. Especially values derived via computer tomography (CT) based numerical calculations using finite element methods are not corresponding to the results of other methods. The central issue is that CT based moduli are purely elastic whereas other methods may include viscoelastic deformation. In order to avoid this discrepancy we derived the elastic modulus of snow via wave propagation measurements and compared our results with CT based calculations. We measured the arrival times of acoustic pulses propagating through the snow samples to determine the P-wave velocity and in turn derive the elastic modulus along the direction of wave propagation. We performed a series of laboratory experiments to derive the P-wave modulus of snow in relation to density. The P-wave modulus ranged from 10 to 280 MPa for a snow density between 150 and 370 kg/m^3;. The moduli derived from the acoustic measurements correlated well with the CT-based values and both exhibited a power law trend over the entire density range. Encouraged by these results we used the acoustic method to investigate the temporal evolution of the elastic modulus. The rate of increase was very close to values mentioned in literature on the sintering rate of snow. Overall, our results are a first but important step towards a new measurement method to attain the elastic properties of snow.

  19. Fast algorithms for determining the linear complexities of sequences over GF(pm) with the period 3n

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Hao

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, for the the primes p such that 3 is a divisor of p - 1, we prove a result which reduces the computation of the linear complexity of a sequence over GF(pm)(any positive integer m) with the period 3n (n and pm - 1 are coprime) to the computation of the linear complexities of three sequences with the period n. Combined with some known algorithms such as generalized Games-Chan algorithm, Berlekamp-Massey algorithm and Xiao-Wei-Lam-lmamura algorithm, we can determine the linear complexity of any sequence over GF(pm) with the period 3n (n and pm - 1 are coprime) more efficiently.

  20. Two period measures for comparing the fertility of marriage and cohabitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Laplante

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The diffusion of cohabitation and, presumably, of childbearing within cohabitation, inspires interest in measuring the respective contribution of childbearing within marriage and within cohabitation to overall fertility. However, there is no consensus on a proper way to do so. Objective: Contribute to the development of tools for assessing the relative importance of marriage and cohabitation to overall fertility by developing period measures closely related to age-specific fertility rates and the total fertility rate. Methods: We introduce two measures: 1 the contribution of the conjugal state (living alone, living in a cohabiting union, being married to age-specific fertility rates (CASFR and 2 the contribution of the conjugal state to the TFR (CTFR. These measures are similar in construction to the marital (legitimate fertility rates and marital (legitimate TFR, but they are weighted by the proportion of women living alone, cohabiting, or being married at each age, so that their sum is the overall TFR. Taken together, they represent the fertility of the average woman of a synthetic cohort who moves across the various conjugal states (living alone, cohabiting, being married over her life course. They provide "realistic" estimates of completed fertility within each conjugal state. Conclusions: CASFRs provide a description of the fertility, over her life course, of a synthetic woman who would have spent her reproductive years living alone, cohabiting, and being married as the average woman of the synthetic cohort. CTFR provides a decomposition of the cumulative fertility of this synthetic woman. Over her life course, she would have had exactly the number of children computed using the overall TFR, but CTFR details the proportion of these children she would have had while living alone, while cohabiting, and while being married. Comments: Despite being defined as a conditional ASR weighted by the age-specific proportion of women living

  1. Determining confounding sensitivities in eddy current thin film measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gros, Ethan; Udpa, Lalita; Smith, James A.; Wachs, Katelyn

    2017-02-01

    Eddy current (EC) techniques are widely used in industry to measure the thickness of non-conductive films on a metal substrate. This is done by using a system whereby a coil carrying a high-frequency alternating current is used to create an alternating magnetic field at the surface of the instrument's probe. When the probe is brought near a conductive surface, the alternating magnetic field will induce ECs in the conductor. The substrate characteristics and the distance of the probe from the substrate (the coating thickness) affect the magnitude of the ECs. The induced currents load the probe coil affecting the terminal impedance of the coil. The measured probe impedance is related to the lift off between coil and conductor as well as conductivity of the test sample. For a known conductivity sample, the probe impedance can be converted into an equivalent film thickness value. The EC measurement can be confounded by a number of measurement parameters. It was the goal of this research to determine which physical properties of the measurement set-up and sample can adversely affect the thickness measurement. The eddy-current testing was performed using a commercially available, hand-held eddy-current probe (ETA3.3H spring-loaded eddy probe running at 8 MHz) that comes with a stand to hold the probe. The stand holds the probe and adjusts the probe on the z-axis to help position the probe in the correct area as well as make precise measurements. The signal from the probe was sent to a hand-held readout, where the results are recorded directly in terms of liftoff or film thickness. Understanding the effect of certain factors on the measurements of film thickness, will help to evaluate how accurate the ETA3.3H spring-loaded eddy probe was at measuring film thickness under varying experimental conditions. This research studied the effects of a number of factors such as i) conductivity, ii) edge effect, iii) surface finish of base material and iv) cable condition.

  2. Improving the precipitation accumulation analysis using lightning measurements and different integration periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregow, Erik; Pessi, Antti; Mäkelä, Antti; Saltikoff, Elena

    2017-01-01

    The focus of this article is to improve the precipitation accumulation analysis, with special focus on the intense precipitation events. Two main objectives are addressed: (i) the assimilation of lightning observations together with radar and gauge measurements, and (ii) the analysis of the impact of different integration periods in the radar-gauge correction method. The article is a continuation of previous work by Gregow et al. (2013) in the same research field. A new lightning data assimilation method has been implemented and validated within the Finnish Meteorological Institute - Local Analysis and Prediction System. Lightning data do improve the analysis when no radars are available, and even with radar data, lightning data have a positive impact on the results. The radar-gauge assimilation method is highly dependent on statistical relationships between radar and gauges, when performing the correction to the precipitation accumulation field. Here, we investigate the usage of different time integration intervals: 1, 6, 12, 24 h and 7 days. This will change the amount of data used and affect the statistical calculation of the radar-gauge relations. Verification shows that the real-time analysis using the 1 h integration time length gives the best results.

  3. Semantic Referencing - Determining Context Weights for Similarity Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowicz, Krzysztof; Adams, Benjamin; Raubal, Martin

    Semantic similarity measurement is a key methodology in various domains ranging from cognitive science to geographic information retrieval on the Web. Meaningful notions of similarity, however, cannot be determined without taking additional contextual information into account. One way to make similarity measures context-aware is by introducing weights for specific characteristics. Existing approaches to automatically determine such weights are rather limited or require application specific adjustments. In the past, the possibility to tweak similarity theories until they fit a specific use case has been one of the major criticisms for their evaluation. In this work, we propose a novel approach to semi-automatically adapt similarity theories to the user's needs and hence make them context-aware. Our methodology is inspired by the process of georeferencing images in which known control points between the image and geographic space are used to compute a suitable transformation. We propose to semi-automatically calibrate weights to compute inter-instance and inter-concept similarities by allowing the user to adjust pre-computed similarity rankings. These known control similarities are then used to reference other similarity values.

  4. Determination of the electronics transfer function for current transient measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Scharf, Christian

    2014-01-01

    We describe a straight-forward method for determining the transfer function of the readout of a sensor for the situation in which the current transient of the sensor can be precisely simulated. The method relies on the convolution theorem of Fourier transforms. The specific example is a planar silicon pad diode connected with a 50 $\\Omega $ cable to an amplifier followed by a 5 GS/s sampling oscilloscope. The charge carriers in the sensor were produced by picosecond lasers with light of wavelengths of 675 and 1060 nm. The transfer function is determined from the 1060 nm data with the pad diode biased at 1000 V. It is shown that the simulated sensor response convoluted with this transfer function provides an excellent description of the measured transients for the laser light of both wavelengths, at voltages 50 V above the depletion voltage of about 90 V up to the maximum applied voltage of 1000 V. The method has been developed for the precise measurement of the dependence of the drift velocity of electrons an...

  5. Determination of Metastable Zone Width, Induction Period and Interfacial Energy of a Ferroelectric Crystal - Potassium Ferrocyanide Trihydrate (KFCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kanagadurai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An order-disorder type potassium ferrocyanide trihydrate (KFCT is a coordination compound forming lemon- yellow monoclinic ferroelectric crystals with curie temperature 251 K. KFCT crystals have been grown by temperature lowering solution growth technique. Solubility of KFCT has been determined for various temperatures. Metastable zone width, induction period and interfacial energy were determined for the aqueous solution of KFCT. Bulk crystal of potassium ferrocyanide trihydrate was grown with the optimized growth parameters. The grown crystal possesses good optical transmission in the entire UV-Visible region

  6. Determination of pulsation periods and other parameters of 2875 stars classified as MIRA in the All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS)

    CERN Document Server

    Vogt, N; Fuentes-Morales, I; Vogt-Geisse, S; Arcos, C; Abarca, C; Agurto-Gangas, C; Caviedes, M; DaSilva, H; Flores, J; Gotta, V; Peñaloza, F; Rojas, K; Villaseñor, J I

    2016-01-01

    We have developed an interactive PYTHON code and derived crucial ephemeris data of 99.4% of all stars classified as 'Mira' in the ASAS data base, referring to pulsation periods, mean maximum magnitudes and, whenever possible, the amplitudes among others. We present a statistical comparison between our results and those given by the AAVSO International Variable Star Index (VSX), as well as those determined with the machine learning automatic procedure of Richards et al. 2012. Our periods are in good agreement with those of the VSX in more than 95% of the stars. However, when comparing our periods with those of Richards et al, the coincidence rate is only 76% and most of the remaining cases refer to aliases. We conclude that automatic codes require still more refinements in order to provide reliable period values. Period distributions of the target stars show three local maxima around 215, 275 and 330 d, apparently of universal validity, their relative strength seems to depend on galactic longitude. Our visual ...

  7. Periodic measure for the stochastic equation of the barotropic viscous gas in a discretized one-dimensional domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benseghir, Rym, E-mail: benseghirrym@ymail.com, E-mail: benseghirrym@ymail.com; Benchettah, Azzedine, E-mail: abenchettah@hotmail.com [LANOS Laboratory, Badji Mokhtar University, BP 12, 23000, Annaba (Algeria); Raynaud de Fitte, Paul, E-mail: prf@univ-rouen.fr [Normandie Univ, Laboratoire Raphaël Salem, UMR CNRS 6085, Rouen (France)

    2015-11-30

    A stochastic equation system corresponding to the description of the motion of a barotropic viscous gas in a discretized one-dimensional domain with a weight regularizing the density is considered. In [2], the existence of an invariant measure was established for this discretized problem in the stationary case. In this paper, applying a slightly modified version of Khas’minskii’s theorem [5], we generalize this result in the periodic case by proving the existence of a periodic measure for this problem.

  8. Measurement and determinants of infrarenal aortic thrombus volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golledge, Jonathan; Wolanski, Philippe [James Cook University, The Vascular Biology Unit, Townsville, Queensland (Australia); Townsville Hospital, Townsville, Queensland (Australia); Parr, Adam [James Cook University, The Vascular Biology Unit, Townsville, Queensland (Australia); Buttner, Petra [James Cook University, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Townsville, Queensland (Australia)

    2008-09-15

    Intra-luminal thrombus has been suggested to play a role in the progression of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). The aims of this study were twofold. Firstly, to assess the reproducibility of a computer tomography (CT)-based technique for measurement of aortic thrombus volume. Secondly, to examine the determinants of infrarenal aortic thrombus volume in a cohort of patients with aortic dilatation. A consecutive series of 75 patients assessed by CT angiography with maximum aortic diameter {>=}25 mm were recruited. Intra-luminal thrombus volume was measured by a semi-automated workstation protocol based on a previously defined technique to quantitate aortic calcification. Intra- and inter-observer reproducibility were assessed using correlation coefficients, coefficient of variation and Bland-Altman plots. Infrarenal aortic thrombus volume percentage was related to clinical, anatomical and blood characteristics of the patients using univariate and multivariate tests. Infrarenal aortic thrombus volume was related to the severity of aortic dilatation assessed by total aortic volume (r=0.87, P<0.0001) or maximum aortic diameter (r=0.74, P< 0.0001). We therefore examined the clinical determinates of aortic thrombus expressed as a percentage of total aortic volume. Aortic thrombus percentage was negatively correlated with serum high density lipoprotein (HDL, r=-0.31). By ordinal multiple logistic regression analysis serum HDL below median ({<=}1.2 mM) was associated with aortic thrombus percentage in the upper quartile adjusting for other risk factors (odds ratio 5.3, 95% CI 1.1-25.0). Infrarenal aortic thrombus volume can be measured reproducibly on CT. Serum HDL, which can be therapeutically raised, may play a role in discouraging aortic thrombus accumulation with implications in terms of delaying progression of AAA. (orig.)

  9. Exploring What Determines the Use of Forecasts of Varying Time Periods in Guanacaste, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, M.; Wong-Parodi, G.; Grossmann, I.; Small, M. J.

    2016-12-01

    Weather and climate forecasts are promoted as ways to improve water management, especially in the face of changing environmental conditions. However, studies indicate many stakeholders who may benefit from such information do not use it. This study sought to better understand which personal factors (e.g., trust in forecast sources, perceptions of accuracy) were important determinants of the use of 4-day, 3-month, and 12-month rainfall forecasts by stakeholders in water management-related sectors in the seasonally dry province of Guanacaste, Costa Rica. From August to October 2015, we surveyed 87 stakeholders from a mix of government agencies, local water committees, large farms, tourist businesses, environmental NGO's, and the public. The result of an exploratory factor analysis suggests that trust in "informal" forecast sources (traditional methods, family advice) and in "formal" sources (government, university and private company science) are independent of each other. The result of logistic regression analyses suggest that 1) greater understanding of forecasts is associated with a greater probability of 4-day and 3-month forecast use, but not 12-month forecast use, 2) a greater probability of 3-month forecast use is associated with a lower level of trust in "informal" sources, and 3), feeling less secure about water resources, and regularly using many sources of information (and specifically formal meetings and reports) are each associated with a greater probability of using 12-month forecasts. While limited by the sample size, and affected by the factoring method and regression model assumptions, these results do appear to suggest that while forecasts of all times scales are used to some extent, local decision makers' decisions to use 4-day and 3-month forecasts appear to be more intrinsically motivated (based on their level of understanding and trust) and the use of 12-month forecasts seems to be more motivated by a sense of requirement or mandate.

  10. High frequency electric field levels: An example of determination of measurement uncertainty for broadband measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vulević Branislav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Determining high frequency electromagnetic field levels in urban areas represents a very complex task, having in mind the exponential growth of the number of sources embodied in public cellular telephony systems in the past twenty years. The main goal of this paper is a representation of a practical solution in the evaluation of measurement uncertainty for in-situ measurements in the case of spatial averaging. An example of the estimation of the uncertainty for electric field strength broadband measurements in the frequency range from 3 MHz to 18 GHz is presented.

  11. Row Spacing Determines Critical Period of Weed Control in Crop: Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata as a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omobolanle Adewale Osipitan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available To further understand the importance of row spacing as an agronomic practice, a study was conducted to evaluate how levels of row spacing determines the critical period of weed control (CPWC in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata. The experiment was laid out as a split-plot design with eight periods of weed interference as the main plots and three row spacing (60, 75 90 cm as the subplots with three replications of each treatment combination. Period of weed interference consisted of weed removal for 14, 35, 54, and 77 days after emergence (DAE, and weed infestation for 14, 35, 54, and 77 DAE. Results indicated that the mean yield of cowpea was higher at narrow spacing (60 cm than at wide spacing (90 cm under season-long weed infestation plots but no difference in yield was found among the row spacing in the season-long weed removal plots. There was no difference in the beginning of the CPWC among the row spacing. However, 90 cm row spacing requires longer period of weed removal to avoid unacceptable yield loss when compared to 60 cm row spacing. The end of the CPWC coincides with the period of canopy closure by the crop. This finding suggests that it took the crop longer time to close canopy at wide row spacing (90 cm compare to reduced row spacing. The differences in the duration of weed control intervention in crop row spacing suggest the importance of integrating decisions regarding row spacing and period of weed control in weed management strategies.

  12. Determining low-frequency source location from acoustic phase measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Travis L.; Frisk, George V.

    2002-11-01

    For low-frequency cw sound sources in shallow water, the time rate-of-change of the measured acoustic phase is well approximated by the time rate-of-change of the source-receiver separation distance. An algorithm for determining a locus of possible source locations based on this idea has been developed. The locus has the general form of a hyperbola, which can be used to provide a bearing estimation at long ranges, and an estimate of source location at short ranges. The algorithm uses only acoustic phase data and receiver geometry as input, and can be used even when the source frequency is slightly unstable and/or imprecisely known. The algorithm has been applied to data from low-frequency experiments (20-300 Hz), both for stable and unstable source frequencies, and shown to perform well. [Work supported by ONR and WHOI Academic Programs Office.

  13. Results of dose sensors measurements in the middle-Earth orbit for the period of 2009-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protopopov, Grigory; Shatov, Pavel; Tasenko, Sergey; Lyakhov, Igor; Makarova, Nina; Balashov, Sergey; Sitnikova, Ninel

    2016-07-01

    The measurements results of space radiation exposure on electronic components carried out by dose sensors are presented in the paper. Dose sensors operate on metal-nitride-oxide-semiconductor dosimetry pricniple. The flight data have been receiving for more than 6 years. The measurements results are compared with others flight data on different orbits. The analysis of the received data from 2009 to 2015 allows us to find out the periods with sharp increase of dose rate and to define values of such increases. We had analyzed space radiation characteristics data from other monitoring systems (such as GOES, Electro-L) in dates of dose rate sharp increase. Results of the analysis of dose rate increase, which had been fixed by TID sensors in 2015, will be presented in full paper. We had calculated average dose rates for different space models in the middle-Earth orbit (AE8, AE9 and others) and determined the most relevant models to the experimental data (with account for relaxation effect of dose sensor outputs). The comparison results for different models will be presented in the full paper. We had used different approaches for simulating of dose sensors shielding geometry, such as semi-sphere, semi-infinite plate, sector analysis, with taking account of different shielding elements. The analysis results of shielding configuration influence on calculated values of dose rate will be presented in the full paper.

  14. Method for Determining the Coalbed Methane Content with Determination the Uncertainty of Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szlązak, Nikodem; Korzec, Marek

    2016-06-01

    Methane has a bad influence on safety in underground mines as it is emitted to the air during mining works. Appropriate identification of methane hazard is essential to determining methane hazard prevention methods, ventilation systems and methane drainage systems. Methane hazard is identified while roadways are driven and boreholes are drilled. Coalbed methane content is one of the parameters which is used to assess this threat. This is a requirement according to the Decree of the Minister of Economy dated 28 June 2002 on work safety and hygiene, operation and special firefighting protection in underground mines. For this purpose a new method for determining coalbed methane content in underground coal mines has been developed. This method consists of two stages - collecting samples in a mine and testing the sample in the laboratory. The stage of determining methane content in a coal sample in a laboratory is essential. This article presents the estimation of measurement uncertainty of determining methane content in a coal sample according to this methodology.

  15. Determinants of pulmonary perfusion measured by electrical impedance tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Henk J; Vonk Noordegraaf, Anton; Marcus, J Tim; Boonstra, Anco; de Vries, Peter M; Postmus, Pieter E

    2004-06-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a non-invasive imaging technique for detecting blood volume changes that can visualize pulmonary perfusion. The two studies reported here tested the hypothesis that the size of the pulmonary microvascular bed, rather than stroke volume (SV), determines the EIT signal. In the first study, the impedance changes relating to the maximal pulmonary pulsatile blood volume during systole (Delta Z(sys)) were measured in ten healthy subjects, ten patients diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, who were considered to have a reduced pulmonary vascular bed, and ten heart failure patients with an assumed low cardiac output but with a normal lung parenchyma. Mean Delta Z(sys) (SD) in these groups was 261 (34)x10(-5), 196 (39)x10(-5) ( Pbicycle while SV was measured by means of magnetic resonance imaging. The Delta Z(sys) at rest was 352 (53)x10(-5 ) and 345 (112)x10(-5 )AU during exercise (P=NS), whereas SV increased from 83 (21) to 105 (34) ml (P<0.05). The EIT signal likely reflects the size of the pulmonary microvascular bed, since neither a low cardiac output nor a change in SV of the heart appear to influence EIT.

  16. Time poverty in Brazil: measurement and analysis of its determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Lopes Ribeiro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes well-being on an individual level, through the allocation of work hours done by adults and children and thus it measures time poverty in Brazil. In order to achieve such measurement, poverty indicators such as Foster, Greer and Thorbecke (FGT were adapted into a time poverty mode. Additionally, an analysis of its determinants was also conducted. Among other findings, the fact that women (either children and adult ones are the time-poorest individuals in urban or rural areas. Another unfortunate finding is that the high rate of time poverty among children, numerically 16,1% is not far from the adult rate which is of 19,7%. The overall composite time poor individual profile is of an African-Brazilian adult woman of little education, not necessarily income poor and residing in an urban area of the northeast region, living in a household of few people, she is the mother of children who are younger than 14 years old.

  17. On the determination of the global cloud feedback from satellite measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Masters

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A detailed analysis is presented in order to determine the sensitivity of the estimated short-term cloud feedback to choices of temperature datasets, sources of top-of-atmosphere (TOA clear-sky radiative flux data, and temporal averaging. It is shown that the results of a previous analysis, which suggested a likely positive value for the short-term cloud feedback, depended upon combining all-sky radiative fluxes from NASA's Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES with reanalysis clear-sky forecast fluxes when determining the cloud radiative forcing (CRF. These results are contradicted when ΔCRF is derived using both all-sky and clear-sky measurements from CERES over the same period. The differences between the radiative flux data sources are thus explored, along with the potential problems in each. The largest discrepancy is found when including the first two years (2000–2002, and the diagnosed cloud feedback from each method is sensitive to the time period over which the regressions are run. Overall, there is little correlation between the changes in the ΔCRF and surface temperatures on these timescales, suggesting that the net effect of clouds varies during this time period quite apart from global temperature changes. Given the large uncertainties generated from this method, the limited data over this period are insufficient to rule out either the positive feedback present in most climate models or a strong negative cloud feedback.

  18. METHODOLOGY FOR DETERMINING THE OPTIMAL CLEANING PERIOD OF HEAT EXCHANGERS BY USING THE CRITERIA OF MINIMUM COST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanileisy Rodríguez Calderón

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the most serious problems of the Process Industry is that when planning the maintenance of the heat exchangers is not applied the methodologies based on economic criteria to optimize periods of cleaning surfaces resulting in additional costs for the company and for the country. This work develops and proposes a methodical based on the criterion of Minimum Cost for determining the optimal cleaning period. It is given an example of application of this method to the case of intercoolers of a centrifugal compressor with a high fouling level.It occurs this because is used sea water with many microorganisms as cooling agent which severely embeds transfer surfaces of side water. The methodology employed can be generalized to other applications.

  19. Fluorescence lifetime measurements of boronate derivatives to determine glucose concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gable, J H

    2000-06-01

    -(Methylaminomethyl)-anthracene (MAMA), and N-benzyl-N-methyl-N-methyl anthracene (AB-B). Fluorescence lifetime measurements confirmed the two species of AB, with and without PET. Fluorescence lifetimes were approximately 11 nsec without PET and 3 nsec with PET. The degree of the interaction between the N and the B atoms was also determined by fluorescence lifetime measurements. Electron transfer rates of AB were measured to be on the order of 10{sup 8} sec{sup -1}. Analysis of AB as a glucose sensor shows it has the potential for measuring glucose concentrations in solution with less than 5% error. Two novel glucose sensing molecules, Chloro-oxazone boronate (COB) and Napthyl-imide boronate (NIB), were synthesized. Both molecules have a N{yields}B dative bond similar to AB, but with longer wavelength fluorophores. COB and NIB were found to be unacceptable for use as glucose sensor molecules due to the small changes in average fluorescence lifetime.

  20. Determination of struvite crystallization mechanisms in urine using turbidity measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triger, Aurélien; Pic, Jean-Stéphane; Cabassud, Corinne

    2012-11-15

    Sanitation improvement in developing countries could be achieved through wastewater treatment processes. Nowadays alternative concepts such as urine separate collection are being developed. These processes would be an efficient way to reduce pollution of wastewater while recovering nutrients, especially phosphorus, which are lost in current wastewater treatment methods. The precipitation of struvite (MgNH(4)PO(4)∙6H(2)O) from urine is an efficient process yielding more than 98% phosphorus recovery with very high reaction rates. The work presented here aims to determine the kinetics and mechanisms of struvite precipitation in order to supply data for the design of efficient urine treatment processes. A methodology coupling the resolution of the population balance equation to turbidity measurement was developed, and batch experiments with synthetic and real urine were performed. The main mechanisms of struvite crystallization were identified as crystal growth and nucleation. A satisfactory approximation of the volumetric crystal size distribution was obtained. The study has shown the low influence on the crystallization process of natural organic matter contained in real urine. It has also highlighted the impact of operational parameters. Mixing conditions can create segregation and attrition which influence the nucleation rate, resulting in a change in crystals number, size, and thus final crystal size distribution (CSD). Moreover urine storage conditions can impact urea hydrolysis and lead to spontaneous struvite precipitation in the stock solution also influencing the final CSD. A few limits of the applied methodology and of the proposed modelling, due to these phenomena and to the turbidity measurement, are also discussed.

  1. On determining the spot size for laser fluence measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, B. [Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Szeged, P.O. Box 406, H-6701 Szeged (Hungary)]. E-mail: bfarkas@titan.physx.u-szeged.hu; Geretovszky, Zs. [Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Szeged, P.O. Box 406, H-6701 Szeged (Hungary)

    2006-04-30

    Energy fluence, defined as pulse energy over irradiated area, is a key parameter of pulsed laser processing. Nevertheless, most of the authors using this term routinely do not realize the problems related to the accurate measurement of the spot size. In the present paper we are aiming to approach this problem by ablating crystalline Si wafers with pulses of a commercial KrF excimer laser ({lambda} = 248 nm, {tau} = 15 ns) both in vacuum and at ambient atmosphere. For any pulse energy, the size of the ablated area monotonously increases with increasing number of pulses. The difference in the ablated area could be as high as a factor of three when 2000 consecutive pulses impinge on the surface. The existence and extent of the gradual lowering of multi-pulse ablation threshold queries the applicability of routinely used procedure of dividing the pulse energy with the size of the ablated area exposed into either carbon-paper or a piece of Si with one or a few pulses when determining the fluence. A more quantitative way is proposed allowing comparison of results originating from different laboratories.

  2. Demographic War Losses as a Determinant of the Population Development of Eastern Croatia in the Period 1991–2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dražen Živić

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject of study in this paper are demographic losses in Eastern Croatia during Croatia’s Homeland war. The goal of the research was to determine or assess the direct migration losses of this area in the period 1991–2002, and evaluate their effect on changes in the number of inhabitants, on the age-gender structure and on the ethnic structure of the population of Eastern Croatia in the most recent inter-census period (1991–2001. The effect of inherited destabilising factors on the development of East Croatia’s population (two world wars, emigration, the “white plague”, a dropping birth rate, the rural exodus, demographic ageing… has been notably increased through demographic losses and the effects of Serbian military aggression, especially in the migrational aspect (domain of war effects. In line with a series of indicators, it is more than apparent that demographic war losses can be highlighted as the most important determinant of modern population development in the East Croatian region. Over ten thousand losses of life, and expellees, refugees and emigrants numbering in the tens of thousands, substantially deranged basic dynamic structural processes in the population development of this area of Croatia.

  3. Measuring modulated luminescence using non-modulated stimulation: Ramping the sample period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poolton, N.R.J.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Andersen, C.E.;

    2003-01-01

    . Directly analogous results to LM-OSL can, however, be achieved with non-modulated excitation sources, by ramping the sample period (RSP) of luminescence detection. RSP-OSL has the distinct advantage over LM-OSL in that, since the excitation remains at full power, data accumulation times (that can...

  4. Reduced dry periods and varying prepartum diets alter postpartum ovulation and reproductive measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gümen, A; Rastani, R R; Grummer, R R; Wiltbank, M C

    2005-07-01

    There has been substantial recent interest in shortening dry periods; however, the effects of this management change on reproduction have not been adequately evaluated. Holstein cows (n = 58) were assigned in a randomized block design to 1 of 3 treatments: 1) traditional (T) dry period (approximately 56 d) in which cows were fed a low energy diet from 56 to 29 d prepartum followed by a moderate energy diet for 28 d; 2) shortened (S) dry period (approximately 28 d) in which cows were fed continuously a high energy diet; or 3) no planned (N) dry period in which cows were fed continuously a high energy diet. All cows received a high energy lactation diet after calving. Ovaries were evaluated by ultrasound and blood samples collected 3 times weekly beginning at d 6 or 7 postpartum until 7 d after second ovulation. Average days from calving until first detection of a 10-mm follicle were fewer in N (8.0 d) and S (8.9 d) than in T (10.5 d) cows. Time from calving to first ovulation was earlier in N (13.2 d) than in S (23.8 d) and T (31.9 d) cows. A greater percentage of follicles of the first follicular wave ovulated in N (89%; 16/18) than in T (42%; 8/19), with S (62%; 13/21) cows being intermediate. Double ovulation rate at the first ovulation was greater in T (61%) than N (16%), with S (35%) intermediate. No difference was detected in double ovulation rate at second ovulation (13/56). Number of cows with persistent corpus luteum (>30 d; 15/56) was not different among groups; however, short luteal phases were greater in N (28%; 5/18) than S (0%; 0/20) cows. Days to first artificial insemination were fewer in N (69.4 d) and S (68.0 d) than in T (75.0 d). First-service conception rate was greater in N (55%; 11/20) than in T (20%; 4/20), with S (26%; 6/23) cows being intermediate. Days open in pregnant cows were fewer in N (93.8 d) than in T (145.4 d), with S (121.2 d) cows being intermediate. Thus, shortening or eliminating the dry period leads to earlier postpartum

  5. Time-resolved measurement of single pulse femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure formation

    OpenAIRE

    Kafka, K. R. P.; D. R. Austin; Li, H.; Yi, A; Cheng, J.; Chowdhury, E. A.

    2015-01-01

    Time-resolved diffraction microscopy technique has been used to observe the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) from the interaction of a single femtosecond laser pulse (pump) with a nano-scale groove mechanically formed on a single-crystal Cu substrate. The interaction dynamics (0-1200 ps) was captured by diffracting a time-delayed, frequency-doubled pulse from nascent LIPSS formation induced by the pump with an infinity-conjugate microscopy setup. The LIPSS ripple...

  6. A comparative study of four significance measures for periodicity detection in astronomical surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Süveges, Maria; Eyer, Laurent; Cuypers, Jan; Holl, Berry; Lecoeur-Taïbi, Isabelle; Mowlavi, Nami; Nienartowicz, Krzysztof; Blanco, Diego Ordóñez; Rimoldini, Lorenzo; Ruiz, Idoia

    2015-01-01

    We study the problem of periodicity detection in massive data sets of photometric or radial velocity time series, as presented by ESA's Gaia mission. Periodicity detection hinges on the estimation of the false alarm probability (FAP) of the extremum of the periodogram of the time series. We consider the problem of its estimation with two main issues in mind. First, for a given number of observations and signal-to-noise ratio, the rate of correct periodicity detections should be constant for all realized cadences of observations regardless of the observational time patterns, in order to avoid sky biases that are difficult to assess. Second, the computational loads should be kept feasible even for millions of time series. Using the Gaia case, we compare the $F^M$ method (Paltani 2004, Schwarzenberg-Czerny 2012), the Baluev method (Baluev 2008) and the GEV method (S\\"uveges 2014), as well as a method for the direct estimation of a threshold. Three methods involve some unknown parameters, which are obtained by fi...

  7. Measurement Methods to Determine Air Leakage Between Adjacent Zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hult, Erin L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dickerhoff, Darryl J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Phillip N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Air leakage between adjacent zones of a building can lead to indoor air quality and energy efficiency concerns, however there is no existing standard for measuring inter-zonal leakage. In this study, synthesized data and field measurements are analyzed in order to explore the uncertainty associated with different methods for collecting and analyzing fan pressurization measurements to calculate interzone leakage.

  8. In-Fiber Reflection Mode Interferometer Based on A Long-Period Grating For External Refractive-Index Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, D.W.; Zhang, Y.; Cooper, K. L.; Wang, Anbo

    2005-01-01

    We present two novel schemes for refractometry based on a long-period fiber grating- (LPG-) based Michelson interferometer. These schemes are designed to overcome the measurement dependence of previously demonstrated LPG-based refractometry on the immersion depth. The first utilizes an unshielded LPG and the second, a shielded one. Both schemes were tested over a certain refractive-index range, and the measurement of glucose concentration in water was experimentally demonstrated. In addition,...

  9. 20 CFR 1002.236 - How is the employee's rate of pay determined when he or she returns from a period of service?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... returns from a period of service? The employee's rate of pay is determined by applying the same escalator... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How is the employee's rate of pay determined when he or she returns from a period of service? 1002.236 Section 1002.236 Employees' Benefits...

  10. South Fork Shenandoah River habitat-flow modeling to determine ecological and recreational characteristics during low-flow periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krstolic, Jennifer L.; Ramey, R. Clay

    2012-01-01

    The ecological habitat requirements of aquatic organisms and recreational streamflow requirements of the South Fork Shenandoah River were investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Central Shenandoah Valley Planning District Commission, the Northern Shenandoah Valley Regional Commission, and Virginia Commonwealth University. Physical habitat simulation modeling was conducted to examine flow as a major determinant of physical habitat availability and recreation suitability using field-collected hydraulic habitat variables such as water depth, water velocity, and substrate characteristics. Fish habitat-suitability criteria specific to the South Fork Shenandoah River were developed for sub-adult and adult smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), juvenile and sub-adult redbreast sunfish (Lepomis auritus), spotfin or satinfin shiner (Cyprinella spp), margined madtom (Noturus insignis),and river chub (Nocomis micropogon). Historic streamflow statistics for the summer low-flow period during July, August, and September were used as benchmark low-flow conditions and compared to habitat simulation results and water-withdrawal scenarios based on 2005 withdrawal data. To examine habitat and recreation characteristics during droughts, daily fish habitat or recreation suitability values were simulated for 2002 and other selected drought years. Recreation suitability during droughts was extremely low, because the modeling demonstrated that suitable conditions occur when the streamflows are greater than the 50th percentile flow for July, August, and September. Habitat availability for fish is generally at a maximum when streamflows are between the 75th and 25th percentile flows for July, August, and September. Time-series results for drought years, such as 2002, showed that extreme low-flow conditions less than the 5th percentile of flow for July, August, and September corresponded to below-normal habitat availability for both game and nongame fish in the

  11. Characteristics of long-period swells measured in the near shore regions of eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Johnson, G.; SanilKumar, V.; Amrutha, M.M.; Singh, J.

    ). Peer review under responsibility of Society of Naval Architects of Korea. 1 URL: www.nio.org. Available online at www.sciencedirect.com ScienceDirect Publishing Serv International Journal of Naval Architecture http://www.journals.eation region is vital...) 312e319 lsevier.com/international-journal-of-naval-architecture-and-ocean-engineering/Society of Naval Architects of Korea. This is an open access article under the the study is to document the observation of low-amplitude long-period swells...

  12. Period Determinations for 26 Proserpina, 34 Circe 74 Galatea, 143 Adria, 272 Antonia, 419 Aurelia, and 557 Violetta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, Frederick

    2008-09-01

    Synodic lightcurve periods and amplitudes were determined for seven aseroids: 26 Proserpina, 13.110 ± 0.001 h, 0.14 ± 0.02 mag; 34 Circe, 12.176 ± 0.002 h, 0.17 ± 0.02 mag; 74 Galatea, 17.270 ± 0.001 h, 0.08 ± 0.01 mag with four maxima and minima per cycle; 143 Adria, 22.005 ± 0.001 h, 0.08 ± 0.02 mag with an irregular lightcurve; 272 Antonia, 3.8548 ± 0.0001 h, 0.43 ± 0.04 mag; 419 Aurelia, 16.784 ± 0.001 h, 0.07 ± 0.01 mag; 557 Violetta 5.0887 ± 0.0001 h, 0.25 ± 0.03 mag.

  13. A Time Series Analysis of Macroeconomic Determinants of Corporate Births in Romania in the period 2008-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marușa Beca

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we studied the relationship between macroeconomic factors and the observed corporate births for the Romanian economy through the Autoregressive Distributed Lags Model (ADL. We performed a time series analysis that uses monthly data for the period January 2008 – December 2013 in order to establish the impact of the fiscal and monetary policy adopted by the Romanian government in times of economic crisis on the firms’ demography. The corporate birth rate is an endogenous variable in a linear function model with five exogenous macroeconomic variables such as the CPI, the loans ratio to GDP, the FDI, the long term interest rate, tax rate to GDP and the lags of the dependent variable. The main finding is that the variance of the corporate birth rate variable is negatively correlated with the variances of CPI in the current month and the interest rate two months lagged. We also determined that the variance of the dependent variable was positively correlated with the variances of the loans rate two months lagged, tax rate four months ago and FDI two months lagged and FDI in the current period.

  14. Determining the Optimum Exposure and Recovery Periods for Efficient Operation of a QCM Based Elemental Mercury Vapor Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Mohibul Kabir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, mass based transducers such as quartz crystal microbalance (QCM have gained huge interest as potential sensors for online detection of elemental mercury (Hg0 vapor from anthropogenic sources due to their high portability and robust nature enabling them to withstand harsh industrial environments. In this study, we determined the optimal Hg0 exposure and recovery times of a QCM based sensor for ensuring its efficient operation while monitoring low concentrations of Hg0 vapor (<400 ppbv. The developed sensor was based on an AT-cut quartz substrate and utilized two gold (Au films on either side of the substrate which functions as the electrodes and selective layer simultaneously. Given the temporal response mechanisms associated with mass based mercury sensors, the experiments involved the variation of Hg0 vapor exposure periods while keeping the recovery time constant following each exposure and vice versa. The results indicated that an optimum exposure and recovery periods of 30 and 90 minutes, respectively, can be utilized to acquire the highest response magnitudes and recovery rate towards a certain concentration of Hg0 vapor whilst keeping the time it takes to report an accurate reading by the sensor to a minimum level as required in real-world applications.

  15. Determination of the yield locus by means of temperature measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banabic, D.; Huetink, J.

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents a theoretical background of the thermo-graphical method of determining the yield locus. The analytical expression of the temperature variation of the specimen deformed in the elastic state is determined starting from the first law of thermodynamics. The experimental method for det

  16. Continuous measurements of the total ozone content in the full moon period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishov, Alexander G.

    1994-01-01

    Presented are the experimental data on the total ozone content obtained during continuous measurements (day-night-...-night-day) by Brewer 044 spectrophotometer near the Issyk Kul Lake (42.59N, 77.04W) at 1650 m above the sea level at full moon from 13 to 18 October 1989 under anomalously high transparent atmospheric conditions (the horizontal visibility range exceeded 50 km). At night the total O3 content decreased regularly to about 20 percent of the average daytime values. The minimum values at night were observed in 1-2 hours after the maximum solar dip below the horizon. In the daytime the measurements were carried out from direct Sun, at night - from the Moon. The values of the total ozone content for adjacent measurements from the Sun and from the Moon in the evening as well as in the morning are in good agreement.

  17. Refractive-index determination of solids from first- and second-order critical diffraction angles of periodic surface patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Meichner

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We present two approaches for measuring the refractive index of transparent solids in the visible spectral range based on diffraction gratings. Both require a small spot with a periodic pattern on the surface of the solid, collimated monochromatic light, and a rotation stage. We demonstrate the methods on a polydimethylsiloxane film (Sylgard® 184 and compare our data to those obtained with a standard Abbe refractometer at several wavelengths between 489 and 688 nm. The results of our approaches show good agreement with the refractometer data. Possible error sources are analyzed and discussed in detail; they include mainly the linewidth of the laser and/or the angular resolution of the rotation stage. With narrow-band light sources, an angular accuracy of ±0.025∘ results in an error of the refractive index of typically ±5 ⋅ 10−4. Information on the sample thickness is not required.

  18. Refractive-index determination of solids from first- and second-order critical diffraction angles of periodic surface patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meichner, Christoph; Schedl, Andreas E.; Neuber, Christian; Kreger, Klaus; Schmidt, Hans-Werner; Kador, Lothar

    2015-08-01

    We present two approaches for measuring the refractive index of transparent solids in the visible spectral range based on diffraction gratings. Both require a small spot with a periodic pattern on the surface of the solid, collimated monochromatic light, and a rotation stage. We demonstrate the methods on a polydimethylsiloxane film (Sylgard® 184) and compare our data to those obtained with a standard Abbe refractometer at several wavelengths between 489 and 688 nm. The results of our approaches show good agreement with the refractometer data. Possible error sources are analyzed and discussed in detail; they include mainly the linewidth of the laser and/or the angular resolution of the rotation stage. With narrow-band light sources, an angular accuracy of ±0.025∘ results in an error of the refractive index of typically ±5 ṡ 10-4. Information on the sample thickness is not required.

  19. Refractive-index determination of solids from first- and second-order critical diffraction angles of periodic surface patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meichner, Christoph, E-mail: christoph.meichner@uni-bayreuth.de; Kador, Lothar, E-mail: lothar.kador@uni-bayreuth.de [University of Bayreuth, Institute of Physics and Bayreuth Institute of Macromolecular Research, Universitätsstrasse 30, 95447 Bayreuth (Germany); Schedl, Andreas E.; Neuber, Christian; Kreger, Klaus; Schmidt, Hans-Werner, E-mail: hans-werner.schmidt@uni-bayreuth.de [University of Bayreuth, Macromolecular Chemistry I, Bayreuth Institute of Macromolecular Research and Bayreuth Center for Colloids and Interfaces, Universitätsstrasse 30, 95447 Bayreuth (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    We present two approaches for measuring the refractive index of transparent solids in the visible spectral range based on diffraction gratings. Both require a small spot with a periodic pattern on the surface of the solid, collimated monochromatic light, and a rotation stage. We demonstrate the methods on a polydimethylsiloxane film (Sylgard{sup ®} 184) and compare our data to those obtained with a standard Abbe refractometer at several wavelengths between 489 and 688 nm. The results of our approaches show good agreement with the refractometer data. Possible error sources are analyzed and discussed in detail; they include mainly the linewidth of the laser and/or the angular resolution of the rotation stage. With narrow-band light sources, an angular accuracy of ±0.025{sup ∘} results in an error of the refractive index of typically ±5 ⋅ 10{sup −4}. Information on the sample thickness is not required.

  20. Financial integration in the European Union. Measurement and determination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmen, J.J.G.

    1996-01-01

    The first part of this study addresses the measurement of financial integration in the European Union (EU). First, we present empirical evidence on the degree of financial integration as measured with interest parity conditions. Second, the study applies an error-correction model of saving-investmen

  1. Time-resolved measurement of single pulse femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure formation

    CERN Document Server

    Kafka, K R P; Li, H; Yi, A; Cheng, J; Chowdhury, E A

    2015-01-01

    Time-resolved diffraction microscopy technique has been used to observe the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) from the interaction of a single femtosecond laser pulse (pump) with a nano-scale groove mechanically formed on a single-crystal Cu substrate. The interaction dynamics (0-1200 ps) was captured by diffracting a time-delayed, frequency-doubled pulse from nascent LIPSS formation induced by the pump with an infinity-conjugate microscopy setup. The LIPSS ripples are observed to form sequentially outward from the groove edge, with the first one forming after 50 ps. A 1-D analytical model of electron heating and surface plasmon polariton (SPP) excitation induced by the interaction of incoming laser pulse with the groove edge qualitatively explains the time-evloution of LIPSS formation.

  2. Urinary phthalates from 168 girls and boys measured twice a year during a 5-year period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, A; Frederiksen, H; Sørensen, K

    2013-01-01

    . Methods: This was a longitudinal study of 168 healthy children (84 girls) examined every 6 months for 5 years. Serum levels of dehydroepiandrostenedione sulfate (DHEAS), Δ4-androstenedione, testosterone, and urinary morning excretion of 14 phthalate metabolites, corresponding to 7 different phthalate...... diesters were determined. A variation in urinary excretion of phthalates was evident in each child, which made a mean of repetitive samples more representative for long-term excretion than a single determination. Results: We found that girls with excretion of monobutyl phthalate isomers (MBP) and di(2.......3 years, P = 0.005). Conclusion: Our data indicate that exposure to dibutyl phthalate isomers (DBP) (in girls) and butylbenzyl phthalate (in boys) are negatively associated with adrenal androgen levels and in boys positively associated with testosterone level at 13 years of age. High exposure to DBP...

  3. Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and aerosols during the atmospheric radiation measurement (ARM) remote clouds sensing (RCS) intensive observation period (IOP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melfi, S.H.; Starr, D.O`C.; Whiteman, D. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    The first Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) remote Cloud Study (RCS) Intensive Operations Period (IOP) was held during April 1994 at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. This experiment was conducted to evaluate and calibrate state-of-the-art, ground based remote sensing instruments and to use the data acquired by these instruments to validate retrieval algorithms developed under the ARM program.

  4. Periodic position dependence of the energy measured in the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Descamps, Julien

    2006-01-01

    A uniform energy measurement response of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter ECAL is essential for precision physics at the LHC. The ECAL barrel calorimeter consists of 61200 lead tungstate crystals arranged in a quasi-projective geometry. The energy of photons reaching the ECAL will be reconstructed by summing the channels corresponding to matrices of 3x3 or 5x5 crystals centred on the crystal with the largest energy deposit. The energy measured using such matrices of fixed size has been studied using electron test beam data taken in 2004. The variation of the energy containment with the incident electron impact position on the central crystal leads to a degradation of the energy resolution. A method using only the calorimeter information is presented to correct for the position dependent response. After correction, the energy resolution performance for uniform impact distributions of the electrons on the front face of a crystal approaches that obtained for maximal containment with a central impact. The univ...

  5. Experimental Measurements of Turbulent Drag Reduction Using Ultrahydrophobic Surfaces with Periodic Microfeatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniello, Robert; Rothstein, Jonathan P.

    2007-11-01

    The experimental results of fully-developed turbulent channel flow past a series of ultrahydrophobic surfaces will be presented. We have shown previously that these surfaces can produce significant drag reduction in laminar channel flow by supporting a shear-free air-water interface between hydrophobic microridges or microposts. In this talk, we will experimentally demonstrate that it is possible to utilize these micropatterned surfaces as a passive technique for achieving significant drag reduction in fully-developed turbulent flows. Two-dimensional velocity profiles as well as shear and Reynolds stress fields generated from particle image velocimetry will be presented. These measurements clearly demonstrate a reduction in drag along the ultrahydrophobic wall when compared to a smooth surface. Pressure drop measurements along the channel will also be presented. Discussion will include the influence of Reynolds number and surface geometry on the velocity profiles, Reynolds stresses and the resulting drag reduction.

  6. Experimental infrared measurements for hydrocarbon pollutant determination in subterranean waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lay-Ekuakille, A.; Palamara, I.; Caratelli, D.; Morabito, F.C.

    2013-01-01

    Subterranean waters are often polluted by industrial and anthropic effluents that are drained in subsoil. To prevent and control pollution, legislations of different developed countries require an online monitoring measurement, especially for detecting organic solvents (chlorinated and unchlorinated

  7. Indoor radon measurements in Kosovo and Metohija over the period 1995-2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milic, Gordana [Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Pristina, Lole Ribara 29, 28000 Kosovska Mitrovica (Serbia); Yarmoshenko, Ilia V., E-mail: ivy@ecko.uran.r [Institute of Industrial Ecology, Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Jakupi, Bajram [Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Pristina, Lole Ribara 29, 28000 Kosovska Mitrovica (Serbia); Kovacevic, Milojko; Zunic, Zora S. [VINCA Institute of Nuclear Science, Mike Alasa St., 12-14, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2011-01-15

    The paper deals with the results of the investigations of indoor radon measurements in more than 300 rural and urban dwellings in Kosovo and Metohija. All measurements were carried out using CR-39 solid state nuclear track detectors by similar protocols and within two series in 1990-s and in 2000-s, in 34 settlements divided by 9 regions, thus covering significant part of Kosovo. For most of measured points the adjustment for seasonal variation was necessary and had been conducted. Highest average values of indoor radon concentrations were found in rural settlements of Lipljan and Vitina regions, 512 and 452 Bq/m{sup 3}, respectively. Combined analysis allows indoor radon concentration of 220 Bq/m{sup 3} to be suggested as representative estimate for Kosovo, while additional data appear. Observed pattern of indoor radon seasonal variation and difference of radon levels between ground and upper floors suggest soil radon as primary source of indoor radon and significance of convection type radon entry.

  8. Experimental infrared measurements for hydrocarbon pollutant determination in subterranean waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay-Ekuakille, A; Palamara, I; Caratelli, D; Morabito, F C

    2013-01-01

    Subterranean waters are often polluted by industrial and anthropic effluents that are drained in subsoil. To prevent and control pollution, legislations of different developed countries require an online monitoring measurement, especially for detecting organic solvents (chlorinated and unchlorinated ones). Online measurements include both real-time and no real-time measurements. In general, it is difficult to implement real-time measurements in stricto sensu for online acquisitions on aqueous effluents since they need to be processed by a modeling. This research presents an experimental measurement system based on infrared (IR) spectroscopy for aqueous effluents containing hydrocarbons and capable of displaying excellent values of pollutant concentrations even in instable conditions; the system is able to detect pollutants either in laminar or turbulent flow. The results show the possibility of avoiding the use of "Pitot tube" that is employed to create a stagnation point in order to convert kinetic energy into potential one. This conversion allows the transformation of a turbulent flow in a laminar flow making easy measurement of pollutants included in an aqueous effluent. Obviously, "Pitot tube" is also used for other fluid effluents. The obtained results have been compared with those produced by means of sophisticated IR instrumentation for laboratory applications.

  9. Perturbing engine performance measurements to determine optimal engine control settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li; Lee, Donghoon; Yilmaz, Hakan; Stefanopoulou, Anna

    2014-12-30

    Methods and systems for optimizing a performance of a vehicle engine are provided. The method includes determining an initial value for a first engine control parameter based on one or more detected operating conditions of the vehicle engine, determining a value of an engine performance variable, and artificially perturbing the determined value of the engine performance variable. The initial value for the first engine control parameter is then adjusted based on the perturbed engine performance variable causing the engine performance variable to approach a target engine performance variable. Operation of the vehicle engine is controlled based on the adjusted initial value for the first engine control parameter. These acts are repeated until the engine performance variable approaches the target engine performance variable.

  10. Measurements of acoustic environments for urban soundscapes: choice of homogeneous periods, optimization of durations, and selection of indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocolini, Laurent; Lavandier, Catherine; Quoy, Mathias; Ribeiro, Carlos

    2013-07-01

    In order to minimize the duration of acoustic measurements and to characterize homogeneous areas from a temporal point of view, a series of six location measurements was carried out continuously during three months in Paris. Around fifty thousand samples of 5-min, 10-min, 15-min, 20-min, 30-min, and 1-h duration measurements were extracted for each location. Each sample is characterized by eleven energy indicators and ten event descriptors. In this paper, analysis of a crossroad location is detailed. Through hierarchical ascendant classification and artificial neural networks classification, it is shown that four homogeneous periods can be detected: two during the night, one during the day, and one transition corresponding either to the awakening or to the moment when the city falls asleep. 10-min measurements are necessary to discriminate these time periods at the crossroad location. At the end of the paper, a comparison with the other locations shows that minimum duration states in between 10 and 20 min. The homogeneous periods are connected to the human activities and depend on the location. Energy indicators such as LAeq, LA10, or LA90 and event indicators are necessary to characterize the different clusters.

  11. Measuring modulated luminescence using non-modulated stimulation: ramping the sample period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poolton, N.R.J. E-mail: n.r.j.poolton@dl.ac.uk; Boetter-Jensen, L.; Andersen, C.E.; Jain, M.; Murray, A.S.; Malins, A.E.R.; Quinn, F.M

    2003-12-01

    Conventional methods of recording linearly modulated (LM) optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) require control over either the exciting light intensity, or the ability to pulse the source. For many light sources (e.g. constant-power CW lasers, arc lamps and synchrotrons) this can be problematic. Directly analogous results to LM-OSL can, however, be achieved with non-modulated excitation sources, by ramping the sample period (RSP) of luminescence detection. RSP-OSL has the distinct advantage over LM-OSL in that, since the excitation remains at full power, data accumulation times (that can be considerable) can be reduced by typically 50%. RSP methods are universally applicable and can be employed, for example, where the excitation source is constant heat, rather than light: here, iso-thermal decay of phosphorescence becomes recorded as a sequence of peaks, corresponding to de-trapping of charge from different defect levels, and is particularly useful for analysing shallow-trap effects. RSP methods are also useful in providing significant compaction of data sets, where signal analysis is required of overlapping systems having a wide range of decay kinetics.

  12. Proposed method for measurement of flow rate in turbulent periodic pipe flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werzner, E.; Ray, S.; Trimis, D.

    2011-12-01

    The present investigation deals with a previously proposed flow metering technique for laminar, fully-developed, time-periodic pipe flow. Employing knowledge of the pulsation frequency-dependent relationship between the mass flow rate and the pressure gradient, the method allows reconstruction of the instantaneous mass flow rate on the basis of a recorded pressure gradient time series. In order to explore if the procedure can be extended for turbulent flows, numerical simulations for turbulent, fully-developed, sinusoidally pulsating pipe flow with low pulse amplitude have been carried out using a ν2-f turbulence model. The study covers pulsation frequencies, ranging from the quasi-steady up to the inertia-dominated frequency regime, and three cycle-averaged Reynolds numbers of 4360, 9750 and 15400. After providing the theoretical background of the flow rate reconstruction principle, the numerical model and an experimental facility for the verification of simulations are explained. The obtained results, presented in time and frequency domain, show good agreement with each other and indicate a frequency dependence, similar to that used for the signal reconstruction for laminar flows. A modified dimensionless frequency definition has been introduced, which allows a generalised representation of the results considering the influence of Reynolds number.

  13. Determination of Contact Potential Difference by the Kelvin Probe (Part II) 2. Measurement System by Involving the Composite Bucking Voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilitis, O.; Rutkis, M.; Busenbergs, J.; Merkulovs, D.

    2016-12-01

    The present research is devoted to creation of a new low-cost miniaturised measurement system for determination of potential difference in real time and with high measurement resolution. Furthermore, using the electrode of the reference probe, Kelvin method leads to both an indirect measurement of electronic work function or contact potential of the sample and measurement of a surface potential for insulator type samples. The bucking voltage in this system is composite and comprises a periodically variable component. The necessary steps for development of signal processing and tracking are described in detail.

  14. Determinants of resumption of vaginal intercourse in puerperium period in Ogbomoso: consideration for early use of contraceptives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kola M. Owonikoko

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early postpartum period for mothers is characterized with high demand for neonatal care, adjusting to sudden withdrawal of hormones of pregnancy and dealing with sexual desires of the husband. The study aimed at determines the timing, factors influencing postpartum resumption of vaginal intercourse and the contraceptive usage. Methods: Women in puerperium were interviewed with structured questionnaire on their socio-demographic status, obstetric history, sexual activities, contraception usage and reason for sexual abstinence. Results: About 40% (143 of participants had resumed vaginal intercourse within puerperium with mean resumption period of 3.2 +/- 1.8 weeks. Only 12% (48 of them used modern contraceptive. Educational status (P <0.001; occupation (P <0.001; educational status of the husband (P <0.001; occupation of the husband (P <0.001; parity (P <0.05; husband's income (P <0.05 and use of modern contraception (P <0.001 showed significant statistical difference between the women who had resumed vaginal sexual intercourse and those who have not. Logistic regression showed that educational status of the participants (OR = 0.48, CI = 0.246-0.938; P = 0.032 and parity (OR = 0.34, CI = 0.196-0.591; P = 0.001 were the most significant factors associated with early resumption of vaginal intercourse. One hundred and eighty-five (72% of women who were yet to resume coitus, did so because of fear of pregnancy. Conclusions: Significant number of women resumed vaginal intercourse during the puerperium despite low contraception usage. There is need to initiate a contraception method before discharge home following delivery. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(4.000: 1061-1066

  15. Five Measurement Bases Determine Pure Quantum States on Any Dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyeneche, D; Cañas, G; Etcheverry, S; Gómez, E S; Xavier, G B; Lima, G; Delgado, A

    2015-08-28

    A long-standing problem in quantum mechanics is the minimum number of observables required for the characterization of unknown pure quantum states. The solution to this problem is especially important for the developing field of high-dimensional quantum information processing. In this work we demonstrate that any pure d-dimensional state is unambiguously reconstructed by measuring five observables, that is, via projective measurements onto the states of five orthonormal bases. Thus, in our method the total number of different measurement outcomes (5d) scales linearly with d. The state reconstruction is robust against experimental errors and requires simple postprocessing, regardless of d. We experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of our scheme through the reconstruction of eight-dimensional quantum states, encoded in the momentum of single photons.

  16. Microbial metabolic activity in soil as measured by dehydrogenase determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casida, L. E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The dehydrogenase technique for measuring the metabolic activity of microorganisms in soil was modified to use a 6-h, 37 C incubation with either glucose or yeast extract as the electron-donating substrate. The rate of formazan production remained constant during this time interval, and cellular multiplication apparently did not occur. The technique was used to follow changes in the overall metabolic activities of microorganisms in soil undergoing incubation with a limiting concentration of added nutrient. The sequence of events was similar to that obtained by using the Warburg respirometer to measure O2 consumption. However, the major peaks of activity occurred earlier with the respirometer. This possibly is due to the lack of atmospheric CO2 during the O2 consumption measurements.

  17. The influence of periodic wind turbine noise on infrasound array measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilger, Christoph; Ceranna, Lars

    2017-02-01

    Aerodynamic noise emissions from the continuously growing number of wind turbines in Germany are creating increasing problems for infrasound recording systems. These systems are equipped with highly sensitive micro pressure sensors accurately measuring acoustic signals in a frequency range inaudible to the human ear. Ten years of data (2006-2015) from the infrasound array IGADE in Northern Germany are analysed to quantify the influence of wind turbine noise on infrasound recordings. Furthermore, a theoretical model is derived and validated by a field experiment with mobile micro-barometer stations. Fieldwork was carried out 2004 to measure the infrasonic pressure level of a single horizontal-axis wind turbine and to extrapolate the sound effect for a larger number of nearby wind turbines. The model estimates the generated sound pressure level of wind turbines and thus enables for specifying the minimum allowable distance between wind turbines and infrasound stations for undisturbed recording. This aspect is particularly important to guarantee the monitoring performance of the German infrasound stations I26DE in the Bavarian Forest and I27DE in Antarctica. These stations are part of the International Monitoring System (IMS) verifying compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), and thus have to meet stringent specifications with respect to infrasonic background noise.

  18. Can UK fossil fuel emissions be determined by radiocarbon measurements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Angelina; O'Doherty, Simon; Rigby, Matthew; Manning, Alistair; Palmer, Paul

    2016-04-01

    The GAUGE project evaluates different methods to estimate UK emissions. However, estimating carbon dioxide emissions as a result of fossil fuel burning is challenging as natural fluxes in and out of the atmosphere are very large. Radiocarbon (14C) measurements offer a way to specifically measure the amount of recently added carbon dioxide from fossil fuel burning. This is possible as, due to their age, all the radiocarbon in fossil fuels has decayed. Hence the amount of recently added CO2 from fossil fuel burning can be measured as a depletion of the 14C content in air. While this method has been successfully applied by several groups on a city or a regional scale, this is the first attempt at using the technique for a national emission estimate. Geographically the UK, being an island, is a good location for such an experiment. But are 14CO2 measurements the ideal solution for estimating fossil fuel emissions as they are heralded to be? Previous studies have shown that 14CO2emissions from the nuclear industry mask the 14C depletion caused by fossil fuel burning and result in an underestimation of the fossil fuel CO2. While this might not be a problem in certain regions around the world, many countries like the UK have a substantial nuclear industry. A correction for this enhancement from the nuclear industry can be applied but are invariably difficult as 14CO2emissions from nuclear power plants have a high temporal variability. We will explain how our sampling strategy was chosen to minimize the influence form the nuclear industry and why this proved to be challenging. In addition we present the results from our ground based measurements to show why trying to estimate national emissions using radiocarbon measurements was overambitious, and how practical the technique is for the UK in general.

  19. Approximate determination of efficiency for activity measurements of cylindrical samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helbig, W. [Nuclear Engineering and Analytics Rossendorf, Inc. (VKTA), Dresden (Germany); Bothe, M. [Nuclear Engineering and Analytics Rossendorf, Inc. (VKTA), Dresden (Germany)

    1997-03-01

    Some calibration samples are necessary with the same geometrical parameters but of different materials, containing known activities A homogeniously distributed. Their densities are measured, their mass absorption coefficients may be unknown. These calibration samples are positioned in the counting geometry, for instance directly on the detector. The efficiency function {epsilon}(E) for each sample is gained by measuring the gamma spectra and evaluating all usable gamma energy peaks. From these {epsilon}(E) the common valid {epsilon}{sub geom}(E) will be deduced. For this purpose the functions {epsilon}{sub mu}(E) for these samples have to be established. (orig.)

  20. Improvment of short cut numerical method for determination of periods of free oscillations for basins with irregular geometry and bathymetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernov, Anton; Kurkin, Andrey; Pelinovsky, Efim; Yalciner, Ahmet; Zaytsev, Andrey

    2010-05-01

    - sea - bay - harbor) phenomenons studying. The new developed software was tested for Mediterranian, Sea of Okhotsk and South China sea regions. This software can be usefull in local tsunami mapping and tsunami propagation in the coastal zone. References: Yalciner A.C., Pelinovsky E. A short cut numerical method for determination of periods of free oscillations for basins with irregular geometry and bathymetry // Ocean engineering. V. 34. 2007. С. 747 - 757

  1. Transmission Measurement and Resonance Parameter Determination of 169Tm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The transmission rate of 169Tm, ranging from 0.01 to 100 eV, were measured with n-TOF method at the Pohang Neutron Facility (PNF), which consists of an electron linac, a water-cooled Ta target, and a 12

  2. Determination of design axle loads for bridges from measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, R.D.J.M.; Morales Napoles, O.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, the new Eurocode 1 was introduced dealing with traffic load on bridges. In order to establish the National Annex for the design traffic load, measurements of the traffic load were carried out in several highways in The Netherlands using the Weigh In Motion system. The goal was to assure

  3. Determination of design axle loads for bridges from measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, R.D.J.M.; Morales Napoles, O.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, the new Eurocode 1 was introduced dealing with traffic load on bridges. In order to establish the National Annex for the design traffic load, measurements of the traffic load were carried out in several highways in The Netherlands using the Weigh In Motion system. The goal was to assure th

  4. Sensitivity of the total heat loss coefficient determined by the energy signature approach to different time periods and gained energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoegren, J.-U.; Andersson, S.; Olofsson, T. [Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Umeaa University, SE-901 87 Umeaa (Sweden)

    2009-07-15

    In order to identify buildings that have energy saving potential there is a need for further development of robust methods for evaluation of energy performance as well as reliable key energy indicators. To be able to evaluate a large database of buildings, the evaluation has to be founded on available data, since an in-depth analysis of each building would require large measurement efforts in terms of both parameters and time. In practice, data are usually available for consumed energy, water, and so on, namely consumption that the tenants or property holder has to pay for. In order to evaluate the energy saving potential and energy management, interesting key energy indicators are the total heat loss coefficient K{sub tot} (W/K), the indoor temperature (T{sub i}), and the utilisation of the available heat (solar radiation and electricity primarily used for purposes other than heating). The total heat loss coefficient, K{sub tot}, is a measure of the heat lost through the building's envelope, whereas T{sub i} and the gained energy reflect the user's behaviour and efficiency of the control system. In this study, a linear regression approach (energy signature) has been used to analyse data for 2003-2006 for nine fairly new multifamily buildings located in the Stockholm area, Sweden. The buildings are heated by district heating and the electricity used is for household equipment and the buildings' technical systems. The data consist of monthly energy used for heating and outdoor temperature together with annual water use, and for some buildings data for household electricity are also available. For domestic hot water and electricity, monthly distributions have been assumed based on data from previous studies and energy companies. The impact on K{sub tot} and T{sub i} of the time period and assumed values for the utilised energy are investigated. The results show that the obtained value of K{sub tot} is rather insensitive to the time period and utilised

  5. Solubility determination as an alternative to migration measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodai, Zsolt; Jakab, Péter Pál; Novák, Márton; Nyiri, Zoltán; Szabó, Bálint Sámuel; Rikker, Tamás; Eke, Zsuzsanna

    2016-01-01

    Solubility values for six UV stabilisers (Cyasorb UV-1164, Tinuvin P, Tinuvin 234, Tinuvin 326, Tinuvin 327 and Tinuvin 1577) and five antioxidants (Irgafos 168, Irganox 1010, Irganox 3114, Irganox 3790 and Irganox 565) were determined in all the liquid food simulants (3% (m/V) acetic acid-water mixture, 10% (V/V), 20% (V/V), 50% (V/V) ethanol-water mixture and vegetable oil) proposed in European Union Regulation No. 10/2011/EC, as well as in fruit juice and cola drink. The applied method was obtained by modification of the method for the determination of water solubility as described in OECD guideline Test No. 105. By using ultrasonication and shorter equilibration time, the time demand of the solubility determinations were decreased notably. Solubility values proved to be lower than the specific migration limits (as specified in 10/2011/EC) at 25 °C for almost all target compounds in food simulants A, B, C and D1 as well as in fruit juice and cola drink. The exceptions were Tinuvin P and Irganox 3790 in simulant D1. The solubility in food simulant D2 was higher than 1000 µg ml(-1) for all target compounds. These results show that the solubility of some additives in food simulants can be so low that it makes migration studies for certain additive-food simulant pairs dispensable.

  6. The accuracy of using last menstrual period to determine gestational age for first trimester medication abortion: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonberg, Dana; Wang, Lin-Fan; Bennett, Ariana H; Gold, Marji; Jackson, Emily

    2014-11-01

    We sought to evaluate the accuracy of assessing gestational age (GA) prior to first trimester medication abortion using last menstrual period (LMP) compared to ultrasound (U/S). We searched Medline, Embase and Cochrane databases through October 2013 for peer-reviewed articles comparing LMP to U/S for GA dating in abortion care. Two teams of investigators independently evaluated data using standard abstraction forms. The US Preventive Services Task Force and Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies guidelines were used to assess quality. Of 318 articles identified, 5 met inclusion criteria. Three studies reported that 2.5-11.8% of women were eligible for medication abortion by LMP and ineligible by U/S. The number of women who underestimated GA using LMP compared to U/S ranged from 1.8 to 14.8%, with lower rates found when the sample was limited to a GA abortion at GA abortion by LMP but ineligible by U/S is needed to confirm the safety and effectiveness of providing medication abortion using LMP alone to determine GA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cognitive Improvement after Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Measured with Functional Neuroimaging during the Acute Period.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn R Wylie

    Full Text Available Functional neuroimaging studies in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI have been largely limited to patients with persistent post-concussive symptoms, utilizing images obtained months to years after the actual head trauma. We sought to distinguish acute and delayed effects of mild traumatic brain injury on working memory functional brain activation patterns < 72 hours after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI and again one-week later. We hypothesized that clinical and fMRI measures of working memory would be abnormal in symptomatic mTBI patients assessed < 72 hours after injury, with most patients showing clinical recovery (i.e., improvement in these measures within 1 week after the initial assessment. We also hypothesized that increased memory workload at 1 week following injury would expose different cortical activation patterns in mTBI patients with persistent post-concussive symptoms, compared to those with full clinical recovery. We performed a prospective, cohort study of working memory in emergency department patients with isolated head injury and clinical diagnosis of concussion, compared to control subjects (both uninjured volunteers and emergency department patients with extremity injuries and no head trauma. The primary outcome of cognitive recovery was defined as resolution of reported cognitive impairment and quantified by scoring the subject's reported cognitive post-concussive symptoms at 1 week. Secondary outcomes included additional post-concussive symptoms and neurocognitive testing results. We enrolled 46 subjects: 27 with mild TBI and 19 controls. The time of initial neuroimaging was 48 (+22 S.D. hours after injury (time 1. At follow up (8.7, + 1.2 S.D., days after injury, time 2, 18 of mTBI subjects (64% reported moderate to complete cognitive recovery, 8 of whom fully recovered between initial and follow-up imaging. fMRI changes from time 1 to time 2 showed an increase in posterior cingulate activation in the mTBI subjects

  8. Determination of soil moisture distribution from impedance and gravimetric measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Stephen G.; Layman, Robert; Campbell, Jeffrey E.; Walsh, John; Mckim, Harlan J.

    1992-01-01

    Daily measurements of the soil dielectric properties at 5 and 10 cm were obtained at five locations throughout the First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE) test site during the 1987 intensive field campaigns (IFCs). An automated vector voltmeter was used to monitor the complex electrical impedance, at 10 MHz, of cylindrical volumes of soil delineated by specially designed soil moisture probes buried at these locations. The objective of this exercise was to test the hypothesis that the soil impedance is sensitive to the moisture content of the soil and that the imaginary part (that is, capacitive reactance) can be used to calculate the volumetric water content of the soil. These measurements were compared with gravimetric samples collected at these locations by the FIFE staff science team.

  9. Determining Transmission Loss from Measured External and Internal Acoustic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scogin, Tyler; Smith, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    An estimate of the internal acoustic environment in each internal cavity of a launch vehicle is needed to ensure survivability of Space Launch System (SLS) avionics. Currently, this is achieved by using the noise reduction database of heritage flight vehicles such as the Space Shuttle and Saturn V for liftoff and ascent flight conditions. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is conducting a series of transmission loss tests to verify and augment this method. For this test setup, an aluminum orthogrid curved panel representing 1/8th of the circumference of a section of the SLS main structure was mounted in between a reverberation chamber and an anechoic chamber. Transmission loss was measured across the panel using microphones. Data measured during this test will be used to estimate the internal acoustic environments for several of the SLS launch vehicle internal spaces.

  10. 2-D Physical Modeling to Measure the Effectiveness of Perforated Skirt Breakwater for Short-Period Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harman Ajiwibowo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of a breakwater can be measured by quantifying the transmission coefficient (KT. The smaller the coefficient, the better the performance of the breakwater. A physical modeling on the proposed breakwater was conducted to identify the coefficient of Perforated Skirt Breakwater (PSB. The PSB model was tested in 2-D wave flume at Ocean Wave Research Laboratory FTSL ITB, to obtain the effectiveness of PSB for short-period waves (prototype periods, Tp= 4 second and smaller. The scaling of PSB models applies the principle of Froude Similarity, where the Froude number in model equals to the Froude number in prototype (Frm=Frp. The flume is equipped with 5 resistance-type wave probes and 8-channel DAS (Data Acquisition System. Wave heights (H and wave periods (T data were observed both manually by visual observation and wave probes readings (processed later with method of “zero mean up-crossing” technique. The incoming wave heights (Hi and transmitted wave heights (Ht were measured and processed to obtain the transmission coefficient (KT. The relationships between KT and non-dimensional variables (skirt draft / incident wave height, S/Hi are analyzed and the calculated effectiveness of the PSB for varied environmental condition is obtained to be up to 70%.Abstract. The effectiveness of a breakwater can be measured by quantifying the transmission coefficient (KT. The smaller the coefficient, the better the performance of the breakwater. A physical modeling on the proposed breakwater was conducted to identify the coefficient of Perforated Skirt Breakwater (PSB. The PSB model was tested in 2-D wave flume at Ocean Wave Research Laboratory FTSL ITB, to obtain the effectiveness of PSB for short-period waves (prototype periods, Tp= 4 second and smaller. The scaling of PSB models applies the principle of Froude Similarity, where the Froude number in model equals to the Froude number in prototype (Frm=Frp. The flume is equipped with 5

  11. Governance and Developing Asia: Concepts, Measurements, Determinants, and Paradoxes

    OpenAIRE

    M. G. Quibria

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have seen the emergence of a considerable volume of literature on governance and its role in economic and social development of a country. This paper provides a critical review of the literature. This review brings into the open a number of serious conceptual, measurement, and data issues as well as the existence of an Asian governance paradox - i.e., a general disjunction between growth and governance in most Asian economies. This paradox seems to suggest that much of the curren...

  12. MIMO performance of a planar logarithmically periodic antenna with respect to measured channel matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rabe

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The increasing interest in wireless transmission of highest data rates for multimedia applications (e.g. HDTV demands the use of communication systems as e.g. described in the IEEE 802.11n draft specification for WLAN including spatial multiplexing or transmit diversity to achieve a constant high data rate and a small outage probability. In a wireless communications system the transmission of parallel data stream leads to multiple input/multiple output (MIMO systems, whose key parameters heavily depend on the properties of the mobile channel. Assuming an uncorrelated channel matrix the correlation between the multiplexed data streams is caused by the coupling of the antennas, so that the radiation element becomes an even more important part of the system. Previous work in this research area (Klemp and Eul, 2006 has shown that planar log.-per four arm antennas are promising candidates for MIMO applications providing two nearly decorrelated radiators, which cover a wide frequency range including both WLAN bands at 2.4 GHz and 5.4 GHz. Up to now the MIMO performance of this antenna is mainly analyzed by simulations. In this contribution measured channel matrices in a real office environment are studied in terms of the antenna's MIMO performance such as outage probability. The obtained results recorded by using a commercial platform are compared to the simulated ones.

  13. Determination of shuttle orbiter center of gravity from flight measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, E. W.; Nicholson, J. Y.; Blanchard, R. C.

    1991-01-01

    Flight measurements of pitch, yaw, and roll rates and the resultant rotationally induced linear accelerations during three orbital maneuvers on Shuttle mission space transportation system (STS) 61-C were used to calculate the actual orbiter center-of-gravity location. The calculation technique reduces error due to lack of absolute calibration of the accelerometer measurements and compensates for accelerometer temperature bias and for the effects of gravity gradient. Accuracy of the technique was found to be limited by the nonrandom and asymmetrical distribution of orbiter structural vibration at the accelerometer mounting location. Fourier analysis of the vibration was performed to obtain the power spectral density profiles which show magnitudes in excess of 10(exp 4) ug (sup 2)/Hz for the actual vibration and over 500 ug (sup 2)/Hz for the filtered accelerometer measurements. The data from this analysis provide a characterization of the Shuttle acceleration environment which may be useful in future studies related to accelerometer system application and zero-g investigations or processes.

  14. Spacecraft Attitude Determination with Earth Albedo Corrected Sun Sensor Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhanderi, Dan

    This thesis focuses on advanced modeling of the Earth albedo experienced by satellites in Earth orbit. The model of the Earth albedo maintains directional information of the Earth albedo irradiance from each partition on the Earth surface. This allows enhanced modeling of Sun sensor current outputs......-Method, Extended Kalman Filter, and Unscented Kalman Filter algorithms are presented and the results are compared. Combining the Unscented Kalman Filter with Earth albedo and enhanced Sun sensor modeling allows for three-axis attitude determination from Sun sensor only, which previously has been perceived...

  15. Measurement strategy and analytic model to determine firing pin force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesenciuc, Ioan; Suciu, Cornel

    2016-12-01

    As illustrated in literature, ballistics is a branch of theoretical mechanics, which studies the construction and working principles of firearms and ammunition, their effects, as well as the motions of projectiles and bullets1. Criminalistics identification, as part of judiciary identification represents an activity aimed at finding common traits of different objects, objectives, phenomena and beings, but more importantly, traits that differentiate each of them from similar ones2-4. In judicial ballistics, in the case of rifled firearms it is relatively simple for experts to identify the used weapon from traces left on the projectile, as the rifling of the barrel leaves imprints on the bullet, which remain approximately identical even after the respective weapon is fired 100 times with the same barrel. However, in the case of smoothbore firearms, their identification becomes much more complicated. As the firing cap suffers alterations from being hit by the firing pin, determination of the force generated during impact creates the premises for determining the type of firearm used to shoot the respective cartridge. The present paper proposes a simple impact model that can be used to evaluate the force generated by the firing pin during its impact with the firing cap. The present research clearly showed that each rifle, by the combination of the three investigated parameters (impact force maximum value, its variation diagram, and impact time) leave a unique trace. Application of such a method in ballistics can create the perspectives for formulating clear conclusions that eliminate possible judicial errors in this field.

  16. Determination of Foton M-2 satellite attitude motion by the data of microacceleration measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuselinck, T.; van Bavinchove, C.; Sazonov, V. V.; Chebukov, S. Yu.

    2009-12-01

    The results of reconstruction of uncontrolled attitude motion of the Foton M-2 satellite using measurements with the accelerometer TAS-3 are presented. The attitude motion of this satellite has been previously determined by the measurement data of the Earth’s magnetic field and the angular velocity. The TAS-3 data for this purpose are used for the first time. These data contain a well-pronounced additional component which made impossible their direct employment for the reconstruction of the attitude motion and whose origin was unknown several years ago. Later it has become known that the additional component is caused by the influence of the Earth’s magnetic field. The disclosure of this fact allowed us to take into account a necessary correction in processing of TAS-3 data and to use them for the reconstruction of the attitude motion of Foton M-2. Here, a modified method of processing TAS-3 data is described, as well as results of its testing and employing. The testing consisted in the direct comparison of the motion reconstructed by the new method with the motion constructed by the magnetic measurements. The new method allowed us to find the actual motion of Foton M-2 in the period June 9, 2005-June 14, 2005, when no magnetic measurements were carried out.

  17. Integral emission factors for methane determined using urban flux measurements and local-scale inverse models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, Andreas; Johnson, Mark; Molodovskaya, Marina; Ketler, Rick; Nesic, Zoran; Crawford, Ben; Giometto, Marco; van der Laan, Mike

    2013-04-01

    contributes to each measurement interval (30 min), which varies with wind direction and stability. A detailed geographic information system of the urban surface combined with traffic counts and building energy models makes it possible to statistically relate fluxes to vehicle density (km driven) and buildings (gas heated volume) - and ultimately quantify the contribution of space heating, transport sector and fugitive emissions to the total emitted CH4 from an urban environment. The measured fluxes of CH4 over the selected urban environment averaged to 22.8 mg CH4 m-2 day-1 during the study period. Compared with the simultaneously measured CO2 emissions, the contribution of CH4, however, accounts for only about 3% of the total LLGHG emissions from this particular urban surface. Traffic contributed 8.8 mg CH4 m-2 day-1, equivalent to 39% of the total CH4 flux. The determined emission factor for the typical fleet composition is 0.062 g CH4 per km driven which is higher than upscaled fleet emission factors (EPA) by a factor of two. This discrepancy can be partially explained through the slower city traffic with frequent idling (traffic congestion), fleet composition and cold starts. Emissions of CH4 by domestic space heating (55% of the total CH4 flux or 12.7 mg CH4 m-2 day-1) are also higher than estimated from upscaled emission factors. There is no evidence of substantial unknown sources such as soil processes, combustion of wood, and leakages from gas distribution pipes (residual: 6% or 1.3 mg CH4 m-2 day-1). The presented study is among the first direct measurements of CH4 emissions over an urban surface and demonstrates that flux measurements of greenhouse gases can be used to determine sources and emission factors in complex urban situations.

  18. Determinants and a Measure of Navy Recruiter Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-06-01

    variables that describe territory potential and that would be useful for developing marketing plans and strategies at the local level. Background Measures...The rationale for this can be seen in Figire 2, which depicts the sources or components of variability it recruiter produccion ; that is, if we ask...Research and Engirneering Director for Acquisit on Plan /king, OASD(MRA&L) Science and Technoio~r Divislol- Library of Congress Coast Guard Headqua ters (G-P-1\\2) Defense Documentat.bn Center (12)\\ fN

  19. Nucleation events at a coastal city during the warm period: Kerbside versus urban background measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siakavaras, D.; Samara, C.; Petrakakis, M.; Biskos, G.

    2016-09-01

    Number size distributions of atmospheric aerosol particles were simultaneously measured at a kerbside and an urban background site in the city of Thessaloniki, Greece, from June to October 2009. New particle formation events were observed ca. 27% of the days at the urban kerbside site and 29% of the days at the urban background site. In almost all the cases the events started between 10:00 and 12:00, and continued for several hours. The total number concentration (TNC) of the particles having diameters from 10 to ca. 500 nm during the events increased from 1.4 × 104 to 6.5 × 104 #/cm3 at the urban kerbside site, and from 0.2 × 104 to 2.4 × 104 #/cm3 at the urban background site. At the urban kerbside site, 9% of the days exhibited class I events (i.e., events followed by a clear growth of the newly formed particles), 10% class II (i.e., events during which the concentration of nucleation mode particles were high but their growth was not continuous), 67% were characterised as non-event days, and 14% of the days exhibited no clear particle formation pattern (undefined). At the urban background site, 15% of the days were classified as class I, 5% as class II, 75% of the days showed no nucleation, whereas only 5% of the days were undefined. While the fraction of event days (both class I and class II) at both sites was similar (ca. 20%), the higher fraction of class I events observed at Eptapyrgio can be attributed to the cleaner environment of the urban background site that allows better identification of the particle concentration increase. The nucleation bursts show a similar pattern at both sites, with the newly formed particles reaching a final size of ca. 80-100 nm. A distinct difference between the two stations was that the smallest particles observed during the new-particle formation events had a diameter of ca. 10 nm (i.e., the smallest particles we could observe) at the kerbside site and ca. 20 nm at the urban background site. This is an indication that

  20. The high-resolution extraterrestrial solar spectrum (QASUMEFTS determined from ground-based solar irradiance measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gröbner

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A high-resolution extraterrestrial solar spectrum has been determined from ground-based measurements of direct solar spectral irradiance (SSI over the wavelength range from 300 to 500 nm using the Langley-plot technique. The measurements were obtained at the Izaña Atmospheric Research Centre from the Agencia Estatal de Meteorología, Tenerife, Spain, during the period 12 to 24 September 2016. This solar spectrum (QASUMEFTS was combined from medium-resolution (bandpass of 0.86 nm measurements of the QASUME (Quality Assurance of Spectral Ultraviolet Measurements in Europe spectroradiometer in the wavelength range from 300 to 500 nm and high-resolution measurements (0.025 nm from a Fourier transform spectroradiometer (FTS over the wavelength range from 305 to 380 nm. The Kitt Peak solar flux atlas was used to extend this high-resolution solar spectrum to 500 nm. The expanded uncertainties of this solar spectrum are 2 % between 310 and 500 nm and 4 % at 300 nm. The comparison of this solar spectrum with solar spectra measured in space (top of the atmosphere gave very good agreements in some cases, while in some other cases discrepancies of up to 5 % were observed. The QASUMEFTS solar spectrum represents a benchmark dataset with uncertainties lower than anything previously published. The metrological traceability of the measurements to the International System of Units (SI is assured by an unbroken chain of calibrations leading to the primary spectral irradiance standard of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt in Germany.

  1. Determining tumor blood flow parameters from dynamic image measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libertini, Jessica M.

    2008-11-01

    Many recent cancer treatments focus on preventing angiogenesis, the process by which a tumor promotes the growth of large and efficient capillary beds for the increased nourishment required to support the tumor's rapid growth[l]. To measure the efficacy of these treatments in a timely fashion, there is an interest in using data from dynamic sequences of contrast-enhanced medical imaging, such as MRI and CT, to measure blood flow parameters such as perfusion, permeability-surface-area product, and the relative volumes of the plasma and extracellular-extravascular space. Starting with a two compartment model presented by the radiology community[2], this work challenges the application of a simplification to this problem, which was originally developed to model capillary reuptake[3]. While the primary result of this work is the demonstration of the inaccuracy of this simplification, the remainder of the paper is dedicated to presenting alternative methods for calculating the perfusion and plasma volume coefficients. These methods are applied to model data sets based on real patient data, and preliminary results are presented.

  2. Determining tumor blood flow parameters from dynamic image measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libertini, Jessica M [Division of Applied Mathematics, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02906 (United States)], E-mail: Jessica_Libertini@brown.edu

    2008-11-01

    Many recent cancer treatments focus on preventing angiogenesis, the process by which a tumor promotes the growth of large and efficient capillary beds for the increased nourishment required to support the tumor's rapid growth. To measure the efficacy of these treatments in a timely fashion, there is an interest in using data from dynamic sequences of contrast-enhanced medical imaging, such as MRI and CT, to measure blood flow parameters such as perfusion, permeability-surface-area product, and the relative volumes of the plasma and extracellular-extravascular space. Starting with a two compartment model presented by the radiology community, this work challenges the application of a simplification to this problem, which was originally developed to model capillary reuptake. While the primary result of this work is the demonstration of the inaccuracy of this simplification, the remainder of the paper is dedicated to presenting alternative methods for calculating the perfusion and plasma volume coefficients. These methods are applied to model data sets based on real patient data, and preliminary results are presented.

  3. Determination of smoking and drinking and preventive measures in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altay, Naime; Toruner, Ebru Kilicarslan; Citak, Ebru Akgun

    2014-01-01

    Smoking and alcohol drinking in adolescents cause significant problems in most countries. The aim of this cross-sectional descriptive study was to determine the prevalence, causes, risk factors, and preventive factors for cigarette and alcohol use in adolescents. The sample included 1,133 students enrolled in grades 9-12. Data were collected using a descriptive data form, the Psychological Resilience and Adolescent Development Scale, and the Family Environment Scale. Most adolescents stated that stress and psychological problems were the causes of smoking and alcohol use. Preventive factors were indicated as developing skills for saying "no," good coping skills, and peer groups not using cigarettes. The Psychological Resilience and Adolescent Development Scale mean score for cigarette and alcohol use was significantly higher than for nonuse. The Family Environment Scale mean score for cigarette and alcohol use was significantly lower than for nonuse.

  4. Measured comparison of the inversion periods for polarimetric and conventional thermal long-wave IR (LWIR) imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felton, M.; Gurton, K. P.; Roth, L. E.; Pezzaniti, J. L.; Chenault, D. B.

    2009-08-01

    We report the results of a multi-day diurnal study in which radiometrically calibrated polarimetric and conventional thermal imagery is recorded in the LWIR to identify/compare the respective time periods in which minimum target contrast is achieved, e.g., thermal inversion periods are typically experienced during dusk and dawn. Imagery is recorded with a polarimetric IR sensor employing a 324x256 microbolometer array using a spinning achromatic retarder to perform the polarimetric filtering. The images used in this study include the S0, normalized S1, and normalized S2 Stokes images and the degree of linear polarization (DOLP) images of a scene containing military vehicles and the natural background. In addition, relevant meteorological parameters measured during the test period include air temperature, ambient loading in the LWIR, relative humidity, and cloud cover, height and density. The data shows that the chief factors affecting polarimetric contrast are the amount of thermal emission from the objects in the scene and the abundance of LWIR sources in the optical background. In addition, we found that contrast between targets and background within polarimetric images often remains relatively high during periods of low thermal contrast.

  5. Studies on aerosol properties during ICARB–2006 campaign period at Hyderabad, India using ground-based measurements and satellite data

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K V S Badarinath; Shailesh Kumar Kharol

    2008-07-01

    Continuous and campaign-based aerosol field measurements are essential in understanding fundamental atmospheric aerosol processes and for evaluating their effect on global climate, environment and human life. Synchronous measurements of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), Black Carbon (BC) aerosol mass concentration and aerosol particle size distribution were carried out during the campaign period at tropical urban regions of Hyderabad, India. Daily satellite datasets of DMSP-OLS were processed for night-time forest fires over the Indian region in order to understand the additional sources (forest fires) of aerosol. The higher values in black carbon aerosol mass concentration and aerosol optical depth correlated well with forest fires occurring over the region. Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aerosol index (AI) variations showed absorbing aerosols over the region and correlated with ground measurements.

  6. Determination of an equivalent pore size from acoustic flow measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Linde; Liu, Jin; Garrett, Steven

    2005-09-01

    The hydraulic radius, rh, is defined as the ratio of a channel's cross-sectional area to its perimeter. This parameter is important for specification of the performance of a porous medium that can be used as a regenerator in a Stirling engine or refrigerator. It is easy to calculate rh for pores of regular geometry, but difficult in more complex media. Two techniques which use oscillating flow to determine this parameter will be presented and compared. One technique extracts rh by finding the low velocity limit of the standard expression for viscous pressure drop in the Poiseuille flow regime. The other involves a plot of the nondimensional viscous flow resistance, Δpvis/Δxωρu, versus the reciprocal of the viscous penetration depth, 1/δν, in the laminar flow regime. When rhflow behavior is frequency independent and the dynamics is characterized by rh only. When rh>δν, the flow resistance is frequency dependent and the dynamics is characterized by both rh and δν. It is possible to identify an effective hydraulic radius by equating it to the value of δν where that transition occurs. [Work supported by ONR.

  7. Northern Wabash Valley Seismic Zone and the La Salle anticline seismicity determined by a short period phased array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazitis, Daniel

    The Wabash Valley Seismic Zone (WVSZ) has produced three moderate sized earthquakes greater than or equal to mb 5.0 in the past 50 years. The majority of Wabash Valley faults originate near the junction of the Rough Creek and Cottage Grove faults and extend northeastward along the Wabash River. These faults extend through the Paleozoic and into the Precambrian and are believe to be associated with the Reelfoot Rift. Two of these moderate sized earthquakes have occurred north of the terminus of the Wabash Valley faults that the WVSZ is commonly associated with. This suggests that other sources of seismicity exist. The La Salle anticline, a Precambrian basement feature, is oriented NW to SE just north of the termination of these faults. The La Salle anticline creates up to a 750 meter uplift in the above Paleozoic strata. This uplift creates faults within the Paleozoic strata and within the La Salle anticline. This study uses seismometers arranged in a phased array near the southern terminus of the La Salle anticline to analyze the seismicity of the region. Analyzing the seismicity of the region over a 6-month period found 834 events. The vast majority were determined to be mine blasts or otherwise human induced. Two small earthquakes ( M 1.0) located near the La Salle anticline. These earthquakes likely occur on faults associated with the anticline. The lack of earthquakes suggested the b-value of the La Salle region could be as low as 0.56. This is lower than the typical value of 1, but consistent with other intraplate regions and previous studies of the WVSZ finding values nearer 0.7.

  8. Validity of jitter measures in non-quasi-periodic voices. Part I: perceptual and computer performances in cycle pattern recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejonckere, Philippe; Schoentgen, Jean; Giordano, Andrea; Fraj, Samia; Bocchi, Leonardo; Manfredi, Claudia

    2011-07-01

    The limit of about 5% for reliable quantification of jitter in sustained vowels of dysphonic voices-a widely accepted guideline-deserves critical analysis. The present study pertains to the effect of experience and training on the perceptual (visual) capability of correctly identifying periods in (highly) perturbed signals, and to a comparison of the performance of several programs for voice analysis. Synthesized realistic vowels (/a:/) with exactly known jitter (2.7%-31.5%) are used as material. After selection and training, experienced raters demonstrate excellent agreement in correctly identifying periods up to high values of jitter put in. Perceptual rating outperforms all computer programs in accuracy. Most remain reliable up to 10% jitter; one of them correctly measures up to the highest level.

  9. Inverse period-doubling bifurcations determine complex structure of bursting in a one-dimensional non-autonomous map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiujing; Chen, Zhenyang; Bi, Qinsheng

    2016-02-01

    We propose a simple one-dimensional non-autonomous map, in which some novel bursting patterns (e.g., "fold/double inverse flip" bursting, "fold/multiple inverse flip" bursting, and "fold/a cascade of inverse flip" bursting) can be observed. Typically, these bursting patterns exhibit complex structures containing a chain of inverse period-doubling bifurcations. The active states related to these bursting can be period-2(n) (n = 1, 2, 3,…) attractors or chaotic attractors, which may evolve to quiescence by a chain of inverse period-doubling bifurcations when the slow excitation decreases through period-doubling bifurcation points of the map. This accounts for the complex inverse period-doubling bifurcation structures observed in bursting patterns. Our findings enrich the possible routes to bursting as well as the underlying mechanisms of bursting.

  10. The Verification of Period of Measurement Standards%浅析计量标准期间核查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏明霞

    2014-01-01

    Verification of period in practice is also called the"operation inspection"or"intermediate inspection", refers that in order to keep the confidence of verification or calibration status, laboratory using appropriate techniques as well as the calibration method to carry on multiple inspections for equipment between two regular tests. Object of verification of period is standard, standard substances or other measuring instruments. Its purpose is to ensure whether the measurement standard, standard substances or other measuring instruments maintain the original state.%期间核查在实际工作中也被称作“运行检查”或“中间检查”,是指为了保持检定或校准状态的置信度,实验室自身使用适当的技术以及校准方法对两次定期检定之间的设备进行的多次检查。期间核查的对象是计量标准、标准物质或其他测量仪器。其目的就是为了确保计量标准、标准物质或其他测量仪器是否保持原有状态。

  11. Heat and mass flux measurements using Landsat images from the 2000-2004 period, Lascar volcano, northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, C.; Inostroza, M.; Aguilera, F.; González, R.; Viramonte, J.; Menzies, A.

    2015-08-01

    A qualitative and quantitative analysis of 13 Landsat TM and ETM + images of Lascar volcano for the 2000-2004 period was performed by applying the three bands and three components method to determine heat and mass flux and understand the magma circulation process in a passive degassing volcano related to permanent fumarolic activity. The behavior and evolution of spectral radiance during the study period suggest that prior to low-to-moderate magnitude eruptions these values reach their localized temporal minimum levels, corresponding to 1.9-4.38 mW/cm2srμm in July 2000 and 4.38-7.11 mW/cm2srμm in December 2003 eruptions, respectively. Similar behavior is observed for anomaly area, heat and mass fluxes. During the 2000-2004 period the heat flux was estimated to vary from 75.46 and 10,527 MW, while mass flux ranged between 131 and 18,469 kg s- 1. A magma circulation model is proposed to explain these variations, where the thermal anomaly is related to the presence of a fumarolic field and fluids movement from a magma chamber located at ~ 10-17 km depth.

  12. The Italian public finances in the period 1998-2007: temporary factors, medium-term trends and discretionary measures

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Rosaria Marino; Sandro Momigliano; Pietro Rizza

    2008-01-01

    The paper examines the development of Italy�s public finances after the consolidation period 1992-97, which secured participation in the European Monetary Union from the outset. The �structural� developments in the main budgetary components are assessed, excluding the effects of the economic cycle and of temporary measures. The analysis shows a rapid deterioration in the years 1998-2003, whose roots can be traced back to the consolidation of the early 1990s, achieved primarily by means ...

  13. Long period gratings coated with hafnium oxide by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition for refractive index measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Luis; Burton, Geoff; Kubik, Philip; Wild, Peter

    2016-04-04

    Long period gratings (LPGs) are coated with hafnium oxide using plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) to increase the sensitivity of these devices to the refractive index of the surrounding medium. PEALD allows deposition at low temperatures which reduces thermal degradation of UV-written LPGs. Depositions targeting three different coating thicknesses are investigated: 30 nm, 50 nm and 70 nm. Coating thickness measurements taken by scanning electron microscopy of the optical fibers confirm deposition of uniform coatings. The performance of the coated LPGs shows that deposition of hafnium oxide on LPGs induces two-step transition behavior of the cladding modes.

  14. Antimicrobial use over a four-year period using days of therapy measurement at a Canadian pediatric acute care hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Bruce R; MacTavish, Sandra J; Bresee, Lauren C; Rajapakse, Nipunie; Vanderkooi, Otto; Vayalumkal, Joseph; Conly, John

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance is a concern that is challenging the ability to treat common infections. Surveillance of antimicrobial use in pediatric acute care institutions is complicated because the common metric unit, the defined daily dose, is problematic for this population. OBJECTIVE: During a four-year period in which no specific antimicrobial stewardship initiatives were conducted, pediatric antimicrobial use was quantified using days of therapy (DOT) per 100 patient days (PD) (DOT/100 PD) at the Alberta Children’s Hospital (Calgary, Alberta) for benchmarking purposes. METHODS: Drug use data for systemic antimicrobials administered on wards at the Alberta Children’s Hospital were collected from electronic medication administration records. DOT were calculated and rates were determined using 100 PD as the denominator. Changes over the surveillance period and subgroup proportions were represented graphically and assessed using linear regression. RESULTS: Total antimicrobial use decreased from 93.6 DOT/100 PD to 75.7 DOT/100 PD (19.1%) over the 2010/2011 through to the 2013/2014 fiscal years. During this period, a 20.0% increase in PD and an essentially stable absolute count of DOT (2.9% decrease) were observed. Overall, antimicrobial use was highest in the pediatric intensive care and oncology units. DISCUSSION: The exact changes in prescribing patterns that led to the observed reduction in DOT/100 PD with associated increased PD are unclear, but may be a topic for future investigations. CONCLUSION: Antimicrobial use data from a Canadian acute care pediatric hospital reported in DOT/100 PD were compiled for a four-year time period. These data may be useful for benchmarking purposes. PMID:26600813

  15. Phase identification of quasi-periodic flow measured by particle image velocimetry with a low sampling rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chong; Wang, Hongping; Wang, Jinjun

    2013-05-01

    This work mainly deals with the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) time coefficient method used for extracting phase information from quasi-periodic flow. The mathematical equivalence between this method and the traditional cross-correlation method is firstly proved. A two-dimensional circular cylinder wake flow measured by time-resolved particle image velocimetry within a range of Reynolds numbers is then used to evaluate the reliability of this method. The effect of both the sampling rate and Reynolds number on the identification accuracy is finally discussed. It is found that the POD time coefficient method provides a convenient alternative for phase identification, whose feasibility in low-sampling-rate measurement has additional advantages for experimentalists.

  16. Measurements of soil temperature for monitoring of the soil water behavior in an embankment slope during periodic rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, M.; Takakura, S.; Ishizawa, T.; Sakai, N.

    2013-12-01

    One of the most common causes of slope disaster (e.g. landslide, slope failure and debris flow) is heavy rainfall. Distributions of soil moisture and soil suction stress are changed by rain water infiltration. Monitoring of soil water behavior is crucial for prediction of the slope disaster. This study focuses on soil temperatures of a slope as a detector for monitoring soil water behavior. Soil temperature is varied by soil water condition, this is, infiltrating water transports thermal energy downward and thermal property of soil is shifted by containing of soil water. The purpose of this study is to detect the changes in soil water behavior caused by infiltration of rainfalls using measurement of soil temperature. For this purpose, we had carried out the measurements of soil temperature during various rainfalls (Yoshioka et al., 2013). In addition, we measured soil temperature and soil water content at several depths in a slope of an experimental embankment during various intensities of periodic and/or continuous rainfalls. In this presentation, we represent the details of the experiments and the results. Experiments were performed using the experimental embankment at NIED in Japan, which is about 7.3 meters tall and 27 meters wide. The embankment is located in a large-scale rainfall simulator. This facility is about 73 meters long, 48 meters wide and 20 meters tall. We measured soil temperature and volumetric water contents in the slope of the embankment, meteorological condition and rain water temperature. The rainfall intensities were 30, 60, 90 and 120 mm/h. The artificial rainfalls were carried out 10th, 17th, 24th, 31st, May and 10th, 11th, 12th June, 2013. As the results, soil temperature at many points in all experimental days rose caused by rainfalls, but the temperature at some points didn't change. We had two forms of soil temperature changes; one was a steep rise and the other was a gradual rise. In the case of periodic rainfall, soil temperature at

  17. Determination of the effective inelastic p anti-p cross-section for the D0 Run II luminosity measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, T.; /Manchester U.; Yacoob, S.; Andeen, T.; /Northwestern U.; Begel, M.; /Rochester U.; Casey, B.C.K.; Partridge, R.; /Brown U.; Schellman, H.; /Northwestern U.; Sznajder, A.; /Rio de Janeiro State U.

    2004-11-01

    The authors determine the effective inelastic p{bar p} cross-section into the D0 Luminosity Monitor for all run periods prior to September 2004. This number is used to relate the measured inelastic collision rate to the delivered luminosity. The key ingredients are the inelastic p{bar p} cross-section, the Luminosity Monitor efficiency, and the modeling of kinematic distributions for various inelastic processes used to determine the detector acceptance. The resulting value is {sigma}{sub p{bar p},eff} = 46 {+-} 3 mb.

  18. A Longitudinal Study of Objectively Measured Built Environment as Determinant of Physical Activity in Young Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schipperijn, Jasper; Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Nielsen, Merete S;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This longitudinal study aimed to examine if a Moveability Index (MI), based on objectively measured built environment characteristics, was a determinant for objectively measured physical activity (PA) among young adults. METHOD: Data collected from 177 persons participating...

  19. Long-period fiber grating sensors for the measurement of liquid level and fluid-flow velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Neng; Luo, Ching-Ying

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the development and assessment of two types of Long Period Fiber Grating (LPFG)-based sensors including a mobile liquid level sensor and a reflective sensor for the measurement of liquid level and fluid-flow velocity. Shewhart control charts were used to assess the liquid level sensing capacity and reliability of the mobile CO(2)-laser engraved LPFG sensor. There were ten groups of different liquid level experiment and each group underwent ten repeated wavelength shift measurements. The results showed that all measurands were within the control limits; thus, this mobile sensor was reliable and exhibited at least 100-cm liquid level measurement capacity. In addition, a reflective sensor consisting of five LPFGs in series with a reflective end has been developed to evaluate the liquid level and fluid-flow velocity. These five LPFGs were fabricated by the electrical arc discharge method and the reflective end was coated with silver by Tollen's test. After each liquid level experiment was performed five times, the average values of the resonance wavelength shifts for LPFG Nos. 1-5 were in the range of 1.35-9.14 nm. The experimental findings showed that the reflective sensor could be used to automatically monitor five fixed liquid levels. This reflective sensor also exhibited at least 100-cm liquid level measurement capacity. The mechanism of the fluid-flow velocity sensor was based on analyzing the relationship among the optical power, time, and the LPFG's length. There were two types of fluid-flow velocity measurements: inflow and drainage processes. The differences between the LPFG-based fluid-flow velocities and the measured average fluid-flow velocities were found in the range of 8.7-12.6%. For the first time to our knowledge, we have demonstrated the feasibility of liquid level and fluid-flow velocity sensing with a reflective LPFG-based sensor without modifying LPFGs or coating chemical compounds.

  20. Determination of iron and aluminum based on the catalytic effect on the reaction of xylene cyanol FF with hydrogen peroxide and potassium periodate

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Longfei; Xu, Chunxiu

    2011-01-01

    A simple, sensitive and selective method for the simultaneous determination of trace iron and aluminum by catalytic spectrophotometry is presented. This method is based on the catalytic effects of iron and aluminum on the reaction of xylene cyanol FF with hydrogen peroxide and potassium periodate. Both iron and aluminum did not show catalytic effects on the oxidation reaction of xylene cyanol FF in the presence of either hydrogen peroxide or potassium periodate. However, significant catalytic...

  1. Laser Phase Determination and Transfer Function to Directly Measure the Temporal Structure of a Narrow Bandwidth Attosecond EUV Pulse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Yu-Cheng

    2006-01-01

    A laser phase determination method and a transfer function that includes a proportional term of a measured photoelectron energy spectrum are presented to directly measure the detailed temporal structure of a narrow bandwidth attosecond extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) pulse. The method is based on the spectrum measurement of an electron generated by EUV photo-ionization interacting with a femtosecond laser field. The results of the study suggest that measurements should be taken at 0° or 180° with respect to the linear laser polarization. The method has a temporal measurement range of about half a laser oscillation period. The temporal resolution also depends on the jitter and control precision of the laser and EUV pulses.

  2. Luminol/CdTe quantum dots/sodium periodate system in conjunction with response-surface methodology for chemiluminometric determination of some tetracyclines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imani-Nabiyyi, Amin; Sorouraddin, Mohammad H., E-mail: soruraddin@tabrizu.ac.ir; Amjadi, Mohammad; Naseri, Abdolhossein

    2014-07-01

    A simple and sensitive chemiluminometric method is described for the determination of tetracycline (TC) and oxytetracycline (OTC) in their hydrochloride form on the basis of drastic enhancement of the chemiluminescence (CL) from the luminol/L-cysteine-capped CdTe quantum dots (QDs)/sodium periodate system, caused by the presence of TC and OTC hydrochloride. The method uses pH value at which tetracyclines have proven to be stable. Response surface methodology was exploited for optimizing the experimental conditions. The synthesized QDs were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV–vis spectroscopy, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. A possible mechanism of the CL system was proposed based on the CL spectra and the effect of some specific radical-scavengers on the system. Under the optimum conditions linear dynamic ranges of 5.0×10{sup −8}–6.0×10{sup −6} mol L{sup −1} and 5.0×10{sup −8}–8.0×10{sup −6} mol L{sup −1} were observed for TC and OTC, respectively with corresponding detection limits of 2.2×10{sup −8} mol L{sup −1} and 3.0×10{sup −8} mol L{sup −1}. The precision (RSD%) for five replicate determinations of TC and OTC were respectively no more than 3.4% and 4.0%. The method was satisfactorily applied to the determination of TC.HCl and OTC.HCl in water samples, pharmaceutical formulations, and honey. - Highlights: • A simple, rapid, and sensitive method for determination of some tetracyclines. • Enhancement of CL of luminol/Cys-capped CdTe QDs/NaIO{sub 4} with TC.HCl and OTC.HCl. • No need to chemical, photochemical, or any peculiar pretreatment of the samples. • Measuring the analytes in conditions at which they are stable. • Capable of measuring TCs in pharmaceutical, water, and honey samples.

  3. Comparative use of different emission measurement approaches to determine methane emissions from a biogas plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinelt, Torsten; Delre, Antonio; Westerkamp, Tanja

    2017-01-01

    A sustainable anaerobic biowaste treatment has to mitigate methane emissions from the entire biogas production chain, but the exact quantification of these emissions remains a challenge. This study presents a comparative measurement campaign carried out with on-site and ground-based remote sensing...... measurement approaches conducted by six measuring teams at a Swedish biowaste treatment plant. The measured emissions showed high variations, amongst others caused by different periods of measurement performance in connection with varying operational states of the plant. The overall methane emissions measured...

  4. Mammalian TIMELESS Is Involved in Period Determination and DNA Damage-Dependent Phase Advancing of the Circadian Clock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. Engelen (Erik); R. Janssens (Roel); K. Yagita (Kazuhiro); V.A.J. Smits (Veronique); G.T.J. van der Horst (Gijsbertus); F. Tamanini (Filippo)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe transcription/translation feedback loop-based molecular oscillator underlying the generation of circadian gene expression is preserved in almost all organisms. Interestingly, the animal circadian clock proteins CRYPTOCHROME (CRY), PERIOD (PER) and TIMELESS (TIM) are strongly conserve

  5. Methane emission from naturally ventilated livestock buildings can be determined from gas concentration measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, B; Zhang, Guoqiang; Madsen, J

    2012-01-01

    in the openings is avoided; however, there are still some important issues remained unanswered: (1) the precision of the estimations, (2) the requirement for the length of measuring periods, and (3) the required measuring point number and location. The purpose of this work was to investigate how estimated average...

  6. An Intercomparison of Cloud-Resolving Models with the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Summer 1997 Intensive Observation Period Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kuan-Man; Cederwall, Richard T.; Donner, Leo J.; Grabowski, Wojciech W.; Guichard, Francoise; Johnson, Daniel E.; Khairoutdinov, Marat; Krueger, Steven K.; Petch, Jon C.; Randall, David A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports an intercomparison study of midlatitude continental cumulus convection simulated by eight two-dimensional and two three-dimensional cloud-resolving models (CRMs), driven by observed large-scale advective temperature and moisture tendencies, surface turbulent fluxes, and radiative-heating profiles during three sub-periods of the summer 1997 Intensive Observation Period of the US Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. Each sub-period includes two or three precipitation events of various intensities over a span of 4 or 5 days. The results can be summarized as follows. CRMs can reasonably simulate midlatitude continental summer convection observed at the ARM Cloud and Radiation Testbed site in terms of the intensity of convective activity, and the temperature and specific-humidity evolution. Delayed occurrences of the initial precipitation events are a common feature for all three sub-cases among the models. Cloud mass fluxes, condensate mixing ratios and hydrometeor fractions produced by all CRMs are similar. Some of the simulated cloud properties such as cloud liquid-water path and hydrometeor fraction are rather similar to available observations. All CRMs produce large downdraught mass fluxes with magnitudes similar to those of updraughts, in contrast to CRM results for tropical convection. Some inter-model differences in cloud properties are likely to be related to those in the parametrizations of microphysical processes. There is generally a good agreement between the CRMs and observations with CRMs being significantly better than single-column models (SCMs), suggesting that current results are suitable for use in improving parametrizations in SCMs. However, improvements can still be made in the CRM simulations; these include the proper initialization of the CRMs and a more proper method of diagnosing cloud boundaries in model outputs for comparison with satellite and radar cloud observations.

  7. SpectrophoStonetric Determination of IO4- by Fading Reaction of Chlorophosphonazo-pN with Potassium Periodate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ 2-(4-chloro-2-phosphonophenylazo)-7-(4-nitrophenylazo)-1,8-dihydroxy-3,6-napht-halenedisulfonic acid (Chlorophosphonazo-Pn) has been proposed as a sensitive color reagent for the determination of metal ions by spectrophotometry,1,2 but the determination of IO4-by fading reaction of chlorophospho nazo-Pn has not been reported.

  8. SpectrophoStonetric Determination of IO4- by Fading Reaction of Chlorophosphonazo-pN with Potassium Periodate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Xin

    2001-01-01

    2-(4-chloro-2-phosphonophenylazo)-7-(4-nitrophenylazo)-1,8-dihydroxy-3,6-napht-halenedisulfonic acid (Chlorophosphonazo-Pn) has been proposed as a sensitive color reagent for the determination of metal ions by spectrophotometry,1,2 but the determination of IO4-by fading reaction of chlorophospho nazo-Pn has not been reported.……

  9. Determinants of Three-Year Change in Children’s Objectively Measured Sedentary Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Louise; Corder, Kirsten; Ekelund, Ulf; van Sluijs, Esther M. F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Sedentary behaviours (SB) are highly prevalent in young people and may be adversely associated with physical and mental health. Understanding of the modifiable determinants of SB is necessary to inform the design of behaviour change interventions but much of the existing research is cross-sectional and focussed upon screen-based behaviours. Purpose To examine the social, psychological and environmental determinants of change in children’s objectively measured sedentary time from age 11 to 14 years. Methods Data are from the second (2008) and third (2011) waves of assessment in the Sport, Physical Activity, and Eating Behaviour: Environmental Determinants in Young People (SPEEDY) study, conducted in the county of Norfolk, United Kingdom. Longitudinal data on accelerometer assessed sedentary time were available for 316 (53.5% female, 11.2±0.3 years at baseline) and 264 children after-school and at the weekend respectively. Information on 14 candidate determinants, including school travel mode and electronic media ownership, was self-reported. Change in the proportion of registered time spent sedentary was used as the outcome variable in cross-classified linear regression models, adjusted for age, sex, body mass index and baseline sedentary time. Simple and multiple models were run and interactions with sex explored. Results Daily sedentary time increased by 30–40 minutes after-school and at the weekend from baseline to follow-up. Participants who travelled to school by cycle exhibited smaller increases in after-school sedentary time (beta; 95%CI for change in % time spent sedentary: -3.3;-6.7,-0.07). No significant determinants of change in weekend sedentary time were identified. Conclusions Time spent sedentary increased during the three-year duration of follow-up but few of the variables examined were significantly associated with changes in sedentary time. Children’s mode of school travel may influence changes in their sedentary time over this

  10. Measurement of the temporal evolution of periodic induced displacement derivatives using stoboscopic electronic speackle-shearing interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Pablo D.; Davila, Abundio; Mendiola, G.; Kaufmann, Guillermo H.

    2001-02-01

    Single pulsed subtraction electronic speckle-shearing pattern interferometry is used to measure the time evolution of deformations induced by periodic impulse loading on a metal plate. This is accomplished with a stroboscopic system based on a pulsed laser and an interline-transfer CCD camera running at 60 frames/s. In a few seconds, a sequence of hundreds of interferograms is recorded with an effective sampling time interval of some tens of microseconds. We describe the experimental setup used to generate the transient deformation on the metal plate and also the synchronization of laser pulses and image acquisition. Several correlation fringe patterns are presented, showing the time evolution of the deformation. Finally, these data are used to calculate optical phase maps and displacement derivative fields for different times after the application of the dynamic load on the object.

  11. Summary of Time Period-Based and Other Approximation Methods for Determining the Capacity Value of Wind and Solar in the United States: September 2010 - February 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, J.; Porter, K.

    2012-03-01

    This paper updates previous work that describes time period-based and other approximation methods for estimating the capacity value of wind power and extends it to include solar power. The paper summarizes various methods presented in utility integrated resource plans, regional transmission organization methodologies, regional stakeholder initiatives, regulatory proceedings, and academic and industry studies. Time period-based approximation methods typically measure the contribution of a wind or solar plant at the time of system peak - sometimes over a period of months or the average of multiple years.

  12. On quality control procedures for solar radiation and meteorological measures, from subhourly to montly average time periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinar, B.; Blanc, P.; Wald, L.; Hoyer-Klick, C.; Schroedter-Homscheidt, M.; Wanderer, T.

    2012-04-01

    Meteorological data measured by ground stations are often a key element in the development and validation of methods exploiting satellite images. These data are considered as a reference against which satellite-derived estimates are compared. Long-term radiation and meteorological measurements are available from a large number of measuring stations. However, close examination of the data often reveals a lack of quality, often for extended periods of time. This lack of quality has been the reason, in many cases, of the rejection of large amount of available data. The quality data must be checked before their use in order to guarantee the inputs for the methods used in modelling, monitoring, forecast, etc. To control their quality, data should be submitted to several conditions or tests. After this checking, data that are not flagged by any of the test is released as a plausible data. In this work, it has been performed a bibliographical research of quality control tests for the common meteorological variables (ambient temperature, relative humidity and wind speed) and for the usual solar radiometrical variables (horizontal global and diffuse components of the solar radiation and the beam normal component). The different tests have been grouped according to the variable and the average time period (sub-hourly, hourly, daily and monthly averages). The quality test may be classified as follows: • Range checks: test that verify values are within a specific range. There are two types of range checks, those based on extrema and those based on rare observations. • Step check: test aimed at detecting unrealistic jumps or stagnation in the time series. • Consistency checks: test that verify the relationship between two or more time series. The gathered quality tests are applicable for all latitudes as they have not been optimized regionally nor seasonably with the aim of being generic. They have been applied to ground measurements in several geographic locations, what

  13. Oscillations in g-mode period spacings in red giants as a way to determine their state of evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunha M. S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we consider the sensitivity of gravity-mode period spacings to sharp changes in the inner structure of red giant stars, more specifically in the buoyancy frequency inside the g-mode propagation cavity. Based on a comparison between the solutions to the linear pulsation equations in the Cowling approximation for pure g-modes with results obtained with a full oscillation code we identify and correctly interpret the signature of the above-mentioned sharp variations in the period spacings. Two examples, of red giant models in different evolutionary phases, are discussed. Detection of these signatures in CoRoT, Kepler or future PLATO red-giant stars would pin down their evolutionary state in an unprecedented way.

  14. Comparisons of IASI-A and AATSR measurements of top-of-atmosphere radiance over an extended period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bali, Manik; Mittaz, Jonathan P.; Maturi, Eileen; Goldberg, Mitchell D.

    2016-07-01

    This study examines the trustworthiness of the Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) and the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI-A), as on-orbit reference instruments that are useful in re-calibrating the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) series (Mittaz and Harris, 2011). To do this, a 39-month period (1 January 2008 to 31 March 2011) of AATSR and IASI-A inter-comparisons of top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiance measurements is examined. Our inter-comparison reveals features of the AATSR and IASI-A bias with respect to scan angle, scene temperature, time and orbital maneuvers, and gives insight into their trustworthiness as an in-orbit reference instruments. The first feature that our study reveals is that the AATSR (nadir view) and IASI-A are both stable (have no perceptible trends in the period of study). The second feature is that IASI-A is perhaps more accurate ( ˜ 0.05 K) than its stated accuracy (0.5 K). In fact the AATSR and IASI-A bias is close to the AATSR pre-launch bias (plus a small offset of +0.07 K) implying that IASI-A can get close to pre-launch levels of accuracy. Third, a very small scan angular dependence of AATSR and IASI-A bias indicates that the IASI-A response vs. scan angle algorithm is robust, while the instrument is in orbit. Inter-comparisons of AATSR with IASI-A further reveal the impact of orbital maneuvers of the ENVISAT, the platform carrying AATSR, done in October 2011 and not anticipated previously. Our study reveals that this maneuver introduced a temperature-dependent bias in the AATSR measurements for low temperatures (< 240 K) in the period following this maneuver (Cocevar et al., 2011). Our study also shows that the known AATSR 12 µm channel offset is in fact temperature dependent, grows up to 0.4 K, varies seasonally and is correlated with instrument temperature and cannot be corrected by shifting the spectral response function (SRF) of AATSR. We also present a set of recommendations to

  15. Determination of optimal dead sea salt content in a cosmetic emulsion using rheology and stability measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Jdayil, Basim; Mohameed, Hazim A; Bsoul, Abeer

    2008-01-01

    Dead Sea mud and salts are known for their therapeutic and cosmetic properties. The presence of Dead Sea (DS) salts in different types of cosmetics has affected the stability and the flow properties of the finished products. In this study, an attempt was made to find the optimum Dead Sea salt content in a cosmetic emulsion (model of body cream) using both rheology and stability measurements. The rheological properties were tested during a four-month storage period at three different storage temperatures: 8 degrees C, room temperature, and 45 degrees C. In addition to rheological measurements and centrifuge tests, the conductivities of the emulsion samples were also determined. The centrifuge tests showed that the cream samples containing more than 0.25 wt% of DS salt showed phase separation. The addition of DS salt to the cosmetic emulsion led to two maxima in the emulsion viscosity at salt contents of 0.07 wt% and 0.15 wt%. However, the emulsion samples containing 0.15% of DS salt was considered the optimum sample since it contained the maximum amount of salt and exhibited the maximum viscosity at all tested conditions. It was found that the viscosity of the emulsion is increased with storage time and storage temperature. This behavior was accompanied by a decrease in conductivity. This behavior was explained by water evaporation from the emulsion. However, it has been shown that the presence of DS salt in the cosmetic emulsion significantly reduces the rate of water evaporation. The conductivity measurements reflect the rate of water evaporation, and the presence of DS salt reduces the rate of conductivity. Conductivity is observed to decrease with storage time and temperature.

  16. Enzootic bovine leukosis: report of eradication and surveillance measures in Italy over an 8-year period (2005-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maresca, C; Costarelli, S; Dettori, A; Felici, A; Iscaro, C; Feliziani, F

    2015-05-01

    Bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) is associated with enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL). BLV causes malignant lymphoma and lymphosarcoma; however, most BLV infections remain clinically silent in an aleukaemic state. EBL is a notifiable disease, and official control measures include screening or monitoring, precautions at borders, control of movement inside the country, and stamping out. The objective of this study was to evaluate EBL eradication and surveillance measures in Italy from 2005 to 2012. One-hundred twenty-three outbreaks were recorded (1 January 2006 to 31 December 2012) in the National Veterinary Information System (SIMAN) on 7 November 2013. Of these, 101 had occurred in southern Italy. An outbreak usually lasted for a few days, but sometimes lasted for weeks. Some areas were subjected to normal eradication measures, whereas others were subjected to additional eradication measures as a consequence of persisting EBL outbreaks. During the study period, we noted an overall annual decrease from 0.21% in 2005 to 0.08% in 2012 in the herd prevalence rate, from 0.06% in 2005 to 0.04% in 2012 in the herd incidence rate, and from 0.027% in 2005 to 0.015% in 2012 in the animal prevalence rate. Regions officially recognised as EBL-free areas were found to have their own surveillance plans. Differences in their surveillance plans include the type of sample (serum, milk, or both), age at which the animals must be tested (12 or 24 months), and test frequency of herds (annually or every 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 years). The eradication programme for EBL is difficult to implement in some Italian areas because of several factors such as incomplete herd registry, geographical location and socio-economic conditions of the region.

  17. Determination Of Caustic Drain Out Period Of Glass Bottle Washerand Impact Of Total And Effective Caustic Strengths For Glass Bottle Washing In Soft Drink Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.M.MJ. Harshani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important processes in soft drink production is bottle washing high quality of the product depends on that. A main objective of the present study is to determine the impact of total caustic and effective caustic strength on the washing performance of glass bottles. Total and effective caustic strength in samples were measured based on titration results. Four parameters were considered on the washing performance of glass bottles such as Microbiological Tests APC and Yeast amp Molds Methylene blue test Phenolphthalein test and Physical inspection. Ten samples were tested for every test per each time and three times were considered for a day and conduct for 43 days within two caustic drains out periods. Negative correlations in between total effective caustic strengths with time Days indicate from 29 days onward in tanks. There is a Positive correlation P 0.05 in between Carbonates gml and time Days onward. Positive correlations P 0.05 indicate from 35 days onward for the number of algae present bottles number of dirty bottles and APC too. Twenty nine days from the initial charge of caustic soda can be taken as the most suitable day for the caustic discharge. Under the practical scenario mean differences of total and effective caustic strengths are negligible compared to the standard value and not significantly difference P 0.05.

  18. Comparison of UV-RSS spectral measurements and TUV model runs for clear skies for the May 2003 ARM aerosol intensive observation period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Michalsky

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The first successful deployment of the fully-operational ultraviolet rotating shadow-band spectroradiometer occurred during the May 2003 U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program's Aerosol Intensive Observation Period. The aerosol properties in the visible range were characterized using redundant measurements with several instruments to determine the column aerosol optical depth, the single scattering albedo, and the asymmetry parameter needed as input for radiative transfer calculations of the downwelling direct normal and diffuse horizontal solar irradiance in clear-sky conditions. The Tropospheric Ultraviolet and Visible (TUV radiative transfer model developed by Madronich and his colleagues at the U.S. National Center for Atmospheric Research was used for the calculations of the spectral irradiance between 300–360 nm. Since there are few ultraviolet measurements of aerosol properties, most of the input aerosol data for the radiative transfer model are based on the assumption that UV input parameters can be extrapolated from the visible portion of the spectrum. Disagreements between available extraterrestrial spectra, which are discussed briefly, suggested that instead of comparing irradiances that measured and modeled spectral transmittances between 300–360 nm should be compared for the seven cases studied. These cases included low to moderate aerosol loads and low to high solar-zenith angles. A procedure for retrieving single scattering albedo in the ultraviolet based on the comparisons of direct and diffuse transmittance is outlined.

  19. Detection of quasi-periodic processes in repeated measurements: New approach for the fitting and clusterization of different data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigmatullin, R.; Rakhmatullin, R.

    2014-12-01

    Many experimentalists were accustomed to think that any independent measurement forms a non-correlated measurement that depends weakly from others. We are trying to reconsider this conventional point of view and prove that similar measurements form a strongly-correlated sequence of random functions with memory. In other words, successive measurements "remember" each other at least their nearest neighbors. This observation and justification on real data help to fit the wide set of data based on the Prony's function. The Prony's decomposition follows from the quasi-periodic (QP) properties of the measured functions and includes the Fourier transform as a partial case. New type of decomposition helps to obtain a specific amplitude-frequency response (AFR) of the measured (random) functions analyzed and each random function contains less number of the fitting parameters in comparison with its number of initial data points. Actually, the calculated AFR can be considered as the generalized Prony's spectrum (GPS), which will be extremely useful in cases where the simple model pretending on description of the measured data is absent but vital necessity of their quantitative description is remained. These possibilities open a new way for clusterization of the initial data and new information that is contained in these data gives a chance for their detailed analysis. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements realized for empty resonator (pure noise data) and resonator containing a sample (CeO2 in our case) confirmed the existence of the QP processes in reality. But we think that the detection of the QP processes is a common feature of many repeated measurements and this new property of successive measurements can attract an attention of many experimentalists. To formulate some general conditions that help to identify and then detect the presence of some QP process in the repeated experimental measurements. To find a functional equation and its solution that

  20. Determining sexual dimorphism in frog measurement data: integration of statistical significance, measurement error, effect size and biological significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayek Lee-Ann C.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Several analytic techniques have been used to determine sexual dimorphism in vertebrate morphological measurement data with no emergent consensus on which technique is superior. A further confounding problem for frog data is the existence of considerable measurement error. To determine dimorphism, we examine a single hypothesis (Ho = equal means for two groups (females and males. We demonstrate that frog measurement data meet assumptions for clearly defined statistical hypothesis testing with statistical linear models rather than those of exploratory multivariate techniques such as principal components, correlation or correspondence analysis. In order to distinguish biological from statistical significance of hypotheses, we propose a new protocol that incorporates measurement error and effect size. Measurement error is evaluated with a novel measurement error index. Effect size, widely used in the behavioral sciences and in meta-analysis studies in biology, proves to be the most useful single metric to evaluate whether statistically significant results are biologically meaningful. Definitions for a range of small, medium, and large effect sizes specifically for frog measurement data are provided. Examples with measurement data for species of the frog genus Leptodactylus are presented. The new protocol is recommended not only to evaluate sexual dimorphism for frog data but for any animal measurement data for which the measurement error index and observed or a priori effect sizes can be calculated.

  1. Long-Period Fiber Grating Sensors for the Measurement of Liquid Level and Fluid-Flow Velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Neng Wang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development and assessment of two types of Long Period Fiber Grating (LPFG-based sensors including a mobile liquid level sensor and a reflective sensor for the measurement of liquid level and fluid-flow velocity. Shewhart control charts were used to assess the liquid level sensing capacity and reliability of the mobile CO2-laser engraved LPFG sensor. There were ten groups of different liquid level experiment and each group underwent ten repeated wavelength shift measurements. The results showed that all measurands were within the control limits; thus, this mobile sensor was reliable and exhibited at least 100-cm liquid level measurement capacity. In addition, a reflective sensor consisting of five LPFGs in series with a reflective end has been developed to evaluate the liquid level and fluid-flow velocity. These five LPFGs were fabricated by the electrical arc discharge method and the reflective end was coated with silver by Tollen’s test. After each liquid level experiment was performed five times, the average values of the resonance wavelength shifts for LPFG Nos. 1–5 were in the range of 1.35–9.14 nm. The experimental findings showed that the reflective sensor could be used to automatically monitor five fixed liquid levels. This reflective sensor also exhibited at least 100-cm liquid level measurement capacity. The mechanism of the fluid-flow velocity sensor was based on analyzing the relationship among the optical power, time, and the LPFG’s length. There were two types of fluid-flow velocity measurements: inflow and drainage processes. The differences between the LPFG-based fluid-flow velocities and the measured average fluid-flow velocities were found in the range of 8.7–12.6%. For the first time to our knowledge, we have demonstrated the feasibility of liquid level and fluid-flow velocity sensing with a reflective LPFG-based sensor without modifying LPFGs or coating chemical compounds.

  2. {sup 14}C age determination for human bones during the Yayoi period - the calibration ambiguity around 2400 BP and the marine reservoir effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihara, S. E-mail: cs200027@scs.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Miyamoto, K.; Nakamura, T.; Koike, H

    2004-08-01

    {sup 14}C ages for Japanese prehistoric samples from the Latest Jomon period to the early Yayoi period have a calibration ambiguity for dates around 2400 BP. It is also necessary to correct for the marine reservoir effect on {sup 14}C ages of human bone samples from people who consumed marine food as a protein source. The Ohtomo site in western Japan, is a cemetery site used from the end of the Latest Jomon period to the Kofun period, provide a useful archaeological chronology. Human bones found in dolmen burials, jar burials and cist burials. In this study, we determined the {sup 14}C ages of human bone samples and calculated the marine reservoir effect, using diet analysis based on carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes. Diet analysis showed that these people obtained from 40% to 60% of their protein from marine sources. Their {sup 14}C ages with calibration and marine reservoir correction were serially matched with the archaeological chronology.

  3. Optical coherence tomography enables accurate measurement of equine cartilage thickness for determination of speed of sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhakka, Pia H; Te Moller, Nikae C R; Tanska, Petri; Saarakkala, Simo; Tiitu, Virpi; Korhonen, Rami K; Brommer, Harold; Virén, Tuomas; Jurvelin, Jukka S; Töyräs, Juha

    2016-08-01

    Background and purpose - Arthroscopic estimation of articular cartilage thickness is important for scoring of lesion severity, and measurement of cartilage speed of sound (SOS)-a sensitive index of changes in cartilage composition. We investigated the accuracy of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in measurements of cartilage thickness and determined SOS by combining OCT thickness and ultrasound (US) time-of-flight (TOF) measurements. Material and methods - Cartilage thickness measurements from OCT and microscopy images of 94 equine osteochondral samples were compared. Then, SOS in cartilage was determined using simultaneous OCT thickness and US TOF measurements. SOS was then compared with the compositional, structural, and mechanical properties of cartilage. Results - Measurements of non-calcified cartilage thickness using OCT and microscopy were significantly correlated (ρ = 0.92; p measurement of articular cartilage thickness. Although SOS measurements lacked accuracy in thin equine cartilage, the concept of SOS measurement using OCT appears promising.

  4. Incidence and determinants of endophthalmitis within 6 months of surgeries over a 2-year period at King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Saudi Arabia: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Khandekar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We present the incidence and determinants of endophthalmitis between July 2010 and June 2012 at King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. On its basis, we recommended recommendations to strengthen the infection prevention and control strategies. Methods: This is a retrospective review of health records type of study. The details of cases reported having endophthalmitis among those operated in 2 years of study period were studied. The incidence of endophthalmitis was calculated for different eye surgeries and epidemiological variables. The causative organisms in vitreous tap were reviewed. The visual outcomes 6 weeks following intervention/treatment of endophthalmmitis were also studied. Results: Of the 22,554 cases operated, 17 developed endophthalmitis. The incidence was 0.08% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.04-0.11. The incidence of endophthlamitis among cataract surgeries was 0.12% (95% CI 0.04-0.21. Five specimens did not show any bacteria or fungus. Staphylococcus epidermis (3 cases was the main pathogen identified. In 8 (47% eyes, vision deteriorated in spite of treatment. In 5 (29% eyes, it became stable and in 4 (23.5% eyes, it improved following treatment. Signs of infection were noted in 1 st week, 3 weeks and 12 weeks in 4, 6 and 5 eyes respectively. Late presentation of infection (6 months postoperatively was reported in two eyes. Conclusions: A vigilant infection control unit in a large eye hospital helps in monitoring endophthalmitis related catastrophes and suggests timely preventive measures to reduce the occurrence and appropriate measures to limit visual disabilities following eye surgery related endophthalmitis.

  5. New’ Performance Measures: Determinants of Their Use and Their Impact on Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.H.M. Verbeeten (Frank)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis study investigates the extent to which Dutch organizations use ‘new’ performance measures to deal with the perceived inadequacies of traditional accounting performance measures. In addition, the determinants of the use of these ‘new’ performance measures are documented; finally, the

  6. ANALYSIS OF HEDGING DETERMINANTS WITH FOREIGN CURRENCY DERIVATIVE INSTRUMENTS ON COMPANIES LISTED ON BEI PERIOD 2012-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gatot Nazir Ahmad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is conducted to see the effect of the company's firm size, growth opportunities, leverage and liquidity on the decision of hedging with foreign currency derivative instruments on manufacturing companies listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange (BEI period 2012-2015. The Data that is used on this study is a set of data panel with purposive sampling method, and the criteria for the sample is: (1 manufacturing companies listed on the Stock Exchange period 2012 to 2015, (2 manufacturing companies that has transaction exposure ( liabilities and / or assets denominated in foreign currency, (3 manufacturing companies that has the data is needed for this study. The total sample of this study is 106 companies or 424 observation within 4 years. The Data analysis technique that is used on this study is logistic regression with z-statistic as hypotheses testing to test the regression coefficient with an alpha of 5%. The study result shows that firm size, growth opportunities and liquidity positively and Significantly Affect the decision of hedging with foreign currency derivative instruments, while leverage negatively and insignificantly Affect the decision of hedging with foreign currency derivative instruments.

  7. BILIRUBIN AS AN INDIRECT MEASURE OF LABORATORY PERFORMANCE OF BILIRUBIN DETERMINATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Babu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE : To correlate Total Serum Bilirubin (TSB values to the clinical course of hyperbilirubinemia in newborns as this can be an indirect method of quality assurance in the laboratory. METHODS : An observational study of bilirubin values from 100 randomly selected case records of newborn jaundice for a period of 6 months. TSB values were determined by diazo reaction on venous blood samples on a semi auto analyzer. MS excel sheet used for statistical analysis. RESULTS : Clinical course of hyperbilirubinemia in all subjects correlated well to the reported TSB values in first to last zones corresponding to 15 mg /dL on 3rd day to 5th day of age. Zones 3, 4 and 5 varied from 7th day of birth, as phototherapy and recovery altered visual assessment of jaundice. One patient was expired with kernicterus had very high TSB value. The median bilirubin values trend downfall which correlated clinically to recovery from jaundice and 33% rapid decline in TSB also indicated the intervention by phototherapy. CONCLUSIONS : Bilirubin is one parameter with higher inter laboratory variability since its discovery till today. Hence more quality methods are to be developed to minimize this bias in clinical interpretation of reported bilirubin levels. Our study is an intermediary quality measure useful for both clinicians and lab personnel. This study can be adopted for retrospective quality evaluation and can be adopted for other parameters as well.

  8. 75 FR 34749 - Determination of Regulatory Review Period for Purposes of Patent Extension; BYSTOLIC; U.S. Patent...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    ... Patent Extension; BYSTOLIC; U.S. Patent Nos. 5,759,580 and 6,545,040 AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration... has made the determination because of the submission of applications to the Director of Patents and Trademarks, Department of Commerce, for the extension of a patent which claims that human drug...

  9. 31 CFR 351.21 - How are redemption values determined during any extended maturity period of Series EE savings...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are redemption values determined....21 Section 351.21 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT OFFERING OF UNITED STATES...

  10. The Personal Earnings Distribution: Individual and Institutional Determinants. Final Report for the Period July 1, 1970--October 31, 1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluestone, Barry A.

    The study investigates the determinants of the earnings distribution in the U.S. paying particular attention to the less-skilled segment of the workforce. A general earnings theory is proposed which has elements of human capital theory, institutional hypotheses, and radical stratification analysis. Much attention is paid to testing the "crowding"…

  11. Flow-injection Chemiluminescence Sensor for the Determination of Gallic Acid by Immobilizing Luminol and Periodate on Anion-exchange Resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG,Si-Chun(张四纯); ZHOU,Guo-Jun(周国俊); JU,Huang-Xian(鞠熀先)

    2002-01-01

    A novel chemihuminescence (CL) sensor for the determination of gallic acid combined with flow injection analysis was developed by electrostatically immobilizing luminol and periodate on anion-exchange resins respectively. Gallic acid was sensed by its enhancing effect on the weak CL reaction between luminol and periodate, which were eluted from the ion exchang ecolumn.The possible reaction mechanism of the CL system was suggested and discussed. The response of the sensor to gallic acid concentration was linear over the range of 8.0 × 10-9-1.0 × 10-6 mol/L with a detection limit of 6.5 × 10-9 mol/L (3σσ). The relative standard deviation (RSD) for 7 repetitive determinations of gallic acid (1.0 × 10-7 moL/L) was 1.8%. The sensor could be used for over 400 times determination with a good reproducibility.

  12. Rotation Period Determinations for 81 Terpsichore, 419 Aurelia 452 Hamiltonia, 610 Valeska, 649 Josefa, and 652 Jubilatrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, Frederick

    2010-04-01

    Synodic rotation periods and amplitudes have been found for 81 Terpsichore 10.943 ± 0.002 h, 0.08 ± 0.01 mag with one maximum and minimum per cycle; 419 Aurelia 16.781 ± 0.001 h, 0.10 ± 0.01 mag; 452 Hamiltonia 2.8813 ± 0.0001 h, 0.17 ± 0.03 mag; 610 Valeska 4.9047 ± 0.0002 h, 0.17 ± 0.03 mag; 649 Josefa 10.481 ± 0.001 h, 0.33 ± 0.04 mag; and 652 Jubilatrix 2.6627 ± 0.0001 h, 0.27 ± 0.03 mag.

  13. Rotation Period Determinations for 28 Bellona, 81 Terpsichore, 126 Velleda 150 Nuwa, 161 Athor, 419 Aurelia, and 632 Pyrrha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, Frederick

    2011-07-01

    Synodic rotation periods and lightcurve amplitudes have been found for 28 Bellona 15.706 ± 0.001h, 0.06 ± 0.01 mag with one maximum and minimum per cycle; 81 Terpsichore 10.945 ± 0.001 hours, 0.09 ± 0.01 mag with one maximum and minima per cycle; 126 Velleda 5.3672 ± 0.0001 hours, 0.09 ± 0.01 mag; 150 Nuwa 8.1347 ± 0.0001 hours, 0.17 ± 0.02 mag; 161 Athor 7.2798 ± 0.0001 hours, 0.19 ± 0.02 mag; 419 Aurelia 16.781 ± 0.001 hours, 0.15 ± 0.02 mag with an irregular lightcurve; 632 Pyrrha 4.1167 ± 0.0001 hours, 0.40 ± 0.04 mag.

  14. Spatial distribution of atmospheric carbon monoxide over Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea: Measurements during pre-monsoon period of 2006

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V R Aneesh; G Mohankumar; S Sampath

    2008-08-01

    Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO)conducted the ‘Integrated Campaign for Aerosols, gases and Radiation Budget (ICARB)’for a two-month pre-monsoon period in 2006 with the ocean segment covering Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea.During this campaign,carbon monoxide (CO) was continuously monitored using a non-dispersive IR analyser. Quantifying CO in ambient air is vital in determining the air quality of a region.Being toxic,CO is a criteria pollutant,but it is a weak green house gas.Globally,very few measurements exist over marine atmospheres to study its temporal pattern;particularly in situ CO measurements are few over the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea for comparison.Present measurements indicate:(i)predominant single peak in the diurnal pattern of CO over the marine atmosphere in contrast to the double peak over the continent, (ii)the mean diurnal CO over the marine atmosphere showing an increasing trend towards evening hours,(iii)the amplitude of the AN peaks over the marine atmosphere was ∼100 ppbv,while at a remote island site in the Indian Ocean it was ∼5 ppbv and (iv)high CO values were observed close to continent and the long range transport by wind also caused CO highs.

  15. Feeding systems and periods of finishing on the body and carcass measurements of lambs slaughtered in the South Central region of the Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odilei Rogerio Prado

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to determine the effect of feeding system and time of the year on the in vivo and carcass characteristics of lambs slaughtered at the Cooperative Cooperaliança (Guarapuava-PR. Ile de France lambs and their crossbreds (n=253 were evaluated at slaughter with 39.6 kg of mean body weight in three periods between April and September 2010. Four feeding systems for finishing of lambs were identified: a grazing dams + lambs with creep-feeding for lambs (n=67; b no supplemented, grazing dams + lambs (n=47; c grazing dams + lambs, all of them supplemented with concentrate (n=30; d irregular system of feeding (n=109. Measurements on lambs were carried out in vivo and by ultrasound before slaughter and the carcass measurements were taken before and after chilling. Lambs delivered for slaughter between the end of August and the first half of September showed better results (p <0.05 for muscle development, dressing percentage and fat thickness in the carcass compared to that slaughtered in April and June. It was concluded that the feeding system with supplementation for dams and sucking lambs resulted in better characteristics for body and carcass measurements compared to other systems.

  16. Correlation between special brain area and blood perfusion in patients with cerebral infarction at convalescent period Feasibility for quantitative determination and estimation of learning and memory function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Presently, clinic memory scale is used to evaluate learning memory ability in most studies,and the influence of difference in measurement condition of individuals exists.OBJECTIVE: To study the correlation between regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) perfusion and learning memory function in special brain regions of patients with cerebral infarction at convalescent period,and to try to find out a method which can quantitatively evaluate learning ability.DESIGN: Case observation, and correlation analysis.SETTINGS: Shandong Institute for Behavioral Medicine; the Affiliated Hospital of Jining Medical College.PARTICIPANTS: Totally 70 patients with cerebral infarction admitted to Departtment of Neurology, Jining Medical College between January 2004 and December 2005 were involved. The involved patients, 58 male and 12 female, were averaged (52±3) years, and they were all right handed. They all met the diagnosis criteria instituted by the Fourth National Conference on Cerebrovascular Disease, and were confirmed as cerebral infarction by skull CT or MRI. Informed consents of detected items were obtained from all the patients and relatives.METHODS: When the patients were at convalescent period, their learning and memory ability were measured with" clinic memory scale (set A)". The 18 patients whose total mark over 100 were regarded as good learning memory function group; The 23 cases whose total mark less than 70 were regarded as poor learning memory function group. RCBF of hippocampus, nucleus amygdalae, temporal cortex and prefrontal lobe of patients between two groups were measured and compared by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The total scores of the 18 good learning memory patients and 23 poor learning memory patients were taken as dependent variable Y, and their rCBFs of hippocampus, nucleus amygdale,temporal cortex and prefrontal lobe respectively as independent variable X for linear correlation analysis.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES

  17. MOFCOM Decided to Prolong the Period of Anti-Dumping Measures against Imports of Spandex Originated in Japan, Singapore, ROK, Taiwan Region and the U.S.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Ministry of Commerce released, on October 12, Announcement No. 62 of 2012, deciding to prolong the period of anti-dumping measures against imports of spandex originated in Japan, Singapore, ROK, Taiwan region and the U.S.

  18. Comparison of UV-RSS spectral measurements and TUV model runs for clear skies for the May 2003 ARM aerosol intensive observation period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. W. Kiedron

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The first successful deployment of the fully-operational ultraviolet rotating shadow-band spectroradiometer occurred during the May 2003 US Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program's Aerosol Intensive Observation Period. The aerosol properties in the visible range were characterized using redundant measurements with several instruments to determine the column aerosol optical depth, the single scattering albedo, and the asymmetry parameter needed as input for radiative transfer calculations of the downwelling direct normal and diffuse horizontal solar irradiance in clear-sky conditions. The Tropospheric Ultraviolet and Visible (TUV radiative transfer model developed by Madronich and his colleagues at the US National Center for Atmospheric Research was used for the calculations of the spectral irradiance between 300–360 nm. Since there are few ultraviolet measurements of aerosol properties, most of the input aerosol data for the radiative transfer model are based on the assumption that UV input parameters can be extrapolated from the visible portion of the spectrum. Disagreements among available extraterrestrial spectra, which are discussed briefly, suggested that instead of comparing irradiances, measured and modeled spectral transmittances between 300–360 nm should be compared for the seven cases studied. Transmittance was calculated by taking the ratios of the measured irradiances to the Langley-derived, top-of-the-atmosphere irradiances. The cases studied included low to moderate aerosol loads and low to high solar-zenith angles. A procedure for retrieving single scattering albedo in the ultraviolet based on the comparisons of direct and diffuse transmittance is outlined.

  19. Measuring cognitive determinants of speeding: An application of the theory of planned behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Paris, Helmut; Van den Broucke, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    This article describes. the development and validation of a self-report questionnaire to measure the determinants of speeding behaviour in road traffic, based on the theory of planned behaviour. A provisional questionnaire measuring self-reported speeding behaviour as well as its determinants as predicted by the TPB model (attitudes towards speeding and towards respecting speed limits, social norms, perceived behavioural control, and intentions) was completed by 116 drivers. Separate principa...

  20. Thermodynamic properties of the liquid Hg-Tl alloys determined from vapour pressure measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gierlotka W.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The partial vapour pressure of mercury over liquid Hg-Tl liquid solutions were determined in the temperature range from 450 to 700 K by direct vapour pressure measurements carried out with the quartz gauge. From the measured ln pHg vs. T relationships activities of mercury were determined. Using Redlich-Kister formulas logarithms of the activity coefficients were described with the following equations: From which all thermodynamic functions in the solutions can be derived.

  1. Trajectories and Determinants of Elder Care in Rural China During an 8-Year Period: Why Having Sons Makes a Difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Man; Chi, Iris; Silverstein, Merril

    2016-07-01

    Using 8-year panel data for 1,355 older adults in rural Anhui province, China, this study examined the trajectories and determinants of elder care provided by adult children to their older parents. The results of two-level latent variable growth models showed that trajectories of elder care differed by the gender of children, with an increase in care from sons but a decrease in care from daughters over time. Children's life stages influenced their care provision but differed by gender. Functional impairment of parents and care provided by siblings in the family also affected the care provided by each child. The findings reflect the patrilineal nature of Chinese family systems and demonstrate the linkages between critical life events and caregiving behaviors of adult children. Findings of this study can inform the formulation of elder care policies that meet the needs of families with different structures and at different life stages.

  2. Non-destructive determination of total polyphenols content and classification of storage periods of Iron Buddha tea using multispectral imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Chuanwu; Liu, Changhong; Pan, Wenjuan; Ma, Fei; Xiong, Can; Qi, Li; Chen, Feng; Lu, Xuzhong; Yang, Jianbo; Zheng, Lei

    2015-06-01

    Total polyphenols is a primary quality indicator in tea which is consumed worldwide. The feasibility of using near infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy (800-2500nm) and multispectral imaging (MSI) system (405-970nm) for prediction of total polyphenols contents (TPC) of Iron Buddha tea was investigated in this study. The results revealed that the predictive model by MSI using partial least squares (PLS) analysis for tea leaves was considered to be the best in non-destructive and rapid determination of TPC. Besides, the ability of MSI to classify tea leaves based on storage period (year of 2004, 2007, 2011, 2012 and 2013) was tested and the classification accuracies of 95.0% and 97.5% were achieved using LS-SVM and BPNN models, respectively. These overall results suggested that MSI together with suitable analysis model is a promising technology for rapid and non-destructive determination of TPC and classification of storage periods in tea leaves.

  3. Comparative use of different emission measurement approaches to determine methane emissions from a biogas plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinelt, Torsten; Delre, Antonio; Westerkamp, Tanja; Holmgren, Magnus A; Liebetrau, Jan; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2017-06-16

    A sustainable anaerobic biowaste treatment has to mitigate methane emissions from the entire biogas production chain, but the exact quantification of these emissions remains a challenge. This study presents a comparative measurement campaign carried out with on-site and ground-based remote sensing measurement approaches conducted by six measuring teams at a Swedish biowaste treatment plant. The measured emissions showed high variations, amongst others caused by different periods of measurement performance in connection with varying operational states of the plant. The overall methane emissions measured by ground-based remote sensing varied from 5 to 25kgh(-1) (corresponding to a methane loss of 0.6-3.0% of upgraded methane produced), depending on operating conditions and the measurement method applied. Overall methane emissions measured by the on-site measuring approaches varied between 5 and 17kgh(-1) (corresponding to a methane loss of 0.6 and 2.1%) from team to team, depending on the number of measured emission points, operational state during the measurements and the measurement method applied. Taking the operational conditions into account, the deviation between different approaches and teams could be explained, in that the two largest methane-emitting sources, contributing about 90% of the entire site's emissions, were found to be the open digestate storage tank and a pressure release valve on the compressor station. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. The Measurement of the Sensory Recovery Period in Zygoma and Blow-Out Fractures with Neurometer Current Perception Threshold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daemyung Oh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundFacial hypoesthesia is one of the most troublesome complaints in the management of facial bone fractures. However, there is a lack of literature on facial sensory recovery after facial trauma. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the facial sensory recovery period for facial bone fractures using Neurometer.MethodsSixty-three patients who underwent open reduction of zygomatic and blowout fractures between December 2013 and July 2015 were included in the study. The facial sensory status of the patients was repeatedly examined preoperatively and postoperatively by Neurometer current perception threshold (CPT until the results were normalized.ResultsAmong the 63 subjects, 30 patients had normal Neurometer results preoperatively and postoperatively. According to fracture types, 17 patients with blowout fracture had a median recovery period of 0.25 months. Twelve patients with zygomatic fracture had a median recovery period of 1.00 month. Four patients with both fracture types had a median recovery period of 0.625 months. The median recovery period of all 33 patients was 0.25 months. There was no statistically significant difference in the sensory recovery period between types and subgroups of zygomatic and blowout fractures. In addition, there was no statistically significant difference in the sensory recovery period according to Neurometer results and the patients' own subjective reports.ConclusionsNeurometer CPT is effective for evaluating and comparing preoperative and postoperative facial sensory status and evaluating the sensory recovery period in facial bone fracture patients.

  5. The Measurement of the Sensory Recovery Period in Zygoma and Blow-Out Fractures with Neurometer Current Perception Threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Daemyung; Yun, Taebin; Kim, Junhyung; Choi, Jaehoon; Jeong, Woonhyeok; Chu, Hojun; Lee, Soyoung

    2016-09-01

    Facial hypoesthesia is one of the most troublesome complaints in the management of facial bone fractures. However, there is a lack of literature on facial sensory recovery after facial trauma. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the facial sensory recovery period for facial bone fractures using Neurometer. Sixty-three patients who underwent open reduction of zygomatic and blowout fractures between December 2013 and July 2015 were included in the study. The facial sensory status of the patients was repeatedly examined preoperatively and postoperatively by Neurometer current perception threshold (CPT) until the results were normalized. Among the 63 subjects, 30 patients had normal Neurometer results preoperatively and postoperatively. According to fracture types, 17 patients with blowout fracture had a median recovery period of 0.25 months. Twelve patients with zygomatic fracture had a median recovery period of 1.00 month. Four patients with both fracture types had a median recovery period of 0.625 months. The median recovery period of all 33 patients was 0.25 months. There was no statistically significant difference in the sensory recovery period between types and subgroups of zygomatic and blowout fractures. In addition, there was no statistically significant difference in the sensory recovery period according to Neurometer results and the patients' own subjective reports. Neurometer CPT is effective for evaluating and comparing preoperative and postoperative facial sensory status and evaluating the sensory recovery period in facial bone fracture patients.

  6. Determination of absorption coefficients of glasses at high tempera-tures, by measuring the thermal emission

    OpenAIRE

    Loenen, E.; Van der Tempel, L.

    1996-01-01

    An experimental setup built in 1995 measures the spectral absorptioncoefficient of glass as a function of temperature and wavelength bythe emissive method. The setup was improved, as well as the softwarefor processing the measurement data. The measurement results of quartzwere validated by comparison with several literature sources. Theabsorption spectra of Philips 360, GE 180, Schott 8486 Suprax, Corning1724 and Philips 441 glass were determined as a function of temperature.

  7. An intercomparison of measured and modeled canopy parameters during the variable water-stressed period of FIFE 1989 using an hybrid biosphere-remote sensing model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, H. J.; Crosson, W. L.; Smith, E. A.

    1992-01-01

    The measured atmospheric parameters and the fluxes of latent and sensible heat across the biosphere-atmosphere interface collected during the water-stressed period of the First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE) were compared with those calculated by an experimental version of the Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (Ex-BATS). It is shown that the brightness temperature (T(B)) values observed near the surface during FIFE 1987 are closely correlated to in-canopy temperatures calculated by Ex-BATS. The 1987 near-surface observations of T(B) are also well correlated to AVHHR channels 4 and 5 measurements. An inverted form of Ex-BATS was applied to determine the associated required in-canopy temperatures, T(icr), and regressions between T(icr) and T(B) found from the 1987 data were applied to the 1989 observed T(B) at a different site. The T(icr) so estimated showed excellent correlation to the 1989 model calculated T(icr).

  8. Comparing discriminant analysis and neural network for the determination of sex using femur head measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alunni, Véronique; Jardin, Philippe du; Nogueira, Luisa; Buchet, Luc; Quatrehomme, Gérald

    2015-08-01

    The measurement of the femoral head is usually considered an interesting variable for the sex determination of skeletal remains. To date, there are few published reference measurements of the femoral head in a modern European population for the purpose of sex determination. In this study, 116 femurs from 58 individuals of the South of France (Nice Bone Collection, Nice, France) were studied. Three measurements of the femoral head were taken: the vertical head diameter (VHD), the transversal head diameter (THD) and the head circumference (HC). The results show that: (i) there is no statistical difference between the right and left femurs for each of the three measurements (VHD, THD and HC). Therefore we arbitrarily chose to use the measures from the right femurs (N=58) to pursue our experiments; (ii) the measurements of the femoral head are similar to those of contemporary American populations; (iii) the dimensions of the femoral head place the measurements of the French population somewhere between Germany or Croatia, and Spain; (iv) there is no significant secular trend (in contrast with the femoral neck diameter); (v) the femoral head measurement as a single variable is useful for sex determination: a 96.5% rate of accuracy was obtained using THD and HC measurements with the artificial neural network; and a 94.8% rate of accuracy using VHD, both with the discriminant analysis and the neural network.

  9. Study of ionization-chamber measurement systems for activity determination; Untersuchung von Ionisationskammer-Messsystemen fuer Aktivitaetsbestimmungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niedergesaess, Christiane; Schrader, Heinrich; Kossert, Karsten

    2011-04-15

    The present report describes the performance and results of a common project of the company MED Nuklear-Medizintechnik Dresden GmbH and the Working Group 6.11 ''Activity Unit'' of the Physikalisch-Technischen Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Braunschweig with the subject ''Activity measurements with radionuclide calibrators (activity meters) for nuclear medicine and metrology''. In the frame of this project, the company MED provided three ionization chamber measuring systems, whereas the PTB adjoined the necessary personal, technical support and the radioactive sources and standards for the calibration in terms of activity. The goal of the project was a systematic study of the performance of the ionization chambers for activity measurements. This covers the subject of determination of various radionuclide efficiencies (calibration factors) necessary for activity determinations in practice. Using two of the ionization chambers of identical construction, a comparison of the reproducibility within exemplars was made using common calibration results. Furthermore, the instrument stability during a period of about two years and the system linearity for activity values within a range of about four orders of magnitude were studied. In addition, the energy-dependent efficiency curves were determined, which allowed the calculation of calibration factors for the three ionization chamber measuring systems using emission probabilities of the corresponding radionuclide. The uncertainties of the involved measurands, particularly for the activity values to be determined, were calculated using the rules of the ''Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement'' (GUM, JCGM, 2008). (orig.)

  10. Earthquake focal mechanisms and stress field in Si-chuan-Yunnan area determined using P wave po-larity and short period P and S waveform data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Based on waveform data, several methods to determine focal mechanisms of small earthquakes were developed since 1980. Kisslinger (1980) and Julian, Foulger (1996) proposed an approach to determine solution by using amplitude ratio of P and S wave. Schwartz (1995) devised a method to determine solutions by the use of polarity data and amplitudes of seismogram envelopes. Amplitudes of short period seismic waves propagating in an inhomogene-ous medium are sensitive to the variation in velocity and Q structure. Nakamura, et al (1999) took medium inhomo-geneity into account in determining focal mechanisms of small earthquakes using waveform data. If the locations of small earthquakes are concentrated in a small region, we can assume that the raypaths from the events to a given station are almost the same. So P and S wave attenuations are independent of event locations. In this case it is con-venient to determine focal mechanisms of these events by using short period P and S wave dataj. Focal mechanism solutions of small earthquakes in 5 regions, i.e., Rongchang, Mabian-Muchuan, Ya¢an, Baoxing and Mianzhu, which are covered by the Chengdu Telemetered Network, are obtained by analyzing the P polarity and short body wave amplitude data recorded in the network since 1992. According to the method proposed by Gephart and Forsyth (1984), based on well determined focal mechanism solutions in 15 sub-zones of Sichuan and Yunnan area, three principal stress tensors s1, s2, and s3, instead of averages of P, B, and T axis of the solutions, are determined to represent the regional stress field distribution.

  11. Cepheids : the period-luminosity relation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beaulieu, JP

    1997-01-01

    The Cepheids are relatively young, bright, periodic supergiant variable stars showing a correlation between their periods and luminosities. Since the beginning of the century, the Cepheid Period-Luminosity relation has been the corner stone of distance determination, and of the measure of the correl

  12. A Search for Periodicities in the $^8$B Solar Neutrino Flux Measured by the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Aharmim, B; Anthony, A E; Beier, E W; Bellerive, A; Bergevin, M; Biller, S D; Boulay, M G; Bowler, M G; Chan, Y D; Chen, M; Chen, X; Cleveland, B T; Costin, T; Cox, G A; Currat, C A; Dai, X; Deng, H; Detwiler, J; Doe, P J; Dosanjh, R S; Doucas, G; Duba, C A; Duncan, F A; Dunford, M; Dunmore, J A; Earle, E D; Elliott, S R; Evans, H C; Ewan, G T; Farine, J; Fergani, H; Fleurot, F; Formaggio, J A; Frati, W; Fulsom, B G; Gagnon, N; Goon, J T M; Graham, K; Hahn, R L; Hallin, A L; Hallman, E D; Handler, W B; Hargrove, C K; Harvey, P J; Hazama, R; Heeger, K M; Heelan, L; Heintzelman, W J; Heise, J; Helmer, R L; Hemingway, R J; Hime, A; Howe, M A; Huang, M; Inrig, E; Jagam, P; Jelley, N A; Klein, J R; Kormos, L L; Kos, M S; Krüger, A; Kraus, C V; Krauss, C B; Krumins, A V; Kutter, T; Kyba, C C M; Labranche, H; Lange, R; Law, J; Lawson, I T; Lesko, K T; Leslie, J R; Levine, I; Loach, J C; Luoma, S; MacLellan, R; Majerus, S; Maneira, J; Marino, A D; McCauley, N; McDonald, A B; McGee, S; Miin, C; Miknaitis, K K S; Nickel, B G; Noble, A J; Norman, E B; Oblath, N S; Okada, C E; O'Keeffe, H M; Ollerhead, R W; Orebi-Gann, G D; Orrell, J L; Oser, S M; Ouvarova, T; Peeters, S J M; Poon, A W P; Pun, C S J; Rielage, K; Robertson, B C; Robertson, R G H; Rollin, E; Rosendahl, S S E; Schwendener, M H; Seibert, S R; Simard, O; Simpson, J J; Sims, C J; Sinclair, D; Sinclair, L; Skensved, P; Smith, M W E; Stokstad, R G; Stonehill, L C; Tafirout, R; Takeuchi, Y; Tesic, G; Thomson, M; Tsang, K V; Tsui, T; Van Berg, R; Virtue, C J; Wall, B L; Waller, D; Waltham, C E; Wan Chan Tseung, H; Wark, D L; Wendland, J; West, N; Wilkerson, J F; Wilson, J R; Wouters, J M; Yeh, M; Zuber, K

    2005-01-01

    A search has been made for sinusoidal periodic variations in the $^8$B solar neutrino flux using data collected by the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory over a 4-year time interval. The variation at a period of one year is consistent with modulation of the $^8$B neutrino flux by the Earth's orbital eccentricity. No significant sinusoidal periodicities are found with periods between 1 day and 10 years with either an unbinned maximum likelihood analysis or a Lomb-Scargle periodogram analysis. The data are inconsistent with the hypothesis that the results of the recent analysis by Sturrock et al., based on elastic scattering events in Super-Kamiokande, can be attributed to a 7% sinusoidal modulation of the total $^8$B neutrino flux.

  13. A proposed experimental method for interpreting Doppler effect measurements and determining their precision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klann, P. G.

    1973-01-01

    The principal problem in the measurement of the Doppler reactivity effect is separating it from the thermal reactivity effects of the expansion of the heated sample. It is shown in this proposal that the thermal effects of sample expansion can be experimentally determined by making additional measurements with porous samples having the same mass and/or volume as the primary sample. By combining these results with independent measurements of the linear temperature coefficient and the computed temperature dependence of the Doppler coefficient the magnitude of the Doppler coefficient may be extracted from the data. These addiational measurements are also useful to experimentally determine the precision of the reactivity oscillator technique used to measure the reactivity effects of the heated sample.

  14. Why are rapidly rotating M dwarfs in the Pleiades so (infra)red? New period measurements confirm rotation-dependent color offsets from the cluster sequence

    CERN Document Server

    Covey, Kevin R; Law, Nicholas M; Liu, Jiyu; Ahmadi, Aida; Laher, Russ; Levitan, David; Sesar, Branimir; Surface, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Stellar rotation periods measured in open clusters have proved to be extremely useful for studying stars' angular momentum content and rotationally driven magnetic activity, which are both age- and mass-dependent processes. While period measurements have been obtained for hundreds of solar-mass members of the Pleiades, period measurements exist for only a few low-mass ($<$0.5 M$_{\\odot}$) members of this key laboratory for stellar evolution theory. To fill this gap, we report rotation periods for 132 low-mass Pleiades members (including nearly 100 with M $\\leq$ 0.45 M$_{\\odot}$), measured from photometric monitoring of the cluster conducted by the Palomar Transient Factory in late 2011 and early 2012. These periods extend the portrait of stellar rotation at 125 Myr to the lowest-mass stars and re-establish the Pleiades as a key benchmark for models of the transport and evolution of stellar angular momentum. Combining our new rotation periods with precise BVIJHK photometry reported by Stauffer et al. and Ka...

  15. An inverse modeling procedure to determine particle growth and nucleation rates from measured aerosol size distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Verheggen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Classical nucleation theory is unable to explain the ubiquity of nucleation events observed in the atmosphere. This shows a need for an empirical determination of the nucleation rate. Here we present a novel inverse modeling procedure to determine particle nucleation and growth rates based on consecutive measurements of the aerosol size distribution. The particle growth rate is determined by regression analysis of the measured change in the aerosol size distribution over time, taking into account the effects of processes such as coagulation, deposition and/or dilution. This allows the growth rate to be determined with a higher time-resolution than can be deduced from inspecting contour plots ('banana-plots''. Knowing the growth rate as a function of time enables the evaluation of the time of nucleation of measured particles of a certain size. The nucleation rate is then obtained by integrating the particle losses from time of measurement to time of nucleation. The regression analysis can also be used to determine or verify the optimum value of other parameters of interest, such as the wall loss or coagulation rate constants. As an example, the method is applied to smog chamber measurements. This program offers a powerful interpretive tool to study empirical aerosol population dynamics in general, and nucleation and growth in particular.

  16. Experimental Method for Determination of Self-Heating at the Point of Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sestan, D.; Zvizdic, D.; Grgec-Bermanec, L.

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents a new experimental method and algorithm for the determination of self-heating of platinum resistance thermometer (PRT) when the temperature instability of medium of interest would prevent an accurate self-heating determination using standard methods. In temperature measurements performed by PRT, self-heating is one of the most common sources of error and arises from the increase in sensor temperature caused by the dissipation of electrical heat when measurement current is applied to the temperature sensing element. This increase depends mainly on the applied current and the thermal resistances between thermometer sensing element and the environment surrounding the thermometer. The method is used for determination of self-heating of a 100 Ω industrial PRT which is intended for measurement of air temperature inside the saturation chamber of the primary dew/frost point generator at the Laboratory for Process Measurement (HMI/FSB-LPM). Self-heating is first determined for conditions present during the comparison calibration of the thermometer, using the calibration bath. The measurements were then repeated with thermometer being placed in an air stream inside the saturation chamber. The experiment covers the temperature range between -65°C and 10°C. Self-heating is determined for two different air velocities and two different vertical positions of PRT in relation to the chamber bottom.

  17. Uncertainty of pin height measurement for the determination of wear in pin-on-plate test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drago, Nicola; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Poulios, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    machine (CMM), achieving an expanded measurement uncertainty (k = 2) better than 1 mm. A simple dedicated fixture adaptable to workshop environment was developed and its metrological capability investigated, estimating an average uncertainty of measurement in the order of 5 mm (k = 2). Fixture......The paper concerns measurement of pin height for the determination of wear in a pin-on-plate (POP) or pin-on-disc (POD) test, where a pin is mounted on a holder that can be fixed on the test rig and removed for measurements. The amount of wear is assessed as difference of pin height before...... and after the test, using the distance between holder plane and pin friction plane as measurand. A series of measurements were performed in connection with POP testing of different friction material pins mounted on an aluminium holder. Pin height measurements were carried out on a coordinate measuring...

  18. Determination of air-loop volume and radon partition coefficient for measuring radon in water sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kil Yong; Burnett, William C

    A simple method for the direct determination of the air-loop volume in a RAD7 system as well as the radon partition coefficient was developed allowing for an accurate measurement of the radon activity in any type of water. The air-loop volume may be measured directly using an external radon source and an empty bottle with a precisely measured volume. The partition coefficient and activity of radon in the water sample may then be determined via the RAD7 using the determined air-loop volume. Activity ratios instead of absolute activities were used to measure the air-loop volume and the radon partition coefficient. In order to verify this approach, we measured the radon partition coefficient in deionized water in the temperature range of 10-30 °C and compared the values to those calculated from the well-known Weigel equation. The results were within 5 % variance throughout the temperature range. We also applied the approach for measurement of the radon partition coefficient in synthetic saline water (0-75 ppt salinity) as well as tap water. The radon activity of the tap water sample was determined by this method as well as the standard RAD-H2O and BigBottle RAD-H2O. The results have shown good agreement between this method and the standard methods.

  19. Determination of validation threshold for coordinate measuring methods using a metrological compatibility model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromczak, Kamila; Gąska, Adam; Kowalski, Marek; Ostrowska, Ksenia; Sładek, Jerzy; Gruza, Maciej; Gąska, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    The following paper presents a practical approach to the validation process of coordinate measuring methods at an accredited laboratory, using a statistical model of metrological compatibility. The statistical analysis of measurement results obtained using a highly accurate system was intended to determine the permissible validation threshold values. The threshold value constitutes the primary criterion for the acceptance or rejection of the validated method, and depends on both the differences between measurement results with corresponding uncertainties and the individual correlation coefficient. The article specifies and explains the types of measuring methods that were subject to validation and defines the criterion value governing their acceptance or rejection in the validation process.

  20. Determining the Unithood of Word Sequences using Mutual Information and Independence Measure

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Wilson; Bennamoun, Mohammed

    2008-01-01

    Most works related to unithood were conducted as part of a larger effort for the determination of termhood. Consequently, the number of independent research that study the notion of unithood and produce dedicated techniques for measuring unithood is extremely small. We propose a new approach, independent of any influences of termhood, that provides dedicated measures to gather linguistic evidence from parsed text and statistical evidence from Google search engine for the measurement of unithood. Our evaluations revealed a precision and recall of 98.68% and 91.82% respectively with an accuracy at 95.42% in measuring the unithood of 1005 test cases.

  1. Techniques for determining propulsion system forces for accurate high speed vehicle drag measurements in flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaiz, H. H.

    1975-01-01

    As part of a NASA program to evaluate current methods of predicting the performance of large, supersonic airplanes, the drag of the XB-70 airplane was measured accurately in flight at Mach numbers from 0.75 to 2.5. This paper describes the techniques used to determine engine net thrust and the drag forces charged to the propulsion system that were required for the in-flight drag measurements. The accuracy of the measurements and the application of the measurement techniques to aircraft with different propulsion systems are discussed. Examples of results obtained for the XB-70 airplane are presented.

  2. Use of photoelectron laser phase determination method for attosecond measurements with quantum-mechanical calculations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ge Yu-Cheng

    2008-01-01

    This paper calculates quantum-mechanically the photoelectron energy spectra excited by attosecond x-rays in the presence of a few-cycle laser. A photoelectron laser phase determination method is used for precise measurements of the pulse natural properties of x-ray intensity and the instantaneous frequency profiles. As a direct procedure without any previous pulse profile assumptions and time-resolved measurements as well as data fitting analysis, this method can be used to improve the time resolutions of attosecond timing and measurements with metrological precision. The measurement range is half of a laser optical cycle.

  3. Measurement of the Positive Muon Lifetime and Determination of the Fermi Constant to Part-per-Million Precision

    CERN Document Server

    Webber, D M; ~Peng, Q; Battu, S; Carey, R M; Chitwood, D B; Crnkovic, J; Debevec, P T; Dhamija, S; Earle, W; Gafarov, A; Giovanetti, K; Gorringe, T P; Gray, F E; Hartwig, Z; Hertzog, D W; Johnson, B; Kammel, P; Kiburg, B; Kizilgul, S; Kunkle, J; Lauss, B; Logashenko, I; Lynch, K R; McNabb, R; Miller, J P; Mulhauser, F; Onderwater, C J G; Phillips, J; Rath, S; Roberts, B L; Winter, P; Wolfe, B

    2010-01-01

    We report a measurement of the positive muon lifetime to a precision of 1.0~parts per million (ppm); it is the most precise particle lifetime ever measured. The experiment used a time-structured, low-energy muon beam and a segmented plastic scintillator array to record more than 2 x 10^{12} decays. Two different stopping target configurations were employed in independent data-taking periods. The combined results give tau_{mu^+}(MuLan) = 2196980.3(2.2)~ps, more than 15 times as precise as any previous experiment. The muon lifetime gives the most precise value for the Fermi constant: G_F(MuLan) = 1.1663788 (7) x 10^-5 GeV^-2 (0.6~ppm). It is also used to extract the mu^-p singlet capture rate, which determines the proton's weak induced pseudoscalar coupling g_P.

  4. Statistical Sampling Plans for Prior Measurement Verification and Determination of the SNM Content of Inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.F. Piepel, R.J. Brouns

    1982-03-01

    Current regulations require that prior information on the Special Nuclear Material (SNM) content o f a population o f containers be verified and that periodic measurements o f the SNM inventory of a facility be performed. This report develops and describes statistical sampling plans for accomplishing these tasks and compares results obtained by sampling to those obtained by the current practice o f performing a census (100% sampling)

  5. The Role of GRAIL Orbit Determination in Preprocessing of Gravity Science Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruizinga, Gerhard; Asmar, Sami; Fahnestock, Eugene; Harvey, Nate; Kahan, Daniel; Konopliv, Alex; Oudrhiri, Kamal; Paik, Meegyeong; Park, Ryan; Strekalov, Dmitry; Watkins, Michael; Yuan, Dah-Ning

    2013-01-01

    The Gravity Recovery And Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission has constructed a lunar gravity field with unprecedented uniform accuracy on the farside and nearside of the Moon. GRAIL lunar gravity field determination begins with preprocessing of the gravity science measurements by applying corrections for time tag error, general relativity, measurement noise and biases. Gravity field determination requires the generation of spacecraft ephemerides of an accuracy not attainable with the pre-GRAIL lunar gravity fields. Therefore, a bootstrapping strategy was developed, iterating between science data preprocessing and lunar gravity field estimation in order to construct sufficiently accurate orbit ephemerides.This paper describes the GRAIL measurements, their dependence on the spacecraft ephemerides and the role of orbit determination in the bootstrapping strategy. Simulation results will be presented that validate the bootstrapping strategy followed by bootstrapping results for flight data, which have led to the latest GRAIL lunar gravity fields.

  6. Determination of sexual dimorphism in humans by measurements of mandible on digital panoramic radiograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sairam, V.; Geethamalika, M. V.; Kumar, Praveen B.; Naresh, G.; Raju, Gareema P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Identification of sex is the first step in forensic science obtained from skeletal remains. Mandible, being a strong bone that is difficult to damage and disintegrate, is an important tool in sex determination. The present study is aimed to assess, compare, and evaluate the mandibular measurements as seen on digital panoramic radiographs to analyze their use in sexual dimorphism assessment. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was conducted using digital panoramic images of 100 each in both genders. Mandibular measurements were carried out utilizing RadiAnt DICOM Viewer 2.2.9 (32 bit) software (Medixant Company, Poland) and subjected to statistical analysis. Results: Descriptive statistics for all the parameters on the right and left sides of mandible in both males and females were analyzed. Inferential statistics were performed using t-test to compare males and females with different variables. A statistical significance of P < 0.001 has been demonstrated for all the variables (except linear measurement of mandibular foramen). All variables showed increased measurements in males than in females. The accuracy of sex determination in mandibular ramus measurements is 79.5% on right side and 77% on left side, where as, in linear mandibular measurements it is 76% on right side and 79.5% on left side. Conclusion: Mandibular measurements on digital radiograph are useful in sex determination, and this study can be compared with other similar studies. PMID:27994407

  7. Organizational flexibility as a challenge of contemporary management. Determinants and methods of measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Buła

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper has been aimed at defining contemporary management flexibility determinants and the methods of its measurement. Problem investigated: This paper presents an analysis of organizational flexibility determinants related to the contemporary concepts and challenges within the area of management. The discussion includes two types of measurement of organizational flexibility based on declarative tests and quantitative criteria. The described methods are subject to evaluation. The paper also presents authors' own proposal for determinants classification, organizational flexibility assessment and an exemplary application. Methodology: The paper has been based on the results of research on organizational flexibility conducted by the Department of Business Studies Aalborg University (Denmark and Wrocław University of Economics (Poland. Conclusion: Organizational flexibility constitutes one of the major challenges of contemporary management. This issue has already been extensively discussed, however, despite numerous publications and relevant research projects many issues still need to be resolved. One of them is organizational flexibility measurement. In the first place, it needs a description of flexibility determinants relevant to a certain organization. There are no objective methods that would allow a description of the set of determinants since they are dependent on organization's special features and individually set objectives. In addition, it should be noted that those factors are subject to change, in line with the development of theory and concepts of management. The very flexibility measurement requires simultaneous application of various methods of factor analysis and polling stakeholder opinions.

  8. Determination of Modulus of Elasticity and Shear Modulus by the Measurement of Relative Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labašová, Eva

    2016-12-01

    This contribution is focused on determining the material properties (Young modulus and shear modulus) of the testing samples. The theoretical basis for determining material properties are the knowledge of linear elasticity and strength. The starting points are dependencies among the modulus of elasticity, shear modulus, normal stress and relative strain. The relative strains of the testing samples were obtained by measuring predefined load conditions using a strain-gauge bridge and the universal measurement system Quantum X MX 840. The integration of these tasks into the teaching process enhances practical and intellectual skills of students at secondary level technical universities.

  9. IN TURNING ON-LINE DETERMINATION OF CUTTING TOOL WEAR RATE BY MEASURING CUTTING TEMPERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat KIYAK

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The improvements of adaptive control and computer aided manufacturing need to be sensitively determined tool wear rate during machining. Reserarchers working on this topic have developed direct and indirect methods. To determine tool wear rate during machining by measuring of cutting temperature is an indirect method. In this study, two measuring techniques, work-tool thermocouple technique and a method that is realized by using a thermocouple assambed by embeding in the tool have been used. Both of them have been tested by obtaining tool wear using hard metal insert and turning mild steel and compared one with the other using different point of views.

  10. Accuracy of plasma turbidity measurement for determining fat intolerance during total parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordenström, J; Thörne, A; Lindholm, M

    1990-06-01

    The accuracy of plasma turbidity measurements in predicting ability to metabolise intravenous fat emulsions during total parenteral nutrition was studied in 35 adult surgical patients. Plasma turbidity, expressed as a light scattering index (LSI), was determined by nephelometry and compared with measured triglyceride (TG) concentrations. A poor coefficient of correlation was found between LSI and TG (r = 0.52). The sensitivity and specificity of LSI in predicting TG concentration were 19% and 96% respectively. This indicates that the measurement of LSI is more useful in ruling out hypertriglyceridaemia than in detecting it. Consequently, clinical tolerance of intravenous fat emulsion cannot be monitored by measuring plasma turbidity. In order to avoid metabolic complications which may occasionally occur during intravenous nutritional therapy including fat emulsion, determination of plasma TG levels at timed intervals are recommended.

  11. Mode Content Determination of Terahertz Corrugated Waveguides Using Experimentally Measured Radiated Field Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawla, Sudheer K; Nanni, Emilio A; Shapiro, Michael A; Woskov, Paul P; Temkin, Richard J

    2012-06-01

    This work focuses on the accuracy of the mode content measurements in an overmoded corrugated waveguide using measured radiated field patterns. Experimental results were obtained at 250 GHz using a vector network analyzer with over 70 dB of dynamic range. The intensity and phase profiles of the fields radiated from the end of the 19 mm diameter helically tapped brass waveguide were measured on planes at 7, 10, and 13 cm from the waveguide end. The measured fields were back propagated to the waveguide aperture to provide three independent estimates of the field at the waveguide exit aperture. Projecting that field onto the modes of the guide determined the waveguide mode content. The three independent mode content estimates were found to agree with one another to an accuracy of better than ±0.3%. These direct determinations of the mode content were compared with indirect measurements using the experimentally measured amplitude in three planes, with the phase determined by a phase retrieval algorithm. The phase retrieval technique using the planes at 7, 10, and 13 cm yielded a mode content estimate in excellent agreement, within 0.3%, of the direct measurements. Phase retrieval results using planes at 10, 20, and 30 cm were less accurate due to truncation of the measurement in the transverse plane. The reported measurements benefited greatly from a precise mechanical alignment of the scanner with respect to the waveguide axis. These results will help to understand the accuracy of mode content measurements made directly in cold test and indirectly in hot test using the phase retrieval technique.

  12. Experimental determination of the onset of turbulence on inclined plates using hot wire velocity measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Sevillano, Angel; Pérez Grande, María Isabel; Meseguer Ruiz, José

    2010-01-01

    The problem of determination of the turbulence onset in natural convection on heated inclined plates in an air environment has been experimentally revisited. The transition has been detected by using hot wire velocity measurements. The onset of turbulence has been considered to take place where velocity fluctuations (measured through turbulence intensity) start to grow. Experiments have shown that the distance to the plate edge where the onset begins depends both on the plate inclinatio...

  13. Determination of the workspace of a new coordinate-measuring machine using parallel-link mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Presents the detailed algorithm established for determination of workspace for a 3 - DOF coordinate measuring machine using parallel-link mechanism by constructing the inverse kinematic model first and then re viewing the physical and kinematical constraints from the structural characteristics of the parallel-link mechanism, and discusses the actual geometries of workspace and the factors having effect on workspace through computer simulation thereby providing necessary theoretical basis for the research and development of coordinate measuring machines using parallel-link mechanism.

  14. Investigation of surface porosity measurements and compaction pressure as means to ensure consistent contact angle determinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, René; Borkenfelt, Simon; Allesø, Morten

    2016-01-01

    for a compound is determined by its contact angle to a liquid, which in the present study was measured using the sessile drop method applied to a disc compact of the compound. Precise determination of the contact angle is important should it be used to either rank compounds or selected excipients to e......, however for six out of seven compounds similar results were obtained by applying a standard pressure (866MPa) to the discs in their preparation. The data presented in the present work therefore suggest that a constant high pressure should be sufficient for most compounds when determining the contact angle...

  15. Suitability of foramen magnum measurements in sex determination and their clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metin Tellioglu, Ayfer; Durum, Yasemin; Gok, Mustafa; Karakas, Sacide; Polat, Ayse Gizem; Karaman, Can Zafer

    2017-08-23

    The foramen magnum provides a transition between fossa cranii posterior and canalis vertebralis. Medulla oblongata, arteria vertebralis and nervus accessorius spinal part pass through the foramen magnum. In this study, we aimed to make the morphometric measurements of the foramen magnum on CT and to determine the feasibility of sex determination based on these measurements. Besides sex determination, from a clinical aspect, it is important to know the measurements of the foramen magnum in the normal population in terms of diseases characterized by displacement of the posterior fossa structures through foramen magnum to upper cervical spinal canal like Chiari Malformations and Syringomyelia. All the data for our study was obtained retrospectively from 100 patients (50 males, 50 females) who had a CT scan of the head and neck region in Adnan Menderes University Hospital, Department of Radiology. To examine the foramen magnum in each and every occipital bone, we measured the foramen magnum's anterior - posterior (AP) diamater, transverse (T) diamater, the area of the foramen magnum and its circumference. We found that men have a higher average value than women in our study. According to Student's t-test results; in all measured parameters, there is significant difference between the genders (pmagnum. Our measurements could give some information of the normal ranges of the foramen magnum in normal population, so that this can contribute to the diagnosis process of some diseases by imaging.

  16. The role of lenders' trust in determining borrowing conditions for sovereign debt: An analysis of one-period government bonds with default risk

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Yanling

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the author considers the sovereign debt in the form of one-period government bonds with default risk, which can be purchased by and traded among domestic and foreign investors. She shows that the weight assigned to the lenders' interest by the borrowing government at the time of debt repayment, which captures the lenders' trust in the government's propensity to repay the debt and is denoted as », also determines the default risk: a higher » means a lower default risk ceteris pa...

  17. Critical current measurement with spatial periodic bending imposed by electromagnetic force on a standard test barrel with slots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, A.; Wessel, W.A.J.; Ilyin, Y.; Ouden, den A.; Kate, ten H.H.J.

    2006-01-01

    We have developed and validated a straightforward and fast method to investigate the response of technological superconducting strain sensitive wires (e.g., Nb3Sn) to a spatial periodic bending strain. In the present concept of cabled superconductors for application in nuclear fusion reactors the wi

  18. Reliability of Various Measurement Stations for Determining Plantar Fascia Thickness and Echogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisi-Balogun, Adebisi; Cassel, Michael; Mayer, Frank

    2016-04-13

    This study aimed to determine the relative and absolute reliability of ultrasound (US) measurements of the thickness and echogenicity of the plantar fascia (PF) at different measurement stations along its length using a standardized protocol. Twelve healthy subjects (24 feet) were enrolled. The PF was imaged in the longitudinal plane. Subjects were assessed twice to evaluate the intra-rater reliability. A quantitative evaluation of the thickness and echogenicity of the plantar fascia was performed using Image J, a digital image analysis and viewer software. A sonography evaluation of the thickness and echogenicity of the PF showed a high relative reliability with an Intra class correlation coefficient of ≥0.88 at all measurement stations. However, the measurement stations for both the PF thickness and echogenicity which showed the highest intraclass correlation coefficient (ICCs) did not have the highest absolute reliability. Compared to other measurement stations, measuring the PF thickness at 3 cm distal and the echogenicity at a region of interest 1 cm to 2 cm distal from its insertion at the medial calcaneal tubercle showed the highest absolute reliability with the least systematic bias and random error. Also, the reliability was higher using a mean of three measurements compared to one measurement. To reduce discrepancies in the interpretation of the thickness and echogenicity measurements of the PF, the absolute reliability of the different measurement stations should be considered in clinical practice and research rather than the relative reliability with the ICC.

  19. Comparison of the methods for determination of calibration and verification intervals of measuring devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toteva Pavlina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents different determination and optimisation methods for verification intervals of technical devices for monitoring and measurement based on the requirements of some widely used international standards, e.g. ISO 9001, ISO/IEC 17020, ISO/IEC 17025 etc., maintained by various organizations implementing measuring devices in practice. Comparative analysis of the reviewed methods is conducted in terms of opportunities for assessing the adequacy of interval(s for calibration of measuring devices and their optimisation accepted by an organization – an extension or reduction depending on the obtained results. The advantages and disadvantages of the reviewed methods are discussed, and recommendations for their applicability are provided.

  20. Determination of the time resolution for neutron scintillation detectors by multi-coincidence measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yong-Ming; RUAN Xi-Chao; ZHOU Sin; MA Zhong-Yuan

    2011-01-01

    Based on the multi-coincidence measurement, the time resolution of three liquid scintillation detectors (BC501A) were determined strictly by solving the coincidence equations, where the influence from electronics estimated by self coincidence measurement as well as the background had been considered. The result of this work agreed well with the result that was deduced from the traditional method, and it will be helpful to analyze the energy resolution of neutron time of flight spectra measured by using such detectors at CIAE (China Institute of Atomic Energy).

  1. Using Conductivity Measurements to Determine the Identities and Concentrations of Unknown Acids: An Inquiry Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K. Christopher; Garza, Ariana

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a student designed experiment using titrations involving conductivity measurements to identify unknown acids as being either HCl or H[subscript 2]SO[subscript 4], and to determine the concentrations of the acids, thereby improving the utility of standard acid-base titrations. Using an inquiry context, students gain experience…

  2. A Direct inverse model to determine permeability fields from pressure and flow rate measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, G.K.; Fokker, P.A.; Wilschut, F.; Zijl, W.

    2008-01-01

    The determination of the permeability field from pressure and flow rate measurements in wells is a key problem in reservoir engineering. This paper presents a Double Constraint method for inverse modeling that is an example of direct inverse modeling. The method is used with a standard block-centere

  3. Enhancing China’s Energy Security: Determining Influential Factors and Effective Strategic Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Sovacool, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the most influential factors affecting China’s energy security. It also identifies the most effective strategic measures for enhancing it. Fuzzy AHP has been used to determine weights for ranking the importance of Chinese energy security factors, and it has also been used...

  4. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 192 - Criteria for Cathodic Protection and Determination of Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Criteria for Cathodic Protection and Determination of Measurements D Appendix D to Part 192 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION...

  5. Determination of the Ion Velocity Distribution in a Rotating Plasma from Measurements of Doppler Broadening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, L. W.; Sillesen, Alfred Hegaard

    1979-01-01

    The Doppler-broadened profile of the He II 4685.75 AA line was measured along a chord in a rotating plasma, transverse to the magnetic field. Using a single-particle orbit picture, the corresponding velocity spectrum of ions confirm the measurements, so it can be concluded that the single......-particle orbit picture is valid for the discharge period under investigation, except for the first few microseconds during breakdown when a strong interaction between plasma and remaining neutral gas takes place by Alfvens critical velocity mechanism. A simple relation is given between the measured half......-width and shift of the Doppler profile and the macroscopic quantities of ion velocity and energy. Several Doppler-broadened profiles are shown for different plasma parameters....

  6. Measurement methods and interpretation algorithms for the determination of the remaining lifetime of the electrical insulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engster F.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a set of on-line and off-line measuring methods for the dielectric parameters of the electric insulation as well as the method of results interpretation aimed to determine the occurence of a damage and to set up the its speed of evolution. These results lead finally to the determination of the life time under certain imposed safety conditions. The interpretation of the measurement results is done based on analytical algorithms allowing also the calculation of the index of correlation between the real results and the mathematical interpolation. It is performed a comparative analysis between different measuring and interpretation methods. There are considered certain events occurred during the measurement performance including their causes. The working-out of the analytical methods has been improved during the during the dielectric measurements performance for about 25 years at a number of 140 turbo and hydro power plants. Finally it is proposed a measurement program to be applied and which will allow the correlation of the on-line and off-line dielectric measurement obtaining thus a reliable technology of high accuracy level for the estimation of the available lifetime of electrical insulation.

  7. Benefits Derived From Laser Ranging Measurements for Orbit Determination of the GPS Satellite Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Bryan W.

    2007-01-01

    While navigation systems for the determination of the orbit of the Global Position System (GPS) have proven to be very effective, the current research is examining methods to lower the error in the GPS satellite ephemerides below their current level. Two GPS satellites that are currently in orbit carry retro-reflectors onboard. One notion to reduce the error in the satellite ephemerides is to utilize the retro-reflectors via laser ranging measurements taken from multiple Earth ground stations. Analysis has been performed to determine the level of reduction in the semi-major axis covariance of the GPS satellites, when laser ranging measurements are supplemented to the radiometric station keeping, which the satellites undergo. Six ground tracking systems are studied to estimate the performance of the satellite. The first system is the baseline current system approach which provides pseudo-range and integrated Doppler measurements from six ground stations. The remaining five ground tracking systems utilize all measurements from the current system and laser ranging measurements from the additional ground stations utilized within those systems. Station locations for the additional ground sites were taken from a listing of laser ranging ground stations from the International Laser Ranging Service. Results show reductions in state covariance estimates when utilizing laser ranging measurements to solve for the satellite s position component of the state vector. Results also show dependency on the number of ground stations providing laser ranging measurements, orientation of the satellite to the ground stations, and the initial covariance of the satellite's state vector.

  8. Extent of mismatch between the period of circadian clocks and light/dark cycles determines time-to-emergence in fruit flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Pankaj; Choudhury, Deepak; Sadanandappa, Madhumala K; Sharma, Vijay Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Circadian clocks time developmental stages of fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster, while light/dark (LD) cycles delimit emergence of adults, conceding only during the "allowed gate." Previous studies have revealed that time-to-emergence can be altered by mutations in the core clock gene period (per), or by altering the length of LD cycles. Since this evidence came from studies on genetically manipulated flies, or on flies maintained under LD cycles with limited range of periods, inferences that can be drawn are limited. Moreover, the extent of shortening or lengthening of time-to-emergence remains yet unknown. In order to pursue this further, we assayed time-to-emergence of D. melanogaster under 12 different LD cycles as well as in constant light (LL) and constant dark conditions (DD). Time-to-emergence in flies occurred earlier under LL than in LD cycles and DD. Among the LD cycles, time-to-emergence occurred earlier under T4-T8, followed by T36-T48, and then T12-T32, suggesting that egg-to-emergence duration in flies becomes shorter when the length of LD cycles deviates from 24 h, bearing a strong positive and a marginally negative correlation with day length, for values shorter and longer than 24 h, respectively. These results suggest that the extent of mismatch between the period of circadian clocks and environmental cycles determines the time-to-emergence in Drosophila.

  9. Refractive index determination as a tool for temperature measurement and process control: a new approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Johannes K.; Wassenberg, S.; Fiedler, Detlev K.; Stojanoff, Christo G.

    1994-11-01

    Recently a new method for temperature measurement of droplets was presented. This method determines the index of refraction of a spherical scatterer with high accuracy and utilizes the dependence of the index of refraction on the temperature to finally determine the temperature. In this paper we show that the method is likewise applicable to cylindrical scatterers with a homogeneous refractive index distribution, like liquid jets. The method can be used to optically determine the temperature of a liquid jet, or to measure other properties of the liquid that influence the index of refraction of that liquid. One such property is the concentration of one liquid in another, like that of glycerol in an aqueous solution, which was studied experimentally for assessing some properties of the proposed method. An estimation of the sensitivity of the method was gained by detecting temperature changes of a cylindrical water jet.

  10. A method for determining the median line of measured cylindrical and conical surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janecki, Dariusz; Zwierzchowski, Jarosław

    2015-08-01

    The paper presents a novel method for the determination of the median line of the cylindrical and conical surfaces. This method can be incorporated into virtually any cylindricity measurement strategy, including the bird-cage strategy and the helical line strategy. In the study, a median line was determined by minimizing the functional made up of two components. The form of the first component results from the classic definition of the median line provided in the corresponding standard. The other, termed the bending energy, is responsible for ensuring appropriate smoothness of the median line. In order to solve this variational problem, the median line was approximated by means of linear combination of cubic B-spline functions. A simulation and experiments were conducted to establish the suitability of the algorithm developed for the determination of the median line using the helical-line and the cross-section measurement strategy.

  11. Delimitacion del periodo critico de competencia de malezas en el cultivo de lino (Linum usitatissimum Determination of the critical period of weed competition in linseed (Linum usitatissimum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Barreyro

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available La planta de lino oleaginoso es especialmente sensible a la competencia con malezas, que limita el rendimiento potencial. El objetivo de este trabajo fue delimitar el período crítico de competencia del lino con una comunidad natural de malezas. Se realizó una experiencia de campo durante 1993, 1994 y 1995 en La Plata, Argentina. Los tratamientos consistieron en mantener el lino con y sin presencia de malezas en distintas etapas de su desarrollo. La comunidad de malezas fue evaluada en su composición y producción de materia seca y el cultivo en su rendimiento en semillas y componentes. El período crítico se delimitó entre los 30 y 80 días después de la siembra. En este período, la disminución de rendimiento de lino respecto del testigo sin malezas fue superior al 10%. La disminución de rendimiento del cultivo totalmente enmalezado fue del 79% respecto del desmalezado todo el ciclo. Fue afectado el número de semillas por planta ya que su definición está incluida en el período delimitado. Los resultados obtenidos sugieren que las alternativas de control deben considerar el período crítico y también propiciar su utilización en modelos de predicción.Linseed plant is especially sensitive to weed competition, which limits its potential yield. The aim of this work was to determine the critical period of linseed competition with a natural weed community. A field experiment was carried out in 1993, 1994 and 1995 in La Plata, Argentina. Treatments consisted of keeping linseed with and without weeds at different stages of development. Weed composition and dry biomass, and linseed yield and its components were evaluated. The critical period of competition was determined, starting at 30 days and ending 80 days after crop seeding. Linseed yield decrease was greater than 10% during the critical period of competition,when compared to the check plot kept without competition. The maximum yield decrease of the check plot kept totally weeded

  12. Steady and Periodic Pressure Measurements on a Generic Helicopter Fuselage Model in the Presence of a Rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mineck, Raymond E.; Gorton, Susan A.

    2000-01-01

    A wind tunnel test of a generic helicopter fuselage model with an independently mounted rotor has been conducted to obtain steady and periodic pressure data on the helicopter body. The model was tested at four advance ratios and three thrust coefficients. The periodic unsteady pressure coefficients are marked by four peaks associated with the passage of the four rotor blades. Blade passage effects are largest on the nose and tail boom of the model. The magnitude of the pulse increases with rotor thrust coefficient. Tabular listings of the unsteady pressure data are included to permit independent analysis. A CD-rom containing the steady and unsteady pressure data presented in the report is available from the authors.

  13. Using Resistivity Measurements to Determine Anisotropy in Soil and Weathered Rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Soto-Caban

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study uses electrical resistivity measurements of soils and weathered rock to perform a fast and reliable evaluation of field anisotropy. Two test sites at New Concord, Ohio were used for the study. These sites are characterized by different landform and slightly east dipping limestone and siltstone formations of Pennsylvanian age. The measured resistivity ranged from 19 Ω∙m to 100 ��∙m, and varied with depth, landform, and season. The anisotropy was determined by a comparison of resistance values along the directions of strike and the dip. Measurements showed that the orientation of electrical anisotropy in the shallow ground may vary due to fluid connection, which is determined by the pore geometry in soil and rock, as well as by the direction of fluid movement. Results from this study indicated that a portable electrical resistivity meter is sensitive and reliable enough to be used for shallow ground fluid monitoring.

  14. Prevalence of bacterial agents isolated from clinical cases of bovine mastitis in the dry period and the determination of their antibiotic sensitivity in Tabriz, Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Samad Mosaferi; Reza Ghabouli Mehrabani; Mansoor Khakpoor; Nader Ghabouli Mehrabani; Amir Maleksabet; Faezeh Hamidi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of mastitis-causing bacteria in the dry period and its antibiotic sensitivity. Methods: In this study, 852 dry cows were examined. A total of 30 cows with clinical mastitis symptoms were detected and their milk samples were collected. In order to purify the bacteria, brain heart infusion and blood agar media were applied and single colonies were used for Gram staining, oxidase and catalase testing, cultivating in O-F medium to determine the genus and species of bacteria. Then, antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by the agar disk diffusion method. Results: The prevalence of isolated bacteria was 2.46%, in which coagulase positive Staphylococcus, coagulase negative Staphylococcus, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas, Bacillus and yeast were (9/99)%, (6/66)%, (13/32)%, (3/33%), (6/66)%, (13/32)%, (9/99)% and (6/66)%, respectively. After tests of antibiotic susceptibility, the most and the least sensitivity were reported to enrofloxacin and ampicillin respectively. Conclusions: This study indicated that Streptococcus dysgalactiae is the most commonly isolated bacteria with the greatest sensitivity to enrofloxacin and tetracycline which can be used to treat mastitis in the dry period in Tabriz.

  15. Application of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy to Quantitatively Determine Relative Content of Puccnia striiformis f. sp. tritici DNA in Wheat Leaves in Incubation Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaqiong Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst is a devastating wheat disease worldwide. Potential application of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS in detection of pathogen amounts in latently Pst-infected wheat leaves was investigated for disease prediction and control. A total of 300 near-infrared spectra were acquired from the Pst-infected leaf samples in an incubation period, and relative contents of Pst DNA in the samples were obtained using duplex TaqMan real-time PCR arrays. Determination models of the relative contents of Pst DNA in the samples were built using quantitative partial least squares (QPLS, support vector regression (SVR, and a method integrated with QPLS and SVR. The results showed that the kQPLS-SVR model built with a ratio of training set to testing set equal to 3 : 1 based on the original spectra, when the number of the randomly selected wavelength points was 700, the number of principal components was 8, and the number of the built QPLS models was 5, was the best. The results indicated that quantitative detection of Pst DNA in leaves in the incubation period could be implemented using NIRS. A novel method for determination of latent infection levels of Pst and early detection of stripe rust was provided.

  16. Aerosol measurements at 60 m during April 1994 remote cloud study intensive operating period (RCS/IOP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leifer, R.; Albert, B.; Lee, N.; Knuth, R.H. [Department of Energy, New York, NY (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    Aerosol measurements were made at the Southern Great Plains Site of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. Many types of air masses pass over this area, and on the data acquisition day, extremly low aerosol scattering coefficients were seen. A major effort was placed on providing some characterization of the aerosol size distribution. Data is currently available from the experimental center.

  17. Determination of needed parameters for measuring temperature fields in air by thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavelek Milan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is the parameters determination of equipment for measuring temperature fields in air using an infrared camera. This method is based on the visualization of temperature fields in an auxiliary material, which is inserted into the non-isothermal air flow. The accuracy of air temperature measurement (or of surface temperature of supplies by this method depends especially on (except for parameters of infrared camera the determination of the static and the dynamic qualities of auxiliary material. The emissivity of support material is the static quality and the dynamic quality is time constant. Support materials with a high emissivity and a low time constant are suitable for the measurement. The high value of emissivity results in a higher measurement sensitivity and the radiation temperature independence. In this article the emissivity of examined kinds of auxiliary materials (papers and textiles is determined by temperature measuring of heated samples by a calibrated thermocouple and by thermography, with the emissivity setting on the camera to 1 and with the homogeneous radiation temperature. Time constants are determined by a step change of air temperature in the surrounding of auxiliary material. The time constant depends mainly on heat transfer by the convection from the air into the auxiliary material. That is why the effect of air temperature is examined in this article (or a temperature difference towards the environmental temperature and the flow velocity on the time constant with various types of auxiliary materials. The obtained results allow to define the conditions for using the method of measurement of temperature fields in air during various heating and air conditioning applications.

  18. Degree of conversion of Z250 composite determined by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy: comparison of techniques, storage periods and photo-activation methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andresa Carla Obici

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the degree of conversion (DC of the Z250 composite, using six photo-activation methods, two storage periods and two preparation techniques of the FTIR specimens (n = 3. For the KBr pellet technique, the composite was placed into a metallic mold and photo-activated as follows: continuous light, exponential light, intermittent light, stepped light, PAC and LED. The measurements were made after 24 h and 20 days. For the resin film technique, approximately 0.07 g of the composite was pressed between two polyester strips, photo-activated as above described and analyzed. The DC was calculated by the standard technique and submitted to ANOVA and Tukey's test (alpha = 5%. Independently of the storage period and specimen preparation technique, there were no significant differences among photo-activation methods. No statistical difference was observed between the time periods used. The specimens analyzed under the KBr pellet technique presented higher DC values than those analyzed by the resin film technique.

  19. Luminosity measurement method for the LHC: Event selection and absolute luminosity determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasny, M.W., E-mail: krasny@lpnhep.in2p3.fr [LPNHE, Pierre and Marie Curie University, CNRS-IN2P3, Tour 33, RdC, 4, pl. Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Chwastowski, J. [Institute of Teleinformatics, Faculty of Physics, Mathematics and Computer Science, Cracow University of Technology, ul. Warszawska 24, 31-115 Kraków (Poland); Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Kraków (Poland); Cyz, A.; Słowikowski, K. [Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Kraków (Poland)

    2013-11-21

    In our earlier papers Krasny et al. [1,2] have proposed a new luminosity measurement method which uses lepton pairs produced in peripheral collisions of the LHC beam particles, and identified the requirements for a new, specialized luminosity detector which is indispensable for their efficient on-line selection. In this paper we use the base-line detector model, with no precise timing capabilities, to evaluate the statistical and systematic accuracy of the method. We propose the complete event selection procedure and demonstrate that it allows to collect a sufficiently large sample of e{sup +}e{sup −} pairs to achieve a better than 1% statistical accuracy of the luminosity measurement over less than one-month-long running time intervals. We argue that the absolute luminosity measurement systematic errors can be kept below 1%. The proposed method can be directly applied to the LHC running periods for which the machine instantaneous luminosity does not exceed the L=10{sup 33}s{sup −1}cm{sup −2} value. Two ways extending the method to the large pile-up periods corresponding to higher instantaneous luminosities are proposed.

  20. Microtremor measurements in the northern coast of İzmir Bay, Turkey to evaluate site-specific characteristics and fundamental periods by H/ V spectral ratio method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskişar, TuǦBA; Özyalin, Şenol; KuruoǦLU, Mehmet; Yilmaz, H. Recep

    2013-02-01

    Seventy-two microtremor measurements were conducted in the northern coast of İzmir Bay. The dataset has been processed using the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio. The fundamental period contour map obtained showed that the fundamental period at rock sites of the northern coast of İzmir Bay was between 0.15 and 0.35 s. However, the fundamental period increased towards the western direction where thick soft sediments exist, the fundamental period varied between 0.5 and 2.0 s. A soil classification map of the area was prepared based on the data estimated from SPT- N values of 25 boreholes. It is seen that major portion of the study area, including the shore line of the northern coast had SPT- N values lower than 15. The fundamental periods obtained by H/ V spectral ratio method and the periods derived from shear wave velocity data available in 11 of 25 boreholes were well-correlated. Fundamental period map obtained from H/ V spectral ratio method illustrated the characteristics of weak soil conditions and the presence of bedrock level under thick alluvial soils. Finally, microtremor investigations have proved to be an effective tool for assessment of local soil conditions in case of thick soft sediments in the northern coast of İzmir Bay.

  1. Microtremor measurements in the northern coast of İzmir Bay, Turkey to evaluate site-specific characteristics and fundamental periods by H/V spectral ratio method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tuğba Eskişar; Şenol Özyalin; Mehmet Kuruoğlu; H Recep Yilmaz

    2013-02-01

    Seventy-two microtremor measurements were conducted in the northern coast of İzmir Bay. The dataset has been processed using the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio. The fundamental period contour map obtained showed that the fundamental period at rock sites of the northern coast of İzmir Bay was between 0.15 and 0.35 s. However, the fundamental period increased towards the western direction where thick soft sediments exist, the fundamental period varied between 0.5 and 2.0 s. A soil classification map of the area was prepared based on the data estimated from SPT- values of 25 boreholes. It is seen that major portion of the study area, including the shore line of the northern coast had SPT- values lower than 15. The fundamental periods obtained by H/V spectral ratio method and the periods derived from shear wave velocity data available in 11 of 25 boreholes were well-correlated. Fundamental period map obtained from H/V spectral ratio method illustrated the characteristics of weak soil conditions and the presence of bedrock level under thick alluvial soils. Finally, microtremor investigations have proved to be an effective tool for assessment of local soil conditions in case of thick soft sediments in the northern coast of İzmir Bay.

  2. Electron cyclotron emission measurements on JET: Michelson interferometer, new absolute calibration, and determination of electron temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmuck, S; Fessey, J; Gerbaud, T; Alper, B; Beurskens, M N A; de la Luna, E; Sirinelli, A; Zerbini, M

    2012-12-01

    At the fusion experiment JET, a Michelson interferometer is used to measure the spectrum of the electron cyclotron emission in the spectral range 70-500 GHz. The interferometer is absolutely calibrated using the hot/cold technique and, in consequence, the spatial profile of the plasma electron temperature is determined from the measurements. The current state of the interferometer hardware, the calibration setup, and the analysis technique for calibration and plasma operation are described. A new, full-system, absolute calibration employing continuous data acquisition has been performed recently and the calibration method and results are presented. The noise level in the measurement is very low and as a result the electron cyclotron emission spectrum and thus the spatial profile of the electron temperature are determined to within ±5% and in the most relevant region to within ±2%. The new calibration shows that the absolute response of the system has decreased by about 15% compared to that measured previously and possible reasons for this change are presented. Temperature profiles measured with the Michelson interferometer are compared with profiles measured independently using Thomson scattering diagnostics, which have also been recently refurbished and recalibrated, and agreement within experimental uncertainties is obtained.

  3. Stable determination of sound-hard polyhedral scatterers by a minimal number of scattering measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyu; Petrini, Michele; Rondi, Luca; Xiao, Jingni

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the paper is to establish optimal stability estimates for the determination of sound-hard polyhedral scatterers in RN, N ≥ 2, by a minimal number of far-field measurements. This work is a significant and highly nontrivial extension of the stability estimates for the determination of sound-soft polyhedral scatterers by far-field measurements, proved by one of the authors, to the much more challenging sound-hard case. The admissible polyhedral scatterers satisfy minimal a priori assumptions of Lipschitz type and may include at the same time solid obstacles and screen-type components. In this case we obtain a stability estimate with N far-field measurements. Important features of such an estimate are that we have an explicit dependence on the parameter h representing the minimal size of the cells forming the boundaries of the admissible polyhedral scatterers, and that the modulus of continuity, provided the error is small enough with respect to h, does not depend on h. If we restrict to N = 2 , 3 and to polyhedral obstacles, that is to polyhedra, then we obtain stability estimates with fewer measurements, namely first with N - 1 measurements and then with a single measurement. In this case the dependence on h is not explicit anymore and the modulus of continuity depends on h as well.

  4. Time domain reflectrometry measurements using a movable obstacle for the determination of dielectric profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Will

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Microwave techniques for the measurement of the permittivity of soils including the water content of soils and other materials, especially TDR (time domain reflectometry, have become accepted as routine measurement techniques. This summary deals with an advanced use of the TDR principle for the determination of the water content of soil along a probe. The basis of the advanced TDR technique is a waveguide, which is inserted into the soil for obtaining measurements of the effective soil permittivity, from which the water content is estimated, and an obstacle, which can mechanically be moved along the probe and which acts as a reference reflection for the TDR system with an exactly known position. Based on the known mechanical position of the reference reflection, the measured electrical position can be used as a measure for the effective dielectric constant of the environment. Thus, it is possible to determine the effective dielectric constant with a spatial resolution given by the step size of the obstacle displacement.

    A conventional industrial TDR-system, operating in the baseband, is used for the signal generation and for the evaluation of the pulse delay time of the obstacle reflection. Thus, a cost effective method for the acquisition of the dielectric measurement data is available.

  5. Continuous measurement of reticuloruminal pH values in dairy cows during the transition period from barn to pasture feeding using an indwelling wireless data transmitting unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasteiner, J; Horn, M; Steinwidder, A

    2015-04-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of the transition from barn feeding to pasture on the pattern of reticuloruminal pH values in 8 multiparous dairy cows. A indwelling wireless data transmitting system for pH measurement was given to 8 multiparous cows orally. Reticuloruminal pH values were measured every 600 s over a period of 42 days. After 7 days of barn feeding (period 1), all of the animals were pastured with increasing grazing times from 2 to 7 h/day over 7 days (period 2). From day 15 to day 21 (period 3), the cows spent 7 h/day on pasture. Beginning on day 22, the animals had 20 h/day access to pasture (day and night grazing). To study reticuloruminal adaptation to pasture feeding, the phase of day and night grazing was subdivided into another 3 weekly periods (periods 4-6). Despite a mild transition period from barn feeding to pasture, significant effects on reticuloruminal pH values were observed. During barn feeding, the mean reticuloruminal pH value for all of the cows was 6.44 ± 0.14, and the pH values decreased significantly (p pH values increased again (pH 6.25 ± 0.22; pH 6.31 ± 0.17; pH 6.37 ± 0.16). Our results showed that the animals had significantly lowered reticuloruminal pH during the periods of feed transition from barn to pasture feeding. Despite these significant changes, the decrease was not harmful, as indicated by data of feed intake and milk production.

  6. Dynamics of Water Content in Light Bare Soil in Summer Half-Year in the Period of 2003–2012 and its Agro-Meteorological Determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biniak-Pieróg Małgorzata

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was the estimation of decade variation of water content in layers with thickness of 0–10, 0–20, 0–40 and 0–60 cm of a bare light brown soil in the summer half-year (May–October in the 10-year period of 2003–2012 against the background of agro-meteorological conditions. The study was based on results of measurement of the moisture of a bare soil with the use of the TDR method, sums of atmospheric precipitations and ground water levels, conducted in the area of the Agro- and Hydrometeorology Observatory of the Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, situated in Wrocław-Swojec. The analyses revealed slight variation of mean decade values of water content in the bare soil in the summer half-year during the ten-year period under analysis. Irrespective of the thickness of the soil layer, precipitation in the 10-year period of 2003–2012 had a highly significant effect on the water content in the 2nd decade of July. In the case of soil layers with thickness down to 0–20 cm a statistically significant relation between soil water content and ground water levels was noted for the 3rd decade of May, July, and in the 3rd decade of September. In the layer with thickness of 0–60 cm the relations were statistically significant almost throughout the summer half-year, with the exception of the 1st and 2nd decades of May. Analysis of trends of mean water content of the bare soil over the 10-year period of 2003–2012 indicated their statistically significant increase in the case of most of the decades of the summer half-year only in soil layers with thickness of 0–10 and 0–20 cm.

  7. In situ measurement of alternating current magnetic susceptibility of Pd-hydrogen system for determination of hydrogen concentration in bulk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akamaru, Satoshi; Hara, Masanori; Matsuyama, Masao

    2012-07-01

    An alternating current magnetic susceptometer for use as a hydrogen gauge for hydrogen-storage materials was designed and developed. The experimental system can simultaneously measure the hydrogen equilibrium pressure and the magnetic susceptibility of metal hydrides. The background voltage of the susceptometer was stabilized for a long period of time, without any adjustments, by attaching an efficient compensation circuit. The performance of the susceptometer at a static hydrogen concentration was demonstrated by measuring the magnetic susceptibility of a Pd-hydrogen system under equilibrium conditions. The in situ measurement of the magnetic susceptibility of Pd during hydrogen absorption was carried out using the susceptometer. Since the in situ magnetic susceptibility obtained at a lower initial hydrogen pressure agreed with the magnetic susceptibility measured at a static hydrogen concentration, the susceptometer could be used to determine the hydrogen concentration in Pd in situ. At a higher initial hydrogen pressure, enhancement of the magnetic susceptibility was observed at the beginning of hydrogen absorption because the magnetic moments induced by the large temporary strain generated in the Pd affected the magnetic susceptibility.

  8. Determining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Andarzian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Wheat production in the south of Khuzestan, Iran is constrained by heat stress for late sowing dates. For optimization of yield, sowing at the appropriate time to fit the cultivar maturity length and growing season is critical. Crop models could be used to determine optimum sowing window for a locality. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the Cropping System Model (CSM-CERES-Wheat for its ability to simulate growth, development, grain yield of wheat in the tropical regions of Iran, and to study the impact of different sowing dates on wheat performance. The genetic coefficients of cultivar Chamran were calibrated for the CSM-CERES-Wheat model and crop model performance was evaluated with experimental data. Wheat cultivar Chamran was sown on different dates, ranging from 5 November to 9 January during 5 years of field experiments that were conducted in the Khuzestan province, Iran, under full and deficit irrigation conditions. The model was run for 8 sowing dates starting on 25 October and repeated every 10 days until 5 January using long-term historical weather data from the Ahvaz, Behbehan, Dezful and Izeh locations. The seasonal analysis program of DSSAT was used to determine the optimum sowing window for different locations as well. Evaluation with the experimental data showed that performance of the model was reasonable as indicated by fairly accurate simulation of crop phenology, biomass accumulation and grain yield against measured data. The normalized RMSE were 3%, 2%, 11.8%, and 3.4% for anthesis date, maturity date, grain yield and biomass, respectively. Optimum sowing window was different among locations. It was opened and closed on 5 November and 5 December for Ahvaz; 5 November and 15 December for Behbehan and Dezful;and 1 November and 15 December for Izeh, respectively. CERES-Wheat model could be used as a tool to evaluate the effect of sowing date on wheat performance in Khuzestan conditions. Further model evaluations

  9. Investigation of surface porosity measurements and compaction pressure as means to ensure consistent contact angle determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, René; Borkenfelt, Simon; Allesø, Morten; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Beato, Stefania; Holm, Per

    2016-02-10

    Compounds wettability is critical for a number of central processes including disintegration, dispersion, solubilisation and dissolution. It is therefore an important optimisation parameter both in drug discovery but also as guidance for formulation selection and optimisation. Wettability for a compound is determined by its contact angle to a liquid, which in the present study was measured using the sessile drop method applied to a disc compact of the compound. Precise determination of the contact angle is important should it be used to either rank compounds or selected excipients to e.g. increase the wetting from a solid dosage form. Since surface roughness of the compact has been suggested to influence the measurement this study investigated if the surface quality, in terms of surface porosity, had an influence on the measured contact angle. A correlation to surface porosity was observed, however for six out of seven compounds similar results were obtained by applying a standard pressure (866 MPa) to the discs in their preparation. The data presented in the present work therefore suggest that a constant high pressure should be sufficient for most compounds when determining the contact angle. Only for special cases where compounds have poor compressibility would there be a need for a surface-quality-control step before the contact angle determination.

  10. Evaluation of selected recurrence measures in discriminating pre-ictal and inter-ictal periods from epileptic EEG data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngamga, Eulalie Joelle [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Telegraphenberg A 31, 14473 Potsdam (Germany); Bialonski, Stephan [Max-Planck-Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Nöthnitzer Straße 38, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Marwan, Norbert, E-mail: marwan@pik-potsdam.de [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Telegraphenberg A 31, 14473 Potsdam (Germany); Kurths, Jürgen [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Telegraphenberg A 31, 14473 Potsdam (Germany); Department of Physics, Humboldt University Berlin, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Institute for Complex Systems and Mathematical Biology, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 3UE (United Kingdom); Geier, Christian [Department of Epileptology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Straße 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany); Helmholtz Institute for Radiation and Nuclear Physics, University of Bonn, Nussallee 14–16, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Lehnertz, Klaus [Department of Epileptology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Straße 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany); Helmholtz Institute for Radiation and Nuclear Physics, University of Bonn, Nussallee 14–16, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Interdisciplinary Center for Complex Systems, University of Bonn, Brühler Straße 7, 53175 Bonn (Germany)

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the suitability of selected measures of complexity based on recurrence quantification analysis and recurrence networks for an identification of pre-seizure states in multi-day, multi-channel, invasive electroencephalographic recordings from five epilepsy patients. We employ several statistical techniques to avoid spurious findings due to various influencing factors and due to multiple comparisons and observe precursory structures in three patients. Our findings indicate a high congruence among measures in identifying seizure precursors and emphasize the current notion of seizure generation in large-scale epileptic networks. A final judgment of the suitability for field studies, however, requires evaluation on a larger database. - Highlights: • Recurrence-based analysis of brain dynamics in human epilepsy. • Comparison of recurrence quantification and recurrence network measures. • Statistically significant precursory structures in three out of five patients. • High congruence among measures in characterizing brain dynamics.

  11. Photon flux determination for a precision measurement of the neutral pion lifetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teymurazyan, Aram [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Jefferson Lab Hall B PrimEx Collaboration is using tagged photons to perform a 1.4% level measurement of the absolute cross section for the photo-production of neutral pions in the Coulomb field of a nucleus as a test of Chiral Perturbation Theory. Such a high precision pushes the limits of the photon tagging technique in regards to the determination of the absolute photon flux. A multifaceted approach to this problem has included measuring the absolute tagging ratios with a Total Absorption Counter (TAC) as well as relative tagging ratios with a Pair Spectrometer (PS), and determining the rate of the tagging counters using multi-hit TDC's and a clock trigger. This enables the determination of the absolute tagged photon flux for the PrimEx experiment with uncertainty of ~ 1.0%, which is unprecedented. In view of the stringent constraints on the required precision of the photon flux for this experiment, periodicmeasurements of the pair production cross section were performed throughout the run. In these measurements, both the photon energy and flux were determined by the Jefferson Lab Hall B tagger, and the electron-positron pairs were swept by a magnetic field and detected in the new 1728 channel hybrid calorimeter (HyCal). The pair production crosssection was extracted with an uncertainty of ~ 2%, producing an agreement with theoretical calculations at the level of ~ 2%. This measurement provided a unique opportunity to verify the photon flux determination procedure for the PrimEx experiment.

  12. Structural and dynamical aspects of the distant magnetotail determined from ISEE-3 plasma measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hones, E.W.; Zwicki, R.D.; Fritz, T.A.; Bame, S.J.

    1986-10-01

    Large lateral displacements of the magnetotail at ISEE-3 orbital distances can result from the angular variations of solar wind flow that occur frequently. To determine the tail's shape and structure from the ISEE-3 measurements it is desirable to determine quantitatively the tail's displacement during such measurements. Three-dimensional solar wind measurements by IMP-8 have been used together with a new coordinate system, the Geocentric Solar Wind (GSW) system, which reflects solar wind direction changes (as well as earth dipole motion), to estimate the location of ISEE-3 within the tail cross-section. Preliminary tests suggest that at least those changes of satellite location within the tail resulting from long term (few hour) solar wind changes can be determined by the method. Energetic ion spectra, measured in plasmoids by ISEE-3 in the distant tail and by ISEE-2 at the time of the plasmoid's departure from the near tail, have the same exponential form, distinctly different from the power law form that has earlier been ascribed to plasma sheet ion spectra. The ions are trapped in the closed loops of the plasmoid and the major anisotropy that they show is due to their convective motion with the moving plasmoid, not to field-aligned streaming.

  13. Determining the solar-flare photospheric scale height from SMM gamma-ray measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingenfelter, Richard E.

    1991-01-01

    A connected series of Monte Carlo programs was developed to make systematic calculations of the energy, temporal and angular dependences of the gamma-ray line and neutron emission resulting from such accelerated ion interactions. Comparing the results of these calculations with the Solar Maximum Mission/Gamma Ray Spectrometer (SMM/GRS) measurements of gamma-ray line and neutron fluxes, the total number and energy spectrum of the flare-accelerated ions trapped on magnetic loops at the Sun were determined and the angular distribution, pitch angle scattering, and mirroring of the ions on loop fields were constrained. Comparing the calculations with measurements of the time dependence of the neutron capture line emission, a determination of the He-3/H ratio in the photosphere was also made. The diagnostic capabilities of the SMM/GRS measurements were extended by developing a new technique to directly determine the effective photospheric scale height in solar flares from the neutron capture gamma-ray line measurements, and critically test current atmospheric models in the flare region.

  14. Attitude determination using a MEMS-based flight information measurement unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Der-Ming; Shiau, Jaw-Kuen; Wang, I-Chiang; Lin, Yu-Heng

    2012-01-01

    Obtaining precise attitude information is essential for aircraft navigation and control. This paper presents the results of the attitude determination using an in-house designed low-cost MEMS-based flight information measurement unit. This study proposes a quaternion-based extended Kalman filter to integrate the traditional quaternion and gravitational force decomposition methods for attitude determination algorithm. The proposed extended Kalman filter utilizes the evolution of the four elements in the quaternion method for attitude determination as the dynamic model, with the four elements as the states of the filter. The attitude angles obtained from the gravity computations and from the electronic magnetic sensors are regarded as the measurement of the filter. The immeasurable gravity accelerations are deduced from the outputs of the three axes accelerometers, the relative accelerations, and the accelerations due to body rotation. The constraint of the four elements of the quaternion method is treated as a perfect measurement and is integrated into the filter computation. Approximations of the time-varying noise variances of the measured signals are discussed and presented with details through Taylor series expansions. The algorithm is intuitive, easy to implement, and reliable for long-term high dynamic maneuvers. Moreover, a set of flight test data is utilized to demonstrate the success and practicality of the proposed algorithm and the filter design.

  15. Attitude Determination Using a MEMS-Based Flight Information Measurement Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Heng Lin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Obtaining precise attitude information is essential for aircraft navigation and control. This paper presents the results of the attitude determination using an in-house designed low-cost MEMS-based flight information measurement unit. This study proposes a quaternion-based extended Kalman filter to integrate the traditional quaternion and gravitational force decomposition methods for attitude determination algorithm. The proposed extended Kalman filter utilizes the evolution of the four elements in the quaternion method for attitude determination as the dynamic model, with the four elements as the states of the filter. The attitude angles obtained from the gravity computations and from the electronic magnetic sensors are regarded as the measurement of the filter. The immeasurable gravity accelerations are deduced from the outputs of the three axes accelerometers, the relative accelerations, and the accelerations due to body rotation. The constraint of the four elements of the quaternion method is treated as a perfect measurement and is integrated into the filter computation. Approximations of the time-varying noise variances of the measured signals are discussed and presented with details through Taylor series expansions. The algorithm is intuitive, easy to implement, and reliable for long-term high dynamic maneuvers. Moreover, a set of flight test data is utilized to demonstrate the success and practicality of the proposed algorithm and the filter design.

  16. Development and validation of psychosocial determinants measures of physical activity among Iranian adolescent girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faghihzadeh Soghrate

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study aimed at assessing the psychometric properties of psychosocial determinants of physical activity-related measures in Iranian adolescent girls. Methods Several measures of psychosocial determinants of physical activity were translated from English into Persian using the back-translation technique. These translated measures were administered to 512 ninth and tenth-grade Iranian high school students. Results The results of a series of factor analysis showed that the self-efficacy scale contained a single factor, the social support scale contained two factors: family support and friend support, the physical activity 'pros & cons' scale contained two factors: physical activity pros scale and physical activity cons scale, the change strategies scale contained a single factor, the environment scale also contained a single factor. Chronbach's alphas, mean inter-item correlations and test-retest coefficients showed that these solutions were reliable. Conclusions These preliminary results provide support for using the mentioned scales to measure psychosocial determinants of physical activity in Iranian adolescent girls.

  17. Sex determination in modern Greeks using diagonal measurements of molar teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorba, Eleni; Moraitis, Konstantinos; Eliopoulos, Constantine; Spiliopoulou, Chara

    2012-04-10

    Sex determination is a necessary step in the investigation of unidentified human remains from a forensic context. Teeth, as one of the strongest tissues in the human body, can be used for this purpose. Most studies of sexual dimorphism in teeth are based on the traditional mesiodistal and buccolingual crown measurements. The purpose of this study is to examine the degree of sexual dimorphism in permanent molars of modern Greeks using crown and cervical diagonal diameters, and to evaluate their applicability in sex determination. A total of 344 permanent molars in 107 individuals (53 male and 54 female) from the Athens Collection were examined. Crown and cervical diagonal diameters of both maxillary and mandibular molars were measured. It was found that males have larger molars than females and in 19 out of 24 dimensions measured male molars exceeded female molars significantly (Pdiagonal diameters have found to be more sexually diamorphic than crown diagonal diameters. In discriminant function analysis the variables entered more frequently were the cervical diagonal diameters mainly of mandibular molars. Classification accuracy was found to be 93% for the total sample, 77.4% for upper jaw, and 88.4% for the lower jaw. Accuracy rates were higher for cervical than crown diagonal diameters. The data generated from the present study suggest that this metric method can be useful and reliable for sex determination, especially when the traditional dental measurements are not applicable.

  18. Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures; January 2012 - March 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayaweera, T.; Haeri, H.

    2013-04-01

    Under the Uniform Methods Project, DOE is developing a framework and a set of protocols for determining the energy savings from specific energy efficiency measures and programs. The protocols provide a straightforward method for evaluating gross energy savings for common residential and commercial measures offered in ratepayer-funded initiatives in the United States. They represent a refinement of the body of knowledge supporting energy efficiency evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) activities. This document deals with savings from the following measures: commercial and industrial lighting, commercial and industrial lighting controls, small commercial and residential unitary and split system HVAC cooling equipment, residential furnaces and boilers, residential lighting, refrigerator recycling, whole-building retrofit using billing analysis, metering, peak demand and time-differentiated energy savings, sample design, survey design and implementation, and assessing persistence and other evaluation issues.

  19. Real-Time Low Frequency Impedance Measurements for Determination of Hydrogen Content in Pipeline Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasseigne, A. N.; Koenig, K.; Olson, D. L.; Jackson, J. E.; Mishra, B.; McColskey, J. D.

    2009-03-01

    The assessment of hydrogen content in pipeline steel is an essential requirement to monitor loss of pipe integrity with time and to prevent failures. The use of pipeline steels of increasing strength significantly reduces the threshold hydrogen concentration for hydrogen cracking. Cathodic protection and corrosion processes both contribute to accumulation of hydrogen as a function of time, which may eventually meet the cracking criteria. New and unique methodologies based on electronic property measurements offer the pipeline industry advanced non-destructive tools to provide quantified in-situ hydrogen content measurements in real-time. The use of low frequency impedance measurements as a non-contact sensor has been demonstrated for real-time determination of hydrogen content in coated pipeline steel specimens in the laboratory. Scale-up to field measurements is in progress, and the development and use of a field sensor are discussed.

  20. Eddy current measurement system evaluation for corrosion depth determination on cast aluminum aircraft structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Surendra; Greving, Dan; Kinney, Andy; Vensel, Fred; Ohm, Jim; Peeler, Mike

    2013-01-01

    An eddy current (EC) technique was developed to determine the corrosion depth on a bare flange face of a cast aluminum A356-T6 aircraft engine structure. The EC response and the corrosion depths determined through metallurgical cross sections were used to develop an empirical relation between EC response and depth. The EC technique and depth determination are used to inspect the engine structures during overhaul to determine if they are fit for continued service. An accurate and reliable Non-Destructive Inspection is required to ensure that structures returned to service are safe for continued operation. NDE system reliability demonstrations of the eddy current technique are traditionally reported in terms of Probability of Detection (POD) data using MIL-HDBK-1823A. However, the calculation of POD data is based on a simple linear predictive model that is valid only if certain criteria are met. These are: 1) NDE system response is measurable (i.e. continuous data), 2) Flaw size is known and measurable (i.e. continuous data), 3) relationship between the NDE system response and flaw size is linear (or linear on a log scale), 4) variation in measured responseresponse around a predicted response for a given flaw size is normally distributed, 5) the variation around the predicted response is constant (i.e. variation does not change with flaw size), and 6) inherent variability in the NDE system is known and fully understood. In this work, a Measurement System Evaluation (MSE) of the Eddy Current System was used to address some of these concerns. This work was completed on two aircraft structures having varying corrosion depths. The data were acquired in a random manner at fifty regions of interests (ROIs). Three operators participated in this study, and each operator measured Eddy Current response three times in each ROI. In total, there were four hundred and fifty data points collected. Following this, the two structures were sectioned for measuring corrosion depth. The

  1. Determination of human skin optical properties in vivo from reflectance spectroscopic measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongqin Yang; Shusen Xie; Hui Li; Zukang Lu

    2007-01-01

    A novel approach has been proved to quickly and non-invasively determine the optical properties of human skin in vivo. It is based on the diffuse reflectance approximation model and subjected to the well established library of absorption spectra of water and hemoglobin. Under the nonlinear least-square algorithm, fitting the measured spectra in the range of 400-1000 nm to the diffusion approximation model, the reduced scattering coefficient and absorption coefficient of skin tissue can be quickly determined in vivo. The results show that this method is convenient and suitable for the real-time clinical application.

  2. Application of the Same Beam Interferometry Measurement in Relative Position Determination on Lunar Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUANG Anyi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on the principle and observation model of the same beam interferometry measurement, observation equations of differential time delay and time delay rate for targets on lunar surface are proposed. Restriction of appointed height and digital lunar height model is introduced and a Kalman filter with restriction to determine the relative position is put forward. By data simulation, the arithmetic is then validated and evaluated, which could fleetly and accurately determine the relative position between rover and lander. Low precision of the lander's position is required in the calculation.

  3. The need for seasonal correction functions when calculating the annual electricity use of appliances based on shorter period measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennich, Peter (Testlab, The Swedish Energy Agency, Eskilstuna (Sweden)); Oefverholm, Egil; Bjoern, Torgny (The Swedish Energy Agency, Eskilstuna (Sweden)); Norstedt, Inger (The Swedish Consumer Agency, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2011-07-01

    Along with the increasing number of smart electricity meters in the homes - both meters installed by the utilities and simpler ones installed by the household owners themselves - the interest in reliable methods for scaling up data measured during a limited time of the year to annual values, will most likely increase. For example, by measuring some specific loads for some time in a home, an inhabitant may assess possible annual savings when replacing old appliances with new ones. However, a straight forward scaling up calculation to annual values is not always appropriate. An obvious example is lighting, which displays a clear seasonal effect due to the difference in daylight: annual values based on measured summer data will strongly underestimate the annual consumption whereas winter data will lead to an overestimate. Another example going in the opposite direction is cold appliances, where the increase in ambient temperature during the summer increases the electricity consumption. This paper discusses an analysis of a set of appliances which nearly all display different seasonal effects. Apart from lighting and cold appliances, also washing machines, dish washers, TVs and PCs are analysed. Factors influencing the seasonality are discussed; either it is due to behaviour and/or technical parameters as well. Our analysis is based on 10 min measurements of appliances in 400 randomly selected households in Sweden. 40 households were measured during a full year and provided data for establishing seasonal correction functions. (See Appendix 1 for more details on the methodology.)

  4. Determining Physical Characteristics of Coronal Loops Through Differential Emission Measure Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirtain, J. W.; Schemlz, J. T.; Allen, J. D.; Hubbard, P. J.

    2001-05-01

    Through the use of differential emission measure curves for points along coronal loops on the limb, physical characteristics can be determined that will help further constrain current theoretical models. This study used data obtained from observations taken on 20 Apr 1998 and 13 Nov 1997 by both the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer and the Yohkoh Soft X-ray Telescope. Pixel coordinates were established for multiple points along each loop, and the intensities of different spectral lines were calculated for each pixel. Differential emission measures curves were constructed for each of the chosen points, and the density and pressure at each position was determined. Radiative and conductive losses are also calculated from the data. The arc length of the loop was measured and the temperature scale heights for specific ions were calculated and compared to the observed heights above the limb. A significant intensity is measured for the O V line at 629.73 angstroms with a peak formation temperature of T = .26 MK in both loops about 50 scale heights above the limb. In order to account for these O V intensities, the oxygen abundance must be enhanced by a factor of 10 to 40 above normal coronal values; or the cool end (below 1 MK) of the differential emission measure curves must turn up again, even for the pixels at the top of the loops, well off the limb.

  5. Determination of biological activity from fluorescence-lifetime measurements in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudek, F.; Baselt, T.; Lempe, B.; Taudt, C.; Hartmann, P.

    2015-03-01

    The importance of fluorescence lifetime measurement as an optical analysis tool is growing. Many applications already exist in order to determine the fluorescence lifetime, but the majority of these require the addition of fluorescence-active substances to enable measurements. Every usage of such foreign materials has an associated risk. This paper investigates the use of auto-fluorescing substances in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Baker's yeast) as a risk free alternative to fluorescence-active substance enabled measurements. The experimental setup uses a nitrogen laser with a pulse length of 350 ps and a wavelength of 337 nm. The excited sample emits light due to fluorescence of NADH/NADPH and collagen. A fast photodiode collects the light at the output of an appropriate high-pass edge-filter at 400 nm. Fluorescence lifetimes can be determined from the decay of the measurement signals, which in turn characterizes the individual materials and their surrounding environment. Information about the quantity of the fluorescence active substances can also be measured based on the received signal intensity. The correlation between the fluorescence lifetime and the metabolic state of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated and is presented here.

  6. Analyzing Accounting Ratios as Determinants of the LQ45 Stock Prices Movements in Indonesia Stock Exchange During the Period of 2002-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Arianto Toly

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The lack of studies regarding the determinants of stock price movement in the Indonesia Stock Exchange (ISX, which is an emerging stock exchange in the South East Asia region, and the pursue of generalization became the reasons of why this study. Previous research (Gupta, Chevalier, & Sayekt, 2000; Subiyantoro & Andreani, 2003, mostly focus on the external factors of the firms, instead of the internal factors. This study uses the accounting ratios as the determinants of the prices of stocks’ classified as the LQ45 in the ISX during 2002-2006. The panel-data regression model is used to test whether all of the independent variables involved in the equation could simultaneously explain the behavior of the dependent one. The developed model would be analyzed by the utilization of econometrics package, namely GRETL 1.7.4. After conducting some statistical treatments on the developed model, this study reveals that the shareholders’ ratios consisted of book value per share, dividend payout ratio, EPS, and ROA are the accounting ratios, which determine the LQ45’s stock price movement in the ISX during the period of 2002-2006.

  7. Dose determination with nitro blue tetrazolium containing radiochromic dye films by measuring absorbed and reflected light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovács, A.; Baranyai, M.; Wojnárovits, L.

    2000-01-01

    Tetrazolium salts as heterocyclic organic compounds are known to form highly coloured, water insoluble formazans by reduction, which can be utilized in radiation processing dosimetry. Radiochromic films containing nitro blue tetrazolium dissolved in a polymer matrix were found suitable for dose...... determination in a wide dose range both by absorbance and reflectance measurements. The concept of measuring reflected light from dose labels has been discussed earlier and emerged recently due to the requirement of introducing semiquantitative label dose indicators for quarantine control. The usefulness...

  8. Quasi-determinism of weak measurement statistics: Laplace's demon's quantum cousin

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, Holger F

    2010-01-01

    Weak measurements can provide a complete characterization of post-selected ensembles, including the uncertainties of observables. Interestingly, the average uncertainties for pure initial and final states are always zero, suggesting the kind of complete knowledge that would allow a knowledge of past, presence and future in the sense of Laplace's demon. However, the quantum version actually describes cancellations of positive and negative uncertainties made possible by the strangeness of weak values. In this paper, I take a closer look at the relation between statistics and causality in quantum mechanics, in an attempt to recover the traces of classical determinism in the statistical relations of quantum measurement outcomes.

  9. Evaluation of selected recurrence measures in discriminating pre-ictal and inter-ictal periods from epileptic EEG data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngamga, Eulalie Joelle; Bialonski, Stephan; Marwan, Norbert; Kurths, Jürgen; Geier, Christian; Lehnertz, Klaus

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the suitability of selected measures of complexity based on recurrence quantification analysis and recurrence networks for an identification of pre-seizure states in multi-day, multi-channel, invasive electroencephalographic recordings from five epilepsy patients. We employ several statistical techniques to avoid spurious findings due to various influencing factors and due to multiple comparisons and observe precursory structures in three patients. Our findings indicate a high congruence among measures in identifying seizure precursors and emphasize the current notion of seizure generation in large-scale epileptic networks. A final judgment of the suitability for field studies, however, requires evaluation on a larger database.

  10. Evaluation of selected recurrence measures in discriminating pre-ictal and inter-ictal periods from epileptic EEG data

    CERN Document Server

    Ngamga, Eulalie Joelle; Marwan, Norbert; Kurths, Jürgen; Geier, Christian; Lehnertz, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the suitability of selected measures of complexity based on recurrence quantification analysis and recurrence networks for an identification of pre-seizure states in multi-day, multi-channel, invasive electroencephalographic recordings from five epilepsy patients. We employ several statistical techniques to avoid spurious findings due to various influencing factors and due to multiple comparisons and observe precursory structures in three patients. Our findings indicate a high congruence among measures in identifying seizure precursors and emphasize the current notion of seizure generation in large-scale epileptic networks. A final judgment of the suitability for field studies, however, requires evaluation on a larger database.

  11. Location and wavefield attributes of long-period signals at Villarrica volcano (Chile) determined by array and polarization-moveout analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, Johanna; Thorwart, Martin; Rabbel, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Villarrica Volcano is the most active volcano in Chile whose latest eruption occurred in March 2015. Increasing the knowledge on its processes, structure and behavior is thus crucial to an effective monitoring and hazard assessment. In this context, long-period volcanic signals (LP) are considered to be a key to the understanding of fluid dynamics and volcanic plumbing systems, accessible by seismological observations. However, standard seismological location tools usually fail due to the emergent onset of the signal and its serious distortion caused by attenuation and scattering in a complex geology. Therefore, alternative methods are needed. In March 2012, a dense seismic network was installed at Villarrica for two weeks with 50 stations covering the volcanic edifice including 6 subarrays. About 400 LP events were identified. LP-events recorded on crater stations look similar to typical earthquakes arrivals with distinguishable P- and S-wave onsets indicating a source near the crater. But with increasing source distance waveforms gradually change into typical LP-events. To investigate how to locate these LP-events we tested two approaches at the basis of a show-case event. In a first trial, records of the subarrays were used to determine backazimuths and slowness by beamforming in the time domain. The analysis was performed in a moving window, using semblance to measure the beam quality. The epicenter was derived by intersecting azimuthal rays. It locates ca. 1 km southeast of the summit crater. Slownesses range from 0.5 s/km up to 2.0 s/km. At frequencies above 2 Hz, additional maxima appear in the semblance distribution of near-summit arrays which can be interpreted as side-scattered signals. Since the crossing points of the backazimuth rays showed some scattering we tested polarization analysis (applied to the subset of 3-component stations) as an alternative location method. Although the direct interpretation of the backazimuths was unreliable, we identified

  12. Improved Measurement of the Positive Muon Lifetime and Determination of the Fermi Constant

    CERN Document Server

    Banks, T I; Barnes, M J; Battu, S; Carey, R M; Cheekatmalla, S; Clayton, S M; Crnkovic, J; Crowe, K M; Debevec, P T; Dhamija, S; Earle, W; Gafarov, A; Giovanetti, K; Gorringe, T P; Gray, F E; Hance, M; Hare, F; Hertzog, D W; Kammel, P; Kiburg, B; Kunkle, J; Lauss, B; Logashenko, I; Lynch, K R; McNabb, R; Miller, J P; Mulhauser, F; Onderwater, C J G; Ozben, C S; Peng, Q; Polly, C C; Rath, S; Roberts, B L; Wait, V; Tishchenko G D; Wasserman, J; Winter, D M Webber P; Zolnierczuk, P A

    2007-01-01

    The mean life of the positive muon has been measured to a precision of 11 ppm using a low-energy, pulsed muon beam stopped in a ferromagnetic target, which was surrounded by a scintillator detector array. The result, $\\tau_{\\mu} = 2.197 013(24) \\mu$s, is in excellent agreement with the previous world average. The new world average $\\tau_{\\mu} = 2.197 019(21) \\mu$s determines the Fermi constant $G_F = 1.166 371(6) \\times 10^{-5}$ GeV$^{-2}$ (5 ppm). Additionally, the precision measurement of the positive muon lifetime is needed to determine the nucleon pseudoscalar coupling ${\\textsl g}^{}_P$.

  13. Utility of telomere length measurements for age determination of humpback whales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Tange Olsen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the applicability of telomere length measurements by quantitative PCR as a tool for minimally invasive age determination of free-ranging cetaceans. We analysed telomere length in skin samples from 28 North Atlantic humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae, ranging from 0 to 26 years of age. The results suggested a significant correlation between telomere length and age in humpback whales. However, telomere length was highly variable among individuals of similar age, suggesting that telomere length measured by quantitative PCR is an imprecise determinant of age in humpback whales. The observed variation in individual telomere length was found to be a function of both experimental and biological variability, with the latter perhaps reflecting patterns of inheritance, resource allocation trade-offs, and stochasticity of the marine environment.

  14. Automated determination of electron density from electric field measurements on the Van Allen Probes spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhelavskaya, Irina; Kurth, William; Spasojevic, Maria; Shprits, Yuri

    2016-07-01

    We present the Neural-network-based Upper-hybrid Resonance Determination (NURD) algorithm for automatic inference of the electron number density from plasma wave measurements made onboard NASA's Van Allen Probes mission. A feedforward neural network is developed to determine the upper hybrid resonance frequency, f_{uhr}, from electric field measurements, which is then used to calculate the electron number density. In previous missions, the plasma resonance bands were manually identified, and there have been few attempts to do robust, routine automated detections. We describe the design and implementation of the algorithm and perform an initial analysis of the resulting electron number density distribution obtained by applying NURD to 2.5 years of data collected with the EMFISIS instrumentation suite of the Van Allen Probes mission. Densities obtained by NURD are compared to those obtained by another recently developed automated technique and also to an existing empirical plasmasphere and trough density model.

  15. Effects of linear and daily undulating periodized resistance training programs on measures of muscle hypertrophy: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozo Grgic

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Periodization is an important component of resistance training programs. It is meant to improve adherence to the training regimen, allow for constant progression, help in avoiding plateaus, and reduce occurrence and severity of injuries. Previous findings regarding the effects of different periodization models on measures of muscle hypertrophy are equivocal. To provide a more in-depth look at the topic, we undertook a systematic review of the literature and a meta-analysis of intervention trials comparing the effects of linear periodization (LP and daily undulating periodization (DUP resistance training programs on muscle hypertrophy. Materials and Methods A comprehensive literature search was conducted through PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, SPORTDiscus, Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (NDLTD and Open Access Theses and Dissertations (OATD. Results The pooled standardized mean difference (Cohen’s d from 13 eligible studies for the difference between the periodization models on muscle hypertrophy was −0.02 (95% confidence interval [−0.25, 0.21], p = 0.848. Conclusions The meta-analysis comparing LP and DUP indicated that the effects of the two periodization models on muscle hypertrophy are likely to be similar. However, more research is needed in this area, particularly among trained individuals and clinical populations. Future studies may benefit from using instruments that are more sensitive for detecting changes in muscle mass, such as ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging.

  16. Period Cramps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Too Tall or Too Short All About Puberty Period Cramps KidsHealth > For Kids > Period Cramps Print A ... re a girl who gets them. What Are Period Cramps? Lots of girls experience cramps before or ...

  17. Radioactivity determination of sealed pure beta-sources by surface dose measurements and Monte Carlo simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Chang Heon [Interdisciplinary Program in Radiation Applied Life Science, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Seongmoon [Program in Biomedical Radiation Sciences, Department of Transdisciplinary Studies, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Kanghyuk; Son, Kwang-Jae; Lee, Jun Sig [Hanaro Applications Research, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ye, Sung-Joon, E-mail: sye@snu.ac.kr [Interdisciplinary Program in Radiation Applied Life Science, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Program in Biomedical Radiation Sciences, Department of Transdisciplinary Studies, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Center for Convergence Research on Robotics, Advance Institutes of Convergence Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-21

    This study aims to determine the activity of a sealed pure beta-source by measuring the surface dose rate using an extrapolation chamber. A conversion factor (cGy s{sup −1} Bq{sup −1}), which was defined as the ratio of surface dose rate to activity, can be calculated by Monte Carlo simulations of the extrapolation chamber measurement. To validate this hypothesis the certified activities of two standard pure beta-sources of Sr/Y-90 and Si/P-32 were compared with those determined by this method. In addition, a sealed test source of Sr/Y-90 was manufactured by the HANARO reactor group of KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) and used to further validate this method. The measured surface dose rates of the Sr/Y-90 and Si/P-32 standard sources were 4.615×10{sup −5} cGy s{sup −1} and 2.259×10{sup −5} cGy s{sup −1}, respectively. The calculated conversion factors of the two sources were 1.213×10{sup −8} cGy s{sup −1} Bq{sup −1} and 1.071×10{sup −8} cGy s{sup −1} Bq{sup −1}, respectively. Therefore, the activity of the standard Sr/Y-90 source was determined to be 3.995 kBq, which was 2.0% less than the certified value (4.077 kBq). For Si/P-32 the determined activity was 2.102 kBq, which was 6.6% larger than the certified activity (1.971 kBq). The activity of the Sr/Y-90 test source was determined to be 4.166 kBq, while the apparent activity reported by KAERI was 5.803 kBq. This large difference might be due to evaporation and diffusion of the source liquid during preparation and uncertainty in the amount of weighed aliquot of source liquid. The overall uncertainty involved in this method was determined to be 7.3%. We demonstrated that the activity of a sealed pure beta-source could be conveniently determined by complementary combination of measuring the surface dose rate and Monte Carlo simulations.

  18. Measurement and Analysis of the Periodic Variation of Total Pressure in an Axial-Flow Compressor Stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-01

    remove dia- phragm resonance has also been used successfully by Fischer (1971), Robinson (1972), and Junkhan (1973). Cook and Rabinowicz (1963) suggest...State University, Ames, Iowa. Cook, N. H., and Rabinowicz , E. 1963. Physical Measurements and Analy- sis. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley. Delio, G. J

  19. Repeated measurements of mite and pet allergen levels in house dust over a time period of 8 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antens, C. J. M.; Oldenwening, M.; Wolse, A.; Gehring, U.; Smit, H. A.; Aalberse, R. C.; Kerkhof, M.; Gerritsen, J.; de Jongste, J. C.; Brunekreef, B.

    2006-01-01

    Background Studies of the association between indoor allergen exposure and the development of allergic diseases have often measured allergen exposure at one point in time. Objective We investigated the variability of house dust mite (Der p 1, Der f 1) and cat (Fel d 1) allergen in Dutch homes over a

  20. Repeated measurements of mite and pet allergen levels in house dust over a time period of 8 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antens, C. J. M.; Oldenwening, M.; Wolse, A.; Gehring, U.; Smit, H. A.; Aalberse, R. C.; Kerkhof, M.; Gerritsen, J.; de Jongste, J. C.; Brunekreef, B.

    2006-01-01

    Background Studies of the association between indoor allergen exposure and the development of allergic diseases have often measured allergen exposure at one point in time. Objective We investigated the variability of house dust mite (Der p 1, Der f 1) and cat (Fel d 1) allergen in Dutch homes over a

  1. Mitigation measures to reduce losses of phosphorus during the non-cropping period - a northern European perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degradation of natural waters by phosphorus (P) due to agricultural activities has been a problem in several countries for many years. Accordingly, mitigation measures to minimize this issue have been developed and used with varying success. Non-point source P from agricultural fields is one of the ...

  2. Quantum Yield Determination Based on Photon Number Measurement, Protocols for Firefly Bioluminescence Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Kazuki

    2016-01-01

    Quantum yield (QY), which is defined as the probability of photon production by a single bio/chemiluminescence reaction, is an important factor to characterize luminescence light intensity emitted diffusively from the reaction solution mixture. Here, methods to measure number of photons to determine QY according to the techniques of national radiometry standards are described. As an example, experiments using firefly bioluminescence reactions are introduced.

  3. Liquid-filled transient pressure measuring systems: A method for determining frequency response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. C.; Englund, D. R., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    An equation is given and experimentally verified for computing the resonant frequency of liquid-filled transient pressure measuring systems. Resonant frequencies of 100 to 1000 Hz are typical of those systems tested. The effect of noncondensable gas bubbles on system response is described. A method for determining transducer volumetric compliance is presented. An example system is described and analyzed to demonstrate the use of the theory.

  4. Determination of $\\pi\\pi$ scattering lengths from measurement of $\\pi^+\\pi^-$ atom lifetime

    CERN Document Server

    Adeva, B; Benayoun, M; Benelli, A; Berka, Z; Brekhovskikh, V; Caragheorgheopol, G; Cechak, T; Chiba, M; Chliapnikov, P V; Ciocarlan, C; Constantinescu, S; Costantini, S; Curceanu, C; Doskarova, P; Dreossi, D; Drijard, D; Dudarev, A; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Fungueiriño Pazos, J L; Gallas Torreira, M; Gerndt, J; Gianotti, P; Goldin, D; Gomez, F; Gorin, A; Gorchakov, O; Guaraldo, C; Gugiu, M; Hansroul, M; Hons, Z; Hosek, R; Iliescu, M; Karpukhin, V; Kluson, J; Kobayashi, M; Kokkas, P; Komarov, V; Kruglov, V; Kruglova, L; Kulikov, A; Kuptsov, A; Kuroda, K I; Lamberto, A; Lanaro, A; Lapshin, V; Lednicky, R; Leruste, P; Levi Sandri, P; Lopez Aguera, A; Lucherini, V; Maki, T; Manuilov, I; Marin, J; Narjoux, J L; Nemenov, L; Nikitin, M; Nunez Pardo, T; Okada, K; Olchevskii, V; Pazos, A; Pentia, M; Penzo, A; Perreau, J M; Plo, M; Ponta, T; Rappazzo, G F; Riazantsev, A; Rodriguez, J M; Rodriguez Fernandez, A; Romero Vidal, A; Ronjin, V.M.; Rykalin, V; Saborido, J; Santamarina, C; Schacher, J; Schuetz, C; Sidorov, A; Smolik, J; Takeutchi, F; Tarasov, A; Tauscher, L; Tobar, M J; Trojek, T; Trusov, S; Utkin, V; Vazquez Doce, O; Vlachos, S; Voskresenskaya, O; Vrba, T; Willmott, C; Yazkov, V; Yoshimura, Y; Zhabitsky, M; Zrelov, P

    2011-01-01

    The DIRAC experiment at CERN has achieved a sizeable production of $\\pi^+\\pi^-$ atoms and has significantly improved the precision on its lifetime determination. From a sample of 21227 atomic pairs, a 4% measurement of the S-wave $\\pi\\pi$ scattering length difference $|a_0-a_2| = (.0.2533^{+0.0080}_{-0.0078}|_\\mathrm{stat}.{}^{+0.0078}_{-0.0073}|_\\mathrm{syst})M_{\\pi^+}^{-1}$ has been attained, providing an important test of Chiral Perturbation Theory.

  5. Determination of error measurement by means of the basic magnetization curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankin, M. V.; Lankin, A. M.

    2016-04-01

    The article describes the implementation of the methodology for determining the error search by means of the basic magnetization curve of electric cutting machines. The basic magnetization curve of the integrated operation of the electric characteristic allows one to define a fault type. In the process of measurement the definition of error calculation of the basic magnetization curve plays a major role as in accuracies of a particular characteristic can have a deleterious effect.

  6. Biocomponent determination in vinegars with the help of 14C measured by liquid scintillation counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudyka, Konrad; Pawlyta, Jacek

    2014-02-15

    This article presents a method of carbon extraction from vinegar used in preparation of liquid scintillation counting cocktails for measurements of low (14)C radioactivity. The presented method is relatively fast and can be used to produce liquid scintillation cocktails e.g., via benzene synthesis. In this work we present specific radiocarbon radioactivity determinations and based on them estimation of bio product content for five commercially available vinegars. All investigated vinegars are likely produced from plants in fermentation process.

  7. Consumer empowerment in Europe: its determinants and the challenges met in measuring it

    OpenAIRE

    NARDO Michela; D'HOMBRES Beatrice; LOI MASSIMO; Pappalardo, Luca

    2012-01-01

    Relaying on data from the Special Eurobarometer survey n. 342 launched in 2010 by the European Commission, this paper aims at measuring consumer empowerment at the European level and at portraying the characteristics of empowered consumers. The first objective is achieved through the development of an ad hoc composite indicator – the “Consumer Empowerment Index” – and the second is pursued analyzing its socio-economic determinants. Overall, we find that consumers in the Nordic countries are t...

  8. Challenges in finding and measuring behavioural determinants of childhood obesity in Europe.

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, D; Rigby, MJ; Di Mattia, P; Zscheppang, A.

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Childhood obesity is an important concern for child health. However, despite widespread concern about the increase in childhood obesity, its causes are not monitored systematically in Europe. In 2007, the Scientific Platform Project on Lifestyle Determinants of Obesity identified routine data sources nationally available in European countries to measure childhood obesity. This work was revisited in 2014 to monitor any progress made. SUBJECT AND METHODS: In 2007, a literature review and p...

  9. Techniques for Determining the Geographic Location of IP Addresses in ISP Topology Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Jiang; Bin-Xing Fang; Ming-Zeng Hu; Xiang Cui

    2005-01-01

    A brief survey on the state-of-the-art research of determining geographic location of IP addresses is presented.The problem of determining the geographic location of routers in Internet Service Provider (ISP) topology measurement is discussed when there is inadequate information such as domain names that could be used. Nine empirical inference rules are provided, and they are respectively (1) rule of mutual inference, (2) rule of locality, (3) rule of ping-pong assignment,(4) rule of bounding from both sides, (5) rule of preferential exit deny, (6) rule of unreachable/timeout, (7) rule of relay hop assignment, (8) rule of following majority, and (9) rule of validity checking based on interface-finding. In totally 2,563discovered router interfaces of a national ISP topology, only 6.4% of them can be located by their corresponding domain names. In contrast, after exercising these nine empirical inference rules, 38% of them have been located. Two methods have mainly been employed to evaluate the effectiveness of these inference rules. One is to compare the measured topology graph with the graph published by the corresponding ISP. The other is to contact the administrator of the corresponding ISP for the verification of IP address locations of some key routers. The conformity between the locations inferred by the rules and those determined by domain names as well as those determined by whois information is also examined. Experimental results show that these empirical inference rules play an important role in determining the geographic location of routers in ISP topology measurement.

  10. Combining eddy-covariance and chamber measurements to determine the methane budget from a small, heterogeneous urban wetland park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, T. H.; Stefanik, K. C.; Bohrer, G.; Rey Sanchez, A. C.; Mitsch, W. J.

    2015-12-01

    Methane (CH4) emissions from wetlands have large uncertainties. They are often small in magnitude and originate from landscapes with highly heterogeneous land cover patterns posing challenges to determining their green-house gas (GHG) budget. We combined two CH4 flux measurement approaches to overcome these issues and find the overall GHG budget of a small, heterogeneous, urban wetland park. Intermittent point measurements of fluxes from chambers provided information about the heterogeneity of fluxes, while eddy-covariance flux measurements provided information about the temporal dynamics of the fluxes. Both were combined to a scaled 'fixed frame' time series, correcting for temporal variability in the spatial coverage of the tower footprint. The macrophyte-vegetated (VEG) and open-water (OW) areas followed similar cycles and emitted similar levels of CH4 throughout the year. VEG exhibited a stronger late-summer emission peak than did OW, possibly due to CH4 transport through mature vegetation. Normalizing the tower data to a fixed frame allowed us to determine the overall CH4 budget of each patch type. OW was the strongest in terms of emissions per unit area, but the larger VEG area contributed the greatest total CH4 emission. Using a scaling approach for carbon (CO2) uptake we calculated the net total GHG contribution of this urban wetland park. Because chambers are not feasible over large vegetation or over extended time periods, the net CO2 budget over the same fixed-frame was approximated over a range and cannot be accurately measured directly over all the components of the park landscape. Overall the newly constructed wetland park acted as a sink for GHG over the last 3 years.

  11. Composition and sources of PM2.5 around the heating periods of 2013 and 2014 in Beijing: Implications for efficient mitigation measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hainan; Chen, Jing; Wen, Jiaojiao; Tian, Hezhong; Liu, Xingang

    2016-01-01

    The diurnal variations of the water soluble organic and inorganic components as well as six selected metals in PM2.5 around the heating periods of 2013 and 2014 in Beijing were analyzed in this study to investigate the contributions of secondary aerosols and primary pollutants to PM2.5 and the effects of domestic heating and mitigation measures. The before-heating sampling period in 2014 (from Nov. 1st to Nov. 15th) was characterized with reinforced short-term mitigation measures for the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) meeting. As a result, the average mass concentrations of PM2.5 and most of the measured species except for Cu, Al, and Ca2+ were greatly reduced during the APEC meeting period. The domestic heating activity alone resulted in a 17.7% increase of PM2.5 in 2013, exerting lesser effects on the increase of PM2.5 than before. Water soluble organic carbon was the most abundant water soluble species in PM2.5, followed by NO3-, SO42-, and NH4+ . According to the PMF model calculation, secondary aerosols, coal combustion, biomass/waste burning, traffic related pollution, long-range transport, and fugitive soil and sand dust were identified as the main sources of PM2.5 in Beijing, among which secondary formation of aerosols was the dominant source of PM2.5 during the non-APEC period while biomass/waste burning dominated during the APEC period. As a timely feedback on the effects of the mitigation measures adopted by the government, the results of this study provide knowledge necessary for a sustainable urban management.

  12. Position determination and measurement error analysis for the spherical proof mass with optical shadow sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Zhendong; Wang, Zhaokui; Zhang, Yulin

    2016-09-01

    To meet the very demanding requirements for space gravity detection, the gravitational reference sensor (GRS) as the key payload needs to offer the relative position of the proof mass with extraordinarily high precision and low disturbance. The position determination and error analysis for the GRS with a spherical proof mass is addressed. Firstly the concept of measuring the freely falling proof mass with optical shadow sensors is presented. Then, based on the optical signal model, the general formula for position determination is derived. Two types of measurement system are proposed, for which the analytical solution to the three-dimensional position can be attained. Thirdly, with the assumption of Gaussian beams, the error propagation models for the variation of spot size and optical power, the effect of beam divergence, the chattering of beam center, and the deviation of beam direction are given respectively. Finally, the numerical simulations taken into account of the model uncertainty of beam divergence, spherical edge and beam diffraction are carried out to validate the performance of the error propagation models. The results show that these models can be used to estimate the effect of error source with an acceptable accuracy which is better than 20%. Moreover, the simulation for the three-dimensional position determination with one of the proposed measurement system shows that the position error is just comparable to the error of the output of each sensor.

  13. LDV measurement of bird ear vibrations to determine inner ear impedance and middle ear power flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyshondt, Pieter G. G.; Pires, Felipe; Dirckx, Joris J. J.

    2016-06-01

    The mechanical behavior of the middle ear structures in birds and mammals is affected by the fluids in the inner ear (IE) that are present behind the oval window. In this study, the aim was to gather knowledge of the acoustic impedance of the IE in the ostrich, to be able to determine the effect on vibrations and power flow in the single-ossicle bird middle ear for future studies. To determine the IE impedance, vibrations of the ossicle were measured for both the quasi-static and acoustic stimulus frequencies. In the acoustic regime, vibrations were measured with a laser Doppler vibrometer and electromagnetic stimulation of the ossicle. The impedance of the inner ear could be determined by means of a simple RLC model in series, which resulted in a stiffness reactance of KIE = 0.20.1012 Pa/m3, an inertial impedance of MIE = 0.652.106 Pa s2/m3, and a resistance of RIE = 1.57.109 Pa s/m. The measured impedance is found to be considerably smaller than what is found for the human IE.

  14. Determination of the base composition of deoxyribonucleic acid by measurement of the adenine/guanine ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, J. T. O.

    1967-01-01

    A method is described for determination of the base composition (as guanine+cytosine or adenine+thymine content) of DNA by accurate measurement of the adenine/guanine ratio. The DNA is hydrolysed with 0·03n-hydrochloric acid for 40min. to release the purines. The hydrolysate is subjected to ion-exchange chromatography on Zeo-Karb 225. Apurinic acids are eluted with 0·03n-hydrochloric acid and then guanine and adenine are eluted separately with 2n-hydrochloric acid. Guanine and adenine are each collected as a single fraction, and the amount of base in each case is determined by measuring the volume and the extinction at suitable wavelengths. For use in the calculations, millimolar extinction coefficients in 2n-hydrochloric acid of 12·09 for adenine at 262mμ, and 10·77 for guanine at 248mμ, were determined with authentic samples of bases. The method gives extremely reproducible results: from 12 determinations with calf thymus DNA the adenine/guanine molar ratio had a standard deviation of 0·011; this corresponds to a standard deviation in guanine+cytosine content of 0·2% guanine+cytosine. PMID:5626094

  15. Determination of the base composition of deoxyribonucleic acid by measurement of the adenine-granine ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, J T

    1967-11-01

    A method is described for determination of the base composition (as guanine+cytosine or adenine+thymine content) of DNA by accurate measurement of the adenine/guanine ratio. The DNA is hydrolysed with 0.03n-hydrochloric acid for 40min. to release the purines. The hydrolysate is subjected to ion-exchange chromatography on Zeo-Karb 225. Apurinic acids are eluted with 0.03n-hydrochloric acid and then guanine and adenine are eluted separately with 2n-hydrochloric acid. Guanine and adenine are each collected as a single fraction, and the amount of base in each case is determined by measuring the volume and the extinction at suitable wavelengths. For use in the calculations, millimolar extinction coefficients in 2n-hydrochloric acid of 12.09 for adenine at 262mmu, and 10.77 for guanine at 248mmu, were determined with authentic samples of bases. The method gives extremely reproducible results: from 12 determinations with calf thymus DNA the adenine/guanine molar ratio had a standard deviation of 0.011; this corresponds to a standard deviation in guanine+cytosine content of 0.2% guanine+cytosine.

  16. Determination of thermal/dynamic characteristics of lava flow from surface thermal measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail-Zadeh, Alik; Melnik, Oleg; Korotkii, Alexander; Tsepelev, Igor; Kovtunov, Dmitry

    2016-04-01

    Rapid development of ground based thermal cameras, drones and satellite data allows getting repeated thermal images of the surface of the lava flow. Available instrumentation allows getting a large amount of data during a single lava flow eruption. These data require development of appropriate quantitative techniques to link subsurface dynamics with observations. We present a new approach to assimilation of thermal measurements at lava's surface to the bottom of the lava flow to determine lava's thermal and dynamic characteristics. Mathematically this problem is reduced to solving an inverse boundary problem. Namely, using known conditions at one part of the model boundary we determine the missing condition at the remaining part of the boundary. Using an adjoint method we develop a numerical approach to the mathematical problem based on the determination of the missing boundary condition and lava flow characteristics. Numerical results show that in the case of smooth input data lava temperature and velocity can be determined with a high accuracy. A noise imposed on the smooth input data results in a less accurate solution, but still acceptable below some noise level. The proposed approach to assimilate measured data brings an opportunity to estimate thermal budget of the lava flow.

  17. A novel approach of periodate oxidation coupled with HPLC-FLD for the quantitative determination of 3-chloro-1,2-propanediol in water and vegetable oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhixiong; Cheng, Peng; Guo, Mingli; Zhang, Weinong; Qi, Yutang

    2013-07-10

    A novel approach of periodate oxidation coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-fluorescence detection (FLD) for the quantitative determination of 3-chloro-1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD) has been established. The essence of this approach lies in the production of chloroacetaldehyde by the oxidization cleavage of 3-MCPD with sodium periodate and the HPLC analysis of chloroacetaldehyde monitored by an FLD detector after fluorescence derivatization with adenine. The experimental parameters relating to the efficiency of the derivative reaction such as concentration of adenine, chloroacetaldehyde reaction temperature, and time were studied. Under the optimized conditions, the proposed method can provide high sensitivity, good linearity (r(2) = 0.999), and repeatability (percent relative standard deviations between 2.57% and 3.44%), the limits of detection and quantification were 0.36 and 1.20 ng/mL, respectively, and the recoveries obtained for water samples were in the range 93.39-97.39%. This method has been successfully applied to the analysis of real water samples. Also this method has been successfully used for the analysis of vegetable oil samples after pretreatment with liquid-liquid extraction; the recoveries obtained by a spiking experiment with soybean oil ranged from 96.27% to 102.42%. In comparison with gas chromatography or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, the proposed method can provide the advantages of simple instrumental requirement, easy operation, low cost, and high efficiency, thus making this approach another good choice for the sensitive determination of 3-MCPD.

  18. ILK statement on determining operation periods for nuclear power plants in Germany; ILK-Stellungnahme zur Festlegung von Betriebszeiten fuer Kernkfraftwerke in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-09-15

    The question of how long nuclear power plants (NPPs) can be safely operated while maintaining a high safety standard played an important role in the worldwide expert discussion in recent years. Far-reaching agreement exists on which reviews and measures to undertake in order to safely operate such plants over longer time periods. In most countries operating licenses for NPPs are not limited in time; this is also the case for Germany. However, the authorization for power operation expires if the plant has used up its approved electricity generation quota. This quota corresponds to a value established in the Atomic Energy Act (AtG) for the individual unit that is based on an operating time of 32 years. On the basis of operating experiences gathered with plants currently in operation and also due to available research findings, the ILK believes that there are no safetyrelated reasons for limiting the operating time of nuclear power plants a priori. The ILK notes that the German NPPs have a high safety standard that is constantly monitored by the regulatory authority. Periodic safety reviews (PSRs), which are performed every ten years, are part of this process. The ILK also takes the view, however, that in the case of very long operating periods, it makes sense to make the continued operation depend on a renewed evaluation (of the plant). This requires demonstrating that the plant displays a level of safety that corresponds to the requirements for the future operating period. The ILK recommends the following approach: - The limitation of production quotas currently laid down in the German Atomic Energy Act should be lifted; - In addition to maintaining the current safety standard, licensees should examine improvement measures for the further reduction of the residual risk and, where appropriate, apply these. The effectiveness of the PSR in its current form should be assessed and the guidelines for their application should be updated, if necessary; - After an operating

  19. [Surveillance measures at joint-stock company "Poultry Farm Lubinskaya" during the period of avian flu epizootia in Omsk region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uskov, P A; Gerasimov, A M; Putiatova, O N; Turchaninov, D V

    2006-01-01

    The organization of sanitary-and-epidemiologic supervision of an integrated poultry farm during epizootia of avian flu is devoted. The unsuccessful situation demands acceptance of additional measures which provided performance antiepizootic, preventive and antiepidemic measures with a view of restriction and distribution of an infection on poultry-farming enterprise. The disinfection barriers of several levels are established. Are organized a sanitary filtrates for the personnel and regular medical supervision over workers of the enterprise and their families. It is carried out the serological control over presence of specific antibodies to a virus of influenza virus among the workers contacting to a bird. Monitoring research of tests of blood of birds on antibodies to the influenza virus was carried out since August, 2005.

  20. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program May 2003 Intensive Operations Period Examining Aerosol Properties and Radiative Influences: Preface to Special Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrare, Richard; Feingold, Graham; Ghan, Steven; Ogren, John; Schmid, Beat; Schwartz, Stephen E.; Sheridan, Pat

    2006-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosols influence climate by scattering and absorbing radiation in clear air (direct effects) and by serving as cloud condensation nuclei, modifying the microphysical properties of clouds, influencing radiation and precipitation development (indirect effects). Much of present uncertainty in forcing of climate change is due to uncertainty in the relations between aerosol microphysical and optical properties and their radiative influences (direct effects) and between microphysical properties and their ability to serve as cloud condensation nuclei at given supersaturations (indirect effects). This paper introduces a special section that reports on a field campaign conducted at the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement site in North Central Oklahoma in May, 2003, examining these relations using in situ airborne measurements and surface-, airborne-, and space-based remote sensing.

  1. Thermodynamic Properties of Liquid Silver-Antimony-Tin Alloys Determined from Electrochemical and Calorimetric Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łapsa, Joanna; Onderka, Bogusław

    2016-08-01

    The thermodynamic properties of liquid Ag-Sb-Sn alloys were obtained through use of the drop solution calorimetric method and electromotive force (emf) measurements of galvanic cells with a yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) solid electrolyte. The experiments were carried out along Ag0.25Sb0.75, Ag0.5Sb0.5 and Ag0.75Sb0.25 sections of the ternary system in the temperature range from 973 K to 1223 K. From the measured emf, the tin activity in liquid solutions of Ag-Sb-Sn was determined for the first time. The partial and integral enthalpy of mixing were determined from calorimetric measurements at two temperatures. These measurements were performed along two cross-sections: Sb0.5Sn0.5 at 912 K and 1075 K, and Ag0.75Sb0.25 at 1075 K. Both experimental data sets were used to find ternary interaction parameters by applying the Redlich-Kister-Muggianu model of the substitutional solution. Consequently, the set of parameters describing the thermodynamic properties of the liquid phase was derived.

  2. EOS determination through microscopy- interferometry measurements: A low symmetry energetic materials case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrou, Elissaios; Zaug, Joseph; Crowhurst, Jonathan; Bastea, Sorin; Armstrong, Mike

    2015-03-01

    Measuring equation of state (EOS) of solid specimens under pressure usually involves the determination of the primitive cell volume using x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. However, in the case of low symmetry (e.g. triclinic) materials with twining features and large primitive cells, this can be problematic and ambiguous. In order to address this issue we examine the possibility of a direct approach which is based on measuring the surface area and thickness with microscopy and optical interferometry respectively. To test the validity of this approach applied to a crystalline material, we first compared our results from Triamino-Trinitrobenzene (TATB, SG P-1) with the published EOS, as determined with XRD measurements, by Stevens et al. [1]. A near perfect match between the two sets of data has been observed. We also present the results of our study on the energetic material 5-nitro-2,4-dihydro-1,2,4,-triazol-3-one (a-NTO) which crystallizes as a four-component twin [2] with triclinic symmetry. No high-pressure XRD data have been published on a-NTO, probably due to its highly complex crystal structure, making this technique a viable way to probe the cold compression EOS of such compounds. Work performed by the U.S. Department of Energy jointly by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  3. Determination of the kinetic parameters of the CALIBAN metallic core reactor from stochastic neutron measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casoli, P.; Authier, N.; Chapelle, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et Aux Energies Alternatives, CEA, DAM, F-21120 Is sur Tille (France)

    2012-07-01

    Several experimental devices are operated by the Criticality and Neutron Science Research Dept. of the CEA Valduc Laboratory. One of these is the Caliban metallic core reactor. The purpose of this study is to develop and perform experiments allowing to determinate some of fundamental kinetic parameters of the reactor. The prompt neutron decay constant and particularly its value at criticality can be measured with reactor noise techniques such as Rossi-{alpha} and Feynman variance-to-mean methods. Subcritical, critical, and even supercritical experiments were performed. Fission chambers detectors were put nearby the core and measurements were analyzed with the Rossi-{alpha} technique. A new value of the prompt neutron decay constant at criticality was determined, which allows, using the Nelson number method, new evaluations of the effective delayed neutron fraction and the in core neutron lifetime. As an introduction of this paper, some motivations of this work are given in part 1. In part 2, principles of the noise measurements experiments performed at the CEA Valduc Laboratory are reminded. The Caliban reactor is described in part 3. Stochastic neutron measurements analysis techniques used in this study are then presented in part 4. Results of fission chamber experiments are summarized in part 5. Part 6 is devoted to the current work, improvement of the experimental device using He 3 neutron detectors and first results obtained with it. Finally, conclusions and perspectives are given in part 7. (authors)

  4. Reliability of Haemophilus influenzae biofilm measurement via static method, and determinants of in vitro biofilm production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obaid, Najla A; Tristram, Stephen; Narkowicz, Christian K; Jacobson, Glenn A

    2016-12-01

    Information is lacking regarding the precision of microtitre plate (MTP) assays used to measure biofilm. This study investigated the precision of an MTP assay to measure biofilm production by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) and the effects of frozen storage and inoculation technique on biofilm production. The density of bacterial final growth was determined by absorbance after 18-20 h incubation, and biofilm production was then measured by absorbance after crystal violet staining. Biofilm formation was categorised as high and low for each strain. For the high biofilm producing strains of NTHi, interday reproducibility of NTHi biofilm formation measured using the MTP assay was excellent and met the acceptance criteria, but higher variability was observed in low biofilm producers. Method of inoculum preparation was a determinant of biofilm formation with inoculum prepared directly from solid media showing increased biofilm production for at least one of the high producing strains. In general, storage of NTHi cultures at -80 °C for up to 48 weeks did not have any major effect on their ability to produce biofilm.

  5. Determination of magneto-optical constant of Fe films with weak measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Xiaodong; Hu, Dejiao; Du, Jinglei; Gao, Fuhua; Zhang, Zhiyou, E-mail: zhangzhiyou@scu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of High Energy Density Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Zhou, Xinxing; Luo, Hailu, E-mail: hailuluo@hnu.edu.cn [Laboratory for Spin Photonics, College of Physics and Electronic Science, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2014-09-29

    In this letter, a detecting method for the magneto-optical constant is presented by using weak measurements. The photonic spin Hall effect (PSHE), which manifests itself as spin-dependent splitting, is introduced to characterize the magneto-optical constant, and a propagation model to describe the quantitative relation between the magneto-optical constant and the PSHE is established. According to the amplified shift of the PSHE detected by weak measurements, we determinate the magneto-optical constant of the Fe film sample. The Kerr rotation is measured via the standard polarimetry method to verify the rationality and feasibility of our method. These findings may provide possible applications in magnetic physics research.

  6. Determination of magneto-optical constant of Fe films with weak measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xiaodong; Zhou, Xinxing; Hu, Dejiao; Du, Jinglei; Gao, Fuhua; Zhang, Zhiyou; Luo, Hailu

    2014-09-01

    In this letter, a detecting method for the magneto-optical constant is presented by using weak measurements. The photonic spin Hall effect (PSHE), which manifests itself as spin-dependent splitting, is introduced to characterize the magneto-optical constant, and a propagation model to describe the quantitative relation between the magneto-optical constant and the PSHE is established. According to the amplified shift of the PSHE detected by weak measurements, we determinate the magneto-optical constant of the Fe film sample. The Kerr rotation is measured via the standard polarimetry method to verify the rationality and feasibility of our method. These findings may provide possible applications in magnetic physics research.

  7. Determination of $A^{b}_{FB}$ using Jet Charge Measurements in Z Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Barate, R; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Merle, E; Minard, M N; Nief, J Y; Pietrzyk, B; Alemany, R; Boix, G; Casado, M P; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Delfino, M C; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Garrido, L; Graugès-Pous, E; Juste, A; Martínez, M; Merino, G; Miquel, R; Mir, L M; Park, I C; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Riu, I; Sánchez, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Gelao, G; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Tricomi, A; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Abbaneo, D; Becker, U; Bright-Thomas, P G; Casper, David William; Cattaneo, M; Ciulli, V; Dissertori, G; Drevermann, H; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Hansen, J B; Harvey, J; Janot, P; Jost, B; Lehraus, Ivan; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Moneta, L; Pacheco, A; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rolandi, Luigi; Rousseau, D; Schlatter, W D; Schmitt, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Teubert, F; Tomalin, I R; Wachsmuth, H W; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Badaud, F; Chazelle, G; Deschamps, O; Falvard, A; Ferdi, C; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rosnet, P; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Rensch, B; Wäänänen, A; Daskalakis, G; Kyriakis, A; Markou, C; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Zachariadou, K; Corden, M; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Cerutti, F; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Passalacqua, L; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Curtis, L; Halley, A W; Lynch, J G; Negus, P; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Teixeira-Dias, P; Thompson, A S; Thomson, E; Buchmüller, O L; Dhamotharan, S; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hansper, G; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Sommer, J; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Dornan, Peter J; Girone, M; Goodsir, S M; Martin, E B; Marinelli, N; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; Sedgbeer, J K; Spagnolo, P; Williams, M D; Ghete, V M; Girtler, P; Kneringer, E; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Betteridge, A P; Bowdery, C K; Buck, P G; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Jones, R W L; Williams, M I; Giehl, I; Greene, A M; Hoffmann, C; Jakobs, K; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Renk, B; Rohne, E; Sander, H G; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Carr, J; Coyle, P; Etienne, F; Leroy, O; Motsch, F; Payre, P; Talby, M; Sadouki, A; Thulasidas, M; Trabelsi, K; Aleppo, M; Antonelli, M; Ragusa, F; Berlich, R; Blum, Walter; Büscher, V; Dietl, H; Ganis, G; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Mannert, C; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Stenzel, H; Wiedenmann, W; Wolf, G; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Chen, S; Cordier, A; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Höcker, A; Jacholkowska, A; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Schune, M H; Tournefier, E; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Zerwas, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Boccali, T; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Sguazzoni, G; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Vannini, C; Venturi, A; Verdini, P G; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Chambers, J T; Green, M G; Medcalf, T; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Wright, A E; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Black, S N; Dann, J H; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Konstantinidis, N P; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Booth, C N; Brew, C A J; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Kelly, M S; Lehto, M H; Reeve, J; Thompson, L F; Affholderbach, K; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Grupen, Claus; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Musolino, G; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Charles, E; Elmer, P; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y; González, S; Greening, T C; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; Jin, S; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Nielsen, J; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Scott, I J; Walsh, J; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Zobernig, G

    1998-01-01

    An improved measurement of the forward-backward asymmetry in Z-> b b-bar decays is presented, based on a sample of 4.1 million hadronic Z decays collected by Aleph between 1991 and 1995. Data are a nalysed as a function of polar angle of the event axis and b purity. The event tagging efficiency and mean b-jet hemisphere charge are measured directly from data. From the measured forward-backwar d jet charge asymmetry, the b quark asymmetry at sqrt s =m_Z is determined to be: A^b_FB=0.1017+-0.0038(stat.)+-0.0032(syst.). In the context of the Standard Model this corresponds to a value of t he effective weak mixing angle of sin^2 theta_W^eff = 0.23109+-0.00096.

  8. Estimate of the uncertainty in measurement for the determination of mercury in seafood by TDA AAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Daiane Placido; Olivares, Igor R B; Queiroz, Helena Müller

    2015-01-01

    An approach for the estimate of the uncertainty in measurement considering the individual sources related to the different steps of the method under evaluation as well as the uncertainties estimated from the validation data for the determination of mercury in seafood by using thermal decomposition/amalgamation atomic absorption spectrometry (TDA AAS) is proposed. The considered method has been fully optimized and validated in an official laboratory of the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply of Brazil, in order to comply with national and international food regulations and quality assurance. The referred method has been accredited under the ISO/IEC 17025 norm since 2010. The approach of the present work in order to reach the aim of estimating of the uncertainty in measurement was based on six sources of uncertainty for mercury determination in seafood by TDA AAS, following the validation process, which were: Linear least square regression, Repeatability, Intermediate precision, Correction factor of the analytical curve, Sample mass, and Standard reference solution. Those that most influenced the uncertainty in measurement were sample weight, repeatability, intermediate precision and calibration curve. The obtained result for the estimate of uncertainty in measurement in the present work reached a value of 13.39%, which complies with the European Regulation EC 836/2011. This figure represents a very realistic estimate of the routine conditions, since it fairly encompasses the dispersion obtained from the value attributed to the sample and the value measured by the laboratory analysts. From this outcome, it is possible to infer that the validation data (based on calibration curve, recovery and precision), together with the variation on sample mass, can offer a proper estimate of uncertainty in measurement.

  9. Determination of unit nutrient loads for different land uses in wet periods through modelling and optimization for a semi-arid region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özcan, Zeynep; Kentel, Elçin; Alp, Emre

    2016-09-01

    Diffuse pollution abatement has been a challenge for decision-makers because of the intermittent nature and difficulty of identifying impacts of non-point sources. Depending on the degree of complexity of the system processes and constraints related to time, budget and human resources, variety of tools are used in diffuse pollution management. Decision-makers prefer to use rough estimates that require limited time and budget, in the preliminary assessment of diffuse pollution. The unit pollution load method which is based on the pollution generation rate per unit area and time for a given land use can aid decision-makers in the preliminary assessment of diffuse pollution. In this study, a deterministic distributed watershed model, SWAT is used together with nonlinear optimization models to estimate unit nutrient pollution loads during wet periods for different land use classes for the semi-arid Lake Mogan watershed that is dominated by agricultural activities. Extensive data sets including in-stream water quality and flowrate measurements, meteorological data, land use/land cover (LULC) map developed using remote sensing algorithms, information about agricultural activities, and soil data are used to calibrate and verify the hydraulic and water quality components of SWAT model. Results show that the unit total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) loads (0.46 kg TN/ha/yr and 0.07 kg TP/ha/yr) generated from the watershed during wet periods are very close to the minimum values of the loads specified in the literature and highly depend on the variations in rainfall. Estimated unit nutrient loads both at watershed scale and for different land use classes can be used to assess diffuse pollution control measures for similar regions with semi-arid conditions and heavy agricultural activity.

  10. Contra-expertise on determination of radioactivity of waste water and ventilation air of Urenco Nederland B.V. Period 2011; Contra-expertise op bepalingen van radioactiviteit van afvalwater en ventilatielucht van Urenco Nederland BV. Periode 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwakman, P.J.M.; Overwater, R.M.W.

    2012-08-15

    Within the framework of a monitoring programme, RIVM measures the release of radioactivity into the waste water and atmosphere of the Urenco uranium enrichment plant in Almelo, Netherlands. Measurements are carried out eight times per year. This form of counter-expertise is aimed at verifying and supporting the reliability of the analyses carried out by the Urenco plant. As a rule, the waste water contains very low levels of gross alpha and gross beta activity. The two different sets of measurements of gross alpha and gross beta in waste water are generally in agreement, as is also the case in 2011. Radioactivity levels in the ventilation air are very close to those levels expected due to the natural presence of radon in the outside atmosphere. For gross alpha 0,007 - 0,13 mBq.m{sup -3} was found and for gross beta 0,026 - 0,5 mBq.m{sup -3}. The agreement with the measurement results of Urenco was mostly good. Taking into account the natural gross-beta activity, and the ratio gross alpha / gross beta it is possible that at SP4 in two cases a small release of uranium may have occurred. The RIVM determined the gross alpha and gross beta activity in eight waste water samples and 40 samples of ventilation air. The samples were taken by Urenco at time points dispersed throughout 2011. This procedure provides the RIVM with a method for determining the release of artificial alpha emitters into the environment. The analyses were carried out on behalf of the Department of Nuclear Safety, Security and Safeguards of the Human Environment and Transport Inspectorate from the Ministry of Infrastructure and Environment [Dutch] Het RIVM controleert achtmaal per jaar de metingen van de verrijkingsfabriek Urenco te Almelo. Het gaat hierbij om lozingen van radioactiviteit in water en lucht. De contra-expertise onderbouwt de betrouwbaarheid van de analyses die Urenco uitvoert. Uit de metingen blijkt dat er in het afvalwater doorgaans een (zeer) lage totaal {alpha} en totaal {beta

  11. Evaluation of the oscillatory interference model of grid cell firing through analysis and measured period variance of some biological oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilli, Eric A; Yoshida, Motoharu; Tahvildari, Babak; Giocomo, Lisa M; Hasselmo, Michael E

    2009-11-01

    Models of the hexagonally arrayed spatial activity pattern of grid cell firing in the literature generally fall into two main categories: continuous attractor models or oscillatory interference models. Burak and Fiete (2009, PLoS Comput Biol) recently examined noise in two continuous attractor models, but did not consider oscillatory interference models in detail. Here we analyze an oscillatory interference model to examine the effects of noise on its stability and spatial firing properties. We show analytically that the square of the drift in encoded position due to noise is proportional to time and inversely proportional to the number of oscillators. We also show there is a relatively fixed breakdown point, independent of many parameters of the model, past which noise overwhelms the spatial signal. Based on this result, we show that a pair of oscillators are expected to maintain a stable grid for approximately t = 5mu(3)/(4pisigma)(2) seconds where mu is the mean period of an oscillator in seconds and sigma(2) its variance in seconds(2). We apply this criterion to recordings of individual persistent spiking neurons in postsubiculum (dorsal presubiculum) and layers III and V of entorhinal cortex, to subthreshold membrane potential oscillation recordings in layer II stellate cells of medial entorhinal cortex and to values from the literature regarding medial septum theta bursting cells. All oscillators examined have expected stability times far below those seen in experimental recordings of grid cells, suggesting the examined biological oscillators are unfit as a substrate for current implementations of oscillatory interference models. However, oscillatory interference models can tolerate small amounts of noise, suggesting the utility of circuit level effects which might reduce oscillator variability. Further implications for grid cell models are discussed.

  12. Evaluation of the oscillatory interference model of grid cell firing through analysis and measured period variance of some biological oscillators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric A Zilli

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Models of the hexagonally arrayed spatial activity pattern of grid cell firing in the literature generally fall into two main categories: continuous attractor models or oscillatory interference models. Burak and Fiete (2009, PLoS Comput Biol recently examined noise in two continuous attractor models, but did not consider oscillatory interference models in detail. Here we analyze an oscillatory interference model to examine the effects of noise on its stability and spatial firing properties. We show analytically that the square of the drift in encoded position due to noise is proportional to time and inversely proportional to the number of oscillators. We also show there is a relatively fixed breakdown point, independent of many parameters of the model, past which noise overwhelms the spatial signal. Based on this result, we show that a pair of oscillators are expected to maintain a stable grid for approximately t = 5mu(3/(4pisigma(2 seconds where mu is the mean period of an oscillator in seconds and sigma(2 its variance in seconds(2. We apply this criterion to recordings of individual persistent spiking neurons in postsubiculum (dorsal presubiculum and layers III and V of entorhinal cortex, to subthreshold membrane potential oscillation recordings in layer II stellate cells of medial entorhinal cortex and to values from the literature regarding medial septum theta bursting cells. All oscillators examined have expected stability times far below those seen in experimental recordings of grid cells, suggesting the examined biological oscillators are unfit as a substrate for current implementations of oscillatory interference models. However, oscillatory interference models can tolerate small amounts of noise, suggesting the utility of circuit level effects which might reduce oscillator variability. Further implications for grid cell models are discussed.

  13. Towards an unbiased filter routine to determine precipitation and evapotranspiration from high precision lysimeter measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Andre; Groh, Jannis; Schrader, Frederik; Durner, Wolfgang; Vereecken, Harry; Pütz, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    Weighing lysimeters are considered to be the best means for a precise measurement of water fluxes at the interface between the soil-plant system and the atmosphere. Any decrease of the net mass of the lysimeter can be interpreted as evapotranspiration (ET), any increase as precipitation (P). However, the measured raw data need to be filtered to separate real mass changes from noise. Such filter routines typically apply two steps: (i) a low pass filter, like moving average, which smooths noisy data, and (ii) a threshold filter that separates significant from insignificant mass changes. Recent developments of these filters have identified and solved some problems regarding bias in the data processing. A remaining problem is that each change in flow direction is accompanied with a systematic flow underestimation due to the threshold scheme. In this contribution, we analyze this systematic effect and show that the absolute underestimation is independent of the magnitude of a flux event. Thus, for small events, like dew or rime formation, the relative error is high and can reach the same magnitude as the flux itself. We develop a heuristic solution to the problem by introducing a so-called ;snap routine;. The routine is calibrated and tested with synthetic flux data and applied to real measurements obtained with a precision lysimeter for a 10-month period. The heuristic snap routine effectively overcomes these problems and yields an almost unbiased representation of the real signal.

  14. Quantitative head ultrasound measurements to determine thresholds for preterm neonates requiring interventional therapies following intraventricular hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Jessica; Fenster, Aaron; Salehi, Fateme; Romano, Walter; Lee, David S. C.; de Ribaupierre, Sandrine

    2016-04-01

    Dilation of the cerebral ventricles is a common condition in preterm neonates with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). This post hemorrhagic ventricle dilation (PHVD) can lead to lifelong neurological impairment through ischemic injury due to increased intracranial pressure and without treatment, can lead to death. Clinically, 2D ultrasound (US) through the fontanelles ('soft spots') of the patients are serially acquired to monitor the progression of the ventricle dilation. These images are used to determine when interventional therapies such as needle aspiration of the built up cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) ('ventricle tap', VT) might be indicated for a patient; however, quantitative measurements of the growth of the ventricles are often not performed. There is no consensus on when a neonate with PHVD should have an intervention and often interventions are performed after the potential for brain damage is quite high. Previously we have developed and validated a 3D US system to monitor the progression of ventricle volumes (VV) in IVH patients. We will describe the potential utility of quantitative 2D and 3D US to monitor and manage PHVD in neonates. Specifically, we will look to determine image-based measurement thresholds for patients who will require VT in comparison to patients with PHVD who resolve without intervention. Additionally, since many patients who have an initial VT will require subsequent interventions, we look at the potential for US to determine which PHVD patients will require additional VT after the initial one has been performed.

  15. Determination of micelle formation of ketorolac tromethamine in aqueous media by acoustic measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savaroglu, Gokhan, E-mail: gsavarog@ogu.edu.tr [Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Department of Physics, 26480 Eskisehir (Turkey); Genc, Luetfi [Anadolu University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, 26470 Eskisehir (Turkey)

    2013-01-20

    Graphical abstract: Value of critical micelle concentration (CMC) were detected by speed of sound and determined by an analytical method based on the Phillips definition of the CMC. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The aim of this study was to investigate the aggregation behaviour of KT. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Influence of KT concentration and temperature upon volumetric properties was studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CMC of KT aqueous solution was determined by using speeds of sound measurements. - Abstract: Density and speed of sound of ketorolac tromethamine in aqueous solutions have been measured as a function of concentration at atmospheric pressure and in the temperature range from 293.15 to 313.15 K. Apparent molar volumes, apparent isentropic compressibility and isentropic compressibility values have also been calculated from the experimental density and speed of sound data. Partial molar volume and partial molar isentropic compressibility are obtained from fitting procedures the data on apparent molar volume, V{sub {phi}}, and apparent isentropic compressibility, K{sub {phi}(S)}. Partial molar volume, V{sub {phi}}{sup 0}, and partial molar isentropic compressibility, k{sub {phi}(S)}{sup 0}, are informative thermodynamic characteristics that reflect solute hydration. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) was determined from speed of sound data by an analytical method based on the Phillips definition of the CMC. Using these results, it was possible to establish the solvent-drug interactions.

  16. High-throughput logPo/w determination from UHPLC measurements: Revisiting the chromatographic hydrophobicity index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subirats, Xavier; Rosés, Martí; Bosch, Elisabeth

    2016-08-05

    A fast and accurate lipophilicity determination is fundamental in the drug discovery process, as long as it is a relevant property in the absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity (ADMET) of a potential drug substance. In the present work, different models based on chromatographic retention values for a large set of compounds and some of their molecular descriptors (calculated by ACD/Labs or CODESSA programs) have been examined in order to establish reliable equations for logPo/w determination from fast chromatographic hydrophobicity index (CHI) measurements. This appears to be a very interesting high-throughput methodology for screening purposes, since CHI values can be measured by UHPLC in very short runs (<4min) and molecular descriptors can be easily computed from the structure of any compound. The selected final descriptors were Abraham's hydrogen-bond acidity (A) and excess molar refraction (E) from ACD/Labs, and hydrogen-bond acidity HDCA-1/TMSA and HOMO-LUMO polarizability descriptors from CODESSA software. The proposed equations allow an accurate determination of logPo/w with standard errors in the range of 0.4 units.

  17. Thermodynamic properties of liquid Al–Li–Zn alloys determined from electromotive force measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trybula, Marcela, E-mail: m.trybula@imim.pl; Fima, Przemysław; Gąsior, Władysław

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • Electromotive force (emf) was measured in liquid Al–Li–Zn alloys. • Partial thermodynamic properties (ΔG, ΔH, ΔS) were determined from emf data. • A set of Redlich–Kister (RK) parameters for liquid was optimized using these data. • Partial and mixing ΔG and ΔH were modelled using new and literature RK parameters. • Calculated mixing enthalpy is in good agreement with literature calorimetric data. - Abstract: Electromotive force measurements (emf) were carried out over broad temperature range for liquid ternary Al–Li–Zn alloys. Partial excess thermodynamic functions of lithium: Gibbs energy, enthalpy and entropy in liquid Al–Li–Zn alloys were determined. These data were compared to modelled values obtained using Redlich–Kister–Muggianu (RMK) equation and the set of literature binary and ternary interaction parameters. Mixing Gibbs energy and enthalpy was also computed with the new set of ternary parameters optimized in this work and confronted to available experimentally determined data.

  18. Determining the light scattering and absorption parameters from forward-directed flux measurements in cardiac tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, Anthony J; Hyatt, Christopher J; Kollisch-Singule, Michaela C; Beaumont, Jacques; Roth, Bradley J; Pertsov, Arkady M

    2017-07-01

    We describe a method to accurately measure the light scattering model parameters from forward-directed flux (FDF) measurements carried out with a fiber-optic probe (optrode). Improved determination of light scattering parameters will, in turn, permit better modeling and interpretation of optical mapping in the heart using voltage-sensitive dyes. Using our optrode-based system, we carried out high spatial resolution measurements of FDF in intact and homogenized cardiac tissue, as well as in intralipid-based tissue phantoms. The samples were illuminated with a broad collimated beam at 660 and 532 nm. Measurements were performed with a plunge fiber-optic probe (NA=0.22) at a spatial resolution of up to 10  μm. In the vicinity of the illuminated surface, the FDF consistently manifested a fast decaying exponent with a space constant comparable with the decay rate of ballistic photons. Using a Monte Carlo model, we obtained a simple empirical formula linking the rate of the fast exponent to the scattering coefficient, the anisotropy parameter g, and the numerical aperture of the probe. The estimates of scattering coefficient based on this formula were validated in tissue phantoms. Potential applications of optical fiber-based FDF measurements for the evaluation of optical parameters in turbid media are discussed.

  19. Environmental determinants and spatial mismatch of mammal diversity measures in Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Maya, J.F.; Arias-Alzate, A.; Granados-Peña, R.; Mancera-Rodriguez, N.J.; Ceballos, G.

    2016-07-01

    Including complementary diversity measures into ecological and conservation studies should improve our ability to link species assemblages to ecosystems. Recent measures such as phylogenetic and functional diversity have furthered our understanding of assemblage patterns of ecosystems and species, allowing improved inference of ecosystem function and conservation. We evaluated spatial patterns of taxonomic, phylogenetic and functional diversity of mammals in Colombia and identified their main environmental determinants, as well as interrelationships and spatial mismatch between the three measures. We found significant effects of elevation and precipitation on species richness, slope and species richness on phylogenetic diversity, and slope and phylogenetic diversity on functional diversity. We also identified a spatial mismatch of the three measures in some areas of the country: 12% of the country for species richness and 14% for phylogenetic and functional diversity. Our results highlight the importance of including species relationships within environmental drivers with biogeographical and distribution analyses and could facilitate selection of priority areas for conservation, especially when mismatch occurs between measures. (Author)

  20. Adsorption of tannic acid on polyelectrolyte monolayers determined in situ by streaming potential measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oćwieja, M; Adamczyk, Z; Morga, M

    2015-01-15

    Physicochemical characteristics of tannic acid (tannin) suspensions comprising its stability for a wide range of ionic strength and pH were thoroughly investigated using UV-vis spectrophotometry, dynamic light scattering and microelectrophoretic measurements. These studies allowed to determine the hydrodynamic diameter of the tannic acid that was 1.63 nm for the pH range 3.5-5.5. For pH above 6.0 the hydrodynamic diameter significantly decreased as a result of the tannin hydrolysis. The electrophoretic mobility measurements confirmed that tannic acid is negatively charged for these values of pH and ionic strength 10(-4)-10(-2) M. Therefore, in order to promote adsorption of tannin molecules on negatively charged mica, the poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) supporting monolayers were first adsorbed under diffusion transport conditions. The coverage of polyelectrolyte monolayers was regulated by changing bulk concentration of PAH and the adsorption time. The electrokinetic characteristics of bare and PAH-covered mica were determined using the streaming potential measurements. The zeta potential of these PAH monolayers was highly positive, equal to 46 mV for ionic strength of 10(-2) M. The kinetics of tannin adsorption on these PAH supporting monolayers was evaluated by the in situ the streaming potential measurements. The zeta potential of PAH monolayers abruptly decreases with the adsorption of tannin molecules that was quantitatively interpreted in terms of the three-dimensional electrokinetic model. The acid-base characteristics of tannin monolayers were acquired via the streaming potential measurements for a broad range of pH. The obtained results indicate that it is possible to control adsorption of tannin on positively charged surfaces in order to designed new multilayer structures of desirable electrokinetic properties and stability.