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Sample records for detecting lymphatic drainage

  1. Correlation between theoretical anatomical patterns of lymphatic drainage and lymphoscintigraphy findings during sentinel node detection in head and neck melanomas

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    Vidal, Monica; Ruiz, Diana Milena [Hospital Clinic de Barcelona, Nuclear Medicine Department, Barcelona (Spain); Vidal-Sicart, Sergi; Paredes, Pilar; Pons, Francesca [Hospital Clinic de Barcelona, Nuclear Medicine Department, Barcelona (Spain); Institut d' Investigacions Biomediques Agusti Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona (Spain); Torres, Ferran [Hospital Clinic Barcelona, Statistical of Biostatistics and Data Management Core Facility, IDIBAPS, Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Biostatistics Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-04-15

    In the diagnosis of head and neck melanoma, lymphatic drainage is complex and highly variable. As regional lymph node metastasis is one of the most important prognostic factors, lymphoscintigraphy can help map individual drainage patterns. The aim of this study was to compare the results of lymphoscintigraphy and sentinel lymph node (SLN) detection with theoretical anatomical patterns of lymphatic drainage based on the location of the primary tumour lesion in patients with head and neck melanoma. We also determined the percentage of discrepancies between our lymphoscintigraphy and the theoretical location of nodal drainage predicted by a large lymphoscintigraphic database, in order to explain recurrence and false-negative SLN biopsies. In this retrospective study of 152 patients with head and neck melanoma, the locations of the SLNs on lymphoscintigraphy and detected intraoperatively were compared with the lymphatic drainage predicted by on-line software based on a large melanoma database. All patients showed lymphatic drainage and in all patients at least one SLN was identified by lymphoscintigraphy. Of the 152 patients, 4 had a primary lesion in areas that were not described in the Sydney Melanoma Unit database, so agreement could only be evaluated in 148 patients. Agreement between lymphoscintigraphic findings and the theoretical lymphatic drainage predicted by the software was completely concordant in 119 of the 148 patients (80.4 %, 95 % CI 73.3 - 86 %). However, this concordance was partial (some concordant nodes and others not) in 18 patients (12.2 %, 95 % CI 7.8 - 18.4 %). Discordance was complete in 11 patients (7.4 %, 95 % CI 4.2 - 12.8 %). In melanoma of the head and neck there is a high correlation between lymphatic drainage found by lymphoscintigraphy and the predicted drainage pattern and basins provided by a large reference database. Due to unpredictable drainage, preoperative lymphoscintigraphy is essential to accurately detect the SLNs in head and

  2. Spatio-temporal changes of lymphatic contractility and drainage patterns following lymphadenectomy in mice.

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    Sunkuk Kwon

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the redirection of lymphatic drainage post-lymphadenectomy using non-invasive near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF imaging, and to subsequently assess impact on metastasis. BACKGROUND: Cancer-acquired lymphedema arises from dysfunctional fluid transport after lymphadenectomy performed for staging and to disrupt drainage pathways for regional control of disease. However, little is known about the normal regenerative processes of the lymphatics in response to lymphadenectomy and how these responses can be accelerated, delayed, or can impact metastasis. METHODS: Changes in lymphatic "pumping" function and drainage patterns were non-invasively and longitudinally imaged using NIRF lymphatic imaging after popliteal lymphadenectomy in mice. In a cohort of mice, B16F10 melanoma was inoculated on the dorsal aspect of the paw 27 days after lymphadenectomy to assess how drainage patterns affect metastasis. RESULTS: NIRF imaging demonstrates that, although lymphatic function and drainage patterns change significantly in early response to popliteal lymph node (PLN removal in mice, these changes are transient and regress dramatically due to a high regenerative capacity of the lymphatics and co-opting of collateral lymphatic pathways around the site of obstruction. Metastases followed the pattern of collateral pathways and could be detected proximal to the site of lymphadenectomy. CONCLUSIONS: Both lymphatic vessel regeneration and co-opting of contralateral vessels occur following lymphadenectomy, with contractile function restored within 13 days, providing a basis for preclinical and clinical investigations to hasten lymphatic repair and restore contractile lymphatic function after surgery to prevent cancer-acquired lymphedema. Patterns of cancer metastasis after lymphadenectomy were altered, consistent with patterns of re-directed lymphatic drainage.

  3. Increased nitric oxide production in lymphatic endothelial cells causes impairment of lymphatic drainage in cirrhotic rats.

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    Ribera, Jordi; Pauta, Montse; Melgar-Lesmes, Pedro; Tugues, Sònia; Fernández-Varo, Guillermo; Held, Kara F; Soria, Guadalupe; Tudela, Raúl; Planas, Anna M; Fernández-Hernando, Carlos; Arroyo, Vicente; Jiménez, Wladimiro; Morales-Ruiz, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    The lymphatic network plays a major role in maintaining tissue fluid homoeostasis. Therefore several pathological conditions associated with oedema formation result in deficient lymphatic function. However, the role of the lymphatic system in the pathogenesis of ascites and oedema formation in cirrhosis has not been fully clarified. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the inability of the lymphatic system to drain tissue exudate contributes to the oedema observed in cirrhosis. Cirrhosis was induced in rats by CCl(4) inhalation. Lymphatic drainage was evaluated using fluorescent lymphangiography. Expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) was measured in primary lymphatic endothelial cells (LyECs). Inhibition of eNOS activity in cirrhotic rats with ascites (CH) was carried out by L-N(G)-methyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) treatment (0.5 mg/kg/day). The (CH) rats had impaired lymphatic drainage in the splanchnic and peripheral regions compared with the control (CT) rats. LyECs isolated from the CH rats showed a significant increase in eNOS and nitric oxide (NO) production. In addition, the lymphatic vessels of the CH rats showed a significant reduction in smooth muscle cell (SMC) coverage compared with the CT rats. CH rats treated with L-NMMA for 7 days showed a significant improvement in lymphatic drainage and a significant reduction in ascites volume, which were associated with increased plasma volume. This beneficial effect of L-NMMA inhibition was also associated with a significant increase in lymphatic SMC coverage. The upregulation of eNOS in the LyECs of CH rats causes long-term lymphatic remodelling, which is characterised by a loss of SMC lymphatic coverage. The amelioration of this lymphatic abnormality by chronic eNOS inhibition results in improved lymphatic drainage and reduced ascites.

  4. Quantum dots trace lymphatic drainage from the mouse eye

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    Tam, Alex L C; Gupta, Neeru; Zhang Zhexue; Yuecel, Yeni H, E-mail: yucely@smh.ca [Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences, University of Toronto, M5T 2S8 (Canada)

    2011-10-21

    Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness in the world, often associated with elevated eye pressure. Currently, all glaucoma treatments aim to lower eye pressure by improving fluid exit from the eye. We recently reported the presence of lymphatics in the human eye. The lymphatic circulation is known to drain fluid from organ tissues and, as such, lymphatics may also play a role in draining fluid from the eye. We investigated whether lymphatic drainage from the eye is present in mice by visualizing the trajectory of quantum dots once injected into the eye. Whole-body hyperspectral fluorescence imaging was performed in 17 live mice. In vivo imaging was conducted prior to injection, and 5, 20, 40 and 70 min, and 2, 6 and 24 h after injection. A quantum dot signal was observed in the left neck region at 6 h after tracer injection into the eye. Examination of immunofluorescence-labelled sections using confocal microscopy showed the presence of a quantum dot signal in the left submandibular lymph node. This is the first direct evidence of lymphatic drainage from the mouse eye. The use of quantum dots to image this lymphatic pathway in vivo is a novel tool to stimulate new treatments to reduce eye pressure and prevent blindness from glaucoma.

  5. Reduced adipose tissue lymphatic drainage of macromolecules in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arngrim, N; Simonsen, L; Holst, Jens Juul

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate subcutaneous adipose tissue lymphatic drainage (ATLD) of macromolecules in lean and obese subjects and, furthermore, to evaluate whether ATLD may change in parallel with adipose tissue blood flow. Lean and obese male subjects were studied before and after ...... online publication, 3 July 2012; doi:10.1038/ijo.2012.98....

  6. Understanding Lymphatic Drainage Pathways of the Ovaries to Predict Sites for Sentinel Nodes in Ovarian Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleppe, M.; Kraima, A.C.; Kruitwagen, R.F.P.M.; Van Gorp, T.; Smit, N.N.; Van Munsteren, J.C.; De Ruiter, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In ovarian cancer, detection of sentinel nodes is an upcoming procedure. Perioperative determination of the patient’s sentinel node(s) might prevent a radical lymphadenectomy and associated morbidity. It is essential to understand the lymphatic drainage pathways of the ovaries, which are

  7. Aberrant mural cell recruitment to lymphatic vessels and impaired lymphatic drainage in a murine model of pulmonary fibrosis.

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    Meinecke, Anna-Katharina; Nagy, Nadine; Lago, Gabriela D'Amico; Kirmse, Santina; Klose, Ralph; Schrödter, Katrin; Zimmermann, Annika; Helfrich, Iris; Rundqvist, Helene; Theegarten, Dirk; Anhenn, Olaf; Orian-Rousseau, Véronique; Johnson, Randall S; Alitalo, Kari; Fischer, Jens W; Fandrey, Joachim; Stockmann, Christian

    2012-06-14

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive disease with unknown etiology that is characterized by extensive remodeling of the lung parenchyma, ultimately resulting in respiratory failure. Lymphatic vessels have been implicated with the development of pulmonary fibrosis, but the role of the lymphatic vasculature in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis remains enigmatic. Here we show in a murine model of pulmonary fibrosis that lymphatic vessels exhibit ectopic mural coverage and that this occurs early during the disease. The abnormal lymphatic vascular patterning in fibrotic lungs was driven by expression of platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGF-B) in lymphatic endothelial cells and signaling through platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR)-β in associated mural cells. Because of impaired lymphatic drainage, aberrant mural cell coverage fostered the accumulation of fibrogenic molecules and the attraction of fibroblasts to the perilymphatic space. Pharmacologic inhibition of the PDGF-B/PDGFR-β signaling axis disrupted the association of mural cells and lymphatic vessels, improved lymphatic drainage of the lung, and prevented the attraction of fibroblasts to the perilymphatic space. Our results implicate aberrant mural cell recruitment to lymphatic vessels in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis and that the drainage capacity of pulmonary lymphatics is a critical mediator of fibroproliferative changes.

  8. 69. Impact of low frequency ultrasound and lymphatic drainage on triglycerides in chronic atherosclerotic patients

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    M. Badawy

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of low frequency ultrasound plus lymphatic drainage on Blood Triglycerides in Cardiac patients (chronic coronary atherosclerosis patients, with high triglycerides and fat mass body composition). Low frequency ultrasound plus lymphatic drainage as a technique could be used as an alternative to conventional exercise and alternative to many obesity surgery as Liposuction surgery and thus provide an opportunity to improve the quality of obese cardi...

  9. Manual lymphatic drainage for lymphedema following breast cancer treatment

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    Ezzo, Jeanette; Manheimer, Eric; McNeely, Margaret L; Howell, Doris M; Weiss, Robert; Johansson, Karin I; Bao, Ting; Bily, Linda; Tuppo, Catherine M; Williams, Anne F; Karadibak, Didem

    2016-01-01

    Background More than one in five patients who undergo treatment for breast cancer will develop breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL). BCRL can occur as a result of breast cancer surgery and/or radiation therapy. BCRL can negatively impact comfort, function, and quality of life (QoL). Manual lymphatic drainage (MLD), a type of hands-on therapy, is frequently used for BCRL and often as part of complex decongestive therapy (CDT). CDT is a fourfold conservative treatment which includes MLD, compression therapy (consisting of compression bandages, compression sleeves, or other types of compression garments), skin care, and lymph-reducing exercises (LREs). Phase 1 of CDT is to reduce swelling; Phase 2 is to maintain the reduced swelling. Objectives To assess the efficacy and safety of MLD in treating BCRL. Search methods We searched Medline, EMBASE, CENTRAL, WHO ICTRP (World Health Organization’s International Clinical Trial Registry Platform), and Cochrane Breast Cancer Group’s Specialised Register from root to 24 May 2013. No language restrictions were applied. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs of women with BCRL. The intervention was MLD. The primary outcomes were (1) volumetric changes, (2) adverse events. Secondary outcomes were (1) function, (2) subjective sensations, (3) QoL, (4) cost of care. Data collection and analysis We collected data on three volumetric outcomes. (1) LE (lymphedema) volume was defined as the amount of excess fluid left in the arm after treatment, calculated as volume in mL of affected arm post-treatment minus unaffected arm post-treatment. (2) Volume reduction was defined as the amount of fluid reduction in mL from before to after treatment calculated as the pretreatment LE volume of the affected arm minus the post-treatment LE volume of the affected arm. (3) Per cent reduction was defined as the proportion of fluid reduced relative to the baseline excess volume, calculated as volume

  10. Effect of Physical Methods of Lymphatic Drainage on Postexercise Recovery of Mixed Martial Arts Athletes.

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    Zebrowska, Aleksandra; Trybulski, Robert; Roczniok, Robert; Marcol, Wieslaw

    2017-08-16

    Physical methods are reported to be important for accelerating skeletal muscle regeneration, decreasing muscle soreness, and shortening of the recovery time. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of the physical methods of lymphatic drainage (PMLD) such as manual lymphatic drainage (MLD), the Bodyflow (BF) therapy, and lymphatic drainage by deep oscillation (DO) on postexercise regeneration of the forearm muscles of mixed martial arts (MMA) athletes. Eighty MMA athletes aged 27.5 ± 6.4 years were allocated to 4 groups: MLD, the BF device, DO therapy, and the control group. Blood flow velocity in the cephalic vein was measured with the ultrasound Doppler velocity meter. Maximal strength of the forearm muscles (Fmax), muscle tissue tension, pain threshold, blood lactate concentration (LA), and activity of creatine kinase were measured in all groups at rest, after the muscle fatigue test (post-ex) and then 20 minutes, 24, and 48 hours after the application of PMLD. The muscle fatigue test reduced Fmax in all subjects, but in the groups receiving MLD, DO, and BF significantly higher Fmax was observed at recovery compared with post-ex values. The application of MDL reduced the postexercise blood LA and postexercise muscle tension. The lymphatic drainage methods, whether manual or using electro-stimulation and DO, improve postexercise regeneration of the forearm muscles of MMA athletes. The methods can be an important element of therapeutic management focused on optimizing training effects and reducing the risk of injuries of the combat sports athletes.

  11. Longitudinal evaluation of manual lymphatic drainage for the treatment of gynoid lipodystrophy*

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    Schonvvetter, Bianca; Soares, Juliana Laudicéia Marques; Bagatin, Ediléia

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The gynoidlypodystrophy, known as cellulitis or cellulite, refers to a condition that gives the skin an undulating and uneven appearance, affecting 80-90% of women after puberty. OBJECTIVES to investigate the efficacy and safety of manual lymphatic drainage for cellulite management. METHODS this was an open, prospective, intervention study including 20 women aged from 20 to 40 years. Fourteen sessions of manual lymphatic drainage were performed once a week on lower limbs and buttocks. RESULTS Fifteen women completed the study. A significant improvement on quality of life was observed (p=0.018). A significant reduction (p=0.023), estimated at 0.3±0.8 cm, in hip circumference was found, but no difference was found in thighs circumference (p>0.05). A significant reduction elastic recuperation of skin on buttocks, which means skin elasticity worsening, was observed. All measures obtained by ultrasound images showed no changes (p>0.05). CONCLUSION manual lymphatic drainage was safe but not effective as an isolated approach for cellulite management. Further randomized, controlled or comparative studies about manual lymphatic drainage for cellulite control, as unique or combined therapeutic modality, are necessary. PMID:25184909

  12. Mechanisms of edema formation in myxedema--increased protein extravasation and relatively slow lymphatic drainage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Hansen, J M; Nielsen, S L;

    1979-01-01

    of generalized edema (P less than 0.05). All variables returned to normal during l-thyroxine treatment. The extravascular accumulation of albumin, and presumably of all other plasma proteins, is important in the generalized edema typically found in myxedema. Inadequate lymphatic drainage may also explain...

  13. Lymphatic drainage from the treated versus untreated prostate: feasibility of sentinel node biopsy in recurrent cancer

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    Vermeeren, Lenka; Valdes Olmos, Renato A. [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Meinhardt, Willem; Poel, Henk G. van der [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Urology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-11-15

    The goal of this study was to establish the feasibility of sentinel node biopsy in patients with recurrent prostate cancer after initial local treatment and to compare lymphatic drainage patterns of the treated versus untreated prostate. In ten patients with a proven local recurrence after initial local treatment (four external beam radiation, four brachytherapy and two high-intensity focused ultrasound), the radiotracer ({sup 99m}Tc-nanocolloid, GE Healthcare) was injected into the prostate. Planar images after 15 min and 2 h were followed by SPECT/CT (Symbia T, Siemens) to visualize lymphatic drainage. Laparoscopic sentinel lymphadenectomy was assisted by a gamma probe (Europrobe, EuroMedical Instruments) and a portable gamma camera (Sentinella, S102, Oncovision). Sentinel node identification and lymphatic drainage patterns were compared to a consecutive series of 70 untreated prostate carcinoma patients from our institute. Lymphatic drainage was visualized in all treated patients, with a median of 3.5 sentinel nodes per patient. Most sentinel nodes were localized in the pelvic area, although the percentage of patients with a sentinel node outside the pelvic para-iliac region (para-aortic, presacral, inguinal or near the ventral abdominal wall) was high compared to the untreated patients (80 versus 34%, p = 0.01). In patients with recurrent prostate cancer, 95% of the sentinel nodes could be harvested and half of the patients had at least one positive sentinel node on pathological examination. Lymphatic mapping of the treated prostate appears feasible, although sentinel nodes are more frequently found in an aberrant location. Larger trials are needed to assess the sensitivity and therapeutic value of lymphatic mapping in recurrent prostate cancer. (orig.)

  14. Lymphatic drainage of the liver and its implications in the management of colorectal cancer liver metastases.

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    Lupinacci, Renato Micelli; Paye, François; Coelho, Fabricio Ferreira; Kruger, Jaime Arthur Pirolla; Herman, Paulo

    2014-12-01

    The liver is the most common site of distant metastases in patients with colorectal cancer. Surgery represents the mainstream for curative treatment of colorectal cancer liver metastases (CRCLM) with long-term survival up to 58 and 36 % at 5 and 10 years, respectively. Despite advances on diagnosis, staging and surgical strategies, 60-70 % of patients will develop recurrence of the disease even after R0 resection of CRCLM. Tumor staging, prognosis, and therapeutic approaches for cancer are most often based on the extent of involvement of regional lymph nodes (LNs) and, to a lesser extent, on the invasion of regional lymphatic vessels draining the primary tumor. For CRCLM, the presence of intra hepatic lymphatic and blood vascular dissemination has been associated with an increased risk of intra hepatic recurrence, poorer disease-free and overall survival after liver resection. Also, several studies have reviewed the role of surgery in the patient with concomitant CRCLM and liver pedicle LN metastasis. Although pedicle LN involvement is related to worst survival rates, it does not differentiate patients that will relapse from those that will not. This review aims to briefly describe the anatomy of the liver's lymphatic drainage, the incidence of intrahepatic lymphatic invasion and hilar lymph node involvement, as well as their clinical impact in CRCLM. A better understanding of the role of liver lymphatic metastasis might, in the near future, impact the strategy of systemic therapies after liver resection as for primary colorectal tumors.

  15. Manual lymphatic drainage therapy in patients with breast cancer related lymphoedema

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    Martínez Helena

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lymphoedema is a common and troublesome condition that develops following breast cancer treatment. The aim of this study is to analyze the effectiveness of Manual Lymphatic Drainage in the treatment of postmastectomy lymphoedema in order to reduce the volume of lymphoedema and evaluate the improvement of the concomitant symptomatology. Methods A randomized, controlled clinical trial in 58 women with post-mastectomy lymphoedema. The control group includes 29 patients with standard treatment (skin care, exercise and compression measures, bandages for one month and, subsequently, compression garnments. The experimental group includes 29 patients with standard treatment plus Manual Lymphatic Drainage. The therapy will be administered daily for four weeks and the patient's condition will be assessed one, three and six months after treatment. The primary outcome parameter is volume reduction of the affected arm after treatment, expressed as a percentage. Secondary outcome parameters include: duration of lymphoedema reduction and improvement of the concomitant symptomatology (degree of pain, sensation of swelling and functional limitation in the affected extremity, subjective feeling of being physically less atractive and less feminine, difficulty looking at oneself naked and dissatisfaction with the corporal image. Discussion The results of this study will provide information on the effectiveness of Manual Lymphatic Drainage and its impact on the quality of life and physical limitations of these patients. Trial registration ClinicalTrials (NCT: NCT01152099

  16. Variations in lung lymphatic drainage into the inferior tracheobronchial lymph nodes junction: Applications in lung cancer.

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    Ndiaye, Assane; Dimarino, Vincent; Ndiaye, Aïnina; Gaye, Magaye; Ba, Papa Salmane; Nazarian, Serge

    2016-10-01

    The group of inferior tracheobronchial lymph nodes (ITB) is a lymphatic junction through which the lymph from both lungs is carried. Lymphatic activity in this area can be used to assess the lymphatic spreading of lung cancers. Our aim was to quantify lymph drainage from the lung segments towards the ITB group and to determine the direction of the lymph flow into other mediastinal and abdominal lymph nodes. We injected dye directly into the subpleural lymphatic vessels in 100 lung segments of 25 fresh cadaver subjects; the cadavers were then dissected. Thirty-eight segments (38%) drained into the ITB group in 18 subjects. The drainage into the ITB group involved 15.6% of the upper lobe segments, 87.5% of the middle lobe segments, and 70.6% of the lower lobe segments in the right lung. On the left, 6.9% of the upper lobe segments and 83.3% of the lower lobe segments were drained into the ITB group. For three subjects, the dye did not pass beyond the ITB group. The efferent vessels of the ITB group drained towards the right paratracheal and tracheoesophageal chains in 12 subjects and through the left ascending recurrent chain in five subjects. For six subjects, the efferent channels reached the abdominal lymph nodes. A contralateral drainage involved 14 segments (36%). The size and variety of the segments that drain into the ITB group, coupled with the efferent contralateral mediastinal and abdominal pathways, account for the severity of metastasis to this area. Clin. Anat. 29:955-962, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Manual lymphatic drainage and therapeutic ultrasound in liposuction and lipoabdominoplasty post-operative period

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    Igor F. B. Masson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physiotherapy in the plastic surgery post-operative (PO is essential to provide means for an adequate and fast recovery as it restores function through the use of physiotherapeutic procedures. Aim: The aim of the following study is to verify the effects of the association between the manual lymphatic drainage and the therapeutic ultrasound on pain, oedema and the tissue fibrosis in liposuction and lipoabdominoplasty PO. Design: This is a clinical trial prospective. Materials and Methods: Eighteen women aged between 18 and 60 years participated in this study, in the late PO period following lipoabdominoplasty or liposuction in the abdomen, flanks and lower trunk, which showed tissue fibrosis of the flanks and abdomen regions. They were divided into two groups: Liposuction group and lipoabdominoplasty group. A total of twelve sessions of therapeutic ultrasound followed by the manual lymphatic drainage were performed. The patients were assessed with regard to pain, oedema and tissue fibrosis in different moments: Initial assessment, during assessment and final assessment through the application of the protocol of evaluation of cysts fibrosis levels. Statistical Analysis: The test of equality for two proportions and the confidence interval test for mean to evaluate the distribution of variables. The significance level adopted for statistical tests was 5% (P < 0.05. Results: There was a statistically significant reduction of pain, swelling and tissue fibrosis in both groups. Conclusion: the association between manual lymphatic drainage and the therapeutic ultrasound reduced the swelling and the tissue fibrosis and made pain disappear in liposuction and lipoabdominoplasty PO period.

  18. Study Regarding the Effectiveness of Manual Lymphatic Drainage in the Case of Patients with Breast Cancer that Present Lymphedema

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    Alexandru MIOC

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Lymphedema is defined as a persistent increase of tissue volume caused by the blocked or absent lymphatic drainage. The purpose of this study is to analyse the effectiveness of lymphatic drainage in the treatment of lymphedema after a mastectomy, with the aim of reducing the volume of the lymphedema and improving overall symptomatology, as well as providing information regarding the impact of this treatment on quality-of-life and the physical limitations of these patients. With these objectives in mind, a series of articles evaluating the effectiveness of manual lymphatic drainage in the case of patients with breast cancer and lymphedema have been studied. The parameters under observation were: duration of lymphedema reduction and improved symptomatology (pain, a feeling of swelling of the upper limb, functional limitation, and patient dissatisfaction towards their body image. Following this analysis, one can conclude that the association of manual lymphatic drainage to physical exercise and physiotherapy has produced changes in the volume of the limb affected by the lymphedema; however, its isolated use has not resulted in significant changes.

  19. EFFECTS OF MANUAL LYMPHATIC DRAINAGE THROUGH LEDUC TECHNIQUES IN CELLULITE TREATMENT: CASE STUDY

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    Nathália de Souza Soares

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The injury to the microcirculation body has several harmful effects on the body, where one is known as cellulite. This event occurs especially due to the accumulation of macromolecules not drained by lymphatic vessels. The objective this study was apply the technique of Leduc and wont verify the actual technique of the period of ten sessions with regard to cellulite and swelling of the reference body. The sample was selected from an individual female, aged between 30 and 45 years, thereby swelling the cellulite by signing a written informed consent. At the end of 10 sessions a reassessment was done following the form of initial assessment, but only with respect to the perimeter and under pathological changes. As the body perimetry results were very satisfactory (p = 0,005; Paired Student's t-test.. As for the cellulite, there was remission of disease in the framework of the thighs, from grade 1 to 0. However, the fibro gelóide edema found in culotes remained in grade 2. Was evidenced that manual lymphatic drainage through the technique of Leduc is effective as proposed. But it appears that this technique should be linked to a number of changes in habits of life to be reached its maximum result.

  20. EFFECTS OF MANUAL LYMPHATIC DRAINAGE THROUGH LEDUC TECHNIQUES IN CELLULITE TREATMENT: CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathália de Souza Soares

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The injury to the microcirculation body has several harmful effects on the body, where one is known as cellulite. This event occurs especially due to the accumulation of macromolecules not drained by lymphatic vessels. The objective this study was apply the technique of Leduc and wont verify the actual technique of the period of ten sessions with regard to cellulite and swelling of the reference body. The sample was selected from an individual female, aged between 30 and 45 years, thereby swelling the cellulite by signing a written informed consent. At the end of 10 sessions a reassessment was done following the form of initial assessment, but only with respect to the perimeter and under pathological changes. As the body perimetry results were very satisfactory (p = 0,005; Paired Student's t-test.. As for the cellulite, there was remission of disease in the framework of the thighs, from Técnica de Leduc no tratamento do fibro edema gelóide grade 1 to 0. However, the fibro gelóide edema found in culotes remained in grade 2. Was evidenced that manual lymphatic drainage through the technique of Leduc is effective as proposed. But it appears that this technique should be linked to a number of changes in habits of life to be reached its maximum result.

  1. A novel finding of sentinel lymphatic channels in early stage breast cancer patients: which may influence detection rate and false-negative rate of sentinel lymph node biopsy.

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    Minghai Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The exact lymphatic drainage pattern of the breast hasn't been explained clearly. The aim of this study was to investigate the sentinel lymphatic channels (SLCs in the cancerous breast. Whether the type of SLCs influenced the detection rate and false-negative rate of SLNB was also assessed. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mimic SLNB was performed in 110 early-stage breast cancer patients with subareolar injection of blue methylene dye intraoperatively. Postoperatively, 110 specimens of modified radical mastectomy were examined for all blue SLCs after additional injection of methylene dye in peritumoral parenchyma. Interestingly, three types of SLCs, including superficial sentinel lymphatic channel (SSLC, deep sentinel lymphatic channel (DSLC, and penetrating sentinel lymphatic channel (PSLC were found in 107 patients. Six lymphatic drainage patterns based on the three types of SLCs were observed in these 107 patients. The proportions of the drainage pattern SSLC, DSLC, PSLC, SSLC+DSLC, SSLC+PSLC, and DSLC+PSLC in the breast were 43%, 0.9%, 15.9%, 33.6%, 3.7% and 2.8%, respectively. The lymphatic drainage pattern in the breast was a significant risk factor for unsuccessful identification of sentinel lymph nodes (P<0.001 and false-negatives in SLNB (P = 0.034 with the subareolar injection technique. CONCLUSIONS: Three kinds of SLCs are the basis of six lymphatic drainage patterns from the breast to the axilla. The type of SLCs is the factor influencing the detection rate and false-negative rate of SLNB. These findings suggest the optimal injection technique of the combination of superficial and deep injection in SLNB procedures. Future clinical studies are needed to confirm our novel findings.

  2. The effectiveness of the lymphatic drainage massage in treating the inflammatory response in cervical spondylosis - case study

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    Doina MÂRZA-DĂNILĂ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available My interest for this problem coincided with a patient's request to do something for her. The patient presented a cervical osteoarthritis, with recurrences of cervicalgia, together with inflammatory symptoms: heat, edema, diminished functionality, tissue congestion, pain. After taking anti-inflammatory drugs that were not tolerated by her digestive system, and analgesics that were making her sleepy, the patient gave up her treatment, interrupted her sessions of classical massage, reeducation, physiotherapy, which increased her pain even more, and she got used to the idea that she will always live in pain. A new episode of cervicalgia determined her to ask for help somewhere else. This episode was treated only through lymphatic drainage massage, which really eased her pain, and allowed her to start again the physical therapy, this time with greater ease. Through the absorption and appeal maneuvers, the lymphatic drainage massage allowed the capture of liquids, reestablishing the tissue physiological balance, and contributed to the reconstruction of the damaged tissue, to reducing pain, and to giving back the freedom of movement in the joints, thus allowing a gradual re-adaptation of the cervical spine to movement. In conclusion, the lymphatic drainage massage can be applied as a conservatory, preparatory, and complementary treatment with the therapies that are usually used in the case of cervicalgia.

  3. Pattern of lymph node metastases of squamous cell esophageal cancer based on the anatomical lymphatic drainage system: efficacy of lymph node dissection according to tumor location

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Knowing the anatomical lymphatic drainage of the esophagus is crucial to understanding the dissemination pattern of esophageal tumor. During the embryonal growth, the middle and lower part of the esophagus stretches as the lymphatic networks develop in the submucosal layer. The abundant submucosal lymphatics drain in a longitudinal fashion directly to their proximal and distal ends. The lymphatic route from the proximal esophagus through recurrent nerve nodes to supraclavicular nodes are a component of the mesentery of the proximal esophagus. The lower esophagus mostly drains its lymph into paracardial nodes related to celiac nodes through the mesentery of the distal esophagus. Lymphatic routes to mid and lower paraesophageal nodes usually originate from the intermuscular area of the muscularis propria. The lymphatic communication between the submucosa and intermuscular area is limited. The anatomical concept was confirmed clinically by a large series of single institution and the nationwide registry in Japan. The clinical data for the incidence of involved nodes verified the anatomical observations that long longitudinal extension of lymphatic drainage in the submucosa connected to the upper mediastinum lymphatics and paracardial lymphatics. The extent of dissection should be not tailored according to the anatomical distance from the tumor but according to the incidences of metastasis of each area, those were differed by tumor location. The areas for node dissection should be modified according to the tumor location. Although in patients with tumor limited to within the submucosal layer, even with tumors located in the mid- and lower esophagus, lymphatic metastasis was frequent in the upper mediastinum and perigastric area via the abundant submucosal lymphatics in a longitudinal fashion. When tumor invades or penetrates the muscle layer, the incidence of paraesophageal lymph node metastasis in the middle and lower mediastinum increases. PMID:28815068

  4. Intraocular Pressure-Lowering Effect of Latanoprost Is Hampered by Defective Cervical Lymphatic Drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Kook; Na, Kyeong Ik; Jeoung, Jin Wook; Park, Ki Ho

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate whether defects in cervical lymphatic drainage influence the intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering effect of latanoprost in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) who have undergone unilateral radical neck dissection (uRND). Methods We enrolled (1) bilateral POAG patients who had started (bilateral) latanoprost (0.005%) monotherapy prior to their uRND and (2) treatment-naïve, bilateral glaucoma suspects (GSs) who had undergone the same surgery. We compared the eyes ipsilateral to the uRND with their fellow eyes in terms of the changes in IOP between the baseline (prior to the uRND) and the follow-up visits (1, 3, and 6 months after the uRND). Results The study involved 22 eyes of 11 POAG patients and 14 eyes of 7 GSs. In the POAG patients, IOP had increased significantly after surgery in the eyes ipsilateral to the uRND (from 14.7±1.4mmHg to 17.1±2.2mmHg; P = 0.007). Interestingly, in the eyes contralateral to the uRND, IOP had not changed significantly after surgery (from 14.2±1.8mmHg to 14.4±2.0mmHg; P = 0.826). In GSs, the eyes ipsilateral to the uRND did not differ significantly from their fellow eyes in terms of post-operative IOP change (ipsilateral value: 0.3±0.5mmHg, fellow eyes: -0.1±0.7mmHg; P = 0.242). Conclusion In the POAG patients, IOP had increased significantly in the eyes ipsilateral to the uRND. However, it had not changed significantly in the eyes contralateral to the surgery or in the eyes of the GSs. These findings suggest that, latanoprost works, at least in part, by enhancing outflow from the aqueous humor via the uveolymphatic pathway. PMID:28081184

  5. Olfactory route for cerebrospinal fluid drainage into the cervical lymphatic system in a rabbit experimental model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haisheng Liu; Zhili Ni; Yetao Chen; Dong Wang; Yan Qi; Qiuhang Zhang; Shijie Wang

    2012-01-01

    The present study analyzed the anatomical association between intracranial subarachnoid space and the cervical lymphatic system. X-ray contrast medium and Microfil(R) (Microfil compounds fill and opacify microvascular and other spaces of non-surviving animals and post-mortem tissue under physiological injection pressure) were injected into the cisterna magna of the rabbit, and perineural routes of cerebrospinal fluid outflow into the lymphatic system were visualized. Under a surgical operating microscope, Microfil was found within the subarachnoid space and along the olfactory nerves. At the nasal mucosa, a lymphatic network was identified near the olfactory nerves, which crossed the nasopharyngeal region and finally emptied into the superficial and deep cervical lymph nodes. Under a light microscope, Microfil was visible around the olfactory nerves and within lymphatic vessels. These results suggested that cerebrospinal fluid drained from the subarachnoid space along the olfactory nerves to nasal lymphatic vessels, which in turn, emptied into the cervical lymph nodes. This anatomical route, therefore, allowed connection between the central nervous system and the lymphatic system.

  6. Pulmonary lymphatic drainage to the mediastinum based on computed tomographic observations of the primary complex of pulmonary histoplasmosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Koji; Sasaki, Tomoaki; Nabaa, Basim; Aburano, Tamio (Department of Radiology, Asahikawa Medical University and Hospital, Asahikawa (Japan)), Email: taka1019@asahikawa-med.ac.jp; Beek, Edwin Jr. von (Clinical Research Imaging Centre, Queen' s Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)); Stanford, William (Department of Radiology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City (United States))

    2012-03-15

    Background. In the primary infection of pulmonary histoplasmosis, pulmonary lesions are commonly solitary and associated with hilar and/or mediastinal nodal diseases, which spontaneously resolve, resulting in calcifications in individuals with normal cellular immunity. Purpose. To assess the lymphatic drainage to the mediastinum from each pulmonary segment and lobe using computed tomographic (CT) observations of a calcified primary complex pulmonary histoplasmosis and predict which patients with N2 disease that would benefit from surgery. Material and Methods. We collected 585 CT studies of patients with primary complex histoplasmosis consisting of solitary calcified pulmonary lesions and calcified hilar and/or mediastinal nodal disease. Using the N stage criteria of non-small cell lung cancer, we assessed the distribution of the involved hilar and mediastinal nodes depending on the pulmonary segment of the lesion, with a focus on skip involvement. We also assessed the correlation between the incidence of N1and skip N2 involvement and the mean number of involved mediastinal nodal stations in the non-skip N2 and skip N2 groups. Results. Skip involvement was common in the apical segment (9/45, 20.0%), posterior segment (7/31, 22.6%), and mediolbasal segment (13/20, 65.0%) in the right lung, and in the apicoposterior segment (7/55, 12.7%), lateral basal segment (6/26, 23.1%), and posterobasal segment (16/47, 34.0%) in the left lung. The incidence of skip involvement in each segment showed a significant inverse correlation with that of N1 involvement (r = -0.51, P <0.05) in both lungs. The mean number of involved mediastinal nodal stations in the non-skip N2 and skip N2 groups in all segments of both lungs were 1.4 (434/301) and 1.2 (93/77), and the former was significantly greater than the latter (P <0.01). Conclusion. Our data showed a predictable pattern of segmental and lobar lymphatic drainage to the mediastinum and suggested that skip involvement could represent

  7. Anatomy of the lymphatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skandalakis, John E; Skandalakis, Lee J; Skandalakis, Panagiotis N

    2007-01-01

    The lymphatic system is perhaps the most complicated system of Homo sapiens. An introduction to the anatomy, embryology, and anomalies of the lymphatics is presented. The overall anatomy and drainage of the lymphatic vessels in outlined. The topographic anatomy, relations, and variations of the principle vessels of the lymphatic system (the right lymphatic duct, the thoracic duct, and the cisterna chyli) are presented in detail.

  8. Risk of breast cancer recurrence in patients receiving manual lymphatic drainage: a hospital-based cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao PC

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pei-Chi Hsiao,1,2 Jung-Tai Liu,3 Chien-Liang Lin,4 Willy Chou,1,2 Shiang-Ru Lu5 1Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Chi-Mei Medical Center, Tainan, Taiwan; 2Department of Recreation and Health Care Management, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan, Taiwan; 3Departments of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Chi-Mei Medical Center Liouying Campus, Tainan, Taiwan; 4Department of Hematology and Oncology, Chi-Mei Medical Center Liouying Campus, Tainan, Taiwan; 5Department of Neurology, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan Background: This retrospective cohort study evaluated whether manual lymphatic drainage (MLD therapy increases the risk of recurrence of breast cancer. Methods: We analyzed 1,106 women who were diagnosed with stage 0­–3 breast cancer between 2007 and 2011 and experienced remission after surgery and adjuvant therapy. The patients were divided into two groups: group A (n=996, in which patients did not participate in any MLD therapy, regardless of whether they developed breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL after cancer treatment; and group B (n=110, in which patients participated in MLD therapy for BCRL. All patients were monitored until October 2013 to determine whether breast cancer recurrence developed, including local or regional recurrence and distant metastasis. Patients who developed cancer recurrence prior to MLD therapy were excluded from analysis. Risk factors associated with cancer recurrence were evaluated using Cox proportional hazards models. Results: During the monitoring period, 166 patients (15.0% developed cancer recurrence, including 154 (15.5% in group A and 12 (10.9% in group B. The median period from surgery to cancer recurrence was 1.85 (interquartile range 1.18–2.93 years. Independent risk factors for cancer recurrence were tumor histological grading of grade 3, high number (≥3 of axillary lymph node invasion, and a large tumor size (>5 cm. Factors

  9. Lymphatic drainage and efficiency of computed tomography in the detection of lymph node metastasis in NO stage patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the mouth and oropharynx; Estudo da drenagem e eficacia da tomografia computadorizada na deteccao de metastases linfonodais em pacientes clinicamente NO com carcinoma espinocelular de boca e orofaringe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freire, Addah Regina da Silva [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia]. E-mail: addah@uol.com.br; Lima, Eduardo da Nobrega Pereira [Hospital do Cancer A.C. Camargo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem; Almeida, Oslei Paes de [Faculdade de Odontologia de Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil); Kowalski, Luiz Paulo [Hospital do Cancer A.C. Camargo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Cirurgia de Cabeca e Pescoco

    2002-04-01

    Clinical examination alone is not sufficient to precisely evaluated lymph node involvement in head and neck cancer. The results of computed tomography on the neck and lymphoscintigraphy were evaluated in 21 patients with carcinoma of the mouth and oropharynx staged NO. Nine patients were treated by homolateral and 12 by bilateral neck dissection. Sensitivity and specificity of computed tomography were 16% and 73% for homolateral side and 0% and 90% for contralateral side, respectively. Lymphatic drainage was observed in 76.2% of the cases. No-migration was associated with cases involving the retromollar region and tonsillar fossa, where injection of the {sup 99m} Tc-Dextran 500 is more difficult. Bilateral migration occurred only in carcinomas of the floor of the mouth, with involvement of the midline. From these results it was concluded that computed tomography was less efficient than clinical examination. Nevertheless it must be considered that conventional computed tomography was used. We are currently undertaking similar studies with helical computed tomography. Lymphoscintigraphy showed promising results, and the same method to evaluated sentinel lymph nodes in patients with carcinoma of the mouth is being used. (author)

  10. Case report: Manual lymphatic drainage and kinesio taping in the secondary malignant breast cancer-related lymphedema in an arm with arteriovenous (A-V) fistula for hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Ya-Hui; Li, Shu-Hua; Liao, Su-Fen; Tang, Hao-Wei

    2013-08-01

    Lymphedema is a dreaded complication of breast cancer treatment. The standard care for lymphedema is complex decongestive physiotherapy, which includes manual lymphatic drainage (MLD), short stretch bandaging, exercise, and skin care. The Kinesio Taping could help to improve lymphatic uptake. We reported a patient with unilateral secondary malignant breast cancer-related lymphedema and arteriovenous (A-V) fistula for hemodialysis happened in the same arm, and used kinesio taping, MLD, and exercise to treat this patient because no pressure could be applied to the A-V fistula. The 12-session therapy created an excellent effect. We do not think the kinesio taping could replace short stretch bandaging, but it could be another choice for contraindicating pressure therapy patients, and we should pay attention to wounds induced by kinesio tape.

  11. The use of SPECT/CT for anatomical mapping of lymphatic drainage in vulvar cancer: possible implications for the extent of inguinal lymph node dissection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collarino, Angela [The Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Rome (Italy); Donswijk, Maarten L.; Stokkel, Marcel P. [The Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Driel, Willemien J. van [The Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Gynaecological Oncology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Valdes Olmos, Renato A. [The Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Leiden University Medical Center, Molecular Imaging Laboratory and Nuclear Medicine Section, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2015-12-15

    To determine the lymphatic drainage pattern using SPECT/CT in clinically node-negative (cN0) patients with vulvar cancer, and to evaluate the possible implications for the extent of inguinal lymph node dissection. A total of 83 patients with vulvar cancer scheduled for sentinel node (SN) biopsy were injected peritumorally with radioactive nanocolloid particles followed by lymphoscintigraphy and SPECT/CT for anatomical localization. The SN and higher-echelon nodes on SPECT/CT were located in different zones in the groin and pelvic region. The groin was divided into five zones according to Daseler et al.: four zones obtained by drawing two perpendicular lines over the saphenofemoral junction and one zone directly overlying this junction. The nodes in the pelvic region were classified into three zones: external iliac/obturator, the common iliac and the paraaortic zones. A total of 217 SNs and 202 higher-echelon nodes were localized on SPECT/CT. All SNs were located in the five zones according to Daseler et al.: 149 (69 %) in the medial superior region, 31 (14 %) in the medial inferior region, 22 (10 %) in the central region, 14 (6.5 %) in the lateral superior region and only 1 (0.5 %) in the lateral inferior region. The higher-echelon nodes were located both in the groin (15 %) and in the pelvic region (85 %). In patients with cN0 vulvar cancer, lymphatic drainage occurs predominantly to the medial regions of the groin. Drainage to the lateral inferior region of the groin is only incidental and in SN-positive patients this zone might be spared in subsequent extended lymph node dissection. This may lead to a decrease in the morbidity associated with this procedure. SPECT/CT is able to personalize lymphatic mapping, providing detailed information about the number and anatomical location of SNs for adequate surgical planning in the groin. (orig.)

  12. Visualization of fluid drainage pathways in lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes using a mouse model to test a lymphatic drug delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Tetsuya; Hatakeyama, Yuriko; Kato, Shigeki; Mori, Shiro

    2014-01-01

    Curing/preventing micrometastasis to lymph nodes (LNs) located outside the surgically resected area is essential for improving the morbidity and mortality associated with breast cancer and head and neck cancer. However, no lymphatic therapy system exists that can deliver drugs to LNs located outside the dissection area. Here, we demonstrate proof of concept for a drug delivery system using MXH10/Mo-lpr/lpr mice that exhibit systemic lymphadenopathy, with some peripheral LNs being as large as 10 mm in diameter. We report that a fluorescent solution injected into the subiliac LN (defined as the upstream LN within the dissection area) was delivered successfully to the proper axillary LN (defined as the downstream LN outside the dissection area) through the lymphatic vessels. Our results suggest that this approach could be used before surgical resection to deliver drugs to downstream LNs outside the dissection area. We anticipate that our methodology could be applied clinically, before surgical resection, to cure/prevent micrometastasis in LNs outside the dissection area, using techniques such as ultrasound-guided internal jugular vein catheterization. PMID:25657881

  13. Study on the Effect of Chinese Herbal Medicine in Regulating Peritoneal Lymphatic Stomata and Enhancing Drainage of Ascites in Mice with Liver Fibrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李继承; 袁淑慧; 赵坚培; 吕志连

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To observe the regulating effect of Chinese herbal medicine on peritoneal lymphatic stomata and its significance in treating ascites in liver fibrosis model mice. Methods: Two Chinese herbal compound prescriptions were used separately to treat the carbon tetrachloride induced mouse model of liver fibrosis, the histo-pathologic changes in mice were observed by using scanning electron microscope and processed by computer image processing. The changes of urinary volume and sodium ion concentration were measured, too.Results: In the treated group, the histo-pathologic changes were significantly less than those in the control group, the peritoneal lymphatic stomata enlarged with increased number of opening and higher density in distribution and the urinary volume and sodium ion excretion increased after treatment. Conclusion: Chinese herbal medicine has marked effect in alleviating liver fibrosis, regulating peritoneal lymphatic stomata, improving the drainage of ascites from peritoneal cavity, causing increase of urinary volume and sodium ion excretion to reduce water and sodium retention, and thus have favorable therapeutic effect in treating ascites.

  14. Immunohistochemical identification of lymphatic vessels in the periodontium of equine cheek teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staszyk, Carsten; Duesterdieck, Katja F; Gasse, Hagen; Bienert, Astrid

    2005-12-01

    Immunohistochemical detection of lymphatic capillaries was performed in the periodontium of maxillary and mandibular cheek teeth from 6 horses (aged 3-23 years). Tissue sections of the periodontium were taken at 4 different horizontal levels along the long axis of the tooth. The specimens were processed for immunoreaction with anti-Prox1, in order to distinguish lymphatic endothelium from blood vascular endothelium. Lymphatic vessels were detected in all periodontal tissues except for the dental cementum. Lymphatic capillaries were most densely distributed in the gingiva compared to other tissues of the periodontium. Lymphatic capillaries were found most consistently in samples taken from the gingival and subgingival regions in all horses examined. Within these levels, the gingiva as well as the spongiosa of the maxillary and mandibular bone had the greatest incidence of lymphatic vessels. Considering the distinct distribution of the lymphatic capillaries in the periodontium of the maxillary and mandibular cheek teeth, two complementary lymphatic drainage pathways are proposed: (1) superficial lymph drainage via the gingiva, emptying into the mandibular lymph nodes; (2) deep lymph drainage via the mandibular and maxillary spongiosa, emptying into the mandibular and retropharyngeal lymph nodes, respectively.

  15. Lymphatic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overview of the Lymphatic System Swollen Lymph Nodes Lymphedema Like the venous system, the lymphatic system transports ... lymphatic system leads to an accumulation of fluid ( lymphedema ). Obstruction may result from scar tissue that develops ...

  16. Direct lymphangiography as treatment option of lymphatic leakage: indications, outcomes and role in patient's management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber-Rouh, Tatjana; Naguib, Nagy N N; Lehnert, Thomas; Harth, Marc; Thalhammer, Axel; Beeres, Martin; Tsaur, Igor; Hammersting, Renate; Wichmann, Julian L; Vogl, Thomas J; Jacobi, Volkmar

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of lymphography as a minimally invasive treatment option of lymphatic leakage in terms of local control and to investigate which parameters influence the success rate. This retrospective study protocol was approved by the ethic committee. Patient history, imaging data, therapeutic options and follow-up were recorded and retrospectively analyzed. Between June 1998 and February 2013, 71 patients (m:w = 42:29, mean age, 52.4; range 42–75 years) with lymphatic leakage in form of lymphatic fistulas (n = 37), lymphocele (n = 11), chylothorax (n = 13) and chylous ascites (n = 10)underwent lymphography. Sixty-four patients (90.1%) underwent successful lymphography while lymphography failed in 7 cases. Therapeutic success was evaluated and correlated to the volume of lymphatic leakage and to the volume of the applied iodized oil. Signs of leakage or contrast extravasation were directly detected in 64 patients. Of 64 patients, 45 patients (70.3%) were treated and cured after lymphography. Based on the lymphography findings, 19 patients (29.7%) underwent surgical intervention with a completely occlusion of lymphatic leakage. The lymphatic leak could be completely occluded in 96.8% of patients when the lymphatic drainage volume was less than 200 mL/day (n = 33). Even when lymphatic drainage was higher than 200 mL/day (n = 31),therapeutic lymphography was still successful in 58.1% of the patients. Lymphography is an effective, minimally invasive method in the detection and treatment of lymphatic leakage. The volume of lymphatic drainage per day is a significant predictor of the therapeutic success rate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Estudo da drenagem linfática e eficácia da tomografia computadorizada na detecção de metástases linfonodais em pacientes clinicamente N0 com carcinoma espinocelular de boca e orofaringe Lymphatic drainage and efficiency of computed tomography in the detection of lymph node metastasis in N0 staged patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the mouth and oropharynx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Addah Regina da Silva Freire

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available O exame clínico não é suficiente para avaliar, com precisão, o envolvimento linfonodal em carcinomas de boca e orofaringe. Avaliamos 21 pacientes portadores de carcinoma espinocelular de boca e orofaringe, estadiados clinicamente como N0. Em todos os pacientes foi feita tomografia computadorizada de face e pescoço, e linfocintilografia. A sensibilidade e a especificidade da tomografia computadorizada foram de 16% e 73% para o lado homolateral, e 0% e 90% para o contralateral, respectivamente. Drenagem linfática foi vista em 76,2% dos casos. A não-migração ocorreu em casos de difícil injeção do radiofármaco, como fossa amigdaliana e região retromolar. A migração bilateral ocorreu apenas em casos de soalho bucal, em que havia envolvimento da linha mediana. A partir desses resultados conclui-se que a tomografia computadorizada foi menos eficiente que o exame clínico. Porém, o tomógrafo utilizado foi o não-helicoidal e, portanto, a eficácia do tomógrafo helicoidal não foi avaliada. A linfocintilografia foi útil na avaliação de pacientes clinicamente N0 e estamos utilizando o método para avaliar linfonodo sentinela nos carcinomas de boca.Clinical examination alone is not sufficient to precisely evaluate lymph node involvement in head and neck cancer. The results of computed tomography of the neck and lymphoscintigraphy were evaluated in 21 patients with carcinoma of the mouth and oropharynx staged N0. Nine patients were treated by homolateral and 12 by bilateral neck dissection. Sensitivity and specificity of computed tomography were 16% and 73% for homolateral side and 0% and 90% for contralateral side, respectively. Lymphatic drainage was observed in 76.2% of the cases. No-migration was associated with cases involving the retromolar region and tonsillar fossa, where injection of the 99mTc-Dextran 500 is more difficult. Bilateral migration occurred only in carcinomas of the floor of the mouth, with involvement of the

  18. Effects of manual lymphatic drainage on breast cancer-related lymphedema: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Tsai-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lymphedema is a common complication of axillary dissection for breast cancer. We investigated whether manual lymphatic drainage (MLD could prevent or manage limb edema in women after breast-cancer surgery. Methods We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of published randomized controlled trials (RCTs to evaluate the effectiveness of MLD in the prevention and treatment of breast-cancer-related lymphedema. The PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro, SCOPUS, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials electronic databases were searched for articles on MLD published before December 2012, with no language restrictions. The primary outcome for prevention was the incidence of postoperative lymphedema. The outcome for management of lymphedema was a reduction in edema volume. Results In total, 10 RCTs with 566 patients were identified. Two studies evaluating the preventive outcome of MLD found no significant difference in the incidence of lymphedema between the MLD and standard treatment groups, with a risk ratio of 0.63 and a 95% confidence interval (CI of 0.14 to 2.82. Seven studies assessed the reduction in arm volume, and found no significant difference between the MLD and standard treatment groups, with a weighted mean difference of 75.12 (95% CI, −9.34 to 159.58. Conclusions The current evidence from RCTs does not support the use of MLD in preventing or treating lymphedema. However, clinical and statistical inconsistencies between the various studies confounded our evaluation of the effect of MLD on breast-cancer-related lymphedema.

  19. Human cytomegalovirus detection in gastric cancer and its possible association with lymphatic metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Guo, Gangqiang; Xu, Jianfeng; Sun, Xiangwei; Chen, Wenjing; Jin, Jinji; Hu, Changyuan; Zhang, Peichen; Shen, Xian; Xue, Xiangyang

    2017-02-08

    Increasing evidence suggests that human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is associated with many human malignancies. However, its prevalence in gastric cancer (GC) and clinical association remain unknown. HCMV IgG and IgM antibodies in the sera of 80 GC patients and 80 healthy controls were detected using a microparticle enzyme immunoassay. The prevalence of HCMV UL47, UL55, UL56, and UL77 genes among 102 GC tumor tissues and adjacent normal specimens was measured by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or nested PCR. Quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR) was used to determine viral load. Virus localization in neoplastic tissues was determined by immunohistochemistry. No significant difference of HCMV IgG and IgM seropositivity was found between GC patients and the healthy group. However, the overall HCMV DNA positivity rate was significantly higher in GC cancerous tissue compared with in paired normal tissue (P<0.01). HCMV infection was mainly localized in the tumorous epithelium. Q-PCR in HCMV-positive specimens indicated that the viral copy number was notably higher in GC tissues than in adjacent normal specimens (P<0.001). Clinical statistical analysis indicated that HCMV load in GC tumor tissue was positively associated with lymphatic metastasis (P=0.043), the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.6638. Our data clearly provide the prevalence of HCMV in GC patients. We conclude that HCMV infection in malignant tissues might be associated with carcinogenesis or progression of GC and possibly relates to lymphatic metastasis.

  20. Lymphatic Vascular Regeneration : The Next Step in Tissue Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huethorst, Eline; Krebber, Merle M; Fledderus, Joost O; Gremmels, Hendrik; Xu, Yan Juan; Pei, Jiayi; Verhaar, Marianne C; Cheng, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    The lymphatic system plays a crucial role in interstitial fluid drainage, lipid absorption, and immunological defense. Lymphatic dysfunction results in lymphedema, fluid accumulation, and swelling of soft tissues, as well as a potentially impaired immune response. Lymphedema significantly reduces qu

  1. Accurate sequential detection of primary tumor and metastatic lymphatics using a temperature-induced phase transition nanoparticulate system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh KS

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Keun Sang Oh,1 Ji Young Yhee,2 Dong-Eun Lee,3 Kwangmeyung Kim,2 Ick Chan Kwon,2 Jae Hong Seo,4 Sang Yoon Kim,5 Soon Hong Yuk1,4 1College of Pharmacy, Korea University, Sejong, 2Biomedical Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul, 3Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeonbuk, 4Biomedical Research Center, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul, 5Department of Otolaryngology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan, College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea Abstract: Primary tumor and tumor-associated metastatic lymphatics have emerged as new targets for anticancer therapy, given that these are difficult to treat using traditional chemotherapy. In this study, docetaxel-loaded Pluronic nanoparticles with Flamma™ (FPR-675, fluorescence molecular imaging dye; DTX/FPR-675 Pluronic NPs were prepared using a temperature-induced phase transition for accurate detection of metastatic lymphatics. Significant accumulation was seen at the primary tumor and in metastatic lymph nodes within a short time. Particle size, maximum drug loading capacity, and drug encapsulation efficiency of the docetaxel-loaded Pluronic NPs were approximately 10.34±4.28 nm, 3.84 wt%, and 94±2.67 wt%, respectively. Lymphatic tracking after local and systemic delivery showed that DTX/FPR-675 Pluronic NPs were more potent in tumor-bearing mice than in normal mice, and excised mouse lymphatics showed stronger near-infrared fluorescence intensity on the tumor-bearing side than on the non-tumor-bearing side at 60 minutes post-injection. In vivo cytotoxicity and efficacy data for the NPs demonstrated that the systemically administered NPs caused little tissue damage and had minimal side effects in terms of slow renal excretion and prolonged circulation in tumor-bearing mice, and rapid renal excretion in non-tumor-bearing mice using an in vivo real-time near-infrared fluorescence imaging system. These results

  2. The morphology of olfactory route for cerebrospinal fluid drainage into the peripheral lymphatic system in rabbit%兔脑脊液经嗅觉通路回流到淋巴系统的形态学观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海生; 左焕琮; 王东; 陈业涛; 刘勇刚; 齐岩; 李妍; 孙朝晖; 张秋航; 王世杰

    2009-01-01

    目的 在形态学上证实兔颅底蛛网膜下腔经嗅觉通路与颈部淋巴系统相通,脑脊液经此途径回流到淋巴系统.方法 采用在兔枕大池内注射Microfil 的方法,在大体和光镜下观察灌注物质的分布.结果 显微镜下观察见Microfil 在枕大池、矢状窦、嗅球、筛板区域聚集分布,穿过筛板,使嗅黏膜淋巴管明显染色呈黄色,并经鼻咽部淋巴管回流到双侧颈浅和颈深淋巴管;光镜下见Microfil 沿嗅神经走行,广泛分布在嗅黏膜的淋巴管内.结论 在脑脊液与颈部淋巴系统之间存在有经颅底-筛板-嗅黏膜的嗅觉通路的解剖回流途径,对于中枢神经系统免疫性疾病、脑脊液循环的调节有重要意义.%Objective To demonstrate the morphology of drainage of the cerebrospinal fluid through the olfactory nerves into the cervical lymphatics. Methods Microfil was injected into the cisterna magna of the rabbit, cervical lymphatics, the olfactory bulbs, olfactory tracts and the nasal mucosa were observed by macroscopic anatomy and light microscopy. Results Under the operative microscope, Microfil was found within the subarachnoid space and along the olfactory nerves. At the nasal mucosa, a lymphatic network stained in yellow was identified near the olfactory nerves, which cross nasopharyngeal region and finally emptied into the superficial and deep cervical lymph nodes. Light microscopically, Microfil was distributed around the olfactory nerves and within the lymphatic vessels. At the nasal mucosa, the lymphatics were frequently located close to the nerves. Conclusion These results indicate that the cerebrospinal fluid drains from the subarachnoid space along the olfactory nerves to the nasal Lymphatics, which in turn, empties into the cervical lymph nodes. This anatomical communication, thus, allows the central nervous system to connect with the lymphatic system. The presence of this route may play an important role in immune disease of the

  3. A new high-throughput screening method for the detection of chronic lymphatic leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haschke-Becher, Elisabeth; Vockenhuber, Michael; Niedetzky, Paul; Totzke, Uwe; Gabriel, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The VCS technology of Beckman Coulter differentiates white blood cells based on measures of their volume, conductivity and light scatter. The current study investigated the predictive value of index measures, known as research population data, for the detection of chronic lymphatic leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome. Blood cell counts were performed in samples from 44 patients with chronic lymphatic leukemia, 19 patients with myelodysplastic syndrome and 199 healthy blood donors using the Beckman Coulter LH750. Means and standard deviations of volume, conductivity and scatter of lymphocytes and neutrophils were evaluated as predictors for both diseases. Their specificity and selectivity were evaluated by logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Research population data were significantly different among groups. For chronic lymphatic leukemia, standard deviations of lymphocytes scatter and volume showed most relevant differences in comparison to healthy blood donors (sensitivity 88.6%, specificity 84.4%). For myelodysplastic syndrome, standard deviations of neutrophils conductivity were most predictive (sensitivity 73.7%, specificity 93.0%). Areas under corresponding receiver operating characteristic curves were 0.941 and 0.951, respectively. Based on their high predictive value, research population data could be routinely used to screen for chronic lymphatic leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome.

  4. LYMPHATIC DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, Matthew G; Isogai, Sumio; Weinstein, Brant M.

    2009-01-01

    The lymphatic system is essential for fluid homeostasis, immune responses, and fat absorption, and is involved in many pathological processes, including tumor metastasis and lymphedema. Despite its importance, progress in understanding the origins and early development of this system has been hampered by lack of defining molecular markers and difficulties in observing lymphatic cells in vivo and performing genetic and experimental manipulation of the lymphatic system. Recent identification of...

  5. Lymphatic territories (lymphosomes in a canine: an animal model for investigation of postoperative lymphatic alterations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroo Suami

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lymph node dissection is often performed as a part of surgical treatment for breast cancer and malignant melanoma to prevent malignant cells from traveling via the lymphatic system. Currently little is known about postoperative lymphatic drainage pattern alterations. This knowledge may be useful for management of recurrent cancer and prevention of breast cancer related lymphedema. We mapped the complete superficial lymphatic system of a dog and used this canine model to perform preliminary studies of lymphatic architectural changes in postoperative condition. METHODS: Lymphatic territories (lymphosomes were mapped with 4 female mongrel carcasses using an indocyanine green (ICG fluorescent lymphography and a radiographic microinjection technique. Two live dogs were then subjected to unilateral lymph node dissection of lymph basins of the forelimb, and ICG lymphography and lymphangiogram were performed 6 months after the surgery to investigate lymphatic changes. Lymphatic patterns in the carcass were then compared with postoperative lymphatic patterns in the live dogs. RESULTS: Ten lymphosomes were identified, corresponding with ten lymphatic basins. Postoperative fluorescent lymphographic images and lymphangiograms in the live dogs revealed small caliber lymphatic network fulfilling gaps in the surgical area and collateral lymphatic vessels arising from the network connecting to lymph nodes in the contralateral and ipsilateral neck in one dog and the ipsilateral subclavicular vein in another dog. CONCLUSION: Our canine lymphosome map allowed us to observe lymphatic collateral formations after lymph node dissection in live dogs. This canine model may help clarify our understanding of postoperative lymphatic changes in humans in future studies.

  6. Study on the mechanism of regulation on peritoneal lymphatic stomata with Chinese herbal medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Shi-Ping; Li, Ji-Cheng; Xu, Jian; Mao, Lian-Gen

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To study the mechanism of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM, the prescription consists of Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae, Radix Codonopsitis Pilosulae, Rhizoma Atractylodis Alba and Rhizoma Alismatis, Leonurus Heterophyllus Sweet, etc) on the regulation of the peritoneal lymphatic stomata and the ascites drainage. METHODS: The mouse model of live fibrosis was established with the application of intragastric installations of carbon tetrachloride once every three days; scanning electron microscope and computer image processing were used to detect the area and the distributive density of the peritoneal lymphatic stomata; and the concentrations of urinary ion and NO in the serum were analyzed in the experiment. RESULTS: Two different doses of CHM could significantly increase the area of the peritoneal lymphatic stomata, promote its distributive density and enhance the drainage of urinary ion such as sodium, potassium and chlorine. Meanwhile, the NO concentration of two different doses of CHM groups was 133.52 ± 23.57 μmol/L, and 137.2 ± 26.79 μmol/L respectively. In comparison with the control group and model groups (48.36 ± 6.83 μmol/L, and 35.22 ± 8.94 μmol/L, P lymphatic stomata and the drainage of urinary ion was altered by adding NO donor(sodium nitropurruside, SNP) or NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor (N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine, L-NMMA) to the peritoneal cavity. CONCLUSION: There existed correlations between high NO concentration and enlargement of the peritoneal lymphatic stomata, which result in enhanced drainage of ascites. These data supported the hypothesis that Chinese herbal medicine could regulate the peritoneal lymphatic stomata by accelerating the synthesis and release of endogenous NO. PMID:11833101

  7. Axillary lymph nodes and arm lymphatic drainage pathways are spared during routine complete axillary clearance in majority of women undergoing breast cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szuba, A; Chachaj, Z; Koba-Wszedybylb, M; Hawro, R; Jasinski, R; Tarkowski, R; Szewczyk, K; Bebenek, M; Forgacz, J; Jodkowska, A; Jedrzejuk, D; Janczak, D; Mrozinska, M; Pilch, U; Wozniewski, M

    2011-09-01

    Alterations in axillary lymph nodes (ALNs) after complete axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in comparison to the preoperative status were evaluated using lymphoscintigraphy performed preoperatively and 1-6 weeks after surgery in 30 women with a new diagnosis of unilateral, invasive breast carcinoma. Analysis of lymphoscintigrams revealed that ALNs after surgery were present in 26 of 30 examined women. In comparison to preoperative status, they were visualized in the same location (12 women), in the same and additionally in different locations (9 women), or only in different locations (4 women). No lymph nodes were visualized in one woman and lymphocoele were in 4 women. Thus, after ALND, a variable number of axillary lymph nodes remain and were visualized on lymphoscintigraphy in the majority of women. The classical ALND, therefore, does not allow complete dissection and removal of axillary nodes with total disruption of axillary lymphatic pathways, accounting in part for the variable incidence and severity of lymphedema after the procedure.

  8. Identification of lymphatics in the ciliary body of the human eye: a novel "uveolymphatic" outflow pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yücel, Yeni H; Johnston, Miles G; Ly, Tina; Patel, Manoj; Drake, Brian; Gümüş, Ersin; Fraenkl, Stephan A; Moore, Sara; Tobbia, Dalia; Armstrong, Dianna; Horvath, Eva; Gupta, Neeru

    2009-11-01

    Impaired aqueous humor flow from the eye may lead to elevated intraocular pressure and glaucoma. Drainage of aqueous fluid from the eye occurs through established routes that include conventional outflow via the trabecular meshwork, and an unconventional or uveoscleral outflow pathway involving the ciliary body. Based on the assumption that the eye lacks a lymphatic circulation, the possible role of lymphatics in the less well defined uveoscleral pathway has been largely ignored. Advances in lymphatic research have identified specific lymphatic markers such as podoplanin, a transmembrane mucin-type glycoprotein, and lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor-1 (LYVE-1). Lymphatic channels were identified in the human ciliary body using immunofluorescence with D2-40 antibody for podoplanin, and LYVE-1 antibody. In keeping with the criteria for lymphatic vessels in conjunctiva used as positive control, D2-40 and LYVE-1-positive lymphatic channels in the ciliary body had a distinct lumen, were negative for blood vessel endothelial cell marker CD34, and were surrounded by either discontinuous or no collagen IV-positive basement membrane. Cryo-immunogold electron microscopy confirmed the presence D2-40-immunoreactivity in lymphatic endothelium in the human ciliary body. Fluorescent nanospheres injected into the anterior chamber of the sheep eye were detected in LYVE-1-positive channels of the ciliary body 15, 30, and 45 min following injection. Four hours following intracameral injection, Iodine-125 radio-labeled human serum albumin injected into the sheep eye (n = 5) was drained preferentially into cervical, retropharyngeal, submandibular and preauricular lymph nodes in the head and neck region compared to reference popliteal lymph nodes (P human ciliary body, and that fluid and solutes flow at least partially through this system. The discovery of a uveolymphatic pathway in the eye is novel and highly relevant to studies of glaucoma and other eye diseases.

  9. Subglacial lake drainage detected beneath the Greenland ice sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Steven; McMillan, Malcolm; Morlighem, Mathieu

    2015-10-09

    The contribution of the Greenland ice sheet to sea-level rise has accelerated in recent decades. Subglacial lake drainage events can induce an ice sheet dynamic response--a process that has been observed in Antarctica, but not yet in Greenland, where the presence of subglacial lakes has only recently been discovered. Here we investigate the water flow paths from a subglacial lake, which drained beneath the Greenland ice sheet in 2011. Our observations suggest that the lake was fed by surface meltwater flowing down a nearby moulin, and that the draining water reached the ice margin via a subglacial tunnel. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar-derived measurements of ice surface motion acquired in 1995 suggest that a similar event may have occurred 16 years earlier, and we propose that, as the climate warms, increasing volumes of surface meltwater routed to the bed will cause such events to become more common in the future.

  10. Subglacial lake drainage detected beneath the Greenland ice sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Steven; McMillan, Malcolm; Morlighem, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    The contribution of the Greenland ice sheet to sea-level rise has accelerated in recent decades. Subglacial lake drainage events can induce an ice sheet dynamic response—a process that has been observed in Antarctica, but not yet in Greenland, where the presence of subglacial lakes has only recently been discovered. Here we investigate the water flow paths from a subglacial lake, which drained beneath the Greenland ice sheet in 2011. Our observations suggest that the lake was fed by surface meltwater flowing down a nearby moulin, and that the draining water reached the ice margin via a subglacial tunnel. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar-derived measurements of ice surface motion acquired in 1995 suggest that a similar event may have occurred 16 years earlier, and we propose that, as the climate warms, increasing volumes of surface meltwater routed to the bed will cause such events to become more common in the future. PMID:26450175

  11. Lymphatic fluid for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in cows by PCR, compared to fecal sampling and detection of antibodies in blood and milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khol, Johannes L; Pinedo, Pablo J; Buergelt, Claus D; Neumann, Laura M; Rae, D Owen

    2014-08-06

    Johne's disease (JD), caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), can cause considerable economic losses in affected herds. Early diagnosis of JD is hampered by the chronic nature of the disease with a slow subclincal progression. The aim of the present study was to challenge the hypothesis that lymphatic fluid is of diagnostic value in the early stages of the disease. Lymphatic fluid from 122 animals was collected and tested for MAP by nested PCR for IS900 and compared to the results of testing for MAP in feces (culture), blood and milk (ELISA) in 110 of these samples. MAP was detected by PCR in 27.1% of the lymph samples. Agreement between the tests was poor: 6.9% of the lymph positive cows were also positive in all other tests applied, and 69.0% had negative results in fecal culture, blood and milk ELISA. Resampling of 25 cows after 8 to 12 and 16 to 20 months revealed 20.0% lymph positive animals at the first, 5.5% at the second and 27.8% at the third sampling, respectively. Only one cow showed positive lymph-PCR results at more than one sampling date. Lymph-positive cows had a 7.2 times greater likelihood of being culled within 8 to 12 months after sampling, compared to negative cows, mainly due to other health issues than JD. It can be concluded, that lymphatic fluid might be promising for the detection of early MAP-infection in cows, but further studies to elucidate the potential of this diagnostic approach are needed.

  12. Lymphatic Education & Research Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lymphatic Education & Research Network Donate Now Become a Supporting Member X Living with LYMPHEDEMA AND Lymphatic Disease FAQs About ... 261 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016 | Lymphatic Education & Research Network is a 501(c)(3) under ...

  13. Lymphatic vessel invasion detected by the endothelial lymphatic marker D2-40 (podoplanin is predictive of regional lymph node status and an independent prognostic factor in patients with resected esophageal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Laudański

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of markers to lymphatic endothelial cells and the development of novel antibodies to these markers have brought increasing attention to the lymphatics and progress in the understanding of lymphangiogenesis and cancer metastasis. In this study, we investigate the presence of lymphatic vessel invasion (LVI detected by D2-40 immunohistochemical staining in resected esophageal cancer and correlated with clinicopathologic data and patient survival. Sixty nine patients, who had a primary resection of esophageal cancer, were analyzed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression, and univariate and multivariate survival analysis. The total rate of LVI was 72% (50/69. Positive LVI was significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis (p < 0.001, tumor size (p < 0.001, histological grading (p = 0.017, tumor depth (p = 0.001, and stage (p < 0.001. Multivariate logistic analysis identified LVI (p = 0.036 as a predictor of regional lymph node metastasis. On univariate survival analysis, patients with LVI had a significantly shorter disease-free survival, cancer-specific survival and overall survival. Multivariate analysis proved that LVI diagnosed by D2-40 is an independent prognostic factor of both disease-free survival (p = 0.04 and overall survival (p = 0.032 in resected esophageal cancer. These results show that LVI assessment identifies patients at high risk for regional lymph node metastasis and that LVI is an independent prognostic factor in patients with esophageal cancer. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011; Vol. 49, No. 1, pp. 90–97

  14. Drenagem linfática manual nos sintomas da síndrome pré-menstrual: estudo piloto Manual lymphatic drainage for premenstrual syndrome symptoms: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana de Jesus Ferreira

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome pré-menstrual é um complexo de sintomas - dentre os quais o edema pré-menstrual - entre o 10o e o 14o dias que antecedem a menstruação e cessam no início do fluxo menstrual. A técnica de drenagem linfática manual (DLM drena o excesso de líquido acumulado, atua no edema e poderia aliviar esses sintomas. O objetivo deste estudo piloto foi verificar o efeito da DLM no alívio dos sintomas da síndrome pré-menstrual e a qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde em quatro mulheres jovens. O estudo foi realizado ao longo de dois ciclos menstruais, ciclo 1 sem intervenção terapêutica, e o segundo ciclo, com aplicação da técnica de DLM. As participantes foram avaliadas, no início do ciclo 1 e final do ciclo 2, por anamnese, mensuração de estatura e massa, estimativa da composição corporal, diário de sintomas e quanto à qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde, pelo WHOQoL-bref. Os resultados mostraram redução significativa apenas do diâmetro de abdome superior nos níveis xifóide e umbilical; as médias total e individual dos sintomas do diário reduziram-se, porém sem significância, tal como ocorreu no aumento dos escores no WHOQoL-bref. A drenagem linfática manual foi eficaz na diminuição de um sintoma da síndrome pré-menstrual, o edema em região superior abdominal, e não alterou a qualidade de vida dessas jovens.Premenstrual syndrome is a symptomatology - including premenstrual edema - that affects women between the 10th and 14th days prior to menstruation and ends at the onset of menstrual flux. The technique of manual lymphatic drainage (MLD draws off accumulated fluid excess, acts on edema and might help relieve such symptoms. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the effect of MLD on premenstrual symptoms and on health-related quality of life of four young women. The study was carried out along two menstrual cycles, the first with no intervention; MLD was applied along the second cycle

  15. Noninvasive Label-Free Detection of Micrometastases in the Lymphatics with Ultrasound-Guided Photoacoustic Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Ultrasound and Photoacoustic Imaging of Anatomical and Functional Indicators of Lymph Node Metastasis,” Biomedical Engineering Society Annual Meeting...imaging system that will detect functional changes associated with lymph node metastasis in breast cancer patients. Our efforts in the first year have...imaging can be used to guide dissection . We have also successfully integrated a programmable ultrasound machine (Verasonics Vantage) and tunable pulsed

  16. Novel characterization of lymphatic valve formation during corneal inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Truong

    Full Text Available Lymphatic research has progressed rapidly in recent years. Though lymphatic dysfunction has been found in a wide array of disorders from transplant rejection to cancer metastasis, to date, there is still little effective treatment for lymphatic diseases. The cornea offers an optimal site for lymphatic research due to its accessible location, transparent nature, and lymphatic-free but inducible features. However, it still remains unknown whether lymphatic valves exist in newly formed lymphatic vessels in the cornea, and how this relates to an inflammatory response. In this study, we provide the first evidence showing that lymphatic valves were formed in mouse cornea during suture-induced inflammation with the up-regulation of integrin alpha 9. The number of corneal valves increased with the progression of inflammatory lymphangiogenesis. Moreover, we have detected lymphatic valves at various developmental stages, from incomplete to more developed ones. In addition to defining the average diameter of lymphatic vessels equipped with lymphatic valves, we also report that lymphatic valves were more often located near the branching points. Taken together, these novel findings not only provide new insights into corneal lymphatic formation and maturation, but also identify a new model for future investigation on lymphatic valve formation and possibly therapeutic intervention.

  17. Near-infrared fluorescence imaging of lymphatics in head and neck lymphedema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, I.-Chih; Maus, Erik A.; Rasmussen, John C.; Marshall, Milton V.; Fife, Caroline E.; Smith, Latisha A.; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.

    2011-03-01

    Treatment of lymphatic disease is complicated and controversial, due in part to the limited understanding of the lymphatic system. Lymphedema (LE) is a frequent complication after surgical resection and radiation treatment in cancer survivors, and is especially debilitating in regions where treatment options are limited. Although some extremity LE can be effectively treated with manual lymphatic drainage (MLD) therapy or compression devices to direct proximal lymph transport, head and neck LE is more challenging, due to complicated geometry and complex lymphatic structure in head and neck region. Herein, we describe the compassionate use of an investigatory technique of near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging to understand the lymphatic anatomy and function, and to help direct MLD in a patient with head and neck LE. Immediately after 9 intradermal injections of 25 μg indocyanine green each around the face and neck region, NIR fluorescence images were collected using a custom-built imaging system with diffused excitation light illumination. These images were then used to direct MLD therapy. In addition, 3-dimensional (3D) surface profilometry was used to monitor response to therapy. NIR fluorescence images of functioning lymphatic vessels and abnormal structures were obtained. Precise geometries of facial structures were obtained using 3D profilometry, and detection of small changes in edema between therapy sessions was achieved. NIR fluorescence imaging provides a mapping of lymphatic architecture to direct MLD therapy and thus improve treatment efficacy in the head and neck LE, while 3D profilometry allowed longitudinal assessment of edema to evaluate the efficacy of therapy.

  18. Laminar flow downregulates Notch activity to promote lymphatic sprouting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Dongwon; Park, Eunkyung; Jung, Eunson; Seong, Young Jin; Yoo, Jaehyuk; Lee, Esak; Hong, Mingu; Lee, Sunju; Ishida, Hiroaki; Burford, James; Peti-Peterdi, Janos; Adams, Ralf H; Srikanth, Sonal; Gwack, Yousang; Chen, Christopher S; Vogel, Hans J; Koh, Chester J; Wong, Alex K; Hong, Young-Kwon

    2017-04-03

    The major function of the lymphatic system is to drain interstitial fluid from tissue. Functional drainage causes increased fluid flow that triggers lymphatic expansion, which is conceptually similar to hypoxia-triggered angiogenesis. Here, we have identified a mechanotransduction pathway that translates laminar flow-induced shear stress to activation of lymphatic sprouting. While low-rate laminar flow commonly induces the classic shear stress responses in blood endothelial cells and lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs), only LECs display reduced Notch activity and increased sprouting capacity. In response to flow, the plasma membrane calcium channel ORAI1 mediates calcium influx in LECs and activates calmodulin to facilitate a physical interaction between Krüppel-like factor 2 (KLF2), the major regulator of shear responses, and PROX1, the master regulator of lymphatic development. The PROX1/KLF2 complex upregulates the expression of DTX1 and DTX3L. DTX1 and DTX3L, functioning as a heterodimeric Notch E3 ligase, concertedly downregulate NOTCH1 activity and enhance lymphatic sprouting. Notably, overexpression of the calcium reporter GCaMP3 unexpectedly inhibited lymphatic sprouting, presumably by disturbing calcium signaling. Endothelial-specific knockouts of Orai1 and Klf2 also markedly impaired lymphatic sprouting. Moreover, Dtx3l loss of function led to defective lymphatic sprouting, while Dtx3l gain of function rescued impaired sprouting in Orai1 KO embryos. Together, the data reveal a molecular mechanism underlying laminar flow-induced lymphatic sprouting.

  19. Periportal low-attenuation: a CT sign of lymphatic obstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Kim, Chong Soo; Yang, Doo Hyun; Lee, Sang Yong; Lee, Young Whan; Chung, Gyung Ho; Han, Young Min; Sohn, Myung Hee; Choi, Ki Chul [Chonbuk National University College of Medicine, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-15

    Periportal low attenuation, defined as a low attenuation rim around the portal vein and its branches which is seen on contrast material-enhanced CT scans, has been described in a variety of conditions. We tried to document that lymphatic obstruction is one of the major cause of periportal low attenuation. We retrospectively analyzed 57 cases of periportal low attenuation of abdominal CT scans and also reviewed the surgical records in 32 cases. Lymph node enlargement in the hepatoduodenal ligament which is a main lymphatic channel from the liver were analyzed the calculated the ratio of the transeverse diameter between the inferior vena cava and the aorta at the level of right adrenal gland. After complete surgical interruption of the lymphatic drainage from the liver in a dog, follow up CT scans were obtained and correlated with pathologic findings. Fifty patients (88%) had underlying disease which could cause impairment of lymphatic drainage. Periportal low attenuation was identified in several clinical conditions, including surgical lymph node dissection, lymphadenopathy in the hepatoduodenal ligament, blunt trauma. In animal model, CT scan showed prominent periportal low attenuation at 5 days after surgery. Histologic examination revealed numerous dilated lymphatic vessels and a marked lymphedema in the connective tissues surrounding the portal vein and its major branches. One of the major cause of periportal low attenuation was impaired lymphatic drainage and periportal low attenuation corresponding to the numerous dilated lymphatic vessels and a marked lymphedema in the connective tissues surrounding the portal vein and its major branches.

  20. Evaluation of physiological parameters of dogs submitted to uterine lymphatic mapping using patent blue V dye for anaphylaxis detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca C. Justino

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Lymphatic mapping has been performed in humans and dogs. Although several cases of anaphylaxis have been reported in humans, there are no such reports in dogs. The objective of this study was to identify the occurrence of adverse reactions to patent blue V dye in bitches undergoing uterine lymphatic mapping procedures using cardiovascular and hematological evaluations. The experiment was performed in 14 mongrel bitches without any reproductive disease, randomly assigned into two equal groups (PBV- uterine lynphatic mapping and OHE; Control - OHE only. The animals were submitted to pre- and postoperative hematological and serum biochemistry exams (7 days. The anesthetic protocol was: sedation (morphine and acepromazine, induction (propofol, maintenance (isoflurane, transoperative analgesia (fentanyl. Systolic blood pressure was monitored throughout the procedure and arterial blood gas analysis was performed immediate pre and postoperatively. For lymphatic mapping was injected patent blue V in the uterine wall, 10 minutes before OEH. Comparisons between the pre- and postoperative parameters within the same animal were performed using the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test. To compare the values between control and PBV group was obtaining the difference between the pre and post of each group, subjected to the Mann-Whitney test (significance of 5%. Differences were observed (P<0.05 between the pre- and postoperative evaluations in the PBV (total protein and the albumin serum, in both groups (arterial partial pressure of oxygen and in the Control (arterial oxygen saturation. There were no signs of adverse reactions to the patent blue V dye in the healthy bitches submitted to lymphatic uterine mapping.

  1. Localization and proliferation of lymphatic vessels in the tympanic membrane in normal state and regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Takenori; Burford, James L; Hong, Young-Kwon; Gevorgyan, Haykanush; Lam, Lisa; Mori, Nozomu; Peti-Peterdi, Janos

    2013-10-25

    We clarified the localization of lymphatic vessels in the tympanic membrane and proliferation of lymphatic vessels during regeneration after perforation of the tympanic membrane by using whole-mount imaging of the tympanic membrane of Prox1 GFP mice. In the pars tensa, lymphatic vessel loops surrounded the malleus handle and annulus tympanicus. Apart from these locations, lymphatic vessel loops were not observed in the pars tensa in the normal tympanic membrane. Lymphatic vessel loops surrounding the malleus handle were connected to the lymphatic vessel loops in the pars flaccida and around the tensor tympani muscle. Many lymphatic vessel loops were detected in the pars flaccida. After perforation of the tympanic membrane, abundant lymphatic regeneration was observed in the pars tensa, and these regenerated lymphatic vessels extended from the lymphatic vessels surrounding the malleus at day 7. These results suggest that site-specific lymphatic vessels play an important role in the tympanic membrane.

  2. Study on the mechanism of regulation on peritoneal lymphatic stomata with Chinese herbal medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-Ping Ding; Ji-Cheng Li; Jian Xu; Lian-Gen Mao

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To study the mechanism of Chinese herbal medicine(CHM), the prescription consists of Radix SalviaeMiltiorrhizae , Radix Codonopsitis Pilosulae , RhizornaAtractylodis Alba and Rhizoma Alismatis, LeonurusHeterophyllus Sweet, etc ) on the regulation of theperitoneal lymphatic stomata and the ascites drainage.METHODS: The mouse model of live fibrosis wasestablished with the application of intragastric installationsof carbon tetrachloride once every three days; scanningelectron microscope and computer image processing wereused to detect the area and the distributive density of theperitoneal lymphatic stomata; and the concentrations ofurinary ion and NO in the serum were measured analyzed inthe experiment.RESULTS: Two different doses of CHM could significantlyincrease the area of the peritoneal lymphatic stomata,promote its distribution density and enhance the arainage ofurinary ion such as sodium, potassium and chlorine.Meanwhile, the NO concentration of two different doses ofCHM groups was 133.52 ± 23.57μmol/L, and 137.2 ±26.79μnol/L respectively. In comparison with the controland model groups ( 48.36 ± 6.83μmol/L, and 35.22 ±8.94μmol/L, P < 0.01 ), there existed significantly markeddifference, this made it clear that Chinese herbal medicinecould induce high endogenous NO concentration. The effectof Chinese herbal medicine on the peritoneal lymphaticstomata and the drainage of urinary ion was altered byadding NO donor (sodium nitropurruside, SNP) or NOsynthase (NOS) inhibitor (N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine, L-NMMA) to the peritoneal cavity.CONCLUSION: There existed correlations between high NOconcentration and enlargement of the peritoneal lymphaticstomata, which result in enhanced drainage of ascites.These data supported the hypothesis that Chinese herbalmedicine could regulate the peritoneal lymphatic stomata byaccelerating the synthesis and release of endogenous NO.

  3. [The detection of minimal residual disease in patients with chronic B-cell lymphatic leukemia using patient-specified polymerase chain reaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorova, Iu V; Sorokina, T V; Biderman, B V; Nikulina, E E; Kisilichina, D G; Naumova, E V; Pochtar', M E; Lugovskaia, S A; Ivanova, V L; Kovaleva, L G; Ptushkin, V V; Nikitin, E A; Sudarikov, A B

    2011-12-01

    The new effective protocols of treatment of chronic B-cell lymphatic leukemia, including purine analogs and monoclonal antibodies, provide robust remissions under this disease. Accordingly, the requirements to remission quality assessment are changed too. In particular the assessment of minimal residual disease is obligatory. To assess minimal residual disease in terms of quantity in case of chronic B-cell lymphatic leukemia the technique of polymerase chain reaction was applied in real time with patient-specific primers from the area of V-D-J combinations of genes of heavy chain of immunoglobulin. The study included samples from 60 patients suffering of chronic B-cell lymphatic leukemia. In 15 of them (25%), it was impossible to apply neither the sequence analysis of genes of heavy chain of immunoglobulin nor the fitting of patient-specific primer. The results of quantitative determination of minimal residual disease were obtained in 45 patients (55 tests). The minimal residual disease was detected in 30 of 55 samples (54.5%) and was not detected in 25 of 55 samples (45.5%). At the same time, the quantitative determination of minimal residual disease was implemented in regard to the initial level of neoplastic cells. The method sensitivity qualified by serial dilutions, consisted 10(-5) or 1 neoplastic cell to 100 000 normal cells. The comparative analysis was applied to the results of determination of minimal residual disease using two methods -polymerase chain reaction in real time using patient-specified primers and four-color flow cytofluometry. The determination of minimal residual disease with both methods was implemented in 37 patients (45 tests). The results of both methods matched in 93.3% (42 tests out of 45) with maximal disparity of one degree. Then Spearman factor consisted 0.87 (p chronic B-cell lymphatic leukemia using the method of polymerase chain reaction in real time is rather sensitive and specific and correlates with the results received with

  4. Intervenção fisioterapêutica nas sequelas de drenagem linfática manual iatrogênica: relato de caso Physical therapy in sequelae of iatrogenic manual lymphatic drainage: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Eduardo Tacani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente, a drenagem linfática manual (DLM é um dos recursos de grande destaque no tratamento de edemas, linfedemas e condições inestéticas, porém, na prática clínica têm-se observado sua aplicação de forma iatrogênica. Os objetivos deste relato de caso foram apontar as sequelas da aplicação iatrogênica da DLM, em uma jovem caucasiana, e verificar os efeitos da intervenção fisioterapêutica no tratamento dessas. Voluntária de 27 anos, apresentava-se com uma equimose importante na região lateral da coxa esquerda (28 x 9,5 cm, telangiectasias, microvaricosidades e petéquias em ambas as coxas e pernas, dor de forte intensidade e edema, após ter se submetido a um procedimento manual iatrogênico com finalidade estética há dois dias. As condutas fisioterapêuticas adotadas foram: Ultrassom 3 MHz, pulsado (2 ms on, 8 ms off, 0,4 W/cm² SATP na região da equimose e DLM (Método Leduc durante 20 minutos, na coxa esquerda. Foram realizadas nove sessões até a alta no 16º dia pós-lesão, observando-se apenas a redução gradativa da dor e da equimose. Verificou-se a efetividade da intervenção fisioterapêutica em apenas algumas das sequelas provocadas pela iatrogenia, sem desconsiderar que a remissão espontânea dos sinais e sintomas também pode ter contribuído para tal. Destaca-se a importância de conscientizar os fisioterapeutas que atuam com este procedimento para que o aplique de forma adequada, evitando tais iatrogenias.Recently, the manual lymphatic drainage (MLD is an important resource in the treatment of edemas, lymphedemas, and other unaesthetic conditions. However, problems caused by the incorrect application of this therapy have been observed in the clinical practice. The aims of this case report were to describe sequelae resulting from the negligent application of MLD on a young patient, and to determine the effects of physical therapy on the treatment of sequelae. A 27-year-old Caucasian woman presented

  5. Clinical significance of detecting lymphatic and blood vessel invasion in stage II colon cancer using markers D2-40 and CD34 in combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jin-Huo; Zhou, Yong-Jian; Bin, Du; Qiangchen; Wang, Shao-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    This research was conducted to compare differences in colon cancer lymphatic vessel invasion (LVI) with D2-40 antibody labeling and regular HE staining, blood vessel invasion (BVI) with CD34 antibody labeling and HE staining and to assess the possibility of using D2-40-LVI/CD34-BVI in combination for predicting stage II colon cancer prognosis and guiding adjuvant chemotherapy.Anti-D2-40 and anti-CD34 antibodies were applied to tissue samples of 220 cases of stage II colon cancer to label lymphatic vessels and small blood vessels, respectively. LVI and BVI were assessed and multivariate COX regression analysis was performed for associations with colon cancer prognosis. Regular HE staining proved unable to differentiate lymphatic vessels from blood vessels, while D2-40 selectively labeled lymphatic endothelial cell cytosol and CD34 was widely expressed in large and small blood vessels of tumors as well as normal tissues. Compared to regular HE staining, D2-40-labeling for LVI and CD34-labeling for BVI significantly increased positive rate (22.3% vs 10.0% for LVI, and 19.1% vs 9.1% for BVI). Multivariate analysis indicated that TNM stage, pathology tissue type, post-surgery adjuvant chemotherapy, D2-40-LVI, and CD34-BVI were independent factors affecting whole group colon cancer prognosis, while HE staining-BVI, HE staining-LVI were not significantly related. When CD34-BVI/D2-40-LVI were used in combination for detection, the risk of death for patients with two or one positive results was 5.003 times that in the LVI(-)andBVI(-) group (95% CI 2.365 - 9.679). D2-40 antibody LVI labeling and CD34 antibody BVI labeling have higher specificity and accuracy than regular HE staining and can be used as molecular biological indicators for prognosis prediction and guidance of adjuvant chemotherapy for stage II colon cancer.

  6. The Glymphatic-Lymphatic Continuum: Opportunities for Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitscherich, Kyle; Smith, Kyle; Cuoco, Joshua A; Ruvolo, Kathryn E; Mancini, Jayme D; Leheste, Joerg R; Torres, German

    2016-03-01

    The brain has long been thought to lack a lymphatic drainage system. Recent studies, however, show the presence of a brain-wide paravascular system appropriately named the glymphatic system based on its similarity to the lymphatic system in function and its dependence on astroglial water flux. Besides the clearance of cerebrospinal fluid and interstitial fluid, the glymphatic system also facilitates the clearance of interstitial solutes such as amyloid-β and tau from the brain. As cerebrospinal fluid and interstitial fluid are cleared through the glymphatic system, eventually draining into the lymphatic vessels of the neck, this continuous fluid circuit offers a paradigm shift in osteopathic manipulative medicine. For instance, manipulation of the glymphatic-lymphatic continuum could be used to promote experimental initiatives for nonpharmacologic, noninvasive management of neurologic disorders. In the present review, the authors describe what is known about the glymphatic system and identify several osteopathic experimental strategies rooted in a mechanistic understanding of the glymphatic-lymphatic continuum.

  7. Classification scheme for acid rock drainage detection - the Hamersley Basin, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypek, Grzegorz; Dogramaci, Shawan; McLean, Laura

    2017-04-01

    levels of the aqueous system. This classification scheme enables a more direct monitoring regime for early detection of acid rock drainage processes and better groundwater quality management. References Dogramaci S., McLean L., Skrzypek G., 2017. Hydrochemical and stable isotope indicators of pyrite oxidation in carbonate-rich environment; the Hamersley Basin, Western Australia. Journal of Hydrology 545, 288-298.

  8. Role of Hyperplasia of Gingival Lymphatics in Periodontal Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakou, P; Bletsa, A; Yassin, M A; Karlsen, T V; Wiig, H; Berggreen, E

    2017-04-01

    Lymphatic vessels are important for maintenance of tissue fluid homeostasis and afferent antigen transport. In chronic inflammation, lymphangiogenesis takes place and is characterized by lymphatic endothelial cell proliferation and lymphatic hyperplasia. Vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGFC) is the main known lymphangiogenic growth factor, and its expression is increased in periodontitis, a common chronic infectious disease that results in tissue destruction and alveolar bone loss. The role of lymphangiogenesis during development of periodontitis is unknown. Here, we test if transgenic overexpression of epithelial VEGFC in a murine model is followed by hyperplasia of lymphatic vessels in oral mucosa and if the lymphatic drainage capacity is altered. We also test if lymphatic hyperplasia protects against periodontal disease development. Transgenic keratin 14 (K14)-VEGFC mice had significant hyperplasia of lymphatics in oral mucosa, including gingiva, without changes in blood vessel vasculature. The basal lymph flow was normal but slightly lower than in wild-type mice when oral mucosa was challenged with lipopolysaccharide from Porphyromonas gingivalis. Under normal conditions, K14-VEGFC mice exhibited an increased number of neutrophils in gingiva, demonstrated enhanced phagocyte recruitment in the cervical lymph nodes, and had more alveolar bone when compared with their wild-type littermates. After induction of periodontitis, no strain differences were observed in the periodontal tissues with respect to granulocyte recruitment, bone resorption, angiogenesis, cytokines, and bone-related protein expressions or in draining lymph node immune cell proportions and vascularization. We conclude that overexpression of VEGFC results in hyperplastic lymphatics, which do not enhance lymphatic drainage capacity but facilitate phagocyte transport to draining lymph nodes. Hyperplasia of lymphatics does not protect against development of ligature-induced periodontitis.

  9. Evaluation of lymphatic dysplasia in patients with congenital pleural effusion and ascites using indocyanine green lymphography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibasaki, Jun; Hara, Hisako; Mihara, Makoto; Adachi, Shinya; Uchida, Yasushi; Itani, Yasufumi

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the use of indocyanine green (ICG) lymphography in the diagnosis and assessment of the severity of lymphatic dysfunction in infants and neonates with congenital lymphatic pleural effusion and ascites. We performed ICG lymphography on 10 neonates and infants with congenital lymphatic pleural effusion and ascites. After the subcutaneous injection of ICG, circumferential fluorescent images of lymphatic drainage channels in the extremities and trunk were identified using an infrared camera system. The lymphographic findings were classifiable into 2 patterns-those showing a linear lymphatic pattern, suggesting normal lymphatic flow, and those showing lymphatic channels with retrograde lymphatic flow (dermal backflow pattern), suggesting an abnormal lymphatic flow. We analyzed the severity of the ICG lymphography findings and the clinical outcomes. Based on the ICG lymphography, the severity of lymphatic dysplasia were classified into 4 categories: mild dysplasia, moderate dysplasia, severe dysplasia, and lymphatic hypoplasia. All cases diagnosed with mild (n = 3) or moderate dysplasia (n = 2) survived, and 2 of the 4 cases diagnosed with severe dysplasia died. The duration of endotracheal intubation ranged from 1 to 17 days (median, 7) in the patients with mild or moderate dysplasia and from 25 to 110 days (median, 77) in those with severe dysplasia. The ICG lymphographic findings were consistent with the clinical conditions. This imaging technique may be important to the future clinical management of lymphatic dysplasia in neonates and infants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Condensed research overview of agricultural drainage pipe detection and assessment using ground penetrating radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural subsurface drainage practices are employed in many places throughout the world to remove excess water from soil, thereby improving crop production. In order to improve and evaluate the efficiency of these subsurface drainage systems, non-destructive methods are needed to not only locate...

  11. The surgical anatomy of the lymphatic system of the pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesmebasi, Alper; Malefant, Jason; Patel, Swetal D; Du Plessis, Maira; Renna, Sarah; Tubbs, R Shane; Loukas, Marios

    2015-05-01

    The lymphatic system of the pancreas is a complex, intricate network of lymphatic vessels and nodes responsible for the drainage of the head, neck, body, and tail of the pancreas. Its anatomical divisions and embryological development have been well described in the literature with emphasis on its clinical relevance in regards to pancreatic pathologies. A thorough knowledge and understanding of the lymphatic system surrounding the pancreas is critical for physicians in providing diagnostic and treatment strategies for patients with pancreatic cancer and pancreatitis. Pancreatic cancer has an extremely poor prognosis and is a notable cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although a surgeon may try to predict the routes for metastasis for pancreatic cancer, the complexity of this system presents difficulty due to variable drainage patterns. Pancreatitis also presents as another severe disease which has been shown to have an association with the lymphatics. The aim of this article is to review the literature on the lymphatics of the pancreas, pancreatic pathologies, and the available imaging methodologies used to study the pancreatic lymphatics.

  12. Synthesis of a novel polyamidoamine dendrimer conjugating with alkali blue as a lymphatic tracer and study on the lymphatic targeting in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rui; Xia, Suxia; Ye, Tiantian; Yao, Jianhua; Zhang, Ruizhi; Wang, Shujun; Wang, Siling

    2016-09-01

    In this study, a novel lymphatic tracer polyamidoamin-alkali blue (PAMAM-AB) was synthesized in order to evaluate the intra-lymphatic targeting ability and lymphatic tropism of PAMAM-AB after subcutaneous administration. UV-Vis, FT-IR, NMR and HPLC characterization were performed to prove the successful synthesis of PAMAM-AB. The calculated AB payload of PAMAM-AB conjugate was seven per dendrimer molecule (27.16% by weight). Hydrolysis stability of PAMAM-AB in vitro was evaluated, which was stable in PBS and human plasma. Lymphatic tracing were studied to determine the blue-stained intensity of PAMAM-AB in right popliteral lymph nodes (PLNs), iliac lymph nodes (ILNs) and para-aortic lymph nodes (PALNs) after subcutaneous administration. The pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of PAMAM-AB in mice were investigated. PLNs, ILNs and PALNs could be obviously blue-stained within 10 min after PAMAM-AB administration, and displayed a more rapid lymphatic absorption, a higher AUC value in lymph nodes and a longer lymph nodes residence time compared with methylene blue solution (MB-S), MB water-in-oil microemulsion (MB-ME), MB multiple microemulsion (MB-MME). Enhanced lymphatic drainage from the injection site and uptake into lymph of PAMAM-AB indicated that PAMAM-AB possesses the double function of lymphatic tracing and lymphatic targeting, and suggested the potential for the development of lymphatic targeting vectors or as a lymphatic tracer in its own right.

  13. Localization and proliferation of lymphatic vessels in the tympanic membrane in normal state and regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyashita, Takenori, E-mail: takenori@med.kagawa-u.ac.jp [Department of Otolaryngology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan); Burford, James L. [Department of Physiology and Biophysics and Department of Medicine, Zilkha Neurogenetic Institute, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States); Hong, Young-Kwon [Department of Surgery and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States); Gevorgyan, Haykanush; Lam, Lisa [Department of Physiology and Biophysics and Department of Medicine, Zilkha Neurogenetic Institute, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States); Mori, Nozomu [Department of Otolaryngology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan); Peti-Peterdi, Janos [Department of Physiology and Biophysics and Department of Medicine, Zilkha Neurogenetic Institute, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States)

    2013-10-25

    Highlights: •We newly developed the whole-mount imaging method of the tympanic membrane. •Lymphatic vessel loops were localized around the malleus handle and annulus tympanicus. •In regeneration, abundant lymphatic vessels were observed in the pars tensa. •Site-specific lymphatic vessels may play an important role in the tympanic membrane. -- Abstract: We clarified the localization of lymphatic vessels in the tympanic membrane and proliferation of lymphatic vessels during regeneration after perforation of the tympanic membrane by using whole-mount imaging of the tympanic membrane of Prox1 GFP mice. In the pars tensa, lymphatic vessel loops surrounded the malleus handle and annulus tympanicus. Apart from these locations, lymphatic vessel loops were not observed in the pars tensa in the normal tympanic membrane. Lymphatic vessel loops surrounding the malleus handle were connected to the lymphatic vessel loops in the pars flaccida and around the tensor tympani muscle. Many lymphatic vessel loops were detected in the pars flaccida. After perforation of the tympanic membrane, abundant lymphatic regeneration was observed in the pars tensa, and these regenerated lymphatic vessels extended from the lymphatic vessels surrounding the malleus at day 7. These results suggest that site-specific lymphatic vessels play an important role in the tympanic membrane.

  14. Potential application of in vivo imaging of impaired lymphatic duct to evaluate the severity of pressure ulcer in mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasuya, Akira; Sakabe, Jun-Ichi; Tokura, Yoshiki

    2014-02-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury is a cause of pressure ulcer. However, a mechanism underlying the IR injury-induced lymphatic vessel damage remains unclear. We investigated the alterations of structure and function of lymphatic ducts in a mouse cutaneous IR model. And we suggested a new method for evaluating the severity of pressure ulcer. Immunohistochemistry showed that lymphatic ducts were totally vanished by IR injury, while blood vessels were relatively preserved. The production of harmful reactive oxygen species (ROS) was increased in injured tissue. In vitro study showed a high vulnerability of lymphatic endothelial cells to ROS. Then we evaluated the impaired lymphatic drainage using an in vivo imaging system for intradermally injected indocyanine green (ICG). The dysfunction of ICG drainage positively correlated with the severity of subsequent cutaneous changes. Quantification of the lymphatic duct dysfunction by this imaging system could be a useful strategy to estimate the severity of pressure ulcer.

  15. Subsurface old drainage detection and paleoenvironment analysis using spaceborne radar images in Alxa Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭华东; 刘浩; 王心源; 邵芸; 孙岩

    2000-01-01

    For geological and environmental research in an arid area, a unique advantage of radar remote sensing is that radar wave can penetrate a certain layer of dry sand (a few centimeters to meters thick) to reach the buried bedrock. The penetration capability is able to reveal the subsurface geological structure and old drainage paths. Based on the analysis of SIR-A, SIR-B, SIR-C, Radarsat ScanSAR, Landsat MSS and Landsat TM images acquired on different dates and the investigations made in several field trips in Alxa Plateau of Inner Mongolia, a number of old river valley and lake basins buried by wind-blown sand were recognized. Two parallel old drainage systems in the north and middle of the study area are delineated. The study suggests that the moving sand belts mainly follow the old drainage courses. This study also establishes a preliminary drainage evolution model for an area of about 300 000 km2 since the Tertiary, and finds that the Alxa Plateau was once an area with many rivers and lakes with a warm

  16. Subsurface old drainage detection and paleoenvironment analysis using spaceborne radar images in Alxa Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    For geological and environmental research in an arid area, a unique advantage of radar remote sensing is that radar wave can penetrate a certain layer of dry sand (a few centimeters to meters thick) to reach the buried bedrock. The penetration capability is able to reveal the subsurface geological structure and old drainage paths. Based on the analysis of SIR-A, SIR-B, SIR-C, Radarsat ScanSAR, Landsat MSS and Landsat TM images acquired on different dates and the investigations made in several field trips in Alxa Plateau of Inner Mongolia, a number of old river valley and lake basins buried by wind-blown sand were recognized. Two parallel old drainage systems in the north and middle of the study area are delineated. The study suggests that the moving sand belts mainly follow the old drainage courses. This study also establishes a preliminary drainage evolution model for an area of about 300 000 km2 since the Tertiary, and finds that the Alxa Plateau was once an area with many rivers and lakes with a warm and humid climate. The relief reversion caused by neotectonic movement since "Qinghai-Tibet movement" is also analyzed.

  17. 经胃镜胃黏膜下注射64排螺旋CT胃周淋巴结造影初探%Lymphatic Drainage from Gastric Tract:Preliminary Investigating Feasibility of Endoscopic 64-row Spiral CT Lymphography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱建兵; 陈光强; 李勇; 朱江涛; 张伟; 龚建平

    2012-01-01

    目的 初步探讨胃黏膜下注射64排螺旋CT胃周淋巴结造影的应用价值.方法 征集21例志愿患者,进行胃镜下胃黏膜下造影剂注射,然后进行64排螺旋CT扫描.结果 16例患者均在完成64排螺旋CT的扫描获得相应图像.CT图像显示5例患者可见肝脏及血管旁线性致密影呈现;14例非胃癌患者仅8例发现可辨别的淋巴结影,其中2例患者发现胃周淋巴结密度增高.结论 胃镜辅助下64排螺旋CT胃周淋巴结造影作为一种潜在的术前淋巴结造影的选择具有一定优越性,但是应用于临床需要进一步的研究.%Objective To investigate feasibility of endoscopic 64-row spiral CT lymphography of the gastric tract preliminarily.Methods With institutional committee approval,a total of 2mL of undiluted iopamidol was injected into the gastric submucosa by endoscope in 21 volunteer patients,then scanning with 64-row spiral CT. Result 16 patients completed CT scan and got the imaging needed;5 patients were found the line high attenuation nearby liver and vascular;8 of the 14 patients were found lymphatic nodes identified;2 patients were found high attenuation lymphatic nodes nearby stomach.Conclusion Endoscopic 64-row spiral CT lymphography of stomach as a potentially lymphography of the stomach,still needs more investigation for clinic application.

  18. LYMPHATIC SYSTEM: A FORGOTTEN AREA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Itkin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of new methods of visualization of the lymphatic system and in the treatment of several pathologies associated with impaired lymph fl ow. The lymphatic system is an integral part of the circulation. One of the main functions of the lymphatic system is to transport residual interstitial fl uid from the tissue back to the venous system. Despite growing recognition of the role of the lymphatic system in many disease processes, the techniques for imaging and interventions on the lymphatic system have lagged behind the well-developed methods for imaging and interventions on the cardiovascular systems. This is primarily due to small size and variability in anatomy of the lymphatic vessels, and diffi culty of introducing contrast into lymphatic ducts. Due to lack of imaging and intervention options, the fl ow function of the lymphatic system was relatively ignored over the last few decades. Recently, there has been resurgence in the interest in the fl ow function of the interventions on the lymphatic system with the development of percutaneous minimally invasive techniques, such as thoracic duct embolization, to treat life threatening lymphatic leaks. Our group recently introduced two new methods of lymphatic imaging: intranodal lymphangiography and dynamic contrast MR lymphangiography. These methods have allowed further understanding of lymphatic anatomy, pathophysiology, lymphodynamics, as well as provided guidance for novel minimally invasive lymphatic interventions. Using new techniques, the group discovered the causes and then developed treatments for several fatal conditions effecting single ventricle patients including plastic bronchitis and protein loosing enteropathy. Treatment for other conditions has evolved as well including congenital lymphodysplasia, chylothorax, and chylous ascites. The study of the liver lymphatic system has been little explored despite its signifi cant relevance as exampled in ascites formation in

  19. ENDOMETRIOSIS WITH LYMPHATIC SPREAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narmadha

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Pelvic endometriosis is a common gynaecologic problem. But the histogenesis of endometriosis was not so clear. Various theories have been proposed by Pathologist in the past. Here we present a case of endometriosis of fallopian tube by lymphatic spread which has been proved histopathologically

  20. Enzyme-histochemical study on postnatal development of rat stomach lymphatic vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, R C; Kato, S

    1997-07-01

    Postnatal development of rat gastric lymphatics was studied by an enzyme-histochemical method to elucidate the morphological changes of lymphatics and their relationship to maturation and function, especially in the glandular portion. The significant features of 5'-Nase-positive lymphatics in distribution and structure were examined in different stages (within 24 hr, 4-21 days, and 2 months). Lymphatics in the greater curvature and anterior wall grew much slower than those in the lesser curvature and posterior wall of the stomach in newborn and infant rats. Lymphatic islands isolated from the primary lymphatic networks in the submucosa and subserosa underwent a morphological change during this early period. This is considered one of the basic steps in lymphatic development. Occurrence of lymphatic networks in the deep lamina propria indicates that development in the gastric wall is well characterized from Day 10. With further growth and modification of lymphatics, the networks in the different layers formed an extensive communication network and many lymphatic valves were found in the submucosa and subserosa. Pinocytotic vesicles, open junctions, and intraendothelial channels were frequently detected in the mucosal and submucosal lymphatic networks of the corpus-antrum and antrum-duodenum divisional zones in the adult rats. These findings suggest that developing lymphatics in the rat stomach may represent rapidly growing tissue not only with high 5'-Nase activity but also with high adaptability for future physiological demands.

  1. Bioengineering dermo-epidermal skin grafts with blood and lymphatic capillaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Daniela; Luginbühl, Joachim; Scola, Simonetta; Meuli, Martin; Reichmann, Ernst

    2014-01-29

    The first bioengineered, autologous, dermo-epidermal skin grafts are presently undergoing clinical trials; hence, it is reasonable to envisage the next clinical step at the forefront of plastic and burn surgery, which is the generation of autologous skin grafts that contain vascular plexuses, preformed in vitro. As the importance of the blood, and particularly the lymphatic vascular system, is increasingly recognized, it is attractive to engineer both human blood and lymphatic vessels in one tissue or organ graft. We show here that functional lymphatic capillaries can be generated using three-dimensional hydrogels. Like normal lymphatics, these capillaries branch, form lumen, and take up fluid in vitro and in vivo after transplantation onto immunocompromised rodents. Formation of lymphatic capillaries could be modulated by both lymphangiogenic and anti-lymphangiogenic stimuli, demonstrating the potential usefulness of this system for in vitro testing. Blood and lymphatic endothelial cells never intermixed during vessel development, nor did blood and lymphatic capillaries anastomose under the described circumstances. After transplantation of the engineered grafts, the human lymphatic capillaries anastomosed to the nude rat's lymphatic plexus and supported fluid drainage. Successful preclinical results suggest that these skin grafts could be applied on patients suffering from severe skin defects.

  2. The Lymphatic Anatomy of the Lower Eyelid and Conjunctiva and Correlation with Postoperative Chemosis and Edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoukath, Sajna; Taylor, G Ian; Mendelson, Bryan C; Corlett, Russell J; Shayan, Ramin; Tourani, Saam S; Ashton, Mark W

    2017-03-01

    There are minimal data in the literature regarding the lymphatic drainage of the conjunctiva and lower eyelid and the relationship with postoperative chemosis and edema. Injection, microdissection, and histologic and radiologic studies were conducted on 12 hemifacial fresh cadaver specimens. Indocyanine green lymphography was conducted in five volunteers. Histology identified lymphatic vessels superficial and deep to the orbicularis oculi. Cadaveric dissection, injection, and radiographic studies identified interconnecting superficial and deep facial lymphatic systems and a conjunctival lymphatic network draining through the tarsal plate to the deep lymphatic system. The superficial lymphatic collectors traveled in subcutaneous fat within the lateral orbital and nasolabial fat compartments. The lateral deep lymphatic collectors traveled beneath orbicularis oculi, then through the superficial orbicularis retaining ligament, and into the sub-orbicularis oculi fat in the roof of the prezygomatic space. These vessels descended to preperiosteal fat at the level of zygomaticocutaneous ligaments to travel adjacent to the facial nerve into preauricular nodes. Indocyanine green lymphography identified correlating draining pathways laterally to the parotid nodes and medially to submandibular nodes. The authors have found that the lower eyelid and conjunctiva are drained by interconnecting superficial and deep lymphatic systems of the face. The superficial system is vulnerable to damage in incisions and dissection in the infraorbital area. The deep system is vulnerable to damage in dissection around the orbicularis retaining ligament and the zygomaticocutaneous ligaments. The authors suggest that concurrent damage to both the superficial and deep lymphatic systems, especially laterally, may be responsible for postoperative chemosis and edema.

  3. Pesticides detected in surface waters and fish of the Red River of the North drainage basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigham, Mark E.

    1994-01-01

    The Red River of the North drainage basin (herein referred to as Red River Basin) within the United States is a study unit under the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. The overall goals of this program, initiated to better define the status and trends of the Nation’s water quality, are to address regional and national water-quality issues in a nationally consistent manner. Pesticide contamination of surface water and fish is one focus of this program.

  4. Structural and functional features of central nervous system lymphatic vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louveau, Antoine; Smirnov, Igor; Keyes, Timothy J; Eccles, Jacob D; Rouhani, Sherin J; Peske, J David; Derecki, Noel C; Castle, David; Mandell, James W; Lee, Kevin S; Harris, Tajie H; Kipnis, Jonathan

    2015-07-16

    One of the characteristics of the central nervous system is the lack of a classical lymphatic drainage system. Although it is now accepted that the central nervous system undergoes constant immune surveillance that takes place within the meningeal compartment, the mechanisms governing the entrance and exit of immune cells from the central nervous system remain poorly understood. In searching for T-cell gateways into and out of the meninges, we discovered functional lymphatic vessels lining the dural sinuses. These structures express all of the molecular hallmarks of lymphatic endothelial cells, are able to carry both fluid and immune cells from the cerebrospinal fluid, and are connected to the deep cervical lymph nodes. The unique location of these vessels may have impeded their discovery to date, thereby contributing to the long-held concept of the absence of lymphatic vasculature in the central nervous system. The discovery of the central nervous system lymphatic system may call for a reassessment of basic assumptions in neuroimmunology and sheds new light on the aetiology of neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases associated with immune system dysfunction.

  5. Wound Drainage Culture (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Be Smart About Social Media Wound Drainage Culture KidsHealth > For Parents > Wound Drainage Culture Print A A A What's in this article? ... Have Questions What It Is A wound drainage culture is a test to detect germs such as ...

  6. Aberrant lymphatic endothelial progenitors in lymphatic malformation development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June K Wu

    Full Text Available Lymphatic malformations (LMs are vascular anomalies thought to arise from dysregulated lymphangiogenesis. These lesions impose a significant burden of disease on affected individuals. LM pathobiology is poorly understood, hindering the development of effective treatments. In the present studies, immunostaining of LM tissues revealed that endothelial cells lining aberrant lymphatic vessels and cells in the surrounding stroma expressed the stem cell marker, CD133, and the lymphatic endothelial protein, podoplanin. Isolated patient-derived CD133+ LM cells expressed stem cell genes (NANOG, Oct4, circulating endothelial cell precursor proteins (CD90, CD146, c-Kit, VEGFR-2, and lymphatic endothelial proteins (podoplanin, VEGFR-3. Consistent with a progenitor cell identity, CD133+ LM cells were multipotent and could be differentiated into fat, bone, smooth muscle, and lymphatic endothelial cells in vitro. CD133+ cells were compared to CD133- cells isolated from LM fluids. CD133- LM cells had lower expression of stem cell genes, but expressed circulating endothelial precursor proteins and high levels of lymphatic endothelial proteins, VE-cadherin, CD31, podoplanin, VEGFR-3 and Prox1. CD133- LM cells were not multipotent, consistent with a differentiated lymphatic endothelial cell phenotype. In a mouse xenograft model, CD133+ LM cells differentiated into lymphatic endothelial cells that formed irregularly dilated lymphatic channels, phenocopying human LMs. In vivo, CD133+ LM cells acquired expression of differentiated lymphatic endothelial cell proteins, podoplanin, LYVE1, Prox1, and VEGFR-3, comparable to expression found in LM patient tissues. Taken together, these data identify a novel LM progenitor cell population that differentiates to form the abnormal lymphatic structures characteristic of these lesions, recapitulating the human LM phenotype. This LM progenitor cell population may contribute to the clinically refractory behavior of LMs.

  7. A New Technique to Map the Lymphatic Distribution and Alignment of the Penis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Liu Yan; Qiang, Pan Fu; Ling, Tao; Wei, Zhang Yan; Long, Zhang Yu; Shan, Meng; Rong, Li Shi; Li, Li Hong

    2015-08-01

    of the penis and folded at the abdominal wall to the outside, and finally merged into the inguinal lymph nodes. The changes in distribution, number and diameter of the lymphatic vessels in the penis were observed by MRI. MIP and MIMICS reconstructions directly revealed the anatomical features of penile lymphatic vessels such as spatial distribution, overall alignment, and the relations to adjacent structures, drainage and reflux. The study will provide the anatomical basis for penile surgery, penile lymphatic reflux disorders caused by trauma or lymphatic vessels obstruction, and lymph node metastasis in penile cancer.

  8. An Apparent Deficiency of Lymphatic Capillaries in the Islets of Langerhans in the Human Pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsgren, Erik; Korsgren, Olle

    2016-04-01

    The lymphatic system is crucial for efficient immune surveillance and for the maintenance of a physiological pressure in the interstitial space. Even so, almost no information is available concerning the lymph drainage of the islets of Langerhans in the human pancreas. Immunohistochemical staining allowed us to distinguish lymphatic capillaries from blood capillaries. Almost no lymphatic capillaries were found within the islets in pancreatic biopsy specimens from subjects without diabetes or from subjects with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Lymphatic capillaries were, however, found at the islet-exocrine interface, frequently located along blood capillaries and other fibrotic structures within or close to the islet capsule. Lymphatic capillaries were regularly found in the exocrine pancreas, with small lymphatic vessels located close to and around acini. Larger collecting lymphatic vessels were located in fibrotic septa between the exocrine lobules and adjacent to the ductal system of the pancreas. In summary, we report a pronounced deficiency of lymphatic capillaries in human islets, a finding with implications for immune surveillance and the regulation of interstitial fluid transport in the endocrine pancreas as well as for the pathophysiology of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  9. 加强探放水工作 防治矿井水患%Strengthening water detection and drainage and preventing mine floods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任兴祎

    2011-01-01

    Integrating with hydrogeological conditions of the mine, this thesis analyzes features of aquifer, carries out water detection and drainage design, and respectively illustrates water detection and drainage drilling design, drill hole layout, and drainage system design and so on, with a view to guide practice, to eliminates mine floods, and to realize safe production as well.%摘要:结合某矿井水文地质实际情况,分析了该矿井含隔水层的特征,在此基础上进行了探放水设计,分别阐述了探放水钻窝设计、钻眼布置及排水系统设计要点等内容,以期指导实践,杜绝矿井水害威胁,实现安全生产。

  10. Study on intralymphatic-targeted hyaluronic acid-modified nanoliposome: influence of formulation factors on the lymphatic targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiantian, Ye; Wenji, Zhang; Mingshuang, Sun; Rui, Yang; Shuangshuang, Song; Yuling, Mao; Jianhua, Yao; Xinggang, Yang; Shujun, Wang; Weisan, Pan

    2014-08-25

    In this study, hyaluronic acid-modified docetaxel-loaded liposomes were prepared to evaluate the lymphatic targeting after subcutaneous administration, and formulation factors affecting the lymphatic targeting were examined, including free hyaluronic acid, molecular weight, hyaluronic acid-density and particle diameter. The high molecular weight hyaluronic acid-modified docetaxel-loaded liposomes (HA-LPs) and low molecular weight hyaluronic acid-modified docetaxel-loaded liposomes (LMWHA-LPs) were prepared via electrostatic attraction. The physicochemical properties and in vitro drug release were evaluated. The lymphatic drainage and the lymph node uptake were investigated by pharmacokinetics and distribution recovery of docetaxel in lymph nodes, injection site and plasma. The lymphatic targeting ability of optimized Cy7-loaded LMWHA-LPs (LMWHA-LPs/Cy7) was evaluated by near-infrared fluorescence imaging technique. The result showed that HA-LPs and LMWHA-LPs with suitable and stable physicochemical properties could be used for in vivo lymphatic targeting studies. Hyaluronic acid-modified liposome significantly increased the docetaxel recovery in lymph nodes, and displayed higher AUC(0-24h) and longer retention time compared to unmodified liposomes in vivo. In contrast, the presence of free hyaluronic acid hindered the lymphatic drainage and increased the plasma-drug concentration. Importantly, LMWHA-modification improved lymphatic drainage and lymph node uptake of liposomes compared with HA-modification. And Lymph node uptake of LMWHA-LPs depended mainly on LMWHA-density instead of particle size. The results of in vivo imaging showed that LMWHA-LPs/Cy7 significantly located in the lymphatic system. And both DTX-loaded and Cy7-loaded LMWHA-LPs had similar and stable lymphatic target level. Our investigation showed that LMWHA-LPs were a highly promising lymphatic targeting carrier for chemotherapy drugs and diagnostic fluorescence agents.

  11. Photoacoustic lymphatic imaging with high spatial-temporal resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Catherine; Yao, Junjie; Huang, Chih-Hsien; Zou, Jun; Randolph, Gwendalyn J.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2014-11-01

    Despite its critical function in coordinating the egress of inflammatory and immune cells out of tissues and maintaining fluid balance, the causative role of lymphatic network dysfunction in pathological settings is still understudied. Engineered-animal models and better noninvasive high spatial-temporal resolution imaging techniques in both preclinical and clinical studies will help to improve our understanding of different lymphatic-related pathologic disorders. Our aim was to take advantage of our newly optimized noninvasive wide-field fast-scanning photoacoustic (PA) microcopy system to coordinately image the lymphatic vasculature and its flow dynamics, while maintaining high resolution and detection sensitivity. Here, by combining the optical-resolution PA microscopy with a fast-scanning water-immersible microelectromechanical system scanning mirror, we have imaged the lymph dynamics over a large field-of-view, with high spatial resolution and advanced detection sensitivity. Depending on the application, lymphatic vessels (LV) were spectrally or temporally differentiated from blood vessels. Validation experiments were performed on phantoms and in vivo to identify the LV. Lymphatic flow dynamics in nonpathological and pathological conditions were also visualized. These results indicate that our newly developed PA microscopy is a promising tool for lymphatic-related biological research.

  12. In vivo quantification of lymph viscosity and pressure in lymphatic vessels and draining lymph nodes of arthritic joints in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouta, Echoe M; Wood, Ronald W; Brown, Edward B; Rahimi, Homaira; Ritchlin, Christopher T; Schwarz, Edward M

    2014-03-15

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory joint disease with episodic flares. In TNF-Tg mice, a model of inflammatory-erosive arthritis, the popliteal lymph node (PLN) enlarges during the pre-arthritic 'expanding' phase, and then 'collapses' with adjacent knee flare associated with the loss of the intrinsic lymphatic pulse. As the mechanisms responsible are unknown, we developed in vivo methods to quantify lymph viscosity and pressure in mice with wild-type (WT), expanding and collapsed PLN. While no differences in viscosity were detected via multiphoton fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (MP-FRAP) of injected FITC-BSA, a 32.6% decrease in lymph speed was observed in vessels afferent to collapsed PLN (P pressure (LNP) demonstrated a decrease in expanding PLN versus WT pressure (3.41 ± 0.43 vs. 6.86 ± 0.56 cmH2O; P pressure (LPP), measured indirectly by slowly releasing a pressurized cuff occluding indocyanine green (ICG), demonstrated an increase in vessels afferent to expanding PLN versus WT (18.76 ± 2.34 vs. 11.04 ± 1.47 cmH2O; P pressure, and provide evidence to support the hypothesis that lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic transport are compensatory mechanisms to prevent synovitis via increased drainage of inflamed joints. Furthermore, the decrease in lymphatic flow and loss of LPP during PLN collapse are consistent with decreased drainage from the joint during arthritic flare, and validate these biomarkers of RA progression and possibly other chronic inflammatory conditions.

  13. Exercise training improves obesity‐related lymphatic dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Key points Obesity results in perilymphatic inflammation and lymphatic dysfunction. Lymphatic dysfunction in obesity is characterized by decreased lymphatic vessel density, decreased collecting lymphatic vessel pumping frequency, decreased lymphatic trafficking of immune cells, increased lymphatic vessel leakiness and changes in the gene expression patterns of lymphatic endothelial cells. Aerobic exercise, independent of weight loss, decreases perilymphatic inflammatory cell accumulation, imp...

  14. Lymphatic vessel density and function in experimental bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maier Julie

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The lymphatics form a second circulatory system that drains the extracellular fluid and proteins from the tumor microenvironment, and provides an exclusive environment in which immune cells interact and respond to foreign antigen. Both cancer and inflammation are known to induce lymphangiogenesis. However, little is known about bladder lymphatic vessels and their involvement in cancer formation and progression. Methods A double transgenic mouse model was generated by crossing a bladder cancer-induced transgenic, in which SV40 large T antigen was under the control of uroplakin II promoter, with another transgenic mouse harboring a lacZ reporter gene under the control of an NF-κB-responsive promoter (κB-lacZ exhibiting constitutive activity of β-galactosidase in lymphatic endothelial cells. In this new mouse model (SV40-lacZ, we examined the lymphatic vessel density (LVD and function (LVF during bladder cancer progression. LVD was performed in bladder whole mounts and cross-sections by fluorescent immunohistochemistry (IHC using LYVE-1 antibody. LVF was assessed by real-time in vivo imaging techniques using a contrast agent (biotin-BSA-Gd-DTPA-Cy5.5; Gd-Cy5.5 suitable for both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and near infrared fluorescence (NIRF. In addition, IHC of Cy5.5 was used for time-course analysis of co-localization of Gd-Cy5.5 with LYVE-1-positive lymphatics and CD31-positive blood vessels. Results SV40-lacZ mice develop bladder cancer and permitted visualization of lymphatics. A significant increase in LVD was found concomitantly with bladder cancer progression. Double labeling of the bladder cross-sections with LYVE-1 and Ki-67 antibodies indicated cancer-induced lymphangiogenesis. MRI detected mouse bladder cancer, as early as 4 months, and permitted to follow tumor sizes during cancer progression. Using Gd-Cy5.5 as a contrast agent for MRI-guided lymphangiography, we determined a possible reduction of lymphatic

  15. Study on the mechanism of regulation on peritoneal lymphatic stomata with Chinese herbal medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Shi-Ping; Li, Ji-Cheng; Xu, Jian; Mao, Lian-Gen

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To study the mechanism of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM, the prescription consists of Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae, Radix Codonopsitis Pilosulae, Rhizoma Atractylodis Alba and Rhizoma Alismatis, Leonurus Heterophyllus Sweet, etc) on the regulation of the peritoneal lymphatic stomata and the ascites drainage.

  16. Lymphatic Biodistribution of Polylactide Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaney, Eric J.; Tang, Li; Tong, Rong; Cheng, Jianjun; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2013-01-01

    Tumor metastases occur through both the cardiovascular and lymphatic circulations. However, the majority of nanoparticle biodistribution studies have been focused on the cardiovascular circulation. In this study, we report the formulation of Cy5-labeled polylactide (Cy5-PLA) nanoparticles with controlled size and surface features and the subsequent evaluation of their lymphatic biodistribution. Cy5-PLA nanoparticles were formulated through Cy5/(BDI)ZnN(TMS)2-mediated [(BDI) = 2-((2,6-diisopropylphenyl) amido)-4-((2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-imino)-2-pentene] ring-opening polymerization of lactide followed by nanoprecipitation. Their lymphatic biodistribution was evaluated by using whole-body fluorescence imaging of nude mice and ex vivo fluorescence imaging of the resected organs. This technique has the potential for providing optical contrast and drug delivery through the lymphatic circulation for the treatment of metastatic cancer. PMID:20487681

  17. Lymphatic Biodistribution of Polylactide Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J. Chaney

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Tumor metastases occur through both the cardiovascular and lymphatic circulations. However, the majority of nanoparticle biodistribution studies have been focused on the cardiovascular circulation. In this study, we report the formulation of Cy5-labeled polylactide (Cy5-PLA nanoparticles with controlled size and surface features and the subsequent evaluation of their lymphatic biodistribution. Cy5-PLA nanoparticles were formulated through Cy5/(BDIZnN(TMS2-mediated [(BDI = 2-((2,6-diisopropylphenyl amido-4-((2,6-diisopropylphenyl-imino-2-pentene] ring-opening polymerization of lactide followed by nanoprecipitation. Their lymphatic biodistribution was evaluated by using whole-body fluorescence imaging of nude mice and ex vivo fluorescence imaging of the resected organs. This technique has the potential for providing optical contrast and drug delivery through the lymphatic circulation for the treatment of metastatic cancer.

  18. Albendazole for lymphatic filariasis (Review)

    OpenAIRE

    Addiss, D; Gamble, C.; Garner, Paul; Gelband, H; Ejere, H.; Critchley, J.

    2009-01-01

    Background\\ud Mass treatment with albendazole co-administered with another antifilarial drug is part of a global programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis. We sought reliable evidence of the effects of albendazole on the disease and the parasite.\\ud Objectives\\ud To summarize the effects of albendazole alone or in combination with antifilarial drugs for clinical treatment and community control of lymphatic filariasis.\\ud Search strategy\\ud We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group ...

  19. Lymphatic Regulation of Cellular Trafficking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Lymphatic vessels play vital roles in immune surveillance and immune regulation by conveying antigen loaded dendritic cells, memory T cells, macrophages and neutrophils from the peripheral tissues to draining lymph nodes where they initiate as well as modify immune responses. Until relatively recently however, there was little understanding of how entry and migration through lymphatic vessels is organized or the specific molecular mechanisms that might be involved. Within the last decade, the situation has been transformed by an explosion of knowledge generated largely through the application of microscopic imaging, transgenic animals, specific markers and function blocking mAbs that is beginning to provide a rational conceptual framework. This article provides a critical review of the recent literature, highlighting seminal discoveries that have revealed the fascinating ultrastructure of leucocyte entry sites in lymphatic vessels, as well as generating controversies over the involvement of integrin adhesion, chemotactic and haptotactic mechanisms in DC entry under normal and inflamed conditions. It also discusses the major changes in lymphatic architecture that occur during inflammation and the different modes of leucocyte entry and trafficking within inflamed lymphatic vessels, as well as presenting a timely update on the likely role of hyaluronan and the major lymphatic endothelial hyaluronan receptor LYVE-1 in leucocyte transit.

  20. Health killer, "drainage oil" harm and detection of%健康杀手--“地沟油”危害及识别检测初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宏斌

    2014-01-01

    drainage oil is actually the people in life for all kinds of bad oil collectively, poor quality, extremely not wholesome non edible oil. It contains toxin, once edible, can destroy leucocyte and gastrointestinal mucosa, causing food poisoning, and even cancer. According to the characteristics of the group of drainage oil, drainage oil through the senses, physical and chemical identification and detection methods, for the relevant departments to punish the illegal reselling of drainage oil traders, people can rest assured to provide the basis of recognition of edible oil.%地沟油实际上是人们在生活中对于各类劣质油的统称,质量极差、极不卫生的非食用油。它含有毒素,一旦食用,则会破坏白血球和消化道黏膜,引起食物中毒,甚至致癌。根据地沟油的特征特性组分,地沟油可通过感官、理化检测方法识别,为相关管理部门惩处非法倒卖地沟油商贩,老百姓购买放心食用油提供识别依据。

  1. Mechanisms of lymphatic regeneration after tissue transfer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Yan

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Lymphedema is the chronic swelling of an extremity that occurs commonly after lymph node resection for cancer treatment. Recent studies have demonstrated that transfer of healthy tissues can be used as a means of bypassing damaged lymphatics and ameliorating lymphedema. The purpose of these studies was to investigate the mechanisms that regulate lymphatic regeneration after tissue transfer. METHODS: Nude mice (recipients underwent 2-mm tail skin excisions that were either left open or repaired with full-thickness skin grafts harvested from donor transgenic mice that expressed green fluorescent protein in all tissues or from LYVE-1 knockout mice. Lymphatic regeneration, expression of VEGF-C, macrophage infiltration, and potential for skin grafting to bypass damaged lymphatics were assessed. RESULTS: Skin grafts healed rapidly and restored lymphatic flow. Lymphatic regeneration occurred beginning at the peripheral edges of the graft, primarily from ingrowth of new lymphatic vessels originating from the recipient mouse. In addition, donor lymphatic vessels appeared to spontaneously re-anastomose with recipient vessels. Patterns of VEGF-C expression and macrophage infiltration were temporally and spatially associated with lymphatic regeneration. When compared to mice treated with excision only, there was a 4-fold decrease in tail volumes, 2.5-fold increase in lymphatic transport by lymphoscintigraphy, 40% decrease in dermal thickness, and 54% decrease in scar index in skin-grafted animals, indicating that tissue transfer could bypass damaged lymphatics and promote rapid lymphatic regeneration. CONCLUSIONS: Our studies suggest that lymphatic regeneration after tissue transfer occurs by ingrowth of lymphatic vessels and spontaneous re-connection of existing lymphatics. This process is temporally and spatially associated with VEGF-C expression and macrophage infiltration. Finally, tissue transfer can be used to bypass damaged lymphatics

  2. Lymphatic regulation in nonmammalian vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, Michael S; Hillman, Stanley S; Drewes, Robert C; Withers, Philip C

    2013-08-01

    All vertebrate animals share in common the production of lymph through net capillary filtration from their closed circulatory system into their tissues. The balance of forces responsible for net capillary filtration and lymph formation is described by the Starling equation, but additional factors such as vascular and interstitial compliance, which vary markedly among vertebrates, also have a significant impact on rates of lymph formation. Why vertebrates show extreme variability in rates of lymph formation and how nonmammalian vertebrates maintain plasma volume homeostasis is unclear. This gap hampers our understanding of the evolution of the lymphatic system and its interaction with the cardiovascular system. The evolutionary origin of the vertebrate lymphatic system is not clear, but recent advances suggest common developmental factors for lymphangiogenesis in teleost fishes, amphibians, and mammals with some significant changes in the water-land transition. The lymphatic system of anuran amphibians is characterized by large lymphatic sacs and two pairs of lymph hearts that return lymph into the venous circulation but no lymph vessels per se. The lymphatic systems of reptiles and some birds have lymph hearts, and both groups have extensive lymph vessels, but their functional role in both lymph movement and plasma volume homeostasis is almost completely unknown. The purpose of this review is to present an evolutionary perspective in how different vertebrates have solved the common problem of the inevitable formation of lymph from their closed circulatory systems and to point out the many gaps in our knowledge of this evolutionary progression.

  3. Urban lymphatic filariasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Paul Erik; Mwakitalu, Mbutolwe E.

    2013-01-01

    impact. However, with rapid and unplanned growth of cities in the developing world, there is a need also to consider LF transmission and control in urban settings. Here, we review currently available knowledge on urban LF and the environmental and socio-economic basis for its occurrence. Among the three...... and drainage facilities. For this reason, urban LF also often shows a marked focality in distribution, with most cases clustered in areas inhabited by the less privileged city populations. More knowledge on urban LF is needed, in particular on its socio-economic and human behavioural context, on the potential...... parasite species causing LF in humans, only Wuchereria bancrofti has been documented to have a significant potential for urban transmission. This is primarily because one of its vectors, Culex quinquefasciatus, thrives and proliferates excessively in crowded city areas with poor sanitary, sewerage...

  4. Topography of Lymphatic Markers in Human Iris and Ciliary Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaser-Eichberger, Alexandra; Schrödl, Falk; Trost, Andrea; Strohmaier, Clemens; Bogner, Barbara; Runge, Christian; Motloch, Karolina; Bruckner, Daniela; Laimer, Martin; Schlereth, Simona L; Heindl, Ludwig M; Reitsamer, Herbert A

    2015-07-01

    Reports of lymphatics in the anterior human uvea are contradictory. This might be caused due to a certain topography, which has not been considered yet. Therefore, here we systematically analyze iris and adjacent ciliary body with immunohistochemistry by combining various lymphatic markers. Human iris and ciliary body were obtained from cornea donors and prepared for cryosectioning. Cross sections of tissue blocks at 12/3/6/9 o'clock position and at corresponding intersections (1:30/4:30/7:30/10:30) were processed for immunohistochemistry of LYVE-1, PDPN, PROX1, FOXC2, VEGFR3, and CCL21, and when necessary, these lymphatic markers were combined with CD31, α-smooth muscle-actin, CD68, and 4',6-diamidino-2 phenylindole dihydrochloride (DAPI). Double, triple, and quadruple marker combinations were documented using confocal microscopy. Numerous podoplanin+ cells were mainly located at the anterior border of the iris while LYVE-1+ cells were distributed throughout the nonpigmented part. Both cell populations were PROX1/FOXC2/CCL21/VEGFR3-. Blood vessels, iris smooth muscles, and individual cells were VEGFR3+. While PDPN+ cells were rarely detected posteriorly of the iris root, many LYVE-1+ cells were present within the ciliary body muscle and villi. Within the muscle, occasionally PDPN+ vessel-like structures were detectable, but these were never colocalized with LYVE-1. Similar vessel-like structures were VEGFR3+/PROX1-/CCL21-, but CD31+. Further, ciliary muscle fibers and ciliary epithelium were immunoreactive for VEGFR3/CCL21, but were LYVE-1/PDPN-. A certain topography of structures at the various uvea-positions investigated was not obvious. The majority of LYVE-1+ cells displayed immunoreactivity for CD68. Lymphatic vessels colocalizing for at least two lymphatic markers were not detectable. Therefore, if present, putative lymphatic channels of the anterior uvea might display a different marker panel than generally presumed.

  5. Digging deeper into lymphatic vessel formation in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiry Marc

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abnormal lymphatic vessel formation (lymphangiogenesis is associated with different pathologies such as cancer, lymphedema, psoriasis and graft rejection. Lymphatic vasculature displays distinctive features than blood vasculature, and mechanisms underlying the formation of new lymphatic vessels during physiological and pathological processes are still poorly documented. Most studies on lymphatic vessel formation are focused on organism development rather than lymphangiogenic events occurring in adults. We have here studied lymphatic vessel formation in two in vivo models of pathological lymphangiogenesis (corneal assay and lymphangioma. These data have been confronted to those generated in the recently set up in vitro model of lymphatic ring assay. Ultrastructural analyses through Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM were performed to investigate tube morphogenesis, an important differentiating process observed during endothelial cell organization into capillary structures. Results In both in vivo models (lymphangiogenic corneal assay and lymphangioma, migrating lymphatic endothelial cells extended long processes exploring the neighboring environment and organized into cord-like structures. Signs of intense extracellular matrix remodeling were observed extracellularly and inside cytoplasmic vacuoles. The formation of intercellular spaces between endothelial cells led to tube formation. Proliferating lymphatic endothelial cells were detected both at the tips of sprouting capillaries and inside extending sprouts. The different steps of lymphangiogenesis observed in vivo are fully recapitulated in vitro, in the lymphatic ring assay and include: (1 endothelial cell alignment in cord like structure, (2 intracellular vacuole formation and (3 matrix degradation. Conclusions In this study, we are providing evidence for lymphatic vessel formation through tunneling relying on extensive matrix remodeling, migration and alignment of

  6. Fluorescein sodium fluorescence microscope-integrated lymphangiography for lymphatic supermicrosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayestaray, Benoit; Bekara, Farid

    2015-07-01

    Microscope-integrated lymphangiography is a useful method in the field of lymphatic supermicrosurgery. Fluorescence based on indocyanine green (ICG) is the most commonly used. Fluorescein sodium is a fluorescent tracer used for retinal and neurosurgical angiography but not yet for lymphatic supermicrosurgery. In this report, we present a case in which the fluorescein sodium fluorescence microscope-integrated lymphangiography was used for assessment of lymphatic drainage pathway and patency in a patient treated for secondary lymphedema by lymphaticovenular anastomoses. Fluorescein sodium fluorescence microscope-integrated lymphangiography was evaluated in a 67-year-old female presented for a Campisi clinical stage IV lymphedema of the upper limb. Transcutaneous guidance and vascular fluorescence were assessed. A comparison with ICG fluorescence was made intraoperatively. Two lymphaticovenular anastomoses were performed and their patency were checked by lymphangiography. Transcutaneous signal was found higher with fluorescein sodium fluorescence. Intraluminal visualization was possible with fluorescein sodium coloration during lymphaticovenular anastomoses. No adverse reaction occurred. The circumferential differential reduction rate of affected limb was 8.1% 3 months after lymphaticovenular anastomoses. The use of fluorescence microscope-integrated lymphangiography with fluorescein sodium may be superior to ICG fluorescence in assistance of lymphaticovenular anastomoses. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Scarpa Fascia Preservation in Abdominoplasty: Does It Preserve the Lymphatics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourani, Saam S; Taylor, G Ian; Ashton, Mark W

    2015-08-01

    The course of the cutaneous lymphatic collectors of the abdominal wall in relation to the Scarpa fascia is unclear in the literature. Preserving the Scarpa fascia in the lower abdomen to reduce the seroma rate following abdominoplasty has been suggested based on the assumption that the lower abdominal lymphatics run deep to this layer along their entire course. Using the previously described technique, the superficial lymphatic drainage of eight hemiabdomen specimens from four fresh human cadavers was investigated. The upper and lower abdominal collectors originated at the umbilical and midline watershed areas in a subdermal plane by the union of precollectors draining the dermis. In the lower abdomen, the depth of the collectors gradually increased in the subcutaneous fat as they coursed toward the groin. They eventually pierced the Scarpa fascia before draining into the superficial inguinal nodes located deep to this layer. The transition from the supra- to the infra-Scarpa fascia plane occurred within 2 to 3 cm of the inguinal ligament in 95 percent of the collectors. In the four cadavers studied, preserving the Scarpa fascia during abdominoplasty would not preserve the lower abdominal collectors.

  8. Lymphatic Filariasis control in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Paul Erik; Pedersen, Erling Møller; Rwegoshora, Rwehumbiza T.

    2010-01-01

    In most countries of sub-Saharan Africa the control of lymphatic filariasis (LF) is based on annual mass drug administration (MDA) with a combination of ivermectin and albendazole, in order to interrupt transmission. Here we present the first detailed study on the effect of 3 repeated MDAs...

  9. Lymphatic filariasis control in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Paul Erik; Derua, Yahya A.; Kisinza, William N.

    2013-01-01

    Control of lymphatic filariasis (LF) in most countries of sub-Saharan Africa is based on annual mass drug administration (MDA) with a combination of ivermectin and albendazole, in order to interrupt transmission. We present findings from a detailed study on the effect of six rounds of MDA...

  10. Lymphatic Filariasis control in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Paul Erik; Pedersen, Erling Møller; Rwegoshora, Rwehumbiza T.;

    2010-01-01

    In most countries of sub-Saharan Africa the control of lymphatic filariasis (LF) is based on annual mass drug administration (MDA) with a combination of ivermectin and albendazole, in order to interrupt transmission. Here we present the first detailed study on the effect of 3 repeated MDAs with t...

  11. Development and validation of a custom made indocyanine green fluorescence lymphatic vessel imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallotta, Olivia J.; van Zanten, Malou; McEwen, Mark; Burrow, Lynne; Beesley, Jack; Piller, Neil

    2015-06-01

    Lymphoedema is a chronic progressive condition often producing significant morbidity. An in-depth understanding of an individual's lymphatic architecture is valuable both in the understanding of underlying pathology and for targeting and tailoring treatment. Severe lower limb injuries resulting in extensive loss of soft tissue require transposition of a flap consisting of muscle and/or soft tissue to close the defect. These patients are at risk of lymphoedema and little is known about lymphatic regeneration within the flap. Indocyanine green (ICG), a water-soluble dye, has proven useful for the imaging of lymphatic vessels. When injected into superficial tissues it binds to plasma proteins in lymph. By exposing the dye to specific wavelengths of light, ICG fluoresces with near-infrared light. Skin is relatively transparent to ICG fluorescence, enabling the visualization and characterization of superficial lymphatic vessels. An ICG fluorescence lymphatic vessel imager was manufactured to excite ICG and visualize real-time fluorescence as it travels through the lymphatic vessels. Animal studies showed successful ICG excitation and detection using this imager. Clinically, the imager has assisted researchers to visualize otherwise hidden superficial lymphatic pathways in patients postflap surgery. Preliminary results suggest superficial lymphatic vessels do not redevelop in muscle flaps.

  12. [Anatomy of the pelvic lymphatic system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfram-Gabel, R

    2013-10-01

    The lymphatic system of the pelvis collects the lymph of the genital and urinary organs and of the digestive tract. It is formed by lymphatic nodes and vessels situated inside the conjunctive tissue, near the organs (visceral lymphatic nodes) but especially along the external, internal and common iliac vessels (iliac lymphatic nodes). These nodes receive afferent vessels issued from the different pelvic organs. From the iliac lymphnodes arise efferent vessels running towards lymphatic collectors, situated above them, and which end in the lymphatic lombar duct. The lymphatic pathways represent the preferential way of scattering of cancerous cells. Therefore, the knowledge of the anatomy, of the situation and of the draining of the nodes is of the utmost importance in the evaluation of a cancer of a pelvic organ.

  13. Land drainage system detection using IR and visual imagery taken from autonomous mapping airship and evaluation of physical and spatial parameters of suggested method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koska, Bronislav; Křemen, Tomáš; Štroner, Martin; Pospíšil, Jiří; Jirka, Vladimír.

    2014-10-01

    An experimental approach to the land drainage system detection and its physical and spatial parameters evaluation by the form of pilot project is presented in this paper. The novelty of the approach is partly based on using of unique unmanned aerial vehicle - airship with some specific properties. The most important parameters are carrying capacity (15 kg) and long flight time (3 hours). A special instrumentation was installed for physical characteristic testing in the locality too. The most important is 30 meter high mast with 3 meter length bracket at the top with sensors recording absolute and comparative temperature, humidity and wind speed and direction in several heights of the mast. There were also installed several measuring units recording local condition in the area. Recorded data were compared with IR images taken from airship platform. The locality is situated around village Domanín in the Czech Republic and has size about 1.8 x 1.5 km. There was build a land drainage system during the 70-ties of the last century which is made from burnt ceramic blocks placed about 70 cm below surface. The project documentation of the land drainage system exists but real state surveying haveńt been never realized. The aim of the project was land surveying of land drainage system based on infrared, visual and its combination high resolution orthophotos (10 cm for VIS and 30 cm for IR) and spatial and physical parameters evaluation of the presented procedure. The orthophoto in VIS and IR spectrum and its combination seems to be suitable for the task.

  14. Invasion of lymphatic vessels into the eye after open globe injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Julia M; Hofmann-Rummelt, Carmen; Kruse, Friedrich E; Cursiefen, Claus; Heindl, Ludwig M

    2012-06-20

    We analyzed whether lymphatic vessels can be detected in eyes enucleated after an open globe injury. The presence of lymphatic vessels was analyzed immunohistochemically using podoplanin as a specific lymphatic endothelial marker in 21 globes that had been enucleated after open globe injury. The localization of pathologic lymphatic vessels (within the eye wall or inside the eye) was correlated with the mechanism of trauma, anatomic site of perforation or rupture, and time interval between trauma and enucleation. Pathologic lymphatic vessels were detected in 15 of 21 eyes (71%) enucleated after an open globe injury. In 5 globes (24%) they were found within the eye, located in retrocorneal membranes, underneath the sclera, and adjacent to uveal tissue (ciliary body, iris). No significant association was observed between the presence of pathologic lymphatic vessels and the mechanism of trauma (P = 0.598), anatomic site of perforation or rupture (P = 0.303), and time interval between trauma and enucleation (P = 0.145). The human eye can be invaded secondarily by lymphatic vessels if the eye wall is opened by trauma. This mechanism could be important for wound healing, immunologic defense against intruding microorganisms, and autoimmune reactions against intraocular antigens.

  15. Lymphatic system and lymphoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    2009236 Clinical significance in detection of immunoglobulin heavy chain clonal rearrangement in bone marrow of patients with B cell lymphoma.CHEN Zhiyu(陈治宇),et al.Dept Med Oncol,Cancer Hosp,Fudan Univ;Dept Oncel,Shanghai Med Coll,Fudan Univ,Shanghai 200032,Chin J Oncol,2009;3193):183-188.

  16. Albendazole for lymphatic filariasis (Review)

    OpenAIRE

    Addiss, D; Critchley, J.; Ejere, H.; Garner, Paul; Gelband, H; Gamble, C.

    2005-01-01

    Background\\ud Mass treatment with albendazole, co-administered with another antifilarial drug, is being promoted as part of a global programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis.\\ud Objectives\\ud To assess the effects of albendazole on patients or populations with filarial infection, and on morbidity in patients with filarial infection; and to assess the frequency of adverse events for albendazole both given singly or in combination with another antifilarial drug (diethylcarbamazine or ivermec...

  17. Effect of cerebral lymphatic block on cerebral morphology and cortical evoked potential in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuoli Xia; Baoling Sun; Mingfeng Yang; Dongmei Hu; Tong Zhao; Jingzhong Niu

    2006-01-01

    . Morphological changes of the brain and alterations of latency of cortical evoked potential were detected on the 1st ,2nd 3rd ,5th ,7th ,10th and 15th .days after operation under general,light microscope and electronic microscope observations.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:①Cerebral morphological changes;②latent changes of cortical evoked potential.RESULTS:A total of 63 rats were involved in the final analysis.①Cerebral morphological changes:General observation showed that,for cerebral lymphatic block rats,the surface of brain was pale and full,and cerebral gyrus was wide and flattened sulci after cerebral lymphatic block; and cerebral tissue space prolongation,increased interstitial fluid, neuronal degeneration and necrosis,diffused phagocytes and satellitosis were observed under light microscope.Neuronal swell and necrosis,gilal cell swell,apparent subcellular changes such as mitochondron were observed under electronic microscope. ②Latent changes of cortical evoked potential:As compared with sham-operation control group.1atency of cortical evoked potential in cerebral lymphatic blockage group prolonged on the 5th day and 7th day after cerebral lymphatic block[(6.28±0.23),(6.97±0.35)ms;(6.23±0.22),(7.12±0.20)ms;P<0.01].CONCLUSION:①Cerebral lymphatic block plays an important role in cerebral morphology,and may result in abnormaliy of sensitive impulse conduction and prolong latency of cortical evoked potential.②Examination of cortical evoked potential is easy and convenient,so it is regarded as a key index for lymphatic disturbed cerebral injury.

  18. Lymphatic system and lymphoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008337 The relationship between the haplotype of T cells immunoglobulin mucin-3 gene and allergic asthma in the Han population from Hubei province of China. HU Lihua(胡丽华), et al. Dept Lab, Union Hosp, Tongji Med Coll, Huazhong Sci & Technol Univ, Wuhan 430022. Chin J Tuberc Respir Dis 2008;31(3):196-200.Objective To investigate the single nucleotide polymorphisms(SNPs)of-1516G/T in the promoter region and 4259G/Tin the exon-3 region of the Tcells immunoglobulin mucin-3(TIM-3)and their linkage disequilibrium,and therefore to detect their haplotype relationship

  19. Lymphatics and Lymphangiogenesis in the Eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shintaro Nakao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymphatic is a prerequisite for the maintenance of tissue fluid balance and immunity in the body. A body of evidence also shows that lymphangiogenesis plays important roles in the pathogenesis of diseases such as tumor metastasis and inflammation. The eye was thought to lack lymphatic vessels except for the conjunctiva; however, advances in the field, including the identification of lymphatic endothelial markers (e.g., LYVE-1 or podoplanin and lymphangiogenic factors (e.g., VEGF-C, have revealed the exsitence and possible roles of lymphatics and lymphangiogenesis in the eye. Recent studies have shown that corneal limbus, ciliary body, lacrimal gland, orbital meninges, and extraocular muscles contain lymphatic vessels and that the choroid might have a lymphatic-like system. There is no known lymphatic outflow from the eye. However, several lymphatic channels including uveolymphatic pathway might serve the ocular fluid homeostasis. Furthermore, lymphangiogenesis plays important roles in pathological conditions in the eye including corneal transplant rejection and ocular tumor progression. Yet, the role of lymphangiogenesis in most eye diseases, especially inflammatory disease or edema, remains unknown. A better understanding of lymphatic and lymphangiogenesis in the eye will open new therapeutic opportunities to prevent vision loss in ocular diseases.

  20. Lymphatics and cancer : VEGF-C and nitric oxide in lymphatic function, lymphangiogenesis, and metastasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagendoorn, Jeroen

    2006-01-01

    The lymphatics are a primary route for cancer metastasis and lymph node metastasis is an important clinical prognostic factor. The process of lymphatic metastasis is, however, not well understood. This thesis examines the function of lymphatic vessels in relation to cancer progression and metastasis

  1. Detection of sentinel lymph nodes by lymphatic gammagraphy and intraoperative gamma-ray probe in patients with malignant melanoma. Initial results

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vidal-Sicart, S; Piulachs, J; Pons, F; Castel, T; Palou, J; Herranz, R; Setoain, J

    1998-01-01

    ...). We studied 20 patients with MM: 10 with palpable regional lymph nodes and 10 without palpable LN by performing a lymphoscintigraphy using 99mTc-nanocolloid and a gamma-ray detecting probe during the surgery to locate the sentinel lymph node...

  2. Research Progress on Detection Methods of the Drainage Oil%地沟油检测方法的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海龙

    2016-01-01

    近年来,地沟油作为严重的食品安全问题得到了广泛关注,目前还没有非常有效的检测方法。本文对地沟油检测方法的最新研究进展进行了综述,包括检测指标、原理及优缺点等,旨在为建立地沟油检测体系提供参考。%In recent years , restaurant waste oil as the food safety problem has been attracted extensive attention , and currently there is no effective authentication method .The latest research advances in detection methods for drainage oil is summarized, including the detection indexes , principles, merits and drawbacks , etc, it aims to provide reference for the establishment of waste oil testing system .

  3. Podoplanin immunopositive lymphatic vessels at the implant interface in a rat model of osteoporotic fractures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Susanne Lips

    Full Text Available Insertion of bone substitution materials accelerates healing of osteoporotic fractures. Biodegradable materials are preferred for application in osteoporotic patients to avoid a second surgery for implant replacement. Degraded implant fragments are often absorbed by macrophages that are removed from the fracture side via passage through veins or lymphatic vessels. We investigated if lymphatic vessels occur in osteoporotic bone defects and whether they are regulated by the use of different materials. To address this issue osteoporosis was induced in rats using the classical method of bilateral ovariectomy and additional calcium and vitamin deficient diet. In addition, wedge-shaped defects of 3, 4, or 5 mm were generated in the distal metaphyseal area of femur via osteotomy. The 4 mm defects were subsequently used for implantation studies where bone substitution materials of calcium phosphate cement, composites of collagen and silica, and iron foams with interconnecting pores were inserted. Different materials were partly additionally functionalized by strontium or bisphosphonate whose positive effects in osteoporosis treatment are well known. The lymphatic vessels were identified by immunohistochemistry using an antibody against podoplanin. Podoplanin immunopositive lymphatic vessels were detected in the granulation tissue filling the fracture gap, surrounding the implant and growing into the iron foam through its interconnected pores. Significant more lymphatic capillaries were counted at the implant interface of composite, strontium and bisphosphonate functionalized iron foam. A significant increase was also observed in the number of lymphatics situated in the pores of strontium coated iron foam. In conclusion, our results indicate the occurrence of lymphatic vessels in osteoporotic bone. Our results show that lymphatic vessels are localized at the implant interface and in the fracture gap where they might be involved in the removal of

  4. Lymphatic filariasis in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kron, M; Walker, E; Hernandez, L; Torres, E; Libranda-Ramirez, B

    2000-08-01

    Lymphatic filariasis caused by Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi is endemic throughout most of the southern half of the Philippine archipelago. Economic and manpower shortages prior to 1996 made it difficult to acquire new prevalence data and vector control data concurrently from all provinces. Nevertheless, analysis of cumulative prevalence data on filariasis indicates the persistence of filariasis in each of the three major island groups - Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao - including 45 out of 77 provinces. Here, Michael Kron and colleagues summarize the prevalence data, and review host, parasite and vector characteristics relevant to the design and implementation of disease control initiatives in the Philippines planned for the year 2000.

  5. Lymphatic imaging in unsedated infants and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, John C.; Balaguru, Duraisamy; Douglas, William I.; Breinholt, John P.; Greives, Matthew R.; Aldrich, Melissa B.; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.

    2017-02-01

    Primary lymphedema and lymphatic malformations in the pediatric population remains poorly diagnosed and misunderstood due to a lack of information on the underlying anatomy and function of the lymphatic system. Diagnostics for the lymphatic vasculature are limited, consisting of lymphoscintigraphy or invasive lymphangiography, both of which require sedation that can restrict use in infants and children. As a result, therapeutic protocols for pediatric patients with lymphatic disorders remain sparse and with little evidence to support them. Because near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging enables image acquisition on the order of tenths of seconds with trace administration of fluorescent dye, sedation is not necessary. The lack of harmful radiation and radioactive contrast agents further facilitates imaging. Herein we summarize our experiences in imaging infants and children who are suspected to have disorders of the lymphatic vascular system using indocyanine green (ICG) and who have developed chylothorax following surgery for congenital heart defects. The results show both anatomical as well as functional lymphatic deficits in children with congenital disease. In the future, NIRF lymphatic imaging could provide new opportunities to tailor effective therapies and monitor responses. The opportunity to use expand NIRF imaging for pediatric diagnostics beyond the lymphatic vasculature is also afforded by the rapid acquisition following trace administration of NIRF contrast agent.

  6. Lymphatic Vascular-Based Therapy for IBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    intestine which lead to a failure in normal intestinal lymphatic patterning and may be a model of human lymphedema distichiasis. These mice are... lymphedema distichiasis (humans) is not apparent, this is not seen in this model either. There is a reported apparent greater engorgement of lymphatic

  7. Lymphatics in lymphangioleiomyomatosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souheil El-Chemaly

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The primary function of the lymphatic system is absorbing and transporting macromolecules and immune cells to the general circulation, thereby regulating fluid, nutrient absorption and immune cell trafficking. Lymphangiogenesis plays an important role in tissue inflammation and tumour cell dissemination. Lymphatic involvement is seen in lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF. LAM, a disease primarily affecting females, involves the lung (cystic destruction, kidney (angiomyolipoma and axial lymphatics (adenopathy and lymphangioleiomyoma. LAM occurs sporadically or in association with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC. Cystic lung destruction results from proliferation of LAM cells, which are abnormal smooth muscle-like cells with mutations in the TSC1 or TSC2 gene. Lymphatic abnormalities arise from infiltration of LAM cells into the lymphatic wall, leading to damage or obstruction of lymphatic vessels. Benign appearing LAM cells possess metastatic properties and are found in the blood and other body fluids. IPF is a progressive lung disease resulting from fibroblast proliferation and collagen deposition. Lymphangiogenesis is associated with pulmonary destruction and disease severity. A macrophage subset isolated from IPF bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF express lymphatic endothelial cell markers in vitro, in contrast to the same macrophage subset from normal BALF. Herein, we review lymphatic involvement in LAM and IPF.

  8. Imported lymphatic filariasis in an Indian immigrant to iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eshrat Beigom Kia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis (LF, a nematode disease transmitted by arthropod vectors, is repeatedly reported in immigrant population. This disease is not endemic in Iran; however, different species of mosquitoes, capable of transmission of parasite microfilaria, are distributed in the country. Hereby, incidental detection of an imported case of LF due to Wuchereria bancrofti in an Indian worker in Iran is reported. Identification of the case was performed based on morphological and morphometrical characteristics of microfilaria and PCR sequencing.

  9. Cardiac lymphatic dynamics after ischemia and reperfusion - experimental model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, A.C. E-mail: cristina@imagem.ibili.uc.pt; Lima, J.J.P. de; Botelho, M.F.; Pacheco, M.F.; Sousa, P.; Bernardo, J.; Ferreira, N.; Goncalves, L.; Aguiar, J.; Providencia, L.A.; Pauwels, E.K.J

    1998-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the lymphatic cardiac circulation in an experimental model of ischemia plus reperfusion in mongrel dogs (Canis familiaris L). As radiotracer we used 0.2-0.25 ml (111 MBq) of {sup 99m}Tc-Re{sub 2}S{sub 7} colloid ({+-}10 {mu}m), injected subcapsullary below the second diagonal of the descending anterior ligated coronary artery with a special needle. A {gamma}-camera/Starport + DecStation were used for data acquisition. Four experimental groups with five animals each were established: G I = controls; G II = immediately after acute myocardial infarction (AMI); G III = late infarction (5 days after AMI); G IV = ischemia (90 min) + reperfusion. Four regions of interest (ROIs) were chosen: injection area (ZA), above (ZB), near right (ZD), and far right (ZC) from ZA. Mean disappearance times in ZA and dynamic parameters in the other ROIs were determined from activity/time curves drawn in each area, using homemade software. The results obtained seem to indicate that the methodology is appropriate to a detailed study of lymphatic drainage in pathological situations in animal models.

  10. [The interpretation of immunophenotyping results during diagnostics of lymphatic proliferative disease using immunophenotyping count].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaeva, N V; Zaĭtseva, G A; Zagoskina, T P

    2013-02-01

    The article considers immune phenotyping heterogeneity of chronic lymphatic leukemia detected using basic diagnostic markers ofcell. The results of analysis of immune phenotypes of 108 patients with B-cell lymphatic proliferative diseases made it possible to establish that the atypical is related most rarely to indicators of expression of monotypic immunoglobulines and CD5 and most frequently to CD23, FMC7, CD22 and CS79b. During the present observation, the immune phenotyping count made up "3" or "2"points and the atypical alternative was registered among 10% of all examined patients with chronic lymphatic leukemia. It is demonstrated that patients with chronic lymphatic leukemia and with lower immune phenotyping count are characterized by major intensity of tumor substrate.

  11. Sentinel Lymph Node Detection in Contralateral Axilla at Initial Presentation of a Breast Cancer Patient: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülin Uçmak Vural

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The main basin for breast lymphatic drainage is ipsilateral axilla. However, extra-axillary drainage may be seen in some patients. The most common extra-axillary site is internal mammary chain, while contralateral axillary drainage is an extremely rare situation in previously untreated patients. We describe a case of untreated right breast retroareolar carcinoma with contralateral axillary drainage detected on preoperative lymphoscintigraphy. Contralateral axillary dissection was performed based on the result of frozen section examination of the sentinel lymph node (SLN which turned out to burden micrometastasis. Postoperative histopathological examination revealed invasive ductal carcinoma metastasis in 17 out of 22 lymph nodes from the ipsilateral axillary dissection, whereas 14 lymph nodes from contralateral axillary dissection other than the SLN were nonmetastatic. In our opinion, determination of contralateral axillary metastasis in primary staging process had a major contribution to the management of the patient

  12. The effect of interstitial pressure on tumor growth: coupling with the blood and lymphatic vascular systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Min; Frieboes, Hermann B; McDougall, Steven R; Chaplain, Mark A J; Cristini, Vittorio; Lowengrub, John

    2013-03-07

    The flow of interstitial fluid and the associated interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) in solid tumors and surrounding host tissues have been identified as critical elements in cancer growth and vascularization. Both experimental and theoretical studies have shown that tumors may present elevated IFP, which can be a formidable physical barrier for delivery of cell nutrients and small molecules into the tumor. Elevated IFP may also exacerbate gradients of biochemical signals such as angiogenic factors released by tumors into the surrounding tissues. These studies have helped to understand both biochemical signaling and treatment prognosis. Building upon previous work, here we develop a vascular tumor growth model by coupling a continuous growth model with a discrete angiogenesis model. We include fluid/oxygen extravasation as well as a continuous lymphatic field, and study the micro-environmental fluid dynamics and their effect on tumor growth by accounting for blood flow, transcapillary fluid flux, interstitial fluid flow, and lymphatic drainage. We thus elucidate further the non-trivial relationship between the key elements contributing to the effects of interstitial pressure in solid tumors. In particular, we study the effect of IFP on oxygen extravasation and show that small blood/lymphatic vessel resistance and collapse may contribute to lower transcapillary fluid/oxygen flux, thus decreasing the rate of tumor growth. We also investigate the effect of tumor vascular pathologies, including elevated vascular and interstitial hydraulic conductivities inside the tumor as well as diminished osmotic pressure differences, on the fluid flow across the tumor capillary bed, the lymphatic drainage, and the IFP. Our results reveal that elevated interstitial hydraulic conductivity together with poor lymphatic function is the root cause of the development of plateau profiles of the IFP in the tumor, which have been observed in experiments, and contributes to a more uniform

  13. Detection and Characterization of Ultrafine Fe-as-pb Colloids In Acid Rock Drainage Solution From An Ore Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zänker, H.; Moll, H.; Richter, W.; Brendler, V.; Hennig, C.; Reich, T.; Kluge, A.; Hüttig, G.

    The processes of sulfide oxidation, water acidification and water mineralization in abandoned ore mines are closely associated with the existence of gangue fissures in the host rock that contain clay minerals and finely-divided sulfide ores. These fissures release highly mineralized, red-colored acid rock drainage (ARD) solutions which can be collected from pools in front of the fissures. ARD solution from an abandoned Zn-Pb-A g mine at Freiberg, Germany, (pH 2.7, sulfate concentration 411 mmol/l, Fe concentration 93,5 mmol/l) was nvestigated by photon correlation i spectroscopy, centrifugation, filtration, ultrafiltration, scanning electron microscopy, ICP-MS, AAS, ion chromatography, TOC analysis and X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. The question was if this ARD solution contains colloidal particles of the lower nanometer range or if it is particle-free after the common filtration through a 450-nm filter. We found that there is a small amount (about 20 mg/l) of submicron particles of about 100 nm in size. However, the major colloidal component was shown to be a population of ultrafine particles of less than 5 nm. The concentration of these particles is about 1 g/l. They consist of Fe, As and Pb compounds. According to EXAFS spectroscopy, their most probable mineralogical composition is a mixture of hydronium jarosite (HFe3(SO4)2(OH)6) and schwertmannite (ideally Fe8O8(OH)6SO 4). We also observed the formation of a relatively coarse precipitate of a similar mineralogy in the colloidal solution over a time span of months. The ultrafine colloids are obviously an intermediate in the formation process of the long-term precipitate. The arsenic is probably bound onto the ultrafine colloidal particles as a bidentate binuclear ars enate surface complex (inner-sphere complex). However, the transformation of the colloids into the more aggregated long-term precipitate leads to the incorporation of the arsenic into the interior of the iron hydroxy sulfate

  14. Lymph Nodes and Cancer Metastasis: New Perspectives on the Role of Intranodal Lymphatic Sinuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Cheng Ji

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The lymphatic system is essential for transporting interstitial fluid, soluble antigen, and immune cells from peripheral tissues to lymph nodes (LNs. Functional integrity of LNs is dependent on intact lymphatics and effective lymph drainage. Molecular mechanisms that facilitate interactions between tumor cells and lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs during tumor progression still remain to be identified. The cellular and molecular structures of LNs are optimized to trigger a rapid and efficient immune response, and to participate in the process of tumor metastasis by stimulating lymphangiogenesis and establishing a premetastatic niche in LNs. Several molecules, e.g., S1P, CCR7-CCL19/CCL21, CXCL12/CXCR4, IL-7, IFN-γ, TGF-β, and integrin α4β1 play an important role in controlling the activity of LN stromal cells including LECs, fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs and follicular dendritic cells (DCs. The functional stromal cells are critical for reconstruction and remodeling of the LN that creates a unique microenvironment of tumor cells and LECs for cancer metastasis. LN metastasis is a major determinant for the prognosis of most human cancers and clinical management. Ongoing work to elucidate the function and molecular regulation of LN lymphatic sinuses will provide insight into cancer development mechanisms and improve therapeutic approaches for human malignancy.

  15. In vivo determination of collecting lymphatic vessel permeability to albumin: a role for lymphatics in exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scallan, Joshua P; Huxley, Virginia H

    2010-01-01

    While it is well established that the lymphatic vasculature is central to fluid and solute homeostasis, how it accomplishes this task is not well defined. To clarify the basic mechanisms underlying basal fluid and solute homeostasis, we assessed permeability to rat serum albumin () in mesenteric collecting lymphatic vessels and venules of juvenile male rats. Using the quantitative microfluorometric technique originally developed for blood capillaries, we tested the hypothesis that as a consequence of venules and collecting lymphatics sharing a common embryological origin, their would not differ significantly. Supporting our hypothesis, the median collecting lymphatic (3.5 ± 1.0 × 10−7 cm s−1, N= 22) did not differ significantly from the median venular (4.0 ± 1.0 × 10−7 cm s−1, N= 8, P= 0.61). For collecting lymphatics the diffusive permeability (Pd= 2.5 × 10−7 cm s−1) was obtained from the relationship of apparent and pressure. While the measured , Pd and estimated hydraulic conductivity of collecting lymphatics and venules were similar, the contribution of convective coupling differs as a result of the higher hydrostatic pressure experienced by venules relative to collecting lymphatics in vivo. In summary, the data demonstrate the capacity for collecting lymphatics to act as exchange vessels, able to extravasate solute and filter fluid. As a consequence these data provide experimental support for the theory that prenodal lymphatic vessels concentrate intraluminal protein. PMID:19917564

  16. Spatio-temporal detection of the Thiomonas population and the Thiomonas arsenite oxidase involved in natural arsenite attenuation processes in the Carnoulès Acid Mine Drainage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnès eHovasse

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The acid mine drainage (AMD impacted creek of the Carnoulès mine (Southern France is characterized by acid waters with a high heavy metal content. The microbial community inhabiting this AMD was extensively studied using isolation, metagenomic and metaproteomic methods, and the results showed that a natural arsenic (and iron attenuation process involving the arsenite oxidase activity of several Thiomonas strains occurs at this site. A sensitive quantitative Selected Reaction Monitoring (SRM-based proteomic approach was developed for detecting and quantifying the two subunits of the arsenite oxidase and RpoA of two different Thiomonas groups. Using this approach combined with 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis based on pyrosequencing and FISH, it was established here for the first time that these Thiomonas strains are ubiquitously present in minor proportions in this AMD and that they express the key enzymes involved in natural remediation processes at various locations and time points. In addition to these findings, this study also confirms that targeted proteomics applied at the community level can be used to detect weakly abundant proteins in situ.

  17. Follicular thyroid carcinoma invades venous rather than lymphatic vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yulin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC tends to metastasize to remote organs rather than local lymph nodes. Separation of FTC from follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA relies on detection of vascular and/or capsular invasion. We investigated which vascular markers, CD31, CD34 and D2-40 (lymphatic vessel marker, can best evaluate vascular invasion and why FTC tends to metastasize via blood stream to remote organs. Thirty two FTCs and 34 FTAs were retrieved for evaluation. The average age of patients with FTA was 8 years younger than FTC (p = 0.02. The female to male ratio for follicular neoplasm was 25:8. The average size of FTC was larger than FTA (p = 0.003. Fourteen of 32 (44% FTCs showed venous invasion and none showed lymphatic invasion, with positive CD31 and CD34 staining and negative D2-40 staining of the involved vessels. The average number of involved vessels was 0.88 ± 1.29 with a range from 0 to 5, and the average diameter of involved vessels was 0.068 ± 0.027 mm. None of the 34 FTAs showed vascular invasion. CD31 staining demonstrated more specific staining of vascular endothelial cells than CD34, with less background staining. We recommended using CD31 rather than CD34 and/or D2-40 in confirming/excluding vascular invasion in difficult cases. All identified FTCs with vascular invasions showed involvement of venous channels, rather than lymphatic spaces, suggesting that FTCs prefer to metastasize via veins to distant organs, instead of lymphatic vessels to local lymph nodes, which correlates with previous clinical observations.

  18. Comparative and Developmental Anatomy of Cardiac Lymphatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ratajska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of the cardiac lymphatic system has been recently appreciated since lymphatic disturbances take part in various heart pathologies. This review presents the current knowledge about normal anatomy and structure of lymphatics and their prenatal development for a better understanding of the proper functioning of this system in relation to coronary circulation. Lymphatics of the heart consist of terminal capillaries of various diameters, capillary plexuses that drain continuously subendocardial, myocardial, and subepicardial areas, and draining (collecting vessels that lead the lymph out of the heart. There are interspecies differences in the distribution of lymphatic capillaries, especially near the valves, as well as differences in the routes and number of draining vessels. In some species, subendocardial areas contain fewer lymphatic capillaries as compared to subepicardial parts of the heart. In all species there is at least one collector vessel draining lymph from the subepicardial plexuses and running along the anterior interventricular septum under the left auricle and further along the pulmonary trunk outside the heart and terminating in the right venous angle. The second collector assumes a different route in various species. In most mammalian species the collectors run along major branches of coronary arteries, have valves and a discontinuous layer of smooth muscle cells.

  19. Advances in Lymphatic Imaging and Drug Delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nune, Satish K.; Gunda, Padmaja; Majeti, Bharat K.; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Laird, Forrest M.

    2011-09-10

    Cancer remains the second leading cause of death after heart disease in the US. While metastasized cancers such as breast, prostate, and colon are incurable, before their distant spread, these diseases will have invaded the lymphatic system as a first step in their progression. Hence, proper evaluation of the disease state of the lymphatics which drain a tumor site is crucial to staging and the formation of a treatment plan. Current lymphatic imaging modalities with visible dyes and radionucleotide tracers offer limited sensitivity and poor resolution; however, newer tools using nanocarriers, quantum dots, and magnetic resonance imaging promise to vastly improve the staging of lymphatic spread without needless biopsies. Concurrent with the improvement of lymphatic imaging agents, has been the development of drug carriers that can localize chemotherapy to the lymphatic system, thus improving the treatment of localized disease while minimizing the exposure of healthy organs to cytotoxic drugs. This review will focus on polymeric systems that have been developed for imaging and drug delivery to the lymph system, how these new devices improve upon current technologies, and where further improvement is needed.

  20. Comparative and Developmental Anatomy of Cardiac Lymphatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajska, A.; Gula, G.; Flaht-Zabost, A.; Czarnowska, E.; Ciszek, B.; Jankowska-Steifer, E.; Niderla-Bielinska, J.; Radomska-Lesniewska, D.

    2014-01-01

    The role of the cardiac lymphatic system has been recently appreciated since lymphatic disturbances take part in various heart pathologies. This review presents the current knowledge about normal anatomy and structure of lymphatics and their prenatal development for a better understanding of the proper functioning of this system in relation to coronary circulation. Lymphatics of the heart consist of terminal capillaries of various diameters, capillary plexuses that drain continuously subendocardial, myocardial, and subepicardial areas, and draining (collecting) vessels that lead the lymph out of the heart. There are interspecies differences in the distribution of lymphatic capillaries, especially near the valves, as well as differences in the routes and number of draining vessels. In some species, subendocardial areas contain fewer lymphatic capillaries as compared to subepicardial parts of the heart. In all species there is at least one collector vessel draining lymph from the subepicardial plexuses and running along the anterior interventricular septum under the left auricle and further along the pulmonary trunk outside the heart and terminating in the right venous angle. The second collector assumes a different route in various species. In most mammalian species the collectors run along major branches of coronary arteries, have valves and a discontinuous layer of smooth muscle cells. PMID:24592145

  1. Connexins in lymphatic vessel physiology and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meens, Merlijn J; Sabine, Amélie; Petrova, Tatiana V; Kwak, Brenda R

    2014-04-17

    Connexins are transmembrane proteins that form gap junction- and hemi-channels. Once inserted into the membrane, hemi-channels (connexons) allow for diffusion of ions and small molecules (Gap junction channels allow diffusion of similar molecules between the cytoplasms of adjacent cells. The expression and function of connexins in blood vessels has been intensely studied in the last few decades. In contrast, only a few studies paid attention to lymphatic vessels; convincing in vivo data with respect to expression patterns of lymphatic connexins and their functional roles have only recently begun to emerge. Interestingly, mutations in connexin genes have been linked to diseases of lymphatic vasculature, most notably primary and secondary lymphedema. This review summarizes the available data regarding lymphatic connexins. More specifically it addresses (i) early studies aimed at presence of gap junction-like structures in lymphatic vessels, (ii) more recent studies focusing on lymphatic connexins using genetically engineered mice, and (iii) results of clinical studies that have reported lymphedema-linked mutations in connexin genes. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Lymphatic fluid: exchange mechanisms and regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxley, Virginia H; Scallan, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Regulation of fluid and material movement between the vascular space of microvessels penetrating functioning organs and the cells therein has been studied extensively. Unanswered questions as to the regulatory mechanisms and routes remain. Significantly less is known about the lymphatic vascular system given the difficulties in seeing, no less isolating, these vessels lying deeper in these same tissues. It has become evident that the exchange microvasculature is not simply a passive biophysical barrier separating the vascular and interstitial compartments but a dynamic, multicellular structure subject to acute regulation and chronic adaptation to stimuli including inflammation, sepsis, diabetes, injury, hypoxia and exercise. Similarly lymphatic vessels range, in their simplest form, from lymphatic endothelium attached to the interstitial matrix, to endothelia and phasic lymphatic smooth muscle that act as Starling resistors. Recent work has demonstrated that among the microvascular lymphatic elements, the collecting lymphatics have barrier properties similar to venules, and thus participate in exchange. As with venules, vasoactive agents can alter both the permeability and contractile properties thereby setting up previously unanticipated gradients in the tissue space and providing potential targets for the pharmacological prevention and/or resolution of oedema. PMID:21521763

  3. [Little Dry Creek Drainage

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Map of the drainage boundary, direction of flow, canals and ditches, and streets for the drainage study plan and profile for Little Dry Creek sub area in the North...

  4. Percutaneous Abscess Drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Percutaneous Abscess Drainage An abscess is an infected fluid collection ... are the benefits vs. risks? What is Percutaneous Abscess Drainage? An abscess is an infected fluid collection ...

  5. Transient drainage summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    This report summarizes the history of transient drainage issues on the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. It defines and describes the UMTRA Project disposal cell transient drainage process and chronicles UMTRA Project treatment of the transient drainage phenomenon. Section 4.0 includes a conceptual cross section of each UMTRA Project disposal site and summarizes design and construction information, the ground water protection strategy, and the potential for transient drainage.

  6. Regulating effect of Chinese herbal medicine on the peritoneal lymphatic stomata in enhancing ascites absorption of experimental hepatofibrotic mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-Cheng Li; Shi-Ping Ding; Jian Xu

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To observe the regulatory effect of Chinese herbalmedicine on peritoneal lymphatic stomata and itssignificance in treating ascites in liver fibrosis model mice.METHODS: Two Chinese herbal composite prescriptionswere used separately to treat the carbon tetrachloride-induced mouse model of liver fibrosis. The histo-pathologicchanges of the liver sections (HE and VG stainings) wereobserved. The peritoneal lymphatic stomata was detected byscanning electron microscopy and computer imageprocessing. The changes of urinary volume and sodium ionconcentration were measured.RESULTS: In the model group, lots of fibrous tissue formedin liver and extended into the hepatic Iobulss to separatethem incompletely. In the treated and prevention groups,the histo-pathologic changes of liver was rather milder, onlyshowed much less fibrous tissue proliferation in the hepaticIobules. The peritoneal lymphatic stomata enlarged withincreased density in the experimental groups (diameter:PA, 3.07±0.69μm; PB, 2.82±0.37μm; TA, 3.25±0.82μmand TB, 2.82±0.56μm; density: PA, 7.11± 1.90 stomata@1000μm-2; PB, 8.76± 1.45 stomata@ 1000μm-2; TA, 6.55± 1.44 stomata@ 1000μm-2 and TB, 8.76 ± 1. 79 stomata@ 1000μm-2), as compared with the model group (diameter: 2.00 ±0.52μm; density: 4.45 ± 1. 05 stomata@ 1000 μm-2 ). Aftertreatment, the urinary volume and sodium ion excretionincreased in the experimental groupe ( PA, 231.28 ± 41. 09mmol@L-1; PB, 171.69± 27.48 mmol@L-1 and TA, 231.44±34.12 retool@ L-1 ), which were significantly different with thosein the model group (129.33 ± 36.75 rnmol@ L-1 ).CONCLUSION: Chinese herbal medicine has marked effectsin alleviating liver fibrosis, regulating peritoneal lymphaticstomata, improving the drainage of ascites from peritonealcavity and causing increase of urinary volume and sodiumion excretion to reduce the water and sodium retention, andthus have favorable therapeutic effect in treating ascites.

  7. Lymphatic Vessel Function and Lymphatic Growth Factor Secretion after Microvascular Lymph Node Transfer in Lymphedema Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiina P. Viitanen, MD

    2013-05-01

    Conclusions: Reconstructing the lymphatic anatomy of the axilla with a lymph node flap may offer possibilities that other reconstructive options are lacking. However, we will need further reports and comparative studies about the clinical efficacy of this new promising technique. In addition to the transferred lymph nodes, lymphatic growth factor production may also be induced by other factors related to microvascular breast reconstruction.

  8. Superselective retrograde lymphatic duct embolization for management of postoperative lymphatic leak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Bülent; Masrani, Abdulrahman; Tasse, Jordan Cameron; Stenson, Kerstin; Turba, Ülkü Cenk

    2017-01-01

    Lymphatic leak is a well-documented complication following neck dissection surgeries. When conservative methods fail to control the leak, thoracic duct embolization becomes an option. Transabdominal access is the standard for this procedure; however, it is not always feasible. We discuss a technique of selective lymphatic vessel embolization utilizing retrograde transvenous access.

  9. Interstitial magnetic resonance lymphography is an effective diagnostic tool for the detection of lymph node metastases in patients with cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Ying

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present study was to determine the feasibility of detecting sentinel lymph node (SLN metastases using interstitial magnetic resonance (MR lymphography in patients with cervical cancer. MR data were compared to pathological results from the lymph nodes excised during surgery. Methods Twenty-eight patients with cervical cancer were enrolled and studied from January 2006 to December 2010. All patients underwent interstitial MR lymphography to determine the presence of sentinel lymph nodes and visualize lymphatic vessel drainage in the pelvis. Radical hysterectomy and excision of pelvic lymph nodes was performed according to their lesion grade. Gadodiamide was injected either intradermally into the bipedal toe web, into the labia majora or into the cervical tissue. MR results were compared with pathological reports. Results In 28 patients, lymphatic vessel drainage and lymph node groups were clearly visualized. Of these, 5 were MR lymphography positive and 23 were MR lymphography negative. Six had pathologically proven metastasis, five had true positives and 1 had a false negative in the obturator lymph node. Conclusions Interstitial MR lymphography can be used to determine the extent and shape of pelvic lymphatic vessel drainage and lymph node metastases in patients with cervical cancer.

  10. Exercise training improves obesity‐related lymphatic dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespe, Geoffrey E.; Kataru, Raghu P.; Savetsky, Ira L.; García Nores, Gabriela D.; Torrisi, Jeremy S.; Nitti, Matthew D.; Gardenier, Jason C.; Zhou, Jie; Yu, Jessie Z.; Jones, Lee W.

    2016-01-01

    Key points Obesity results in perilymphatic inflammation and lymphatic dysfunction.Lymphatic dysfunction in obesity is characterized by decreased lymphatic vessel density, decreased collecting lymphatic vessel pumping frequency, decreased lymphatic trafficking of immune cells, increased lymphatic vessel leakiness and changes in the gene expression patterns of lymphatic endothelial cells.Aerobic exercise, independent of weight loss, decreases perilymphatic inflammatory cell accumulation, improves lymphatic function and reverses pathological changes in gene expression in lymphatic endothelial cells. Abstract Although previous studies have shown that obesity markedly decreases lymphatic function, the cellular mechanisms that regulate this response remain unknown. In addition, it is unclear whether the pathological effects of obesity on the lymphatic system are reversible with behavioural modifications. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to analyse lymphatic vascular changes in obese mice and to determine whether these pathological effects are reversible with aerobic exercise. We randomized obese mice to either aerobic exercise (treadmill running for 30 min per day, 5 days a week, for 6 weeks) or a sedentary group that was not exercised and analysed lymphatic function using a variety of outcomes. We found that sedentary obese mice had markedly decreased collecting lymphatic vessel pumping capacity, decreased lymphatic vessel density, decreased lymphatic migration of immune cells, increased lymphatic vessel leakiness and decreased expression of lymphatic specific markers compared with lean mice (all P < 0.01). Aerobic exercise did not cause weight loss but markedly improved lymphatic function compared with sedentary obese mice. Exercise had a significant anti‐inflammatory effect, resulting in decreased perilymphatic accumulation of inflammatory cells and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression. In addition, exercise normalized isolated lymphatic

  11. Exercise training improves obesity-related lymphatic dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespe, Geoffrey E; Kataru, Raghu P; Savetsky, Ira L; García Nores, Gabriela D; Torrisi, Jeremy S; Nitti, Matthew D; Gardenier, Jason C; Zhou, Jie; Yu, Jessie Z; Jones, Lee W; Mehrara, Babak J

    2016-08-01

    Obesity results in perilymphatic inflammation and lymphatic dysfunction. Lymphatic dysfunction in obesity is characterized by decreased lymphatic vessel density, decreased collecting lymphatic vessel pumping frequency, decreased lymphatic trafficking of immune cells, increased lymphatic vessel leakiness and changes in the gene expression patterns of lymphatic endothelial cells. Aerobic exercise, independent of weight loss, decreases perilymphatic inflammatory cell accumulation, improves lymphatic function and reverses pathological changes in gene expression in lymphatic endothelial cells. Although previous studies have shown that obesity markedly decreases lymphatic function, the cellular mechanisms that regulate this response remain unknown. In addition, it is unclear whether the pathological effects of obesity on the lymphatic system are reversible with behavioural modifications. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to analyse lymphatic vascular changes in obese mice and to determine whether these pathological effects are reversible with aerobic exercise. We randomized obese mice to either aerobic exercise (treadmill running for 30 min per day, 5 days a week, for 6 weeks) or a sedentary group that was not exercised and analysed lymphatic function using a variety of outcomes. We found that sedentary obese mice had markedly decreased collecting lymphatic vessel pumping capacity, decreased lymphatic vessel density, decreased lymphatic migration of immune cells, increased lymphatic vessel leakiness and decreased expression of lymphatic specific markers compared with lean mice (all P exercise did not cause weight loss but markedly improved lymphatic function compared with sedentary obese mice. Exercise had a significant anti-inflammatory effect, resulting in decreased perilymphatic accumulation of inflammatory cells and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression. In addition, exercise normalized isolated lymphatic endothelial cell gene expression of lymphatic

  12. Results of optical Monte Carlo simulations of a compact γ camera for the detection of sentinel lymph nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Dean; Truman, Andrew; Kwok, Harry; Bergman, Alanah

    2001-07-01

    Breast cancer is most often treatable when detected in the early stages, before the primary disease spreads to sentinel lymph nodes in the axilla and supraclavicular region. A sentinel lymph node is the closest adjacent lymph node to receive lymphatic drainage from a primary breast tumour. It is from these nodes that cancer cells metastasise throughout the lymphatic system, spreading the disease. This work details the optical Monte Carlo modelling of an ultra compact, nuclear medicine γ camera that will be used intra-operatively to detect malignant sentinel lymph nodes. This development will improve the identification and localisation of these sentinel nodes, thereby facilitating improved techniques for axillary lymph node dissection, and sentinel lymph node biopsy.

  13. Results of optical Monte Carlo simulations of a compact {gamma} camera for the detection of sentinel lymph nodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, Dean; Truman, Andrew E-mail: atruman@bccancer.bc.ca; Kwok, Harry; Bergman, Alanah

    2001-07-11

    Breast cancer is most often treatable when detected in the early stages, before the primary disease spreads to sentinel lymph nodes in the axilla and supraclavicular region. A sentinel lymph node is the closest adjacent lymph node to receive lymphatic drainage from a primary breast tumour. It is from these nodes that cancer cells metastasise throughout the lymphatic system, spreading the disease. This work details the optical Monte Carlo modelling of an ultra compact, nuclear medicine {gamma} camera that will be used intra-operatively to detect malignant sentinel lymph nodes. This development will improve the identification and localisation of these sentinel nodes, thereby facilitating improved techniques for axillary lymph node dissection, and sentinel lymph node biopsy.

  14. Cerebral Lipiodol Embolism after Lymphatic Embolization for Plastic Bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschen, Matthew P; Dori, Yoav; Itkin, Maxim; Licht, Daniel J; Ichord, Rebecca; Vossough, Arastoo

    2016-09-01

    An adolescent with plastic bronchitis due to congenital heart disease had altered mental status after an interventional lymphatic procedure in which lipiodol contrast was used. Neuroimaging revealed cerebral lipiodol embolization due to direct shunting between lymphatic channels and pulmonary veins. Cerebral lipiodol embolization is a potential neurologic morbidity associated with interventional lymphatic procedures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The discovery of lymphatic system in the seventeenth century. Part I: the early history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suy, Raphael; Thomis, Sarah; Fourneau, Inge

    2016-08-01

    The early history of lymphatic anatomy from Hippocrates (ca. 460-377 B.C.) to Eustachius (1510-1574). The presence of lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes was reported by ancient anatomists without any accurate knowledge of their true functions. Lymph nodes were described as spongy structures, spread over the whole body for the support of vulnerable body parts. Digestion was explained as being the resorption of clear chyle from digested food by the open endings of chyle vessels. The first insights into the place of lymphatic components within nutrition emanated from the medical school of Alexandria (fourth century B.C.) where vivisection was a common practice. Herophilus and Erasistratus described mesenteric veins full of clear liquid, air or milk. For Galen of Pergamum, (104-210) mesenteric lymph nodes also had a nutritional function. He described three different types of mesenteric vessels, namely, the arterial vessels, for the transport of spirituous blood to the intestines; the venous side branches of the portal vein, for the transport of nutritive blood from the liver to the intestines; and small vessels, from the intestines to the mesenteric lymph nodes (serous lymph vessels?). According to Galen, chyle was transported via the above-mentioned mesenteric venous vessels from the intestines to the portal vein and liver, where it was transformed into nutritive blood. This doctrine would be obliterated in the seventeenth century by the discovery of systemic circulation and of the drainage of chyle through a thoracic duct to the subclavian veins.

  16. Modelling Lymphatic Filariasis: Transmission and Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Swaminathan

    2004-01-01

    textabstractLymphatic filariasis (LF) is a mosquito borne parasitic disease of the tropics. Of the three species of parasites causing the disease, W. bancrofti transmitted by Culex quinquefasciatus is the most widely prevalent. Infection can lead to disabling chronic manifestations: lymphoedema, ele

  17. Lymphatic Filariasis: Transmission, Treatment and Elimination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.A. Stolk (Wilma)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractLymphatic filariasis (LF) is a mosquito-borne, tropical disease caused by filarial worms. Infection can lead to disabling chronic disease, characterized by swelling of extremities or external genitalia (lymphoedema, elephantiasis and hydrocele). Mass treatment with antifilarial drugs is

  18. Lymphatic and venous function in lipoedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, C A; Bull, R H; Evans, J; Mortimer, P S

    1996-01-01

    Lipoedema is a common but infrequently recognized condition causing bilateral enlargement of the legs in women. Although generally considered to be the result of an abnormal deposition of subcutaneous fat with associated oedema, the precise mechanisms responsible for oedema formation have yet to be fully established. In order to evaluate the possible role of lymphatic or venous dysfunction in the pathogenesis of lipoedema, 10 patients were investigated by photoplethysmography (venous function) and quantitative lymphoscintigraphy (lymphatic function). The results were compared with those from patients with primary lymphoedema and those from healthy volunteers. The results demonstrated minor abnormalities of venous function in only two patients. One patient had moderately impaired lymphatic function in both legs and seven patients had a marginal degree of impairment in one or both legs. However, in none of these cases did the impairment attain the low levels seen in true lymphoedema. Lipoedema appears to be a distinct clinical entity best classified as a lipodystrophy rather than a direct consequence of any primary venous or lymphatic insufficiency.

  19. Lymphatic filariasis control in Tanga Region, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Paul Erik; Derua, Yahya A.; Magesa, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundLymphatic filariasis (LF) control started in Tanga Region of Tanzania in 2004, with annual ivermectin/albendazole mass drug administration (MDA). Since then, the current project has monitored the effect in communities and schools in rural areas of Tanga District. In 2013, after 8 rounds...

  20. Lymphatic malformations: a proposed management algorithm.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Oosthuizen, J C

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop a management algorithm for cervicofacial lymphatic malformations, based on the authors\\' experience in managing these lesions as well as current literature on the subject. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A retrospective medical record review of all the patients treated for lymphatic malformations at our institution during a 10-year period (1998-2008) was performed. DATA COLLECTED: age at diagnosis, location and type of lesion, radiologic investigation performed, presenting symptoms, treatment modality used, complications and results achieved. RESULTS: 14 patients were identified. Eight (57%) male and six (43%) female. There was an equal distribution between the left and right sides. The majority (71%) of cases were diagnosed within the first year of life. The majority of lesions were located in the suprahyoid region. The predominant reason for referral was an asymptomatic mass in 7 cases (50%) followed by airway compromise (36%) and dysphagia (14%). Management options employed included: observation, OK-432 injection, surgical excision and laser therapy. In 5 cases (36%) a combination of these were used. CONCLUSION: Historically surgical excision has been the management option of choice for lymphatic malformations. However due to the morbidity and high complication rate associated this is increasingly being questioned. Recent advances in sclerotherapy e.g. OK-432 injection have also shown significant promise. Based on experience in managing these lesions as well as current literature the authors of this paper have developed an algorithm for the management of cervicofacial lymphatic malformations.

  1. Lymphoscintigraphy patterns in newborns and children with congenital lymphatic dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellini, C; Villa, G; Sambuceti, G; Traggiai, C; Campisi, C; Bellini, T; Morcaldi, G; Massocco, D; Bonioli, E; Boccardo, F

    2014-03-01

    We performed lymphoscintigraphy on 31 patients (newborns and children) affected by congenital lymphatic dysplasia according to our previously published protocol. Congenital lymphatic dysplasia may present with various degrees of clinical severity, ranging from nonimmune hydrops fetalis with visceral effusions to lymphedema alone. We recommend that lymphoscintigraphy should be strongly considered in all patients with signs of lymphatic dysplasia, including those with minimal and initial signs of lymphatic impairment, in order to obtain a very early diagnosis and to start treatment. Lymphoscintigraphy is safe and useful in the diagnosis of lymphatic dysplasia in the newborn and children. Moreover, it is well tolerated by patients and well accepted by their parents.

  2. Foam consolidation and drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, S; Pelot, D D; Yarin, A L

    2012-03-27

    A theoretical model of foam as a consolidating continuum is proposed. The general model is applied to foam in a gravity settler. It is predicted that liquid drainage from foam in a gravity settler begins with a slow drainage stage. Next, a stage with faster drainage occurs where the drainage rate doubles compared to the initial stage. The experiments conducted within the framework of this work confirmed the theoretical predictions and allowed measurements of foam characteristics. Foams of three different concentrations of Pantene Pro-V Classic Care Solutions shampoo were studied, as well as the addition of polyethylene oxide (PEO) in one case. The shampoo's main foaming components are sodium lauryl sulfate and sodium laureth sulfate. It is shown to what extent foam drainage is slowed down by using higher shampoo concentrations and how it is further decreased by adding polymer (PEO).

  3. Mapping the distinctive populations of lymphatic endothelial cells in different zones of human lymph nodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saem Mul Park

    Full Text Available The lymphatic sinuses in human lymph nodes (LNs are crucial to LN function yet their structure remains poorly defined. Much of our current knowledge of lymphatic sinuses derives from rodent models, however human LNs differ substantially in their sinus structure, most notably due to the presence of trabeculae and trabecular lymphatic sinuses that rodent LNs lack. Lymphatic sinuses are bounded and traversed by lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs. A better understanding of LECs in human LNs is likely to improve our understanding of the regulation of cell trafficking within LNs, now an important therapeutic target, as well as disease processes that involve lymphatic sinuses. We therefore sought to map all the LECs within human LNs using multicolor immunofluorescence microscopy to visualize the distribution of a range of putative markers. PROX1 was the only marker that uniquely identified the LECs lining and traversing all the sinuses in human LNs. In contrast, LYVE1 and STAB2 were only expressed by LECs in the paracortical and medullary sinuses in the vast majority of LNs studied, whilst the subcapsular and trabecular sinuses lacked these molecules. These data highlight the existence of at least two distinctive populations of LECs within human LNs. Of the other LEC markers, we confirmed VEGFR3 was not specific for LECs, and CD144 and CD31 stained both LECs and blood vascular endothelial cells (BECs; in contrast, CD59 and CD105 stained BECs but not LECs. We also showed that antigen-presenting cells (APCs in the sinuses could be clearly distinguished from LECs by their expression of CD169, and their lack of expression of PROX1 and STAB2, or endothelial markers such as CD144. However, both LECs and sinus APCs were stained with DCN46, an antibody commonly used to detect CD209.

  4. Intravital two-photon microscopy of immune cell dynamics in corneal lymphatic vessels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Steven

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The role of lymphatic vessels in tissue and organ transplantation as well as in tumor growth and metastasis has drawn great attention in recent years. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We now developed a novel method using non-invasive two-photon microscopy to simultaneously visualize and track specifically stained lymphatic vessels and autofluorescent adjacent tissues such as collagen fibrils, blood vessels and immune cells in the mouse model of corneal neovascularization in vivo. The mouse cornea serves as an ideal tissue for this technique due to its easy accessibility and its inducible and modifiable state of pathological hem- and lymphvascularization. Neovascularization was induced by suture placement in corneas of Balb/C mice. Two weeks after treatment, lymphatic vessels were stained intravital by intrastromal injection of a fluorescently labeled LYVE-1 antibody and the corneas were evaluated in vivo by two-photon microscopy (TPM. Intravital TPM was performed at 710 nm and 826 nm excitation wavelengths to detect immunofluorescence and tissue autofluorescence using a custom made animal holder. Corneas were then harvested, fixed and analyzed by histology. Time lapse imaging demonstrated the first in vivo evidence of immune cell migration into lymphatic vessels and luminal transport of individual cells. Cells immigrated within 1-5.5 min into the vessel lumen. Mean velocities of intrastromal corneal immune cells were around 9 µm/min and therefore comparable to those of T-cells and macrophages in other mucosal surfaces. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge we here demonstrate for the first time the intravital real-time transmigration of immune cells into lymphatic vessels. Overall this study demonstrates the valuable use of intravital autofluorescence two-photon microscopy in the model of suture-induced corneal vascularizations to study interactions of immune and subsequently tumor cells with lymphatic vessels under close as possible

  5. Lymphatic Clearance of the Brain: Perivascular, Paravascular and Significance for Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Erik N T P; Bacskai, Brian J; Arbel-Ornath, Michal; Aldea, Roxana; Bedussi, Beatrice; Morris, Alan W J; Weller, Roy O; Carare, Roxana O

    2016-03-01

    The lymphatic clearance pathways of the brain are different compared to the other organs of the body and have been the subject of heated debates. Drainage of brain extracellular fluids, particularly interstitial fluid (ISF) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), is not only important for volume regulation, but also for removal of waste products such as amyloid beta (Aβ). CSF plays a special role in clinical medicine, as it is available for analysis of biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease. Despite the lack of a complete anatomical and physiological picture of the communications between the subarachnoid space (SAS) and the brain parenchyma, it is often assumed that Aβ is cleared from the cerebral ISF into the CSF. Recent work suggests that clearance of the brain mainly occurs during sleep, with a specific role for peri- and para-vascular spaces as drainage pathways from the brain parenchyma. However, the direction of flow, the anatomical structures involved and the driving forces remain elusive, with partially conflicting data in literature. The presence of Aβ in the glia limitans in Alzheimer's disease suggests a direct communication of ISF with CSF. Nonetheless, there is also the well-described pathology of cerebral amyloid angiopathy associated with the failure of perivascular drainage of Aβ. Herein, we review the role of the vasculature and the impact of vascular pathology on the peri- and para-vascular clearance pathways of the brain. The different views on the possible routes for ISF drainage of the brain are discussed in the context of pathological significance.

  6. Elevated CSF outflow resistance associated with impaired lymphatic CSF absorption in a rat model of kaolin-induced communicating hydrocephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jie

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We recently reported a lymphatic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF absorption deficit in a kaolin model of communicating hydrocephalus in rats with ventricular expansion correlating negatively with the magnitude of the impediment to lymphatic function. However, it is possible that CSF drainage was not significantly altered if absorption at other sites compensated for the lymphatic defect. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of the lymphatic absorption deficit on global CSF absorption (CSF outflow resistance. Methods Kaolin was injected into the basal cisterns of Sprague Dawley rats. The development of hydrocephalus was assessed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. In one group of animals at about 3 weeks after injection, the movement of intraventricularly injected iodinated human serum albumin (125I-HSA into the olfactory turbinates provided an estimate of CSF transport through the cribriform plate into nasal lymphatics (n = 18. Control animals received saline in place of kaolin (n = 10. In a second group at about 3.5 weeks after kaolin injection, intraventricular pressure was measured continuously during infusion of saline into the spinal subarachnoid space at various flow rates (n = 9. CSF outflow resistance was calculated as the slope of the steady-state pressure versus flow rate. Control animals for this group either received no injections (intact: n = 11 or received saline in place of kaolin (n = 8. Results Compared to saline injected controls, lateral ventricular volume in the kaolin group was significantly greater (0.087 ± 0.013 ml, n = 27 versus 0.015 ± 0.001 ml, n = 17 and lymphatic function was significantly less (2.14 ± 0.72% injected/g, n = 18 versus 6.38 ± 0.60% injected/g, n = 10. Additionally, the CSF outflow resistance was significantly greater in the kaolin group (0.46 ± 0.04 cm H2O.μL-1.min, n = 9 than in saline injected (0.28 ± 0.03 cm H2O.μL-1.min, n = 8 or intact animals (0.18 ± 0

  7. Agricultural Drainage Well Intakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Locations of surface intakes for registered agriculture drainage wells according to the database maintained by IDALS. Surface intakes were located from their...

  8. Surface Water & Surface Drainage

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set contains boundaries for all surface water and surface drainage for the state of New Mexico. It is in a vector digital data structure digitized from a...

  9. Airport Pavement Drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    drainage layer and trench drains can be found in Cedergren (10). 4.2 COMPONENTS OF SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE SYSTEM 4.2.1 Outflow Once the water has found...According to Cedergren (10) the open graded aggregate can replace the normally used dense graded materials on an inch-for-inch basis. A main problem in...the perforated pipe to prevent fines from entering, Figure 4.24 (11). Cedergren (10) suggests that collector pipes should be 42 laid with the

  10. Tailoring of chronic lymphatic leukemia therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Elhefni, Ashraf M

    2013-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) remains an incurable disease, with all patients who require therapy destined to relapse and understanding of the pathophysiology of chronic lymphocytic leukemia has advanced significantly. It is now clear that chronic lymphocytic leukemia is a relatively proliferative disorder that requires the help of its microenvironment to be maintained and to progress. The stimulation of the chronic lymphatic leukemia cell occurs in most, if not all, patients through ant...

  11. Cardiac mouse lymphatics: developmental and anatomical update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaht-Zabost, Aleksandra; Gula, Grzegorz; Ciszek, Bogdan; Czarnowska, Elżbieta; Jankowska-Steifer, Ewa; Madej, Maria; Niderla-Bielińska, Justyna; Radomska-Leśniewska, Dorota; Ratajska, Anna

    2014-06-01

    The adult mouse heart possesses an extensive lymphatic plexus draining predominantly the subepicardium and the outer layer of the myocardial wall. However, the development of this plexus has not been entirely explored, partially because of the lack of suitable methods for its visualization as well as prolonged lymphatic vessel formation that starts prenatally and proceeds during postnatal stages. Also, neither the course nor location of collecting vessels draining lymph from the mouse heart have been precisely characterized. In this article, we report that murine cardiac lymphatic plexus development that is limited prenatally only to the subepicardial area, postnatally proceeds from the subepicardium toward the myocardial wall with the base-to-apex gradient; this plexus eventually reaches the outer half of the myocardium with a predominant location around branches of coronary arteries and veins. Based on multiple marker immunostaining, the molecular marker-phenotype of cardiac lymphatic endothelial cells can be characterized as: Prox-1(+), Lyve-1(+), VEGFR3(+), Podoplanin(+), VEGFR2(+), CD144(+), Tie2(+), CD31(+), vWF(-), CD34(-), CD133(-). There are two major collecting vessels: one draining the right and left ventricles along the left conal vein and running upwards to the left side of the pulmonary trunk and further to the nearest lymph nodes (under the aortic arch and near the trachea), and the other one with its major branch running along the left cardiac vein and further on the surface of the coronary sinus and the left atrium to paratracheal lymph nodes. The extracardiac collectors gain the smooth muscle cell layer during late postnatal stages.

  12. Lymphatic Filariasis Disseminating to the Upper Extremity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Maldjian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis is the most common cause of acquired lymphedema worldwide (Szuba and Rockson, 1998. It is endemic to tropical and subtropical regions, and its effects are devastating. With over 100 million infected persons, it ranks second only to leprosy as the leading cause of permanent and long-term disability. Wuchereria bancrofti is the etiologic agent in 90% of cases. There is a dearth of published MRI findings with pathologically proven active infections, making this entity even more of a diagnostic dilemma. Imaging may provide the first clue that one is dealing with a parasite and may facilitate proper treatment and containment of this disease. This is the first report of pathologic correlation with MRI findings in the extremity in active filariasis. The magnetic resonance images demonstrate an enhancing, infiltrative, mass-like appearance with partial encasement of vasculature that has not been previously described in filariasis. Low signal strands in T2-hyperintense dilated lymphatic channels are seen and may depict live adult worms. We hypothesize that the low signal strands correspond to the collagen rich acellular cuticle. This, in combination with the surrounding hyperintense T2 signal, corresponding to a dilated lymphatic channel, may provide more specific MRI findings for active nematodal infection, which can prompt early biopsy, pathological correlation, and diagnosis.

  13. Lymphoscintigraphy and SPECT/CT in multicentric and multifocal breast cancer: does each tumour have a separate drainage pattern? Results of a Dutch multicentre study (MULTISENT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brouwer, O.R. [Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Antoni van Leeuwenhoekhospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vermeeren, L.; Valdes Olmos, R.A. [Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Ploeg, I.M.C. van der; Rutgers, E.J.T.; Oldenburg, H.S.A. [Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Surgery, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Loo, C.E. [Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Radiology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pereira-Bouda, L.M.; Smit, F. [Rijnland Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leiderdorp (Netherlands); Neijenhuis, P. [Rijnland Hospital, Department of Surgery, Leiderdorp (Netherlands); Vrouenraets, B.C. [Sint Lucas Andreas Hospital, Department of Surgery, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Sivro-Prndelj, F. [Sint Lucas Andreas Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Jap-a-Joe, S.M.; Borgstein, P.J. [Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-07-15

    To investigate whether lymphoscintigraphy and SPECT/CT after intralesional injection of radiopharmaceutical into each tumour separately in patients with multiple malignancies in one breast yields additional sentinel nodes compared to intralesional injection of the largest tumour only. Patients were included prospectively at four centres in The Netherlands. Lymphatic flow was studied using planar lymphoscintigraphy and SPECT/CT until 4 h after administration of {sup 99m}Tc-nanocolloid in the largest tumour. Subsequently, the smaller tumour(s) was injected intratumorally followed by the same imaging sequence. Sentinel nodes were intraoperatively localized using a gamma ray detection probe and vital blue dye. Included in the study were 50 patients. Additional lymphatic drainage was depicted after the second and/or third injection in 32 patients (64 %). Comparison of planar images and SPECT/CT images after consecutive injections enabled visualization of the number and location of additional sentinel nodes (32 axillary, 11 internal mammary chain, 2 intramammary, and 1 interpectoral. A sentinel node contained metastases in 17 patients (34 %)). In five patients with a tumour-positive node in the axilla that was visualized after the first injection, an additional involved axillary node was found after the second injection. In two patients, isolated tumour cells were found in sentinel nodes that were only visualized after the second injection, whilst the sentinel nodes identified after the first injection were tumour-negative. Lymphoscintigraphy and SPECT/CT after consecutive intratumoral injections of tracer enable lymphatic mapping of each tumour separately in patients with multiple malignancies within one breast. The high incidence of additional sentinel nodes draining from tumours other than the largest one suggests that separate tumour-related tracer injections may be a more accurate approach to mapping and sampling of sentinel nodes in patients with multicentric or

  14. Live imaging of newly formed lymphatic vessels in the cornea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Don Yuen; Xiufeng Wu; Alex C Kwan; Jeffrey LeDue; Hui Zhang; Tatiana Ecoiffier; Bronislaw Pytowski; Lu Chen

    2011-01-01

    Dear Editor,Lymphatic research denotes a field of new discovery and has experienced exponential growth in recent years [1-3].Though lymphatic dysfunction has been found in a broad spectrum of disorders from transplant rejection to cancer metastasis,to date,there is still little effective treatment for lymphatic diseases,so it is a field with urgent demand for new experimental approaches and therapeutic protocols.The cornea provides an ideal site for lymphatic research due to its accessible location,transparent nature,and alymphatic status under normal condition [2,4].Indeed,the use of this tissue for tumor angiogenesis research dates back to 1970s [5].Most recently,we have demonstrated that the cornea possesses a full range of plasticity in lymphatic formation and regression [6].An advanced technology for live imaging of lymphatic vessels in this tissue would therefore have widespread applications in biomedical research.

  15. Quantitative immunohistochemical assessment of blood and lymphatic microcirculation in cutaneous lichen planus lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Výbohová, Desanka; Mellová, Yvetta; Adamicová, Katarína; Adamkov, Marián; Hešková, Gabriela

    2015-06-01

    Latest advances have brought to light the hypothesis that angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis are tightly connected to some chronic inflammatory diseases. The present study focuses on immunohistochemical assessment of the quantitative changes in the blood and lymphatic microcirculatory bed in common chronic dermatosis - cutaneous lichen planus. Double immunohistochemistry with CD34 and podoplanin antibodies was used to detect blood and lymphatic endothelium, while anti-human VEGF was used for the observation of a key angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis inducer. Morphometric analysis was performed with QuickPhoto Micro image analysis software. Results confirmed statistically significant enlargement of both the blood and lymphatic microcirculatory beds. Compared to healthy skin, cutaneous lichen planus lesions revealed 1.6 times enlarged blood microcirculatory bed and 1.8 times enlarged lymphatic microcirculatory bed. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in lesional skin was significantly higher in the epidermis (19.1 times increase) than in the dermis (10.3 times increase). These findings indicate a tight association of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis with the pathogenesis of cutaneous lichen planus.

  16. Microcirculation-on-a-Chip: A Microfluidic Platform for Assaying Blood- and Lymphatic-Vessel Permeability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miwa Sato

    Full Text Available We developed a microfluidic model of microcirculation containing both blood and lymphatic vessels for examining vascular permeability. The designed microfluidic device harbors upper and lower channels that are partly aligned and are separated by a porous membrane, and on this membrane, blood vascular endothelial cells (BECs and lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs were cocultured back-to-back. At cell-cell junctions of both BECs and LECs, claudin-5 and VE-cadherin were detected. The permeability coefficient measured here was lower than the value reported for isolated mammalian venules. Moreover, our results showed that the flow culture established in the device promoted the formation of endothelial cell-cell junctions, and that treatment with histamine, an inflammation-promoting substance, induced changes in the localization of tight and adherens junction-associated proteins and an increase in vascular permeability in the microdevice. These findings indicated that both BECs and LECs appeared to retain their functions in the microfluidic coculture platform. Using this microcirculation device, the vascular damage induced by habu snake venom was successfully assayed, and the assay time was reduced from 24 h to 30 min. This is the first report of a microcirculation model in which BECs and LECs were cocultured. Because the micromodel includes lymphatic vessels in addition to blood vessels, the model can be used to evaluate both vascular permeability and lymphatic return rate.

  17. Lymphatic and blood vessels in basal and triple-negative breast cancers: characteristics and prognostic significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Rabab A A; Ellis, Ian O; Mahmmod, Ali M; Hawkes, E Claire; Green, Andrew R; Rakha, Emad A; Martin, Stewart G

    2011-06-01

    Basal and triple-negative breast cancer phenotypes are characterised by unfavourable biological behaviour and outcome. Although certain studies have examined their pathological and molecular profile, the vascular characteristics of lymphatic and blood vessels have not been examined. Immunohistochemical staining with podoplanin, CD34 and CD31 was used to examine lymphatic and microvessel density, as well as vascular invasion in 197 basal-like and in 99 triple-negative breast tumours and compared against 200 non-basal and 334 non-triple-negative cases. All specimens were lymph node negative. Vascular invasion was identified as blood or lymphatic vascular invasion by the differential expression of markers. All measurements were correlated with clinicopathological features and prognosis. No significant difference was detected between the basal and triple-negative groups in terms of lymphatic or microvessel density or vascular invasion. However, both the basal and the triple-negative groups showed significantly higher microvessel density than did the non-basal and non-triple-negative groups (P=0.017 and Pcontrols. Interestingly, vascular invasion, almost entirely lymphatic invasion, was detected in 27% of the basal and in 26% of the triple-negative groups with no significant difference in comparison with control groups. In both basal and triple negatives, vascular invasion was associated with poorer survival by univariate and multivariate analyses. The 20-year overall survival rate in basal-like tumours was 55% in vascular invasion-positive cases compared with 73% in vascular invasion-negative tumours (P=0.012), and 46% in triple-negative vascular invasion-positive compared with 79% in vascular invasion-negative tumours (P=0.001). Basal-like vs non-basal-like and triple-negative vs non-triple-negative tumours have similar vascular characteristics in terms of lymphatic vessel density and vascular invasion but higher microvessel density, suggesting that such groups may

  18. Recent advances in the research of lymphatic stomata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zi-Bin; Li, Meng; Li, Ji-Cheng

    2010-05-01

    Lymphatic stomata are small openings of lymphatic capillaries on the free surface of the mesothelium. The peritoneal cavity, pleural cavity, and pericardial cavity are connected with lymphatic system via these small openings, which have the function of active absorption. The ultrastructure of the lymphatic stomata and their absorption from the body cavities are important clinically, such as ascites elimination, neoplasm metastasis, and inflammatory reaction. The lymphatic stomata play an important role in the physiological and pathological conditions. Our previous study indicated for the first time that nitric oxide (NO) could regulate the opening and absorption of the lymphatic stomata. It could decrease the level of free intracellular calcium [Ca(2+)] through increasing the cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) level in the rat peritoneal mesothelial cells, thus regulating the lymphatic stomata. This process is related with the NO-cGMP-[Ca(2+)] signal pathway. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in understanding the development and the function of the lymphatic stomata. The ultrastructure and regulations of the lymphatic stomata are also discussed in this review.

  19. Periportal lymphatic system on post-hepatobiliary phase Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MR imaging in normal subjects and patients with chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yasunari; Matsumoto, Shunro; Mori, Hiromu; Takaji, Ryo; Kiyonaga, Maki; Hijiya, Naoki; Tanoue, Rika; Tomonari, Kenichiro; Tanoue, Shuichi; Hongo, Norio; Ohta, Masayuki; Seike, Masataka; Inomata, Masafumi; Murakami, Kazunari; Moriyama, Masatsugu

    2017-04-25

    We sought to evaluate visualization of periportal lymphatics and lymph nodes (lymphatic system) on Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) images using a fat-suppressed T2-weighted sequence with 3-dimensional (3D) volume isotropic turbo spin echo acquisition (VISTA) at 3.0 T in normal subjects and patients with chronic hepatitis C. MR imaging was performed in 254 subjects between June 2013 and May 2016. After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, the final population was 31 normal subjects and 34 patients with chronic hepatitis C. Images were acquired after the hepatobiliary phase following intravenous administration of Gd-EOB-DTPA, which causes signal loss in the bile ducts, to facilitate the visualization of the periportal lymphatic system. Two radiologists assessed the visualization of the periportal lymphatic system in 31 normal subjects. The axial dimensions of the main periportal lymphatic system in normal subjects were measured and compared with those of 34 patients with chronic hepatitis C using the Mann-Whitney U-test, and their correlation with a hepatic fibrosis marker, the Fibrosis-4 (FIB-4), was assessed using Spearman's rank correlation test. The periportal lymphatic system was detected as high signal intensity areas surrounding the portal vein up to the third branches by each reader in all normal subjects. The axial dimensions of the main periportal lymphatic system in patients with chronic hepatitis C were significantly larger than those in normal subjects (p system and the degree of hepatic fibrosis.

  20. National equipment of intraoperatory gamma detection in the identification of sentinel lymph node in animal model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Paula Cristina Fada dos [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Post-graduate Program on Plastic Surgery], e-mail: ppfada@hotmail.com; Santos, Ivan Dunshee de Abranches Oliveira [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. of Surgery; Nahas, Fabio Xerfan; Ferreira, Lydia Masako [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. of Surgery. Div. of Plastic Sugery; Oliveira Filho, Renato Santos de [University of Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculty of Medicine

    2009-07-01

    Purpose: To investigate a national equipment of intraoperatory gamma detection in the identification of sentinel lymph node. Methods: Thirty young adult male rats were used. After anesthetized, animals were divided into two groups of 15 animals each. Animals from group A received dextram 500 - Tc{sup 99} radiopharmaceutical and patent blue V and those from group B received only patent blue V to map the lymphatic drainage. The presence of radiation in the background area, in the area of injection and of the ex vivo sentinel lymph node of group A were measured. After the exeresis, each lymph node in group A and in group B was mixed forming a new random sequence and the radioactive reading of each lymph node was carried out, using both pieces of equipment. Results: The hottest sentinel lymph node was identified by the national equipment when radiation was measured in the area of lymphatic drainage after the Dextran 500 was injected. Also, the ex vivo sentinel lymph node. The national equipment has also detected radiation in the lymph nodes that had not received radiopharmaceutical, leading to false positive, checked by the application of Mann-Whitney tests and Student's paired t-tests. The Cronbach alpha has shown high internal consistency of data 0,9416. Conclusions: The national equipment of intraoperatory gamma detection identifies the LS and showed false positives LS and needs improvement. (author)

  1. Lymphatics and lymphatic-like structures in melanoma : a pathobiological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clarijs, Johannes Antonius Godefridus Marinus

    2003-01-01

    Solid malignant tumors can be regarded as a functional tissue in which architecture and function are maintained by a dynamic interplay between tumor cells and a microenvironment consisting of extracellular matrix (ECM) containing fibroblasts, blood and lymphatic vasculature and infiltrating and resi

  2. Lymphatics and lymphatic-like structures in melanoma : a pathobiological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clarijs, Johannes Antonius Godefridus Marinus

    2003-01-01

    Solid malignant tumors can be regarded as a functional tissue in which architecture and function are maintained by a dynamic interplay between tumor cells and a microenvironment consisting of extracellular matrix (ECM) containing fibroblasts, blood and lymphatic vasculature and infiltrating and resi

  3. Hematopoietic and lymphatic cancers in relatives of patients with infectious mononucleosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalgrim, Henrik; Rostgaard, Klaus; Askling, Johan;

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Young adults with a history of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related infectious mononucleosis have an increased risk for Hodgkin's lymphoma. EBV is detected in Hodgkin's lymphoma Reed-Sternberg cells from some patients, but in young adult patients, it is detected at a relatively low...... the importance of socioeconomic status on the association between these diseases, we determined the risk for hematopoietic and lymphatic cancers in first-degree relatives of patients with confirmed EBV-related infectious mononucleosis. METHODS: We identified parents, siblings, and offspring of 17,045 persons...... with serologically confirmed EBV-related infectious mononucleosis. Subjects in these cohorts were linked with the population-based Danish Cancer Register to identify those developing hematopoietic/lymphatic cancers after the index patient was diagnosed with infectious mononucleosis. The relative risk for cancer...

  4. Lymphatic vascular morphogenesis in development, physiology, and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulte-Merker, Stefan; Sabine, Amelie; Petrova, Tatiana V.

    2011-01-01

    The lymphatic vasculature constitutes a highly specialized part of the vascular system that is essential for the maintenance of interstitial fluid balance, uptake of dietary fat, and immune response. Recently, there has been an increased awareness of the importance of lymphatic vessels in many commo

  5. Lymphatic Function Regulates Contact Hypersensitivity Dermatitis in Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savetsky, Ira L; Albano, Nicholas J; Cuzzone, Daniel A; Gardenier, Jason C; Torrisi, Jeremy S; García Nores, Gabriela D; Nitti, Matthew D; Hespe, Geoffrey E; Nelson, Tyler S; Kataru, Raghu P; Dixon, J Brandon; Mehrara, Babak J

    2015-11-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for inflammatory dermatologic diseases, including atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. In addition, recent studies have shown that obesity impairs lymphatic function. As the lymphatic system is a critical regulator of inflammatory reactions, we tested the hypothesis that obesity-induced lymphatic dysfunction is a key regulator of cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions in obese mice. We found that obese mice have impaired lymphatic function, characterized by leaky capillary lymphatics and decreased collecting vessel pumping capacity. In addition, obese mice displayed heightened dermatitis responses to inflammatory skin stimuli, resulting in both higher peak inflammation and a delayed clearance of inflammatory responses. Injection of recombinant vascular endothelial growth factor-C remarkably increased lymphangiogenesis, lymphatic function, and lymphatic endothelial cell expression of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 21, while decreasing inflammation and expression of inducible nitrous oxide synthase. These changes resulted in considerably decreased dermatitis responses in both lean and obese mice. Taken together, our findings suggest that obesity-induced changes in the lymphatic system result in an amplified and a prolonged inflammatory response.

  6. Divergence of zebrafish and mouse lymphatic cell fate specification pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Impel, Andreas; Zhao, Zhonghua; Hermkens, Dorien M A;

    2014-01-01

    . Murine Prox1-null embryos lack lymphatic structures, and sustained expression of Prox1 is indispensable for the maintenance of lymphatic cell fate even at adult stages, highlighting the unique importance of this gene for the lymphatic lineage. Whether this pre-eminent role of Prox1 within the lymphatic...... vasculature is conserved in other vertebrate classes has remained unresolved, mainly owing to the lack of availability of loss-of-function mutants. Here, we re-examine the role of Prox1a in zebrafish lymphangiogenesis. First, using a transgenic reporter line, we show that prox1a is initially expressed...... that the functionally related transcription factors Coup-TFII and Sox18 are also dispensable for lymphangiogenesis. Together, these findings suggest that lymphatic commitment in zebrafish and mice is controlled in fundamentally different ways....

  7. Temporary shielding of hot spots in the drainage areas of cutaneous melanoma improves accuracy of lymphoscintigraphic sentinel lymph node diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maza, S.; Valencia, R.; Geworski, L.; Zander, A.; Munz, D.L. [Clinic for Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Charite, Humboldt University of Berlin, Schumannstrasse 20-21, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Draeger, E.; Winter, H.; Sterry, W. [Clinic for Dermatology, Venereology and Allergology, University Hospital Charite, Humboldt University of Berlin, Berlin (Germany)

    2002-10-01

    Detection of the ''true'' sentinel lymph nodes, permitting correct staging of regional lymph nodes, is essential for management and prognostic assessment in malignant melanoma. In this study, it was prospectively evaluated whether simple temporary shielding of hot spots in lymphatic drainage areas could improve the accuracy of sentinel lymph node diagnostics. In 100 consecutive malignant melanoma patients (45 women, 55 men; age 11-91 years), dynamic and static lymphoscintigraphy in various views was performed after strict intracutaneous application of technetium-99m nanocolloid (40-150 MBq; 0.05 ml/deposit) around the tumour (31 patients) or the biopsy scar (69 patients, safety distance 1 cm). The images were acquired with and without temporary lead shielding of the most prominent hot spots in the drainage area. In 33/100 patients, one or two additional sentinel lymph nodes that showed less tracer accumulation or were smaller (<1.5 cm) were detected after shielding. Four of these patients had metastases in the sentinel lymph nodes; the non-sentinel lymph nodes were tumour negative. In 3/100 patients, hot spots in the drainage area proved to be lymph vessels, lymph vessel intersections or lymph vessel ectasias after temporary shielding; hence, a node interpreted as a non-sentinel lymph node at first glance proved to be the real sentinel lymph node. In two of these patients, lymph node metastasis was histologically confirmed; the non-sentinel lymph nodes were tumour free. In 7/100 patients the exact course of lymph vessels could be mapped after shielding. In one of these patients, two additional sentinel lymph nodes (with metastasis) were detected. Overall, in 43/100 patients the temporary shielding yielded additional information, with sentinel lymph node metastases in 7%. In conclusion, when used in combination with dynamic acquisition in various views, temporary shielding of prominent hot spots in the drainage area of a malignant melanoma of the

  8. Inflammatory manifestations of experimental lymphatic insufficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Tabibiazar

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sustained lymph stagnation engenders a pathological response that is complex and not well characterized. Tissue inflammation in lymphedema may reflect either an active or passive consequence of impaired immune traffic. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We studied an experimental model of acute post-surgical lymphedema in the tails of female hairless, immunocompetent SKH-1 mice. We performed in vivo imaging of impaired immune traffic in experimental, murine acquired lymphatic insufficiency. We demonstrated impaired mobilization of immunocompetent cells from the lymphedematous region. These findings correlated with histopathological alterations and large-scale transcriptional profiling results. We found intense inflammatory changes in the dermis and the subdermis. The molecular pattern in the RNA extracted from the whole tissue was dominated by the upregulation of genes related to acute inflammation, immune response, complement activation, wound healing, fibrosis, and oxidative stress response. CONCLUSIONS: We have characterized a mouse model of acute, acquired lymphedema using in vivo functional imaging and histopathological correlation. The model closely simulates the volume response, histopathology, and lymphoscintigraphic characteristics of human acquired lymphedema, and the response is accompanied by an increase in the number and size of microlymphatic structures in the lymphedematous cutaneous tissues. Molecular characterization through clustering of genes with known functions provides insights into processes and signaling pathways that compose the acute tissue response to lymph stagnation. Further study of genes identified through this effort will continue to elucidate the molecular mechanisms and lead to potential therapeutic strategies for lymphatic vascular insufficiency.

  9. Scholars and scientists in the history of the lymphatic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, Gianfranco; Bocci, Guido; Ribatti, Domenico

    2017-09-01

    The discovery of the lymphatic system has a long and fascinating history. The interest in anatomy and physiology of this system paralleled that of the blood cardiocirculatory system and has been maybe obscured by the latter. Paradoxically, if the closed blood system appeared open in Galen's anatomy and physiology, and took a very long time to be correctly described in terms of pulmonary and general circulation by ibn Al-Nafis/Michael Servetus/Realdo Colombo and William Harvey, respectively, the open lymphatic system was incorrectly described as a closed circuit connected with arteries and veins. In ancient times only macroscopic components of the lymphatic system have been described, although misinterpreted, including lymph nodes and lacteals, the latter being easily identified because of their milk-like content. For about 15 centuries the dogmatic acceptance of Galen's notions did not allow a significant progress in medicine. After Vesalius' revolution in anatomical studies, new knowledge was accumulated, and the 17th century was the golden age for the investigation of the lymphatic system with several discoveries: gut lacteals (Gaspare Aselli), cloacal bursa (Hieronimus Fabricius of Acquapendente), reservoir of the chyle (Jean Pecquet), extra-intestinal lymphatic vessels (Thomas Bartholin and Olaus Rudbeck dispute), hepatic lymph circulation (Francis Glisson). In the Enlightenment century Frederik Ruysch described the function of lymphatic valves, and Paolo Mascagni provided a magnificent iconography of the lymphatic network in humans. In recent times, Leonetto Comparini realized three-dimensional reconstructions of the liver lymphatic vessels, and Kari Alitalo discovered the lymphatic growth factor/receptor system. Far from a complete understanding of its anatomy and function, the lymphatic system still needs to be profoundly examined. © 2017 Anatomical Society.

  10. Technology and application of precise detection and drainage of goaf water by directional long borehole%定向长钻孔精确探放矿井老空水技术及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方俊; 陆军; 张幼振; 宋红娟

    2015-01-01

    Goaf water is an important type of mine water disaster, causing serious accident. Use of directional long borehole to detect and drain goaf water is an important innovation for coal floor water prevention. By combining directional drilling technology with conventional rotary drilling technology, this paper systematically studied the detection and drainage of goaf water by directional long borehole, drilling equipment, borehole design, drilling technol-ogy, directional drilling technology and equipment. The tests in Baijigou mine show that the drilling technology and equipment are reliable and advanced, the effect of detection and drainage of goaf water is good. The research results en-rich and improve methods for goaf water prevention, it is significant for safe and highly efficient mining.%老空水害事故危害程度大。系统研究了定向长钻孔探放老空水的原理、钻进装备、钻孔设计和成孔工艺方法等关键技术,将随钻测量定向钻进与常规回转钻进技术结合施工定向长钻孔,实现了煤矿井下老空水的精确探查和疏放,形成了一套老空水探放技术与装备。在宁煤集团白芨沟煤矿现场应用情况表明,该技术方案先进可靠,老空水探放效果良好。

  11. Morphogenesis, structure and properties of lymphatic vessels 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ratajska

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present literature results related to structure and various manners of lymphatic vessel formation during embryonic development and in pathological events, such as tumorigenesis, wound healing, and other diseases. The functions of the lymphatic system include the collection of fluids that enter tissues from the circulation, absorption of lipids and lipid-soluble vitamins from the intestine and their subsequent transport, participation in antigen, dendritic cell, and lymphocyte migration. The lymphatic system is also a route for tumor cell and inflammatory cell transport. Native lymphatic capillaries differ from blood capillaries by having an irregular lumen, a discontinuous basement membrane, absence of pericytes, and a strong anchorage of their endothelial cells to the extracellular matrix via microfibrils built of emilin and fibrillin. Lymphatic endothelial cells express surface antigens such as Lyve-1, podoplanin, VEGFR3 (Flk4 and transcription factor Prox-1, as well as molecules which are common for blood endothelial cells and lymphatic endothelial cells (CD31, CD34, Flk-1, Tie-1, Tie-2, neuropilin 2. Lymphatic vessel formation during embryonic development starts with the occurrence of lymphatic sacs sprouting from systemic jugular veins and/or by co-option of lymphangioblasts or hematopoietic-derived cells. It can also proceed by dedifferentiation of venous endothelial cells after their detachment from the venous system, migration to the target places within the body and assembly in the lymphatic lumen. Mechanisms of lymphatic vessel formation during embryonic development and in pathological conditions, such as tumorigenesis, wound healing, and metastasis, is regulated by a plethora of growth factors and molecules, among which the most important are VEGF-C, VEGF-D, HGF, FGF, retinoic acid, IL-3, and IL-7. Macrophages and cells bearing CD45 phenotype seem to take part in the formation of lymphatics. Macrophages might act as

  12. Rho kinase enhances contractions of rat mesenteric collecting lymphatics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine H Kurtz

    Full Text Available The mechanisms that control phasic and tonic contractions of lymphatic vessels are poorly understood. We hypothesized that rho kinase ROCK, previously shown to increase calcium (Ca2+ sensitivity in vascular smooth muscle, enhances lymphatic contractile activity in a similar fashion. Contractions of isolated rat mesenteric lymphatic vessels were observed at a luminal pressure of 2 cm H2O in a 37°C bath. The expression of ROCK in isolated rat mesenteric lymphatic vessels was assessed by Western blotting and confocal microscopy. The role of ROCK in contractile function was tested using two specific yet structurally distinct inhibitors: H1152 (0.1-10 μM and Y-27632 (0.5-50 μM. In addition, lymphatics were transfected with constitutively active (ca-ROCK protein (2 μg/ml to assess gain of contractile function. Vessel diameter and the concentration of intracellular free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i were simultaneously measured in a subset of isolated lymphatics loaded with the Ca2+-sensing dye fura-2. The results show expression of both the ROCK1 and ROCK2 isoforms in lymphatic vessels. Inhibition of ROCK increased lymphatic end diastolic diameter and end systolic diameter in a concentration-dependent manner. Significant reductions in lymphatic tone and contraction amplitude were observed after treatment 1-10 μM H1152 or 25-50 μM Y-27632. H1152 (10 μM also significantly reduced contraction frequency. Transient increases in [Ca2+]i preceded each phasic contraction, however this pattern was disrupted by either 10 μM H1152 or 50 μM Y-27632 in the majority of lymphatics studied. The significant decrease in tone caused by H1152 or Y-27632 was not associated with a significant change in the basal [Ca2+]i between transients. Transfection with ca-ROCK protein enhanced lymphatic tone, but was not associated with a significant change in basal [Ca2+]i. Our data suggest that ROCK mediates normal tonic constriction and influences phasic contractions in lymphatics. We

  13. Stromal CEA immunoreactivity is correlated with lymphatic invasion of human esophageal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijima, H; Oshiba, G; Kenmochi, T; Kise, Y; Tanaka, H; Chino, O; Shimada, H; Ueyama, Y; Tanaka, M; Makuuchi, H

    2000-04-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a good marker of colorectal cancer. Recent studies have demonstrated that CEA may function as a metastatic potentiator by different pathways; i.e. modulation of immune responses, facilitation of intercellular adhesion and cellular migration. However, expression patterns of CEA have not yet been established in human esophageal carcinomas. In this study, we examined CEA expression in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and its clinicopathological significance. CEA immunoreactivity was frequently detected in the cancer cells (cytoplasmic type; 81.1%, 43/53) as well as in the cancer stroma (stromal type; 32.1%, 17/53), regardless of the depth of tumor invasion. Lymphatic invasion of cancer cells was frequently found in the stromal CEA-positive esophageal cancer (44.4%, 16/36), compared to stromal CEA-negative cancer (5.9%, 1/17) (pCEA expression plays important roles in lymphatic invasion of human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

  14. Screening differentially expressed genes in mouse hepatocarcinoma ascites cell line with high potential of lymphatic metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Nan Cui; Jian-Wu Tang; Li Hou; Bo Song; Li Li; Ji-Wei Liu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To screen genes differentially expressed in mouse hepatocarcinoma ascites cell line with high potential of lymphatic metastasis.METHODS: A subtracted cDNA library of mouse hepatocarcinoma cell line with high potential of lymphatic metastatic Hca-F and its synogenetic cell line Hca-P with a low metastatic potential was constructed by suppression subtracted hybridization(SSH) method. The screened clones of the subtracted library were sequenced and GeneBank homology search was performed.RESULTS: Fourteen differentially expressed cDNA fragments of Hca-F were obtained with two novel genes.CONCLUSION: SSH is a useful technique to detect differentially expressioned genes and an effective method to clone novel genes.

  15. Predicting tile drainage discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Bo Vangsø; Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Petersen, Rasmus Jes;

    of the water load coming from the tile drainage system is therefore essential. This work aims at predicting tile drainage discharge using dynamic as well as a statistical predictive models. A large dataset of historical tile drain discharge data, daily discharge values as well as yearly average values were......More than 50 % of Danish agricultural areas are expected to be artificial tile drained. Transport of water and nutrients through the tile drain system to the aquatic environment is expected to be significant. For different mitigation strategies such as constructed wetlands an exact knowledge...... used in the analysis. For the dynamic modelling, a simple linear reservoir model was used where different outlets in the model represented tile drain as well as groundwater discharge outputs. This modelling was based on daily measured tile drain discharge values. The statistical predictive model...

  16. Acid mine drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigham, Jerry M.; Cravotta, Charles A.

    2016-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) consists of metal-laden solutions produced by the oxidative dissolution of iron sulfide minerals exposed to air, moisture, and acidophilic microbes during the mining of coal and metal deposits. The pH of AMD is usually in the range of 2–6, but mine-impacted waters at circumneutral pH (5–8) are also common. Mine drainage usually contains elevated concentrations of sulfate, iron, aluminum, and other potentially toxic metals leached from rock that hydrolyze and coprecipitate to form rust-colored encrustations or sediments. When AMD is discharged into surface waters or groundwaters, degradation of water quality, injury to aquatic life, and corrosion or encrustation of engineered structures can occur for substantial distances. Prevention and remediation strategies should consider the biogeochemical complexity of the system, the longevity of AMD pollution, the predictive power of geochemical modeling, and the full range of available field technologies for problem mitigation.

  17. Itching for answers: how histamine relaxes lymphatic vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scallan, Joshua P; Davis, Michael J

    2014-10-01

    In the current issue of Microcirculation, studies by Kurtz et al. and Nizamutdinova et al. together provide new evidence supporting a role for histamine as an endothelial-derived molecule that inhibits lymphatic muscle contraction. In particular, Nizamutdinova et al. show that the effects of flow-induced shear stress on lymphatic endothelium are mediated by both nitric oxide and histamine, since only blockade of both prevents contraction strength and frequency from being altered by flow. Separately, Kurtz et al. used confocal microscopy to determine a preferential expression of histamine receptors on the lymphatic endothelium and demonstrated that histamine applied to spontaneously contracting collecting lymphatics inhibits contractions. Previous studies disagreed on whether histamine stimulates or inhibits lymphatic contractions, but also used differing concentrations, species, and preparations. Together these new reports shed light on how histamine acts within the lymphatic vasculature, but also raise important questions about the cell type on which histamine exerts its effects and the signaling pathways involved. This editorial briefly discusses the contribution of each study and its relevance to lymphatic biology.

  18. The effect of lymphatic valve morphology on fluid transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeev, Alexander; Ballard, Matthew; Nepiyushchikh, Zhanna; Dixon, Brandon

    2016-11-01

    The lymphatic vasculature is present in nearly all invertebrate tissue, and is essential in the transport of fluid and particles such as immune cells, antigens, proteins and lipids from the tissue to lymph nodes and to the venous circulation. Lymphatic vessels are made of up a series of contractile units that work together in harmony as "micro hearts" to pump fluid against a pressure gradient. Lymphatic valves are critical to this functionality, as they open and close with the oscillating pressure gradients from contractions, thus allowing flow in only one direction and leading to a net pumping effect. We use a hybrid lattice-Boltzmann lattice spring model which captures fluid-solid interactions through two-way coupling between a viscous fluid and lymphatic valves in a section of a lymphatic vessel to study the dynamics of lymphatic valves and their effect on fluid transport. Further, we investigate the effect of variations in valve geometry and material properties on fluid pumping. This work helps to increase our understanding of the mechanisms of lymphatic fluid transport, which has implications in a variety of pathologies, including cancer metastasis, autoimmunity, atherosclerosis and obesity. Support from NSF CMMI 1635133 is gratefully acknowledged.

  19. Relations of proliferative activities of gastric carcinoma cells to lymphatic involvement, venous invasion and prognosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴云飞; 徐惠绵; 陈峻青

    2004-01-01

    Background This study was to evaluate bivariate bromodeoxyuridine(BrdUrd)/DNA flow cytometric analysis in detection of gastric carcinoma and to study the relations of cellular BrdUrd labeling indices (LI), G2/M-phase fraction(G2/MPF) and DNA ploidy pattern to lymphatic involvement, venous invasion and prognosis.Methods Fresh tumor samples from 60 patients with gastric carcinoma were analyzed by bivariate BrdUrd/DNA flow cytometry. The results were correlated with lymphatic vessel invasion, lymphatic node metastasis, the number of matastatic lymphatic nodes, and venous invasion. Propidium iodide (PI) was used as a fluorescent probe for total cellular DNA, and a monoclonal antibody against BrdUrd was used as a probe for BrdUrd incorporated into DNA. Fluorescent-labeled goat anti-mouse antibody was used as a second antibody. S-phase fractions were measured by in vitro BrdUrd labeling, and DNA ploidy and G2/MPF were also measured. Comparison of survival was performed with the log-rank test, the Chi-square test for qualitative data, and Student's t test for quantu data. Results BrdUrd LI and G2/MPF values were significantly higher in tumors with lymphatic vessel invasion than in those without invasion respectively (P<0.01); the patients who had tumors with lymphatic vessel invasion showed a significantly poor prognosis (P<0.01). Both BrdUrd LI and G2/MPF values were significantly higher in tumors with lymphatic node metastasis than in those without metastasis (P<0.01). A statistical significant difference was noted in the 5-year survival rates between the patients with lymph node metastasis and those without metastasis. Compared with diploid carcinoma, the incidence of lymph node metastasis was significantly higher in aneuploid carcinoma (P<0.05), and the patients with aneuploid carcinoma showed a significantly poor prognosis (P<0.05). BrdUrd LI was significantly higher in patients with more than 5 metastatic lymph nodes than those with 1-4 metastatic lymph nodes (P<0

  20. Tailoring of chronic lymphatic leukemia therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhefni, Ashraf M

    2013-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) remains an incurable disease, with all patients who require therapy destined to relapse and understanding of the pathophysiology of chronic lymphocytic leukemia has advanced significantly. It is now clear that chronic lymphocytic leukemia is a relatively proliferative disorder that requires the help of its microenvironment to be maintained and to progress. The stimulation of the chronic lymphatic leukemia cell occurs in most, if not all, patients through antigen stimulation via the B cell receptors. In addition, there is now a appreciation of the role of the p53 pathway leading to chemoresistance and the elucidation of the molecular and intracellular signaling mechanisms of disease is just beginning to facilitate the development of several targeted small molecules that promise to revolutionize the treatment of Chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

  1. Vascular endothelial growth factor-D is a key molecule that enhances lymphatic metastasis of soft tissue sarcomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagawa, Takashi, E-mail: tyanagaw@med.gunma-u.ac.jp [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-22, Showa, Maebashi, Gunma, 371-8511 (Japan); Shinozaki, Tetsuya [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-22, Showa, Maebashi, Gunma, 371-8511 (Japan); Watanabe, Hideomi [Department of Physical Therapy, Gunma University School of Health Science, 3-39-22, Showa, Maebashi, Gunma, 371-8511 (Japan); Saito, Kenichi [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-22, Showa, Maebashi, Gunma, 371-8511 (Japan); Raz, Avraham [Tumor Progression and Metastasis Program, Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University, 110 E. Warren Ave., Detroit, MI (United States); Takagishi, Kenji [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-22, Showa, Maebashi, Gunma, 371-8511 (Japan)

    2012-04-15

    Studies on lymph node metastasis of soft tissue sarcomas are insufficient because of its rarity. In this study, we examined the expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C and VEGF-D in soft tissue sarcomas metastasized to lymph nodes. In addition, the effects of the two molecules on the barrier function of a lymphatic endothelial cell monolayer against sarcoma cells were analyzed. We examined 7 patients who had soft tissue sarcomas with lymph node metastases and who had undergone neither chemotherapy nor radiotherapy before lymphadenectomy. Immunohistochemistry revealed that 2 of 7 sarcomas that metastasized to lymph nodes expressed VEGF-C both in primary and metastatic lesions. On the other hand, VEGF-D expression was detected in 4 of 7 primary and 7 of 7 metastatic lesions, respectively. Interestingly, 3 cases that showed no VEGF-D expression at primary sites expressed VEGF-D in metastatic lesions. Recombinant VEGF-C at 10{sup -8} and VEGF-D at 10{sup -7}and 10{sup -8} g/ml significantly increased the random motility of lymphatic endothelial cells compared with controls. VEGF-D significantly increased the migration of sarcoma cells through lymphatic endothelial monolayers. The fact that VEGF-D induced the migration of fibrosarcomas through the lymphatic endothelial monolayer is the probable reason for the strong relationship between VEGF-D expression and lymph node metastasis in soft tissue sarcomas. The important propensities of this molecule for the increase of lymph node metastases are not only lymphangiogenesis but also down-regulation of the barrier function of lymphatic endothelial monolayers, which facilitates sarcoma cells entering the lymphatic circulation.

  2. Effects of blockade of cerebral lymphatic dra inage on oxide free radical in brain tissue after middle cerebral artery occlu sion in rats%脑淋巴引流阻滞对大脑中动脉阻塞鼠缺血性脑组织氧自由基的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏作理; 孙保亮; 闫振文; 杨明峰; 陈玉社

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of blo c kade of cerebrallymphatic drainage on oxide free radicals in ischemic brain tis sue.Methods Seventy six Wistar rats were divided randomly int o two groups,the middle cerebral artery occlusion(MCAO) group and MCAO plus cere bral lymphatic blockade(MCAO+CLB)group.Activity of SOD and content of MDA in the ischemic brain tissu es were detected at 24 hours,48 hours and 72 hours respectively after operation.Results In MCAO group,SOD activity in the ischemic brain tissue was significantly decreased while MDA content was increased markedly.In M CAO+CLB group,alterations of above parameters were more obvious.Conclusions Obstruction of cerebral lymphatic drainage may deteriorate ischemic brain damage by increasing oxide free radicals.%目的 探讨脑淋巴引流阻滞对脑缺血后脑组织氧自由基的影响。方法 将76只Wistar大鼠随机分为大脑中动脉阻塞(MCAO)组和MCAO加脑淋巴引流阻断(MCAO+CLB)组,在术后24h、48h和72h分别检测SOD活性和MDA含量的变化。结果 在手术后各时间点,MCAO大鼠缺血区脑组织SOD活力显著降低而MDA含量明显增多,在MCAO+CLB大鼠上述指标的变化更加严重。结论 脑淋巴引流障碍能通过增加缺血区脑组织的氧自由基含而加重MCAO后缺血性脑损伤。

  3. Monitoring and remediation technologies of organochlorine pesticides in drainage water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Ahmed

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to monitor the presence of organochlorine in drainage water in Kafr-El-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt. Furthermore, to evaluate the efficiencies of different remediation techniques (advanced oxidation processes [AOPs] and bioremediation for removing the most frequently detected compound (lindane in drainage water. The results showed the presence of several organochlorine pesticides in all sampling sites. Lindane was detected with high frequency relative to other detected organochlorine in drainage water. Nano photo-Fenton like reagent was the most effective treatment for lindane removal in drainage water. Bioremediation of lindane by effective microorganisms (EMs removed 100% of the lindane initial concentration. There is no remaining toxicity in lindane contaminated-water after remediation on treated rats relative to control with respect to histopathological changes in liver and kidney. Advanced oxidation processes especially with nanomaterials and bioremediation using effective microorganisms can be regarded as safe and effective remediation technologies of lindane in water.

  4. Molecular Mechanism Underlying Lymphatic Metastasis in Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwen Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As the most challenging human malignancies, pancreatic cancer is characterized by its insidious symptoms, low rate of surgical resection, high risk of local invasion, metastasis and recurrence, and overall dismal prognosis. Lymphatic metastasis, above all, is recognized as an early adverse event in progression of pancreatic cancer and has been described to be an independent poor prognostic factor. It should be noted that the occurrence of lymphatic metastasis is not a casual or stochastic but an ineluctable and designed event. Increasing evidences suggest that metastasis-initiating cells (MICs and the microenvironments may act as a double-reed style in this crime. However, the exact mechanisms on how they function synergistically for this dismal clinical course remain largely elusive. Therefore, a better understanding of its molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in pancreatic lymphatic metastasis is urgently required. In this review, we will summarize the latest advances on lymphatic metastasis in pancreatic cancer.

  5. Evaluation of lymphatic regeneration in rat incisional wound healing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nevine M.F. El Deeb

    2014-06-20

    Jun 20, 2014 ... Abstract Objective: During the wound healing process, lymphatic regeneration in the injured skin has not .... posed of newly-formed blood vessels and fibroblasts .... age plays a role in connection with traumatic deaths due to.

  6. Endoscopically observable white nodule caused by distal intramural lymphatic spread of rectal cancer: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsumura Ayako

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This report describes a case of rectal cancer with endoscopically observable white nodules caused by distal intramural lymphatic spread. A 57-year-old female presented to our hospital with frequent diarrhea and hemorrhoids. Computed tomography showed bilateral ovarian masses and three hepatic tumors diagnosed as rectal cancer metastases, and also showed multiple lymph node involvement. The patient was preoperatively diagnosed with stage IV rectal cancer. Colonoscopy demonstrated that primary rectal cancer existed 15 cm from the anal verge and that there were multiple white small nodules on the anal side of the primary tumor extending to the dentate line. Biopsies of the white spots were performed, and they were identified as adenocarcinoma. The patient underwent Hartmann’s procedure because of the locally advanced primary tumor. The white nodules were ultimately diagnosed as being caused by intramural lymphatic spreading because lymphatic permeation was strongly positive at the surrounding area. Small white nodules near a primary rectal cancer should be suspected of being intramural spreading. Endoscopic detection of white nodules may be useful for the diagnosis of distal intramural spread.

  7. Current and Future Lymphatic Imaging Modalities for Tumor Staging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Murtaza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor progression is supported by the lymphatic system which should be scanned efficiently for tumor staging as well as the enhanced therapeutic outcomes. Poor resolution and low sensitivity is a limitation of traditional lymphatic imaging modalities; thus new noninvasive approaches like nanocarriers, magnetic resonance imaging, positron-emission tomography, and quantum dots are advantageous. Some newer modalities, which are under development, and their potential uses will also be discussed in this review.

  8. Altered Pulmonary Lymphatic Development in Infants with Chronic Lung Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily M. McNellis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary lymphatic development in chronic lung disease (CLD has not been investigated, and anatomy of lymphatics in human infant lungs is not well defined. Hypothesis. Pulmonary lymphatic hypoplasia is present in CLD. Method. Autopsy lung tissues of eighteen subjects gestational ages 22 to 40 weeks with and without history of respiratory morbidity were stained with monoclonal antipodoplanin and reviewed under light microscopy. Percentage of parenchyma podoplanin stained at the acinar level was determined using computerized image analysis; 9 CLD and 4 control subjects gestational ages 27 to 36 weeks were suitable for the analysis. Results. Distinct, lymphatic-specific staining with respect to other vascular structures was appreciated in all gestations. Infants with and without respiratory morbidity had comparable lymphatic distribution which extended to the alveolar ductal level. Podoplanin staining per parenchyma was increased and statistically significant in the CLD group versus controls at the alveolar ductal level (0.06% ± 0.02% versus 0.04% ± 0.01%, 95% CI −0.04% to −0.002%, P<0.03. Conclusion. Contrary to our hypothesis, the findings show that there is an increase in alveolar lymphatics in CLD. It is suggested that the findings, by expanding current knowledge of CLD pathology, may offer insight into the development of more effective therapies to tackle CLD.

  9. Lymphatic function is required prenatally for lung inflation at birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakus, Zoltán; Gleghorn, Jason P.; Enis, David R.; Sen, Aslihan; Chia, Stephanie; Liu, Xi; Rawnsley, David R.; Yang, Yiqing; Hess, Paul R.; Zou, Zhiying; Yang, Jisheng; Guttentag, Susan H.; Nelson, Celeste M.

    2014-01-01

    Mammals must inflate their lungs and breathe within minutes of birth to survive. A key regulator of neonatal lung inflation is pulmonary surfactant, a lipoprotein complex which increases lung compliance by reducing alveolar surface tension (Morgan, 1971). Whether other developmental processes also alter lung mechanics in preparation for birth is unknown. We identify prenatal lymphatic function as an unexpected requirement for neonatal lung inflation and respiration. Mice lacking lymphatic vessels, due either to loss of the lymphangiogenic factor CCBE1 or VEGFR3 function, appear cyanotic and die shortly after birth due to failure of lung inflation. Failure of lung inflation is not due to reduced surfactant levels or altered development of the lung but is associated with an elevated wet/dry ratio consistent with edema. Embryonic studies reveal active lymphatic function in the late gestation lung, and significantly reduced total lung compliance in late gestation embryos that lack lymphatics. These findings reveal that lymphatic vascular function plays a previously unrecognized mechanical role in the developing lung that prepares it for inflation at birth. They explain respiratory failure in infants with congenital pulmonary lymphangiectasia, and suggest that inadequate late gestation lymphatic function may also contribute to respiratory failure in premature infants. PMID:24733830

  10. Nitric oxide permits hypoxia-induced lymphatic perfusion by controlling arterial-lymphatic conduits in zebrafish and glass catfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl Ejby Jensen, Lasse; Cao, Renhai; Hedlund, Eva-Maria

    2009-01-01

    The blood and lymphatic vasculatures are structurally and functionally coupled in controlling tissue perfusion, extracellular interstitial fluids, and immune surveillance. Little is known, however, about the molecular mechanisms that underlie the regulation of bloodlymphatic vessel connections...

  11. Is intra-operative gamma probe detection really necessary for inguinal sentinel lymph node biopsy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira Filho, Renato Santos de; Santos, Ivan Dunshe Abranches Oliveira; Ferreira, Lydia Massako; Almeida, Fernando Augusto de; Simoes, Milvia Maria; Enokihara, Silvia; Barbieri, Antonio; Tovo Filho, Reinaldo [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP - EPM), SP (Brazil). Disciplina de Cirurgia Plastica

    2000-11-01

    Sentinel node (SN) biopsy has changed the surgical treatment of malignant melanoma. The literature has emphasized the importance of gamma probe detection (GPD) of the SN. Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of patent blue dye (PBD) and GPD for SN biopsy in different lymphatic basins. Patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma in stages I and II were submitted to biopsy of the SN, identified by PBD and GPD, as part of a research project. Patients were seen at Hospital Sao Paulo by a multidisciplinary group (Plastic Surgery Tumor Branch, Nuclear Medicine and Pathology). 64 patients with localized malignant melanoma were studied. The median age was 46.5 years. The primary tumor was located in the neck, trunk or extremities. Preoperative lymphoscintigraphy, lymphatic mapping with PBD and intraoperative GPD were performed on all patients. The SN was examined by conventional and immuno-histological staining. If the SN was not found or contained micrometastases, only complete lymphadenectomy was performed. The SN was identified by PBD if it was blue-stained, and by GPD if demonstrated activity five times greater than the adipose tissue of the neighborhood. Seventy lymphatic basins were explored. Lymphoscintigraphy showed ambiguous drainage em 7 patients. GPD identified the SN in 68 basins (97%) and PBD in 53 (76%). PBD and GPD identified SN in 100% of the inguinal basins. For the remaining basins both techniques were complementary. A metastatic SN was found in 10 basins. Three patients with negative SN had recurrence (median follow-up=11 months). Although both GPD and PBD are useful and complementary, PBD alone identified the SN in 100% of the inguinal lymphatic basins. (author)

  12. Social deprivation index and lymphatic filariasis: a tool for mapping urban areas at risk in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfim, Cristine; Aguiar-Santos, Ana Maria; Pedroza, Dinilson; Costa, Tadeu Rodrigues; Portugal, José Luiz; Oliveira, Conceição; Medeiros, Zulma

    2009-09-01

    This paper describes the construction and application of a social deprivation index that was created to explore the relationship between lymphatic filariasis and socioenvironmental variables in the municipality of Jaboatão dos Guararapes, Pernambuco, Brazil, thereby contributing towards identifying priority areas for interventions. This indicator was obtained from principal-component factor analysis. Variables available from the national census representing socioenvironmental conditions, household characteristics and urban services were used. Epidemiological data came from a parasitological survey on lymphatic filariasis. 23 673 individuals were examined and 323 were positive (1.4%). Two factors that together explained 80.61% of the total variance were selected. The social deprivation strata were capable of indicating a risk gradient, with 74.9% of the microfilaremia cases situated in the high-risk stratum. Principal-component factor analysis was shown to be sensitive for selecting indicators associated with the risk of lymphatic filariasis transmission and for detecting areas potentially at risk. The capacity of the social deprivation index for picking up social inequalities qualifies it as a new tool for use in planning interventions aimed at controlling lymphatic filariasis in urban spaces.

  13. Sustainable Drainage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklas Scholz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Urban water management has somewhat changed since the publication of The Sustainable Drainage System (SuDS Manual in 2007 [1], transforming from building traditional sewers to implementing SuDS, which are part of the best management practice techniques used in the USA and seen as contributing to water-sensitive urban design in Australia. Most SuDS, such as infiltration trenches, swales, green roofs, ponds, and wetlands, address water quality and quantity challenges, and enhance the local biodiversity while also being acceptable aesthetically to the public. Barriers to the implementation of SuDS include adoption problems, flood and diffuse pollution control challenges, negative public perception, and a lack of decision support tools addressing, particularly, the retrofitting of these systems while enhancing ecosystem services. [...

  14. [The characteristics of evaluation of expression of ZAP-70 in tumor cells under b-cell chronic lymphatic leukemia using the flow cytofluorometry technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisilichina, D G; Lugovskaia, S A; Pochtar', M E; Naumova, E V; Biderman, B V; Sudarikov, A B; Nikitin, E A; Dolgov, V V

    2012-08-01

    The b-cell chronic lymphatic leukemia is the most common among all lymphatic proliferative diseases and is characterized by significant variability of its clinical course. The mutation status of genes of variable region of heavy chains of immunoglobulins (IgVH) is the most reliable prognostic factor forecasting time until beginning of treatment in case of b-cell chronic lymphatic leukemia. However its detection nowadays is inaccessible for routine diagnostics. Among surrogate markers of mutation status the indicator of expression of ZAP-70 by tumor cells estimated using flow cytofluorometry. However, in publications there are different guidelines concerning the technique of mentioned marker. To establish the optimal approach to evaluation of expression of ZAP-70 the peripheral blood samples of 5I patients with b-cell chronic lymphatic leukemia and 10 healthy persons were analyzed. The comparison with the results of detection of mutation status of IgVH-genes revealed the advantage of applying the technique of calculation of MFI ratio during interpretation of data of expression of ZAP-70 obtained with flow cytofluorometry. In this framework, the indicator of expression of ZAP-70 can be applied in assessing the course of disease and time until the beginning of treatment of b-cell chronic lymphatic leukemia.

  15. [The indicators of alteration of functional activity of vessel wall as new diagnostic criteria of development of initial stages of chronic lymphatic leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jevak, T N; Chesnokova, N P; Shelekhova, T I

    2015-03-01

    The role of endothelium dysfunction in pathogenesis of B-cell mode of chronic lymphatic leukemia is still uncovered. However, detection of disorders of functional activity of vessel wall at early stages of development of this disease permits to widen actual diagnostic criteria of its initiation and thereafter to make more objective diagnostic itself. The study was targeted to establish the role of endothelium dysfunction in pathogenesis of initial stages (0-1 stages according classification Rai K. et al. 1975) of B-cell mode of chronic lymphatic leukemia. The article presents results of clinical laboratory examination of 30 patients with initial stages of B-cell mode of chronic lymphatic leukemia. The content of classic markers of endothelium dysfunction in blood serum were detected using one time solid-phase enzymoimmunoassay at the moment of admission to hospital before initiation of treatment. In patients with chronic lymphatic leukemia blood serum characterized by increasing of level of E-selectin. ICAM-1, endothelin-1, metabolites of nitrogen nitrite, angiotensin II. At the same time, content of protein C decreased at the stage 0-1 of mentioned pathology. Hence, it is recommended to apply determining in blood serum the content of markers of endothelium dysfunction as additional diagnostic criteria of development of paraneoplastic disorders at initial stages of chronic lymphatic leukemia. These markers include molecules of adhesion (E-selectin, ICAM-I), metabolites of nitrogen nitrite, endothelin-1, protein C. angiotensin II and homocysteine.

  16. Vascular, glial, and lymphatic immune gateways of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Britta; Carare, Roxana O; Bechmann, Ingo; Flügel, Alexander; Laman, Jon D; Weller, Roy O

    2016-09-01

    Immune privilege of the central nervous system (CNS) has been ascribed to the presence of a blood-brain barrier and the lack of lymphatic vessels within the CNS parenchyma. However, immune reactions occur within the CNS and it is clear that the CNS has a unique relationship with the immune system. Recent developments in high-resolution imaging techniques have prompted a reassessment of the relationships between the CNS and the immune system. This review will take these developments into account in describing our present understanding of the anatomical connections of the CNS fluid drainage pathways towards regional lymph nodes and our current concept of immune cell trafficking into the CNS during immunosurveillance and neuroinflammation. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and interstitial fluid are the two major components that drain from the CNS to regional lymph nodes. CSF drains via lymphatic vessels and appears to carry antigen-presenting cells. Interstitial fluid from the CNS parenchyma, on the other hand, drains to lymph nodes via narrow and restricted basement membrane pathways within the walls of cerebral capillaries and arteries that do not allow traffic of antigen-presenting cells. Lymphocytes targeting the CNS enter by a two-step process entailing receptor-mediated crossing of vascular endothelium and enzyme-mediated penetration of the glia limitans that covers the CNS. The contribution of the pathways into and out of the CNS as initiators or contributors to neurological disorders, such as multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease, will be discussed. Furthermore, we propose a clear nomenclature allowing improved precision when describing the CNS-specific communication pathways with the immune system.

  17. New model of macrophage acquisition of the lymphatic endothelial phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly L Hall

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Macrophage-derived lymphatic endothelial cell progenitors (M-LECPs contribute to new lymphatic vessel formation, but the mechanisms regulating their differentiation, recruitment, and function are poorly understood. Detailed characterization of M-LECPs is limited by low frequency in vivo and lack of model systems allowing in-depth molecular analyses in vitro. Our goal was to establish a cell culture model to characterize inflammation-induced macrophage-to-LECP differentiation under controlled conditions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Time-course analysis of diaphragms from lipopolysaccharide (LPS-treated mice revealed rapid mobilization of bone marrow-derived and peritoneal macrophages to the proximity of lymphatic vessels followed by widespread (∼50% incorporation of M-LECPs into the inflamed lymphatic vasculature. A differentiation shift toward the lymphatic phenotype was found in three LPS-induced subsets of activated macrophages that were positive for VEGFR-3 and many other lymphatic-specific markers. VEGFR-3 was strongly elevated in the early stage of macrophage transition to LECPs but undetectable in M-LECPs prior to vascular integration. Similar transient pattern of VEGFR-3 expression was found in RAW264.7 macrophages activated by LPS in vitro. Activated RAW264.7 cells co-expressed VEGF-C that induced an autocrine signaling loop as indicated by VEGFR-3 phosphorylation inhibited by a soluble receptor. LPS-activated RAW264.7 macrophages also showed a 68% overlap with endogenous CD11b(+/VEGFR-3(+ LECPs in the expression of lymphatic-specific genes. Moreover, when injected into LPS- but not saline-treated mice, GFP-tagged RAW264.7 cells massively infiltrated the inflamed diaphragm followed by integration into 18% of lymphatic vessels. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We present a new model for macrophage-LECP differentiation based on LPS activation of cultured RAW264.7 cells. This system designated here as the "RAW model" mimics

  18. High relative density of lymphatic vessels predicts poor survival in tongue squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppälä, Miia; Pohjola, Konsta; Laranne, Jussi; Rautiainen, Markus; Huhtala, Heini; Renkonen, Risto; Lemström, Karl; Paavonen, Timo; Toppila-Salmi, Sanna

    2016-12-01

    Tongue cancer has a poor prognosis due to its early metastasis via lymphatic vessels. The present study aimed at evaluating lymphatic vessel density, relative density of lymphatic vessel, and diameter of lymphatic vessels and its predictive role in tongue cancer. Paraffin-embedded tongue and lymph node specimens (n = 113) were stained immunohistochemically with a polyclonal antibody von Willebrand factor, recognizing blood and lymphatic endothelium and with a monoclonal antibody podoplanin, recognizing lymphatic endothelium. The relative density of lymphatic vessels was counted by dividing the mean number of lymphatic vessels per microscopic field (podoplanin) by the mean number of all vessels (vWf) per microscopic field. The high relative density of lymphatic vessels (≥80 %) was associated with poor prognosis in tongue cancer. The relative density of lymphatic vessels predicted poor prognosis in the group of primary tumor size T1-T2 and in the group of non-metastatic cancer. The lymphatic vessel density and diameter of lymphatic vessels were not associated with tongue cancer survival. The relative density of lymphatic vessels might have clinically relevant prognostic impact. Further studies with increased number of patients are needed.

  19. Is tuberculosis a lymphatic disease with a pulmonary portal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, Marcel A; Waters, W Ray

    2014-03-01

    Tuberculosis most commonly presents as a pulmonary disease, in which infection, persistence, and induction of transmissible pathology all occur in the lungs. If viewed as a pulmonary disease, enlarged lymph nodes represent reactive adenitis, and extrapulmonary forms of tuberculosis (including lymphatic tuberculosis) are not transmissible, hence representing an evolutionary dead-end for the pathogen. In an alternative theory, Mycobacterium tuberculosis passes asymptomatically through the lungs and rapidly establishes a chronic lymphatic infection. After a period of weeks to decades secondary lung pathology develops, ultimately allowing transmission to occur. Evidence that supports this lymphatic model includes historical descriptions of human tuberculosis from the preantibiotic era, analogy with other mycobacterial infections, observations of tuberculosis in non-human hosts, and experimental models of tuberculosis disease. At a fundamental level, a lymphocentric model proposes that spread of organisms outside the lung parenchyma is essential to induce adaptive immunity, which is crucial for the generation of transmissible pathology. Furthermore, a lymphatic model could explain why the lesion associated with primary infection (Ghon focus) is anatomically separated from the most common site of reactivation disease (the apex). More practically, an alternative perspective that classes tuberculosis as a lymphatic disease might affect strategies for preclinical and clinical assessment of novel diagnostics, drugs, and vaccines.

  20. Construction and selection of subtracted cDNA library of mouse hepatocarcinoma cell lines with different lymphatic metastasis potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Hou; Jan-Wu Tang; Xiao-Nan Cui; Bo Wang; Bo Song; Lei Sun

    2004-01-01

    AIM: In order to elucidate the molecular mechanism of lymphatic metastasis of hepatocarcinoma, we detected the difference of gene expression between mouse hepatocarcinoma cell lines Hca-F and Hca-P with different lymphatic metastasis potential.METHODS: cDNA of Hca-F cells was used as a tester and cDNA of Hca-P cells was used as a driver. cDNAs highly expressed in Hca-F cells were isolated by the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method. The isolated cDNA was cloned into T/A cloning vector. The ligation products were transformed into DH5 α competent cells. Individual clones were randomly selected and used for PCR amplification.Vector DNA from positive clones was isolated for sequencing.RESULTS: There were 800 positive clones in amplified subtracted cDNA library. Random analysis of 160 clones with PCR showed that 95% of the clones contained 100-700 bp inserts. Analysis of 20 sequenced cDNA clones randomly picked from the SSH library revealed 4 known genes (mouse heat shock protein 84 ku, DNA helicase, ribosomal protein S13 ,ethanol induced 6 gene) and 3 expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Four cDNAs showed no homology and presumably represent novel genes.CONCLUSION: A subtracted cDNA library of differentially expressed genes in mouse heptocarcinoma cell lines with different lymphatic metastasis potential was successfully constructed with SSH and T/A cloning techniques. The library is efficient and lays a solid foundation for searching new lymphatic metastasis related genes. The expression of mouse heat shock protein gene, DNA helicase and other 4 novel gene may be different between mouse heptocarcinoma cell lines with different lymphatic metastasis potential.

  1. A comparison of retroperitoneoscopic and open surgical renal pedicle lymphatic disconnection for the treatment of serious filarial chyluria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN Wei-hua; JIN Feng-shuo; WANG Luo-fu; ZHU Fang-qiang

    2007-01-01

    @@ Currently the most effective clinical management for serious intractable chyluria is renal pedicle lymphatic disconnection, which generally consists of nephrolympholysis, renal hilar lymphatic vessel stripping and ureterolympholysis.

  2. Recent advances in lymphatic targeted drug deliver y system for tumor metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Yu Zhang; Wei-Yue Lu

    2014-01-01

    Te lymphatic system has an important defensive role in the human body. hTe metastasis of most tumors initially spreads through the surrounding lymphatic tissue and eventually forms lymphatic metastatic tumors;the tumor cells may even transfer to other organs to form other types of tumors. Clinically, lymphatic metastatic tumors develop rapidly. Given the limitations of surgical resection and the low effectiveness of radiotherapy and chemotherapy, the treatment of lymphatic metastatic tumors remains a great challenge. Lymph node metastasis may lead to the further spread of tumors and may be predictive of the endpoint event. Under these circumstances, novel and effective lymphatic targeted drug delivery systems have been explored to improve the speciifcity of anticancer drugs to tumor cells in lymph nodes. In this review, we summarize the principles of lymphatic targeted drug delivery and discuss recent advances in the development of lymphatic targeted carriers.

  3. The Lymphatic Endothelial mCLCA1 Antibody Induces Proliferation and Growth of Lymph Node Lymphatic Sinuses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly L Jordan-Williams

    Full Text Available Lymphocyte- and leukocyte-mediated lymph node (LN lymphatic sinus growth (lymphangiogenesis is involved in immune responses and in diseases including cancer and arthritis. We previously discovered a 10.1.1 Ab that recognizes the lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC surface protein mCLCA1, which is an interacting partner for LFA1 and Mac-1 that mediates lymphocyte adhesion to LECs. Here, we show that 10.1.1 Ab treatment specifically induces LEC proliferation, and influences migration and adhesion in vitro. Functional testing by injection of mice with 10.1.1 Ab but not control hamster Abs identified rapid induction of LN LEC proliferation and extensive lymphangiogenesis within 23 h. BrdU pulse-chase analysis demonstrated incorporation of proliferating LYVE-1-positive LEC into the growing medullary lymphatic sinuses. The 10.1.1 Ab-induced LN remodeling involved coordinate increases in LECs and also blood endothelial cells, fibroblastic reticular cells, and double negative stroma, as is observed during the LN response to inflammation. 10.1.1 Ab-induced lymphangiogenesis was restricted to LNs, as mCLCA1-expressing lymphatic vessels of the jejunum and dermis were unaffected by 23 h 10.1.1 Ab treatment. These findings demonstrate that 10.1.1 Ab rapidly and specifically induces proliferation and growth of LN lymphatic sinuses and stroma, suggesting a key role of mCLCA1 in coordinating LN remodeling during immune responses.

  4. ACKR2: An Atypical Chemokine Receptor Regulating Lymphatic Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonavita, Ornella; Mollica Poeta, Valeria; Setten, Elisa; Massara, Matteo; Bonecchi, Raffaella

    2017-01-01

    The lymphatic system plays an important role in the induction of the immune response by transporting antigens, inflammatory mediators, and leukocytes from peripheral tissues to draining lymph nodes. It is emerging that lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) are playing an active role in this context via the expression of chemokines, inflammatory mediators promoting cell migration, and chemokine receptors. Particularly, LECs express atypical chemokine receptors (ACKRs), which are unable to promote conventional signaling and cell migration while they are involved in the regulation of chemokine availability. Here, we provide a summary of the data on the role of ACKR2 expressed by lymphatics, indicating an essential role for this ACKRs in the regulation of the inflammation and the immune response in different pathological conditions, including infection, allergy, and cancer. PMID:28123388

  5. Separation of drainage runoff during rainfall-runoff episodes using the stable isotope method and drainage water temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajíček, Antonín; Kvítek, Tomáš; Pomije, Tomáš

    2014-05-01

    Stabile isotopes of 2H 18O and drainage water temperature were used as natural tracers for separation rainfall-runoff event hydrograph on several tile drained catchments located in Bohemian-Moravian Highland, Czech Republic. Small agricultural catchments with drainage systems built in slopes are typical for foothill areas in the Czech and Moravian highland. Often without permanent surface runoff, the drainage systems represent an important portion of runoff and nitrogen leaching out of the catchment. The knowledge of the drainage runoff formation and the origin of its components are prerequisites for formulation of measures leading to improvement of the drainage water quality and reduction of nutrient leaching from the drained catchments. The results have proved presence of event water in the drainage runoff during rainfall-runoff events. The proportion of event water observed in the drainage runoff varied between 15 - 60 % in the summer events and 0 - 50 % in winter events, while the sudden water temperature change was between 0,1 - 4,2 °C (2 - 35 %). The comparison of isotope separation of the drainage runoff and monitoring the drainage water temperature have demonstrated that in all cases of event water detected in the runoff, a rapid change in the drainage water temperature was observed as well. The portion of event water in the runoff grows with the growing change in water temperature. Using component mixing model, it was demonstrated that water temperature can be successfully used at least as a qualitative and with some degree of inaccuracy as a quantitative tracer as well. The drawback of the non-conservative character of this tracer is compensated by both its economic and technical accessibility. The separation results also resemble results of separations at small streams. Together with a similarly high speed of the discharge reaction to beginning of precipitation, it is obvious that the mechanism of surface runoff formation and drainage runoff formation

  6. Thoracic involvement in generalised lymphatic anomaly (or lymphangiomatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Luisi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Generalised lymphatic anomaly (GLA, also known as lymphangiomatosis, is a rare disease caused by congenital abnormalities of lymphatic development. It usually presents in childhood but can also be diagnosed in adults. GLA encompasses a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from single-organ involvement to generalised disease. Given the rarity of the disease, most of the information regarding it comes from case reports. To date, no clinical trials concerning treatment are available. This review focuses on thoracic GLA and summarises possible diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.

  7. Sphingosine-1-phosphate in the lymphatic fluid determined by novel methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Nagahashi

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: In agreement with the previous theory, our results confirm “S1P gradient” among blood, lymphatic fluid and peripheral lymphatic tissues. Convenient methods for collection and measurement of sphingolipids in lymphatic fluid are expected to provide new insights on functions of sphingolipids.

  8. Lack of functioning intratumoral lymphatics in colon and pancreas cancer tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski, Waldemar L; Stanczyk, Marek; Gewartowska, Magdalena; Domaszewska-Szostek, Anna; Durlik, Marek

    2012-09-01

    There are controversial views as to whether intratumoral or peritumoral lymphatics play a dominant role in the metastatic process. Most clinical observations originate from studies of colon cancer. Colon contains mucosa and submucosa rich in lymphatics and with high lymph formation rate. This seems to be a prerequisite for easy metastasis of cancer cells to regional lymph nodes. However, there are other tissues as pancreas with a rudimentary lymphatic network where cancer metastasis formation is as intensive as in colon cancer. This contradicts the common notion that intratumor lymphatics play major role in metastases. We visualized interstitial space and lymphatics in the central and peripheral regions of colon and pancreas tumors using the color stereoscopic lymphography and simultaneously immunohistochemical performed stainings specific for lymphatic and blood endothelial cells. The density of open and compressed lymphatic and blood vessels was measured in the tumor core and edge. There were very few lymphatics in the colon and pancreas tumor core but numerous minor fluid "lakes" with no visible connection to the peritumoral lymphatics. Lining of "lakes" did not express molecular markers specific for lymphatic endothelial cells. Dense connective tissue surrounding tumor foci did not contain lymphatics. Peritumoral lymphatics were irregularly distributed in both types of tumor and only sporadically contained cells that might be tumor cells. Similar lymphoscintigraphic and histological pictures were seen in colon and pancreas cancer despite of different structure of both tissues. This suggests a uniform reaction of tissues to the growing cancer irrespective of the affected organ.

  9. Filter Fabrics for Airport Drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-09-01

    Systems for *r- field Pavements," Harry R. Cedergren . d. "Development of Guidelines for the Design of Subsurfac( Drainage Systems for Highway Pavement...Structural 4Sectic s," H. R. Cedergren , J. A. Arman, and K. H. O’Brien. e. Drainage of Highway and Airfield Pavements, Harry R. Cedergren .> Five...by Cedergren (974).5 Additionally, several references were used, particularly those describing experimental anu construction prolects using filter

  10. The use of a portable gamma camera for preoperative lymphatic mapping: a comparison with a conventional gamma camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidal-Sicart, Sergi; Paredes, Pilar [Hospital Clinic Barcelona, Nuclear Medicine Department (CDIC), Barcelona (Spain); Institut d' Investigacio Biomedica Agusti Pi Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona (Spain); Vermeeren, Lenka; Valdes-Olmos, Renato A. [Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital (NKI-AVL), Nuclear Medicine Department, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Sola, Oriol [Hospital Clinic Barcelona, Nuclear Medicine Department (CDIC), Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-04-15

    Planar lymphoscintigraphy is routinely used for preoperative sentinel node visualization, but large gamma cameras are not always available. We evaluated the reproducibility of lymphatic mapping with a smaller and portable gamma camera. In two centres, 52 patients with breast cancer received preoperative lymphoscintigraphy with a conventional gamma camera with a field of view of 40 x 40 cm. Static anterior and lateral images were performed at 15 min, 2 h and 4 h after injection of the radiotracer ({sup 99m}Tc-nanocolloid). At 2 h after injection, anterior and oblique images were also performed with a portable gamma camera (Sentinella, Oncovision) positioned to obtain a field of view of 20 x 20 cm. Visualization of lymphatic drainage on conventional images and images with the portable device were compared for number of nodes depicted, their intensity and localization of sentinel nodes. The images performed with the conventional gamma camera depicted sentinel nodes in 94%, while the portable gamma camera showed drainage in 73%. There was however no significant difference in visualization between the two devices when a lead shield was used to mask the injection area in 43 patients (95 vs 88%, p = 0.25). Second-echelon nodes were visualized in 62% of the patients with the conventional gamma camera and in 29% of the cases with the portable gamma camera. Preoperative imaging with a portable gamma camera fitted with a pinhole collimator to obtain a field of view of 20 x 20 cm is able to depict sentinel nodes in 88% of the cases, if a lead shield is used to mask the injection site. This device may be useful in centres without the possibility to perform a preoperative image. (orig.)

  11. [The prognostic value of evaluation of minimal residual disease using technique of flow cytofluorometry during application of therapy of chronic lymphatic leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisilichina, D G; Lugovskaia, C A; Naumova, E V; Pochtar', M E; Nikitin, E A; Dolgov, V V

    2014-11-01

    The achievement of molecular remission is associated with increasing of survival of patients with chronic lymphatic leukemia. The important direction of research is seeking of parameters applicable to forecast of response to therapy. The purpose of the study was evaluating prognostic significance of indicator of minimal residual disease detected by technique of flow cytofluorometry of peripheral blood of patients with chronic lymphatic leukemia during therapy application. The sampling included 112 patients with chronic lymphatic leukemia aged from 43 to 82 years. All patients were given treatment consisted of 6 courses of immune chemotherapy combined with fludarabine with cyclophosphan and rituximab. The samples of peripheral blood were analyzed after 3 courses during therapy and after 6 courses after completion of treatment. The cells were analyzed using 5 and 6 color flow cytometry for the purpose of detection of immune phenotype associated with chronic lymphatic leukemia. The evaluation of minimal residual disease was implemented according international standardized protocol (Rawstron A.C. et al. 2007; 21 (5): 956-64). The minimal residual disease negative status was reached in 87 (78%) patients during evaluation of response after 6th course of treatment. The implementation of indicators of residual disease after 3 courses with fludarabine, cyclophosphan and rituximab permitted to sort out two groups of patients with chronic lymphatic leukemia i.e 67 patients with low ( 0.12%) level of tumor cells. The rate of molecular remission after completion of treatment. in the given groups consisted 100% and 44% correspondingly. The study demonstrates possibilities of early immune phenotype evaluation of minimal residual disease to forecast differences in response to treatment in patients with chronic lymphatic leukemia that makes it possible to avoid undesirable toxicity of therapy or to choose method of consolidation.

  12. Migration and lymphatic spread of calcified paraffinomas after breast augmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ooi, G.C.; Peh, W.C.G.; Ip, M. [Hong Kong Univ. (Hong Kong)

    1996-11-01

    A 62 year old Chinese woman presented 25 years after having both breasts augmented with paraffin injections. Development of paraffinomas and multiple episodes of paraffin-related mastitis eventually resulted in bilateral mastectomies. The unusual distribution of migrated calcified paraffinomas in the thoracic wall and its lymphatic system is documented on computed tomography. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Imaging vasculature and lymphatic flow in mice using quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballou, Byron; Ernst, Lauren A.; Andreko, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Quantum dots are ideal probes for fluorescent imaging of vascular and lymphatic tissues. On injection into appropriate sites, red- and near-infrared-emitting quantum dots provide excellent definition of vasculature, lymphoid organs, and lymph nodes draining both normal tissues and tumors. We detail...

  14. Imaging vasculature and lymphatic flow in mice using quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballou, Byron; Ernst, Lauren A.; Andreko, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Quantum dots are ideal probes for fluorescent imaging of vascular and lymphatic tissues. On injection into appropriate sites, red- and near-infrared-emitting quantum dots provide excellent definition of vasculature, lymphoid organs, and lymph nodes draining both normal tissues and tumors. We deta...

  15. [Hygienic evaluation of chronic lymphatic leukemia in Bashkortostan Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakirov, B A; Varshavskiĭ, A V; Bakirov, A B

    2009-01-01

    Prevalence of chronic lymphatic leukemia increased in Bashkortostan Republic over 1999-2008 with predominance of urban population, male patients, individuals aged 80-84. Reliable correlation was seen between pollutants releases into the ambient air and the morbidity parameters over following 5 years.

  16. [THE STRUCTURE OF LYMPHATIC CAPILLARIES OF THE CILIARY BODY OF THE HUMAN EYE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodin, Yu I; Bgatova, N P; Chernykh, V V; Trunov, A N; Pozhidayeva, A A; Konenkov, V I

    2015-01-01

    Using light microscopy, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy, the structural organization of interstitial spaces and vessels of the ciliary body of the human eye (n = 5) were studied. The ciliary body was found to contain wide interstitial spaces--tissue clefts bound by collagen fibers and fibroblasts. Organ-specific lymphatic capillaries were also demonstrated in the ciliary body. According to the present findings and the lymphatic region concept, the first 2 elements of the lymphatic region of the eye were described: tissue clefts--prelymphatics and lymphatic capillaries of the ciliary body. The third element of the lymphatic region are the lymph nodes of the head and neck.

  17. Application of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in showing sentinel lymphatic channels and sentinel lymph nodes of breast cancer%超声造影技术在评估乳腺癌前哨淋巴通道及前哨淋巴结多样性中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹; 巩海燕; 杜丽雯; 李春莲; 栗翠英

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨超声造影技术在显示乳腺癌前哨淋巴通道(SLC)及前哨淋巴结(SLN)多样性中的应用价值。方法女性乳腺癌患者26例,术前均接受乳晕及深层腺体内注射超声造影剂行超声造影探查SLC和SLN。术中于乳晕及深层腺体内注射亚甲蓝,术后解剖蓝染的SLC和SLN ,并进一步将超声造影探及的SLN及蓝染的SLN送病理检查。结果用超声造影技术,26例患者探及至少1条SLC及1个SLN。探及到3种类型的SLC ,分别为浅层前哨淋巴通道(SSLC)、穿支前哨淋巴通道(PSLC )和深层前哨淋巴通道(DSLC )。探及到5种淋巴引流模式(LDP ),分别为 SSLC、PSLC、SSLC+PSLC、SSLC+DSLC和SSLC+ PSLC+DSLC。超声造影探及的LDP与手术LDP相一致的患者为24例(92.31%)。6例患者探及到分叉的SLC ;3例患者探及到中断的SLC ,且相对应的SLN没有强化;术后病理证实该3例患者腋窝淋巴结均有癌转移。结论超声造影在术前评估乳腺癌SLC和SLN多样性中具有一定的可行性,并且对进一步SLN活检具有指导意义。%Objective To assess the application of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in showing the variation of sentinel lymphatic channels (SLC) and sentinel lymph nodes(SLN) of breast cancer .Methods The SLC and SLN of 26 women with breast cancer were examined with intradermal and peritumoral injection of contrast microbubbles for ultrasonography before operation .The methylene blue was injected subareolarly and peritumorally during surgery .The SLC and SLN coloured with blue dye were anatomized after operation .The SLN detected by contrast-enhanced ultrasonography and coloured with blue dye were all sent for pathology examination .Results With contrast-enhanced ultrasonography ,at least one SLC and one SLN were detected in all 26 cases .Three types of SLC were detected ,which included superficial sentinel lymphatic channel (SSLC) ,penetrating

  18. Development of polygonal-surface version of ICRP reference phantoms: Lymphatic node modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thang, Ngyen Tat; Yeom, Yeon Soo; Han, Min Cheol; Kim, Chan Hyeong [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    Among radiosensitive organs/tissues considered in ICRP Publication 103, lymphatic nodes are many small size tissues and widely distributed in the ICRP reference phantoms. It is difficult to directly convert lymphatic nodes of ICRP reference voxel phantoms to polygonal surfaces. Furthermore, in the ICRP reference phantoms lymphatic nodes were manually drawn only in six lymphatic node regions and the reference number of lymphatic nodes reported in ICRP Publication 89 was not considered. To address aforementioned limitations, the present study developed a new lymphatic node modeling method for the polygonal-surface version of ICRP reference phantoms. By using the developed method, lymphatic nodes were modelled in the preliminary version of ICRP male polygonal-surface phantom. Then, lymphatic node dose values were calculated and compared with those of the ICRP reference male voxel phantom to validate the developed modeling method. The present study developed the new lymphatic node modeling method and successfully modeled lymphatic nodes in the preliminary version of the ICRP male polygonal-surface phantom. From the results, it was demonstrated that the developed modeling method can be used to model lymphatic nodes in polygonal-surface version of ICRP reference phantoms.

  19. Regulatory T cell transfer ameliorates lymphedema and promotes lymphatic vessel function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gousopoulos, Epameinondas; Proulx, Steven T.; Bachmann, Samia B.; Scholl, Jeannette; Dionyssiou, Dimitris; Demiri, Efterpi; Halin, Cornelia; Dieterich, Lothar C.

    2016-01-01

    Secondary lymphedema is a common postcancer treatment complication, but the underlying pathological processes are poorly understood and no curative treatment exists. To investigate lymphedema pathomechanisms, a top-down approach was applied, using genomic data and validating the role of a single target. RNA sequencing of lymphedematous mouse skin indicated upregulation of many T cell–related networks, and indeed depletion of CD4+ cells attenuated lymphedema. The significant upregulation of Foxp3, a transcription factor specifically expressed by regulatory T cells (Tregs), along with other Treg-related genes, implied a potential role of Tregs in lymphedema. Indeed, increased infiltration of Tregs was identified in mouse lymphedematous skin and in human lymphedema specimens. To investigate the role of Tregs during disease progression, loss-of-function and gain-of-function studies were performed. Depletion of Tregs in transgenic mice with Tregs expressing the primate diphtheria toxin receptor and green fluorescent protein (Foxp3-DTR-GFP) mice led to exacerbated edema, concomitant with increased infiltration of immune cells and a mixed TH1/TH2 cytokine profile. Conversely, expansion of Tregs using IL-2/anti–IL-2 mAb complexes significantly reduced lymphedema development. Therapeutic application of adoptively transferred Tregs upon lymphedema establishment reversed all of the major hallmarks of lymphedema, including edema, inflammation, and fibrosis, and also promoted lymphatic drainage function. Collectively, our results reveal that Treg application constitutes a potential new curative treatment modality for lymphedema. PMID:27734032

  20. cKit Lineage Hemogenic Endothelium-Derived Cells Contribute to Mesenteric Lymphatic Vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Stanczuk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pathological lymphatic diseases mostly affect vessels in specific tissues, yet little is known about organ-specific regulation of the lymphatic vasculature. Here, we show that the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (VEGFR-3/p110α PI3-kinase signaling pathway is selectively required for the formation of mesenteric lymphatic vasculature. Using genetic lineage tracing, we demonstrate that part of the mesenteric lymphatic vasculature develops from cKit lineage cells of hemogenic endothelial origin through a process we define as lymphvasculogenesis. This is contrary to the current dogma that all mammalian lymphatic vessels form by sprouting from veins. Our results reveal vascular-bed-specific differences in the origin and mechanisms of vessel formation, which may critically underlie organ-specific manifestation of lymphatic dysfunction in disease. The progenitor cells identified in this study may be exploited to restore lymphatic function following cancer surgery, lymphedema, or tissue trauma.

  1. Receptor mechanisms of PAF mediated lymphatic constriction in the canine forelimb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Dobbins

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Platelet activating factor (PAF is a potent inflammatory lipid. In this study we assessed the ability of PAF to impact lymphatic vessel function by altering prenodal lymphatic resistance. Intralymphatic PAF (7.47 × 10−6, 7.47 × 10−5 and 7.47 × 10−4 M increased lymphatic perfusion pressure at the two highest infusion rates. PAF mediated lymphatic constriction was not altered by the intra-arterial infusion of phentolamine but was blocked by the intra-arterial infusion of the PAF receptor antagonist WEB 2170. These data indicate that in addition to PAF's effects on microvascular permeability, this agent may also impact the ability of the lymphatics to transport fluid through alterations in lymphatic smooth muscle tone. PAF mediated lymphatic constriction is not mediated by α-receptors but rather through PAF receptor mediated mechanism.

  2. DRAINAGE AND FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIDDHARTHA ROKADE

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Providing adequate drainage to a pavement system has been considered as an important design consideration to prevent premature failures due to water related problems such as pumping action, loss of support, and rutting, among others. Most water in pavements is due to rainfall infiltration into unsaturated pavement layers, throughjoints, cracks, shoulder edges, and various other defects, especially in older deteriorated pavements. Water also seep upward from a high groundwater table due to capillary suction or vapour movements, or it may flow laterally from the pavement edges and side ditches. Providing adequate drainage to a pavement system has been considered as an important design consideration to ensure satisfactory performance of the pavement, particularly from the perspective of life cycle cost and serviceability. To minimize premature pavement distresses and to enhance the pavement performance, it is imperative to provide adequate drainage to allow infiltrated water to drain out from the base and sub-base, thus avoiding saturation of base and subgrade soils. This paper deals with the analysis of the impact of subsurface drainage on pavement system performance. The requirement ofeffective subsurface drainage for pavement performance is also discussed.

  3. Filariasis: new drugs and new opportunities for lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerauf, Achim

    2008-12-01

    Chemotherapy against onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis has been discussed mainly within the framework of mass drug administration with diethylcarbamazine, ivermectin and albendazole. Although strong reductions in infection prevalence were achieved, the regimes for these drugs do not fully cover needs of individual patients who seek treatment because of symptoms. Chemotherapy against filarial Wolbachia endosymbionts with doxycycline showed higher antiparasitic efficacy in onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis and also improved disease. This review details the recent indications for this new treatment, focussing on regimes for individual drug administration. A regimen of 6-week/100 mg doxycycline per day sterilized adult female Onchocerca volvulus. Two hundred milligrams doxycycline per day for 4 or 6 weeks revealed 50 and 60% macrofilaricidal effects, respectively. Reduction of 80-90% of adult worms was observed in bancroftian filariasis with 200 mg/day doxycycline for 4 or 6 weeks. The latter regimen showed reduction of lymph vessel dilation and of hydrocele. Lymphoedema progression was halted and reversed in early stages. Different options for antiwolbachial individual drug administration are summarized here. With improving health systems in endemic countries, individuals will demand best-possible treatment and accelerate a shift from mass drug administration-only approaches to integrated approaches combining both mass drug administration and individual drug administration. Treatment may be further improved by new antibiotics detected in high-throughput settings.

  4. Technical note on drainage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby

    This technical note will present simple but widely used methods for the design of drainage systems. The note will primarily deal with surface water (rainwater) which on a satisfactorily way should be transport into the drainage system. Traditional two types of sewer systems exist: A combined system......’s not major different than described below - just remember to include this contribution for combined systems where the surface water (rain) and sewage are carried in the same pipes in the system and change some of the parameters for failure allowance (this will be elaborated further later on). The technical...

  5. Heterogeneity of Mesenchymal Markers Expression—Molecular Profiles of Cancer Cells Disseminated by Lymphatic and Hematogenous Routes in Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markiewicz, Aleksandra [Department of Medical Biotechnology, Intercollegiate Faculty of Biotechnology, University of Gdańsk and Medical University of Gdańsk, Gdańsk 80-211 (Poland); Postgraduate School of Molecular Medicine, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw 02-091 (Poland); Książkiewicz, Magdalena [Department of Medical Biotechnology, Intercollegiate Faculty of Biotechnology, University of Gdańsk and Medical University of Gdańsk, Gdańsk 80-211 (Poland); Seroczyńska, Barbara [Bank of Frozen Tissues and Genetic Specimens, Department of Medical Laboratory Diagnostics, Medical University of Gdańsk, Gdańsk 80-211 (Poland); Skokowski, Jarosław [Bank of Frozen Tissues and Genetic Specimens, Department of Medical Laboratory Diagnostics, Medical University of Gdańsk, Gdańsk 80-211 (Poland); Department of Surgical Oncology, Medical University of Gdańsk, Gdańsk 80-214 (Poland); Szade, Jolanta [Department of Pathomorphology, Medical University of Gdańsk, Gdańsk 80-214 (Poland); Wełnicka-Jaśkiewicz, Marzena [Department of Oncology and Radiotherapy, Medical University of Gdańsk, Gdańsk 80-211 (Poland); Zaczek, Anna J., E-mail: azaczek@gumed.edu.pl [Department of Medical Biotechnology, Intercollegiate Faculty of Biotechnology, University of Gdańsk and Medical University of Gdańsk, Gdańsk 80-211 (Poland)

    2013-11-08

    Breast cancers can metastasize via hematogenous and lymphatic routes, however in some patients only one type of metastases are detected, suggesting a certain proclivity in metastatic patterns. Since epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in cancer dissemination it would be worthwhile to find if a specific profile of EMT gene expression exists that is related to either lymphatic or hematogenous dissemination. Our study aimed at evaluating gene expression profile of EMT-related markers in primary tumors (PT) and correlated them with the pattern of metastatic spread. From 99 early breast cancer patients peripheral blood samples (N = 99), matched PT (N = 47) and lymph node metastases (LNM; N = 22) were collected. Expression of TWIST1, SNAI1, SNAI2 and VIM was analyzed in those samples. Additionally expression of CK19, MGB1 and HER2 was measured in CTCs-enriched blood fractions (CTCs-EBF). Results were correlated with each other and with clinico-pathological data of the patients. Results show that the mesenchymal phenotype of CTCs-EBF correlated with poor clinico-pathological characteristics of the patients. Additionally, PT shared more similarities with LNM than with CTCs-EBF. Nevertheless, LNM showed increased expression of EMT-related markers than PT; and EMT itself in PT did not seem to be necessary for lymphatic dissemination.

  6. LyP-1-conjugated doxorubicin-loaded liposomes suppress lymphatic metastasis by inhibiting lymph node metastases and destroying tumor lymphatics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan Zhiqiang; Zhan Changyou; Wen Ziyi; Feng Linglin; Wang Fei; Liu Yu; Yang Xiangkun; Dong Qing; Liu Min; Lu Weiyue, E-mail: wylu@shmu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Smart Drug Delivery, Ministry of Education and PLA, Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203 (China)

    2011-10-14

    Lymphatic metastasis can be greatly promoted by metastases growth and lymphangiogenesis in lymph nodes (LNs). LyP-1, a cyclic peptide, is able to specifically bind with tumor cells and tumor lymphatics in metastatic LNs. This work aimed to use LyP-1-conjugated liposomes (L-LS) loaded with doxorubicin (DOX) (L-LS/DOX) to suppress lymphatic metastasis by inhibiting both metastases and tumor lymphatics in LNs. L-LS were prepared and exhibited sizes around 90 nm and spherical morphology as characterized by transmission electron microscopy. The in vitro cellular studies showed that LyP-1 modification obviously increased liposome uptake by MDA-MB-435 tumor cells and enhanced the cytotoxicity of liposomal DOX. A popliteal and iliac LN metastases model was successfully established by subcutaneous inoculation of tumor cells to nude mice. The immunofluorescence staining analysis indicated that LyP-1 modification enabled specific binding of liposome with tumor lymphatics and enhanced the destroying effect of liposomal DOX on tumor lymphatics. The in vivo fluorescence imaging and pharmacodynamic studies showed that LyP-1 modification increased liposome uptake by metastatic LNs and that L-LS/DOX significantly decreased metastatic LN growth and LN metastasis rate. These results suggested that L-LS/DOX were an effective delivery system for suppressing lymphatic metastasis by simultaneously inhibiting LN metastases and tumor lymphatics.

  7. Lymphatic metastasis and nm23H1 genetic instability in Chinese colon cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Hong Su; Ji-Cheng Li

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the pathogenic mechanism of colon cancer at the molecular level and to elucidate the relationship between intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and nm23H1 genes and Chinese patients with colon cancer.METHODS: DNA was extracted from paraffin-embedded materials. Polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) was used to analyze MSI and LOH. Expression of ICAM-1 was detected by Envision immunohistochemistry. Experimental results were analyzed with Leica-Qwin computer imaging techniques and SPSS software of statistics.RESULTS: ICAM-1 expression of lymphatic endothelium was negative in normal colon and positive in colon cancer respedively.The number of lymphatics positive for ICAM-1 was gradually increased with degree of cancer invasion (P<0.01). In the group with metastasis of colon cancer, the number of lymphatics positive for ICAM-1 in lymph nodes was more than that in the group with no metastasis (P<0.01). The frequency of MSI, LOH and nm23H1 protein was 26.67%, 20.00% and 53.33% in colon cancer, respectively. In TNM staging, MSI (43.75%) and nm23H1 protein (81.25%) in stages Ⅰ+Ⅱ were detected more easily than the corresponding indexes (MSI:7.14%, P<0.05 and nm23H1: 21.43%, P<0.01) in stages Ⅲ+Ⅳ. By comparison, the frequency of LOH (35.71%) in stages Ⅲ+Ⅳ was more than that of LOH (6.25%, P<0.05)in stages Ⅰ+Ⅱ. LOH exhibited a rising trend along with the Duke's staging. nm23H1 protein in the group of tubular adenocarcinoma (60.00%) was higher expressed than that in the group of mucoid adenocarcinoma (20.00%) (P<0.01),and exhibited a rising trend with the differentiation degrees of tubular adenocarcinoma. nm23H1 protein in MSI positive group was higher expressed (75%) than that in MSI negative group (45.45%, P<0.05).CONCLUSION: The expression of ICAM-1 in lymphatic vessels is beneficial to the judgement of the invasion and metastasis ability of colon cancer and the anti-tumor immunity

  8. Pediatric lymphatic malformations: evolving understanding and therapeutic options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defnet, Ann M; Bagrodia, Naina; Hernandez, Sonia L; Gwilliam, Natalie; Kandel, Jessica J

    2016-05-01

    Multimodal treatment of lymphatic malformations continues to expand as new information about the biology and genetics of these lesions is discovered, along with knowledge gained from clinical practice. A patient-centered approach, ideally provided by a multidisciplinary medical and surgical team, should guide timing and modality of treatment. Current treatment options include observation, surgery, sclerotherapy, radiofrequency ablation, and laser therapy. New medical and surgical therapies are emerging, and include sildenafil, propranolol, sirolimus, and vascularized lymph node transfer. The primary focus of management is to support and optimize these patients' quality of life. Researchers continue to study lymphatic malformations with the goal of increasing therapeutic options and developing effective clinical pathways for these complicated lesions.

  9. Percutaneous drainage of abdominal abcess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Men, Sueleyman E-mail: suleyman.men@deu.edu.tr; Akhan, Okan; Koeroglu, Mert

    2002-09-01

    The mortality in undrained abdominal abscesses is high with a mortality rate ranging between 45 and 100%. The outcome in abdominal abscesses, however, has improved due to advances in image guided percutaneous interventional techniques. The main indications for the catheter drainage include treatment or palliation of sepsis associated with an infected fluid collection, and alleviation of the symptoms that may be caused by fluid collections by virtue of their size, like pancreatic pseudocele or lymphocele. The single liver abscesses may be drained with ultrasound guidance only, whereas the multiple abscesses usually require computed tomography (CT) guidance and placement of multiple catheters. The pancreatic abscesses are generally drained routinely and urgently. Non-infected pancreatic pseudocysts may be simply observed unless they are symptomatic or cause problems such as pain or obstruction of the biliary or the gastrointestinal tract. Percutaneous routes that have been described to drain pelvic abscesses include transrectal or transvaginal approach with sonographic guidance, a transgluteal, paracoccygeal-infragluteal, or perineal approach through the greater sciatic foramen with CT guidance. Both the renal and the perirenal abscesses are amenable to percutaneous drainage. Percutaneous drainage provides an effective and safe alternative to more invasive surgical drainage in most patients with psoas abscesses as well.

  10. Definition of the drainage filter problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaslavsky, D.

    1977-01-01

    It is common to consider the following: I. Retention of soil particles that may enter the drainage pipe and cause its clogging. For some sensitive structures it is important to prevent settlements due to soil transportation by drainage water.

  11. Effect of hepatoma H22 on lymphatic endothelium in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Yu; Hong-Zhi Zhou; Chun-Mei Wang; Xiao-Ming Gu; Bo-Rong Pan

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To determine the effect of metastatic hepatoma cells on lymphangioma-derived endothelium, and to establish in vitro model systems for assessing metastasis-related response of lymphatic endothelium.METHODS: Benign lymphangioma, induced by intraperitonea linjection of the incomplete Freund's adjuvant in BALB/c mice, was embedded in fibrin gel or digested and then cultured in the conditioned medium derived from hepatoma H22. Light and electron microscopy, and the transwell migration assay were used to determine the effect of H22 on tissue or cell culture. Expressions of Flt-4, c-Fos, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in cultured cells, and content of nitric oxide in culture medium were also examined.RESULTS: The embedded lymphangioma pieces gave rise to array of capillaries, while separated cells from lymphangioma grew to a cobblestone-like monolayer. H22 activated growth and migration of the capillaries and cells, induced expressions of Flt-4, c-Fos, PCNA and iNOS in cultured cells, and significantly increased the content of NO in the culture medium.CONCLUSION: Lymphangioma-derived cells keep the differentiated phenotypes of lymphatic endothelium, and the models established in this study are feasible for in vitro study of metastasis-related response of lymphatic endothelium.

  12. Lymphatic endothelial cells are a replicative niche for Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Thomas R.; de Souza Carvalho-Wodarz, Cristiane; Repnik, Urska; Russell, Matthew R.G.; Borel, Sophie; Diedrich, Collin R.; Rohde, Manfred; Wainwright, Helen; Collinson, Lucy M.; Wilkinson, Robert J.; Griffiths, Gareth; Gutierrez, Maximiliano G.

    2016-01-01

    In extrapulmonary tuberculosis, the most common site of infection is within the lymphatic system, and there is growing recognition that lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) are involved in immune function. Here, we identified LECs, which line the lymphatic vessels, as a niche for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the lymph nodes of patients with tuberculosis. In cultured primary human LECs (hLECs), we determined that M. tuberculosis replicates both in the cytosol and within autophagosomes, but the bacteria failed to replicate when the virulence locus RD1 was deleted. Activation by IFN-γ induced a cell-autonomous response in hLECs via autophagy and NO production that restricted M. tuberculosis growth. Thus, depending on the activation status of LECs, autophagy can both promote and restrict replication. Together, these findings reveal a previously unrecognized role for hLECs and autophagy in tuberculosis pathogenesis and suggest that hLECs are a potential niche for M. tuberculosis that allows establishment of persistent infection in lymph nodes. PMID:26901813

  13. A critical role for lymphatic endothelial heparan sulfate in lymph node metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan R Sathish

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lymph node metastasis constitutes a key event in tumor progression. The molecular control of this process is poorly understood. Heparan sulfate is a linear polysaccharide consisting of unique sulfate-modified disaccharide repeats that allow the glycan to bind a variety of proteins, including chemokines. While some chemokines may drive lymphatic trafficking of tumor cells, the functional and genetic importance of heparan sulfate as a possible mediator of chemokine actions in lymphatic metastasis has not been reported. Results We applied a loss-of-function genetic approach employing lymphatic endothelial conditional mutations in heparan sulfate biosynthesis to study the effects on tumor-lymphatic trafficking and lymph node metastasis. Lymphatic endothelial deficiency in N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase-1 (Ndst1, a key enzyme involved in sulfating nascent heparan sulfate chains, resulted in altered lymph node metastasis in tumor-bearing gene targeted mice. This occurred in mice harboring either a pan-endothelial Ndst1 mutation or an inducible lymphatic-endothelial specific mutation in Ndst1. In addition to a marked reduction in tumor metastases to the regional lymph nodes in mutant mice, specific immuno-localization of CCL21, a heparin-binding chemokine known to regulate leukocyte and possibly tumor-cell traffic, showed a marked reduction in its ability to associate with tumor cells in mutant lymph nodes. In vitro modified chemotaxis studies targeting heparan sulfate biosynthesis in lymphatic endothelial cells revealed that heparan sulfate secreted by lymphatic endothelium is required for CCL21-dependent directional migration of murine as well as human lung carcinoma cells toward the targeted lymphatic endothelium. Lymphatic heparan sulfate was also required for binding of CCL21 to its receptor CCR7 on tumor cells as well as the activation of migration signaling pathways in tumor cells exposed to lymphatic conditioned medium

  14. Advanced drug delivery to the lymphatic system: lipid-based nanoformulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Khan A

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Arshad Ali Khan, Jahanzeb Mudassir, Noratiqah Mohtar, Yusrida Darwis School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Minden, Penang, Malaysia Abstract: The delivery of drugs and bioactive compounds via the lymphatic system is complex and dependent on the physiological uniqueness of the system. The lymphatic route plays an important role in transporting extracellular fluid to maintain homeostasis and in transferring immune cells to injury sites, and is able to avoid first-pass metabolism, thus acting as a bypass route for compounds with lower bioavailability, ie, those undergoing more hepatic metabolism. The lymphatic route also provides an option for the delivery of therapeutic molecules, such as drugs to treat cancer and human immunodeficiency virus, which can travel through the lymphatic system. Lymphatic imaging is useful in evaluating disease states and treatment plans for progressive diseases of the lymph system. Novel lipid-based nanoformulations, such as solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers, have unique characteristics that make them promising candidates for lymphatic delivery. These formulations are superior to colloidal carrier systems because they have controlled release properties and provide better chemical stability for drug molecules. However, multiple factors regulate the lymphatic delivery of drugs. Prior to lymphatic uptake, lipid-based nanoformulations are required to undergo interstitial hindrance that modulates drug delivery. Therefore, uptake and distribution of lipid-based nanoformulations by the lymphatic system depends on factors such as particle size, surface charge, molecular weight, and hydrophobicity. Types of lipid and concentration of the emulsifier are also important factors affecting drug delivery via the lymphatic system. All of these factors can cause changes in intermolecular interactions between the lipid nanoparticle matrix and the incorporated drug, which in turn affects

  15. Lymphatic fistula in a uremia patient after arteriovenous fistula operation in the upper arm:a case re-port%尿毒症上臂动静脉内瘘术后淋巴瘘一例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张熙熙

    2013-01-01

    Arteriovenous fistula is a long-term vascular access for treatment of uremia patients in maintenance hemodialysis.The complication of lymphatic fistula after arteriovenous fistula operation is rare.Lymphatic fistula is lymphatic outflow caused by lymph-vessel impairment.The clinical manifestation is the mass or discharge of unknown cause appeared in early postoperative wound.Treatment commonly used for lym-phatic fistula is filling and compression , then it could use lymphatic ligation for those patients who had large volume of lymphatic fistula output and invalid compression therapy.Here we reported a case of treatment of lymphatic fistula in the upper arm of a uremia patient after arteriovenous fistula operation.The diagnosis of lym-phatic fistula was made according to the clinical manifestation , physical sign and leakage chyle test.The pa-tient started with drainage of the lymphatic fistula debridement surgery and local compression therapy which had poor effect, finally the incision healed by use of immersion with 50%glucose, compression bandage by com-pression air sac after local lymphatic fistula cavity exploration drainage surgery and combined with atropine in -jection treatment , follow-up evaluation was good.%动静脉内瘘是尿毒症患者长期维持血液透析治疗的血管通路,术后并发淋巴瘘少见。淋巴瘘是淋巴管受损引起的淋巴液外流,临床表现为术后早期伤口出现不能解释的包块或溢液。淋巴瘘常用的治疗方法为局部填塞、加压包扎,对于渗液量较大、压迫治疗无效的患者,可行手术治疗。该文报道了1例上臂动静脉内瘘术后并发淋巴瘘的尿毒症患者的诊治经过,该例经临床表现、体征结合漏液乳糜试验诊断为淋巴瘘。开始行淋巴瘘清创引流术,用局部加压包扎,效果欠佳,遂再行局部淋巴瘘腔探查引流术并局部使用50%葡萄糖液浸泡冲洗,术后予加压气囊加压包扎,同时联合

  16. Vegfc Regulates Bipotential Precursor Division and Prox1 Expression to Promote Lymphatic Identity in Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Koltowska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Lymphatic vessels arise chiefly from preexisting embryonic veins. Genetic regulators of lymphatic fate are known, but how dynamic cellular changes contribute during the acquisition of lymphatic identity is not understood. We report the visualization of zebrafish lymphatic precursor cell dynamics during fate restriction. In the cardinal vein, cellular commitment is linked with the division of bipotential Prox1-positive precursor cells, which occurs immediately prior to sprouting angiogenesis. Following precursor division, identities are established asymmetrically in daughter cells; one daughter cell becomes lymphatic and progressively upregulates Prox1, and the other downregulates Prox1 and remains in the vein. Vegfc drives cell division and Prox1 expression in lymphatic daughter cells, coupling signaling dynamics with daughter cell fate restriction and precursor division.

  17. A brief perspective on the diverging theories of lymphatic targeting with colloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siram, Karthik; Marslin, Gregory; Raghavan, Chellan Vijaya; Balakumar, Krishnamoorthy; Rahman, Habibur; Franklin, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    For targeted delivery of colloids to the lymphatic system, the colloids should efficiently reach and remain in the lymphatics for a considerable period of time. As per the current knowledge, diffusion and phagocytosis are the two mechanisms through which colloids reach the lymphatic system. Several parameters including particle size and charge have been shown to affect the direct uptake of colloids by the lymphatic system. Although many researchers attached ligands on the surface of colloids to promote phagocytosis-mediated lymphatic delivery, another school of thought suggests avoidance of phagocytosis by use of carriers like polyethylene glycol (PEG)ylated colloids to impart stealth attributes and evade phagocytosis. In this perspective, we weigh up the paradoxical theories and approaches available in the literature to draw conclusions on the conditions favorable for achieving efficient lymphatic targeting of colloids.

  18. Intracellular uptake of macromolecules by brain lymphatic endothelial cells during zebrafish embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lessen, Max; Shibata-Germanos, Shannon; van Impel, Andreas; Hawkins, Thomas A; Rihel, Jason; Schulte-Merker, Stefan

    2017-05-12

    The lymphatic system controls fluid homeostasis and the clearance of macromolecules from interstitial compartments. In mammals brain lymphatics were only recently discovered, with significant implications for physiology and disease. We examined zebrafish for the presence of brain lymphatics and found loosely connected endothelial cells with lymphatic molecular signature covering parts of the brain without forming endothelial tubular structures. These brain lymphatic endothelial cells (BLECs) derive from venous endothelium, are distinct from macrophages, and are sensitive to loss of Vegfc. BLECs endocytose macromolecules in a selective manner, which can be blocked by injection of mannose receptor ligands. This first report on brain lymphatic endothelial cells in a vertebrate embryo identifies cells with unique features, including the uptake of macromolecules at a single cell level. Future studies will address whether this represents an uptake mechanism that is conserved in mammals and how these cells affect functions of the embryonic and adult brain.

  19. [Advances in the research of the peritoneal lymphatic stomata in human].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H; Li, J

    2000-12-01

    Peritoneal lymphatic stomata are small openings of the subperitoneal lymphatic vessels on the free surface of the mesothelium. The peritoneal cavity is connected with lymphatic system via these small openings which are considered to be the main passage-way that can absorb matter from the peritoneal cavity. The lymphatic stomata are claimed to be involved in many clinic procedures, such as ascites elimination; ultrafiltration failure on the continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis; metastasis of tumor cells from the peritoneal cavity, and so on. It was reported that the cellular factor-NO(i.e. endothelium-derived relaxing factor, EDRF) can enhance the patency of the stomata and lymphatic absorption of the stomata by stimulating guanylate way, then increasing the concentration of the cGMP, decreasing the concentration of the [Ca2+] and as a result diastole the lymphatic stomata. Some traditional Chinese medicines, which can enhance absorption of ascites, have a regulative function on the stomata by enhancing the NO concentration.

  20. Vegfc Regulates Bipotential Precursor Division and Prox1 Expression to Promote Lymphatic Identity in Zebrafish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koltowska, Katarzyna; Lagendijk, Anne Karine; Pichol-Thievend, Cathy;

    2015-01-01

    during fate restriction. In the cardinal vein, cellular commitment is linked with the division of bipotential Prox1-positive precursor cells, which occurs immediately prior to sprouting angiogenesis. Following precursor division, identities are established asymmetrically in daughter cells; one daughter...... cell becomes lymphatic and progressively upregulates Prox1, and the other downregulates Prox1 and remains in the vein. Vegfc drives cell division and Prox1 expression in lymphatic daughter cells, coupling signaling dynamics with daughter cell fate restriction and precursor division.......Lymphatic vessels arise chiefly from preexisting embryonic veins. Genetic regulators of lymphatic fate are known, but how dynamic cellular changes contribute during the acquisition of lymphatic identity is not understood. We report the visualization of zebrafish lymphatic precursor cell dynamics...

  1. Percutaneous catheter drainage of intrapulmonary fluid collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, E. D.; Kim, H. J.; Choi, P. Y.; Jung, S. H. [Gyeongsang National University Hospital, Chinju (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-01-15

    With the success of percutaneous abdominal abscess drainage, attention is now being focused on the use of similar techniques in the thorax. We studied to evaluate the effect of percutaneous drainage in parenchymal fluid collections in the lungs. We performed percutaneous drainage of abscesses and other parenchymal fluid collections of the lungs in 15 patients. All of the procedures were performed under the fluoroscopic guidance with an 18-gauge Seldinger needle and coaxial technique with a 8-10F drainage catheter. Among 10 patients with lung abscess, 8 patients improved by percutaneous catheter drainage. In one patient, drainage was failed by the accidental withdrawal of the catheter before complete drainage. One patient died of sepsis 5 hours after the procedure. Among three patients with complicated bulla, successful drainage was done in two patients, but in the remaining patient, the procedure was failed. In one patient with intrapulmonary bronchogenic cyst, the drainage was not successful due to the thick internal contents. In one patient with traumatic hematoma, after the drainage of old blood clots, the signs of infection disappeared. Overally, of 14 patients excluding one who died, 11 patients improved with percutaneous catheter drainage and three patients did not. There were no major complications during and after the procedure. We conclude that percutaneous catheter drainage is effective and safe procedure for the treatment of parenchymal fluid collections of the lung in patients unresponsive to the medical treatment.

  2. Evaluation of lymphatic regeneration in rat incisional wound healing and its use in wound age estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevine M.F. El Deeb

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: Lymphatic elements appear transiently in the wound edge, concurrent with the appearance of blood vessels but regress earlier. Identification of lymphatic vascular channels in the region of the wound may help to estimate the wound age in the early days after the injury. At later time points in the regeneration process, it may help to recognize the injured area, being the area where the dermis and subcutaneous tissue are devoid of lymphatics.

  3. Method for the quantitative measurement of collecting lymphatic vessel contraction in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Liao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Collecting lymphatic vessels are critical for the transport of lymph and its cellular contents to lymph nodes for both immune surveillance and the maintenance of tissue-fluid balance. Collecting lymphatic vessels drive lymph flow by autonomous contraction of smooth muscle cells that cover these vessels. Here we describe methods using intravital microscopy to image and quantify collecting lymphatic vessel contraction in mice. Our methods allow for the measurement of the strength of lymphatic contraction of an individual lymphangion in a mouse, which has not yet been demonstrated using other published methods. The ability to study murine collecting lymphatic vessel contraction—using the methods described here or other recently published techniques—allows the field to dissect the molecular mechanisms controlling lymphatic pumping under normal and pathological conditions using the wide variety of molecular tools and genetic models available in the mouse. We have used our methods to study lymphatic contraction in physiological and inflammatory conditions. The methods described here will facilitate the further study of lymphatic function in other pathological conditions that feature lymphatic complications.

  4. Endogenous TNFα orchestrates the trafficking of neutrophils into and within lymphatic vessels during acute inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arokiasamy, Samantha; Zakian, Christian; Dilliway, Jessica; Wang, Wen; Nourshargh, Sussan; Voisin, Mathieu-Benoit

    2017-01-01

    Neutrophils are recognised to play a pivotal role at the interface between innate and acquired immunities following their recruitment to inflamed tissues and lymphoid organs. While neutrophil trafficking through blood vessels has been extensively studied, the molecular mechanisms regulating their migration into the lymphatic system are still poorly understood. Here, we have analysed neutrophil-lymphatic vessel interactions in real time and in vivo using intravital confocal microscopy applied to inflamed cremaster muscles. We show that antigen sensitisation of the tissues induces a rapid but transient entry of tissue-infiltrated neutrophils into lymphatic vessels and subsequent crawling along the luminal side of the lymphatic endothelium. Interestingly, using mice deficient in both TNF receptors p55 and p75, chimeric animals and anti-TNFα antibody blockade we demonstrate that tissue-release of TNFα governs both neutrophil migration through the lymphatic endothelium and luminal crawling. Mechanistically, we show that TNFα primes directly the neutrophils to enter the lymphatic vessels in a strictly CCR7-dependent manner; and induces ICAM-1 up-regulation on lymphatic vessels, allowing neutrophils to crawl along the lumen of the lymphatic endothelium in an ICAM-1/MAC-1-dependent manner. Collectively, our findings demonstrate a new role for TNFα as a key regulator of neutrophil trafficking into and within lymphatic system in vivo. PMID:28287124

  5. [Lymphatic system of the tongue and its role in glositis of odontogenic origin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chkhikvishvili, M Dzh

    2005-02-01

    In aged persons reduction of diameter of tongue lymphatic capillaries precedes thinning of the Kaarl net. In the process of tongue inflammation, lymphogenic way of inclusion in 6|6 and 8|8 teeth lower area should be stuck out with existence of alleged "Integration Centers". Lymphatic knots and lymphatic ducts are in prevailed placed in corresponding tissues of lower-chin and lower teeth. Lymphatic-muscular system and its anatomical links and age-related changeability raise the special interest during odontogenic infections with tongue inflammation.

  6. Alginate/chitosan microparticles for tamoxifen delivery to the lymphatic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppi, G; Iannuccelli, V

    2009-02-09

    Oral administration of the nonsteroidal anti-estrogen tamoxifen (TMX) is the treatment of choice for metastatic estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. With the aim to improve TMX oral bioavailability and decrease its side effects, crosslinked alginate microparticles for the targeting to the lymphatic system by Peyer's patch (PP) uptake were developed and in vitro characterized. TMX was molecularly dispersed inside the microparticles and an electrostatic interaction involving the TMX tertiary amine was detected by rheological and FT-IR assays. Microparticles showed a size less than 3mum, then suitability to be taken up by M cells in PP and a positive surface charge. Moreover, TMX loading level as well as in vitro release behaviour was affected by the polymer network connected with the mannuronic/guluronic ratio of the alginate chains.

  7. EUS-Guided Biliary Drainage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Giovannini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The echoendoscopic biliary drainage is an option to treat obstructive jaundices when ERCP drainage fails. These procedures compose alternative methods to the side of surgery and percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage, and it was only possible by the continuous development and improvement of echoendoscopes and accessories. The development of linear setorial array echoendoscopes in early 1990 brought a new approach to diagnostic and therapeutic dimenion on echoendoscopy capabilities, opening the possibility to perform punction over direct ultrasonographic view. Despite of the high success rate and low morbidity of biliary drainage obtained by ERCP, difficulty could be found at the presence of stent tumor ingrown, tumor gut compression, periampulary diverticula, and anatomic variation. The echoendoscopic technique starts performing punction and contrast of the left biliary tree. When performed from gastric wall, the access is made through hepatic segment III. From duodenum, direct common bile duct punction. Dilatation is required before stent introduction, and a plastic or metallic stent is introduced. This phrase should be replaced by: diathermic dilatation of the puncturing tract is required using a 6F cystostome. The technical success of hepaticogastrostomy is near 98%, and complications are present in 36%: pneumoperitoneum, choleperitoneum, infection, and stent disfunction. To prevent bile leakage, we have used the 2 stent techniques, the first stent introduced was a long uncovered metallic stent (8 or 10 cm, and inside this first stent a second fully covered stent of 6 cm was delivered to bridge the bile duct and the stomach. Choledochoduodenostomy overall success rate is 92% and described complications include, in frequency order, pneumoperitoneum and focal bile peritonitis, present in 19%. By the last 10 years, the technique was especially performed in reference centers, by ERCP experienced groups, and this seems to be a general

  8. Yoga for correction of lymphedema′s impairment of gait as an adjunct to lymphatic drainage: A pilot observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhur Guruprasad Aggithaya

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: There can be a mixed etiology for gait related problems in lymphedema patients. Further studies are recommended to understand the causes of deformities in lymphedema patients and an exact role of yoga.

  9. Exploring Agricultural Drainage's Influence on Wetland and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artificial agricultural drainage (i.e. surface ditches or subsurface tile) is an important agricultural management tool. Artificial drainage allows for timely fieldwork and adequate root aeration, resulting in greater crop yields for farmers. This practice is widespread throughout many regions of the United States and the network of artificial drainage is especially extensive in flat, poorly-drained regions like the glaciated Midwest. While beneficial for crop yields, agricultural drains often empty into streams within the natural drainage system. The increased network connectivity may lead to greater contributing area for watersheds, altered hydrology and increased conveyance of pollutants into natural water bodies. While studies and models at broader scales have implicated artificial drainage as an important driver of hydrological shifts and eutrophication, the actual spatial extent of artificial drainage is poorly known. Consequently, metrics of wetland and watershed connectivity within agricultural regions often fail to explicitly include artificial drainage. We use recent agricultural census data, soil drainage data, and land cover data to create estimates of potential agricultural drainage across the United States. We estimate that agricultural drainage in the US is greater than 31 million hectares and is concentrated in the upper Midwest Corn Belt, covering greater than 50% of available land for 114 counties. Estimated drainage values for numerous countie

  10. Long-lasting insecticidal nets are synergistic with mass drug administration for interruption of lymphatic filariasis transmission in Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Eigege

    Full Text Available In central Nigeria Anopheles mosquitoes transmit malaria and lymphatic filariasis (LF. The strategy used for interrupting LF transmission in this area is annual mass drug administration (MDA with albendazole and ivermectin, but after 8 years of MDA, entomological evaluations in sentinel villages showed continued low-grade mosquito infection rates of 0.32%. After long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN distribution by the national malaria program in late 2010, however, we were no longer able to detect infected vectors over a 24-month period. This is evidence that LLINs are synergistic with MDA in interrupting LF transmission.

  11. Predictive factors for lymph node metastasis in early gastric cancer with lymphatic invasion after endoscopic resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji Won; Ahn, Sangjeong; Lee, Hyuk; Min, Byung-Hoon; Lee, Jun Haeng; Rhee, Poong-Lyul; Kim, Kyoung-Mee; Kim, Jae J

    2017-04-04

    Lymph node (LN) metastasis is found in only about 5-10% of the patients who undergo additional surgery after non-curative endoscopic resection. Lymphatic invasion after endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is regarded as non-curative resection due to risk of reginal LN metastasis. This study was aimed to identify clinicopathologic predictive factors for LN metastasis in early gastric cancer (EGC) with lymphatic invasion after endoscopic resection. Among a total of 2036 patients who underwent endoscopic resection for EGC at Samsung Medical Center from April 2000 to May 2011, 146 patients were diagnosed with lymphatic invasion. And 123 patients who had gastrectomy with LN dissection due to presence of lymphatic invasion as one of the non-curative factors were included in this study. Demographics, endoscopic tumor findings, histological findings, surgical findings with pathologic reports, and follow-up data were collected from the patient's medical records. Pathological re-evaluation of resected specimens was performed. Among a total of 123 patients, LN metastases were found in seven patients (5.7%). The univariate analysis revealed that the LN metastasis was significantly more frequent in patients with certain morphology of lymphatic invasion that shows adhesion to endothelium of lymphatic tumor emboli (p = 0.016), higher number of lymphatic tumor emboli in whole section (p < 0.001) and papillary adenocarcinoma component (p = 0.024). In multivariate analysis, the number of lymphatic tumor emboli [OR 93.5, 95% CI (2.62-3330.81)] and the presence of papillary adenocarcinoma component [OR 552.5, 95% CI (1.20-254871.81)] were identified as independent predictors of LN metastasis in patients with lymphatic invasion after endoscopic resection. The number of lymphatic tumor emboli and the presence of papillary adenocarcinoma component were significant predictors for LN metastasis in patients with lymphatic invasion after endoscopic resection.

  12. Lymphatic filariasis in Brazil: epidemiological situation and outlook for elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fontes Gilberto

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Since the World Health Assembly’s (Resolution WHA 50.29, 1997 call for the elimination of lymphatic filariasis by the year 2020, most of the endemic countries identified have established programmes to meet this objective. In 1997, a National Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination Plan was drawn up by the Ministry of Health of Brazil, creating local programs for the elimination of Bancroftian filariasis in areas with active transmission. Based on a comprehensive bibliographic search for available studies and reports of filariasis epidemiology in Brazil, current status of this parasitic infection and the outlook for its elimination in the country were analysed. From 1951 to 1958 a nationwide epidemiological study conducted in Brazil confirmed autochthonous transmission of Bancroftian filariasis in 11 cities of the country. Control measures led to a decline in parasite rates, and in the 1980s only the cities of Belém in the Amazonian region (Northern region and Recife (Northeastern region were considered to be endemic. In the 1990s, foci of active transmission of LF were also described in the cities of Maceió, Olinda, Jaboatão dos Guararapes, and Paulista, all in the Northeastern coast of Brazil. Data provide evidence for the absence of microfilaremic subjects and infected mosquitoes in Belém, Salvador and Maceió in the past few years, attesting to the effectiveness of the measures adopted in these cities. Currently, lymphatic filariasis is a public health problem in Brazil only in four cities of the metropolitan Recife region (Northeastern coast. Efforts are being concentrated in these areas, with a view to eliminating the disease in the country.

  13. Vertical drainage capacity of new electrical drainage board on improvement of super soft clayey ground

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈扬; 励彦德; 黄文君; 徐海东; 胡品飞

    2015-01-01

    As an advanced polymer composites electro-kinetic geosynthetics, the electro-osmotic vertical drainage (EVD) board could drain water quickly and accelerate consolidation process. However, the drainage rate was mainly impacted by the vertical drainage capability. Therefore, vertical drainage capability at the top of EVD board was theoretically analyzed. Basic requirements for drainage at the top of the board were summed up, as well as the formula of anode pore pressure when losing the vertical drainage capability. Meanwhile, a contrast test on the top and bottom drainage capacities was conducted. In use of the advanced EVD board, the voltage potential and pore pressure of anode were measured. Moreover, the derived formulas were verified. The result shows that the decrease of electric force gradient had an observable impact on the drainage capability. There was nearly no difference between the energy consumption for the two drainage methods. Although a little less water was discharged, the top drainage method had more advantages, such as high initial drainage velocity, few soil cracks, low anode water content and high soil strength. All of these show that the super soft soil ground could be consolidated quickly in use of the advanced EVD board through the top drainage. The top drainage method could efficiently improve the drainage effect, decrease the energy consumption and speed up the project proceeding.

  14. A microarray analysis of two distinct lymphatic endothelial cell populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Schweighofer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We have recently identified lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs to form two morphologically different populations, exhibiting significantly different surface protein expression levels of podoplanin, a major surface marker for this cell type. In vitro shockwave treatment (IVSWT of LECs resulted in enrichment of the podoplaninhigh cell population and was accompanied by markedly increased cell proliferation, as well as 2D and 3D migration. Gene expression profiles of these distinct populations were established using Affymetrix microarray analyses. Here we provide additional details about our dataset (NCBI GEO accession number GSE62510 and describe how we analyzed the data to identify differently expressed genes in these two LEC populations.

  15. Drainage area data for Alabama streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, J.S.; Peirce, L.B.

    1957-01-01

    The drainage area of a river basin is an important parameter in many engineering equations used for hydrologic design. It is not a parameter, however, that always requires precise measurement. Factors in the hydrologic cycle such as rainfall, runoff, transpiration, and infiltration cannot be measured nearly as closely as drainage area. Largely for this reason, drainage areas are often measured to varying degrees of precision depending upon the immediate need, with little thought to some other use or some other user of the figure obtained. It can readily be appreciated that this practice, continued for long by many different agencies, will result in a heterogeneous collection of drainage area figures, often discordant and of an accuracy unknown to any but those who computed them. Figures of drainage area published by various Federal agencies are frequently discrepant or contradictory, giving rise to confusion in the use of drainage area data. Seeking to better this situation, the Federal Inter-Agency River Basin Committee (FIARBC) in November 1951 published its Bulletin No. 4, Inter-Agency Coordination of Drainage Area Data. That Bulletin recommended procedures to be followed by the interested Federal agencies “for coordinating drainage area data in the interest of promoting uniformity, reducing confusion and contradiction of published figures, and improving the ready availability of drainage area data pertaining to drainage basins of the United States and its possessions.”

  16. Smooth muscle cell recruitment to lymphatic vessels requires PDGFB and impacts vessel size but not identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yixin; Jin, Yi; Mäe, Maarja Andaloussi; Zhang, Yang; Ortsäter, Henrik; Betsholtz, Christer; Mäkinen, Taija; Jakobsson, Lars

    2017-08-29

    Tissue-fluid drains through blind-ended lymphatic capillaries, via smooth muscle cell (SMC)-covered collecting vessels into venous circulation. Both defective SMC recruitment to collecting vessels and ectopic recruitment to lymphatic capillaries are thought to contribute to vessel failure, leading to lymphedema. However, mechanisms controlling lymphatic SMC recruitment and their role in vessel maturation are unknown. Here we demonstrate that platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGFB) regulates lymphatic SMC recruitment in multiple vascular beds. PDGFB is selectively expressed by lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) of collecting vessels. LEC-specific deletion of Pdgfb prevented SMC recruitment causing dilation and failure of pulsatile contraction of collecting vessels. However, vessel remodelling and identity were unaffected. Unexpectedly, PDGFB overexpression in LECs did not induce SMC recruitment to capillaries. This was explained by the demonstrated requirement of PDGFB extracellular matrix (ECM) retention for lymphatic SMC recruitment, and low presence of PDGFB-binding ECM components around lymphatic capillaries. These results demonstrate a requirement of LEC-autonomous PDGFB expression and retention for SMC recruitment to lymphatic vessels and suggest an ECM-controlled checkpoint preventing SMC investment of capillaries, which is a common feature in lymphedematous skin. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Successful treatment of plastic bronchitis by selective lymphatic embolization in a Fontan patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dori, Yoav; Keller, Marc S; Rychik, Jack; Itkin, Maxim

    2014-08-01

    Plastic bronchitis is a rare and often fatal complication of single-ventricle surgical palliation after total cavopulmonary connection. Although lymphatic abnormalities have been postulated to play a role in the disease process, the etiology and pathophysiology of this complication remain incompletely understood. Here we report on the etiology of plastic bronchitis in a child with total cavopulmonary connection as demonstrated by magnetic resonance (MR) lymphangiography. We also report on a new treatment of this disease. The patient underwent noncontrast T2-weighted MR lymphatic mapping and dynamic contrast MR lymphangiography with bi-inguinal intranodal contrast injection to determine the anatomy and flow pattern of lymph in his central lymphatic system. The MRI scan demonstrated the presence of a dilated right-sided peribronchial lymphatic network supplied by retrograde lymphatic flow through a large collateral lymphatic vessel originating from the thoracic duct. After careful analysis of the MRI scans we performed selective lymphatic embolization of the pathologic lymphatic network and supplying vessel. This provided resolution of plastic bronchitis for this patient. Five months after the procedure, the patient remains asymptomatic off respiratory medications. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  18. Arteries provide essential guidance cues for lymphatic endothelial cells in the zebrafish trunk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Bussmann (Jeroen); F.L. Bos (Frank); A. Urasaki (Akihiro); K. Kawakami (Koichi); H.J. Duckers (Henricus); S. Schulte-Merker (Stefan)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe endothelial cells of the vertebrate lymphatic system assemble into complex networks, but local cues that guide the migration of this distinct set of cells are currently unknown. As a model for lymphatic patterning, we have studied the simple vascular network of the zebrafish trunk

  19. An Evolutionarily Conserved Role for Polydom/Svep1 during Lymphatic Vessel Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karpanen, Terhi; Padberg, Yvonne; Van De Pavert, Serge A.; Dierkes, Cathrin; Morooka, Nanami; Peterson-Maduro, Josi; Van De Hoek, Glenn; Adrian, Max; Mochizuki, Naoki; Sekiguchi, Kiyotoshi; Kiefer, Friedemann; Schulte, Dörte; Schulte-Merker, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Rationale: Lymphatic vessel formation and function constitutes a physiologically and pathophysiologically important process, but its genetic control is not well understood. Objective: Here, we identify the secreted Polydom/Svep1 protein as essential for the formation of the lymphatic vasculature. We

  20. Arteries provide essential guidance cues for lymphatic endothelial cells in the zebrafish trunk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bussmann, J.; Bos, F.L.; Urasaki, A.; Kawakami, K.; Duckers, H.J.; Schulte-Merker, S.

    2010-01-01

    The endothelial cells of the vertebrate lymphatic system assemble into complex networks, but local cues that guide the migration of this distinct set of cells are currently unknown. As a model for lymphatic patterning, we have studied the simple vascular network of the zebrafish trunk consisting of

  1. Macrophage-Mediated Lymphangiogenesis: The Emerging Role of Macrophages as Lymphatic Endothelial Progenitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ran, Sophia, E-mail: sran@siumed.edu; Montgomery, Kyle E. [Department of Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Cell Biology, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, 801 N. Rutledge, Springfield, IL 62794 (United States)

    2012-06-27

    It is widely accepted that macrophages and other inflammatory cells support tumor progression and metastasis. During early stages of neoplastic development, tumor-infiltrating macrophages (TAMs) mount an immune response against transformed cells. Frequently, however, cancer cells escape the immune surveillance, an event that is accompanied by macrophage transition from an anti-tumor to a pro-tumorigenic type. The latter is characterized by high expression of factors that activate endothelial cells, suppress immune response, degrade extracellular matrix, and promote tumor growth. Cumulatively, these products of TAMs promote tumor expansion and growth of both blood and lymphatic vessels that facilitate metastatic spread. Breast cancers and other epithelial malignancies induce the formation of new lymphatic vessels (i.e., lymphangiogenesis) that leads to lymphatic and subsequently, to distant metastasis. Both experimental and clinical studies have shown that TAMs significantly promote tumor lymphangiogenesis through paracrine and cell autonomous modes. The paracrine effect consists of the expression of a variety of pro-lymphangiogenic factors that activate the preexisting lymphatic vessels. The evidence for cell-autonomous contribution is based on the observed tumor mobilization of macrophage-derived lymphatic endothelial cell progenitors (M-LECP) that integrate into lymphatic vessels prior to sprouting. This review will summarize the current knowledge of macrophage-dependent growth of new lymphatic vessels with specific emphasis on an emerging role of macrophages as lymphatic endothelial cell progenitors (M-LECP)

  2. IL-20 activates human lymphatic endothelial cells causing cell signalling and tube formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Troels; Tritsaris, Katerina; Hübschmann, Martin V;

    2009-01-01

    IL-20 is an arteriogenic cytokine that remodels collateral networks in vivo, and plays a role in cellular organization. Here, we investigate its role in lymphangiogenesis using a lymphatic endothelial cell line, hTERT-HDLEC, which expresses the lymphatic markers LYVE-1 and podoplanin. Upon stimul...

  3. EVALUATION OF MASS DRUG ADMINISTRATION FOR ELIMINATION OF LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS IN GUNTUR DISTRICT, ANDHRA PRADESH

    OpenAIRE

    Purnamma; Neelima

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND : Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) is a serious Socio Economic and Public Health problem in the world. In India, it is estimated that 554.2 million populations are at risk of Lymphatic Filariasis infection, in 243 implementation units (Districts). National Health Policy, 2002 aims at elimination of transmission and prevention of disability ...

  4. Arteries provide essential guidance cues for lymphatic endothelial cells in the zebrafish trunk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Bussmann (Jeroen); F.L. Bos (Frank); A. Urasaki (Akihiro); K. Kawakami (Koichi); H.J. Duckers (Henricus); S. Schulte-Merker (Stefan)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe endothelial cells of the vertebrate lymphatic system assemble into complex networks, but local cues that guide the migration of this distinct set of cells are currently unknown. As a model for lymphatic patterning, we have studied the simple vascular network of the zebrafish trunk co

  5. Advances and challenges in predicting the impact of lymphatic filariasis elimination programmes by mathematical modelling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.A. Stolk (Wilma); S.J. de Vlas (Sake); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractMathematical simulation models for transmission and control of lymphatic filariasis are useful tools for studying the prospects of lymphatic filariasis elimination. Two simulation models are currently being used. The first, EPIFIL, is a population-based, deterministic model that simulate

  6. Erratum: PDGF-BB induces intratumoral lymphangiogenesis and promotes lymphatic metastasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, R.H.; Bjorndahl, M.A.; Religa, P.;

    2006-01-01

    This corrects the article "PDGF-BB induces intratumoral lymphangiogenesis and promotes lymphatic metastasis", Cancer Cell, 2004, vol. 6(4), pg 333-45.......This corrects the article "PDGF-BB induces intratumoral lymphangiogenesis and promotes lymphatic metastasis", Cancer Cell, 2004, vol. 6(4), pg 333-45....

  7. A Validation Study of Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging of Lymphatic Vessels in Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groenlund, Jacob Hinnerup; Telinius, Niklas; Skov, Soeren Nielsen

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging is a new imaging technique that is used to visualize lymphatic vessels in humans. It has a high spatial and temporal resolution, allowing real-time visualization of lymphatic flow. METHODS AND RESULTS: The current study investigated the intra...

  8. Relationship between lymph node sinuses with blood and lymphatic metastasis of gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tong Yin; Xiao-Long Ji; Min-Shi Shen

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To elucidate the relationship between lymph nodesinuses with blood and lymphatic metastasis of gastric cancer.METHODS: Routine autopsy was carried out in the randomlyselected 102 patients (among them 100 patients died ofvarious diseases, and 2 patients died of non-diseasedreasons), their superficial lymph nodes locating in bilateralnecks (include supraclavicle), axilla, inguina, thorax, andabdomen were sampled. Haematoxylin-Eosin staining wasperformed on 10 % formalin-fixed and paraffin-embeddedlymph node tissue sections (Sum). The histological pattemsof the lymph sinuses containing blood were observed underlight microscope. The expression of CD31, a marker forendothelial cell, was detected both in blood and non-bloodcontaining lymph node sinuses with the method ofimmunohistochemistry.RESULTS: Among the 1322 lymph nodes sampled fromthe autopsies of 100 diseased cases, lymph node sinusescontaining blood were found in 809 lymph nodes sampledfrom 91 cases, but couldn't be seen in the lymph nodessampled from the non-diseased cases. According to histology,we divided the blood containing lymph node sinuses intofive categories: vascular-opening sinus, blood-deficient sinus,erythrophago-sinus, blood-abundant sinus, vascular-formative sinus. Immunohistochemical findings showed thatthe expression of CD31 was strongly positive in vascular-formative sinuses and some vascular-opening sinuses whileit was faint in blood-deficient sinuses, erythrophago-sinusesand some vascular-opening sinuses. It was almost negativein blood-abundant sinus and non-blood containing sinus.CONCLUSION: In the state of disease, the phenomenonof blood present in the lymph sinus is not uncommon. Bloodcould possibly enter into the lymph sinuses through thelymphaticovenous communications between the veins andthe sinuses in the node. Lymph circulation and the bloodcirculation could communicate with each other in the lymphnode sinuses. The skipping and distal lymphatic metastasisof gastric cancer may

  9. Assessment of the lymphatic system in patients with diffuse lymphangiomatosis by magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohrmann, Christian, E-mail: christian.lohrmann@uniklinik-freiburg.de [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Freiburg, Hugstetter Strasse 55, D-79106 Freiburg i. Br. (Germany); Foeldi, Etelka, E-mail: foeldi@foeldiklinik.de [Foeldi Clinic for Lymphology, Hinterzarten, Roesslehofweg 2-6, D-79856 Hinterzarten (Germany); Langer, Mathias, E-mail: mathias.langer@uniklinik-freiburg.de [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Freiburg, Hugstetter Strasse 55, D-79106 Freiburg i. Br. (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    Objective: To assess the lymphatic system in patients with diffuse lymphangiomatosis by magnetic resonance imaging. Materials and methods: 15 patients with diffuse lymphangiomatosis were examined by magnetic resonance imaging. Three locations were examined: first, the lower leg and foot region; second, the upper leg and the knee region; and third, the pelvic with retroperitoneal and abdominal region. For magnetic resonance lymphangiography a T1-weighted 3D spoiled gradient-echo and a T2-weighted 3D-TSE sequence was used. Results: The size of the genital lymphangiomas, which were revealed in all patients, varied between 5 and 83 mm. In 47% of the patients lymphangiomas were detected at the level of the lower legs, and in 87% of the patients at the level of the upper leg and retroperitoneum. Furthermore, lymphangiomas were seen in the inguinal and pelvic region in 100% and intraabdominally in 40% of the patients. The lymphangiomas extended into the abdominal wall in 93% of the examined patients. A chylous pleural effusion was revealed in 20% and a chylous ascites in 13% of patients. 93% of patients suffered due to the diffuse lymphangiomatous pathologies from a lymphedema of the lower extremities, while a generalized lymphedema of the trunk was found in 87% of the patients. Conclusion: Magnetic resonance imaging is a safe and accurate minimal-invasive imaging modality for the evaluation of the lymphatic system in patients with diffuse lymphangiomatosis. Since the localization and extension of the lymphangiomas are important prognostic factors, it is crucial to perform a safe radiologic evaluation with a high resolution for the patient's therapeutic planning.

  10. microRNAs in the Lymphatic Endothelium: Master Regulators of Lineage Plasticity and Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Daniel; Coles, Mark C.; Lagos, Dimitris

    2017-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are highly conserved, small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. They have crucial roles in organismal development, homeostasis, and cellular responses to pathological stress. The lymphatic system is a large vascular network that actively regulates the immune response through antigen trafficking, cytokine secretion, and inducing peripheral tolerance. Here, we review the role of miRNAs in the lymphatic endothelium with a particular focus on their role in lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) plasticity, inflammation, and regulatory function. We highlight the lineage plasticity of LECs during inflammation and the importance of understanding the regulatory role of miRNAs in these processes. We propose that targeting miRNA expression in lymphatic endothelium can be a novel strategy in treating human pathologies associated with lymphatic dysfunction.

  11. Mine Drainage Generation and Control Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xinchao; Rodak, Carolyn M; Zhang, Shicheng; Han, Yuexin; Wolfe, F Andrew

    2016-10-01

    This review provides a snapshot of papers published in 2015 relevant to the topic of mine drainage generation and control options. The review is broken into 3 sections: Generation, Prediction and Prevention, and Treatment Options. The first section, mine drainage generation, focuses on the characterization of mine drainage and the environmental impacts. As such, it is broken into three subsections focused on microbiological characterization, physiochemical characterization, and environmental impacts. The second section of the review is divided into two subsections focused on either the prediction or prevention of acid mine drainage. The final section focuses on treatment options for mine drainage and waste sludge. The third section contains subsections on passive treatment, biological treatment, physiochemical treatment, and a new subsection on beneficial uses for mine drainage and treatment wastes.

  12. Primary mucinous carcinoma with direct histopathologic evidence of lymphatic invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warycha, Melanie; Kamino, Hideko; Mobini, Narciss; Hale, Elizabeth K

    2006-01-01

    Primary mucinous carcinoma of the skin is a rare sweat gland neoplasm which occurs most commonly in the periorbital region. Although the tumor has a propensity for local recurrence and regional spread, distant metastases are rare. The standard treatment of primary mucinous carcinoma is wide local excision. Mohs micrographic surgery may also be utilized in cases where tissue conservation is of utmost concern. We present a case of primary mucinous carcinoma arising in the scalp, which was treated with wide local excision. A case report and literature review are presented. Histopathologic evaluation revealed a well-circumscribed neoplasm characterized by lobules and aggregates of epithelial cells embedded in abundant pools of mucin. In addition, small aggregates of neoplastic cells were found at a distance from the primary nodule, indicative of lymphatic invasion. Primary mucinous carcinoma has a high propensity for locoregional metastases and recurrence. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating direct histopathologic evidence of lymphatic invasion which correlates with this tumor's biologic behavior.

  13. [Simple cholecystectomy without drainage. A dilemma?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macellari, G; Baraldi, U; Giustina, A; David, P; Parigi, M; De Angelis, E

    1980-04-30

    A retrospective study was carried out to show the uselessness of the routine employment of the drainage after simple cholecystectomy. 1425 patients underwent cholecystectomy because for cholelithiasis; of these 164 (13%) were drained because of adhesions, concomitant pancreatitis, inadvertent damage, empiema, gangrena and perforation of the gallbladder. In no case of the 1261 patients without drainage it has been possible to demonstrate the presence of one of those complications for which the use of a drainage after simple cholecystectomy is commonly advised.

  14. Drainage basin delineations for selected USGS streamflow-gaging stations in Virginia (Drainage_Basin)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Drainage_Basin polygon feature class was created as a digital representation of drainage basins for more than 1,650 continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations,...

  15. Ultrasound-guided surgical drainage of face and neck abscesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusa, H; Yoshida, H; Ueno, E; Onizawa, K; Yanagawa, T

    2002-06-01

    An ultrasound-guided surgical drainage technique in which grey-scale and colour Doppler ultrasonography were combined is described. The technique was performed for eight deep subcutaneous abscesses subsequent to odontogenic infection, and provided easy detection and accurate, reliable penetration of abscesses that were difficult to locate by physical examination. Colour Doppler ultrasonography is particularly useful for differentiating blood vessels from the static space of abscesses.

  16. Subsurface drainage volume reduction with drainage water management: Case studies in Ohio, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the main contributors to poor water quality in the Mississippi River and aeral increase in the hypoxic zone in the Gulf of Mexico is intensive drainage of the cropland within the watershed. Controlled drainage has been demonstrated as an approach to curb totla drainage outflow and nutrient di...

  17. Adaptation Options for Land Drainage Systems Towards Sustainable Agriculture and Environment: A Czech Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulhavý, Zbyněk; Fučík, Petr

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, issues of agricultural drainage systems are introduced and discussed from the views of their former, current and future roles and functioning in the Czech Republic (CR). A methodologically disparate survey was done on thirty-nine model localities in CR with different intensity and state of land drainage systems, aimed at description of commonly occurred problems and possible adaptations of agricultural drainage as perceived by farmers, land owners, landscape managers or by protective water management. The survey was focused on technical state of drainage, fragmentation of land ownership within drained areas as well as on possible conflicts between agricultural and environmental interests in a landscape. Achieved results confirmed that there is obviously an increasing need to reassess some functions of prevailingly single-purpose agricultural drainage systems. Drainage intensity and detected unfavourable technical state of drainage systems as well as the risks connected with the anticipated climate change from the view of possible water scarcity claims for a complex solution. An array of adaptation options for agricultural drainage systems is presented, aiming at enhancement of water retention time and improvement of water quality. It encompasses additional flow-controlling measures on tiles or ditches, or facilities for making selected parts of a drainage system inoperable in order to retain or slow down the drainage runoff, to establish water accumulation zones and to enhance water self-cleaning processes. However, it was revealed that the question of landowner parcels fragmentation on drained land in CR would dramatically complicate design and realization of these measures. Presented solutions and findings are propounded with a respect to contemporary and future state policies and international strategies for sustainable agriculture, water management and environment.

  18. Efficacy of AdipoDren® in Reducing Interleukin-1-Induced Lymphatic Endothelial Hyperpermeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccone, Valerio; Monti, Martina; Antonini, Giulia; Mattoli, Luisa; Burico, Michela; Marini, Francesca; Maidecchi, Anna; Morbidelli, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Lymphatic leakage can be seen as a detrimental phenomenon associated with fluid retention and deposition as well as gain of weight. Moreover, lymphatic dysfunction is associated with an inflammatory environment and can be a substrate for other health conditions. A number of treatments can ameliorate lymphatic vasculature: natural substances have been used as treatment options particularly suitable for their consolidated effectiveness and safety profile. Here we report the protective effect of AdipoDren®, an association of a series of plant-derived natural complexes, on lymphatic endothelium permeability promoted by interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and the associated molecular mechanisms. AdipoDren® demonstrated a protective effect on dermal lymphatic endothelial cell permeability increased by IL-1β. Reduced permeability was due to the maintenance of tight junctions and cell-cell localisation of occludin and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1). Moreover, AdipoDren® reduced the expression of the inflammatory key element cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), while not altering the levels of endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthases (eNOS and iNOS). The upregulation of antioxidant enzymatic systems (catalase and superoxide dismutase-1, SOD-1) and the downregulation of pro-oxidant markers (p22 phox subunit of NADPH oxidase) were also evident. In conclusion, AdipoDren® would be useful to ameliorate conditions of altered lymphatic vasculature and to support the physiological functionality of the lymphatic endothelium.

  19. Lymphatic dysregulation in intestinal inflammation: new insights into inflammatory bowel disease pathomechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, F; Yi, P; Al-Kofahi, M; Ganta, V C; Morris, J; Alexander, J S

    2014-03-01

    Alterations in the intestinal lymphatic network are well-established features of human and experimental inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Such lymphangiogenic expansion might enhance classic intestinal lymphatic transport, eliminating excess accumulations of fluid, inflammatory cells and mediators, and could therefore be interpreted as an 'adaptive' response to acute and chronic inflammatory processes. However, whether these new lymphatic vessels are functional, unregulated or immature (and what factors may promote 'maturation' of these vessels) is currently an area under intense investigation. It is still controversial whether impaired lymphatic function in IBD is a direct consequence of the intestinal inflammation, or a preceding lymphangitis-like event. Current research has uncovered novel regulatory factors as well as new roles for familiar signaling pathways, which appear to be linked to inflammation-induced lymphatic alterations. The current review summarizes mechanisms amplifying lymphatic dysregulation and remodeling in intestinal inflammation at the organ, cell and molecular levels and discusses the influence of lymphangiogenesis and intestinal lymphatic transport function as they relate to IBD pathophysiology.

  20. Novel function for blood platelets and podoplanin in developmental separation of blood and lymphatic circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhrin, Pavel; Zaujec, Jan; Breuss, Johannes M; Olcaydu, Damla; Chrenek, Peter; Stockinger, Hannes; Fuertbauer, Elke; Moser, Markus; Haiko, Paula; Fässler, Reinhard; Alitalo, Kari; Binder, Bernd R; Kerjaschki, Dontscho

    2010-05-13

    During embryonic development, lymph sacs form from the cardinal vein, and sprout centrifugally to form mature lymphatic networks. Separation of the lymphatic from the blood circulation by a hitherto unknown mechanism is essential for the homeostatic function of the lymphatic system. O-glycans on the lymphatic endothelium have recently been suggested to be required for establishment and maintenance of distinct blood and lymphatic systems, primarily by mediating proper function of podoplanin. Here, we show that this separation process critically involves platelet activation by podoplanin. We found that platelet aggregates build up in wild-type embryos at the separation zone of podoplanin(+) lymph sacs and cardinal veins, but not in podoplanin(-/-) embryos. Thus, podoplanin(-/-) mice develop a "nonseparation" phenotype, characterized by a blood-filled lymphatic network after approximately embryonic day 13.5, which, however, partially resolves in postnatal mice. The same embryonic phenotype is also induced by treatment of pregnant mice with acetyl salicylic acid, podoplanin-blocking antibodies, or by inactivation of the kindlin-3 gene required for platelet aggregation. Therefore, interaction of endothelial podoplanin of the developing lymph sac with circulating platelets from the cardinal vein is critical for separating the lymphatic from the blood vascular system.

  1. Obliteration of the lymphatic trunks draining diaphragmatic lymph causes peritoneal fluid to enter the pleural cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtani, Y; Ohtani, O

    1997-12-01

    Pathways of peritoneal fluids to the pleural cavity in the rat were investigated by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Intraperitoneally injected India ink was demonstrated to enter the subperitoneal lymphatics through lymphatic stomata, and to drain through the subpleural collecting lymphatics, into the parasternal, paravertebral and mediastinal lymphatic trunks as well as the thoracic duct. Five to 10 min after the intraperitoneal injection of India ink, the parasternal lymphatic trunk was ligated at the third intercostal space. Thirty minutes, 1 h, or 2 h after the ligation of either the right or the left trunk, India ink was macroscopically recognized only around the ligated trunk. When the right and left trunks were simultaneously ligated, India ink leaked around both trunks. Five hours after the ligation of both trunks, a massive amount of ink was located in the interstitium of the anterior thoracic wall. TEM revealed carbon particles passing through gaps of the lymphatic endothelial cells into the interstitial space, and partly reaching the mesothelial surface lining the anterior thoracic wall. Results show that obstruction or narrowing of the lymphatic trunks draining the diaphragmatic lymph causes a hydrothorax, indicating that this is at least one mechanism causing this during continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and diseases with ascites.

  2. A brief perspective on the diverging theories of lymphatic targeting with colloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siram K

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Karthik Siram,1 Gregory Marslin,2 Chellan Vijaya Raghavan,1 Krishnamoorthy Balakumar,1 Habibur Rahman,1 Gregory Franklin3 1Department of Pharmaceutics, PSG College of Pharmacy, Coimbatore, India; 2Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environment and Biological Sciences, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal; 3Department of Integrative Plant Biology, Institute of Plant Genetics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poznan, Poland Abstract: For targeted delivery of colloids to the lymphatic system, the colloids should efficiently reach and remain in the lymphatics for a considerable period of time. As per the current knowledge, diffusion and phagocytosis are the two mechanisms through which colloids reach the lymphatic system. Several parameters including particle size and charge have been shown to affect the direct uptake of colloids by the lymphatic system. Although many researchers attached ligands on the surface of colloids to promote phagocytosis-mediated lymphatic delivery, another school of thought suggests avoidance of phagocytosis by use of carriers like polyethylene glycol (PEGylated colloids to impart stealth attributes and evade phagocytosis. In this perspective, we weigh up the paradoxical theories and approaches available in the literature to draw conclusions on the conditions favorable for achieving efficient lymphatic targeting of colloids. Keywords: lymphatic targeting, colloids, PEGylation, phagocytosis

  3. In vivo visualization and quantification of collecting lymphatic vessel contractility using near-infrared imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Chloé; Scholkmann, Felix; Bachmann, Samia B.; Luciani, Paola; Leroux, Jean-Christophe; Detmar, Michael; Proulx, Steven T.

    2016-01-01

    Techniques to image lymphatic vessel function in either animal models or in the clinic are limited. In particular, imaging methods that can provide robust outcome measures for collecting lymphatic vessel function are sorely needed. In this study, we aimed to develop a method to visualize and quantify collecting lymphatic vessel function in mice, and to establish an in vivo system for evaluation of contractile agonists and antagonists using near-infrared fluorescence imaging. The flank collecting lymphatic vessel in mice was exposed using a surgical technique and a near-infrared tracer was infused into the inguinal lymph node. Collecting lymphatic vessel contractility and valve function could be easily visualized after the infusion. A diameter tracking method was established and the diameter of the vessel was found to closely correlate to near-infrared fluorescence signal. Phasic contractility measures of frequency and amplitude were established using an automated algorithm. The methods were validated by tracking the vessel response to topical application of a contractile agonist, prostaglandin F2α, and by demonstrating the potential of the technique for non-invasive evaluation of modifiers of lymphatic function. These new methods will enable high-resolution imaging and quantification of collecting lymphatic vessel function in animal models and may have future clinical applications. PMID:26960708

  4. A dural lymphatic vascular system that drains brain interstitial fluid and macromolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspelund, Aleksanteri; Antila, Salli; Proulx, Steven T; Karlsen, Tine Veronica; Karaman, Sinem; Detmar, Michael; Wiig, Helge; Alitalo, Kari

    2015-06-29

    The central nervous system (CNS) is considered an organ devoid of lymphatic vasculature. Yet, part of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drains into the cervical lymph nodes (LNs). The mechanism of CSF entry into the LNs has been unclear. Here we report the surprising finding of a lymphatic vessel network in the dura mater of the mouse brain. We show that dural lymphatic vessels absorb CSF from the adjacent subarachnoid space and brain interstitial fluid (ISF) via the glymphatic system. Dural lymphatic vessels transport fluid into deep cervical LNs (dcLNs) via foramina at the base of the skull. In a transgenic mouse model expressing a VEGF-C/D trap and displaying complete aplasia of the dural lymphatic vessels, macromolecule clearance from the brain was attenuated and transport from the subarachnoid space into dcLNs was abrogated. Surprisingly, brain ISF pressure and water content were unaffected. Overall, these findings indicate that the mechanism of CSF flow into the dcLNs is directly via an adjacent dural lymphatic network, which may be important for the clearance of macromolecules from the brain. Importantly, these results call for a reexamination of the role of the lymphatic system in CNS physiology and disease.

  5. Gorham-Stout disease and generalized lymphatic anomaly--clinical, radiologic, and histologic differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lala, Shailee; Mulliken, John B; Alomari, Ahmad I; Fishman, Steven J; Kozakewich, Harry P; Chaudry, Gulraiz

    2013-07-01

    Gorham-Stout disease (GSD) is a rare vascular disorder of lymphatic origin characterized by progressive osteolysis. Generalized lymphatic anomaly (GLA) is a multisystem disorder that also commonly affects bone. We hypothesized that Gorham-Stout disease is different from other osseous lymphatic anomalies. We proposed to discriminate these entities by analyzing findings on skeletal imaging. Clinical data, imaging studies, and histopathologic findings were retrospectively reviewed in patients presenting to our Vascular Anomalies Center with lymphatic anomalies of bone. Within a cohort of 51 patients with lymphatic disorder and radiological evidence of bony involvement, two distinct categories emerged. Nineteen patients met the imaging criteria for GSD: progressive osteolysis with resorption and cortical loss. Thirty-two were categorized as GLA: Discrete radiolucencies and increasing numbers of bone affected over time, but without evidence of progressive osteolysis. The ribs were the most common site in both groups, followed by the cranium, clavicle, and cervical spine in GSD, and thoracic spine, humerus, and femur in GLA. Fewer bones were involved in GSD, with relative sparing of the appendicular skeleton. Associated infiltrative soft tissue abnormality was seen in 18 in GSD, but only six with GLA. Macrocystic lymphatic malformations were identified in 14 with GLA, but none with GSD. There are significant radiological differences between GSD and GLA, although there are some overlapping features. The major distinguishing characteristic is the progressive osteolysis seen in GSD. Findings suggestive of GLA are more extensive involvement, particularly of the appendicular skeleton, presence of discretemacrocystic lymphatic malformations and visceral organ lesions.

  6. 24 CFR 3285.604 - Drainage system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... § 3285.604 Drainage system. (a) Crossovers. Multi-section homes with plumbing in more than one section require drainage system crossover connections to join all sections of the home. The crossover design requirements are located in, and must be designed in accordance with, § 3280.610 of this chapter. (b)...

  7. Agricultural drainage: Towards an integrated approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdeldayem, S.; Hoevenaars, J.; Mollinga, P.P.; Scheuman, W.; Slootweg, R.; Steenbergen, van F.

    2005-01-01

    Drainage needs to reclaim its rightful position as an indispensable element in the integrated management of land and water. An integrated approach to drainage can be developed by means of systematic mapping of the functions of natural resources systems (goods and services) and the values attributed

  8. Altered lymphatics in an ovine model of congenital heart disease with increased pulmonary blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datar, Sanjeev A; Johnson, Eric G; Oishi, Peter E; Johengen, Michael; Tang, Eric; Aramburo, Angela; Barton, Jubilee; Kuo, Hsuan-Chang; Bennett, Stephen; Xoinis, Konstantine; Reel, Bhupinder; Kalkan, Gokhan; Sajti, Eniko; Osorio, Oscar; Raff, Gary W; Matthay, Michael A; Fineman, Jeffrey R

    2012-03-15

    Abnormalities of the lymphatic circulation are well recognized in patients with congenital heart defects. However, it is not known how the associated abnormal blood flow patterns, such as increased pulmonary blood flow (PBF), might affect pulmonary lymphatic function and structure. Using well-established ovine models of acute and chronic increases in PBF, we cannulated the efferent lymphatic duct of the caudal mediastinal node and collected and analyzed lymph effluent from the lungs of lambs with acutely increased PBF (n = 6), chronically increased PBF (n = 6), and age-matched normal lambs (n = 8). When normalized to PBF, we found that lymph flow was unchanged following acute increases in PBF but decreased following chronic increases in PBF. The lymph:plasma protein ratio decreased with both acute and chronic increases in PBF. Lymph bioavailable nitric oxide increased following acute increases in PBF but decreased following chronic increases in PBF. In addition, we found perturbations in the transit kinetics of contrast material through the pleural lymphatics of lambs with chronic increases in PBF. Finally, there were structural changes in the pulmonary lymphatic system in lambs with chronic increases in PBF: lymphatics from these lambs were larger and more dilated, and there were alterations in the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-C, lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor-1, and Angiopoietin-2, proteins known to be important for lymphatic growth, development, and remodeling. Taken together these data suggest that chronic increases in PBF lead to both functional and structural aberrations of lung lymphatics. These findings have important therapeutic implications that warrant further study.

  9. Length-tension relationships of small arteries, veins, and lymphatics from the rat mesenteric microcirculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rong-Zhen; Gashev, Anatoliy A; Zawieja, David C; Davis, Michael J

    2007-04-01

    The passive and active length-tension relationships of isolated rat mesenteric lymphatics ( approximately 150 microm ID), and adjacent small arteries ( approximately 240 microm) and veins ( approximately 275 microm) were compared under isometric conditions using a wire myograph. About 60% of the lymphatic vessels developed spontaneous contractions in physiological saline solution at nominal preload. To maximally activate smooth muscle, 145 mM K(+) + 5 x 10(-5) M norepinephrine was used for arteries, and 145 mM K(+) + 1 x 10(-6) M substance P was used for lymphatics and veins. In response, arteries exhibited monotonic force development to a plateau level, whereas lymphatics and veins showed biphasic force development, consisting of a transient force peak followed by partial relaxation to a plateau over approximately 5 min. The passive and the active length-tension curves were similar in shape among all three vessels. However, the maximal active tension of arteries (3.4 +/- 0.42 mN/mm) was significantly greater than peak active tension (0.59 +/- 0.04 mN/mm) or plateau tension (0.20 +/- 0.04 mN/mm) in small veins and greater than peak active tension (0.34 +/- 0.02 mN/mm) or plateau tension (0.21 +/- 0.02 mN/mm) in lymphatics. Maximal active medial wall stress was similar between lymphatics and veins but was approximately fivefold higher in small arteries. For lymphatics, the pressure calculated from the optimal preload was significantly higher than that found previously in isobaric studies of isolated lymphatics, suggesting the capacity to operate at higher than normal pressures for increased responsiveness. Our results represent the first mechanical comparisons of arterial, venous, and lymphatic vessels in the same vasculature.

  10. Stewart-Treves syndrome angiosarcoma expresses phenotypes of both blood and lymphatic capillaries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marek Stanczyk; Magdalena Gewartowska; Marcin Swierkowski; Bartlomiej Grala; Marek Maruszynski

    2013-01-01

    Background The development of angiosarcoma in oedematous tissue is referred to as Stewart-Treves syndrome (STS).This rare and fatal complication is associated with chronic post mastectomy lymphoedema and radiotherapy for breast cancer.Angiosarcoma spread is facilitated by the formation of blood vessels (angiogenesis) and lymph vessels (lymphangiogenesis).In the future antiangiogenic therapy may improve the poor outcome of current treatments.There was evidence that blocking the angiogenenesis would inhibit progression of angiosarcoma.It seems reasonable to hypothesize that blocking the lymphangiogenesis may yield similar results.Although angiosarcomas commonly derive from blood vessels,in case of STS angiosarcomas chronic lymphoedema may suggest its lymphatic origin.The goal of this study was to visualize interstitial space and lymphatics in the central and peripheral regions of STS angiosarcoma.Methods On tissue samples obtained from STS angiosarcoma we have performed:first colour stereoscopic lymphography to visualise the morphology of lymphatic vessels and extracellular spaces,second immunohistochemical staining specific for lymphatic vessels endothelium (LYVE-1) and blood endothelial cells (CD31,factor Ⅷ) and prolymphangiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-C) for precise identification of lymphatic endothelia.STS angiosarcoma morphology was assessed by comparison of pictures obtained on lymphography,microscopy and confocal microscopy.Results STS angiosarcomas present heterogenous morphology with areas dominated by hemangiosarcoma and lymphangiosarcoma structures.STS angiosarcoma expressed phenotypes of both blood and lymphatic endothelia.LYVE-1 and VEGF-C is expressed by STS angiosarcoma and may be used to discriminate tumour differentiation.Morphology of lymphatic vessels and spaces in the tumour suggest absence of their normal lymphatic function.Conclusions Our results confirmed both hemangio-and lymphangiogenic origin of STS angiosarcoma

  11. Initial afferent lymphatic vessels controlling outbound leukocyte traffic from skin to lymph nodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio eMelero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tissue drains fluid and macromolecules through lymphatic vessels, which are lined by a specialized endothelium that expresses peculiar differentiation proteins, not found in blood vessels (i.e: LYVE-1, Podoplanin, PROX-1 and VEGFR-3. Lymphatic capillaries are characteristically devoid of a continuous basal membrane and are anchored to the ECM by elastic fibers that act as pulling ropes which open the vessel to avoid oedema if tissue volume increases, as it occurs upon inflammation. Lymphatic vessels are also crucial for the transit of T lymphocytes and antigen presenting cells from tissue to draining lymph nodes. Importantly, cell traffic control across lymphatic endothelium is differently regulated under resting and inflammatory conditions. Under steady-state non-inflammatory conditions, leukocytes enter into the lymphatic capillaries through basal membrane gaps (portals. This entrance is integrin-independent and seems to be mainly guided by CCL21 chemokine gradients acting on leukocytes expressing CCR7. In contrast, inflammatory processes in lymphatic capillaries involve a plethora of cytokines, chemokines, leukocyte integrins and other adhesion molecules. Importantly, under inflammation a role for integrins and their ligands becomes apparent and, as a consequence, the number of leukocytes entering the lymphatic capillaries multiplies several-fold. Enhancing transmigration of dendritic cells en route to lymph nodes is conceivably useful for vaccination and cancer immunotherapy, whereas interference with such key mechanisms may ameliorate autoimmunity or excessive inflammation. Recent findings illustrate how, transient cell-to-cell interactions between lymphatic endothelial cells and leukocytes contribute to shape the subsequent behaviour of leukocytes and condition the lymphatic vessel for subsequent trans-migratory events.

  12. Total lymphatic irradiation and bone marrow in human heart transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahn, D.R.; Hong, R.; Greenberg, A.J.; Gilbert, E.F.; Dacumos, G.C.; Dufek, J.H.

    1984-08-01

    Six patients, aged 36 to 59 years, had heart transplants for terminal myocardial disease using total lymphatic irradiation (TLI) and donor bone marrow in addition to conventional therapy. All patients were poor candidates for transplantation because of marked pulmonary hypertension, unacceptable tissue matching, or age. Two patients are living and well more than four years after the transplants. Two patients died of infection at six and seven weeks with normal hearts. One patient, whose preoperative pulmonary hypertension was too great for an orthotopic heart transplant, died at 10 days after such a procedure. The other patient died of chronic rejection seven months postoperatively. Donor-specific tolerance developed in 2 patients. TLI and donor bone marrow can produce specific tolerance to donor antigens and allow easy control of rejection, but infection is still a major problem. We describe a new technique of administering TLI with early reduction of prednisone that may help this problem.

  13. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided drainage of pancreatic pseudocysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saftoiu, Adrian; Vilmann, Andreas; Vilmann, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic pseudocysts are fluid collections in the peripancreatic tissues associated with acute or chronic pancreatitis. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided drainage has become an established indication, having better results as compared to percutaneous drainage, nonguided endoscopic drainage...

  14. Drainage Structure Datasets and Effects on LiDAR-Derived Surface Flow Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruopu Li

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available With extraordinary resolution and accuracy, Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR-derived digital elevation models (DEMs have been increasingly used for watershed analyses and modeling by hydrologists, planners and engineers. Such high-accuracy DEMs have demonstrated their effectiveness in delineating watershed and drainage patterns at fine scales in low-relief terrains. However, these high-resolution datasets are usually only available as topographic DEMs rather than hydrologic DEMs, presenting greater land roughness that can affect natural flow accumulation. Specifically, locations of drainage structures such as road culverts and bridges were simulated as barriers to the passage of drainage. This paper proposed a geospatial method for producing LiDAR-derived hydrologic DEMs, which incorporates data collection of drainage structures (i.e., culverts and bridges, data preprocessing and burning of the drainage structures into DEMs. A case study of GIS-based watershed modeling in South Central Nebraska showed improved simulated surface water derivatives after the drainage structures were burned into the LiDAR-derived topographic DEMs. The paper culminates in a proposal and discussion of establishing a national or statewide drainage structure dataset.

  15. Hydrocele fluid: Can it be used for immunodiagnosis of lymphatic filariasis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mishra

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Diagnosis of lymphatic filariasis using serum has been established but the utility of hydrocele fluid for the purpose is not exactly known. Since, hydrocele is a chronic form of the disease manifestation in a variety of situations and often poses difficulty in diagnosing its origin, we have evaluated the usefulness usage of hydrocele fluid for diagnosis of filarial origin of hydrocele in this study. Methods: Paired samples of serum and hydrocele fluid from 51 individuals with hydrocele, living in an endemic area of Wuchereria bancrofti were assessed. Circulating filarial antigen, filarial specific antibody and cytokine assay were performed in both serum and hydrocele fluid of patients. Results: Og4C3 assay detected circulating filarial antigen (CFA in serum and corresponding hydrocele fluids. The level of IgG, IFN-γ and IL-10 were found to be high in CFA-negative, while IgM and IgE were high in CFApositive hydrocele fluid and serum samples associated with hydrocele. On the other hand neither CFA-positive nor CFA-negative hydrocele fluid and serum samples associated with hydrocele showed any difference in IgG4 level. Interpretation & conclusion: This study showed that the filaria related antigens and antibodies found in serum can be detected with equal sensitivity in hydrocele fluid. Therefore, it can be used as an alternative to serum for immunodiagnosis of filariasis, and help monitoring the filarisis elimination programme.

  16. Seronegative Lyme neuroborreliosis in a patient on treatment for chronic lymphatic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrer, T; Geissdörfer, W; Schoerner, C; Lang, E; Helm, G

    2007-04-01

    We report on a patient who developed seronegative Lyme neuroborreliosis complicating chemotherapy for chronic lymphatic leukemia. After the fifth cycle of chemotherapy (FCR: fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, rituximab and prednisone) the 63-year-old patient developed night sweat, arthralgia in elbows, wrists, proximal interphalangeal joints (PIPs) and strong neuropathic pain in both legs, followed by paresthesia and hypesthesia in the feet, arms and face. Laboratory analysis revealed an elevated C-reactive protein (CRP), a slight elevation of liver enzymes and decreased IgG levels. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis showed a lymphomononuclear pleocytosis and an elevation of protein. A broad diagnostic work-up was negative including a negative Borrelia IgG and IgM ELISA. The patient did not remember recent tick bites, but after specific questioning he recollected a transient erythema on his leg developing just before the start of the last cycle of chemotherapy. As the combination of neuropathic pain and arthralgia, the transient erythema and the lymphomononuclear pleocytosis raised the suspicion of Lyme neuroborreliosis, the patient was treated for 3 weeks with ceftriaxone. On therapy all symptoms resolved and CRP normalized. Retrospective PCR analysis of a CSF sample confirmed the clinical diagnosis by detecting Borrelia garinii DNA. This case demonstrates that in immunosuppressed patients borrelial serology may be negative and that additional diagnostic approaches (including tests for direct Borrelia detection) may be needed to demonstrate borrelial infection.

  17. Characterizing the Frequency and Elevation of Rapid Drainage Events in West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, S.; Christoffersen, P.

    2016-12-01

    Rapid drainage of supraglacial lakes on the Greenland Ice Sheet is critical for the establishment of surface-to-bed hydrologic connections and the subsequent transfer of water from surface to bed. Yet, estimates of the number and spatial distribution of rapidly draining lakes vary widely due to limitations in the temporal frequency of image collection and obscureness by cloud. So far, no study has assessed the impact of these observation biases. In this study, we examine the frequency and elevation of rapidly draining lakes in central West Greenland, from 68°N to 72.6°N, and we make a robust statistical analysis to estimate more accurately the likelihood of lakes draining rapidly. Using MODIS imagery and a fully automated lake detection method, we map more than 500 supraglacial lakes per year over a 63000 km2 study area from 2000-2015. Through testing four different definitions of rapidly draining lakes from previously published studies, we find that the number of rapidly draining lakes varies from 3% to 38%. Logistic regression between rapid drainage events and image sampling frequency demonstrates that the number of rapid drainage events is strongly dependent on cloud-free observation percentage. We then develop three new drainage criteria and apply an observation bias correction that suggests a true rapid drainage probability between 36% and 45%, considerably higher than previous studies without bias assessment have reported. We find rapid-draining lakes are on average larger and disappear earlier than slow-draining lakes, and we also observe no elevation differences for the lakes detected as rapidly draining. We conclude a) that methodological problems in rapid drainage research caused by observation bias and varying detection methods have obscured large-scale rapid drainage characteristics and b) that the lack of evidence for an elevation limit on rapid drainage suggests surface-to-bed hydrologic connections may continue to propagate inland as climate warms.

  18. Intensity and efficiency of transmission and the development of microfilaraemia and disease: their relationship in lymphatic filariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southgate, B A

    1992-02-01

    Currently available methods for measuring the intensity of transmission in the lymphatic filariases are all to some extent unsatisfactory. Clinical methods for defining the presence of filarial disease are also less than perfect, and many infected persons remain free of symptoms and signs for very long periods. Incidence rates of microfilaraemia calculated from prevalence rate data are combined with 'entomological inoculation rates' obtained by direct observations of vector landing rates, infective larval rates and infective larval densities in field studies to determine efficiencies of transmission, and to relate transmission parameters to observed microfilarial and disease prevalence rates. Published studies from various endemic areas of the world which provide sufficient data have been analysed, using reversible catalytic models. In general, it seems that much less intense levels of transmission are needed in sub-Saharan Africa to produce given rates of microfilaraemia and disease than in Asia and Oceania, in the case of Wuchereria bancrofti infections; similarly, the genus Anopheles appears to produce infection and disease much more efficiently than the genera Culex and Aedes when transmitting W. bancrofti. The only example of Brugia malayi transmitted by Mansonia spp. analysed provided the highest level of transmission efficiency found. Tolerable levels of transmission analogous to those used in onchocerciasis cannot at present be defined for the lymphatic filariases; it seems that the intensity of transmission required to produce new cases of disease is probably below that required to produce new cases or episodes of readily detectable microfilaraemia.

  19. The Geochemistry of Acid Mine Drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blowes, D. W.; Ptacek, C. J.; Jambor, J. L.; Weisener, C. G.

    2003-12-01

    Mine wastes are the largest volume of materials handled in the world (ICOLD, 1996). The generation of acidic drainage and the release of water containing high concentrations of dissolved metals from these wastes is an environmental problem of international scale. Acidic drainage is caused by the oxidation of sulfide minerals exposed to atmospheric oxygen. Although acid drainage is commonly associated with the extraction and processing of sulfide-bearing metalliferous ore deposits and sulfide-rich coal, acidic drainage can occur wherever sulfide minerals are excavated and exposed to atmospheric oxygen. Engineering projects, including road construction, airport development, and foundation excavation are examples of civil projects that have resulted in the generation of acidic drainage. On United States Forest Service Lands there are (2-5)×104 mines releasing acidic drainage (USDA, 1993). Kleinmann et al. (1991) estimated that more than 6,400 km of rivers and streams in the eastern United States have been adversely affected by mine-drainage water. About (0.8-1.6)×104 km of streams have been affected by metal mining in the western United States. The annual worldwide production of mine wastes exceeded 4.5 Gt in 1982 (ICOLD, 1996). Estimated costs for remediating mine wastes internationally total in the tens of billions of dollars ( Feasby et al.,1991).

  20. Arteries provide essential guidance cues for lymphatic endothelial cells in the zebrafish trunk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussmann, Jeroen; Bos, Frank L; Urasaki, Akihiro; Kawakami, Koichi; Duckers, Henricus J; Schulte-Merker, Stefan

    2010-08-01

    The endothelial cells of the vertebrate lymphatic system assemble into complex networks, but local cues that guide the migration of this distinct set of cells are currently unknown. As a model for lymphatic patterning, we have studied the simple vascular network of the zebrafish trunk consisting of three types of lymphatic vessels that develop in close connection with the blood vasculature. We have generated transgenic lines that allow us to distinguish between arterial, venous and lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) within a single zebrafish embryo. We found that LECs migrate exclusively along arteries in a manner that suggests that arterial endothelial cells serve as the LEC migratory substrate. In the absence of intersegmental arteries, LEC migration in the trunk is blocked. Our data therefore demonstrate a crucial role for arteries in LEC guidance.

  1. Gravity Drainage Kinetics of Papermaking Fibrous Suspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przybysz Piotr

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study analyses application possibilities of filtration and thickening models in evaluation of papermaking suspension drainage rate. The authors proposed their own method to estimate the drainage rate on the basis of an existing Ergun capillary model of liquid flow through a granular material. The proposed model was less sensitive to porosity changes than the Ergun model. An empirical verification proved robustness of the proposed approach. Taking into account discrepancies in the published data concerning how the drainage velocity of papermaking suspension is defined, this study examines which of the commonly applied models matches experimental results the best.

  2. The presence and absence of lymphatic vessels in the adult human intervertebral disc: relation to disc pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kliskey, Karolina; Williams, Kelly; Yu, J.; Urban, Jill; Athanasou, Nick [University of Oxford, Nuffield Department of Orthopaedic, Rheumatology and Musculoskeletal Science, Oxford (United Kingdom); Jackson, David [Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, Human Immunology Unit, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-15

    Although the normal adult human intervertebral disc is considered to be avascular, vascularised cellular fibrous tissue can be found in pathological conditions involving the disc such as disc herniation. Whether lymphatics vessels form a component of this reparative tissue is not known as the presence or absence of lymphatics in herniated and normal disc tissue is not known. We examined spinal tissues and discectomy specimens for the presence of lymphatics. The examination used immunohistochemistry to identify the specific lymphatic endothelial cell markers, podoplanin and LYVE1. Lymphatic vessels were not found in the nucleus pulposus or annulus fibrosus of intact, non-herniated lumbar and thoracic discs but were present in the surrounding ligaments. Ingrowth of fibrous tissue was seen in 73% of herniated disc specimens of which 36% contained LYVE1+/podoplanin + lymphatic vessels. Lymphatic vessels were not seen in the sacrum and coccyx or biopsies of four sacrococcygeal chordomas, but they were noted in surrounding extra-osseous fat and fibrous tissue at the edge of the infiltrating tumour. Our findings indicate that lymphatic vessels are not present in the normal adult intervertebral disc but that, when there is extrusion of disc material into surrounding soft tissue, there is ingrowth of reparative fibrous tissue containing lymphatic vessels. Our findings also indicate that chordoma, a tumour of notochordal origin, spreads to regional lymph nodes via lymphatics in para-spinal soft tissues. (orig.)

  3. An in Vitro Study of Breast Cancer Invasion into the Lymphatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    Lymphatic, CCL21, CCR7 , interstitial flow, chemotaxis 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF...funded period, we accomplished nearly all of the proposed tasks. The outcomes of this preliminary project have been presented to and received by...towards the lymphatics. Furthermore, the chemokine receptor CCR7 (receptor for CCL19 and 21), normally involved in immune cell trafficking has

  4. Longitudinal monitoring of head and neck lymphatics in response to cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, John C.; Tan, I.-Chih; Naqvi, Syed; Aldrich, Melissa B.; Maus, Erik A.; Blanco, Angel I.; Karni, Ron J.; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.

    2017-02-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) can promote anti-tumoral responses, but is also known to cause lymphatic endothelial cell apoptosis, loss of dermal lymphatics, and reduction in lymph transport to draining lymph node basins. When combined with lymph node dissection (LND), the radiogenic lymphatic disruption may possibly result in lymph stasis and dermal backflow. If not resolved, this disruption may lead to chronic inflammation, edema, fibrosis, adipose tissue deposition, and ultimately to functional deficits and disfigurement. Because the head and neck (HN) region contains 1/3 of the body's lymph nodes, lymphatic responses to cancer progression and therapy may be significant. Furthermore, it may not be surprising that lymphedema has been estimated to impact as many as 75% of HN cancer survivors three months or more after LND and RT. In this study, we used near-infrared fluorescence imaging to longitudinally assess the lymphatics of 18 patients undergoing treatment for cancer of the oral cavity, oropharynx, and/or larynx following intraoral and intradermal injections of ICG. Patients were imaged before and after surgery, before and after fractionated RT for up to 100 weeks after treatments. Patients who underwent both LND and RT developed lymphatic dermal backflow on treated sides ranging from days after the start of RT to weeks after its completion, while contralateral regions that were not associated with LND but also treated with RT, experienced no such changes in functional lymphatic anatomies. The results show for the first time, the striking reorganization of the lymphatic vasculature and may enable early diagnosis of HN lymphedema.

  5. Lymphatics of the Mediastinum, Esophagus and Lungs: Thoracic Surgeon's Point of View

    OpenAIRE

    Ciprian Bolca

    2012-01-01

    The anatomy of the thoracic lymphatic system is very complex and not completely known yet. Thoracic malignancies, especially lung and esophageal cancers, are rapidly increasing as incidence. A good knowledge of the thoracic lymphatic system is very important in staging, diagnosis and treatment of these malignancies. The complete lymphadenectomy has a crucial role in both to achieve a correct postoperative stage and a complete resection of pathologic tissue. The article is a glimpse on the lym...

  6. An inguinal mass with local vascular lesions induced by a lymphatic filaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Hameed, Ahmed A; Dura, Wieslaw T; Alkhalife, Ibrahim S

    2004-08-01

    A 47-year-old Indian male presented with an inguinal mass clinically suspicious as a tumor. Histological examination of the excised mass demonstrated tissue reaction to degenerating intravascular adult filarial worms. The worms have been identified as a lymphatic filariae, most probably Wuchereria bancrofti. The case report underscores the need to maintain suspicion of genitourinary filarial lesions in non-endemic areas and describes atypical vascular lesions induced by lymphatic filariae.

  7. Lymphoid Aggregates Remodel Lymphatic Collecting Vessels that Serve Mesenteric Lymph Nodes in Crohn Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Gwendalyn J; Bala, Shashi; Rahier, Jean-François; Johnson, Michael W; Wang, Peter L; Nalbantoglu, ILKe; Dubuquoy, Laurent; Chau, Amélie; Pariente, Benjamin; Kartheuser, Alex; Zinselmeyer, Bernd H; Colombel, Jean-Frederic

    2016-12-01

    Early pathological descriptions of Crohn disease (CD) argued for a potential defect in lymph transport; however, this concept has not been thoroughly investigated. In mice, poor healing in response to infection-induced tissue damage can cause hyperpermeable lymphatic collecting vessels in mesenteric adipose tissue that impair antigen and immune cell access to mesenteric lymph nodes (LNs), which normally sustain appropriate immunity. To investigate whether analogous changes might occur in human intestinal disease, we established a three-dimensional imaging approach to characterize the lymphatic vasculature in mesenteric tissue from controls or patients with CD. In CD specimens, B-cell-rich aggregates resembling tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs) impinged on lymphatic collecting vessels that enter and exit LNs. In areas of creeping fat, which characterizes inflammation-affected areas of the bowel in CD, we observed B cells and apparent innate lymphoid cells that had invaded the lymphatic vessel wall, suggesting these cells may be mediators of lymphatic remodeling. Although TLOs have been described in many chronic inflammatory states, their anatomical relationship to preestablished LNs has never been revealed. Our data indicate that, at least in the CD-affected mesentery, TLOs are positioned along collecting lymphatic vessels in a manner expected to affect delivery of lymph to LNs. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Disrupted NOS signaling in lymphatic endothelial cells exposed to chronically increased pulmonary lymph flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datar, Sanjeev A; Gong, Wenhui; He, Youping; Johengen, Michael; Kameny, Rebecca J; Raff, Gary W; Maltepe, Emin; Oishi, Peter E; Fineman, Jeffrey R

    2016-07-01

    Associated abnormalities of the lymphatic circulation are well described in congenital heart disease. However, their mechanisms remain poorly elucidated. Using a clinically relevant ovine model of a congenital cardiac defect with chronically increased pulmonary blood flow (shunt), we previously demonstrated that exposure to chronically elevated pulmonary lymph flow is associated with: 1) decreased bioavailable nitric oxide (NO) in pulmonary lymph; and 2) attenuated endothelium-dependent relaxation of thoracic duct rings, suggesting disrupted lymphatic endothelial NO signaling in shunt lambs. To further elucidate the mechanisms responsible for this altered NO signaling, primary lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) were isolated from the efferent lymphatic of the caudal mediastinal node in 4-wk-old control and shunt lambs. We found that shunt LECs (n = 3) had decreased bioavailable NO and decreased endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) mRNA and protein expression compared with control LECs (n = 3). eNOS activity was also low in shunt LECs, but, interestingly, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and activity were increased in shunt LECs, as were total cellular nitration, including eNOS-specific nitration, and accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Pharmacological inhibition of iNOS reduced ROS in shunt LECs to levels measured in control LECs. These data support the conclusion that NOS signaling is disrupted in the lymphatic endothelium of lambs exposed to chronically increased pulmonary blood and lymph flow and may contribute to decreased pulmonary lymphatic bioavailable NO.

  9. Lymphatic involvement in the disappearance of steroidogenic cells from the corpus luteum during luteolysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hironori Abe

    Full Text Available In mammals, the corpus luteum (CL is an essential endocrine gland for the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. If pregnancy is not established, the CL regresses and disappears rapidly from the ovary. A possible explanation for the rapid disappearance of the CL is that luteal cells are transported from the ovary via lymphatic vessels. Here, we report the presence of cells positive for 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD, an enzyme involved in progesterone synthesis, in the lumen of lymphatic vessels at the regressing luteal stage and in the lymphatic fluid collected from the ovarian pedicle ipsilateral to the regressing CL. The 3β-HSD positive cells were alive and contained lipid droplets. The 3β-HSD positive cells in the lymphatic fluid were most abundant at days 22-24 after ovulation. These findings show that live steroidogenic cells are in the lymphatic vessels drained from the CL. The outflow of steroidogenic cells starts at the regressing luteal stage and continues after next ovulation. The overall findings suggest that the complete disappearance of the CL during luteolysis is involved in the outflow of luteal cells from the CL via ovarian lymphatic vessels.

  10. Lymph node transfer and perinodal lymphatic growth factor treatment for lymphedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkonen, Krista M; Visuri, Mikko T; Tervala, Tomi V; Halonen, Paavo J; Koivisto, Mari; Lähteenvuo, Markku T; Alitalo, Kari K; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo; Saaristo, Anne M

    2013-05-01

    Our objective was to define the optimal growth factor treatment to be used in combination with lymph node transfer to normalize lymphatic vascular anatomy. In the lymph node transfer method, lymphatic anastomoses are expected to form spontaneously. However, lymphangiogenic growth factor therapies have shown promising results in preclinical models of lymphedema. The inguinal lymphatic vasculature of pigs was surgically destroyed around the inguinal lymph node. To enhance the regrowth of the lymphatic network in the defected area, adenoviral vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C) was administered intranodally or perinodally. Control animals received injections of saline or control vector. The lymphangiogenic effect of the growth factor therapy and any potential adverse effects associated with the 2 alternative delivery routes were examined 2 months postoperatively. Both routes of growth factor administration induced robust growth of lymphatic vessels and helped to preserve the structure of the transferred lymph nodes in comparison with the controls. The lymph nodes of the control treated animals regressed in size and their nodal structure was partly replaced by fibro-fatty scar tissue. Intranodally injected adenoviral VEGF-C and adenoviral vector encoding control gene LacZ induced macrophage accumulation inside the node, whereas perinodal administration of VEGF-C did not have this adverse effect. Lymphangiogenic growth factors improve lymphatic vessel regeneration and lymph node function after lymph node transfer. The perinodal route of delivery provides a basis for future clinical trials in lymphedema patients.

  11. Slit2/Robo4 signaling modulates HIV-1 gp120-induced lymphatic hyperpermeability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefeng Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dissemination of HIV in the host involves transit of the virus and virus-infected cells across the lymphatic endothelium. HIV may alter lymphatic endothelial permeability to foster dissemination, but the mechanism is largely unexplored. Using a primary human lymphatic endothelial cell model, we found that HIV-1 envelope protein gp120 induced lymphatic hyperpermeability by disturbing the normal function of Robo4, a novel regulator of endothelial permeability. HIV-1 gp120 induced fibronectin expression and integrin α₅β₁ phosphorylation, which led to the complexing of these three proteins, and their subsequent interaction with Robo4 through its fibronectin type III repeats. Moreover, pretreatment with an active N-terminus fragment of Slit2, a Robo4 agonist, protected lymphatic endothelial cells from HIV-1 gp120-induced hyperpermeability by inhibiting c-Src kinase activation. Our results indicate that targeting Slit2/Robo4 signaling may protect the integrity of the lymphatic barrier and limit the dissemination of HIV in the host.

  12. [A retrospective analysis on occult neck lymphatic metastasis in early tongue cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Q L; Bian, C; Liu, H

    2016-10-07

    Objective: To investigate the number and level of occult neck lymphatic metastasis for squamous cell carcinoma of tongue in clinical stage Ⅰ/Ⅱ, and the relationship between cell differentiation and occult neck lymphatic metastasis. Methods: A total of 101 cases diagnosed preoperatively as having squamous cell carcinoma of tongue in clinical stage Ⅰ/Ⅱ (cT1/T2N0M0) between January 2005 and April 2015 were analysed retrospectively. Whether presence of occult neck lymphatic metastasis in these cases was studied. Results: Occult neck lymphatic metastases were found in 22 (21.78%) of 101 cases, 10 men and 12 women, with an age range of 22 to 83 years. There was not statistically significant association between tumor size or cell differentiation and occult neck lymphatic metastasis (P>0.05). The metastasis occurred most commonly in level Ⅱ, followed by levelsⅠ, Ⅲ and Ⅳ. There was no lymph node metastasis in Level Ⅴ. There were total 20 cases with occult neck lymphatic metastasis in at least one of levelⅠ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ(90.9%), One of these case was skipping metastasis in level Ⅲ(4.6%). Conclusion: The early tongue cancer has a high rate of occult lymph metastasis, which occurs commonly in levels Ⅱ, Ⅰ and Ⅲ, but there is not significant association between the metastasis and tumor size or cell differentiation.

  13. A case of generalized lymphatic anomaly causing skull-base leakage and bacterial meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suga, Kenichi; Goji, Aya; Inoue, Miki; Kawahito, Masami; Taki, Masako; Mori, Kazuhiro

    2017-05-01

    Generalized lymphatic anomaly is a multifocal lymphatic malformation that affects the skin, thoracic viscera, and bones. A 3year-old Japanese boy presented with right facial palsy due to cystic tumors in the ipsilateral petrous bone. Pericardial effusion had been found incidentally and generalized lymphatic anomaly had been diagnosed by pericardial biopsy. Petrous bone tumor had been followed up without surgery. At the age of seven he presented with fever and disturbance of consciousness, and bacterial meningitis due to Streptococcus pneumoniae was diagnosed. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed middle skull-base leakage due to lymphatic malformation. He achieved complete recovery under intensive care with antibiotics and mechanical ventilation. One year later, he presented with multiple cystic formations in bilateral femora. At the 3-year follow-up, the patient was healthy with no recurrence of meningitis and osteolytic lesions in the femora were non-progressive. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are useful for demonstration of skull-base leakage by generalized lymphatic anomaly. We should consider generalized lymphatic anomaly among the differential diagnoses for skull-base leakage. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Relationship between Lymphatic Vessel Density and Lymph Node Metastasis of Invasive Micropapillary Carcinoma of the Breast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaojing Guo; Ling Chen; Ronggang Lang; Yu Fan; Li Fu

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the relationship between lymphatic vessel density and lymph node metastasis of invasive micropapillary carcinoma (IMPC) of the breast.METHODS The immunohistochemical study for vascular endothelial growth factor-c (VEGF-C), VEGF Receptor-3 (VEGFR-3) and lymphatic vessel density of 51 cases of IMPC were performed, and lymph node metastases were examined by microscopic analysis of these cases.RESULTS In IMPC, VEGF-C was expressed in the cytoplasm and/or on the membrane of the tumor cells, and the expression of VEGF-C showed a positive correlation with lymph node metastasis (P<0.01). Lymphatic vessel density was determined by the number of micro-lymphatic vessels with VEGFR-3 positive staining. Lymphatic vessel density was positively correlated with VEGF-C expression (P<0.01) and lymph node metastasis (P<0.01). The percentage of IMPC in the tumor was not associated with the incidence of lymph node metastasis. The metastatic foci in lymph nodes were either pure or predominant micropapillary carcinoma.CONCLUSION The results suggested that VEGF-C overexpression stimulated tumor lymphangiogenesis, and the increased lymphatic vessel density may be the key factor that influenced lymph node metastasis of IMPC.

  15. Drainage filter technologies to mitigate site-specific phosphorus losses in agricultural drainage discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Heckrath, Goswin Johann; Canga, Eriona;

    Losses of phosphorus (P) in drainage waters contribute an estimated 33% to the total agricultural P load in Denmark. Mitigating agricultural P losses is challenging, as critical P losses comprise only a very small fraction of actual soil P contents and are not directly related to fertilizer P input...... in drainage. The Danish “SUPREME-TECH” project (2010-2016) (www.supreme-tech.dk) aims at providing the scientific basis for developing cost-effective filter technologies for P in agricultural drainage waters. The project studies different approaches of implementing filter technologies including drainage well...... the occurrence of surface-induced precipitation processes. The P-retention efficiency of granular drainage filters and constructed wetlands was compared for treating drainage water, and a subcatchment analysis illustrated the potential of implementing such measures....

  16. Fractal Analysis of Drainage Basins on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepinski, T. F.; Marinova, M. M.; McGovern, P. J.; Clifford, S. M.

    2002-01-01

    We used statistical properties of drainage networks on Mars as a measure of martian landscape morphology and an indicator of landscape evolution processes. We utilize the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data to construct digital elevation maps (DEMs) of several, mostly ancient, martian terrains. Drainage basins and channel networks are computationally extracted from DEMs and their structures are analyzed and compared to drainage networks extracted from terrestrial and lunar DEMs. We show that martian networks are self-affine statistical fractals with planar properties similar to terrestrial networks, but vertical properties similar to lunar networks. The uniformity of martian drainage density is between those for terrestrial and lunar landscapes. Our results are consistent with the roughening of ancient martian terrains by combination of rainfall-fed erosion and impacts, although roughening by other fluvial processes cannot be excluded. The notion of sustained rainfall in recent Mars history is inconsistent with our findings.

  17. Results of percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography drainages (PTCD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenemann, J.; Willems, M.; Wolf, G.; Fromme, M.

    1987-12-01

    From September 1980 to December 1986, 72 percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography drainages (PTCD) were performed in 64 patients (58 palliative in malignant obstructions, 14 temporary). The median duration of drainage was 26.8 days (2-183 days). The median survival time in 37 patients with palliative tumour drainage was 55.3 days (7-473 days). 9/37 patients survived longer than 3 months (max. 15.5 months). Complications occurred in 29.5% (10.3% severe). 3/64 patients (4.7%) died. Patients with palliative transpapillary drainages (23), especially with endoprostheses (14), survived longer, and the complication rate was lower. Therefore, we prefer the endoscopic transpapillary approach. PTCD patients must be selected carefully.

  18. Fractal Analysis of Drainage Basins on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepinski, T. F.; Marinova, M. M.; McGovern, P. J.; Clifford, S. M.

    2002-01-01

    We used statistical properties of drainage networks on Mars as a measure of martian landscape morphology and an indicator of landscape evolution processes. We utilize the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data to construct digital elevation maps (DEMs) of several, mostly ancient, martian terrains. Drainage basins and channel networks are computationally extracted from DEMs and their structures are analyzed and compared to drainage networks extracted from terrestrial and lunar DEMs. We show that martian networks are self-affine statistical fractals with planar properties similar to terrestrial networks, but vertical properties similar to lunar networks. The uniformity of martian drainage density is between those for terrestrial and lunar landscapes. Our results are consistent with the roughening of ancient martian terrains by combination of rainfall-fed erosion and impacts, although roughening by other fluvial processes cannot be excluded. The notion of sustained rainfall in recent Mars history is inconsistent with our findings.

  19. THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE

    OpenAIRE

    GRAY, NICHOLAS FREDERICK; Sullivan, Monica

    2017-01-01

    This review examine the action of acid mine drainage (AMD), which is a multifactor pollutant, on surface waters. It affects aquatic ecosystems via a number of direct and indirect pathways. Major impact areas are coastal waters, rivers, lakes and estuaries, with AMD affecting ecosystems in different ways. Ground waters can also be severely impacted. Due to its complexity, the impact of AMD is particularly difficult to quantify and predict in lotic systems. Acid mine drainage pollut...

  20. hCG stimulates angiogenic signals in lymphatic endothelial and circulating angiogenic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schanz, Andrea; Lukosz, Margarete; Hess, Alexandra P; Baston-Büst, Dunja M; Krüssel, Jan S; Heiss, Christian

    2015-08-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) has long been associated with the initiation and maintenance of pregnancy, where angiogenesis plays an important role. However, the function of hCG in angiogenesis and the recruitment of vascular active cells are not fully understood. In this study, the role of hCG and its receptor in circulating angiogenic and human endothelial cells, including lymphatic, uterine microvascular, and umbilical vein endothelial cells, was examined. Immunohistochemistry and immunoblot analysis were used to detect LH/hCG receptor expression and the expression of hCG-induced angiogenic molecules. HIF-1α was determined via ELISA and downstream molecules, such as CXCL12 and CXCR4, via real-time PCR. Chemotaxis was analyzed using Boyden chambers. Our results show that the LH/hCG receptor was present in all tested cells. Furthermore, hCG was able to stimulate LH/hCG-receptor-specific migration in a dose-dependent fashion and induce key angiogenic molecules, including HIF-1α, CXCL12, and CXCR4. In conclusion, our findings underscore the importance of hCG as one of the first angiogenic molecules produced by the conceptus. hCG itself alters endothelial motility, recruitment, and expression of pro-angiogenic molecules and may therefore play an important role in vascular adaption during implantation and early placental formation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  1. Percutaneous drainage of pelvic fluid collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Young; Sohn, Cheol Ho [School of Medicine Keimyung University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-10-15

    To evaluate safe access route and success rate of percutaneous drainage of pelvic fluid collection. The 35 percutaneous drainages of pelvic fluid collection under the CT and fluorosocpic guidance were done in 32 patients. The anterior transabdominal approach was done in 20 patients, while the nine patients used the transgluteal approach through greater sciatic foramen. Three patients, who had septated or noncommunicating abscesses, underwent drainage using both approaches. The catheter was removed when the patient's symptom and laboratory data were improved or the amount of drainage and the size of fluid collection were markedly reduced. Success, partial success and failure were classified. The causes of fluid collection were complication of intraabdominal operation in 27 patient. The diagnosis after drainage included abscess (21), loculated ascites (6), and hematoma (4). The 27 cases (30 procedure) were treated successfully and the mean duration of catheter insertion was 10 days. The partial successes were two cases (2 procedures), which had palliative purpose. Three cases (3 procedures) were failed, which were multiple loculated ascites of pancreatic origin (2) and recurrent abscess (1). The significant complication during the procedure or drainage was not noted.

  2. 46 CFR 171.155 - Drainage of an open boat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Drainage of Weather Decks § 171.155 Drainage of an open boat. The deck within the hull of an open boat must drain to the bilge. Overboard drainage of the deck is not... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drainage of an open boat. 171.155 Section 171.155...

  3. A cautionary tale: anaphylaxis to isosulfan blue dye after 12 years and 3339 cases of lymphatic mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Gabriel; Guth, Amber A; Pachter, H Leon; Roses, Daniel F

    2008-02-01

    Sentinel node biopsy has become the standard method for lymphatic staging in early-stage breast cancer and melanomas. The most commonly used technique uses both a radioactive tracer as well as blue dye, usually isosulfan blue. In this report, we discuss two episodes of anaphylaxis to isosulfan blue during lymphatic mapping, occurring 12 years and 3339 lymphatic mapping cases after adoption of the technique, and discuss management issues raised by these events.

  4. [The value of wound drainage with or without suction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, J; Hasselbach, A; Schnorr, W; Baranek, T; Letsch, R

    2005-11-01

    Even though the discussion for desisting from wound drainage has arisen, this is not reflected in the reality of surgical treatment. In more than 90% of all procedures wound drainage is used. It remains to be proven whether suction drainage actually is superior to gravity drainage in everyday use. In a random study with 200 patients it was proven that suction drainage shows no significant advantage in liquid quantum, haematoma and the frequency of complications. We conclude that the economically favourable gravity drainage can replace the more expensive suction drainage in most cases.

  5. Failures and complications of thoracic drainage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Ivana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Thoracic drainage is a surgical procedure for introducing a drain into the pleural space to drain its contents. Using this method, the pleura is discharged and set to the physiological state which enables the reexpansion of the lungs. The aim of the study was to prove that the use of modern principles and protocols of thoracic drainage significantly reduces the occurrence of failures and complications, rendering the treatment more efficient. Methods. The study included 967 patients treated by thoracic drainage within the period from January 1, 1989 to June 1, 2000. The studied patients were divided into 2 groups: group A of 463 patients treated in the period from January 1, 1989 to December 31, 1994 in whom 386 pleural drainage (83.36% were performed, and group B of 602 patients treated form January 1, 1995 to June 1, 2000 in whom 581 pleural drainage (96.51% were performed. The patients of the group A were drained using the classical standards of thoracic drainage by the general surgeons. The patients of the group B, however, were drained using the modern standards of thoracic drainage by the thoracic surgeons, and the general surgeons trained for this kind of the surgery. Results. The study showed that better results were achieved in the treatment of the patients from the group B. The total incidence of the failures and complications of thoracic drainage decreased from 36.52% (group A to 12.73% (group B. The mean length of hospitalization of the patients without complications in the group A was 19.5 days versus 10 days in the group B. The mean length of the treatment of the patients with failures and complications of the drainage in the group A was 33.5 days versus 17.5 days in the group B. Conclusion. The shorter length of hospitalization and the lower morbidity of the studied patients were considered to be the result of the correct treatment using modern principles of thoracic drainage, a suitable surgical technique, and a

  6. Location of Agricultural Drainage Pipes and Assessment of Agricultural Drainage Pipe Conditions Using Ground Penetrating Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methods are needed to not only locate buried agricultural drainage pipe, but to also determine if the pipes are functioning properly with respect to water delivery. The primary focus of this research project was to confirm the ability of ground penetrating radar (GPR) to locate buried drainage pipe ...

  7. Effect of the drainage of cerebrospinal fluid in patients with aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Cong; Yu, Xiaobo; Chen, Jingyin; Gu, Chi; Wang, Lin; Chen, Gao; Dai, Yuying

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background and objectives: Vasospasm-related injury such as delayed ischemic neurological defect (DIND) or cerebral infarction is an important prognostic factor for aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Whether cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage can achieve a better outcome in aneurismal SAH patients after coiling or clipping remains the subject of debate. Here, we report a meta-analysis of the related available literature to assess the effect of continuous CSF drainage on clinical outcomes in patients with aneurismal SAH. Methods: Case-control studies regarding the association between aneurismal SAH and CSF drainage were systematically identified through online databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Elsevier Science Direct, and Springer Link). Inclusion and exclusion criteria were defined for the eligible studies. The fixed-effects model was performed when homogeneity was indicated. Alternatively, the random-effects model was utilized. Results: This meta-analysis included 11 studies. Continuous CSF drainage obviously improved patients’ long-term outcome (odds ratio [OR] of 2.86, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.37–5.98, P < 0.01). CSF drainage also reduced angiographic vasospasm (OR of 0.35, 95% CI, 0.23–0.51, P < 0.01), symptomatic vasospasm (OR of 0.32, 95% CI, 0.32–0.43, P < 0.01), and DIND (OR of 0.48, 95% CI, 0.25–0.91, P = 0.03), but there was no significant difference between the CSF drainage group and the no CSF drainage group on shunt-dependent hydrocephalus (SDHC) prevention (OR of 1.04, 95% CI, 0.52–2.07, P = 0.91). Further analysis on lumbar drainage (LD) and external ventricular drainage (EVD) indicated that LD had a better outcome (OR of 3.11, 95% CI, 1.18–8.23, P = 0.02), whereas no significant difference in vasospasm-related injury was detected between the groups (OR of 1.13, 95% CI, 0.54–2.37, P = 0.75). Conclusion: Continuous CSF drainage is an effective treatment for aneurismal SAH patients; lumbar drainage

  8. Urban Drainage Modeling and Flood Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Theo G.; Thomas, Martin

    The European research project in the EUREKA framework, RisUrSim (Σ!2255) has been worked out by a project consortium including industrial mathematics and water engineering research institutes, municipal drainage works as well as an insurance company. The overall objective has been the development of a simulation to allow flood risk analysis and cost-effective management for urban drainage systems. In view of the regulatory background of European Standard EN 752, the phenomenon of urban flooding caused by surcharged sewer systems in urban drainage systems is analyzed, leading to the necessity of dual drainage modeling. A detailed dual drainage simulation model is described based upon hydraulic flow routing procedures for surface flow and pipe flow. Special consideration is given to the interaction between surface and sewer flow in order to most accurately compute water levels above ground as a basis for further assessment of possible damage costs. The model application is presented for small case study in terms of data needs, model verification, and first simulation results.

  9. Transmission models and management of lymphatic filariasis elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Edwin; Gambhir, Manoj

    2010-01-01

    The planning and evaluation of parasitic control programmes are complicated by the many interacting population dynamic and programmatic factors that determine infection trends under different control options. A key need is quantification about the status of the parasite system state at any one given timepoint and the dynamic change brought upon that state as an intervention program proceeds. Here, we focus on the control and elimination of the vector-borne disease, lymphatic filariasis, to show how mathematical models of parasite transmission can provide a quantitative framework for aiding the design of parasite elimination and monitoring programs by their ability to support (1) conducting rational analysis and definition of endpoints for different programmatic aims or objectives, including transmission endpoints for disease elimination, (2) undertaking strategic analysis to aid the optimal design of intervention programs to meet set endpoints under different endemic settings and (3) providing support for performing informed evaluations of ongoing programs, including aiding the formation of timely adaptive management strategies to correct for any observed deficiencies in program effectiveness. The results also highlight how the use of a model-based framework will be critical to addressing the impacts of ecological complexities, heterogeneities and uncertainties on effective parasite management and thereby guiding the development of strategies to resolve and overcome such real-world complexities. In particular, we underscore how this approach can provide a link between ecological science and policy by revealing novel tools and measures to appraise and enhance the biological controllability or eradicability of parasitic diseases. We conclude by emphasizing an urgent need to develop and apply flexible adaptive management frameworks informed by mathematical models that are based on learning and reducing uncertainty using monitoring data, apply phased or sequential

  10. Modelling Co-Infection with Malaria and Lymphatic Filariasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Hannah C.; Gambhir, Manoj; Parham, Paul E.; Michael, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    Malaria and lymphatic filariasis (LF) continue to cause a considerable public health burden globally and are co-endemic in many regions of sub-Saharan Africa. These infections are transmitted by the same mosquito species which raises important questions about optimal vector control strategies in co-endemic regions, as well as the effect of the presence of each infection on endemicity of the other; there is currently little consensus on the latter. The need for comprehensive modelling studies to address such questions is therefore significant, yet very few have been undertaken to date despite the recognised explanatory power of reliable dynamic mathematical models. Here, we develop a malaria-LF co-infection modelling framework that accounts for two key interactions between these infections, namely the increase in vector mortality as LF mosquito prevalence increases and the antagonistic Th1/Th2 immune response that occurs in co-infected hosts. We consider the crucial interplay between these interactions on the resulting endemic prevalence when introducing each infection in regions where the other is already endemic (e.g. due to regional environmental change), and the associated timescale for such changes, as well as effects on the basic reproduction number R0 of each disease. We also highlight potential perverse effects of vector controls on human infection prevalence in co-endemic regions, noting that understanding such effects is critical in designing optimal integrated control programmes. Hence, as well as highlighting where better data are required to more reliably address such questions, we provide an important framework that will form the basis of future scenario analysis tools used to plan and inform policy decisions on intervention measures in different transmission settings. PMID:23785271

  11. National mass drug administration costs for lymphatic filariasis elimination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann S Goldman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Because lymphatic filariasis (LF elimination efforts are hampered by a dearth of economic information about the cost of mass drug administration (MDA programs (using either albendazole with diethylcarbamazine [DEC] or albendazole with ivermectin, a multicenter study was undertaken to determine the costs of MDA programs to interrupt transmission of infection with LF. Such results are particularly important because LF programs have the necessary diagnostic and treatment tools to eliminate the disease as a public health problem globally, and already by 2006, the Global Programme to Eliminate LF had initiated treatment programs covering over 400 million of the 1.3 billion people at risk. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To obtain annual costs to carry out the MDA strategy, researchers from seven countries developed and followed a common cost analysis protocol designed to estimate 1 the total annual cost of the LF program, 2 the average cost per person treated, and 3 the relative contributions of the endemic countries and the external partners. Costs per person treated ranged from $0.06 to $2.23. Principal reasons for the variation were 1 the age (newness of the MDA program, 2 the use of volunteers, and 3 the size of the population treated. Substantial contributions by governments were documented - generally 60%-90% of program operation costs, excluding costs of donated medications. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: MDA for LF elimination is comparatively inexpensive in relation to most other public health programs. Governments and communities make the predominant financial contributions to actual MDA implementation, not counting the cost of the drugs themselves. The results highlight the impact of the use of volunteers on program costs and provide specific cost data for 7 different countries that can be used as a basis both for modifying current programs and for developing new ones.

  12. CCR7 and IRF4-dependent dendritic cells regulate lymphatic collecting vessel permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Stoyan; Scallan, Joshua P; Kim, Ki-Wook; Werth, Kathrin; Johnson, Michael W; Saunders, Brian T; Wang, Peter L; Kuan, Emma L; Straub, Adam C; Ouhachi, Melissa; Weinstein, Erica G; Williams, Jesse W; Briseño, Carlos; Colonna, Marco; Isakson, Brant E; Gautier, Emmanuel L; Förster, Reinhold; Davis, Michael J; Zinselmeyer, Bernd H; Randolph, Gwendalyn J

    2016-04-01

    Lymphatic collecting vessels direct lymph into and from lymph nodes (LNs) and can become hyperpermeable as the result of a previous infection. Enhanced permeability has been implicated in compromised immunity due to reduced flow of lymph and immune cells to LNs, which are the primary site of antigen presentation to T cells. Presently, very little is known about the molecular signals that affect lymphatic collecting vessel permeability. Here, we have shown that lymphatic collecting vessel permeability is controlled by CCR7 and that the chronic hyperpermeability of collecting vessels observed in Ccr7-/- mice is followed by vessel fibrosis. Reexpression of CCR7 in DCs, however, was sufficient to reverse the development of such fibrosis. IFN regulatory factor 4-positive (IRF4+) DCs constitutively interacted with collecting lymphatics, and selective ablation of this DC subset in Cd11c-Cre Irf4fl/fl mice also rendered lymphatic collecting vessels hyperpermeable and fibrotic. Together, our data reveal that CCR7 plays multifaceted roles in regulating collecting vessel permeability and fibrosis, with one of the key players being IRF4-dependent DCs.

  13. Self-microemulsifying drug delivery system for improving the bioavailability of huperzine A by lymphatic uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Huperzine A (Hup-A is a poorly water-soluble drug with low oral bioavailability. A self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS was used to enhance the oral bioavailability and lymphatic uptake and transport of Hup-A. A single-pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP technique and a chylomicron flow-blocking approach were used to study its intestinal absorption, mesenteric lymph node distribution and intestinal lymphatic uptake. The value of the area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC of Hup-A SMEDDS was significantly higher than that of a Hup-A suspension (P<0.01. The absorption rate constant (Ka and the apparent permeability coefficient (Papp for Hup-A in different parts of the intestine suggested a passive transport mechanism, and the values of Ka and Papp of Hup-A SMEDDS in the ileum were much higher than those in other intestinal segments. The determination of Hup-A concentration in mesenteric lymph nodes can be used to explain the intestinal lymphatic absorption of Hup-A SMEDDS. For Hup-A SMEDDS, the values of AUC and maximum plasma concentration (Cmax of the blocking model were significantly lower than those of the control model (P<0.05. The proportion of lymphatic transport of Hup-A SMEDDS and Hup-A suspension were about 40% and 5%, respectively, suggesting that SMEDDS can significantly improve the intestinal lymphatic uptake and transport of Hup-A.

  14. Lymphatic filariasis among the Yakurr people of Cross River State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iboh Cletus I

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to initiate a disease elimination programme for lymphatic filariasis based on mass drug administration, a proper understanding of the geographical distribution and degree of risk is essential. Methods An investigation of lymphatic filariasis due to Wuchereria bancrofti was carried out among 785 people in four communities of Yakurr Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria between March and August, 2009. Finger prick blood smear samples collected from the subjects were examined for W. bancrofti using standard parasitological protocol. The subjects were also screened for clinical manifestations of lymphatic filariasis. Results Of the 785 persons examined, 48 (6.1% were positive for microfilariae in their thick blood smear. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of lymphatic filariasis among the various age groups (P  0.05. The overall mean microfilarial density of the infected individuals was 5.6mf/50 μl. There was a significant variation (P  Conclusions The National Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination Programme should intervene by expanding the distribution of albendazole and ivermectin to all endemic areas including Yakurr Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria.

  15. Heterogeneity between primary colon carcinoma and paired lymphatic and hepatic metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Huanrong; Jin, Ketao; Xie, Bojian; Han, Na; Cui, Binbin; Cao, Feilin; Teng, Lisong

    2012-11-01

    Heterogeneity is one of the recognized characteristics of human tumors, and occurs on multiple levels in a wide range of tumors. A number of studies have focused on the heterogeneity found in primary tumors and related metastases with the consideration that the evaluation of metastatic rather than primary sites could be of clinical relevance. Numerous studies have demonstrated particularly high rates of heterogeneity between primary colorectal tumors and their paired lymphatic and hepatic metastases. It has also been proposed that the heterogeneity between primary colon carcinomas and their paired lymphatic and hepatic metastases may result in different responses to anticancer therapies. The heterogeneity in primary colon carcinoma and corresponding metastases by genome‑wide gene expression analysis has not been extensively studied. In the present study, we investigated the differentially expressed genes between a primary colon carcinoma specimen (obtained from a 40-year-old female colon carcinoma patient with lymphatic and hepatic metastases) and its paired lymphatic and hepatic metastases by genome-wide gene expression analysis using GeneChip HGU133Plus2.0 expression arrays. Our results demonstrate that genome-wide gene expression varies between primary colon carcinoma and its paired lymphatic and hepatic metastases.

  16. Near-infrared indocyanine dye permits real-time characterization of both venous and lymphatic circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurahashi, Toshikazu; Iwatsuki, Katsuyuki; Onishi, Tetsuro; Arai, Tetsuya; Teranishi, Katsunori; Hirata, Hitoshi

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the optical properties of a near-infrared (NIR) fluorochrome, di-β-cyclodextrin-binding indocyanine derivative (TK-1), and its pharmacokinetic differences with indocyanine green (ICG). TK-1 was designed to have hydrophilic cyclodextrin molecules and, thus, for higher water solubility and smaller particle sizes than the plasma protein-bound ICG. We compared optical properties such as the absorption and fluorescence spectra, quantum yield, and photostability between both dyes in vitro. In addition, we subcutaneously injected a 1 mM solution of TK-1 or ICG into the hind footpad of rats and observed real-time NIR fluorescence intensities in their femoral veins and accompanying lymphatics at the exposed groin site to analyze the dye pharmacokinetics. These optical experiments demonstrated that TK-1 has high water solubility, a low self-aggregation tendency, and high optical and chemical stabilities. Our in vivo imaging showed that TK-1 was transported via peripheral venous flow and lymphatic flow, whereas ICG was drained only through lymphatics. The results of this study showed that lymphatic and venous transport can be differentially regulated and is most likely influenced primarily by particle size, and that TK-1 can enable real-time NIR fluorescence imaging of whole fluids and solute movement via both microvessels and lymphatics, which conventional ICG cannot achieve.

  17. Prediction of melanoma metastasis by the Shields index based on lymphatic vessel density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metcalfe Chris

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Melanoma usually presents as an initial skin lesion without evidence of metastasis. A significant proportion of patients develop subsequent local, regional or distant metastasis, sometimes many years after the initial lesion was removed. The current most effective staging method to identify early regional metastasis is sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB, which is invasive, not without morbidity and, while improving staging, may not improve overall survival. Lymphatic density, Breslow's thickness and the presence or absence of lymphatic invasion combined has been proposed to be a prognostic index of metastasis, by Shields et al in a patient group. Methods Here we undertook a retrospective analysis of 102 malignant melanomas from patients with more than five years follow-up to evaluate the Shields' index and compare with existing indicators. Results The Shields' index accurately predicted outcome in 90% of patients with metastases and 84% without metastases. For these, the Shields index was more predictive than thickness or lymphatic density. Alternate lymphatic measurement (hot spot analysis was also effective when combined into the Shields index in a cohort of 24 patients. Conclusions These results show the Shields index, a non-invasive analysis based on immunohistochemistry of lymphatics surrounding primary lesions that can accurately predict outcome, is a simple, useful prognostic tool in malignant melanoma.

  18. Autogenic Drainage in Children With Cystic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corten, Lieselotte; Morrow, Brenda M

    2017-04-01

    Airway clearance is an essential part of the management of cystic fibrosis (CF) as it facilitates clearance of viscous pulmonary secretions. This review aimed to determine the effect of autogenic drainage (AD) and assisted autogenic drainage (AAD) compared with no, sham, or other types of airway clearance in children with CF. Two pediatric randomized cross-over trials were identified on the use of AD in children with CF; no studies were available on the use of AAD. In one study AD had a positive influence on the Huang score, and is preferred over postural drainage in this population. We could not determine the efficacy of AD and AAD in children with CF. We recommend the implementation of pediatric-specific randomized controlled trials with adequate sample sizes, appropriate clinical outcome measures, and analysis of adverse effects.

  19. [Methods of internal drainage of pancreatic pseudocysts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkov, Yu G; Solodinina, E N; Zamolodchikov, R D

    2016-01-01

    To present own experience of internal drainage and characteristics of its different variants which are applied in various countries. Endosonography-assisted internal drainage of pancreatic pseudocysts was performed in 25 patients. Plastic stents were implanted in one stage without change of instruments while metal stents - with change of instruments during manipulation. Intervention was successful in 24 patients. In 1 case bleeding developed during cystostomy that required open surgery. Plastic and metal stents were used in 11 and 12 patients respectively. 1 patient had two pancreatic pseudocysts. Therefore 2 stents of both types were used in this case. Clinical success was achieved in 91% of cases. Different variants of method resolve problem of surgical approach, stomy and choice of stent. However every technique is targeted to resolve separate problem while single method is not accepted. Further large comparative studies are necessary to define optimal technique of internal drainage.

  20. Percutaneous epidural drainage through a burr hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila M Falsarella

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial extradural collection may cause an increase in intracranial pressure, requiring rapid emergency treatment to reduce morbidity and mortality. We described an alternative CT-guided percutaneous access for extradural collection drainage. We report a case of a patient with previous craniectomy for meningioma ressection who presented to the Emergency Department with symptoms of intracranial hypertension. Brains CT showed a extradural collection with subfalcine herniation. After multidisciplinary discussion a CT-guided percutaneous drainage through previous burr hole was performed. The patient was discharged after 36 hours of admission, without further symptoms. We describe a safe and effective alternative percutaneous access for extradural collection drainage in patients with previous burr hole.

  1. 持续负压吸引在肝癌肝切除术后淋巴漏中的应用%Continuous Negative Pressure Suction in the Application of the Lymphatic Leakage in Liver Cancer after Resection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向德森; 肖杰; 冉文华; 李东; 周涛; 张敬

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the syndrome,safety,and efficacy of continuous negative pressure to treat lymph leakage of liver cancer after resection.Methods:Choosed 5 cases of lymphatic leakage patients accepted the resection of liver cancer during 2008 January to 2013 December to study in our department,the cases were retrospectively analyzed.Results:5 patients received intraperitoneal with the negative pressure suction drainage treatment time was 5~10 days,An average of 7 days,lymphatic leakage was stopped,the time of pulled out drainage tube after 16~22 days,The average time was 18.5 days,No complication such as infection,gastrointestinal leakage,no lymphatic leakage relapsed after pulled out of the drainage tube,The total duration of hospitalization was 20~28 days,average 25 days,which were similar to other patients in our department of liver resection.All patients were cured after conservative treatment.Conclusion:Continuous negative pressure suction was effective in the treatment of lymphatic leakage in liver cancer after resection,reduce the patients underwent re-operation risk and trauma,provided the new,simple methods and ideas for the clinical treatment of lymphatic fistula after abdominal operation.%目的:探讨持续负压吸引治疗肝癌肝切除术后淋巴漏的适应证、安全性、优势及疗效.方法:选择2008年1月至2013年12月在我科接受肝癌肝切除术后出现淋巴漏的5例患者为研究对象,对上述病例进行回顾性分析.结果:5例患者经腹腔引流管接负压吸引治疗时间5~10天,平均7天,淋巴漏均停止,引流管拔出时间为术后16~22天,平均时间为18.5天,未发生感染、消化道漏等并发症.拔出腹腔引流管后淋巴漏无复发.总住院时间为20~28天,平均25天,与我科肝癌肝切除术的其他患者相近.全部患者均经保守治疗痊愈出院.结论:持续负压吸引可有效治疗肝癌肝切除术后淋巴漏,降低患者接受再次手术的风险和

  2. LYMPHATIC MAPPING AND SENTINEL LYMPH NODE BIOPSY IN THE PATIENTS WITH BREAST CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To identify the feasibility of the lymphatic mapping and sentinel node biopsy (SNB) in patients with breast cancer and to examine whether the characteristics of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) accurately predict the status of axillary node. Methods: 33 patients with breast cancer intraoperatively and postoperatively underwent a lymphatic mapping and the SNB using Patent Blue. Results: The SLNs were found in 30 of 33 patients (90.9%), the SLN accurately predicted the status of the axillary in 29 (96.7%). In one case the SLN was negative, but other axillary nodes were tumor positive. Conclusion: This study confirmed that the procedure of lymphatic mapping and SNB in the patients with breast cancer is feasibility, and that the histological characteristics of the SLN accurately predict the status of the axillary node. We believe that this technique might replace axillary lymph node dissection for breast cancer patients with negative axillae in the future.

  3. Lymphatic fat absorption varies among rats administered dairy products differing in physiochemical properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fruekilde, Maj-Britt; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2004-01-01

    We examined in rats the intestinal absorption of fat from dairy products differing in physiochemical properties. Five dairy products (cream cheese, cream, sour cream, butter, and mixed butter) with minor differences in fatty acid composition were administered by gavage to rats, and lymphatic fat...... absorption was examined. Absorption was followed for 8 h after administration of 300 mg fat from the dairy products. Administration of cream and sour cream resulted in faster lymphatic fat absorption than cream cheese, butter, and mixed butter, and at 8 h the accumulated absorption of fat was significantly......, these results demonstrated different lymphatic absorption patterns of fat from dairy products differing in physiochemical properties. Because the fatty acid composition of the dairy products differed only slightly, other factors such as viscosity, type of emulsion, particle size, and likely also protein content...

  4. Clinical outcomes of percutaneous drainage of breast fluid collections after mastectomy with expander-based breast reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Ricky T; Kohi, Maureen; Fidelman, Nicholas; Kuo, Yuo-Chen; Foster, Robert; Peled, Anne; Kolli, K Pallav; Taylor, Andrew G; LaBerge, Jeanne M; Kerlan, Robert K

    2013-09-01

    To determine clinical outcomes of patients who underwent imaging-guided percutaneous drainage of breast fluid collections after mastectomy and breast reconstruction. A retrospective review was performed including all consecutive patients who underwent percutaneous drainage of fluid collections after mastectomy with tissue expander-based reconstruction between January 2007 and September 2012. During this period, 879 mastectomies (563 patients) with expander-based breast reconstruction were performed. Fluid collections developed in 28 patients (5%), which led to 30 imaging-guided percutaneous drainage procedures. The median follow-up time was 533 days. Patient characteristics, surgical technique, microbiology analysis, and clinical outcomes were reviewed. The mean age of patients was 51.5 years (range, 30.9-69.4 y), and the median time between breast reconstruction and drainage was 35 days (range, 4-235 d). Erythema and swelling were the most common presenting symptoms. The median volume of fluid evacuated at the time of drain placement was 70 mL. Drains were left in place for a median 14 days (range, 6-34 d). Microorganisms were detected in the fluid in 12 of 30 drainage procedures, with Staphylococcus aureus being the most common microorganism. No further intervention was needed in 21 of 30 drainage procedures (70%). However, surgical intervention (removal of expanders) was needed after 6 (20%) drainage procedures, and additional percutaneous drainage procedures were performed after 3 (10%) drainage procedures. Percutaneous drainage is an effective means of treating postoperative fluid collections after expander-based breast reconstruction and can obviate the need for repeat surgery in most cases. Copyright © 2013 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Gas drainage technology of high gas and thick coal seam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Tian-cai; LI Hai-gui; ZHANG Hai-jun

    2009-01-01

    Gas drainage in Jincheng Mining Group Co., Ltd. was introduced briefly and the importance of gas drainage in gas control was analyzed. Combined with coal-bed gas oc-currence and gas emission, the double system of gas drainage was optimized and a pro-gressive gas drainage model was experimented on. For guaranteed drainage, excavation and mining and realization of safety production and reasonable exploitation of gas in coal seams, many drainage methods were adopted to solve the gas problem of the working face.

  6. Altered lymphatic function and architecture in salt-induced hypertension assessed by near-infrared fluorescence imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Sunkuk; Agollah, Germaine D.; Chan, Wenyaw; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.

    2012-08-01

    The lymphatic system plays an important role in maintaining the fluid homeostasis between the blood vascular and interstitial tissue compartment and there is recent evidence that its transport capabilities may regulate blood pressure in salt-induced hypertension. Yet, there is little known how the lymphatic contractile function and architecture responds to dietary salt-intake. Thus, we longitudinally characterized lymphatic contractile function and vessel remodeling noninvasively using dynamic near-infrared fluorescence imaging in animal models of salt-induced hypertension. The lymphatics of mice and rats were imaged following intradermal injection of indocyanine green to the ear tip or the base of the tail before and during two weeks of either a high salt diet (HSD) or normal chow. Our noninvasive imaging data demonstrated dilated lymphatic vessels in the skin of mice and rats on a HSD as compared to their baseline levels. In addition, our dynamic imaging results showed increased lymphatic contraction frequency in HSD-fed mice and rats. Lymphatic contractile function and vessel remodeling occurs in response to salt-induced hypertension suggesting a possible role for the lymphatics in the regulation of vascular blood pressure.

  7. Pathway-related molecules of VEGFC/D-VEGFR3/NRP2 axis in tumor lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingwen; Huang, Yuhong; Zhang, Jun; Wei, Yuanyi; Mahoud, Salma; Bakheet, Ahmed Musa Hago; Wang, Li; Zhou, Shuting; Tang, Jianwu

    2016-10-01

    Precondition for tumor lymphatic metastasis is that tumor cells induce formation of original and newborn lymphatic vessels and invade surrounding lymphatic vessels in tumor stroma, while some pathway-related molecules play an important role in mechanisms associated with proliferation and migration of lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) and tumor cells. In lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis, the pathway-related molecules of VEGFC/D-VEGFR3/NRP2 axis, such as Furin-like enzyme, CNTN1, Prox1, LYVE-1, Podoplanin, SOX18, SDF1 and CXCR4, are direct constitutors as a portion of VEGFC/D-VEGFR3/NRP2 axis, and their biological activities rely on this ligand-receptor system. These axis-related signal molecules could gradually produce waterfall-like cascading effects, mediate differentiation and maturation of LECs, remodel original and neonatal lymphatic vessels, as well as ultimately promote tumor cell chemotaxis, migration, invasion and metastasis to lymphoid tracts. This review summarizes the structure and function features of pathway-related molecules of VEGFC/D-VEGFR3/NRP2 axis, the expression changes of these molecules in different anatomic organs or histopathologic types or development stages of various tumors, the characteristics of transduction, implementation, integration of signal networks, the interactive effects on biological behaviors between tumor cells and lymphatic endothelial cells, and their molecular mechanisms and significances in tumor lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis.

  8. Lymphatic marker podoplanin/D2-40 in human advanced cirrhotic liver- Re-evaluations of microlymphatic abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimura Kazunori

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background From the morphological appearance, it was impossible to distinguish terminal portal venules from small lymphatic vessels in the portal tract even using histochemical microscopic techniques. Recently, D2-40 was found to be expressed at a high level in lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs. This study was undertaken to elucidate hepatic lymphatic vessels during progression of cirrhosis by examining the expression of D2-40 in LECs. Methods Surgical wedge biopsy specimens were obtained from non-cirrhotic portions of human livers (normal control and from cirrhotic livers (LC (Child A-LC and Child C-LC. Immunohistochemical (IHC, Western blot, and immunoelectron microscopic studies were conducted using D2-40 as markers for lymphatic vessels, as well as CD34 for capillary blood vessels. Results Imunostaining of D2-40 produced a strong reaction in lymphatic vessels only, especially in Child C-LC. It was possible to distinguish the portal venules from the small lymphatic vessels using D-40. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed strong D2-40 expression along the luminal and abluminal portions of the cell membrane of LECs in Child C-LC tissue. Conclusion It is possible to distinguish portal venules from small lymphatic vessels using D2-40 as marker. D2-40- labeling in lymphatic capillary endothelial cells is related to the degree of fibrosis in cirrhotic liver.

  9. Perimuscular connective tissue contains more and larger lymphatic vessels than the shallower layers in human gallbladders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masayuki Nagahashi; Yoshio Shirai; Toshifumi Wakai; Jun Sakata; Yoichi Ajioka; Katsuyoshi Hatakeyama

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To clarify whether perimuscular connective tissue contains more lymphatic vessels than the shallower layers in human gallbladders.METHODS: Lymphatic vessels were stained immunohistochemically with monoclonal antibody D2-40,which is a specific marker of lymphatic endothelium, in representative sections of 12 normal human gallbladders obtained at the time of resection for colorectal carcinoma liver metastases. In individual gallbladder specimens,nine high-power (× 200) fields with the highest lymphatic vessel density (LVD), termed "hot spots", were identified for each layer (mucosa, muscle layer, and perimuscular connective tissue). In individual hot spots,the LVD and relative lymphatic vessel area (LVA) were measured microscopically using a computer-aided image analysis system. The mean LVD and LVA values for the nine hot spots in each layer were used for statistical analyses.RESULTS: In the mucosa, muscle layer, and perimuscular connective tissue, the LVD was 16.1 ± 9.2,35.4 ± 15.7, and 65.5 ± 12.2, respectively, and the LVA was 0.4 ± 0.4, 2.1 ± 1.1, and 9.4 ± 2.6, respectively.Thus, both the LVD and LVA differed significantly (P <0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively; Kruskal-Wallis test)among the individual layers of the wall of the gallbladder,with the highest LVD and LVA values in the perimuscular connective tissue. Most (98 of 108) of the hot spots within the perimuscular connective tissue were located within 500 μm of the lower border of the muscle layer.CONCLUSION: The perimuscular connective tissue contains more and larger lymphatic vessels than the shallower layers in the human gallbladder. This observation partly explains why the incidence of lymph node metastasis is high in T2 (tumor invading the perimuscular connective tissue) or more advanced gallbladder carcinoma.

  10. Molecular Signature for Lymphatic Invasion Associated with Survival of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, E Sun; Choi, Hyun Jin; Kim, Tae-Joong; Lee, Jeong-Won; Kim, Byoung-Gie; Bae, Duk-Soo; Choi, Chel Hun

    2017-05-22

    We aimed to develop molecular classifier that can predict lymphatic invasion and their clinical significance in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients. We analyzed gene expression (mRNA, methylated DNA) in data from The Cancer Genome Atlas. To identify molecular signatures for lymphatic invasion, we found differentially expressed genes. The performance of classifier was validated by receiver operating characteristics analysis, logistic regression, linear discriminant analysis (LDA), and support vector machine (SVM). We assessed prognostic role of classifier using random survival forest (RSF) model and pathway deregulation score (PDS). For external validation, we analyzed microarray data from 26 EOC samples of Samsung Medical Center and curatedOvarianData database. We identified 21 mRNAs, and 7 methylated DNAs from primary EOC tissues that predicted lymphatic invasion, and created prognostic models. The classifier predicted lymphatic invasion well, which was validated by logistic regression, LDA, and SVM algorithm (C-index of 0.90, 0.71, and 0.74 for mRNA and C-index of 0.64, 0.68, and 0.69 for DNA methylation). Using RSF model, incorporating molecular data with clinical variables improved prediction of progression-free survival compared with using only clinical variables (P < 0.001 and P = 0.008). Similarly, PDS enabled us to classify patients into high-risk and low-risk group, which resulted in survival difference in mRNA profiles (Log rank P value = 0.011). In external validation, gene signature was well correlated with prediction of lymphatic invasion and patients' survival. Molecular signature model predicting lymphatic invasion was well performed, and also associated with survival of EOC patients.

  11. Permeability and contractile responses of collecting lymphatic vessels elicited by atrial and brain natriuretic peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scallan, Joshua P; Davis, Michael J; Huxley, Virginia H

    2013-01-01

    Atrial and brain natriuretic peptides (ANP and BNP, respectively) are cardiac hormones released into the bloodstream in response to hypervolaemia or fluid shifts to the central circulation. The actions of both peptides include natriuresis and diuresis, a decrease in systemic blood pressure, and inhibition of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system. Further, ANP and BNP elicit increases in blood microvessel permeability sufficient to cause protein and fluid extravasation into the interstitium to reduce the vascular volume. Given the importance of the lymphatic vasculature in maintaining fluid balance, we tested the hypothesis that ANP or BNP (100 nm) would likewise elevate lymphatic permeability (Ps) to serum albumin. Using a microfluorometric technique adapted to in vivo lymphatic vessels, we determined that rat mesenteric collecting lymphatic Ps to rat serum albumin increased by 2.0 ± 0.4-fold (P= 0.01, n= 7) and 2.7 ± 0.8-fold (P= 0.07, n= 7) with ANP and BNP, respectively. In addition to measuring Ps responses, we observed changes in spontaneous contraction amplitude and frequency from the albumin flux tracings in vivo. Notably, ANP abolished spontaneous contraction amplitude (P= 0.005) and frequency (P= 0.006), while BNP augmented both parameters by ∼2-fold (P < 0.01 each). These effects of ANP and BNP on contractile function were examined further by using an in vitro assay. In aggregate, these data support the theory that an increase in collecting lymphatic permeability opposes the absorptive function of the lymphatic capillaries, and aids in the retention of protein and fluid in the interstitial space to counteract volume expansion. PMID:23897233

  12. Lymph Drainage Studied by Lymphoscintigraphy in the Arms after Sentinel Node Biopsy Compared with Axillary Lymph Node Dissection Following Conservative Breast Cancer Surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celebioglu, F.; Perbeck, L.; Frisell, J.; Groendal, E.; Svensson, L.; Danielsson, R. [Dept. of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Inst., Karolinska Univ Hospital Solna, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-07-15

    Purpose: To investigate lymphatic drainage as measured by lymphoscintigraphy in the arms of patients undergoing either sentinel lymph node biopsy (SNB) or axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). Material and Methods: From January 2001 to December 2002, 30 patients with unilateral invasive breast carcinoma underwent breast-conserving surgery with SNB and 30 patients with ALND. All patients received radiotherapy to the breast. Lymphoscintigraphy was performed, and skin circulation, skin temperature, and arm volume were measured 2-3 years after radiotherapy. Results: None of the 30 patients who underwent SNB showed any clinical manifestation of lymphedema. Of the 30 patients undergoing ALND, six (20%) had clinical lymphedema, with an arm volume that was >10% larger on the operated than on the non-operated side (P<0.01). Scintigraphically, visual analysis revealed lymphatic dysfunction in three patients, manifested as forearm dermal back flow. Two of these patients also had an increased arm volume. Quantitative analysis showed no differences between the groups, apart from a smaller amount of isotope in the axilla in the ALND group. There was no difference in skin circulation or skin temperature. Conclusion: Our study shows that lymph drainage in the operated arm compared with the non-operated arm was less affected by SNB than by ALND, and that morbidity associated with SNB was lower than with ALND. However, the results do not confirm our hypothesis that lymphoscintigraphy can reveal differences in lymph circulation that are not evident clinically in the form of manifest lymphedema. The most sensitive clinical method of assessing lymph drainage seems to be measurement of arm volume.

  13. Methods for effective fluorophore injection and imaging of lymphatics in small animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    DSouza, Alisha V.; Marra, Kayla A.; Gunn, Jason R.; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Tichauer, Kenneth M.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2016-03-01

    Morbidity and complexity involved in lymph node staging via surgical resection and biopsy calls for staging techniques that are less invasive. While visible blue dyes are commonly used in locating sentinel lymph nodes, since they follow tumor-draining lymphatic vessels, they do not provide a metric to evaluate presence of cancer. An area of active research is to use fluorescent dyes to assess tumor burden of sentinel and secondary lymph nodes. The goal of this work was to successfully perform fluorescence imaging of IRDye®680RD in the lymphatics, in a repeatable manner.

  14. Evaluation of a recombinant parasite antigen for the diagnosis of lymphatic filariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissanayake, S; Zheng, H; Dreyer, G; Xu, M; Watawana, L; Cheng, G; Wang, S; Morin, P; Deng, B; Kurniawan, L

    1994-06-01

    We evaluated the usefulness of a recombinant parasite antigen (recSXP1) for the serologic diagnosis of lymphatic filariasis. A large proportion of sera from microfilaremic donors living in five different endemic countries (356 of 446 [80%]) contained IgG antibodies to recSXP1, as do sera from approximately 33% of amicrofilaremic patients with acute filarial disease and/or indirect evidence of active filarial infection. Exposure to filarial worms per se does not appear sufficient to elicit an anti-SXP1 antibody response. Thus, this serologic test identifies a large proportion of persons with active lymphatic filariasis among residents of endemic areas.

  15. The Role of Lymphatic Endothelial Cells in Liver Injury and Tumor Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukacs-Kornek, Veronika

    2016-01-01

    Lymphatics and lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) possess multiple immunological functions besides affecting immune cell migration, such as inhibiting T cell proliferation and antigen presentation by dendritic cells. Moreover, they control the trans-endothelial transport of multiple molecules and antigens. Emerging evidence suggest their active involvements in immunregulation, tumor, and metastases formation. In the liver, increased lymphangiogenesis, specifically at the portal area has been associated with multiple liver diseases in particular primary biliary cirrhosis, idiopathic portal hypertension, and liver malignancies. Nevertheless, the exact role and contribution of LECs to liver diseases are poorly understood. The review summarizes the current understanding of LECs in liver diseases. PMID:27965673

  16. The role of lymphatic endothelial cells in liver injury and tumor development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Lukacs-Kornek

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Lymphatics and lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs possess multiple immunological functions besides affecting immune cell migration such as inhibiting T cell proliferation and antigen presentation by dendritic cells. Moreover, they control the trans-endothelial transport of multiple molecules and antigens. Emerging evidence suggests their active involvements in immunoregulation, tumor and metastases formation. In the liver, increased lymphangiogenesis, specifically at the portal area has been associated with multiple liver diseases in particular primary biliary cirrhosis, idiopathic portal hypertension, and liver malignancies. Nevertheless, the exact role and contribution of LECs to liver diseases are poorly understood. The review summarizes the current understanding of LECs in liver diseases.

  17. Lymphatic recovery of exogenous oleic acid in rats on long chain or specific structured triacylglycerol diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Bodil; Mu, Huiling; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2006-01-01

    Specific structured triacylglycerols, MLM (M = medium-chain fatty acid, L = long-chain fatty acid), rapidly deliver energy and long-chain fatty acids to the body and are used for longer periods in human enteral feeding. In the present study rats were fed diets of 10 wt% MLM or LLL (L = oleic acid...... structure and composition (P = 0.07). This study demonstrated that with a diet containing specific structured triacylglycerol, the lymphatic recovery of 18:1 n-9 after a single bolus of fat was dependent on the triacylglycerol structure of the bolus. This indicates that the lymphatic recovery of long...

  18. Community-acquired adenovirus pneumonia in a patient with chronic lymphatic leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, I K; Nielsen, H

    2005-03-01

    Described here is a severe case of community-acquired adenovirus pneumonia that occurred in a previously healthy 54-year-old male who was later determined to have stage A chronic lymphatic leukemia. The clinical presentation was consistent with that of atypical pneumonia. Testing with PCR revealed adenovirus in a bronchoalveolar lavage sample, while all other tests to determine a bacterial or virological etiology were negative. Further examination of the patient revealed the previously undiagnosed chronic lymphatic leukemia. Following treatment with human immunoglobulin and oxygen therapy with continuous positive airway pressure support the patient recovered from the pneumonia completely.

  19. Urban drainage models - making uncertainty analysis simple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vezzaro, Luca; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Deletic, Ana

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing awareness about uncertainties in modelling of urban drainage systems and, as such, many new methods for uncertainty analyses have been developed. Despite this, all available methods have limitations which restrict their widespread application among practitioners. Here, a modif...

  20. 24 CFR 3280.610 - Drainage systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... designs the system for site assembly and also provides all materials and components, including piping... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drainage systems. 3280.610 Section 3280.610 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued...

  1. Reality named endoscopic ultrasound biliary drainage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hugo; Gon?alo; Guedes; Roberto; Iglesias; Lopes; Joel; Fernandez; de; Oliveira; Everson; Luiz; de; Almeida; Artifon

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound(EUS) is used for diagnosis and evaluation of many diseases of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. In the past, it was used to guide a cholangio-graphy, but nowadays it emerges as a powerful thera-peutic tool in biliary drainage. The aims of this review are: outline the rationale for endoscopic ultrasound-guided biliary drainage(EGBD); detail the procedural technique; evaluate the clinical outcomes and limitations of the method; and provide recommendations for the practicing clinician. In cases of failed endoscopic retro-grade cholangiopancreatography(ERCP), patients are usually referred for either percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage(PTBD) or surgical bypass. Both these procedures have high rates of undesirable complications. EGBD is an attractive alternative to PTBD or surgery when ERCP fails. EGBD can be performed at two locations: transhepatic or extrahepatic, and the stent can be inserted in an antegrade or retrograde fashion. The drainage route can be transluminal, duodenal or trans-papillary, which, again, can be antegrade or retrograde [rendezvous(EUS-RV)]. Complications of all techniques combined include pneumoperitoneum, bleeding, bile leak/peritonitis and cholangitis. We recommend EGBD when bile duct access is not possible because of failed cannulation, altered upper GI tract anatomy, gastric outlet obstruction, a distorted ampulla or a periampullary diverticulum, as a minimally invasive alternative to surgery or radiology.

  2. [Artificial drainage devices--history, indications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barac, Ileana Ramona; Pop, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Glaucoma is a degenerative optic neuropathy progressive, multifactorial, which can lead to blindness. Blindness in patients with glaucoma is defined as visual field reduction below 10 degrees. Artificial drainage systems are a solution for refractory to medication, laser treatment or conventional surgery. Used by over 100 years, improved with good surgical technique and careful patient follow-up surgery, postoperative results are satisfactory.

  3. Optimizing the closed suction surgical drainage system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, Katherine H; Eisemann, Bradley S; Lamp, Susan; Kocak, Ergun

    2013-01-01

    Closed suction drains are indicated in a wide array of postoperative settings, with many distinct drainage systems available to the surgeon. The purpose of this study was to compare the suction gradients achieved using 2 different sizes of suction reservoirs and 2 different techniques for generating negative pressure. Drainage reservoirs of 100 and 400 ml were chosen to evaluate their ability to achieve suction. Suction was established in both sizes of drains by pressing the sides of the reservoir together or by pushing the bottom of the reservoir toward the top. Negative pressures were recorded with the reservoir empty, and after every 10-ml addition of saline. Averages were graphed to illustrate the applied suction over a range of drain volumes. The 100-ml drainage system reached a peak suction of -117.6 mmHg, while the 400-ml drainage system reached only a peak suction of -71.4 mmHg. Both of the maximum suction readings were achieved using the full-squeeze technique. The bottom-pushed-in technique did not result in any sustained measurable levels of suction using either of the reservoir volumes. Smaller drain reservoirs are more successful in generating a high initial suction than larger reservoirs, especially when the volume of fluid in the drain is relatively low. In all sizes of drains, compressing the sides of the reservoir is a far better technique for establishing negative pressure than pressing the bottom of the drain up toward the top.

  4. Selecting the drainage method for agricultural land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.G.

    2001-01-01

    To facilitate crop growth excess water should be drained from the rooting zone to allow root development of the crop and from the soil surface to facilitate access to the field. Basically, there are three drainage methods from which the designer can select being; surface drains, pumped tube wells an

  5. Drainage hydraulics of permeable friction courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbeneau, Randall J.; Barrett, Michael E.

    2008-04-01

    This paper describes solutions to the hydraulic equations that govern flow in permeable friction courses (PFC). PFC is a layer of porous asphalt approximately 50 mm thick that is placed as an overlay on top of an existing conventional concrete or asphalt road surface to help control splash and hydroplaning, reduce noise, and enhance quality of storm water runoff. The primary objective of this manuscript is to present an analytical system of equations that can be used in design and analysis of PFC systems. The primary assumptions used in this analysis are that the flow can be modeled as one-dimensional, steady state Darcy-type flow and that slopes are sufficiently small so that the Dupuit-Forchheimer assumptions apply. Solutions are derived for cases where storm water drainage is confined to the PFC bed and for conditions where the PFC drainage capacity is exceeded and ponded sheet flow occurs across the pavement surface. The mathematical solutions provide the drainage characteristics (depth and residence time) as a function of rainfall intensity, PFC hydraulic conductivity, pavement slope, and maximum drainage path length.

  6. Impact of land drainage on peatland hydrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, J; Evans, M G; Burt, T P; Horton, M

    2006-01-01

    There is a long history of drainage of blanket peat but few studies of the long-term hydrological impact of drainage. This paper aims to test differences in runoff production processes between intact and drained blanket peat catchments and determine whether there have been any long-term changes in stream flow since drainage occurred. Hillslope runoff processes and stream discharge were measured in four blanket peat catchments. Two catchments were drained with open-cut ditches in the 1950s. Ditching originally resulted in shorter lag times and flashier storm hydrographs but no change in the annual catchment runoff efficiency. In the period between 2002 and 2004, the hydrographs in the drained catchments, while still flashy, were less sensitive to rainfall than in the 1950s and the runoff efficiency had significantly increased. Drains resulted in a distinctive spatial pattern of runoff production across the slopes. Overland flow was significantly lower in the drained catchments where throughflow was more dominant. In the intact peatlands, matrix throughflow produced by peat layers below 10 cm was rare and produced structure could explain the long-term changes in river flow, which are in addition to those occurring in the immediate aftermath of peatland drainage.

  7. Interventional radiology in the lacrimal drainage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilgit, Erhan T. [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Gazi University, Besevler 06510, Ankara (Turkey)]. E-mail: erhanti@gazi.edu.tr; Oenal, Baran [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Gazi University, Besevler 06510, Ankara (Turkey); Coskun, Bilgen [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Gazi University, Besevler 06510, Ankara (Turkey)

    2005-09-01

    This article presents a review of the interventional radiological procedures in the lacrimal drainage system. Balloon dacryocystoplasty and nasolacrimal polyurethane stent placement are the main fluoroscopically guided interventions for the treatment of epiphora by recanalizing the obstructed LDS. These procedures can also be used for dacryolith removal and lacrimal sac abscess treatment.

  8. Hydrologic connectivity: Quantitative assessments of hydrologic-enforced drainage structures in an elevation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppenga, Sandra; Worstell, Bruce B.

    2016-01-01

    Elevation data derived from light detection and ranging present challenges for hydrologic modeling as the elevation surface includes bridge decks and elevated road features overlaying culvert drainage structures. In reality, water is carried through these structures; however, in the elevation surface these features impede modeled overland surface flow. Thus, a hydrologically-enforced elevation surface is needed for hydrodynamic modeling. In the Delaware River Basin, hydrologic-enforcement techniques were used to modify elevations to simulate how constructed drainage structures allow overland surface flow. By calculating residuals between unfilled and filled elevation surfaces, artificially pooled depressions that formed upstream of constructed drainage structure features were defined, and elevation values were adjusted by generating transects at the location of the drainage structures. An assessment of each hydrologically-enforced drainage structure was conducted using field-surveyed culvert and bridge coordinates obtained from numerous public agencies, but it was discovered the disparate drainage structure datasets were not comprehensive enough to assess all remotely located depressions in need of hydrologic-enforcement. Alternatively, orthoimagery was interpreted to define drainage structures near each depression, and these locations were used as reference points for a quantitative hydrologic-enforcement assessment. The orthoimagery-interpreted reference points resulted in a larger corresponding sample size than the assessment between hydrologic-enforced transects and field-surveyed data. This assessment demonstrates the viability of rules-based hydrologic-enforcement that is needed to achieve hydrologic connectivity, which is valuable for hydrodynamic models in sensitive coastal regions. Hydrologic-enforced elevation data are also essential for merging with topographic/bathymetric elevation data that extend over vulnerable urbanized areas and dynamic coastal

  9. Physical modeling of transverse drainage mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, J. C.; Schmeeckle, M. W.

    2005-12-01

    Streams that incise across bedrock highlands such as anticlines, upwarps, cuestas, or horsts are termed transverse drainages. Their relevance today involves such diverse matters as highway and dam construction decisions, location of wildlife corridors, better-informed sediment budgets, and detailed studies into developmental histories of late Cenozoic landscapes. The transient conditions responsible for transverse drainage incision have been extensively studied on a case-by-case basis, and the dominate mechanisms proposed include: antecedence, superimposition, overflow, and piracy. Modeling efforts have been limited to antecedence, and such the specific erosional conditions required for transverse drainage incision, with respect to the individual mechanisms, remains poorly understood. In this study, fifteen experiments attempted to simulate the four mechanisms and constructed on a 9.15 m long, 2.1 m wide, and 0.45 m deep stream table. Experiments lasted between 50 and 220 minutes. The stream table was filled with seven tons of sediment consisting of a silt and clay (30%) and a fine to coarse sand (70%) mixture. The physical models highlighted the importance of downstream aggradation with regard to antecedent incision versus possible defeat and diversion. The overflow experiments indicate that retreating knickpoints across a basin outlet produce a high probability of downstream flooding when associated with a deep lake. Misters used in a couple of experiments illustrate a potential complication with regard to headward erosion driven piracy. Relatively level asymmetrically sloped ridges allow for the drainage divide across the ridge to retreat from headward erosion, but hindered when the ridge's apex undulates or when symmetrically sloped. Although these physical models cannot strictly simulate natural transverse drainages, the observed processes, their development over time, and resultant landforms roughly emulate their natural counterparts. Proposed originally from

  10. Directional Deep Borehole Drilling Technology Applied to Water Detection and Drainage in Mechanized Gateway Driving Face of Coal Mining Face%定向深孔钻进技术在回采巷道机掘工作面探放水工程中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张长荣; 周德柱; 郑坚

    2014-01-01

    In a construction of two mechanized driving air returning gateways of No.30201 coal mining face in Mudu Chaideng Mine ,a ZDY-6000LD model crawler type full hydraulic tunnel directional drill-ing rig manufactured by Xi’an Research Institute of China Coal Research Institute was applied to make directional drillings of one main borehole and two branch boreholes in a drilling field between the two gateways .Water detection was conducted on the water bearing conditions of the strata with a borehole depth of 18m above and below the gateway and a left and right of 30m.A quality long distance water detection and drainage and a rapid construction was realized with a good effect.%母杜柴登煤矿30201工作面2条机掘回风巷施工中,采用煤炭科学研究总院西安研究院生产的ZDY-6000LD型履带式全液压坑道定向深孔钻机,在2条巷道中间的钻场内,定向钻进1个主孔、2个分支孔,对巷道上方或下方18m、左右各30m范围内的地层含水情况进行探测,实现了长距离探放水优质、快速施工,取得了较好的效果。

  11. Topological Analysis of Urban Drainage Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Soohyun; Paik, Kyungrock; McGrath, Gavan; Rao, Suresh

    2016-04-01

    Urban drainage networks are an essential component of infrastructure, and comprise the aggregation of underground pipe networks carrying storm water and domestic waste water for eventual discharge to natural stream networks. Growing urbanization has contributed to rapid expansion of sewer networks, vastly increasing their complexity and scale. Importance of sewer networks has been well studied from an engineering perspective, including resilient management, optimal design, and malfunctioning impact. Yet, analysis of the urban drainage networks using complex networks approach are lacking. Urban drainage networks consist of manholes and conduits, which correspond to nodes and edges, analogous to junctions and streams in river networks. Converging water flows in these two networks are driven by elevation gradient. In this sense, engineered urban drainage networks share several attributes of flows in river networks. These similarities between the two directed, converging flow networks serve the basis for us to hypothesize that the functional topology of sewer networks, like river networks, is scale-invariant. We analyzed the exceedance probability distribution of upstream area for practical sewer networks in South Korea. We found that the exceedance probability distributions of upstream area follow power-law, implying that the sewer networks exhibit topological self-similarity. The power-law exponents for the sewer networks were similar, and within the range reported from analysis of natural river networks. Thus, in line with our hypothesis, these results suggest that engineered urban drainage networks share functional topological attributes regardless of their structural dissimilarity or different underlying network evolution processes (natural vs. engineered). Implications of these findings for optimal design of sewer networks and for modeling sewer flows will be discussed.

  12. Exit and Paradise Creek Drainage Area Boundaries, Alaska, 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset contains drainage area boundaries for Exit Creek and Paradise Creek in Kenai Fjords National Park, Alaska. A drainage area boundary identifies the land...

  13. Clinical outcome of routine drainage in simple laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIANG Zongchao

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo retrospectively review outcomes of elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC to evaluate the benefit of routine drainage in uncomplicated surgeries. MethodsTwo-hundred-and-ninety-five patients with cholecystolithiasis or gallbladder polyps who underwent LC with drainage (n=145 and or without drainage (n=150 between 2009 and 2011 were enrolled in the study. The decision for drainage was randomized. ResultsThe LC without drainage group had significantly shorter time to first flatus and shorter length of postoperative hospital stay than the LC with drainage group. One patient in the drainage group developed an intra-abdominal abscess, but there was no significant difference between the two LC groups with respect to overall postoperative complication rate. ConclusionApplication of a peritoneal drainage tube after simple elective, uncomplicated LC did not provide any clinical benefit to the patients, and should be considered according to the operating physician′s judgment on a case-by-case basis.

  14. A Theoretical Study of Subsurface Drainage Model Simulation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Theoretical Study of Subsurface Drainage Model Simulation of Drainage Flow and ... of subsurface drain spacing, evapotranspiration and irrigation water quality on ... The study was carried out on a conceptual uniform homogenous irrigated ...

  15. The flocculation research on treating suspended solids contained mine drainage through goaf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Li-li; ZHU Yue-lin; SHAN Ai-qin; CHEN Suo-zhong

    2005-01-01

    Mine drainage could be filtered and purified through goaf. This innovative technique shows merits, such as high treatment efficiency, remarkable economic benefit and extensive wastewater recycle use. However, it was detected that capacities of purifying mine drainage for goaf were decreased after a period of application. As a result, the effluent could not meet the standard of recycle water. To solve the problem, coagulant was considered to add into mine drainage reducing its high turbid degrees to certain level. After the preliminary flocculation treatment, mine drainage was piped into goaf to purify. In this way, the load of goaf was eased up. Its usage time was also prolonged. Therefore, this paper carried out the coagulation-flocculation jar test for mine drainage to discuss the flocculation parameters. By the experiment, 10 % iron trichloride is selected from four inorganic coagulants as the optimum coagulant. The optimum dose, PH value and sedimentation time are respectively 2 mL per 800 mL wastewater,6~7 and 25 min. Velocity gradient G during the process of mixing and reaction is 696 s-1 .And the value of GT is 6.264× 105. The values of G and GT will supply the basis for the design of flocculation pool in the project. The flocculation parameters will be significant for the reference of practice.

  16. Effect of biliary obstruction and internal biliary drainage on hepatic cytochrome P450 isozymes in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shintaro Fukushima; Hiroyasu Okuno; Nobuyuki Shibatani; Yoshitsugu Nakahashi; Toshihito Seki; Kazuichi Okazaki

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the total cytochrome P450 (CYP)content, microsomal mixed-function oxidase (MFO)activity, and expression of mRNAs for various CYP isozymes in a simple rat model of reversible obstructive jaundice.METHODS: Obstructive jaundice was created in male rats by causing bile duct obstruction with polyester tape.In another group of rats, bile duct obstruction was followed by internal biliary drainage after releasing the tape.The expression of various CYP isozyme mRNAs was semi-quantitatively assessed by competitive RTPCR.RESULTS: The total CYP content and microsomal MFO activity showed a significant decrease after biliary obstruction, but returned to respective control levels after biliary drainage.A marked reduction in the expression of CYPIA2, 2B1/2, 2Cll, 2E1, 3A1, and 3A2 mRNA was detected during biliary obstruction,while expression increased significantly toward the control level after biliary drainage.Although expression of CYP4A1 mRNA showed no reduction during biliary obstruction, it still increased significantly after biliary drainage.CONCLUSION: These results suggest that not only obstructive jaundice, but also the subsequent internal biliary drainage may affect regulatory medications of the synthesis of individual CYP isozymes differently.

  17. Phospholipid Analyses for Microbial Community Composition in Alpine Acid Rock Drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, C. E.; Tapp, J. B.; Pfiffner, S. M.

    2008-12-01

    This project is examining factors of non-anthropogenic acid rock drainage that influence microbial community composition in the Peekaboo Gulch drainage basin (Sawatch Range, Colorado). At this site, natural acid rock drainage outflows from acidic springs (pH=2.6) on Red Mountain. The acid drainage converges with South Fork Lake Creek (pH ~ 7.0, prior to convergence) two miles down gradient. Sediment samples were collected across confluences with gradient of pH, temperature, conductivity and metal concentration. In-situ parameter measurements ranged from 2.3 to 7.9 of pH, 3.8 to 16.6 degree Celsius for temperature, and 34.9 to 1820 for conductivity. Biomass as measured by phospholipids ranged from 280 to 95,900 pmol/g sediment. The only relationship between the in situ parameters and the phospholipid profiles is a weak positive correlation between pH and branched monounsaturated fatty acid methyl esters in that at a pH greater than 5.0 these fatty acid methyl esters were detected. The phospholipid profiles were diverse across the samples. These profiles changed with respect to the spatial relationship within the drainage pattern. The highest alpine samples contained greater relative abundances of monounsaturated fatty acid methyl esters compared to the lower alpine samples. Microbial community profiles shifted at each confluence depending on water source chemistry. Continuing research is needed to determine other biogeochemical factors that may influence these community shifts.

  18. Estimating the risk of glacier cavity collapse during artificial drainage: The case of Tête Rousse Glacier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardini, O.; Gillet-Chaulet, F.; Durand, G.; Vincent, C.; Duval, P.

    2011-05-01

    During the summer of 2010, the presence of a pressurized water-filled subglacial-cavity of at least 50,000 m3 was detected within the Tête Rousse Glacier (French Alps). Artificial drainage was started to avoid an uncontrolled rupture of the ice dam, but was interrupted soon after to evaluate the capacity of the cavity-roof to bear itself. The risk was that the release of pressure within the cavity during the artificial drainage would precipitate the collapse of the cavity roof and potentially flush out the remaining water flooding the valley below. An unprecedented modeling effort was deployed to answer the question of the cavity roof stability. We set up a model of the glacier with its water cavity, solved the three-dimensional full-Stokes problem, predicted the upper surface and cavity surface displacements for various drainage scenarios, and quantified the risk of the cavity failure during artificial drainage. We found that the maximum tensile stress in the cavity roof was below the rupture value, indicating a low risk of collapse. A post drainage survey of the glacier surface displacements has confirmed the accuracy of the model prediction. This practical application demonstrates that ice flow models have reached sufficient maturity to become operational and assist policy-makers when faced with glaciological hazards, thus opening new perspectives in risk management of glacier hazards in high mountain regions.

  19. Tropospheric ozone in the Nisqually River Drainage, Mount Rainier National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, D.L.; Bowers, Darci

    1999-01-01

    We quantified the summertime distribution of tropospheric ozone in the topographically complex Nisqually River drainage of Mount Rainier National Park from 1994 to 1997. Passive ozone samplers were used along an elevational transect to measure weekly average ozone concentrations ranging from 570 m to 2040 m elevation. Weekly average ozone concentrations were positively correlated with elevation, with the highest concentrations consistently measured at the highest sampling site (Panorama Point). Weekly average ozone concentrations at Mount Rainier National Park are considerably higher than those in the Seattle-Tacoma metropolitan area to the west. The anthropogenic contribution to ozone within the Nisqually drainage was evaluated by comparing measurements at this location with measurements from a 'reference' site in the western Olympic Mountains. The comparison suggests there is a significant anthropogenic source of ozone reaching the Cascade Range via atmospheric transport from urban areas to the west. In addition. temporal (week to week) variation in ozone distribution is synchronous within the Nisqually drainage, which indicates that subregional patterns are detectable with weekly averages. The Nisqually drainage is likely the 'hot spot' for air pollution in Mount Rainier National Park. By using passive ozone samplers in this drainage in conjunction with a limited number of continuous analyzers, the park will have a robust monitoring approach for measuring tropospheric ozone over time and protecting vegetative and human health.

  20. Effect of VEGF-C siRNA and endostatin on ring formation and proliferation of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma lymphatic endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng YP

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Yuping Zheng,1–3,* Miaomiao Sun,4,* Jinyan Chen,1,2 Lulu He,1,2 Na Zhao,1,2 Kuisheng Chen1,2 1Pathology Department, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, 2Henan Key Laboratory of Tumor Pathology, 3Pathology Department, The Second Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, 4Pathology Department, Henan Tumor Hospital, Zhengzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: To study the effects of vascular endothelial growth factor C small interfering RNA and endostatin on esophageal squamous cell carcinoma-related ring formation in vitro and proliferation of lymphatic endothelial cells.Materials and methods: KYSE150 cells were subjected to analysis of cell transfection and endostatin operation. The groups were as follows: negative group, blank group, negative plus endostatin group, endostatin group, SG1 group, SG2 group, SG1 plus endostatin group, and SG2 plus endostatin group. The esophageal cancer-related microlymphatic endothelial cells were three-dimensionally cultured. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8 assay was employed to detect cell proliferation.Results: The negative group’s three-dimensional culture result was the highest, followed by the blank group, negative plus endostatin group, endostatin group, SG2 group, SG1 group, SG1 plus endostatin group, and SG2 plus endostatin group. The quantity of living cells in the blank group was the highest, followed by the negative control, endostatin, SG2, SG1, negative plus endostatin, SG1 plus endostatin, and SG2 plus endostatin groups. Conclusion: Both vascular endothelial growth factor C small interfering RNA and endostatin could inhibit ring formation in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and proliferation of lymphatic endothelial cells. Keywords: esophageal squamous carcinoma cells, esophageal cancer-associated lymphatic endothelial cells, VEGF-C, ring formation, proliferation

  1. Detection of soluble medullary triggering receptor cells in drainage of patients with multiple abdominal trauma for diagnosis of abdominal sepsis%腹部多发伤患者引流液可溶性髓样细胞触发受体检测对腹创伤脓毒症的诊断分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱永; 李娜; 何振扬; 陈民科; 王华杰; 麦叶

    2016-01-01

    目的:研究腹部多发伤患者检测引流液可溶性髓样细胞触发受体(sTREM‐1)检测对腹创伤脓毒症的临床诊断价值,为了进一步提高腹部多发伤患者伴有腹创脓毒血症的临床确诊率。方法选取2015年1-9月医院诊治的60例腹部多发伤患者为试验组,同期选取住院治疗的60例胃大部分切除术患者为对照组,同时检测两组患者血浆sT REM‐1、血浆降钙素原、C‐反应蛋白指标,分析sT REM‐1在腹部多发伤患者腹创伤脓毒症中的诊断评价,以提高确诊率,数据采用SPSS 18.0软件进行统计分析。结果试验组患者入院治疗后24、48 h及72 h sTREM‐1浓度值,显著高于对照组;试验组C‐反应蛋白以及降钙素原水平,显著高于对照组(P<0.05)。结论腹部多发伤患者定期检测引流液sT REM‐1水平能够早期诊断腹创伤脓毒症,且联合其他治疗诊断能够进一步提高患者临床确诊率。%OBJECTIVE To study the clinical diagnostic value of detection of soluble medullary triggering receptor cells (sTREM‐1) in drainage of patients with multiple abdominal trauma for diagnosis of abdominal traumatic sep‐sis so as to further improve the clinical diagnostic accuracy of abdominal traumatic sepsis .METHODS Totally 60 patients with multiple abdominal trauma during Jan .to Sep .2015 were selected as the test group and another 60 hospitalized patients undergoing partial gastrectomy during the same period were selected as the control group .In‐dicators such as sTREM‐1 ,plasma procalcitonin and high‐sensitivity C reactive protein were detected for both groups at the same time .The sTREM‐1 in patients with multiple abdominal trauma was evaluated for diagnosis of abdominal traumatic sepsis to increase the diagnostic accuracy .Data were statistically analyzed by software SPSS 18 .0 .RESULTS The sTREM‐1 concentration at 24 h ,48 h and 72 h after admission was significantly

  2. 46 CFR 178.420 - Drainage of cockpit vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drainage of cockpit vessels. 178.420 Section 178.420... TONS) INTACT STABILITY AND SEAWORTHINESS Drainage of Weather Decks § 178.420 Drainage of cockpit vessels. (a) Except as follows, the cockpit on a cockpit vessel may be watertight: (1) A cockpit may...

  3. Attempts to Image the Early Inflammatory Response during Infection with the Lymphatic Filarial Nematode Brugia pahangi in a Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Ryan; Goundry, Amy; O’Neill, Kerry; Marchesi, Francesco; Devaney, Eileen

    2016-01-01

    Helminth parasites remain a major constraint upon human health and well-being in many parts of the world. Treatment of these infections relies upon a very small number of therapeutics, most of which were originally developed for use in animal health. A lack of high throughput screening systems, together with limitations of available animal models, has restricted the development of novel chemotherapeutics. This is particularly so for filarial nematodes, which are long-lived parasites with a complex cycle of development. In this paper, we describe attempts to visualise the immune response elicited by filarial parasites in infected mice using a non-invasive bioluminescence imaging reagent, luminol, our aim being to determine whether such a model could be developed to discriminate between live and dead worms for in vivo compound screening. We show that while imaging can detect the immune response elicited by early stages of infection with L3, it was unable to detect the presence of adult worms or, indeed, later stages of infection with L3, despite the presence of worms within the lymphatic system of infected animals. In the future, more specific reagents that detect secreted products of adult worms may be required for developing screens based upon live imaging of infected animals. PMID:27992545

  4. Vascular, glial, and lymphatic immune gateways of the central nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhardt, Britta; Carare, Roxana O.; Bechmann, Ingo; Fluegel, Alexander; Laman, Jon D.; Weller, Roy O.

    2016-01-01

    Immune privilege of the central nervous system (CNS) has been ascribed to the presence of a blood-brain barrier and the lack of lymphatic vessels within the CNS parenchyma. However, immune reactions occur within the CNS and it is clear that the CNS has a unique relationship with the immune system. R

  5. Transport in lymphatic capillaries. I. Macroscopic measurements using residence time distribution theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, M A; Berk, D A; Jain, R K

    1996-01-01

    We present a novel integrative method for characterizing transport in the lymphatic capillaries in the tail of the anesthetized mouse, which is both sensitive and reproducible for quantifying uptake and flow. Interstitially injected, fluorescently labeled macromolecules were used to visualize and quantify these processes. Residence time distribution (RTD) theory was employed to measure net flow velocity in the lymphatic network as well as to provide a relative measure of lymphatic uptake of macromolecules from the interstitium. The effects of particle size and injection pressure were determined. The uptake rate was found to be independent of particle size in the range of a 6- to 18-nm radius; beyond this size, the interstitial matrix seemed to pose a greater barrier. A comparison of 10 vs. 40 cmH2O injection pressure showed a significant influence on the relative uptake rate but not on the net velocity within the network (3.3 +/- 0.8 vs. 3.8 +/- 1.0 micron/s). This suggested the presence of a systemic driving force for baseline lymph propulsion that is independent of the local pressure gradients driving the uptake. This model can be used to examine various aspects of transport physiology of the initial lymphatics.

  6. Lymphatic Fatty Acid Absorption Profile During 24 Hours After Administration of Triglycerides to Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porsgaard, Trine Charlotte; Straarup, Ellen Marie; Høy, Carl-Erik

    1999-01-01

    In this study we determined in rats the complete 24-h lymphatic fatty acid profile after administration of either rapeseedoil (RO) or rapeseed oil interesterified with 10:0 (RO/C10) with special emphasis on the transition from absorptive topostabsorptive phase. Rats were subjected to cannulation...

  7. Primary Kaposi's sarcoma in lymph nodes concurrent with chronic lymphatic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weshler, Z; Leviatan, A; Krasnokuki, D; Kopolovitch, J

    1979-02-01

    Both Kaposi's sarcoma and chronic lymphatic leukemia affect the lymph nodes, and not infrequently, the same patient. The authors describe the occurrence of both diseases in the same lymph node. The rarity of this finding suggests different histopathogenic origins of the two diseases.

  8. IL-27 inhibits lymphatic endothelial cell proliferation by STAT1-regulated gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sebastian Rune; Hammer, Troels; Gibson, Josefine

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: IL-27 belongs to the IL-12 family of cytokines and is recognized for its role in Th cell differentiation and as an inhibitor of tumor-angiogenesis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of IL-27 on proliferation of lymphatic endothelial cells to gain insight into the ......OBJECTIVE: IL-27 belongs to the IL-12 family of cytokines and is recognized for its role in Th cell differentiation and as an inhibitor of tumor-angiogenesis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of IL-27 on proliferation of lymphatic endothelial cells to gain insight......U kits and the role of STAT1 and chemokines was determined by use of siRNA and recombinant proteins. RESULTS: Stimulation of lymphatic endothelial cell cultures with IL-27 induced JAK dependent phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT3 and inhibited lymphatic endothelial cell proliferation and migration....... Expression of CXCL10 and CXCL11, both STAT1 target genes, were profoundly up-regulated upon IL-27 stimulation, and recombinant CXCL10 and CXCL11 inhibited FGF-2-induced proliferation in vitro. siRNA targeting of STAT1 almost completely abrogated CXCL10 and CXCL11 expression as well as the proliferative...

  9. Vascular, glial, and lymphatic immune gateways of the central nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhardt, Britta; Carare, Roxana O.; Bechmann, Ingo; Fluegel, Alexander; Laman, Jon D.; Weller, Roy O.

    Immune privilege of the central nervous system (CNS) has been ascribed to the presence of a blood-brain barrier and the lack of lymphatic vessels within the CNS parenchyma. However, immune reactions occur within the CNS and it is clear that the CNS has a unique relationship with the immune system.

  10. Transmission assessment surveys (TAS) to define endpoints for lymphatic filariasis mass drug administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chu, Brian K.; Deming, Michael; Biritwum, Nana-Kwadwo

    2013-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is targeted for global elimination through treatment of entire at-risk populations with repeated annual mass drug administration (MDA). Essential for program success is defining and confirming the appropriate endpoint for MDA when transmission is presumed to have reached...

  11. Effectiveness of a triple-drug regimen for global elimination of lymphatic filariasis: A modelling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Irvine (Michael A.); W.A. Stolk (Wilma); Smith, M.E. (Morgan E); S.V. Subramanian; B.K. Singh (Brajendra K.); G.J. Weil (Gary); E. Michael (Edwin); T.D. Hollingsworth (T. Déirdre)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Lymphatic filariasis is targeted for elimination as a public health problem by 2020. The principal approach used by current programmes is annual mass drug administration with two pairs of drugs with a good safety profile. However, one dose of a triple-drug regimen (ivermectin

  12. Lymphatic Fatty Acid Absorption Profile During 24 Hours After Administration of Triglycerides to Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porsgaard, Trine Charlotte; Straarup, Ellen Marie; Høy, Carl-Erik

    1999-01-01

    In this study we determined in rats the complete 24-h lymphatic fatty acid profile after administration of either rapeseedoil (RO) or rapeseed oil interesterified with 10:0 (RO/C10) with special emphasis on the transition from absorptive topostabsorptive phase. Rats were subjected to cannulation ...

  13. Effectiveness of a triple-drug regimen for global elimination of lymphatic filariasis: A modelling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Irvine (Michael A.); W.A. Stolk (Wilma); Smith, M.E. (Morgan E); S.V. Subramanian; B.K. Singh (Brajendra K.); G.J. Weil (Gary); E. Michael (Edwin); T.D. Hollingsworth (T. Déirdre)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Lymphatic filariasis is targeted for elimination as a public health problem by 2020. The principal approach used by current programmes is annual mass drug administration with two pairs of drugs with a good safety profile. However, one dose of a triple-drug regimen

  14. The Schlemm's canal is a VEGF-C/VEGFR-3-responsive lymphatic-like vessel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspelund, Aleksanteri; Tammela, Tuomas; Antila, Salli; Nurmi, Harri; Leppänen, Veli-Matti; Zarkada, Georgia; Stanczuk, Lukas; Francois, Mathias; Mäkinen, Taija; Saharinen, Pipsa; Immonen, Ilkka; Alitalo, Kari

    2014-09-01

    In glaucoma, aqueous outflow into the Schlemm's canal (SC) is obstructed. Despite striking structural and functional similarities with the lymphatic vascular system, it is unknown whether the SC is a blood or lymphatic vessel. Here, we demonstrated the expression of lymphatic endothelial cell markers by the SC in murine and zebrafish models as well as in human eye tissue. The initial stages of SC development involved induction of the transcription factor PROX1 and the lymphangiogenic receptor tyrosine kinase VEGFR-3 in venous endothelial cells in postnatal mice. Using gene deletion and function-blocking antibodies in mice, we determined that the lymphangiogenic growth factor VEGF-C and its receptor, VEGFR-3, are essential for SC development. Delivery of VEGF-C into the adult eye resulted in sprouting, proliferation, and growth of SC endothelial cells, whereas VEGF-A obliterated the aqueous outflow system. Furthermore, a single injection of recombinant VEGF-C induced SC growth and was associated with trend toward a sustained decrease in intraocular pressure in adult mice. These results reveal the evolutionary conservation of the lymphatic-like phenotype of the SC, implicate VEGF-C and VEGFR-3 as critical regulators of SC lymphangiogenesis, and provide a basis for further studies on therapeutic manipulation of the SC with VEGF-C in glaucoma treatment.

  15. Composition of the Extracellular Matrix of Lymphatic Novel Threadlike Structures: Is It Keratin?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyub Huh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The lumen of novel threadlike structures (NTSs is enclosed by a single layer of endothelial cells surrounded by extracellular matrix (ECM. We hypothesized that collagen may be a component of the ECM associated with lymphatic NTSs. Methods. Six female New Zealand white rabbits were anesthetized, and the NTS structures within lymphatic vessels were identified by contrast-enhanced stereomicroscopy or alcian blue staining. Isolated NTS specimens were stained with acridine orange, YOYO-1, and 1,1′-dioctadecyl-3,3,3′,3′-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI. The structural and molecular composition of the ECM was investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM, electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry, and proteomic analysis. Results. The lymph vessel wall was stained red by DiI, and rod-shaped nuclei were stained green by YOYO-1. The area surrounding the NTS was also stained red and contained green rod-shaped nuclei. TEM images showed that the NTS consisted of many ECM fibers and the ECM fibers appeared to be ~100 nm in diameter and had narrowly spaced striated bands. Proteomic analysis of the lymphatic NTS-associated ECM identified 4 proteins: keratin 10, cytokeratin 3, cytokeratin 12, and soluble adenylyl cyclase. Conclusion. The TEM study suggested that the lymphatic NTS-associated ECM did not contain collagen. This was confirmed by proteomic analysis, which showed that keratin was the major component of the ECM.

  16. EFFECTIVENESS OF AUTOGENIC DRAINAGE VERSUS POSTURAL DRAINAGE ON OXYGEN SATURATION IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC BRONCHITIS WITH 15 MINUTES POST THERAPY

    OpenAIRE

    Kiran, V.; Dr. Bhimasen .S; E. Mastanaiah; A. Thiruppathi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients with COPD will have more amount of secretions. To clear the secretions by using of different bronchial hygiene techniques like postural drainage and autogenic drainage technique, manual hyperventilation technique ,active cycle breathing technique .Hence in this study to compare the short-term effects of postural drainage with clapping (PD) and autogenic drainage (AD) on level of oxygen saturation in blood, and amount of sputum recovery. Methodology: The study was done ...

  17. New method of displaying of bovine cardiac lymphatic vessels%牛心淋巴管显示新方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许银辉; 申彪; 周楠茜; 吴满洋; 卢帅伟; 王猛; 黄俊友; 张爱梅; 李逸

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore a new method to display the superficial lymphatic vessels of the cattle cardia. Methods The superficial lymphatic vessels were displayed by new type of lymphatic casting agent perfusion method and acid corrosion technology. Results The superficial lymphatic vessels could be seen with naked eyes after perfusion, and there were eighteen strips of integrity lymphatic stereo cast structure and lymphatic nodes after acid corrosion. Conclusion The new perfusion method can show the distribution of lymphatic vessels very well,and the specimen can be preserved for a long-term.%目的 探索显示牛心浅表淋巴管的新方法.方法 用新型淋巴管铸型剂灌注及酸腐蚀技术显示牛心浅表淋巴管.结果 灌注后肉眼可见牛心浅表淋巴管,腐蚀后显示18条完整立体管型结构及其淋巴结.结论 该灌注法能够很好的呈现出淋巴管的外形分布,并可长期保存.

  18. An in situ optical imaging system for measuring lipid uptake, vessel contraction, and lymph flow in small animal lymphatic vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassis, Timothy; Weiler, Michael J.; Dixon, J. Brandon

    2012-03-01

    All dietary lipids are transported to venous circulation through the lymphatic system, yet the underlying mechanisms that regulate this process remain unclear. Understanding how the lymphatics functionally respond to changes in lipid load is important in the diagnosis and treatment of lipid and lymphatic related diseases such as obesity, hypercholesterolemia, and lymphedema. Therefore, we sought to develop an in situ imaging system to quantify and correlate lymphatic function as it relates to lipid transport. A custom-built optical set-up provides us with the capability of dual-channel imaging of both high-speed bright-field video and fluorescence simultaneously. This is achieved by dividing the light path into two optical bands. Utilizing high-speed and back-illuminated CCD cameras and post-acquisition image processing algorithms, we have the potential quantify correlations between vessel contraction, lymph flow and lipid concentration of mesenteric lymphatic vessels in situ. Local flow velocity is measured through lymphocyte tracking, vessel contraction through measurements of the vessel walls and lipid uptake through fluorescence intensity tracking of a fluorescent long chain fatty acid analogue, Bodipy FL C16. This system will prove to be an invaluable tool for both scientists studying lymphatic function in health and disease, and those investigating strategies for targeting the lymphatic system with orally delivered drugs.

  19. Dual-channel in-situ optical imaging system for quantifying lipid uptake and lymphatic pump function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassis, Timothy; Kohan, Alison B.; Weiler, Michael J.; Nipper, Matthew E.; Cornelius, Rachel; Tso, Patrick; Brandon Dixon, J.

    2012-08-01

    Nearly all dietary lipids are transported from the intestine to venous circulation through the lymphatic system, yet the mechanisms that regulate this process remain unclear. Elucidating the mechanisms involved in the functional response of lymphatics to changes in lipid load would provide valuable insight into recent implications of lymphatic dysfunction in lipid related diseases. Therefore, we sought to develop an in situ imaging system to quantify and correlate lymphatic function as it relates to lipid transport. The imaging platform provides the capability of dual-channel imaging of both high-speed bright-field video and fluorescence simultaneously. Utilizing post-acquisition image processing algorithms, we can quantify correlations between vessel pump function, lymph flow, and lipid concentration of mesenteric lymphatic vessels in situ. All image analysis is automated with customized LabVIEW virtual instruments; local flow is measured through lymphocyte velocity tracking, vessel contraction through measurements of the vessel wall displacement, and lipid uptake through fluorescence intensity tracking of an orally administered fluorescently labelled fatty acid analogue, BODIPY FL C16. This system will prove to be an invaluable tool for scientists studying intestinal lymphatic function in health and disease, and those investigating strategies for targeting the lymphatics with orally delivered drugs to avoid first pass metabolism.

  20. An automated method to control preload by compensation for stress relaxation in spontaneously contracting, isometric rat mesenteric lymphatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Michael J; Lane, Megan M; Scallan, Joshua P; Gashev, Anatoliy A; Zawieja, David C

    2007-08-01

    Our objective was to devise a system to automatically correct for stress relaxation of isometric rat mesenteric lymphatics (90-120 microm, ID). Stress relaxation is a particular problem in isometric studies of highly distensible vessels and is evident as a time-dependent, secondary decline in force after an abrupt length increase. Because the phasic contraction pattern of lymphatics is exquisitely sensitive to changes in preload, stress relaxation makes stable contraction patterns difficult to achieve and analyze. A DMT wire myograph was modified to accommodate an Inchworm piezo stack in series with a standard micrometer drive to permit automated control of vessel caliber/force. The force output of the myograph was digitized and computer algorithms were devised to servo control force by changing vessel diameter. The system was tested on passive lymphatics, passive small veins, and lymphatics exhibiting spontaneous force transients. The software was designed to temporarily disable servo control during a spontaneous force transient. For both active and passive lymphatics, stable preloads were very well maintained, indicating that the system was adequately compensating for stress relaxation. The method works well with isometric rat mesenteric lymphatics without disturbing spontaneous activity. It should be applicable to arterial, venous, and lymphatic vessels (80-500 microm in diameter) isolated from other tissues and species.

  1. The Mesenteric Lymph Duct Cannulated Rat Model: Application to the Assessment of Intestinal Lymphatic Drug Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevaskis, Natalie L.; Hu, Luojuan; Caliph, Suzanne M.; Han, Sifei; Porter, Christopher J.H.

    2015-01-01

    The intestinal lymphatic system plays key roles in fluid transport, lipid absorption and immune function. Lymph flows directly from the small intestine via a series of lymphatic vessels and nodes that converge at the superior mesenteric lymph duct. Cannulation of the mesenteric lymph duct thus enables the collection of mesenteric lymph flowing from the intestine. Mesenteric lymph consists of a cellular fraction of immune cells (99% lymphocytes), aqueous fraction (fluid, peptides and proteins such as cytokines and gut hormones) and lipoprotein fraction (lipids, lipophilic molecules and apo-proteins). The mesenteric lymph duct cannulation model can therefore be used to measure the concentration and rate of transport of a range of factors from the intestine via the lymphatic system. Changes to these factors in response to different challenges (e.g., diets, antigens, drugs) and in disease (e.g., inflammatory bowel disease, HIV, diabetes) can also be determined. An area of expanding interest is the role of lymphatic transport in the absorption of orally administered lipophilic drugs and prodrugs that associate with intestinal lipid absorption pathways. Here we describe, in detail, a mesenteric lymph duct cannulated rat model which enables evaluation of the rate and extent of lipid and drug transport via the lymphatic system for several hours following intestinal delivery. The method is easily adaptable to the measurement of other parameters in lymph. We provide detailed descriptions of the difficulties that may be encountered when establishing this complex surgical method, as well as representative data from failed and successful experiments to provide instruction on how to confirm experimental success and interpret the data obtained. PMID:25866901

  2. Interleukin-8 reduces post-surgical lymphedema formation by promoting lymphatic vessel regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Inho; Lee, Yong Suk; Chung, Hee Kyoung; Choi, Dongwon; Ecoiffier, Tatiana; Lee, Ha Neul; Kim, Kyu Eui; Lee, Sunju; Park, Eun Kyung; Maeng, Yong Sun; Kim, Nam Yun; Ladner, Robert D; Petasis, Nicos A; Koh, Chester J; Chen, Lu; Lenz, Heinz-Josef; Hong, Young-Kwon

    2013-01-01

    Lymphedema is mainly caused by lymphatic obstruction and manifested as tissue swelling, often in the arms and legs. Lymphedema is one of the most common post-surgical complications in breast cancer patients and presents a painful and disfiguring chronic illness that has few treatment options. Here, we evaluated the therapeutic potential of interleukin (IL)-8 in lymphatic regeneration independent of its pro-inflammatory activity. We found that IL-8 promoted proliferation, tube formation, and migration of lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) without activating the VEGF signaling. Additionally, IL-8 suppressed the major cell cycle inhibitor CDKN1C/p57(KIP2) by downregulating its positive regulator PROX1, which is known as the master regulator of LEC-differentiation. Animal-based studies such as matrigel plug and cornea micropocket assays demonstrated potent efficacy of IL-8 in activating lymphangiogenesis in vivo. Moreover, we have generated a novel transgenic mouse model (K14-hIL8) that expresses human IL-8 in the skin and then crossed with lymphatic-specific fluorescent (Prox1-GFP) mouse. The resulting double transgenic mice showed that a stable expression of IL-8 could promote embryonic lymphangiogenesis. Moreover, an immunodeficient IL-8-expressing mouse line that was established by crossing K14-hIL8 mice with athymic nude mice displayed an enhanced tumor-associated lymphangiogenesis. Finally, when experimental lymphedema was introduced, K14-hIL8 mice showed an improved amelioration of lymphedema with an increased lymphatic regeneration. Together, we report that IL-8 can activate lymphangiogenesis in vitro and in vivo with a therapeutic efficacy in post-surgical lymphedema.

  3. Half versus full vacuum suction drainage after modified radical mastectomy for breast cancer- a prospective randomized clinical trial[ISRCTN24484328

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh JP

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suction drains are routinely used after modified radical mastectomy and are an important factor contributing to increased hospital stay as the patients are often discharged only after their removal. Amongst various factors that influence the amount of postoperative drainage, the negative suction pressure applied to the drain has been reported to be of great significance. While a high negative suction pressure is expected to drain the collection and reduce the dead space promptly, it may also prevent the leaking lymphatics from closing and lead to increased drainage from the wound. Against this background a prospective randomized clinical study was conducted to compare the amount and duration of drainage between a half negative suction and full vacuum suction drainage in patients following modified radical mastectomy. The associated postoperative morbidity was also compared between the two groups. Methods 85 FNAC (fine needle aspiration cytology proven cases of locally advanced breast cancer were randomized. (Using randomly ordered sealed envelops, which were opened immediately before the closure of the wound in to 50 patients with full vacuum suction (pressure = 700 g/m2 and 35 cases in to half vacuum suction drainage (pressure = 350 g/m2 groups. The two groups were comparable in respect of age, weight, and technique of operation and extent of axillary dissection. Surgery was performed by the same surgical team comprising of five surgeons (two senior and three resident surgeons using a standardized technique with electrocautery. External compression dressing was provided over the axilla for first 48 hrs and following that patients were encouraged to do active and passive shoulder exercises. The outcomes measured were postoperative morbidity and the length of hospital stay. Statistical methods used: Descriptive studies were performed with SPSS version 10 and group characteristics were compared using student t-test. Results

  4. Half versus full vacuum suction drainage after modified radical mastectomy for breast cancer- a prospective randomized clinical trial[ISRCTN24484328].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintamani; Singhal, Vinay; Singh, Jp; Bansal, Anju; Saxena, Sunita

    2005-01-27

    Suction drains are routinely used after modified radical mastectomy and are an important factor contributing to increased hospital stay as the patients are often discharged only after their removal. Amongst various factors that influence the amount of postoperative drainage, the negative suction pressure applied to the drain has been reported to be of great significance. While a high negative suction pressure is expected to drain the collection and reduce the dead space promptly, it may also prevent the leaking lymphatics from closing and lead to increased drainage from the wound. Against this background a prospective randomized clinical study was conducted to compare the amount and duration of drainage between a half negative suction and full vacuum suction drainage in patients following modified radical mastectomy. The associated postoperative morbidity was also compared between the two groups. 85 FNAC (fine needle aspiration cytology) proven cases of locally advanced breast cancer were randomized. (Using randomly ordered sealed envelops, which were opened immediately before the closure of the wound) in to 50 patients with full vacuum suction (pressure = 700 g/m2) and 35 cases in to half vacuum suction drainage (pressure = 350 g/m2) groups. The two groups were comparable in respect of age, weight, and technique of operation and extent of axillary dissection. Surgery was performed by the same surgical team comprising of five surgeons (two senior and three resident surgeons) using a standardized technique with electrocautery. External compression dressing was provided over the axilla for first 48 hrs and following that patients were encouraged to do active and passive shoulder exercises. The outcomes measured were postoperative morbidity and the length of hospital stay. Statistical methods used: Descriptive studies were performed with SPSS version 10 and group characteristics were compared using student t-test. Half vacuum suction drains were removed earlier than

  5. Numerical simulation of transient flow in horizontal drainage systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ze-yu MAO; Han XIAO; Ying LIU; Ying-jun HU

    2009-01-01

    A numerical simulation model based on the characteristic-based finite-difference method with a time-line interpolation scheme was developed for predicting transient free surface flow in horizontal drainage systems. The fundamental accuracy of the numerical model was first clarified by comparison with the experimental results for a single drainage pipe. Boundary conditions for junctions and bends, which are often encountered in drainage systems, were studied both experimentally and numerically. The numerical model was applied to an actual drainage system. Comparison with a full-scale model experiment indicates that the model can be used to accurately predict flow characteristics in actual drainage networks.

  6. Thermokarst lakes, drainage, and drained basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, G.; Jones, B.; Arp, C.; Shroder, John F.

    2013-01-01

    Thermokarst lakes and drained lake basins are widespread in Arctic and sub-Arctic permafrost lowlands with ice-rich sediments. Thermokarst lake formation is a dominant mode of permafrost degradation and is linked to surface disturbance, subsequent melting of ground ice, surface subsidence, water impoundment, and positive feedbacks between lake growth and permafrost thaw, whereas lake drainage generally results in local permafrost aggradation. Thermokarst lakes characteristically have unique limnological, morphological, and biogeochemical characteristics that are closely tied to cold-climate conditions and permafrost properties. Thermokarst lakes also have a tendency toward complete or partial drainage through permafrost degradation and erosion. Thermokarst lake dynamics strongly affect the development of landscape geomorphology, hydrology, and the habitat characteristic of permafrost lowlands.

  7. Autogenic drainage: efficacy of a simplified method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann, H; Boldt, A; Kieselmann, R

    1990-01-01

    A simplified and modified technique of the original autogenic drainage (AD) is described which is supplemented by breathing against an external flow resistance. The new method allows a better teaching and learning. It's efficacy is proven by means of a comparative trial of AD and PEP physiotherapy (i.e. expiration against a defined stenosis). The autogenic drainage (AD) was introduced by a Belgian working group (2). The basic idea was to support the elimination of mucus by deep breathing and by repressing the cough as long as possible. However, a rather sophisticated method impeded teaching and learning of AD (1). Thus, till now, there are only preliminary results which suggest the efficacy of AD (e.g. 3). Therefore, a simplified technique was developed and examined with regard to its sputum eliminating effect.

  8. Range of drainage effect of surface mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sozanski, J.

    1978-03-01

    This paper discusses methods of calculating the range of effects of water drainage from surface coal mines and other surface mines. It is suggested that methods based on test pumping (water drainage) are time consuming, and the results can be distorted by atmospheric factors such as rain fall or dry period. So-called empirical formulae produce results which are often incorrect. The size of a cone shaped depression calculated on the basis of empirical formulae can be ten times smaller than the size of the real depression. It is suggested that using a formula based on the Dupuit formula is superior to other methods of depression calculation. According to the derived formulae the radius of the depresion cone is a function of parameters of the water bearing horizons, size of surface mine working and of water depression. The proposed formula also takes into account the influence of atmospheric factors (water influx caused by precipitation, etc.). (1 ref.) (In Polish)

  9. Urban drainage models - making uncertainty analysis simple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vezzaro, Luca; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Deletic, Ana;

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing awareness about uncertainties in modelling of urban drainage systems and, as such, many new methods for uncertainty analyses have been developed. Despite this, all available methods have limitations which restrict their widespread application among practitioners. Here, a modif...... probability distributions (often used for sensitivity analyses) and prediction intervals. To demonstrate the new method, it is applied to a conceptual rainfall-runoff model using a dataset collected from Melbourne, Australia....

  10. Streaming potential during drainage and imbibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiazuo; Vinogradov, Jan; Leinov, Eli; Jackson, M. D.

    2017-06-01

    The rock pore space in many subsurface settings is saturated with water and one or more immiscible fluid phases. Examples include nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) in contaminated aquifers, supercritical CO2 during sequestration in deep saline aquifers, the vadose zone, and hydrocarbon reservoirs. Self-potential (SP) and seismoelectric (SE) methods have been proposed to monitor multiphase flow in such settings. However, to properly interpret and model these data requires an understanding of the saturation dependence of the streaming potential. This paper presents a methodology to determine the saturation dependence of the streaming potential coupling coefficient (C) and streaming current charge density (Qs) in unsteady state drainage and imbibition experiments and applies the method to published experimental data. Unsteady state experiments do not yield representative values of C and Qs (or other transport properties such as relative permeability and electrical conductivity) at partial saturation (Sw) because Sw within the sample is not uniform. An interpretation method is required to determine the saturation dependence of C and Qs within a representative elementary volume with uniform saturation. The proposed method makes no assumptions about the pore space geometry. Application of the method to published experimental data from two natural sandstone samples shows that C exhibits hysteresis between drainage and imbibition, can exhibit significant nonmonotonic variations with saturation, is nonzero at the irreducible water saturation, and can exceed the value observed at Sw = 1. Moreover, Qs increases with decreasing Sw but is not given by 1/Sw as is often assumed. The variation in Qs with Sw is very similar for a given sample and a given drainage or imbibition process, and the difference between samples is less than the difference between drainage and imbibition. The results presented here can be used to help interpret SP and SE measurements obtained in partially

  11. Factors influencing pleural drainage in parapneumonic effusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcel, J M; Valencia, H; Bielsa, S

    2016-10-01

    The identification of parapneumonic effusions (PPE) requiring pleural drainage is challenging. We aimed to determine the diagnostic accuracy of radiological and pleural fluid findings in discriminating between PPE that need drainage (complicated PPE (CPPE)) and those that could be resolved with antibiotics only (uncomplicated PPE (UPPE)). A retrospective review of 641 consecutive PPE, of which 393 were categorized as CPPE and 248 as UPPE. Demographics, radiological (size and laterality on a chest radiograph) and pleural fluid parameters (pus, bacterial cultures, biochemistries) were compared among groups. Logistic regression was performed to determine variables useful for predicting chest drainage, and receiver-operating characteristic curves assisted in the selection of the best cutoff values. According to the likelihood ratios (LR), findings increasing the probability of chest tube usage the most were: effusions occupying ≥1/2 of the hemithorax (LR 13.5), pleural fluid pH ≤7.15 (LR 6.2), pleural fluid glucose ≤40mg/dL (LR 5.6), pus (LR 4.8), positive pleural fluid cultures (LR 3.6), and pleural fluid lactate dehydrogenase >2000U/L (LR 3.4). In the logistic regression analysis only the first two were selected as significant predictors of CPPE. In non-purulent effusions, the effusion's size and pleural fluid pH retained their discriminatory properties, in addition to a pleural fluid C-reactive protein (CRP) level >100mg/L. Large radiological effusions and a pleural fluid pH ≤7.15 were the best predictors for chest drainage in patients with PPE. In the subgroup of patients with non-purulent effusions, pleural fluid CRP also contributed to CPPE identification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  12. 舌癌永生化细胞系细胞淋巴道转移裸鼠模型的建立%Establishment of lymphatic metastasis of immortalized human tongue carcinoma cell line in nude mouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹维艳; 严海芹; 孙美群; 尹海燕; 周艳梅; 李徽徽; 王俊斌

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To establish a nude mice model of lymphatic metastasis using immortalized human tongue carcinoma cell line. Methods: Lymphatic metastasis nude mice models were established by injecting carcinoma cells into the nail pad. The lymph nodes were collected 4 weeks later. The detection methods included H-E staining, immunohistochemistry stain of EMA and the purification and culture of tongue squamous cell carcinoma cells in vitro. Results: The lymphatic metastasis rate was 88% in Tca8113-Ml group and 60% in Tca8113 group. There were lymphatic metastasis carcinomal cells in the lymph node of the tongue carcinoma metastasis model. In purification and culture, the cells of epithelium like growth were observed in vitro. Conclusion: Injecting Tca8113-Ml cells into the nail pad can readily and stably establish a high rate of the lymphatic metastasis in an animal model. The model was regarded as a basis study of the lymphatic metastasis mechanisms.%目的:建立人舌癌细胞Tca8113-Ml裸鼠淋巴结转移模型,研究分析其转移的特性,为舌癌转移的研究提供动物模型.方法:4~6周龄裸鼠随机分为生理盐水对照组、TcaS113-Ml组、Tca8113组,通过足垫注射舌癌细胞,建立淋巴道转移模型.观察各组裸鼠淋巴结转移情况,进行H-E染色、上皮膜抗原(EMA)免疫组织化学显色及淋巴结舌癌细胞纯化培养.结果;淋巴结有散在或灶性鳞状上皮细胞转移,体外纯化培养的癌细胞呈上皮样生长.Tca8113-Ml组淋巴结转移率为88%,Tca8113组仅为60%.结论:足垫注射舌癌永生化细胞系Tca8113-Ml细胞系细胞建立淋巴道转移模型具有简单、稳定、转移率高等特点,为舌癌淋巴道转移的机制研究提供了一个良好动物模型.

  13. Structured triglyceride vehicles for oral delivery of halofantrine: examination of intestinal lymphatic transport and bioavailability in conscious rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, René; Porter, Christopher J H; Müllertz, Anette

    2002-01-01

    animals, and this was most pronounced for the animals dosed with the structured triglycerides. CONCLUSIONS: Using MLM as vehicle increases the portal absorption of halofantrine and results in similar lymphatic transport levels when compared to sunflower oil. Total absorption when assessed as absorption...... in the blood plus lymphatic transport for halofantrine after administration in the MLM triglyceride was higher than after administration in sunflower oil.......PURPOSE: To compare the influence of triglyceride vehicle intramolecular structure on the intestinal lymphatic transport and systemic absorption of halofantrine in conscious rats. METHODS: Conscious, lymph cannulated and nonlymph cannulated rats were dosed orally with three structurally different...

  14. Role of RhoA in regulating the pump function of isolated lymphatics from hemorrhagic shock rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Yong-Hua; Niu, Chun-Yu; Zhao, Zi-Gang; Zhang, Li-Min; Zhang, Yu-Ping

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this present study was to examine changes in RhoA protein levels and the role in RhoA in lymphatic contractility and reactivity after hemorrhagic shock. Levels of RhoA and phospho-RhoA in lymphatic tissue isolated from hemorrhagic shock rats were measured, and the contractility and reactivity to substance P of lymphatics isolated from control rats and rats subjected to shock 0.5 and 2 h were determined with an isolated lymphatic perfusion system at a transmural pressure of 3 cmH2O. At the same time, lymphatics isolated from rats subjected to shock 0.5 and 2 h were incubated with agonists and antagonists of RhoA/Rho kinase signaling. Contractile frequency, end-diastolic and end-systolic diameter, and passive diameter were recorded and used to calculate lymphatic tonic index, contractile amplitude, and fractional pump flow. After stimulation with a gradient of substance P, the differences between the preadministration and postadministration values of contractile frequency, contractile amplitude, tonic index, and fractional pump flow were calculated to further assess lymphatic reactivity. RhoA protein levels were significantly increased at 0.5 h after shock but decreased at 2 and 3 h after shock; p-Rho levels were initially increased after shock and subsequently decreased. The contractility and reactivity of 0.5-h-shocked lymphatics were significantly reduced by the RhoA antagonist C3 transferase and the Rho kinase antagonist Y-27632. The RhoA agonist U-46619 increased the contractility and reactivity of 2-h-shocked lymphatics, whereas Y-27632 suppressed the effect of U-46619. Okadaic acid, an inhibitor of myosin light-chain phosphatase, had no effect on the contractility of 2-h-shocked lymphatics, but improved lymphatic reactivity. These results suggest that RhoA is involved in the modulation of lymphatic pump function during hemorrhagic shock and that its effects may be mediated by Rho kinase and MLCP.

  15. Drainage and Stratification Kinetics of Foam Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiran; Sharma, Vivek

    2014-03-01

    Baking bread, brewing cappuccino, pouring beer, washing dishes, shaving, shampooing, whipping eggs and blowing bubbles all involve creation of aqueous foam films. Foam lifetime, drainage kinetics and stability are strongly influenced by surfactant type (ionic vs non-ionic), and added proteins, particles or polymers modify typical responses. The rate at which fluid drains out from a foam film, i.e. drainage kinetics, is determined in the last stages primarily by molecular interactions and capillarity. Interestingly, for certain low molecular weight surfactants, colloids and polyelectrolyte-surfactant mixtures, a layered ordering of molecules, micelles or particles inside the foam films leads to a stepwise thinning phenomena called stratification. Though stratification is observed in many confined systems including foam films containing particles or polyelectrolytes, films containing globular proteins seem not to show this behavior. Using a Scheludko-type cell, we experimentally study the drainage and stratification kinetics of horizontal foam films formed by protein-surfactant mixtures, and carefully determine how the presence of proteins influences the hydrodynamics and thermodynamics of foam films.

  16. Drawdown behavior of gravity drainage wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aasen, J.A.; Ramey, H.J. Jr.

    1993-10-01

    An analytical solution for drawdown in gravity drainage wells is developed. The free-surface flow is viewed as incompressible, and anisotropy effects are included. The well is a line source well, and the reservoir is infinitely large. The model is valid for small drawdowns. The uniform wellbore potential inner boundary condition is modelled using the proper Green`s function. The discontinuity at the wellbore is solved by introducing a finite skin radius, and the formulation produces a seepage face. The calculated wellbore flux distribution and wellbore pressures are in fair agreement with results obtained using a numerical gravity drainage simulator. Three distinct flow periods are observed. The wellbore storage period is caused by the moving liquid level, and the duration is short. During the long intermediate flow period, the wellbore pressure is nearly constant. In this period the free surface moves downwards, and the liquid is produced mainly by vertical drainage. At long times the semilog straight line appears. The confined liquid solutions by Theis (1935) and van Everdingen and Hurst (1949) may be used during the pseudoradial flow period if the flowrate is low. New type curves are presented that yield both vertical and horizontal permeabilities.

  17. Treatment of severe acute pancreatitis through retroperitoneal laparoscopic drainage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun Tang; Baolin Wang; Bing Xie; Hongming Liu; Ping Chen

    2011-01-01

    A treatment method based on drainage via retroperitoneal laparoscopy was adopted for 15 severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) patients to investigate the feasibility of the method.Ten patients received only drainage via retroperitoneai laparoscopy,four patients received drainage via both retroperitoneal and preperitoneal laparoscopy,and one patient received drainage via conversion to laparotomy.Thirteen patients exhibited a good drainage effect and were successfully cured without any other surgical treatment.Two patients had encapsulated effusions or pancreatic pseudocysts after surgery,but were successfully cured after lavage and B ultrasound-guided percutaneous catheter drainage.SAP treatment via retroperitoneal laparoscopic drainage is an effective surgical method,resulting in minor injury.

  18. Preoperative biliary drainage for periampullary tumors causing obstructive jaundice; DRainage vs. (direct OPeration (DROP-trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sosef Meindert N

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surgery in patients with obstructive jaundice caused by a periampullary (pancreas, papilla, distal bile duct tumor is associated with a higher risk of postoperative complications than in non-jaundiced patients. Preoperative biliary drainage was introduced in an attempt to improve the general condition and thus reduce postoperative morbidity and mortality. Early studies showed a reduction in morbidity. However, more recently the focus has shifted towards the negative effects of drainage, such as an increase of infectious complications. Whether biliary drainage should always be performed in jaundiced patients remains controversial. The randomized controlled multicenter DROP-trial (DRainage vs. Operation was conceived to compare the outcome of a 'preoperative biliary drainage strategy' (standard strategy with that of an 'early-surgery' strategy, with respect to the incidence of severe complications (primary-outcome measure, hospital stay, number of invasive diagnostic tests, costs, and quality of life. Methods/design Patients with obstructive jaundice due to a periampullary tumor, eligible for exploration after staging with CT scan, and scheduled to undergo a "curative" resection, will be randomized to either "early surgical treatment" (within one week or "preoperative biliary drainage" (for 4 weeks and subsequent surgical treatment (standard treatment. Primary outcome measure is the percentage of severe complications up to 90 days after surgery. The sample size calculation is based on the equivalence design for the primary outcome measure. If equivalence is found, the comparison of the secondary outcomes will be essential in selecting the preferred strategy. Based on a 40% complication rate for early surgical treatment and 48% for preoperative drainage, equivalence is taken to be demonstrated if the percentage of severe complications with early surgical treatment is not more than 10% higher compared to standard treatment

  19. Closed suction drainage versus closed simple drainage in the management of modified radical mastectomy wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeome, E R; Adebamowo, C A

    2008-09-01

    To compare the outcomes of modified radical mastectomy wounds managed by closed wound drainage with suction and without suction. A prospective randomised trial was conducted at the University College Hospital in Ibadan, and the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital in Enugu. Fifty women who required modified radical mastectomy for breast cancer were randomised to have closed wound drainage with suction (26 patients) and closed wound drainage without suction (24 patients). There was no significant difference in the intraoperative and postoperative variables. Suction drainage drained less volume of fluid and stayed for a shorter time in the wound, but the differences were not significant. There was no difference in the length of hospital stay, time to stitch removal, and number of dressing changes. More haematomas and wound infections occurred in the simple drain group while more seromas occurred in the suction drain group, but these were not significant. The suction drain was more difficult to manage and the cost was 15 times higher than the simple drainage system. Closed simple drains are not inferior to suction drains in mastectomy wounds and, considering the cost saving and simplicity of postoperative care, they are preferable to suction drains.

  20. Sentinel lymph node detection after transaxillary augmentation mammoplasty: a prospective controlled study utilizing lymphoscintigraphy in 43 breasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sado, Heitor Naoki; Yamada, Airton Seiji [Centro de Radioimunoensaio e Medicina Nuclear do Parana (CERMEN), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)]. E-mail: heitor@cermen.com.br; Graf, Ruth Maria; Timi, Jorge Rufino Ribas; Matias, Jorge Eduardo Fouto [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Hospital de Clinicas. Cirurgia Plastica; Urban, Cicero Andrade [Universidade Posotivo (UnicenP), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Centro Universitario Positivo; Woellner, Luiz Carlos [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Hospital de Clinicas. Medicina Nuclear; Ferreira, Eduardo de Castro [Universidade Federal do Maranhao (UFMA), Sao Luis, MA (Brazil). Hospital Universitario

    2008-09-15

    Objective: To evaluate the potential influence of transaxillary augmentation mammoplasty on future detection of sentinel lymph node. Materials and methods: Prospective controlled study where 22 patients were selected and divided into two groups (post-mammoplasty and control) corresponding to 43 breasts (22 in the post-mammoplasty group and 21 in the control group) evaluated by lymphoscintigraphy immediately after periareolar {sup 99m}Tc-phytate injections. In the statistical analysis, p values < 0.05 were considered as significant. Results: All the breasts in the post-mammoplasty group presented lymphatic drainage to the axillary chain, with no difference as compared with the control group (p 0.488). The average number of hot lymph nodes was 1.27 {+-} 0.46 in the post-mammoplasty group, and 1.33 {+-} 0.58 in the control group (p = 0.895). The mean time required to visualize the first lymph node was 3.14 {+-} 4.42 minutes in the post mammoplasty group, and 5.48 {+-} 5.06 minutes in the control group (p 0.136). Conclusion: Transaxillary augmentation mammoplasty did not affect the future detection of sentinel lymph node. (author)

  1. Sentinel lymph node detection after trans axillary augmentation mammoplasty: a prospective controlled study utilizing lymphoscintigraphy in 43 breasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sado, Heitor Naoki; Timi, Jorge Rufino Ribas; Matias, Jorge Eduardo Fouto [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Program of Post-Graduation in Surgical Practice]. E-mail: heitor@cermen.com.br; Graf, Ruth Maria [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Hospital de Clinicas; Urban, Cicero Andrade [UnicenP, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Yamada, Airton Seiji [CERMEN - Centro de Radioimunoensaio e Medicina Nuclear de Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Woellner, Luiz Carlos [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Hospital de Clinicas. Unit of Nuclear Medicine; Ferreira, Eduardo de Castro [Universidade Federal do Maranhao (UFMA), Sao Luis, MA (Brazil). Hospital de Clinicas

    2008-09-15

    Objective: to evaluate the potential influence of trans axillary augmentation mammoplasty on future detection of sentinel lymph node. Materials and methods: prospective controlled study where 22 patients were selected and divided into two groups (post-mammoplasty and control) corresponding to 43 breasts (22 in the post-mammoplasty group and 21 in the control group) evaluated by lymphoscintigraphy immediately after periareolar {sup 99m}Tc-phytate injections. In the statistical analysis, p values < 0.05 were considered as significant. Results: all the breasts in the post-mammoplasty group presented lymphatic drainage to the axillary chain, with no difference as compared with the control group (p 0.488). The average number of hot lymph nodes was 1.27 {+-} 0.46 in the post-mammoplasty group, and 1.33 {+-} 0.58 in the control group (p = 0.895). The mean time required to visualize the first lymph node was 3.14 {+-} 4.42 minutes in the post mammoplasty group, and 5.48 {+-} 5.06 minutes in the control group (p 0.136). Conclusion: transaxillary augmentation mammoplasty did not affect the future detection of sentinel lymph node. (author)

  2. Fluoroscopy guided percutaneous catheter drainage of pneumothorax in good mid-term patency with tube drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ga Young; Oh, Joo Hyung; Yoon, Yup; Sung, Dong Wook [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-10-15

    To evaluate efficacy and the safety of percutaneous catheter drainage in patients with pneumothorax that is difficult to treat with closed thoracotomy. We retrospectively reviewed effectiveness of percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD) in 10 patients with pneumothorax. The catheter was inserted under fluoroscopic guidance. Seven patients had spontaneous pneumothorax caused by tuberculosis (n =4), reptured bullae (n = 2), and histiocytosis-X (n = 1). Three patients had iatrogenic pneumothorax caused by trauma (n = 1) and surgery (n = 2). All procedures were performed by modified Seldinger's method by using 8F-20F catheter. All catheter were inserted successfully. In 9 of 10 patients, the procedure was curative without further therapy. Duration of catheter insertion ranged from 1 day to 26 days. In the remaining 1 patient in whom multiple pneumothorax occurred after operation, catheter insertion was performed twice. Percutaneous catheter drainage under fluoroscopic guidance is effective and safe procedure for treatment of pneumothorax in patients with failed closed thoracotomy.

  3. Pinolenic Acid in Structured Triacylglycerols Exhibits Superior Intestinal Lymphatic Absorption As Compared to Pinolenic Acid in Natural Pine Nut Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Min-Yu; Woo, Hyunjoon; Kim, Juyeon; Kong, Daecheol; Choi, Hee-Don; Choi, In-Wook; Kim, In-Hwan; Noh, Sang K; Kim, Byung Hee

    2017-03-01

    The positional distribution pattern of fatty acids (FAs) in the triacylglycerols (TAGs) affects intestinal absorption of these FAs. The aim of this study was to compare lymphatic absorption of pinolenic acid (PLA) present in structured pinolenic TAG (SPT) where PLA was evenly distributed on the glycerol backbone, with absorption of pine nut oil (PNO) where PLA was predominantly positioned at the sn-3 position. SPT was prepared via the nonspecific lipase-catalyzed esterification of glycerol with free FA obtained from PNO. Lymphatic absorption of PLA from PNO and from SPT was compared in a rat model of lymphatic cannulation. Significantly (P PNO (26.2 ± 0.6% dose), thereby indicating that PLA present in SPT has a greater capacity for lymphatic absorption than PLA from PNO.

  4. By Different Cellular Mechanisms, Lymphatic Vessels Sprout by Endothelial Cell Recruitment Whereas Blood Vessels Grow by Vascular Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia; McKay, Terri L.; Leontiev, Dmitry; Condrich, Terence K.; DiCorleto, Paul E.

    2005-01-01

    The development of effective vascular therapies requires the understanding of all modes of vessel formation contributing to vasculogenesis, angiogenesis (here termed hemangiogenesis) and lymphangiogenesis. We show that lymphangiogenesis proceeds by blind-ended vessel sprouting via recruitment of isolated endothelial progenitor cells to the tips of growing vessels, whereas hemangiogenesis occurs by non-sprouting vessel expansion from the capillary network, during middevelopment in the quail chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). Blood vessels expanded out of capillaries that displayed transient expression of alpha smooth muscle actin (alphaSMA), accompanied by mural recruitment of migratory progenitor cells expressing SMA. Lymphatics and blood vessels were identified by confocal/fluorescence microscopy of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2, alphaSMA (expressed on CAM blood vessels but not on lymphatics), homeobox transcription factor Prox-1 (specific to CAM lymphatic endothelium), and the quail hematopoetic/vascular marker, QH-1. Expression of VEGFR-1 was highly restricted to blood vessels (primarily capillaries). VEGFR-2 was expressed intensely in isolated hematopoietic cells, lymphatic vessels and moderately in blood vessels. Prox-1 was absent from endothelial progenitor cells prior to lymphatic recruitment. Although vascular endothelial growth factor-165 (VEGF(sub 165)) is a key regulator of numerous cellular processes in hemangiogenesis and vasculogenesis, the role of VEGF(sub 165) in lymphangiogenesis is less clear. Exogenous VEGF(sub 165) increased blood vessel density without changing endogenous modes of vascular/lymphatic vessel formation or marker expression patterns. However, VEGF(sub 165) did increase the frequency of blood vascular anastomoses and strongly induced the antimaturational dissociation of lymphatics from blood vessels, with frequent formation of homogeneous lymphatic networks.

  5. Aggressive cutaneous vasculitis in a patient with chronic lymphatic leukemia following granulocyte colony stimulating factor injection: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    El Husseiny Noha M; Mattar Mervat M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Vasculitis has been reported in a few cases of chronic lymphatic leukemia and with granulocytic colony-stimulating factor therapy. Those with granulocytic colony-stimulating factor occurred after prolonged therapy and there was a rise in total leukocyte count unlike that in our patient who received just a single injection for the first time. Case presentation We report the case of a 64-year-old Egyptian man with chronic lymphatic leukemia who developed progressive cutane...

  6. Assessment of waterlogging in agricultural megaprojects in the closed drainage basins of the Western Desert of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. El Bastawesy

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the development of waterlogging in the cultivated and arable areas within typical dryland closed drainage basins (e.g. the Farafra and Baharia Oases, which are located in the Western Desert of Egypt. Multi-temporal remote sensing data of the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+ were collected and processed to detect the land cover changes; cultivations, and the extent of water ponds and seepage channels. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM digital elevation model (DEM has been processed to delineate the catchment morphometrical parameters (i.e. drainage networks, catchment divides and surface areas of different basins and to examine the spatial distribution of cultivated fields and their relation to the extracted drainage networks. The soil of these closed drainage basins is mainly shallow and lithic with high calcium carbonate content; therefore, the downward percolation of excess irrigation water is limited by the development of subsurface hardpan, which also saturates the upper layer of soil with water. The subsurface seepage from the newly cultivated areas in the Farafra Oasis has revealed the pattern of buried alluvial channels, which are waterlogged and outlined by the growth of diagnostic saline shrubs. Furthermore, the courses of these waterlogged channels are coinciding with their counterparts of the SRTM DEM, and the recent satellite images show that the surface playas in the downstream of these channels are partially occupied by water ponds. On the other hand, a large water pond has occupied the main playa and submerged the surrounding fields, as a large area has been cultivated within a relatively small closed drainage basin in the Baharia Oasis. The geomorphology of closed drainage basins has to be considered when planning for a new cultivation in dryland catchments to better control waterlogging hazards. The "dry-drainage" concept can be implemented as the drainage and

  7. Lymphatic compensation during the postoperative period after breast cancer treatment with axillary dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Maia Freire de Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lymphedema secondary to breast cancer causes physical and psychological morbidity and compromises quality of life. The objective of this literature review was to study lymphatic compensation after surgery for breast cancer and the factors that influence this process, with a view to understanding the etiopathogenesis of lymphedema. Articles indexed on Pubmed published from 1985 to 2012 were reviewed. According to the literature, lymphangiogenesis reduces damage to lymph vessels; there is little evidence that Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor is elevated in women with lymphedema; lymphovenous communications can be observed 60 days after surgery; women without lymphedema have acquired alternative mechanisms for removal of proteins from the interstitial space; and active exercise stimulates lymphatic and venous pumping. Health professionals should teach these patients about the risk factors for lymphedema. The effects of lymphangiogenesis, proteolysis and lymphovenous communications on development of lymphedema should be studied, since these events are intimately related.

  8. Impaired PIEZO1 function in patients with a novel autosomal recessive congenital lymphatic dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukacs, Viktor; Mathur, Jayanti; Mao, Rong; Bayrak-Toydemir, Pinar; Procter, Melinda; Cahalan, Stuart M; Kim, Helen J; Bandell, Michael; Longo, Nicola; Day, Ronald W; Stevenson, David A; Patapoutian, Ardem; Krock, Bryan L

    2015-09-21

    Piezo1 ion channels are mediators of mechanotransduction in several cell types including the vascular endothelium, renal tubular cells and erythrocytes. Gain-of-function mutations in PIEZO1 cause an autosomal dominant haemolytic anaemia in humans called dehydrated hereditary stomatocytosis. However, the phenotypic consequence of PIEZO1 loss of function in humans has not previously been documented. Here we discover a novel role of this channel in the lymphatic system. Through whole-exome sequencing, we identify biallelic mutations in PIEZO1 (a splicing variant leading to early truncation and a non-synonymous missense variant) in a pair of siblings affected with persistent lymphoedema caused by congenital lymphatic dysplasia. Analysis of patients' erythrocytes as well as studies in a heterologous system reveal greatly attenuated PIEZO1 function in affected alleles. Our results delineate a novel clinical category of PIEZO1-associated hereditary lymphoedema.

  9. Slit-Robo signaling mediates lymphangiogenesis and promotes tumor lymphatic metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-Mei; Han, Hai-Xiong; Sui, Fei; Dai, Yu-Min; Chen, Ming; Geng, Jian-Guo

    2010-05-28

    The Slit family of guidance cues binds to Roundabout (Robo) receptors to modulate neuronal, leukocytic, and endothelial migration. Slit-Robo signaling had been reported to function as chemoattractive signal for vascular endothelial cells during angiogenesis. In this study, we found that Robo1 was expressed in lymphatic endothelial cells to mediate the migration and tube formation of these cells upon Slit2 stimulation, which were specifically inhibited by the function-blocking antibody R5 to Slit2/Robo1 interaction. To further explore the lymphangiogenic effect and significance mediated by Slit-Robo signaling, we intercrossed Slit2 transgenic mice with a non-metastatic RIP1-Tag2 mouse tumor model, and found that transgenic overexpression of Slit2 significantly enhanced tumor lymphangiogenesis and subsequently promoted mesenteric lymph node metastasis of pancreatic islet tumors. Taken together, our findings reveal that through interacting with Robo1, Slit2 is a novel and potent lymphangiogenic factor and contributes to tumor lymphatic metastasis.

  10. The emerging story of disability associated with lymphatic filariasis: a critical review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne Michelle Zeldenryk

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Globally, 40 million people live with the chronic effects of lymphatic filariasis (LF, making it the second leading cause of disability in the world. Despite this, there is limited research into the experiences of people living with the disease. This review summarises the research on the experiences of people living with LF disability. The review highlights the widespread social stigma and oppressive psychological issues that face most people living with LF-related disability. Physical manifestations of LF make daily activities and participation in community life difficult. The findings confirm the need for the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF to support morbidity management activities that address the complex biopsychosocial issues that people living with LF-related disability face.

  11. Postprandial lymphatic pump function after a high-fat meal: a characterization of contractility, flow, and viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassis, Timothy; Yarlagadda, Sri Charan; Kohan, Alison B; Tso, Patrick; Breedveld, Victor; Dixon, J Brandon

    2016-05-15

    Dietary lipids are transported from the intestine through contractile lymphatics. Chronic lipid loads can adversely affect lymphatic function. However, the acute lymphatic pump response in the mesentery to a postprandial lipid meal has gone unexplored. In this study, we used the rat mesenteric collecting vessel as an in vivo model to quantify the effect of lipoproteins on vessel function. Lipid load was continuously monitored by using the intensity of a fluorescent fatty-acid analog, which we infused along with a fat emulsion through a duodenal cannula. The vessel contractility was simultaneously quantified. We demonstrated for the first time that collecting lymphatic vessels respond to an acute lipid load by reducing pump function. High lipid levels decreased contraction frequency and amplitude. We also showed a strong tonic response through a reduction in the end-diastolic and systolic diameters. We further characterized the changes in flow rate and viscosity and showed that both increase postprandially. In addition, shear-mediated Ca(2+) signaling in lymphatic endothelial cells differed when cultured with lipoproteins. Together these results show that the in vivo response could be both shear and lipid mediated and provide the first evidence that high postprandial lipid has an immediate negative effect on lymphatic function even in the acute setting. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  12. B lymphocyte-specific c-Myc expression stimulates early and functional expansion of the vasculature and lymphatics during lymphomagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddell, Alanna; Mezquita, Pau; Brandvold, Kimberly A; Farr, Andrew; Iritani, Brian M

    2003-12-01

    Expression of the c-myc proto-oncogene is deregulated in many human cancers. We examined the role of c-Myc in stimulating angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in a highly metastatic murine model of Burkitt's lymphoma (E micro -c-myc), where c-Myc is expressed exclusively in B lymphocytes. Immunohistochemical analysis of bone marrow and lymph nodes from young (preneoplastic) E micro -c-myc transgenic mice revealed increased growth of blood vessels, which are functional by dye flow assay. Lymphatic sinuses also increased in size and number within the lymph nodes, as demonstrated by immunostaining for with a lymphatic endothelial marker 10.1.1. The 10.1.1 antibody recognizes VEGFR-2- and VEGFR-3-positive lymphatic sinuses and vessels within lymph nodes, and also recognizes lymphatic vessels in other tissues. Subcutaneously injected dye traveled more efficiently through draining lymph nodes in E micro -c-myc mice, indicating that these hypertrophic lymphatic sinuses increase lymph flow. Purified B lymphocytes and lymphoid tissues from E micro -c-myc mice expressed increased levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by immunohistochemical or immunoblot assays, which could promote blood and lymphatic vessel growth through interaction with VEGFR-2, which is expressed on the endothelium of both vessel types. These results indicate that constitutive c-Myc expression stimulates angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis, which may promote the rapid growth and metastasis of c-Myc-expressing cancer cells, respectively.

  13. Recovery of water from acid mine drainage

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mulopo, J

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available acid mine drainage J Mulopo, SR Motaung , M Mashego and M Moalusi Natural Resources and the Environment, CSIR, P O Box 395, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa ConClusion The optimal region for the operation and design of a sulphate removal reactor... operating conditions results in a process with somehow large excess feed. Hence, one should not optimize the reactor configuration independently of the process in which the reactor is going to be used. Figure 1: Rate of Sulphate Removal at 25o...

  14. Study on the Effect of Chinese Herbal Medicine in Regulating Peritoneal Lymphatic Stomata and Enhancing Drainage of Ascites in Mice with Liver Fibrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    [1]Ballardini G, Fallani M, Biagini G, et al. Desmin and actin in the identification Ito cells and in monitoring their evolution to myofibroblasts in experimental liver fibrosis. Virchows Achiv B Cell Pathol 1998;56(1):45-49.[2]Runyon BA, Sugano S, Kanel G. A rodent model of cirrhosis, ascites, and bacterial peritonitis. Gastroenterology 1991;100(3):489-493.[3]LI J, LI YH, XUE JC, et al. Protective effect of Tanshinine on experimental damage of hepatocytes. Chinese J of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine on Liver Dis 1996;6(3):29-31.[4]WANG LT. The cytological mechanism of Chinese herbal medicines in antagonizing liver fibrosis. Chinese J of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine on Liver Dis 1997;7(4):249-252.[5]LI J, YU S. Study on the ultrastructure of the peritoneal stomata in humans. Acta Anat 1991;141(1):26-31.[6]LI J, LU Z, WU N, et al. A scanning electron microscopy and computer image processing morphometric study of the pharmacological regulation of patency of the peritoneal stomata. Acta Anat 1996;178(5):443-447.

  15. Localized tissue water changes accompanying one manual lymphatic drainage (MLD) therapy session assessed by changes in tissue dielectric constant inpatients with lower extremity lymphedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayrovitz, H N; Davey, S; Shapiro, E

    2008-06-01

    Previous reports described the utility of assessing local tissue water via tissue dielectric constant (TDC) measurements. Our goal was to determine the suitability of this method to evaluate lymphedema changes. For this purpose, we measured changes in TDC produced by one MLD treatment in 27 legs of 18 patients with lower extremity lymphedema. TDC values were measured to a depth of 2.5 mm at the greatest leg swelling site before and after one MLD treatment. Girth at the target site was measured with a calibrated tape measure. TDC values, which range from 1 for zero water to 78.5 for all water within the sampled volume, were measured four times and the average used to estimate local changes. Results showed that in every case the posttreatment TDC was reduced from its pretreatment value with percentage reductions (mean SD) of -9.8 +/- 5.64% (p TDC measurements reflect changes to a depth of about 2.5 mm whereas girth measurements reflect conditions of the entire cross-section, TDC assessment may be more sensitive to localized lymphedema changes. This finding suggests that TDC measurements are useful as complementary and perhaps as independent assessment methods of edema/lymphedema and treatment-related changes.

  16. Significance of periductal lymphatic and blood vascular densities in intraductal carcinoma of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gohary, Yasser M; Metwally, Ghada; Saad, Reda S; Robinson, Morton J; Mesko, Thomas; Poppiti, Robert J

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the significance of periductal lymphatic and blood vascular densities in intraductal carcinomas (IDC) of the breast. Thirty five cases of pure IDC treated by partial or total mastectomy were reviewed. Seven cases with normal breast tissue and 48 cases of invasive breast carcinoma were included as controls. All cases were immunostained with D2-40 and CD31. Positively stained microvessels were counted in densely vascular/lymphatic foci (hot spots) at 400x (=0.17 mm(2)) in the periductal areas. IDC without comedonecrosis showed a mean periductal D2-40 lymphatic microvessel density (LMD) of 5.8 +/- 5 (range 0-18), and a CD31 microvessel density (MD) of 14 +/- 8.9 (range 1-40). IDC with comedonecrosis showed periductal D2-40 LMD of 8.4 +/- 3.8 (range 4-18), and a CD31 MD of 24.3 +/- 7.6 (range 14-40). There was a significant difference between periductal D2-40 LMD and CD31 MD counts in IDC with and without comedonecrosis. There was a positive correlation of periductal D2-40 LMD and CD31 MD counts with high nuclear grade (r = 0.39 and 0.56) of IDC as well as with the presence of comedonecrosis (r = 0.49 and 0.59). Both D2-40 LMD and CD31 MD did not correlate significantly with tumor size, estrogen status, or progesterone status. As IDC with comedonecrosis and/or high nuclear grade has a worse prognosis than IDC without comedonecrosis and/or with low nuclear grade, it appears that lymphatic and blood vascular density evaluated by D2-40 and CD31, respectively, are independent prognostic indicators for patients with IDC of the breast and may be an indicator of early or unrecognized invasion or "regression."

  17. Maximum shortening velocity of lymphatic muscle approaches that of striated muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rongzhen; Taucer, Anne I; Gashev, Anatoliy A; Muthuchamy, Mariappan; Zawieja, David C; Davis, Michael J

    2013-11-15

    Lymphatic muscle (LM) is widely considered to be a type of vascular smooth muscle, even though LM cells uniquely express contractile proteins from both smooth muscle and cardiac muscle. We tested the hypothesis that LM exhibits an unloaded maximum shortening velocity (Vmax) intermediate between that of smooth muscle and cardiac muscle. Single lymphatic vessels were dissected from the rat mesentery, mounted in a servo-controlled wire myograph, and subjected to isotonic quick release protocols during spontaneous or agonist-evoked contractions. After maximal activation, isotonic quick releases were performed at both the peak and plateau phases of contraction. Vmax was 0.48 ± 0.04 lengths (L)/s at the peak: 2.3 times higher than that of mesenteric arteries and 11.4 times higher than mesenteric veins. In cannulated, pressurized lymphatic vessels, shortening velocity was determined from the maximal rate of constriction [rate of change in internal diameter (-dD/dt)] during spontaneous contractions at optimal preload and minimal afterload; peak -dD/dt exceeded that obtained during any of the isotonic quick release protocols (2.14 ± 0.30 L/s). Peak -dD/dt declined with pressure elevation or activation using substance P. Thus, isotonic methods yielded Vmax values for LM in the mid to high end (0.48 L/s) of those the recorded for phasic smooth muscle (0.05-0.5 L/s), whereas isobaric measurements yielded values (>2.0 L/s) that overlapped the midrange of values for cardiac muscle (0.6-3.3 L/s). Our results challenge the dogma that LM is classical vascular smooth muscle, and its unusually high Vmax is consistent with the expression of cardiac muscle contractile proteins in the lymphatic vessel wall.

  18. Genetic Fingerprint Concerned with Lymphatic Metastasis of Human Lung Squamous Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolong ZHAO

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective With the most recent introduction of microarray technology to biology, it becomes possible to perform comprehensive analysis of gene expression in cancer cell. In this study the laser microdissection technique and cDNA microarray analysis were combined to obtain accurate molecular profiles of lymphatic metastasis in patients with lung squamous cell carcinoma. Methods Primary lung squamous cancer tissues and regional lymph nodes were obtained from 10 patients who underwent complete resection of lung cancer. According to the source of lung cancer cells, the samples were classified into three groups: the primary tumor with lymphatic metastasis (TxN+, n=5, the primary tumor without lymphatic metastasis (TxN-, n=5 and matched tumor cells from metastatic lymph nodes (N+, n=5. Total RNA was extracted from laser microdissected tumor samples. Adequate RNA starting material of mRNA from primary tumor or metastatic nodes were labeled and then hybridized into the same microarray containing 6 000 known, named human genes/ESTs. After scanning, data analysis was performed using GeneSpringTM6.2. Results A total of 37 genes were found to be able to separate TxN+ from TxN-. TxN+ have higher levels of genes concerned with structural protein, signal transducer, chaperone and enzyme. TxN- have higher levels of genes coding for cell cycle regulator, transporter, signal transducer and apoptosis regulator. Interestingly, there were no differentially expressed genes between N+ and TxN+. Conclusion The acquisition of the metastatic phenotype might occur early in the development of lung squamous cancer. We raise the hypothesis that the gene-expression signature described herein is valuable to elucidate the molecular mechanisms regarding lymphatic metastasis and to look for novel therapeutic targets.

  19. ANALYSIS OF GENES ASSOCIATED WITH LYMPHATIC METASTASIS IN PANCREATIC CARCINOMA USING cDNA MICROARRAY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭志军; 胡先贵; 曹贵松; 唐岩

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To identify new markers for prediction of lymph node metastasis. Methods: cDNA probes were prepared by labeling mRNA from samples of four pancreatic carcinoma tissues with Cy5-dUTP and mRNA from adjacent normal tissues with Cy3-dUTP respectively through reverse transcription. The mixed probes of each sample were then hybridized with 4,096 cDNA arrays (4,000 unique human cDNA sequences), and the fluorescent signals were scanned by ScanArray 3000 scanner (General Scanning, Inc.). The values of Cy5-dUTP and Cy3-dUTP on each spot were analyzed and calculated by ImaGene 3.0 software (BioDiscovery, Inc.). Genes that differentially expresses in each cancerous tissue were sought out according to the standard that the absolute value of natural logarithm of the ratio of Cy5 to Cy3 is greater than 0.69, i. e., more than 2 times change of gene expression, and the signal value of either Cy3 and Cy5 need to be greater than 600. Then, the genes differently expressed in cancer with and without lymphatic metastasis were screened out for further analysis. Results: Among 2 samples with lymphatic metastasis and 2 samples without metastasis, 56 genes, which accounted for 1.40% of genes on the microarray slides, exhibited differentially expression in cancerous tissues with lymphatic metastasis. There were 32 over-expressed genes including 11 having been registered in Genebank, and 24 under-expressed genes including 3 in Genebank. Conclusion: Microarray analysis may provide invaluable information to identify specific gene expression profile of lymphatic metastasis in pancreatic cancer.

  20. Ultrasound-guided drainage of deep pelvic abscesses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Torben; Nolsøe, Christian; Skjoldbye, Bjørn

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate and evaluate the ultrasound-guided drainage of deep pelvic abscesses in which transabdominal percutaneous access could not be performed because of overlying structures. A retrospective analysis of 32 consecutive patients with 33 deep pelvic abscesses...... (median diameter 7 cm), 19 were treated with catheter drainage and 18 of these cases resulted in favorable clinical outcomes. Of the smaller abscesses (median diameter 4 cm), 14 were treated with needle drainage. In two of these cases, follow-up US showed that a repeat puncture and drainage was necessary...... and the subsequent in-dwelling catheter period, there were no serious complications related to the drainage procedures. We conclude that ultrasound-guided transrectal, transvaginal, transperineal and transgluteal drainage of deep pelvic abscesses are safe and effective treatment approaches. Based on our findings...

  1. Novel Mechanisms of Compromised Lymphatic Endothelial Cell Homeostasis in Obesity: The Role of Leptin in Lymphatic Endothelial Cell Tube Formation and Proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinori Sato

    Full Text Available Leptin is a hormone produced by adipose tissue that regulates various physiological processes. Recent studies have shown that the level of circulating leptin is elevated in obese patients and have suggested a relationship between obesity and postoperative lymphedema. However, the mechanisms by which postoperative lymphedema develops in obese patients and the mechanisms by which leptin regulates lymphatic endothelial cell homeostasis such as tube formation and cell proliferation remain unknown. Here we report that leptin regulates tube formation and cell proliferation in human dermal lymphatic endothelial cells (HDLECs by activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 pathway, which is downstream signaling of the leptin receptor. Additionally, we found that upregulation of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 underlies the mechanisms by which a high dose of leptin inhibits cell proliferation and tube formation. Leptin also enhanced expression of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 in HDLECs. Interestingly, IL-6 rescues the compromised cell proliferation and tube formation caused by treatment with a high dose of leptin in an autocrine or paracrine manner. Taken together, our findings reveal a novel mechanism by which compromised HDLECs maintain their homeostasis during inflammation mediated by leptin and IL-6. Thus, regulating the level of leptin or IL-6 may be a viable strategy to reduce the incidence of postoperative lymphedema.

  2. Preoperative biliary drainage for periampullary tumors causing obstructive jaundice; DRainage vs. (direct) OPeration (DROP-trial)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.A. van der Gaag (Niels); S.M.M. de Castro (Steve); E.A.J. Rauws (Erik); M.J. Bruno (Marco); C.H.J. van Eijck (Casper); E.J. Kuipers (Ernst); J.J.G.M. Gerritsen (Josephus); J.P. Rutten (Joost Paul); J.W. Greve; E.J. Hesselink (Eric); J.H. Klinkenbijl (Jean); I.H.M.B. Rinkes; D. Boerma (Djamila); B.A. Bonsing (Bert); C.J. van Laarhoven (Cees); F.J. Kubben; E. van der Harst (Erwin); M.N. Sosef (Meindert); K. Bosscha (Koop); I.H.J.T. de Hingh (Ignace); L. Th de Wit (Laurens); O.M. van Delden (Otto); O.R.C. Busch (Olivier); T.M. van Gulik (Thomas); P.M.M. Bossuyt (Patrick); D.J. Gouma (Dirk)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBackground. Surgery in patients with obstructive jaundice caused by a periampullary (pancreas, papilla, distal bile duct) tumor is associated with a higher risk of postoperative complications than in non-jaundiced patients. Preoperative biliary drainage was introduced in an attempt to im

  3. Comparing twist-drill drainage with burr hole drainage for chronic subdural hematoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIN Xin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: The surgical management of chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH is still a controver- sial issue, and a standard therapy has not been established because of the unclear pathogenic mechanisms in CSDH. The intention of this paper is to find a simple and efficient surgical procedure for CSDH. Methods: A retrospective study of 448 patients with CSDH by surgical treatment during 2005 to 2009 was con- ducted in order to compare the efficiency between two dif- ferent primary surgical methods, i.e. twist-drill drainage with- out irrigation in Group A (n=178 and one burr-hole with irrigation in Group B (n=270. The results were statistically analyzed. Results: The reoperation rates in Group A and Group B were 7.9% and 11.9% respectively. The good outcome rate was 88.8% and 75.5%, the complication was 7.9% and 20.7% in Group A and Group B, respectively. Conclusions: The burr-hole drainage with irrigation of the hematoma cavity is not beneficial to the outcome and prognosis. Irrigation is not important in the surgical treat- ment for CSDH. Thus in initial treatment, twist-drill drainage without irrigation of the hematoma cavity is recommended because it is relatively safe, time-saving and cost-effective. Key words: Hematoma, subdural; Brain injury, chronic; Drainage

  4. Reuse of drainage water model : calculation method of drainage water and watertable depth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, C.W.J.; Rijtema, P.E.; Abdel Khalik, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    The main objective of the project is to assist the Ministry of Irrigation in Egypt in the planning of future watermanagement strategies incorporating reuse of drainage water practices. In order to achieve this main objective a comprehensive measurement programme has been initiated and a mathematical

  5. Morbidity trends in Lymphatic Filariasis: Analysis from a tertiary care center in Kerala, Southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma Krishna

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis in India contributes to nearly 40% of the global endemic burden. There is paucity of data regarding the association of chronic lymphatic filariasis with diabetes, coronary heart disease and other comorbidities. Case records over a period of ten years from 2001-2010 were reviewed and 113 diagnosed chronic filariasis cases from 13 districts of the state were identified.Prevalence of each of the morbidity with age and sex association was calculated. A total of 82(72.6% of them were in the age group of 60-85 years. Hypertension was noted in 48, type II diabetes in 46 and coronary artery disease in 43. Filariasis had a significant association with type II diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease (p value< 0.05. Secondary infection. of leg ranging from cellulitis to gangrene was seen in 33(29.2%. Lymphatic Filariasis may be linked as an inclining factor for the development of type II diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease over 60 years. Secondary leg infections continue in diabetic patients. The immuno- modulatory mechanisms involved needs to be explored.

  6. Cryotherapy for massive vulvar lymphatic leakage complicated with lymphangiomas following gynecological cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanazume, Shintaro; Douzono, Haruhiko; Kubo, Hidemichi; Nagata, Tomomi; Douchi, Tsutomu; Kobayashi, Hiroaki

    2014-11-01

    Vulvar lymphatic leakage is a severe complication associated with gynecological cancer treatments. However, standard treatment strategies have not yet been determined. We encountered a rare case of a 76-year-old multiparous woman suffering from massive lymphatic fluid leakage from the entire vulva, and papules developed and were identified as lymphangiomas. A large amount of straw-colored discharge continued from all vulvar papules, which extended over the mons pubis. Nine years ago, the patient had undergone a radical hysterectomy with concurrent chemoradiation for uterine cervical cancer treatment. Her serum albumin level was 1.9 mg/dl, which was attributed to the loss of a large amount of lymph fluid due to leakage from the vulva. Her quality of life gradually decreased because of general fatigue and the need for frequent diaper exchanges every 2 h. The patient received a less-invasive treatment with cryotherapy using liquid nitrogen. She also received a multimodality treatment consisting of the intravenous administration of albumin, massage of the lower limbs and intensive rehabilitation. Cryotherapy was administered once a week for 3 months. Her discharge almost stopped and vulvar lymphangiomas decreased without any major complications. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of massive lymphatic leakage complicated with vulvar lymphangiomas. Additionally, this case may represent the first successful treatment of vulva lymph leakage by cryotherapy without recurrence. Cryotherapy may have the potential to improve the quality of life as a less-invasive treatment for gynecological cancer survivors without serious complications.

  7. Biodistribution and Lymphatic Tracking of the Main Neurotoxin of Micrurus fulvius Venom by Molecular Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Vergara

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The venom of the Eastern coral snake Micrurus fulvius can cause respiratory paralysis in the bitten patient, which is attributable to β-neurotoxins (β-NTx. The aim of this work was to study the biodistribution and lymphatic tracking by molecular imaging of the main β-NTx of M. fulvius venom. β-NTx was bioconjugated with the chelator diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid (DTPA and radiolabeled with the radionuclide Gallium-67. Radiolabeling efficiency was 60%–78%; radiochemical purity ≥92%; and stability at 48 h ≥ 85%. The median lethal dose (LD50 and PLA2 activity of bioconjugated β-NTx decreased 3 and 2.5 times, respectively, in comparison with native β-NTx. The immune recognition by polyclonal antibodies decreased 10 times. Biodistribution of β-NTx-DTPA-67Ga in rats showed increased uptake in popliteal, lumbar nodes and kidneys that was not observed with 67Ga-free. Accumulation in organs at 24 h was less than 1%, except for kidneys, where the average was 3.7%. The inoculation site works as a depot, since 10% of the initial dose of β-NTx-DTPA-67Ga remains there for up to 48 h. This work clearly demonstrates the lymphatic system participation in the biodistribution of β-NTx-DTPA-67Ga. Our approach could be applied to analyze the role of the lymphatic system in snakebite for a better understanding of envenoming.

  8. Delayed wound healing due to increased interleukin-10 expression in mice with lymphatic dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Takayuki; Sugaya, Makoto; Blauvelt, Andrew; Okochi, Hitoshi; Sato, Shinichi

    2013-07-01

    Skin wound healing is an interactive process involving soluble mediators, ECM, resident cells, and infiltrating cells. Little is known about wound healing in the presence of lymphedema. In this study, we investigated wound healing using kCYC⁺/⁻ mice, which demonstrate severe lymphatic dysfunction. Wound healing was delayed significantly in kCYC⁺/⁻ mice when compared with WT mice. In wounded skin of kCYC⁺/⁻ mice, mast cell numbers were increased compared with WT mice, whereas macrophage numbers were decreased. Moreover, IL-10 expression by mast cells was increased, and expression of bFGF, mainly produced by macrophages, was decreased in wounded skin of kCYC⁺/⁻ mice compared with WT mice. We next crossed kCYC⁺/⁻ mice with IL-10⁻/⁻ mice, which were reported to show accelerated wound closure. In kCYC⁺/⁻ IL-10⁺/⁻ mice, time course of wound healing, numbers of macrophages, and IL-10 mRNA expression levels in wounded skin were comparable with WT IL-10⁺/⁻ mice. Similar results were obtained using a different lymphedema model, in which circumferential skin excision was performed on the tails of mice to remove the superficial lymphatics. In summary, these findings suggest that IL-10 plays an important role in delayed wound healing in the setting of lymphatic dysfunction.

  9. The lymphatic phenotype in Turner syndrome: an evaluation of nineteen patients and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atton, Giles; Gordon, Kristiana; Brice, Glen; Keeley, Vaughan; Riches, Katie; Ostergaard, Pia; Mortimer, Peter; Mansour, Sahar

    2015-12-01

    Turner syndrome is a complex disorder caused by an absent or abnormal sex chromosome. It affects 1/2000-1/3000 live-born females. Congenital lymphoedema of the hands, feet and neck region (present in over 60% of patients) is a common and key diagnostic indicator, although is poorly described in the literature. The aim of this study was to analyse the medical records of a cohort of 19 Turner syndrome patients attending three specialist primary lymphoedema clinics, to elucidate the key features of the lymphatic phenotype and provide vital insights into its diagnosis, natural history and management. The majority of patients presented at birth with four-limb lymphoedema, which often resolved in early childhood, but frequently recurred in later life. The swelling was confined to the legs and hands with no facial or genital swelling. There was only one case of suspected systemic involvement (intestinal lymphangiectasia). The lymphoscintigraphy results suggest that the lymphatic phenotype of Turner syndrome may be due to a failure of initial lymphatic (capillary) function.

  10. Surgical anatomy of the retroperitoneal spaces, Part III: Retroperitoneal blood vessels and lymphatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirilas, Petros; Skandalakis, John E

    2010-02-01

    In this article, we discuss the surgical anatomy of the blood vessels and the lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes found in the retroperitoneum. Retroperitoneal blood vessels include the aorta and all its branches--parietal and visceral--from the diaphragm to the pelvis, and the inferior vena cava and its tributaries. The retroperitoneal lymphatics form a very rich and extensive chain. As a general rule, lymphatics follow the arteries and named lymph nodes are found at the root of the arteries. Retroperitoneal nodes of the abdomen comprise the inferior diaphragmatic nodes and the lumbar nodes. The latter are classified as left lumbar (aortic), intermediate (interaorticovenous), and right lumbar (caval). These nodes surround the aorta and the inferior vena cava. Around the aorta lie the paraortic nodes, preaortic nodes (include celiac, superior mesenteric, inferior mesenteric nodes collecting lymph from the splanchna supplied by the homonymous arteries), and retroaortic nodes. Similarly, around the vena cava lie the paracaval, precaval, and retrocaval nodes. Pelvic nodes include the common iliac, external and internal iliac, obturator, and sacral nodes.

  11. Global eradication of lymphatic filariasis: the value of chronic disease control in parasite elimination programmes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Michael

    Full Text Available The ultimate goal of the global programme against lymphatic filariasis is eradication through irrevocable cessation of transmission using 4 to 6 years of annual single dose mass drug administration. The costs of eradication, managerial impediments to executing national control programmes, and scientific uncertainty about transmission endpoints, are challenges to the success of this effort, especially in areas of high endemicity where financial resources are limited. We used a combined analysis of empirical community data describing the association between infection and chronic disease prevalence, mathematical modelling, and economic analyses to identify and evaluate the feasibility of setting an infection target level at which the chronic pathology attributable to lymphatic filariasis--lymphoedema of the extremities and hydroceles--becomes negligible in the face of continuing transmission as a first stage option in achieving the elimination of this parasitic disease. The results show that microfilaria prevalences below a threshold of 3.55% at a blood sampling volume of 1 ml could constitute readily achievable and sustainable targets to control lymphatic filarial disease. They also show that as a result of the high marginal cost of curing the last few individuals to achieve elimination, maximal benefits can occur at this threshold. Indeed, a key finding from our coupled economic and epidemiological analysis is that when initial uncertainty regarding eradication occurs and prospects for resolving this uncertainty over time exist, it is economically beneficial to adopt a flexible, sequential, eradication strategy based on controlling chronic disease initially.

  12. Global eradication of lymphatic filariasis: the value of chronic disease control in parasite elimination programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Edwin; Malecela, Mwele N; Zervos, Mihail; Kazura, James W

    2008-08-13

    The ultimate goal of the global programme against lymphatic filariasis is eradication through irrevocable cessation of transmission using 4 to 6 years of annual single dose mass drug administration. The costs of eradication, managerial impediments to executing national control programmes, and scientific uncertainty about transmission endpoints, are challenges to the success of this effort, especially in areas of high endemicity where financial resources are limited. We used a combined analysis of empirical community data describing the association between infection and chronic disease prevalence, mathematical modelling, and economic analyses to identify and evaluate the feasibility of setting an infection target level at which the chronic pathology attributable to lymphatic filariasis--lymphoedema of the extremities and hydroceles--becomes negligible in the face of continuing transmission as a first stage option in achieving the elimination of this parasitic disease. The results show that microfilaria prevalences below a threshold of 3.55% at a blood sampling volume of 1 ml could constitute readily achievable and sustainable targets to control lymphatic filarial disease. They also show that as a result of the high marginal cost of curing the last few individuals to achieve elimination, maximal benefits can occur at this threshold. Indeed, a key finding from our coupled economic and epidemiological analysis is that when initial uncertainty regarding eradication occurs and prospects for resolving this uncertainty over time exist, it is economically beneficial to adopt a flexible, sequential, eradication strategy based on controlling chronic disease initially.

  13. Low-cost microcontroller platform for studying lymphatic biomechanics in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornuta, Jeffrey A; Nipper, Matthew E; Dixon, J Brandon

    2013-01-04

    The pumping innate to collecting lymphatic vessels routinely exposes the endothelium to oscillatory wall shear stress and other dynamic forces. However, studying the mechanical sensitivity of the lymphatic endothelium remains a difficult task due to limitations of commercial or custom systems to apply a variety of time-varying stresses in vitro. Current biomechanical in vitro testing devices are very expensive, limited in capability, or highly complex; rendering them largely inaccessible to the endothelial cell biology community. To address these shortcomings, the authors propose a reliable, low-cost platform for augmenting the capabilities of commercially available pumps to produce a wide variety of flow rate waveforms. In particular, the Arduino Uno, a microcontroller development board, is used to provide open-loop control of a digital peristaltic pump using precisely timed serial commands. In addition, the flexibility of this platform is further demonstrated through its support of a custom-built cell-straining device capable of producing oscillatory strains with varying amplitudes and frequencies. Hence, this microcontroller development board is shown to be an inexpensive, precise, and easy-to-use tool for supplementing in vitro assays to quantify the effects of biomechanical forces on lymphatic endothelial cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Pancreatic tissue fluid pressure during drainage operations for chronic pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbehøj, N; Borly, L; Madsen, P

    1990-01-01

    Pancreatic tissue fluid pressure was measured in 10 patients undergoing drainage operations for painful chronic pancreatitis. The pressure was measured by the needle technique in the three anatomic regions of the pancreas before and at different stages of the drainage procedure, and the results...... a decrease in pancreatic tissue fluid pressure during drainage operations for pain in chronic pancreatitis. Regional pressure decrease were apparently unrelated to ERCP findings....

  15. Pancreatic tissue fluid pressure during drainage operations for chronic pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbehøj, N; Borly, L; Madsen, P

    1990-01-01

    Pancreatic tissue fluid pressure was measured in 10 patients undergoing drainage operations for painful chronic pancreatitis. The pressure was measured by the needle technique in the three anatomic regions of the pancreas before and at different stages of the drainage procedure, and the results...... a decrease in pancreatic tissue fluid pressure during drainage operations for pain in chronic pancreatitis. Regional pressure decrease were apparently unrelated to ERCP findings....

  16. GIS Analysis of Size Relationships between Drainage Basins and Alluvial Fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, S. N.; Scuderi, L. A.; Weissmann, G. S.; Hartley, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    Imagery from the global database of modern sedimentary basins compiled by Weissman et al. (2010) allows us to test whether a size relationship between drainage basin area and distributive fluvial system (DFS) area exists. We are testing this hypothesis using a combination of SRTM-based digital elevation models and Landsat satellite imagery in ArcGIS. Sedimentary basins are delineated by preforming a Gaussian smoothing on the DEM, followed by optimal edge detection through application of a modified Canny edge detector. The pour points defining the link between contributing hydrologic basins and these sedimentary basins are then located by generating a stream network in ArcGIS and intersecting the stream network arcs with the sedimentary basin polygons. From these pour points we delineate the adjacent contributing drainage basin using the watershed tool in ArcGIS. We manually digitize the boundary and geometry of the DFS identified for each drainage basin, using the higher resolution imagery found on Google Earth for visual confirmation if the scale or resolution of the Landsat imagery requires it. We then extract drainage basins and DFS polygon parameters and calculate areal extents in order to evaluate whether such a size relationship exists within basins, regionally across several basins, or across different basin types (e.g., endorheic vs exhoreic). A limitation of this approach is that we cannot evaluate sediment volumes, only aerial coverage. Results from this study may provide a better understanding of extrabasinal processes that control DFS shape and size.

  17. Effects of simplified lymph drainage on the body: in females with menopausal disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Kazuhisa; Maruoka, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] Hormone replacement therapy has been reported to be effective for alleviating menopausal symptoms, its side effects have been a concern. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate methods that could alleviate menopausal symptoms but with fewer side effects. Few previous reports have investigated the effects of simplified, viable manual lymph drainage, particularly the effects of one-time therapy on physiologically active substances and other variables. Effects of one-time simplified lymph drainage performed at salon A were investigated in females with any type of menopausal symptoms, such as edema or a sense of fatigue. [Subjects and Methods] Before and after lymph drainage, saliva was collected to detect substances that would reveal immune function. Questionnaire surveys were also conducted before and after therapy. [Results] Cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone levels were significantly reduced after therapy compared with those before therapy. The questionnaire survey showed a significant decrease in the visual analog scale. Also apparent were positive opinions, such as “I feel better” and “My legs feel lighter.” [Conclusion] These results demonstrated the stress reduction effect of one-time simplified lymph drainage, which decreased cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone levels. This therapy was also shown to produce positive mental and physical effects. PMID:28210055

  18. PREVALENCE OF LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS, MALARIA AND SOIL TRANSMITTED HELMINTHIASIS IN A COMMUNITY OF BARDIYA DISTRICT, WESTERN NEPAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjitkar, Samir; Alifrangis, Michael; Adhikari, Madhav; Olsen, Annette; Simonsen, Paul E; Meyrowitsch, Dan Wolf

    2014-11-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF), malaria and soil transmitted helminthiasis (STH) cause major health problems in Nepal, but in spite of this very few stud- ies have been carried out on these parasitic infections in Nepal. A cross sectional survey of all three categories of parasitic infections was carried out in Deuda- kala Village of Bardiya District, western Nepal. A total of 510 individuals aged 5 years and above were examined from finger prick blood for circulating filarial antigen (CFA), malaria antigen using a rapid diagnostic test (RDT), and malaria DNA using a PCR-based assay. In addition, 317 individuals were examined for soil-transmitted helminth (STH) eggs by the Kato-Katz technique. Prevalence of LF, malaria (antigen) and STH infection was 25.1%, 0.6% and 18.3%, respectively. PCR analysis did not detect any additional malaria cases. The prevalence of LF and STH infections differ significantly among different age groups and ethnic communities. The high prevalence of LF in the community studied indicates an immediate need for implementing a mass drug administration program for its control in this particular geographical area of Nepal.

  19. Coupling between drainage and coarsening in wet foam

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Saha; S Bhaumik; A Roy

    2009-06-01

    Drainage and coarsening are two coupled phenomena during the evolution of wet foam. We show the variation in the growth rate of bubble size, along the height in a column of Gillette shaving foam, by microscope imaging. Simultaneously, the drainage of liquid at the same heights has been investigated by Raman spectroscopic measurements. The observations made in these two sets of experiments indicate the coupling between drainage and coarsening in wet foam. We could explain the correlation between our observed data on drainage and coarsening by the empirical relation, proposed by others, in the literature.

  20. Bioreactor for acid mine drainage control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaluski, Marek H.; Manchester, Kenneth R.

    2001-01-01

    A bioreactor for reacting an aqueous heavy metal and sulfate containing mine drainage solution with sulfate reducing bacteria to produce heavy metal sulfides and reduce the sulfuric acid content of the solution. The reactor is an elongated, horizontal trough defining an inlet section and a reaction section. An inlet manifold adjacent the inlet section distributes aqueous mine drainage solution into the inlet section for flow through the inlet section and reaction section. A sulfate reducing bacteria and bacteria nutrient composition in the inlet section provides sulfate reducing bacteria that with the sulfuric acid and heavy metals in the solution to form solid metal sulfides. The sulfate reducing bacteria and bacteria nutrient composition is retained in the cells of a honeycomb structure formed of cellular honeycomb panels mounted in the reactor inlet section. The honeycomb panels extend upwardly in the inlet section at an acute angle with respect to the horizontal. The cells defined in each panel are thereby offset with respect to the honeycomb cells in each adjacent panel in order to define a tortuous path for the flow of the aqueous solution.

  1. Doxycycline reduces plasma VEGF-C/sVEGFR-3 and improves pathology in lymphatic filariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debrah, Alexander Yaw; Mand, Sabine; Specht, Sabine; Marfo-Debrekyei, Yeboah; Batsa, Linda; Pfarr, Kenneth; Larbi, John; Lawson, Bernard; Taylor, Mark; Adjei, Ohene; Hoerauf, Achim

    2006-09-01

    Lymphatic filariasis is a disease of considerable socioeconomic burden in the tropics. Presently used antifilarial drugs are able to strongly reduce transmission and will thus ultimately lower the burden of morbidity associated with the infection, however, a chemotherapeutic principle that directly induces a halt or improvement in the progression of the morbidity in already infected individuals would constitute a major lead. In search of such a more-effective drug to complement the existing ones, in an area endemic for bancroftian filariasis in Ghana, 33 microfilaremic and 18 lymphedema patients took part in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a 6-wk regimen of 200 mg/day doxycycline. Four months after doxycycline treatment, all patients received 150-200 microg/kg ivermectin and 400 mg albendazole. Patients were monitored for Wolbachia and microfilaria loads, antigenemia, filarial dance sign (FDS), dilation of supratesticular lymphatic vessels, and plasma levels of lymphangiogenic factors (vascular endothelial growth factor-C [VEGF-C] and soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 [(s)VEGFR-3]). Lymphedema patients were additionally monitored for stage (grade) of lymphedema and the circumferences of affected legs. Wolbachia load, microfilaremia, antigenemia, and frequency of FDS were significantly reduced in microfilaremic patients up to 24 mo in the doxycycline group compared to the placebo group. The mean dilation of supratesticular lymphatic vessels in doxycycline-treated patients was reduced significantly at 24 mo, whereas there was no improvement in the placebo group. Preceding clinical improvement, at 12 mo, the mean plasma levels of VEGF-C and sVEGFR-3 decreased significantly in the doxycycline-treated patients to a level close to that of endemic normal values, whereas there was no significant reduction in the placebo patients. The extent of disease in lymphedema patients significantly improved following doxycycline, with the mean stage of

  2. Doxycycline reduces plasma VEGF-C/sVEGFR-3 and improves pathology in lymphatic filariasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Yaw Debrah

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis is a disease of considerable socioeconomic burden in the tropics. Presently used antifilarial drugs are able to strongly reduce transmission and will thus ultimately lower the burden of morbidity associated with the infection, however, a chemotherapeutic principle that directly induces a halt or improvement in the progression of the morbidity in already infected individuals would constitute a major lead. In search of such a more-effective drug to complement the existing ones, in an area endemic for bancroftian filariasis in Ghana, 33 microfilaremic and 18 lymphedema patients took part in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a 6-wk regimen of 200 mg/day doxycycline. Four months after doxycycline treatment, all patients received 150-200 microg/kg ivermectin and 400 mg albendazole. Patients were monitored for Wolbachia and microfilaria loads, antigenemia, filarial dance sign (FDS, dilation of supratesticular lymphatic vessels, and plasma levels of lymphangiogenic factors (vascular endothelial growth factor-C [VEGF-C] and soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 [(sVEGFR-3]. Lymphedema patients were additionally monitored for stage (grade of lymphedema and the circumferences of affected legs. Wolbachia load, microfilaremia, antigenemia, and frequency of FDS were significantly reduced in microfilaremic patients up to 24 mo in the doxycycline group compared to the placebo group. The mean dilation of supratesticular lymphatic vessels in doxycycline-treated patients was reduced significantly at 24 mo, whereas there was no improvement in the placebo group. Preceding clinical improvement, at 12 mo, the mean plasma levels of VEGF-C and sVEGFR-3 decreased significantly in the doxycycline-treated patients to a level close to that of endemic normal values, whereas there was no significant reduction in the placebo patients. The extent of disease in lymphedema patients significantly improved following doxycycline, with

  3. Assessment of disease and infection of lymphatic filariasis in Northeastern Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leang, Rithea; Socheat, Duong; Bin, Boravong; Bunkea, Tol; Odermatt, Peter

    2004-10-01

    We assessed the filariasis disease burden in four northeastern provinces of Cambodia by using and validating a key-informant questionnaire, consisting of four questions, with pictures of patients with leg elephantiasis and hydrocoele. The questionnaire was distributed and collected through the school, health and administrative systems. Validation surveys included clinical examination, a card test for W. bancrofti (ICT Filariasis card test, AMRAD) and night blood finger prick examination of patients reported with clinical elephantiasis. Only 48.0% of questionnaires were returned. A total of 220 patients were reported, mostly from Stung Treng (36.8%) and Rattanakiri provinces (35.0%). Key-informants reported patients with lymphatic filariasis with a sensitivity of 85.7% for leg and 97.0% for scrotum morbidity, and with a specificity of 95.6%. However, substantial over-reporting resulted in very low positive predictive values for elephantiasis of 19.4% for legs and of 23.7% for the scrotum. As 97.4% of patients with clinical lymphatic filariasis were older than 40 years, the diagnostic performance of the questionnaire would be improved by restricting its use to that age group. About 0.7% of 3490 W. bancrofti card tests were positive; the prevalence was 1.94% (12/618) in Rattanakiri, 0.38% (4/1055) in Stung Treng and 0.22% (2/919) in Preah Vihear. W. bancrofti microfilaria were identified in blood from two patients in Rattanakiri (0.32%) and from one patient in Stung Treng (0.09%). Brugia malayi microfilaria were identified in blood from five patients in Rattanakiri (0.81%) only. No patients with microfilariaemia were identified in Preah Vehear. In Mondulkiri province all investigations (card test, night blood examination, clinical examination) for lymphatic filariasis were negative. Our findings confirm the usefulness of key-informant questionnaire for the identification of filariasis patients provided that high adherence can be achieved. Lymphatic filariasis

  4. Inventory of drainage wells and potential sources of contaminants to drainage-well inflow in Southwest Orlando, Orange County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, George Fred

    1993-01-01

    Potential sources of contaminants that could pose a threat to drainage-well inflow and to water in the Floridan aquifer system in southwest Orlando, Florida, were studied between October and December 1990. Drainage wells and public-supply wells were inventoried in a 14-square-mile area, and available data on land use and activities within each drainage well basin were tabulated. Three public-supply wells (tapping the Lower Floridan aquifer) and 38 drainage wells (open to the Upper Floridan aquifer) were located in 17 drainage basins within the study area. The primary sources of drainage-well inflow are lake overflow, street runoff, seepage from the surficial aquifer system, and process-wastewater disposal. Drainage-well inflow from a variety of ares, including resi- dential, commercial, undeveloped, paved, and industrial areas, are potential sources of con- taminants. The four general types of possible contaminants to drainage-well inflow are inorganic chemicals, organic compounds, turbidity, and microbiological contaminants. Potential contami- nant sources include plant nurseries, citrus groves, parking lots, plating companies, auto- motive repair shops, and most commonly, lake- overflow water. Drainage wells provide a pathway for contaminants to enter the Upper Floridan aquifer and there is a potential for contaminants to move downward from the Upper Floridan to the Lower Floridan aquifer.

  5. Is ultrasonography-guided drainage a safe and effective alternative to incision and drainage for deep neck space abscesses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabirmoghaddam, P; Mohseni, A; Navvabi, Z; Sharifi, A; Bastaninezhad, S; Safaei, A

    2017-03-01

    Deep neck space abscesses are common head and neck surgery emergencies. Traditionally, surgical incision and drainage has been the main treatment for deep neck abscesses. Recently, it has been suggested that ultrasound-guided drainage of neck abscesses can be an effective and less invasive alternative to incision and drainage. Patients with deep neck space abscesses referred to the emergency department of Amiralam Hospital were assessed and enrolled to the study if they met the inclusion criteria. Patients were randomly assigned to incision and drainage or ultrasound-guided drainage groups using sealed envelopes. Sixty patients were evaluated, with 30 patients in each group. There was a significant difference (p < 0.001) in mean length of hospital stay between patients who underwent ultrasound-guided drainage (5.47 days) and those who underwent incision and drainage (9.70 days). Ultrasound-guided drainage is an effective and safe procedure, leading to shorter hospital stay, and thus may be a suitable alternative to incision and drainage of deep neck abscesses.

  6. Therapeutic strategy for lower limb lymphedema and lymphatic fistula after resection of a malignant tumor in the hip joint region: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, H; Mihara, M; Hayashi, A; Kanemaru, M; Todokoro, T; Yamamoto, T; Iida, T; Hino, R; Koshima, I

    2014-03-01

    Lymphatic fistula complicating lymphedema is thought to occur due to communication between lymph vessels and the skin, which has yet to be shown objectively. The objective of this case report is to show the pathology and treatment using simultaneous lymphatic fistula resection and lymphatico-venous anastomosis (LVA). A 40-year-old woman underwent extended resection and total hip arthroplasty for primitive neuroectodermal tumor in the right proximal femur 23 years ago. Right lower limb lymphedema developed immediately after surgery and lymphatic fistula appeared in the posterior thigh. On ICG lymphography, lymph reflux toward the distal side dispersing in a fan-shape reticular pattern from the lymphatic fistula region was noted after intracutaneous injection of ICG into the foot. We performed simultaneous lymphatic fistula resection and of LVA. Pathological examination showed that the epidermis and stratum corneum of the healthy skin were lost in the lymphatic fistula region. Dilated lymph vessels were open in this region. The examinations provide the first objective evidence that the cause of lymphatic fistula may be lymph reflux from lymphatic stems to precollectors through lymphatic perforators.

  7. Comparison of three quality of life instruments in lymphatic filariasis: DLQI, WHODAS 2.0, and LFSQQ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Thomas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis aims to interrupt transmission of lymphatic filariasis and manage morbidity in people currently living with the disease. A component of morbidity management is improving health-related quality of life (HRQoL in patients. Measurement of HRQoL in current management programs is varied because of the lack of a standard HRQoL tool for use in the lymphatic filariasis population. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, the psychometric properties of three health status measures were compared when used in a group of lymphatic filariasis patients and healthy controls. The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0, the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI, and the Lymphatic Filariasis Quality of Life Questionnaire (LFSQQ were administered to 36 stage II and stage III lymphatic filariasis subjects and 36 age and sex matched controls in Kerala, India. All three tools yielded missing value rates lower than 10%, suggesting high feasibility. Highest internal consistency was seen in the LFSQQ (α = 0.97. Discriminant validity analysis demonstrated that HRQoL was significantly lower in the LF group than in controls for the WHODAS 2.0, DLQI, and LFSQQ, but total HRQoL scores did not differ between stage II and stage III lymphedema subjects. The LFSQQ total score correlated most strongly with the WHODAS 2.0 (r = 0.91, p<0.001 and DLQI (r = 0.81, p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The WHODAS 2.0, DLQI, and LFSQQ demonstrate acceptable feasibility, internal consistency, discriminate validity, and construct validity. Based on our psychometric analyses, the LFSQQ performs the best and is recommended for use in the lymphatic filariasis population.

  8. The impact of a national program to eliminate lymphatic filariasis in selected Myanmar immigrant communities in Bangkok and Ranong Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satimai, Wichai; Jiraamonnimit, C; Thammapalo, S; Choochote, W; Luenee, P; Boitano, J J; Wongkamchai, S

    2011-09-01

    Some immigrants from Myanmar to Thailand have brought Wuchereria bancrofti infections with them, causing a community health problem for Thai citizens. The seroprevalence of bancroftian filariasis was detected in 438 and 512 Myanmar immigrants residing in Bangkok and Ranong Provinces, respectively, along with 81 Thai citizens living in Bangkok. The immunochromatograpy card test was positive in 5 Myanmar immigrants living in Bangkok and 1 living in Ranong for a prevalence of 0.63%. Antifilarial IgG4 antibodies were found in 21 Myanmar immigrants living in Bangkok and 14 living in Ranong for a prevalence of 3.68%. None of the samples from Thai citizens were positive with either test. These prevalence rates are lower than those observed between 2001 and 2005. The Thai mass drug administration program to eliminate lymphatic filariasis among Myanmar immigrants appears to be a successful public health strategy.

  9. Sibling species of the Anopheles funestus group, and their infection with malaria and lymphatic filarial parasites, in archived and newly collected specimens from northeastern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derua, Yahya A; Alifrangis, Michael;