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Sample records for detecting colorectal cancer

  1. [Colorectal cancer: prevention and early detection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolligs, Frank Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer associated morbidity and mortality. Main risk factors include advanced age, affected family members, male sex and lifestyle factors. The development of early adenoma to invasive cancer requires 10 and more years. Therefore, prevention via colonoscopy with polypectomy and early detection of asymptomatic stages is possible. Colonoscopy is a diagnostic and therapeutic tool with the highest sensitivity for precancerous lesions and early cancers of the colon. New fecal immunological tests reveal a higher sensitivity for advanced adenoma and cancer than guaiac based hemoccult tests while maintaining a high specificity. Molecular stool and blood tests are promising new developments. However, similar to virtual colonoscopy and colon capsule endoscopy, they have so far not been established as routine instruments for prevention and early detection of colorectal cancer. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Korean Guidelines for Colorectal Cancer Screening and Polyp Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Bo In [The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sung Pil [Yensei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seong Eun [Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-04-15

    Colorectal cancer is currently the second most common cancer among Korean males and the fourth most common among females. Since the majority of colorectal cancer case present following the prolonged transformation of adenomas into carcinomas, early detection and removal of colorectal adenomas are vital methods in its prevention. Considering the increasing incidence of colorectal cancer and polyps in Korea, it is very important to establish national guidelines for colorectal cancer screening and polyp detection. The proposed guidelines have been developed by the Korean Multi-Society Task Force using evidence-based methods. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses have been used to form the statements contained in the guidelines. This paper discusses the epidemiology of colorectal cancers and adenomas in Korea as well as optimal methods for screening of colorectal cancer and detection of adenomas including fecal occult blood tests, radiologic tests, and endoscopic examinations.

  3. Early detection of colorectal cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    related death worldwide.[1] Although the majority of individuals who develop CRC have sporadic disease, up to 20% may have a genetic predisposition.[2] Survival is strongly related to the stage of the disease at diagnosis. Where the cancer is ...

  4. [PREVENTION AND EARLY DETECTION OF COLORECTAL CANCER].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, B Bergman

    2015-11-01

    Colorectal cancer is a global problem worldwide because of its very high prevalence and mortality. Therefore, prevention of colorectal cancer and its early diagnosis is of great importance. In Croatia, the National Program for Colorectal Cancer has been carried out since 2007; however, the rate of response was about 18 percent, depending on the region. Such a great public health and social and economic problem requires multidisciplinary approach in which family physicians have an important role. The well spread and developed network of primary health care and the availability of family physicians to each inhabitant have not been sufficiently exploited, especially for such preventive activities where family physicians could supervise program implementation.

  5. Tests to Detect Colorectal Cancer and Polyps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... colorectal-cancer screening in an average-risk population. New England Journal of Medicine 2004; 351(26):2704-2714. [PubMed Abstract] Elmunzer ... cancer incidence and mortality with screening flexible sigmoidoscopy. New England Journal of Medicine 2012; 366(25):2345-2357. [PubMed Abstract] Atkin ...

  6. Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rectum are part of the large intestine. Colorectal cancer occurs when tumors form in the lining of ... men and women. The risk of developing colorectal cancer rises after age 50. You're also more ...

  7. Earlier stages of colorectal cancer detected with immunochemical faecal occult blood tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossum, L. G. M.; van Rijn, A. F.; van Munster, I. P.; Jansen, J. B. M. J.; Fockens, P.; Laheij, R. J. F.; Dekker, E.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The aim of colorectal cancer screening is to improve prognosis by the detection of early cancer and precursor stages. We compared the stage distribution of asymptomatic colorectal cancer patients detected by a positive immunochemical or guaiac-based faecal occult blood test (FOBT) with

  8. Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 11/12/2014 Risk Calculator About the Tool Colorectal Cancer Risk Factors Download SAS and Gauss Code Page ... Rectal Cancer: Prevention, Genetics, Causes Tests to Detect Colorectal Cancer and Polyps Cancer Risk Prediction Resources Update November ...

  9. Detection of colorectal neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilhelmsen, Michael; Christensen, Ib J.; Rasmussen, Louise

    2017-01-01

    Serological biomarkers may be an option for early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC). The present study assessed eight cancer-associated protein biomarkers in plasma from subjects undergoing first time ever colonoscopy due to symptoms attributable to colorectal neoplasia. Plasma AFP, CA19-9, CEA...

  10. Special Section: Preventing, Detecting, and Treating Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a week-long series to promote colon and rectal (colorectal) cancer awareness and screening. Following that, research showed that ... niddk.nih.gov The American Cancer Society: www.cancer.org The American Society of Colon & Rectal Surgeons: www.fascrs.org Spring 2009 Issue: Volume ...

  11. Intraoperative ultrasonography in detection of hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael; Kronborg, Ole; Fenger, Claus

    1995-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study was designed to compare diagnostic accuracies of measuring liver enzymes, preoperative ultrasonography, surgical examination, and intraoperative ultrasonography for detection of liver metastases from colorectal cancer. METHODS: Blind, prospective comparisons of diagnostic...... of the findings by the surgeon. The presence of metastases was further assessed by ultrasonography three months postoperatively, as well as additional surgery and liver biopsy in some of the patients. RESULTS: The sensitivity of intraoperative ultrasonography (62/64) was significantly superior to that of surgical...... exploration (54/64) and that of preoperative ultrasonography (45/64). The lowest sensitivity was presented by liver enzymes. Bilobar metastases were detected in 42 of 46 patients by intraoperative ultrasonography but in only 33 patients by the surgeon. Intraoperative ultrasonography demonstrated the highest...

  12. Early Colorectal Cancer Detected by Machine Learning Model Using Gender, Age, and Complete Blood Count Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornbrook, Mark C; Goshen, Ran; Choman, Eran; O'Keeffe-Rosetti, Maureen; Kinar, Yaron; Liles, Elizabeth G; Rust, Kristal C

    2017-10-01

    Machine learning tools identify patients with blood counts indicating greater likelihood of colorectal cancer and warranting colonoscopy referral. To validate a machine learning colorectal cancer detection model on a US community-based insured adult population. Eligible colorectal cancer cases (439 females, 461 males) with complete blood counts before diagnosis were identified from Kaiser Permanente Northwest Region's Tumor Registry. Control patients (n = 9108) were randomly selected from KPNW's population who had no cancers, received at ≥1 blood count, had continuous enrollment from 180 days prior to the blood count through 24 months after the count, and were aged 40-89. For each control, one blood count was randomly selected as the pseudo-colorectal cancer diagnosis date for matching to cases, and assigned a "calendar year" based on the count date. For each calendar year, 18 controls were randomly selected to match the general enrollment's 10-year age groups and lengths of continuous enrollment. Prediction performance was evaluated by area under the curve, specificity, and odds ratios. Area under the receiver operating characteristics curve for detecting colorectal cancer was 0.80 ± 0.01. At 99% specificity, the odds ratio for association of a high-risk detection score with colorectal cancer was 34.7 (95% CI 28.9-40.4). The detection model had the highest accuracy in identifying right-sided colorectal cancers. ColonFlag ® identifies individuals with tenfold higher risk of undiagnosed colorectal cancer at curable stages (0/I/II), flags colorectal tumors 180-360 days prior to usual clinical diagnosis, and is more accurate at identifying right-sided (compared to left-sided) colorectal cancers.

  13. Cross detection for odor of metabolic waste between breast and colorectal cancer using canine olfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, In-Seok; Lee, Hwan-Gon; Koo, Bonkon; Koh, Chin Su; Park, Hae-Yong; Im, Changkyun; Shin, Hyung-Cheul

    2018-01-01

    Although several studies have been performed to detect cancer using canine olfaction, none have investigated whether canine olfaction trained to the specific odor of one cancer is able to detect odor related to other unfamiliar cancers. To resolve this issue, we employed breast and colorectal cancer in vitro, and investigated whether trained dogs to odor related to metabolic waste from breast cancer are able to detect it from colorectal cancer, and vice versa. The culture liquid samples used in the cultivation of cancerous cells (4T1 and CT26) were employed as an experimental group. Two different breeds of dogs were trained for the different cancer odor each other. The dogs were then tested using a double-blind method and cross-test to determine whether they could correctly detect the experimental group, which contains the specific odor for metabolic waste of familiar or unfamiliar cancer. For two cancers, both dogs regardless of whether training or non-training showed that accuracy was over 90%, and sensitivity and specificity were over 0.9, respectively. Through these results, it was verified that the superior olfactory ability of dogs can discriminate odor for metabolic waste of cancer cells from it of benign cells, and that the specific odor for metabolic waste of breast cancer has not significant differences to it of colorectal cancer. That is, it testifies that metabolic waste between breast and colorectal cancer have the common specific odor in vitro. Accordingly, a trained dogs for detecting odor for metabolic waste of breast cancer can perceive it of colorectal cancer, and vice versa. In order to the future work, we will plan in vivo experiment for the two cancers and suggest research as to what kind of cancers have the common specific odor. Furthermore, the relationship between breast and colorectal cancer should be investigated using other research methods.

  14. The feasibility of colorectal cancer detection using dual-energy computed tomography with iodine mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boellaard, T.N.; Henneman, O.D.F.; Streekstra, G.J.; Venema, H.W.; Nio, C.Y.; Dorth-Rombouts, M.C. van; Stoker, J.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To assess the feasibility of colorectal cancer detection using dual-energy computed tomography with iodine mapping and without bowel preparation or bowel distension. Materials and methods: Consecutive patients scheduled for preoperative staging computed tomography (CT) because of diagnosed or high suspicion for colorectal cancer were prospectively included in the study. A single contrast-enhanced abdominal CT acquisition using dual-source mode (100 kV/140 kV) was performed without bowel preparation. Weighted average 120 kV images and iodine maps were created with post-processing. Two observers performed a blinded read for colorectal lesions after being trained on three colorectal cancer patients. One observer performed an unblinded read for lesion detectability and placed a region of interest (ROI) within each lesion. Results: In total 21 patients were included and 18 had a colorectal cancer at the time of the CT acquisition. Median cancer size was 43 mm [interquartile range (IQR) 27–60 mm] and all 18 colorectal cancers were visible on the 120 kV images and iodine map during the unblinded read. During the blinded read, observers found 90% (27/30) of the cancers with 120 kV images only and 96.7% (29/30) after viewing the iodine map in addition (p = 0.5). Median enhancement of colorectal cancers was 29.9 HU (IQR 23.1–34.6). The largest benign lesions (70 and 25 mm) were visible on the 120 kV images and iodine map, whereas four smaller benign lesions (7–15 mm) were not. Conclusion: Colorectal cancers are visible on the contrast-enhanced dual-energy CT without bowel preparation or insufflation. Because of the patient-friendly nature of this approach, further studies should explore its use for colorectal cancer detection in frail and elderly patients

  15. Diagnostic value of combined tumor markers detection for gastric and colorectal cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Wenzhang; Dong Lin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value of combined tumor markers detection in the clinical diagnosis for gastric cancer and colorectal cancel. Methods: The serum concentration of CEA, CA199, CA125, CA242 were measured by radioimmunoassay and Immunoradioassy in 46 patients with gastric cancer, 62 patients with colorectal cancer and 30 controls. Results: The diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of CEA were 37.0%, 96.7%, 59.2% respectively in gastric cancer,and 51.6%, 96.7%, 66.3% respectively in colorectal cancer, those of CA199 were 47.8%, 100.0%, 65.8% in gastric cancer, and 43.5%, 100.0%, 62, 0% in colorectal cancer, those of CA125 were 41.3%, 96.7%, 63.2% in gastric cancer, and 38.7%, 100.0%, 58.7% in colorectal cancer, those of CA242 were 54.3%, 100.0%, 71.5% in gastric cancer, and 51.6%, 100.0%, 67.4% in colorectal cancer. The diagnostic sensitivity specificity and accuracy of combined four markers were 73.9%, 93.3%, 82.9% in gastric cancer, and 77.4%, 96.7%, 83.7% in colorectal cancer. Compared with the respective value of any single marker, the diagnostic sensitivity and accuracy were significantly improved (P<0.05). Conclusion: Combined tumor markers detection could improve the diagnostic sensitivity and accuracy in gastric and colorectal cancers and was helpful for screening. (authors)

  16. Colorectal Cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peter Donald

    15 years. Colorectal cancer occurs in hereditary, sporadic or familial forms. Hereditary forms have been extensively described and are characterized by family history, young age at onset and presence of other specific tumours and defects. Among these defects are familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), hereditary non-.

  17. Colorectal cancer detection by measuring DNA from exfoliated colonocytes obtained by direct contact with rectal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loktionov, Alexandre; Bandaletova, Tatiana; Llewelyn, Andrew H; Dion, Carine; Lywood, Hugo G G; Lywood, Rupert C G; Rockall, Tim A; Stebbing, John F; Broughton, Mary; Caffarey, Sue; Marks, Christopher G

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore the potential of direct exfoliated colonocyte collection from human rectal mucosa for colorectal cancer screening. A special device was designed for standardized collection of exfoliated cells from the surface of human rectal mucosa. Material was collected from 120 outpatients selected for colonoscopy and 36 patients with confirmed diagnosis of colorectal cancer or large polyps. Determination of total DNA amounts in the collected samples (DNA scores) by PicoGreen assay and real-time PCR was employed alongside cytological assessment. Well preserved cells with cytological patterns characteristic for different colorectal conditions (cancer, inflammatory bowel disease) were detected in the collected material. In the outpatient group DNA scores were higher in patients with cancer and inflammatory bowel disease compared to those with no abnormalities detected, diverticular disease and small polyps (Pcut-off point 3.0 microg/ml) for detecting serious colorectal conditions were 1.00 and 0.74, respectively. In the group with confirmed tumours, the PicoGreen assay performed better for distal colorectal cancer (sensitivity 0.83; specificity 0.76) compared with proximal colon malignancies (sensitivity 0.57; specificity 0.76). It can be concluded that the proposed technique of direct collection of exfoliated cells from the surface of human rectal mucosa provides abundant cellular material suitable for diagnostic and research applications. Further refinement of the quantitative DNA test may lead to a new approach for colorectal cancer early detection and screening.

  18. Colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiba, Suminori

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes colorectal cancer risk in relation to A-bomb radiation. The RERF Life Span Study has revealed the incidence of colorectal cancer to be significantly high in the group of A-bomb survivors than the control group. With regard to relative risk or excess relative risk, there is no definitive difference among sites in the colon. Risk for colon cancer is found to be linearly increased with increasing radiation doses, and in younger A-bomb survivors at the time of exposure. Risk associated with one Gy is estimated to be increased by double. There is no definitive variation between sex and between Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Excess relative risk would be increased rapidly with aging in the whole group of A-bomb survivors and with the cancer-prone age in younger A-bomb survivors at the time of exposure. (N.K.)

  19. Chemoresistive Gas Sensors for the Detection of Colorectal Cancer Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Malagù

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Numerous medical studies show that tumor growth is accompanied by protein changes that may lead to the peroxidation of the cell membrane with consequent emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs by breath or intestinal gases that should be seen as biomarkers for colorectal cancer (CRC. The analysis of VOCs represents a non-invasive and potentially inexpensive preliminary screening technique. An array of chemoresistive gas sensors based on screen-printed metal oxide semiconducting films has been selected to discriminate gases of oncological interest, e.g., 1-iodononane and benzene, widely assumed to be biomarkers of colorectal cancer, from those of interference in the gut, such as methane and nitric oxide.

  20. Chemoresistive Gas Sensors for the Detection of Colorectal Cancer Biomarkers

    OpenAIRE

    Malagù, Cesare; Fabbri, Barbara; Gherardi, Sandro; Giberti, Alessio; Guidi, Vincenzo; Landini, Nicolò; Zonta, Giulia

    2014-01-01

    Numerous medical studies show that tumor growth is accompanied by protein changes that may lead to the peroxidation of the cell membrane with consequent emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by breath or intestinal gases that should be seen as biomarkers for colorectal cancer (CRC). The analysis of VOCs represents a non-invasive and potentially inexpensive preliminary screening technique. An array of chemoresistive gas sensors based on screen-printed metal oxide semiconducting films h...

  1. Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All Cancer Types A to ...

  2. [Nationwide colorectal cancer screening].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossum, L.G.M. van; Laheij, R.J.F.; Jansen, J.B.M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Usually, colorectal cancer presents with complaints in a late stage, but can be detected in an earlier stage, with better prognosis, by colonoscopy. Using colonoscopy, also precancerous tumours, adenomas, can be detected and excised, but only in a national screening programme. However primary

  3. Colorectal cancers detected through screening are associated with lower stages and improved survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindebjerg, Jan; Osler, Merete; Bisgaard, Claus Hedebo

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Population screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) using faecal occult blood test (FOBT) will be introduced in Denmark in 2014. Prior to the implementation of the screening programme, a feasibility study was performed in 2005-2006. In this paper, occurrences of colorectal cancer...... in the distribution of colon cancer stages and rectal cancer groups between the various screening categories were analysed through χ(2)-tests. Survival analysis with respect to screening groups was done by Kaplan-Meier and Cox-Mantel hazard ratios, and survival was corrected for lead time. RESULTS: Colon cancers...... detected through screening were diagnosed at significantly lower stages than among screening non-responders. There were relatively fewer locally advanced rectal cancers among patients diagnosed through positive FOBT than among non-responders. Survival among screening cancer patients was superior...

  4. Get Tested for Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print This Topic En español Get Tested for Colorectal Cancer Browse Sections The Basics Overview What to Expect ... section Overview 2 of 6 sections The Basics: Colorectal Cancer What is colorectal cancer? Colorectal cancer is a ...

  5. Computer-aided detection in computed tomography colonography. Current status and problems with detection of early colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimoto, Tsuyoshi; Nakijima, Yasuo; Iinuma, Gen; Arai, Yasuaki; Shiraishi, Junji; Moriyama, Noriyuki; Beddoe, G.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of computer-aided detection (CAD) in diagnosing early colorectal cancer using computed tomography colonography (CTC). A total of 30 CTC data sets for 30 early colorectal cancers in 30 patients were retrospectively reviewed by three radiologists. After primary evaluation, a second reading was performed using CAD findings. The readers evaluated each colorectal segment for the presence or absence of colorectal cancer using five confidence rating levels. To compare the assessment results, the sensitivity and specificity with and without CAD were calculated on the basis of the confidence rating, and differences in these variables were analyzed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The average sensitivities for the detection without and with CAD for the three readers were 81.6% and 75.6%, respectively. Among the three readers, only one reader improved sensitivity with CAD compared to that without. CAD decreased specificity in all three readers. CAD detected 100% of protruding lesions but only 69.2% of flat lesions. On ROC analysis, the diagnostic performance of all three readers was decreased by use of CAD. Currently available CAD with CTC does not improve diagnostic performance for detecting early colorectal cancer. An improved CAD algorithm is required for detecting fiat lesions and reducing the false-positive rate. (author)

  6. Screening vs. non-screening detected colorectal cancer: Differences in pre-therapeutic work up and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraste, D; Martling, A; Nilsson, P J; Blom, J; Törnberg, S; Janson, M

    2017-06-01

    Objectives To compare preoperative staging, multidisciplinary team-assessment, and treatment in patients with screening detected and non-screening detected colorectal cancer. Methods Data on patient and tumour characteristics, staging, multidisciplinary team-assessment and treatment in patients with screening and non-screening detected colorectal cancer from 2008 to 2012 were collected from the Stockholm-Gotland screening register and the Swedish Colorectal Cancer Registry. Results The screening group had a higher proportion of stage I disease (41 vs. 15%; p team-assessed than the non-screening group ( p team-assessed than patients with surgically resected cancers ( p team assessed more extensively than patients with non-screening detected cancers. Staging and multidisciplinary team assessment prior to endoscopic resection was less complete compared with surgical resection. Extensive surgical and (neo)adjuvant treatment was given in stage I disease. Participation in screening reduced the risk of emergency surgery for colorectal cancer.

  7. A clinical retrospective study of the detectable ability of the advanced colorectal cancer by plain abdominal multislice CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamasaki, Kazufumi; Nakamura, Takashi; Matsuo, Kengo

    2002-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of plain CT for diagnosis of advanced colorectal cancer retrospectively. During 2 years between December 1999 and November 2001, 26 patients with advanced colorectal cancer underwent abdominal CT scan (Toshiba ASTEIONMULTI). The patients had received no special preparation for CT scan except for avoiding breakfast. The sensitivity of CT scan in detecting tumors was 76.9%. Moreover, cancers originated in the cecum, ascending colon and descending colon were all detectable by CT. Ninety-two percent of cancers occupying more than 2/3 of circumference of the colonic wall were detectable. These evidences may indicate that plain CT is useful for detecting colorectal cancers with little patients' burden as well as providing information about their extension and metastasis, when colorectal cancer is suspected by patients' symptom. (author)

  8. Preanalytical considerations in detection of colorectal cancer in blood serum using Raman molecular imaging (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treado, Patrick J.; Stewart, Shona D.; Smith, Aaron; Kirschner, Heather; Post, Christopher; Overholt, Bergein F.

    2016-03-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in men and women in the United States. Raman Molecular Imaging (RMI) is an effective technique to evaluate human tissue, cells and bodily fluids, including blood serum for disease diagnosis. ChemImage Corporation, in collaboration with clinicians, has been engaged in development of an in vitro diagnostic Raman assay focused on CRC detection. The Raman Assay for Colorectal Cancer (RACC) exploits the high specificity of Raman imaging to distinguish diseased from normal dried blood serum droplets without additional reagents. Pilot Study results from testing of hundreds of biobank patient samples have demonstrated that RACC detects CRC with high sensitivity and specificity. However, expanded clinical trials, which are ongoing, are revealing a host of important preanalytical considerations associated with sample collection, sample storage and stability, sample shipping, sample preparation and sample interferents, which impact detection performance. Results from recent clinical studies will be presented.

  9. Detection of Four Distinct Volatile Indicators of Colorectal Cancer using Functionalized Titania Nanotubular Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhiman Bhattacharyya

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Screening of colorectal cancer is crucial for early stage diagnosis and treatment. Detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs of the metabolome present in exhaled breath is a promising approach to screen colorectal cancer (CRC. Various forms of volatile organic compounds (VOCs that show the definitive signature for the different diseases including cancers are present in exhale breathe. Among all the reported CRC VOCs, cyclohexane, methylcyclohexane, 1,3-dimethyl- benzene and decanal are identified as the prominent ones that can be used as the signature for CRC screening. In the present investigation, detection of the four prominent VOCs related to CRC is explored using functionalized titania nanotubular arrays (TNAs-based sensor. These signature biomarkers are shown to be detected using nickel-functionalized TNA as an electrochemical sensor. The sensing mechanism is based on the electrochemical interaction of nickel-functionalized nanotubes with signature biomarkers. A detailed mechanism of the sensor response is also presented.

  10. Plasma TIMP-1 and CEA as markers for detection of primary colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ib Jarle; Brünner, Nils; Dowell, Barry

    2015-01-01

    was detected in 32 individuals, 24 with colonic cancer (CC) and 8 with rectal cancer (RC). Other findings were 265 with adenomas and 889 with non-neoplastic pathology. The biomarker levels were elevated in plasma from patients with CRC, but also from patients with various co-morbidities compared to individuals......BACKGROUND/AIM: The combination of plasma tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (1) and CEA has been shown to have utility in early detection of colorectal cancer (2). A prospective study was performed to validate previous findings. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Individuals undergoing large bowel...

  11. Radioimmunodetection of colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, E.E.; Deland, F.H.; Casper, S.; Corgan, R.L.; Primus, F.J.; Goldenberg, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    This study examines the accuracy of colorectal cancer radioimmunodetection. Twenty-seven patients with a history of histologically-confirmed colonic or rectal carcinoma received a high-titer, purified goat anti-CEA IgG labelled with 131 I at a total dose of at least 1.0 μCi. Various body views were scanned at 24 and 48 hours after administration of the radioantibody. Three additional cases were evaluated; one had a villous adenoma in the rectum and received the 131 I-labeled anti-CEA IgG, while two colonic carcinoma patients received normal goat IgG labelled with 131 I. All of the 7 cases with primary colorectal cancer showed true-positive tumor localization, while 20 of 25 sites of metastatic colorectal cancer detected by immune scintigraphy were corroborated by other detection measures. The sensitivity of the radioimmunodetection of colorectal cancers (primary and metastatic) was found to be 90% (true-positive rate), the putative specificity (true-negative rate) was 94%, and the apparent overall accuracy of the technique was 93%. Neither the case of a villous adenoma receiving the anti-CEA IgG nor the two cases of colonic cancer receiving normal goat IgG showed tumor radiolocalization. Very high circulating CEA titers did not appear to hinder successful tumor radiolocalization. These findings suggest that in colorectal cancers the method of CEA radioimmunodetection may be of value in preoperatively determining the location and extent of disease, in assessing possible recurrence or spread postoperatively, and in localizing the source of CEA production in patients with rising or elevated CEA titers. An ancilliary benefit could be a more tumor-specific detection test for confirming the findings of other, more conventional diagnostic measures

  12. Early detection of recurrence after curative resection for colorectal cancer - obstacles when using soluble biomarkers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Jess, Per; Aldulaymi, Bahir Hadi

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective. Results from monitoring studies using biomarkers in blood samples aiming at early detection of recurrent colorectal cancer (CRC) are presently evaluated. However, some serological biomarker levels are influenced by the surgical trauma, which may complicate translation of the l......Abstract Objective. Results from monitoring studies using biomarkers in blood samples aiming at early detection of recurrent colorectal cancer (CRC) are presently evaluated. However, some serological biomarker levels are influenced by the surgical trauma, which may complicate translation......-5) postoperative surgical interventions. Seventy-five operations were related to CRC and 42 to benign diseases, while none were related to a new primary, malignant disease. Conclusion. Patients resected for CRC are frequently undergoing surgical procedures in the postoperative follow-up period. Therefore......, postoperative monitoring using soluble biomarker levels, which may be influenced by the surgical trauma, must be adjusted in relation to postoperative surgical interventions....

  13. [Aspirin and colorectal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grancher, Adrien; Michel, Pierre; Di Fiore, Frédéric; Sefrioui, David

    2018-02-01

    Colorectal cancer is a worldwide public health problem. Aspirin has been identified as a protective factor against the apparition of colorectal cancer. There are several mechanisms about the actions by aspirin on colorectal tumorogenesis. These are not perfectly known nowadays. On one hand, there are direct mechanisms on colorectal mucosa, on the other hand there are indirect mechanisms through platelet functions. Aspirin also plays a role by its anti-inflammatory action and the stimulation of antitumor immunity. Several studies show that long-term treatment with low-doses of aspirin decreases the incidence of adenomas and colorectal cancers. In the United States, aspirin is currently recommended for primary prevention of the risk of colorectal cancer in all patients aged 50 to 59, with a 10-year risk of cardiovascular event greater than 10 %. However, primary prevention with aspirin should not be a substitute for screening in colorectal cancer. Furthermore, aspirin seems to be beneficial when used in post-diagnosis of colorectal cancer. It could actually decrease the risk of metastasis in case of a localized colorectal cancer, and increase the survival in particular, concerning PIK3CA mutated tumors. The association of aspirin with neoadjuvant treatment of colorectal cancer by radiochimiotherapy seems to have beneficial effects. French prospective randomized study is currently being conducted to investigate postoperative aspirin in colorectal cancers with a PIK3CA mutation. Copyright © 2017 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Epigenetics and Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Victoria Valinluck; Grady, William M.

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths in the world. It results from an accumulation of genetic and epigenetic changes in colon epithelial cells that transforms them into adenocarcinomas. There have been major advances in our understanding of cancer epigenetics over the last decade, particularly regarding aberrant DNA methylation. Assessment of the colon cancer epigenome has revealed that virtually all colorectal cancers have aberrantly methylated genes and the average colorectal cancer methylome has hundreds to thousands of abnormally methylated genes. As with gene mutations in the cancer genome, a subset of these methylated genes, called driver genes, is presumed to play a functional role in colorectal cancer. The assessment of methylated genes in colorectal cancers has also revealed a unique molecular subgroup of colorectal cancers called CpG Island Methylator Phenotype (CIMP) cancers; these tumors have a particularly high frequency of methylated genes. The advances in our understanding of aberrant methylation in colorectal cancer has led to epigenetic alterations being developed as clinical biomarkers for diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic applications. Progress in the assessment of epigenetic alterations in colorectal cancer and their clinical applications has shown that these alterations will be commonly used in the near future as molecular markers to direct the prevention and treatment of colorectal cancer. PMID:22009203

  15. Detection of mismatch repair gene germline mutation carrier among Chinese population with colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Hei-Ying; Zhao, Ronghua; Liu, Xiufang; Li, Vicky Ka Ming; Ding, Yijiang; Yang, Bolin; Geng, Jianxiang; Lai, Rensheng; Ding, Shuqing; Ni, Min

    2008-01-01

    Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is an autosomal dominant syndrome. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) has recommended the Revised Bethesda guidelines for screening HNPCC. There has been a great deal of research on the value of these tests in other countries. However, literature about the Chinese population is scarce. Our objective is to detect and study microsatellite instability (MSI) and mismatch repair (MMR) gene germline mutation carriers among a Chinese population with colorectal cancer. In 146 prospectively recruited consecutive patients with clinically proven colorectal cancer, MSI carriers were identified by analysis of tumor tissue using multiplex fluorescence polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the NCI recommended panel and classified into microsatellite instability-low (MSI-L), microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) and microsatellite stable (MSS) groups. Immunohistochemical staining for MSH2, MSH6 and MLH1 on tissue microarrays (TMAs) was performed, and methylation of the MLH1 promoter was analyzed by quantitative methylation specific PCR (MSP). Germline mutation analysis of blood samples was performed for MSH2, MSH6 and MLH1 genes. Thirty-four out of the 146 colorectal cancers (CRCs, 23.2%) were MSI, including 19 MSI-H CRCs and 15 MSI-L CRCS. Negative staining for MSH2 was found in 8 CRCs, negative staining for MSH6 was found in 6 CRCs. One MSI-H CRC was negative for both MSH6 and MSH2. Seventeen CRCs stained negatively for MLH1. MLH1 promoter methylation was determined in 34 MSI CRCs. Hypermethylation of the MLH1 promoter occurred in 14 (73.7%) out of 19 MSI-H CRCs and 5 (33.3%) out of 15 MSI-L CRCs. Among the 34 MSI carriers and one MSS CRC with MLH1 negative staining, 8 had a MMR gene germline mutation, which accounted for 23.5% of all MSI colorectal cancers and 5.5% of all the colorectal cancers. Five patients harbored MSH2 germline mutations, and three patients harbored MSH6 germline mutations. None of the patients had an MLH

  16. Expression of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor detected by immunohistochemistry correlating with prognosis and metastasis in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guiying; Yang, Jingyan; Zhao, Yulei; Wang, Zhijing; Xing, Baoheng; Wang, Liang; Shi, Dongliang

    2014-12-02

    The potential of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) as a biomarker for colorectal cancer was studied. A prospective, randomized, controlled, clinical trial was conducted in 2013 and 2014 to confirm whether the expression of SLPI correlates with prognosis and metastasis in colorectal cancer patients. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect SLPI expression in colorectal cancer. The expression of SLPI was scored by two pathologists independently. Statistical analysis of the data was performed using a Χ2 test to investigate the influence of SLPI on the pathologic characteristics of colorectal cancer. Compared with normal tissue, SLPI was overexpressed in colorectal cancer tissue. Overexpression of SLPI correlated with different grades (moderate or good differentiation: 2.7% low expression versus 97.3% high expression, low differentiation: 41.7% low expression versus 58.3% high expression), TNM stage (I or II: 4.2% low expression versus 95.8% high expression; III or IV: 19.7% low expression versus 80.3% high expression), lymphatic metastasis (18.6% low expression versus 81.4% high expression) and distal metastasis (86.5% low expression versus 13.5% high expression), but not with patient age or sex (P=0.613, P=0.871). Upregulated SLPI correlates with aggressive pathologic characteristics of colorectal cancer; SLPI could be used as an indicator of progression and metastasis in patients with colorectal cancer.

  17. The diagnostic accuracy of carcinoembryonic antigen to detect colorectal cancer recurrence – A systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Caspar G; Karlsson, William K; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) has been used as a tumor marker in the follow-up of colorectal cancer for more than 40 years. Controversy exists regarding its diagnostic applicability due to a relatively low sensitivity and a questionable effect on mortality. The aim of this review...... was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of CEA in detecting recurrence after intended curative surgery for primary colorectal cancer. METHODS: Systematic literature searches were performed in PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane databases, and articles were chosen based on predefined inclusion criteria. Reference lists...... from included articles were manually searched for additional publications of relevance. RESULTS: Forty-two original studies with generally representative populations and long follow-up were included. Data were reported on outcomes from 9,834 CEA tests during follow-up. Reporting on the reference...

  18. Prognostic significance of detection of microscopic peritoneal disease in colorectal cancer: a systematic review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mohan, Helen M

    2013-06-01

    Free intraperitoneal tumour cells are an independent indicator of poor prognosis, and are encorporated in current staging systems in upper gastrointestinal cancers, but not colorectal cancer. This systematic review aimed to evaluate the role and prognostic significance of positive peritoneal lavage in colorectal cancer.

  19. Colorectal Cancer: A Personal Journey

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer: A Personal Journey Past Issues / Summer 2016 Table ... Carmen Marc Valvo is an outspoken voice for colorectal cancer screening. Photo Courtesy of: Phil Fisch Photography Designer ...

  20. Plasma TIMP-1 and CEA as Markers for Detection of Primary Colorectal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ib Jarle; Brünner, Nils; Dowell, Barry

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIM: The combination of plasma tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (1) and CEA has been shown to have utility in early detection of colorectal cancer (2). A prospective study was performed to validate previous findings. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Individuals undergoing large bowel...... was detected in 32 individuals, 24 with colonic cancer (CC) and 8 with rectal cancer (RC). Other findings were 265 with adenomas and 889 with non-neoplastic pathology. The biomarker levels were elevated in plasma from patients with CRC, but also from patients with various co-morbidities compared to individuals...... endoscopy were prospectively included (N=1965). Baseline data and co-morbidity were recorded. The primary end-point was the detection of CRC. Plasma was obtained before endoscopy and TIMP-1 and CEA levels were determined using an automated analysis platform when all samples were collected. RESULTS: CRC...

  1. The association between CD166 detection rate and clinicopathologic parameters of patients with colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Shafaei, Shahriar; Sharbatdaran, Majid; Kamrani, Ghodsieh; Khafri, Soraya

    2013-01-01

    Background: Metastasis and recurrence of colorectal cancer after treatment is attributed to stem cells. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the expression of stem cell marker CD166 in colorectal cancer by immunohistochemistry and clinicopathologic parameters.

  2. Cell-free DNA as biomarker and source for mutation detection in primary colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolic, Aleksandra; Vlajnic, Marina; Ristanovic, Momcilo; Petrovic, Jelena; Dimitrijevic, Ivan; Krivokapic, Zoran; Radojkovic, Dragica

    2017-01-01

    To analyze if cell-free (cf)DNA levels and the presence of KRAS and BRAF mutations in serum could be used as diagnostic biomarkers in patients with primary colorectal cancer (CRC). This study included 92 individuals who were operated due to primary CRC (N=52;study group) and to hemorrhoids (N=40;control group). Serum cfDNA levels were measured with real-time PCR (RT-PCR) using PicoGreen dsDNA quantitation reagent. Colorectal tissue and related blood and serum samples taken at the time of surgery were subjected to DNA extraction and analysis of KRAS and BRAF mutations based on multiplex SNaPshot assay and DNA sequencing. The average cfDNA concentration was lower in patients of the study group (20±7 ng/μL) in comparison to controls (34±9 ng/μL) and this difference was statistically significant (pmutations in colorectal tumor tissue in 14 cases, but the presence of the mutation was not confirmed in cfDNA extracted from blood samples of these patients. The level of serum cfDNA in CRC is decreased in comparison to patients with hemorrhoids, which questions the usefulness of cfDNA as cancer biomarker. Also, cfDNA does not appear to be suitable as a source for mutation detection in this disease.

  3. Colorectal cancer cell detection by 5-aminolaevulinic acid-loaded chitosan nano-particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shu-Jyuan; Shieh, Ming-Jium; Lin, Feng-Huei; Lou, Pei-Jen; Peng, Cheng-Liang; Wei, Ming-Feng; Yao, Cheng-Jun; Lai, Ping-Shan; Young, Tai-Horng

    2009-01-18

    Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of malignant death in Taiwan because it often remains undetected until later stages of the disease. In this study, we designed an oral form nano-particle to encapsulate 5-aminolaevulinic acid (5-ALA) to improve the detection of colorectal cancer cells in vivo. The nano-particle should escape from bacteria uptake in the gastrointestinal tract which seriously interferes the results of endoscopic observation. In this study, chitosan was mixed with sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) and 5-ALA to prepare chitosan nano-particles (CN) and 5-ALA loaded chitosan nano-particles (CNA) by adding different pH values and concentrations of 5-ALA solution. The average particle size and zeta-potential of CN and CNA were measured by the Zetasizer-3000. The results revealed that particle size with different zeta-potential could be manipulated just by 5-ALA concentrations and pH values. CNA particles prepared at pH 7.4 and pH 9 of 5-ALA solutions with a concentration higher than 0.5 mg/ml showed a promising loading efficiency of up to 75% and an optimum average particle size of 100 nm. The zeta-potential for CNA was over 30 mV that kept the nano-particle stable without aggregation when stored in suspension solution. Fluorescence microscope examination showed that CNA could be engulfed by Caco-2 colon cancer cells but showed no evidence of being taken up by Escherichia coli. This result implies that CNA could exclude the influence of normal flora inside the gut and serves as an adequate tool for fluorescent endoscopic detection of colorectal cancer cells in vivo.

  4. Recent insights into nanotechnology development for detection and treatment of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanath, Buddolla; Kim, Sanghyo; Lee, Kiyoung

    2016-01-01

    The global incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) is 1.3 million cases. It is the third most frequent cancer in males and females. Most CRCs are adenocarcinomas and often begin as a polyp on the inner wall of the rectum or colon. Some of these polyps become malignant, eventually. Detecting and removing these polyps in time can prevent CRC. Therefore, early diagnosis of CRC is advantageous for preventive and instant action interventions to decrease the mortality rates. Nanotechnology has been enhancing different methods for the detection and treatment of CRCs, and the research has provided hope within the scientific community for the development of new therapeutic strategies. This review presents the recent development of nanotechnology for the detection and treatment of CRC.

  5. Application of laser-induced autofluorescence spectra detection in human colorectal cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Sheng; Chia, Teck-Chee; Kwek, Leong Chuan; Diong, Cheong Hoong; Tang, Choong Leong; Choen, Francis S.; Krishnan, S. M.

    2003-10-01

    We investigated 48 normal patients and 25 diseased patients using our laser-induced autofluorescence spectra detection system during their regular colonoscopy. The colon and rectum mucosa autofluorescence were excited by 405 nm continue wavelength laser. We observed that cancer or diseased colorectal mucosa, their autofluorescence spectra are significantly different from normal area. The autofluorescence spectra intensity at about 500 nm was been used for our intensity ratio characteristics intensity for our diagnostic algorithm. The intensity ratios of RI-680/I-500 and RI-630/I-500 were performed to identify the detection area. From experimental result we concluded that both intensity ratios of RI-680/I-500 and RI-630/I-500 as guidelines can detect cancerous and polyps disease completely. Our investigation provided some useful insight for laser induced autofluorescence spectra as a diagnosis technique for clinical application.

  6. Utility of KRAS mutation detection using circulating cell-free DNA from patients with colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Takeshi; Iwai, Takuma; Takahashi, Goro; Kan, Hayato; Koizumi, Michihiro; Matsuda, Akihisa; Shinji, Seiichi; Yamagishi, Aya; Yokoyama, Yasuyuki; Tatsuguchi, Atsushi; Kawagoe, Tatsuro; Kitano, Shiro; Nakayama, Masato; Matsumoto, Satoshi; Uchida, Eiji

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we evaluated the clinical utility of detecting KRAS mutations in circulating cell-free (ccf)DNA of metastatic colorectal cancer patients. We prospectively recruited 94 metastatic colorectal cancer patients. Circulating cell-free DNA was extracted from plasma samples and analyzed for the presence of seven KRAS point mutations. Using the Invader Plus assay with peptide nucleic acid clamping method and digital PCR, KRAS mutations were detected in the ccfDNA in 35 of 39 patients previously determined to have primary tumors containing KRAS mutations using the Luminex method, and in 5 of 55 patients with tumors containing wild-type KRAS. Curative resection was undertaken in 7 of 34 patients with primary and ccfDNA KRAS mutations, resulting in the disappearance of the mutation from the cell-free DNA in five of seven patients. Three of these patients had tumor recurrence and KRAS mutations in their ccfDNA reappeared. Epidermal growth factor receptor blockade was administered to 24 of the KRAS tumor wild-type patients. Of the 24 patients with wild-type KRAS in their primary tumors, three patients had KRAS mutations in their ccfDNA and did not respond to treatment with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) blockade. We also detected a new KRAS mutation in five patients during chemotherapy with EGFR blockade, before disease progression was detectable with imaging. The detection of KRAS mutations in ccfDNA is an attractive approach for predicting both treatment response and acquired resistance to EGFR blockade, and for detecting disease recurrence. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  7. Evaluation of liquid biopsies for detection of emerging mutated genes in metastatic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuki, Hiroyasu; Yamada, Takeshi; Takahashi, Goro; Iwai, Takuma; Koizumi, Michihiro; Shinji, Seiichi; Yokoyama, Yasuyuki; Takeda, Kohki; Taniai, Nobuhiko; Uchida, Eiji

    2018-02-02

    Detection of gene mutations is important for planning molecular targeted therapy. Although most gene mutations are concordant between primary colon cancers and their liver metastases, new mutations can emerge in metastases. The liquid biopsy is a newly developed, gene analytic method to detect mutations in metastatic tumors. In this prospective study, we evaluated the applicability of liquid biopsies in the detection of mutations in primary and metastatic tumors. We included 22 patients with liver metastases from colorectal cancer and extracted DNA from primary colorectal tumors, metastatic liver tumors, and peripheral blood (liquid biopsy). Next-generation sequencing (NGS) and digital PCR were performed to detect mutations in these three sample types. We found a total of 36 different mutations in samples from primary tumors, liver metastases, and liquid biopsies using NGS. Twenty-eight of these mutations were found in all three types of samples, whereas liquid biopsy did not identify four mutations that had been found in both primary tumors and liver metastases, but did identify four mutations that were found in liver tumors but not in primary tumors. The sensitivity of liquid biopsies for detecting mutations in liver metastases was 64% (23/36) using NGS and 89% (32/36, P = 0.02) using dPCR. The specificities of NGS and dPCR were 100% (23/23) and 100% (32/32), respectively. Emerging mutations, which are not found in primary tumors, can be detected in their metastases and liquid biopsies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  8. Immunohistochemical assay for detection of K-ras protein expression in metastatic colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tag Elsabah, M.; Iman Adel, I.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that target the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) had expanded the range of treatment options for metastatic colorectal cancer. However, such type of treatment was shown to be ineffective if there is K-ras mutation. In most previous studies K-ras gene mutation was mainly assessed by PCR. Aim: Our work is designed to detect K-ras protein expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) aiming to reach a preliminary method that could be confirmed by PCR and considered an alternative way for the detection of K-ras aberration. We are also aiming to find a relation between K-ras protein expression and K-ras gene mutation. Materials and methods: Paraffin embedded tissue samples from 26 metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients were analyzed for K-ras protein expression by IHC using RaplA polyclonal antibody. Staining patterns were subjectively assessed and correlated with clinicopathological features. The results were statistically evaluated using the Chi-square test. Results: K-ras cytoplasmic positivity was observed in 42.3% of cases. The positivity was either strong in 26.9% or moderate in 15.4%. With respect to adenocarcinoma variants, 50% of cases were positive for K-ras protein expression while all mucinous and signet ring types were negative. The positivity was noted in 50% of moderately differentiated GII colorectal carcinomas as compared with 38.9% in poorly differentiated GIII. Positive staining was observed in 40% of cases with positive lymph node metastasis while in the absence of nodal metastasis the positivity was 45.5%. No significant correlation was found between clinicopathological parameters and K-ras staining results. Conclusion: IHC may compliment PCR in the detection of K-ras mutation.

  9. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound vs multidetector-computed tomography for detecting liver metastases in colorectal cancer: a prospective, blinded, patient-by-patient analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafaelsen, S R; Jakobsen, A

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the sensitivity and specificity of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and multidetector-computed tomography (MDCT) in the detection of liver metastases in patients with colorectal cancer.......This study compared the sensitivity and specificity of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and multidetector-computed tomography (MDCT) in the detection of liver metastases in patients with colorectal cancer....

  10. Risk stratification and detection of new colorectal neoplasms after colorectal cancer screening with faecal occult blood test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Andreas; Milter, Maya Christel; Andersen, Ole

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Limited data exist on adenoma surveillance as recommended in the European guidelines for quality assurance in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening and diagnosis after faecal occult blood test (FOBT) screening. OBJECTIVE: To assess the European guidelines for adenoma surveillance after CRC...

  11. [Obesity and colorectal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Soo-Young; Myung, Seung-Jae

    2012-01-01

    Obesity worldwide is constantly increasing. Obesity acts as an independent significant risk factor for malignant tumors of various organs including colorectal cancer. Visceral adipose tissue is physiologically more important than subcutaneous adipose tissue. The relative risk of colorectal cancer of obese patients is about 1.5 times higher than the normal-weight individuals, and obesity is also associated with premalignant colorectal adenoma. The colorectal cancer incidence of obese patients has gender-specific and site-specific characteristics that it is higher in men than women and in the colon than rectum. Obesity acts as a risk factor of colorectal carcinogenesis by several mechanisms. Isulin, insulin-like growth factor, leptin, adiponectin, microbiome, and cytokines of chronic inflammation etc. have been understood as its potential mechanisms. In addition, obesity in patients with colorectal cancer negatively affects the disease progression and response of chemotherapy. Although the evidence is not clear yet, there are some reports that weight loss as well as life-modification such as dietary change and physical activity can reduce the risk of colorectal cancer. It is very important knowledge in the point that obesity is a potentially modifiable risk factor that can alter the incidence and outcome of the colorectal cancer.

  12. Prophylaxis against colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Steffen; Kronborg, O

    1996-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is diagnosed in more than 3000 people every year in Denmark, with a population of 5 million, and 2000 die from this disease every year. The aetiology of the disease is complex, but an increasing number of cancers have been related to genetics and Denmark is contributing with a w...... for colorectal cancer in average-risk persons as well as high-risk groups with precursors of the disease. The present review places Danish contributions within the prophylaxis of colorectal cancer during the last decade in an international context....

  13. Label-free serum ribonucleic acid analysis for colorectal cancer detection by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanping; Chen, Gang; Feng, Shangyuan; Pan, Jianji; Zheng, Xiongwei; Su, Ying; Chen, Yan; Huang, Zufang; Lin, Xiaoqian; Lan, Fenghua; Chen, Rong; Zeng, Haishan

    2012-06-01

    Studies with circulating ribonucleic acid (RNA) not only provide new targets for cancer detection, but also open up the possibility of noninvasive gene expression profiling for cancer. In this paper, we developed a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), platform for detection and differentiation of serum RNAs of colorectal cancer. A novel three-dimensional (3-D), Ag nanofilm formed by dry MgSO4 aggregated silver nanoparticles, Ag NP, as the SERS-active substrate was presented to effectively enhance the RNA Raman signals. SERS measurements were performed on two groups of serum RNA samples. One group from patients, n=55 with pathologically diagnosed colorectal cancer and the other group from healthy controls, n=45. Tentative assignments of the Raman bands in the normalized SERS spectra demonstrated that there are differential expressions of cancer-related RNAs between the two groups. Linear discriminate analysis, based on principal component analysis, generated features can differentiate the colorectal cancer SERS spectra from normal SERS spectra with sensitivity of 89.1 percent and specificity of 95.6 percent. This exploratory study demonstrated great potential for developing serum RNA SERS analysis into a useful clinical tool for label-free, noninvasive screening and detection of colorectal cancers.

  14. Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be detected by optical colonoscopy. Virtual colonoscopy uses virtual reality technology to produce three-dimensional images of the colon and rectum. However, the costs and benefits of virtual colonoscopy are still being investigated, and the technique ...

  15. Cell-Free Nucleic Acids As Noninvasive Biomarkers For Colorectal Cancer Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hicham eMansour

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cell-free nucleic acids (CFNA have been reported by several authors in blood, stool and urine of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC. These genetic biomarkers can be an indication of neoplastic colorectal epithelial cells, so they can potentially be used as noninvasive tests for the detection of the disease in CRC patients and monitor their staging, without the need to use heavier and invasive tools. In a number of test-trials, these genetic tests have shown the advantage of non-invasiveness, making them well accepted by most of the patients, without major side effects. They have also shown a promising sensitivity and specificity in the detection of malignant and premalignant neoplasms. Moreover, costs for performing such tests can be very low. Several studies reported and confirmed the proof of the principle for these genetic tests for screening, diagnosis and prognosis; the main challenge of translating this approach from research to clinical laboratory is the validation in large and long-term randomized trials to prove sustainable high sensitivity and specificity. In this paper, we present a review on the noninvasive genetics biomarkers for CRC detection described in the literature and the challenges that can be encountered for validation processes.

  16. Cell-free nucleic acids as noninvasive biomarkers for colorectal cancer detection

    KAUST Repository

    Mansour, Hicham

    2014-08-27

    Cell-free nucleic acids (CFNA) have been reported by several authors in blood, stool, and urine of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). These genetic biomarkers can be an indication of neoplastic colorectal epithelial cells, and can thus potentially be used as noninvasive tests for the detection of the disease in CRC patients and monitor their staging, without the need to use heavier and invasive tools. In a number of test-trials, these genetic tests have shown the advantage of non-invasiveness, making them well accepted by most of the patients, without major side effects. They have also shown a promising sensitivity and specificity in the detection of malignant and premalignant neoplasms. Moreover, costs for performing such tests are very low. Several studies reported and confirmed the proof of the principle for these genetic tests for screening, diagnosis, and prognosis; the main challenge of translating this approach from research to clinical laboratory is the validation from large and long-term randomized trials to prove sustainable high sensitivity and specificity. In this paper, we present a review on the noninvasive genetics biomarkers for CRC detection described in the literature and the challenges that can be encountered for validation processes.

  17. Screening for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans J.; Jakobsen, Karen V.; Christensen, Ib J.

    2011-01-01

    Emerging results indicate that screening improves survival of patients with colorectal cancer. Therefore, screening programs are already implemented or are being considered for implementation in Asia, Europe and North America. At present, a great variety of screening methods are available including...... into improvements of screening for colorectal cancer includes blood-based biological markers, such as proteins, DNA and RNA in combination with various demographically and clinically parameters into a "risk assessment evaluation" (RAE) test. It is assumed that such a test may lead to higher acceptance among...... procedures for colorectal cancer. Therefore, results of present research, validating RAE tests, are awaited with interest....

  18. Prophylaxis against colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Steffen; Kronborg, O

    1996-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is diagnosed in more than 3000 people every year in Denmark, with a population of 5 million, and 2000 die from this disease every year. The aetiology of the disease is complex, but an increasing number of cancers have been related to genetics and Denmark is contributing...... with a well-established register of familial adenomatous polyposis and a recently founded register for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer, both with major international relationships. The Danish tradition of epidemiology and clinical trials has also been demonstrated in population screening trials...... for colorectal cancer in average-risk persons as well as high-risk groups with precursors of the disease. The present review places Danish contributions within the prophylaxis of colorectal cancer during the last decade in an international context....

  19. Gallstones and colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Torben; Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael

    1992-01-01

    The prevalence of gallstone disease in 145 consecutive patients with colorectal cancer was compared with gallstone prevalence in 4,159 subjects randomly selected from a population. The group of patients had a significantly higher prevalence of gallstone disease than the population (odds ratio = 1...... substantial evidence for an association between gallstones and colorectal cancer, an association which is not due to cholecystectomy being a predisposing factor to colorectal cancer. Sporadic findings of an association between cholecystectomy and colorectal cancer can be explained by the above relationship........59; 95 percent confidence limits 1.04-2.45), whereas cholecystectomies occurred with equal frequency in the two groups. There was a nonsignificant trend toward more right-sided cancers in patients with gallstones than in patients without. These results, together with available literature, give...

  20. Gallstones and colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Torben; Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael

    1992-01-01

    The prevalence of gallstone disease in 145 consecutive patients with colorectal cancer was compared with gallstone prevalence in 4,159 subjects randomly selected from a population. The group of patients had a significantly higher prevalence of gallstone disease than the population (odds ratio = 1.......59; 95 percent confidence limits 1.04-2.45), whereas cholecystectomies occurred with equal frequency in the two groups. There was a nonsignificant trend toward more right-sided cancers in patients with gallstones than in patients without. These results, together with available literature, give...... substantial evidence for an association between gallstones and colorectal cancer, an association which is not due to cholecystectomy being a predisposing factor to colorectal cancer. Sporadic findings of an association between cholecystectomy and colorectal cancer can be explained by the above relationship....

  1. Colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunderson, L.L.

    1987-01-01

    Data have been accumulating to support an increased role for combined radiation therapy and surgery in the initial treatment of many rectal and some colonic carcinomas. These include the following findings: 1. Improvements in surgical survival rates have been minimal in the past 25 to 30 years and are the result of an increase in operability with little change by stage of disease in those patients who have survived a ''curative resection.'' 2. The incidence of local recurrence after potentially curative surgery is high in more advanced stages of disease for both rectal and colon cancer. Although palliation of local recurrence can frequently be obtained, its duration is often limited and the curative potential is low. Therefore, prevention of local recurrence with adjuvant radiation with or without chemotherapy is imperative. 3. When patients present with fixed, unresectable tumors, aggressive treatment combinations appear to improve both local control and survival. Close interaction is required between the surgeon and the radiation oncologist to achieve these results with an acceptable risk of complications

  2. KRAS G12V Mutation Detection by Droplet Digital PCR in Circulating Cell-Free DNA of Colorectal Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedillas López, Susana; García-Olmo, Dolores C; García-Arranz, Mariano; Guadalajara, Héctor; Pastor, Carlos; García-Olmo, Damián

    2016-04-01

    KRAS mutations are responsible for resistance to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) therapy in colorectal cancer patients. These mutations sometimes appear once treatment has started. Detection of KRAS mutations in circulating cell-free DNA in plasma ("liquid biopsy") by droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) has emerged as a very sensitive and promising alternative to serial biopsies for disease monitoring. In this study, KRAS G12V mutation was analyzed by ddPCR in plasma DNA from 10 colorectal cancer patients and compared to six healthy donors. The percentage of KRAS G12V mutation relative to wild-type sequences in tumor-derived DNA was also determined. KRAS G12V mutation circulating in plasma was detected in 9 of 10 colorectal cancer patients whose tumors were also mutated. Colorectal cancer patients had 35.62 copies of mutated KRAS/mL plasma, whereas in healthy controls only residual copies were found (0.62 copies/mL, p = 0.0066). Interestingly, patients with metastatic disease showed a significantly higher number of mutant copies than M0 patients (126.25 versus 9.37 copies/mL, p = 0.0286). Wild-type KRAS was also significantly elevated in colorectal cancer patients compared to healthy controls (7718.8 versus 481.25 copies/mL, p = 0.0002). In conclusion, KRAS G12V mutation is detectable in plasma of colorectal cancer patients by ddPCR and could be used as a non-invasive biomarker.

  3. Detection of Colorectal Cancer by a Quantitative Fluorescence Determination of DNA Amplification in Stool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Calistri

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available DNA amplification of exfoliated cells in stool repre sents an inexpensive and rapid test, but has only 50% to 60% sensitivity. A new quantitative method, calle( fluorescence long DNA, was developed and validate( in our laboratory on stool obtained from 86 patient., with primary colorectal cancer and from 62 health individuals. It consists of the amplification of stoo DNA with fluorescence primers and the quantification of the amplification using a standard curve. Results are arbitrarily expressed in nanograms. The potential of thi new method compared to the conventional approact was analyzed in a subgroup of 94 individuals (51 patients and 38 healthy volunteers. In the presen series, DNA amplification analysis showed a specific ity of 97% and a sensitivity of only 50%. Conversely fluorescence DNA evaluation, using the best cutoff o 25 ng, showed a sensitivity of about 76% and a spec ificity of 93%. Similar sensitivity was observed regard less of Dukes stage, tumor location, and size, thu., also permitting the detection of early-stage tumors The present study seems to indicate that quantitative fluorescence DNA determination in stool successfully identifies colorectal cancer patients with a sensitivity comparable, if not superior, to that of multiple gene analysis but at a lower cost and in a shorter time.

  4. Prevention, early detection, and overdiagnosis of colorectal cancer within 10 years of screening colonoscopy in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Hermann; Altenhofen, Lutz; Stock, Christian; Hoffmeister, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Screening colonoscopy was introduced in Germany in October 2002. We aimed to quantify its effects on prevention, early detection, and overdiagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) in the 10 years since its introduction. We analyzed data from more than 4.4 million screening colonoscopies (conducted on individuals 55-79 years old from 2003 through 2012) available through the national screening colonoscopy registry. CRCs prevented, detected earlier than they would have been without screening, and overdiagnosed (cancers detected at screening colonoscopy that would not have become clinically manifest during the patient's lifetime) were estimated by Markov models. Model parameters included sex-specific and age-specific findings at screening colonoscopy; mortality; rates of transition from nonadvanced to advanced adenoma, advanced adenoma to preclinical cancer, or preclinical cancer to clinically manifest cancer; and protection from screening colonoscopy. Overall, approximately 180,000 CRCs (1/28 screening colonoscopies) were estimated to have been prevented, and more than 40,000 CRCs (1/121 screening colonoscopies) were detected earlier than they would have been without screening, compared with approximately 4500 overdiagnoses (1/1089 screening colonoscopies). Almost all CRCs prevented or detected earlier than they would have been without screening resulted from screening colonoscopies performed on individuals up to 75 years old (97% and 89%, respectively), whereas 28% of overdiagnoses occurred from screening colonoscopies of individuals older than 75 years old. On the basis of a 10-year analysis of data from a national registry in Germany, screening colonoscopies have large potential for prevention and early detection of CRC, with low risk of overdiagnosis. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Subnuclear proteomics in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrethsen, Jakob; Knol, Jaco C; Piersma, Sander R

    2010-01-01

    for early cancer detection. Here we evaluate a proteomics work flow for profiling protein constituents in subnuclear domains in colorectal cancer tissues and apply this work flow to a comparative analysis of the nuclear matrix fraction in colorectal adenoma and carcinoma tissue samples. First, we......Abnormalities in nuclear phenotype and chromosome structure are key features of cancer cells. Investigation of the protein determinants of nuclear subfractions in cancer may yield molecular insights into aberrant chromosome function and chromatin organization and in addition may yield biomarkers...... with statistics, we identified proteins that are significantly enriched in the nuclear matrix fraction relative to two earlier fractions (the chromatin-binding and intermediate filament fractions) isolated from six colorectal tissue samples. The total data set contained 2,059 non-redundant proteins. Gene ontology...

  6. [Colorectal cancer and folate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bott, C; Lembcke, B; Stein, J

    2003-03-01

    Nutritional factors are important contributors to colorectal cancer prevention. There is some evidence to suggest that a high dietary folate intake is associated with a reduced risk of colorectal cancer. Folate, which is found in green leafy vegetables, is involved in C1 group transfer and contributes to purin and thymi-dilate synthesis as well as to DNA methylation. Alterations in gene expression and DNA damage are discussed to result from low folate levels and might be associated with an elevated risk of colorectal malignancies. This hypothesis can be supported by the finding that a common polymorphism in the methylentetrahydrofolate reductase gene enhances the risk of colorectal cancer when folate status is low. Both retrospective and prospective epidemiologic studies confirm the observation that a high intake of folate correlates with a lower risk of colorectal cancer. There is also evidence from epidemiological studies that diets which are low in methyl donors, such as low contents of folate and/or methionine combined with relatively high alcohol consumption, even enhance the risk of colorectal cancer. A small number of intervention trials provide first evidence that folate intakes far above recommended dietary allowances might influence possible biomarkers of colorectal tumours.

  7. Sensitive detection of colorectal cancer in peripheral blood by septin 9 DNA methylation assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Grützmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC is the second leading cause of cancer deaths despite the fact that detection of this cancer in early stages results in over 90% survival rate. Currently less than 45% of at-risk individuals in the US are screened regularly, exposing a need for better screening tests. We performed two case-control studies to validate a blood-based test that identifies methylated DNA in plasma from all stages of CRC. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a PCR assay for analysis of Septin 9 (SEPT9 hypermethylation in DNA extracted from plasma, clinical performance was optimized on 354 samples (252 CRC, 102 controls and validated in a blinded, independent study of 309 samples (126 CRC, 183 controls. 168 polyps and 411 additional disease controls were also evaluated. Based on the training study SEPT9-based classification detected 120/252 CRCs (48% and 7/102 controls (7%. In the test study 73/126 CRCs (58% and 18/183 control samples (10% were positive for SEPT9 validating the training set results. Inclusion of an additional measurement replicate increased the sensitivity of the assay in the testing set to 72% (90/125 CRCs detected while maintaining 90% specificity (19/183 for controls. Positive rates for plasmas from the other cancers (11/96 and non-cancerous conditions (41/315 were low. The rate of polyp detection (>1 cm was approximately 20%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Analysis of SEPT9 DNA methylation in plasma represents a straightforward, minimally invasive method to detect all stages of CRC with potential to satisfy unmet needs for increased compliance in the screening population. Further clinical testing is warranted.

  8. Hereditary colorectal cancer diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov, Louise; Holck, Susanne; Bernstein, Inge

    2012-01-01

    BackgroundThe hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) subset of tumours can broadly be divided into tumours caused by an underlying mismatch-repair gene mutation, referred to as Lynch syndrome, and those that develop in families with similar patterns of heredity but without disease......-predisposing germline mismatch repair mutations, referred to as familial colorectal cancer type X (FCCTX). Recognition of HNPCC-associated colorectal cancers is central since surveillance programmes effectively reduce morbidity and mortality. The characteristic morphological features linked to Lynch syndrome can aid...... in the identification of this subset, whereas the possibility to use morphological features as an indicator of FCCTX is uncertain.Objective and methodsTo perform a detailed morphological evaluation of HNPCC-associated colorectal cancers and demonstrate significant differences between tumours associated with FCCTX...

  9. cDNA sequencing improves the detection of P53 missense mutations in colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szybka, Malgorzata; Kordek, Radzislaw; Zakrzewska, Magdalena; Rieske, Piotr; Pasz-Walczak, Grazyna; Kulczycka-Wojdala, Dominika; Zawlik, Izabela; Stawski, Robert; Jesionek-Kupnicka, Dorota; Liberski, Pawel P

    2009-01-01

    Recently published data showed discrepancies beteween P53 cDNA and DNA sequencing in glioblastomas. We hypothesised that similar discrepancies may be observed in other human cancers. To this end, we analyzed 23 colorectal cancers for P53 mutations and gene expression using both DNA and cDNA sequencing, real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. We found P53 gene mutations in 16 cases (15 missense and 1 nonsense). Two of the 15 cases with missense mutations showed alterations based only on cDNA, and not DNA sequencing. Moreover, in 6 of the 15 cases with a cDNA mutation those mutations were difficult to detect in the DNA sequencing, so the results of DNA analysis alone could be misinterpreted if the cDNA sequencing results had not also been available. In all those 15 cases, we observed a higher ratio of the mutated to the wild type template by cDNA analysis, but not by the DNA analysis. Interestingly, a similar overexpression of P53 mRNA was present in samples with and without P53 mutations. In terms of colorectal cancer, those discrepancies might be explained under three conditions: 1, overexpression of mutated P53 mRNA in cancer cells as compared with normal cells; 2, a higher content of cells without P53 mutation (normal cells and cells showing K-RAS and/or APC but not P53 mutation) in samples presenting P53 mutation; 3, heterozygous or hemizygous mutations of P53 gene. Additionally, for heterozygous mutations unknown mechanism(s) causing selective overproduction of mutated allele should also be considered. Our data offer new clues for studying discrepancy in P53 cDNA and DNA sequencing analysis

  10. Screening for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jin; Efron, Jonathan E

    2011-01-01

    March is national colorectal cancer awareness month. It is estimated that as many as 60% of colorectal cancer deaths could be prevented if all men and women aged 50 years or older were screened routinely. In 2000, Katie Couric's televised colonoscopy led to a 20% increase in screening colonoscopies across America, a stunning rise called the "Katie Couric Effect". This event demonstrated how celebrity endorsement affects health behavior. Currently, discussion is ongoing about the optimal strategy for CRC screening, particularly the costs of screening colonoscopy. The current CRC screening guidelines are summarized in Table 2. Debates over the optimum CRC screening test continue in the face of evidence that 22 million Americans aged 50 to 75 years are not screened for CRC by any modality and 25,000 of those lives may have been saved if they had been screened for CRC. It is clear that improving screening rates and reducing disparities in underscreened communities and population subgroups could further reduce colorectal cancer morbidity and mortality. National Institutes of Health consensus identified the following priority areas to enhance the use and quality of colorectal cancer screening: Eliminate financial barriers to colorectal cancer screening and appropriate follow-up of positive results of colorectal cancer screening. Develop systems to ensure the high quality of colorectal cancer screening programs. Conduct studies to determine the comparative effectiveness of the various colorectal cancer screening methods in usual practice settings. Encouraging population adherence to screening tests and allowing patients to select the tests they prefer may do more good (as long as they choose something) than whatever procedure is chosen by the medical profession as the preferred test.

  11. KRAS and BRAF Mutation Detection: Is Immunohistochemistry a Possible Alternative to Molecular Biology in Colorectal Cancer?

    OpenAIRE

    Piton, Nicolas; Borrini, Francesco; Bolognese, Antonio; Lamy, Aude; Sabourin, Jean-Christophe

    2015-01-01

    KRAS genotyping is mandatory in metastatic colorectal cancer treatment prior to undertaking antiepidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibody therapy. BRAF V600E mutation is often present in colorectal carcinoma with CpG island methylator phenotype and microsatellite instability. Currently, KRAS and BRAF evaluation is based on molecular biology techniques such as SNaPshot or Sanger sequencing. As molecular testing is performed on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples, ...

  12. Circulating free DNA as biomarker and source for mutation detection in metastatic colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spindler, Karen Lise Garm; Pallisgaard, Niels; Andersen, Rikke Fredslund

    2015-01-01

    this with four cohorts of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients. We also investigated the prognostic value of cfDNA and analysed the tumour-specific KRAS mutations in the plasma. METHODS: The study was a prospective biomarker evaluation in four consecutive Phase II trials, including 229 patients.......6-5.9) months, respectively, HR 1.78, p = 0.0006). Multivariate analysis confirmed an independent prognostic value of cfDNA (HR 1.5 (95% CI 1.3-1.7) for each increase in the cfDNA quartile). The overall concordance of KRAS mutations in plasma and tissue was high (85%). CONCLUSIONS: These data confirm...... the prognostic value of cfDNA measurement in plasma and utility for mutation detection with the method presented....

  13. Indeterminate Pulmonary Nodules at Colorectal Cancer Staging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordholm-Carstensen, Andreas; Wille-Jørgensen, Peer A; Jorgensen, Lars N

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of indeterminate pulmonary nodules and specific radiological and clinical characteristics that predict malignancy of these at initial staging chest computed tomography (CT) in patients with colorectal cancer. A considerable number of indeterminate...... pulmonary nodules, which cannot readily be classified as either benign or malignant, are detected at initial staging chest CT in colorectal cancer patients....

  14. The impact of knowledge transfer on the detection of venous invasion in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Richard; Assarzadegan, Naziheh; Messenger, David E; Juda, Ari; Riddell, Robert H; Pollett, Aaron; Streutker, Catherine J; Divaris, Dimitrios X; Newell, Ken J; Price, Russell G; Smith, Sharyn; Al-Haddad, Sahar; Parfitt, Jeremy R; Driman, David K

    2017-09-01

    Venous invasion (VI) is an independent predictor of hematogenous metastasis and mortality in colorectal cancer (CRC) yet remains widely underreported. Its detection may require recognition of subtle morphologic clues, which at times are only unmasked with an elastin stain. This study evaluates the impact of a knowledge transfer initiative (KTI) on VI detection in a "real-world" pathology practice setting. Following participation in an interobserver variability study of VI detection (Kirsch et al, 2013), 12 participants received educational materials highlighting key issues in VI detection. Eighteen months later, participants were invited to submit pathology reports from all CRC resections signed out 18 months prior to and 18 months following the KTI (n = 266 and n = 244, respectively). Nine pathologists participated. Reports were reviewed for VI and other established prognostic factors. Numbers of elastin stains and tumor-containing blocks were also recorded. Comparative analyses were adjusted for baseline differences in tumor, lymph node, and metastasis stage; tumor location; use of neoadjuvant therapy; and number of tumor-containing blocks. VI detection increased significantly post-KTI versus pre-KTI (39.3% versus 18.4%, adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.86 [1.91-4.28], P knowledge transfer in increasing VI detection in routine pathology practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Screening of colorectal early cancer by radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsukawa, M.; Usui, Y.; Kobayashi, S.

    1988-01-01

    The incidence of colorectal cancer has been gradually increasing in Japan, and if the present rate of increase is maintained it has been estimated that it will become the most common of all malignant neoplasms by the year 2000. It has been proved that colorectal cancer can be completely cured, if it is treated in its early phase. Early cancer of the large bowel is defined as a cancer which is limited to the mucosal membrane or submucosal layer, regardless of lymph node and distant metastases. Detection of early cancer improves the overall curability of colorectal cancer. The greatest number of early cancers of the large bowel are polypoid lesions in their macroscopic form, and depressed lesions are rarely encountered. Accordingly, the first step in the detection of early cancer starts with the screening of polypoid lesion by radiology and endoscopy. This paper is concerned with diagnostic accuracy of radiology in the screening of colorectal cancer with endoscopic correlation

  16. Metabolomics and detection of colorectal cancer in humans: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haili; Tso, Victor K; Slupsky, Carolyn M; Fedorak, Richard N

    2010-09-01

    Metabolomics represents one of the new omics sciences and capitalizes on the unique presence and concentration of small molecules in tissues and body fluids to construct a 'fingerprint' that can be unique to the individual and, within that individual, unique to environmental influences, including health and disease states. As such, metabolomics has the potential to serve an important role in diagnosis and management of human conditions. Colorectal cancer is a major public health concern. Current population-based screening methods are suboptimal and whether metabolomics could represent a new tool of screening is under investigation. The purpose of this systematic review is to summarize existing literature on metabolomics and colorectal cancer, in terms of diagnostic accuracies and distinguishing metabolites. Eight studies are included. A total of 12 metabolites (taurine, lactate, choline, inositol, glycine, phosphocholine, proline, phenylalanine, alanine, threonine, valine and leucine) were found to be more prevalent in colorectal cancer and glucose was found to be in higher proportion in control specimens using tissue metabolomics. Serum and urine metabolomics identified several other differential metabolites between controls and colorectal cancer patients. This article highlights the novelty of the field of metabolomics in colorectal oncology.

  17. A novel fully automated molecular diagnostic system (AMDS for colorectal cancer mutation detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiro Kitano

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA mutations are frequently observed in colorectal cancer (CRC. In particular, KRAS mutations are strong predictors for clinical outcomes of EGFR-targeted treatments such as cetuximab and panitumumab in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC. For mutation analysis, the current methods are time-consuming, and not readily available to all oncologists and pathologists. We have developed a novel, simple, sensitive and fully automated molecular diagnostic system (AMDS for point of care testing (POCT. Here we report the results of a comparison study between AMDS and direct sequencing (DS in the detection of KRAS, BRAF and PI3KCA somatic mutations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: DNA was extracted from a slice of either frozen (n = 89 or formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE CRC tissue (n = 70, and then used for mutation analysis by AMDS and DS. All mutations (n = 41 among frozen and 27 among FFPE samples detected by DS were also successfully (100% detected by the AMDS. However, 8 frozen and 6 FFPE samples detected as wild-type in the DS analysis were shown as mutants in the AMDS analysis. By cloning-sequencing assays, these discordant samples were confirmed as true mutants. One sample had simultaneous "hot spot" mutations of KRAS and PIK3CA, and cloning assay comfirmed that E542K and E545K were not on the same allele. Genotyping call rates for DS were 100.0% (89/89 and 74.3% (52/70 in frozen and FFPE samples, respectively, for the first attempt; whereas that of AMDS was 100.0% for both sample sets. For automated DNA extraction and mutation detection by AMDS, frozen tissues (n = 41 were successfully detected all mutations within 70 minutes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: AMDS has superior sensitivity and accuracy over DS, and is much easier to execute than conventional labor intensive manual mutation analysis. AMDS has great potential for POCT equipment for mutation analysis.

  18. 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that may become cancerous. A family history of colon or rectal cancer puts you at higher risk, as does ulcerative ... in combination with chemotherapy for patients with advanced rectal ... chemotherapy for colorectal cancer usually consisted of treatment with just two drugs, ...

  19. Colorectal Cancer Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, David E.

    2007-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a major public health burden and is the most common cause of mortality from cancer in Europe. Over the last two decades robust evidence from randomised clinical trials and case-control series have confirmed that the mortality from colorectal cancer can be reduced by screening. The challenge over the next decade is how to implement this in clinical practice. This is what we set out to answer with this thesis. Not all individuals are equal when it comes to screening and tho...

  20. Circulating free DNA as biomarker and source for mutation detection in metastatic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spindler, Karen Lise Garm; Pallisgaard, Niels; Andersen, Rikke Fredslund; Brandslund, Ivan; Jakobsen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in plasma has shown potential as biomarker in various cancers and could become an importance source for tumour mutation detection. The objectives of our study were to establish a normal range of cfDNA in a cohort of healthy individuals and to compare this with four cohorts of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients. We also investigated the prognostic value of cfDNA and analysed the tumour-specific KRAS mutations in the plasma. The study was a prospective biomarker evaluation in four consecutive Phase II trials, including 229 patients with chemotherapy refractory mCRC and 100 healthy individuals. Plasma was obtained from an EDTA blood-sample, and the total number of DNA alleles and KRAS mutated alleles were assessed using an in-house ARMS-qPCR as previously described. Median cfDNA levels were higher in mCRC compared to controls (p mutations in plasma and tissue was high (85%). These data confirm the prognostic value of cfDNA measurement in plasma and utility for mutation detection with the method presented.

  1. Syncytin immunoreactivity in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Julie Mou; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    monoclonal syncytin antibody we have assessed syncytin expression in a retrospective series of 140 colorectal cancer patients. Variable degrees of syncytin expression were detected in both colonic and rectal tumors and the prognostic impact of such expression was analysed with the Kaplan-Meier method...... and the Cox proportional hazard model. Interestingly, increased syncytin expression was associated with decreased overall survival in rectal but not in colonic cancer patients. Thus, the prognostic impact of syncytin expression appears to vary with the tumor type....

  2. Detecting Lung and Colorectal Cancer Recurrence Using Structured Clinical/Administrative Data to Enable Outcomes Research and Population Health Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassett, Michael J; Uno, Hajime; Cronin, Angel M; Carroll, Nikki M; Hornbrook, Mark C; Ritzwoller, Debra

    2017-12-01

    Recurrent cancer is common, costly, and lethal, yet we know little about it in community-based populations. Electronic health records and tumor registries contain vast amounts of data regarding community-based patients, but usually lack recurrence status. Existing algorithms that use structured data to detect recurrence have limitations. We developed algorithms to detect the presence and timing of recurrence after definitive therapy for stages I-III lung and colorectal cancer using 2 data sources that contain a widely available type of structured data (claims or electronic health record encounters) linked to gold-standard recurrence status: Medicare claims linked to the Cancer Care Outcomes Research and Surveillance study, and the Cancer Research Network Virtual Data Warehouse linked to registry data. Twelve potential indicators of recurrence were used to develop separate models for each cancer in each data source. Detection models maximized area under the ROC curve (AUC); timing models minimized average absolute error. Algorithms were compared by cancer type/data source, and contrasted with an existing binary detection rule. Detection model AUCs (>0.92) exceeded existing prediction rules. Timing models yielded absolute prediction errors that were small relative to follow-up time (data is feasible. These tools will enable extensive, novel research on quality, effectiveness, and outcomes for lung and colorectal cancer patients and those who develop recurrence.

  3. Terahertz endoscopic imaging for colorectal cancer detection: Current status and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doradla, Pallavi; Joseph, Cecil; Giles, Robert H

    2017-01-01

    Terahertz (THz) imaging is progressing as a robust platform for myriad applications in the field of security, health, and material science. The THz regime, which comprises wavelengths spanning from microns to millimeters, is non-ionizing and has very low photon energy: Making it inherently safe for biological imaging. Colorectal cancer is one of the most common causes of death in the world, while the conventional screening and standard of care yet relies exclusively on the physician’s experience. Researchers have been working on the development of a flexible THz endoscope, as a potential tool to aid in colorectal cancer screening. This involves building a single-channel THz endoscope, and profiling the THz response from colorectal tissue, and demonstrating endogenous contrast levels between normal and diseased tissue when imaging in reflection modality. The current level of contrast provided by the prototype THz endoscopic system represents a significant step towards clinical endoscopic application of THz technology for in-vivo colorectal cancer screening. The aim of this paper is to provide a short review of the recent advances in THz endoscopic technology and cancer imaging. In particular, the potential of single-channel THz endoscopic imaging for colonic cancer screening will be highlighted. PMID:28874955

  4. Evaluation of Methylation Biomarkers for Detection of Circulating Tumor DNA and Application to Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M. Mitchell

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Solid tumors shed DNA into circulation, and there is growing evidence that the detection of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA has broad clinical utility, including monitoring of disease, prognosis, response to chemotherapy and tracking tumor heterogeneity. The appearance of ctDNA in the circulating cell-free DNA (ccfDNA isolated from plasma or serum is commonly detected by identifying tumor-specific features such as insertions, deletions, mutations and/or aberrant methylation. Methylation is a normal cell regulatory event, and since the majority of ccfDNA is derived from white blood cells (WBC, it is important that tumour-specific DNA methylation markers show rare to no methylation events in WBC DNA. We have used a novel approach for assessment of low levels of DNA methylation in WBC DNA. DNA methylation in 29 previously identified regions (residing in 17 genes was analyzed in WBC DNA and eight differentially-methylated regions (DMRs were taken through to testing in clinical samples using methylation specific PCR assays. DMRs residing in four genes, BCAT1, GRASP, IKZF1 and IRF4, exhibited low positivity, 3.5% to 7%, in the plasma of colonoscopy-confirmed healthy subjects, with the sensitivity for detection of ctDNA in colonoscopy-confirmed patients with colorectal cancer being 65%, 54.5%, 67.6% and 59% respectively.

  5. Double immunohistochemistry enhances detection of lymphatic and venous invasion in early-stage colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervine, A J; McBride, H A; Kelly, P J; Loughrey, M B

    2015-09-01

    Lymphatic invasion (LI) and venous invasion (VI) are regarded as important risk factors of nodal disease in early-stage colorectal cancer (CRC) but with variable reporting and poor distinction of these parameters in previous studies. This study examines the application of a double immunohistochemistry (D-IHC) method to help detect and distinguish LI and VI, in comparison with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, in a clinical series of cases of stage pT1 CRC. The aims were to demonstrate feasibility of this methodology in routine practice and compare rates of LI and VI reporting with and without D-IHC application. D-IHC utilising CAM5.2 with the endothelial marker CD34 and with the specific lymphatic endothelial marker D2-40 was performed on parallel sections from single representative paraffin tissue blocks in 28 cases of stage pT1 CRC from routine clinical practice. D-IHC significantly increased rates of both LI and VI reporting, from 14.3 to 35.7 % and from 14.3 to 28.6 %, respectively. The D-IHC methodology described is technically feasible in routine practice and potentially offers a more sensitive and robust assay for detection and distinction of LI and VI in early CRC pathology reporting. The reproducibility and clinical significance of enhanced LI and VI detection by this method and the relative importance of LI and VI in this clinical setting require further study.

  6. Genomic and oncoproteomic advances in detection and treatment of colorectal cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McHugh, Seamus M

    2012-02-01

    AIMS: We will examine the latest advances in genomic and proteomic laboratory technology. Through an extensive literature review we aim to critically appraise those studies which have utilized these latest technologies and ascertain their potential to identify clinically useful biomarkers. METHODS: An extensive review of the literature was carried out in both online medical journals and through the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland library. RESULTS: Laboratory technology has advanced in the fields of genomics and oncoproteomics. Gene expression profiling with DNA microarray technology has allowed us to begin genetic profiling of colorectal cancer tissue. The response to chemotherapy can differ amongst individual tumors. For the first time researchers have begun to isolate and identify the genes responsible. New laboratory techniques allow us to isolate proteins preferentially expressed in colorectal cancer tissue. This could potentially lead to identification of a clinically useful protein biomarker in colorectal cancer screening and treatment. CONCLUSION: If a set of discriminating genes could be used for characterization and prediction of chemotherapeutic response, an individualized tailored therapeutic regime could become the standard of care for those undergoing systemic treatment for colorectal cancer. New laboratory techniques of protein identification may eventually allow identification of a clinically useful biomarker that could be used for screening and treatment. At present however, both expression of different gene signatures and isolation of various protein peaks has been limited by study size. Independent multi-centre correlation of results with larger sample sizes is needed to allow translation into clinical practice.

  7. Genomic and oncoproteomic advances in detection and treatment of colorectal cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McHugh, Seamus M

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: We will examine the latest advances in genomic and proteomic laboratory technology. Through an extensive literature review we aim to critically appraise those studies which have utilized these latest technologies and ascertain their potential to identify clinically useful biomarkers. METHODS: An extensive review of the literature was carried out in both online medical journals and through the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland library. RESULTS: Laboratory technology has advanced in the fields of genomics and oncoproteomics. Gene expression profiling with DNA microarray technology has allowed us to begin genetic profiling of colorectal cancer tissue. The response to chemotherapy can differ amongst individual tumors. For the first time researchers have begun to isolate and identify the genes responsible. New laboratory techniques allow us to isolate proteins preferentially expressed in colorectal cancer tissue. This could potentially lead to identification of a clinically useful protein biomarker in colorectal cancer screening and treatment. CONCLUSION: If a set of discriminating genes could be used for characterization and prediction of chemotherapeutic response, an individualized tailored therapeutic regime could become the standard of care for those undergoing systemic treatment for colorectal cancer. New laboratory techniques of protein identification may eventually allow identification of a clinically useful biomarker that could be used for screening and treatment. At present however, both expression of different gene signatures and isolation of various protein peaks has been limited by study size. Independent multi-centre correlation of results with larger sample sizes is needed to allow translation into clinical practice.

  8. Detection of methylated CDO1 in plasma of colorectal cancer; a PCR study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keishi Yamashita

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cysteine biology is important for the chemosensitivity of cancer cells. Our research has focused on the epigenetic silencing of cysteine dioxygenase type 1 (CDO1 in colorectal cancer (CRC. In this study, we describe detection of CDO1 methylation in the plasma of CRC patients using methylation specific PCR (Q-MSP and extensive analysis of the PCR reaction. METHODS: DNA was extracted from plasma, and analysed for methylation of the CDO1 gene using Q-MSP. The detection rate of CDO1 gene methylation was calculated and compared with that of diluted DNA extracted from "positive control" DLD1 cells. CDO1 gene methylation in the plasma of 40 CRC patients that were clinicopathologically analysed was then determined. RESULTS: (1 The cloned sequence analysis detected 93.3% methylation of the promoter CpG islands of the CDO1 gene of positive control DLD1 cells and 4.7% methylation of the negative control HepG2 CDO1 gene. (2 DLD1 CDO1 DNA could not be detected in this assay if the extracted DNA was diluted ∼1000 fold. The more DNA that was used for the PCR reaction, the more effectively it was amplified in Q-MSP. (3 By increasing the amount of DNA used, methylated CDO1 could be clearly detected in the plasma of 8 (20% of the CRC patients. However, the percentage of CRC patients detected by methylated CDO1 in plasma was lower than that detected by CEA (35.9% or CA19-9 (23.1% in preoperative serum. Combination of CEA/CA19-9 plus plasma methylated CDO1 could increase the rate of detection of curable CRC patients (39.3% as compared to CEA/CA19-9 (25%. CONCLUSION: We have described detection of CDO1 methylation in the plasma of CRC patients. Although CDO1 methylation was not detected as frequently as conventional tumor markers, analysis of plasma CDO1 methylation in combination with CEA/CA19-9 levels increases the detection rate of curable CRC patients.

  9. Noninvasive detection through REMS-PCR technique of K-ras mutations in stool DNA of patients with colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixich, Francisc; Ioana, Mihai; Voinea, Florea; Săftoiu, Adrian; Ciurea, Tudorel

    2007-03-01

    Tumor exfoliated cells that shed into stool are attractive targets for molecular screening and early detection of colon malignancies. Many studies have suggested that the detection of activated ras may have diagnostic or prognostic importance. The aim of this study was to establish the suitability for use in diagnostic laboratories of the noninvasive screening test of K-ras mutation determination in the stool and its routine prognostic value in colorectal cancer. Paired stool and tissue specimens obtained after polypectomy and colorectal biopsy from 28 patients diagnosed solely by histopathological findings with primary colorectal carcinoma, were prospectively studied for K-ras codon 12 mutations by restriction endonuclease-mediated selective (REMS)-PCR. DNA was obtained in 28 of tissue samples (100%) and 26 of stool samples (92.8%). K-ras codon 12 mutation was seen in 14 (50.0%) paired stool and tissue samples. Mutation detection was possible in 1000-fold excess of wild-type sequence. These results may be important in the design of genetic screening programs, determination of prognosis, early detection and treatment for patients with colon malignancy. The sensitivity and specificity of K-ras determination on stool-derived DNA in patients with colorectal carcinoma, support the opportunity of a large-scale trial to validate its use as a screening test. REMS- PCR is not labor intensive, but a sensitive, rapid, and robust assay for the detection of point mutations, and was introduced by us in a routine diagnostic laboratory.

  10. The KRAS Strip Assay for detection of KRAS mutation in Egyptian patients with colorectal cancer (CRC): A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El Kader, Y.; Safwat, E.; Kassem, H.A.; Kassem, N.M.; Emera, G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its downstream factors KRAS and BRAF are mutated in several types of cancer, affecting the clinical response to EGFR inhibitors. Mutations in the EGFR kinase domain predict sensitivity to the tyrosine kinase inhibitors gefltinib and erlotinib in lung adenocarcinoma, while activating point mutations in KRAS and BRAF confer resistance to the anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody cetuximab in colorectal cancer. The development of new generation methods for systematic mutation screening of these genes will allow more appropriate therapeutic choices. Purpose: Detection of KRAS mutation in Egyptian colorectal cancer (CRC) patients by the KRAS Strip Assay. Methods: Examination of 20 colorectal cancer (CRC) patients is done to detect KRAS mutations by KRAS Strip Assay. For the Strip Assay, a mutant-enriched PCR was followed by hybridization to KRAS-specific probes bound to a nitrocellulose strip. Results: Among 20 patients, KRAS mutations were identified in 80% of patients by the KRAS Strip Assay. Conclusions: Our preliminary results suggest that KRAS Strip Assay is an alternative to protocols currently in use for KRAS mutation detection

  11. CT Colonography in the Detection of Colorectal Cancer in Ireland; Economical Considerations and the Potential for Centralisation of Service Provision

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Torreggiani, WC

    2016-10-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cancer in Ireland (excluding non melanomatous skin cancer)1.There were roughly 950 women and 1,330 men diagnosed with colorectal cancer annually in Ireland during 2007-20091. By 2020, with our aging population it is estimated that there will be an increase in colorectal cancer of 79 per cent in men and 56 per cent in women1. Colorectal cancer screening by faecal occult blood testing has been shown to reduce CRC mortality. In Europe, colonoscopy is mainly used to investigate faecal occult blood test positive or symptomatic patients, or as a preventive strategy in those with increased CRC risk2

  12. Appearances of screen-detected versus symptomatic colorectal cancers at CT colonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plumb, Andrew A.; Pathiraja, Fiona; Taylor, Stuart A.; Halligan, Steve [University College London, Centre for Medical Imaging, London (United Kingdom); Nickerson, Claire [Fulwood House, Public Health England, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Wooldrage, Katherine; Atkin, Wendy S. [Imperial College London, Department of Surgery and Cancer, London (United Kingdom); Burling, David [St Mark' s Hospital, Intestinal Imaging Centre, Harrow (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-15

    The aim of this study was to compare the morphology, radiological stage, conspicuity, and computer-assisted detection (CAD) characteristics of colorectal cancers (CRC) detected by computed tomographic colonography (CTC) in screening and symptomatic populations. Two radiologists independently analyzed CTC images from 133 patients diagnosed with CRC in (a) two randomized trials of symptomatic patients (35 patients with 36 tumours) and (b) a screening program using fecal occult blood testing (FOBt; 98 patients with 100 tumours), measuring tumour length, volume, morphology, radiological stage, and subjective conspicuity. A commercial CAD package was applied to both datasets. We compared CTC characteristics between screening and symptomatic populations with multivariable regression. Screen-detected CRC were significantly smaller (mean 3.0 vs 4.3 cm, p < 0.001), of lower volume (median 9.1 vs 23.2 cm{sup 3}, p < 0.001) and more frequently polypoid (34/100, 34 % vs. 5/36, 13.9 %, p = 0.02) than symptomatic CRC. They were of earlier stage than symptomatic tumours (OR = 0.17, 95 %CI 0.07-0.41, p < 0.001), and were judged as significantly less conspicuous (mean conspicuity 54.1/100 vs. 72.8/100, p < 0.001). CAD detection was significantly lower for screen-detected (77.4 %; 95 %CI 67.9-84.7 %) than symptomatic CRC (96.9 %; 95 %CI 83.8-99.4 %, p = 0.02). Screen-detected CRC are significantly smaller, more frequently polypoid, subjectively less conspicuous, and less likely to be identified by CAD than those in symptomatic patients. (orig.)

  13. Appearances of screen-detected versus symptomatic colorectal cancers at CT colonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plumb, Andrew A.; Pathiraja, Fiona; Taylor, Stuart A.; Halligan, Steve; Nickerson, Claire; Wooldrage, Katherine; Atkin, Wendy S.; Burling, David

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the morphology, radiological stage, conspicuity, and computer-assisted detection (CAD) characteristics of colorectal cancers (CRC) detected by computed tomographic colonography (CTC) in screening and symptomatic populations. Two radiologists independently analyzed CTC images from 133 patients diagnosed with CRC in (a) two randomized trials of symptomatic patients (35 patients with 36 tumours) and (b) a screening program using fecal occult blood testing (FOBt; 98 patients with 100 tumours), measuring tumour length, volume, morphology, radiological stage, and subjective conspicuity. A commercial CAD package was applied to both datasets. We compared CTC characteristics between screening and symptomatic populations with multivariable regression. Screen-detected CRC were significantly smaller (mean 3.0 vs 4.3 cm, p < 0.001), of lower volume (median 9.1 vs 23.2 cm 3 , p < 0.001) and more frequently polypoid (34/100, 34 % vs. 5/36, 13.9 %, p = 0.02) than symptomatic CRC. They were of earlier stage than symptomatic tumours (OR = 0.17, 95 %CI 0.07-0.41, p < 0.001), and were judged as significantly less conspicuous (mean conspicuity 54.1/100 vs. 72.8/100, p < 0.001). CAD detection was significantly lower for screen-detected (77.4 %; 95 %CI 67.9-84.7 %) than symptomatic CRC (96.9 %; 95 %CI 83.8-99.4 %, p = 0.02). Screen-detected CRC are significantly smaller, more frequently polypoid, subjectively less conspicuous, and less likely to be identified by CAD than those in symptomatic patients. (orig.)

  14. Limitations in SELDI-TOF MS whole serum proteomic profiling with IMAC surface to specifically detect colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qi; Gu, Jin; Shen, Jing; Li, Zhen-fu; Jie, Jian-zheng; Wang, Wen-yue; Wang, Jin; Zhang, Zhong-tao; Li, Zhi-xia; Yan, Li

    2009-01-01

    Surface enhanced laser desorption and ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS) analysis on serum samples was reported to be able to detect colorectal cancer (CRC) from normal or control patients. We carried out a validation study of a SELDI-TOF MS approach with IMAC surface sample processing to identify CRC. A retrospective cohort of 338 serum samples including 154 CRCs, 67 control cancers and 117 non-cancerous conditions was profiled using SELDI-TOF-MS. No CRC 'specific' classifier was found. However, a classifier consisting of two protein peaks separates cancer from non-cancerous conditions with high accuracy. In this study, the SELDI-TOF-MS-based protein expression profiling approach did not perform to identify CRC. However, this technique is promising in distinguishing patients with cancer from a non-cancerous population; it may be useful for monitoring recurrence of CRC after treatment

  15. Genetic prognostic markers in colorectal cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Houlston, R S; Tomlinson, I P

    1997-01-01

    The contribution of molecular genetics to colorectal cancer has been restricted largely to relatively rare inherited tumours and to the detection of germline mutations predisposing to these cancers. However, much is now also known about somatic events leading to colorectal cancer. A number of studies has been undertaken examining possible relations between genetic features and prognostic indices. While many of these studies are small and inconclusive, it is clear that a number of different pa...

  16. Colorectal Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney problems. Bleeding in the stomach, intestines, or brain. Heart problems such as heart attack and congestive heart failure . Calcium It is not known if taking calcium supplements lowers the risk of colorectal cancer. Diet It is not known if a diet low ...

  17. Utility of comprehensive genomic sequencing for detecting HER2-positive colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Yoshifumi; Yagi, Ryoma; Kameyama, Hitoshi; Nagahashi, Masayuki; Ichikawa, Hiroshi; Tajima, Yosuke; Okamura, Takuma; Nakano, Mae; Nakano, Masato; Sato, Yo; Matsuzawa, Takeaki; Sakata, Jun; Kobayashi, Takashi; Nogami, Hitoshi; Maruyama, Satoshi; Takii, Yasumasa; Kawasaki, Takashi; Homma, Kei-Ichi; Izutsu, Hiroshi; Kodama, Keisuke; Ring, Jennifer E; Protopopov, Alexei; Lyle, Stephen; Okuda, Shujiro; Akazawa, Kohei; Wakai, Toshifumi

    2017-08-01

    HER2-targeted therapy is considered effective for KRAS codon 12/13 wild-type, HER2-positive metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). In general, HER2 status is determined by the use of immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Comprehensive genomic sequencing (CGS) enables the detection of gene mutations and copy number alterations including KRAS mutation and HER2 amplification; however, little is known about the utility of CGS for detecting HER2-positive CRC. To assess its utility, we retrospectively investigated 201 patients with stage I-IV CRC. The HER2 status of the primary site was assessed using IHC and FISH, and HER2 amplification of the primary site was also assessed using CGS, and the findings of these approaches were compared in each patient. CGS successfully detected alterations in 415 genes including KRAS codon 12/13 mutation and HER2 amplification. Fifty-nine (29%) patients had a KRAS codon 12/13 mutation. Ten (5%) patients were diagnosed as HER2 positive because of HER2 IHC 3+, and the same 10 (5%) patients had HER2 amplification evaluated using CGS. The results of HER2 status and HER2 amplification were completely identical in all 201 patients (P < .001). Nine of the 10 HER2-positive patients were KRAS 12/13 wild-type and were considered possible candidates for HER2-targeted therapy. CGS has the same utility as IHC and FISH for detecting HER2-positive patients who are candidates for HER2-targeted therapy, and facilitates precision medicine and tailor-made treatment. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The role of FDG-PET/CT in the detection of recurrent colorectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Votrubova, Jana; Belohlavek, Otakar; Jaruskova, Monika [Na Homolce Hospital, PET Centre, Prague (Czech Republic); Oliverius, Martin [Institute of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Prague (Czech Republic); Lohynska, Radka [University Hospital Motol, Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Prague (Czech Republic); Trskova, Kristina [Na Homolce Hospital, Department of Oncology, Prague (Czech Republic); Sedlackova, Eva [General Teaching Hospital and 1st Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Prague (Czech Republic); Lipska, Ludmila [Thomayer' s Teaching Hospital and 1st Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgery, Prague (Czech Republic); Stahalova, Vladimira [Na Bulovce Teaching Hospital, Institute of Radiation Oncology, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2006-07-15

    The conventional diagnostic techniques used to assess recurrence of colorectal cancer (CRCR) often yield unspecific findings. Integrated FDG-PET/CT seems to offer promise for the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant lesions. The aim of this study was to compare the value of FDG-PET and PET/CT in the detection of CRCR subsequent to colonic resection or rectal amputation. The population for this retrospective study comprised 84 patients with suspected CRCR. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of PET and PET/CT were calculated for (a) intra-abdominal extrahepatic recurrences, (b) extra-abdominal and/or hepatic recurrences and (c) all recurrences, and tumour marker levels were analysed. The sensitivity, specificity and overall accuracy of PET in detecting intra-abdominal extrahepatic CRCR were 82%, 88% and 86%, respectively, compared with 88%, 94% and 92%, respectively, for PET/CT. The corresponding figures for detection of extra-abdominal and/or hepatic CRCR were 74%, 88% and 85% for PET and 95%, 100% and 99% for PET/CT. Considering the entire population, the sensitivity, specificity and overall accuracy of PET were 80%, 69% and 75%, respectively, compared with 89%, 92% and 90%, respectively, for PET/CT. FDG-PET/CT examination correctly detected 40 out of a total of 45 patients with CRCR. Two of five patients with falsely negative FDG-PET/CT findings had local microscopic recurrences and one had miliary liver metastases. Of 39 patients without CRCR, three showed false positive FDG-PET/CT results. Two of these cases were due to increased accumulation in inflammatory foci in the bowel wall, while one was due to haemorrhaging into the adrenal gland. FDG-PET/CT appears to be a very promising method for distinguishing a viable tumour from fibrous changes, thereby avoiding unnecessary laparotomy. (orig.)

  19. Lysyl oxidase in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Thomas R; Erler, Janine T

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third most prevalent form of cancer worldwide and fourth-leading cause of cancer-related mortality, leading to ~600,000 deaths annually, predominantly affecting the developed world. Lysyl oxidase is a secreted, extracellular matrix-modifying enzyme previously suggested...... to act as a tumor suppressor in colorectal cancer. However, emerging evidence has rapidly implicated lysyl oxidase in promoting metastasis of solid tumors and in particular colorectal cancer at multiple stages, affecting tumor cell proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis. This emerging research has...... advancements in the field of colorectal cancer....

  20. Tumor markers in colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Luís César [UNIFESP; Matos, Delcio [UNIFESP

    2002-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a clinical entity of a persistent relevance in clinical practice and its early diagnosis is a determinant factor to obtain better therapeutic results. Tumor markers are helpful means for a better approach to individuals with such neoplasm. In the present review, the authors analyze the phases in which surgical-clinical treatment markers must be used: diagnosis, determination of tumor stage, establishment of prognosis and detection of recurrence. Current and future markers...

  1. Role of serum carcinoembryonic antigen in the detection of colorectal cancer before and after surgical resection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Bin-Bin; Shi, Hui; Wan, Jun

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether serum levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) correlate with the presence of primary colorectal cancer (CRC), and/or recurrent CRC following radical resection. METHODS: A total of 413 patients with CRC underwent radical surgery between January 1998 and December 2002 in our department and were enrolled in this study. The median follow-up period was 69 mo (range, 3-118 mo), and CRC recurrence was experienced by 90/413 (21.8%) patients. Serum levels of CEA were assayed preoperatively, and using a cutoff value of 5 ng/mL, patients were divided into two groups, those with normal serum CEA levels (e.g., ≤ 5 ng/mL) and those with elevated CEA levels (> 5 ng/mL). RESULTS: The overall sensitivity of CEA for the detection of primary CRC was 37.0%. The sensitivity of CEA according to stage, was 21.4%, 38.9%, and 41.7% for stages I-III, respectively. Moreover, for stage II and stage III cases, the 5-year disease-free survival rates were reduced for patients with elevated preoperative serum CEA levels (P < 0.05). The overall sensitivity of CEA for detecting recurrent CRC was 54.4%, and sensitivity rates of 36.6%, 66.7%, and 75.0% were associated with cases of local recurrence, single metastasis, and multiple metastases, respectively. In patients with normal serum levels of CEA preoperatively, the sensitivity of CEA for detecting recurrence was reduced compared with patients having a history of elevated CEA prior to radical resection (32.6% vs 77.3%, respectively, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: CRC patients with normal serum CEA levels prior to resection maintained these levels during CRC recurrence, especially in cases of local recurrence vs cases of metastasis. PMID:22563201

  2. Detection and Clinical Significance of Circulating Tumor Cells in Colorectal Cancer--20 Years of Progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardingham, Jennifer E; Grover, Phulwinder; Winter, Marnie; Hewett, Peter J; Price, Timothy J; Thierry, Benjamin

    2015-10-27

    Circulating tumor cells (CTC) may be defined as tumor- or metastasis-derived cells that are present in the bloodstream. The CTC pool in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients may include not only epithelial tumor cells, but also tumor cells undergoing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and tumor stem cells. A significant number of patients diagnosed with early stage CRC subsequently relapse with recurrent or metastatic disease despite undergoing "curative" resection of their primary tumor. This suggests that an occult metastatic disease process was already underway, with viable tumor cells being shed from the primary tumor site, at least some of which have proliferative and metastatic potential and the ability to survive in the bloodstream. Such tumor cells are considered to be responsible for disease relapse in these patients. Their detection in peripheral blood at the time of diagnosis or after resection of the primary tumor may identify those early-stage patients who are at risk of developing recurrent or metastatic disease and who would benefit from adjuvant therapy. CTC may also be a useful adjunct to radiological assessment of tumor response to therapy. Over the last 20 years many approaches have been developed for the isolation and characterization of CTC. However, none of these methods can be considered the gold standard for detection of the entire pool of CTC. Recently our group has developed novel unbiased inertial microfluidics to enrich for CTC, followed by identification of CTC by imaging flow cytometry. Here, we provide a review of progress on CTC detection and clinical significance over the last 20 years.

  3. Immunohistochemistry to detect hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer in young patients: the 7-year Auckland experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Deborah M; Arnold, Julie L; Parry, Bryan; Hulme-Moir, Michael; Winship, Ingrid M; Parry, Susan

    2011-05-01

    In accordance with the Bethesda Guidelines, Auckland's metropolitan hospitals routinely perform immunohistochemistry for mismatch repair proteins on the tumor specimens of all patients with colorectal cancer aged 50 years and younger. When loss of expression is evident, patients are offered genetic counseling and gene mutation analysis. This study aimed to determine the completeness of young patient capture over the first 7 years of routine testing, to find whether patients were referred for genetic testing, and to determine the proportion of patients found to have a mismatch repair gene mutation. This study retrospectively reviewed clinical, pathological, and genetic data. The study was conducted at 3 public hospitals in Auckland, New Zealand. All patients aged 50 years and younger treated for colorectal cancer at Auckland's metropolitan hospitals between January 2001 and December 2007 (n = 243) were included. The loss of expression of mismatch repair proteins by immunohistochemistry, referral for genetic testing, and proportion with mismatch repair gene mutation were the main outcome measures. Two hundred fourteen (88%) eligible patients had immunohistochemical analysis of their tumor and 33 (14%) had loss of expression of one or more mismatch repair proteins. Twenty-six patients were referred for genetic counseling, of whom 22 underwent genetic testing. A mismatch repair gene mutation was identified in 10 patients. Seven patients with loss of expression of mismatch repair proteins by immunohistochemistry were not referred for genetic assessment. We have identified a mismatch repair gene mutation diagnostic of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer in 5% of all patients with colorectal cancer who were aged 50 years and younger. Routine immunohistochemical prescreening has important clinical benefit for these patients and their relatives.

  4. Blood-based protein biomarker panel for the detection of colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Y C Fung

    Full Text Available The majority of colorectal cancer (CRC cases are preventable by early detection and removal of precancerous polyps. Even though CRC is the second most common internal cancer in Australia, only 30 per cent of the population considered to have risk factors participate in stool-based test screening programs. Evidence indicates a robust, blood-based, diagnostic assay would increase screening compliance. A number of potential diagnostic blood-based protein biomarkers for CRC have been reported, but all lack sensitivity or specificity for use as a stand-alone diagnostic. The aim of this study was to identify and validate a panel of protein-based biomarkers in independent cohorts that could be translated to a reliable, non-invasive blood-based screening test.In two independent cohorts (n = 145 and n = 197, we evaluated seven single biomarkers in serum of CRC patients and age/gender matched controls that showed a significant difference between controls and CRC, but individually lack the sensitivity for diagnostic application. Using logistic regression strategies, we identified a panel of three biomarkers that discriminated between controls and CRC with 73% sensitivity at 95% specificity, when applied to either of the two cohorts. This panel comprised of Insulin like growth factor binding protein 2 (IGFBP2, Dickkopf-3 (DKK3, and Pyruvate kinase M2(PKM2.Due to the heterogeneous nature of CRC, a single biomarker is unlikely to have sufficient sensitivity or specificity for use as a stand-alone diagnostic screening test and a panel of markers may be more effective. We have identified a 3 biomarker panel that has higher sensitivity and specificity for early stage (Stage I and -II disease than the faecal occult blood test, raising the possibility for its use as a non-invasive blood diagnostic or screening test.

  5. Can contrast-enhanced ultrasonography replace multidetector-computed tomography in the detection of liver metastases from colorectal cancer?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars P.S.; Rosenkilde, Mona; Christensen, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare the sensitivity and specificity of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) and 4-slice multidetector-computed tomography (MDCT) in the detection of liver metastases in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Candidates for this prospective study were 461...... consecutive patients referred to the Department of Colorectal Surgery, Aarhus University Hospital with primary or local recurrence of CRC. The patients underwent liver ultrasonography (US), CEUS, MDCT and intraoperative ultrasonography (IOUS). Fine-needle biopsy was performed on all suspicious lesions...... liver metastases in 54 patients (14.8%). Multidetector CT found significantly more metastases than CEUS in 15 (28%) of the patients (p=0.02). In a patient-by-patient analysis MDCT had a non-significantly higher sensitivity in the detection of liver metastases compared to CEUS (0.89 versus 0.80, p=0...

  6. Utilisation of tracer monoclonal antibodies for the immunoscintigraphic detection of human colorectal cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatal, J.F.; Douillard, J.Y.; Kremer, M.; Curtet, C.; Le Mevel, B.; Fumoleau, P.; Bourdoiseau, M.

    1983-01-01

    Two monoclonal antibodies, 17-1A and 19-9, with recognized human gastrointestinal cancers in cell cultures, were labeled with iodine 131 for immunoscintigraphic application. With the intact 131 I-17-1A antibody, 21 out of 35 (60%) primary or secondary colorectal cancer sites were visualized, whereas all 21 nonepitheliomatous colic cancer sites or noncolic cancer sites were negative. With F(ab') 2 fragments of the 19-9 antibody, 18 out of 27 (67%) colorectal cancer sites were positive. With both radioantibodies, the bestly contrasted tumor images were late, 4 to 5 days after injection. A study with paired-label technique, associating a specific iodine-131-labeled antibody with a non-specific iodine-125-labeled immunoglobulin, demonstrated, that tumor uptake was indeed specific for the 17-1A or 19-9 antibody in tumor and normal colon fragments obtained during operations on 4 patients. A preliminary prospective study showed that only immunoscintigraphy was able to confirm and localize a recurrence of rectal cancer in one patient. A larger series will be necessary to validate the clinical benefit of the technique, as compared with the results of other diagnostic techniques, before immunoscintigraphy can be proposed for routine clinical use [fr

  7. Colorectal Cancer Complicating Crohn's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Freeman, Hugh J

    2001-01-01

    Some earlier studies have indicated that patients with inflammatory bowel disease, especially those with long-standing and extensive ulcerative colitis, have an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Moreover, others in tertiary care centres have suggested that patients with Crohn's disease also have a higher risk of colorectal cancer. Canadian data on colorectal cancer in Crohn's disease appear to be limited. For this investigation, a single clinician database of 877 patients w...

  8. Improving colorectal cancer referrals

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory, Claire

    2018-01-01

    The colorectal services at The Royal Bournemouth Hospital needed to adapt to meet the extra demand on fast-track patient referrals to the outpatient department, as a consequence of the changes in the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidance on cancer referrals in June 2015. Learning from other units, a telephone assessment clinic (TAC) triaging patients straight to colonoscopy was trialled. A Plan–Do–Study–Act (PDSA) methodology was used. A baseline study showed that ...

  9. Identification of a circulating microRNA signature for colorectal cancer detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Wang

    Full Text Available Prognosis of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC is generally poor because of the lack of simple, convenient, and noninvasive tools for CRC detection at the early stage. The discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs and their different expression profiles among different kinds of diseases has opened a new avenue for tumor diagnosis. We built a serum microRNA expression profile signature and tested its specificity and sensitivity as a biomarker in the diagnosis of CRC. We also studied its possible role in monitoring the progression of CRC. We conducted a two phase case-control test to identify serum miRNAs as biomarkers for CRC diagnosis. Using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions, we tested ten candidate miRNAs in a training set (30 CRCs vs 30 controls. Risk score analysis was used to evaluate the diagnostic value of the serum miRNA profiling system. Other independent samples, including 83 CRCs and 59 controls, were used to validate the diagnostic model. In the training set, six serum miRNAs (miR-21, let-7g, miR-31, miR-92a, miR-181b, and miR-203 had significantly different expression levels between the CRCs and healthy controls. Risk score analysis demonstrated that the six-miRNA-based biomarker signature had high sensitivity and specificity for distinguishing the CRC samples from cancer-free controls. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve of the six-miRNA signature profiles were 0.900 and 0.923 for the two sets of serum samples, respectively. However, for the same serum samples, the areas under the ROC curve used by the tumor markers carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9 were only 0.649 and 0.598, respectively. The expression levels of the six serum miRNAs were also correlated with CRC progression. Thus, the identified six-miRNA signature can be used as a noninvasive biomarker for the diagnosis of CRC, with relatively high sensitivity and specificity.

  10. Protocol Outlines for Parts 1 and 2 of the Prospective Endoscopy III Study for the Early Detection of Colorectal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Louise; Wilhelmsen, Michael; Christensen, Ib Jarle

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Programs for population screening of colorectal cancer (CRC) have been implemented in several countries with fecal immunochemical testing (FIT) as the preferred platform. However, the major obstacle for a feces-based testing method is the limited compliance that reduces the clinical...... sensitivity for detection of participants with non-symptomatic CRC. Therefore, research approaches have been initiated to develop screening concepts based on biomarkers in blood. Preliminary results show that protein, genetic, epigenetic, and metabolomic components may be valuable in blood-based screening...

  11. Immunohistochemical detection of autotaxin (ATX)/lysophospholipase D (lysoPLD) in submucosal invasive colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazama, Shinsuke; Kitayama, Joji; Aoki, Junken; Mori, Ken; Nagawa, Hirokazu

    2011-12-01

    Autotaxin (ATX) is molecularly identical to lysophospholipase D (lysoPLD) and is a main enzyme producing lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), which mediates a broad range of cellular responses including stimulation of cell motility. Using immunohistochemical staining, we examined the expression of ATX/lysoPLD in 98 cases of early colorectal cancer with submucosal invasion. ATX/lysoPLD was highly expressed in infiltrating cells in tumor tissue in the submucosal layer, which were characterized as mast cells. The number of ATX/lysoPLD-positive cells was significantly greater in tumors with a macroscopically depressed lesion than in tumors without depression. The density of ATX/lysoPLD-positive cells tended to have a positive correlation with microvessel vascular density (MVD), while it was not correlated with vessel invasion and nodal metastases as well as lymphovascular vessel density (LVD). Our results suggest that local production of LPA through ATX/lysoPLD may weakly correlate with formation of a depressive lesion and tumor angiogenesis in the early stage of colorectal cancer.

  12. Influence of family history of colorectal cancer on health behavior and performance of early detection procedures: the SUN Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ochoa, Eva; Gómez-Acebo, Ines; Beunza, Juan-José; Rodríguez-Cundín, Paz; Dierssen-Sotos, Trinidad; Llorca, Javier

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between family history of colorectal cancer and both health behavior and screening procedures in a population cohort. This study is a cross-sectional analysis of 15,169 participants belonging to a prospective cohort study (the SUN Project) based on two self-reported questionnaires: one of them related to lifestyle and the other a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. We explored the influence of family history of colorectal cancer in lifestyles (consumption of alcohol, weight, and diet) and medical management behaviors (screening of chronic diseases). People with family history of colorectal cancer increased their number of colorectal cancer screening tests (adjusted odds ratio for fecal occult blood test: 1.98, 95% confidence interval: 1.48-2.65; and adjusted odds ratio for colonoscopy/sigmoidoscopy: 3.42, 2.69-4.36); nevertheless, health behavior changes in diet of relatives of colorectal cancer patients were undetectable. We show that individuals with a family history of colorectal cancer increase their compliance with screening tests, although they exhibit no better health-related behaviors than people without family history of colorectal cancer. Further prospective studies are required to confirm these results and to identify tools to empower the subjects to change their risk profile. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Colorectal cancer screening | Schneider | Continuing Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers in the Western world, with an estimated incidence of 148 810 cases in the USA in 2008, and about 50 000 deaths from this disease. If detected early, patients with disease localised to the colonic wall have a 5-year survival of 90%. The 5-year survival for patients ...

  14. Reporting colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirke, P; Morris, E

    2007-01-01

    The management of colorectal cancer is a team process. High-quality reporting of colorectal cancer is very important as the whole team relies upon the skill of the pathologist. Failure to report key features can lead to undertreatment of this disease. The use of a proforma has been demonstrated to be beneficial and we recommend staying with TNM5 due to scientific and reproducibility issues with TNM6. Important features in stage II/Dukes' B cases are extramural vascular invasion, peritoneal involvement, extent of extramural spread, incomplete resection and perforation. All of these may lead to adjuvant therapy being administered. The surgically created circumferential resection margin (CRM) and the mode of its creation are important features and the CRM retains its value after preoperative therapy. Regression grading should be applied only to fully resected tumours and the dissection and sampling must be standardized to allow comparison of results between trials and centres. When reporting local resections of early-stage cancers we need to look for features that predict spread to local lymph nodes to allow a full resection to be considered.

  15. Clinical application and research of tumor markers in colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yumei

    2005-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors. There are many tumor markers for detecting colorectal cancer, some of which have been widely used in clinical area. However, still lack an ideal tumor marker of colorectal cancer. In this review, we simply characterized some common tumor markers including carcinoembryonic antigen, CA19-9, CA50, CA242 etc and their dignostic value. And here we discussed some combined detecting procedures which improve diagnostic accuracy of colorectal cancer. In addition, with the development of the biomoleculer technique, some newly discovered tumor markers and genetic marekers have gained great progress in the research of colorectal cancer, and will become a promissing technique in the diagnosis of colorectal cancer. (authors)

  16. Exercise and Low-Dose Ibuprofen for Cognitive Impairment in Colorectal Cancer Patients Receiving Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-13

    Cognitive Impairment; Stage 0 Colorectal Cancer; Stage I Colorectal Cancer; Stage II Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIA Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIB Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIC Colorectal Cancer; Stage III Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Colorectal Cancer

  17. Low Accuracy of Computed Tomography and Positron Emission Tomography to Detect Lung and Lymph Node Metastases of Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrera, Francesco; Renaud, Stéphane; Schaeffer, Mickaël; Nigra, Victor; Solidoro, Paolo; Santelmo, Nicola; Filosso, Pier Luigi; Falcoz, Pierre-Emmanuel; Ruffini, Enrico; Oliaro, Alberto; Massard, Gilbert

    2017-10-01

    Minimally invasive surgery, stereotactic radiotherapy, and radiofrequency ablation are commonly proposed in the case of pulmonary colorectal-metastasis as alternatives to conventional open surgery. Preoperative imaging assessment by computed tomography (CT) scan and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) are critical to guide oncologic radical treatment. Our aim was to investigate the accuracy of CT and FDG-PET for the evaluation of the number of pulmonary colorectal metastases and thoracic lymph nodal involvement (LNI). Patients who underwent lung surgical resection for pulmonary colorectal metastases from 2004 to 2014 were analyzed. Concordance between histology, CT scan, and FDG-PET findings were assessed. Data of 521 patients were analyzed. Of those, FDG-PET was performed in 435 (83.5%). A moderate agreement between both CT scan (kappa index: 0.42) and FDG-PET (kappa index: 0.42) findings and the histologically proven number of metastases was observed. The number of histologically proven metastases was correctly discriminated in 61.7% of cases with CT scan and in 61.8% of cases with FDG-PET. Multiple metastases were discovered in 20.9% of clinical single metastasis cases with CT scan, and in 24.4% of those cases with FDG-PET. One hundred fifty patients (29.1%) presented with pathologic LNI. A poor agreement was observed between LNI and CT scan findings (kappa index: 0.02), and a weak agreement was observed concerning LNI and FDG-PET findings (kappa index: 0.39). Computed tomography and FDG-PET have limitations if the objective is to detect all malignant nodules and to discriminate the LNI in cases of pulmonary metastases of colorectal cancer. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Primary prevention of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Andrew T; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2010-06-01

    Colorectal cancer has been strongly associated with a Western lifestyle. In the past several decades, much has been learned about the dietary, lifestyle, and medication risk factors for this malignancy. Although there is controversy about the role of specific nutritional factors, consideration of dietary pattern as a whole appears useful for formulating recommendations. For example, several studies have shown that high intake of red and processed meats, highly refined grains and starches, and sugars is related to increased risk of colorectal cancer. Replacing these factors with poultry, fish, and plant sources as the primary source of protein; unsaturated fats as the primary source of fat; and unrefined grains, legumes and fruits as the primary source of carbohydrates is likely to lower risk of colorectal cancer. Although a role for supplements, including vitamin D, folate, and vitamin B6, remains uncertain, calcium supplementation is likely to be at least modestly beneficial. With respect to lifestyle, compelling evidence indicates that avoidance of smoking and heavy alcohol use, prevention of weight gain, and maintenance of a reasonable level of physical activity are associated with markedly lower risks of colorectal cancer. Medications such as aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and postmenopausal hormones for women are associated with substantial reductions in colorectal cancer risk, though their utility is affected by associated risks. Taken together, modifications in diet and lifestyle should substantially reduce the risk of colorectal cancer and could complement screening in reducing colorectal cancer incidence.

  19. Familial colorectal cancer type X

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominguez-Valentin, Mev; Therkildsen, Christina; Da Silva, Sabrina

    2015-01-01

    Heredity is a major cause of colorectal cancer, but although several rare high-risk syndromes have been linked to disease-predisposing mutations, the genetic mechanisms are undetermined in the majority of families suspected of hereditary cancer. We review the clinical presentation, histopathologic...... features, and the genetic and epigenetic profiles of the familial colorectal cancer type X (FCCTX) syndrome with the aim to delineate tumor characteristics that may contribute to refined diagnostics and optimized tumor prevention....

  20. Development of new non-invasive tests for colorectal cancer screening: the relevance of information on adenoma detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Ulrike; Knudsen, Amy B; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; Kuntz, Karen M

    2015-06-15

    Researchers are actively pursuing the development of a new non-invasive test (NIT) for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening as an alternative to fecal occult blood tests (FOBTs). The majority of pilot studies focus on the detection of invasive CRC rather than precursor lesions (i.e., adenomas). We aimed to explore the relevance of adenoma detection for the viability of an NIT for CRC screening by considering a hypothetical test that does not detect adenomas beyond chance. We used the Simulation Model of Colorectal Cancer (SimCRC) to estimate the effectiveness of CRC screening and the lifetime costs (payers' perspective) for a cohort of US 50-years-old persons to whom CRC screening is offered from age 50-75. We compared annual screening with guaiac and immunochemical FOBTs (with sensitivities up to 70 and 24% for CRC and adenomas, respectively) to annual screening with a hypothetical NIT (sensitivity of 90% for CRC, no detection of adenomas beyond chance, specificity and cost similar to FOBTs). Screening with the NIT was not more effective, but was 29-44% more costly than screening with FOBTs. The findings were robust to varying the screening interval, the NIT's sensitivity for CRC, adherence rates favoring the NIT, and the NIT's unit cost. A comparative modelling approach using a model that assumes a shorter adenoma dwell time (MISCAN-COLON) confirmed the superiority of the immunochemical FOBT over an NIT with no ability to detect adenomas. Information on adenoma detection is crucial to determine whether a new NIT is a viable alternative to FOBTs for CRC screening. Current evidence thus lacks an important piece of information to identify marker candidates that hold real promise and deserve further (large-scale) evaluation. © 2014 UICC.

  1. Intra-abdominal recurrence of colorectal cancer detected by radioimmunoguided surgery (RIGS system)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sardi, A.; Workman, M.; Mojzisik, C.; Hinkle, G.; Nieroda, C.; Martin, E.W. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Since 1986, 32 patients with metastatic colorectal cancer have undergone second-look radioimmunoguided surgery (RIGS system). The primary tumor was located in the right and transverse colon in 11 patients, left and sigmoid colon in 16, and rectum in five. The carcinoembryonic antigen level was elevated in 30 patients (94%); all patients underwent a computed tomographic scan of the abdomen and pelvis. The overall sensitivity of the computed tomographic scan was 41% (abdomen other than liver, 27%; liver, 58%; and pelvis, 22%). The RIGS system identified recurrent tumor in 81% of the patients. The most common site of metastasis was the liver (41%), independent of the primary location. Local/regional recurrences alone accounted for 40% of all recurrences. In six patients (18%), recurrent tumor was found only with the RIGS system. The RIGS system is more dependable in localizing clinically obscure metastases than other methods, and carcinoembryonic antigen testing remains the most accurate preoperative method to indicate suspected recurrences

  2. Colorectal Cancer: Prognostic Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Manxhuka-Kerliu

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available After lung cancer colorectal cancer (Cc is ranked the second, as a cause of cancer-related death. The purpose of this study was to analyze the Cc cases in our material with respect to all prognostic values including histological type and grade, vascular invasion, perineural invasion, and tumor border features. There were investigated 149 cases of resection specimen with colorectal cancer, which were fixed in buffered neutral formalin and embedded in paraffin. Tissue sections (4(µm thick were cut and stained with H&E. Adenocarcinoma was the most frequent histological type found in 85,90% of cases, in 60,94% of males and 39,06% of females; squamous cell carcinoma in 7,38%, in 63,63% of males and 36,36% of females; mucinous carcinoma in 4,68%, in 57,15% of males and 42,85% of females; while adenosquamous carcinoma, undifferentiated carcinoma and carcinoma in situ in 0,71% of cases each. Dukes' classification was used in order to define the depth of invasion. Dukes B was found in 68,45% of cases, whereas in 31,54% of cases Dukes C was found. As far as histological grading is concerned, Cc was mostly with moderate differentiation (75,16% with neither vascular nor perineural invasion. Resection margins were in all cases free of tumor. Our data indicate that the pathologic features of the resection specimen constitute the most powerful predictors of postoperative outcome in Cc. Dukes' stage and degree of differentiation provide independent prognostic information in Cc. However, differentiation should be assessed by the worst pattern.

  3. Usefulness of transcription-reverse transcription concerted reaction method for detecting circulating tumor cells in patients with colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Nobutaka; Hayashi, Naoko; Imamura, Yu; Tanaka, Yohei; Kinoshita, Koichi; Kurashige, Jyunji; Saito, Seiya; Karashima, Ryuichi; Hirashima, Kotaro; Nagai, Yohei; Miyamoto, Yuji; Iwatsuki, Masaaki; Baba, Yoshifumi; Watanabe, Masayuki; Baba, Hideo

    2012-06-01

    The CellSearch system (Veridex, LLC) is useful for detecting circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in various carcinomas, including colorectal cancer (CRC); however, there are some problems associated with its clinical use. A transcription-reverse transcription concerted reaction (TRC) method, which is a PCR-based technique producing more stable and reliable results, because it is a more simplified process compared with the conventional techniques, has been introduced for detecting micrometastasis in some carcinomas. We aimed to demonstrate the effectiveness of TRC method in the CTC detection. We compared the two methods for the sensitivity for CTC detection using the colon cancer cell line and 42 whole-blood samples from patients with advanced or metastatic CRC. Furthermore, 25 patients with metastatic CRC were enrolled to investigate the correlation between CTC detection and prognosis in both methods. The sensitivity of the TRC method was similar to that of the CellSearch system. The overall survival rate was significantly worse in the patients diagnosed as CTC-positive by the TRC method than in those diagnosed as CTC-negative; this finding was similar to the prognosis indicated by the CellSearch system. However, clinically, the TRC method could detect CTCs more rapidly and at a reduced cost compared with the CellSearch system. The TRC method seems to be a useful alternative to the CellSearch system for clinically detecting CTCs in patients with metastatic CRC.

  4. Danish Colorectal Cancer Group Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingeholm, Peter; Gögenur, Ismail; Iversen, Lene H

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The aim of the database, which has existed for registration of all patients with colorectal cancer in Denmark since 2001, is to improve the prognosis for this patient group. STUDY POPULATION: All Danish patients with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer who are either diagnosed......, and other pathological risk factors. DESCRIPTIVE DATA: The database has had >95% completeness in including patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma with >54,000 patients registered so far with approximately one-third rectal cancers and two-third colon cancers and an overrepresentation of men among rectal...... diagnosis, surgical interventions, and short-term outcomes. The database does not have high-resolution oncological data and does not register recurrences after primary surgery. The Danish Colorectal Cancer Group provides high-quality data and has been documenting an increase in short- and long...

  5. Obesity and colorectal cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hano Garcia, Olga Marina; Wood Rodriguez, Lisette; Villa Jimenez, Oscar Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic and multifactor disease characterized by presence of excess body fat harmful for health. Several studies have been conducted to assess the possible risk character of different factors for colorectal cancer including the following modifying factors: a diet rich in saturated fats, a diet low in vegetables, physical inactivity, alcohol consumption and obesity. A case-control study was conducted to include 276 adult patients (93 cases and 184 controls) consecutively seen from May, 2008 to May, 2009 in the Institute of Gastroenterology determining a possible association between obesity as risk factor and colorectal cancer. Variables measures included: sex, age, skin color, body mass index, hip-waist circumference and endoscopic location of cancer. We conclude that the colorectal cancer with predominance in female sex and in white people in both groups. Obesity according to a great relation hip-waist had an strong relation with colorectal cancer, which had predominance towards distal colon in both sexes

  6. Evaluation of a technique for the intraoperative detection of a radiolabelled monoclonal antibody against colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waddington, W.A.; Todd-Pokropek, A.; Short, M.D.; Davidson, B.R.; Boulos, P.B.; Middlesex Hospital, London

    1991-01-01

    Occult tumour deposits may be localised at operation with a radiation detecting probe following the administration of a radiolabelled monoclonal antibody (MoAb) recognising a tumour-associated antigen. We have recently evaluated the clinical usefulness of this technique in detecting primary colorectal tumours targetted with an indium-111 MoAb. In the present study the physical characteristics of the two detector systems used were investigated; a sodium iodide [NaI(Tl)] scintilation detector and a cadmium telluride (CdTe) semiconductor probe. Limitations of the technique in use have been examined by testing the statistical significance of tumour detecting using an abdominal phantom based on the currently available clinical biodistribution data for tumour uptake of radiolabelled MoAbs. The effect of tumour volume, antibody uptake, collimation and counting conditions was examined. Results indicate that tumours of 10-ml volume may be detected with the NaI(Tl) probe at the lowest levels of radiolabelled antibody uptake currently reported in the literature but that at higher published levels, lesions as small as 1 ml may be identified with both detector systems. Detector sensitivity and limited antibody specificity restrict the usefulness of the technique, although moderate improvements in tumour uptake may allow the detection of tumour deposits not clinically apparent. The statistical significance criterion used for this study could be an accurate and reliable indicator for tumour detection in vivo. (orig.)

  7. Fear of cancer recurrence in colorectal cancer survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Custers, J.A.E.; Gielissen, M.F.M.; Janssen, S.H.; Wilt, J.H.W. de; Prins, J.B.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Although long-term colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors generally report a good quality of life, fear of cancer recurrence (FCR) remains an important issue. This study investigated whether the Cancer Worry Scale (CWS) can detect high FCR, the prevalence, and characteristics of FCR in CRC

  8. Molecular alterations and biomarkers in colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, William M.; Pritchard, Colin C.

    2013-01-01

    The promise of precision medicine is now a clinical reality. Advances in our understanding of the molecular genetics of colorectal cancer genetics is leading to the development of a variety of biomarkers that are being used as early detection markers, prognostic markers, and markers for predicting treatment responses. This is no more evident than in the recent advances in testing colorectal cancers for specific molecular alterations in order to guide treatment with the monoclonal antibody therapies cetuximab and panitumumab, which target the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In this review, we update a prior review published in 2010 and describe our current understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of colorectal cancer and how these alterations relate to emerging biomarkers for early detection and risk stratification (diagnostic markers), prognosis (prognostic markers), and the prediction of treatment responses (predictive markers). PMID:24178577

  9. Colorectal Cancer: What You Should Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Colorectal Cancer: What You Should Know Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... with—and more than 50,000 died from—colorectal cancer, according to the National Cancer Institute. It is ...

  10. [Colorectal cancer prevention by flavonoids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoensch, Harald; Richling, Elke; Kruis, Wolfgang; Kirch, Wilhelm

    2010-08-01

    Valid, sustained and safe clinical means of colorectal cancer prevention are still lacking, but they are urgently needed to lower the incidence of colorectal cancer. Dietary factors and phytochemicals such as flavonoids play an important role for prevention. A selective search of the literature using PubMed was performed with the following key words: flavonoids, cancer, therapy, colorectal cancer focused on clinical queries. Results of clinical studies including the authors' own were compared. In vivo and in vitro studies with animals, cell cultures and subcellular components provide ample evidence for antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic effects of flavonoids as shown for multiple biological and molecular endpoints. Isoflavonoids in vitro have been shown to induce proliferation of breast cancer cells. Epidemiologic trials (cohort, case-control and cross-sectional studies) yielded inconsistent results for flavonoid protection. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses support the protective role of tea flavonoids on adenoma incidence. An interventional pilot study with sustained flavonoid supplementation was shown to reduce the rate of neoplasia in patients with resected colorectal cancer. Selected flavonoids possess antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic properties and could reduce the incidence of colorectal neoplasias as shown in epidemiologic trials. Randomized controlled clinical studies with flavonoid intervention are necessary to provide evidence for their role in colorectal cancer prevention.

  11. Diagnostic Ultrasound in Colorectal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARYBackground and purpose Colorectal cancer is a common disease in Denmark with considerable morbidity and mortality. Although survival in recent years has improved, Denmark still has the lowest 5-year survival compared to the other Nordic countries. The treatment of patients depends on local...... the potential to contribute to the staging of colorectal cancer. The purpose of these studies was to determine the usefulness of ultrasound diagnostics in patients with colorectal cancer.The purpose of the TRUS studies was to compare staging of rectal carcinomas using digital rectal exploration...... of 295 patients with primary colorectal cancer we found a sensitivity of preoperative ultrasound, surgical exploration, and intraoperative ultrasound of 70%, 84%, and 97%, respectively, based on a patient-by-patient comparison (p

  12. Plasma TIMP-1 and CEA in detection of primary colorectal cancer: a prospective, population based study of 4509 high-risk individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans J; Brünner, Nils; Jørgensen, Lars Nannestad

    2011-01-01

    Objective. The combination of plasma tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) may be valuable biomarkers for early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC). A prospective, population based study was performed to validate this hypothesis. Material and methods...

  13. [A preliminary functional study of AT motif binding factor 1 in colorectal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Shu-Feng; Zhong, Lin

    2016-06-20

    To investigate the function of AT motif binding factor 1 (ATBF1) in colorectal cancer. ATBF1 protein expression was detected in 146 pairs of colorectal cancer tissues and the adjacent tissues using immunohistochemistry. ATBF1 protein expression was also examined in colorectal cell lines with laser confocal microscopy. ATBF1-A protein expression in colorectal cancer tissues of different differentiation grades and in the colorectal cancer cell lines were detected with Western blotting. The expressions of ATBF1 mRNA in 38 moderately differentiated colorectal cancer tissues and the paired adjacent tissues and in the colorectal cancer cell lines were tested using RT-PCR. ATBF1 protein expression levels in colorectal cancer tissues and adjacent tissues differed significantly (Pcolorectal cancer cell lines. ATBF1 executes the role of a tumor suppressor gene in colorectal cancer, and its protein expression is associated with tumor differentiation and lymph node metastases.

  14. New-Generation High-Definition Colonoscopes Increase Adenoma Detection when Screening a Moderate-Risk Population for Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Ashley; O'Toole, Paul; Fisher, Gareth; Subramanian, Sreedhar; Haslam, Neil; Probert, Chris; Cox, Trevor; Sarkar, Sanchoy

    2017-03-01

    Adenoma detection rate (ADR) is the most important quality indicator for screening colonoscopy, due to its association with colorectal cancer outcomes. As a result, a number of techniques and technologies have been proposed that have the potential to improve ADR. The aim of this study was to assess the potential impact of new-generation high-definition (HD) colonoscopy on ADR within the Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (BCSP). This was a retrospective single-center observational study in patients undergoing an index screening colonoscopy. The examination was performed with either standard-definition colonoscopes (Olympus Q240/Q260 series) or HD colonoscopes (Olympus HQ290 EVIS LUCERA ELITE system) with the primary outcome measures of ADR and mean adenoma per procedure (MAP) between the 2 groups. A total of 395 patients (60.5% male, mean age 66.8 years) underwent screening colonoscopy with 45% performed with HD colonoscopes. The cecal intubation rate was 97.5% on an intention-to-treat basis and ADR was 68.6%. ADR with standard-definition was 63.13%, compared with 75.71% with HD (P = .007). The MAP in the HD group was 2.1 (± 2.0), whereas in the standard-definition group it was 1.6 (± 1.8) (P = .01). There was no significant difference in withdrawal time between the 2 groups. In the multivariate regression model, only HD scopes (P = .03) and male sex (P = .04) independently influenced ADR. Olympus H290 LUCERA ELITE HD colonoscopes improved adenoma detection within the moderate-risk population. A 12% improvement in ADR might be expected to increase significantly the protection afforded by colonoscopy against subsequent colorectal cancer mortality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. DIAGNOSTIC ROLE OF FLUORINE-18 (18F) FLUORODEOXYGLUCOSE POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY IN DETECTING RECURRENT DISEASE IN PATIENTS WITH COLORECTAL CANCER AND ELEVATED CARCINOEMBRYONIC ANTIGEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matovina, Emil; Mihailović, Jasna; Nikoletić, Katarina; Srbovan, Dolores

    2015-01-01

    Early detection of recurrence is an important factor for long term survival of patients with colorectal cancer. Measurement of serum levels of carcinoembryonic antigen has been commonly used in the postoperative surveillance of colorectal cancer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of positron emission tomography-computed tomography to detect pathological substrate of elevated serum carcinoembryonic antigen in patients with colorectal cancer. The patients with colorectal cancer who underwent curative surgical resection and/ or chemotherapy, who were found in our database, were analyzed retrospectively. Forty-eight 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography studies including 45 patients (14 women, 31 men; mean age: 62.93 years) with elevated serum, carcinoembryonic antigen levels, which had been performed between January 2011 and January 2014, were evaluated. Serum levels of carcinoembryonic antigen were measured within 3 months after positron emission tomography-computed tomography examination. Final diagnosis of recurrence was made by histopathological findings, radiology studies or clinical follow-up. Recurrences were diagnosed in 37 patients, the prevalence being 77.1%. Liver metastases were found in 18 patients, abdominal, pelvic and/or mediastinal lymph nodes were positive in 19 patients, 11 patients had loco regional recurrences and 4 patients had pulmonary metastasis, and bone metastases were found in one patient. One patient was diagnosed with metastasis in scar tissue. The overall sensitivity and specificity of positron emission tomography-computed tomography was 90.24% and 71.42%, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values were 94.87% and 55.56%, respectively. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography is a powerful tool that could be used in determining colorectal cancer recurrence in patients with elevated carcinoembryonic antigen levels and could have an

  16. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF COLORECTAL CANCER

    OpenAIRE

    B. Shafayan M. Keyhani

    2003-01-01

    This study was carried out to analyze certain epidemiological variations in Iranian patients with colorectal cancer. (CRC): From March 1981 up to March 1993, 103 patients were analyzed retrospectively for age, gender, marital state, job, nutritional habits, presenting symptoms and histopathological features. Most of the patients with colorectal cancer were male, age range 20-75 (mean 56), 25.4 percent were long-term smokers and bleeding was the most common symptom. The rectum was the most com...

  17. Investigating uptake in faecal immunochemical test (FIT) based colorectal cancer screening

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a major public health issue, being one of the most diagnosed cancers and one of the leading causes of cancer related mortality. Almost 2500 people are diagnosed with colorectal cancer each year in Ireland and over 1000 die from the disease with males at greater risk. Colorectal cancer is a highly treatable disease if detected at earlier stages. Ireland introduced a National Colorectal Cancer Screening Programme in 2013, using the new faecal immunochemical test (FIT) techn...

  18. Ultrasensitive electrochemical aptasensor based on sandwich architecture for selective label-free detection of colorectal cancer (CT26) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashkavayi, Ayemeh Bagheri; Raoof, Jahan Bakhsh; Ojani, Reza; Kavoosian, Saeid

    2017-06-15

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world and has no effective treatment. Therefore, development of new methods for early diagnosis is instantly required. Biological recognition probes such as synthetic receptor and aptamer is one of the candidate recognition layers to detect important biomolecules. In this work, an electrochemical aptasensor was developed by fabricating an aptamer-cell-aptamer sandwich architecture on an SBA-15-3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (SBA-15-pr-NH 2 ) and Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) modified graphite screen printed electrode (GSPE) surface for the selective, label-free detection of CT26 cancer cells. Based on the incubation of the thiolated aptamer with CT26 cells, the electron-transfer resistance of Fe (CN) 6 3-/4- redox couple increased considerably on the aptasensor surface. The results obtained from cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies showed that the fabricated aptasensor can specifically identify CT26 cells in the concentration ranges of 10-1.0×10 5 cells/mL and 1.0×10 5 -6.0×10 6 cells/mL, respectively, with a detection limit of 2cells/mL. Applying the thiol terminated aptamer (5TR1) as a recognition layer led to a sensor with high affinity for CT26 cancer cells, compared to control cancer cells of AGS cells, VERO Cells, PC3 cells and SKOV-3 cells. Therefore a simple, rapid, label free, inexpensive, excellent, sensitive and selective electrochemical aptasensor based on sandwich architecture was developed for detection of CT26 Cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Colorectal cancers detected through screening are associated with lower stages and improved survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindebjerg, Jan; Osler, Merete; Bisgaard, Claus Hedebo

    2014-01-01

    in the feasibility study cohort were reviewed with respect to the effect of screening participation on stages and survival. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All cases of CRC in a feasibility study cohort diagnosed from the beginning of the study until two years after the study ended were identified. Differences...... in the distribution of colon cancer stages and rectal cancer groups between the various screening categories were analysed through χ(2)-tests. Survival analysis with respect to screening groups was done by Kaplan-Meier and Cox-Mantel hazard ratios, and survival was corrected for lead time. RESULTS: Colon cancers...... detected through screening were diagnosed at significantly lower stages than among screening non-responders. There were relatively fewer locally advanced rectal cancers among patients diagnosed through positive FOBT than among non-responders. Survival among screening cancer patients was superior...

  20. Characterization of newly established colorectal cancer cell lines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have established a series of 20 colorectal cancer cell lines and performed cytogenetic and RFLP analyses to show that the recurrent genetic abnormalities of chromosomes 1, 5, 17 and 18 associated with multistep tumorigenesis in colorectal cancer, and frequently detected as recurrent abnormalities in primary tumours, ...

  1. Characterization of newly established colorectal cancer cell lines ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have established a series of 20 colorectal cancer cell lines and performed cytogenetic and RFLP analyses to show that the recurrent genetic abnormalities of chromosomes 1, 5, 17 and 18 associated with multistep tumorigenesis in colorectal cancer, and frequently detected as recurrent abnormalities in primary tumours, ...

  2. [CONTRIBUTION OF FAMILY MEDICINE TO COLORECTAL CANCER PREVENTION AND EARLY DETECTION; FORTY-YEAR EXPERIENCE OF FAMILY MEDICINE DEPARTMENT, OSIJEK HEALTH CENTER].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebling, Z

    2015-11-01

    The paper gives a short presentation of 40 years of experience of Osijek Health Center family physicians in colorectal cancer (CRC) prevention and early detection. Systematic work in the prevention and early detection of cancer includes raising public awareness and knowledge of healthcare issues, educating health professionals, conducting scientific research and contributing to the development and implementation of the National Program for Early Detection of Cancer. Cooperation of the Ministry of Health and Osijek Health Center resulted in issuing brochures entitled Men and Cancer and Women and Cancer in 100,000 copies, and later 20,000 copies of a book entitled Smoking Induced Diseases. Analysis of patients undergoing surgery for CRC at Department of Surgery, Osijek General Hospital during the 1973-1984 period showed a low 5-year and 10-year survival rate. A study of early CRC detection by using fecal occult blood test (FOBT), conducted in Osijek between 1980 and 1984, included 11,431 subjects. Results of the study confirmed FOBT to be an acceptable and reliable method for early CRC detection because of its simple use, general level of acceptance by the population and relatively low cost. Physical examinations aimed at detecting CRC by using FOBT were to be implemented in a planned, systematic manner in high-risk persons (those older than 50). Based on the results of this study, guidelines on cancer control were published in 1993 by teams of primary care physicians, especially family physicians. The Osijek Health Center, specifically its Family Medicine Department, participated in the development and implementation of the National Program for Colorectal Cancer Prevention and Early Detection, which started in 2007. Response to the National Program for Early Detection of Colorectal Cancer in individual counties was under 37%. A project called Early Cancer Detection Model Integrated in Family Medicine Practice, which was implemented in Osijek and included subjects

  3. The effect of the 2-week wait referral system on the detection of and mortality from colorectal cancer: protocol of a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella Mozdiak

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer represents the fourth most common cancer in England and Wales; survival is high for early stage disease but declines sharply with advanced stage. UK figures suggest that cancer survival rates are lower than those of other Western European countries. Current 5-year survival is around 50 %. A rapid access strategy was introduced through the Department of Health in 2000. This 2-week wait (TWW referral pathway was devised to streamline referral for suspected cancer, allow diagnosis at an earlier stage, reduce cancer survival inequality and reduce cancer-related mortality. However, only around half of patients with colorectal cancer have symptoms that fit the TWW criteria plus there is a fourfold difference in referral rates across England and Wales. High-quality evidence of TWW outcome measures for colorectal cancer is lacking. This systematic review will collate and evaluate the latest evidence on colorectal cancer detection rate, stage at diagnosis and mortality. Methods English-language publications from 2000 reporting outcomes on the TWW referral system for suspected colorectal cancer will be eligible for inclusion. Cochrane, EMBASE, MEDLINE via PubMed, NHS Evidence, Trip and the British Library Catalogue databases will be searched. Two paired reviewers will independently screen all titles/abstracts and full text for eligibility, then extract data and assess for bias using standardised formats. They will hand review reference lists of eligible articles. Disagreement will be resolved via third party adjudication. Summary effect measures for post-referral diagnosis and mortality rates will be calculated and expressed as relative risk, hazard rate ratio or risk difference with corresponding 95 % confidence intervals. Where possible summary effect measures will be pooled, heterogeneity and its extent for pooled estimates will be assessed via visual inspection of forest plots and explored via sub-group analysis

  4. Colorectal cancer screening in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, G. [Hamilton Health Sciences Corp., Henderson Campus, Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    2001-02-01

    Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in Canada, ranking third among all cancers. In 1998, there were 16,500 new cases and 6300 deaths from this disease. Predictions for 2000 were similar. There has been a gradual decrease in age-adjusted incidence and mortality from CRC over the last few years, but the actual number of cases is expected to increase significantly over the next decade because of changing age demographics. The regional incidence is lowest on the west coast and highest on the east coast, with Ontario and Quebec in between. In Canada, the lifetime risk of dying from CRC is 2.8%, compared with 8.1% for lung cancer in men, 4.5% for lung cancer in women, 3.6% for prostate cancer in men and 3.9% for breast cancer in women. CRC is a disease of developed, rather than developing countries, and the incidence in Canada is among the highest in the world, and higher in relative terms than in the United States. Primary prevention, including diet modification and other lifestyle influences, may have the most significant long-term effects on the problem, but earlier detection and treatment would seem to be the most advantageous medium-term objectives. An excellent review and guidelines article by Winawer and colleagues has formed the basis for an informed discussion on CRC and screening-related issues. (author)

  5. Status of colorectal cancer devices: present scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandel, Shammy; Akhtar, Reyhan; Sarotra, Pooja; Medhi, Bikash

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was the colonoscopic detection and removal of neoplasia from the colorectum to prevent the development of colorectal cancer. Various online medical databases were searched such as PubMed, ACS, NCI, NIH, WHO, etc. for relevant publications and clinical trials for new developments in colonoscopic devices that are intended for diagnostic visualization and therapeutic interventions of the digestive tract. HD colon and I-Scan both has shown to increase the detection of sporadic adenomas with high quality. Third Eye Retroscope confers the backward view of colon, but aeroscope screens the entire colon in 30-60 min. Narrow-band imaging enhances mucosal and vascular details through the color differentiation of precancerous or cancerous polyp, compared to white light colonoscopy. The PillCam Colon Capsule is another new technique which is easily inserted and painless. In case of chemotherapy, Therasphere with Yttrium-90 has good results in the treatment of colorectal adenocarcinoma metastasis. Radiofrequency ablation is a good technique for tumors ablation and Staple Line Reinforcement prevents the leak during and post-surgery of colon. FOBT is much more sensitive and cheaper test for colorectal cancer screening. Registered clinical trials have shown promising results for neoplasia detection by I-Scan, TER, and NBI imaging techniques will change current colonoscopic practice in colorectal cancer screening. However, more studies and inventions are required for improving the patient safety and efficacy.

  6. Brain metastases from colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vagn-Hansen, Chris Aksel; Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael

    2001-01-01

    Brain metastases from colorectal cancer are rare. The prognosis for patients with even a single resectable brain metastasis is poor. A case of surgically treated cerebral metastasis from a rectal carcinoma is reported. The brain tumour was radically resected. However, cerebral, as well...... as extracerebral, disease recurred 12 months after diagnosis. Surgical removal of colorectal metastatic brain lesions in selected cases results in a longer survival time....

  7. Potential diagnostic value of serum p53 antibody for detecting colorectal cancer: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Rongqin; Wang, Yang; He, Liang; He, Yuanqing; Du, Zedong

    2018-04-01

    Numerous studies have assessed the diagnostic value of serum p53 (s-p53) antibody in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC); however, results remain controversial. The present study aimed to comprehensively and quantitatively summarize the potential diagnostic value of s-p53 antibody in CRC. The present study utilized databases, including PubMed and EmBase, systematically regarding s-p53 antibody diagnosis in CRC, accessed on and prior to 31 July 2016. The quality of all the included studies was assessed using quality assessment of studies of diagnostic accuracy (QUADAS). The result of pooled sensitivity, pooled specificity, positive likelihood ratio (PLR) and negative likelihood ratio (NLR) were analyzed and compared with overall accuracy measures using diagnostic odds ratios (DORs) and area under the curve (AUC) analysis. Publication bias and heterogeneity were also assessed. A total of 11 trials that enrolled a combined 3,392 participants were included in the meta-analysis. Approximately 72.73% (8/11) of the included studies were of high quality (QUADAS score >7), and all were retrospective case-control studies. The pooled sensitivity was 0.19 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.18-0.21] and pooled specificity was 0.93 (95% CI, 0.92-0.94). Results also demonstrated a PLR of 4.56 (95% CI, 3.27-6.34), NLR of 0.78 (95% CI, 0.71-0.85) and DOR of 6.70 (95% CI, 4.59-9.76). The symmetrical summary receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.73. Furthermore, no evidence of publication bias or heterogeneity was observed in the meta-analysis. Meta-analysis data indicated that s-p53 antibody possesses potential diagnostic value for CRC. However, discrimination power was somewhat limited due to the low sensitivity.

  8. Bone morphogenetic protein signalling in colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardwick, James C.; Kodach, Liudmila L.; Offerhaus, G. Johan; van den Brink, Gijs R.

    2008-01-01

    Much of the current understanding of colorectal cancer stems from the study of rare, inherited colorectal cancer syndromes. Mutations in the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway have been found in juvenile polyposis, an inherited polyposis syndrome that predisposes to colorectal cancer. The

  9. Colorectal Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing colorectal cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  10. Targeted nanoparticles for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cisterna, Bruno A.; Kamaly, Nazila; Choi, Won Il

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is highly prevalent worldwide, and despite notable progress in treatment still leads to significant morbidity and mortality. The use of nanoparticles as a drug delivery system has become one of the most promising strategies for cancer therapy. Targeted nanoparticles could...

  11. Colorectal Cancer Awareness and Screening

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-04-06

    An oncologist (cancer doctor) shares her medical and personal advice for people between the ages of 50 and 75 about getting screened for colorectal cancer.  Created: 4/6/2017 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/6/2017.

  12. Brain metastasis from colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamba, Yoshiko; Itabashi, Michio; Hirosawa, Tomoichiro; Ogawa, Shinpei; Noguchi, Eiichiro; Takemoto, Kaori; Shirotani, Noriyasu; Kameoka, Shingo

    2007-01-01

    The present study was performed to clarify the clinical characteristics of brain metastasis from colorectal cancer. Five patients with brain metastasis from colorectal cancer treated at our institute between 2001 and 2005 were included in the study. Clinical findings and survival time were determined and an appropriate system for follow-up in such cases was considered. Brain metastasis was found after surgery for colorectal cancer in 4 cases. In addition, colorectal cancer was found after diagnosis of brain metastasis in 1 case. At the time of diagnosis of brain metastasis, all patients had lung metastasis and 3 had liver metastasis. The mean periods between surgery for colorectal cancer and lung and brain metastases were 19.5 and 38.2 months, respectively. In all cases, brain metastasis was diagnosed by imaging after the appearance of neurological symptoms. Brain metastases were multiple in 1 case and focal in 4 cases. We performed gamma knife radiation therapy, and the symptoms disappeared or decreased in all cases. Mean survival time after brain metastasis was 3.0 months. Prognosis after brain metastasis is poor, but gamma knife radiation therapy contributed to patients' quality of life. (author)

  13. Investigating the effect of pixel size of high spatial resolution FTIR imaging for detection of colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, G. R.; Nallala, J.; Stone, N.

    2016-03-01

    FTIR is a well-established technique and there is significant interest in applying this technique to medical diagnostics e.g. to detect cancer. The introduction of focal plane array (FPA) detectors means that FTIR is particularly suited to rapid imaging of biopsy sections as an adjunct to digital pathology. Until recently however each pixel in the image has been limited to a minimum of 5.5 µm which results in a comparatively low magnification image or histology applications and potentially the loss of important diagnostic information. The recent introduction of higher magnification optics gives image pixels that cover approx. 1.1 µm. This reduction in image pixel size gives images of higher magnification and improved spatial detail can be observed. However, the effect of increasing the magnification on spectral quality and the ability to discriminate between disease states is not well studied. In this work we test the discriminatory performance of FTIR imaging using both standard (5.5 µm) and high (1.1 µm) magnification for the detection of colorectal cancer and explore the effect of binning to degrade high resolution images to determine whether similar diagnostic information and performance can be obtained using both magnifications. Results indicate that diagnostic performance using high magnification may be reduced as compared to standard magnification when using existing multivariate approaches. Reduction of the high magnification data to standard magnification via binning can potentially recover some of the lost performance.

  14. [Multiple primary colorectal cancer: Clinical aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatkina, N V; Kit, O I; Gevorkyan, Yu A; Milakin, A G

    to define some clinical characteristics of synchronous and metachronous colorectal cancer (CRC). The investigation was concerned with the data of 150 patients with T1-4N0-2M0-1 multiple primary CRC. The clinical, biological, and morphological characteristics of synchronous and metachronous tumors were analyzed. Multiple primary tumors were 6.01% of all the cases of CRC. There was a preponderance of synchronous CRC (63.75%) with the tumor localized in the sigmoid colon and rectum. In women, synchronous colorectal tumors were more often concurrent with breast tumors; metachronous ones were detected after treatment for genital tumors. In men, synchronous colorectal tumors were more frequently concurrent with kidney cancer; metachronous ones were identified after treatment for gastric cancer. The found characteristics of multiple primary colorectal tumors may be taken in account in programs for both primary diagnosis and follow-up after treatment for malignant tumors, which will be able to improve the early detection of cancer patients and their treatment results.

  15. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF COLORECTAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Shafayan M. Keyhani

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to analyze certain epidemiological variations in Iranian patients with colorectal cancer. (CRC: From March 1981 up to March 1993, 103 patients were analyzed retrospectively for age, gender, marital state, job, nutritional habits, presenting symptoms and histopathological features. Most of the patients with colorectal cancer were male, age range 20-75 (mean 56, 25.4 percent were long-term smokers and bleeding was the most common symptom. The rectum was the most common site and moderately differentiated carcinoma was considered as the main common histopathological variety. In conclusion, increasing incidence of colorectal cancer in younger Iranian population, below 30 and late admission and diagnosis were the main findings in the present study necessitating screening programs with annual fecal occult blood tests in high risk families.

  16. Detection of colorectal cancer in symptomatic outpatients without visible rectal bleeding: Validity of the fecal occult blood test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Niels Christian; Tøttrup, Anders; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2009-01-01

    In 2002, a new diagnostic strategy in symptomatic outpatients without known established colorectal cancer risk factors aged 40 years or older was implemented in Denmark. Fecal occult blood test (Hemoccult Sensa®) was a part of that strategy in patients without visible rectal bleeding....

  17. Do NSAIDs Prevent Colorectal Cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadir Arber

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence to suggest that acetylsalicylic acid (ASA and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs reduce the risk of colorectal cancer. This observation is supported by animal studies that show fewer tumours per animal and fewer animals with tumours after administration of several different NSAIDs. Studies in humans consistently support this hypothesis. Intervention data from familial adenomatosis coli establish that the process of human colonic adenoma polyp formation is affected. Supportive evidence comes from 21 of 23 human studies -- both case-control and cohort. The reduced risk has been found in men and women, for cancers of the colon and the rectum and for the use of both ASA and the other NSAIDs. Earlier detection of lesions as a result of drug-induced bleeding does not seem to account for these findings. The molecular mechanisms responsible for the chemopreventive action of this class of drugs is not completely established. Protection may affect several pathways, including cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis.  Because of the consistency of epidemiological, clinical and experimental data, there is no need for further placebo trials. At the same time, there is a need to establish the dose, duration and frequency of use required for cancer-preventive activity.

  18. Effects and Costs of Colorectal Cancer Screening and Follow-up after Polypectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Loeve, F.

    2003-01-01

    textabstractColorectal cancer is a major public health problem in many countries. In 1997, approximately 8,500 new cases of colorectal cancer were diagnosed in the Netherlands and more than 4,000 individuals died from this disease. Screening for colorectal cancer in the general population has the potential to save lives. Potential screening tests are the fecal occult blood test (FOBT), colonoscopy and sigmoidoscopy. FOBT tests detect blood in stool from bleeding asymptomatic colorectal cancer...

  19. Risks of Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & Early Detection Treatment Cancer & Public Health Cancer Health Disparities Childhood Cancer Clinical Trials Global Health Key Initiatives Cancer Moonshot Genomic Data Commons National Clinical Trials ...

  20. Molecular Classification and Correlates in Colorectal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ogino, Shuji; Goel, Ajay

    2008-01-01

    Molecular classification of colorectal cancer is evolving. As our understanding of colorectal carcinogenesis improves, we are incorporating new knowledge into the classification system. In particular, global genomic status [microsatellite instability (MSI) status and chromosomal instability (CIN) status] and epigenomic status [CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) status] play a significant role in determining clinical, pathological and biological characteristics of colorectal cancer. In thi...

  1. Clinical, pathological and molecular prognostic factors in colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelaar, F.J.

    2017-01-01

    While histopathologic assessment of lymph nodes is a core element of colorectal cancer staging algorithms, the prognostic value of lymph node metastases is restricted. This highlights the need for approaches that detect occult tumor cells and define their prognostic value, to identify colorectal

  2. Nutrients, Foods, and Colorectal Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mingyang; Garrett, Wendy S.; Chan, Andrew T.

    2015-01-01

    Diet has an important role in the development of colorectal cancer. In the past few decades, findings from extensive epidemiologic and experimental investigation have linked consumption of several foods and nutrients to the risk of colorectal neoplasia. Calcium, fiber, milk, and whole grain have been associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer, and red meat and processed meat with an increased risk. There is substantial evidence for the potential chemopreventive effects of vitamin D, folate, fruits and vegetables. Nutrients and foods may also interact, as a dietary pattern, to influence colorectal cancer risk. Diet likely influences colorectal carcinogenesis through several interacting mechanisms. These include the direct effects on immune responsiveness and inflammation, and the indirect effects of over-nutrition and obesity—risk factors for colorectal cancer. Emerging evidence also implicates the gut microbiota as an important effector in the relationship between diet and cancer. Dietary modification therefore has the promise of reducing colorectal cancer incidence. PMID:25575572

  3. Biological therapy of colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kleijn, E. M. H. A.; Punt, C. J. A.

    2002-01-01

    In this review, the immunogenicity of colorectal cancer (CRC) and the results of clinical and recent preclinical studies are discussed. Evidence for immune reactivity has been found in several preclinical models and the prognostic value of some of these immune responses have been reported. The

  4. Costs of Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-04-04

    A health economist talks about studies on figuring out the costs of running a colorectal cancer screening program, and how this can lead to better screening.  Created: 4/4/2017 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/4/2017.

  5. Immunotherapy for metastatic colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellebaek, Eva; Andersen, Mads Hald; Svane, Inge Marie

    2012-01-01

    Although no immunotherapeutic treatment is approved for colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, promising results from clinical trials suggest that several immunotherapeutic strategies may prove efficacious and applicable to this group of patients. This review describes the immunogenicity of CRC...... and presents the most interesting strategies investigated so far: cancer vaccination including antigen-defined vaccination and dendritic cell vaccination, chemo-immunotherapy, and adoptive cell transfer. Future treatment options as well as the possibility of combining existing therapies will be discussed along...

  6. Pulmonary nodules and metastases in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordholm-Carstensen, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Patients with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer (CRC) are subjected to a preoperative thoraco-abdominal CT scan to determine the cancer stage. This staging is of relevance with regard to treatment and prognosis. About 20% of the patients have distant metastatic spread at the time of diagnosis, i...... detected in 7.5% of the patients and in 37% of these cases the metastatic spread was confined to the lungs. The prevalence of SPCM increased with the implementation of thoracic CT in CRC staging. SPCM impaired survival significantly and was associated with increasing age and rectal cancer. Resection...

  7. Gene expression in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkenkamp-Demtroder, Karin; Christensen, Lise Lotte; Olesen, Sanne Harder

    2002-01-01

    Understanding molecular alterations in colorectal cancer (CRC) is needed to define new biomarkers and treatment targets. We used oligonucleotide microarrays to monitor gene expression of about 6,800 known genes and 35,000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) on five pools (four to six samples in each...... pool) of total RNA from left-sided sporadic colorectal carcinomas. We compared normal tissue to carcinoma tissue from Dukes' stages A-D (noninvasive to distant metastasis) and identified 908 known genes and 4,155 ESTs that changed remarkably from normal to tumor tissue. Based on intensive filtering 226...

  8. ADAMTS Expression in Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filou, Serafula; Korpetinou, Aggeliki; Kyriakopoulou, Dora; Bounias, Dimitrios; Stavropoulos, Michael; Ravazoula, Panagiota; Papachristou, Dionysios J.; Theocharis, Achilleas D.; Vynios, Demitrios H.

    2015-01-01

    ADAMTSs are a family of secreted proteinases that share the metalloproteinase domain with matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). By acting on a large panel of extracellular substrates, they control several cell functions such as fusion, adhesion, proliferation and migration. Through their thrombospondin motifs they also possess anti-angiogenic properties. We investigated whether ADAMTSs participate in colorectal cancer progression and invasion. Their expression was investigated at both mRNA and protein levels. Using RT-PCR, the expression of ADAMTS-1, -4, -5 and ADAMTS-20 was estimated in colorectal tumors of different cancer stage and anatomic site and 3 cell lines of different aggressiveness. An overexpression of ADAMTS-4 and -5 was observed, especially in tissue samples, whereas ADAMTS-1 and -20 were found to be down-regulated. Western blot analysis further supported the RT-PCR findings, revealing in addition the degradation of ADAMTS-1 and -20 in cancer. In situ expression and localization of ADAMTS-1, -4, -5 and -20 was also investigated by immunohistochemical analysis. Our data suggest a positive correlation between ADAMTS-4 and -5 expression and cancer progression, in contrast with the anti-angiogenic members of the family, ADAMTS-1 and -20, which were found to be down-regulated. Our findings support the notion that overexpression of ADAMTS-4 and ADAMTS-5 in colorectal cancer might be a possible invasive mechanism of cancer cells in order to degrade proteoglycans of ECM. PMID:25786261

  9. ADAMTS expression in colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serafula Filou

    Full Text Available ADAMTSs are a family of secreted proteinases that share the metalloproteinase domain with matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs. By acting on a large panel of extracellular substrates, they control several cell functions such as fusion, adhesion, proliferation and migration. Through their thrombospondin motifs they also possess anti-angiogenic properties. We investigated whether ADAMTSs participate in colorectal cancer progression and invasion. Their expression was investigated at both mRNA and protein levels. Using RT-PCR, the expression of ADAMTS-1, -4, -5 and ADAMTS-20 was estimated in colorectal tumors of different cancer stage and anatomic site and 3 cell lines of different aggressiveness. An overexpression of ADAMTS-4 and -5 was observed, especially in tissue samples, whereas ADAMTS-1 and -20 were found to be down-regulated. Western blot analysis further supported the RT-PCR findings, revealing in addition the degradation of ADAMTS-1 and -20 in cancer. In situ expression and localization of ADAMTS-1, -4, -5 and -20 was also investigated by immunohistochemical analysis. Our data suggest a positive correlation between ADAMTS-4 and -5 expression and cancer progression, in contrast with the anti-angiogenic members of the family, ADAMTS-1 and -20, which were found to be down-regulated. Our findings support the notion that overexpression of ADAMTS-4 and ADAMTS-5 in colorectal cancer might be a possible invasive mechanism of cancer cells in order to degrade proteoglycans of ECM.

  10. Detection of recurrences of colorectal cancer using [F-18]FDG scintigraphy performed on a dual-head coincidence gamma-camera (CDET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montravers, F.; Grahek, D.; Kerrou, K.; Beco, V. de; Younsi, N.; Talbot, J.N.; Beco, V. de; Tofighi, M.; Moretti, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the clinical performances of FDG-CDET for the detection of recurrences of colorectal cancer. One hundred and ninety five examinations (ex) were analyzed, performed for suspicion of recurrence of colorectal cancer (148 ex) or in search of unknown foci prior to surgical resection of known recurrence(s) (47 ex). Recurrence was suspected because of rising CEA levels (50 ex) or isolated pain (8 ex) or equivocal conventional imaging (62 ex) or rising CEA levels and equivocal conventional imaging (28 ex). The results were analyzed according to histology (98 ex) or according to the one year follow-up (97 ex). On an examination basis, the results were the following: Sensitivity -143/164 = 87 %, Specificity = 28/31= 90%, Accuracy -171 /195 = 88 %. Histology was obtained in 98 patients who underwent surgery leading to the analysis of 169 sites. On a site basis, the results were the following: Sensitivity =104/152 = 68 %, Specificity =12/17 = 75 %, Accuracy -116/169 = 69 %. These results were not different from those reported with dedicated PET and show that FDG-CDET is a powerful tool for the detection of recurrent colorectal cancer. (authors)

  11. Danish Colorectal Cancer Group Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingeholm, Peter; Gögenur, Ismail; Iversen, Lene H

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the database, which has existed for registration of all patients with colorectal cancer in Denmark since 2001, is to improve the prognosis for this patient group. All Danish patients with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer who are either diagnosed or treated in a surgical department of a public Danish hospital. The database comprises an array of surgical, radiological, oncological, and pathological variables. The surgeons record data such as diagnostics performed, including type and results of radiological examinations, lifestyle factors, comorbidity and performance, treatment including the surgical procedure, urgency of surgery, and intra- and postoperative complications within 30 days after surgery. The pathologists record data such as tumor type, number of lymph nodes and metastatic lymph nodes, surgical margin status, and other pathological risk factors. The database has had >95% completeness in including patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma with >54,000 patients registered so far with approximately one-third rectal cancers and two-third colon cancers and an overrepresentation of men among rectal cancer patients. The stage distribution has been more or less constant until 2014 with a tendency toward a lower rate of stage IV and higher rate of stage I after introduction of the national screening program in 2014. The 30-day mortality rate after elective surgery has been reduced from >7% in 2001-2003 to database is a national population-based clinical database with high patient and data completeness for the perioperative period. The resolution of data is high for description of the patient at the time of diagnosis, including comorbidities, and for characterizing diagnosis, surgical interventions, and short-term outcomes. The database does not have high-resolution oncological data and does not register recurrences after primary surgery. The Danish Colorectal Cancer Group provides high-quality data and has been documenting an increase in short- and long

  12. Effectiveness of circulating tumor DNA for detection of KRAS gene mutations in colorectal cancer patients: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Y

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Yi-Xin Hao,1,* Qiang Fu,2,* Yan-Yan Guo,1 Ming Ye,1 Hui-Xia Zhao,1 Qi Wang,1 Xiu-Mei Peng,1 Qiu-Wen Li,1 Ru-Liang Wang,1 Wen-Hua Xiao1 1Department of Oncology, First Affiliated Hospital, 2Department of Anesthesiology, People’s Liberation Army General Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA can be identified in the peripheral blood of patients and harbors the genomic alterations found in tumor tissues, which provides a noninvasive approach for detection of gene mutations. We conducted this meta-analysis to investigate whether ctDNA can be used for monitoring KRAS gene mutations in colorectal cancer (CRC patients. Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library and Web of Science were searched for the included eligible studies in English, and data were extracted for statistical analysis according to the numbers of true-positive (TP, true-negative (TN, false-positive (FP and false-negative (FN cases. Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR were calculated, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC was used to evaluate the diagnostic performance. After independent searching and reviewing, 21 studies involving 1,812 cancer patients were analyzed. The overall sensitivity, specificity and DOR were 0.67 (95% confidence interval [CI] =0.55–0.78, 0.96 (95% CI =0.93–0.98 and 53.95 (95% CI =26.24–110.92, respectively. The AUROC was 0.95 (95% CI =0.92–0.96, which indicated the high diagnostic accuracy of ctDNA. After stratified analysis, we found the higher diagnostic accuracy in subgroup of patients detected in blood sample of plasma. The ctDNA may be an ideal source for detection of KRAS gene mutations in CRC patients with high specificity and diagnostic value. Keywords: cancer, KRAS, mutation, circulating tumor DNA

  13. Involvement of hyaluronidases in colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouga Helen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyaluronidases belong to a class of enzymes that degrade, predominantly, hyaluronan. These enzymes are known to be involved in physiological and pathological processes, such as tumor growth, infiltration and angiogenesis, but their exact role in tumor promotion or suppression is not clear yet. Advanced colorectal cancer is associated with elevated amounts of hyaluronan of varying size. The aim of the present study was therefore to illuminate the importance of hyaluronidases in colon carcinoma progression. Methods The patients' samples (macroscopically normal and cancerous were subjected to sequential extraction with PBS, 4 M GdnHCl and 4 M GdnHCl - 1% Triton X-100. The presence of the various hyaluronidases in the extracts was examined by zymography and western blotting. Their expression was also examined by RT-PCR. Results Among hyaluronidases examined, Hyal-1, -2, -3 and PH-20 were detected. Their activity was higher in cancerous samples. Hyal-1 and Hyal-2 were overexpressed in cancerous samples, especially in advanced stages of cancer. Both isoforms were mainly extracted with PBS. Hyal-3 was observed only in the third extract of advanced stages of cancer. PH-20 was abundant in all three extracts of all stages of cancer. The expression of only Hyal-1 and PH-20 was verified by RT-PCR. Conclusion A high association of hyaluronidases in colorectal cancer was observed. Each hyaluronidase presented different tissue distribution, which indicated the implication of certain isoforms in certain cancer stages. The results provided new evidence on the mechanisms involved in the progression of colorectal cancer.

  14. Microbial and viral pathogens in colorectal cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Collins, Danielle

    2011-05-01

    The heterogenetic and sporadic nature of colorectal cancer has led to many epidemiological associations with causes of this disease. As our understanding of the underlying molecular processes in colorectal-cancer develops, the concept of microbial-epithelial interactions as an oncogenic trigger might provide a plausible hypothesis for the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer. By contrast with other cancers of the gastrointestinal tract (gastric carcinoma, mucosa-associated lymphoid-tissue lymphoma), a direct causal link between microbial infection (bacteria and viruses) and colorectal carcinoma has not been established. Studies support the involvement of these organisms in oncogenesis, however, in colorectal cancer, clinical data are lacking. Here, we discuss current evidence (both in vitro and clinical studies), and focus on a putative role for bacterial and viral pathogens as a cause of colorectal cancer.

  15. Microbial and viral pathogens in colorectal cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Collins, Danielle

    2012-02-01

    The heterogenetic and sporadic nature of colorectal cancer has led to many epidemiological associations with causes of this disease. As our understanding of the underlying molecular processes in colorectal-cancer develops, the concept of microbial-epithelial interactions as an oncogenic trigger might provide a plausible hypothesis for the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer. By contrast with other cancers of the gastrointestinal tract (gastric carcinoma, mucosa-associated lymphoid-tissue lymphoma), a direct causal link between microbial infection (bacteria and viruses) and colorectal carcinoma has not been established. Studies support the involvement of these organisms in oncogenesis, however, in colorectal cancer, clinical data are lacking. Here, we discuss current evidence (both in vitro and clinical studies), and focus on a putative role for bacterial and viral pathogens as a cause of colorectal cancer.

  16. Outcome of colorectal cancer resection in octogenarians

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    elderly, age was not an independent contributor, and medical. Outcome of colorectal ... Introduction. Octogenarians constitute a rapidly growing segment of patients undergoing colorectal cancer resection, but their outcomes .... Characteristics of patients aged >80 years and 60 - 70 years undergoing colorectal resection.

  17. Analytical validation of a novel multiplex test for detection of advanced adenoma and colorectal cancer in symptomatic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Roslyn; Croner, Lisa J; Bucci, John; Kairs, Stefanie N; You, Jia; Beasley, Sharon; Blimline, Mark; Carino, Rochele B; Chan, Vicky C; Cuevas, Danissa; Diggs, Jeff; Jennings, Megan; Levy, Jacob; Mina, Ginger; Yee, Alvin; Wilcox, Bruce

    2018-02-23

    Early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC) is key to reducing associated mortality. Despite the importance of early detection, approximately 40% of individuals in the United States between the ages of 50-75 have never been screened for CRC. The low compliance with colonoscopy and fecal-based screening may be addressed with a non-invasive alternative such as a blood-based test. We describe here the analytical validation of a multiplexed blood-based assay that measures the plasma concentrations of 15 proteins to assess advanced adenoma (AA) and CRC risk in symptomatic patients. The test was developed on an electrochemiluminescent immunoassay platform employing four multi-marker panels, to be implemented in the clinic as a laboratory developed test (LDT). Under the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) and College of American Pathologists (CAP) regulations, a United States-based clinical laboratory utilizing an LDT must establish performance characteristics relating to analytical validity prior to releasing patient test results. This report describes a series of studies demonstrating the precision, accuracy, analytical sensitivity, and analytical specificity for each of the 15 assays, as required by CLIA/CAP. In addition, the report describes studies characterizing each of the assays' dynamic range, parallelism, tolerance to common interfering substances, spike recovery, and stability to sample freeze-thaw cycles. Upon completion of the analytical characterization, a clinical accuracy study was performed to evaluate concordance of AA and CRC classifier model calls using the analytical method intended for use in the clinic. Of 434 symptomatic patient samples tested, the percent agreement with original CRC and AA calls was 87% and 92% respectively. All studies followed CLSI guidelines and met the regulatory requirements for implementation of a new LDT. The results provide the analytical evidence to support the implementation of the novel multi-marker test as

  18. Nutritional status assessment in colorectal cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Joana Pedro Lopes; Paula Manuela de Castro Cardoso Pereira; Ana Filipa dos Reis Baltazar Vicente; Alexandra Bernardo; María Fernanda de Mesquita

    2013-01-01

    The present study intended to evaluate the nutritional status of Portuguese colorectal patients and associated it with surgery type as well as quality of life outcomes. Malnutrition can affect up to 85% of cancer patients and specifically 30-60% in colorectal cancer and can significantly influence health outcomes. A sample of 50 colorectal cancer patients was evaluated in what refers to several anthropometric measures, food intake, clinical history, complications rate before and after surgery...

  19. Optimizing Outcomes of Colorectal Cancer Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Meester, Reinier

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractColorectal cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths. Screening for colorectal cancer is implemented in an increasing number of settings, but performance of programs is often suboptimal. In this thesis, advanced modeling, informed by empirical data, was used to identify areas for improvement of screening programs. The thesis includes studies on the effect of the test used for screening, long-term adherence with screening, the quality of colorectal examinations, time to diagno...

  20. Indeterminate Pulmonary Nodules in Colorectal-Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordholm-Carstensen, Andreas; Jorgensen, Lars N; Wille-Jørgensen, Peer A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The clinical significance of indeterminate pulmonary nodules (IPN) at staging computed tomography (CT) for colorectal cancer (CRC), and the optimal diagnostic approach, are debated. This study aimed to analyse variability in radiologists' detection of IPN at staging CT for CRC. METHODS......: All patients with CRC referred to our center between 2006 and 2011 were included. Primary staging CT scans were re-evaluated by an experienced thoracic radiologist whose findings were entered into a dedicated database and merged with data from the Danish Colorectal Cancer Group database, the National...... investigated radiological characteristics or clinicopathological factors were significantly associated with malignancy of IPN. CONCLUSION: The characterization of pulmonary findings on staging CT for CRC varied greatly between the radiologists, and double-reading of scans with IPN is recommended prior...

  1. Detection of DNA repair protein in colorectal cancer of patients up to 50 years old can increase the identification of Lynch syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germini, Demétrius Eduardo; Mader, Ana Maria Amaral Antônio; Gomes, Luiz Guilherme Lisboa; Teodoro, Thérèse Rachel; Franco, Maria Isete Fares; Waisberg, Jaques

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the results of protein level of the DNA mismatch repair genes with the clinical diagnosis of Lynch syndrome according to the Amsterdam II criteria in patients 50 years and younger who underwent surgery for colorectal cancer. The subjects of analysis were 48 patients 50 years old and younger. Immunohistochemistry assays were performed to detect proteins from the DNA mismatch repair genes. Clinicopathological data and Amsterdam II criteria for the diagnosis of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer were obtained by analyzing medical records. Two (4 %) patients satisfied the Amsterdam II criteria for Lynch syndrome, and both presented levels of all of the studied mismatch repair proteins. A total of 13 (27 %) patients exhibited the absence of protein levels of the studied mismatch repair genes. None of these patients were considered suspicious for Lynch syndrome according to the Amsterdam II criteria. Screening for the level of proteins of the mismatch repair system in all colorectal cancer patients 50 years and younger can increase the identification of patients with suspicion of Lynch syndrome.

  2. Optimizing Outcomes of Colorectal Cancer Screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.G.S. Meester (Reinier)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractColorectal cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths. Screening for colorectal cancer is implemented in an increasing number of settings, but performance of programs is often suboptimal. In this thesis, advanced modeling, informed by empirical data, was used to identify areas for

  3. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Tayyem, Reema F.; Bawadi, Hiba A.; Shehadah, Ihab; Agraib, Lana M.; AbuMweis, Suhad S.; Al-Jaberi, Tareq; Al-Nusairr, Majed; Bani-Hani, Kamal E.; Heath, Dennis D.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background & aimsDietary pattern and lifestyle have been reported to be important risk factors in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the mechanism of action of dietary factors in CRC disease is unclear. The aim of this study is the examination of several dietary choices and their potential association with the risk of developing CRC. MethodsDietary data was collected from 220 subjects who were previously diagnosed with CRC, and 281 control subjects (matched by age, g...

  4. Colorectal cancer in Jordan: prevention and care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Muayyad M; Dardas, Latefa; Dardas, Lubna; Ahmad, Huthaifa

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the knowledge, attitudes, and practices toward colorectal cancer prevention and care in Jordan. A survey was designed to produce reliable estimates for the population's knowledge, attitudes, and practices in all 12 governorates of Jordan by using stratified random sampling. A representative sample of the adult population in Jordan completed a comprehensive tool which explored participants' knowledge about the risk factors associated with colorectal cancer, cancer prevention through lifestyle changes, and early cancer diagnosis and screening. According to the participants (n = 3196), colorectal cancer had the second highest percentage of screening recommendation (12.6%) after breast cancer (57.3%). Only 340 individuals (11%) reported ever screening for cancer. About 20% of the participants had heard of one of the screening tests for colorectal cancer. In fact, only 290 (9.1%) participants had performed the colorectal cancer screening tests. This study provides data that will help colorectal cancer prevention and treatment programs and may enhance the efficiency of colorectal cancer-controlling programs. The findings confirm the necessity of starting colorectal screening intervention that targets the most vulnerable individuals. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Colorectal cancer defeating? Challenge accepted!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Franco, S; Todaro, M; Dieli, F; Stassi, G

    2014-10-01

    Colorectal tumours are actually considered as aberrant organs, within it is possible to notice a different stage of cell growth and differentiation. Their origin is reported to arise from a subpopulation of tumour cells endowed with, just like the healthy stem cells, self-renewal and aberrant multi-lineage differentiation capacity likely to be called colorectal cancer stem cells (CCSCs). Cancer stem cells (CSCs) fate, since their origin, reflects the influences from their microenvironment (or niche) both in the maintenance of stemness, in promoting their differentiation, and in inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition, responsible of CSCs dissemination and subsequent formation of metastatic lesions. The tumour cells heterogeneity and their immuno-response resistance nowadays probably responsible of the failure of the conventional therapies, make this research field an open issue. Even more importantly, our increasing understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate CSC quiescence and cell cycle regulation, self-renewal, chemotaxis and resistance to cytotoxic agents, is expected to eventually result in tailor-made therapies with a significant impact on the morbidity and overall survival of colorectal cancer patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. MSH6 mutations are frequent in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer families with normal pMSH6 expression as detected by immunohistochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okkels, Henrik; Lindorff-Larsen, Karen; Thorlasius-Ussing, Ole

    2012-01-01

    Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is an autosomal dominant condition accounting for 2% to 4% of all colorectal cancer cases worldwide. Families with germ line mutations in 1 of 6 mismatch repair genes are known as Lynch syndrome families. The largest number of mutations has been...

  7. Reliable Detection of Mismatch Repair Deficiency in Colorectal Cancers Using Mutational Load in Next-Generation Sequencing Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Zsofia K.; Battaglin, Francesca; Middha, Sumit; Hechtman, Jaclyn F.; Tran, Christina; Cercek, Andrea; Yaeger, Rona; Segal, Neil H.; Varghese, Anna M.; Reidy-Lagunes, Diane L.; Kemeny, Nancy E.; Salo-Mullen, Erin E.; Ashraf, Asad; Weiser, Martin R.; Garcia-Aguilar, Julio; Robson, Mark E.; Offit, Kenneth; Arcila, Maria E.; Berger, Michael F.; Shia, Jinru; Solit, David B.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Tumor screening for Lynch syndrome is recommended in all or most patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). In metastatic CRC, sequencing of RAS/BRAF is necessary to guide clinical management. We hypothesized that a next-generation sequencing (NGS) panel that identifies RAS/BRAF and other actionable mutations could also reliably identify tumors with DNA mismatch repair protein deficiency (MMR-D) on the basis of increased mutational load. Methods We identified all CRCs that underwent genomic mutation profiling with a custom NGS assay (MSK-IMPACT) between March 2014 and July 2015. Tumor mutational load, with exclusion of copy number changes, was determined for each case and compared with MMR status as determined by routine immunohistochemistry. Results Tumors from 224 patients with unique CRC analyzed for MMR status also underwent MSK-IMPACT. Thirteen percent (n = 28) exhibited MMR-D by immunohistochemistry. Using the 341-gene assay, 100% of the 193 tumors with 150 mutations each. Each of these tumors harbored the P286R hotspot POLE mutation consistent with the ultramutator phenotype. Among MMR-D tumors, the median number of mutations was 50 (range, 20 to 90) compared with six (range, 0 to 17) in MMR-proficient/POLE wild-type tumors (P < .001). With a mutational load cutoff of ≥ 20 and < 150 for MMR-D detection, sensitivity and specificity were both 1.0 (95% CI, 0.93 to 1.0). Conclusion A cutoff for mutational load can be identified via multigene NGS tumor profiling, which provides a highly accurate means of screening for MMR-D in the same assay that is used for tumor genotyping. PMID:27022117

  8. Detection rate of serrated polyps and serrated polyposis syndrome in colorectal cancer screening cohorts: a European overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    IJspeert, J E G; Bevan, R; Senore, C; Kaminski, M F; Kuipers, E J; Mroz, A; Bessa, X; Cassoni, P; Hassan, C; Repici, A; Balaguer, F; Rees, C J; Dekker, E

    2017-07-01

    The role of serrated polyps (SPs) as colorectal cancer precursor is increasingly recognised. However, the true prevalence SPs is largely unknown. We aimed to evaluate the detection rate of SPs subtypes as well as serrated polyposis syndrome (SPS) among European screening cohorts. Prospectively collected screening cohorts of ≥1000 individuals were eligible for inclusion. Colonoscopies performed before 2009 and/or in individuals aged below 50 were excluded. Rate of SPs was assessed, categorised for histology, location and size. Age-sex-standardised number needed to screen (NNS) to detect SPs were calculated. Rate of SPS was assessed in cohorts with known colonoscopy follow-up data. Clinically relevant SPs (regarded as a separate entity) were defined as SPs ≥10 mm and/or SPs >5 mm in the proximal colon. Three faecal occult blood test (FOBT) screening cohorts and two primary colonoscopy screening cohorts (range 1.426-205.949 individuals) were included. Rate of SPs ranged between 15.1% and 27.2% (median 19.5%), of sessile serrated polyps between 2.2% and 4.8% (median 3.3%) and of clinically relevant SPs between 2.1% and 7.8% (median 4.6%). Rate of SPs was similar in FOBT-based cohorts as in colonoscopy screening cohorts. No apparent association between the rate of SP and gender or age was shown. Rate of SPS ranged from 0% to 0.5%, which increased to 0.4% to 0.8% after follow-up colonoscopy. The detection rate of SPs is variable among screening cohorts, and standards for reporting, detection and histopathological assessment should be established. The median rate, as found in this study, may contribute to define uniform minimum standards for males and females between 50 and 75 years of age. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. Red meat and colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuri Faruk Aykan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common cancer in men and the second in women worldwide. More than half of cases occur in more developed countries. The consumption of red meat (beef, pork, lamb, veal, mutton is high in developed countries and accumulated evidence until today demonstrated a convincing association between the intake of red meat and especially processed meat and CRC risk. In this review, meta-analyses of prospective epidemiological studies addressed to this association, observed link of some subtypes of red meat with CRC risk, potential carcinogenic compounds, their mechanisms and actual recommendations of international guidelines are presented.

  10. Linking Gut Microbiota to Colorectal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raskov, Hans; Burcharth, Jakob; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian

    2017-01-01

    and malignant transformation. Initiation and promotion of colorectal cancer may result from direct bacterial actions, bacterial metabolites and inflammatory pathways. Newer aspects of microbiota and colorectal cancer include quorum sensing, biofilm formation, sidedness and effects/countereffects of microbiota......Pre-clinical and clinical data produce mounting evidence that the microbiota is strongly associated with colorectal carcinogenesis. Dysbiosis may change the course of carcinogenesis as microbial actions seem to impact genetic and epigenetic alterations leading to dysplasia, clonal expansion...

  11. Nutrients, Foods, and Colorectal Cancer Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Mingyang; Garrett, Wendy S.; Chan, Andrew T.

    2015-01-01

    Diet has an important role in the development of colorectal cancer. In the past few decades, findings from extensive epidemiologic and experimental investigation have linked consumption of several foods and nutrients to the risk of colorectal neoplasia. Calcium, fiber, milk, and whole grain have been associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer, and red meat and processed meat with an increased risk. There is substantial evidence for the potential chemopreventive effects of vitamin D, fo...

  12. Modification of patient management when using FDG-PET in detection of recurrences of colorectal cancer: 18 month-experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montravers, F.; Grahek, D.; Kerrou, K.; Younsi, N.; Petegnief, Y.; Talbot, J.N.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of [F-18] - FDG - PET on managing patients with colorectal cancer. From January 2000 to July 2001, 164 examinations were performed by the team of hospital Tenon using a 3D dedicated PET System (C-PET, ADAC) for suspicion or recurrence of colorectal cancer (53 % of the cases), for search for other localization when one or more resectable(s) lesion(s) was (were) known (37 %) or for evaluation of the therapeutic efficacy (10 %). To evaluate the impact of PET imaging on patient management, a post PET questionnaire (corresponding to the French translation of the questionnaire presented by J. Meta et al.) was sent to the referring physician. 94 responses are currently available, corresponding to: no change (n = 42), change from no treatment to surgery (n =11), change from no treatment to medical treatment (n = 11), change from surgery to medical treatment (n - 9), change from medical treatment to no treatment (n = 5), change from medical treatment to surgery (n = 4), change from surgery to no treatment (n = 4), change in medical approach (n = 3), change in surgical approach (n = 2), change from no treatment to radiotherapy (n = 1), change from radiotherapy to medical treatment (n = 1), change from medical treatment to radiotherapy (n = 1). In summary, among 94 responses from referring physicians (corresponding to 57 % of the examinations), changes in patient management were reported for 52 of the 94 patients (55 %). This result confirms, in France, the major impact of FDG-PET on the management of recurrences of colorectal cancer, as reported by the referring physician, already demonstrated in California (62 % in the 60 patients of Meta et al). (author)

  13. Lower or Standard Dose Regorafenib in Treating Patients With Refractory Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-22

    Colon Adenocarcinoma; Rectal Adenocarcinoma; Stage III Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIC Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IV Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVA Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVB Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7

  14. Primary prevention of colorectal cancer: are we closer to reality?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Qasim, Asghar

    2012-02-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. An early detection of colorectal cancer determines therapeutic outcomes, while primary prevention remains a challenge. Our aim was to review the dietary, geographical and genetic factors in the causation and their possible role in the primary prevention of colorectal cancer. Data from experimental and clinical studies and population screening programmes were analysed to determine the factors responsible for causation of colorectal cancer. The role of dietary constituents, including the consumption of fat, red meat, fibre content, alcohol consumption, and other lifestyle issues, including obesity, lack of exercise and geographical variations in cancer prevalence were reviewed. The role of genetic and lifestyle factors in causation of colorectal cancer is evident from the experimental, clinical and population-based studies. Dietary factors, including the consumption of fat, fibre, red meat and alcohol, seem to have a significant influence in this regard. The role of micronutrients, vitamins, calcium may be relevant but remain largely unclear. In conclusion, there is ample evidence favouring the role of various dietary and lifestyle factors in the aetiology of colorectal cancer. Modification of these factors is an attractive option, which is likely to help in the primary prevention and reduced disease burden.

  15. Vitamin D, inflammation, and colorectal cancer progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harten-Gerritsen, van Suzanne; Balvers, Michiel G.J.; Witkamp, Renger F.; Kampman, Ellen; Duijnhoven, van F.J.B.

    2015-01-01

    Survival from colorectal cancer is positively associated with vitamin D status. However, whether this association is causal remains unclear. Inflammatory processes may link vitamin D to colorectal cancer survival, and therefore investigating inflammatory markers as potential mediators may be a

  16. Diet and colorectal cancer risk and survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkels, R.M.; Duijnhoven, van F.J.B.; Heine-Bröring, R.C.; Kampman, E.

    2013-01-01

    Unhealthy dietary and other lifestyle factors account for 20–45% of all colorectal cancer cases. Being overweight or obese, having a high intake of red and processed meat and alcohol increase the risk of colorectal cancer, while a high intake of dairy products, fruits and vegetables, foods

  17. Presence of FOXP3+Treg cells is correlated with colorectal cancer progression

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Zhengcai; Huang, Qike; Liu, Guangxin; Dang, Lili; Chu, Dake; Tao, Kaishan; Wang, Weizhong

    2014-01-01

    The transcription factor FOXP3 is specifically expressed in regulatory T (Treg) cells and appears to mediate immune surveillance. Indeed, FOXP3+Treg cells have been linked to disease pathogenesis, including some cancers. This study investigated the presence of FOXP3+Treg cells in colorectal cancer and the relationship of FOXP3 expression with clinicopathological features of colorectal cancer. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect expression of FOXP3 in 63 samples of colorectal cancer and 20...

  18. Colorectal Cancer Awareness for Women via Facebook: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittain, Kelly; Pennings Kamp, Kendra J; Salaysay, Zachary

    Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer death among U.S. women. Women report being screened for colorectal cancer less often than men, and if colorectal cancer screening guidelines were routinely followed, approximately 60% of colorectal cancer deaths could be prevented. Many colorectal cancer screening interventions have not used Facebook, which is the most popular social media site among women. Little is known about engaging women in colorectal cancer screening and risk reduction information using Facebook. The "Colorectal Cancer Screening Awareness for Women" Facebook page was created to promote colorectal cancer screening and risk reduction awareness among women. Facebook posts targeted women aged 45-64 years and highlighted colorectal cancer screening methods, guidelines, and colorectal cancer risk reduction strategies. Demographics and data about the women's interactions with the page were collected using Facebook analytics and analyzed. The majority of the 391 users of the Colorectal Cancer Screening Awareness for Women Facebook page were women aged 45-54 years (56.5%). The most "liked" posts were related to colorectal cancer risk reduction behaviors. In an effort to increase routine colorectal cancer screening and colorectal cancer risk reduction behaviors, gastroenterology nurses and practices should consider Facebook as a good method to regularly engage women in colorectal cancer screening and colorectal cancer risk reduction information.

  19. Highly sensitive, non-invasive detection of colorectal cancer mutations using single molecule, third generation sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Russo

    2015-12-01

    We present the first study that applies the high read accuracy and depth of single molecule, real time, circular consensus sequencing (SMRT-CCS to the detection of mutations in stool DNA in order to provide a non-invasive, sensitive and accurate test for CRC. In stool DNA isolated from patients diagnosed with adenocarcinoma, we are able to detect mutations at frequencies below 0.5% with no false positives. This approach establishes a foundation for a non-invasive, highly sensitive assay to screen the population for CRC and the early stage adenomas that lead to CRC.

  20. Lesion-based detection of early chemosensitivity using serial static FDG PET/CT in metastatic colorectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buvat, Irene; Necib, Hatem [IMNC UMR 8165 CNRS - Paris 7 and Paris 11 Universities, Orsay cedex (France); Garcia, Camilo; Wagner, Antoine; Vanderlinden, Bruno; Flamen, Patrick [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Nuclear Medicine Department, Institut Jules Bordet, Brussels (Belgium); Emonts, Patrick [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Radiology Department, Institut Jules Bordet, Brussels (Belgium); Hendlisz, Alain [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Digestive Oncology, Institut Jules Bordet, Brussels (Belgium)

    2012-10-15

    Medical oncology needs early identification of patients that are not responding to systemic therapy. {sup 18}F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) performed before and early during treatment has been proposed for this purpose. However, the best way to assess the change in FDG uptake between two scans has not been identified. We studied cutoff thresholds to identify responding tumours as a function of the method used to measure tumour uptake. The study included 28 metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients who underwent 2 FDG PET/CT scans (baseline and at day 14 of the first course of polychemotherapy). For 78 tumour lesions, 4 standardized uptake value (SUV) indices were measured: maximum SUV (SUV{sub max}) and mean SUV in a region obtained using an isocontour (SUV{sub 40} {sub %}), with each of these SUV normalized either by the patient body weight (BW) or body surface area (BSA). The per cent change and absolute change in tumour uptake between the baseline and the early PET scans were measured based on these four indices. These changes were correlated to the RECIST 1.0-based response using contrast-enhanced CT at baseline and at 6-8 weeks on treatment. The 78 tumours were classified as non-responding (NRL, n = 58) and responding lesions (RL, n = 20). Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves characterizing the performance in NRL/RL classification using early FDG PET uptake had areas under the curve between 0.75 and 0.84, without significant difference between the indices. The cutoff threshold in FDG uptake per cent change to get a 95 % sensitivity of RL detection depended on the way uptake was measured: -14 % (specificity of 53 %) and -22 % (specificity of 64 %) for SUV{sub max} and SUV{sub 40} {sub %}, respectively. Thresholds expressed as absolute SUV decrease instead of per cent change were less sensitive to the SUV definition: an SUV decline by 1.2 yielded a sensitivity of RL detection of 95 % for SUV{sub max} and SUV{sub 40

  1. Colorectal cancer, diabetes and survival : Epidemiological insights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanders, M. M. J.; Vissers, P. A. J.; Haak, H. R.; van de Poll-Franse, L.

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) patients with pre-existing diabetes have significantly lower rates of overall survival compared with patients without diabetes. Against this backdrop, the American Diabetes Association and American Cancer Society in 2010 reviewed the scientific literature concerning diabetes

  2. [Utility of immunohistochemistry in detecting alterations of mismatch repair genes of DNA. A series of 48 cases of colorectal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziadi, Sonia; Gacem, Riath Ben; Haoues, Imen; Hachana, Mouhamed; Amara, Khaled; Trimeche, Mounir; Golli, Lamia; Mokni, Moncef; Korbi, Sadok

    2011-01-01

    Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is associated in more than 95% to a germline mutation in the genes of the mismatch repair (MMR) of DNA. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of immunohistochemistry, a simple and fast technique, in the triage of families where HNPCC is suspected. Tumor samples included in this study were from patients with resection for colorectal cancer, examined in our laboratory between 2004 and 2007. For each case, a formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue block containing tumor tissue and normal adjacent mucosa was selected. Tumor specimens were examined with immunohistochemistry for the presence of hMLH1, hMSH2, and hMSH6 proteins. Scoring of the tumor staining was performed without any knowledge of patients' family history. The loss of protein expression was noted in four patients among 48 cases tested: two cases with isolated loss of hMSH2, a case with isolated loss of hMSH6 and one case with combined loss of MSH2/MSH6. No case has shown a suppression of hMLH1 protein. Comparing the immunohistochemical results for clinical has revealed a clear correlation between loss of protein expression demonstrated by immunohistochemistry and clinical data. Indeed, three cases among the four who showed no expression of MMR proteins showed at least one clinical criterion predictive of HNPCC. In conclusion, our study support the potential utility of immunohistochemistry to identify a significant portion of colorectal tumors derived from germline mutation of MMR genes and can be used as an adjunct measure in the identification of HNPCC.

  3. Fecal Molecular Markers for Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Kanthan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite multiple screening techniques, including colonoscopy, flexible sigmoidoscopy, radiological imaging, and fecal occult blood testing, colorectal cancer remains a leading cause of death. As these techniques improve, their sensitivity to detect malignant lesions is increasing; however, detection of precursor lesions remains problematic and has generated a lack of general acceptance for their widespread usage. Early detection by an accurate, noninvasive, cost-effective, simple-to-use screening technique is central to decreasing the incidence and mortality of this disease. Recent advances in the development of molecular markers in faecal specimens are encouraging for its use as a screening tool. Genetic mutations and epigenetic alterations that result from the carcinogenetic process can be detected by coprocytobiology in the colonocytes exfoliated from the lesion into the fecal matter. These markers have shown promising sensitivity and specificity in the detection of both malignant and premalignant lesions and are gaining popularity as a noninvasive technique that is representative of the entire colon. In this paper, we summarize the genetic and epigenetic fecal molecular markers that have been identified as potential targets in the screening of colorectal cancer.

  4. Clinicopathological patterns of colorectal cancer in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missaouia, Nabiha; Jaidaine, Lilia; Ben Abdelkader, Atef; Beizig, Nadia; Anjorin, Affissath; Yaacoubi, Mohamed Tahar; Hmissa, Sihem

    2010-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer worldwide. In order to review the clinical and pathological features of colorectal cancer in Tunisia, a retrospective study was carried out on 1,443 cancer cases diagnosed in the Pathology Department, Farhet Hached University Hospital of Sousse, for a 15-year period (1993-2007). The median age was 61 years. Adenocarcinoma was the most frequent (90.9%) with moderately differentiated tumors accounting for 76.7% of cases. Only eighty patients were identified as being in early stages (0 and A) and 85.8% in advanced stages (B-D). Over time, we observed a significant decrease of stage B (p=0.02) and a significant increase of stage D (p=0.002). The tumor size was larger than 5 cm in 67.5% of cases. The large proportion of patients presented at advanced stages, compared to only 5.5% of patients at early stages, emphasizes the need to plan and develop a screening program for the early detection of this cancer and its precursor lesions in Tunisia.

  5. Fusobacterium nucleatum as a prognostic marker of colorectal cancer in a Japanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaoka, Yuko; Suehiro, Yutaka; Hashimoto, Shinichi; Hoshida, Tomomi; Fujimoto, Michiyo; Watanabe, Michiya; Imanaga, Daiki; Sakai, Kouhei; Matsumoto, Toshihiko; Nishioka, Mitsuaki; Takami, Taro; Suzuki, Nobuaki; Hazama, Shoichi; Nagano, Hiroaki; Sakaida, Isao; Yamasaki, Takahiro

    2017-08-19

    Accumulating evidence shows an overabundance of Fusobacterium nucleatum in colorectal tumor tissues. However, the correlation between the absolute copy number of F. nucleatum in colorectal cancer tissues and colorectal cancer progression is unclear from previous reports. Therefore, we performed a study to compare the abundance of F. nucleatum in colorectal tissues with clinicopathologic and molecular features of colorectal cancer. We collected 100 colorectal cancer tissues and 72 matched normal-appearing mucosal tissues. Absolute copy numbers of F. nucleatum were measured by droplet digital PCR. The detection rates of F. nucleatum were 63.9% (46/72) in normal-appearing mucosal tissues and 75.0% (75/100) in CRC tissue samples. The median copy number of F. nucleatum was 0.4/ng DNA in the normal-appearing colorectal mucosa in patients with colorectal cancer and 1.9/ng DNA in the colorectal cancer tissues (P = 0.0031). F. nucleatum copy numbers in stage IV colorectal cancer tissues were significantly higher than those in the normal-appearing mucosa in patients with colorectal cancer (P = 0.0016). The abundance of F. nucleatum in colorectal cancer tissues correlated with tumor size and KRAS mutation and was significantly associated with shorter overall survival times; this trend was notable in the patients with stage IV colorectal cancer. Focusing on normal-appearing mucosa in the patients with colorectal cancer, the F. nucleatum copy number was significantly higher in the patients with stage IV rather than stages I-III. These results suggest that determining F. nucleatum levels may help predict clinical outcomes in colorectal cancer patients. Further confirmatory studies using independent datasets are required to confirm our findings.

  6. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayyem, Reema F; Bawadi, Hiba A; Shehadah, Ihab; Agraib, Lana M; AbuMweis, Suhad S; Al-Jaberi, Tareq; Al-Nusairr, Majed; Bani-Hani, Kamal E; Heath, Dennis D

    2017-06-01

    Dietary pattern and lifestyle have been reported to be important risk factors in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the mechanism of action of dietary factors in CRC disease is unclear. The aim of this study is the examination of several dietary choices and their potential association with the risk of developing CRC. Dietary data was collected from 220 subjects who were previously diagnosed with CRC, and 281 control subjects (matched by age, gender, occupation and marital status). The data was collected between January 2010 and December 2012, using interview-based questionnaires. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the relationship between dietary choices and risk of developing colorectal cancer. Factor analysis revealed three major dietary patterns. The first pattern we identified as the "Healthy Pattern", the second was identified as "High Sugar/High Tea Pattern" and the third as "Western Pattern". In the Healthy Pattern group we found a 10.54% variation in food intake, while the intake variation was 11.64% in the Western Pattern. After adjusting for confounding factors, the Western Pattern food choice was found to be significantly associated with an increased risk of developing CRC (OR = 1.88; 95% CI = 1.12-3.16). The results for the Healthy and High-Sugar/High Tea Patterns showed a decrease, but the statistic was not significant for the risk of CRC development. The Western Pattern of dietary choice was directly associated with CRC. The association between the dietary food choice in the Healthy and High-Sugar/High Tea Patterns and colorectal cancer needs further study in our Jordanian population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  7. Estrogen and colorectal cancer incidence and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavasani, Sayeh; Chlebowski, Rowan T; Prentice, Ross L; Kato, Ikuko; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Johnson, Karen C; Young, Alicia; Rodabough, Rebecca; Hubbell, F Allan; Mahinbakht, Ali; Simon, Michael S

    2015-09-15

    The preponderance of observational studies describe an association between the use of estrogen alone and a lower incidence of colorectal cancer. In contrast, no difference in the incidence of colorectal cancer was seen in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) randomized, placebo-controlled trial with estrogen alone after a mean intervention of 7.1 years and cumulative follow-up of 13.2 years. This study extends these findings by providing detailed analyses of the effects of estrogen alone on the histology, grade, and stage of colorectal cancer, relevant subgroups, and deaths from and after colorectal cancer. The WHI study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving 10,739 postmenopausal women with prior hysterectomy. Participants were assigned to conjugated equine estrogen at 0.625 mg/d (n = 5279) or a matching placebo (n = 5409). Rates of colorectal cancer diagnoses and deaths from and after colorectal cancer were assessed throughout the study. Colorectal cancer rates in the estrogen-alone and placebo groups were comparable: 0.14% and 0.12% per year, respectively (hazard ratio [HR], 1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83-1.58; P = .43). Bowel screening examinations were comparable between the 2 groups throughout the study. The grade, stage, and location of colorectal cancer did not differ between the randomization groups. There were more colorectal cancer deaths in the estrogen-alone group (34 [0.05%] vs 24 [0.03%]; HR, 1.46, 95% CI, 0.86-2.46; P = .16), but the difference was not statistically significant. The colorectal cancer incidence was higher for participants with a history of colon polyp removal in the estrogen-alone group (0.23% vs 0.02%; HR, 13.47; nominal 95% CI, 1.76-103.0; P colorectal cancer or deaths from or after colorectal cancer. A possibly higher risk of colorectal cancer in women with prior colon polyp removal who use estrogen alone requires confirmation. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  8. Expression of COX-2 and HER-2 in colorectal cancer and their correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qi-Bing; Sun, Guo-Ping

    2015-05-28

    To detect the expression of COX-2 and HER-2 in colorectal cancer and to analyze their correlation and clinical significance. A total of 1026 colorectal cancer surgical specimens were collected from patients treated from December 2002 to December 2007 at the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University. All specimens were made into 4-μm slices. The expression of COX-2 and HER-2 were detected by immunohistochemistry using the streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase method. The correlations between COX-2 and HER-2 expression and colorectal cancer clinical features were analyzed. The positive rates of COX-2 and HER-2 expression in colorectal cancer were 77.97% (800/1026) and 46.20% (474/1026), respectively. There was a significant correlation between COX-2 and HER-2 expression in colorectal cancer (P colorectal cancer, the positive COX-2 and HER-2 expression rates were 82.80% (443/535) and 57.94% (310/535), respectively. In patients with poorly differentiated colorectal cancer, the positive expression rates were 74.49% (210/282) and 52.84% (149/282), respectively (P colorectal cancer. COX-2 and HER-2 expression had no significant correlation with sex, age, or tumor location. COX-2 and HER-2 are important markers for invasion and metastasis of colorectal cancer, and they act together to regulate the invasion and metastasis of colorectal cancer.

  9. Gene expression in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkenkamp-Demtroder, Karin; Christensen, Lise Lotte; Olesen, Sanne Harder

    2002-01-01

    Understanding molecular alterations in colorectal cancer (CRC) is needed to define new biomarkers and treatment targets. We used oligonucleotide microarrays to monitor gene expression of about 6,800 known genes and 35,000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) on five pools (four to six samples in each......' C, and clustered Dukes' D separately. Real-time PCR of 10 known genes and 5 ESTs demonstrated excellent reproducibility of the array-based findings. The most frequently altered genes belonged to functional categories of metabolism (22%), transcription and translation (11%), and cellular processes (9...

  10. Audit of the introduction of CT colonography for detection of colorectal carcinoma in a non-academic environment and its implications for the national bowel cancer screening programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, S.; Atchley, J.; Higginson, A.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To compare the sensitivity of double-contrast barium enema (DCBE) with computed tomography colonography (CTC) to determine whether CTC is superior for the detection of colorectal cancer (CRC) locally, and to compare the results to those of a national barium enema audit. Materials and methods: All patients undergoing diagnostic DCBE or CTC between January 2003 and December 2005 were identified from the picture archiving communication system (PACS). Patients with a confirmed diagnosis of CRC were identified from the local cancer registry. Patients who were not diagnosed as having CRC on imaging were assumed true negatives if they were not listed in the cancer registry by December 2007, giving a minimum of 2 years follow-up. DCBE and CTC reports of all patients with CRC were analysed, and cancer detection was considered to have occurred (positive test result) if the report stated the definite presence of CRC or possible CRC requiring further investigation. Results: 2520 DCBEs and 604 CTCs were included. Twenty-one of 33 patients with CRC were detected using DCBE (incidence 1.31%, sensitivity 63.7%). Thirty-two of 33 patients with CRC were -detected using CTC (incidence 5.46%, sensitivity 97.7%). Conclusion: CTC is more sensitive for the detection of CRC, and its introduction in a district general hospital is justified. However, there has been a consequent decline in DCBE sensitivity, which, if reflected nationally, suggests CTC is the preferential screening test for CRC

  11. Occurrence and survival of synchronous pulmonary metastases in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordholm-Carstensen, Andreas; Krarup, Peter-Martin; Jorgensen, Lars N

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the occurrence of synchronous colorectal cancer metastases (SCCM) confined to the lungs, risk factors for these metastases and their impact on survival. METHODS: In a nationwide cohort study of 26,200 patients data were prospectively entered into the Danish Colorectal Ca...... exaggeration of the treatment effect should be kept in mind. This study may serve as a reliable un-biased reference for future evaluation on detection strategies and potential therapeutic interventions....

  12. Evaluation of complement proteins as screening markers for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Line; Christensen, Ib J; Jensenius, Jens C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Lack of symptoms results in late detection and increased mortality. Inflammation, including complement activation, plays an important role in tumorigenesis. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The concentrations of nine proteins o......, M-ficolin and MAp44 in combination discriminate between CRC and patients without cancer. The markers did not have sufficient discriminatory value for CRC detection, but may prove useful for screening when combined with other markers....

  13. Genetic risk factors in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaïti-Pellié, C

    1999-12-01

    Familial risk factors are known to play an important role in colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, particularly when the relatives are affected by early-onset cancer. Part of this familial aggregation can be accounted for by inherited forms of colorectal cancer, i.e. familial adenomatous polyposis (less than 1% of all CRC) and hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (about 3%). Other genetic factors may be involved in the development of adenoma or in the transformation of adenoma into carcinoma. That the existence of polymorphisms of the adenomatous polyposis coli gene increase susceptibility to both adenomas and cancer favours this hypothesis. Interactions between environmental factors, and most of all dietary factors, and polymorphisms of carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes may also be involved. Better knowledge of these mechanisms will substantially widen the scope of colorectal cancer prevention.

  14. New cancer suppressor gene for colorectal adenocarcinoma: filamin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zi-Qiang; Shi, Jian-Wei; Wang, Xiao-Ran; Li, Zhong; Wang, Gui-Ying

    2015-02-21

    To determine the expression and significance of filamin A (FLNa) in colorectal adenocarcinoma tissue. The expression of FLNa in 46 colorectal cancer tissues and normal tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting, and its relationship with clinical parameters and prognosis was analyzed. The positive expression of FLNa in cancer tissues was lower than that in normal mucosa, and the difference was statistically significant. The expression of FLNa correlated with liver metastasis, lymph node metastasis and rectal invasion depth, regardless of sex, age, tumor location, tumor size, gross shape and histological type of colorectal carcinoma. Multivariate analysis showed that FLNa was an independent risk factor for postoperative survival of patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma. Moreover, survival analysis showed that the expression level of FLNa was closely related with survival of patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma. The results of RT-PCR and Western blotting were consistent with those of immunohistochemistry. FLNa showed low expression in colorectal adenocarcinoma, high correlation with the incidence and development of colorectal cancer, and was considered an indicator of prognosis.

  15. Pulmonary nodules and metastases in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordholm-Carstensen, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Patients with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer (CRC) are subjected to a preoperative thoraco-abdominal CT scan to determine the cancer stage. This staging is of relevance with regard to treatment and prognosis. About 20% of the patients have distant metastatic spread at the time of diagnosis, i...... is minimal. Furthermore, the current staging practice is complicated by a high number of incidental findings on the thoracic CT, so-called indeterminate pulmonary nodules (IPN). IPN can potentially represent SPCM. The purpose of this thesis was to estimate the prevalence, characteristics and clinical...... detected in 7.5% of the patients and in 37% of these cases the metastatic spread was confined to the lungs. The prevalence of SPCM increased with the implementation of thoracic CT in CRC staging. SPCM impaired survival significantly and was associated with increasing age and rectal cancer. Resection...

  16. [Colorectal cancer in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, J; Bláha, M; Malúšková, D

    2016-01-01

    High incidence of colorectal cancer in the Czech Republic is an actual and demographically significant health issue. Half of all of the patients is older than 70 years. Both surgical and non-surgical treatment options in this group of patients depend on factors that are difficult to measure only by current oncological and anesthesiological classifications (cTcNcM, ASA). The objective of this paper is to measure the impact of age on the use of various treatment modalities within the protocol and their results, and also to suggest alternative options for therapy tolerance assessment. Analysis of data over a five-year period from the NOR database prepared by the Institute of Biostatistics and Analyses, Masaryk University. In all parameters a difference was demonstrated between patients below the age of 70 and those above the age of 70 years. Older patients were disadvantaged. Only 11.2% of patients younger than 70 years were not treated, whereas 25.2% over the age of 70 years were not treated. A complex geriatric examination could improve the indication process in various treatment modalities, including surgery. colorectal cancer - elderly - treatment - geriatric assesment.

  17. Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) in colorectal cancer follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberne, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer follow-up aims to detect recurrent disease as soon as possible, since earlier detection of recurrent disease is associated with greater chances for cure. A part of follow-up is the measurement of Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) in the blood of the patient. This tumor marker is

  18. Calcium remodeling in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, Carlos; Sobradillo, Diego; Hernández-Morales, Miriam; Núñez, Lucía

    2017-06-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most frequent form of cancer and the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death in the world. Basic and clinical data indicate that aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may prevent colon cancer but mechanisms remain unknown. Aspirin metabolite salicylate and other NSAIDs may inhibit tumor cell growth acting on store-operated Ca 2+ entry (SOCE), suggesting an important role for this pathway in CRC. Consistently, SOCE is emerging as a novel player in different forms of cancer, including CRC. SOCE and store-operated currents (SOCs) are dramatically enhanced in CRC while Ca 2+ stores are partially empty in CRC cells. These features may contribute to CRC hallmarks including enhanced cell proliferation, migration, invasion and survival. At the molecular level, enhanced SOCE and depleted stores are mediated by overexpression of Orai1, Stromal interaction protein 1 (STIM1) and Transient receptor protein channel 1 (TRPC1) and downregulation of STIM2. In normal colonic cells, SOCE is mediated by Ca 2+ -release activated Ca 2+ channels made of STIM1, STIM2 and Orai1. In CRC cells, SOCE is mediated by different store-operated currents (SOCs) driven by STIM1, Orai1 and TRPC1. Loss of STIM2 contributes to depletion of Ca 2+ stores and enhanced resistance to cell death in CRC cells. Thus, SOCE is a novel key player in CRC and inhibition by salicylate and other NSAIDs may contribute to explain chemoprevention activity. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most frequent form of cancer worldwide. Recent evidence suggests that intracellular Ca 2+ remodeling may contribute to cancer hallmarks. In addition, aspirin and other NSAIDs might prevent CRC acting on remodeled Ca 2+ entry pathways. In this review, we will briefly describe 1) the players involved in intracellular Ca 2+ homeostasis with a particular emphasis on the mechanisms involved in SOCE activation and inactivation, 2) the evidence that aspirin metabolite

  19. Colorectal Cancer Metastasis to the Thymus Gland: Rare Presentation of Colorectal Cancer as Anterior Mediastinal Mass

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, H. Charles; Liu, Xiuli; Iqbal, Atif; Cunningham, Lisa A.; Tan, Sanda A.

    2017-01-01

    Despite improved screening modalities, 15–25% of newly diagnosed colorectal cancers are metastatic at the time of diagnosis. The vast majority of these cases present as hepatic metastasis; however, 22% present with concomitant extrahepatic disease. The thymus gland is an uncommon site of metastasis for any primary malignancy, particularly, colorectal cancer given its vascular and lymphatic drainage. This case report details our experience with a rare case of colorectal cancer metastasis to th...

  20. Colorectal Cancer Metastasis to the Thymus Gland: Rare Presentation of Colorectal Cancer as Anterior Mediastinal Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, H Charles; Liu, Xiuli; Iqbal, Atif; Cunningham, Lisa A; Tan, Sanda A

    2017-01-01

    Despite improved screening modalities, 15-25% of newly diagnosed colorectal cancers are metastatic at the time of diagnosis. The vast majority of these cases present as hepatic metastasis; however, 22% present with concomitant extrahepatic disease. The thymus gland is an uncommon site of metastasis for any primary malignancy, particularly, colorectal cancer given its vascular and lymphatic drainage. This case report details our experience with a rare case of colorectal cancer metastasis to the thymus gland presenting as a symptomatic mediastinal mass.

  1. Systematic review with meta-analysis: faecal occult blood tests show lower colorectal cancer detection rates in the proximal colon in colonoscopy-verified diagnostic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, H W; Tsoi, K K F; Chan, J Y C; Wong, S H; Ching, J Y L; Wong, M C S; Wu, J C Y; Chan, F K L; Sung, J J Y; Ng, S C

    2016-04-01

    The performance of faecal occult blood tests (FOBTs) to screen proximally located colorectal cancer (CRC) has produced inconsistent results. To assess in a meta-analysis, the diagnostic accuracy of FOBTs for relative detection of CRC according to anatomical location of CRC. Diagnostic studies including both symptomatic and asymptomatic cohorts assessing performance of FOBTs for CRC were searched from MEDINE and EMBASE. Primary outcome was accuracy of FOBTs according to the anatomical location of CRC. Bivariate random-effects model was used. Subgroup analyses were performed to evaluate test performance of guaiac-based FOBT (gFOBT) and immunochemical-based FOBT (iFOBT). Thirteen studies, with 17 cohorts, reporting performance of FOBT were included; a total of 26 342 patients (mean age 58.9 years; 58.1% male) underwent both colonoscopy and FOBT. Pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio and negative likelihood ratio of FOBTs for CRC detection in the proximal colon were 71.2% (95% CI 61.3-79.4%), 93.6% (95% CI 90.7-95.7%), 11.1 (95% CI 7.8-15.8) and 0.3 (95% CI 0.2-0.4) respectively. Corresponding findings for CRC detection in distal colon were 80.1% (95% CI 70.9-87.0%), 93.6% (95% CI 90.7-95.7%), 12.6 (95% CI 8.8-18.1) and 0.2 (95% CI 0.1-0.3). The area-under-curve for FOBT detection for proximal and distal CRC were 90% vs. 94% (P = 0.0143). Both gFOBT and iFOBT showed significantly lower sensitivity but comparable specificity for the detection of proximally located CRC compared with distal CRC. Faecal occult blood tests, both guaiac- and immunochemical-based, show better diagnostic performance for the relative detection of colorectal cancer in the distal colon than in the proximal bowel. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Surgical treatment of liver metastases in patients with colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, G H; Quin, J

    1993-06-15

    The incidence of colorectal cancer in the United States is increasing. Because more than half of patients with colorectal cancer have liver metastases develop, the number of patients with hepatic metastases also is increasing. Unfortunately, metastatic disease will be limited to the liver in perhaps 25% of these patients and confined to only one lobe of the liver 25% of this subgroup. Consequently, solitary or unilobar colorectal metastases are found in as few as 5% of patients with colorectal cancer. The median survival of patients with unresected hepatic metastases is approximately 10.6 months. Patients with solitary lesions or small tumor burdens may attain a median survival of 16-20 months, but 5-year survivors are extremely rare. In contrast, rates of 5-year survival average approximately 36% after resections of solitary hepatic lesions and may approach the same level in selected patients with multiple lesions. Factors that appear to adversely effect survival include detection of metastatic disease because of signs or symptoms of disease, an elevated carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level, elevated liver function tests, poorly differentiated primary lesions, lymph node-positive primary lesions, extrahepatic sites of metastases, more than four hepatic lesions, bilobar disease, a satellite pattern of metastases in the liver, positive margins of the liver resection, positive extrahepatic lymph nodes, and more than 10 units of blood transfusion during the perioperative period. Operative mortality for liver resections should remain approximately 4%, and major morbidity should be in the range of 20-30%. Modalities other than surgical resection have not improved survival in patients with colorectal hepatic metastases. Thus, when feasible, patients with metastatic colorectal cancer limited to one lobe of the liver should undergo hepatic resection. Unfortunately, only approximately 5% of patients with colorectal cancer fall into this category, so resection of hepatic

  3. Risk of colorectal cancer in juvenile polyposis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brosens, Lodewijk A. A.; van Hattem, Arnout; Hylind, Linda M.; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine; Romans, Katharine E.; Axilbund, Jennifer; Cruz-Correa, Marcia; Tersmette, Anne C.; Offerhaus, G. Johan A.; Giardiello, Francis M.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Juvenile polyposis (JP) is an autosomal-dominant syndrome characterised by the development of hamartomatous gastrointestinal polyps and is associated with colorectal cancer. However, the relative and absolute risk of colorectal malignancy in these patients is not known. METHODS: The

  4. Nutrients, foods, and colorectal cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mingyang; Garrett, Wendy S; Chan, Andrew T

    2015-05-01

    Diet has an important role in the development of colorectal cancer. In the past few decades, findings from extensive epidemiologic and experimental investigations have linked consumption of several foods and nutrients to the risk of colorectal neoplasia. Calcium, fiber, milk, and whole grains have been associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer, and red meat and processed meat have been associated with an increased risk. There is substantial evidence for the potential chemopreventive effects of vitamin D, folate, fruits, and vegetables. Nutrients and foods also may interact, as a dietary pattern, to influence colorectal cancer risk. Diet likely influences colorectal carcinogenesis through several interacting mechanisms. These include the direct effects on immune responsiveness and inflammation, and the indirect effects of overnutrition and obesity-risk factors for colorectal cancer. Emerging evidence also implicates the gut microbiota as an important effector in the relationship between diet and cancer. Dietary modification therefore has the promise of reducing colorectal cancer incidence. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Cell-Free DNA in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spindler, Karen-Lise G; Boysen, Anders K; Pallisgård, Niels

    2017-01-01

    -analysis of the prognostic value of total cfDNA in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) treated with chemotherapy. In addition, we report on the overall performance of cfDNA as source for KRAS mutation detection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic literature search of PubMed and Embase was performed by two...... therapy. Small fragments of circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) can be measured in a simple blood sample. This report presents the first meta-analysis of the prognostic value of total cfDNA measurement in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Data from 1,076 patients confirmed that patients...... with the lowest pre-treatment levels of cfDNA had a significantly higher chance of longer survival than those with higher levels. Cell-free DNA analysis can also be used for detection of tumor-specific mutations, and hold potential as a valuable tool in colorectal cancer treatment....

  6. Detection of disseminated tumor cells in the lymph nodes of colorectal cancer patients using a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotspeich, Erkki; Schoene, Markus; Gerngross, Heinz; Schmidt, Roland; Steinmann, Reinhard; Ramadani, Marco; Gansauge, Susanne

    2007-09-01

    Postoperative treatment for colorectal cancer depends on tumor stage as defined by the International Union Against Cancer (UICC). Adjuvant chemotherapy is not recommended in patients without lymph node involvement (UICC stages I and II). As many as 20-30% of these patients, however, will develop recurrence. We conducted this study to determine the presence of disseminated tumor cells in the lymph nodes by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) for cytokeratin 20 (CK20) in an attempt to provide supplementary information compared to histopathological findings. Using a standard QRT-PCR assay, we examined primary tumors and 391 lymph nodes from 31 patients with completely resected colorectal cancer. Of the 31 primary tumors, 29 were positive for CK20 by QRT-PCR. An examination of the lymph nodes from the 29 patients with CK20-positive primary tumors revealed that 35 (92.1% sensitivity) of the 38 histopathologically positive lymph nodes and 54 (16.7%) of the 324 histopathologically negative lymph nodes were positive by molecular analysis. CK20 expression was detected in 10 (100%) of 10 patients with a histopathologically positive lymph node status (pN1). In 9 (47.4%) of 19 patients with negative histopathological results (pN0), we detected a CK20 mRNA signal in at least one lymph node. Whereas eight patients with histopathologically negative lymph nodes could be upstaged on the basis of the molecular findings, no patient would be downstaged. Our results suggest that QRT-PCR for CK20 is a useful tool for the quantitative detection of micrometastases in the regional lymph nodes. We introduce a standardized procedure that integrates a molecular diagnostic technique in the clinical staging.

  7. Pathological and Biological Aspects of Colorectal Cancer Treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosens, M.J.E.M.

    2008-01-01

    Pathological and biological aspects of colorectal cancer treatment. This thesis describes several pathological and biological aspects of colorectal cancer treatment. Different patient populations were investigated including patients with mobile rectal cancer enrolled in the Dutch TME trial, patients

  8. Colorectal (Colon) Cancer: Questions to Ask Your Doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Colorectal (Colon) Cancer Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... Cancer Home Questions to Ask Your Doctor About Colorectal Cancer Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  9. Pathological and biological aspects of colorectal cancer treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosens, Marleen Johanna Elisabeth Maria

    2008-01-01

    Pathological and biological aspects of colorectal cancer treatment. This thesis describes several pathological and biological aspects of colorectal cancer treatment. Different patient populations were investigated including patients with mobile rectal cancer enrolled in the Dutch TME trial, patients

  10. Blood test using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy with colloidal silver nanoparticle substrate to detect polyps and colorectal cancer (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenbo; Feng, Shangyuan; Tai, Isabella T.; Chen, Guannan; Chen, Rong; Zeng, Haishan

    2016-03-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common type of cancer and forth leading cause of cancer-related death. Early diagnosis is the key to long-term patient survival. Programmatic screening for the general population has shown to be cost-effective in reducing the incidence and mortality from CRC. Current CRC screening strategy relies on a broad range of test techniques such as fecal based tests and endoscopic exams. Occult blood tests like fecal immunochemical test is a cost effective way to detect CRC but have limited diagnostic values in detecting adenomatous polyp, the most treatable precursor to CRC. In the present work, we proposed the use of surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) with silver nanoparticles as substrate to analyze blood plasma for detecting both CRC and adenomatous polyps. Blood plasma samples collected from healthy subjects and patients diagnosed with adenomas and CRC were prepared with nanoparticles and measured using a real-time fiber optic probe based Raman system. The collected SERS spectra are analyzed with partial least squares-discriminant analysis. Classification of normal versus CRC plus adenomatous polyps achieved diagnostic sensitivity of 86.4% and specificity of 80%. This exploratory study suggests that blood plasma SERS analysis has potential to become a screening test for detecting both CRC and adenomas.

  11. Human monoclonal antibody 99mTc-88BV59: detection of colorectal cancer, recurrent or metastatic disease and immunogenicity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, B J; Baum, R P; Staib-Sebler, E; Lorenz, M; Niesen, A; Hör, G

    1997-01-01

    This study presents immunoscintigraphic results in 24 patients suffering from primary colorectal cancer, recurrent or metastatic disease after the injection of 1197-1351 MBq technetium-99m labelled totally human monoclonal antibody 88BV59. Labelling efficacy of 99mTc-88BV59 ranged from 97% to 99%. Immunoscintigraphy was performed 18-20 h after injection. Scintigraphic findings were compared with those of computed tomography (CT). Patients underwent surgery in order to evaluate immunoscintigraphic findings histologically. Sera of the patients (before injection and 1 and 3 months post infusion) were analysed for the presence of human anti-human antibodies (HAHA). None of the patients showed a HAHA response as assessed by a solid-phase ELISA assay. The antibody scan detected about 25% more lesions than CT. In the detection of extrahepatic disease, the sensitivity of the antibody scan proved to be 68%, whereas the sensitivity of CT was 41%.

  12. Human monoclonal antibody {sup 99m}Tc-88BV59: detection of colorectal cancer, recurrent or metastatic disease and immunogenicity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, B.J. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University Medical Center, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Baum, R.P. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University Medical Center, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Staib-Sebler, E. [Department of General and Abdominal Surgery, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University Medical Center, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Lorenz, M. [Department of General and Abdominal Surgery, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University Medical Center, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Niesen, A. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University Medical Center, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Hoer, G. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University Medical Center, Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

    1997-01-01

    This study presents immunoscintigraphic results in 24 patients suffering from primary colorectal cancer, recurrent or metastatic disease after the injection of 1197-1351 MBq technetium-99m labelled totally human monoclonal antibody 88BV59. Labelling efficacy of {sup 99m}Tc-88BV59 ranged from 97% to 99%. Immunoscintigraphy was performed 18-20 h after injection. Scintigraphic findings were compared with those of computed tomography (CT). Patients underwent surgery in order to evaluate immunoscintigraphic findings histologically. Sera of the patients (before injection and 1 and 3 months post infusion) were analysed for the presence of human anti-human antibodies (HAHA). None of the patients showed a HAHA response as assessed by a solid-phase ELISA assay. The antibody scan detected about 25% more lesions than CT. In the detection of extrahepatic disease, the sensitivity of the antibody scan proved to be 68%, whereas the sensitivity of CT was 41%. (orig.). With 3 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Human monoclonal antibody 99mTc-88BV59: detection of colorectal cancer, recurrent or metastatic disease and immunogenicity assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, B.J.; Baum, R.P.; Staib-Sebler, E.; Lorenz, M.; Niesen, A.; Hoer, G.

    1997-01-01

    This study presents immunoscintigraphic results in 24 patients suffering from primary colorectal cancer, recurrent or metastatic disease after the injection of 1197-1351 MBq technetium-99m labelled totally human monoclonal antibody 88BV59. Labelling efficacy of 99m Tc-88BV59 ranged from 97% to 99%. Immunoscintigraphy was performed 18-20 h after injection. Scintigraphic findings were compared with those of computed tomography (CT). Patients underwent surgery in order to evaluate immunoscintigraphic findings histologically. Sera of the patients (before injection and 1 and 3 months post infusion) were analysed for the presence of human anti-human antibodies (HAHA). None of the patients showed a HAHA response as assessed by a solid-phase ELISA assay. The antibody scan detected about 25% more lesions than CT. In the detection of extrahepatic disease, the sensitivity of the antibody scan proved to be 68%, whereas the sensitivity of CT was 41%. (orig.). With 3 figs., 1 tab

  14. Diet, microbiota, and colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Hakan; Tözün, Nurdan

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in the world causing nearly 500,000 deaths every year. In addition to genetic background, environmental factors including diet and lifestyle are accepted as major contributors to adenoma and CRC development. Lifestyle factors include high BMI, obesity, and reduced physical activity. Growing interest and accumulating data on human microbiota implicate that host-microbe interplay has an important role in the development of metabolic, neoplastic, and inflammatory diseases. Findings from recent studies suggest that colon cancer risk is determined by the interaction between diet and gut microbiota. Dietary changes affect gut microbiota and conversely microbiota mediates the generation of dietary factors triggering colon cancer. Identification of the microbial communities associated with carcinogenesis is of crucial importance. Nowadays, with the evolvement of culture-independent molecular techniques, it has become possible to identify main bacterial species in healthy individuals, inflammatory conditions, and CRC. Some recent studies have shown the differences in intestinal microbiota between colon cancer patients and healthy individuals. Animal studies have provided a better understanding of interaction between pathobionts and symbionts in the development of colon cancer. There is no single causative organism identified in CRC; however, there is strong evidence that reduction of protective bacteria, increase in some bacteria (ie, fusobacterium members; Bacteroides/Prevotella), and age-related changes in microbiota have an impact on adenoma or cancer development. Future studies will enable us to understand procarcinogenic and anticarcinogenic mechanisms and give insights to rational manipulation of the microbiota with prebiotics, probiotics, or dietary modifications.

  15. Colorectal cancer presenting as bone metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M C Suresh Babu

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: In this study, the patients of colorectal cancer presenting with bone metastasis were of male sex and younger age. The factors that were associated with reduced survival were extraosseous and liver involvement.

  16. Cost Analysis for Therapy of Colorectal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kocábková, Eliška

    2011-01-01

    The aim of thesis is to identify and quantify the cost for therapy of colorectal cancer. The aim is to quantify the cost of individual treatments normally used in different stages of the disease and the total cost of treatment.

  17. The stability of colorectal cancer mathematical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairudin, Nur Izzati; Abdullah, Farah Aini

    2013-04-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common types of cancer. To better understand about the kinetics of cancer growth, mathematical models are used to provide insight into the progression of this natural process which enables physicians and oncologists to determine optimal radiation and chemotherapy schedules and develop a prognosis, both of which are indispensable for treating cancer. This thesis investigates the stability of colorectal cancer mathematical models. We found that continuous saturating feedback is the best available model of colorectal cancer growth. We also performed stability analysis. The result shows that cancer progress in sequence of genetic mutations or epigenetic which lead to a very large number of cells population until become unbounded. The cell population growth initiate and its saturating feedback is overcome when mutation changes causing the net per-capita growth rate of stem or transit cells exceed critical threshold.

  18. Diverticulosis and the risk of interval colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Gregory S; Xu, Fang; Schluchter, Mark D; Koroukian, Siran M; Barnholtz Sloan, Jill S

    2014-11-01

    Diverticulosis, a prevalent condition at screening colonoscopy, has been associated with colorectal cancers that develop after a clearing colonoscopy, or interval cancers. To quantify the overall risk of diverticulosis in the development of interval cancers and examine this association in relevant subgroups. Using a linked database containing SEER tumor registry data and Medicare claims, we identified patients aged ≥69 years with colorectal cancer who underwent colonoscopy within 6 months of diagnosis. Patients with an additional colonoscopy from 36 to 6 months prior to cancer diagnosis were characterized as having interval cancers. We compared characteristics of patients with interval cancers and detected cancers according to a diagnosis of diverticulosis not associated with a colonoscopy procedure from 1991 through the date of the most recent colonoscopy in both univariate and multivariate models. A previous diagnosis of diverticulosis was documented in 14,452 (26.9 %) patients with detected cancers compared to 2,905 (69.3 %) patients with interval cancers (p diverticulosis diagnoses were without complications such as hemorrhage or diverticulitis. Diverticulosis was strongly associated with interval colorectal cancers in all segments of the colon. Given its known predominance in the left colon, the findings argue against impaired visualization of lesions at colonoscopy as the only pathogenic factor.

  19. Application of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography to detection of proximal lesions of obstructive colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Shusuke; Oguchi, Kazuhiro

    2010-01-01

    In cases of obstructive colorectal cancer (CRC), preoperative diagnosis of the proximal lesion is often difficult when the primary lesion impedes the passage of the endoscope. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in such cases. A total of 52 obstructive CRC patients who underwent preoperative FDG-PET and subsequent surgical resection were retrospectively reviewed. The correlation between characteristics of the proximal lesion and FDG-PET findings was analyzed statistically. There was a significant correlation between the proximal lesion size and the maximum standardized uptake value (P=0.00016). Abnormal FDG accumulation in the proximal colon indicated the existence of proximal cancer or adenoma with a sensitivity of 50% and a specificity of 100%. There was a significant difference in the distribution of tumor size between the cases with proximal abnormal accumulation and those with no proximal accumulation (P=0.00014). A proximal tumor of ≥8 mm can be demonstrated by an accumulation of FDG with a sensitivity of 94.1%. FDG-PET can estimate the existence of a proximal lesion and its size. Results may contribute to decisions regarding the type of surgery in cases of obstructive CRC. (author)

  20. Ranitidine as adjuvant treatment in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Moesgaard, F

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Results from short-term studies of histamine type 2 (H2) receptor antagonists on survival of patients with solid tumours are debatable. In this study the efficacy of the H2-receptor antagonist ranitidine on long-term survival of patients with colorectal cancer was evaluated. METHODS...... curative resection of colorectal cancer and who do not receive perioperative blood transfusion and do not develop postoperative infectious complications....

  1. COLORECTAL CANCER IN YOUNG INDIVIDUALS: AN OBSERVATIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Shanthilal

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer which can be detected early by implementation of cancer screening. This has led to decline in colorectal cancer related morbidity and mortality in elderly patients. However, there is increase in the incidence of this cancer in young individuals. This study was undertaken to study the characteristics of young colorectal cancer patients. METHODS AND MATERIALS The study was conducted from 2014 to 2016. All colorectal cancer patients attending the Department of Oncology, who were less than or equal to 50 years of age were included. Patients’ demographic data as well as data regarding the colorectal cancer was collected. The data was entered into MS Excel worksheet and analysed using descriptive statistics. RESULTS This study included 28 patients with a median age of 40 years and equal sex distribution. History of smoking in 85.7% (12/14 and alcohol (moderate consumption in 64% (9/14 was present in male patients. There was no history of alcohol or smoking was present among female patients. However, tobacco chewing habit was present in 28% (4/14 of female patients. History of multiple sexual partners in 14% (4/28 of cases and 78% (22/28 were non-vegetarians. Nearly 85% (24/28 of patients presented with an advanced stage disease. The analysis showed involvement of left side of colon in 50% (14/28, rectum in 39% (11/28 and right side of colon in 11%(3/28. Except for two patients who were in stage - 1, all other patients received chemotherapy. CONCLUSION The incidence of colorectal cancer in young individuals is constantly rising. The reason for this increase is unclear and the relative contributions of genetic versus environmental factors remain relatively unexplored.

  2. Real-time PCR-based method for the rapid detection of extended RAS mutations using bridged nucleic acids in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Takao; Mizuno, Yukie; Kaizaki, Yasuharu

    2017-10-27

    Mutations in RAS and BRAF are predictors of the efficacy of anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) therapy in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Therefore, simple, rapid, cost-effective methods to detect these mutations in the clinical setting are greatly needed. In the present study, we evaluated BNA Real-time PCR Mutation Detection Kit Extended RAS (BNA Real-time PCR), a real-time PCR method that uses bridged nucleic acid clamping technology to rapidly detect mutations in RAS exons 2-4 and BRAF exon 15. Genomic DNA was extracted from 54 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples obtained from mCRC patients. Among the 54 FFPE samples, BNA Real-time PCR detected 21 RAS mutations (38.9%) and 5 BRAF mutations (9.3%), and the reference assay (KRAS Mutation Detection Kit and MEBGEN™ RASKET KIT) detected 22 RAS mutations (40.7%). The concordance rate of detected RAS mutations between the BNA Real-time PCR assay and the reference assays was 98.2% (53/54). The BNA Real-time PCR assay proved to be a more simple, rapid, and cost-effective method for detecting KRAS and RAS mutations compared with existing assays. These findings suggest that BNA Real-time PCR is a valuable tool for predicting the efficacy of early anti-EGFR therapy in mCRC patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Atrial fibrillation and survival in colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Timothy A

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Survival in colorectal cancer may correlate with the degree of systemic inflammatory response to the tumour. Atrial fibrillation may be regarded as an inflammatory complication. We aimed to determine if atrial fibrillation is a prognostic factor in colorectal cancer. Patients and methods A prospective colorectal cancer patient database was cross-referenced with the hospital clinical-coding database to identify patients who had underwent colorectal cancer surgery and were in atrial fibrillation pre- or postoperatively. Results A total of 175 patients underwent surgery for colorectal cancer over a two-year period. Of these, 13 patients had atrial fibrillation pre- or postoperatively. Atrial fibrillation correlated with worse two-year survival (p = 0.04; log-rank test. However, in a Cox regression analysis, atrial fibrillation was not significantly associated with survival. Conclusion The presence or development of atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer is associated with worse overall survival, however it was not found to be an independent factor in multivariate analysis.

  4. Profile of colorectal cancer in Eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Snigdha; Mukherjee, Ramanuj; Paira, Susil Kumar; Roy, Bipradas; Banerjee, Shubhabrata; Mukherjee, Saibal Kumar

    2012-12-01

    Although colorectal cancer is a major cause of concern in the western population, recent studies are showing the incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer to be rapidly rising in Asia. The present study is an insight into the epidemiological profile of colorectal cancer of a representative Eastern Indian population. Over a period of three years, all histologically proved patients with colorectal cancer were assessed for age, sex, body mass index, dietary habits, socioeconomic status and stage of disease. Of a total of 168 patients male to female ratio was 1.7:1.The mean age of presentation was 47.01 years. Although colorectal cancer has been known as a disease of sedentary obese men, 41.66% of the patients were from a low socioeconomic rural set-up and 40.47% were involved in heavy physical labour with only 15% of being obese; 62% patients were harbouring a locally advanced disease at the time of presentation. The epidemiological pattern of colorectal cancer in India is different from that of the west as regards to earlier age of presentation, prevalence in low socio economic class with low fat diet and scanty meat intake.

  5. Epigenetic prognostic biomarkers in colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benard, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common diagnosed cancers worldwide, and is the second most important cause of cancer mortality in Europe. The current TNM staging system used at the time of diagnosis is insufficient, as patients with the same tumor stage show wide variations in survival and

  6. Gynecologic screening in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijcken, FEM; Mourits, MJE; Kleibeuker, JH; Hollema, H; van der Zee, AGJ

    2003-01-01

    Objective. In hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), women with a mismatch repair (MMR) gene mutation have a cumulative lifetime risk of 25-50% for endometrial cancer and 8-12% for ovarian cancer. Therefore, female members of HNPCC families are offered an annual gynecologic and

  7. Hereditary Colorectal Cancer : Genetics and Screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brosens, Lodewijk A A; Offerhaus, G. Johan A; Giardiello, Francis M.

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer and the third leading cause of cancer death in men and women in the United States. About 30% of patients with CRC report a family history of CRC. However, only 5% of CRCs arise in the setting of a well-established mendelian inherited disorder.

  8. NRASQ61R immunohistochemistry detects both NRASQ61R and KRASQ61R mutations in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhuang, Jie-Yang; Yuan, Chang-Tsu; Lin, Yu-Lin; Cheng, Mei-Ling; Liau, Jau-Yu; Tsai, Jia-Huei

    2017-06-01

    The NRASQ61R monoclonal antibody (clone sp174) is a mutation-specific antibody that is increasingly being used to detect the NRAS Q61R mutation in melanomas. This antibody has been reported to be highly correlated with the NRAS Q61R mutation status in melanomas and follicular neoplasms of the thyroid gland. However, its utility in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) has remained largely unknown. In this study, we assessed the sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic utility of NRASQ61R immunohistochemistry in a cohort consisting of tissue sections of 113 CRCs, which were molecularly profiled for the KRAS, NRAS, and BRAF mutations. Five CRCs tested positive for NRASQ61R immunohistochemistry. Four of these CRCs exhibited the NRAS Q61R mutation and one exhibited the KRAS Q61R mutation. All of the other 108 colorectal carcinomas lacking the NRAS Q61R or KRAS Q61R mutation tested negative for NRASQ61R immunohistochemistry. In the positively stained cases, we observed a diffuse staining pattern in >90% of the tumour cells with a moderate-to-strong intensity. By contrast, the staining was essentially entirely negative in cases negative for the NRAS Q61R or KRAS Q61R mutations. We concluded that although it cross-reacts with the mutant KRAS Q61R protein, the NRASQ61R antibody is a useful diagnostic tool that assists in the molecular testing of CRCs and facilitates patient management. Copyright © 2017 Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Clinical and molecular analysis of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer in Chinese colorectal cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jun; Luo, Mao-Hong; Zhang, Zuo-Xing; Zhang, Pei-Da; Jiang, Xi-Li; Ma, Dong-Wang; Suo, Rong-Zeng; Zhao, Li-Zhong; Qi, Qing-Hui

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the frequency of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) in Chinese colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, and to discuss the value of microsatellite instability (MSI) and/or immunohistochemistry (IHC) for MSH2/MLH1 protein analysis as pre-screening tests in China.

  10. Survival of MUTYH-associated polyposis patients with colorectal cancer and matched control colorectal cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Nielsen (Maartje); L.N. van Steenbergen (Liza); N. Jones (Natalie); S. Vogt (Stefanie); H.F. Vasen (Hans); H. Morreau (Hans); S. Aretz (Stefan); J. Sampson (Julian); O.M. Dekkers (Olaf); M.L.G. Janssen-Heijnen (Maryska); F.J. Hes (Frederik)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground MUTYH-associated polyposis is a recessively inherited disorder characterized by a lifetime risk of colorectal cancer that is up to 100%. Because specific histological and molecular genetic features of MUTYH-associated polyposis colorectal cancers might influence tumor behavior

  11. Lung Cancer Risk Following Detection of Pulmonary Scarring by Chest Radiography in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ying-Ying; Pinsky, Paul F.; Caporaso, Neil E.; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Baumgarten, Mona; Langenberg, Patricia; Furuno, Jon P.; Lan, Qing; Engels, Eric A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Fibrotic scars are frequently found in proximity to lung cancer at the time of cancer diagnosis. However, the nature of the relationship between pulmonary scarring and lung cancer remains uncertain. Our objective was to test whether localized pulmonary scarring is associated with increased lung cancer risk. Methods Cohort analysis of data from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. We included 66 863 cancer-free trial participants aged 55 to 74 years, who received a baseline chest radiographic examination and were followed up subsequently for up to 12 years. We used proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for lung cancer associated with scarring, adjusting for age, sex, race, and cigarette smoking, and in relation to laterality of scarring. The main outcome measure was incident lung cancer. Results Scarring was present on the baseline chest radiograph for 5041 subjects (7.5%). Scarring was associated with elevated lung cancer risk (809 lung cancer cases [HR, 1.5; 95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.2-1.8]). This association was specific for cancer in the lung ipsilateral to the scar (HR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.4-2.4) and absent for contralateral cancer (HR, 0.9; 95% CI, 0.7-1.2). Ipsilateral lung cancer risk was elevated throughout the follow-up period (interval-specific HRs, 1.6, 2.0, 2.1, and 1.7 during 0.01-2.00, 2.01-4.00, 4.01-6.00, and 6.01-12.00 years after baseline chest radiography, respectively). Conclusions The relationship between pulmonary scarring and lung cancer was specific to the same lung and extended over time. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that localized inflammatory processes associated with scarring promote the subsequent development of lung cancer. PMID:19029496

  12. Colorectal Cancer - What You Need to Know

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-07-05

    This podcast is based on the July, 2011 CDC Vital Signs report. Colorectal cancer kills about 50,000 men and women every year. Screening can save lives! Screening can find abnormal growths so they can be removed before turning into cancer, and can find the cancer early, when it's easiest to treat. If you're over 50, talk to your doctor about getting screened for colorectal cancer.  Created: 7/5/2011 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 7/5/2011.

  13. Worldwide burden of colorectal cancer: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favoriti, Pasqualino; Carbone, Gabriele; Greco, Marco; Pirozzi, Felice; Pirozzi, Raffaele Emmanuele Maria; Corcione, Francesco

    2016-03-01

    Colorectal cancer is a major public health problem, being the third most commonly diagnosed cancer and the fourth cause of cancer death worldwide. There is wide variation over time among the different geographic areas due to variable exposure to risk factors, introduction and uptake of screening as well as access to appropriate treatment services. Indeed, a large proportion of the disparities may be attributed to socioeconomic status. Although colorectal cancer continues to be a disease of the developed world, incidence rates have been rising in developing countries. Moreover, the global burden is expected to further increase due to the growth and aging of the population and because of the adoption of westernized behaviors and lifestyle. Colorectal cancer screening has been proven to greatly reduce mortality rates that have declined in many longstanding as well as newly economically developed countries. Statistics on colorectal cancer occurrence are essential to develop targeted strategies that could alleviate the burden of the disease. The aim of this paper is to provide a review of incidence, mortality and survival rates for colorectal cancer as well as their geographic variations and temporal trends.

  14. Major improvement in the detection of microsatellite instability in colorectal cancer using HSP110 T17 E-ice-COLD-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    How-Kit, Alexandre; Daunay, Antoine; Buhard, Olivier; Meiller, Clément; Sahbatou, Mourad; Collura, Ada; Duval, Alex; Deleuze, Jean-François

    2018-03-01

    Every colorectal cancer (CRC) patient should be tested for microsatellite instability (MSI) to screen for Lynch syndrome. Evaluation of MSI status involves screening tumor DNA for the presence of somatic deletions in DNA repeats using PCR followed by fragment analysis. While this method may lack sensitivity due to the presence of a high level of germline DNA, which frequently contaminates the core of primary colon tumors, no other method developed to date is capable of modifying the standard PCR protocol to achieve improvement of MSI detection. Here, we describe a new approach developed for the ultra-sensitive detection of MSI in CRC based on E-ice-COLD-PCR, using HSP110 T17, a mononucleotide DNA repeat previously proposed as an optimal marker to detect MSI in tumor DNA, and an oligo(dT) 16 LNA blocker probe complementary to wild-type genotypes. The HT17 E-ice-COLD-PCR assay improved MSI detection by 20-200-fold compared with standard PCR using HT17 alone. It presents an analytical sensitivity of 0.1%-0.05% of mutant alleles in wild-type background, thus greatly improving MSI detection in CRC samples highly contaminated with normal DNA. HT17 E-ice-COLD-PCR is a rapid, cost-effective, easy-to-implement, and highly sensitive method, which could significantly improve the detection of MSI in routine clinical testing. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. GYNECOLOGICAL STATUS OF PATIENTS WITH COLORECTAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Solodky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to identify risk factors for colorectal cancer on the basis of retrospective analysis of gynecological history and status of 183 patients with colon adenocarcinoma treated at the Russian X-Ray Radiology Research Center between 1996 and 2011. Evaluation of gynecological status was based on findings  of gynecological, transvaginal and ultrasound examinations of the genitals, as well as on cytological cervical screening and colposcopy. Hysteroscopy and separate diagnostic curettage were performed if necessary. Gynecological status of patients with colorectal cancer was characterized by ovarian hypofunction and high incidence of benign non-inflammatory (78.1 % and inflammatory (88.0 % disorders of genital tract. In most cases (63.9 % polyneoplasia in patients with colorectal cancer combined with breast, endometrial and ovarian cancers. Considering younger age of the onset of benign disease of the genital tract, this group of patients should be followed up carefully for the development of colon cancer.

  16. FDG PET/CT Is Superior to Enhanced CT in Detecting Recurrent Subcentimeter Lesions in the Abdominopelvic Cavity in Colorectal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hai Jeon; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National Univ. Bundang Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Jin [Asan Medical Center, Univ. of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    This study aims to compare the performance of contrast enhanced computed tomography (CeCT) and 18 F fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) in detecting small tumor implants and metastatic lymph nodes (LNs) in the abdominopelvic cavity in patients with colorectal cancer. We enrolled 16 patients who were clinically suspected of experiencing a recurrences (6 male, 10 female; mean age 61{+-}14 years). All subjects underwent CeCT and PET/CT, and the performance of these methods was compared with regard to detecting recurrences. The final diagnosis of a recurrence was made clinically. CeCT identified 38 lesions in 12 patients, all of which were detected by PET/CT. PET/CT found 27 additional lesions in 8 patients, comprising 9 seeding nodules (2 in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen and 7 in the pelvic cavity) and 18 LNs (2 celiac, 2 paraaortic, 2 hepatic hilar, 11 common iliac, 1 external iliac). Most additional lesions were located in the pelvic cavity (approximately 78% of seeding nodules that were detected solely by PET/CT was significantly higher compared with the CeCT and PET/CT confirmed nodules (5.5{+-}4.2 vs. 2.9{+-}2.5, p=0.03). The seeding nodules that were detected only by PET/CT were significantly smaller than the CeCT and PET/CT confirmed nodules (long axis:1.0{+-}0.3cm vs. 2.0{+-}1.1cm, p=0.001; short axis: 0.8{+-}0.3cm vs. 1.7{+-}0.9cm, p=0.001). Similarly, PET/CT only detected LNs were significantly smaller than CeCT and PET/CT identified LNs (0.7{+-}0.1cm vs. 2.3{+-}1.2cm, p<0.0001). PET/CT is superior to CeCT in detecting seeding nodules and metastatic LNs in patients with recurrent colorectal cancer. Specifically, PET/CT detects subcentimeter lesions in anatomically deformed pelvic cavities.

  17. Epigenetics and Colorectal Cancer Pathogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardhan, Kankana; Liu, Kebin

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) develops through a multistage process that results from the progressive accumulation of genetic mutations, and frequently as a result of mutations in the Wnt signaling pathway. However, it has become evident over the past two decades that epigenetic alterations of the chromatin, particularly the chromatin components in the promoter regions of tumor suppressors and oncogenes, play key roles in CRC pathogenesis. Epigenetic regulation is organized at multiple levels, involving primarily DNA methylation and selective histone modifications in cancer cells. Assessment of the CRC epigenome has revealed that virtually all CRCs have aberrantly methylated genes and that the average CRC methylome has thousands of abnormally methylated genes. Although relatively less is known about the patterns of specific histone modifications in CRC, selective histone modifications and resultant chromatin conformation have been shown to act, in concert with DNA methylation, to regulate gene expression to mediate CRC pathogenesis. Moreover, it is now clear that not only DNA methylation but also histone modifications are reversible processes. The increased understanding of epigenetic regulation of gene expression in the context of CRC pathogenesis has led to development of epigenetic biomarkers for CRC diagnosis and epigenetic drugs for CRC therapy

  18. Epigenetics and Colorectal Cancer Pathogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardhan, Kankana; Liu, Kebin, E-mail: Kliu@gru.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical College of Georgia, and Cancer Center, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, GA 30912 (United States)

    2013-06-05

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) develops through a multistage process that results from the progressive accumulation of genetic mutations, and frequently as a result of mutations in the Wnt signaling pathway. However, it has become evident over the past two decades that epigenetic alterations of the chromatin, particularly the chromatin components in the promoter regions of tumor suppressors and oncogenes, play key roles in CRC pathogenesis. Epigenetic regulation is organized at multiple levels, involving primarily DNA methylation and selective histone modifications in cancer cells. Assessment of the CRC epigenome has revealed that virtually all CRCs have aberrantly methylated genes and that the average CRC methylome has thousands of abnormally methylated genes. Although relatively less is known about the patterns of specific histone modifications in CRC, selective histone modifications and resultant chromatin conformation have been shown to act, in concert with DNA methylation, to regulate gene expression to mediate CRC pathogenesis. Moreover, it is now clear that not only DNA methylation but also histone modifications are reversible processes. The increased understanding of epigenetic regulation of gene expression in the context of CRC pathogenesis has led to development of epigenetic biomarkers for CRC diagnosis and epigenetic drugs for CRC therapy.

  19. Colorectal Cancer Screening: A Circle of Health for Alaskans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the colon and rectum is often called colorectal cancer. But in this brochure we use the term ... tests can be used to find polyps or colorectal cancer. Each can be used alone. Sometimes they are ...

  20. Primary and Secondary Prevention of Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro J. Tárraga López

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Cancer is a worldwide problem as it will affect one in three men and one in four women during their lifetime. Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most frequent cancer in men, after lung and prostate cancer, and is the second most frequent cancer in women after breast cancer. It is also the third cause of death in men and women separately, and is the second most frequent cause of death by cancer if both genders are considered together. CRC represents approximately 10% of deaths by cancer. Modifiable risk factors of CRC include smoking, physical inactivity, being overweight and obesity, eating processed meat, and drinking alcohol excessively. CRC screening programs are possible only in economically developed countries. However, attention should be paid in the future to geographical areas with ageing populations and a western lifestyle. 19 , 20 Sigmoidoscopy screening done with people aged 55-64 years has been demonstrated to reduce the incidence of CRC by 33% and mortality by CRC by 43%. Objective To assess the effect on the incidence and mortality of CRC diet and lifestyle and to determine the effect of secondary prevention through early diagnosis of CRC. Methodology A comprehensive search of Medline and Pubmed articles related to primary and secondary prevention of CRC and subsequently, a meta-analysis of the same blocks are performed. Results 225 articles related to primary or secondary prevention of CRC were retrieved. Of these 145 were considered valid on meta-analysis: 12 on epidemiology, 56 on diet and lifestyle, and over 77 different screenings for early detection of CRC. Cancer is a worldwide problem as it will affect one in three men and one in four women during their lifetime. There is no doubt whatsoever which environmental factors, probably diet, may account for these cancer rates. Excessive alcohol consumption and cholesterol-rich diet are associated with a high risk of colon cancer. A diet poor in folic acid and vitamin

  1. [Screening and prevention of colorectal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faivre, Jean; Manfredi, Sylvain

    2015-06-01

    Population-based studies have shown that guaiac faecal occult blood testing followed by colonoscopy in case of positivity can reduce colorectal cancer mortality. However attention has been given for alternative tests in particular to immunochemical faecal occult blood tests. It is now clear from available data that immunochemical tests outperform guaiac tests. They should be preferred for CRC screening. The one sample strategy has been adopted in most screening programmes. Given the superior performance characteristics of immunochemical, it is reasonable to assume that an organized programme using this type of test would lead to a greater reduction in colorectal cancer mortality and possibly of colorectal cancer incidence. Epidemiological studies allow us to define subjects at very high risk (genetic origin) and high risk for colorectal cancer. Colonoscopy screening is recommended in first degree relatives of patients with colorectal cancer or large adenoma diagnosed before 60 years or with two affected first-degree relatives, in subjects with an extended inflammatory bowel disease, or with a personal history of large bowel cancer or large adenoma.

  2. Intraoperative Ultrasound as a Screening Modality for the Detection of Liver Metastases during Resection of Primary Colorectal Cancer - A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellebæk, Signe Bremholm; Fristrup, Claus Wilki; Mortensen, Michael Bau

    2017-04-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancer diseases worldwide. One in 4 patients with CRC will have a disseminated disease at the time of diagnosis and often in the form of synchronous liver metastases. Studies suggest that up to 30% of patients have non-recognized hepatic metastases during primary surgery for CRC. Intraoperative ultrasonography examination (IOUS) of the liver to detect liver metastases was considered the gold standard during open CRC surgery. Today laparoscopic surgery is the standard procedure, but laparoscopic ultrasound examination (LUS) is not performed routinely. Aim To perform a systematic review of the test performance of IOUS and LUS regarding the detection of synchronous liver metastases in patients undergoing surgery for primary CRC. Method The literature was systematically reviewed using the search engines: PubMed, Cochrane, Embase and Google. 21 studies were included in the review and the key words: intraoperative ultrasound, laparoscopic ultrasound, staging colon and rectum cancer. Results Intraoperative ultrasound showed a higher sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and overall accuracy for the detection liver metastases during surgery for primary CRC, compared to preoperative imaging modalities (ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CE-CT)). LUS showed a higher detection rate for liver metastases compared to CT, CE-CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Conclusion This systematic review found that both IOUS and LUS had a higher detection rate regarding liver metastases during primary CRC surgery, especially liver metastases<10 mm in diameter, when compared to US, CT, CE-CT and MRI.

  3. [Colorectal cancer (CCR): genetic and molecular alterations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-Vázquez, Clara Ibet; Rosales-Reynoso, Mónica Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this review is to present a genetic and molecular overview of colorectal carcinogenesis (sporadic and hereditary origin) as a multistage process, where there are a number of molecular mechanisms associated with the development of colorectal cancer and genomic instability that allows the accumulation of mutations in proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, chromosomal instability, and methylation and microsatellite instability, and the involvement of altered expression of microRNAs' prognosis factors.

  4. Ziv-aflibercept in metastatic colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel A

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Anuj Patel, Weijing Sun Division of Hematology-Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA Abstract: The combination of cytotoxic chemotherapy and antiangiogenic agents has become a conventional treatment option for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Ziv-aflibercept is a fusion protein which acts as a decoy receptor for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A, VEGF-B, and placental growth factor (PlGF; it was approved in combination with 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, and irinotecan (FOLFIRI for the treatment of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer that is resistant to or has progressed after an oxaliplatin-containing fluoropyrimidine-based regimen. Herein we review the role of tumor angiogenesis as the rationale for antiangiogenic therapy, the clinical data associated with ziv-aflibercept, and its current role as a treatment option compared to other antiangiogenic agents, such as bevacizumab and regorafenib. Keywords: aflibercept, angiogenesis, colorectal cancer

  5. How Many Diseases Are Colorectal Cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Greystoke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of personalised therapy and mechanism-targeted agents in oncology mandates the identification of the patient populations most likely to benefit from therapy. This paper discusses the increasing evidence as to the heterogeneity of the group of diseases called colorectal cancer. Differences in the aetiology and epidemiology of proximal and distal cancers are reflected in different clinical behaviour, histopathology, and molecular characteristics of these tumours. This may impact response both to standard cytotoxic therapies and mechanism-targeted agents. This disease heterogeneity leads to challenges in the design of clinical trials to assess novel therapies in the treatment of “colorectal cancer.”

  6. Screening for colorectal cancer: what fits best?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lee, Chun Seng

    2012-06-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening has been shown to be effective in reducing CRC incidence and mortality. There are currently a number of screening modalities available for implementation into a population-based CRC screening program. Each screening method offers different strengths but also possesses its own limitations as a population-based screening strategy. We review the current evidence base for accepted CRC screening tools and evaluate their merits alongside their challenges in fulfilling their role in the detection of CRC. We also aim to provide an outlook on the demands of a low-risk population-based CRC screening program with a view to providing insight as to which modality would best suit current and future needs.

  7. Tissue detection of natural killer cells in colorectal adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patsouris Efstratios S

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Natural killer (NK cells represent a first line of defence against a developing cancer; however, their exact role in colorectal cancer remains undetermined. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression of CD16 and CD57 [immunohistochemical markers of natural NK cells] in colorectal adenocarcinoma. Methods Presence of NK cells was investigated in 82 colorectal adenocarcinomas. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed, using 2 monoclonal antibodies (anti-Fc Gamma Receptor II, CD16 and an equivalent to Leu-7, specific for CD-57. The number of immunopositive cells (% was evaluated by image analysis. The cases were characterized according to: patient gender and age, tumor location, size, grade, bowel wall invasion, lymph node metastases and Dukes' stage. Results NK cells were detected in 79/82 cases at the primary tumor site, 27/33 metastatic lymph nodes and 3/4 hepatic metastases; they were detected in levels similar to those reported in the literature, but their presence was not correlated to the clinical or pathological characteristics of the series, except for a negative association with the patients' age (p = 0.031. Conclusions Our data do not support an association of NK cell tissue presence with clinical or pathological variables of colorectal adenocarcinoma, except for a negative association with the patients' age; this might possibly be attributed to decreased adhesion molecule expression in older ages.

  8. Blood transfusions and prognosis in colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busch, O. R.; Hop, W. C.; Hoynck van Papendrecht, M. A.; Marquet, R. L.; Jeekel, J.

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Blood transfusions may adversely affect the prognosis of patients treated surgically for cancer, although definite proof of this adverse effect has not been reported. METHODS: We carried out a randomized trial to investigate whether the prognosis in patients with colorectal cancer would

  9. Colorectal cancer screening: World Gastroenterology Organisation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Colorectal cancer screening: World Gastroenterology Organisation/International Digestive Cancer Alliance Practice Guidelines. S Winawer, M Classen, R Lambert, M Fried, P Dite, K L Goh, F Guarner, D Lieberman, R Eliakim, B Levin, R Saenz, A G Khan, I Khalif, A Lanas, G Lindberg, M J O'Brien, G Young, J Krabshuis ...

  10. Analysis of mitochondrial ND1 gene in human colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoureh Akouchekian

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: Results showed that a high frequency of somatic alterations of mtDNA occurs during the carcinogenesis and/or the progression of colorectal cancer. Based on the mtDNA mutation pattern observed in this study and other pre-viously studies it is believed that looking for somatic mutations in mtDNA would be one of the diagnostic values in early detection of cancer.

  11. Detection and classification of focal liver lesions in patients with colorectal cancer: Retrospective comparison of diffusion-weighted MR imaging and multi-slice CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiber, Matthias; Fingerle, Alexander A.; Brügel, Melanie; Gaa, Jochen; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Holzapfel, Konstantin

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the diagnostic performance of diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) with multi-slice CT (MS-CT) in the detection and classification of focal liver lesions in patients with colorectal cancer. Methods: In a retrospective study 68 patients who underwent DWI at 1.5 T (b-values of 50, 300 and 600 s/mm 2 ) and contrast-enhanced MS-CT were analysed by two radiologists blinded to the clinical results. Imaging results were correlated with intraoperative surgical and ultrasound findings (n = 24), imaging follow-up or PET (n = 44). Sensitivity of DWI and MS-CT in detection of focal liver lesions was compared on a per-lesion and a per-segment basis. Receiver operator-characteristic (ROC) curves to determine the diagnostic performance and the sensitivities of correctly identifying liver metastases on a segmental base were calculated. Results: For lesion detection, DWI was significantly superior to MS-CT both on a per-lesion (difference in sensitivities for reader 1 and 2 22.65% and 19.06%, p < 0.0001) and a per-segment basis (16.86% and 11.76%, p < 0.0001). Especially lesions smaller than 10 mm were better detected with DWI compared to MS-CT (difference 41.10% and 29.45%, p < 0.0001). ROC-analysis showed superiority for lesions classification (p < 0.0001) of DWI (AUC: 0.949 and 0.951) as compared to MS-CT (AUC: 0.879 and 0.892, p < 0.0001 and p = 0.005). DWI was able to filter out metastatic segments with a higher sensitivity (88.2 and 86.5%) compared to MS-CT (68.0 and 67.4%, p < 0.0001 and p = 0.005, respectively). Conclusion: Compared to MS-CT DWI is both more sensitive in the detection of liver lesions and more accurate in determining the extent of metastatic disease in patients with colorectal cancer and therefore might help to optimize therapeutic management in those patients.

  12. Radiological and clinical evaluation of colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, O. J.; Chin, S. Y.; Lee, K. S.; Park, S. S.

    1982-01-01

    One hundred thirty two cases of the pathologically proven colorectal cancer at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute Hospital in the period from January 1973 to June 1980 were analyzed radiologically and clinically. The results were as follows: 1. The colorectal cancer was prevalent in rectosigmoid area and in the fourth to seventh decade of life. 2. The clinical pictures were classified into two groups. The one was rectosigmoid cancer with bowel habit changes. The other was one with no specific symptoms or signs. The clinical pictures of the right colon cancer were rather indirected, chronic and systemic than those of the left one. 3. The roentgenological findings were classified into two groups. The one was rectum and left colon cancer with symmetrical annular narrowing and the other showed trumpet-like proximal dilatation. 4. The most frequent complication was intestinal obstruction. 5. The majority of colorectal cancer was adenocarcinoma. The squamous cell carcinoma and atypical cell carcinoma were most prevalent in rectum, but malignantly lymphoma often occurred in right colon. The rarest colorectal cancer was atypical cell carcinoma in rectum

  13. Toward standardizing and reporting colorectal cancer screening indicators on an international level: The International Colorectal Cancer Screening Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benson, Victoria S.; Atkin, Wendy S.; Green, Jane; Nadel, Marion R.; Patnick, Julietta; Smith, Robert A.; Villain, Patricia; Patnick, J.; Atkin, W. S.; Altenhofen, L.; Ancelle-Park, R.; Benson, V. S.; Green, J.; Levin, T. R.; Moss, S. M.; Nadel, M.; Ransohoff, D.; Segnan, N.; Smith, R. A.; Villain, P.; Weller, D.; Koukari, A.; Young, G.; López-Kostner, F.; Antoljak, N.; Suchánek, S.; Zavoral, M.; Holten, I.; Malila, N.; Salines, E.; Brenner, G.; Herszényi, L.; Tulassay, Z.; Rennert, G.; Senore, C.; Zappa, M.; Zorzi, M.; Saito, H.; Leja, M.; Dekker, E.; Jansen, J.; Hol, L.; Kuipers, E.; Kaminski, M. F.; Regula, J.; Sfarti, C.; Trifan, A.; Tang, C.-L.; Hrcka, R.; Binefa, G.; Espinàs, J. A.; Peris, M.; Chen, T. H.; Steele, R.; Pou, G.; Bisges, D.; Dwyer, D.; Groves, C.; Courteau, S.; Kramer, R.; Siegenthaler, K.; Lane, D.; Herrera, C.; Rogers, J.; Rojewski, M.; Wolf, Holly; Sung, J. J.; Ling, K.; Bryant, H.; Rabeneck, L.; Dale, J.; Sware, L.; Yang, H.; Viguier, J.; Von Karsa, L.; Kupcinskas, L.; Deutekom, M.; Törnberg, S.; Austoker, J.; Beral, V.; Monk, C.; Valori, R.; Watson, J.; Kobrin, S.; Pignone, M.; Taplin, S.

    2012-01-01

    The International Colorectal Cancer Screening Network was established in 2003 to promote best practice in the delivery of organized colorectal cancer screening programs. To facilitate evaluation of such programs, we defined a set of universally applicable colorectal cancer screening measures and

  14. Colorectal Cancer Metastasis to the Thymus Gland: Rare Presentation of Colorectal Cancer as Anterior Mediastinal Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Charles Peters

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite improved screening modalities, 15–25% of newly diagnosed colorectal cancers are metastatic at the time of diagnosis. The vast majority of these cases present as hepatic metastasis; however, 22% present with concomitant extrahepatic disease. The thymus gland is an uncommon site of metastasis for any primary malignancy, particularly, colorectal cancer given its vascular and lymphatic drainage. This case report details our experience with a rare case of colorectal cancer metastasis to the thymus gland presenting as a symptomatic mediastinal mass.

  15. Sugars, sucrose and colorectal cancer risk: the Fukuoka colorectal cancer study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenjie; Uchida, Kazuhiro; Ohnaka, Keizo; Morita, Makiko; Toyomura, Kengo; Kono, Suminori; Ueki, Takashi; Tanaka, Masao; Kakeji, Yoshihiro; Maehara, Yoshihiko; Okamura, Takeshi; Ikejiri, Koji; Futami, Kitaroh; Maekawa, Takafumi; Yasunami, Yohichi; Takenaka, Kenji; Ichimiya, Hitoshi; Terasaka, Reiji

    2014-05-01

    A diet high in sugars may promote colorectal carcinogenesis, but it remains uncertain whether high intake of sugars or sucrose confers increased risk of colorectal cancer. The authors investigated the associations of sugars and sucrose intake with colorectal cancer risk in a community-based case-control study in Japan. The study subjects comprised 816 incident cases of colorectal cancer and 815 community controls. Consumption frequencies and portion sizes of 148 food and beverage items were ascertained by a computer-assisted interview. The authors used the consumption of 29 food items to estimate sugars and sucrose intake. The odds ratios of colorectal cancer risk according to intake categories were obtained using a logistic regression model with adjustment for potential confounding variables. Overall, intakes of sugars and sucrose were not related to colorectal cancer risk either in men or women. The association between sugars intake and colorectal cancer risk differed by smoking status and alcohol use in men, but not in women. In men, sugars intake tended to be associated with colorectal cancer risk inversely among never-smokers and positively among male ever-smokers (interaction p=0.01). Sugars intake was associated with an increased risk among men with no alcohol consumption, but was unrelated to the risk among male alcohol drinkers (interaction p=0.02). Body mass index did not modify the association with sugars intake in either men or women. Sugars intake was associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer among smokers and non-alcohol drinkers in men selectively.

  16. Quantitative detection of the tumor-associated antigen large external antigen in colorectal cancer tissues and cells using quantum dot probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang S

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Shuo Wang, Wanming Li, Dezheng Yuan, Jindan Song, Jin Fang Department of Cell Biology, Key Laboratory of Cell Biology, Ministry of Public Health, and Key Laboratory of Medical Cell Biology, Ministry of Education, China Medical University, Shenyang, People’s Republic of China Abstract: The large external antigen (LEA is a cell surface glycoprotein that has been proven to be highly expressed in colorectal cancer (CRC as a tumor-associated antigen. To evaluate and validate the relationship between LEA expression and clinical characteristics of CRC with high efficiency, LEA expression levels were detected in 85 tissue blocks from CRC patients by quantum dot-based immunohistochemistry (QD-IHC combined with imaging quantitative analysis using quantum dots with a 605 nm emission wavelength (QD605 conjugated to an ND-1 monoclonal antibody against LEA as a probe. Conventional IHC was performed in parallel for comparison. Both QD-IHC and conventional IHC showed that LEA was specifically expressed in CRC, but not in non-CRC tissues, and high LEA expression was significantly associated with a more advanced T-stage (P<0.05, indicating that LEA is likely to serve as a CRC prognostic marker. Compared with conventional IHC, receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that QD-IHC possessed higher sensitivity, resulting in an increased positive detection rate of CRC, from 70.1% to 89.6%. In addition, a simpler operation, objective analysis of results, and excellent repeatability make QD-IHC an attractive alternative to conventional IHC in clinical practice. Furthermore, to explore whether the QD probes can be utilized to quantitatively detect living cells or single cells, quantum dot-based immunocytochemistry (QD-ICC combined with imaging quantitative analysis was developed to evaluate LEA expression in several CRC cell lines. It was demonstrated that QD-ICC could also predict the correlation between LEA expression and the T-stage characteristics of

  17. Colorectal cancer desmoplastic reaction up-regulates collagen synthesis and restricts cancer cell invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulson-Thomas, Vivien J; Coulson-Thomas, Yvette M; Gesteira, Tarsis F; de Paula, Cláudia A A; Mader, Ana M; Waisberg, Jaques; Pinhal, Maria A; Friedl, Andreas; Toma, Leny; Nader, Helena B

    2011-11-01

    During cancer cell growth many tumors exhibit various grades of desmoplasia, unorganized production of fibrous or connective tissue, composed mainly of collagen fibers and myofibroblasts. The accumulation of an extracellular matrix (ECM) surrounding tumors directly affects cancer cell proliferation, migration and spread; therefore the study of desmoplasia is of vital importance. Stromal fibroblasts surrounding tumors are activated to myofibroblasts and become the primary producers of ECM during desmoplasia. The composition, density and organization of this ECM accumulation play a major role on the influence desmoplasia has upon tumor cells. In this study, we analyzed desmoplasia in vivo in human colorectal carcinoma tissue, detecting an up-regulation of collagen I, collagen IV and collagen V in human colorectal cancer desmoplastic reaction. These components were then analyzed in vitro co-cultivating colorectal cancer cells (Caco-2 and HCT116) and fibroblasts utilizing various co-culture techniques. Our findings demonstrate that direct cell-cell contact between fibroblasts and colorectal cancer cells evokes an increase in ECM density, composed of unorganized collagens (I, III, IV and V) and proteoglycans (biglycan, fibromodulin, perlecan and versican). The desmoplastic collagen fibers were thick, with an altered orientation, as well as deposited as bundles. This increased ECM density inhibited the migration and invasion of the colorectal tumor cells in both 2D and 3D co-culture systems. Therefore this study sheds light on a possible restricting role desmoplasia could play in colorectal cancer invasion.

  18. F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography in colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joerg, L.; Langsteger, W.

    2002-01-01

    Whole-body positron emission tomography (PET) with the radiolabeled glucose analog F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18-FDG) is a sensitive diagnostic tool that images tumors based on increased uptake of glucose. Several recent publications have shown that F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography is more sensitive than computed-tomography (CT) in detecting colorectal cancer. In patients with increasing CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen) and no evidence of recurrent disease on CT F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography often detects recurrent cancer. In all, patient management seems to be changed in about 25 % of patients who undergo F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography in addition to standard staging procedure. Limited reports to date on both chemotherapy and radiotherapy support the role of F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography in assessing treatment response. Also regarding preoperative staging of primary colorectal cancer the literature is very limited. (author)

  19. Detection of disseminated tumour cells in blood and bone marrow samples of patients undergoing hepatic resection for metastasis of colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlems, F. A.; Diepstra, J. H. S.; Punt, C. J. A.; Ligtenberg, M. J. L.; Cornelissen, I. M. H. A.; van Krieken, J. H. J. M.; Wobbes, T.; van Muijen, G. N. P.; Ruers, T. J. M.

    2003-01-01

    In 50-60 per cent of patients who undergo hepatic resection for metastasis of colorectal cancer the first site of tumour recurrence is extrahepatic, indicating the presence of more extensive disease at the time of resection. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the presence of disseminated

  20. Probe-guided surgery for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, P; Lind, P; Snyder, M; Haushofer, H

    2000-01-01

    Anti-CEA-scintigraphy turned out to be very reliable in detecting primary and recurrent colorectal cancer, its overall accuracy being more than 90%. The intraoperative application of this technology should provide similar results when focussing at extrahepatic tumor deposits, for example in lymph nodes, thus allowing accurate staging of the underlying disease. To test this hypothesis we launched the following feasibility study the results of which are compared to those reported in the recent literature. We investigated 20 patients, six with rectum and 14 with colon cancer. 24 hours before surgery they were intravenously given 1 ml of a fab'-fragment-antibody to CEA, labeled with 25 mCi of 99mTc (CEA-Scan). During surgery the radioactivity in lymph glands regional to the tumors was measured and compared to the much lower activity in healthy nodes. For this we used a scintillation probe (C-Trak, Care Wise, Inc., Morgan Hill, CA). All lymph nodes of interest were then excised and submitted to frozen section pathology. In 7 out of 20 cases scintimetry led to an up-staging of the disease. In addition we found metastatic spread to lymph nodes that were basically not regional to the primary tumor (retroperitoneum, renal hilum etc.). Scintimetry can precisely identify even very small tumor deposits. So it leads to accurate staging while surgery is still ongoing. In a further step the concept of sentinel node diagnosis, which is right now being clinically evaluated, may some day be applied in colorectal surgical oncology.

  1. Highly sensitive detection of the PIK3CAH1047R mutation in colorectal cancer using a novel PCR-RFLP method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Wan-Ming; Hu, Ting-Ting; Zhou, Lin-Lin; Feng, Yi-Ming; Wang, Yun-Yi; Fang, Jin

    2016-01-01

    The PIK3CA H1047R mutation is considered to be a potential predictive biomarker for EGFR-targeted therapies. In this study, we developed a novel PCR-PFLP approach to detect the PIK3CA H1047R mutation in high effectiveness. A 126-bp fragment of PIK3CA exon-20 was amplified by PCR, digested with FspI restriction endonuclease and separated by 3 % agarose gel electrophoresis for the PCR-RFLP analysis. The mutant sequence of the PIK3CA H1047R was spiked into the corresponding wild-type sequence in decreasing ratios for sensitivity analysis. Eight-six cases of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded colorectal cancer (CRC) specimens were subjected to PCR-RFLP to evaluate the applicability of the method. The PCR-RFLP method had a capability to detect as litter as 0.4 % of mutation, and revealed 16.3 % of the PIK3CA H1047R mutation in 86 CRC tissues, which was significantly higher than that discovered by DNA sequencing (9.3 %). A positive association between the PIK3CA H1047R mutation and the patients’ age was first found, except for the negative relationship with the degree of tumor differentiation. In addition, the highly sensitive detection of a combinatorial mutation of PIK3CA, KRAS and BRAF was achieved using individual PCR-RFLP methods. We developed a sensitive, simple and rapid approach to detect the low-abundance PIK3CA H1047R mutation in real CRC specimens, providing an effective tool for guiding cancer targeted therapy

  2. Lgr5 Methylation in Cancer Stem Cell Differentiation and Prognosis-Prediction in Colorectal Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shasha Su

    Full Text Available Leucine-rich-repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 5 (lgr5 is a candidate marker for colorectal cancer stem cells (CSC. In the current study, we investigated the methylation status within thelgr5 promoter and evaluated its relationship with CSC differentiation, prognosis for colorectal cancer, and its clinicopathological features.The methylation status within Lgr5 promoter was detected with a methylation-specific PCR in six colorectal cancer cell lines as well as 169 primary colorectal tumor tissues. Differentiation of CSC was examined with immunofluorescence and immunocytochemistry. Down-regulation of lgr5 was achieved with gene-specific siRNA. The associations between lgr5 methylation and the clinicopathological features as well as survival of patients were analyzed with statistical methods.The lgr5 promoter was methylated to different degrees for the six colorectal cell lines examined, with complete methylation observed in HCT116 cells in which the lgr5 expression was partially recovered following DAC treatment. The stem-cell sphere formation from HCT116 cells was accompanied by increasing methylation within the lgr5 promoter and decreasing expression of lgr5. Knocking down lgr5 by siRNA also led to stem-cell spheres formation. Among primary colorectal tumors, 40% (67/169 were positive for lgr5 methylation, while none of the normal colon tissues were positive for lgr5 methylation. Furthermore, lgr5 methylation significantly associated with higher tumor grade, and negative distant metastasis (p < 0.05, as well as better prognosis (p = 0.001 in patients with colorectal cancer.Our data suggests that lgr5 methylation, through the regulation of lgr5 expression and colorectal CSC differentiation, may constitute a novel prognostic marker for colorectal cancer patients.

  3. HER 2/neu protein expression in colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuell, B; Gruenberger, T; Scheithauer, W; Zielinski, Ch; Wrba, F

    2006-01-01

    Conflicting data exist about the prevalence of HER-2/neu overexpression in colorectal cancer ranging from 0 to 83 %. In our study we tried to clarify the extent of expression and its relationship to clinicopathological parameters. This study involved 77 specimens of malignant colorectal cancer lesions of surgically resected patients. HER-2/neu immunohistochemistry was performed using the Hercep-Test Kit. Out of 77 specimens, 56 were Her-2/neu negative (70%), 20 (26%) showed a barely immunostaining (1+), only 1 (1%) was moderately (2+) and 2 (3%) were strongly positive (3+). Her-2/neu staining (moderately and strongly positive) was only detected in primary tumours of patients with confirmed metastases. No relationship was found between membranous HER-2 expression and patients' gender or differentiation. The median survival time of patients with positive HER-2/neu immunostaining was 21 versus 39 months in patients without HER-2/neu expression (p = 0.088). The c-erbB protein expression was observed in colorectal cancer but rarely in the therapeutic range (2+ and 3+). There was no significant association with tumour grade, gender, localization of the primary tumour or survival. These data indicate that c-erbB-2 is unlikely to play a major role in the therapeutic management of colorectal cancer

  4. An audit of colorectal cancer histopathology reports in a Tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To audit the completeness of histopathologic reports of Colorectal Cancer for prognostic information in a tertiary care hospital in the light of the minimum reporting standards for colorectal cancer resections recently proposed for use in Nigeria. Material and Methods: Twenty–five histopathology reports of colorectal ...

  5. Efficient fluorescence detection of protoporphyrin IX in metastatic lymph nodes of murine colorectal cancer stained with indigo carmine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Hisataka; Harada, Yoshinori; Minamikawa, Takeo; Kato, Yoshiyuki; Murayama, Yasutoshi; Otsuji, Eigo; Takamatsu, Tetsuro; Tanaka, Hideo

    2017-09-01

    Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), a biochemical converted from 5-aminolevulinc acid (5-ALA) in living cells, is useful for intraoperative fluorescent detection of cancer metastasis in lymph nodes (LNs). However, unknown is whether the fluorescence of PpIX can be detected in the LNs when they coexist with indigo carmine, a blue dye commonly used for identification of sentinel LNs during surgery. To address this issue, we sought to evaluate the diagnostic usefulness of PpIX fluorescence in the presence of indigo carmine in a mouse LN metastasis model of rectal cancer after administration of 5-ALA. Spectral analysis of pure chemicals revealed that the absorption spectrum of indigo carmine widely overlapped with the fluorescence spectrum of PpIX specifically at the peak of 632nm, a common emission wavelength for detecting PpIX, but not at the other peak of 700nm. Due to such spectral overlap, the PpIX fluorescence intensity was significantly attenuated by mixture with indigo carmine at 632nm, but not at 700nm. Accordingly, fluorescent measurements of the mouse metastatic LN revealed more intense presentation of PpIX at 700nm than at 632nm, indicating that the diagnostic usefulness is greater at 700nm than at 632nm for the indigo carmine-dyed LNs after administration of 5-ALA. From these observations, we propose that the fluorescence measurement is more efficient at 700nm than at 632nm for detection of PpIX in metastatic LNs stained with indigo carmine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Expression and clinical significance of ATM and PUMA gene in patients with colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Hui; Zhang, Jiangnan

    2017-12-01

    The expression of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) genes in patients with colorectal cancer were investigated, to explore the correlation between the expression of ATM and PUMA and tumor development, to evaluate the clinical significance of ATM and PUMA in the treatment of colorectal cancer. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to detect the expression of ATM and PUMA in tumor tissue and adjacent healthy tissue of 67 patients with colorectal cancer and in normal colorectal tissue of 33 patients with colorectal polyps at mRNA level. The expression level of ATM mRNA in colorectal cancer tissues was significantly higher than that in normal mucosa tissues and adjacent non-cancerous tissue (P≤0.05), while no significant differences in expression level of ATM mRNA were found between normal mucosa tissues and adjacent noncancerous tissue (P=0.07). There was a negative correlation between the expression of ATM mRNA and the degree of differentiation of colorectal cancer (r= -0.312, P=0.013), while expression level of ATM mRNA was not significantly correlated with the age, sex, tumor invasion, lymph node metastasis or clinical stage (P>0.05). Expression levels of PUMA mRNA in colorectal cancer tissues, adjacent noncancerous tissue and normal tissues were 0.68±0.07, 0.88±0.04 and 1.76±0.06, respectively. Expression level of PUMA mRNA in colorectal cancer tissues and adjacent noncancerous tissue was significantly lower than that in normal colorectal tissues (PPUMA gene in colorectal carcinoma is downregulated, and is negatively correlated with the occurrence of cancer.

  7. Colorectal cancer among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, Hirofumi; Ezaki, Haruo.

    1986-01-01

    Studies on autopsied and surgical cases of colorectal cancer in Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors have not shown a relationship to radiation. In a recent epidemiologic study made on a fixed population at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), the risk of colon cancer was found to increase significantly with increasing radiation dose in both Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and also in both males and females. The dose effect for the cities and sexes combined was especially pronounced for cancer of the sigmoid colon. The effect of radiation was found to vary by age at the time of the bomb (ATB) and the effect was remarkable among those under age 20 ATB. The risk of rectal cancer was not found to increase significantly with radiation and the distribution of histological types for cancer of either the colon or rectum was unrelated to radiation dose. The effect of A-bomb exposure on the postoperative survival rate for colorectal cancer patients was studied. No difference by radiation dose could be demonstrated. In Japan, the incidence of colorectal cancer, and of colon cancer in particular, has been increasing. Therefore, close attention should be paid to changes occurring in A-bomb survivors. (author)

  8. Colorectal cancer among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, H.; Ezaki, H.

    1986-01-01

    Studies on autopsied and surgical cases of colorectal cancer in Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors have not shown a relationship to radiation. In a recent epidemiologic study made on a fixed population at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), the risk of colon cancer was found to increase significantly with increasing radiation dose in both Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and also in both males and females. The dose effect for the cities and sexes combined was especially pronounced for cancer of the sigmoid colon. The effect of radiation was found to vary by age at the time of the bomb (ATB) and the effect was remarkable among those under age 20 ATB. The risk of rectal cancer was not found to increase significantly with radiation and the distribution of histological types for cancer of either the colon or rectum was unrelated to radiation dose. The effect of A-bomb exposure on the postoperative survival rate for colorectal cancer patients was studied. No difference by radiation dose could be demonstrated. In Japan, the incidence of colorectal cancer, and of colon cancer in particular, has been increasing. Therefore, close attention should be paid to changes occuring in A-bomb survivors

  9. Activating mutation in MET oncogene in familial colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schildkraut Joellen M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In developed countries, the lifetime risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC is 5%, and it is the second leading cause of death from cancer. The presence of family history is a well established risk factor with 25-35% of CRCs attributable to inherited and/or familial factors. The highly penetrant inherited colon cancer syndromes account for approximately 5%, leaving greater than 20% without clear genetic definition. Familial colorectal cancer has been linked to chromosome 7q31 by multiple affected relative pair studies. The MET proto-oncogene which resides in this chromosomal region is considered a candidate for genetic susceptibility. Methods MET exons were amplified by PCR from germline DNA of 148 affected sibling pairs with colorectal cancer. Amplicons with altered sequence were detected with high-resolution melt-curve analysis using a LightScanner (Idaho Technologies. Samples demonstrating alternative melt curves were sequenced. A TaqMan assay for the specific c.2975C >T change was used to confirm this mutation in a cohort of 299 colorectal cancer cases and to look for allelic amplification in tumors. Results Here we report a germline non-synonymous change in the MET proto-oncogene at amino acid position T992I (also reported as MET p.T1010I in 5.2% of a cohort of sibling pairs affected with CRC. This genetic variant was then confirmed in a second cohort of individuals diagnosed with CRC and having a first degree relative with CRC at prevalence of 4.1%. This mutation has been reported in cancer cells of multiple origins, including 2.5% of colon cancers, and in Conclusions Although the MET p.T992I genetic mutation is commonly found in somatic colorectal cancer tissues, this is the first report also implicating this MET genetic mutation as a germline inherited risk factor for familial colorectal cancer. Future studies on the cancer risks associated with this mutation and the prevalence in different at-risk populations will

  10. Family history of prostate and colorectal cancer and risk of colorectal cancer in the Women's health initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe-Dimmer, Jennifer L; Yee, Cecilia; Paskett, Electra; Schwartz, Ann G; Lane, Dorothy; Palmer, Nynikka R A; Bock, Cathryn H; Nassir, Rami; Simon, Michael S

    2017-12-13

    Evidence suggests that risk of colorectal and prostate cancer is increased among those with a family history of the same disease, particularly among first-degree relatives. However, the aggregation of colorectal and prostate cancer within families has not been well investigated. Analyses were conducted among participants of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) observational cohort, free of cancer at the baseline examination. Subjects were followed for colorectal cancer through August 31st, 2009. A Cox-proportional hazards regression modeling approach was used to estimate risk of colorectal cancer associated with a family history of prostate cancer, colorectal cancer and both cancers among first-degree relatives of all participants and stratified by race (African American vs. White). Of 75,999 eligible participants, there were 1122 colorectal cancer cases diagnosed over the study period. A family history of prostate cancer alone was not associated with an increase in colorectal cancer risk after adjustment for confounders (aHR =0.94; 95% CI =0.76, 1.15). Separate analysis examining the joint impact, a family history of both colorectal and prostate cancer was associated with an almost 50% increase in colorectal cancer risk (aHR = 1.48; 95% CI = 1.04, 2.10), but similar to those with a family history of colorectal cancer only (95% CI = 1.31; 95% CI = 1.11, 1.54). Our findings suggest risk of colorectal cancer is increased similarly among women with colorectal cancer only and among those with both colorectal and prostate cancer diagnosed among first-degree family members. Future studies are needed to determine the relative contribution of genes and shared environment to the risk of both cancers.

  11. Identification of an epigenetic biomarker panel with high sensitivity and specificity for colorectal cancer and adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lind Guro E

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of cancer-specific DNA methylation patterns in epithelial colorectal cells in human feces provides the prospect of a simple, non-invasive screening test for colorectal cancer and its precursor, the adenoma. This study investigates a panel of epigenetic markers for the detection of colorectal cancer and adenomas. Methods Candidate biomarkers were subjected to quantitative methylation analysis in test sets of tissue samples from colorectal cancers, adenomas, and normal colonic mucosa. All findings were verified in independent clinical validation series. A total of 523 human samples were included in the study. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis was used to evaluate the performance of the biomarker panel. Results Promoter hypermethylation of the genes CNRIP1, FBN1, INA, MAL, SNCA, and SPG20 was frequent in both colorectal cancers (65-94% and adenomas (35-91%, whereas normal mucosa samples were rarely (0-5% methylated. The combined sensitivity of at least two positives among the six markers was 94% for colorectal cancers and 93% for adenoma samples, with a specificity of 98%. The resulting areas under the ROC curve were 0.984 for cancers and 0.968 for adenomas versus normal mucosa. Conclusions The novel epigenetic marker panel shows very high sensitivity and specificity for both colorectal cancers and adenomas. Our findings suggest this biomarker panel to be highly suitable for early tumor detection.

  12. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer in a Japanese population: the Fukuoka Colorectal Cancer Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurotani, Kayo; Budhathoki, Sanjeev; Joshi, Amit Man; Yin, Guang; Toyomura, Kengo; Kono, Suminori; Mibu, Ryuichi; Tanaka, Masao; Kakeji, Yoshihiro; Maehara, Yoshihiko; Okamura, Takeshi; Ikejiri, Koji; Futami, Kitaroh; Maekawa, Takafumi; Yasunami, Yohichi; Takenaka, Kenji; Ichimiya, Hitoshi; Terasaka, Reiji

    2010-12-01

    Few studies have addressed the relation between dietary patterns and colorectal cancer in Japan. We investigated dietary patterns in relation to colorectal cancer risk in a community-based case-control study. The association with dietary patterns was also examined for different sites of colorectal cancer. Data were derived from the Fukuoka Colorectal Cancer Study, including 800 cases and 775 controls interviewed from September 2000 to December 2003. The cases were admitted to one of the participating hospitals for the first surgical treatment during this period. We identified dietary patterns using principal component analysis of intakes of twenty-nine items of food groups and specific foods. Quartile categories of each dietary pattern were used, and non-dietary lifestyle factors and total energy intake were adjusted for in the analysis. We identified three dietary patterns: prudent, high-fat and light-meal patterns. The prudent dietary pattern characterised by high intakes of vegetables, fruits, seafoods and soya foods showed a nearly significant protective association with the overall risk of colorectal cancer (trend P = 0.054), and it was statistically significantly related to a decreased risk of distal colon cancer (trend P = 0.002), but not to that of either proximal colon or rectal cancer. The high-fat and light-meal dietary patterns were not materially related to the overall or site-specific risk of colorectal cancer. In summary, a prudent dietary pattern was associated with a decreased risk of colorectal cancer, especially with that of distal colon cancer, in a fairly large case-control study in Japan.

  13. Cost considerations in the treatment of colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansman, F.G.A.; Postma, M.J.; Brouwers, J.R.B.J.

    2007-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is among the most common malignancies in developed countries. Screening can reduce mortality significantly, although the most appropriate method is still under debate. Observational studies have revealed that lifestyle measures may also be beneficial for prevention of colorectal

  14. Seromic profiling of colorectal cancer patients with novel glycopeptide microarray

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Johannes W; Blixt, Ola; Bennett, Eric P

    2011-01-01

    array displaying a comprehensive library of glycopeptides and glycoproteins derived from a panel of human mucins (MUC1, MUC2, MUC4, MUC5AC, MUC6 and MUC7) known to have altered glycosylation and expression in cancer. Seromic profiling of patients with colorectal cancer identified cancer......Cancer-associated autoantibodies hold promise as sensitive biomarkers for early detection of cancer. Aberrant post-translational variants of proteins are likely to induce autoantibodies, and changes in O-linked glycosylation represent one of the most important cancer-associated post......-associated autoantibodies to a set of aberrant glycopeptides derived from MUC1 and MUC4. The cumulative sensitivity of the array analysis was 79% with a specificity of 92%. The most prevalent of the identified autoantibody targets were validated as authentic cancer immunogens by showing expression of the epitopes in cancer...

  15. Colorectal cancer: from prevention to personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binefa, Gemma; Rodríguez-Moranta, Francisco; Teule, Alex; Medina-Hayas, Manuel

    2014-06-14

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a very heterogeneous disease that is caused by the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. CRC develops through a gradual accumulation of genetic and epigenetic changes, leading to the transformation of normal colonic mucosa into invasive cancer. CRC is one of the most prevalent and incident cancers worldwide, as well as one of the most deadly. Approximately 1235108 people are diagnosed annually with CRC, and 609051 die from CRC annually. The World Health Organization estimates an increase of 77% in the number of newly diagnosed cases of CRC and an increase of 80% in deaths from CRC by 2030. The incidence of CRC can benefit from different strategies depending on its stage: health promotion through health education campaigns (when the disease is not yet present), the implementation of screening programs (for detection of the disease in its early stages), and the development of nearly personalized treatments according to both patient characteristics (age, sex) and the cancer itself (gene expression). Although there are different strategies for screening and although the number of such strategies is increasing due to the potential of emerging technologies in molecular marker application, not all strategies meet the criteria required for screening tests in population programs; the three most accepted tests are the fecal occult blood test (FOBT), colonoscopy and sigmoidoscopy. FOBT is the most used method for CRC screening worldwide and is also the primary choice in most population-based screening programs in Europe. Due to its non-invasive nature and low cost, it is one of the most accepted techniques by population. CRC is a very heterogeneous disease, and with a few exceptions (APC, p53, KRAS), most of the genes involved in CRC are observed in a small percentage of cases. The design of genetic and epigenetic marker panels that are able to provide maximum coverage in the diagnosis of colorectal neoplasia seems a reasonable strategy

  16. Colorectal cancer: From prevention to personalized medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binefa, Gemma; Rodríguez-Moranta, Francisco; Teule, Àlex; Medina-Hayas, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a very heterogeneous disease that is caused by the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. CRC develops through a gradual accumulation of genetic and epigenetic changes, leading to the transformation of normal colonic mucosa into invasive cancer. CRC is one of the most prevalent and incident cancers worldwide, as well as one of the most deadly. Approximately 1235108 people are diagnosed annually with CRC, and 609051 die from CRC annually. The World Health Organization estimates an increase of 77% in the number of newly diagnosed cases of CRC and an increase of 80% in deaths from CRC by 2030. The incidence of CRC can benefit from different strategies depending on its stage: health promotion through health education campaigns (when the disease is not yet present), the implementation of screening programs (for detection of the disease in its early stages), and the development of nearly personalized treatments according to both patient characteristics (age, sex) and the cancer itself (gene expression). Although there are different strategies for screening and although the number of such strategies is increasing due to the potential of emerging technologies in molecular marker application, not all strategies meet the criteria required for screening tests in population programs; the three most accepted tests are the fecal occult blood test (FOBT), colonoscopy and sigmoidoscopy. FOBT is the most used method for CRC screening worldwide and is also the primary choice in most population-based screening programs in Europe. Due to its non-invasive nature and low cost, it is one of the most accepted techniques by population. CRC is a very heterogeneous disease, and with a few exceptions (APC, p53, KRAS), most of the genes involved in CRC are observed in a small percentage of cases. The design of genetic and epigenetic marker panels that are able to provide maximum coverage in the diagnosis of colorectal neoplasia seems a reasonable strategy

  17. Diagnostic interval and mortality in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, Marie Louise; Frydenberg, Morten; Hamilton, William

    2012-01-01

    Objective To test the theory of a U-shaped association between time from the first presentation of symptoms in primary care to the diagnosis (the diagnostic interval) and mortality after diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Study Design and Setting Three population-based studies in Denmark...

  18. Cetuximab in treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guren, Tormod Kyrre; Thomsen, Maria Morandi; Kure, Elin H

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The NORDIC-VII study is a randomised phase III trial of cetuximab plus continuous or intermittent fluorouracil, folinic acid, and oxaliplatin (Nordic FLOX) vs FLOX alone in first-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. The present report presents an updated and final survival...

  19. Oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zedan, Ahmed; Hansen, Torben Frøstrup; Fex Svenningsen, Åsa

    2014-01-01

    Oxaliplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent effective against advanced colorectal cancer. Unlike with other platinum-based agents, the main side effect of oxaliplatin is polyneuropathy. Oxaliplatin-induced polyneuropathy (OIPN) has a unique profile, which can be divided into acute and chronic...

  20. Systemic therapy for patients with colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfeiffer, Per; Qvortrup, Camilla; Tabernero, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Recent modalities and strategies have increased the complexity of treatment choice in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC), and therefore all cases should be assessed at a multidisciplinary conference. Adjuvant chemotherapy for 6 months increases the chance of cure by absolutely 5 % in stage II...

  1. Hereditary & familial colorectal cancer : Identification, characteristics, surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kallenberg, F.G.J.

    2017-01-01

    Of all colorectal cancer (CRC) cases, 15-20% is related to familial or hereditary factors. Diagnosing familial and hereditary CRC syndromes is important for several reasons. One of these is that surveillance colonoscopies can reduce CRC incidence and mortality importantly. A complete family history

  2. Cetuximab: clinical results in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiello, E; Giuliani, F; Gebbia, V; Piano, A; Agueli, R; Colucci, G

    2007-06-01

    In recent years, the introduction of targeted therapies into clinical practice seems to offer incremental benefits in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), mainly when they are employed in combination with optimal chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. In this paper, we focus on Cetuximab and its role in the treatment of mCRC.

  3. Loss of heterozygosity in colorectal cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-29

    Dec 29, 2009 ... progression of CRC is a multistep process, which involves many dietary and environmental factors. A great number of oncogenes, ... Key words: Colorectal cancer, tumour suppressor gene, loss of heterozygosity (LOH). INTRODUCTION .... LOH, identified by comparing patterns of polymor- phisms in normal ...

  4. Inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Ocepek

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Colorectal cancer is one of the most frequent cancers in developed countries and Slovenia, and the incidence is still rising. Groups of people with higher risk for colorectal cancer are well defined. Among them are patients with inflammatory bowel disease. The risk is highest in patients in whom whole large bowel is affected by inflammation, it rises after 8 to 10 years and increases with the duration of the disease. Precancerous lesion is a displastic, chronically inflammed mucosa and not an adenoma as in cases of sporadic colorectal carcinoma.Conclusions: Many studies suggest that the influence of genetic factors differs between sporadic and inflammatory bowel disease related colorectal cancer. Symptomatic patients at the time of diagnosis have a much worse prognosis. The goal of prevention programes is therefore discovering early precancerous lesions. Established screening protocols are based on relatively frequent colonoscopies which are inconvinient for the patient as well as the endoscopist. Use of specific genetic markers, mutations of candidate genes, as a screening method and a prognostic predictor could greatly lighten therapeutic decisions.

  5. Molecular pathology of colorectal cancer predisposing syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puijenbroek, Marjo van

    2008-01-01

    Each year, approximately eleven thousand new colorectal cancer (CRC) patients are registered in the Netherlands. Half of these patients will eventually die of this disease. Consequently, it is of great importance to identify individuals with an increased risk for CRC. In this thesis, we evaluate the

  6. Parameters of biological activity in colorectal cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svobodová, Š.; Topolčan, O.; Holubec jr., L.; Levý, M.; Pecen, Ladislav; Svačina, Š.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 1 (2011), s. 373-378 ISSN 0250-7005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : colorectal cancer * biological activity * prognosis * tumor markers * angiogenetic factors * metalloproteinases * adhesion molecules Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 1.725, year: 2011

  7. Treatment of liver metastases from colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, J.; Punt, C. J. A.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years several new local as well as systemic treatment options have become available for patients with advanced colorectal cancer. A survey among Dutch hospitals revealed considerable differences in the use of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Radiofrequency ablation is a promising

  8. Why I Got Tested for Colorectal Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-02-29

    CDC’s Dr. Lisa Richardson explains why she got tested for colorectal cancer when she turned 50 years old. .  Created: 2/29/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 2/29/2016.

  9. Clinical Outcomes of Colorectal Cancer in Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    42 January 2011 • Volume 7 • The ANNALS of AFRICAN SURGERY. Original article. Clinical Outcomes of Colorectal. Cancer in Kenya tients with sufficient information on CRC pathology, treatment and follow up were included. Patient profile, tumor sub-site, pathology details, recurrence and mor- tality data were collected.

  10. Hereditary Colorectal Cancer (CRC Program in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irmejs Arvids

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The aim of the study is to evaluate the incidence and phenotype - genotype characteristics of hereditary colorectal cancer syndromes in Latvia in order to develop the basis of clinical management for patients and their relatives affected by these syndromes. Materials and methods From 02/1999-09/2002 in several hospitals in Latvia cancer family histories were collected from 865 patients with CRC. In families suspected of having a history consistent with a hereditary colorectal cancer syndrome, DNA testing for MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6 genes was performed. In addition immunohistochemical (IH examination of the normal and cancer tissue from large bowel tumors for MSH2 and MSH6 protein expression was performed prior to DNA analysis. Results From the 865 CRC cases only 3 (0.35% pedigrees fulfilled the Amsterdam II criteria of Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC and 15 cases (1.73% were suspected of HNPCC. In 69 cases (8% with a cancer family aggregation (CFA were identified. Thus far 27 IH analyses have been performed and in 3 cancers homogenous lack of MSH2 or MSH6 protein expression was found. In one of these cases a mutation in MSH6 was identified. In 18 patients suspected of HNPCC or of matching the Amsterdam II criteria, denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC followed by DNA sequencing of any heteroduplexes of the 35 exons comprising both MLH1 and MSH2 was performed revealing 3 mutations. For all of kindreds diagnosed definitively or with a high probability of being an HNPCC family appropriate recommendations concerning prophylactic measures, surveillance and treatment were provided in written form. Conclusions Existing pedigree/clinical data suggest that in Latvia the frequency of HNPCC is around 2% of consecutive colorectal cancer patients. It is crucial that genetic counseling is an integral part of cancer family syndrome management.

  11. Highly sensitive stool DNA testing of Fusobacterium nucleatum as a marker for detection of colorectal tumours in a Japanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suehiro, Yutaka; Sakai, Kouhei; Nishioka, Mitsuaki; Hashimoto, Shinichi; Takami, Taro; Higaki, Shingo; Shindo, Yoshitaro; Hazama, Shoichi; Oka, Masaaki; Nagano, Hiroaki; Sakaida, Isao; Yamasaki, Takahiro

    2017-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence shows an over-abundance of Fusobacterium nucleatum in colorectal tumour tissues. Although stool DNA testing of Fusobacterium nucleatum might be a potential marker for the detection of colorectal tumours, the difficulty in detecting Fusobacterium nucleatum in stool by conventional methods prevented further explorations. Therefore, we developed a droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for detecting Fusobacterium nucleatum in stool and investigated its clinical utility in the management of colorectal tumours in a Japanese population. Methods Feces were collected from 60 healthy subjects (control group) and from 11 patients with colorectal non-advanced adenomas (non-advanced adenoma group), 19 patients with colorectal advanced adenoma/carcinoma in situ (advanced adenoma/carcinoma in situ (CIS) group) and 158 patients with colorectal cancer of stages I to IV (colorectal cancer group). Absolute copy numbers of Fusobacterium nucleatum were measured by droplet digital PCR. Results The median copy number of Fusobacterium nucleatum was 17.5 in the control group, 311 in the non-advanced adenoma group, 122 in the advanced adenoma/CIS group, and 317 in the colorectal cancer group. In comparison with that in the control group, the Fusobacterium nucleatum level was significantly higher in the non-advanced adenoma group, the advanced adenoma/CIS group and the colorectal cancer group. Conclusions This study illustrates the potential of stool DNA testing of Fusobacterium nucleatum by droplet digital PCR to detect individuals with colorectal tumours in a Japanese population.

  12. Biomarkers for colitis-associated colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ru; Lai, Lisa A; Brentnall, Teresa A; Pan, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Patients with extensive ulcerative colitis (UC) of more than eight years duration have an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Molecular biomarkers for dysplasia and cancer could have a great clinical value in managing cancer risk in these UC patients. Using a wide range of molecular techniques - including cutting-edge OMICS technologies - recent studies have identified clinically relevant biomarker candidates from a variety of biosamples, including colonic biopsies, blood, stool, and urine. While the challenge remains to validate these candidate biomarkers in multi-center studies and with larger patient cohorts, it is certain that accurate biomarkers of colitis-associated neoplasia would improve clinical management of neoplastic risk in UC patients. This review highlights the ongoing avenues of research in biomarker development for colitis-associated colorectal cancer. PMID:27672285

  13. Plant sterol intakes and colorectal cancer risk in the Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normén, A L; Brants, H A; Voorrips, L E; Andersson, H A; van den Brandt, P A; Goldbohm, R A

    2001-07-01

    Plant sterols in vegetable foods might prevent colorectal cancer. The objective was to study plant sterol intakes in relation to colorectal cancer risk in an epidemiologic study. The study was performed within the framework of the Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer in 120852 subjects who completed a baseline questionnaire in 1986. After 6.3 y of follow-up, 620 colon and 344 rectal cancer cases were detected. A case-cohort approach was used to calculate confounder-adjusted rate ratios (RRs) and their 95% CIs for quintiles of plant sterol intake. The total mean (+/-SD) intake of campesterol, stigmasterol, beta-sitosterol, campestanol, and beta-sitostanol was 285 +/- 97 mg/d. Major contributors to plant sterol intake were bread (38%), vegetable fats (26%), and fruit and vegetables (21%). For men, there was no clear association between intake of any of the plant sterols and colon cancer risk when age, smoking, alcohol use, family history of colorectal cancer, education level, and cholecystectomy were controlled for. Adjustment for energy did not alter the result. For rectal cancer, adjustment for energy resulted in positive associations between risk and campesterol and stigmasterol intakes. For women, there was no clear association between intake of any of the plant sterols and colorectal cancer risk. A high dietary intake of plant sterols was not associated with a lower risk of colon and rectal cancers in the Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer.

  14. Access to Cancer Services for Rural Colorectal Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Laura-Mae; Cai, Yong; Larson, Eric H.; Dobie, Sharon A.; Wright, George E.; Goodman, David C.; Matthews, Barbara; Hart, L. Gary

    2008-01-01

    Context: Cancer care requires specialty surgical and medical resources that are less likely to be found in rural areas. Purpose: To examine the travel patterns and distances of rural and urban colorectal cancer (CRC) patients to 3 types of specialty cancer care services--surgery, medical oncology consultation, and radiation oncology consultation.…

  15. Quality of life and its determinants among colorectal cancer survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Ali Nikbakht; Nayyereh Amini Sani; Mohamad Asghari Jafarabadi; Seyed Reza Hosseini

    2015-01-01

    Background: Colorectal cancer has a significant impact on physical, mental and social discomfort of patients. The aim of this study was to assess different aspects of health-related quality of life and its association with demographic characteristics and some clinical features in colorectal cancer survivors in the city of Babol. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013 among 120 colorectal cancer survivors identified in the cancer registry from 2007 to 2012. A questionnair...

  16. Screening for Colorectal Cancer – Quality Colonoscopy and Other ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The “pink” breast cancer awareness initiative is in our face in South Africa, but we must be mindful of the world-wide cancer awareness programme of all forms of cancer. Gastroenterological and Colorectal bodies abroad were prominent in promoting March as Colorectal Cancer awareness month ...

  17. Cancer in numbers: Do preventive measures for colorectal cancer apply?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro J. Tárraga López

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Introduction: Cancer is a global problem as it will affect one in three men and one in four women during their lifetime. Colorectal cancer (CRC is the second most common cancer in men, after lung cancer, and is the second most common cancer in women after breast cancer. It is also the second leading cause of death in men and women separately, and is the second most common cause of cancer death if both genders are considered together. CRC accounts for approximately 10% of cancer deaths. Modifiable risk factors for CRC include smoking, physical inactivity, overweight and obesity, processed meat consumption, and excessive alcohol consumption. CRC screening programs are possible in economically developed countries. However, attention should be paid in the future to geographically populated areas and western lifestyles. Objective: To evaluate the effect on the incidence and mortality of diet and lifestyle of CRC and to determine the effect of secondary prevention through the early diagnosis of CRC. Methodology: An exhaustive search of Medline and Pubmed articles related to primary and secondary prevention of CRC is carried out and a meta-analysis of the same blocks is carried out. Results: 301 items related to primary or secondary prevention of CRC were recovered. Of these, 177 were considered valid in the meta-analysis: 12 in epidemiology, 56 in diet and lifestyle, and over 77 different projections for the early detection of CRC. Cancer is a global problem as it will affect one in three men and one in four women during their lifetime. There is no question of which environmental factors, probably diet, may explain these cancer rates. Excessive consumption of alcohol and high cholesterol diet are associated with a high risk of colon cancer. A diet low in folic acid and vitamin B6 is also associated with an increased risk of developing colon cancer with overexpression of p53. Eating pulses at least three times a week reduces the risk of

  18. Combined detection of preoperative serum CEA, CA19-9 and CA242 improve prognostic prediction of surgically treated colorectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingtao; Wang, Xiao; Yu, Fudong; Chen, Jian; Zhao, Senlin; Zhang, Dongyuan; Yu, Yang; Liu, Xisheng; Tang, Huamei; Peng, Zhihai

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the prognostic significance of preoperative serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) and carbohydrate antigen 242 (CA242) levels in surgically treated colorectal cancer patients. The relationship of preoperative serum CEA, CA19-9 and CA242 levels with disease characteristics was investigated in 310 patients. Correlation between tumor markers was investigated using Pearson correlation test. Univariate and multivariate survival analyses were used to study the relationship between preoperative tumor markers and prognosis [disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS)]. Kaplan-Meier analysis with log rank test was used to assess the impact of tumor marker levels on survival. Positive rate of preoperative serum CEA, CA19-9 and CA242 were 54.84%, 47.42% and 37.10%, respectively. High preoperative CEA level was associated with tumor size (P = 0.038), T stage (P tumor AJCC stage (P = 0.023). Preoperative CA242 positively correlated with CEA (P markers was of independent prognostic value in CRC (HR = 2.532, 95% CI: 1.400-4.579, P = 0.002 for OS; and HR = 2.366, 95% CI: 1.334-4.196, P = 0.003 for DFS). Combined detection of preoperative serum CEA, CA19-9 and CA242 is of independent prognostic value for management of CRC patients treated surgically.

  19. Improved amplification efficiency on stool samples by addition of spermidine and its use for non-invasive detection of colorectal cancer

    KAUST Repository

    Roperch, Jean-Pierre

    2015-05-29

    Background Using quantitative methylation-specific PCR (QM-MSP) is a promising method for colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosis from stool samples. Difficulty in eliminating PCR inhibitors of this body fluid has been extensively reported. Here, spermidine is presented as PCR facilitator for the detection of stool DNA methylation biomarkers using QM-MSP. We examined its effectiveness with NPY, PENK and WIF1, three biomarkers which we have previously shown to be of relevance to CRC. Results We determined an optimal window for the amplification of the albumin (Alb) gene (100 ng of bisulfite-treated stool DNA added of 1 mM spermidine) at which we report that spermidine acts as a PCR facilitator (AE = 1680%) for SG RT-PCR. We show that the amplification of methylated PENK, NPY and WIF1 is considerably facilitated by QM-MSP as measured by an increase of CMI (Cumulative Methylation Index, i.e. the sum of the three methylation values) by a factor of 1.5 to 23 fold in individual samples, and of 10 fold in a pool of five samples. Conclusions We contend that spermidine greatly reduces the problems of PCR inhibition in stool samples. This observed feature, after validation on a larger sampling, could be used in the development of stool-based CRC diagnosis tests.

  20. Prospective study of blood metabolites associated with colorectal cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Xiang; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Rothman, Nathaniel; Yu, Danxia; Li, Hong-Lan; Yang, Gong; Cai, Hui; Ma, Xiao; Lan, Qing; Gao, Yu-Tang; Jia, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Zheng, Wei

    2018-02-26

    Few prospective studies, and none in Asians, have systematically evaluated the relationship between blood metabolites and colorectal cancer risk. We conducted a nested case-control study to search for risk-associated metabolite biomarkers for colorectal cancer in an Asian population using blood samples collected prior to cancer diagnosis. Conditional logistic regression was performed to assess associations of metabolites with cancer risk. In this study, we included 250 incident cases with colorectal cancer and individually matched controls nested within two prospective Shanghai cohorts. We found 35 metabolites associated with risk of colorectal cancer after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Among them, 12 metabolites were glycerophospholipids including nine associated with reduced risk of colorectal cancer and three with increased risk [odds ratios per standard deviation increase of transformed metabolites: 0.31-1.98; p values: 0.002-1.25 × 10 -10 ]. The other 23 metabolites associated with colorectal cancer risk included nine lipids other than glycerophospholipid, seven aromatic compounds, five organic acids and four other organic compounds. After mutual adjustment, nine metabolites remained statistically significant for colorectal cancer. Together, these independently associated metabolites can separate cancer cases from controls with an area under the curve of 0.76 for colorectal cancer. We have identified that dysregulation of glycerophospholipids may contribute to risk of colorectal cancer. © 2018 UICC.

  1. A transcriptome anatomy of human colorectal cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lü, Bingjian; Xu, Jing; Lai, Maode; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Jian

    2006-01-01

    Accumulating databases in human genome research have enabled integrated genome-wide study on complicated diseases such as cancers. A practical approach is to mine a global transcriptome profile of disease from public database. New concepts of these diseases might emerge by landscaping this profile. In this study, we clustered human colorectal normal mucosa (N), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), adenoma (A) and cancer (T) related expression sequence tags (EST) into UniGenes via an in-house GetUni software package and analyzed the transcriptome overview of these libraries by GOTree Machine (GOTM). Additionally, we downloaded UniGene based cDNA libraries of colon and analyzed them by Xprofiler to cross validate the efficiency of GetUni. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was used to validate the expression of β-catenin and. 7 novel genes in colorectal cancers. The efficiency of GetUni was successfully validated by Xprofiler and RT-PCR. Genes in library N, IBD and A were all found in library T. A total of 14,879 genes were identified with 2,355 of them having at least 2 transcripts. Differences in gene enrichment among these libraries were statistically significant in 50 signal transduction pathways and Pfam protein domains by GOTM analysis P < 0.01 Hypergeometric Test). Genes in two metabolic pathways, ribosome and glycolysis, were more enriched in the expression profiles of A and IBD than in N and T. Seven transmembrane receptor superfamily genes were typically abundant in cancers. Colorectal cancers are genetically heterogeneous. Transcription variants are common in them. Aberrations of ribosome and glycolysis pathway might be early indicators of precursor lesions in colon cancers. The electronic gene expression profile could be used to highlight the integral molecular events in colorectal cancers

  2. Gynecological malignancy risk in colorectal cancer survivors: A population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wei-Chun; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Liang, Ji-An; Sung, Fung-Chang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-10-01

    This study was carried out to assess the risk of gynecological malignancy in colorectal cancer survivors using a population-based retrospective cohort study. Using the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan, we identified 37,176 patients with colorectal cancer diagnosed in 1998-2009, aged 20 years and above, without other cancer history. We also randomly selected 148,700 women without any cancer in the comparison cohort, frequency matched by age and diagnosis date. Incidences and hazards of breast, cervix, endometrial and ovarian cancers were evaluated by 201l. The overall incidence of the 4 types of gynecological cancer was 39.0% higher in colorectal cancer patients than in comparisons (2.99 vs. 2.14 per 1000 person-years) with an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 1.46 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.31-1.62). Breast cancer accounted for most subsequent cancer. The multivariable Cox method measured HR was the highest for endometrial cancer (3.40, 95% CI = 2.59-4.47) for the colorectal cohort relative to comparisons, followed by ovarian cancer and breast cancer, except cervix cancer. The risk of gynecological malignancies was apparently elevated for colorectal cancer survivors cancer for early detection and prevention of the subsequent gynecological malignancy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The detection of the methylated Wif-1 gene is more accurate than a fecal occult blood test for colorectal cancer screening

    KAUST Repository

    Amiot, Aurelien

    2014-07-15

    Background: The clinical benefit of guaiac fecal occult blood tests (FOBT) is now well established for colorectal cancer screening. Growing evidence has demonstrated that epigenetic modifications and fecal microbiota changes, also known as dysbiosis, are associated with CRC pathogenesis and might be used as surrogate markers of CRC. Patients and Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study that included all consecutive subjects that were referred (from 2003 to 2007) for screening colonoscopies. Prior to colonoscopy, effluents (fresh stools, sera-S and urine-U) were harvested and FOBTs performed. Methylation levels were measured in stools, S and U for 3 genes (Wif1, ALX-4, and Vimentin) selected from a panel of 63 genes; Kras mutations and seven dominant and subdominant bacterial populations in stools were quantified. Calibration was assessed with the Hosmer-Lemeshow chi-square, and discrimination was determined by calculating the C-statistic (Area Under Curve) and Net Reclassification Improvement index. Results: There were 247 individuals (mean age 60.8±12.4 years, 52% of males) in the study group, and 90 (36%) of these individuals were patients with advanced polyps or invasive adenocarcinomas. A multivariate model adjusted for age and FOBT led to a C-statistic of 0.83 [0.77-0.88]. After supplementary sequential (one-by-one) adjustment, Wif-1 methylation (S or U) and fecal microbiota dysbiosis led to increases of the C-statistic to 0.90 [0.84-0.94] (p = 0.02) and 0.81 [0.74-0.86] (p = 0.49), respectively. When adjusted jointly for FOBT and Wif-1 methylation or fecal microbiota dysbiosis, the increase of the C-statistic was even more significant (0.91 and 0.85, p<0.001 and p = 0.10, respectively). Conclusion: The detection of methylated Wif-1 in either S or U has a higher performance accuracy compared to guaiac FOBT for advanced colorectal neoplasia screening. Conversely, fecal microbiota dysbiosis detection was not more accurate. Blood and urine testing could be

  4. Colorectal Cancer Stem Cells and Cell Death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catalano, Veronica [Department of Surgical and Oncological Sciences, University of Palermo, Via Liborio Giuffrè 5, 90127 Palermo, PA (Italy); Gaggianesi, Miriam [Department of Surgical and Oncological Sciences, University of Palermo, Via Liborio Giuffrè 5, 90127 Palermo, PA (Italy); Department of Cellular and Molecular Oncology, IRCCS Fondazione Salvatore Maugeri, Via Salvatore Maugeri, 27100 Pavia, PV (Italy); Spina, Valentina; Iovino, Flora [Department of Surgical and Oncological Sciences, University of Palermo, Via Liborio Giuffrè 5, 90127 Palermo, PA (Italy); Dieli, Francesco [Departement of Biopathology and Medicine Biotechnologies, University of Palermo, Via Liborio Giuffrè 5, 90127 Palermo, PA (Italy); Stassi, Giorgio, E-mail: giorgio.stassi@unipa.it [Department of Surgical and Oncological Sciences, University of Palermo, Via Liborio Giuffrè 5, 90127 Palermo, PA (Italy); Department of Cellular and Molecular Oncology, IRCCS Fondazione Salvatore Maugeri, Via Salvatore Maugeri, 27100 Pavia, PV (Italy); Todaro, Matilde [Department of Surgical and Oncological Sciences, University of Palermo, Via Liborio Giuffrè 5, 90127 Palermo, PA (Italy)

    2011-04-11

    Nowadays it is reported that, similarly to other solid tumors, colorectal cancer is sustained by a rare subset of cancer stem–like cells (CSCs), which survive conventional anticancer treatments, thanks to efficient mechanisms allowing escape from apoptosis, triggering tumor recurrence. To improve patient outcomes, conventional anticancer therapies have to be replaced with specific approaches targeting CSCs. In this review we provide strong support that BMP4 is an innovative therapeutic approach to prevent colon cancer growth increasing differentiation markers expression and apoptosis. Recent data suggest that in colorectal CSCs, protection from apoptosis is achieved by interleukin-4 (IL-4) autocrine production through upregulation of antiapoptotic mediators, including survivin. Consequently, IL-4 neutralization could deregulate survivin expression and localization inducing chemosensitivity of the colon CSCs pool.

  5. Prevention and intervention trials for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komiya, Masami; Fujii, Gen; Takahashi, Mami; Iigo, Masaaki; Mutoh, Michihiro

    2013-07-01

    There have been a number of candidates for chemopreventive agents from synthetic drugs and natural compounds suggested to prevent colorectal cancer. However, they have shown modest efficacy in humans. The reason for this could be partly explained by the use of inappropriate models in vitro and in vivo, and the limitation of chemoprevention trials. In Japan, there are no cancer chemopreventive medicines, and few cancer chemoprevention trials to date. In contrast, an increase in the prevalence of colorectal cancer in Japan has forced us to develop more efficient chemopreventive strategies. It is now a good time to review in detail the current status and future prospects for chemoprevention of colorectal cancer with respect to the future development of chemopreventive medicines, particularly using synthetic drugs and natural compounds in Asian populations. The role and mode of action of available synthetic drugs, mainly aspirin and metformin, are reviewed. In addition, the possible impact of natural compounds with anti-inflammatory/immunosuppressive properties, such as ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acid and lactoferrin, are also reviewed.

  6. Identification of actin beta-like 2 (ACTBL2) as novel, upregulated protein in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazanfar, Saba; Fatima, Iram; Aslam, Muhammad; Musharraf, Syed Ghulam; Sherman, Nicholas E; Moskaluk, Christopher; Fox, Jay W; Akhtar, M Waheed; Sadaf, Saima

    2017-01-30

    Early diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) can be of value for increasing the survival rate of patients. Recently, proteomic strategies to identify markers for the diagnosis of cancer at an early stage have been employed with noteworthy results. To extend these studies, we utilized two dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry for expression profiling of proteins extracted from the freshly frozen human colorectal cancer tissue specimens and the comparable regions of adjacent normal mucosa (serving as controls). Four gel spots were determined to be differentially stained between the tumor and the control samples on a consistent basis. Following mass spectrometric analysis of these spots, six proteins were identified; five of these had previously been reported to be associated with colorectal cancer. One protein actin beta-like 2 (ACTBL2), not linked with colorectal cancer in the earlier reports, was however found to be at higher abundance in colorectal tumor samples both by proteomics and immunohistochemistry analysis. Thus ACTBL2 association and differential upregulation in colorectal cancer is novel, and as such may contribute to our understanding of the colorectal carcinogenesis and potentially serve a function in developing markers for colorectal cancer. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of death world-wide and good markers for early detection are lacking. In this study we conducted a proteomic analysis of tumor vs. normal tissue. We corroborated the finding of a number of previously identified proteins associated with CRC and more importantly identified a novel protein, ACTBL2, which we demonstrated to be upregulated in CRC. As additional proteins associated with CRC are identified the potential for developing panels of markers may be realized with better outcomes in early cancer detection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Detection of hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer: prospective evaluation of gray scale US versus SonoVue® low mechanical index real time-enhanced US as compared with multidetector-CT or Gd-BOPTA-MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantisani, V; Ricci, P; Erturk, M; Pagliara, E; Drudi, F; Calliada, F; Mortele, K; D'Ambrosio, U; Marigliano, C; Catalano, C; Marin, D; Di Seri, M; Longo, F; Passariello, R

    2010-10-01

    To compare ultrasound (US), low-mechanical index contrast enhanced US (CEUS) and multidetector-CT (MDCT) for the detection of hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer. From January to June 2006, 110 patients (65 males, 45 females; mean age 62 years; range 39-78) with suspected hepatic lesions from colorectal cancer were prospectively evaluated with US, CEUS and MDCT by two independent readers. Intraoperative ultrasonography (IOUS, n = 45) or a follow-up up for at least 6 months by using MDCT or Gd-BOPTA-enhanced MRI was considered the gold standard. McNemar test was employed. Reference standards revealed 430 metastases in 110 patients. On a patient-by-patients analysis, CEUS improved US sensitivity from 67.4-71.6% to 93.4-95.8% (p < 0.05). On a lesion-by-lesion analysis, CEUS improved the sensitivity of US from 60.9-64.9% to 85.3-92.8% (p < 0.001). The specificity increased from 50-60% to 76.7-83.3%. No significant differences in sensitivity or specificity between CEUS and MDCT were found. Contrast-enhanced US was significantly more sensitive than baseline US in the detection of metastases smaller than 1 cm (p < 0.001) with an increase in sensitivity from 29.1-35% to 63.3-76.6% no significant statistical difference was identified when compared with MDCT (sensitivity of 73.3-75.8%). CEUS is significantly more accurate than US and highly comparable with MDCT in the detection of liver metastases from colorectal cancer. Therefore, in the evaluation of patients with suspected hepatic metastases from colorectal tumour, US examination must be performed after contrast administration. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Distinct Gene Expression Signatures in Lynch Syndrome and Familial Colorectal Cancer Type X

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentin, Mev; Therkildsen, Christina; Veerla, Srinivas

    2013-01-01

    Heredity is estimated to cause at least 20% of colorectal cancer. The hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer subset is divided into Lynch syndrome and familial colorectal cancer type X (FCCTX) based on presence of mismatch repair (MMR) gene defects.......Heredity is estimated to cause at least 20% of colorectal cancer. The hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer subset is divided into Lynch syndrome and familial colorectal cancer type X (FCCTX) based on presence of mismatch repair (MMR) gene defects....

  9. Developing a molecular marker for metachronous colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva, W M

    1999-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of microsatellite instability in patients with metachronous colorectal cancer as a potential marker for identification of high risk individuals. Surgical research laboratory, Whittington Hospital, Highgate Hill, London. 37 colorectal tumours from 18 individuals with metachronous colorectal cancers were investigated at five microsatellite loci by single stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. A control group of 11 individuals who had developed one sporadic colorectal cancer each were also similarly analysed. Tumour microsatellite instability was defined as the appearance of new polymarase chain reaction (PCR) bands, either larger or smaller than those produced from the normal mucosa. 27 of the total of 37 metachronous cancer specimens PCR amplified successfully. Microsatellite instability was demonstrated in 59.3% (16/27) of individuals with metachronous tumours. None of the tumours in the control group showed microsatellite instability. These results suggest that individuals with colorectal cancer with replication errors are at a greater risk of developing metachronous colorectal cancer than those without replication errors.

  10. Prevention of colorectal cancer: How many tools do we have in our basket?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncucci, Luca; Mariani, Francesco

    2015-12-01

    Prevention is the main strategy in order to reduce colorectal cancer incidence and mortality. It can be accomplished through primary prevention, using measures affecting factors known to confer higher risk of colorectal cancer, or through secondary prevention, aimed at early diagnosis of cancer or preneoplastic lesions in groups of subjects at increased risk of cancer. Although primary prevention should be the goal for future years, because it acts on the probable causes of colorectal cancer, at present it seems that secondary prevention is more effective on colorectal cancer survival, and the approaches which have yielded the most satisfying results, in terms of reduced mortality for cancer, are those aimed at detecting preneoplastic lesions, or cancer at an early stage in selected groups of subjects at average or increased risk of colorectal cancer. These groups are subjects aged 50years or older, affected individuals (gene carriers) or family members of hereditary colorectal cancer syndromes (i.e., Lynch syndrome and familial adenomatous polyposis), and patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. The most effective procedures used, though with some drawbacks, are fecal occult blood tests and colonoscopy. Future research should be addressed to find new approaches that will render preventive strategies more acceptable for the population, and more cost-effective. Copyright © 2015 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The clinical significance of circulating tumor cells in non-metastatic colorectal cancer - A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, M; Jess, Per

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Finding a clinical tool to improve the risk stratification and identifying those colorectal cancer patients with an increased risk of recurrence is of great importance. The presence of circulating tumor cells (CTC) in peripheral blood can be a strong marker of poor prognosis in patients...... with metastatic disease, but the prognostic role of CTC in non-metastatic colorectal cancer is less clear. The aim of this review is to examine the possible clinical significance of circulating tumor cells in non-metastatic colorectal cancer (TNM-stage I-III) with the primary focus on detection methods...... and prognosis. METHODS: The PubMed and Cochrane database and reference lists of relevant articles were searched for scientific literature published in English from January 2000 to June 2010. We included studies with non-metastatic colorectal cancer (TNM-stage I-III) and CTC detected pre- and/or post...

  12. Anal metastasis originating from colorectal cancer: Report of two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Min; Lim, Joon Seok; Choi, Jin Young; Park, Mi Suk; Kim, Myeong Jin [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Taek; Kim, Ho Guen [Dept. of Pathology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Anal metastasis from colorectal cancer rarely occurs, but it severely impairs the patient's quality of life, often requiring wide resection including the anal sphincter with permanent colostomy. This lesion can be misdiagnosed as a perianal fistula or an abscess, and it can be overlooked at the time of surgery because it is not included in the routine surgical extent of low anterior resection. We report two rare cases of anal metastasis from colorectal cancer. In both cases, perianal nodules with an internal solid portion were detected on preoperative rectal magnetic resonance imaging and additional local excisions of the anal lesions were performed during the process of treatment. Anal metastasis was pathologically confirmed by histology and immunohistochemical staining.

  13. Expression of cystatin C in clinical human colorectal cancer tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Yousif; Sebzda, Tadeusz; Warwas, Maria; Kopec, Wieslaw; Ziólkowska, Jolanta; Siewinski, Maciej

    2005-01-01

    We studied the relation between the antipapain activity of cysteine proteinase inhibitors (CPI) and immunohistochemical staining for cystatin C, using anti-chicken cystatin antibodies, in the colorectal cancer tissues. In primary tumour tissues immuno-peroxidase reactivity was present in the cytoplasm and on the cell surface membranes. Sections of non malignant tissues showed no staining. The percentages of positive staining were greater for adenocarcinoma than carcinoma,100% and 77% respectively. Antipapain activity which was increased in malignant tissues in comparison to control, rose successively from well differentiated carcinomas through moderately to poor differentiated. Invasive adenocarcinomas had higher antipapain activity than noninvasive ones. The results indicated that immunohistochemical detection of cystatin using anti-chicken cystatin antibodies could be useful in studying the prognostic significance of cystatin C expression in colorectal cancer.

  14. Colorectal (Colon) Cancer: What Are the Risk Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Colorectal (Colon) Cancer Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... Risk Assessment Tool (National Cancer Institute) Learning About Colon Cancer Stay Informed Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats ...

  15. Clinical Usefulness of Serum CYFRA 21-1 in Patients with Colorectal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jai Hyuen

    2013-01-01

    Among diverse tumor markers, pretreatment evaluation and follow-up detection of recurrence in colorectal cancer are generally evaluated by serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels. However, there have been some reports about the low accuracy and high false-positive results of CEA in colorectal cancer. We investigated the clinical utilities of CYFRA 21-1 by comparing CEA and cancer antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) in pretreatment and recurrent colorectal cancer. Using a solid-phase immunoradiometric assay, serum levels of CYFRA 21-1, CEA and CA 19-9 were analyzed in 132 patients with primary colorectal cancer, 124 healthy controls, 104 patients with benign colorectal disease and 19 patients with recurrent colorectal cancer. We determined three different cutoff values to evaluate the sensitivity of diagnostic performance in pretreatment and recurrent colorectal cancer. CYFRA 21-1 (≥ 1.13 ng/ml) had a sensitivity of 47 %, compared with 37 % for CEA (≥ 3.05 ng/ml) and 32.6 % for CA 19-9 (≥ 23.1 ng/ml) in the initial staging of primary colorectal cancer. Using different cutoff values, CYFRA 21-1 showed higher sensitivity for pretreatment colorectal cancer than CEA and CA 19-9 in adenocarcinoma and adenosquamous carcinoma of this study. A mildly significant correlative relationship was noted between Dukes' stages and three tumor markers (p<0.01). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves of CYFRA 21-1, CEA and CA 19-9 were 0.81±0.03, 0.74±0.03 and 0.62±0.04, respectively, for discriminating colorectal cancer patients from patients with benign colorectal disease. In addition, CYFRA 21-1 was determined as the most sensitive tumor marker for evaluating recurrent colorectal cancer for all cutoff values. This study showed that CYFRA 21-1 could be a useful and dependable tumor marker for pretreatment and recurrent colorectal cancer. Further prospective studies on its usefulness with respect to the prognosis and utility of combined tumor markers are needed

  16. Clinical Usefulness of Serum CYFRA 21-1 in Patients with Colorectal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jai Hyuen [Dankook Univ. Medical College, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    Among diverse tumor markers, pretreatment evaluation and follow-up detection of recurrence in colorectal cancer are generally evaluated by serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels. However, there have been some reports about the low accuracy and high false-positive results of CEA in colorectal cancer. We investigated the clinical utilities of CYFRA 21-1 by comparing CEA and cancer antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) in pretreatment and recurrent colorectal cancer. Using a solid-phase immunoradiometric assay, serum levels of CYFRA 21-1, CEA and CA 19-9 were analyzed in 132 patients with primary colorectal cancer, 124 healthy controls, 104 patients with benign colorectal disease and 19 patients with recurrent colorectal cancer. We determined three different cutoff values to evaluate the sensitivity of diagnostic performance in pretreatment and recurrent colorectal cancer. CYFRA 21-1 (≥ 1.13 ng/ml) had a sensitivity of 47 %, compared with 37 % for CEA (≥ 3.05 ng/ml) and 32.6 % for CA 19-9 (≥ 23.1 ng/ml) in the initial staging of primary colorectal cancer. Using different cutoff values, CYFRA 21-1 showed higher sensitivity for pretreatment colorectal cancer than CEA and CA 19-9 in adenocarcinoma and adenosquamous carcinoma of this study. A mildly significant correlative relationship was noted between Dukes' stages and three tumor markers (p<0.01). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves of CYFRA 21-1, CEA and CA 19-9 were 0.81±0.03, 0.74±0.03 and 0.62±0.04, respectively, for discriminating colorectal cancer patients from patients with benign colorectal disease. In addition, CYFRA 21-1 was determined as the most sensitive tumor marker for evaluating recurrent colorectal cancer for all cutoff values. This study showed that CYFRA 21-1 could be a useful and dependable tumor marker for pretreatment and recurrent colorectal cancer. Further prospective studies on its usefulness with respect to the prognosis and utility of combined tumor markers are

  17. Colorectal Cancer: Late Presentation and Outcome of Treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Colorectal cancer remains a major health problem especially in developed countries where it ranks as the third most common cause of cancer in both men and women. Though incidence of colorectal cancer is low in Nigeria and other developing countries, outcome of treatment remains poor due largely to late ...

  18. Presentation of colorectal cancers in Benin-City, Nigeria | Eze ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Colorectal cancer is a major cause of cancer death worldwide, and the prevalence in Nigeria appears to be increasing due to a shift to western diets. We undertook a retrospective analysis of colorectal cancers seen at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City from January 1983 to December 2002.

  19. Clinical and biological aspects of mucinous colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hugen, N.

    2016-01-01

    In the Netherlands approximately 5% of all people will develop colorectal cancer during his or her life. The rapid development of individualized therapy for cancer patients has led to an increased interest in tumor subtypes. Currently, colorectal cancer patients are treated in the same way

  20. Barriers to colorectal cancer screening in Asia: A systematic review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is among the top five cancers afflicting both men and women globally. Once predominantly a Western disease, it has begun to rise in Asian countries as well. This systematic review aims to compile and analyze the various barriers towards colorectal cancer screening in Asia, and to ...

  1. Environmental Factors and Colorectal Tumor Risk in Individuals With Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diergaarde, B.; Braam, H.; Vasen, H.F.; Nagengast, F.M.; Muijen, van G.N.P.; Kok, F.J.; Kampman, E.

    2007-01-01

    Background & Aims: Individuals with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) are at increased risk for colorectal cancer. Environmental factors might play a role in HNPCC-associated carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the effects of environmental factors on

  2. Potential targets for colorectal cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temraz, Sally; Mukherji, Deborah; Shamseddine, Ali

    2013-08-22

    The step-wise development of colorectal neoplasia from adenoma to carcinoma suggests that specific interventions could delay or prevent the development of invasive cancer. Several key factors involved in colorectal cancer pathogenesis have already been identified including cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), survivin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). Clinical trials of COX-2 inhibitors have provided the "proof of principle" that inhibition of this enzyme can prevent the formation of colonic adenomas and potentially carcinomas, however concerns regarding the potential toxicity of these drugs have limited their use as a chemopreventative strategy. Curcumin, resveratrol and quercetin are chemopreventive agents that are able to suppress multiple signaling pathways involved in carcinogenesis and hence are attractive candidates for further research.

  3. Potential Targets for Colorectal Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shamseddine

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The step-wise development of colorectal neoplasia from adenoma to carcinoma suggests that specific interventions could delay or prevent the development of invasive cancer. Several key factors involved in colorectal cancer pathogenesis have already been identified including cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB, survivin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I. Clinical trials of COX-2 inhibitors have provided the “proof of principle” that inhibition of this enzyme can prevent the formation of colonic adenomas and potentially carcinomas, however concerns regarding the potential toxicity of these drugs have limited their use as a chemopreventative strategy. Curcumin, resveratrol and quercetin are chemopreventive agents that are able to suppress multiple signaling pathways involved in carcinogenesis and hence are attractive candidates for further research.

  4. A novel multitarget stool DNA test for colorectal cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Pramod

    2016-01-01

    Review of: Imperiale TF, Ransohoff DF, Itzkowitz SH, Levin TR, Lavin P, Lidgard GP, Ahlquist DA, Berger BM. Multitarget stool DNA testing for colorectal-cancer screening. N Engl J Med 2014;370(14):1287-97. This Practice Pearl reviews the results of a prospective, multicenter, cross-sectional clinical study that evaluated the performance of a new multitarget stool DNA (or mt-sDNA) screening test for colorectal cancer (CRC) and compared it with a fecal immunochemical test (FIT) in individuals at average risk for CRC. The potential impact of this test on the future of CRC screening is also discussed in a brief commentary. mt-sDNA testing is a noninvasive screening test designed to detect DNA biomarkers associated with colorectal neoplasia and occult hemoglobin in the stool. The sensitivity of mt-sDNA testing for detection of CRC was 92.3%, compared with 73.8% for FIT (p = 0.002). Sensitivity for detecting advanced precancerous lesions was 42.4% for mt-sDNA testing and 23.8% for FIT (p testing and FIT were 86.6% and 94.9%, respectively (p testing thus may be a first-line screening option for asymptomatic individuals at average risk for CRC who do not want to have a colonoscopy.

  5. MicroRNA-197 influences 5-fluorouracil resistance via thymidylate synthase in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Z; Zhou, N; Han, Q; Zhao, L; Bai, C; Chen, Y; Zhou, J; Zhao, R C

    2015-11-01

    The response rate of first-line fluoropyrimidine-based regimens for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) is generally less than 50 %. The down-regulation of miR-197 in colorectal cancer cells after exposure to 5-fluorouracil might be related to the mechanism of resistance to fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy. So we investigated the regulatory mechanism of miR-197 on 5-FU sensitivity. Dual luciferase reporter gene construct and dual luciferase reporter assay were used to identify the target of miR-197. TYMS expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry staining. 5-Fu resistance of colorectal cancer cell lines was detected by MTS assay. The expression of miR-197 was detected by real time PCR. A luciferase assay and western blot analysis confirmed that miR-197 directly binds to and negatively regulates TYMS expression. Overexpressing miR-197 could increase the sensitivity of colorectal cancer cells to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). The expression of miR-197 negatively correlated with TYMS expression in cancerous tissues from patients with stage IV colorectal cancer. miR-197 mediates the response of colorectal cancer cells to 5-FU by regulating TYMS expression.

  6. Current and future molecular diagnostics in colorectal cancer and colorectal adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Andy Hin-Fung; Cheng, Ka-Ho; Wong, Apple Siu-Ping; Ng, Simon Siu-Man; Ma, Brigette Buig-Yue; Chan, Charles Ming-Lok; Tsui, Nancy Bo-Yin; Chan, Lawrence Wing-Chi; Yung, Benjamin Yat-Ming; Wong, Sze-Chuen Cesar

    2014-04-14

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most prevalent cancers in developed countries. On the other hand, CRC is also one of the most curable cancers if it is detected in early stages through regular colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy. Since CRC develops slowly from precancerous lesions, early detection can reduce both the incidence and mortality of the disease. Fecal occult blood test is a widely used non-invasive screening tool for CRC. Although fecal occult blood test is simple and cost-effective in screening CRC, there is room for improvement in terms of the accuracy of the test. Genetic dysregulations have been found to play an important role in CRC development. With better understanding of the molecular basis of CRC, there is a growing expectation on the development of diagnostic tests based on more sensitive and specific molecular markers and those tests may provide a breakthrough to the limitations of current screening tests for CRC. In this review, the molecular basis of CRC development, the characteristics and applications of different non-invasive molecular biomarkers, as well as the technologies available for the detection were discussed. This review intended to provide a summary on the current and future molecular diagnostics in CRC and its pre-malignant state, colorectal adenoma.

  7. Reduced 30-Day Mortality After Laparoscopic Colorectal Cancer Surgery: A Population Based Study From the Dutch Surgical Colorectal Audit (DSCA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gietelink, Lieke; Wouters, Michel W. J. M.; Bemelman, Willem A.; Dekker, Jan Willem; Tollenaar, Rob A. E. M.; Tanis, Pieter J.

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of a laparoscopic resection on postoperative mortality after colorectal cancer surgery. The question whether laparoscopic resection (LR) compared with open surgery [open resection (OR)] for colorectal cancer influences the risk of postoperative mortality remains unresolved.

  8. Oestrogen receptor beta isoform expression in sporadic colorectal cancer, familial adenomatous polyposis and progressive stages of colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevanato Filho, Paulo Roberto; Aguiar Júnior, Samuel; Begnami, Maria Dirlei

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Among the sex hormones, oestrogen may play a role in colorectal cancer, particularly in conjunction with oestrogen receptor-β (ERβ). The expression of ERβ isoform variants and their correlations with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) syndrome and sporadic colorectal carcinomas are ...... provide a better understanding of oestrogens and their potential preventive and therapeutic effects on sporadic colorectal cancer and cancers associated with FAP syndrome.......BACKGROUND: Among the sex hormones, oestrogen may play a role in colorectal cancer, particularly in conjunction with oestrogen receptor-β (ERβ). The expression of ERβ isoform variants and their correlations with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) syndrome and sporadic colorectal carcinomas...... was identified in sporadic polyps and in sporadic colorectal cancer as well as in polyps from FAP syndrome patients compared with normal tissues (p

  9. Risk factors for metachronous colorectal cancer following a primary colorectal cancer: A prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Jayasekara, Harindra; Reece, Jeanette C.; Buchanan, Daniel D.; Rosty, Christophe; Dashti, S. Ghazaleh; Ouakrim, Driss Ait; Winship, Ingrid M.; Macrae, Finlay A.; Boussioutas, Alex; Giles, Graham G.; Ahnen, Dennis J.; Lowery, Jan; Casey, Graham; Haile, Robert W.; Gallinger, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Individuals diagnosed with colorectal cancer (CRC) are at risk of developing a metachronous CRC. We examined the associations between personal, tumour-related and lifestyle risk factors, and risk of metachronous CRC. A total of 7,863 participants with incident colon or rectal cancer who were recruited in the USA, Canada and Australia to the Colon Cancer Family Registry during 1997–2012, except those identified as high-risk e.g. Lynch syndrome, were followed up approximately ...

  10. Serum YKL-40 and colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cintin, C; Johansen, J S; Christensen, Ib Jarle

    1999-01-01

    related to short survival. In the present study we analysed YKL-40 in preoperative sera from patients with colorectal cancer and evaluated its relation to survival. Serum YKL-40 was determined by RIA in 603 patients. Survival after operation was registered, and median follow-up time was 61 months. Three......YKL-40 is a mammalian member of the chitinase protein family. Although the function of YKL-40 is unknown, the pattern of its expression suggests a function in remodelling or degradation of extracellular matrix. High serum YKL-40 has been found in patients with recurrent breast cancer and has been...

  11. Aspirin Metabolomics in Colorectal Cancer Chemoprevention | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substantial evidence supports the effectiveness of aspirin for cancer chemoprevention in addition to its well-established role in cardiovascular protection. In recent meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials in humans, daily aspirin use reduced incidence, metastasis and mortality from several common types of cancer, especially colorectal cancer. The mechanism(s) by which aspirin exerts an anticancer benefit is uncertain; numerous effects have been described involving both cyclooxygenase-dependent and -independent pathways. |

  12. Prevalence of JC virus in Chinese patients with colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaozhou Mou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: JCV is a DNA polyomavirus very well adapted to humans. Although JCV DNA has been detected in colorectal cancers (CRC, the association between JCV and CRC remains controversial. In China, the presence of JCV infection in CRC patients has not been reported. Here, we investigated JCV infection and viral DNA load in Chinese CRC patients and to determine whether the JCV DNA in peripheral blood (PB can be used as a diagnostic marker for JCV-related CRC. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Tumor tissues, non-cancerous tumor-adjacent tissues and PB samples were collected from 137 CRC patients. In addition, 80 normal colorectal tissue samples from patients without CRC and PB samples from 100 healthy volunteers were also harvested as controls. JCV DNA was detected by nested PCR and glass slide-based dot blotting. Viral DNA load of positive samples were determined by quantitative real-time PCR. JCV DNA was detected in 40.9% (56/137 of CRC tissues at a viral load of 49.1 to 10.3×10(4 copies/µg DNA. Thirty-four (24.5% non-cancerous colorectal tissues (192.9 to 4.4×10(3 copies/µg DNA and 25 (18.2% PB samples (81.3 to 4.9×10(3 copies/µg DNA from CRC patients were positive for JCV. Tumor tissues had higher levels of JCV than non-cancerous tissues (P = 0.003 or PB samples (P<0.001. No correlation between the presence of JCV and demographic or medical characteristics was observed. The JCV prevalence in PB samples was significantly associated with the JCV status in tissue samples (P<0.001. Eleven (13.8% normal colorectal tissues and seven (7.0% PB samples from healthy donors were positive for JCV. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: JCV infection is frequently present in colorectal tumor tissues of CRC patients. Although the association between JCV presence in PB samples and JCV status in tissue samples was identified in this study, whether PB JCV detection can serve as a marker for JCV status of CRC requires further study.

  13. Expression of prostasin and its inhibitors during colorectal cancer carcinogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selzer-Plon, J.; Bornholdt, J.; Friis, S.

    2009-01-01

    is inhibited by protease nexin-1 (PN-1) and the two isoforms encoded by the mRNA splice variants of hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor-1 (HAI-1), HAI-1A, and HAI-1B. Methods: Using quantitative RT-PCR, we have determined the mRNA levels for prostasin and PN-1 in colorectal cancer tissue (n = 116.......01) and in carcinomas (p colorectal cancer tissue as compared to healthy individuals (p colorectal cancer...... tissue (p Immunohistochemistry showed that prostasin is located mainly on the apical plasma membrane in normal colorectal tissue. A large variation was found...

  14. Early colorectal Cancer: focuses and handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas, Oscar A; Martinez, Carlos E; Escobar, Jaime; Sanchez, William; Serrano, Juan M

    2001-01-01

    Currently, early colorectal cancer (ECC) constitutes only 10% of the total of diagnosed colorectal malignancy. This proportion is expected to show an important increase with the different screening protocols that are on the way, together with recent advances in diagnostic and therapeutic colonoscopy. We compare the histopathologic spectrum of ECC from the western and Japanese viewpoint, defining the anatomopathologic characteristics of this lesions, together with the natural history and new classification and staging systems; variables which are all oriented to establish the grade of local invasion and risk of nodal spread. The knowledge and integral analysis of the different biologic, clinical, histological and endoscopic characteristics of ECC, will determine the most rational individual therapeutic pathway from the prognostic point of view

  15. Using Comics to Promote Colorectal Cancer Screening in the Asian American and Pacific Islander Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiayan Linda; Acevedo, Nazia; Sadler, Georgia Robins

    2017-06-23

    There are unaesthetic aspects in teaching people about the early detection of colorectal cancer using the fecal immunochemical test. Comics were seen as a way to overcome those unaesthetic aspects. This study used the Asian grocery store-based cancer education venue to pilot-test the clarity, cultural acceptability, and alignment of five colorectal cancer education comics intended for publication in Asian American and Pacific Islander (API) community newspapers. After developing the colorectal cancer education comics, API students asked shoppers to review a comic from their collection and provide feedback on how to make the comic clearer and more culturally pertinent to API readers. To evaluate viewers' responses, the students gathered such unobtrusive data as: (1) how many of the predetermined salient information points were discussed as the student educators interacted with shoppers and (2) how many comics the shoppers were willing to review. Shoppers were also asked to evaluate how effective the comics would be at motivating colorectal cancer screening among APIs. The students were able to cover all of the salient information points with the first comic. As evidence of the comics' capacity to engage shoppers' interest, shoppers willingly evaluated all five comics. Using multiple comics enabled the educators to repeatedly address the four salient colorectal cancer information points. Thus, the comics helped student educators to overcome the unesthetic elements of colorectal cancer discussions, while enabling them to engage shoppers in animated discussions, for far more time than with their conventional didactic educational methods.

  16. PET/CT diagnostic of colo-rectal cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straciuc, O.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Objective: Presenting the advantages of Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (PET/ CT) examination, using the radiotracer fluorure 18-deoxyglucose (FDG) in colo-rectal cancer diagnostic. Basics of the method will be also presented. Introduction: FDG PET/CT is recognized as the most efficient diagnostic imaging weapon in colorectal cancer, enable too comprehend all the 3 targets needed for staging of colo-rectal cancers: 1)Detection and evaluation of primary tumor (T) and recurrence; 2) Lymphadenopathy (N); 3)Metastatic disease (M). Assessment of treatment response during and after therapy, follow up and radiotherapy planning are also indications for PET/CT. There are two essential advantages of the method: 1)The whole body examination; 2)The complementary morphological information offered by CT and functional information offered by PET. Material and methods: Study of a total of 394 patients diagnosed with colo-rectal cancer of the total of 4125 investigated by PET/CT in Diagnosztika Pozitron center of Oradea, between 01.06.2008 - 06.06.2012. All cases had documented preoperative or postoperative histopathologic evaluation. We used a Siemens Biograph 16 device and only FDG as radiotracer, injected intravenously at a dose of 0.1-0.15 mCi /kg. Standard protocol of examination was performed at 60 minutes after FDG injection. CT acquisition consists of 'low dose' from vertex to thighs, followed by PET acquisition in 7 to 8 beds. Results: We followed the performance of PET/CT diagnostic in staging and restaging of colorectal cancer compared with other imaging methods. 141 patients had negative examinations. 107 patients were diagnosed with locally recurrent lesions, lymphadenopathy and/ or metastases. Compared with the results of previous imaging new metabolically active lesions were detected in 87 patients by PET/CT and suspected lesions were denied in 48 patients. Significant clinically cases are presented. Conclusions: The data obtained by PET

  17. Patterns and presentations of colorectal cancer at Komfo-Anokye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Colorectal cancer is a major cause of morbidity and mortality globally and its incidence is increasing in developing countries. This study determined the incidence, clinical features and the histopathological patterns of colorectal cancer at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH), Kumasi, Ghana. Methods: A ...

  18. Screening and Management of Colon Polyp as Colorectal Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gratcia Ayundini

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Colon polyp is a term used for abnormality from bulging tissue above surrounding colonic mucosal layer. Adenoma polyp was the commonly found polyp that progress to colorectal cancer. Most of those patients was asymptomatic. Undetected and unmanaged polyp was a risk factors of colorectal cancer event.

  19. Clinical Outcomes of Colorectal Cancer in Kenya | Saidi | Annals of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background The incidence of colorectal cancer in Africa is increasing. True data on clinical outcomes of the disease is hampered by follow up challenges. Method Follow up data of 233 patients treated for colorectal cancer between 2005 and 2010 at various Nairobi hospitals were evaluated. The primary outcome was ...

  20. Vaccination with apoptosis colorectal cancer cell pulsed autologous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To investigate vaccination with apoptosis colorectal cancer (CRC) cell pulsed autologous dendritic cells (DCs) in advanced CRC, 14 patients with advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) were enrolled and treated with DCs vaccine to assess toxicity, tolerability, immune and clinical responses to the vaccine. No severe toxicity ...

  1. Gene expression signatures for colorectal cancer microsatellite status and HNPCC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruhøffer, M; Jensen, J L; Laiho, P

    2005-01-01

    The majority of microsatellite instable (MSI) colorectal cancers are sporadic, but a subset belongs to the syndrome hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). Microsatellite instability is caused by dysfunction of the mismatch repair (MMR) system that leads to a mutator phenotype, and MSI...

  2. Colorectal cancer screening awareness among physicians in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatzimichalis Georgios

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data comparison between SEER and EUROCARE database provided evidence that colorectal cancer survival in USA is higher than in European countries. Since adjustment for stage at diagnosis markedly reduces the survival differences, a screening bias was hypothesized. Considering the important role of primary care in screening activities, the purpose of the study was to investigate the colorectal cancer screening awareness among Hellenic physicians. Methods 211 primary care physicians were surveyed by mean of a self-reported prescription-habits questionnaire. Both physicians' colorectal cancer screening behaviors and colorectal cancer screening recommendations during usual check-up visits were analyzed. Results Only 50% of physicians were found to recommend screening for colorectal cancer during usual check-up visits, and only 25% prescribed cost-effective procedures. The percentage of physicians recommending stool occult blood test and sigmoidoscopy was 24% and 4% respectively. Only 48% and 23% of physicians recognized a cancer screening value for stool occult blood test and sigmoidoscopy. Colorectal screening recommendations were statistically lower among physicians aged 30 or less (p = 0.012. No differences were found when gender, level and type of specialization were analyzed, even though specialists in general practice showed a trend for better prescription (p = 0.054. Conclusion Contemporary recommendations for colorectal cancer screening are not followed by implementation in primary care setting. Education on presymptomatic control and screening practice monitoring are required if primary care is to make a major impact on colorectal cancer mortality.

  3. Workload and surgeon's specialty for outcome after colorectal cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Archampong, David; Borowski, David; Wille-Jørgensen, Peer

    2012-01-01

    A large body of research has focused on investigating the effects of healthcare provider volume and specialization on patient outcomes including outcomes of colorectal cancer surgery. However there is conflicting evidence about the role of such healthcare provider characteristics in the management...... of colorectal cancer....

  4. The expression and significance of Gal-3 and MUC1 in colorectal cancer and colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang H

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Hong-shan Wang,1 Li-hong Wang2 1General Surgery Department, Zhengzhou People’s Hospital, Zhengzhou City, Henan Province, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Gastroenterology, Zhengzhou Central Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou City, Henan Province, People’s Republic of China Objective: The objective of the present investigation was to explore the expression and significance of Gal-3 and MUC1 in colorectal cancer tissue and tissue adjacent to carcinoma.Methods: In this study we collected colorectal cancer tissues and the tissues adjacent to carcinoma from 45 cases from the Colorectal Cancer Surgery Department of Zhengzhou People’s Hospital from December of 2009 to June of 2010. At the same time, this study also collected nontumor tissues adjacent to carcinoma from 20 cases as the control group. The expression of Gal-3 and MUC1 of these tissues was detected by using immunohistochemistry streptavidin-peroxidase method, and the correlation between colorectal cancer and expression of Gal-3 and MUC1 was analyzed.Results: The positive expression rates of Gal-3 in the tissues adjacent to carcinoma and colorectal cancer were 15.0% and 73.3%, respectively. The positive expression rate of Gal-3 in colorectal cancer was significantly higher than that in the tissue adjacent to carcinoma. The positive expression rate of Gal-3 of the patients without lymph node metastasis was 61.5% (16/26. The positive expression rate of Gal-3 in the patients with lymph node metastasis was 89.5% (17/19, and the difference was statistically significant (P=0.0363. The positive expression rates of MUC1 in the tissues adjacent to carcinoma and in colorectal cancer tissues were 0.0% and 54.5%, respectively. The positive expression rate of MUC1 in colorectal cancer tissues was significantly higher than that in the normal tissues adjacent to carcinoma (P<0.05; the positive expression rate of MUC1 in the patients without lymph node metastasis was 34.6% (9

  5. Epidemiology of colorectal cancer; Epidemiologie kolorektaler Tumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, N. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum Heidelberg (Germany)

    2003-02-01

    Colorectal tumors are among the most frequently encountered forms of cancer worldwide. With approximately 57,000 new cases every year, they represent the most frequent type of cancer in Germany, ranking before breast cancer (approximately 46,000) and lung cancer (approximately 37,000). Although global incidence is on the rise, in Germany it is only increasing among men, but not among women. The mortality rate (approximately 26,500 deaths annually) in Germany has declined among men for about the past 10 years and among women for about the past 20 years.The most important risk factors are familial history of colorectal and other tumors as well as lifestyle factors such as nutrition, obesity, inactivity,and smoking.Lifestyle-related risks offer a broad area for implementing primary preventive measures, which have not yet been adequately exhausted. Several proven (fecal occult blood test) and probably effective (endoscopic) methods are available for secondary prevention. Consistent encouragement of these possibilities for prevention could reduce incidence and mortality substantially and render colorectal tumors less frequent. (orig.) [German] Kolorektale Tumoren gehoeren weltweit zu den haeufigsten Krebsarten und sind mit jaehrlich ca.57000 Neuerkrankungsfaellen vor Brustkrebs (ca. 46000) und Lungenkrebs (ca. 37000) die haeufigste Krebsart in Deutschland.Waehrend die Inzidenz weltweit steigt, nimmt sie in Deutschland nur bei Maennern,nicht aber bei Frauen zu.Die Mortalitaet (jaehrlich ca.26500 Todesfaelle) geht hierzulande bei Maennern seit ca.10 Jahren, bei Frauen seit ca.20 Jahren zurueck. Die bedeutendsten Risikofaktoren sind familiaere Vorgeschichte an kolorektalen und anderen Tumoren sowie Lebensstilfaktoren wie Ernaehrung, Uebergewicht,Bewegungsmangel und Rauchen.Die lebensstilbedingten Risiken bieten breiten Raum fuer primaere Praevention, der bisher nur unzureichend ausgeschoepft ist.Auch fuer sekundaere Praevention stehen mehrere nachgewiesenermassen (Test auf

  6. Characterization of newly established colorectal cancer cell lines ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    2000-12-19

    Gastroenterology Service,. Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA. Abstract. We have established a series of 20 colorectal cancer cell lines and performed ...

  7. Deranged Wnt signaling is frequent in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isinger-Ekstrand, Anna; Therkildsen, Christina; Bernstein, Inge

    2011-01-01

    The Wnt signaling pathway is frequently deranged in colorectal cancer and is a key target for future preventive and therapeutic approaches. Colorectal cancers associated with the hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) syndrome are characterized by wide-spread microsatellite instability......, but show few gross genomic alterations. We characterized expression of the Wnt signaling pathway markers β-catenin, E-cadherin, TCF-4, and PTEN using immunohistochemical staining in colorectal cancers from individuals with HNPCC. Reduced membranous staining for β-catenin was found in 64% and for E......% of the tumors. In summary, altered expression of target molecules in the Wnt signaling pathway was demonstrated in the vast majority of the HNPCC-associated tumors, which support deranged Wnt-signaling as a central tumorigenic mechanism also in MMR defective colorectal cancer....

  8. Deranged Wnt signaling is frequent in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isinger-Ekstrand, Anna; Therkildsen, Christina; Bernstein, Inge

    2011-01-01

    The Wnt signaling pathway is frequently deranged in colorectal cancer and is a key target for future preventive and therapeutic approaches. Colorectal cancers associated with the hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) syndrome are characterized by wide-spread microsatellite instability......, but show few gross genomic alterations. We characterized expression of the Wnt signaling pathway markers ß-catenin, E-cadherin, TCF-4, and PTEN using immunohistochemical staining in colorectal cancers from individuals with HNPCC. Reduced membranous staining for ß-catenin was found in 64% and for E......% of the tumors. In summary, altered expression of target molecules in the Wnt signaling pathway was demonstrated in the vast majority of the HNPCC-associated tumors, which support deranged Wnt-signaling as a central tumorigenic mechanism also in MMR defective colorectal cancer....

  9. [Relationship between insulin-like growth factor II and prognosis of colorectal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Z; Liu, F; Qi, X; Li, J

    1999-12-01

    To investigate the relationship between insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) and prognosis of colorectal cancer. One hundred and forty-two colorectal cancer patients were enrolled. In colonoscopic biopsy specimens, the expression of IGF-II and PCNA were detected immunohistochemically, while TUNEL technique was used to detect apoptosis. All patients were followed up, and disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rate were calculated. The expression level of IGF-II was significantly higher in colorectal cancer than in normal colorectal mucosa. A correlation was observed between more IGF-II expression, high PCNA labeling index, and apoptotic index was demonstrated. Patients with lower expression level of IGF-II had higher DFS and OS. Multivariate analysis by means of the Cox proportional-hazards model revealed that the expression level of IGF-II was an independent prognostic predictor in colorectal cancer patients. The expression level of IGF-II is a new prognostic predictor for colorectal cancer.

  10. The rapidly escalating cost of treating colorectal cancer in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananda, Sumitra; Kosmider, Suzanne; Tran, Ben; Field, Kathryn; Jones, Ian; Skinner, Iain; Guerrieri, Mario; Chapman, Michael; Gibbs, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Considerable progress in cancer treatment is leading to better outcomes, but the cost of therapy is placing increasing pressure on the health system. Understanding the real-world cost of therapies for each stage will become increasingly important in informing treatment selection and health policy. To explore the cost of treating colorectal cancer in the modern era, data were entered onto a prospective database at four hospitals. We estimated the impact of bevacizumab by using data from July 2009, and projected the likely impact of the recent listing of cetuximab. The utility of these data for estimating the cost-effectiveness of treatment was explored. Cancer stage and age at diagnosis were major determinants of treatment received and the associated cost. The cost of early stage disease has not substantially changed whereas therapies such as oxaliplatin and irinotecan were significant contributors to substantial increases in stage IV disease, now $71,156 per patient. Bevacizumab has added at least $10,247 per patient and we estimate that cetuximab will add a further $12,022. An exploratory analysis of the cost-effectiveness of oxaliplatin for adjuvant therapy of stage III colon cancer suggests that this is well within the accepted range. These data suggest that recent progress in the treatment of later stages of colorectal cancer is being achieved at significant financial cost. The increased costs of managing later stages of disease make an investment in prevention and early detection ever more attractive. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Pulmonary nodules and metastases in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordholm-Carstensen, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Patients with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer (CRC) are subjected to a preoperative thoraco-abdominal CT scan to determine the cancer stage. This staging is of relevance with regard to treatment and prognosis. About 20% of the patients have distant metastatic spread at the time of diagnosis, i.e. synchronous metastases. Most common are hepatic metastases followed by pulmonary involvement. The optimal staging modality for detecting synchronous pulmonary metastases is debated. It has been argued, that synchronous pulmonary metastases (SPCM) are rare in CRC and that the consequence of detecting SPCM is minimal. Furthermore, the current staging practice is complicated by a high number of incidental findings on the thoracic CT, so-called indeterminate pulmonary nodules (IPN). IPN can potentially represent SPCM. The purpose of this thesis was to estimate the prevalence, characteristics and clinical significance of IPN and SPCM detected at the primary staging in CRC. Study I was a systematic review of published studies on IPN in CRC focusing on the prevalence and radiological characteristics of IPN proving to be malignant. This knowledge would be of value in management strategies for IPN. On average 9% of all patients staged with a thoracic CT had IPN, however, the prevalence varied significantly between patients series. This was mainly attributed to varying/lacking definitions on IPN and variable radiological expertise in the assessment of the scans. Data were too inconsistently reported in the case series for a robust statement to be made on potential radiological characteristics suggestive of malignancy in IPN. Lymph node metastasis was the most common clinicopathological finding associated with malignancy of IPN. In conclusion, one patient of every 100 scanned patients had an IPN proving to a SPCM at follow-up, but we found no evidence that IPN should result in intensified diagnostic work-up besides routine follow-up for CRC. Study II was an analysis of the

  12. Human colorectal cancer-derived mesenchymal stem cells promote colorectal cancer progression through IL-6/JAK2/STAT3 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaochao; Hu, Fayong; Li, Geng; Li, Guodong; Yang, Xi; Liu, Liang; Zhang, Rongsheng; Zhang, Bixiang; Feng, Yongdong

    2018-01-18

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been reported to localize in colorectal carcinomas, and participate in the formation of the tumor microenvironment. They have recently been isolated from colorectal cancer tissues, and are implicated in the growth, invasion, and metastasis of cancer cells. However, the roles and detailed mechanisms associated with human colorectal cancer-derived MSCs (CC-MSCs) have not been fully addressed. In this study, we found that CC-MSCs increased the migration and invasion of colorectal cancer cells and promoted the tumorigenesis of colorectal cancer through epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in vitro. We also found that CC-MSCs enhanced the growth and metastasis of colorectal cancer in vivo. Mechanistically, we determined that interleukin-6 (IL-6) was the most highly expressed cytokine in the CC-MSC conditioned medium, and promoted the progression of colorectal cancer cells through IL-6/JAK2/STAT3 signaling, which activated PI3K/AKT signaling. We used anti-IL-6 antibody to target IL-6. Collectively, these results reveal that the IL-6 secreted by CC-MSCs enhances the progression of colorectal cancer cells through IL-6/JAK2/STAT3 signaling, and could provide a novel therapeutic or preventive target.

  13. The evaluation of diagnostic value of the tumor markers: CCSA-2 and CEA in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knychalski, Bartłomiej; Lukieńczuk, Tadeusz

    2012-02-01

    Finding the biomarker or biomarkers with high sensitivity and specificity in colorectal cancer, and thus a high diagnostic value will determine their clinical usefulness in clinical practice. An effective noninvasive blood test would be an ideal method to detect colorectal cancer. Discovered in 2007 a novel tumor marker CCSA-2 showes a promising results in patients with colorectal cancer. THE AIM OF THE STUDY was the evaluation of diagnostic and clinical value of a novel marker - colon cancer specific antigen-2 (CCSA-2) in colorectal adenocarcinoma in comparison to carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in patients operated during the years 2008 to 2010 at Wrocław Medical University 1st Department and Clinic of General, Gastroenterological and Endocrinologic Surgery. The study was performed on 40 patients with colorectal cancer and 40 patients in control group consisted of healthy subjects who had colonoscopy examinations with negative results (no pathology in the colon was found). The obtained results were statistically analyzed using nonparametric tests - Mann Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis and Spearman's rank correlation coefficients. To determine the clinical value of CCSA-2 and CEA in those groups, their sensitivity and specifity was evaluated using ROC analysis. This analysis determines the accuracy and diagnostic value of both tests. There was a positive correlation between markers in patients with colorectal cancer and a statistically significant relationship according to which respondents with higher concentrations of CCSA-2 also have higher concentrations of CEA (R=0.754, ptumor markers increase and correlate with the clinical progression of the disease. Accuracy of CCSA-2 test using ROC analysis showed a slightly lower measurement of antigen CCSA-2 as diagnostic value in colorectal cancer in comparison to measurement of antigen CEA (accuracy of tests: CCSA-2 - 52%, CEA - 60%). CCSA-2 as a single tumor marker has a low diagnostic value in colorectal cancer because

  14. Prokineticin 1 protein expression is a useful new prognostic factor for human sporadic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Toshiyuki; Goi, Takanori; Hirono, Yasuo; Yamaguchi, Akio

    2015-05-01

    Hematogenous metastasis, regarded as closely related to angiogenic growth factors, is associated with colorectal cancer prognosis. The angiogenic growth factor prokineticin 1 (PROK1) has been cloned from endocrine cells. However, its protein expression in human malignant tumors has not been studied. The current study established the anti-PROK1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) and examined the relationship between the expression of PROK1 protein and human colorectal cancer. The expression of PROK1 protein was assessed in 620 resected sporadic colorectal cancer tissue samples by immunohistochemical staining with in-house-developed human PROK1 mAb to investigate the relationship of PROK1 expression to clinicopathologic factors, recurrence, and survival rate and to evaluate its prognostic significance. The expression of PROK1 protein was detected in 36 % (223/620) of human primary colorectal cancer lesions but no in the healthy mucosa adjacent to the colorectal cancer lesions. According to the clinicopathologic examinations, the frequency of positive PROK1 expression was significantly higher in cases with serosal invasion, lymphatic invasion, venous invasion, lymph node metastasis, liver metastasis, hematogenous metastasis, and higher stage disease. The recurrence rate and prognosis for patients with PROK1 expression-positive lesions were significantly worse. In the Cox proportional hazard model, PROK1 expression was an independent prognostic factor. The expression of PROK1 protein was identified for the first time as a new prognostic factor in colorectal cancer.

  15. Use of National Comprehensive Cancer Network and Other Guidelines and Biomarkers for Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Christina D.; Grady, William M.; Zullig, Leah L.

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains a common cancer and significant public health burden. CRC-related mortality is declining, in part due to the early detection of CRC through robust screening. The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) has established CRC screening guidelines to aid healthcare providers in making appropriate recommendations for screening according to a patient’s risk of developing CRC. The purpose of this review is to describe the evolution of CRC screening guidelines for average risk individuals, discuss the role of NCCN CRC screening guidelines in cancer prevention, and comment on the current and emerging use of biomarkers for CRC screening. PMID:27799515

  16. Alcohol intake and mortality among survivors of colorectal cancer: The Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Baiyu; Gapstur, Susan M; Newton, Christina C; Jacobs, Eric J; Campbell, Peter T

    2017-06-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with a higher risk of colorectal cancer, but to the authors' knowledge its influence on survival after a diagnosis of colorectal cancer is unclear. The authors investigated associations between prediagnosis and postdiagnosis alcohol intake with mortality among survivors of colorectal cancer. The authors identified 2458 men and women who were diagnosed with invasive, nonmetastatic colorectal cancer between 1992 (enrollment into the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort) and 2011. Alcohol consumption was self-reported at baseline and updated in 1997, 1999, 2003, and 2007. Postdiagnosis alcohol data were available for 1599 participants. Of the 2458 participants diagnosed with colorectal cancer, 1156 died during follow-up through 2012. Prediagnosis and postdiagnosis alcohol consumption were not found to be associated with all-cause mortality, except for an association between prediagnosis consumption of mortality (relative risk [RR], 0.86; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.74-1.00) compared with never drinking. Alcohol use was generally not associated with colorectal cancer-specific mortality, although there was some suggestion of increased colorectal cancer-specific mortality with postdiagnosis drinking (RR, 1.27 [95% CI, 0.87-1.86] for current drinking of mortality among individuals with nonmetastatic colorectal cancer. The association between postdiagnosis drinking and colorectal cancer-specific mortality should be examined in larger studies of individuals diagnosed with nonmetastatic colorectal cancer. Cancer 2017;123:2006-2013. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  17. The feasibility of FOBT tests in colorectal cancer screening in Dobrogea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suceveanu, Andra Iulia; Suceveanu, Adrian; Dumitru, Eugen; Alexandrescu, Luana; Voinea, Florea

    2005-09-01

    The high incidence of colorectal cancer in Eastern Europe and the declining mortality due to this pathology in the Western World, where screening programs for cancer are available, prove the necessity of implementing colorectal cancer screening in Romania, too. The aim of our study was to detect colorectal cancer in asymptomatic stages, where surgical treatment could be curative. The study was conducted in the Gastroenterology Department of Emergency Hospital, Constanta County, over a period of 18 months. We recruited apparently healthy people following all criteria recommended by the guidelines. From the total of 1098 patients included in the study, 162 patients with FOBT test positive followed the screening program undergoing colonoscopy or barium enema investigation. The rate of acceptance regarding the screening procedures was 70.3%. Advanced colon lesions were found in 14 patients (1.27%) and cancers in 7 cases (0.63%). According to TNM classification 5 cancers (71.4%) were surgically curative (TNM I/II/III) and 2 (28.5%) were advanced (TNM IV). The positive predictive value (PPVs) of FOBT for cancer was 4.7%. Even if the effect of screening on mortality was not demonstrated, our study results confirm the necessity of colorectal cancer screening in our country, as it is worldwide, detecting cancers in curative stages. The detection rate of FOBT positive tests for neoplasia was similar to other studies.

  18. Occurrence of BK Virus and Human Papilloma Virus in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarzyński, Adrian; Zając, Przemysław; Żebrowski, Remigiusz; Boguszewska, Anastazja; Polz-Dacewicz, Małgorzata

    2017-09-21

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. In Poland, it is the second most common cancer, regardless of gender. The aim of study was to analyze the incidence of HPV and BKV in the tissue of colorectal cancer and to determine the relationship between the presence of these viruses and the development of this cancer. The experiments were conducted using 50 colorectal cancer tissues collected from histological sections. The clinical material was embedded in paraffin blocks. Next, DNA extraction was performed. Isolates of colorectal cancer tissue were tested for the presence of HPV DNA. BKV DNA was detected by PCR using specific primers and then differentiated from JCV by digestion with BamHI enzyme. In clinical specimens taken from patients with colorectal cancer, HPV DNA was detected in 20% of cases. In 10% of cases the presence of HPV type 18 was confirmed, in the other 90% of the samples HPV type 16 was detected, while the presence of BKV was confirmed in 30% of cases. Coinfection with HPV and BKV was shown in 12% of patients. In one case, BK virus coexisted with HPV type 18, in the remaining 5 cases with HPV type 16. Developing colorectal cancer can show no symptoms, even for many years. This is why it is so important to become familiar with as many etiological factors as possible. The development of many human neoplasms is often initiated by exposure to infectious agents - such as bacterial or viral infections. Similar to the human papillomavirus, the BK virus was detected in clinical specimens. It seems that HPV and BKV infections can contribute to the neoplastic process, which requires detailed studies on a larger group of patients.

  19. Cytogenetic findings in metastases from colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardi, G; Parada, L A; Bomme, L

    1997-01-01

    Eighteen tumor samples from 11 patients with metastatic colorectal cancer were cytogenetically analyzed after short-term culturing. Of the 13 metastases examined, 11 were from lymph nodes, 1 from the peritoneum and 1 from the lung. In 5 of the 11 patients, matched samples from the primary tumor...... and lymph node metastases were analyzed. Cytogenetic similarities between the primary and secondary lesions were found in all 5 cases, indicating that many of the chromosomal aberrations presumably occurred before disease spreading took place. Compared with the primaries, the metastases appeared to exhibit...

  20. Extended Cancer Education for Longer-Term Survivors in Primary Care for Patients With Stage I-II Breast or Prostate Cancer or Stage I-III Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-15

    Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage I Colorectal Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage I Prostate Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage II Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage II Prostate Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIA Prostate Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIB Prostate Cancer; Stage IIC Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage III Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIC Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7

  1. Is it possible to predict the presence of colorectal cancer in a blood test?: a probabilistic approach method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Navarro-Rodríguez

    Full Text Available Introduction: The assessment of the state of immunosurveillance (the ability of the organism to prevent the development of neoplasias in the blood has prognostic implications of interest in colorectal cancer. We evaluated and quantified a possible predictive character of the disease in a blood test using a mathematical interaction index of several blood parameters. The predictive capacity of the index to detect colorectal cancer was also assessed. Methods: We performed a retrospective case-control study of a comparative analysis of the distribution of blood parameters in 266 patients with colorectal cancer and 266 healthy patients during the period from 2009 to 2013. Results: Statistically significant differences (p < 0.05 were observed between patients with colorectal cancer and the control group in terms of platelet counts, fibrinogen, total leukocytes, neutrophils, systemic immunovigilance indexes (neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio and platelet to lymphocyte ratio, hemoglobin, hematocrit and eosinophil levels. These differences allowed the design of a blood analytical profile that calculates the risk of colorectal cancer. This risk profile can be quantified via a mathematical formula with a probabilistic capacity to identify patients with the highest risk of the presence of colorectal cancer (area under the ROC curve = 0.85. Conclusions: We showed that a colorectal cancer predictive character exists in blood which can be quantified by an interaction index of several blood parameters. The design and development of interaction indexes of blood parameters constitutes an interesting research line for the development and improvement of programs for the screening of colorectal cancer.

  2. Determinants of recurrence after intended curative resection for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilhelmsen, Michael; Kring, Thomas; Jorgensen, Lars N

    2014-01-01

    Despite intended curative resection, colorectal cancer will recur in ∼45% of the patients. Results of meta-analyses conclude that frequent follow-up does not lead to early detection of recurrence, but improves overall survival. The present literature shows that several factors play important roles...... with recurrences, and tumors appear to have different mutations depending on their location. Patients with stage II or III disease are often treated with adjuvant chemotherapy despite the fact that the treatments are far from efficient among all patients, who are at risk of recurrence. Studies are now being...

  3. Ancestral susceptibility to colorectal cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Huhn, S.; Pardini, Barbara; Naccarati, Alessio; Vodička, Pavel (ed.); Hemminki, K.; Försti, A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 2 (2012), s. 197-204 ISSN 0267-8357 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/07/1430; GA ČR GAP304/10/1286 Grant - others:EU FP7(XE) HEALTH-F4-2007-200767 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : cancer susceptibility * molecular epidemiology * genetic susceptibility Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.500, year: 2012

  4. Colorectal cancer tumour markers and biomarkers: Recent therapeutic advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Gustaw; Słotwiński, Robert; Słodkowski, Maciej; Krasnodębski, Ireneusz Wojciech

    2016-02-07

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer among females and third among males worldwide. It also contributes significantly to cancer-related deaths, despite the continuous progress in diagnostic and therapeutic methods. Biomarkers currently play an important role in the detection and treatment of patients with colorectal cancer. Risk stratification for screening might be augmented by finding new biomarkers which alone or as a complement of existing tests might recognize either the predisposition or early stage of the disease. Biomarkers have also the potential to change diagnostic and treatment algorithms by selecting the proper chemotherapeutic drugs across a broad spectrum of patients. There are attempts to personalise chemotherapy based on presence or absence of specific biomarkers. In this review, we update review published last year and describe our understanding of tumour markers and biomarkers role in CRC screening, diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Goal of future research is to identify those biomarkers that could allow a non-invasive and cost-effective diagnosis, as well as to recognise the best prognostic panel and define the predictive biomarkers for available treatments.

  5. Colorectal cancer tumour markers and biomarkers: Recent therapeutic advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Gustaw; Słotwiński, Robert; Słodkowski, Maciej; Krasnodębski, Ireneusz Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer among females and third among males worldwide. It also contributes significantly to cancer-related deaths, despite the continuous progress in diagnostic and therapeutic methods. Biomarkers currently play an important role in the detection and treatment of patients with colorectal cancer. Risk stratification for screening might be augmented by finding new biomarkers which alone or as a complement of existing tests might recognize either the predisposition or early stage of the disease. Biomarkers have also the potential to change diagnostic and treatment algorithms by selecting the proper chemotherapeutic drugs across a broad spectrum of patients. There are attempts to personalise chemotherapy based on presence or absence of specific biomarkers. In this review, we update review published last year and describe our understanding of tumour markers and biomarkers role in CRC screening, diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Goal of future research is to identify those biomarkers that could allow a non-invasive and cost-effective diagnosis, as well as to recognise the best prognostic panel and define the predictive biomarkers for available treatments. PMID:26855534

  6. Colorectal cancer: diagnostic and therapeutic strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaillant, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    Technical advances that has been achieved during the past two decades have not dramatically improved the 35 % five-year rate observed in patients with colorectal cancer. These tumours remain one of the most challenging problems in public health policies in western countries. Screening applies to some subgroups of high-risk individuals and the general population aged over 50. In order to improve their efficacy, such screening programs imply large-scale information campaigns and a strong cooperation with the general physicians. The diagnosis is strongly suggested by any recent modification of bowel habits ad by rectal bleeding. It has to be confirmed by rectal examination and by colonoscopy which allows sampling to the tumour. Loco-regional and distant metastatic tumour spread must be assessed precisely before any therapeutic strategy is decided. Surgery, which resects the tumour en bloc with the corresponding lymphatic territories, is the only treatment that can achieve long term cure. In localized tumours, surgery alone can provide patients with 5-years survival rates close to 95 %. On the other hand, surgery alone is not sufficient to cure patients with advances cancers. In recent years, several adjuvant therapeutic modalities have been shown to improve the results of surgery in these cases (rectal cancer: pre-operative radiotherapy or post-operative radio-chemotherapy, colon cancer with nodal metastases: post-operative chemotherapy). There is a hope that a better use of our diagnostic and therapeutic armementarium would be able to avoid or to cure up to 75 % of the colorectal cancers we are dealing with. (author)

  7. Colorectal cancer: what's new in 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivoire, M.

    1992-01-01

    Five studies presented at the 1992 ASCO meeting are analysed. Kligerman's study was designed to determine if pre-treatment with WR-2721 could p rotect normal tissues from the toxicities induced by radiation therapy (in 100 patients with an advanced rectal cancer). This pre-treatment resulted in a 13% reduction of moderate and severe acute toxicity. No WR-2721 patient experienced moderate or severe late toxicities compared to five in the group without pre-treatment. Minski studied the acute toxicity (during treatment and two weeks after) of combined pelvic radiation therapy, 5-FU and leucovorin when delivered pre-operatively (16 patients) versus post-operatively (25 patients) in patients with rectal cancer. The final report of the inter group study of 5-FU plus levamisole as adjuvant therapy for stage C colon cancer was made by Moertel. With a median follow-up time of 5.5 years, the 5-FU plus levamisole treatment has reduced the recurrence rate by 39%, the cancer related death rate by 32% and the overall death rate by 31%. Most of the recurrences occurred during the first two years. There was a decrease in the liver, great omentum, peritoneum and lung metastases, but there was no modification in loco-regional recurrence rate. Welt presented a phase I/II study of radio-immunotherapy with I 131 monoclonal antibody A33 in patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma. Results were characterized by major hematologic toxicity and minor tumor response rate. Heiss undertook a prospective study to evaluate the influence of homologous blood transfusion on recurrence rate after colorectal cancer surgery. Fifty-eight patients receiving autologous blood transfusion were compared with sixty-two patients receiving homologous transfusion. With a median follow-up of 21 months a higher recurrence rate was found in the homologous group (29.4% versus 16.7%)

  8. Is prevalence of colorectal polyps higher in patients with family history of colorectal cancer?

    OpenAIRE

    Murad-Regadas, Sthela Maria; Bezerra, Carla Camila Rocha; Peixoto, Ana Ligia Rocha; Regadas, Francisco Sérgio Pinheiro; Rodrigues, Lusmar Veras; Siebra, José Airton Gonçalves; da Silva Fernandes, Graziela Olivia; Vasconcelos, Rafael Aragão

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTObjectives:To assess the prevalence of polyps in patients with a family history of colorectal cancer, in comparison to asymptomatic individuals with indication for screening.Methods:A prospective study in a group of patients who underwent colonoscopy between 2012 and 2014. Patients were divided into two groups: Group I: no family history of colorectal cancer, and Group II: with a family history in first-degree relatives. Demographic characteristics, findings on colonoscopy...

  9. Periostin Expression and Its Prognostic Value for Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zewu Li

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Integrin is important for cell growth, invasion and metastasis, which are frequently observed in malignant tumors. The periostin (POSTN gene encodes the ligand for integrin, one of the key focal adhesion proteins contributing to the formation of a structural link between the extracellular matrix and integrins. High expression levels of the POSTN gene are correlated with numerous human malignancies. We examined POSTN protein in colorectal cancer specimens from 115 patients by strictly following up using immunohistochemistry. Cytoplasm immunohistochemical staining showed POSTN protein expression in colorectal cancers. The positive expression rate of POSTN protein (59.13%, 68/115 in colorectal cancers was significantly higher than that in adjacent normal colon mucosa (0.47%, 11/109. POSTN over-expression in colorectal cancers was positively correlated with tumor size, differentiation, lymph node metastasis, serosal invasion, clinical stage and five-year survival rates. Further analysis showed that patients with advanced stage colorectal cancer and high POSTN expression levels had lower survival rates than those with early stage colorectal cancer and low POSTN expression levels. Overall, our results showed that POSTN played an important role in the progression of colorectal cancers.

  10. Patients' Awareness Of The Prevention And Treatment Of Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziki, Łukasz; Puła, Anna; Stawiski, Konrad; Mudza, Barbara; Włodarczyk, Marcin; Dziki, Adam

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the study was to assess patients' awareness of the prevention and treatment of colorectal cancer. Patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer, hospitalised at the Department of General and Colorectal Surgery of the Medical University in Łódź during the period from January 2015 to April 2015, were asked to complete a questionnaire concerning their families' medical case record, factors predisposing them to the development of colorectal cancer, the tests applied in diagnostics, and the treatment process. The questionnaire comprised 42 closed-ended questions with one correct answer. A statistical analysis of all answers was carried out. The study group consisted of 30 men and 20 women aged 27-94 years old. A strong, statistically significant negative correlation between a patient's age and his/her awareness of the prevention and treatment of colorectal cancer was noted (pcolorectal cancer (p=0.008), and the awareness of the prevention programme. The women's group was characterised by statistically significantly greater awareness of colonoscopy as a screening examination (p=0.004). Patients need more information on colorectal cancer, its risk factors, prevention, the treatment process, and postoperative care. Lack of awareness of the colorectal cancer issue can be one of the major factors contributing to the high incidence of this disease.

  11. Fusobacterium nucleatum Promotes Chemoresistance to Colorectal Cancer by Modulating Autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, TaChung; Guo, Fangfang; Yu, Yanan; Sun, Tiantian; Ma, Dan; Han, Jixuan; Qian, Yun; Kryczek, Ilona; Sun, Danfeng; Nagarsheth, Nisha; Chen, Yingxuan; Chen, Haoyan; Hong, Jie; Zou, Weiping; Fang, Jing-Yuan

    2017-07-27

    Gut microbiota are linked to chronic inflammation and carcinogenesis. Chemotherapy failure is the major cause of recurrence and poor prognosis in colorectal cancer patients. Here, we investigated the contribution of gut microbiota to chemoresistance in patients with colorectal cancer. We found that Fusobacterium (F.) nucleatum was abundant in colorectal cancer tissues in patients with recurrence post chemotherapy, and was associated with patient clinicopathological characterisitcs. Furthermore, our bioinformatic and functional studies demonstrated that F. nucleatum promoted colorectal cancer resistance to chemotherapy. Mechanistically, F. nucleatum targeted TLR4 and MYD88 innate immune signaling and specific microRNAs to activate the autophagy pathway and alter colorectal cancer chemotherapeutic response. Thus, F. nucleatum orchestrates a molecular network of the Toll-like receptor, microRNAs, and autophagy to clinically, biologically, and mechanistically control colorectal cancer chemoresistance. Measuring and targeting F. nucleatum and its associated pathway will yield valuable insight into clinical management and may ameliorate colorectal cancer patient outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Novel biotechnology approaches in colorectal cancer diagnosis and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavousipour, Soudabeh; Khademi, Fathemeh; Zamani, Mozhdeh; Vakili, Bahareh; Mokarram, Pooneh

    2017-06-01

    With ever-increasing molecular information about colorectal cancer (CRC), there is an expectation to detect more sensitive and specific molecular markers for new advanced diagnostic methods that can surpass the limitations of current screening tests. Moreover, enhanced molecular pathology knowledge about cancer has led to the development of targeted therapies, designed to interfere with specific aberrant biological pathways in cancer. Furthermore, biotechnology has opened a new window in CRC diagnosis and treatment by introducing different application of antibodies, antibody fragments, non-Ig scaffold proteins, and aptamers in targeted therapy and drug delivery. This review summarizes the molecular diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in CRC with a focus on genetic and epigenetic alterations, protein and metabolite markers as well as targeted therapy and drug delivery by Ig-scaffold proteins, non-Ig scaffold proteins, nanobodies, and aptamers.

  13. Incidence of colorectal cancer in young patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FÁBIO GUILHERME C. M. DE CAMPOS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC is traditionally diagnosed after de sixth decade of life, although a small percentage of cases are diagnosed in patients under 40 years of age, and incidence is increasing. There exists a great volume of controversy regarding clinical outcome of young patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer (CRC when compared to elder counterparts. Our aims were to evaluate the rate of CRC in young patients, to review the pertaining literature and to discuss outcomes and clinical prognosis. A retrospective review involving patients with CRC was undertaken, focusing on age at diagnosis. The information extracted from this literature review showed a trend towards a decreased incidence in older people with an opposite effect among adolescents and young adults. Moreover, biological aggressiveness in young adults diagnosed with CRC has not been fully recognized, although it is usually diagnosed later and in association with adverse histological features. Besides that, these features don't affect outcome. These apparent increase in CRC incidence among young patients during the last decades raises the need for a greater suspicious when evaluating common symptoms in this group. Thus, educational programs should widespread information for both population and physicians to improve prevention and early diagnosis results.

  14. Coffee Consumption and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmit, Stephanie L; Rennert, Hedy S; Rennert, Gad; Gruber, Stephen B

    2016-04-01

    Coffee contains several bioactive compounds relevant to colon physiology. Although coffee intake is a proposed protective factor for colorectal cancer, current evidence remains inconclusive. We investigated the association between coffee consumption and risk of colorectal cancer in 5,145 cases and 4,097 controls from the Molecular Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer (MECC) study, a population-based case-control study in northern Israel. We also examined this association by type of coffee, by cancer site (colon and rectum), and by ethnic subgroup (Ashkenazi Jews, Sephardi Jews, and Arabs). Coffee data were collected by interview using a validated, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Coffee consumption was associated with 26% lower odds of developing colorectal cancer [OR (drinkers vs. non-drinkers), 0.74; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.64-0.86; P consumption alone (OR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.68-0.99; P = 0.04) and for boiled coffee (OR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.71-0.94; P = 0.004). Increasing consumption of coffee was associated with lower odds of developing colorectal cancer. Compared with 2.5 servings/day (OR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.39-0.54; P colorectal cancer (Ptrend cancers. Coffee consumption may be inversely associated with risk of colorectal cancer in a dose-response manner. Global coffee consumption patterns suggest potential health benefits of the beverage for reducing the risk of colorectal cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(4); 634-9. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. Metabolic Adaptation to Nutritional Stress in Human Colorectal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Miyo, Masaaki; Konno, Masamitsu; Nishida, Naohiro; Sueda, Toshinori; Noguchi, Kozo; Matsui, Hidetoshi; Colvin, Hugh; Kawamoto, Koichi; Koseki, Jun; Haraguchi, Naotsugu; Nishimura, Junichi; Hata, Taishi; Gotoh, Noriko; Matsuda, Fumio; Satoh, Taroh

    2016-01-01

    Tumor cells respond to their microenvironment, which can include hypoxia and malnutrition, and adapt their metabolism to survive and grow. Some oncogenes are associated with cancer metabolism via regulation of the related enzymes or transporters. However, the importance of metabolism and precise metabolic effects of oncogenes in colorectal cancer remain unclear. We found that colorectal cancer cells survived under the condition of glucose depletion, and their resistance to such conditions dep...

  16. Dietary flavonoid intake and risk of stomach and colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Hae Dong; Kim, Jeongseon

    2013-02-21

    Stomach and colorectal cancers are common cancers and leading causes of cancer deaths. Because the alimentary tract can interact directly with dietary components, stomach and colorectal cancer may be closely related to dietary intake. We systematically searched published literature written in English via PubMed by searching for terms related to stomach and colorectal cancer risk and dietary flavonoids up to June 30, 2012. Twenty-three studies out of 209 identified articles were finally selected for the analysis. Log point effect estimates and the corresponding standard errors were calculated using covariate-adjusted point effect estimates and 95%CIs from the selected studies. Total dietary flavonoid intake was not associated with a reduced risk of colorectal or stomach cancer [odds ratio (OR) (95%CI) = 1.00 (0.90-1.11) and 1.07 (0.70-1.61), respectively]. Among flavonoid subclasses, the intake of flavonols, flavan-3-ols, anthocyanidins, and proanthocyanidins showed a significant inverse association with colorectal cancer risk [OR (95%CI) = 0.71 (0.63-0.81), 0.88 (0.79-0.97), 0.68 (0.56-0.82), and 0.72 (0.61-0.85), respectively]. A significant association was found only between flavonols and stomach cancer risk based on a limited number of selected studies [OR (95%CI) = 0.68 (0.46-0.99)]. In the summary estimates from case-control studies, all flavonoid subclasses except flavones and flavanones were inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk, whereas neither total flavonoids nor any subclasses of flavonoids were associated with colorectal cancer risk in the summary estimates based on the cohort studies. The significant association between flavonoid subclasses and cancer risk might be closely related to bias derived from the case-control design. There was no clear evidence that dietary flavonoids are associated with reduced risk of stomach and colorectal cancer.

  17. Role of physical activity and diet after colorectal cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Blarigan, Erin L; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A

    2015-06-01

    This review summarizes the evidence regarding physical activity and diet after colorectal cancer diagnosis in relation to quality of life, disease recurrence, and survival. There have been extensive reports on adiposity, inactivity, and certain diets, particularly those high in red and processed meats, and increased risk of colorectal cancer. Only in the past decade have data emerged on how such lifestyle factors are associated with outcomes in colorectal cancer survivors. Prospective observational studies have consistently reported that physical activity after colorectal cancer diagnosis reduces mortality. A meta-analysis estimated that each 15 metabolic equivalent task-hour per week increase in physical activity after colorectal cancer diagnosis was associated with a 38% lower risk of mortality. No randomized controlled trials have been completed to confirm that physical activity lowers risk of mortality among colorectal cancer survivors; however, trials have shown that physical activity, including structured exercise, is safe for colorectal cancer survivors (localized to metastatic stage, during and after treatment) and improves cardiorespiratory fitness and physical function. In addition, prospective observational studies have suggested that a Western dietary pattern, high carbohydrate intake, and consuming sugar-sweetened beverages after diagnosis may increase risk of colorectal cancer recurrence and mortality, but these data are limited to single analyses from one of two US cohorts. Additional data from prospective studies and randomized controlled trials are needed. Nonetheless, on the basis of the available evidence, it is reasonable to counsel colorectal cancer survivors to engage in regular physical activity and limit consumption of refined carbohydrates, red and processed meats, and sugar-sweetened beverages. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  18. Laparoscopic surgery in colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bressler Hernandez, Norlan; Martinez Perez, Elliot; Fernandez Rodriguez, Leopoldo; Torres Core, Ramiro

    2011-01-01

    In the current age of minimally invasive surgery, laparoscopic surgery for colon cancer has been established as oncologically equivalent to conventional open surgery. The advantages of laparoscopic surgery have translated into smaller incisions and shorter recovery. Since the advent of laparoscopy, surgeons have been fueled to develop less invasive operative methods as feasible alternatives to traditional procedures. As techniques evolved and technology advanced, laparoscopy became more widely accepted and is now more commonly used in many institutions. Recently, a trend toward less invasive surgery, driven by patient and surgeon alike, has been a major objective for many institutions because of the ability of laparoscopic surgery to reduce postoperative pain, achieve a quicker recovery time, and improve cosmetic outcomes. Although still evolving, traditional laparoscopy has served as a foundation for even further refinements in the minimally invasive approach and as a result, more advanced equipment and newer techniques have arisen

  19. Probiotics, prebiotics and colorectal cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambalam, Padma; Raman, Maya; Purama, Ravi Kiran; Doble, Mukesh

    2016-02-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC), the third major cause of mortality among various cancer types in United States, has been increasing in developing countries due to varying diet and dietary habits and occupational hazards. Recent evidences showed that composition of gut microbiota could be associated with the development of CRC and other gut dysbiosis. Modulation of gut microbiota by probiotics and prebiotics, either alone or in combination could positively influence the cross-talk between immune system and microbiota, would be beneficial in preventing inflammation and CRC. In this review, role of probiotics and prebiotics in the prevention of CRC has been discussed. Various epidemiological and experimental studies, specifically gut microbiome research has effectively improved the understanding about the role of probiotics and microbial treatment as anticarcinogenic agents. A few human studies support the beneficial effect of probiotics and prebiotics; hence, comprehensive understanding is urgent to realize the clinical applications of probiotics and prebiotics in CRC prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Role of phytochemicals in colorectal cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-Hua; Niu, Yin-Bo; Sun, Yang; Zhang, Feng; Liu, Chang-Xu; Fan, Lei; Mei, Qi-Bing

    2015-08-21

    Although the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) has been declining in recent decades, it remains a major public health issue as a leading cause of cancer mortality and morbidity worldwide. Prevention is one milestone for this disease. Extensive study has demonstrated that a diet containing fruits, vegetables, and spices has the potential to prevent CRC. The specific constituents in the dietary foods which are responsible for preventing CRC and the possible mechanisms have also been investigated extensively. Various phytochemicals have been identified in fruits, vegetables, and spices which exhibit chemopreventive potential. In this review article, chemopreventive effects of phytochemicals including curcumin, polysaccharides (apple polysaccharides and mushroom glucans), saponins (Paris saponins, ginsenosides and soy saponins), resveratrol, and quercetin on CRC and the mechanisms are discussed. This review proposes the need for more clinical evidence for the effects of phytochemicals against CRC in large trials. The conclusion of the review is that these phytochemicals might be therapeutic candidates in the campaign against CRC.

  1. Colorectal Cancer Chemoprevention: Is This the Future of Colorectal Cancer Prevention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Manzano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is presently one of the most common causes of cancer-related death in our setting and affects a great number of people each year. Screening strategies are commonly used but they do not seem enough to avoid CRC development or prevent completely its mortality. Because of this fact other prevention strategies have gained interest in recent years. Chemoprevention seems to be an attractive option in this setting and several drugs have been studied in this field. This review is focused on salicylates, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs and cycloxygenase-2 inhibitors (COXIBs, whose mechanism of action could be directly related to colon cancer chemoprevention.

  2. Collagen Peptides in Urine: A New Promising Biomarker for the Detection of Colorectal Liver Metastases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E.E. Bröker (Mirelle); Z.S. Lalmahomed (Zarina); H.P. Roest (Henk); N.A. van Huizen (Nick); L.J.M. Dekker (Lennard); W. Calame (Wim); C. Verhoef (Kees); J.N.M. IJzermans (Jan); T.M. Luider (Theo)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction:For both patients and the outpatient clinic the frequent follow-up visits after a resection of colorectal cancer (CRC) are time consuming and due to large patient numbers expensive. Therefore it is important to develop an effective non-invasive test for the detection of

  3. Irinotecan in the treatment of colorectal cancer. A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Ivanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1998, oncologists got a brand new antitumor drug – irinotecan. It’s been already 18 years since its approval for second-line polychemotherapy of metastatic colorectal cancer. Indications for irinotecan use were significantly expanded since that time; it is now used in combination with other therapeutic agents for first- or second-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer, in combination with targeted drugs or separately; there are some studies assessing the use of irinotecan in neoadjuvant therapy. The article describes the history and modern schemes of irinotecan administration in treatment of colorectal cancer.

  4. Phospholipid ether analogs for the detection of colorectal tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dustin A Deming

    Full Text Available The treatment of localized colorectal cancer (CRC depends on resection of the primary tumor with adequate margins and sufficient lymph node sampling. A novel imaging agent that accumulates in CRCs and the associated lymph nodes is needed. Cellectar Biosciences has developed a phospholipid ether analog platform that is both diagnostic and therapeutic. CLR1502 is a near-infrared fluorescent molecule, whereas 124/131I-CLR1404 is under clinical investigation as a PET tracer/therapeutic agent imaged by SPECT. We investigated the use of CLR1502 for the detection of intestinal cancers in a murine model and 131I-CLR1404 in a patient with metastatic CRC. Mice that develop multiple intestinal tumors ranging from adenomas to locally advanced adenocarcinomas were utilized. After 96 hours post CLR1502 injection, the intestinal tumors were analyzed using a Spectrum IVIS (Perkin Elmer and a Fluobeam (Fluoptics. The intensity of the fluorescent signal was correlated with the histological characteristics for each tumor. Colon adenocarcinomas demonstrated increased accumulation of CLR1502 compared to non-invasive lesions (total radiant efficiency: 1.76×10(10 vs 3.27×10(9 respectively, p = 0.006. Metastatic mesenteric tumors and uninvolved lymph nodes were detected with CLR1502. In addition, SPECT imaging with 131I-CLR1404 was performed as part of a clinical trial in patients with advanced solid tumors. 131I-CLR1404 was shown to accumulate in metastatic tumors in a patient with colorectal adenocarcinoma. Together, these compounds might enhance our ability to properly resect CRCs through better localization of the primary tumor and improved lymph node identification as well as detect distant disease.

  5. Randomized clinical trial of laparoscopic ultrasonography before laparoscopic colorectal cancer resection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellebaek, S B; Fristrup, C W; Hovendal, C

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intraoperative ultrasonography during open surgery for colorectal cancer may be useful for the detection of unrecognized liver metastases. Laparoscopic ultrasonography (LUS) for the detection of unrecognized liver metastasis has not been studied in a randomized trial. This RCT tested...... the hypothesis that LUS would change the TNM stage and treatment strategy. METHODS: Patients with colorectal cancer and no known metastases were randomized (1 : 1) to laparoscopic examination (control or laparoscopy plus LUS) in three Danish centres. Neither participants nor staff were blinded to the group...

  6. Whole-body MRI at 1.5 T and 3 T compared with FDG-PET-CT for the detection of tumour recurrence in patients with colorectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, G.P.; Baur-Melnyk, A.; Becker, C.R.; Reiser, M.F.; Hermann, K.A. [Ludwig Maximilian University Munich, Department of Clinical Radiology, University Hospitals Grosshadern, Munich (Germany); Haug, A.; Tiling, R. [University Hospitals Grosshadern, Ludwig Maximilian University Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Utzschneider, S. [University Hospitals Grosshadern, Ludwig Maximilian University Munich, Department of Orthopedics, Munich (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of whole-body MRI (WB-MRI) at 1.5 T or 3 T compared with FDG-PET-CT in the follow-up of patients suffering from colorectal cancer. In a retrospective study, 24 patients with a history of colorectal cancer and suspected tumour recurrence underwent FDG-PET-CT and WB-MRI with the use of parallel imaging (PAT) for follow-up. High resolution coronal T1w-TSE and STIR sequences at four body levels, HASTE imaging of the lungs, contrast-enhanced T1w- and T2w-TSE sequences of the liver, brain, abdomen and pelvis were performed, using WB-MRI at either 1.5 T (n = 14) or 3 T (n = 10). Presence of local recurrent tumour, lymph node involvement and distant metastatic disease was confirmed using radiological follow-up within at least 5 months as a standard of reference. Seventy seven malignant foci in 17 of 24 patients (71%) were detected with both WB-MRI and PET-CT. Both investigations concordantly revealed two local recurrent tumours. PET-CT detected significantly more lymph node metastases (sensitivity 93%, n = 27/29) than WB-MRI (sensitivity 63%, n = 18/29). PET-CT and WB-MRI achieved a similar sensitivity for the detection of organ metastases with 80% and 78%, respectively (37/46 and 36/46). WB-MRI detected brain metastases in one patient. One false-positive local tumour recurrence was indicated by PET-CT. Overall diagnostic accuracy for PET-CT was 91% (sensitivity 86%, specificity 96%) and 83% for WB-MRI (sensitivity 72%, specificity 93%), respectively. Examination time for WB-MRI at 1.5 T and 3 T was 52 min and 43 min, respectively; examination time for PET-CT was 103 min. Initial results suggest that differences in accuracy for local and distant metastases detection using FDG-PET-CT and WB-MRI for integrated screening of tumour recurrence in colorectal cancer depend on the location of the malignant focus. Our results show that nodal disease is better detected using PET-CT, whereas organ disease is depicted

  7. Myofibroblast activation in colorectal cancer lymph node metastases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yeung, T. M.; Buskens, C.; Wang, L. M.; Mortensen, N. J.; Bodmer, W. F.

    2013-01-01

    Myofibroblasts have an important role in regulating the normal colorectal stem cell niche. While the activation of myofibroblasts in primary colorectal cancers has been previously described, myofibroblast activation in lymph node metastases has not been described before. Paraffin-embedded lymph node

  8. Bergenin suppresses the growth of colorectal cancer cells by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate anticancer effects of bergenin on human colorectal cancer cell lines. Methods: Human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line HCT116 was treated with various concentrations of bergenin for 24 and 48 h. Cell viability, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and reactive oxygen species (ROS) level were analyzed ...

  9. Risk of second primary colorectal cancer among colorectal cancer cases: A population-based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitha P Raj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with history of colorectal cancer (CRC are at increased risk for developing a second primary colorectal cancer (SPCRC as compared to the general population. However, the degree of risk is uncertain. Here, we attempt to quantify the risk, using data from the large population-based California Cancer Registry (CCR. Materials and Methods: We analyzed the CCR data for cases with surgically-treated colon and rectal cancer diagnosed during the period 1990-2005 and followed through up to January 2008. We excluded those patients diagnosed with metastatic disease and those in whom SPCRC was diagnosed within 6 months of the diagnosis of the primary CRC. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR with 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated to evaluate risk as compared to the underlying population after taking into account age, sex, ethnicity, and time at risk. Results: The study cohort consisted of 69809 cases with colon cancer and 34448 with rectal cancer. Among these patients there were 1443 cases of SPCRCs. The SIR for developing SPCRC was higher in colon cancer survivors (SIR=1.4; 95% CI: 1.3 to 1.5 as compared to the underlying population. The incidence of SPCRC was also higher in females (SIR=1.5; 95% CI: 1.3 to 1.6 and Hispanics (SIR=2.0; 95% CI: 1.7 to 2.4 with primary colon cancer. The SIR for developing an SPCRC was higher only among those whose initial tumor was located in the descending colon (SIR=1.6; 95% CI: 1.3 to 2.0 and proximal colon (SIR=1.4; 95% CI: 1.3 to 1.6. Conclusions: Our results confirm that CRC patients, especially females and Hispanics, are at a higher risk of developing SPCRC than the general population. Differential SPCRC risk by colorectal tumor subsite is dependent on gender and ethnicity, underscoring the heterogeneous nature of CRC.

  10. Tea, coffee, and milk consumption and colorectal cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Chadwick John; de Dauwe, Palina; Boyle, Terry; Tabatabaei, Seyed Mehdi; Fritschi, Lin; Heyworth, Jane Shirley

    2014-01-01

    Data regarding the effects of tea, coffee, and milk on the risk of colorectal cancer are inconsistent. We investigated associations of tea, coffee, and milk consumption with colorectal cancer risk and attempted to determine if these exposures were differentially associated with the risks of proximal colon, distal colon, and rectal cancers. Data from 854 incident cases and 948 controls were analyzed in a case-control study of colorectal cancer in Western Australia during 2005-07. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyze the associations of black tea (with and without milk), green tea, herbal tea, hot coffee, iced coffee, and milk with colorectal cancer. Consumption of 1 or more cups of herbal tea per week was associated with a significantly decreased risk of distal colon cancer (adjusted odds ratio, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.16-0.82; PTrend = 0.044), and consumption of 1 or more cups of iced coffee per week was associated with increased risk of rectal cancer (adjusted odds ratio, 1.52; 95% CI, 0.91-2.54; PTrend = 0.004). Neither herbal tea nor iced coffee was associated with the risk of proximal colon cancer. Hot coffee was associated with a possible increased risk of distal colon cancer. Black tea (with or without milk), green tea, decaffeinated coffee, and milk were not significantly associated with colorectal cancer risk. Consumption of herbal tea was associated with reduced risk of distal colon cancer, and consumption of iced coffee was associated with increased rectal cancer risk.

  11. Metabolic Adaptation to Nutritional Stress in Human Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyo, Masaaki; Konno, Masamitsu; Nishida, Naohiro; Sueda, Toshinori; Noguchi, Kozo; Matsui, Hidetoshi; Colvin, Hugh; Kawamoto, Koichi; Koseki, Jun; Haraguchi, Naotsugu; Nishimura, Junichi; Hata, Taishi; Gotoh, Noriko; Matsuda, Fumio; Satoh, Taroh; Mizushima, Tsunekazu; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Doki, Yuichiro; Mori, Masaki; Ishii, Hideshi

    2016-12-07

    Tumor cells respond to their microenvironment, which can include hypoxia and malnutrition, and adapt their metabolism to survive and grow. Some oncogenes are associated with cancer metabolism via regulation of the related enzymes or transporters. However, the importance of metabolism and precise metabolic effects of oncogenes in colorectal cancer remain unclear. We found that colorectal cancer cells survived under the condition of glucose depletion, and their resistance to such conditions depended on genomic alterations rather than on KRAS mutation alone. Metabolomic analysis demonstrated that those cells maintained tricarboxylic acid cycle activity and ATP production under such conditions. Furthermore, we identified pivotal roles of GLUD1 and SLC25A13 in nutritional stress. GLUD1 and SLC25A13 were associated with tumor aggressiveness and poorer prognosis of colorectal cancer. In conclusion, GLUD1 and SLC25A13 may serve as new targets in treating refractory colorectal cancer which survive in malnutritional microenvironments.

  12. Serum YKL-40 in risk assessment for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Julia Sidenius; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Jørgensen, Lars Nannestad

    2015-01-01

    to endoscopy due to symptoms or other risk factors for colorectal cancer. Blood samples were collected just before large bowel endoscopy. Serum YKL-40 was determined by ELISA. Serum YKL-40 was higher (P ...The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that high serum YKL-40 associates with colorectal cancer in subjects at risk of colorectal cancer. We measured serum YKL-40 in a prospective study of 4,496 Danish subjects [2,064 men, 2,432 women, median age 61 years (range, 18-97)] referred...... in combination with other biomarkers in risk assessment for colorectal cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 24(3); 621-6. ©2015 AACR....

  13. Screening for colorectal cancer in Italy: 2011-2012 survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Manuel; Mangone, Lucia; Anghinoni, Emanuela; Baracco, Susanna; Borciani, Elisabetta; Caldarella, Adele; Falcini, Fabio; Fanetti, Anna Clara; Ferretti, Stefano; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo; Michiara, Maria; Randi, Giorgia; Stracci, Fabrizio; Vicentini, Massimo; Zucchetto, Antonella; Zappa, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The impact of organized screening programmes on colorectal cancer (CRC) can be observed at a population level only several years after the implementation of screening. We compared CRC characteristics by diagnostic modality (screen-detected, non-screen-detected) as an early outcome to monitor screening programme effectiveness. Data on CRCs diagnosed in Italy from 2000 to 2008 were collected by several cancer registries. Linkage with screening datasets made it possible to divide the cases by geographic area, implementation of screening, and modality of diagnosis (screen-detected, non-screen-detected).We compared the main characteristics of the different subgroups of CRCs through multivariate logistic regression models. The study included 23,668 CRCs diagnosed in subjects aged 50-69 years, of which 11.9% were screen-detected (N=2,806), all from the North-Centre of Italy. Among screen-detected CRCs, we observed a higher proportion of males, of cases in the distal colon, and a higher mean age of the patients. Compared with pre-screening cases, screen-detected CRCs showed a better distribution by stage at diagnosis (OR for stage III or IV: 0.40, 95%CI: 0.36-0.44) and grading (OR for poorly differentiated CRCs was 0.86, 95%CI: 0.75-1.00). Screen-detected CRCs have more favourable prognostic characteristics than non-screen-detected cases. A renewed effort to implement screening programmes throughout the entire country is recommended.

  14. Clinical value of a one-stop-shop low-dose lung screening combined with {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT for the detection of metastatic lung nodules from colorectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Yeon Hee; Lim, Seok Tae; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Sohn, Myung Hee [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Research Institute of Clinical Medicine, Chonbuk National University-Biomedical Research Institute, Chonbuk National University Hospital, Cyclotron Research Center, Molecular Imaging and Therapeutic Medicine Research Center, Chonbuk National University Medical School and Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of additional low-dose high-resolution lung computed tomography (LD-HRCT) combined with 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography with CT (18F-FDG PET/CT) compared with conventional lung setting image of 18F-FDG PET/CT for the detection of metastatic lung nodules from colorectal cancer. From January 2011 to September 2011, 649 patients with colorectal cancer underwent additional LD-HRCT at maximum inspiration combined with 18F-FDG PET/CT. Forty-five patients were finally diagnosed to have lung metastasis based on histopathologic study or clinical follow-up. Twenty-five of the 45 patients had ≤5 metastatic lung nodules and the other 20 patients had  >5 metastatic nodules. One hundred and twenty nodules in the 25 patients with ≤5 nodules were evaluated by conventional lung setting image of 18F-FDG PET/CT and by additional LD-HRCT respectively. Sensitivities, specificities, diagnostic accuracies, positive predictive values (PPVs), and negative predictive values (NPVs) of conventional lung setting image of 18F-FDG PET/CT and additional LD-HRCT were calculated using standard formulae. The McNemar test and receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis were performed. Of the 120 nodules in the 25 patients with ≤5 metastatic lung nodules, 66 nodules were diagnosed as metastatic. Eleven of the 66 nodules were confirmed histopathologically and the others were diagnosed by clinical follow-up. Conventional lung setting image of 18F-FDG PET/CT detected 40 of the 66 nodules and additional LD-HRCT detected 55 nodules. All 15 nodules missed by conventional lung setting imaging but detected by additional LD-HRCT were <1 cm in size. The sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of the modalities were 60.6 %, 85.2 %, and 71.1 % for conventional lung setting image and 83.3 %, 88.9 %, and 85.8 % for additional LD-HRCT. By ROC analysis, the area under the ROC curve (AUC) of conventional

  15. Clinical value of a one-stop-shop low-dose lung screening combined with 18F-FDG PET/CT for the detection of metastatic lung nodules from colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Yeon Hee; Lim, Seok Tae; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Sohn, Myung Hee

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of additional low-dose high-resolution lung computed tomography (LD-HRCT) combined with 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography with CT (18F-FDG PET/CT) compared with conventional lung setting image of 18F-FDG PET/CT for the detection of metastatic lung nodules from colorectal cancer. From January 2011 to September 2011, 649 patients with colorectal cancer underwent additional LD-HRCT at maximum inspiration combined with 18F-FDG PET/CT. Forty-five patients were finally diagnosed to have lung metastasis based on histopathologic study or clinical follow-up. Twenty-five of the 45 patients had ≤5 metastatic lung nodules and the other 20 patients had  >5 metastatic nodules. One hundred and twenty nodules in the 25 patients with ≤5 nodules were evaluated by conventional lung setting image of 18F-FDG PET/CT and by additional LD-HRCT respectively. Sensitivities, specificities, diagnostic accuracies, positive predictive values (PPVs), and negative predictive values (NPVs) of conventional lung setting image of 18F-FDG PET/CT and additional LD-HRCT were calculated using standard formulae. The McNemar test and receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis were performed. Of the 120 nodules in the 25 patients with ≤5 metastatic lung nodules, 66 nodules were diagnosed as metastatic. Eleven of the 66 nodules were confirmed histopathologically and the others were diagnosed by clinical follow-up. Conventional lung setting image of 18F-FDG PET/CT detected 40 of the 66 nodules and additional LD-HRCT detected 55 nodules. All 15 nodules missed by conventional lung setting imaging but detected by additional LD-HRCT were <1 cm in size. The sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of the modalities were 60.6 %, 85.2 %, and 71.1 % for conventional lung setting image and 83.3 %, 88.9 %, and 85.8 % for additional LD-HRCT. By ROC analysis, the area under the ROC curve (AUC) of conventional

  16. Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer : Identification of mutation carriers and assessing pathogenicity of mutations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niessen, RC; Sijmons, RH; Berends, MJW; Ou, J; Hofstra, RNW; Kleibeuker, JH

    2004-01-01

    Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), also referred to as Lynch syndrome, is an autosomal dominantly inherited disorder that is characterized by susceptibility to colorectal cancer and extracolonic malignancies, in particular endometrial cancer. HNPCC is caused by pathogenic mutations

  17. Molecularly targeted drugs for metastatic colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng YD

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ying-dong Cheng, Hua Yang, Guo-qing Chen, Zhi-cao Zhang Department of General Surgery, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, People's Republic of China Abstract: The survival rate of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC has significantly improved with applications of molecularly targeted drugs, such as bevacizumab, and led to a substantial improvement in the overall survival rate. These drugs are capable of specifically targeting the inherent abnormal pathways in cancer cells, which are potentially less toxic than traditional nonselective chemotherapeutics. In this review, the recent clinical information about molecularly targeted therapy for mCRC is summarized, with specific focus on several of the US Food and Drug Administration-approved molecularly targeted drugs for the treatment of mCRC in the clinic. Progression-free and overall survival in patients with mCRC was improved greatly by the addition of bevacizumab and/or cetuximab to standard chemotherapy, in either first- or second-line treatment. Aflibercept has been used in combination with folinic acid (leucovorin–fluorouracil–irinotecan (FOLFIRI chemotherapy in mCRC patients and among patients with mCRC with wild-type KRAS, the outcomes were significantly improved by panitumumab in combination with folinic acid (leucovorin–fluorouracil–oxaliplatin (FOLFOX or FOLFIRI. Because of the new preliminary studies, it has been recommended that regorafenib be used with FOLFOX or FOLFIRI as first- or second-line treatment of mCRC chemotherapy. In summary, an era of new opportunities has been opened for treatment of mCRC and/or other malignancies, resulting from the discovery of new selective targeting drugs. Keywords: metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC, antiangiogenic drug, bevacizumab, aflibercept, regorafenib, cetuximab, panitumumab, clinical trial, molecularly targeted therapy

  18. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Research Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... Genomics Research Research on Causes of Cancer Cancer Diagnosis Research Cancer Prevention Research Screening & Early Detection Cancer ...

  19. Developing screening services for colorectal cancer on Android smartphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hui-Ching; Chang, Chiao-Jung; Lin, Chun-Che; Tsai, Ming-Chang; Chang, Che-Chia; Tseng, Ming-Hseng

    2014-08-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is an important health problem in Western countries and also in Asia. It is the third leading cause of cancer deaths in both men and women in Taiwan. According to the well-known adenoma-to-carcinoma sequence, the majority of CRC develops from colorectal adenomatous polyps. This concept provides the rationale for screening and prevention of CRC. Removal of colorectal adenoma could reduce the mortality and incidence of CRC. Mobile phones are now playing an ever more crucial role in people's daily lives. The latest generation of smartphones is increasingly viewed as hand-held computers rather than as phones, because of their powerful on-board computing capability, capacious memories, large screens, and open operating systems that encourage development of applications (apps). If we can detect the potential CRC patients early and offer them appropriate treatments and services, this would not only promote the quality of life, but also reduce the possible serious complications and medical costs. In this study, an intelligent CRC screening app on Android™ (Google™, Mountain View, CA) smartphones has been developed based on a data mining approach using decision tree algorithms. For comparison, the stepwise backward multivariate logistic regression model and the fecal occult blood test were also used. Compared with the stepwise backward multivariate logistic regression model and the fecal occult blood test, the proposed app system not only provides an easy and efficient way to quickly detect high-risk groups of potential CRC patients, but also brings more information about CRC to customer-oriented services. We developed and implemented an app system on Android platforms for ubiquitous healthcare services for CRC screening. It can assist people in achieving early screening, diagnosis, and treatment purposes, prevent the occurrence of complications, and thus reach the goal of preventive medicine.

  20. Towards the human colorectal cancer microbiome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian R Marchesi

    Full Text Available Multiple factors drive the progression from healthy mucosa towards sporadic colorectal carcinomas and accumulating evidence associates intestinal bacteria with disease initiation and progression. Therefore, the aim of this study was to provide a first high-resolution map of colonic dysbiosis that is associated with human colorectal cancer (CRC. To this purpose, the microbiomes colonizing colon tumor tissue and adjacent non-malignant mucosa were compared by deep rRNA sequencing. The results revealed striking differences in microbial colonization patterns between these two sites. Although inter-individual colonization in CRC patients was variable, tumors consistently formed a niche for Coriobacteria and other proposed probiotic bacterial species, while potentially pathogenic Enterobacteria were underrepresented in tumor tissue. As the intestinal microbiota is generally stable during adult life, these findings suggest that CRC-associated physiological and metabolic changes recruit tumor-foraging commensal-like bacteria. These microbes thus have an apparent competitive advantage in the tumor microenvironment and thereby seem to replace pathogenic bacteria that may be implicated in CRC etiology. This first glimpse of the CRC microbiome provides an important step towards full understanding of the dynamic interplay between intestinal microbial ecology and sporadic CRC, which may provide important leads towards novel microbiome-related diagnostic tools and therapeutic interventions.

  1. Colorectal Cancer "Methylator Phenotype": Fact or Artifact?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Anacleto

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been proposed that human colorectal tumors can be classified into two groups: one in which methylation is rare, and another with methylation of several loci associated with a "CpG island methylated phenotype (CIMP," characterized by preferential proximal location in the colon, but otherwise poorly defined. There is considerable overlap between this putative methylator phenotype and the well-known mutator phenotype associated with microsatellite instability (MSI. We have examined hypermethylation of the promoter region of five genes (DAPK, MGMT, hMLH1, p16INK4a, and p14ARF in 106 primary colorectal cancers. A graph depicting the frequency of methylated loci in the series of tumors showed a continuous, monotonically decreasing distribution quite different from the previously claimed discontinuity. We observed a significant association between the presence of three or more methylated loci and the proximal location of the tumors. However, if we remove from analysis the tumors with hMLH1 methylation or those with MSI, the significance vanishes, suggesting that the association between multiple methylations and proximal location was indirect due to the correlation with MSI. Thus, our data do not support the independent existence of the so-called methylator phenotype and suggest that it rather may represent a statistical artifact caused by confounding of associations.

  2. Meat consumption, heterocyclic amines and colorectal cancer risk: the Multiethnic Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollberding, Nicholas J; Wilkens, Lynne R; Henderson, Brian E; Kolonel, Laurence N; Le Marchand, Loïc

    2012-10-01

    Greater consumption of red and processed meat has been associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer in several recent meta-analyses. Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) have been hypothesized to underlie this association. In this prospective analysis conducted within the Multiethnic Cohort Study, we examined whether greater consumption of total, red or processed meat was associated with the risk of colorectal cancer among 165,717 participants who completed a detailed food frequency questionnaire at baseline. In addition, we examined whether greater estimated intake of HCAs was associated with the risk of colorectal cancer among 131,763 participants who completed a follow-up questionnaire that included a meat-cooking module. A total of 3,404 and 1,757 invasive colorectal cancers were identified from baseline to the end of follow-up and from the date of administration of the meat-cooking module to the end of follow-up, respectively. Proportional hazard models were used to estimate basic and multivariable-adjusted relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals for colorectal cancer associated with dietary exposures. In multivariable models, no association with the risk of colorectal cancer was detected for density-adjusted total meat (RR(Q5 vs. Q1) = 0.93 [0.83-1.05]), red meat (RR = 1.02 [0.91-1.16]) or processed meat intake (RR = 1.06 [0.94-1.19]) or for total (RR = 0.90 [0.76-1.05]) or specific HCA intake whether comparing quintiles of dietary exposure or using continuous variables. Although our results do not support a role for meat or for HCAs from meat in the etiology of colorectal cancer, we cannot rule out the possibility of a modest effect. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  3. What is the best screening strategy to detect advanced colorectal adenomas? Simulation from ongoing Italian screening experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Leonardo; Zappa, Marco; Carreras, Giulia; Ciatto, Stefano; Grazzini, Grazia

    2011-01-01

    The best screening strategy for colorectal cancer is still debated. We simulated two screening strategies, namely flexible sigmoidoscopy (single episode) and immunological fecal occult blood test (FOBT) (five biennial rounds) and comparing their results as regards advanced adenomas and colorectal cancer detection. A Markov model was developed to estimate the number of advanced adenomas and colorectal cancer detected with the two compared screening strategies. Two different scenarios, namely a) where the same compliance (50%) at both flexible sigmoidoscopy and immunological FOBT invitation is applied, and b) where the actual compliance observed at a national level (immunological FOBT, 45%; flexible sigmoidoscopy, 30%) is applied. In scenario a), immunological FOBT would detect a total of 20,573 adenomas and 3,952 colorectal cancers, performing 74,507 total colonoscopies compared to 20,939 and 2,511, respectively, detected by flexible sigmoidoscopy, with 17,985 total colonoscopies. In scenario b), immunological FOBT would detect 17,845 advanced adenomas with 65,215 colonoscopies performed compared to 12,672 detected by flexible sigmoidoscopy with 10,796 colonoscopies. The probability of having a colonoscopy for a subject attending all the five immunological FOBT rounds was 15.9%. The simulation suggests that also immunological FOBT screening may achieve a substantial detection of advanced adenomas and therefore may have an impact on colorectal cancer incidence.

  4. A Combination of Fecal Immunochemical Test Results and Iron Deficiency Anemia for Detection of Advanced Colorectal Neoplasia in Asymptomatic Men

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Nam Hee; Lee, Mi Yeon; Park, Jung Ho; Park, Dong Il; Sohn, Chong Il; Choi, Kyuyong; Jung, Yoon Suk

    2017-01-01

    Purpose A substantial proportion of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) present with iron deficiency anemia (IDA), and fecal immunochemical test (FIT) has proven to be an effective method for detecting the majority of CRC cases. A combination strategy of FIT results and IDA may be useful for risk stratification for detecting advanced colorectal neoplasia (ACRN). We compared the prevalence of ACRN among four groups stratified by FIT results and the presence of IDA. Materials and Methods A cr...

  5. Mediterranean Diet: Prevention of Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Micah G; Selmin, Ornella I; Doetschman, Tom C; Romagnolo, Donato F

    2017-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer diagnosis and the second and third leading cause of cancer mortality in men and women, respectively. However, the majority of CRC cases are the result of sporadic tumorigenesis via the adenoma-carcinoma sequence. This process can take up to 20 years, suggesting an important window of opportunity exists for prevention such as switching toward healthier dietary patterns. The Mediterranean diet (MD) is a dietary pattern associated with various health benefits including protection against cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and various cancers. In this article, we review publications available in the PubMed database within the last 10 years that report on the impact of a MD eating pattern on prevention of CRC. To assist the reader with interpretation of the results and discussion, we first introduce indexes and scoring systems commonly used to experimentally determine adherence to a MD, followed by a brief introduction of the influence of the MD pattern on inflammatory bowel disease, which predisposes to CRC. Finally, we discuss key biological mechanisms through which specific bioactive food components commonly present in the MD are proposed to prevent or delay the development of CRC. We close with a discussion of future research frontiers in CRC prevention with particular reference to the role of epigenetic mechanisms and microbiome related to the MD eating pattern.

  6. Mediterranean Diet: Prevention of Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micah G. Donovan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common cancer diagnosis and the second and third leading cause of cancer mortality in men and women, respectively. However, the majority of CRC cases are the result of sporadic tumorigenesis via the adenoma–carcinoma sequence. This process can take up to 20 years, suggesting an important window of opportunity exists for prevention such as switching toward healthier dietary patterns. The Mediterranean diet (MD is a dietary pattern associated with various health benefits including protection against cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and various cancers. In this article, we review publications available in the PubMed database within the last 10 years that report on the impact of a MD eating pattern on prevention of CRC. To assist the reader with interpretation of the results and discussion, we first introduce indexes and scoring systems commonly used to experimentally determine adherence to a MD, followed by a brief introduction of the influence of the MD pattern on inflammatory bowel disease, which predisposes to CRC. Finally, we discuss key biological mechanisms through which specific bioactive food components commonly present in the MD are proposed to prevent or delay the development of CRC. We close with a discussion of future research frontiers in CRC prevention with particular reference to the role of epigenetic mechanisms and microbiome related to the MD eating pattern.

  7. Colorectal cancer screening and prevention in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacko, Lyssa; Macaron, Carole; Burke, Carol A

    2015-03-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading cancers and cause of cancer deaths in American women and men. Females and males share a similar lifetime cumulative risk of CRC however, substantial differences in risk factors, tumor biology, and effectiveness of cancer prevention services have been observed between them. This review distills the evidence documenting the unique variation observed between the genders relating to CRC risk factors, screening and prevention. Consistent evidence throughout the world demonstrates that women reach equivalent levels of adenomas and CRC as men but it occurs nearly a decade later in life than in their male counterparts. Women have a higher proportion of tumors which are hypermethylated, have microsatellite instability and located in the proximal colon suggesting the serrated pathway may be of greater consequence in them than in men. Other CRC risk factors such as smoking, diet and obesity have been shown to have disparate effects on women which may related to interactions between estrogen exposure, body fat distribution, and the biologic underpinnings of their tumors. There is data showing the uptake, choice, and efficacy of different CRC screening methods in women is dissimilar to that in men. The mortality benefit from FOBT, sigmoidoscopy, and protection from interval CRC by colonoscopy appears to be lower in women than men. A greater understanding of these gender idiosyncrasies will facilitate an personalized approach to CRC prevention and should ultimately lead to a reduced burden of disease.

  8. Mediterranean Diet: Prevention of Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Micah G.; Selmin, Ornella I.; Doetschman, Tom C.; Romagnolo, Donato F.

    2017-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer diagnosis and the second and third leading cause of cancer mortality in men and women, respectively. However, the majority of CRC cases are the result of sporadic tumorigenesis via the adenoma–carcinoma sequence. This process can take up to 20 years, suggesting an important window of opportunity exists for prevention such as switching toward healthier dietary patterns. The Mediterranean diet (MD) is a dietary pattern associated with various health benefits including protection against cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and various cancers. In this article, we review publications available in the PubMed database within the last 10 years that report on the impact of a MD eating pattern on prevention of CRC. To assist the reader with interpretation of the results and discussion, we first introduce indexes and scoring systems commonly used to experimentally determine adherence to a MD, followed by a brief introduction of the influence of the MD pattern on inflammatory bowel disease, which predisposes to CRC. Finally, we discuss key biological mechanisms through which specific bioactive food components commonly present in the MD are proposed to prevent or delay the development of CRC. We close with a discussion of future research frontiers in CRC prevention with particular reference to the role of epigenetic mechanisms and microbiome related to the MD eating pattern. PMID:29259973

  9. Evaluation the role of nutritional and individual factors in colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kamran Moshfeghi; Abolfazl Mohammad-Beigi; Davood Hamedi-Sanani; Masoud Bahrami

    2011-01-01

    Background: Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide including 38% of gastrointestinal cancers. Colorectal cancer is the third type of Iranian men and fourth in women in ranking. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of environmental risk factors in colorectal cancer.Materials and Method: In this case-control study, the authors selected cases from colorectal cancer patients in Arak and controls were selected from Arak hospitals in proportion to the number of...

  10. RET is a potential tumor suppressor gene in colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yanxin; Tsuchiya, Karen D.; Park, Dong Il; Fausel, Rebecca; Kanngurn, Samornmas; Welcsh, Piri; Dzieciatkowski, Slavomir; Wang, Jianping; Grady, William M.

    2012-01-01

    Cancer arises as the consequence of mutations and epigenetic alterations that activate oncogenes and inactivate tumor suppressor genes. Through a genome-wide screen for methylated genes in colon neoplasms, we identified aberrantly methylated RET in colorectal cancer. RET, a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase and a receptor for the GDNF-family ligands, was one of the first oncogenes to be identified and has been shown to be an oncogene in thyroid cancer and pheochromocytoma. However, unexpectedly, we found RET is methylated in 27% of colon adenomas and in 63% of colorectal cancers, and now provide evidence that RET has tumor suppressor activity in colon cancer. The aberrant methylation of RET correlates with decreased RET expression, whereas the restoration of RET in colorectal cancer cell lines results in apoptosis. Furthermore, in support of a tumor suppressor function of RET, mutant RET has also been found in primary colorectal cancer. We now show that these mutations inactivate RET, which is consistent with RET being a tumor suppressor gene in the colon. These findings suggest that the aberrant methylation of RET and the mutational inactivation of RET promote colorectal cancer formation and that RET can serve as a tumor suppressor gene in the colon. Moreover, the increased frequency of methylated RET in colon cancers compared to adenomas suggests RET inactivation is involved in the progression of colon adenomas to cancer. PMID:22751117

  11. Staging colorectal cancer with the TNM 7(th)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puppa, Giacomo; Poston, Graeme; Jess, Per

    2013-01-01

    lesions encountered, in particular, during radiological staging of patients with colorectal cancer. In this article the diagnosis of these lesions with multiple imaging modalities, their frequency, significance and relevance to staging and disease management are described in a multidisciplinary way...

  12. Immunogenomic Classification of Colorectal Cancer and Therapeutic Implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelands, Jessica; Kuppen, Peter J. K.; Vermeulen, Louis; Maccalli, Cristina; Decock, Julie; Wang, Ena; Marincola, Francesco M.; Bedognetti, Davide; Hendrickx, Wouter

    2017-01-01

    The immune system has a substantial effect on colorectal cancer (CRC) progression. Additionally, the response to immunotherapeutics and conventional treatment options (e.g., chemotherapy, radiotherapy and targeted therapies) is influenced by the immune system. The molecular characterization of

  13. Dietary Patterns and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Teresa T; Brown, Lisa S

    2013-03-01

    Diet and lifestyle play a significant role in the development of colorectal cancer, but the full complexity of the association is not yet understood. Dietary pattern analysis is an important new technique that may help to elucidate the relationship. This review examines the most common techniques for extrapolating dietary patterns and reviews dietary pattern/colorectal cancer studies published between September 2011 and August 2012. The studies reviewed are consistent with prior research but include a more diverse international population. Results from investigations using a priori dietary patterns (i.e., diet quality scores) and a posteriori methods, which identify existing eating patterns (i.e., principal component analysis), continue to support the benefits of a plant-based diet with some dairy as a means to lower the risk of colorectal cancer, whereas a diet high in meats, refined grains, and added sugar appears to increase risk. The association between colorectal cancer and alcohol remains unclear.

  14. Natural Product Shows Effectiveness in Combating Colorectal Cancer | FNLCR Staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    An herbal extract used for centuries to prevent heart disease has now been shown to be effective against colorectal cancer when tested in laboratory cell cultures. From left to right: Weidong Li, principal investigator, China Academy of Chinese Medic

  15. Alcohol consumption and distinct molecular pathways to colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongaerts, B.W.C.; Goeij, A.F.P.M. de; Vogel, S. de; Brandt, P.A. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.; Weijenberg, M.P.

    2007-01-01

    High alcohol consumption is related to colorectal cancer (CRC). Our objective was to study associations between alcohol consumption and risk of CRC according to characteristics of aetiological pathways: the chromosomal instability (CIN) and the microsatellite instability (MIN) pathway. We classified

  16. Colorectal Cancer Screening (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are five types of tests that are used to screen for colorectal cancer: fecal occult blood test, sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, virtual colonoscopy, and DNA stool test. Learn more about these and other tests in this expert-reviewed summary.

  17. Immune reaction and colorectal cancer: friends or foes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formica, Vincenzo; Cereda, Vittore; Nardecchia, Antonella; Tesauro, Manfredi; Roselli, Mario

    2014-09-21

    The potential clinical impact of enhancing antitumor immunity is increasingly recognized in oncology therapeutics for solid tumors. Colorectal cancer is one of the most studied neoplasms for the tumor-host immunity relationship. Although immune cell populations involved in such a relationship and their prognostic role in colorectal cancer development have clearly been identified, still no approved therapies based on host immunity intensification have so far been introduced in clinical practice. Moreover, a recognized risk in enhancing immune reaction for colitis-associated colorectal cancer development has limited the emphasis of this approach. The aim of the present review is to discuss immune components involved in the host immune reaction against colorectal cancer and analyze the fine balance between pro-tumoral and anti-tumoral effect of immunity in this model of disease.

  18. Computed tomographic colonography (CTC); colorectal cancer diagnosis with CTC in an Auckland population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Helen; Dodd, Nicholas

    2013-10-01

    To determine the sensitivity of computed tomographic colonography (CTC) in the detection of colorectal cancer in our population and evaluate the reasons why these lesions may be missed on CTC. All patients who underwent CTC in the 65-month period from 1 January 2004 to 1 July 2009 were included in the analysis. Demographic data and CTC findings were recorded, according to the CT Colonography Reporting and Data System. Data were cross-matched with the National Cancer Registry results for colorectal cancer cases between 1 January 2004 and 1 October 2009, 3 months longer to include any delayed diagnoses. There were 2026 consecutive CTC patients, comprising 52.6% female, average age of 60 years; range 19-87. Approximately 84% were symptomatic. There were 45 confirmed colorectal cancers among this patient group in the National Cancer Registry during the relevant time period compared with 43 suspected cancers on CTC, giving a miss rate of 2 of 45, or 4.4%. The sensitivity of 95% for CTC in the detection of colorectal cancer compares favourably with the published national and international data. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology © 2013 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  19. Assessment of rehabilitation needs in colorectal cancer treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiedenbein, Liza; Kristiansen, Maria; Adamsen, Lis

    2016-01-01

    clinical practices related to identification and documentation of rehabilitation needs among patients with colorectal cancer at Danish hospitals. Material and methods A retrospective clinical audit was conducted utilizing data from patient files randomly selected at surgical and oncology hospital...... departments treating colorectal cancer patients. Forty patients were included, 10 from each department. Semi-structured interviews were carried out among clinical nurse specialists. Audit data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, qualitative data using thematic analysis. Results Documentation...

  20. Dietary Patterns and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Fung, Teresa T.; Brown, Lisa S.

    2012-01-01

    Diet and lifestyle play a significant role in the development of colorectal cancer, but the full complexity of the association is not yet understood. Dietary pattern analysis is an important new technique that may help to elucidate the relationship. This review examines the most common techniques for extrapolating dietary patterns and reviews dietary pattern/colorectal cancer studies published between September 2011 and August 2012. The studies reviewed are consistent with prior research but ...

  1. Is WHODAS 2.0 Useful for Colorectal Cancer Survivors?

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyun Haeng; Shin, Eun-Kyoung; Shin, Hyung-Ik; Yang, Eun Joo

    2017-01-01

    Objective To compare the disability level of colorectal cancer survivors with and without stoma by using the Korean version of the 12-item, interview-administered World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (Korean version of WHODAS 2.0). Methods This is a multicenter (five tertiary university hospitals and the Korea Ostomy Association) and cross-sectional survey. Colorectal cancer survivors with and without stoma were interviewed. Survey measured disability level using the K...

  2. Crohn's disease: risk factor for colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Cristina Dias dos Santos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Crohn's disease is an inflammatory disease that can reach any part of the gastrointestinal tract. This disease has been associated with an increased neoplastic risk, including colorectal carcinoma. Objective: The objective of this work is to describe the mechanisms present in two diseases, and that are responsible for the increased risk in Crohn's disease. Methods: A bibliographic research was conducted in PubMed database. In addition to the articles obtained with an inserted query in Pubmed, other references relevant to the topic in question were included. Results: Colorectal cancer risk varies according to the presence of certain factors, and an example of this is Crohn's disease. Chronic inflammation seems to be an important contribution to carcinogenesis, since it creates a microenvironment suitable for the onset and progression of the disease. There are molecular changes that are common to two conditions, thus justifying the fact of Crohn's disease being a risk factor for colorectal carcinoma. The disease control with an appropriate therapy and with surveillance are two ways to control this risk. Conclusions: A proinflammatory state is the cornerstone in the association between Crohn's disease and colorectal carcinoma. The implementation of surveillance strategies allowed a decrease in morbidity and mortality associated with this cancer. Resumo: Introdução: A doença de Crohn é uma doença inflamatória que pode atingir todo o trato gastrointestinal. Esta patologia tem sido associada a um risco neoplásico aumentado, nomeadamente de carcinoma colorretal. Objetivo: O objetivo deste trabalho é descrever os mecanismos responsáveis pelo aumento do risco de carcinoma colorretal na doença de Crohn. Métodos: A pesquisa bibliográfica foi realizada na base de dados Pubmed. Para além dos artigos obtidos com a query inserida na Pubmed, foram também incluídas outras referências com relevância para o tema em questão. Resultados

  3. Microsatellite Status of Primary Colorectal Cancer Predicts the Incidence of Postoperative Colorectal Neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takiyama, Aki; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Yamamoto, Yoko; Hata, Keisuke; Ishihara, Soichiro; Nozawa, Hiroaki; Kawai, Kazushige; Kiyomatsu, Tomomichi; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Otani, Kensuke; Sasaki, Kazuhito; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2017-10-01

    Few studies have evaluated the risk of postoperative colorectal neoplasms stratified by the nature of primary colorectal cancer (CRC). In this study, we revealed it on the basis of the microsatellite (MS) status of primary CRC. We retrospectively reviewed 338 patients with CRC and calculated the risk of neoplasms during postoperative surveillance colonoscopy in association with the MS status of primary CRC. A propensity score method was applied. We identified a higher incidence of metachronous rectal neoplasms after the resection of MS stable CRC than MS instable CRC (adjusted HR 5.74, p=0.04). We also observed a higher incidence of colorectal tubular adenoma in patients with MSS CRC (adjusted hazard ratio 7.09, pcolorectal cancer influenced the risk of postoperative colorectal neoplasms. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  4. PLZF Expression during Colorectal Cancer Development and in Normal Colorectal Mucosa according to Body Size, as Marker of Colorectal Cancer Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Mariani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger protein (PLZF is a protein involved in various signaling, growth regulatory, and differentiation pathways, including development/function of some T cells. Here, we aimed at the detection of PLZF during colorectal carcinogenesis, using immunofluorescence, and at the evaluation of the colocalization of PLZF with CD2 and CD56 positive cells (T, γδ, NK, and NKT cells, using confocal-microscopy, along colorectal carcinogenesis, since its earliest stages, that is, dysplastic aberrant crypt foci (ACF. Furthermore, we analyzed PLZF in the normal colonic mucosa (NM according to anthropometric parameters of the subject. NM exhibited strong CD56 fluorescent staining. This infiltration was lost in both ACF and colorectal carcinoma (CRC, while PLZF presence increased from NM to ACF and CRC. Strong association was found between CD56+ colonic mucosa cell infiltration and body mass index. Interestingly, an increased stromal PLZF-reactivity was present in NM of obese subjects. This study shows that overexpression of PLZF and exclusion of NK cells in dysplastic microenvironment are very early events in the stepwise sequence leading to CRC and that lower levels of CD56+ cells in NM, together with increased levels of PLZF+ cells, can be a reflection of colon cancer risk due to obesity.

  5. Dietary fiber and risk of colorectal cancer in the Japan collaborative cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakai, Kenji; Date, Chigusa; Fukui, Mitsuru; Tamakoshi, Koji; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Hayakawa, Norihiko; Kojima, Masayo; Kawado, Miyuki; Suzuki, Koji; Hashimoto, Shuji; Tokudome, Shinkan; Ozasa, Kotaro; Suzuki, Sadao; Toyoshima, Hideaki; Ito, Yoshinori; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2007-04-01

    To examine the association of dietary fiber with the risk of colorectal cancer in a population with a high incidence of cancer and a low fiber intake, we analyzed the data from the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study. From 1988 to 1990, 43,115 men and women aged 40 to 79 years completed a questionnaire on dietary and other factors. Intake of dietary fiber was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. Rate ratios (RR) were computed by fitting proportional hazards models. During the mean follow-up of 7.6 years, 443 colorectal cancer cases were recorded. In all participants, we found a decreasing trend in risk of colorectal cancer with increasing intake of total dietary fiber; the multivariate-adjusted RRs across quartiles were 1.00, 0.96 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.72-1.27], 0.72 (0.53-0.99), and 0.73 (0.51-1.03; P(trend) = 0.028). This trend was exclusively detected for colon cancer: the corresponding RRs were 1.00, 0.90 (95% CI, 0.64-1.26), 0.56 (0.38-0.83), and 0.58 (0.38-0.88; P(trend) = 0.002). The decrease in RRs with increasing intake of dietary fiber was larger in men than in women. No material differences appeared in the strength of associations with the risk between water-soluble and insoluble dietary fiber. For food sources of fiber, bean fiber intake was somewhat inversely correlated with colorectal cancer risk. This prospective study supported potential protective effects of dietary fiber against colorectal cancer, mainly against colon cancer. The role of dietary fiber in the prevention of colorectal cancer seems to remain inconsistent, and further investigations in various populations are warranted. (

  6. Molecular genetic approach for screening of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metka Ravnik-Glavač

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The main goal of knowledge concerning human diseases is to transfer as much as possible useful information into clinical applications. Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC is the most common autosomal dominant inherited predisposition for colorectal cancer, accounting for 1–2% of all bowel cancer. The only way to diagnose HNPCC is by a family history consistent with the disease defined by International Collaborative Group on HNPCC (Amsterdam criteria I and II. The main molecular cause of HNPCC is a constitutional mutation in one of the mismatch repair (MMR genes. Since HNPCC mutations have been detected also in families that did not fulfil the Amsterdam criteria, molecular genetic characteristics of HNPCC cancers have been proposed as valuable first step in HNPCC identification. Microsatellite instability is present in about 90% of cancers of HNPCC patients. However, of all MSI colorectal cancers 80– 90% are sporadic. Several molecular mechanisms have been uncovered that enable distinguishing to some extent between sporadic and HNPCC cancers with MSI including hypermethylation of hMLH1 promoter and frequent mutations in BAX and TGFBR2 in sporadic CRC with MSI-H.Conclusions: The determination of MSI status and careful separation of MSI positive colorectal cancer into sporadic MSIL, sporadic MSI-H, and HNPCC MSI-H followed by mutation detection in MMR genes is important for prevention, screening and management of colorectal cancer. In some studies we and others have already shown that large-scale molecular genetic analysis for HNPCC can be done and is sensitive enough to approve population screening. Population screening includes also colonoscopy which is restricted only to the obligate carriers of the mutation. This enables that the disease is detected in earlier stages which would greatly decrease medical treatment costs and most importantly decrease mortality. In Slovenia we have started population screening based

  7. Coffee Consumption and the Incidence of Colorectal Cancer in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik J. Groessl

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Higher coffee consumption has been associated with decreased incidence of colorectal cancer. Our objective was to examine the relationship of coffee intake to colorectal cancer incidence in a large observational cohort of postmenopausal US women. Methods. Data were collected for the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study providing a follow-up period of 12.9 years. The mean age of our sample (N=83,778 women was 63.5 years. Daily coffee intake was grouped into 3 categories: None, moderate (>0–<4 cups, and high (4+ cups. Proportional hazards modeling was used to evaluate the relationship between coffee intake and colorectal cancer. Results. There were 1,282 (1.53% new cases of colorectal cancer during follow-up. Compared to nondrinkers, moderate and high coffee drinkers had an increased incidence of colorectal cancer in multivariate analysis (HR 1.15, 1.02–1.29; HR 1.14, 0.93–1.38. Moderate drip brew coffee intake (HR 1.20, 1.05–1.36 and high nondrip brew coffee intake (HR 1.43, 1.01–2.02 were associated with increased odds. Conclusion. Our results suggesting increased incidence of colorectal cancer associated with higher coffee consumption contradict recent meta-analyses but agree with a number of other studies showing that coffee increases risk or has no effect. Brew method results are novel and warrant further research.

  8. Tropism between hepatic and pulmonary metastases in colorectal cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Hyun; Choi, So-Jung; Park, Joon Suk; Lee, Jinseon; Cho, Yong Beom; Kang, Min-Woong; Lee, Woo Yong; Choi, Yong Soo; Kim, Hong Kwan; Han, Joungho; Chun, Ho-Kyung; Kim, Jhingook

    2012-08-01

    In metastatic colorectal cancers, tumor cells are disseminated prior to surgical resection of the primary tumor but remain dormant until proper colonization mechanisms are activated. To identify the colonization mechanisms of the metastatic tumors, we conducted a pairwise comparison between primary colorectal cancers and metastatic tumors (n=12 pairs), including six hepatic pairs and six pulmonary pairs. The mRNA levels of 224 genes previously reported to be associated with metastasis, cytokines and angiogenesis were quantitatively determined by PCR arrays. Among them, 27 genes were duplicated or triplicated to show consistent expression. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of the Ct values of metastasis-related genes revealed that liver metastases were indistinguishable from primary colorectal cancers (n=5/6), whereas lung metastases were highly diversified from one another and from the primary tumors (n=6/6). Cytokines and receptor gene expression array data also confirmed the divergence of pulmonary metastases from primary colorectal cancers (n=6/6). Heat map analyses of ΔCt values of the metastasis-related genes identified a 17-gene tropism signature that was sufficient not only to distinguish liver and the lung metastases, but also reconstituted the clustering of primary tumors with the hepatic metastases (n=17/18). In this pilot experiment, pulmonary metastases were significantly diverged from hepatic metastases that were indistinguishable from primary colorectal cancers. Further genomic and clinical studies are in progress to evaluate the potential of the tropism signature as a therapeutic target to inhibit the colonization of metastatic colorectal cancers.

  9. Autophagy Enhances the Aggressiveness of Human Colorectal Cancer Cells and Their Ability to Adapt to Apoptotic Stimulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Hai-yang; Zhang, Xiao-yang; Wang, Xing-fen; Sun, Bao-cun

    2012-01-01

    To investigate LC3B-II and active caspase-3 expression in human colorectal cancer to elucidate the role of autophagy, and to explore the relationship of autophagy with apoptosis in human colorectal cancer. LC3B expression was detected by immunohistochemistry in 53 human colorectal cancer tissues and 20 normal colon tissues. The protein levels of LC3B-II and active caspase-3 were also determined by Western blot analysis in 23 human colorectal cancer tissues and 10 normal colon tissues. LC3B was expressed both in cancer cells and normal epithelial cells. LC3B expression in the peripheral area of cancer tissues was correlated with several clinicopathological factors, including tumor differentiation (P=0.002), growth pattern of the tumor margin (P=0.028), pN (P=0.002), pStage (P=0.032), as well as vessel and nerve plexus invasion (P=0.002). The protein level of LC3B-II in cancer tissue was significantly higher than in normal tissue (P=0.038), but the expression of active forms of procaspase-3 in cancer tissue was lower (P=0.041). There was a statistically significant positive correlation between the expression levels of LC3B-II and the active forms of procaspase-3 (r=0.537, P=0.008). Autophagy has a prosurvival role in human colorectal cancer. Autophagy enhances the aggressiveness of colorectal cancer cells and their ability to adapt to apoptotic stimulus

  10. Carcinoembryonic antigen promotes colorectal cancer progression by targeting adherens junction complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajenova, Olga, E-mail: o.bazhenova@spbu.ru [Theodosius Dobzhansky Center for Genome Bioinformatics, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation); Department of Genetics and Biotechnology, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation); Department of Surgery and Biomedical Sciences, Creighton University, Omaha, NE 68178 (United States); Chaika, Nina [Department of Surgery and Biomedical Sciences, Creighton University, Omaha, NE 68178 (United States); Tolkunova, Elena; Davydov-Sinitsyn, Alexander [Institute of Cytology, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg 194064 (Russian Federation); Gapon, Svetlana [Boston Children' s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Thomas, Peter [Department of Surgery and Biomedical Sciences, Creighton University, Omaha, NE 68178 (United States); O’Brien, Stephen [Theodosius Dobzhansky Center for Genome Bioinformatics, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation)

    2014-06-10

    Oncomarkers play important roles in the detection and management of human malignancies. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, CEACAM5) and epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin) are considered as independent tumor markers in monitoring metastatic colorectal cancer. They are both expressed by cancer cells and can be detected in the blood serum. We investigated the effect of CEA production by MIP101 colorectal carcinoma cell lines on E-cadherin adherens junction (AJ) protein complexes. No direct interaction between E-cadherin and CEA was detected; however, the functional relationships between E-cadherin and its AJ partners: α-, β- and p120 catenins were impaired. We discovered a novel interaction between CEA and beta-catenin protein in the CEA producing cells. It is shown in the current study that CEA overexpression alters the splicing of p120 catenin and triggers the release of soluble E-cadherin. The influence of CEA production by colorectal cancer cells on the function of E-cadherin junction complexes may explain the link between the elevated levels of CEA and the increase in soluble E-cadherin during the progression of colorectal cancer. - Highlights: • Elevated level of CEA increases the release of soluble E-cadherin during the progression of colorectal cancer. • CEA over-expression alters the binding preferences between E-cadherin and its partners: α-, β- and p120 catenins in adherens junction complexes. • CEA produced by colorectal cancer cells interacts with beta-catenin protein. • CEA over-expression triggers the increase in nuclear beta-catenin. • CEA over-expression alters the splicing of p120 catenin protein.

  11. Colorectal Carcinoma: A General Overview and Future Perspectives in Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mármol, Inés; Sánchez-de-Diego, Cristina; Pradilla Dieste, Alberto; Cerrada, Elena; Rodriguez Yoldi, María Jesús

    2017-01-19

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer and the fourth most common cause of cancer-related death. Most cases of CRC are detected in Western countries, with its incidence increasing year by year. The probability of suffering from colorectal cancer is about 4%-5% and the risk for developing CRC is associated with personal features or habits such as age, chronic disease history and lifestyle. In this context, the gut microbiota has a relevant role, and dysbiosis situations can induce colonic carcinogenesis through a chronic inflammation mechanism. Some of the bacteria responsible for this multiphase process include Fusobacterium spp, Bacteroides fragilis and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli . CRC is caused by mutations that target oncogenes, tumour suppressor genes and genes related to DNA repair mechanisms. Depending on the origin of the mutation, colorectal carcinomas can be classified as sporadic (70%); inherited (5%) and familial (25%). The pathogenic mechanisms leading to this situation can be included in three types, namely chromosomal instability (CIN), microsatellite instability (MSI) and CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP). Within these types of CRC, common mutations, chromosomal changes and translocations have been reported to affect important pathways (WNT, MAPK/PI3K, TGF-β, TP53), and mutations; in particular, genes such as c-MYC, KRAS , BRAF , PIK3CA , PTEN , SMAD2 and SMAD4 can be used as predictive markers for patient outcome. In addition to gene mutations, alterations in ncRNAs, such as lncRNA or miRNA, can also contribute to different steps of the carcinogenesis process and have a predictive value when used as biomarkers. In consequence, different panels of genes and mRNA are being developed to improve prognosis and treatment selection. The choice of first-line treatment in CRC follows a multimodal approach based on tumour-related characteristics and usually comprises surgical resection followed by chemotherapy combined with

  12. Colorectal Carcinoma: A General Overview and Future Perspectives in Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Mármol

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common cancer and the fourth most common cause of cancer-related death. Most cases of CRC are detected in Western countries, with its incidence increasing year by year. The probability of suffering from colorectal cancer is about 4%–5% and the risk for developing CRC is associated with personal features or habits such as age, chronic disease history and lifestyle. In this context, the gut microbiota has a relevant role, and dysbiosis situations can induce colonic carcinogenesis through a chronic inflammation mechanism. Some of the bacteria responsible for this multiphase process include Fusobacterium spp, Bacteroides fragilis and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. CRC is caused by mutations that target oncogenes, tumour suppressor genes and genes related to DNA repair mechanisms. Depending on the origin of the mutation, colorectal carcinomas can be classified as sporadic (70%; inherited (5% and familial (25%. The pathogenic mechanisms leading to this situation can be included in three types, namely chromosomal instability (CIN, microsatellite instability (MSI and CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP. Within these types of CRC, common mutations, chromosomal changes and translocations have been reported to affect important pathways (WNT, MAPK/PI3K, TGF-β, TP53, and mutations; in particular, genes such as c-MYC, KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, PTEN, SMAD2 and SMAD4 can be used as predictive markers for patient outcome. In addition to gene mutations, alterations in ncRNAs, such as lncRNA or miRNA, can also contribute to different steps of the carcinogenesis process and have a predictive value when used as biomarkers. In consequence, different panels of genes and mRNA are being developed to improve prognosis and treatment selection. The choice of first-line treatment in CRC follows a multimodal approach based on tumour-related characteristics and usually comprises surgical resection followed by chemotherapy combined

  13. Is it possible to predict the presence of colorectal cancer in a blood test? A probabilistic approach method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro Rodríguez, José Manuel; Gallego Plazas, Javier; Borrás Rocher, Fernando; Calpena Rico, Rafael; Ruiz Macia, José Antonio; Morcillo Ródenas, Miguel Ángel

    2017-10-01

    The assessment of the state of immunosurveillance (the ability of the organism to prevent the development of neoplasias) in the blood has prognostic implications of interest in colorectal cancer. We evaluated and quantified a possible predictive character of the disease in a blood test using a mathematical interaction index of several blood parameters. The predictive capacity of the index to detect colorectal cancer was also assessed. We performed a retrospective case-control study of a comparative analysis of the distribution of blood parameters in 266 patients with colorectal cancer and 266 healthy patients during the period from 2009 to 2013. Statistically significant differences (p indexes (neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio and platelet to lymphocyte ratio), hemoglobin, hematocrit and eosinophil levels. These differences allowed the design of a blood analytical profile that calculates the risk of colorectal cancer. This risk profile can be quantified via a mathematical formula with a probabilistic capacity to identify patients with the highest risk of the presence of colorectal cancer (area under the ROC curve = 0.85). We showed that a colorectal cancer predictive character exists in blood which can be quantified by an interaction index of several blood parameters. The design and development of interaction indexes of blood parameters constitutes an interesting research line for the development and improvement of programs for the screening of colorectal cancer.

  14. Symptom burden among young adults with breast or colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Stacy D; Zhao, Fengmin; Salsman, John M; Chang, Victor T; Wagner, Lynne I; Fisch, Michael J

    2014-08-01

    Cancer incidence has increased among young adults (YAs) and survival rates have not improved compared with other age groups. Patient-reported outcomes may enhance our understanding of this vulnerable population. In a multisite prospective study, patients completed a cancer symptom inventory at the time of enrollment (T1) and 4 weeks to 5 weeks later (T2). YAs (those aged ≤ 39 years) with breast or colorectal cancer were compared with older adults (those aged ≥ 40 years) with breast or colorectal cancer with regard to symptom severity, symptom interference, changes over time, and medical care. Participants included 1544 patients with breast cancer (96 of whom were YAs) and 718 patients with colorectal cancer (37 of whom were YAs). Compared with older adults, YAs with breast cancer were more likely to report moderate/severe drowsiness, hair loss, and symptom interference with relationships at T1. YAs with colorectal cancer were more likely to report moderate/severe pain, fatigue, nausea, distress, drowsiness, shortness of breath, and rash plus interference in general activity, mood, work, relationships, and life enjoyment compared with older adults. Compared with older adults, shortness of breath, appetite, and sore mouth were more likely to improve in YAs with breast cancer; vomiting was less likely to improve in YAs with colorectal cancer. Referrals for supportive care were few, especially among patients with colorectal cancer. YAs with breast cancer were somewhat more likely to be referred to nutrition and psychiatry services than older patients. YAs reported symptom severity, symptom interference, and variations over time that were distinct from older patients. Distinctions were found to differ by diagnostic group. These findings enhance the understanding of symptom burden in YAs and inform the development of targeted interventions and future research. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  15. ATAD2 overexpression is associated with progression and prognosis in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Mingming; Huang, Rui; Song, Yanni; Feng, Di; Jiang, Yang; Liu, Ming

    2016-03-01

    ATPase family AAA domain-containing 2 plays an important role in tumor progression including cell cycle, proliferation, apoptosis and chemoresistance. However, the expression of ATPase family AAA domain-containing 2 in colorectal cancer and its significance are still unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of ATPase family AAA domain-containing 2 in colorectal cancer. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the expression of ATPase family AAA domain-containing 2 in 155 colorectal cancer and 30 matched adjacent noncancerous tissues. The correlation of ATPase family AAA domain-containing 2 expression with clinicopathological variables was assessed using chi-square test. Patient survival was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier and log-rank tests. Cox regression was performed for the multivariate analysis of prognostic factors. High expression of ATPase family AAA domain-containing 2 was detected in 58.1% of the colorectal cancers and was significantly associated with advanced tumor-node-metastasis stage (P = 0.044), poor differentiation (P = 0.028), deep infiltration (P colorectal cancer. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Coffee, colon function and colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitaglione, Paola; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Pellegrini, Nicoletta

    2012-09-01

    For several years the physiological effects of coffee have been focused on its caffeine content, disregarding the hundreds of bioactive coffee components, such as polyphenols, melanoidins, carbohydrates, diterpenes, etc. These compounds may exert their protection against colorectal cancer (CRC), the third most common cancer worldwide. However, the amount and type of compounds ingested with the beverage may be highly different depending on the variety of coffee used, the roasting degree, the type of brewing method as well as the serving size. In this frame, this paper reviews the mechanisms by which coffee may influence the risk of CRC development focusing on espresso and filtered coffee, as well as on the components that totally or partially reach the colon i.e. polyphenols and dietary fiber, including melanoidins. In particular the effects of coffee on some colon conditions whose deregulation may lead to cancer, namely microbiota composition and lumen reducing environment, were considered. Taken together the discussed studies indicated that, due to their in vivo metabolism and composition, both coffee chlorogenic acids and dietary fiber, including melanoidins, may reduce CRC risk, increasing colon motility and antioxidant status. Further studies should finally assess whether the coffee benefits for colon are driven through a prebiotic effect.

  17. Colorectal cancer through simulation and experiment

    KAUST Repository

    Kershaw, Sophie K.

    2013-06-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) has formed a canonical example of tumourigenesis ever since its use in Fearon and Vogelstein\\'s linear model of genetic mutation, and continues to generate a huge amount of research interest. Over time, the field has witnessed a transition from solely experimental work to the inclusion of mathematical and computational modelling. The fusion of these disciplines has the potential to provide valuable insights into oncologic processes, but also presents the challenge of uniting many diverse perspectives. Furthermore, the cancer cell phenotype defined by the \\'Hallmarks of Cancer\\' has been extended in recent times and provides an excellent basis for future research. The authors present a timely summary of the literature relating to CRC, addressing the traditional experimental findings, summarising the key mathematical and computational approaches, and emphasising the role of the Hallmarks in current and future developments. The authors conclude with a discussion of interdisciplinary work, outlining areas of experimental interest which would benefit from the insight that theoretical modelling can provide. © The institution of engineering and technology 2013.

  18. The Epigenomics of Embryonic Pathway Signaling in Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curt Balch

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the second-leading cause of cancer death in developed countries. While early detection (e.g., colonoscopy generally yields excellent outcomes, metastatic and drug-resistant disease is uniformly fatal, and non-compliance for screening remains over 25%. Familial CRCs (10% of total cases primarily include mutations in the gene APC. Somatic disease is linked to several environmental several risk factors, including mutations in WNT, KRAS, and TGFβ. To reflect the genesis/progression of CRC, a series of five discrete stages, from normal colon mucosa to fully invasive carcinoma, each regulated by specific “gatekeeper” genes, remains well-accepted after 20 years. However, many CRC tumors do not possess those particular mutations, suggesting alternative mechanisms. More recently, embryo-like “cancer stem cells” have been proposed to undergo self-renewal and drive tumorigenesis (and possibly, metastasis, as governed by specific “epigenomic” alterations. Here, we review recent literature describing possible mechanisms that underlie these phenotypes, including cancer “stemness,” believed by many to associate with the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT. We further propose that the maintenance of undifferentiated phenotypes, by the activity of distinct transcription factors, facilitates chromatin remodeling and phenotypic plasticity. With that regard, we support recent assertions that EMT is not an “either/or” event, but rather a continuous spectrum of mesenchymal vs. epithelial phenotypes (in various degrees of aberrant differentiation/undifferentiation. Finally, we discuss possible methods of pharmacologically targeting such aberrant epigenomes, with regard to their possible relevance toward halting, or even reversing, colorectal cancer progression.

  19. Early diagnostic value of Bcl-3 localization in colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saamarthy, Karunakar; Björner, Sofie; Johansson, Martin; Landberg, Göran; Massoumi, Ramin; Jirström, Karin; Masoumi, Katarzyna Chmielarska

    2015-01-01

    B-cell leukemia 3 (Bcl-3) is a member of the inhibitor of κB family, which regulates a wide range of biological processes by functioning as a transcriptional activator or as a repressor of target genes. Elevated expression, sustained nuclear accumulation, and uncontrolled activation of Bcl-3 causes increased cellular proliferation or survival, dependent on the tissue and type of stimuli. We retrospectively reviewed patients who were diagnosed with colorectal cancer at Skåne University Hospital in Malmö between 1st of January 1990 and 31st of December 1991. Bcl-3 localization in colorectal cancer was assessed by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarray and freshly isolated colon from patients. Correlation between Bcl-3 localization and clinicopathological parameters of the cohort were evaluated using the Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient. In addition, Bcl-3 expression and localization in colon adenocarcinoma cells were analysed by western blot, immunohistochemistry and subcellular fractionation separately. We found that Bcl-3 was mainly localized in the cytoplasm in the tumour tissue isolated from colon cancer patients. Normal colon samples from the same patients showed Bcl-3 localization in the nucleus. In three out of six colon cancer cell lines, we detected elevated levels of Bcl-3. In these cell lines Bcl-3 was accumulated in the cytosol. We confirmed these findings by analysing Bcl-3 localization in a colon tissue micro array consisting of 270 cases. In these samples Bcl-3 localization correlated with the proliferation marker Ki-67, but not with the apoptotic marker Caspase 3. These findings indicate that analysis of the subcellular localization of Bcl-3 could be a potential-early diagnostic marker in colon cancer

  20. Colorectal Cancer in Iran: Molecular Epidemiology and Screening Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Dolatkhah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The increasing incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC in the past three decades in Iran has made it a major public health burden. This study aimed to report its epidemiologic features, molecular genetic aspects, survival, heredity, and screening pattern in Iran. Methods. A comprehensive literature review was conducted to identify the relevant published articles. We used medical subject headings, including colorectal cancer, molecular genetics, KRAS and BRAF mutations, screening, survival, epidemiologic study, and Iran. Results. Age standardized incidence rate of Iranian CRCs was 11.6 and 10.5 for men and women, respectively. Overall five-year survival rate was 41%, and the proportion of CRC among the younger age group was higher than that of western countries. Depending on ethnicity, geographical region, dietary, and genetic predisposition, mutation genes were considerably diverse and distinct among CRCs across Iran. The high occurrence of CRC in records of relatives of CRC patients showed that family history of CRC was more common among young CRCs. Conclusion. Appropriate screening strategies for CRC which is amenable to early detection through screening, especially in relatives of CRCs, should be considered as the first step in CRC screening programs.

  1. Proteomics for discovery of candidate colorectal cancer biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Chaver, Paula; Otero-Estévez, Olalla; Páez de la Cadena, María; Rodríguez-Berrocal, Francisco J; Martínez-Zorzano, Vicenta S

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths in Europe and other Western countries, mainly due to the lack of well-validated clinically useful biomarkers with enough sensitivity and specificity to detect this disease at early stages. Although it is well known that the pathogenesis of CRC is a progressive accumulation of mutations in multiple genes, much less is known at the proteome level. Therefore, in the last years many proteomic studies have been conducted to find new candidate protein biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis and as therapeutic targets for this malignancy, as well as to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of colorectal carcinogenesis. An important advantage of the proteomic approaches is the capacity to look for multiple differentially expressed proteins in a single study. This review provides an overview of the recent reports describing the different proteomic tools used for the discovery of new protein markers for CRC such as two-dimensional electrophoresis methods, quantitative mass spectrometry-based techniques or protein microarrays. Additionally, we will also focus on the diverse biological samples used for CRC biomarker discovery such as tissue, serum and faeces, besides cell lines and murine models, discussing their advantages and disadvantages, and summarize the most frequently identified candidate CRC markers. PMID:24744574

  2. Colorectal cancer in iran: molecular epidemiology and screening strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolatkhah, Roya; Somi, Mohammad Hossein; Bonyadi, Mortaza Jabbarpour; Asvadi Kermani, Iraj; Farassati, Faris; Dastgiri, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The increasing incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in the past three decades in Iran has made it a major public health burden. This study aimed to report its epidemiologic features, molecular genetic aspects, survival, heredity, and screening pattern in Iran. Methods. A comprehensive literature review was conducted to identify the relevant published articles. We used medical subject headings, including colorectal cancer, molecular genetics, KRAS and BRAF mutations, screening, survival, epidemiologic study, and Iran. Results. Age standardized incidence rate of Iranian CRCs was 11.6 and 10.5 for men and women, respectively. Overall five-year survival rate was 41%, and the proportion of CRC among the younger age group was higher than that of western countries. Depending on ethnicity, geographical region, dietary, and genetic predisposition, mutation genes were considerably diverse and distinct among CRCs across Iran. The high occurrence of CRC in records of relatives of CRC patients showed that family history of CRC was more common among young CRCs. Conclusion. Appropriate screening strategies for CRC which is amenable to early detection through screening, especially in relatives of CRCs, should be considered as the first step in CRC screening programs.

  3. Expression and clinical significance of Wee1 in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egeland, Eivind Valen; Flatmark, Kjersti; Nesland, Jahn M; Flørenes, Vivi Ann; Mælandsmo, Gunhild M; Boye, Kjetil

    2016-09-01

    Wee1 is a nuclear kinase regulating cell cycle progression, and has emerged as a promising therapeutic target in cancer. Expression of Wee1 has been associated with poor outcome in certain tumor types, but the prognostic impact and clinical significance in colorectal cancer is unknown. The expression of Wee1 was examined by immunohistochemistry in primary colorectal carcinomas from a prospectively collected patient cohort, and associations with clinicopathological parameters and outcome were investigated. Cell culture experiments were performed using the cell lines RKO and SW620, and the relationship with the metastasis-promoting protein S100A4 was investigated. Nuclear expression was detected in 229 of the 258 tumors analyzed (89 %). Wee1 staining was associated with low pT stage, but no other significant associations with demographic or histopathological variables were found. Moderate Wee1 staining intensity was a predictor of favorable metastasis-free and overall survival compared to strong intensity and no or weak staining. The fraction of positive cells was not a prognostic factor in the present cohort. Inhibition of Wee1 expression using siRNA or treatment with the Wee1 inhibitor MK-1775 reduced expression of the metastasis-promoting protein S100A4, but no relationship between Wee1 and S100A4 was found in the patient samples. In conclusion, Wee1 is highly expressed in primary colorectal carcinomas, but few relevant associations with clinicopathological parameters or outcome were found. The lack of clinical significance of Wee1 expression could indicate that other tumor types might be better suited for further development of Wee1 inhibitors.

  4. Special Section: New Ways to Detect Colon Cancer 3-D virtual screening now being used

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Special Section: Colorectal Cancer New Ways to Detect Colon Cancer 3-D virtual screening now being used Past ... and techniques for 3-D virtual colonoscopy for colon cancer screening. "Things click in the life of an ...

  5. Detection of atomic scale changes in the free volume void size of three-dimensional colorectal cancer cell culture using positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axpe, Eneko; Lopez-Euba, Tamara; Castellanos-Rubio, Ainara; Merida, David; Garcia, Jose Angel; Plaza-Izurieta, Leticia; Fernandez-Jimenez, Nora; Plazaola, Fernando; Bilbao, Jose Ramon

    2014-01-01

    Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) provides a direct measurement of the free volume void sizes in polymers and biological systems. This free volume is critical in explaining and understanding physical and mechanical properties of polymers. Moreover, PALS has been recently proposed as a potential tool in detecting cancer at early stages, probing the differences in the subnanometer scale free volume voids between cancerous/healthy skin samples of the same patient. Despite several investigations on free volume in complex cancerous tissues, no positron annihilation studies of living cancer cell cultures have been reported. We demonstrate that PALS can be applied to the study in human living 3D cell cultures. The technique is also capable to detect atomic scale changes in the size of the free volume voids due to the biological responses to TGF-β. PALS may be developed to characterize the effect of different culture conditions in the free volume voids of cells grown in vitro.

  6. Detection of Atomic Scale Changes in the Free Volume Void Size of Three-Dimensional Colorectal Cancer Cell Culture Using Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos-Rubio, Ainara; Merida, David; Garcia, Jose Angel; Plaza-Izurieta, Leticia; Fernandez-Jimenez, Nora; Plazaola, Fernando; Bilbao, Jose Ramon

    2014-01-01

    Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) provides a direct measurement of the free volume void sizes in polymers and biological systems. This free volume is critical in explaining and understanding physical and mechanical properties of polymers. Moreover, PALS has been recently proposed as a potential tool in detecting cancer at early stages, probing the differences in the subnanometer scale free volume voids between cancerous/healthy skin samples of the same patient. Despite several investigations on free volume in complex cancerous tissues, no positron annihilation studies of living cancer cell cultures have been reported. We demonstrate that PALS can be applied to the study in human living 3D cell cultures. The technique is also capable to detect atomic scale changes in the size of the free volume voids due to the biological responses to TGF-β. PALS may be developed to characterize the effect of different culture conditions in the free volume voids of cells grown in vitro. PMID:24392097

  7. The importance of circulating tumor products as „liquid biopsies” in colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Miscoci

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Liquid biopsies represent an array of plasma analysis tests that are studied to evaluate and identify circulating tumor products, especially circulating tumor cells (CTCs and circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA. Examining such biomarkers in the plasma of colorectal cancer patients has attracted attention due to its clinical significance in the treatment of malignant diseases. Given that tissue samples are sometimes challenging to procure or unsatisfactory for genomic profiling from patients with colorectal cancer, trustworthy biomarkers are mandatory for guiding treatment, monitoring therapeutic response, and detecting recurrence. This review considers the relevance of flowing tumor products like circulating tumor cells (CTCs, circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA, circulating messenger RNA (mRNA, circulating micro RNA (miRNA, circulating exosomes, and tumor educated platelets (TEPs for patients with colorectal cancer.

  8. Tailored treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer: clinical and pre-clinical developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, A.M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related death in males and females in developed countries. Metastases in distant organs, which develop in 50% of colorectal cancer patients, are responsible for the majority of colorectal cancer deaths. Treatment of metastatic disease should

  9. Small-area geographic and socioeconomic inequalities in colorectal tumour detection in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournel, Isabelle; Bourredjem, Abderrahmane; Sauleau, Erik-André; Cottet, Vanessa; Dejardin, Olivier; Bouvier, Anne-Marie; Launoy, Guy; Bonithon-Kopp, Claire

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of area deprivation and primary care facilities on colorectal adenoma detection and on colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence in a French well-defined population before mass screening implementation. The study population included all patients aged 20 years or more living in Côte d'Or (France) with either colorectal adenoma or invasive CRC first diagnosed between 1995 and 2002 and who were identified from the Burgundy Digestive Cancer Registry and the Côte d'Or Polyp Registry. Area deprivation was assessed using the European deprivation index on the basis of the smallest French area available (Ilots Regroupés pour l'Information Statistique). Healthcare access was assessed using medical density of general practitioners (GPs) and road distance to the nearest GP and gastroenterologist. Bayesian regression analyses were used to estimate influential covariates on adenoma detection and CRC incidence rates. The results were expressed as relative risks (RRs) with their 95% credibility interval. In total, 5399 patients were diagnosed with at least one colorectal adenoma and 2125 with invasive incident CRC during the study period. Remoteness from GP [RR=0.71 (0.61-0.83)] and area deprivation [RR=0.98 (0.96-1.00)] independently reduced the probability of adenoma detection. CRC incidence was only slightly affected by GP medical density [RR=1.05 (1.01-1.08)] without any area deprivation effect [RR=0.99 (0.96-1.02)]. Distance to gastroenterologist had no impact on the rates of adenoma detection or CRC incidence. This study highlighted the prominent role of access to GPs in the detection of both colorectal adenomas and overall cancers. Deprivation had an impact only on adenoma detection.

  10. Risk prediction model for colorectal cancer: National Health Insurance Corporation study, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Aesun; Joo, Jungnam; Yang, Hye-Ryung; Bak, Jeongin; Park, Yunjin; Kim, Jeongseon; Oh, Jae Hwan; Nam, Byung-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Incidence and mortality rates of colorectal cancer have been rapidly increasing in Korea during last few decades. Development of risk prediction models for colorectal cancer in Korean men and women is urgently needed to enhance its prevention and early detection. Gender specific five-year risk prediction models were developed for overall colorectal cancer, proximal colon cancer, distal colon cancer, colon cancer and rectal cancer. The model was developed using data from a population of 846,559 men and 479,449 women who participated in health examinations by the National Health Insurance Corporation. Examinees were 30-80 years old and free of cancer in the baseline years of 1996 and 1997. An independent population of 547,874 men and 415,875 women who participated in 1998 and 1999 examinations was used to validate the model. Model validation was done by evaluating its performance in terms of discrimination and calibration ability using the C-statistic and Hosmer-Lemeshow-type chi-square statistics. Age, body mass index, serum cholesterol, family history of cancer, and alcohol consumption were included in all models for men, whereas age, height, and meat intake frequency were included in all models for women. Models showed moderately good discrimination ability with C-statistics between 0.69 and 0.78. The C-statistics were generally higher in the models for men, whereas the calibration abilities were generally better in the models for women. Colorectal cancer risk prediction models were developed from large-scale, population-based data. Those models can be used for identifying high risk groups and developing preventive intervention strategies for colorectal cancer.

  11. Risk prediction model for colorectal cancer: National Health Insurance Corporation study, Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aesun Shin

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Incidence and mortality rates of colorectal cancer have been rapidly increasing in Korea during last few decades. Development of risk prediction models for colorectal cancer in Korean men and women is urgently needed to enhance its prevention and early detection. METHODS: Gender specific five-year risk prediction models were developed for overall colorectal cancer, proximal colon cancer, distal colon cancer, colon cancer and rectal cancer. The model was developed using data from a population of 846,559 men and 479,449 women who participated in health examinations by the National Health Insurance Corporation. Examinees were 30-80 years old and free of cancer in the baseline years of 1996 and 1997. An independent population of 547,874 men and 415,875 women who participated in 1998 and 1999 examinations was used to validate the model. Model validation was done by evaluating its performance in terms of discrimination and calibration ability using the C-statistic and Hosmer-Lemeshow-type chi-square statistics. RESULTS: Age, body mass index, serum cholesterol, family history of cancer, and alcohol consumption were included in all models for men, whereas age, height, and meat intake frequency were included in all models for women. Models showed moderately good discrimination ability with C-statistics between 0.69 and 0.78. The C-statistics were generally higher in the models for men, whereas the calibration abilities were generally better in the models for women. CONCLUSIONS: Colorectal cancer risk prediction models were developed from large-scale, population-based data. Those models can be used for identifying high risk groups and developing preventive intervention strategies for colorectal cancer.

  12. Colorectal Cancer Screening: Knowledge, Perceived Benefits and Barriers, and Intentions among College and University Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajracharya, Srijana M.; Wigglesworth, Janet K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Early detection through routine screening is critical in reducing the incidence rate of colorectal cancer (CRC). Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine college and university employees' knowledge of CRC issues, their perceptions of the benefits of and barriers to CRC screening, and their intentions toward it. Methods: This…

  13. Examination of venous tumor thrombus with colorectal cancer by enhanced CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Osamu; Kiba, Maki; Tazoe, Jun

    2010-01-01

    Recently, multi detector row CT (MDCT) has been largely used and enabled to detect drainage vessels of tumors. Then we tried examining the ratio, by using enhanced CT, of the cases that has venous tumor thrombus with colorectal cancer, and found the 3 cases out of 176 to be venous tumor thrombus of mesenteric veins in advanced stage. (author)

  14. Possible missed opportunities for diagnosing colorectal cancer in Dutch primary care : a multimethods approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandenbarg, Daan; Groenhof, Feikje; Siewers, Ilse M; van der Voort, Anna; Berendsen, Annette J; Walter, Fiona M

    BACKGROUND: Early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC) is important to achieve better survival. Discriminating symptoms suggestive of CRC from benign conditions is a challenge for GPs because most known 'alarm symptoms' have low predictive values. AIM: To further understand the diagnostic process of

  15. Ultrasound imaging of flow patterns in liver metastases from colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael; Solvig, Jan

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The ability of colour Doppler, power Doppler and echo-enhanced Doppler imaging to detect the blood flow in liver metastases from colorectal cancer was investigated. An evaluation was then made to determine whether the flow pattern could be used as an indication of disease elsewhere...

  16. Vegetarian dietary patterns and the risk of colorectal cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlich, Michael J; Singh, Pramil N; Sabaté, Joan; Fan, Jing; Sveen, Lars; Bennett, Hannelore; Knutsen, Synnove F; Beeson, W Lawrence; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Butler, Terry L; Herring, R Patti; Fraser, Gary E

    2015-05-01

    Colorectal cancers are a leading cause of cancer mortality, and their primary prevention by diet is highly desirable. The relationship of vegetarian dietary patterns to colorectal cancer risk is not well established. To evaluate the association between vegetarian dietary patterns and incident colorectal cancers. The Adventist Health Study 2 (AHS-2) is a large, prospective, North American cohort trial including 96,354 Seventh-Day Adventist men and women recruited between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2007. Follow-up varied by state and was indicated by the cancer registry linkage dates. Of these participants, an analytic sample of 77,659 remained after exclusions. Analysis was conducted using Cox proportional hazards regression, controlling for important demographic and lifestyle confounders. The analysis was conducted between June 1, 2014, and October 20, 2014. Diet was assessed at baseline by a validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire and categorized into 4 vegetarian dietary patterns (vegan, lacto-ovo vegetarian, pescovegetarian, and semivegetarian) and a nonvegetarian dietary pattern. The relationship between dietary patterns and incident cancers of the colon and rectum; colorectal cancer cases were identified primarily by state cancer registry linkages. During a mean follow-up of 7.3 years, 380 cases of colon cancer and 110 cases of rectal cancer were documented. The adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) in all vegetarians combined vs nonvegetarians were 0.78 (95% CI, 0.64-0.95) for all colorectal cancers, 0.81 (95% CI, 0.65-1.00) for colon cancer, and 0.71 (95% CI, 0.47-1.06) for rectal cancer. The adjusted HR for colorectal cancer in vegans was 0.84 (95% CI, 0.59-1.19); in lacto-ovo vegetarians, 0.82 (95% CI, 0.65-1.02); in pescovegetarians, 0.57 (95% CI, 0.40-0.82); and in semivegetarians, 0.92 (95% CI, 0.62-1.37) compared with nonvegetarians. Effect estimates were similar for men and women and for black and nonblack individuals. Vegetarian diets are

  17. Vegetarian Dietary Patterns and the Risk of Colorectal Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlich, Michael J.; Singh, Pramil N.; Sabaté, Joan; Fan, Jing; Sveen, Lars; Bennett, Hannelore; Knutsen, Synnove F.; Beeson, W. Lawrence; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Butler, Terry L.; Herring, R. Patti; Fraser, Gary E.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Colorectal cancers are a leading cause of cancer mortality, and their primary prevention by diet is highly desirable. The relationship of vegetarian dietary patterns to colorectal cancer risk is not well established. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association between vegetarian dietary patterns and incident colorectal cancers. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS The Adventist Health Study 2 (AHS-2) is a large, prospective, North American cohort trial including 96 354 Seventh-Day Adventist men and women recruited between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2007. Follow-up varied by state and was indicated by the cancer registry linkage dates. Of these participants, an analytic sample of 77 659 remained after exclusions. Analysis was conducted using Cox proportional hazards regression, controlling for important demographic and lifestyle confounders. The analysis was conducted between June 1, 2014, and October 20, 2014. EXPOSURES Diet was assessed at baseline by a validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire and categorized into 4 vegetarian dietary patterns (vegan, lacto-ovo vegetarian, pescovegetarian, and semivegetarian) and a nonvegetarian dietary pattern. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The relationship between dietary patterns and incident cancers of the colon and rectum; colorectal cancer cases were identified primarily by state cancer registry linkages. RESULTS During a mean follow-up of 7.3 years, 380 cases of colon cancer and 110 cases of rectal cancer were documented. The adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) in all vegetarians combined vs nonvegetarians were 0.78 (95% CI, 0.64–0.95) for all colorectal cancers, 0.81 (95%CI, 0.65–1.00) for colon cancer, and 0.71 (95% CI, 0.47–1.06) for rectal cancer. The adjusted HR for colorectal cancer in vegans was 0.84 (95% CI, 0.59–1.19); in lacto-ovo vegetarians, 0.82 (95% CI, 0.65–1.02); in pescovegetarians, 0.57 (95% CI, 0.40–0.82); and in semivegetarians, 0.92 (95% CI, 0.62–1.37) compared with

  18. Colorectal Cancer - What You Need to Know PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-07-05

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement (PSA) is based on the July, 2011 CDC Vital Signs report. Colorectal cancer kills about 50,000 men and women every year. Screening can save lives! Screening can find abnormal growths so they can be removed before turning into cancer, and can find the cancer early, when it's easiest to treat. If you're over 50, talk to your doctor about getting screened for colorectal cancer.  Created: 7/5/2011 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 7/5/2011.

  19. Genetic testing and counseling for hereditary forms of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, G M; Brensinger, J D; Johnson, K A; Giardiello, F M

    1999-12-01

    The discovery of genes responsible for inherited forms of colorectal cancer have the potential to improve cancer risk assessment and counseling. Germline mutations (nonsense, frameshift) of APC are associated with familial adenomatous polyposis, an autosomal dominant syndrome, clinically characterized by young onset, hundreds of adenomatous polyps in the colon, and increased risk for extracolonic tumors. Mutations in APC are also associated with forms of attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis. Germline mutations in five mismatch repair related genes (hMSH2, hMLH1, hMSH6, hPMS1, and hPMS2) cause hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer and are associated with increased risk of somatic genetic alterations and high DNA microsatellite instability. Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer is characterized by young onset colorectal cancer, proximal colon location, and increased risk of extracolonic cancers. A missense mutation in APC (I1307K) is associated with some familial colorectal cancer in Ashkenazic Jews. For persons at risk for hereditary forms of colorectal cancer, testing algorithms and gene test interpretations depend on identification of the pedigree germline gene mutation. Careful evaluation of the kindred for characteristic aggregation of tumor types among affected individuals and the availability of affected persons for testing are important issues in implementing genetic testing and follow-up management. Case reports illustrate the importance of genetic counseling as a component of cancer genetic risk assessment. The genetic counseling process includes exploration of patient risk perception, sources of anxiety related to cancer risk, patient education (specific cancer-related issues, prevention/intervention options), discussion of possible gene test options, test limitations, and consequences of various gene test outcomes.

  20. Impact of family history of gastric cancer on colorectal neoplasias in young Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, K; Shinozaki, M; Toyoshima, O; Toyoshima, A; Matsumoto, S; Saisho, T; Tsurita, G

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate risk factors for the development of colorectal neoplasia in the young population. In particular, we focused on the family history of gastric cancer. Young Japanese subjects aged 30-49 years old who underwent colonoscopy for the first time from August 2007 to August 2008 were included in this study. A total of 300 unselected consecutive patients (mean age 40.5 years) were eligible for analysis, and family history of colorectal cancer and gastric cancer, sex, age, body mass index, positivity of faecal occult blood test and the presence of symptoms were evaluated. Risk factors for developing colorectal adenoma and/or carcinoma were assessed. Colorectal neoplasias were detected in 83 (27.7%) cases. Two were found to have invasive carcinoma. Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that family history of gastric cancer (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.12-3.92, P = 0.02) was an independent risk factor for the development of colorectal neoplasia, as well as male sex (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.10-3.27, P = 0.02), older age (OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.18-3.55, P = 0.01) and positive faecal occult blood test (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.14-3.48, P = 0.02). In the young population under 50 years of age, a family history of gastric cancer is an independent risk factor for the development of colorectal neoplasia. © 2012 The Authors. Colorectal Disease © 2012 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  1. BRACHYURY confers cancer stem cell characteristics on colorectal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Debalina; Shields, Brian; Davies, Melanie L; Müller, Jürgen; Wakeman, Jane A

    2012-01-15

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are initiating cells in colorectal cancer (CRC). Colorectal tumours undergo epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT)-like processes at the invasive front, enabling invasion and metastasis, and recent studies have linked this process to the acquisition of stem cell-like properties. It is of fundamental importance to understand the molecular events leading to the establishment of cancer initiating cells and how these mechanisms relate to cellular transitions during tumourigenesis. We use an in vitro system to recapitulate changes in CRC cells at the invasive front (mesenchymal-like cells) and central mass (epithelial-like cells) of tumours. We show that the mesoderm inducer BRACHYURY is expressed in a subpopulation of CRC cells that resemble invasive front mesenchymal-like cells, where it acts to impose characteristics of CSCs in a fully reversible manner, suggesting reversible formation and modulation of such cells. BRACHYURY, itself regulated by the oncogene β-catenin, influences NANOG and other 'stemness' markers including a panel of markers defining CRC-CSC whose presence has been linked to poor patient prognosis. Similar regulation of NANOG through BRACHYURY was observed in other cells lines, suggesting this might be a pathway common to cancer cells undergoing mesenchymal transition. We suggest that BRACHYURY may regulate NANOG in mesenchymal-like CRC cells to impose a 'plastic-state', allowing competence of cells to respond to signals prompting invasion or metastasis. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  2. Motivational Interviewing and Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahab, Stéphanie; Menon, Usha; Szalacha, Laura

    2008-01-01

    Objective This article focuses on design, training, and delivery of MI in a longitudinal randomized controlled trial intended to assess the efficacy of two separate interventions designed to increase colorectal screening when compared to a usual care, control group. One intervention was a single-session, telephone-based motivational interview (MI), created to increase colorectal cancer screening within primary care populations. The other was tailored health counseling. We present the rationale, design, and process discussions of the one-time motivational interview telephone intervention. We discuss in this paper the training and supervision of study interventionists, in order to enhance practice and research knowledge concerned with fidelity issues in motivational interview interventions. Methods To improve motivational interview proficiency and effectiveness, we developed a prescribed training program adapting MI to a telephone counseling session. Results The four interventionists trained in MI demonstrate some MI proficiency assessed by the Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity Scale. In the post-intervention interview, 20.5% of the MI participants reported having had a CRC screening test, and another 19.75% (n = 16) had scheduled a screening test. Almost half of the participants (43%) indicated that the phone conversation helped them to overcome the reasons why they had not had a screening test. Conclusions Ongoing supervision and training (post MI workshop) are crucial to supporting MI fidelity. The trajectory of learning MI demonstrated by the interventionists is consistent with the eight stages of learning MI. The MI roadmap created for the interventionists has shown to be more of a distraction than a facilitator in the delivery of the telephone intervention. MI can, however, be considered a useful tool for health education and warrants further study. Practice Implications MI training should include consistent training and process evaluation. MI can

  3. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yu-Liang; Shu, Long; Zheng, Pei-Fen; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Si, Cai-Juan; Yu, Xiao-Long; Gao, Wei; Zhang, Lun

    2017-05-01

    The analysis of dietary patterns has recently drawn considerable attention as a method of investigating the association between the overall whole diet and the risk of colorectal cancer. However, the results have yielded conflicting findings. Here, we carried out a meta-analysis to identify the association between dietary patterns and the risk of colorectal cancer. A total of 40 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. The highest category of 'healthy' dietary pattern compared with the lowest category was apparently associated with a decreased risk for colorectal cancer [odds ratio (OR)=0.75; confidence interval (CI): 0.68-0.83; Pcolorectal cancer was shown for the highest compared with the lowest category of a 'western-style' dietary pattern (OR=1.40; CI: 1.26-1.56; Pcolorectal cancer in the highest compared with the lowest category of 'alcohol-consumption' pattern (OR=1.44; CI: 1.13-1.82; P=0.003). The results of this meta-analysis indicate that a 'healthy' dietary pattern may decrease the risk of colorectal cancer, whereas 'western-style' and 'alcohol-consumption' patterns may increase the risk of colorectal cancer.

  4. An inverse association between tea consumption and colorectal cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuetong; Wu, Yuan; Du, Mulong; Chu, Haiyan; Zhu, Lingjun; Tong, Na; Zhang, Zhengdong; Wang, Meilin; Gu, Dongying; Chen, Jinfei

    2017-06-06

    It is well known that the tea extracts, mainly polyphenols as chemo-preventive elements, could act as cancer progression blockers. Although the association between tea consumption and colorectal cancer risk has been widely investigated, the results still remain inconsistent. We conducted a dose-response meta-analysis to evaluate their relationships by enrolling qualified 29 literatures. The summary odds ratio (OR) of colorectal cancer for the highest vs. lowest tea consumption was 0.93 with 0.87-1.00 of 95% confidence intervals (CIs) among all studies with modest heterogeneity (P = 0.001, I2 = 43.4%). Stratified analysis revealed that tea, especially green tea, had a protective effect among female and rectal cancer patients. Particularly, the dose-response analysis showed that there was a significant inverse association between an increment of 1 cup/day of tea consumption and colorectal cancer risk in the subgroup of the green tea drinking (OR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.96-1.01, Pnonlinear = 0.003) and female (OR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.56-0.81, Pnonlinear tea consumption has an inverse impact on colorectal cancer risk, which may have significant public health implications in the prevention of colorectal cancer and further similar researches.

  5. Immediately modifiable risk factors attributable to colorectal cancer in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naing, Cho; Lai, Pei Kuan; Mak, Joon Wah

    2017-08-04

    This study aimed to estimate potential reductions in case incidence of colorectal cancer attributable to the modifiable risk factors such as alcohol consumption, overweight and physical inactivity amongst the Malaysian population. Gender specific population-attributable fractions (PAFs) for colorectal cancer in Malaysia were estimated for the three selected risk factors (physical inactivity, overweight, and alcohol consumptions). Exposure prevalence were sourced from a large-scale national representative survey. Risk estimates of the relationship between the exposure of interest and colorectal cancer were obtained from published meta-analyses. The overall PAF was then estimated, using the 2013 national cancer incidence data from the Malaysian Cancer Registry. Overall, the mean incidence rate for colorectal cancer in Malaysia from 2008 to 2013 was 21.3 per 100,000 population, with the mean age of 61.6 years (±12.7) and the majority were men (56.6%). Amongst 369 colorectal cancer cases in 2013, 40 cases (20 men, 20 women), 10 cases (9 men, 1 woman) or 20 cases (16 men,4 women) would be prevented, if they had done physical exercises, could reduce their body weight to normal level or avoided alcohol consumption, assuming that these factors are causally related to colorectal cancer. It was estimated that 66 (17.8%;66/369) colorectal cancer cases (42 men, 24 women) who had all these three risk factors for the last 10 years would have been prevented, if they could control these three risk factors through effective preventive measures. Findings suggest that approximately 18% of colorectal cancer cases in Malaysia would be prevented through appropriate preventive measures such as doing regular physical exercises, reducing their body weight to normal level and avoiding alcohol consumption, if these factors are causally related to colorectal cancer. Scaling-up nationwide public health campaigns tailored to increase physical activity, controlling body weight within normal

  6. Ulcerative colitis-associated colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashiro, Masakazu

    2014-01-01

    The association between ulcerative colitis (UC) and colorectal cancer (CRC) has been acknowledged. One of the most serious and life threatening consequences of UC is the development of CRC (UC-CRC). UC-CRC patients are younger, more frequently have multiple cancerous lesions, and histologically show mucinous or signet ring cell carcinomas. The risk of CRC begins to increase 8 or 10 years after the diagnosis of UC. Risk factors for CRC with UC patients include young age at diagnosis, longer duration, greater anatomical extent of colonic involvement, the degree of inflammation, family history of CRC, and presence of primary sclerosing cholangitis. CRC on the ground of UC develop from non-dysplastic mucosa to indefinite dysplasia, low-grade dysplasia, high-grade dysplasia and finally to invasive adenocarcinoma. Colonoscopy surveillance programs are recommended to reduce the risk of CRC and mortality in UC. Genetic alterations might play a role in the development of UC-CRC. 5-aminosalicylates might represent a favorable therapeutic option for chemoprevention of CRC. PMID:25469007

  7. Television watching and colorectal cancer survival in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yin; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A; Chan, Andrew T; Wu, Kana; Fuchs, Charles S; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2015-10-01

    To assess the association between pre- and postdiagnostic time spent sitting watching TV as well as other sedentary behaviors (other sitting at home and at work/driving) and mortality from colorectal cancer or other causes, and overall mortality. We followed stage I-III colorectal cancer patients from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2010). Cox models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). A total of 926 and 714 patients were included in the analysis of pre- and postdiagnostic TV watching, respectively, and 471 and 325 died during follow-up. Prolonged prediagnostic TV viewing was associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer-specific mortality independent of leisure-time physical activity. The HRs (95 % CIs) for 0-6, 7-13, 14-20, and ≥21 h/week were 1.00 (referent), 0.84 (0.56-1.25), 1.15 (0.75-1.78), and 2.13 (1.31-3.45) (p trend = 0.01). The association was observed primarily among overweight and obese individuals. Prediagnostic TV watching was also associated with overall mortality within 5 years of diagnosis, largely due to the association with colorectal cancer mortality. Other prediagnostic sitting at home or at work/driving was not associated with mortality. Postdiagnostic TV viewing was associated with a nonsignificantly increased risk of colorectal cancer-specific mortality (HR for ≥21 vs 0-6 h/week = 1.45; 95 % CI 0.73-2.87) adjusting for TV viewing before diagnosis. Prolonged prediagnostic TV watching is associated with higher colorectal cancer-specific mortality independent of leisure-time physical activity among colorectal cancer patients.

  8. GSTT2 promoter polymorphisms and colorectal cancer risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahn Sun-A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glutathione S-transferases are a group of enzymes that participate in detoxification and defense mechanisms against toxic carcinogens and other compounds. These enzymes play an important role in human carcinogenesis. In the present study, we sought to determine whether GSTT2 promoter single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are associated with colorectal cancer risk. Methods A total of 436 colorectal cancer patients and 568 healthy controls were genotyped for three GSTT2 promoter SNPs (-537G>A, -277T>C and -158G>A, using real-time TaqMan assay and direct sequencing. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA was performed to determine the effects of polymorphisms on protein binding to the GSTT2 promoter. Results The -537A allele (-537G/A or A/A was significantly associated with colorectal cancer risk (OR = 1.373, p = 0.025, while the -158A allele (-158G/A or A/A was involved in protection against colorectal cancer (OR = 0.539, p = 0.032. Haplotype 2 (-537A, -277T, -158G was significantly associated with colorectal cancer risk (OR = 1.386, p = 0.021, while haplotype 4 (-537G, -277C, -158A protected against colorectal cancer (OR = 0.539, p = 0.032. EMSA data revealed lower promoter binding activity in the -537A allele than its -537G counterpart. Conclusion Our results collectively suggest that SNPs and haplotypes of the GSTT2 promoter region are associated with colorectal cancer risk in the Korean population.

  9. Galectin-3 expression in colorectal cancer and its correlation with clinical pathological characteristics and prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available To explore the expression levels of galectin-3 in colorectal cancer and the association between galectin-3 and its clinical pathological parameters, as well as the prognosis of colorectal cancer patients.

  10. Dietary fiber intake and risk of colorectal cancer: A pooled analysis of prospective cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, Y.; Hunter, D.J.; Spiegelman, D.; Bergkvist, L.; Berrino, F.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Buring, J.E.; Colditz, G.A.; Freudenheim, J.L.; Fuchs, C.S.; Giovannucci, E.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Graham, S.; Harnack, L.; Hartman, A.M.; Jacobs, D.R.; Kato, I.; Krogh, V.; Leitzmann, M.F.; McCullough, M.L.; Miller, A.B.; Pietinen, P.; Rohan, T.E.; Schatzkin, A.; Willett, W.C.; Wolk, A.; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, A.; Zhang, S.M.; Smith-Warner, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    Context: Inconsistent findings from observational studies have continued the controversy over the effects of dietary fiber on colorectal cancer. Objective: To evaluate the association between dietary fiber intake and risk of colorectal cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: From 13 prospective

  11. Changes in apoptosis during the development of colorectal cancer : a systematic review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornstra, JJ; de Jong, S; Hollema, H; de Vries, EGE; Kleibeuker, JH

    The development of colorectal cancer is characterised by an accumulation of molecular genetic alterations causing disorders in cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis. Although changes in apoptosis with colorectal cancer development have been studied extensively, a clear consensus of opinion has

  12. Risk factors determining chemotherapeutic toxicity in patients with advanced colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansman, FGA; Sleijfer, DT; Coenen, JLLM; De Graaf, JC; Brouwers, JRBJ

    2000-01-01

    Antitumour therapy in advanced colorectal cancer has limited efficacy. For decades, fluorouracil has been the main anticancer drug for the treatment of colorectal cancer. Recently, however, new agents have been introduced: raltitrexed, irinotecan and oxaliplatin. Currently, the dosage for an

  13. Clinicopathological Characteristics and Prognosis of Colorectal Cancer in Chinese Adolescent Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Du

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Colorectal cancer in Chinese adolescents was very rare. The chinese adolecents with colorectal cancer were frequently diagnosed in the right colon, as Stage III/IV disease with signet ring cell carcinoma. The prognosis was relatively poor.

  14. Obesity, Aspirin, and Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Carriers of Hereditary Colorectal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Movahedi, Mohammad; Bishop, D Timothy; Macrae, Finlay

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: In the general population, increased adiposity is a significant risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC), but whether obesity has similar effects in those with hereditary CRC is uncertain. This prospective study investigated the association between body mass index and cancer risk....../m(2) increase in body mass index. The risk of all LS-related cancers in obese people was 1.77× (95% CI, 1.06 to 2.96; P = .03) greater than for the reference group. In subgroup analysis, obesity was associated with 3.72× (95% CI, 1.41 to 9.81) greater CRC risk in patients with LS with MLH1 mutation...

  15. Level of colorectal cancer awareness: a cross sectional exploratory study among multi-ethnic rural population in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Tin Tin; Goh, Jun Yan; Tan, Jackson; Muhaimah, Abdul Rahim; Pigeneswaren, Yoganathan; Khairun, Nasirin Sallamun; Normazidah, Abdul Wahab; Tharisini, Devi Kunasekaran; Majid, Hazreen Abd

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the level of colorectal cancer awareness among multi-ethnic rural population in Malaysia. A rural-based cross sectional survey was carried out in Perak state in Peninsular Malaysia in March 2011. The survey recruited a population-representative sample using multistage sampling. Altogether 2379 participants were included in this study. Validated bowel/colorectal cancer awareness measure questionnaire was used to assess the level of colorectal cancer awareness among study population. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was done to identify socio-demographic variance of knowledge score on warning signs and risk factors of colorectal cancer. Among respondents, 38% and 32% had zero knowledge score for warning signs and risk factors respectively. Mean knowledge score for warning signs and risk factors were 2.89 (SD 2.96) and 3.49 (SD 3.17) respectively. There was a significant positive correlation between the knowledge score of warning signs and level of confidence in detecting a warning sign. Socio-demographic characteristics and having cancer in family and friends play important role in level of awareness. Level of awareness on colorectal cancer warning signs and risk factors in the rural population of Malaysia is very low. Therefore, it warrants an extensive health education campaign on colorectal cancer awareness as it is one of the commonest cancer in Malaysia. Health education campaign is urgently needed because respondents would seek medical attention sooner if they are aware of this problem

  16. Level of colorectal cancer awareness: a cross sectional exploratory study among multi-ethnic rural population in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tin Tin; Goh, Jun Yan; Tan, Jackson; Muhaimah, Abdul Rahim; Pigeneswaren, Yoganathan; Khairun, Nasirin Sallamun; Normazidah, Abdul Wahab; Tharisini, Devi Kunasekaran; Majid, Hazreen Abd

    2013-08-07

    This paper presents the level of colorectal cancer awareness among multi-ethnic rural population in Malaysia. A rural-based cross sectional survey was carried out in Perak state in Peninsular Malaysia in March 2011. The survey recruited a population-representative sample using multistage sampling. Altogether 2379 participants were included in this study. Validated bowel/colorectal cancer awareness measure questionnaire was used to assess the level of colorectal cancer awareness among study population. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was done to identify socio-demographic variance of knowledge score on warning signs and risk factors of colorectal cancer. Among respondents, 38% and 32% had zero knowledge score for warning signs and risk factors respectively. Mean knowledge score for warning signs and risk factors were 2.89 (SD 2.96) and 3.49 (SD 3.17) respectively. There was a significant positive correlation between the knowledge score of warning signs and level of confidence in detecting a warning sign. Socio-demographic characteristics and having cancer in family and friends play important role in level of awareness. Level of awareness on colorectal cancer warning signs and risk factors in the rural population of Malaysia is very low. Therefore, it warrants an extensive health education campaign on colorectal cancer awareness as it is one of the commonest cancer in Malaysia. Health education campaign is urgently needed because respondents would seek medical attention sooner if they are aware of this problem.

  17. Survival rates and predictors of survival among colorectal cancer patients in a Malaysian tertiary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaji, Bello Arkilla; Moy, Foong Ming; Roslani, April Camilla; Law, Chee Wei

    2017-05-18

    Colorectal cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed malignancy and the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death globally. It is the second most common cancer among both males and females in Malaysia. The economic burden of colorectal cancer is likely to increase over time owing to its current trend and aging population. Cancer survival analysis is an essential indicator for early detection and improvement in cancer treatment. However, there was a scarcity of studies concerning survival of colorectal cancer patients as well as its predictors. Therefore, we aimed to determine the 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates, compare survival rates among ethnic groups and determine the predictors of survival among colorectal cancer patients. This was an ambidirectional cohort study conducted at the University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC) in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. All Malaysian citizens or permanent residents with histologically confirmed diagnosis of colorectal cancer seen at UMMC from 1 January 2001 to 31 December 2010 were included in the study. Demographic and clinical characteristics were extracted from the medical records. Patients were followed-up until death or censored at the end of the study (31st December 2010). Censored patients' vital status (whether alive or dead) were cross checked with the National Registration Department. Survival analyses at 1-, 3- and 5-year intervals were performed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Log-rank test was used to compare the survival rates, while Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was carried out to determine the predictors of 5-year colorectal cancer survival. Among 1212 patients, the median survival for colorectal, colon and rectal cancers were 42.0, 42.0 and 41.0 months respectively; while the 1-, 3-, and 5-year relative survival rates ranged from 73.8 to 76.0%, 52.1 to 53.7% and 40.4 to 45.4% respectively. The Chinese patients had the lowest 5-year survival compared to Malay and Indian patients. Based on the 814

  18. Breast Cancer Survivorship Care: Targeting a Colorectal Cancer Education Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherri G. Homan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer survivors are at risk of developing a second primary cancer. Colorectal cancer (CRC is one of the leading second primary cancers, and it is often preventable. We developed a multi-component educational tool to inform and encourage women breast