WorldWideScience

Sample records for detect early universe

  1. Awareness of Skin Cancer, Prevention, and Early Detection among Turkish University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyafet Ugurlu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the awareness about skin cancer, prevention, and early detection among university students. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out with 404 students in a university located in Ankara, the capital city of Turkey. A 35-item questionnaire was used for data collection. Results: Less than half of the students (37.9% had knowledge about skin cancer mostly through the internet (24.5% and media (24.1%. Half of them aware of the risk factors; mostly as avoiding direct exposure to the Sun between 10 am and 4 pm (45.3%; smoking and alcohol (38.4%; having fair skin color (34.9%; and ultraviolet light exposure (25.7%. Only one-third of them (32.9% are knowledgeable about skin cancer signs and symptoms, such as a change in color and appearance of the nevus/moles (24%. The majority of the responders (77.3% did not know about screening tests for skin cancer and only 18 (4.5% students were practicing skin self-examination. Conclusions: This study showed a lack of knowledge about skin cancer, prevention, and early detection among university students and reported the need for educational interventions to raise awareness in this target group.

  2. The early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steigman, G.

    1989-01-01

    The author discusses the physics of the early universe: the production and survival of relics from the big bang. The author comments on relic WIMPs as the dark matter in the universe. The remainder of this discussion is devoted to a review of the status of the only predictions from the early evolution of the universe that are accessible to astronomical observation: primordial nucleosynthesis

  3. Mapping the early Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    From its unique vantage point 900 kilometres above the earth's surface, NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite has a privileged view of cosmic background radiation - the remnants of the early (radiation-dominated) Universe which followed the Big Bang some ten Gigayears ago, and possibly some subsequent history. In this way astroparticle physicists get a first peek at the quantum cosmology which moulded the infant Universe

  4. Mapping the early Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1991-06-15

    From its unique vantage point 900 kilometres above the earth's surface, NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite has a privileged view of cosmic background radiation - the remnants of the early (radiation-dominated) Universe which followed the Big Bang some ten Gigayears ago, and possibly some subsequent history. In this way astroparticle physicists get a first peek at the quantum cosmology which moulded the infant Universe.

  5. WMAP - A Glimpse of the Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollack, Edward

    2009-01-01

    The early Universe was incredibly hot, dense, and homogeneous. A powerful probe of this time is provided by the relic radiation which we refer to today as the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). Images produced from this light contain the earliest glimpse of the Universe after the "Big Bang" and the signature of the evolution of its contents. By exploiting these clues, precise constraints on the age, mass density, and geometry of the early Universe can be derived. The history of this intriguing cosmological detective story will be reviewed. Recent results from NASA's Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) will be presented.

  6. Early detection of psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tor Ketil; Melle, Ingrid; Auestad, B.

    2011-01-01

    Background During the last decades we have seen a new focus on early treatment of psychosis. Several reviews have shown that duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) is correlated to better outcome. However, it is still unknown whether early treatment will lead to a better long-term outcome....... This study reports the effects of reducing DUP on 5-year course and outcome. Method During 1997–2000 a total of 281 consecutive patients aged >17 years with first episode non-affective psychosis were recruited, of which 192 participated in the 5-year follow-up. A comprehensive early detection (ED) programme...... and cognitive factors and for global assessment of functioning for social functioning at 5-year follow-up. The ED group also had more contacts with friends. Regression analysis did not find that these differences could be explained by confounders. Conclusions Early treatment had positive effects on clinical...

  7. Needling the early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, I.; Wright, E.L.

    1988-01-01

    The possibility that the whole microwave background can be produced by a bright population of pregalactic stars at a redshift of a few hundred is explored. The radiation is thermalized by a combination of amorphous silicate, amorphous carbon, graphite, and needle-shaped conducting grains which give rise to the opacity needed at wavelengths greater than 3 cm. The occurrence of distortion in a primordial microwave background spectrum due to its interaction with Population III stars and dust is investigated. The possibility of producing deviations small enough to be consistent with the best available observations, but still detectable by COBE, is considered. 65 references

  8. Cosmology and the early universe

    CERN Document Server

    Di Bari, Pasquale

    2018-01-01

    This book discusses cosmology from both an observational and a strong theoretical perspective. The first part focuses on gravitation, notably the expansion of the universe and determination of cosmological parameters, before moving onto the main emphasis of the book, the physics of the early universe, and the connections between cosmological models and particle physics. Readers will gain a comprehensive account of cosmology and the latest observational results, without requiring prior knowledge of relativistic theories, making the text ideal for students.

  9. Galaxies in the Early Universe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogager, Jens-Kristian

    Understanding how galaxies evolved from the early Universe through cosmic time is a fundamental part of modern astrophysics. In order to study this evolution it is important to sample the galaxies at various times in a consistent way through time. In regular luminosity selected samples, our...

  10. Physics of the early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinkhamer, F.R.

    1983-01-01

    In this thesis, the author has assembled his papers on elementary particle physics which are of importance for studying cosmology viz. the physics of the early universe. A rather detailed introduction reviewing basic principles and current trends in the relation particle physics/cosmology precedes the papers. (Auth.)

  11. Early Detection Of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V B Bhatnagar

    1987-04-01

    Full Text Available Farly detection of cancer is based upon three fundamental assumptions, firstly that the trea'ment of benign and precancerous lesions reduces the incidence of cancer, secondly, that the treatment of in situ cancers is conducive to total cure and thirdly that early diagnosis and management of invasive cancer ensures be.ter survival. When patient seeks medical advice for vague symptoms, which could however be due to a possible malignant tumour at a particular site, the alert clinician should investigate the patient immediately to exclude cancer. At this stage cancer is usually not significantly advanced. Currently the U. I. C. C. (International Union for Cancer Control} is studying the epidemiology of cancers in various countries The importance of this is two folds : Firstly by focussing attention on a section of population vulnerable to a particular cancer an early detection is facilitated Secondly by changing the causative factors responsible to a particular cancer, the incidence of that cancer can be reduced e. g. reduction in lung cancer following campaigns against ciguette smoking and reductioi in breast cancer after campaigns for advocating breast feeding of infants, lowering fat consumption and encouraging self palpation of breast regularly. Indeed early diagnosis of cancer implies diagnosis of cancer in almost a symptomatic stage It involves motiva’ion of the population towards acquisitio : of knowledge, attitude and practice.. Epidemiologies and clinicians should be able to recognise high risk cases exposed to particular neoplasia and knowledge of alarming symptoms should be pro- pogated for wide publicity through common available media and means. Probable cases should have regular clhrcal examination periodically and relevant investigations including radiological, imaging techniques and Bio-Chemical examination should be undertaken as and when desired Suspicious lesions should be investigated by specific tests including smear cytology

  12. Bursts from the very early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, J.; Stodolsky, L.

    2006-01-01

    Bursts of weakly interacting particles such as neutrinos or even more weakly interacting particles such as wimps and gravitons from the very early universe would offer a much deeper 'look back time' to early epochs than is possible with photons. We consider some of the issues related to the existence of such bursts and their detectability. Characterizing the burst rate by a probability P per Hubble four-volume we find, for events in the radiation-dominated era, that the natural unit of description is the present intensity of the CMB times P. The existence of such bursts would make the observation of phenomena associated with very early times in cosmology at least conceptually possible. One might even hope to probe the transplanckian epoch if complexes more weakly interacting than the graviton can exist. Other conceivable applications include the potential detectability of the formation of 'pocket universes' in a multiverse

  13. Bursts from the very early universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silk, J. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Stodolsky, L. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Munich (Germany)]. E-mail: les@mppmu.mpg.de

    2006-07-27

    Bursts of weakly interacting particles such as neutrinos or even more weakly interacting particles such as wimps and gravitons from the very early universe would offer a much deeper 'look back time' to early epochs than is possible with photons. We consider some of the issues related to the existence of such bursts and their detectability. Characterizing the burst rate by a probability P per Hubble four-volume we find, for events in the radiation-dominated era, that the natural unit of description is the present intensity of the CMB times P. The existence of such bursts would make the observation of pheno associated with very early times in cosmology at least conceptually possible. One might even hope to probe the transplanckian epoch if complexes more weakly interacting than the graviton can exist. Other conceivable applications include the potential detectability of the formation of 'pocket universes' in a multiverse.

  14. First Time Rapid and Accurate Detection of Massive Number of Metal Absorption Lines in the Early Universe Using Deep Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yinan; Ge, Jian; Yuan, Xiaoyong; Li, Xiaolin; Zhao, Tiffany; Wang, Cindy

    2018-01-01

    Metal absorption line systems in the distant quasar spectra have been used as one of the most powerful tools to probe gas content in the early Universe. The MgII λλ 2796, 2803 doublet is one of the most popular metal absorption lines and has been used to trace gas and global star formation at redshifts between ~0.5 to 2.5. In the past, machine learning algorithms have been used to detect absorption lines systems in the large sky survey, such as Principle Component Analysis, Gaussian Process and decision tree, but the overall detection process is not only complicated, but also time consuming. It usually takes a few months to go through the entire quasar spectral dataset from each of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data release. In this work, we applied the deep neural network, or “ deep learning” algorithms, in the most recently SDSS DR14 quasar spectra and were able to randomly search 20000 quasar spectra and detect 2887 strong Mg II absorption features in just 9 seconds. Our detection algorithms were verified with previously released DR12 and DR7 data and published Mg II catalog and the detection accuracy is 90%. This is the first time that deep neural network has demonstrated its promising power in both speed and accuracy in replacing tedious, repetitive human work in searching for narrow absorption patterns in a big dataset. We will present our detection algorithms and also statistical results of the newly detected Mg II absorption lines.

  15. Shocks in the Early Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pen, Ue-Li; Turok, Neil

    2016-09-23

    We point out a surprising consequence of the usually assumed initial conditions for cosmological perturbations. Namely, a spectrum of Gaussian, linear, adiabatic, scalar, growing mode perturbations not only creates acoustic oscillations of the kind observed on very large scales today, it also leads to the production of shocks in the radiation fluid of the very early Universe. Shocks cause departures from local thermal equilibrium as well as create vorticity and gravitational waves. For a scale-invariant spectrum and standard model physics, shocks form for temperatures 1  GeVUniverse as early as 10^{-30}  sec after the big bang.

  16. Physics of the early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandenberger, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    When studying the evolution of the very early universe it is necessary to use a description of matter which is appropriate at very high energies, namely in terms of quantum fields. In such models there may be a period during which the ratio of pressure and energy density is - 1, an equation of state which leads to an exponential expansion of the universe (inflation). There may also arise stable topological defects similar to vortex lines in condensed matter physics. These defects (cosmic strings) form seeds about which gas can accrete to form galaxies and clusters of galaxies. The author reviews inflation and cosmic strings, emphasizing their role in generating the energy density perturbations which are required in order to explain the existence of structures in the universe

  17. Cosmology and the early universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Abhigna

    2017-01-01

    In the beginning the universe was in a hot dense state nearly 13.8 billion years ago. The thermal history of the universe was traced back to an era when the temperature was about 1012K. At this early time, the universe was filled with particles-mostly photons and leptons- whose interactions are hopefully weak enough to allow this medium to be treated as a more or less ideal gas. However, if we look back a little further, into the first 0.0001 second of cosmic history when the temperature was above 1012K. At such temperatures, there will be present in thermal equilibrium copious numbers of strongly interacting particles-mostly masons and baryons-with a mean interparticle distance less than a Compton wavelength. These particles will be in a state of continual mutual interaction, and cannot reasonably be expected to obey any simple equation of state. The inflationary epoch lasted from 10-36seconds after the Big Bang to sometime between 10-33and 10-32seconds. Matter and energy created in this time. Right after that space expanded exponentially with enormous rate of 74.3 +/-2.1Km per second per Mpc. Undergraduate student and researcher of the string theory, quantum gravity, cosmology and quantum biology.

  18. On a chaotic early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Kenji.

    1974-11-01

    The theories regarding the origin of galaxies and elements are reviewed in this paper, and the assumptions made for these theories are discussed. It has been assumed that the universe has always been isotropic and homogeneous from the beginning of cosmic expansion. At the stage of very high density that any local irregularities such as galaxies cannot exist, the admissible deviation in this case from the mean value is only the statistical or quantum fluctuation of matter density, spatial curvature or their growth. It should be considered that the chemical composition of matters at the earliest stage consisted of most fundamental particles. However, if the fluctuation of matter density is statistical, the present values are too small. As for the origin of elements, it depends strongly on the period when cosmic radiation appeared. The final mass ratios of elements are given from the present baryon mass density, and are in agreement with observed values. The assumption of hot universe seems good. However, the time-independent ratio of photon number to baryon number is hardly understood. It is reasonable to assume for the early universe an inhomogeneous model whose space-time curvature is of turbulent character, according to weak cosmological principle. The inhomogeneous models to be considered are weakly non-linear perturbation theory, anti-Newtonian approximation and post anti-Newtonian approximation. Smoothing-out process, the origin of cosmic microwave radiation, the origin of galaxies and the origin of chemical elements are discussed. (Kato, T.)

  19. First Detections of the [N II] 122 micron Line at High Redshift: Demonstrating the Utility of the Line for Studying Galaxies in the Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferkinhoff, Carl; Brisbin, Drew; Nikola, Thomas; Parshley, Stephen C.; Stacey, Gordon J.; Phillips, Thomas G.; Falgarone, Edith; Benford, Dominic J.; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Tucker, Carol E.

    2011-01-01

    We report the first detections of the [N II] 122 micron line from a high-redshift galaxy. The line was strongly (>6(sigma)) detected from SMMJ02399-0136, and H1413 + 117 (the Cloverleaf QSO) using the Redshift (zeta) and Early Universe Spectrometer on the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. The lines from both sources are quite bright with line to far-infrared (FIR) continuum luminosity ratios that are approx.7.0 x 10(exp -4) (Cloverleaf) and 2.1 x 10(exo -3) (SMMJ02399). With ratios 2-10 times larger than the average value for nearby galaxies, neither source exhibits the line to continuum deficits seen in nearby sources. The line strengths also indicate large ionized gas fractions, approx.8%-17% of the molecUlar gas mass. The [O III]/[N II] line ratio is very sensitive to the effective temperature of ionizing stars and the ionization parameter for emission arising in the narrow-line region (NLR) of an active galactic nucleus (AGN). Using Our previous detection of the [O III] 88 micron line, the [O III]/[N II]line ratio for SMMJ02399-0136 indicates that the dominant source of the line emission is either stellar H II regions ionized by O9.5 stars, or the NLR of the AGN with ionization parameter log(U) = -3.3 to -4.0. A composite system, where 30%-50% of the FIR lines arise in the NLR also matches the data. The Cloverleaf is best modeled by a superposition of approx.200 M82-like starbursts accounting for all of the FIR emission and 43% of the [N II]line. The remainder may come from the NLR. This war!< demonstrates the utility of the [N II] and [O III] lines in constraining properties of the ionized medium.

  20. First Detections of the [NII] 122 Micrometer Line at High Redshift: Demonstrating the Utility of the Line for Studying Galaxies in the Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferkinhoff, Carl; Brisbin, Drew; Nikola, Thomas; Parshley, Stephen C.; Stacey, Gordon J.; Phillips, Thomas G.; Falgarone, Edith; Benford, Dominic J.; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Tucker, Carol E.

    2011-01-01

    We report the first detections of the [NIl] 122 {\\mu} m line from a high redshift galaxy. The line was strongly (> 6{\\sigma}) detected from SMMJ02399-0136, and HI413+ 117 (the Cloverleaf QSO) using the Redshift(z) and Early Universe Spectrometer (ZEUS) on the CSO. The lines from both sources are quite bright with line-to-FIR continuum luminosity ratios that are approx.7.0x10(exp -4) (Cloverleaf) and 2.1x10(exp -3) (SMMJ02399). With ratios 2-10 times larger than the average value for nearby galaxies, neither source exhibits the line-to-continuum deficits seen in nearby sources. The line strengths also indicate large ionized gas fractions, approx.8 to 17% of the molecular gas mass. The [OIII]/[NII] line ratio is very sensitive to the effective temperature of ionizing stars and the ionization parameter for emission arising in the narrow-line region (NLR) of an AGN. Using our previous detection of the [01II] 88 {\\mu}m line, the [OIII]/ [NIl] line ratio for SMMJ02399-0136 indicates the dominant source of the line emission is either stellar HII regions ionized by 09.5 stars, or the NLR of the AGN with ionization parameter 10g(U) = -3.3 to -4.0. A composite system, where 30 to 50% of the FIR lines arise in the NLR also matches the data. The Cloverleaf is best modeled by a superposition of approx.200 M82like starbursts accounting for all of the FIR emission and 43% of the [NIl] line. The remainder may come from the NLR. This work demonstrates the utility of the [NIl] and [OIII] lines in constraining properties of the ionized medium.

  1. Nanotechnology for Early Cancer Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon Won Park

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vast numbers of studies and developments in the nanotechnology area have been conducted and many nanomaterials have been utilized to detect cancers at early stages. Nanomaterials have unique physical, optical and electrical properties that have proven to be very useful in sensing. Quantum dots, gold nanoparticles, magnetic nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, gold nanowires and many other materials have been developed over the years, alongside the discovery of a wide range of biomarkers to lower the detection limit of cancer biomarkers. Proteins, antibody fragments, DNA fragments, and RNA fragments are the base of cancer biomarkers and have been used as targets in cancer detection and monitoring. It is highly anticipated that in the near future, we might be able to detect cancer at a very early stage, providing a much higher chance of treatment.

  2. Observing the very early universe

    CERN Document Server

    Steinhardt, Paul Joseph

    1995-01-01

    Cosmology is entering an historic epoch in which a dazzling array of new observations will decisively test our theories of the origin and evolution of the Universe. Many of the theoretical proposals have profound implications for our understanding of high-energy physics. This lecture series will review some of the leading ideas, especially the inflationary model of the universe, and explain the astrophysical and cosmological observations anticipated for the next decade that will be critical in determining their validity.

  3. Peculiarities of the early Universe (Universes) birth and positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svetlov-Prokop'ev, E.P.

    2003-01-01

    Works on the problem of quantum birth of the Universe are reviewed. Possible peculiarities of electron-positron annihilation at the early stages of the Universe (s) birth in connection with black holes are considered. Possible concept of Eternity is discussed. (author)

  4. HERA: Illuminating Our Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBoer, David

    2014-06-01

    The Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Arrays (HERA) roadmap is a staged plan for using the unique properties of the 21cm line from neutral hydrogen to probe our cosmic dawn, from the birth of the first stars and black holes, through the full reionization of the primordial intergalactic medium (IGM). HERA is a collaboration between the Precision Array Probing the Epoch of Reionization (PAPER), US-Murchison Widefield Array (MWA), and MIT Epoch of Reionization (MITEOR) teams.The first phase of the HERA roadmap entailed the operation of the PAPER and MWA telescopes to explore techniques and designs required to detect the primordial HI signal in the presence of radio continuum foreground emission some four orders of magnitude brighter. Studies with PAPER and the MWA have led to a new understanding of the interplay of foreground and instrumental systematics in the context of a three-dimensional cosmological intensity-mapping experiment. We are now able to remove foregrounds to the limits of our sensitivity with these instruments, culminating in the first physically meaningful upper limits on the power spectrum of 2 cm emission from reionization.Building on this understanding, the next stage of HERA entails a new 14m diameter antenna element that is optimized both for sensitivity and for minimizing foreground systematics. Arranging these elements in a compact hexagonal grid yields an array that facilitates calibration, leverages proven foreground removal techniques, and is scalable to large collecting areas. The HERA phase II will be located in the radio quiet environment of the SKA site in Karoo, South Africa, and have a sensitivity close to two orders of magnitude better than PAPER and the MWA, with broader frequency coverage, HERA can paint an uninterrupted picture through reionization, back to the end of the Dark Ages.This paper will present a summary of the current understanding of the signal characteristics and measurements and describe this planned HERA telescope to

  5. The Toy model: Understanding the early universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Peter H.; Price, Richard H.

    2018-04-01

    In many branches of science, progress is being made by taking advantage of insights from other branches of science. Cosmology, the structure and evolution of the universe, is certainly an area that is currently beset by problems in understanding. We show here that the scientific insights from the studies of early childhood development, in particular, those of Piaget, give a new way of looking at the early universe. This new approach can not only be invaluable in undergraduate teaching, but can even be the basis of semi-quantitative predictions.

  6. Sterile neutrinos in the early universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malaney, R.A. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Fuller, G.M. (California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla, CA (USA). Dept. of Physics)

    1990-11-14

    We discuss the role played by right-handed sterile neutrinos in the early universe. We show how well known {sup 4}He constraint on the number of relativistic degrees of freedom at early times limits the equilibration of the right handed neutrino sea with the background plasma. We discuss how this allows interesting constraints to be placed on neutrino properties. In particular, a new limit on the Dirac mass of the neutrino is presented. 12 refs.

  7. Ethics dilemmas of early detection of obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Signild

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To discuss the ethics dilemmas of the early detection of overweight and obesity. Methods: Analysis of the ethical aspects of early detection. Results: The early detection of overweight and obesity entails a number of ethical dilemmas because it may both be helpful and harmful. It may help...

  8. Quantum cosmology and the early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartle, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    Despite the absence of a complete and manageable quantum theory of gravity, it is shown that considerable progress has been made in constructing cosmological models displaying the possible implications such a theory might have for the structure and dynamics of the very early universe. (U.K.)

  9. Neutrino oscillations in the early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enqvist, K.

    1990-01-01

    The oscillations of electron neutrinos into inert neutrinos may have resonant behaviour in the heat bath of the early Universe. It is shown that any initial neutrino asymmetry will be washed away by the oscillations. Neutrino oscillations would affect also primordial helium production, which implies stringent limits on the neutrino mixing parameters. (orig.)

  10. Bulk viscous cosmology in early Universe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The effect of bulk viscosity on the early evolution of Universe for a spatially homogeneous and isotropic Robertson-Walker model is considered. Einstein's field equations are solved by using `gamma-law' equation of state = ( - 1)ρ, where the adiabatic parameter gamma () depends on the scale factor of the model.

  11. Early detection of materials degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyendorf, Norbert

    2017-02-01

    Lightweight components for transportation and aerospace applications are designed for an estimated lifecycle, taking expected mechanical and environmental loads into account. The main reason for catastrophic failure of components within the expected lifecycle are material inhomogeneities, like pores and inclusions as origin for fatigue cracks, that have not been detected by NDE. However, material degradation by designed or unexpected loading conditions or environmental impacts can accelerate the crack initiation or growth. Conventional NDE methods are usually able to detect cracks that are formed at the end of the degradation process, but methods for early detection of fatigue, creep, and corrosion are still a matter of research. For conventional materials ultrasonic, electromagnetic, or thermographic methods have been demonstrated as promising. Other approaches are focused to surface damage by using optical methods or characterization of the residual surface stresses that can significantly affect the creation of fatigue cracks. For conventional metallic materials, material models for nucleation and propagation of damage have been successfully applied for several years. Material microstructure/property relations are well established and the effect of loading conditions on the component life can be simulated. For advanced materials, for example carbon matrix composites or ceramic matrix composites, the processes of nucleation and propagation of damage is still not fully understood. For these materials NDE methods can not only be used for the periodic inspections, but can significantly contribute to the material scientific knowledge to understand and model the behavior of composite materials.

  12. Discovery Mondays: The very early Universe

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Copyright NASARetracing the very early Universe to understand why there is "something rather than nothing" is one of the challenges facing astrophysics today. It is also the theme of the third Discovery Monday, to be held in the Microcosm on 7 July, where you will be welcomed by a number of scientists. A professional astronomer will allow you to look through his telescope and explain how it works. A cosmologist will talk to you about the very early Universe and a CERN physicist will show you how it's possible to trap antimatter. The mirror of matter, antimatter should have existed in the same quantities as matter in the very early stages of the Universe but today it seems to have virtually disappeared. Perhaps the research being done at CERN will one day explain how an infinitesimal predominance of matter over antimatter resulted in such a richly structured Universe. Come along to the Microcosm on Monday, 7 July between 7.30 p.m. and 9.00 p.m. Entrance is free http://www.cern.ch/microcosm N.B.: The Discove...

  13. Supersymmetry in the very early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, S.

    1995-06-01

    Supersymmetric flat directions can have a number of important consequences in the very early universe. Depending on the form of the SUSY breaking potential arising from the finite energy density at early times, coherent production of scalar condensates can result along such directions. This leads a cosmological disaster for Polonyi type flat directions with only Planck suppressed couplings, but can give rise to the baryon asymmetry for standard model flat directions. Flat directions are also natural candidates to act as inflatons. Achieving density fluctuations of the correct magnitude generally requires an additional hidden SUSY breaking sector

  14. QCD development in the early universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gromov, N. A., E-mail: gromov@dm.komisc.ru [Komi Science Center of the Ural Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Department of Mathematics (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    The high-energy limit of Quantum Chromodynamics is generated by the contraction of its gauge groups. Contraction parameters are taken identical with those of the Electroweak Model and tend to zero when energy increases. At the infinite energy limit all quarks lose masses and have only one color degree of freedom. The limit model represents the development of Quantum Chromodynamics in the early Universe from the Big Bang up to the end of several milliseconds.

  15. Protostar formation in the early universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Naoki; Omukai, Kazuyuki; Hernquist, Lars

    2008-08-01

    The nature of the first generation of stars in the universe remains largely unknown. Observations imply the existence of massive primordial stars early in the history of the universe, and the standard theory for the growth of cosmic structure predicts that structures grow hierarchically through gravitational instability. We have developed an ab initio computer simulation of the formation of primordial stars that follows the relevant atomic and molecular processes in a primordial gas in an expanding universe. The results show that primeval density fluctuations left over from the Big Bang can drive the formation of a tiny protostar with a mass 1% that of the Sun. The protostar is a seed for the subsequent formation of a massive primordial star.

  16. Exploring the Early Universe on Mobile Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocevski, Dale; McGrath, E. J.; CANDELS Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The widespread adoption of smart phones and tablet computers has the potential to revolutionize the way in which educational material is shared with the general public. As part of the outreach effort for the CANDELS survey, we have developed a free interactive astronomy education application named Hubble Universe for iPad and iPhone devices. The application focuses on extragalactic science topics related to the CANDELS legacy survey, which is documenting galaxy evolution in the early universe. I will provide an overview of the application, which contains a wide range of interactive content, including 3D models of astrophysical phenomenon, informative diagrams and computer simulations. I will discuss how the application can be used to enhance classroom learning both by providing a database of interactive media and by encouraging students to explore astronomical topics away from traditional settings like the classroom or the desktop computer.

  17. A tepid model for the early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, B.J.; Rees, M.J.

    1977-01-01

    If the Universe started off with a photon-to-baryon ratio much less than presently observed, massive black holes would have formed at early times even if the initial density fluctuations were very small. These holes could have generated the rest of the background radiation through accretion; in this way, such a Universe might automatically evolve to have the photon-to-baryon ratio observed today. This scenario could explain why the times of decoupling and matterradiation equilibrium are comparable and might provide a critical density of primordial black holes; it could also produce galaxies with black hole 'halos'. If the initial photon-to-baryon ratio was large enough, black hole formation would not occur: one would then have to invoke an alternative scenario in which the rest of the background radiation was generated by primordial stars at a comparatively recent epoch. (orig.) [de

  18. Extended thermodynamics in the early Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukacs, B.

    1985-01-01

    It is a general belief that in some early stages of the evolution of the Universe, unequilibrium situations played important role. In order to incorporate some deviations from thermal equilibrium into the description of the evolution, an extension of the thermodynamic formalism is given, where, using the notion of ekaentropy, new terms are introduced into the Gibbs-Duhem relation for representing the deviation. Two situations are investigated in simplified models: the primordial thermalization in the symmetric phase of GUT, and the development of a nonthermal distribution for massive neutrinos. (author)

  19. Early detection of COPD in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Ronald; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Løkke, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Early detection enables the possibility for interventions to reduce the future burden of COPD. The Danish National Board of Health recommends that individuals >35 years with tobacco/occupational exposure, and at least 1 respiratory symptom should be offered a spirometry to facilitate early detect...

  20. Magnetic Fields in the Early Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Grasso, D; Grasso, D

    2001-01-01

    This review concerns the origin and the possible effects of magnetic fields in the early Universe. We start by providing to the reader with a short overview of the current state of art of observations of cosmic magnetic fields. We then illustrate the arguments in favour of a primordial origin of magnetic fields in the galaxies and in the clusters of galaxies. We argue that the most promising way to test this hypothesis is to look for possible imprints of magnetic fields on the temperature and polarization anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR). With this purpose in mind, we provide a review of the most relevant effects of magnetic fields on the CMBR. A long chapter of this review is dedicated to particle physics inspired models which predict the generation of magnetic fields during the early Universe evolution. Although it is still unclear if any of these models can really explain the origin of galactic and intergalactic magnetic fields, we show that interesting effects may arise any...

  1. Stochastic evolution of cosmological parameters in the early universe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We develop a stochastic formulation of cosmology in the early universe, after considering the scatter in the redshift-apparent magnitude diagram in the early epochs as an observational evidence for the non-deterministic evolution of early universe. We consider the stochastic evolution of density parameter in the early ...

  2. Defeating cancer with early detection

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    A meeting of scientists and industry experts will hold an open review of the Three Dimension Complete Body Screening System (3D-CBS) on the 1st of July 2003. This new imaging technlogy is potentially powerful and safe enough to offer routine screening of healthy patients for early signs of cancer (1 page).

  3. Melanoma early detection and awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wainstein, Alberto; Algarra, Salvador Martin; Bastholt, Lars

    2014-01-01

    to increase public awareness and favor early diagnosis. Awareness campaigns, doctor education, and screening of high-risk subjects have all contributed to improve disease outcome in developed countries. The role of primary care physicians is particularly relevant in this regard. Developing countries...

  4. The Physics of the Early Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, Douglas

    2007-01-01

    The physics of the very small and the very large were successfully brought together in the 1980s through the idea of 'the universe as a particle accelerator'. The manifesto of this new campaign was laid out in the book 'The Early Universe' by Kolb and Turner in 1990. For at least the next decade that book was to be found on the shelves of every theorist (and many experimentalists) who professed an interest in this topic. But science marches on, and the last 10-15 years has seen an explosion in our understanding of the physics of the very earliest times and the very largest scales. Experimentally our world-view has changed utterly, through exquisitely precise measurements of the cosmic microwave background, galaxy clustering and supernova distances, with a refinement of the basic inflationary big bang paradigm into the new 'standard cosmological model'. And in tandem with these changes has been the development of new theoretical ideas, particularly involving dark energy and connections between string/brane theory and cosmology. So what is the new book for the shelves of today's cohort of young Rockys and Mikes? Despite a recent number of promising-sounding cosmology books, there is nothing at the advanced level which is broad enough to be a general introduction to the 'early universe' topic. Perhaps the best of the bunch is 'The Physics of the Early Universe', edited by E Papantonopoulos as part of Springer's series 'Lecture notes in physics'. This is a set of 9 review articles given as part of a 2003 summer school on Syros Island, Greece. Although far from perfect, the core of this book provides a solid introduction to current research in early universe physics, which should be useful for PhD students or postdoctoral researchers who want the real thing. The book starts with a competent introduction by Kyriakos Tamvakis, serving essentially as a summary of where we were in Kolb and Turner's text. We have learned since then, however, that inflation is really all

  5. Early Detection of Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chari, Suresh T.; Kelly, Kimberly; Hollingsworth, Michael A.; Thayer, Sarah P.; Ahlquist, David A.; Andersen, Dana K.; Batra, Surinder K.; Brentnall, Teresa A.; Canto, Marcia; Cleeter, Deborah F.; Firpo, Matthew A.; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam; Go, Vay Liang W.; Hines, O. Joe; Kenner, Barbara J.; Klimstra, David S.; Lerch, Markus M.; Levy, Michael J.; Maitra, Anirban; Mulvihill, Sean J.; Petersen, Gloria M.; Rhim, Andrew D.; Simeone, Diane M.; Srivastava, Sudhir; Tanaka, Masao; Vinik, Aaron I.; Wong, David

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Pancreatic cancer (PC) is estimated to become the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States by 2020. Early detection is the key to improving survival in PC. Addressing this urgent need, the Kenner Family Research Fund conducted the inaugural Early Detection of Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer Summit Conference in 2014 in conjunction with the 45th Anniversary Meeting of the American Pancreatic Association and Japan Pancreas Society. This seminal convening of international representatives from science, practice, and clinical research was designed to facilitate challenging interdisciplinary conversations to generate innovative ideas leading to the creation of a defined collaborative strategic pathway for the future of the field. An in-depth summary of current efforts in the field, analysis of gaps in specific areas of expertise, and challenges that exist in early detection is presented within distinct areas of inquiry: Case for Early Detection: Definitions, Detection, Survival, and Challenges; Biomarkers for Early Detection; Imaging; and Collaborative Studies. In addition, an overview of efforts in familial PC is presented in an addendum to this article. It is clear from the summit deliberations that only strategically designed collaboration among investigators, institutions, and funders will lead to significant progress in early detection of sporadic PC. PMID:25931254

  6. Compton Composites Late in the Early Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Mayer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Beginning roughly two hundred years after the big-bang, a tresino phase transition generated Compton-scale composite particles and converted most of the ordinary plasma baryons into new forms of dark matter. Our model consists of ordinary electrons and protons that have been bound into mostly undetectable forms. This picture provides an explanation of the composition and history of ordinary to dark matter conversion starting with, and maintaining, a critical density Universe. The tresino phase transition started the conversion of ordinary matter plasma into tresino-proton pairs prior to the the recombination era. We derive the appropriate Saha–Boltzmann equilibrium to determine the plasma composition throughout the phase transition and later. The baryon population is shown to be quickly modified from ordinary matter plasma prior to the transition to a small amount of ordinary matter and a much larger amount of dark matter after the transition. We describe the tresino phase transition and the origin, quantity and evolution of the dark matter as it takes place from late in the early Universe until the present.

  7. Brane gases in the early Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, S.; Brandenberger, R.; Easson, D.

    2000-01-01

    Over the past decade it has become clear that fundamental strings are not the only fundamental degrees of freedom in string theory. D-branes are also part of the spectrum of fundamental states. In this paper we explore some possible effects of D-branes on early Universe string cosmology, starting with two key assumptions: firstly that the initial state of the Universe corresponded to a dense, hot gas in which all degrees of freedom were in thermal equilibrium, and secondly that the topology of the background space admits one-cycles. We argue by t duality that in this context the cosmological singularities are not present. We derive the equation of state of the brane gases and apply the results to suggest that, in an expanding background, the winding modes of fundamental strings will play the most important role at late times. In particular, we argue that the string winding modes will only allow four space-time dimensions to become large. The presence of brane winding modes with p>1 may lead to a hierarchy in the sizes of the extra dimensions

  8. Colorectal Cancer: The Importance of Early Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Colorectal Cancer The Importance of Early Detection Past Issues / Summer ... Cancer of the colon or rectum is called colorectal cancer. The colon and the rectum are part of ...

  9. Kidney Disease: Early Detection and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Kidney Disease: Early Detection and Treatment Past Issues / Winter ... called a "urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio." Treating Kidney Disease Kidney disease is usually a progressive disease, ...

  10. Early detection of congenital syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagalakshmi Chowdhary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Late congenital syphilis is a very rare clinical entity, and its early diagnosis and treatment is essential. Dental findings often provide valuable evidence for the diagnosis of late congenital syphilis. It occurs due to the transmission of the disease from an infected mother to her fetus through placenta. This long forgotten disease continues to effect pregnant women resulting in perinatal morbidity and mortality. Congenital syphilis is a preventable disease, and its presence reflects a failure of prenatal care delivery system, as well as syphilis control programs. We are reporting a case of late congenital syphilis with only Hutchinson′s teeth.

  11. Early detection of COPD in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Løkke, Anders; Dahl, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Early detection enables the possibility for interventions to reduce the future burden of COPD. The Danish National Board of Health recommends that individuals >35 years with tobacco/occupational exposure, and at least 1 respiratory symptom should be offered a spirometry to facilitate early...... detection of COPD. The aim, therefore, was to provide evidence for the feasibility and impact of doing spirometry in this target population....

  12. Early detection of ecosystem regime shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegren, Martin; Dakos, Vasilis; Groeger, Joachim P.

    2012-01-01

    methods may have limited utility in ecosystem-based management as they show no or weak potential for early-warning. We therefore propose a multiple method approach for early detection of ecosystem regime shifts in monitoring data that may be useful in informing timely management actions in the face...

  13. The Transient High Energy Sky and Early Universe Surveyor (THESEUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amati, Lorenzo; O'Brien, Paul T.; Götz, Diego

    2016-07-01

    The Transient High Energy Sky and Early Universe Surveyor (THESEUS) is a mission concept under development by a large international collaboration aimed at exploiting gamma-ray bursts for investigating the early Universe. The main scientific objectives of THESEUS include: investigating the star formation rate and metallicity evolution of the ISM and IGM up to redshift 9-10, detecting the first generation (pop III) of stars, studying the sources and physics of re-ionization, detecting the faint end of galaxies luminosity function. These goals will be achieved through a unique combination of instruments allowing GRB detection and arcmin localization over a broad FOV (more than 1sr) and an energy band extending from several MeVs down to 0.3 keV with unprecedented sensitivity, as well as on-board prompt (few minutes) follow-up with a 0.6m class IR telescope with both imaging and spectroscopic capabilities. Such instrumentation will also allow THESEUS to unveil and study the population of soft and sub-energetic GRBs, and, more in general, to perform monitoring and survey of the X-ray sky with unprecedented sensitivity.

  14. Galactic Pairs in the Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-02-01

    In the spirit of Valentines Day, today well be exploring apparent pairs of galaxies in the distant, early universe. How can we tell whether these duos are actually paired galaxies, as opposed to disguised singles?Real Pair, or Trick of the Light?In the schematic timeline of the universe, the epoch of reionization is when the first galaxies and quasars began to form and evolve. [NASA]The statistics of merging galaxies throughout the universe reveal not only direct information about how galaxies interact, but also cosmological information about the structure of the universe. While weve observed many merging galaxy pairs at low redshift, however, its much more challenging to identify these duos in the early universe.A merging pair of galaxies at high redshift appears to us as a pair of unresolved blobs that lie close to each other in the sky. But spotting such a set of objects doesnt necessarily mean were looking at a merger! There are three possible scenarios to explain an observed apparent duo:Its a pair of galaxies in a stage of merger.Its a projection coincidence; the two galaxies arent truly near each other.Its a single galaxy being gravitationally lensed by a foreground object. This strong lensing produces the appearance of multiple galaxies.Hubble photometry of one of the three galaxy groups identified at z 8, with the galaxies in the image labeled with their corresponding approximate photometric redshifts. [Adapted from Chaikin et al. 2018]Hunting for Distant DuosIn a recent study led by Evgenii Chaikin (Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, Russia), a team of scientists has explored the Hubble Ultra Deep Field in search ofhigh-redshift galaxies merging during the epoch of reionization, when the first galaxies formed and evolved.Using an approach called the dropout technique, which leverages the visibility of the galaxies in different wavelength filters, Chaikin and collaborators obtain approximate redshifts for an initial sample of 7

  15. Automated early detection of diabetic retinopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abràmoff, M.D.; Reinhardt, J.M.; Russell, S.R.; Folk, J.C.; Mahajan, V.B.; Niemeijer, M.; Quellec, G.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To compare the performance of automated diabetic retinopathy (DR) detection, using the algorithm that won the 2009 Retinopathy Online Challenge Competition in 2009, the Challenge2009, against that of the one currently used in EyeCheck, a large computer-aided early DR detection project.

  16. Test of TEDA, Tsunami Early Detection Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, Lidia; Tinti, Stefano

    2010-05-01

    Tsunami detection in real-time, both offshore and at the coastline, plays a key role in Tsunami Warning Systems since it provides so far the only reliable and timely proof of tsunami generation, and is used to confirm or cancel tsunami warnings previously issued on the basis of seismic data alone. Moreover, in case of submarine or coastal landslide generated tsunamis, which are not announced by clear seismic signals and are typically local, real-time detection at the coastline might be the fastest way to release a warning, even if the useful time for emergency operations might be limited. TEDA is an algorithm for real-time detection of tsunami signal on sea-level records, developed by the Tsunami Research Team of the University of Bologna. The development and testing of the algorithm has been accomplished within the framework of the Italian national project DPC-INGV S3 and the European project TRANSFER. The algorithm is to be implemented at station level, and it is based therefore only on sea-level data of a single station, either a coastal tide-gauge or an offshore buoy. TEDA's principle is to discriminate the first tsunami wave from the previous background signal, which implies the assumption that the tsunami waves introduce a difference in the previous sea-level signal. Therefore, in TEDA the instantaneous (most recent) and the previous background sea-level elevation gradients are characterized and compared by proper functions (IS and BS) that are updated at every new data acquisition. Detection is triggered when the instantaneous signal function passes a set threshold and at the same time it is significantly bigger compared to the previous background signal. The functions IS and BS depend on temporal parameters that allow the algorithm to be adapted different situations: in general, coastal tide-gauges have a typical background spectrum depending on the location where the instrument is installed, due to local topography and bathymetry, while offshore buoys are

  17. The Early Astronomy Toolkit was Universal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.

    2018-01-01

    From historical, anthropological, and archaeological records, we can reconstruct the general properties of the earliest astronomy for many cultures worldwide, and they all share many similar characteristics. The 'Early Astronomy Toolkit' (EAT) has the Earth being flat, and the heavens as a dome overhead populated by gods/heroes that rule Nature. The skies provided omens in a wide variety of manners, with eclipses, comets, and meteors always being evil and bad. Constellations were ubiquitous pictures of gods, heroes, animals, and everyday items; all for story telling. The calendars were all luni-solar, with no year counts and months only named by seasonal cues (including solstice observations and heliacal risings) with vague intercalation. Time of day came only from the sun's altitude/azimuth, while time at night came from star risings. Graves are oriented astronomically, and each culture has deep traditions of quartering the horizon. The most complicated astronomical tools were just a few sticks and stones. This is a higher level description and summary of the astronomy of all ancient cultures.This basic EAT was universal up until the Greeks, Mesopotamians, and Chinese broke out around 500 BC and afterwards. Outside the Eurasian milieu, with few exceptions (for example, planetary position measures in Mexico), this EAT represents astronomy for the rest of the world up until around 1600 AD. The EAT is present in these many cultures with virtually no variations or extensions. This universality must arise either from multiple independent inventions or by migration/diffusion. The probability of any culture independently inventing all 19 items in the EAT is low, but any such calculation has all the usual problems. Still, we realize that it is virtually impossible for many cultures to independently develop all 19 items in the EAT, so there must be a substantial fraction of migration of the early astronomical concepts. Further, the utter lack, as far as I know, of any

  18. Universal HbA1c Measurement in Early Pregnancy to Detect Type 2 Diabetes Reduces Ethnic Disparities in Antenatal Diabetes Screening: A Population-Based Observational Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R C E Hughes

    Full Text Available In response to the type 2 diabetes epidemic, measuring HbA1c with the first-antenatal blood screen was recently recommended in NZ. This would enable prompt treatment of women with unrecognised type 2 diabetes, who may otherwise go undetected until the gestational diabetes (GDM screen. We compare inter-ethnic antenatal screening practices to examine whether the HbA1c test would be accessed by ethnicities most at risk of diabetes, and we determined the prevalence of unrecognised type 2 diabetes and prediabetes in our pregnant population. This is an observational study of pregnancies in Christchurch NZ during 2008-2010. Utilising electronic databases, we matched maternal characteristics to first-antenatal bloods, HbA1c, and GDM screens (glucose challenge tests and oral glucose tolerance tests. Overall uptake of the first-antenatal bloods versus GDM screening was 83.1% and 53.8% respectively in 11,580 pregnancies. GDM screening was lowest in Māori 39.3%, incidence proportion ratio (IPR 0.77 (0.71, 0.84 compared with Europeans. By including HbA1c with the first-antenatal bloods, the number screened for diabetes increases by 28.5% in Europeans, 40.0% in Māori, 28.1% in Pacific People, and 26.7% in 'Others' (majority of Asian descent. The combined prevalence of unrecognised type 2 diabetes and prediabetes by NZ criteria, HbA1c ≥5.9% (41mmol/mol, was 2.1% in Europeans, Māori 4.7% IPR 2.59 (1.71, 3.93, Pacific People 9.5% IPR 4.76 (3.10, 7.30, and 'Others' 6.2% IPR 2.99 (2.19, 4.07. Applying these prevalence data to 2013 NZ national births data, routine antenatal HbA1c testing could have identified type 2 diabetes in 0.44% and prediabetes in 3.96% of women. Routine HbA1c measurement in early pregnancy is an ideal screening opportunity, particularly benefitting vulnerable groups, reducing ethnic disparities in antenatal diabetes screening. This approach is likely to have world-wide relevance and applicability. Further research is underway to

  19. Probing Models of Dark Matter and the Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlofsky, Nicholas David

    This thesis discusses models for dark matter (DM) and their behavior in the early universe. An important question is how phenomenological probes can directly search for signals of DM today. Another topic of investigation is how the DM and other processes in the early universe must evolve. Then, astrophysical bounds on early universe dynamics can constrain DM. We will consider these questions in the context of three classes of DM models--weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), axions, and primordial black holes (PBHs). Starting with WIMPs, we consider models where the DM is charged under the electroweak gauge group of the Standard Model. Such WIMPs, if generated by a thermal cosmological history, are constrained by direct detection experiments. To avoid present or near-future bounds, the WIMP model or cosmological history must be altered in some way. This may be accomplished by the inclusion of new states that coannihilate with the WIMP or a period of non-thermal evolution in the early universe. Future experiments are likely to probe some of these altered scenarios, and a non-observation would require a high degree of tuning in some of the model parameters in these scenarios. Next, axions, as light pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone bosons, are susceptible to quantum fluctuations in the early universe that lead to isocurvature perturbations, which are constrained by observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). We ask what it would take to allow axion models in the face of these strong CMB bounds. We revisit models where inflationary dynamics modify the axion potential and discuss how isocurvature bounds can be relaxed, elucidating the difficulties in these constructions. Avoiding disruption of inflationary dynamics provides important limits on the parameter space. Finally, PBHs have received interest in part due to observations by LIGO of merging black hole binaries. We ask how these PBHs could arise through inflationary models and investigate the opportunity

  20. Black holes in the early Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volonteri, Marta; Bellovary, Jillian

    2012-12-01

    The existence of massive black holes (MBHs) was postulated in the 1960s, when the first quasars were discovered. In the late 1990s their reality was proven beyond doubt in the Milky way and a handful nearby galaxies. Since then, enormous theoretical and observational efforts have been made to understand the astrophysics of MBHs. We have discovered that some of the most massive black holes known, weighing billions of solar masses, powered luminous quasars within the first billion years of the Universe. The first MBHs must therefore have formed around the time the first stars and galaxies formed. Dynamical evidence also indicates that black holes with masses of millions to billions of solar masses ordinarily dwell in the centers of today's galaxies. MBHs populate galaxy centers today, and shone as quasars in the past; the quiescent black holes that we detect now in nearby bulges are the dormant remnants of this fiery past. In this review we report on basic, but critical, questions regarding the cosmological significance of MBHs. What physical mechanisms led to the formation of the first MBHs? How massive were the initial MBH seeds? When and where did they form? How is the growth of black holes linked to that of their host galaxy? The answers to most of these questions are works in progress, in the spirit of these reports on progress in physics.

  1. Black holes in the early Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volonteri, Marta; Bellovary, Jillian

    2012-01-01

    The existence of massive black holes (MBHs) was postulated in the 1960s, when the first quasars were discovered. In the late 1990s their reality was proven beyond doubt in the Milky way and a handful nearby galaxies. Since then, enormous theoretical and observational efforts have been made to understand the astrophysics of MBHs. We have discovered that some of the most massive black holes known, weighing billions of solar masses, powered luminous quasars within the first billion years of the Universe. The first MBHs must therefore have formed around the time the first stars and galaxies formed. Dynamical evidence also indicates that black holes with masses of millions to billions of solar masses ordinarily dwell in the centers of today's galaxies. MBHs populate galaxy centers today, and shone as quasars in the past; the quiescent black holes that we detect now in nearby bulges are the dormant remnants of this fiery past. In this review we report on basic, but critical, questions regarding the cosmological significance of MBHs. What physical mechanisms led to the formation of the first MBHs? How massive were the initial MBH seeds? When and where did they form? How is the growth of black holes linked to that of their host galaxy? The answers to most of these questions are works in progress, in the spirit of these reports on progress in physics. (review article)

  2. Early Detection of Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenner, Barbara J.; Chari, Suresh T.; Cleeter, Deborah F.; Go, Vay Liang W.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Innovation leading to significant advances in research and subsequent translation to clinical practice is urgently necessary in early detection of sporadic pancreatic cancer. Addressing this need, the Early Detection of Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer Summit Conference was conducted by Kenner Family Research Fund in conjunction with the 2014 American Pancreatic Association and Japan Pancreas Society Meeting. International interdisciplinary scientific representatives engaged in strategic facilitated conversations based on distinct areas of inquiry: Case for Early Detection: Definitions, Detection, Survival, and Challenges; Biomarkers for Early Detection; Imaging; and Collaborative Studies. Ideas generated from the summit have led to the development of a Strategic Map for Innovation built upon 3 components: formation of an international collaborative effort, design of an actionable strategic plan, and implementation of operational standards, research priorities, and first-phase initiatives. Through invested and committed efforts of leading researchers and institutions, philanthropic partners, government agencies, and supportive business entities, this endeavor will change the future of the field and consequently the survival rate of those diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. PMID:25938853

  3. Universal fieldable assay with unassisted visual detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelyapov, Nicolas (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A universal detection system based on allosteric aptamers, signal amplification cascade, and eye-detectable phrase transition. A broadly applicable homogeneous detection system is provided. It utilizes components of the blood coagulation cascade in the presence of polystyrene microspheres (MS) as a signal amplifier. Russell's viper venom factor X activator (RVV-X) triggers the cascade, which results in an eye-visible phase transition--precipitation of MS bound to clotted fibrin. An allosteric RNA aptamer, RNA132, with affinity for RVV-X and human vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF.sub.165) was created. RNA132 inhibits enzymatic activity of RVV-X. The effector molecule, VEGF.sub.165, reverses the inhibitory activity of RNA132 on RVV-X and restores its enzymatic activity, thus triggering the cascade and enabling the phase transition. Similar results were obtained for another allosteric aptamer modulated by a protein tyrosine phosphatase. The assay is instrumentation-free for both processing and readout.

  4. Connecting QGP-Heavy Ion Physics to the Early Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafelski, Johann

    2013-10-15

    We discuss properties and evolution of quark-gluon plasma in the early Universe and compare to laboratory heavy ion experiments. We describe how matter and antimatter emerged from a primordial soup of quarks and gluons. We focus our discussion on similarities and differences between the early Universe and the laboratory experiments.

  5. Early Gender Gaps among University Graduates

    OpenAIRE

    Francesconi, Marco; Parey, Matthias

    2018-01-01

    We use data from six cohorts of university graduates in Germany to assess the extent of gender gaps in college and labor market performance twelve to eighteen months after graduation. Men and women enter college in roughly equal numbers, but more women than men complete their degrees. Women enter college with slightly better high school grades, but women leave university with slightly lower marks. Immediately following university completion, male and female full-timers work very similar numbe...

  6. Quantum aspects of early universe thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drewes, Marco

    2010-03-15

    Various features of the observable universe can be understood as the result of nonequilibrium processes during the early stages of its history, when it was filled with a hot primordial plasma. In many cases, including cosmological freezeout processes, only a few degrees of freedom were out of equilibrium and the background plasma can be viewed as a large heat bath to which these couple. We study scalar and fermionic quantum fields out of thermal equilibrium that are weakly coupled to a large thermal bath with the goal to formulate a full quantum mechanical description of such processes. The bath composition need not be specified. Our analysis is based on Kadanoff-Baym equations, which are the exact equations of motion for the correlation functions in a nonequilibrium quantum system. We solve the equations of motion for the most general Gaussian initial density matrix, without a specific ansatz or a-priori parameterisation and for arbitrarily large deviations from equilibrium. The solutions depend on integral kernels that contain memory effects. These can in good approximation be solved analytically when the field excitations have a small decay width. The full solutions are compared to results obtained by other methods. We prove that the description in terms of a stochastic Langevin equation is equivalent to the Kadanoff-Baym equations. We show the emergence of standard Boltzmann equations as a limit of the Kadanoff-Baym equations in a dilute gas when coherences play no role and discuss quantum Boltzmann equations as an intermediate step. We analyse the properties of the solutions in terms of the equation of state and investigate the validity and implications of quasiparticle approximations. We find that the equation of state can deviate significantly from that of a gas of quasiparticles even if the resonances in the plasma show quasiparticle behaviour in decays and scatterings. A detailed discussion is devoted to the influence of modified dispersion relations and

  7. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON SPECIFIC AND EARLY DETECTION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of smear and culture methods with rapid serological EIA myco kits manufactured by Omega diagnostics, for the early detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) complex. Sera from various categories of smear and culture results were compared ...

  8. Star Formation-Driven Winds in the Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peek, Matthew; Lundgren, Britt; Brammer, Gabriel

    2018-01-01

    Measuring the extent of star formation-driven winds from galaxies in the early universe is crucial for understanding of how galaxies evolve over cosmic time. Using WFC3/IR grism data from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), we have measured the star formation rates and star formation rate surface densities of several hundred galaxies at redshift (z) = 1, when the universe was roughly half its present age. The galaxies we examine are also probed by background quasars, whose spectra provide information about the extent of metal-enriched gas in their halos. We use a computational pipeline to measure the density of the star formation in each galaxy and correlate these measurements with detections of Mg II absorption in nearby quasar spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Our preliminary results support a model in which galaxies with high SFR surface densities drive metal-enriched gas out of the disk and into these galaxies’ extended halos, where that gas is detected in the spectra of more distant quasars.

  9. Hot hadronic matter in the early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, R.L.; Dykema, P.G.; Gleeson, A.M.

    1977-04-01

    A fully relativistic equation of state for hot baryonic matter was used to investigate the strong interaction contribution to the equation of motion of the Friedmann universe. A pronounced softening of the equation of state is observed near nuclear density. The significance of the results is analyzed in terms of analytic solutions for the Friedmann cosmology

  10. Sterile neutrinos in the early universe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivashko, Artem

    2015-01-01

    Although the Standard Model of elementary particles successfully describes the Universe up to the smallest known scales, we know that there exists a number of observational phenomena, which do not find explanation in the framework of this theory. Among these problems are Neutrino Oscillations, Dark

  11. Individual responsibility in early detection of prostate gland cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nodal Laugart, Ramon Lemay; Rodriguez Ardi, Maricel; Tamayo Tamayo, Iser

    2011-01-01

    Starting from the point that morbidity and mortality rate due to prostate gland cancer has increased in Santiago de Cuba, the authors of this work decided to analyze the relation to individual responsibility in order to early detect the aforementioned condition. Therefore, 48 men over 50 years old belonging to the health area of Frank Pais Garcia University Polyclinic in Santiago de Cuba were surveyed during the first months of the year 2011 to determine the factors that influenced on the low risk perception. Results showed the urgent need of carrying out actions of health promotion and disease prevention in order to achieve the individual feels more responsible of his health care. Of the case material, 85,4 % participants admitted they did not have the tests to guarantee the early diagnosis or detect this tumor.(author)

  12. Numerical relativity and the early Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mironov Sergey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider numerical simulations in general relativity in ADM formalism with cosmological ansatz for the metric. This ansatz is convenient for investigations of the Universe creation in laboratory with Galileons. Here we consider toy model for the software: spherically symmetric scalar field minimally coupled to the gravity with asymmetric double well potential. We studied the dependence of radius of critical bubble on the parameters of the theory. It demonstrates the wide applicability of thin-wall approximation. We did not find any kind of stable bubble solution.

  13. The Early Universe. Facts and fiction. 4. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerner, G.

    2003-01-01

    The following topics are covered in this completely new written textbook: The standard big bang model, thermodynamics of the Early universe, gauge theories and standard model, grand unification models, baryon synthesis, inflationary universe, dark matter and galaxy formation, evolution of small perturbations, non-linear structure formation (WL)

  14. The early period of the universal Fermi interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiomno, J.

    1984-01-01

    A critical analysis of the contributions which lead, in the early period, to the discovery of the universality of Fermi-type weak interactions is made. In particular the current references to this universality as 'Puppi's triangle' are shown to be incorrect. (Author) [pt

  15. Australian Early Childhood Educators: From Government Policy to University Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Sharon; Trinidad, Sue

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the Australian Federal Government initiatives in the area of early childhood with regard to the provision of early childhood education and care. These changes have influenced a Western Australian university to develop an innovative birth to 8 years preservice educator education curriculum. Using an ecological…

  16. Formation of structures in the very early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolami Neto, O.; Marques, G.C.; Ventura, I.

    1984-01-01

    An alternative picture of cosmological phase transition is sketched and its implications to the formation of structures in the very early Universe is studied. It is shown that the condensation of walls at high temperatures leads to fluctuations which are in accordance to all necessary conditions to the formation of structures in the Universe. Furthermore the number of aglutination centers is roughly equal to the numbers of great structures observed in the Universe today. (Author) [pt

  17. Dynamics of stringy congruence in the early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yong Seung; Hong, Soon-Tae

    2011-01-01

    We study twist and shear aspects of the stingy geodesic surface congruence. Under some natural conditions we derive the equations of the twist and shear in terms of the expansion of the Universe. We observe in this higher dimensional cosmology that, as the early universe evolves with expansion rate, the twist of the stringy congruence decreases exponentially and the initial twist value should be large enough to sustain the rotations of the ensuing universe, while the effects of the shear are negligible to produce the isotropic and homogeneous universe. We also investigate the twist and shear of the geodesic surface congruence of the null strings.

  18. Malignant external otitis: early scintigraphic detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strashun, A.M.; Nejatheim, M.; Goldsmith, S.J.

    1984-01-01

    Pseudomonas otitis externa in elderly diabetics may extend aggressively to adjacent bone, cranial nerves, meninges, and vessels, leading to a clinical diagnosis of ''malignant'' external otitis. Early diagnosis is necessary for successful treatment. This study compares the findings of initial radiographs, thin-section tomography of temporal bone, CT scans of head and neck, technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) and gallium-67 citrate scintigraphy, and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for detection of temporal bone osteomylitis in ten patients fulfilling the clinical diagnostic criteria of malignant external otitis. Skull radiographs were negative in all of the eight patients studied. Thin-section tomography was positive in one of the seven patients studied using this modality. CT scanning suggested osteomyelitis in three of nine patients. Both Tc-99m and Ga-67 citrate scintigraphy were positive in 10 of 10 patients. These results suggest that technetium and gallium scintigraphy are more sensitive than radiographs and CT scans for early detection of malignant external otitis

  19. Early esophageal cancer detection using RF classifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janse, Markus H. A.; van der Sommen, Fons; Zinger, Svitlana; Schoon, Erik J.; de With, Peter H. N.

    2016-03-01

    Esophageal cancer is one of the fastest rising forms of cancer in the Western world. Using High-Definition (HD) endoscopy, gastroenterology experts can identify esophageal cancer at an early stage. Recent research shows that early cancer can be found using a state-of-the-art computer-aided detection (CADe) system based on analyzing static HD endoscopic images. Our research aims at extending this system by applying Random Forest (RF) classification, which introduces a confidence measure for detected cancer regions. To visualize this data, we propose a novel automated annotation system, employing the unique characteristics of the previous confidence measure. This approach allows reliable modeling of multi-expert knowledge and provides essential data for real-time video processing, to enable future use of the system in a clinical setting. The performance of the CADe system is evaluated on a 39-patient dataset, containing 100 images annotated by 5 expert gastroenterologists. The proposed system reaches a precision of 75% and recall of 90%, thereby improving the state-of-the-art results by 11 and 6 percentage points, respectively.

  20. Early detection and treatment of Speckled leukoplakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selviana Tampoma

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leukoplakia is one of potentially malignant disorders that can be found on oral mucosa. Speckled leukoplakia is a rare type of leukoplakia with a very high risk of premalignant growth. Approximately 3 % of worldwide population has suffered from leukoplakia, 5-25% of which tend to be malignant leukoplakia. Purpose: This case report was aimed to discuss about early detection of speckled leukoplakia as one of potentially malignant disorders. Case: A 62 year old male patient came with chief complaint of bald and painful tongue since one month ago. The patient has a history of allergic reaction, hypertension, uric acid, and hepatitis B. He had been a heavy smoker since young until 10 years ago. Intra oral examination showed a firm, rough, non scrapable white plaque lesion with a size of 1 x 1.5 cm, surrounded by painful erosion with diffuse boundary. Case Management: Based on cytology examination, the patient was reffered to oncologist to get an excisional biopsy. Next, the patient succesfully underwent the excisional biopsy and came for control. The results showed the healing process of the lesion with a minimal complaint of bald tongue, especially when eating spicy or hot meal. To improve healing process, the patient then was given an antibacterial mouth rinse containing zinc and mulvitamin. Conclusion: Speckled leukoplakia could show high malignant transformation rate, therefore, early detection and treatment are necessary.

  1. Early Predictors of First-Year Academic Success at University: Pre-University Effort, Pre-University Self-Efficacy, and Pre-University Reasons for Attending University

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Herpen, Sanne G. A.; Meeuwisse, Marieke; Hofman, W. H. Adriaan; Severiens, Sabine E.; Arends, Lidia R.

    2017-01-01

    Given the large number of dropouts in the 1st year at university, it is important to identify early predictors of 1st-year academic success. The present study (n = 453 first-year students) contributes to literature on the transition from secondary to higher education by investigating how the non-cognitive factors "pre-university" effort…

  2. Organizing the early detection of cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyamdavaa, N.

    1995-01-01

    In early detection and diagnosing cancers: 1. organizing the preventive different examinations among the population in the servicing sphere, involving the family doctors to them. 2.Discharging the patients from hospitals after making the complex analysis to negate cancers and consulting with gynaecologist regardless the diagnosis of female in-patients aged over 20 who were hospitalized. 3.Making the analysis to negate cancers to the in-patients with indefinite diagnosis for the period of 14 days since their hospitalization and also the in-patients, who were shivered indefinitely.4.Making the analysis to negate cancers to all persons, who are first visited at out-patient clinics in the given year, who aged over 40, consulting the female patient, who aged over 25 with gynaecologist and making the USV examination to the persons, who were ill with infectious hepatitis now virus carriers at least 2 times for year

  3. Early Detection and Screening for Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Cathy

    2017-05-01

    To review the history, current status, and future trends related to breast cancer screening. Peer-reviewed articles, web sites, and textbooks. Breast cancer remains a complex, heterogeneous disease. Serial screening with mammography is the most effective method to detect early stage disease and decrease mortality. Although politics and economics may inhibit organized mammography screening programs in many countries, the judicious use of proficient clinical and self-breast examination can also identify small tumors leading to reduced morbidity. Oncology nurses have exciting opportunities to lead, facilitate, and advocate for delivery of high-quality screening services targeting individuals and communities. A practical approach is needed to translate the complexities and controversies surrounding breast cancer screening into improved care outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Fate of Yang-Mills black hole in early Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakonieczny, Lukasz; Rogatko, Marek [Institute of Physics Maria Curie-Sklodowska University 20-031 Lublin, pl. Marii Curie-Sklodowskiej 1 (Poland)

    2013-02-21

    According to the Big Bang Theory as we go back in time the Universe becomes progressively hotter and denser. This leads us to believe that the early Universe was filled with hot plasma of elementary particles. Among many questions concerning this phase of history of the Universe there are questions of existence and fate of magnetic monopoles and primordial black holes. Static solution of Einstein-Yang-Mills system may be used as a toy model for such a black hole. Using methods of field theory we will show that its existence and regularity depend crucially on the presence of fermions around it.

  5. Knowledge representation methods for early failure detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherer, K.P.; Stiller, P.

    1990-01-01

    To supervise technical processes like nuclear power plants, it is very important to detect failure modes in an early stage. In the nuclear research center at Karlsruhe an expert system is developed, embedded in a computer network of autonomous computers, which are used for intelligent prepocessing. Events, process data and actual parameter values are stored in slots of special frames in the knowledge base of the expert system. Both rule based and fact based knowledge representations are employed to generate cause consequence chains of failure states. By on-line surveillance of the reactor process, the slots of the frames are dynamically actualized. Immediately after the evaluation, the inference engine starts in the special domain experts (triggered by metarules from a manager) and detects the correspondend failures or anomaly state. Matching the members of the chain and regarding a catalogue of instructions and messages, what is to do by the operator, future failure states can be estimated and propagation can be prohibited. That means qualitative failure prediction based on cause consequence in the static part of the knowledge base. Also, a time series of physical data can be used to predict on analytical way future process state and to continue such a theoretical propagation with matching the cause consuquence chain

  6. Early Tracking or Finally Leaving? Determinants of Early Study Success in First-Year University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Jasperina; Jansen, Ellen; Hofman, Adriaan; Flache, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Two theoretical approaches underlie this investigation of the determinants of early study success among first-year university students. Specifically, to extend Walberg's educational productivity model, this study draws on the expectancy-value theory of achievement motivation in a contemporary university context. The survey data came from 407…

  7. Early Childhood Development and E-Learning in Africa: The Early Childhood Development Virtual University Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, Alan

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the development and evaluation of the graduate-level Early Childhood Development Virtual University (ECDVU) programme in Sub-Saharan Africa from 2001 through to 2004. It outlines the history of the ECDVU and the establishing of a Sub-Saharan programme for future leaders in the early childhood field guided by the key principle…

  8. Quantum theories of the early universe - a critical appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, B.L.

    1988-01-01

    A critical appraisal of certain general problems in the study of quantum processes in curved space as applied to the construction of theories of the early universe is presented. Outstanding issues in different cosmological models and the degree of success of different quantum processes in addressing these issues are summarized. (author)

  9. GUTs and supersymmetric GUTs in the very early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1983-01-01

    This talk is intended as background material for many of the other talks treating the possible applications of GUTs to the very early universe. It starts with a review of the present theoretical and phenomenological status of GUTs and then goes on to raise some new issues for their prospective cosmological applications which arise in supersymmetric (susy) GUTs. (author)

  10. Thermodynamic fluctuations and the monopole density of the early Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diosi, L.; Lukacs, B.

    1984-10-01

    The probability of thermodynamic fluctuations is calculated by explicitly using the Riemannian structure of the thermodynamic state space. By means of this probability distribution, a correlation volume can be defined. Identifying this volume with one domain in the GUT continuum at the symmetry breaking phase transition in the early Universe, a prediction can be obtained for the primordial monopole density. (author)

  11. Gravitino Condensates in the Early Universe and Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Mavromatos, Nick E

    2015-01-01

    We review work on the formation of gravitino condensates via the super-Higgs effect in the early Universe. This is a scenario for both inflating the early universe and breaking local supersymmetry (supergravity), entirely independent of any coupling to external matter. The goldstino mode associated with the breaking of (global) supersymmetry is "eaten" by the gravitino field, which becomes massive (via its own vacuum condensation) and breaks the local supersymmetry (supergravity) dynamically. The most natural association of gravitino condensates with inflation proceeds in an indirect way, via a Starobinsky-inflation-type phase. The higher-order curvature corrections of the (quantum) effective action of gravitino condensates induced by integrating out massive gravitino degrees of freedom in a curved space-time background, in the broken-supergravity phase, are responsible for inducing a scalar mode which inflates the Universe. The scenario is in agreement with Planck data phenomenology in a natural and phenomen...

  12. Early detection and monitoring of Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Z.; Roytman, Leonid; Kadik, Abdelhamid; Miller, Howard; Rosy, Dilara A.

    2015-05-01

    Global Earth Observation Systems of Systems (GEOSS) are bringing vital societal benefits to people around the globe. In this research article, we engage undergraduate students in the exciting area of space exploration to improve the health of millions of people globally. The goal of the proposed research is to place students in a learning environment where they will develop their problem solving skills in the context of a world crisis (e.g., malaria). Malaria remains one of the greatest threats to public health, particularly in developing countries. The World Health Organization has estimated that over one million die of Malaria each year, with more than 80% of these found in Sub-Saharan Africa. The mosquitoes transmit malaria. They breed in the areas of shallow surface water that are suitable to the mosquito and parasite development. These environmental factors can be detected with satellite imagery, which provide high spatial and temporal coverage of the earth's surface. We investigate on moisture, thermal and vegetation stress indicators developed from NOAA operational environmental satellite data. Using these indicators and collected epidemiological data, it is possible to produce a forecast system that can predict the risk of malaria for a particular geographical area with up to four months lead time. This valuable lead time information provides an opportunity for decision makers to deploy the necessary preventive measures (spraying, treated net distribution, storing medications and etc) in threatened areas with maximum effectiveness. The main objective of the proposed research is to study the effect of ecology on human health and application of NOAA satellite data for early detection of malaria.

  13. Pulmonary berylliosis. Experimental induction. Early detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andre, Stephane

    1984-01-01

    This research thesis reports the study of the biological reactivity of industrial and environmental aerosols, notably beryllium powder aerosols. In order to study beryllium toxicity under its metal form, and the dose-effect relationship and the suspected carcinogen effect, a pulmonary berylliosis has been experimentally induced in rat and monkey. In order to develop means of rapid detection of exposure and sensitisation to beryllium, the author studied early pathological cellular mechanisms occurring during a pulmonary granulomatosis. Quantitative and qualitative modifications have been searched for, more particularly at the level of endo-alveolar cellular populations of macrophages and lymphocytes. The study has also been extended to the sensitisation of lymphocytes with respect to beryllium. After some generalities about beryllium (properties, sources, uses, exposure sources), and an overview of its toxicity (epidemiology, pathologies, experiments, biological mechanisms, detoxification), the author reports the introduction of a chronic pulmonary berylliosis into animals, discusses the various noticed pathologies and their analysis, and reports in situ and in vitro studies [fr

  14. Early lung cancer: detection, treatment outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balchum, O.J.; Huth, G.C.; Saccomanno, G.

    1984-01-01

    The performance of a room temperature mercuric iodide x-ray detector was investigated as a function of detector bias, amplifier time constant, and detector temperature. A Mn K/sub α/ line of 200 eV FWHM was obtained by using low noise electronics developed for Si(Li) detectors, including a cooled input FET. Measurements of the detector's resolution at various x-ray energies result in a Fano factor of 0.20. Fluorescence bronchoscopy with a violet laser and image intensifier has been developed for imaging the red fluorescence of a tumor-specific agent, hematoporphyrin derivative, that has been injected before the examination. The instrument was developed to localize carcinoma in situ and early, small bronchogenic tumors diagnosed by sputum cytology but invisible on chest x-ray and conventional bronchoscopy, in underground uranium miners and others at risk for lung cancer. In addition to the imaging devices, a video system including a processor and electronics for digital background image subtraction has been developed to enhance contrast. A ratio fluorometer and a rapid-scan spectrum analyzer have been designed for quantitative measurements of fluorescence intensity and dependence on dosage and time after injection of the fluorescent agent. Clinical trials demonstrate detection of carcinoma in situ, and the true positive rate should be improved by the new instrumentation and optimization of time delay and dosage

  15. Early detection of first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tor K; Melle, Ingrid; Auestad, Bjørn

    2006-01-01

    Early intervention is assumed to improve outcome in first-episode psychosis, but this has not been proven.......Early intervention is assumed to improve outcome in first-episode psychosis, but this has not been proven....

  16. Detection of Early lung Cancer Among Military Personnel (DECAMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-11-2-0161 TITLE: Detection of Early lung Cancer Among Military Personnel (DECAMP) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Avrum E. Spira...W81XWH-11-2-0161 Detection of Early lung Cancer Among Military Personnel (DECAMP) 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-2-0161 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...biomarkers found in blood, tissues, or other bodily fluids, which may be used for the early detection of lung cancer among military personnel and

  17. The Early Universe: Searching for Evidence of Cosmic Inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuss, David T.

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades, our understanding of the evolution and fate of the universe has increased dramatically. This "Age of Precision Cosmology" has been ushered in by measurements that have both elucidated the details of the Big Bang cosmology and set the direction for future lines of inquiry. Our universe appears to consist of 5% baryonic matter; 23% of the universe's energy content is dark matter which is responsible for the observed structure in the universe; and 72% of the energy density is so-called "dark energy" that is currently accelerating the expansion of the universe. In addition, our universe has been measured to be geometrically flat to 1 %. These observations and related details of the Big Bang paradigm have hinted that the universe underwent an epoch of accelerated expansion known as "inflation" early in its history. In this talk, I will review the highlights of modern cosmology, focusing on the contributions made by measurements of the cosmic microwave background, the faint afterglow of the Big Bang. I will also describe new instruments designed to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background in order to search for evidence of cosmic inflation.

  18. Early predictors of first-year academic success at university : Pre-university effort, pre-university self-efficacy, and pre-university reasons for attending university

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Herpen, Sanne G.A.; Meeuwisse, Marieke; Hofman, W. H.Adriaan; Severiens, Sabine E.; Arends, Lidia R.

    Given the large number of dropouts in the 1st year at university, it is important to identify early predictors of 1st-year academic success. The present study (n = 453 first-year students) contributes to literature on the transition from secondary to higher education by investigating how the

  19. Early Universe synthesis of asymmetric dark matter nuggets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresham, Moira I.; Lou, Hou Keong; Zurek, Kathryn M.

    2018-02-01

    We compute the mass function of bound states of asymmetric dark matter—nuggets—synthesized in the early Universe. We apply our results for the nugget density and binding energy computed from a nuclear model to obtain analytic estimates of the typical nugget size exiting synthesis. We numerically solve the Boltzmann equation for synthesis including two-to-two fusion reactions, estimating the impact of bottlenecks on the mass function exiting synthesis. These results provide the basis for studying the late Universe cosmology of nuggets in a future companion paper.

  20. Early Presbyterian influences at the University of Pretoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Duncan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Presbyterianism, through two significant personalities, provided an important impetus to the formation and development of the early University of Pretoria. Their contribution has to be understood in terms of the contexts of their Scottish Presbyterian heritage, South Africa in the early years of the twentieth century and the state of higher education prevalent at that time. Together these contexts may be described as political, religious and educational. Prof AC Paterson made significant contributions both in teaching and administration at the institutional level. Prof E Macmillan made his contribution in the field of teaching, but never divorced from the very context where ministry has to be exercised.

  1. Dual QCD and phase transition in early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranjan, Akhilesh; Raina, P.K.; Nandan, Hemwati

    2009-01-01

    The quantum chromodynamics (QCD) vacuum with condensed monopoles/ dyons (i.e., a dual Ginzburg- Landau (DGL) type model of QCD or dual QCD) has been quite successful to describe the large-distance behavior of QCD vacuum. Further, such DGL theory of QCD at finite temperature is also found to be useful in studying the phase transition process as believed to occur in early universe. In the present article, we have used the DGL theory of QCD with dyons to study the hadronisation in early universe. The effective potential at finite temperature is calculated. The notions of the phase transition in the background of the dyonically condensed QCD vacuum has been investigated by calculating the critical temperature in view of the temperature dependent couplings

  2. Was there an early reionization component in our universe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva-Domingo, Pablo; Gariazzo, Stefano; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.; Mena, Olga

    2018-04-01

    A deep understanding of the epoch of reionization is still missing in our knowledge of the universe. While future probes will allow us to test the precise evolution of the free electron fraction from redshifts between zsimeq 6 and 0zsimeq 2, at present one could ask what kind of reionization processes are allowed by present cosmic microwave background temperature and polarization measurements. An early contribution to reionization could imply a departure from the standard picture where star formation determines the reionization onset. By considering a broad class of possible reionization parameterizations, we find that current data do not require an early reionization component in our universe and that only one marginal class of models, based on a particular realization of reionization, may point to that. In addition, the frequentist Akaike information criterion (AIC) provides strong evidence against alternative reionization histories, favoring the most simple reionization scenario, which describes reionization by means of only one (constant) reionization optical depth τ.

  3. Was there an early reionization component in our universe?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villanueva-Domingo, Pablo; Gariazzo, Stefano; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.; Mena, Olga

    2018-04-01

    A deep understanding of the Epoch of Reionization is still missing in our knowledge of the universe. While future probes will allow us to test the precise evolution of the free electron fraction from redshifts between $z\\simeq 6$ and $z\\simeq 20$, at present one could ask what kind of reionization processes are allowed by present Cosmic Microwave Background temperature and polarization measurements. An early contribution to reionization could imply a departure from the standard picture where star formation determines the reionization onset. BBy considering a broad class of possible reionization parameterizations, we find that current data do not require an early reionization component in our universe and that only one marginal class of models, based on a particular realization of reionization, may point to that. In addition, the frequentist Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) provides strong evidence against alternative reionization histories, favoring the most simple reionization scenario, which describes reionization by means of only one (constant) reionization optical depth $\\tau$.

  4. A Glimpse of the Very Early Universal Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-01

    important ingredient in the cosmological models is the dark matter that is believed to contribute about 95% of the mass of the universe. The present confirmation of the predictions of the models therefore also indirectly confirms that it is the dark matter that controls the formation of structures in the universe. However, there is still a long way to go before it will be possible to make a more detailed comparison between observations and predictions, e.g., from PR Photo 19e/01 to PR Photo 19a/01 ! Asked about what they consider the most important consequence of their observations, the team responds: " We have shown that we now have an observational method with which we may study the cosmic web in the early universe, and the VLT is a great tool for such studies. The way forward is now pretty clear - we just have to find those faint and distant LEGOs and then do the spectral observations from which we may determine how they are distributed in space ". More information The research described in this press release is the subject of a scientific article by the team, "Detection of a redshift 3.04 filament" , to appear as a Letter to the Editor in the European journal Astronomy & Astrophysics. Notes [1] The team consists of Palle Møller , Johan Fynbo (both at ESO, Garching) and Bjarne Thomsen (Institute of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus, Denmark). [2] In astronomy, the redshift denotes the fraction by which the lines in the spectrum of an object are shifted towards longer wavelengths. The observed redshift of a distant hydrogen cloud or galaxy gives a direct estimate of the apparent recession velocity as caused by the universal expansion. Since the expansion rate increases with the distance, the velocity is itself a function (the Hubble relation) of the distance to the object. The higher the redshift of an object, the more distant it is and the longer is the look-back time, i.e. the earlier is the corresponding epoch. [3] See also ESO Press Release 13/99 and ESO Press Release 08

  5. SCREENING FOR EARLY DETECTION OF EATING DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisaveta Pavlova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eating Disorders (EDs are characterized by a persistent disturbance of eating or eating-related behavior that significantly impairs physical health or psychosocial functioning. EDs are caused by a complex interaction of genetic, biological, behavioral, psychological, and social factors. Their epidemiology is rising for the past decades, and EDs affect all races, social levels and both genders. Due to the long and expensive treatment, chronic course, and the fact that most of the sufferers do not realize the need for therapy or do not seek treatment, the demand on developing prevention programs, early detection and assessment is essential. Despite the fact, that many new EDs screening tools were developed already, there is a great lack of validated screening instruments, adapted to the Bulgarian conditions. Objects and methods: Our study aimed at eliciting a comprehensive battery for screening of not only specific ED pathology, but also some risk factors, such as negative body image, weight and depressive symptoms. The object of our study consisted of 201 females, aged 18 to 45 (mean 24.65. SCOOF- questionnaire, Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (EDDS-5, Body Image Questionnaire-34 and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI were applied. Results: Our preliminary results show that approximately 45% of the tested subjects show some of the: negative body image, eating disorders’ clinical pathology, distorted eating patterns, subclinical eating disorders pathology, overweight/obesity, or depressive symptoms. Conclusion: Our ongoing efforts in area of research also are aimed at developing and refining strategies for preventing and treating ED among adolescents and adults.

  6. Early Forest Fire Detection Using Low Energy Hydrogen Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Müller

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The North-east German Lowlands is a region with one of the highest forest fire risks in Europe. In order to keep damage levels as low as possible, it is important to have an effective early warning system. Such a system is being developed on the basis of a hydrogen sensor, which makes it possible to detect a smouldering forest fire before the development of open flames. The prototype hydrogen sensor produced at the Humboldt University Berlin has a metal/ solid electrolyte/insulator/ semiconductor (MEIS structure, which allows cost-effective production. Due to the low energy consumption, an autarchic working unit could be installed in the forest. Field trials have shown that it is possible to identify a forest fire in its early stages when hydrogen concentrations are still low. A significant change in the signal due to a fire was measured at a distance of about 100m. In view of the potential impacts of climate change, the innovative pre-ignition warning system is an important early diagnosis and monitoring module for the protection of the forests.

  7. Parastatistics and the equation of state for the early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldrovandi, R.; Monte Lima, I. do.

    1982-01-01

    The equation of state for an ideal mixture of relativistic quantum gases obeying any (para-) statistics is given. Recursion formulas are obtained for the distribution functions and correlations are analysed. The equation of state can be applied to the early Universe, allowing the quarks to be treated either as coloured fermions of (unequivalently) as parafermions of order 3. In the latter case, a tendency to aggregate into triads by a mere statistical effect is exhibited. (Author) [pt

  8. Generic features of vacuum phase transitions in the early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kephart, T.W.; Weiler, T.J.; Yuan, T.C.

    1990-01-01

    A simple Higgs model is utilized to show the occurrence of a four-phase pattern of vacuum symmetry. As temperature changes, an interplay of spontaneous symmetry breaking and spontaneous symmetry restoration ensues, and resonant field interchange occurs. The generality of models which may contain a sequence of vacuum phase transitions is emphasized. The laboratory for these multi-phase transitions is the early Universe. (orig.)

  9. Green's function for the scalar field in the early Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, A.; Mallik, S.

    1987-01-01

    We derive the thermal Green's function for the scalar field in a de Sitter space-time and apply it to the problem of the early Universe. Field fluctuations relevant for inflation arise predominantly from wavelengths of the order of the inverse Hubble constant. Sufficient inflation is obtained in a Coleman-Weinberg model, provided the coupling constant is small enough. The results are insensitive to the choice of the vacuum of the field theory

  10. The Transient High Energy Sky and Early Universe Surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, P. T.

    2016-04-01

    The Transient High Energy Sky and Early Universe Surveyor is a mission which will be proposed for the ESA M5 call. THESEUS will address multiple components in the Early Universe ESA Cosmic Vision theme:4.1 Early Universe,4.2 The Universe taking shape, and4.3 The evolving violent Universe.THESEUS aims at vastly increasing the discovery space of the high energy transient phenomena over the entire cosmic history. This is achieved via a unique payload providing an unprecedented combination of: (i) wide and deep sky monitoring in a broad energy band(0.3 keV-20 MeV; (ii) focusing capabilities in the soft X-ray band granting large grasp and high angular resolution; and (iii) on board near-IR capabilities for immediate transient identification and first redshift estimate.The THESEUS payload consists of: (i) the Soft X--ray Imager (SXI), a set of Lobster Eye (0.3--6 keV) telescopes with CCD detectors covering a total FOV of 1 sr; (ii) the X--Gamma-rays spectrometer (XGS), a non-imaging spectrometer (XGS) based on SDD+CsI, covering the same FOV than the Lobster telescope extending the THESEUS energy band up to 20 MeV; and (iii) a 70cm class InfraRed Telescope (IRT) observing up to 2 microns with imaging and moderate spectral capabilities.The main scientific goals of THESEUS are to:(a) Explore the Early Universe (cosmic dawn and reionization era) by unveiling the Gamma--Ray Burst (GRBs) population in the first billion years}, determining when did the first stars form, and investigating the re-ionization epoch, the interstellar medium (ISM) and the intergalactic medium (IGM) at high redshifts.(b) Perform an unprecedented deep survey of the soft X-ray transient Universe in order to fill the present gap in the discovery space of new classes of transient; provide a fundamental step forward in the comprehension of the physics of various classes of Galactic and extra--Galactic transients, and provide real time trigger and accurate locations of transients for follow-up with next

  11. A Physical – Geometrical Model of an Early Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corneliu BERBENTE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A physical-geometrical model for a possible early universe is proposed. One considers an initial singularity containing the energy of the whole universe. The singularity expands as a spherical wave at the speed of light generating space and time. The relations of the special theory of relativity, quantum mechanics and gas kinetics are considered applicable. A structuring of the primary wave is adopted on reasons of geometrical simplicity as well as on satisfying the conservation laws. The evolution is able to lead to particles very close to neutrons as mass and radius. The actually admitted values for the radius and mass of the universe as well as the temperature of the ground radiation (3-5 K can be obtained by using the proposed model.

  12. The cosmological slingshot scenario: a stringy early times universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Germani, Cristiano [D.A.M.T.P., Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Grandi, Nicolas [SISSA, via Beirut 4, 34014 Trieste (Italy); Kehagias, Alex [Physics Division, National Technical University of Athens, 15780 Zografou Campus, Athens (Greece)], E-mail: Germani@sissa.it, E-mail: grandi@fisica.unlp.edu.ar, E-mail: kehagias@central.ntua.gr

    2008-07-07

    A cosmological model for the early time universe is proposed. In this model, the universe is a wandering brane moving in a warped throat of a Calabi-Yau space. A nonzero angular momentum induces a turning point in the brane trajectory, and leads to a bouncing cosmology as experienced by an observer living on the brane. The universe undergoes a decelerated contraction followed by an accelerating expansion and no big-bang singularity. Although the number of e-folds of accelerated motion is low (less than 2), standard cosmological problems are not present in our model; thanks to the absence of an initial singularity and the violation of energy conditions of mirage matter at high energies. Density perturbations are also calculated in our model and we find a slightly red spectral index with negligible tensorial perturbations in compatibility with WMAP data.

  13. Feedback in low-mass galaxies in the early Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erb, Dawn K

    2015-07-09

    The formation, evolution and death of massive stars release large quantities of energy and momentum into the gas surrounding the sites of star formation. This process, generically termed 'feedback', inhibits further star formation either by removing gas from the galaxy, or by heating it to temperatures that are too high to form new stars. Observations reveal feedback in the form of galactic-scale outflows of gas in galaxies with high rates of star formation, especially in the early Universe. Feedback in faint, low-mass galaxies probably facilitated the escape of ionizing radiation from galaxies when the Universe was about 500 million years old, so that the hydrogen between galaxies changed from neutral to ionized-the last major phase transition in the Universe.

  14. Detecting topology in a nearly flat hyperbolic universe

    OpenAIRE

    Weeks, Jeffrey R.

    2002-01-01

    Cosmic microwave background data shows the observable universe to be nearly flat, but leaves open the question of whether it is simply or multiply connected. Several authors have investigated whether the topology of a multiply connect hyperbolic universe would be detectable when 0.9 < Omega < 1. However, the possibility of detecting a given topology varies depending on the location of the observer within the space. Recent studies have assumed the observer sits at a favorable location. The pre...

  15. Detection and monitoring of early caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pretty, I A; Ekstrand, K R

    2016-01-01

    and co-workers from 2013 and this still represents the current state of the science in relation to caries detection and monitoring. The review described among others, visible detection systems, image-based detection systems and point-measurement approaches. RESULTS: The current evidence base suggests...... that while there are numerous devices or technology-enabled detection systems, the use of a careful, methodical visual inspection of clean, dry teeth, supplemented where indicated by radiographic views, remains the standard of care in caries detection and diagnostics. Further, it is possible by means...... to the clinician and the patient for whom it may be a useful educational and motivational tool. CONCLUSIONS: Recommendations are presented that can be adopted and adapted to local circumstances and that are both substantiated by evidence and promote a clear, simple and consistent approach to caries detection...

  16. Social anxiety and negative early life events in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binelli, Cynthia; Ortiz, Ana; Muñiz, Armando; Gelabert, Estel; Ferraz, Liliana; S Filho, Alaor; Crippa, José Alexandre S; Nardi, Antonio E; Subirà, Susana; Martín-Santos, Rocío

    2012-06-01

    There is substantial evidence regarding the impact of negative life events during childhood on the aetiology of psychiatric disorders. We examined the association between negative early life events and social anxiety in a sample of 571 Spanish University students. In a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2007, we collected data through a semistructured questionnaire of sociodemographic variables, personal and family psychiatric history, and substance abuse. We assessed the five early negative life events: (i) the loss of someone close, (ii) emotional abuse, (iii) physical abuse, (iv) family violence, and (v) sexual abuse. All participants completed the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale. Mean (SD) age was 21 (4.5), 75% female, LSAS score was 40 (DP = 22), 14.2% had a psychiatric family history and 50.6% had negative life events during childhood. Linear regression analyses, after controlling for age, gender, and family psychiatric history, showed a positive association between family violence and social score (p = 0.03). None of the remaining stressors produced a significant increase in LSAS score (p > 0.05). University students with high levels of social anxiety presented higher prevalence of negative early life events. Thus, childhood family violence could be a risk factor for social anxiety in such a population.

  17. Annihilation and gravitational clumping of monopoles in the early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izawa, Mizuo; Sato, Katsuhiko.

    1983-01-01

    In order to avoid the overproduction of magnetic monopoles in the early Universe, we investigate how monopoles evolve in the Big Bang Universe for arbitrary mass of monopoles and the arbitrary initial abundance. First, we calculate pair annihilation of monopoles by taking into account the entropy production due to the annihilations. Second, we investigate the formation of monopole stars and black holes due to gravitational clumping of monopoles. In particular, we take into account the entropy and baryon number generation by black hole evaporation. It is shown, however, that the burning of monopole stars or the evaporation of black holes cannot dilute the monopole abundance sufficiently without conflicts with present baryon/entropy ratio and primordial nucleosynthesis regardless of monopole mass. (author)

  18. CP-Violating solitons in the early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tornkvist, O.; Riotto, A.

    1997-07-01

    Solitons in extensions of the Standard Model can serve as localized sources of CP violation. Depending on their stability properties, they may serve either to create or to deplete the baryon asymmetry. The conditions for existence of a particular soliton candidate, the membrane solution of the two-Higgs model, are presented. In the generic case, investigated by Bachas and Tomaras, membranes exist and are metastable for a wide range of parameters. For the more viable supersymmetric case, it is shown that the present-day existence of CP-violating membranes is experimentally excluded, but preliminary studies suggest that they may have existed in the early universe soon after the electroweak phase transition, with important consequences for the baryon asymmetry of the universe

  19. Anisotropic to Isotropic Phase Transitions in the Early Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajaib M. A.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We attempt to develop a minimal formalism to describe an anisotropic to isotropic tran- sition in the early Universe. Assuming an underlying theory that violates Lorentz in- variance, we start with a Dirac like equation, involving four massless fields, and which does not exhibit Lorentz invariance. We then perform transformations that restore it to its covariant form along with a mass term for the fermion field. It is proposed that these transformations can be visualized as waves traveling in an anisotropic media. The trans- formation it = ℏ ! is then utilized to transit to a statistical thermodynamics system and the partition function then gives a better insight into the character of this transition. The statistical system hence realized is a two level system with each state doubly degenerate. We propose that modeling the transition this way can help explain the matter antimatter asymmetry of the Universe.

  20. Resonant Production of Sterile Neutrinos in the Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Lauren; Grohs, Evan; Fuller, George M.

    2016-06-01

    This study examines the cosmological impacts of a light resonantly produced sterile neutrino in the early universe. Such a neutrino could be produced through lepton number-driven Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) conversion of active neutrinos around big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN), resulting in a non-thermal spectrum of both sterile and electron neutrinos. During BBN, the neutron-proton ratio depends sensitively on the electron neutrino flux. If electron neutrinos are being converted to sterile neutrinos, this makes the n/p ratio a probe of possible new physics. We use observations of primordial Yp and D/H to place limits on this process.

  1. Early universe cosmology and tests of fundamental physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, Andreas; Frieman, Joshua A.; Trodden, Mark

    2002-01-01

    This is the report of the Working Group on Early Universe Cosmology and tests of Fundamental Physics, group P4.8 of the of the Snowmass 2001 conference. Here we summarize the impressive array of advances that have taken place in this field, and identify opportunities for even greater progress in the future. Topics include Dark Energy, Cosmic Acceleration, Inflation, Phase Transitions, Baryogenesis, and String/M-theory Cosmology. The introductory section gives an executive summary with six key open questions on which we can expect to make significant progress

  2. The Origin of Dust in the Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwek, Eli

    2011-01-01

    In this talk I will describe the origin of dust in the early universe. I will be presenting observations of the spectral energy distribution of the galaxy J1148+5251, and present estimates of the dust mass in this high redshift (z=6.4) object. I will then discuss the origin of this dust, and the role of SN and AGB stars as dust sources, and the effect of SNRs on the destruction of dust in the interstellar medium of this galaxy.

  3. Universal biology and the statistical mechanics of early life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenfeld, Nigel; Biancalani, Tommaso; Jafarpour, Farshid

    2017-11-01

    All known life on the Earth exhibits at least two non-trivial common features: the canonical genetic code and biological homochirality, both of which emerged prior to the Last Universal Common Ancestor state. This article describes recent efforts to provide a narrative of this epoch using tools from statistical mechanics. During the emergence of self-replicating life far from equilibrium in a period of chemical evolution, minimal models of autocatalysis show that homochirality would have necessarily co-evolved along with the efficiency of early-life self-replicators. Dynamical system models of the evolution of the genetic code must explain its universality and its highly refined error-minimization properties. These have both been accounted for in a scenario where life arose from a collective, networked phase where there was no notion of species and perhaps even individuality itself. We show how this phase ultimately terminated during an event sometimes known as the Darwinian transition, leading to the present epoch of tree-like vertical descent of organismal lineages. These examples illustrate concrete examples of universal biology: the quest for a fundamental understanding of the basic properties of living systems, independent of precise instantiation in chemistry or other media. This article is part of the themed issue 'Reconceptualizing the origins of life'.

  4. Early detection and assertive community treatment of young psychotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, P; Nordentoft, M; Abel, M B

    2000-01-01

    Recent research indicates that early detection of young persons suffering from psychosis and subsequent intensive intervention enhances treatment response and prognosis, but the data are only preliminary and suggestive....

  5. Early Detection of Viral Hepatitis Can Save Lives - PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-05-12

    Early detection of viral hepatitis can help prevent liver damage, cirrhosis, and even liver cancer.  Created: 5/12/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 5/12/2010.

  6. Improved Motion Estimation Using Early Zero-Block Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Lin

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available We incorporate the early zero-block detection technique into the UMHexagonS algorithm, which has already been adopted in H.264/AVC JM reference software, to speed up the motion estimation process. A nearly sufficient condition is derived for early zero-block detection. Although the conventional early zero-block detection method can achieve significant improvement in computation reduction, the PSNR loss, to whatever extent, is not negligible especially for high quantization parameter (QP or low bit-rate coding. This paper modifies the UMHexagonS algorithm with the early zero-block detection technique to improve its coding performance. The experimental results reveal that the improved UMHexagonS algorithm greatly reduces computation while maintaining very high coding efficiency.

  7. Cervical screening with Luviva machine for early detection of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cervical screening with Luviva machine for early detection of cervical dysplasia: ... glandular cell (AGC), Atypical glandular cell favouring neoplasia (AGC-FN), ... in low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion was recorded among the patients.

  8. Fulfilling the potential of cancer prevention and early detection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Curry, Susan J; Byers, Tim; Hewitt, Maria Elizabeth

    2003-01-01

    .... The National Cancer Policy Board, part of the Institute of Medicine, outlines a national strategy to realize the promise of cancer prevention and early detection, including specific and wide-ranging recommendations...

  9. [Early detection of autism in children. Review of literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisula, E

    1997-01-01

    The difficulties with early detection of autistic disorder in children are discussed. DSM-IV diagnostic criteria are presented. Usefulness of clinical interview and clinical experiment in diagnosing autistic disorder are analyzed.

  10. Detecting topology in a nearly flat spherical universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeks, Jeffrey; Lehoucq, Roland; Uzan, Jean-Philippe

    2003-01-01

    When the density parameter is close to unity, the universe has a large curvature radius independent of its being hyperbolic or spherical, or in the limiting case of an infinite curvature radius, flat. Whatever the curvature, the universe may have either a simply connected or a multiply connected topology. In the flat case, the topology scale is arbitrary, and there is no a priori reason for this scale to be of the same order as the size of the observable universe. In the hyperbolic case, any nontrivial topology would almost surely be on a length scale too large to detect. In the spherical case, in contrast, the topology could easily occur on a detectable scale. The present paper shows how, in the spherical case, the assumption of a nearly flat universe simplifies the algorithms for detecting a multiply connected topology, but also reduces the amount of topology that can be seen. This is of primary importance for the upcoming cosmic microwave background data analysis. This paper shows that for spherical spaces one may restrict the search to diametrically opposite pairs of circles in the circles-in-the-sky method and still detect the cyclic factor in the standard factorization of the holonomy group. This vastly decreases the algorithm's run time. If the search is widened to include pairs of candidate circles whose centres are almost opposite and whose relative twist varies slightly, then the cyclic factor along with a cyclic subgroup of the general factor may also be detected. Unfortunately, the full holonomy group is, in general, unobservable in a nearly flat spherical universe, and so a full six-parameter search is unnecessary. Crystallographic methods could also potentially detect the cyclic factor and a cyclic subgroup of the general factor, but nothing else

  11. Detecting topology in a nearly flat spherical universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weeks, Jeffrey [15 Farmer St, Canton NY 13617-1120 (United States); Lehoucq, Roland [CE-Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA/Service d' Astrophysique, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Uzan, Jean-Philippe [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, GReCO, CNRS-FRE 2435, 98 bis, Bd Arago, 75014 Paris (France)

    2003-04-21

    When the density parameter is close to unity, the universe has a large curvature radius independent of its being hyperbolic or spherical, or in the limiting case of an infinite curvature radius, flat. Whatever the curvature, the universe may have either a simply connected or a multiply connected topology. In the flat case, the topology scale is arbitrary, and there is no a priori reason for this scale to be of the same order as the size of the observable universe. In the hyperbolic case, any nontrivial topology would almost surely be on a length scale too large to detect. In the spherical case, in contrast, the topology could easily occur on a detectable scale. The present paper shows how, in the spherical case, the assumption of a nearly flat universe simplifies the algorithms for detecting a multiply connected topology, but also reduces the amount of topology that can be seen. This is of primary importance for the upcoming cosmic microwave background data analysis. This paper shows that for spherical spaces one may restrict the search to diametrically opposite pairs of circles in the circles-in-the-sky method and still detect the cyclic factor in the standard factorization of the holonomy group. This vastly decreases the algorithm's run time. If the search is widened to include pairs of candidate circles whose centres are almost opposite and whose relative twist varies slightly, then the cyclic factor along with a cyclic subgroup of the general factor may also be detected. Unfortunately, the full holonomy group is, in general, unobservable in a nearly flat spherical universe, and so a full six-parameter search is unnecessary. Crystallographic methods could also potentially detect the cyclic factor and a cyclic subgroup of the general factor, but nothing else.

  12. One-loop quantum gravity repulsion in the early Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broda, Bogusław

    2011-03-11

    Perturbative quantum gravity formalism is applied to compute the lowest order corrections to the classical spatially flat cosmological Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker solution (for the radiation). The presented approach is analogous to the approach applied to compute quantum corrections to the Coulomb potential in electrodynamics, or rather to the approach applied to compute quantum corrections to the Schwarzschild solution in gravity. In the framework of the standard perturbative quantum gravity, it is shown that the corrections to the classical deceleration, coming from the one-loop graviton vacuum polarization (self-energy), have (UV cutoff free) opposite to the classical repulsive properties which are not negligible in the very early Universe. The repulsive "quantum forces" resemble those known from loop quantum cosmology.

  13. The early universe: facts and fiction (astronomy and astrophysics library)

    CERN Document Server

    Börner, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    This fourth edition of Börner's "The Early Universe" is practically a new book, not just updated version. In particular, it is now organized so as to make it more useful as a textbook. And problem sections are also added. In the centre are the connections between particle physics and cosmology: The standard model, some basic implications of quantum field theory and the questions of structure formation. Special emphasis is given to the observed anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background and the consequences drawn for cosmology and for the structure formation models. Nuclear and particle physicists and astrophysicists, researchers and teachers as well as graduate students will welcome this new edition of a classic text and reference.

  14. On Effective Degrees of Freedom in the Early Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Husdal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We explore the effective degrees of freedom in the early Universe, from before the electroweak scale at a few femtoseconds after the Big Bang until the last positrons disappeared a few minutes later. We look at the established concepts of effective degrees of freedom for energy density, pressure, and entropy density, and introduce effective degrees of freedom for number density as well. We discuss what happens with particle species as their temperature cools down from relativistic to semi- and non-relativistic temperatures, and then annihilates completely. This will affect the pressure and the entropy per particle. We also look at the transition from a quark-gluon plasma to a hadron gas. Using a list a known hadrons, we use a “cross-over” temperature of 214 MeV, where the effective degrees of freedom for a quark-gluon plasma equals that of a hadron gas.

  15. Mutated hilltop inflation: a natural choice for early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Barun Kumar; Pal, Supratik; Basu, B.

    2010-01-01

    We propose a model of inflation with a suitable potential for a single scalar field which falls in the wide class of hilltop inflation. We derive the analytical expressions for most of the physical quantities related to inflation and show that all of them represent the true behavior as required from a model of inflation. We further subject the results to observational verification by formulating the theory of perturbations based on our model followed by an estimation for the values of those observable parameters. Our model is found to be in excellent agreement with observational data. Thus, the features related to the model leads us to infer that this type of hilltop inflation may be a natural choice for explaining the early universe

  16. Primordial Black Holes from Supersymmetry in the Early Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotner, Eric; Kusenko, Alexander

    2017-07-21

    Supersymmetric extensions of the standard model generically predict that in the early Universe a scalar condensate can form and fragment into Q balls before decaying. If the Q balls dominate the energy density for some period of time, the relatively large fluctuations in their number density can lead to formation of primordial black holes (PBH). Other scalar fields, unrelated to supersymmetry, can play a similar role. For a general charged scalar field, this robust mechanism can generate black holes over the entire mass range allowed by observational constraints, with a sufficient abundance to account for all dark matter in some parameter ranges. In the case of supersymmetry the mass range is limited from above by 10^{23}  g. We also comment on the role that topological defects can play for PBH formation in a similar fashion.

  17. Parametric Resonance in the Early Universe - A Fitting Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Figueroa, Daniel G.

    2017-02-01

    Particle production via parametric resonance in the early Universe, is a non-perturbative, non-linear and out-of-equilibrium phenomenon. Although it is a well studied topic, whenever a new scenario exhibits parametric resonance, a full re-analysis is normally required. To avoid this tedious task, many works present often only a simplified linear treatment of the problem. In order to surpass this circumstance in the future, we provide a fitting analysis of parametric resonance through all its relevant stages: initial linear growth, non-linear evolution, and relaxation towards equilibrium. Using lattice simulations in an expanding grid in $3+1$ dimensions, we parametrise the dynamics' outcome scanning over the relevant ingredients: role of the oscillatory field, particle coupling strength, initial conditions, and background expansion rate. We emphasise the inaccuracy of the linear calculation of the decay time of the oscillatory field, and propose a more appropriate definition of this scale based on the subsequ...

  18. Sensors and Instrumentation towards early detection of osteoporosis

    KAUST Repository

    Afsarimanesh, Nasrin; Mukhopadhyay, Subhas C; Kruger, Marlena; Yu, Pak-Lam; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2016-01-01

    A label-free non-invasive sensing system for detection of C-terminal telopeptide of type-I collagen (CTX-I) has been developed in order to detect bone loss at an early stage, by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). A planar interdigital

  19. Real-Time PCR for Universal Phytoplasma Detection and Quantification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Nynne Meyn; Nyskjold, Henriette; Nicolaisen, Mogens

    2013-01-01

    Currently, the most efficient detection and precise quantification of phytoplasmas is by real-time PCR. Compared to nested PCR, this method is less sensitive to contamination and is less work intensive. Therefore, a universal real-time PCR method will be valuable in screening programs and in other...

  20. Magnetic fields and chiral asymmetry in the early hot universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sydorenko, Maksym; Shtanov, Yuri; Tomalak, Oleksandr

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study analytically the process of external generation and subsequent free evolution of the lepton chiral asymmetry and helical magnetic fields in the early hot universe. This process is known to be affected by the Abelian anomaly of the electroweak gauge interactions. As a consequence, chiral asymmetry in the fermion distribution generates magnetic fields of non-zero helicity, and vice versa. We take into account the presence of thermal bath, which serves as a seed for the development of instability in magnetic field in the presence of externally generated lepton chiral asymmetry. The developed helical magnetic field and lepton chiral asymmetry support each other, considerably prolonging their mutual existence, in the process of 'inverse cascade' transferring magnetic-field power from small to large spatial scales. For cosmologically interesting initial conditions, the chiral asymmetry and the energy density of helical magnetic field are shown to evolve by scaling laws, effectively depending on a single combined variable. In this case, the late-time asymptotics of the conformal chiral chemical potential reproduces the universal scaling law previously found in the literature for the system under consideration. This regime is terminated at lower temperatures because of scattering of electrons with chirality change, which exponentially washes out chiral asymmetry. We derive an expression for the termination temperature as a function of the chiral asymmetry and energy density of helical magnetic field.

  1. Magnetic fields and chiral asymmetry in the early hot universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sydorenko, Maksym; Shtanov, Yuri [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, 03680 Kiev (Ukraine); Tomalak, Oleksandr, E-mail: maxsydorenko@gmail.com, E-mail: tomalak@uni-mainz.de, E-mail: shtanov@bitp.kiev.ua [Institut für Kernphysik, Johannes Gutenberg Universität, 55128 Mainz (Germany)

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we study analytically the process of external generation and subsequent free evolution of the lepton chiral asymmetry and helical magnetic fields in the early hot universe. This process is known to be affected by the Abelian anomaly of the electroweak gauge interactions. As a consequence, chiral asymmetry in the fermion distribution generates magnetic fields of non-zero helicity, and vice versa. We take into account the presence of thermal bath, which serves as a seed for the development of instability in magnetic field in the presence of externally generated lepton chiral asymmetry. The developed helical magnetic field and lepton chiral asymmetry support each other, considerably prolonging their mutual existence, in the process of 'inverse cascade' transferring magnetic-field power from small to large spatial scales. For cosmologically interesting initial conditions, the chiral asymmetry and the energy density of helical magnetic field are shown to evolve by scaling laws, effectively depending on a single combined variable. In this case, the late-time asymptotics of the conformal chiral chemical potential reproduces the universal scaling law previously found in the literature for the system under consideration. This regime is terminated at lower temperatures because of scattering of electrons with chirality change, which exponentially washes out chiral asymmetry. We derive an expression for the termination temperature as a function of the chiral asymmetry and energy density of helical magnetic field.

  2. The Transient High-Energy Sky and Early Universe Surveyor (THESEUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amati, L.; O'Brien, P.; Goetz, D.; Tenzer, C.; Bozzo, E.

    2017-10-01

    The Transient High Energy Sky and Early Universe Surveyor (THESEUS) is a mission concept developed by a large international collaboration aimed at exploiting Gamma-Ray Bursts for investigating the early Universe. The main scientic objectives of THESEUS, currently under evaluation by ESA within the selection process for next M5 mission, include: investigating the star formation rate and metallicity evolution of the ISM and IGM up to redshift 10, detecting the first generation (pop III) of stars, studying the sources and physics of re-ionization, detecting the faint end of galaxies luminosity function. These goals will be achieved through a unique combination of instruments allowing GRB detection and arcmin localization over a broad FOV (more than 1sr) and an energy band extending from several MeVs down to 0.3 keV with unprecedented sensitivity, as well as on-board prompt (few minutes) follow-up with a 0.7m class IR telescope with both imaging and spectroscopic capabilities. Such instrumentation will also allow THESEUS to perform a monitoring of the X-ray sky with unprecedented sensitivity, which will provide a perfect service and sinergy to next generation multi-wavalength (e.g., E-ELT, SKA, CTA, ATHENA) and multi-messenger (aLIGO, aVIRGO, eLISA, ET, neutrino detectors, ...) facilities.

  3. Early detection of rogue waves by the wavelet transforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayındır, Cihan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The advantages of wavelet analysis over the Fourier analysis for the early detection of rogue waves are discussed. • The triangular wavelet spectra can be detected at early stages of the development of rogue waves. • The wavelet analysis is capable of detecting not only the emergence but also the location of a rogue wave. • Wavelet analysis is also capable of predicting the characteristic distances between successive rogue waves. - Abstract: We discuss the possible advantages of using the wavelet transform over the Fourier transform for the early detection of rogue waves. We show that the triangular wavelet spectra of the rogue waves can be detected at early stages of the development of rogue waves in a chaotic wave field. Compared to the Fourier spectra, the wavelet spectra are capable of detecting not only the emergence of a rogue wave but also its possible spatial (or temporal) location. Due to this fact, wavelet transform is also capable of predicting the characteristic distances between successive rogue waves. Therefore multiple simultaneous breaking of the successive rogue waves on ships or on the offshore structures can be predicted and avoided by smart designs and operations.

  4. Early detection of rogue waves by the wavelet transforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayındır, Cihan, E-mail: cihan.bayindir@isikun.edu.tr

    2016-01-08

    Highlights: • The advantages of wavelet analysis over the Fourier analysis for the early detection of rogue waves are discussed. • The triangular wavelet spectra can be detected at early stages of the development of rogue waves. • The wavelet analysis is capable of detecting not only the emergence but also the location of a rogue wave. • Wavelet analysis is also capable of predicting the characteristic distances between successive rogue waves. - Abstract: We discuss the possible advantages of using the wavelet transform over the Fourier transform for the early detection of rogue waves. We show that the triangular wavelet spectra of the rogue waves can be detected at early stages of the development of rogue waves in a chaotic wave field. Compared to the Fourier spectra, the wavelet spectra are capable of detecting not only the emergence of a rogue wave but also its possible spatial (or temporal) location. Due to this fact, wavelet transform is also capable of predicting the characteristic distances between successive rogue waves. Therefore multiple simultaneous breaking of the successive rogue waves on ships or on the offshore structures can be predicted and avoided by smart designs and operations.

  5. Microphysics and the evolution of the early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothman, A.R.

    1981-01-01

    Four nonstandard cosmological models of the early Universe are investigated. The first considers the effects of anisotropy and dissipative effects on the baryon-to-photon ratio in the context of Grand Unified Theories. A detailed model of an anisotropic universe is developed and the Kolb-Wolfram equations governing baryosynthesis are evolved in this model. Contrary to recent claims of Bond, Kolb, and Silk, no limits are found on anisotropy during this epoch. The second investigation examines the effects caused by evaporating 10 10 gm primordial black holes on cosmic nucleosynthesis of the light elements. By requiring that the final deuterium produced by nucleosynthesis not be greater than 5 x 10 -5 parts by mass, it is found that rho/sub H//rho/sub b/ less than or equal to 10 -7 , where rho/sub H/ is the mass density of 10 10 gm black holes and rho/sub b/ is the mass density of baryons during nucleosynthesis. In the third chapter limits are placed on G/G by examining the effect a larger value of G in the past would have had on primordial nucleosynthesis. This is done by taking into account the new conservation laws and Einstein equations a variable-G theory would have. Assuming a power law for G, it is found that /G/G/ less than or equal to 1.7 x 10 -13 yr -1 . This result is approximately a factor of two stronger than limits found in naive models where the new conservation laws are not taken into account. The fourth investigation concerns the effects of anisotropy and dissipation on primordial nucleosynthesis. A detailed numerical model is developed. Contrary to models in which dissipation is not considered it is found that anisotropy in many cases actually lowers the final helium abundance

  6. A universal DNA-based protein detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thua N N; Cui, Jinhui; Hartman, Mark R; Peng, Songming; Funabashi, Hisakage; Duan, Faping; Yang, Dayong; March, John C; Lis, John T; Cui, Haixin; Luo, Dan

    2013-09-25

    Protein immune detection requires secondary antibodies which must be carefully selected in order to avoid interspecies cross-reactivity, and is therefore restricted by the limited availability of primary/secondary antibody pairs. Here we present a versatile DNA-based protein detection system using a universal adapter to interface between IgG antibodies and DNA-modified reporter molecules. As a demonstration of this capability, we successfully used DNA nano-barcodes, quantum dots, and horseradish peroxidase enzyme to detect multiple proteins using our DNA-based labeling system. Our system not only eliminates secondary antibodies but also serves as a novel method platform for protein detection with modularity, high capacity, and multiplexed capability.

  7. Early universe with modified scalar-tensor theory of gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Ranajit; Sarkar, Chandramouli; Sanyal, Abhik Kumar

    2018-05-01

    Scalar-tensor theory of gravity with non-minimal coupling is a fairly good candidate for dark energy, required to explain late-time cosmic evolution. Here we study the very early stage of evolution of the universe with a modified version of the theory, which includes scalar curvature squared term. One of the key aspects of the present study is that, the quantum dynamics of the action under consideration ends up generically with de-Sitter expansion under semiclassical approximation, rather than power-law. This justifies the analysis of inflationary regime with de-Sitter expansion. The other key aspect is that, while studying gravitational perturbation, the perturbed generalized scalar field equation obtained from the perturbed action, when matched with the perturbed form of the background scalar field equation, relates the coupling parameter and the potential exactly in the same manner as the solution of classical field equations does, assuming de-Sitter expansion. The study also reveals that the quantum theory is well behaved, inflationary parameters fall well within the observational limit and quantum perturbation analysis shows that the power-spectrum does not deviate considerably from the standard one obtained from minimally coupled theory.

  8. Probing the early universe with inflationary gravitational waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, Latham A.; Steinhardt, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    Near comoving wave number k, the gravitational-wave background (GWB) from inflation carries information about the physical conditions near two moments in cosmic history: the moment when k 'left the horizon' during inflation, and the moment when it 're-entered the horizon' after inflation. We investigate the extent to which this information can be extracted if the GWB is measured by a combination of cosmic-microwave-background polarization experiments on large scales and space-based laser-interferometer experiments on small scales. To disentangle this information, we derive a new gravitational-wave transfer function that incorporates a number of physical effects that were treated less accurately, less generally, or were missing altogether in previous treatments. In particular, it incorporates: (i) dark energy with time-varying equation of state w(z); (ii) tensor anisotropic stress due to free-streaming relativistic particles in the early universe; and (iii) a variety of physical effects that cause deviations from the standard equation of state w=1/3 during the radiation era. Based on this transfer function, we consider the degree to which the GWB can be used to test inflation and to probe the 'primordial dark age' between the end of inflation and the electroweak phase transition.

  9. Turbulence of Weak Gravitational Waves in the Early Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galtier, Sébastien; Nazarenko, Sergey V

    2017-12-01

    We study the statistical properties of an ensemble of weak gravitational waves interacting nonlinearly in a flat space-time. We show that the resonant three-wave interactions are absent and develop a theory for four-wave interactions in the reduced case of a 2.5+1 diagonal metric tensor. In this limit, where only plus-polarized gravitational waves are present, we derive the interaction Hamiltonian and consider the asymptotic regime of weak gravitational wave turbulence. Both direct and inverse cascades are found for the energy and the wave action, respectively, and the corresponding wave spectra are derived. The inverse cascade is characterized by a finite-time propagation of the metric excitations-a process similar to an explosive nonequilibrium Bose-Einstein condensation, which provides an efficient mechanism to ironing out small-scale inhomogeneities. The direct cascade leads to an accumulation of the radiation energy in the system. These processes might be important for understanding the early Universe where a background of weak nonlinear gravitational waves is expected.

  10. GUTs and supersymmetric GUTs in the very early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1982-10-01

    This talk is intended as background material for many of the other talks treating the possible applications of GUTs to the very early universe. I start with a review of the present theoretical and phenomenological status of GUTs before going on to raise some new issues for their prospective cosmological applications which arise in supersymmetric (susy) GUTs. The first section is an update on conventional GUTs, which is followed by a reminder of some of the motivations for going supersymmetric. There then follows a simple primer on susy and a discussion of the structure and phenomenology of simple sysy GUTs. Finally we come to the cosmological issues, including problems arising from the degeneracy of susy minima, baryosynthesis and supersymmetric inflation, the possibility that gravity is an essential complication in constructing susy GUTs and discussing their cosmology, and the related question of what mass range is allowed for the gravitino. Several parts of this write-up contain new material which has emerged either during the Workshop or subsequently. They are included here for completeness and the convenience of the prospective reader. Wherever possible, these anachronisms will be flagged so as to keep straight the historical record

  11. Detection of early caries by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasazawa, Shuhei; Kakino, Satoko; Matsuura, Yuji

    2015-07-01

    To improve sensitivity of dental caries detection by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) analysis, it is proposed to utilize emission peaks in the ultraviolet. We newly focused on zinc whose emission peaks exist in ultraviolet because zinc exists at high concentration in the outer layer of enamel. It was shown that by using ratios between heights of an emission peak of Zn and that of Ca, the detection sensitivity and stability are largely improved. It was also shown that early caries are differentiated from healthy part by properly setting a threshold in the detected ratios. The proposed caries detection system can be applied to dental laser systems such as ones based on Er:YAG-lasers. When ablating early caries part by laser light, the system notices the dentist that the ablation of caries part is finished. We also show the intensity of emission peaks of zinc decreased with ablation with Er:YAG laser light.

  12. Method for universal detection of two-photon polarization entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartkiewicz, Karol; Horodecki, Paweł; Lemr, Karel; Miranowicz, Adam; Życzkowski, Karol

    2015-03-01

    Detecting and quantifying quantum entanglement of a given unknown state poses problems that are fundamentally important for quantum information processing. Surprisingly, no direct (i.e., without quantum tomography) universal experimental implementation of a necessary and sufficient test of entanglement has been designed even for a general two-qubit state. Here we propose an experimental method for detecting a collective universal witness, which is a necessary and sufficient test of two-photon polarization entanglement. It allows us to detect entanglement for any two-qubit mixed state and to establish tight upper and lower bounds on its amount. A different element of this method is the sequential character of its main components, which allows us to obtain relatively complicated information about quantum correlations with the help of simple linear-optical elements. As such, this proposal realizes a universal two-qubit entanglement test within the present state of the art of quantum optics. We show the optimality of our setup with respect to the minimal number of measured quantities.

  13. Early breast cancer detection in the hospital setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega, A.; Ortega, E.; Garcia-Valtuille, R.; Erasun, F.; Millan, R.; Garijo, F.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the benefits of mammography in general and particularly as a screening method in the early detection of breast cancer in our hospital. All the cases of breast carcinoma registered in our section between 1989 and 1995 were reviewed retrospectively. The total number of carcinomas was 775, 168 (22%) of which were diagnosed solely on the basis of mammography. The percentage of carcinomas detected on the basis of mammography alone increased progressively (from 13% in 1989-1990 to 28% in 1994-1995), coinciding with a progressive rise in the volume of screening mammography. Early carcinomas, referring to those in stages O or I, represented 67% of those detected by mammography in general and 17% of those detected by palpation (p<0.001). The proportion was even greater among cases of carcinoma detected exclusively by screening mammography (78 versus 17%; p<0.001). Although mammography has been instrumental in increasing the rate of early detection of breast carcinoma in our center, a large number of patients still present with palpable lesions. Thus, a greater effort should be made to increase the practice of mammography in asymptomatic women. (Author) 13 refs

  14. Separating the early universe from the late universe: Cosmological parameter estimation beyond the black box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tegmark, Max; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2002-01-01

    We present a method for measuring the cosmic matter budget without assumptions about speculative early Universe physics, and for measuring the primordial power spectrum P * (k) nonparametrically, either by combining CMB and LSS information or by using CMB polarization. Our method complements currently fashionable 'black box' cosmological parameter analysis, constraining cosmological models in a more physically intuitive fashion by mapping measurements of CMB, weak lensing and cluster abundance into k space, where they can be directly compared with each other and with galaxy and Lyα forest clustering. Including the new CBI results, we find that CMB measurements of P(k) overlap with those from 2dF galaxy clustering by over an order of magnitude in scale, and even overlap with weak lensing measurements. We describe how our approach can be used to raise the ambition level beyond cosmological parameter fitting as data improves, testing rather than assuming the underlying physics

  15. Sensitivity and Specificity of Cystatin C in Detecting Early Renal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the cutoff point of cystatin C for the detection of renal impairment in hypertensive pregnancies. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in an antenatal clinic and ward at Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia from January 2009 until January 2010. Sixty four pregnant patients ...

  16. Early cell death detection with digital holographic microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Pavillon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Digital holography provides a non-invasive measurement of the quantitative phase shifts induced by cells in culture, which can be related to cell volume changes. It has been shown previously that regulation of cell volume, in particular as it relates to ionic homeostasis, is crucially involved in the activation/inactivation of the cell death processes. We thus present here an application of digital holographic microscopy (DHM dedicated to early and label-free detection of cell death. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We provide quantitative measurements of phase signal obtained on mouse cortical neurons, and caused by early neuronal cell volume regulation triggered by excitotoxic concentrations of L-glutamate. We show that the efficiency of this early regulation of cell volume detected by DHM, is correlated with the occurrence of subsequent neuronal death assessed with the widely accepted trypan blue method for detection of cell viability. CONCLUSIONS: The determination of the phase signal by DHM provides a simple and rapid optical method for the early detection of cell death.

  17. Early Hearing Detection and Intervention: Can Your Baby Hear?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast discusses how important it is that every child receives a hearing screening as soon as possible after birth. It also gives specific ways that parents and health providers can find out if a child has a possible hearing loss and where to get further information. (Created 6/5/2007 by the Early Hearing Detection and Intervention Program, NCBDDD).

  18. Why Ambiguity Detection Is a Predictor of Early Reading Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wankoff, Lorain Szabo; Cairns, Helen Smith

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the contributions of metalinguistic skill and psycholinguistic processing ability to children's ability to detect the ambiguity of sentences and the relationship among all three factors to early reading ability. A total of 20 first graders and 20 second graders were given tasks testing the following abilities:…

  19. Sleep Spindles as Biomarker for Early Detection of Neurodegenerative Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to the use of sleep spindles as a novel biomarker for early diagnosis of synucleinopathies, in particular Parkinson's disease (PD). The method is based on automatic detection of sleep spindles. The method may be combined with measurements of one or more further...

  20. Empowering underserved populations through cancer prevention and early detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Colón, Venessa; Ramos, Roberto; Davis, Jenna L; Escobar, Myriam; Inda, Nikki Ross; Paige, Linda; Palencia, Jeannette; Vives, Maria; Grant, Cathy G; Green, B Lee

    2013-12-01

    It is well documented that cancer is disproportionately distributed in racial/ethnic minority groups and medically underserved communities. In addition, cancer prevention and early detection represent the key defenses to combat cancer. The purpose of this article is to showcase the comprehensive health education and community outreach activities at the H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute (Moffitt) designed to promote and increase access to and utilization of prevention and early detection services among underserved populations. One of Moffitt's most important conduits for cancer prevention and early detection among underserved populations is through its community education and outreach initiatives, in particular, the Moffitt Program for Outreach Wellness Education and Resources (M-POWER). M-POWER works to empower underserved populations to make positive health choices and increase screening behaviors through strengthening collaboration and partnerships, providing community-based health education/promotion, and increasing access to care. Effective, empowering, and culturally and linguistically competent health education and community outreach, is key to opening the often impenetrable doors of cancer prevention and early detection to this society's most vulnerable populations.

  1. Relevant test set using feature selection algorithm for early detection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of feature selection is to find the most relevant features for classification. Thus, the dimensionality of the information will be reduced and may improve classification's accuracy. This paper proposed a minimum set of relevant questions that can be used for early detection of dyslexia. In this research, we ...

  2. Growth monitoring as an early detection tool: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherdel, P.; Dunkel, L.; Dommelen, P. van; Goulet, O.; Salaün, J.F.; Brauner, R.; Heude, B.; Chalumeau, M.

    2016-01-01

    Growth monitoring of apparently healthy children aims at early detection of serious underlying disorders. However, existing growth-monitoring practices are mainly based on suboptimal methods, which can result in delayed diagnosis of severe diseases and inappropriate referrals. We did a systematic

  3. Guidelines for the early detection of osteoporosis and prediction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To assess methods available in clinical practice for the early detection of osteoporosis and prediction of fracture risk, and to set guidelines for their use. To make recommendations regarding cost-effective screening of asymptomatic subjects by physicians. Options. Three methods to predict fracture risk are ...

  4. Early detection of infantile endocarditis by gallium-67 scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardoff, R; Luder, A S; Lorber, A; Dembo, L

    1989-04-01

    An infant with suspected soft tissue infection of the knee was studied by /sup 67/Ga-scintigraphy. In addition to knee and hip joint increased activity, heart uptake was also demonstrated prior to the development of clinical signs of endocarditis. The early detection and treatment resulted in satisfactory clinical resolution.

  5. Early detection of infantile endocarditis by gallium-67 scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardoff, R.; Luder, A.S.; Lorber, A.; Dembo, L.; Technion-Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa. Faculty of Medicine)

    1989-01-01

    An infant with suspected soft tissue infection of the knee was studied by 67 Ga-scintigraphy. In addition to knee and hip joint increased activity, heart uptake was also demonstrated prior to the development of clinical signs of endocarditis. The early detection and treatment resulted in satisfactory clinical resolution. (orig.)

  6. Infrared light sensor applied to early detection of tooth decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjumea, Eberto; Espitia, José; Díaz, Leonardo; Torres, Cesar

    2017-08-01

    The approach dentistry to dental care is gradually shifting to a model focused on early detection and oral-disease prevention; one of the most important methods of prevention of tooth decay is opportune diagnosis of decay and reconstruction. The present study aimed to introduce a procedure for early diagnosis of tooth decay and to compare result of experiment of this method with other common treatments. In this setup, a laser emitting infrared light is injected in core of one bifurcated fiber-optic and conduced to tooth surface and with the same bifurcated fiber the radiation reflected for the same tooth is collected and them conduced to surface of sensor that measures thermal and light frequencies to detect early signs of decay below a tooth surface, where demineralization is difficult to spot with x-ray technology. This device will can be used to diagnose tooth decay without any chemicals and rays such as high power lasers or X-rays.

  7. Relativistic inverse Compton scattering of photons from the early universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malu, Siddharth; Datta, Abhirup; Colafrancesco, Sergio; Marchegiani, Paolo; Subrahmanyan, Ravi; Narasimha, D; Wieringa, Mark H

    2017-12-05

    Electrons at relativistic speeds, diffusing in magnetic fields, cause copious emission at radio frequencies in both clusters of galaxies and radio galaxies through non-thermal radiation emission called synchrotron. However, the total power radiated through this mechanism is ill constrained, as the lower limit of the electron energy distribution, or low-energy cutoffs, for radio emission in galaxy clusters and radio galaxies, have not yet been determined. This lower limit, parametrized by the lower limit of the electron momentum - p min - is critical for estimating the total energetics of non-thermal electrons produced by cluster mergers or injected by radio galaxy jets, which impacts the formation of large-scale structure in the universe, as well as the evolution of local structures inside galaxy clusters. The total pressure due to the relativistic, non-thermal population of electrons can be measured using the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect, and is critically dependent on p min , making the measurement of this non-thermal pressure a promising technique to estimate the electron low-energy cutoff. We present here the first unambiguous detection of this Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect for a non-thermal population of electrons in a radio galaxy jet/lobe, located at a significant distance away from the center of the Bullet cluster of galaxies.

  8. Value of mammography in the early detection of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabate, J.; Molina, L.; Jimenez, A.; Fernandez, E.

    1997-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent malignant tumor in women; the etiopathogenesis is unknown and it is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. In the fifties, different screening programs were developed for the early detection of breast cancer in the attempt to reduce the mortality attributed to this disease process. Mammography is one of the cornerstones of these programs because of its efficacy in the detection of subclinical tumors. We carried out a retrospective review of nine campaigns for the early detection of breast cancer, studying 11, 328 case reports; among these patients, there were 43 cases of breast cancer. Mammography was positive in 90.6% of these cases. Only in two patients did the image fail to reveal changes indicative of possible neoplasm; in both cases, the breasts involved were very dense. (Author) 26 refs

  9. Early detection of fungi damage in citrus using NIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco, Jose; Ortiz, Coral; Sabater, Maria D.; Molto, Enrique

    2000-12-01

    Early detection of defects and diseases in fruit helps to correctly classify them and make more adequate decisions about the destination of the product: internal market, export or industry. An early fungi infection detection is especially important because a few infected fruits can disseminate the infection to a whole batch, causing great economic losses and affecting to further exports. Ensure products with excellent quality and absolute absence of fungi infections is particularly important in those batches for long conservation or to be exported. The main objective of this work is to detect the fungi infections before they can be visible. Near Infrared spectroscopy has been employed in this work, because it is a non-destructive technique and can be easily implemented on line due to the high speed and simplicity of the process.

  10. Early detection of coolant boiling in research reactors with MTR-type fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozma, R.; Turkcan, E.; Verhoef, J.P.

    1992-10-01

    A reactor core monitoring system having the function of early detection of boiling in the coolant channels of research reactors with MTR-type fuel is introduced. The system is based on the on-line analysis of signals of various ex-core and in-core neutron detectors. Early detection of coolant boiling cannot be accomplished by the evaluation of the DC components of these detectors in a number of practically important cases of boiling anomaly. It is shown that the noise component of the available neutron detector signals can be used for the detection of boiling in these cases. Experiments have been carried out at a boiling setup in the research reactor HOR of the Interfaculty Reactor Institute, Technical University of Delft, The Netherlands. (author). 8 refs., 11 figs

  11. Universal ligation-detection-reaction microarray applied for compost microbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romantschuk Martin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Composting is one of the methods utilised in recycling organic communal waste. The composting process is dependent on aerobic microbial activity and proceeds through a succession of different phases each dominated by certain microorganisms. In this study, a ligation-detection-reaction (LDR based microarray method was adapted for species-level detection of compost microbes characteristic of each stage of the composting process. LDR utilises the specificity of the ligase enzyme to covalently join two adjacently hybridised probes. A zip-oligo is attached to the 3'-end of one probe and fluorescent label to the 5'-end of the other probe. Upon ligation, the probes are combined in the same molecule and can be detected in a specific location on a universal microarray with complementary zip-oligos enabling equivalent hybridisation conditions for all probes. The method was applied to samples from Nordic composting facilities after testing and optimisation with fungal pure cultures and environmental clones. Results Probes targeted for fungi were able to detect 0.1 fmol of target ribosomal PCR product in an artificial reaction mixture containing 100 ng competing fungal ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS area or herring sperm DNA. The detection level was therefore approximately 0.04% of total DNA. Clone libraries were constructed from eight compost samples. The LDR microarray results were in concordance with the clone library sequencing results. In addition a control probe was used to monitor the per-spot hybridisation efficiency on the array. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the LDR microarray method is capable of sensitive and accurate species-level detection from a complex microbial community. The method can detect key species from compost samples, making it a basis for a tool for compost process monitoring in industrial facilities.

  12. Gauge theories, time-dependence of the gravitational constant and antigravity in the early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linde, A.D.

    1980-01-01

    It is shown that the interaction of the gravitational field with matter leads to a strong modification of the effective gravitational constant in the early universe. In certain cases this leads even to the change of sign of the gravitational constant, i.e. to antigravity in the early universe. (orig.)

  13. A New Method for Early Anomaly Detection of BWR Instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, K.N.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the performed research is to develop an early anomaly detection methodology so as to enhance safety, availability, and operational flexibility of Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) nuclear power plants. The technical approach relies on suppression of potential power oscillations in BWRs by detecting small anomalies at an early stage and taking appropriate prognostic actions based on an anticipated operation schedule. The research utilizes a model of coupled (two-phase) thermal-hydraulic and neutron flux dynamics, which is used as a generator of time series data for anomaly detection at an early stage. The model captures critical nonlinear features of coupled thermal-hydraulic and nuclear reactor dynamics and (slow time-scale) evolution of the anomalies as non-stationary parameters. The time series data derived from this nonlinear non-stationary model serves as the source of information for generating the symbolic dynamics for characterization of model parameter changes that quantitatively represent small anomalies. The major focus of the presented research activity was on developing and qualifying algorithms of pattern recognition for power instability based on anomaly detection from time series data, which later can be used to formulate real-time decision and control algorithms for suppression of power oscillations for a variety of anticipated operating conditions. The research being performed in the framework of this project is essential to make significant improvement in the capability of thermal instability analyses for enhancing safety, availability, and operational flexibility of currently operating and next generation BWRs.

  14. Development of a universal RNA beacon for exogenous gene detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuanjian; Lu, Zhongju; Cohen, Ira Stephen; Scarlata, Suzanne

    2015-05-01

    Stem cell therapy requires a nontoxic and high-throughput method to achieve a pure cell population to prevent teratomas that can occur if even one cell in the implant has not been transformed. A promising method to detect and separate cells expressing a particular gene is RNA beacon technology. However, developing a successful, specific beacon to a particular transfected gene can take months to develop and in some cases is impossible. Here, we report on an off-the-shelf universal beacon that decreases the time and cost of applying beacon technology to select any living cell population transfected with an exogenous gene. ©AlphaMed Press.

  15. Early detection of drillstring washouts reduces fishing jobs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudleson, B. (Dubai Petroleum Co. (FR)); Arnold, M.; McCann, D. (Sedco Forex (FR))

    1990-10-01

    Rapid detection of unexpected drilling events requires continuous monitoring of drilling parameters. A major R and D program by a drilling contractor has led to the introduction of a computerized monitoring system on its offshore rigs. System includes advanced color graphics displays and new smart alarms to help both contractor and operator personnel detect and observe drilling events before they would normally be apparent with conventional rig instrumentation. This article describes a module of this monitoring system, which uses expert system technology to detect the earliest stages of drillstring washouts. Field results demonstrate the effectiveness of the smart alarm incorporated in the system. Early detection allows the driller to react before a twist-off results in expensive fishing operations.

  16. Early skin tumor detection from microscopic images through image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqi, A.A.; Narejo, G.B.; Khan, A.M.

    2017-01-01

    The research is done to provide appropriate detection technique for skin tumor detection. The work is done by using the image processing toolbox of MATLAB. Skin tumors are unwanted skin growth with different causes and varying extent of malignant cells. It is a syndrome in which skin cells mislay the ability to divide and grow normally. Early detection of tumor is the most important factor affecting the endurance of a patient. Studying the pattern of the skin cells is the fundamental problem in medical image analysis. The study of skin tumor has been of great interest to the researchers. DIP (Digital Image Processing) allows the use of much more complex algorithms for image processing, and hence, can offer both more sophisticated performance at simple task, and the implementation of methods which would be impossibly by analog means. It allows much wider range of algorithms to be applied to the input data and can avoid problems such as build up of noise and signal distortion during processing. The study shows that few works has been done on cellular scale for the images of skin. This research allows few checks for the early detection of skin tumor using microscopic images after testing and observing various algorithms. After analytical evaluation the result has been observed that the proposed checks are time efficient techniques and appropriate for the tumor detection. The algorithm applied provides promising results in lesser time with accuracy. The GUI (Graphical User Interface) that is generated for the algorithm makes the system user friendly. (author)

  17. Early forest fire detection using low-energy hydrogen sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nörthemann

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Most huge forest fires start in partial combustion. In the beginning of a smouldering fire, emission of hydrogen in low concentration occurs. Therefore, hydrogen can be used to detect forest fires before open flames are visible and high temperatures are generated. We have developed a hydrogen sensor comprising of a metal/solid electrolyte/insulator/semiconductor (MEIS structure which allows an economical production. Due to the low energy consumption, an autarkic working unit in the forest was established. In this contribution, first experiments are shown demonstrating the possibility to detect forest fires at a very early stage using the hydrogen sensor.

  18. A Virtual Bioinformatics Knowledge Environment for Early Cancer Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Daniel; Srivastava, Sudhir; Johnsey, Donald

    2003-01-01

    Discovery of disease biomarkers for cancer is a leading focus of early detection. The National Cancer Institute created a network of collaborating institutions focused on the discovery and validation of cancer biomarkers called the Early Detection Research Network (EDRN). Informatics plays a key role in enabling a virtual knowledge environment that provides scientists real time access to distributed data sets located at research institutions across the nation. The distributed and heterogeneous nature of the collaboration makes data sharing across institutions very difficult. EDRN has developed a comprehensive informatics effort focused on developing a national infrastructure enabling seamless access, sharing and discovery of science data resources across all EDRN sites. This paper will discuss the EDRN knowledge system architecture, its objectives and its accomplishments.

  19. EWAS: Modeling Application for Early Detection of Terrorist Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Pir Abdul Rasool; Memon, Nasrullah; Wiil, Uffe Kock

    This paper presents a model and system architecture for an early warning system to detect terrorist threats. The paper discusses the shortcomings of state-of-the-art systems and outlines the functional requirements that must to be met by an ideal system working in the counterterrorism domain. The concept of generation of early warnings to predict terrorist threats is presented. The model relies on data collection from open data sources, information retrieval, information extraction for preparing structured workable data sets from available unstructured data, and finally detailed investigation. The conducted investigation includes social network analysis, investigative data mining, and heuristic rules for the study of complex covert networks for terrorist threat indication. The presented model and system architecture can be used as a core framework for an early warning system.

  20. Feasibility for EGRET detection of antimatter concentrations in the universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, R. C.

    1990-01-01

    Although the Grand Unified Theories of elementary particle dynamics have to some extent reduced the aesthetic attraction of matter-antimatter symmetry in the Universe, the idea is still not ruled out. Although first introduced by Alfven (1965), most of the theoretical development related to gamma-ray astronomy was carried out by Stecker, who has proposed (Stecker, Morgan, and Bredekamp, 1971) matter-antimatter annihilation extending back to large redshifts as a possible explanation of the apparently extragalactic diffuse gamma radiation. Other candidate explanations were also proposed, such as superposition of extragalactic discrete sources. Clearly, the existence of significant amounts of antimatter in the universe would be of great cosmological importance; its detection, however, is not simple. Since the photon is its own antiparticle, it carries no signature identifying whether it originated in a matter or an antimatter process; even aggregates of photons (spectra) are expected to be identical from matter and antimatter processes. The only likely indicator of the presence of concentrations of antimatter is evidence of its annihilation with normal matter, assuming there is some region of contact or overlap. The EGRET (Energetic Gamma-Ray Experimental Telescope) on the Gamma Ray Observatory, with a substantial increase in sensitivity compared with earlier high energy gamma ray telescopes, may be able to address this issue. The feasibility of using EGRET in such a search for antimatter annihilation in the Universe is considered.

  1. Feasibility for EGRET detection of antimatter concentrations in the universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    Although the Grand Unified Theories of elementary particle dynamics have to some extent reduced the aesthetic attraction of matter-antimatter symmetry in the Universe, the idea is still not ruled out. Although first introduced by Alfven (1965), most of the theoretical development related to gamma-ray astronomy was carried out by Stecker, who has proposed (Stecker, Morgan, and Bredekamp, 1971) matter-antimatter annihilation extending back to large redshifts as a possible explanation of the apparently extragalactic diffuse gamma radiation. Other candidate explanations were also proposed, such as superposition of extragalactic discrete sources. Clearly, the existence of significant amounts of antimatter in the universe would be of great cosmological importance; its detection, however, is not simple. Since the photon is its own antiparticle, it carries no signature identifying whether it originated in a matter or an antimatter process; even aggregates of photons (spectra) are expected to be identical from matter and antimatter processes. The only likely indicator of the presence of concentrations of antimatter is evidence of its annihilation with normal matter, assuming there is some region of contact or overlap. The EGRET (Energetic Gamma-Ray Experimental Telescope) on the Gamma Ray Observatory, with a substantial increase in sensitivity compared with earlier high energy gamma ray telescopes, may be able to address this issue. The feasibility of using EGRET in such a search for antimatter annihilation in the Universe is considered

  2. The importance of early detection of lip cancer risk groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratila, M.; Rosu, S.

    2014-03-01

    in frequency as well as in the therapeutic problems raised. In the face and oral cavity cancer catagory, lip represents 2% of all cases and 19-25% of the total facial cancer area. Lip cancer is one of the localizations that, when detected early, can benefit from an effective therapy with high chances of healing. In order to achieve a complex treatment, interdisciplinary collaboration is required, only thus being able to determine both the therapeutic methods as well as their association.

  3. The importance of early detection of lip cancer risk groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victor Babeş Timişoara, Piaţa Eftimie Murgu No. 2, 300041 (Romania))" data-affiliation=" (Maxillo-facial surgeon, University of Medicine and Pharmacy Victor Babeş Timişoara, Piaţa Eftimie Murgu No. 2, 300041 (Romania))" >Fratila, M; Victor Babeş Timişoara, Piaţa Eftimie Murgu No. 2, 300041 (Romania))" data-affiliation=" (Maxillo-facial surgeon, University of Medicine and Pharmacy Victor Babeş Timişoara, Piaţa Eftimie Murgu No. 2, 300041 (Romania))" >Rosu, S

    2014-01-01

    . Neoplastic pathology is constantly increasing both in frequency as well as in the therapeutic problems raised. In the face and oral cavity cancer catagory, lip represents 2% of all cases and 19-25% of the total facial cancer area. Lip cancer is one of the localizations that, when detected early, can benefit from an effective therapy with high chances of healing. In order to achieve a complex treatment, interdisciplinary collaboration is required, only thus being able to determine both the therapeutic methods as well as their association

  4. [Early detection of ovarian cancer: tomorrow? A review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chene, G; Penault-Llorca, F; Robin, N; Cayre, A; Provencher, D M; Dauplat, J

    2013-02-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal of the gynaecological malignancies because this «silent killer» is almost always diagnosed at an advanced stage. Precursor lesions have at least been discovered. This review will describe in details specific features of tubal and ovarian preinvasive lesions and the old and novel techniques that could be used for early detection of ovarian cancer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Early hearing detection and intervention: 2010 CODEPEH recommendation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinidad-Ramos, Germán; de Aguilar, Valentín Alzina; Jaudenes-Casaubón, Carmen; Núñez-Batalla, Faustino; Sequí-Canet, José Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Newborn hearing screening is currently performed routinely in many regional health-care systems in Spain. Despite the remarkable expansion in newborn hearing screening since 2000, its feasibility and the benefits of early identification and intervention, many major challenges still remain. In this article, the Committee for the Early Detection of Hearing Loss (Comisión para la Detección Precoz de la Hipoacusia, CODEPEH) updates the recommendations that are considered important for the future development of early hearing detection and intervention (EDHI) systems in the following points: 1. Screening protocols: Separate protocols are recommended for NICU (Neonatal Intensive Care Units) and well-infant nurseries. 2. Diagnostic audiology evaluation. Professionals with skills and expertise in evaluating newborn and young infants should provide diagnosis, selection and fitting of amplification devices. 3. Medical evaluation. Risk factors for congenital and acquired hearing loss have been combined in a single list rather than grouped by time of onset. A stepwise diagnostic paradigm is diagnostically more efficient and cost-effective than a simultaneous testing approach. 4. Early intervention and surveillance. All individuals providing services to infants with hearing loss should have specialized training and expertise in the development of audition, speech and language. Regular surveillance should be performed on developmental milestones, auditory skills, parental concerns, and middle ear status. 5. Quality control. Data management as part of an integrated system is important to monitor and improve the quality of EDHI services. 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  6. Early tumour detection: a transillumination, time-resolved technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behin-Ain, S.; Van Doorn, T.; Patterson, J.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Research into transillumination techniques for the detection of tumours in soft tissue has been ongoing for over 70 years. The resolution and contrast, however, remain severely limited by scatter. Single photon detection techniques, with ideally infinite extinction coefficients, have been proposed to accumulate sub-hertz photon transmitted frequencies in the early part of a transmitted pulse. Computer based simulations have been undertaken to examine the theoretical performance requirements of the detector and the resultant image qualities that may be expected with this imaging technique. This paper reports on the computational techniques required for implementing these simulations in an efficient manner. Controlled Monte Carlo (CMC) and Convolution of Layers (CL) techniques were employed to constrain the photon to those having more chance of detection and hence enhance the detection statistics. Extrapolation techniques are proposed to reconstruct the early part of the temporal profile. Computational methods were implemented to evaluate Path Integrals, which are otherwise overly complex to evaluate. CMC and CL reduce the computational time by more than 10 orders of magnitude by only tracking those photons more likely to reach the detector. In the case of an optically thick medium with high scattering coefficient, extrapolation techniques are used to reconstruct the early part of temporal profile. Analytical solutions were found to be too involved for the simplest geometries. However the CL and implementation of computational techniques make Path integrals a useful analytical tool to compliment full Monte Carlo techniques. Results have shown that these methods collectively enable detection of small inhomogeneites within soft tissues. Reduced computation times and full reconstruction of the temporal profile of transmitted photons through optically thick medium enable fast simulations of single photon detectors to be achieved with the above described

  7. Diffuse material, background radiation and the early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    Observations that relate to a qualitative picture of how galaxies formed, and what the Universe was really like at still earlier times, are presented. Some lines of evidence on the universe at redshifts out to z approximately equal to 5 are discussed, concentrating on the evidence which suggests that intergalactic medium has evolved in a 'multi phase' fashion. Some aspects of the less recent history of the Universe (i.e z approximately greater than 100) are considered, particularly the microwave background and the spectrum of inhomogeneities. (Auth.)

  8. Genetics and Early Detection in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, Rachel K.; Rosas, Ivan O.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic studies hold promise in helping to identify patients with early idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Recent studies using chest computed tomograms (CTs) in smokers and in the general population have demonstrated that imaging abnormalities suggestive of an early stage of pulmonary fibrosis are not uncommon and are associated with respiratory symptoms, physical examination abnormalities, and physiologic decrements expected, but less severe than those noted in patients with IPF. Similarly, recent genetic studies have demonstrated strong and replicable associations between a common promoter polymorphism in the mucin 5B gene (MUC5B) and both IPF and the presence of abnormal imaging findings in the general population. Despite these findings, it is important to note that the definition of early-stage IPF remains unclear, limited data exist to definitively connect abnormal imaging findings to IPF, and genetic studies assessing early-stage pulmonary fibrosis remain in their infancy. In this perspective we provide updated information on interstitial lung abnormalities and their connection to IPF. We summarize information on the genetics of pulmonary fibrosis by focusing on the recent genetic findings of MUC5B. Finally, we discuss the implications of these findings and suggest a roadmap for the use of genetics in the detection of early IPF. PMID:24547893

  9. The baryon asymmetry and CPT invariance in the early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barshay, S.

    1981-01-01

    We discuss, and give a definite, simple phenomenological example, of the possibility that the baryon asymmetry is related to a failure of CPT invariance for a brief time interval at the origin of the universe. (orig.)

  10. Early detection of abnormal patient arrivals at hospital emergency department

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi; Sun, Ying; Kadri, Farid; Chaabane, Sondes; Tahon, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Overcrowding is one of the most crucial issues confronting emergency departments (EDs) throughout the world. Efficient management of patient flows for ED services has become an urgent issue for most hospital administrations. Handling and detection of abnormal situations is a key challenge in EDs. Thus, the early detection of abnormal patient arrivals at EDs plays an important role from the point of view of improving management of the inspected EDs. It allows the EDs mangers to prepare for high levels of care activities, to optimize the internal resources and to predict enough hospitalization capacity in downstream care services. This study reports the development of statistical method for enhancing detection of abnormal daily patient arrivals at the ED, which able to provide early alert mechanisms in the event of abnormal situations. The autoregressive moving average (ARMA)-based exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) anomaly detection scheme proposed was successfully applied to the practical data collected from the database of the pediatric emergency department (PED) at Lille regional hospital center, France.

  11. 'RIG'- surgical gamma probe for early breast cancer detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walinjkar, P.B.; Singh, Gursharan; Kumar, Umesh; Pendharkar, A.S.; Choudhary, P.S.

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in women, which if detected in early stage can be effectively treated and cured. Early detection is carried out by collecting a sentinel lymph node (SLN) and testing it for cancer. The surgical gamma probe is a hand-held device used in the localization of SLN. It enables the localization of the active node. Isotope Applications Division, BARC has developed indigenously a RIG Surgical Gamma Probe in consultation with the doctors from Rajiv Gandhi Cancer Institute and Research Centre, New Delhi. The system consists of microcomputer-based gamma counting system that displays the number of pulses detected by the probe in counts per second and has an audible signal in direct correlation with the count density. The detector probe is based on the scintillation detector housed in a stainless steel housing with lead collimator. The physical parameters are a high sensitivity of 5000 cps/MBq at probe tip with good spatial resolution. The performance of this probe was clinically evaluated on the basis of spatial resolution and accuracy to detect the active node. (author)

  12. [Early detection of cervical cancer in Chile: time for change].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léniz Martelli, Javiera; Van De Wyngard, Vanessa; Lagos, Marcela; Barriga, María Isabel; Puschel Illanes, Klaus; Ferreccio Readi, Catterina

    2014-08-01

    Mortality rates for cervical cancer (CC) in Chile are higher than those of developed countries and it has an unequal socioeconomic distribution. The recognition of human papilloma virus (HPV) as the causal agent of cervical cancer in the early 80's changed the prevention paradigms. Current goals are to prevent HPV infection by vaccination before the onset of sexual activity and to detect HPV infection in women older than 30 years. This article reviews CC prevention and early detection methods, discusses relevant evidence to support a change in Chile and presents an innovation proposal. A strategy of primary screening based on HPV detection followed by triage of HPV-positive women by colposcopy in primary care or by cytological or molecular reflex testing is proposed. Due to the existence in Chile of a well-organized nationwide CC prevention program, the replacement of a low-sensitivity screening test such as the Papanicolau test with a highly sensitive one such as HPV detection, could quickly improve the effectiveness of the program. The program also has a network of personnel qualified to conduct naked-eye inspections of the cervix, who could easily be trained to perform triage colposcopy. The incorporation of new prevention strategies could reduce the deaths of Chilean women and correct inequities.

  13. Early detection of abnormal patient arrivals at hospital emergency department

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi

    2015-10-21

    Overcrowding is one of the most crucial issues confronting emergency departments (EDs) throughout the world. Efficient management of patient flows for ED services has become an urgent issue for most hospital administrations. Handling and detection of abnormal situations is a key challenge in EDs. Thus, the early detection of abnormal patient arrivals at EDs plays an important role from the point of view of improving management of the inspected EDs. It allows the EDs mangers to prepare for high levels of care activities, to optimize the internal resources and to predict enough hospitalization capacity in downstream care services. This study reports the development of statistical method for enhancing detection of abnormal daily patient arrivals at the ED, which able to provide early alert mechanisms in the event of abnormal situations. The autoregressive moving average (ARMA)-based exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) anomaly detection scheme proposed was successfully applied to the practical data collected from the database of the pediatric emergency department (PED) at Lille regional hospital center, France.

  14. Early detection strategies for untreated first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Jan Olav; McGlashan, T H; Larsen, Tor Ketil

    2001-01-01

    -year inclusion period (1997-2000) are described. It includes targeted information towards the general public, health professionals and schools, and ED teams to recruit appropriate patients into treatment as soon as possible. This plus easy access to psychiatric services via ED teams systematically changed......Some studies in first-episode schizophrenia correlate shorter duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) with better prognosis, suggesting that timing of treatment may be important. A three-site prospective clinical trial in Norway and Denmark is underway to investigate the effect of the timing......-episode cases. The study ultimately will compare early detected with usual detected patients. This paper describes the study's major independent intervention variable, i.e. a comprehensive education and detection system to change DUP in first onset psychosis. System variables and first results from the four...

  15. Early detection of protozoan grazers in algal biofuel cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, John G; Thomas, Naomi J; Achilles-Day, Undine E M; Leakey, Raymond J G

    2012-06-01

    Future micro-algal biofuels will most likely be derived from open-pond production systems. These are by definition open to "invasion" by grazers, which could devastate micro-algal mass-cultures. There is an urgent requirement for methodologies capable of early detection and control of grazers in dense algal cultures. In this study a model system employing the marine alga Nannochloropsis oculata was challenged by grazers including ciliates, amoebae and a heterotrophic dinoflagellate. A FlowCAM flow-cytometer was used to detect all grazers investigated (size range 80 μm in length) in the presence of algae. Detection limits were 1.4 × 10(8) cells ml(-1) (>0.5 g l(-1) dry wt.). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. An Early Fire Detection Algorithm Using IP Cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Perez-Meana

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The presence of smoke is the first symptom of fire; therefore to achieve early fire detection, accurate and quick estimation of the presence of smoke is very important. In this paper we propose an algorithm to detect the presence of smoke using video sequences captured by Internet Protocol (IP cameras, in which important features of smoke, such as color, motion and growth properties are employed. For an efficient smoke detection in the IP camera platform, a detection algorithm must operate directly in the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT domain to reduce computational cost, avoiding a complete decoding process required for algorithms that operate in spatial domain. In the proposed algorithm the DCT Inter-transformation technique is used to increase the detection accuracy without inverse DCT operation. In the proposed scheme, firstly the candidate smoke regions are estimated using motion and color smoke properties; next using morphological operations the noise is reduced. Finally the growth properties of the candidate smoke regions are furthermore analyzed through time using the connected component labeling technique. Evaluation results show that a feasible smoke detection method with false negative and false positive error rates approximately equal to 4% and 2%, respectively, is obtained.

  17. Superweakly interacting massive particle dark matter signals from the early Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Jonathan L.; Rajaraman, Arvind; Takayama, Fumihiro

    2003-01-01

    Cold dark matter may be made of superweakly interacting massive particles, super-WIMP's, that naturally inherit the desired relic density from late decays of metastable WIMP's. Well-motivated examples are weak-scale gravitinos in supergravity and Kaluza-Klein gravitons from extra dimensions. These particles are impossible to detect in all dark matter experiments. We find, however, that super-WIMP dark matter may be discovered through cosmological signatures from the early Universe. In particular, super-WIMP dark matter has observable consequences for big bang nucleosynthesis and the cosmic microwave background (CMB), and may explain the observed underabundance of 7 Li without upsetting the concordance between deuterium and CMB baryometers. We discuss the implications for future probes of CMB blackbody distortions and collider searches for new particles. In the course of this study, we also present a model-independent analysis of entropy production from late-decaying particles in light of Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe data

  18. Exploring the dusty star-formation in the early Universe using intensity mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagache, Guilaine

    2018-05-01

    In the last decade, it has become clear that the dust-enshrouded star formation contributes significantly to early galaxy evolution. Detection of dust is therefore essential in determining the properties of galaxies in the high-redshift universe. This requires observations at the (sub-)millimeter wavelengths. Unfortunately, sensitivity and background confusion of single dish observations on the one hand, and mapping efficiency of interferometers on the other hand, pose unique challenges to observers. One promising route to overcome these difficulties is intensity mapping of fluctuations which exploits the confusion-limited regime and measures the collective light emission from all sources, including unresolved faint galaxies. We discuss in this contribution how 2D and 3D intensity mapping can measure the dusty star formation at high redshift, through the Cosmic Infrared Background (2D) and [CII] fine structure transition (3D) anisotropies.

  19. Improved Detection of Microsatellite Instability in Early Colorectal Lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffery W Bacher

    Full Text Available Microsatellite instability (MSI occurs in over 90% of Lynch syndrome cancers and is considered a hallmark of the disease. MSI is an early event in colon tumor development, but screening polyps for MSI remains controversial because of reduced sensitivity compared to more advanced neoplasms. To increase sensitivity, we investigated the use of a novel type of marker consisting of long mononucleotide repeat (LMR tracts. Adenomas from 160 patients, ranging in age from 29-55 years old, were screened for MSI using the new markers and compared with current marker panels and immunohistochemistry standards. Overall, 15 tumors were scored as MSI-High using the LMRs compared to 9 for the NCI panel and 8 for the MSI Analysis System (Promega. This difference represents at least a 1.7-fold increase in detection of MSI-High lesions over currently available markers. Moreover, the number of MSI-positive markers per sample and the size of allelic changes were significantly greater with the LMRs (p = 0.001, which increased confidence in MSI classification. The overall sensitivity and specificity of the LMR panel for detection of mismatch repair deficient lesions were 100% and 96%, respectively. In comparison, the sensitivity and specificity of the MSI Analysis System were 67% and 100%; and for the NCI panel, 75% and 97%. The difference in sensitivity between the LMR panel and the other panels was statistically significant (p<0.001. The increased sensitivity for detection of MSI-High phenotype in early colorectal lesions with the new LMR markers indicates that MSI screening for the early detection of Lynch syndrome might be feasible.

  20. Development of methodology for early detection of BWR instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessandro Petruzzi; Shin Chin; Kostadin Ivanov; Asok Ray; Fan-Bill Cheung

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The objective of the work presented in this paper research, which is supported by the US Department of Energy under the NEER program, is to develop an early anomaly detection methodology in order to enhance safety, availability, and operational flexibility of Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) nuclear power plants. The technical approach relies on suppression of potential power oscillations in BWRs by detecting small anomalies at an early stage and taking appropriate prognostic actions based on an anticipated operation schedule. The model of coupled (two-phase) thermal-hydraulic and neutron flux dynamics, based on the US NRC coupled code TRACE/PARCS, is being utilized as a generator of time series data for anomaly detection at an early stage. The concept of the methodology is based on the fact that nonlinear systems show bifurcation, which is a change in the qualitative behavior as the system parameters vary. Some of these parameters may change on their own accord and account for the anomaly, while certain parameters can be altered in a controlled fashion. The non-linear, non-autonomous BWR system model considered in this research exhibits phenomena at two time scales. Anomalies occur at the slow time scale while the observation of the dynamical behavior, based on which inferences are made, takes place at the fast time scale. It is assumed that: (i) the system behavior is stationary at the fast time scale; and (ii) any observable non-stationary behavior is associated with parametric changes evolving at the slow time scale. The goal is to make inferences about evolving anomalies based on the asymptotic behavior derived from the computer simulation. However, only sufficient changes in the slowly varying parameter may lead to detectable difference in the asymptotic behavior. The need to detect such small changes in parameters and hence early detection of an anomaly motivate the utilized stimulus-response approach. In this approach, the model

  1. Validation of Candidate Serum Ovarian Cancer Biomarkers for Early Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Su

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We have previously analyzed protein profi les using Surface Enhanced Laser Desorption and Ionization Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectroscopy (SELDI-TOF-MS [Kozak et al. 2003, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100:12343–8] and identified 3 differentially expressed serum proteins for the diagnosis of ovarian cancer (OC [Kozak et al. 2005, Proteomics, 5:4589–96], namely, apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I, transthyretin (TTR and transferin (TF. The objective of the present study is to determine the efficacy of the three OC biomarkers for the detection of early stage (ES OC, in direct comparison to CA125.Methods: The levels of CA125, apoA-I, TTR and TF were measured in 392 serum samples [82 women with normal ovaries (N, 24 women with benign ovarian tumors (B, 85 women with ovarian tumors of low malignant potential (LMP, 126 women with early stage ovarian cancer (ESOC, and 75 women with late stage ovarian cancer (LSOC], obtained through the GOG and Cooperative Human Tissue Network. Following statistical analysis, multivariate regression models were built to evaluate the utility of the three OC markers in early detection.Results: Multiple logistic regression models (MLRM utilizing all biomarker values (CA125, TTR, TF and apoA-I from all histological subtypes (serous, mucinous, and endometrioid adenocarcinoma distinguished normal samples from LMP with 91% sensitivity (specifi city 92%, and normal samples from ESOC with a sensitivity of 89% (specifi city 92%. MLRM, utilizing values of all four markers from only the mucinous histological subtype showed that collectively, CA125, TTR, TF and apoA-I, were able to distinguish normal samples from mucinous LMP with 90% sensitivity, and further distinguished normal samples from early stage mucinous ovarian cancer with a sensitivity of 95%. In contrast, in serum samples from patients with mucinous tumors, CA125 alone was able to distinguish normal samples from LMP and early stage ovarian cancer with a sensitivity of

  2. Deep Recurrent Neural Networks for seizure detection and early seizure detection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talathi, S. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-06-05

    Epilepsy is common neurological diseases, affecting about 0.6-0.8 % of world population. Epileptic patients suffer from chronic unprovoked seizures, which can result in broad spectrum of debilitating medical and social consequences. Since seizures, in general, occur infrequently and are unpredictable, automated seizure detection systems are recommended to screen for seizures during long-term electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings. In addition, systems for early seizure detection can lead to the development of new types of intervention systems that are designed to control or shorten the duration of seizure events. In this article, we investigate the utility of recurrent neural networks (RNNs) in designing seizure detection and early seizure detection systems. We propose a deep learning framework via the use of Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU) RNNs for seizure detection. We use publicly available data in order to evaluate our method and demonstrate very promising evaluation results with overall accuracy close to 100 %. We also systematically investigate the application of our method for early seizure warning systems. Our method can detect about 98% of seizure events within the first 5 seconds of the overall epileptic seizure duration.

  3. Early Seizure Detection Based on Cardiac Autonomic Regulation Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonatas Pavei

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a neurological disorder that causes changes in the autonomic nervous system. Heart rate variability (HRV reflects the regulation of cardiac activity and autonomic nervous system tone. The early detection of epileptic seizures could foster the use of new treatment approaches. This study presents a new methodology for the prediction of epileptic seizures using HRV signals. Eigendecomposition of HRV parameter covariance matrices was used to create an input for a support vector machine (SVM-based classifier. We analyzed clinical data from 12 patients (9 female; 3 male; age 34.5 ± 7.5 years, involving 34 seizures and a total of 55.2 h of interictal electrocardiogram (ECG recordings. Data from 123.6 h of ECG recordings from healthy subjects were used to test false positive rate per hour (FP/h in a completely independent data set. Our methodological approach allowed the detection of impending seizures from 5 min to just before the onset of a clinical/electrical seizure with a sensitivity of 94.1%. The FP rate was 0.49 h−1 in the recordings from patients with epilepsy and 0.19 h−1 in the recordings from healthy subjects. Our results suggest that it is feasible to use the dynamics of HRV parameters for the early detection and, potentially, the prediction of epileptic seizures.

  4. The Role of Breast Ultrasound in Early Cancer Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huay-Ben Pan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonography (US is currently considered the first-line examination in the detection and characterization of breast lesions including the evaluation of breast cancer. Yet only few single-center cohort studies analyzing breast US in the framework of screening could be identified. In spite of mammography consider as the primary method for screening especially the noteworthy ability of microcalcifications detection. US is good in mass or mass- like lesion detection, especially in the dense breast population that proved by the study of ACRIN 6666. A lobular hypoechoic area; lesion with ductal extension and dilatation; and a hypoechoic nodular lesion with a dilated lactiferous duct leading to the retroareolar region, that were the common ultrasound findings in Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS and probably related to nuclear grade of cancer. Computer programs have been developed and approved for use in clinical practice, the application including CAD (computer aided/assisted detection/diagnosis, ABUS (automated breast US, elastography and microbubbles in contrast-enhanced ultrasound. Furthermore the standardized scanning; improving with computer technology implementation and familiar to the picture of DCIS is necessary for progress the competence of early breast cancer detection.

  5. Predictors of Early Termination in a University Counseling Training Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampropoulos, Georgios K.; Schneider, Mercedes K.; Spengler, Paul M.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the existence of counseling dropout research, there are limited predictive data for counseling in training clinics. Potential predictor variables were investigated in this archival study of 380 client files in a university counseling training clinic. Multinomial logistic regression, predictive discriminant analysis, and classification and…

  6. The Early Years of the University of the Witwatersrand Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1973-01-20

    Jan 20, 1973 ... Witwatersrand Medical School and its Students*. G. R. BEATON, M.B. B.CH. UNIV. .... sion to South African universities, and to travel to. Europe became the .... provement of the residence food at the Queen Victoria. Hospital.

  7. Implications of dark matter free streaming in the early Universe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diamanti, R.

    2017-01-01

    In this thesis, we link astrophysics and particle physics aspects in order to study the implications of the nature and properties of different types of dark matter candidates on the observable Universe. The main property which connects the different works on which this manuscript is based is

  8. Early detection of invasive plants: principles and practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Bradley A.; Geissler, Paul H.; Latham, Penelope

    2014-01-01

    Invasive plants infest an estimated 2.6 million acres of the 83 million acres managed by the National Park Service (NPS) in the United States. The consequences of these invasions present a significant challenge for the NPS to manage the agency’s natural resources “unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations.” More NPS lands are infested daily despite diligent efforts to curtail the problem. Impacts from invasive species have been realized in most parks, resulting in an expressed need to control existing infestations and restore affected ecosystems. There is a growing urgency in the NPS and other resource management organizations to be proactive. The NPS I&M Program, in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Status and Trends Program, compiled this document to provide guidance and insight to parks and other natural areas engaged in developing early-detection monitoring protocols for invasive plants. While several rapid response frameworks exist, there is no consistent or comprehensive guidance informing the active detection of nonnative plants early in the invasion process. Early-detection was selected as a primary focus for invasive-species monitoring because, along with rapid response, it is a key strategy for successful management of invasive species. Eradication efforts are most successful on small infestations (that is less than 1 hectare) and become less successful as infestation size increases, to the point that eradication is unlikely for large (that is greater than 1,000 hectares) populations of invasive plants. This document provides guidance for natural resource managers wishing to detect invasive plants early through an active, directed monitoring program. It has a Quick-Start Guide to direct readers to specific chapters and text relevant to their needs. Decision trees and flow charts assist the reader in deciding what methods to choose and when to use them. This document is written in a modular format to accommodate use of

  9. James Gregory, the University observatory and the early acquisition of scientific instruments at the University of St Andrews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawson, Helen C.

    2015-01-01

    James Gregory, inventor of the reflecting telescope and Fellow of the Royal Society, was the first Regius Professor of Mathematics of the University of St Andrews, 1668–74. He attempted to establish in St Andrews what would, if completed, have been the first purpose-built observatory in the British Isles. He travelled to London in 1673 to purchase instruments for equipping the observatory and improving the teaching and study of natural philosophy and mathematics in the university, seeking the advice of John Flamsteed, later the first Astronomer Royal. This paper considers the observatory initiative and the early acquisition of instruments at the University of St Andrews, with reference to Gregory's correspondence, inventories made ca. 1699–ca. 1718 and extant instruments themselves, some of which predate Gregory's time. It examines the structure and fate of the university observatory, the legacy of Gregory's teaching and endeavours, and the meridian line laid down in 1748 in the University Library.

  10. Early detection of Alzheimer disease: methods, markers, and misgivings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R C; Clarke, V C; Thompson, N J; Woodard, J L; Letz, R

    1997-01-01

    There is at present no reliable predictive test for most forms of Alzheimer disease (AD). Although some information about future risk for disease is available in theory through ApoE genotyping, it is of limited accuracy and utility. Once neuroprotective treatments are available for AD, reliable early detection will become a key component of the treatment strategy. We recently conducted a pilot survey eliciting attitudes and beliefs toward an unspecified and hypothetical predictive test for AD. The survey was completed by a convenience sample of 176 individuals, aged 22-77, which was 75% female, 30% African-American, and of which 33% had a family member with AD. The survey revealed that 69% of this sample would elect to obtain predictive testing for AD if the test were 100% accurate. Individuals were more likely to desire predictive testing if they had an a priori belief that they would develop AD (p = 0.0001), had a lower educational level (p = 0.003), were worried that they would develop AD (p = 0.02), had a self-defined history of depression (p = 0.04), and had a family member with AD (p = 0.04). However, the desire for predictive testing was not significantly associated with age, gender, ethnicity, or income. The desire to obtain predictive testing for AD decreased as the assumed accuracy of the hypothetical test decreased. A better short-term strategy for early detection of AD may be computer-based neuropsychological screening of at-risk (older aged) individuals to identify very early cognitive impairment. Individuals identified in this manner could be referred for diagnostic evaluation and early cases of AD could be identified and treated. A new self-administered, touch-screen, computer-based, neuropsychological screening instrument called Neurobehavioral Evaluation System-3 is described, which may facilitate this type of screening.

  11. Promoting early detection of melanoma during the mammography experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Rzepecki, BS

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Invasive melanoma, a lethal form of skin cancer, is the seventh most common cancer in women. Factors such as a history of indoor tanning or sunburn and a personal or family history of skin cancer increase a woman’s risk of developing a melanoma. Objective: Because the majority of melanomas occur in patients age 40 years or older, which is the age that is recommended for women to begin screening mammograms, the mammogram experience could be used to promote early detection of melanoma by introducing skin self-examinations (SSE to a population of women who are already invested in preventive health. Methods: This was a pilot and feasibility study that was designed to promote the early detection of melanoma among women who undergo a mammogram at the Lynn Sage Breast Center at the Northwestern Medicine/Prentice Women’s Hospital in Chicago, Illinois. The study was conducted in three phases: development of the materials, delivery of the program, and assessment of the program effectiveness. Results: Eighty six percent of women with scheduled mammogram appointments participated in the study (n = 560. Among these women, 68% noticed the SSE information in the changing rooms, 78% thought the information applied to them, and 68% identified with at least one of the risk factors for melanoma. Twenty percent of the patients checked their skin in the changing room, 13% noticed a concerning mole, and 60% of those women who noted a concerning lesion stated their intent to see a dermatologist for further evaluation. Conclusion: A large proportion of the women in our study had risk factors for developing a melanoma and noticed the SSE information in the screening center. Placing an intervention to encourage methods for the early detection of melanoma in an outpatient mammography environment is an effective strategy to increase awareness in a large proportion of at-risk women. Keywords: melanoma, skin self-examination, skin cancer screening

  12. The early detection of antral malignancy in the postmaxillectomy patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Som, P.M.; Shugar, J.M.; Biller, H.F.

    1982-01-01

    A protocol was developed for the radiographic evaluation of the postmaxillectomy patient that called for a six- to eight-week postoperative, baseline computed tomography (CT) scan, followed by CT scans at four- to six-month intervals for at least three years. This protocol allowed for an early, more complete assessment of clinically discovered recurrences and the detection of clinically occult recurrences in three out of 18 patients who followed the protocol. The CT appearance of the normal partial and total maxillectomy is discussed, as well as the focal nodular soft-tissue findings suggestive of recurrent disease

  13. The early detection of antral malignancy in the postmaxillectomy patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Som, P.M. (Mount Sinai Hospital, New York); Shugar, J.M.; Biller, H.F.

    1982-05-01

    A protocol was developed for the radiographic evaluation of the postmaxillectomy patient that called for a six- to eight-week postoperative, baseline computed tomography (CT) scan, followed by CT scans at four- to six-month intervals for at least three years. This protocol allowed for an early, more complete assessment of clinically discovered recurrences and the detection of clinically occult recurrences in three out of 18 patients who followed the protocol. The CT appearance of the normal partial and total maxillectomy is discussed, as well as the focal nodular soft-tissue findings suggestive of recurrent disease.

  14. Early detection of diabetes after pregnancy complicated by gestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jane Hyldgård; Overgaard, Charlotte; Olesen, Christinna Rebecca

    Title: Early detection of diabetes after pregnancy complicated by gestational diabetes Background: Women whose pregnancy was complicated by gestational diabetes have a 7-fold higher risk of developing diabetes, primarily type 2. 40% of women with a history gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM...... of health consequences for women. Aims: Examine the extent of participation in follow-up screening in the Danish Region of North Jutland, and the possible consequences of nonattendance. Methods: A register based study. In Danish national registers 2171 birthing women whose pregnancy was complicated by GDM...

  15. Early detection of structual changes in random signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, Yoshiteru; Yokota, Katsuhiro

    1981-01-01

    Early detection of structual changes in observed random signal is very important from the point of system diagnosis. In this paper, the following procedures are applied to this problem and the results are compared. (1) auto-regressive model to random signal to calculate the prediction error, i.e., the defference between observed and predicted values. (2) auto-regressive method to caluculate the sum of the prediction error. (3) a method is based on AIC (Akaike Information Criterion). Simulation is made of these procedures, indicating their merits and demerits as a diagostic tools. (author)

  16. Printed strain sensors for early damage detection in engineering structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zymelka, Daniel; Yamashita, Takahiro; Takamatsu, Seiichi; Itoh, Toshihiro; Kobayashi, Takeshi

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the analysis of strain measurements recorded using a screen-printed sensors array bonded to a metal plate and subjected to high strains. The analysis was intended to evaluate the capabilities of the printed strain sensors to detect abnormal strain distribution before actual defects (cracks) in the analyzed structures appear. The results demonstrate that the developed device can accurately localize the enhanced strains at the very early stage of crack formation. The promising performance and low fabrication cost confirm the potential suitability of the printed strain sensors for applications within the framework of structural health monitoring (SHM).

  17. Early Hearing Detection and Intervention: Can Your Baby Hear?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-06-15

    This podcast discusses how important it is that every child receives a hearing screening as soon as possible after birth. It also gives specific ways that parents and health providers can find out if a child has a possible hearing loss and where to get further information. (Created 6/5/2007 by the Early Hearing Detection and Intervention Program, NCBDDD).  Created: 6/15/2007 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities.   Date Released: 6/25/2007.

  18. Sensors and Instrumentation towards early detection of osteoporosis

    KAUST Repository

    Afsarimanesh, Nasrin

    2016-07-27

    A label-free non-invasive sensing system for detection of C-terminal telopeptide of type-I collagen (CTX-I) has been developed in order to detect bone loss at an early stage, by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). A planar interdigital sensor was functionalized by immobilizing streptavidin agarose on the sensing area of the sensor to introduce selectivity for the antigen-antibody solution. Different concentrations of CTX-I were tested using the functionalized sensing surface to capture the target molecule. Preliminary results are provided in the paper assisted with the respective equivalent circuit of the working technology on the sensor using Complex Non-linear Least Square (CNLS). The results are encouraging and will be used to develop a complete system for commercialization complementing the existing systems. © 2016 IEEE.

  19. Early Detection of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Seiichi; Hanagama, Masakazu; Yanai, Masaru

    2017-12-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of an early detection program for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in a primary care setting in Japan. Methods Participants of ≥40 years of age who regularly visited a general practitioner's clinic due to chronic disease were asked to complete a COPD screening questionnaire (COPD Population Screener; COPD-PS) and undergo simplified spirometry using a handheld spirometric device. Patients who showed possible COPD were referred to a respiratory specialist and underwent a detailed examination that included spirometry and chest radiography. Results A total of 111 patients with possible COPD were referred for close examination. Among these patients, 27 patients were newly diagnosed with COPD. The patients with COPD were older, had lower BMI values, and had a longer smoking history in comparison to non-COPD patients. COPD patients also had more comorbid conditions. A diagnosis of COPD was significantly associated with a high COPD-PS score (pearly detection of undiagnosed COPD in primary care.

  20. Statistical mechanics and the description of the early universe I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pessah, Martin Elias; F. Torres, Diego; Vucetich, H.

    2001-01-01

    We analyze how the thermal history of the universe is influenced by the statistical description, assuming a deviation from the usual Bose-Einstein, Fermi-Dirac and Boltzmann-Gibbs distribution functions. These deviations represent the possible appearance of non-extensive effects related with the ......We analyze how the thermal history of the universe is influenced by the statistical description, assuming a deviation from the usual Bose-Einstein, Fermi-Dirac and Boltzmann-Gibbs distribution functions. These deviations represent the possible appearance of non-extensive effects related...... and to place limits to the range of its validity. The corrections obtained will change with temperature, and consequently, the bounds on the possible amount of non-extensivity will also change with time. We generalize results which can be used in other contexts as well, as the Boltzmann equation and the Saha...

  1. Holography for a non-inflationary early universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinterbichler, Kurt [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,31 Caroline St. N, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Stokes, James; Trodden, Mark [Center for Particle Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy,University of Pennsylvania,209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2015-01-19

    We construct a gravitational dual of the pseudo-conformal universe, a proposed alternative to inflation in which a conformal field theory in nearly flat space develops a time dependent vacuum expectation value. Constructing this dual amounts to finding five-dimensional domain-wall spacetimes with anti-de Sitter asymptotics, for which the wall has the symmetries of four-dimensional de Sitter space. This holographically realizes the characteristic symmetry breaking pattern so(2,4)→so(1,4) of the pseudo-conformal universe. We present an explicit example with a massless scalar field, using holographic renormalization to obtain general expressions for the renormalized scalar and stress-tensor one-point functions. We discuss the relationship between these solutions and those of four-dimensional holographic defect conformal field theories which break so(2,4)→so(2,3).

  2. Holography for a non-inflationary early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinterbichler, Kurt; Stokes, James; Trodden, Mark

    2015-01-01

    We construct a gravitational dual of the pseudo-conformal universe, a proposed alternative to inflation in which a conformal field theory in nearly flat space develops a time dependent vacuum expectation value. Constructing this dual amounts to finding five-dimensional domain-wall spacetimes with anti-de Sitter asymptotics, for which the wall has the symmetries of four-dimensional de Sitter space. This holographically realizes the characteristic symmetry breaking pattern so(2,4)→so(1,4) of the pseudo-conformal universe. We present an explicit example with a massless scalar field, using holographic renormalization to obtain general expressions for the renormalized scalar and stress-tensor one-point functions. We discuss the relationship between these solutions and those of four-dimensional holographic defect conformal field theories which break so(2,4)→so(2,3).

  3. Towards understanding thermal history of the Universe through direct and indirect detection of dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roszkowski, Leszek; Trojanowski, Sebastian [National Centre for Nuclear Research, Hoża 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Turzyński, Krzysztof, E-mail: leszek.roszkowski@ncbj.gov.pl, E-mail: sebastian.trojanowski@uci.edu, E-mail: Krzysztof-Jan.Turzynski@fuw.edu.pl [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, ul. Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland)

    2017-10-01

    We examine the question to what extent prospective detection of dark matter by direct and indirect- detection experiments could shed light on what fraction of dark matter was generated thermally via the freeze-out process in the early Universe. By simulating putative signals that could be seen in the near future and using them to reconstruct WIMP dark matter properties, we show that, in a model- independent approach this could only be achieved in a thin sliver of the parameter space. However, with additional theoretical input the hypothesis about the thermal freeze-out as the dominant mechanism for generating dark matter can potentially be verified. We illustrate this with two examples: an effective field theory of dark matter with a vector messenger and a higgsino or wino dark matter within the MSSM.

  4. Early fault detection and diagnosis for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, O.; Grini, R.; Masao Yokobayashi

    1988-01-01

    Fault detection based on a number of reference models is demonstrated. This approach is characterized by the possibility of detecting faults before a traditional alarm system is triggered, even in dynamic situations. Further, by a proper decomposition scheme and use of available process measurements, the problem area can be confined to the faulty process parts. A diagnosis system using knowledge engineering techniques is described. Typical faults are classified and described by rules involving alarm patterns and variations of important parameters. By structuring the fault hypotheses in a hierarchy the search space is limited which is important for real time diagnosis. Introduction of certainty factors improve the flexibility and robustness of diagnosis by exploring parallel problems even when some data are missing. A new display proposal should facilitate the operator interface and the integration of fault detection and diagnosis tasks in disturbance handling. The techniques of early fault detection and diagnosis are presently being implemented and tested in the experimental control room of a full-scope PWR simulator in Halden

  5. New generation of electrochemical immunoassay based on polymeric nanoparticles for early detection of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouffouk F

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Fouzi Mouffouk,1 Sihem Aouabdi,2 Entesar Al-Hetlani,1 Hacene Serrai,3 Tareq Alrefae,4 Liaohai Leo Chen5 1Department of Chemistry, Kuwait University, Safat, Kuwait; 2King Abdullah International Medical Research Center (KAIMRC, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital of Gent (UZG, Gent, Belgium; 4Department of Physics, Kuwait University, Safat, Kuwait; 5Surgical Precision Research Lab. Department of Surgery, University of Illinois at Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: Screening and early diagnosis are the key factors for the reduction of mortality rate and treatment cost of cancer. Therefore, sensitive and selective methods that can reveal the low abundance of cancer biomarkers in a biological sample are always desired. Here, we report the development of a novel electrochemical biosensor for early detection of breast cancer by using bioconjugated self-assembled pH-responsive polymeric micelles. The micelles were loaded with ferrocene molecules as “tracers” to specifically target cell surface-associated epithelial mucin (MUC1, a biomarker for breast and other solid carcinoma. The synthesis of target-specific, ferrocene-loaded polymeric micelles was confirmed, and the resulting sensor was capable of detecting the presence of MUC1 in a sample containing about 10 cells/mL. Such a high sensitivity was achieved by maximizing the loading capacity of ferrocene inside the polymeric micelles. Every single event of binding between the antibody and antigen was represented by the signal of hundreds of thousands of ferrocene molecules that were released from the polymeric micelles. This resulted in a significant increase in the intensity of the ferrocene signal detected by cyclic voltammetry. Keywords: electrochemical immunoassay, polymeric nanoparticles, breast cancer biomarkers, biosensors 

  6. Indices allowing early detection of chronic pulmonary emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Kazuhiro; Soejima, Kenzo; Koda, Eiichi; Mori, Masaaki; Matsubara, Hiroaki; Oguma, Tsuyoshi; Kawamura, Masahumi; Kobayashi, Koichi

    1996-01-01

    To establish criteria allowing early detection of pathologically significant alterations in pulmonary emphysema caused by smoking, pulmonary-function tests and high-resolution computed tomography were done in 104 subjects categorized into three groups: nonsmoking healthy adults, smokers with a normal FEV 1 %, and smokers with a low FEV 1 % (cross-sectional analysis). Fifty-six of the 104 patients underwent pulmonary-function testing and high-resolution computed tomography once per year for 3 years (longitudinal analysis). Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses showed that abnormalities in functional residual capacity, in single-breath diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, and in the average tomographic density of sections in the lower lung fields obtained after a deep inspiration could be used to predict whether the disease would reach an advanced stage, even if the patients had no significant symptoms at the time of testing. Relative areas of low-attenuation regions, which were alleged to directly reflect the size of emphysematous areas, appear not to be useful for early detection of pathological emphysema. (author)

  7. Computer Aided Diagnosis System for Early Lung Cancer Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Taher

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer continues to rank as the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. One of the most promising techniques for early detection of cancerous cells relies on sputum cell analysis. This was the motivation behind the design and the development of a new computer aided diagnosis (CAD system for early detection of lung cancer based on the analysis of sputum color images. The proposed CAD system encompasses four main processing steps. First is the preprocessing step which utilizes a Bayesian classification method using histogram analysis. Then, in the second step, mean shift segmentation is applied to segment the nuclei from the cytoplasm. The third step is the feature analysis. In this step, geometric and chromatic features are extracted from the nucleus region. These features are used in the diagnostic process of the sputum images. Finally, the diagnosis is completed using an artificial neural network and support vector machine (SVM for classifying the cells into benign or malignant. The performance of the system was analyzed based on different criteria such as sensitivity, specificity and accuracy. The evaluation was carried out using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve. The experimental results demonstrate the efficiency of the SVM classifier over other classifiers, with 97% sensitivity and accuracy as well as a significant reduction in the number of false positive and false negative rates.

  8. Evolution of the early universe and big-bang nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajino, T.

    1995-01-01

    Cosmological phase transition can create strongly inhomogeneous baryon density distribution. Inhomogeneous big-bang model for primordial nucleosynthesis allows higher universal mass density parameter of baryons than the standard model does, which is marginally consistent with recent astronomical suggestion that some kind of dark matter is made of baryons. Enhanced heavy-element abundances in halo dwarfs is shown to be an observational signature for the inhomogeneous big-bang model. The studies of radioactive nuclear reactions help predict the theoretical abundances of these elements more precisely. (author). 53 refs., 8 figs

  9. Social Strategies during University Studies Predict Early Career Work Burnout and Engagement: 18-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Tolvanen, Asko; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study spanning 18 years examined the role of social strategies in early career adaptation. The aim was to find out whether individuals' social strategies measured during their university studies had an impact on work burnout and work engagement measured 10-18 years later. A sample of 292 university students completed the SAQ…

  10. Universal Design for Learning: Cognitive Theory into Practice for Facilitating Comprehension in Early Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Susan Trostle; Dalton, Elizabeth M.

    2012-01-01

    Addressing the unique needs of children of all ages and abilities, Universal Design for Learning (UDL) is gaining momentum in schools and preschools around the nation and the globe. This article explores Universal Design for Learning and its promising applications to a variety of reading and language arts experiences in the Early Childhood…

  11. FluBreaks: early epidemic detection from Google flu trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervaiz, Fahad; Pervaiz, Mansoor; Abdur Rehman, Nabeel; Saif, Umar

    2012-10-04

    The Google Flu Trends service was launched in 2008 to track changes in the volume of online search queries related to flu-like symptoms. Over the last few years, the trend data produced by this service has shown a consistent relationship with the actual number of flu reports collected by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), often identifying increases in flu cases weeks in advance of CDC records. However, contrary to popular belief, Google Flu Trends is not an early epidemic detection system. Instead, it is designed as a baseline indicator of the trend, or changes, in the number of disease cases. To evaluate whether these trends can be used as a basis for an early warning system for epidemics. We present the first detailed algorithmic analysis of how Google Flu Trends can be used as a basis for building a fully automated system for early warning of epidemics in advance of methods used by the CDC. Based on our work, we present a novel early epidemic detection system, called FluBreaks (dritte.org/flubreaks), based on Google Flu Trends data. We compared the accuracy and practicality of three types of algorithms: normal distribution algorithms, Poisson distribution algorithms, and negative binomial distribution algorithms. We explored the relative merits of these methods, and related our findings to changes in Internet penetration and population size for the regions in Google Flu Trends providing data. Across our performance metrics of percentage true-positives (RTP), percentage false-positives (RFP), percentage overlap (OT), and percentage early alarms (EA), Poisson- and negative binomial-based algorithms performed better in all except RFP. Poisson-based algorithms had average values of 99%, 28%, 71%, and 76% for RTP, RFP, OT, and EA, respectively, whereas negative binomial-based algorithms had average values of 97.8%, 17.8%, 60%, and 55% for RTP, RFP, OT, and EA, respectively. Moreover, the EA was also affected by the region's population size

  12. Black hole growth in the early Universe is self-regulated and largely hidden from view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treister, Ezequiel; Schawinski, Kevin; Volonteri, Marta; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Gawiser, Eric

    2011-06-15

    The formation of the first massive objects in the infant Universe remains impossible to observe directly and yet it sets the stage for the subsequent evolution of galaxies. Although some black holes with masses more than 10(9) times that of the Sun have been detected in luminous quasars less than one billion years after the Big Bang, these individual extreme objects have limited utility in constraining the channels of formation of the earliest black holes; this is because the initial conditions of black hole seed properties are quickly erased during the growth process. Here we report a measurement of the amount of black hole growth in galaxies at redshift z = 6-8 (0.95-0.7 billion years after the Big Bang), based on optimally stacked, archival X-ray observations. Our results imply that black holes grow in tandem with their host galaxies throughout cosmic history, starting from the earliest times. We find that most copiously accreting black holes at these epochs are buried in significant amounts of gas and dust that absorb most radiation except for the highest-energy X-rays. This suggests that black holes grew significantly more during these early bursts than was previously thought, but because of the obscuration of their ultraviolet emission they did not contribute to the re-ionization of the Universe.

  13. Entropy Growth in the Early Universe and Confirmation of Initial Big Bang Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckwith, Andrew

    2009-09-01

    This paper shows how increased entropy values from an initially low big bang level can be measured experimentally by counting relic gravitons. Furthermore the physical mechanism of this entropy increase is explained via analogies with early-universe phase transitions. The role of Jack Ng's (2007, 2008a, 2008b) revised infinite quantum statistics in the physics of gravitational wave detection is acknowledged. Ng's infinite quantum statistics can be used to show that ΔS~ΔNgravitons is a startmg point to the increasing net universe cosmological entropy. Finally, in a nod to similarities AS ZPE analysis, it is important to note that the resulting ΔS~ΔNgravitons ≠ 1088, that in fact it is much lower, allowing for evaluating initial graviton production as an emergent field phenomena, which may be similar to how ZPE states can be used to extract energy from a vacuum if entropy is not maximized. The rapid increase in entropy so alluded to without near sudden increases to 1088 may be enough to allow successful modeling of relic graviton production for entropy in a manner similar to ZPE energy extraction from a vacuum state.

  14. Spacetime deformation effect on the early universe and the PTOLEMY experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Horvat

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Using a fully-fledged formulation of gauge field theory deformed by the spacetime noncommutativity, we study its impact on relic neutrino direct detection, as proposed recently by the PTOLEMY experiment. The noncommutative background tends to influence the propagating neutrinos by providing them with a tree-level vector-like coupling to photons, enabling thus otherwise sterile right-handed (RH neutrinos to be thermally produced in the early universe. Such a new component in the universe's background radiation has been switched today to the almost fully active sea of non-relativistic neutrinos, exerting consequently some impact on the capture on tritium at PTOLEMY. The peculiarities of our nonperturbative approach tend to reflect in the cosmology as well, upon the appearances of the coupling temperature, above which RH neutrinos stay permanently decoupled from thermal environment. This entails the maximal scale of noncommutativity as well, being of order of 10−4MPl, above which there is no impact whatsoever on the capture rates at PTOLEMY. The latter represents an exceptional upper bound on the scale of noncommutativity coming from phenomenology.

  15. Missed, Misused, or Mismanaged: Improving Early Detection Systems to Optimize Child Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, Marisa; Marks, Kevin; Towle, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Early detection efforts have been shown to vary greatly in practice, and there is a general lack of systematic accountability built into monitoring early detection effort impact. This article reviews current early detection practices and the drawbacks of these practices, with particular attention given to prevalent issues of mismeasurement,…

  16. 77 FR 66469 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC) In accordance with section 10(a..., and the Director, CDC, regarding the early detection and control of breast and cervical cancer. The... National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program; presentations on outcomes of Care Coordination...

  17. Encouraging entrepreneurship in university labs: Research activities, research outputs, and early doctorate careers

    OpenAIRE

    Roach, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates how the encouragement of entrepreneurship within university research labs relates with research activities, research outputs, and early doctorate careers. Utilizing a panel survey of 6,840 science & engineering doctoral students at 39 R1 research universities, this study shows that entrepreneurship is widely encouraged across university research labs, ranging from 54% in biomedical engineering to 18% in particle physics, while only a small share of labs openly discoura...

  18. Developing a discrete choice experiment in Malawi: eliciting preferences for breast cancer early detection services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohler RE

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Racquel E Kohler,1 Clara N Lee,2 Satish Gopal,3 Bryce B Reeve,1 Bryan J Weiner,1 Stephanie B Wheeler11Department of Health Policy and Management, Gillings School of Global Public Health, 2Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 3UNC Project-Malawi, Tidziwe Center, Lilongwe, MalawiBackground: In Malawi, routine breast cancer screening is not available and little is known about women’s preferences regarding early detection services. Discrete choice experiments are increasingly used to reveal preferences about new health services; however, selecting appropriate attributes that describe a new health service is imperative to ensure validity of the choice experiment.Objective: To identify important factors that are relevant to Malawian women’s preferences for breast cancer detection services and to select attributes and levels for a discrete choice experiment in a setting where both breast cancer early detection and choice experiments are rare.Methods: We reviewed the literature to establish an initial list of potential attributes and levels for a discrete choice experiment and conducted qualitative interviews with health workers and community women to explore relevant local factors affecting decisions to use cancer detection services. We tested the design through cognitive interviews and refined the levels, descriptions, and designs.Results: Themes that emerged from interviews provided critical information about breast cancer detection services, specifically, that breast cancer interventions should be integrated into other health services because asymptomatic screening may not be practical as an individual service. Based on participants’ responses, the final attributes of the choice experiment included travel time, health encounter, health worker type and sex, and breast cancer early detection strategy. Cognitive testing confirmed the acceptability of the final attributes

  19. Performance of mitochondrial DNA mutations detecting early stage cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakupciak, John P; Srivastava, Sudhir; Sidransky, David; O'Connell, Catherine D; Maragh, Samantha; Markowitz, Maura E; Greenberg, Alissa K; Hoque, Mohammad O; Maitra, Anirban; Barker, Peter E; Wagner, Paul D; Rom, William N

    2008-01-01

    Mutations in the mitochondrial genome (mtgenome) have been associated with cancer and many other disorders. These mutations can be point mutations or deletions, or admixtures (heteroplasmy). The detection of mtDNA mutations in body fluids using resequencing microarrays, which are more sensitive than other sequencing methods, could provide a strategy to measure mutation loads in remote anatomical sites. We determined the mtDNA mutation load in the entire mitochondrial genome of 26 individuals with different early stage cancers (lung, bladder, kidney) and 12 heavy smokers without cancer. MtDNA was sequenced from three matched specimens (blood, tumor and body fluid) from each cancer patient and two matched specimens (blood and sputum) from smokers without cancer. The inherited wildtype sequence in the blood was compared to the sequences present in the tumor and body fluid, detected using the Affymetrix Genechip ® Human Mitochondrial Resequencing Array 1.0 and supplemented by capillary sequencing for noncoding region. Using this high-throughput method, 75% of the tumors were found to contain mtDNA mutations, higher than in our previous studies, and 36% of the body fluids from these cancer patients contained mtDNA mutations. Most of the mutations detected were heteroplasmic. A statistically significantly higher heteroplasmy rate occurred in tumor specimens when compared to both body fluid of cancer patients and sputum of controls, and in patient blood compared to blood of controls. Only 2 of the 12 sputum specimens from heavy smokers without cancer (17%) contained mtDNA mutations. Although patient mutations were spread throughout the mtDNA genome in the lung, bladder and kidney series, a statistically significant elevation of tRNA and ND complex mutations was detected in tumors. Our findings indicate comprehensive mtDNA resequencing can be a high-throughput tool for detecting mutations in clinical samples with potential applications for cancer detection, but it is

  20. Justification for screening programs for early detection of HBV infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Leźnicka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of the study was to collect the data on undetected hepatitis B virus (HBV in the frequently hospitalized (at least twice in the last 5 years population of the Kujawsko-Pomorskie voivodship. The study results could be used by occupational health services and local governments to take preventive actions. Material and Methods: The study focused on empirical data derived from hepatitis B Screening Programme in the Kujawsko-Pomorskie voivodship. The study comprised 6332 people tested for hepatitis B virus surface antigen – HBsAg. They had been hospitalized at least twice. The diagnostic survey was based on an anonymous questionnaire, developed for this study. For the statistical analysis the Statistica 10.0 program was used. A level of statistical significance was assumed at a value of α = 0.05. The results showing that the probability test p satisfy the inequality p < 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. Results: HBs antigen was detected in 34 patients (0.54%. There was no association between the detected infections and the gender of the respondents. There was no relationship between the detected infections and transfusion of blood and blood products before 1992. Surgical procedures performed in the patients did not increase the risk of hepatitis B infection. Conclusions: Actions aimed at detecting asymptomatic infections should primarily focus on the 35–39 age group. Effective identification of chronically-infected people and application of optimal treatment play a key role in reducing the risk of disease progression in the whole population. Therefore, the implementation of screening programs is warranted for prevention and early detection of hepatitis B. Med Pr 2014;65(6:777–784

  1. The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation-A Unique Window on the Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinshaw, Gary

    2010-01-01

    The cosmic microwave background radiation is the remnant heat from the Big Bang. It provides us with a unique probe of conditions in the early universe, long before any organized structures had yet formed. The anisotropy in the radiation's brightness yields important clues about primordial structure and additionally provides a wealth of information about the physics of the early universe. Within the framework of inflationary dark matter models, observations of the anisotropy on sub-degree angular scales reveals the signatures of acoustic oscillations of the photon-baryon fluid at a redshift of 11 00. Data from the first seven years of operation of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) satellite provide detailed full-sky maps of the cosmic microwave background temperature and polarization anisotropy. Together, the data provide a wealth of cosmological information, including the age of the universe, the epoch when the first stars formed, and the overall composition of baryonic matter, dark matter, and dark energy. The results also provide constraints on the period of inflationary expansion in the very first moments of time. WMAP, part of NASA's Explorers program, was launched on June 30, 2001. The WMAP satellite was produced in a partnership between the Goddard Space Flight Center and Princeton University. The WMAP team also includes researchers at the Johns Hopkins University; the Canadian Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics; University of Texas; Oxford University; University of Chicago; Brown University; University of British Columbia; and University of California, Los Angeles.

  2. Constraining resonant photon-axion conversions in the Early Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirizzi, Alessandro; Redondo, Javier; Sigl, Guenter

    2009-05-01

    The presence of a primordial magnetic field would have induced resonant conversions between photons and axion-like particles (ALPs) during the thermal history of the Universe. These conversions would have distorted the blackbody spectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). In this context, we derive bounds on the photon-ALP resonant conversions using the high precision CMB spectral data collected by the FIRAS instrument on board of the Cosmic Background Explorer. We obtain upper limits on the product of the photon-ALP coupling constant g times the magnetic field strength B down to gB -13 GeV -1 nG for ALP masses below the eV scale. (orig.)

  3. High-Redshift galaxies light from the early universe

    CERN Document Server

    Appenzeller, Immo

    2008-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive account of the scientific results on high-redshift galaxies accumulated during the past ten years. Apart from summarizing and critically discussing the wealth of observational data, the observational methods which made it possible to study these very distant and extremely faint objects are described in detail. Moreover, the technical feasibilities and physical limitations for existing and for future ground-based and space-based telescopes are discussed. Thus, apart from summarizing the knowledge accumulated so far, the book is designed as a tool for planning future observational and instrumental programs and projects. In view of the potential importance of the observational results of the high-redshift universe for basic physics the book is written for astronomers as well as for physicists without prior astronomical knowledge. For this purpose it contains introductory chapters describing the basic concepts and notations used in modern astronomy and a brief overview of the pr...

  4. The art and science of prognostication in early university medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaitre, Luke

    2003-01-01

    Prognosis occupied a more prominent place in the medieval curriculum than it does at the modern university. Scholastic discussions were rooted in the Hippocratic Aphorisms and shaped by Galen's treatises On Crisis and On Critical Days. Medical prediction, as an art dependent on personal skills such as memory and conjecture, was taught with the aid of the liberal arts of rhetoric and logic. Scientific predictability was sought in branches of mathematics, moving from periodicity and numerology to astronomy. The search for certitude contributed to the cultivation of astrology; even at its peak, however, astrological medicine did not dominate the teaching on prognostication. The ultimate concern, which awaits further discussion, was not even with forecasting as such, but with the physician and, indeed, the patient.

  5. Constraining resonant photon-axion conversions in the Early Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirizzi, Alessandro [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Inst.), Muenchen (Germany); Redondo, Javier [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Sigl, Guenter [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). II. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2009-05-15

    The presence of a primordial magnetic field would have induced resonant conversions between photons and axion-like particles (ALPs) during the thermal history of the Universe. These conversions would have distorted the blackbody spectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). In this context, we derive bounds on the photon-ALP resonant conversions using the high precision CMB spectral data collected by the FIRAS instrument on board of the Cosmic Background Explorer. We obtain upper limits on the product of the photon-ALP coupling constant g times the magnetic field strength B down to gB

  6. Anisotropic, nonsingular early universe model leading to a realistic cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dechant, Pierre-Philippe; Lasenby, Anthony N.; Hobson, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    We present a novel cosmological model in which scalar field matter in a biaxial Bianchi IX geometry leads to a nonsingular 'pancaking' solution: the hypersurface volume goes to zero instantaneously at the 'big bang', but all physical quantities, such as curvature invariants and the matter energy density remain finite, and continue smoothly through the big bang. We demonstrate that there exist geodesics extending through the big bang, but that there are also incomplete geodesics that spiral infinitely around a topologically closed spatial dimension at the big bang, rendering it, at worst, a quasiregular singularity. The model is thus reminiscent of the Taub-NUT vacuum solution in that it has biaxial Bianchi IX geometry and its evolution exhibits a dimensionality reduction at a quasiregular singularity; the two models are, however, rather different, as we will show in a future work. Here we concentrate on the cosmological implications of our model and show how the scalar field drives both isotropization and inflation, thus raising the question of whether structure on the largest scales was laid down at a time when the universe was still oblate (as also suggested by [T. S. Pereira, C. Pitrou, and J.-P. Uzan, J. Cosmol. Astropart. Phys. 9 (2007) 6.][C. Pitrou, T. S. Pereira, and J.-P. Uzan, J. Cosmol. Astropart. Phys. 4 (2008) 4.][A. Guemruekcueoglu, C. Contaldi, and M. Peloso, J. Cosmol. Astropart. Phys. 11 (2007) 005.]). We also discuss the stability of our model to small perturbations around biaxiality and draw an analogy with cosmological perturbations. We conclude by presenting a separate, bouncing solution, which generalizes the known bouncing solution in closed FRW universes.

  7. Detection of early warning signals of forest mortality in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Kumar, M.; Katul, G. G.; Porporato, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    Massive forest mortality was observed in California during the most recent drought. Owing to complex interactions of physiological mechanisms under stress, prediction of climate-induced forest mortality using dynamic global vegetation models remains fraught with uncertainty. Given that forest ecosystems approaching mortality tend to exhibit reduction in resilience, we evaluate the time-varying resilience from time series of satellite images to detect early warning signals (EWSs) of mortality. Four metrics of EWSs are used: (1) low greenness, (2) high empirical autocorrelation of greenness, (3) high autocorrelation inferred using a Bayesian dynamic linear model considering the influence of seasonality and climate conditions, and (4) low recovery rate inferred from the drift term in the Langevin equation describing stochastic dynamics. Spatial accuracy and lead-time of these EWSs are evaluated by comparing the EWSs against observed mortality from aerial surveys conducted by the US Forest Service. Our results show that most forested areas in California that underwent mortality exhibit a EWS with a lead time of three months to two years ahead of observed mortality. Notably, EWS is also detected in some areas without mortality, suggesting reduced resilience during drought. Furthermore, the influence of the previous drought (2007-2009) may have propagated into the recent drought (2012-2016) through reduced resilience, hence contributing to the massive forest mortality observed recently. Methodologies developed in this study for detection of EWS will improve the near-term predictability of forest mortality, thus providing crucial information for forest and water resource management.

  8. The quark gluon plasma equation of state and the expansion of the early Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanches, S.M.; Navarra, F.S.; Fogaça, D.A.

    2015-01-01

    Our knowledge of the equation of state of the quark gluon plasma has been continuously growing due to the experimental results from heavy ion collisions, due to recent astrophysical measurements and also due to the advances in lattice QCD calculations. The new findings about this state may have consequences on the time evolution of the early Universe, which can be estimated by solving the Friedmann equations. The solutions of these equations give the time evolution of the energy density and also of the temperature in the beginning of the Universe. In this work we compute the time evolution of the QGP in the early Universe, comparing several equations of state, some of them based on the MIT bag model (and on its variants) and some of them based on lattice QCD calculations. Among other things, we investigate the effects of a finite baryon chemical potential in the evolution of the early Universe

  9. Education concerning carcinoma of prostate and its early detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkiewcz, Sławomir; Jędrzejewska, Sylwia

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common male cancer. Insufficient knowledge of PCa among men causes its low detection. Lack of essential actions in health education and widely understood prophylaxis, the need of the latter are maybe responsible for the increasing mortality rate. According to our assumption, educating men increase their awareness on the need of screening tests and results in increasing reporting to physical examinations. This in turn allows for an early detection of the disease. A research was conducted between the years 2003-2009 on the knowledge of PCa among 260 men. They were divided into two groups. Group A - 63 patients treated for carcinoma of prostate and group B - 197 men reporting spontaneously to screening tests. In order to check the adopted hypothesis, we prepared an educational material and test of knowledge - test with a questionnaire. Knowledge was evaluated before (test I) and after the education process (test II). Until 2009, we were monitoring the number of patients from group B reporting to screening tests and their knowledge was once again checked (test III). Two subgroups C and D were created from group B - 117 healthy men and 80 with diagnosed diseases respectively (70 with benign prostatic hyperplasia, 7 with prostatitis, and 3 with carcinoma of prostate). Patients with prostatitis and PCa and 3 patients from group C not reporting to the tests were excluded from further monitoring. Maths statistics with the use of SPSS 12.0 PL program and Statistica 6.0 constituted the base for working out the results. We observed a higher knowledge about carcinoma of prostate in group A than in group B (p 40 from groups C and D were interested in health care (p70 a lower level of motivation was observed. The interest was proportional to the level of education, and this was differentiating in an analogical way the motivation to extend knowledge about prostate cancer (padvanced state, and during 5 years in group C - in 4 men at an early development

  10. Evaluation of anatomical and visual function for early detection of ethambutol toxicity among tuberculosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Mani Penny Tevaraj

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate if early ethambutol toxicity can be detected by comparing pre-and post-treatment anatomical and visual function using retinal nerve fiber thickness, pattern visual evoked potentials and conventional optic nerve function tests.METHODS:This was a prospective study involving 72 eyes of 36 patients treated with ethambutol according to directly observed treatment short-course(DOTSstrategy in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia. The visual acuity and optic nerve function tests were performed by a single investigator. Likewise, Humphrey automated perimetry, optical coherence tomography(OCTmeasurement of the retinal nerve fibre layer(RNFLand pattern visual evoked potential(PVEPwere performed by a single technician. The examinations were performed before initiating ethambutol treatment and 3mo after that.RESULTS: There was no change in visual acuity, colour vision, light brightness, red saturation and fundus findings pre and post ethambutol. However, there was a statistically significant deterioration in the mean deviation of the visual field post treatment(P=0.010. There were also significant changes on OCT and PVEP, with increased RNFL thickness in all quadrants(PPCONCLUSION: Ethambutol toxicity is a known complication of tuberculosis treatment. Early detection of this toxicity may prevent severe irreversible visual loss. The use of OCT to detect RNFL thickness and PVEP to assess P100 latency and amplitude can assist in the detection of subclinical anatomical and visual function changes prior to development of abnormalities on conventional optic nerve function tests.

  11. A massive, dead disk galaxy in the early Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toft, Sune; Zabl, Johannes; Richard, Johan; Gallazzi, Anna; Zibetti, Stefano; Prescott, Moire; Grillo, Claudio; Man, Allison W S; Lee, Nicholas Y; Gómez-Guijarro, Carlos; Stockmann, Mikkel; Magdis, Georgios; Steinhardt, Charles L

    2017-06-21

    At redshift z = 2, when the Universe was just three billion years old, half of the most massive galaxies were extremely compact and had already exhausted their fuel for star formation. It is believed that they were formed in intense nuclear starbursts and that they ultimately grew into the most massive local elliptical galaxies seen today, through mergers with minor companions, but validating this picture requires higher-resolution observations of their centres than is currently possible. Magnification from gravitational lensing offers an opportunity to resolve the inner regions of galaxies. Here we report an analysis of the stellar populations and kinematics of a lensed z = 2.1478 compact galaxy, which-surprisingly-turns out to be a fast-spinning, rotationally supported disk galaxy. Its stars must have formed in a disk, rather than in a merger-driven nuclear starburst. The galaxy was probably fed by streams of cold gas, which were able to penetrate the hot halo gas until they were cut off by shock heating from the dark matter halo. This result confirms previous indirect indications that the first galaxies to cease star formation must have gone through major changes not just in their structure, but also in their kinematics, to evolve into present-day elliptical galaxies.

  12. Early detection of psychosis: finding those at clinical high risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addington, Jean; Epstein, Irvin; Reynolds, Andrea; Furimsky, Ivana; Rudy, Laura; Mancini, Barbara; McMillan, Simone; Kirsopp, Diane; Zipursky, Robert B

    2008-08-01

    In early detection work, recruiting individuals who meet the prodromal criteria is difficult. The aim of this paper was to describe the development of a research clinic for individuals who appear to be at risk of developing a psychosis and the process for educating the community and obtaining referrals. The outcome of all referrals to the clinic over a 4-year period was examined. Following an ongoing education campaign that was over inclusive in order to aid recruitment, approximately 27% of all referrals met the criteria for being at clinical high risk of psychosis. We are seeing only a small proportion of those in the community who eventually go on to develop a psychotic illness. This raises two important issues, namely how to remedy the situation, and second, the impact of this on current research in terms of sampling bias and generalizability of research findings. © 2008 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2008 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. Toward an early detection of PWR control rod anomalous dropping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blazquez, J.; Vallejo, I.

    1998-01-01

    Some anomalous PWR control rods dropping occurred in the past. It is assumed to be caused by a geometrical deformation of its guide tube, which might be related with neutron fluence and its sharp changes. Now at days, this problem is an open field of research, oriented to the understanding and prevention of the event. Work here is focused toward early detection. A differential equation modelling control rod free fall movement is found. There result three acceleration terms: gravity; friction with fluid; and friction with its guide tube. From recorded Plant measurements, both friction coefficients are estimated. The one from guide tube experiences a large variation in case of anomalous dropping; so relationship with neutron fluence is proposed for the prevention purpose. (Author)

  14. Early detection of anastomotic leakage after elective low anterior resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouda, Elyamani; El Nakeeb, Ayman; Magdy, Alaa; Hammad, Enas A; Othman, Gamal; Farid, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Colorectal anastomotic leakage is a serious complication leading to major postoperative morbidity and mortality. In the present study, we investigated the early detection of anastomotic leakage before its clinical presentation. Fifty-six patients with rectal cancer were included prospectively in this study. All patients underwent elective low anterior resection. Peritoneal samples were collected from the abdominal drains at the first, third, and fifth days postoperatively for bacteriological study (quantitative cultures for both aerobes and anaerobes) and cytokines (IL-6, IL-10, TNF) measurement. Patients were divided into two groups: those without symptomatic or clinical evidence of anastomotic leakage (AL; group 1) and those with clinical evidence of AL (group 2). Study variables included hospital stay, wound infection, operative time, blood loss, height of anastomosis, intraperitoneal cytokines, and microbiological study of peritoneal fluid. Clinically evident AL occurred in eight patients (14.3%) and diagnosed postoperatively on median day 6. Intraperitoneal bacterial colonization and cytokine levels were significantly higher in patients with clinical evidence of AL. Wound infection was significantly higher in anastomotic leakage group. The hospital stay for the patients with anastomotic leakage was significantly longer than those without AL (14 ± 1.41 vs. 5.43 ± 0.89 days). A significant difference among two groups was observed regarding operative time, blood loss, blood transfusion, and height of the anastomosis. The peritoneal cytokines levels and intraperitoneal bacterial colonization might be an additional diagnostic tool that can support the decision making of surgeons for early detection of anastomotic leak in colorectal surgery.

  15. Early detection and treatment of postnatal depression in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Bronwen R; Howells, Sarah; Jenkins, Meryl

    2003-11-01

    Postnatal depression has a relatively high incidence and gives rise to considerable morbidity. There is sound evidence supporting the use of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale as a screening tool for possible postnatal depression. This paper reports on a project developed by two health visitors and a community mental health nurse working in the United Kingdom. The aim of the project was to improve the early detection and treatment of postnatal depression in the population of the general practice to which they were attached. The health visitors screened for postnatal depression in the course of routine visits on four occasions during the first postpartum year. Women identified as likely to be suffering from postnatal depression were offered 'listening visits' as a first-line intervention, with referral on to the general practitioner and/or community mental health nurse if indicated. Data collected over 3 years showed that the project succeeded in its aim of enhancing early detection and treatment of postnatal depression. These findings replicate those of other studies. The data also showed that a substantial number of women were identified for the first time as likely to be suffering from postnatal depression at 12 months postpartum. Women screened for the first time at 12 months were at greater risk than those who had been screened earlier than this. Health visitors should screen for postnatal depression throughout the period of their contact with mothers, not solely in the immediate postnatal period. It is particularly important to screen women who, for whatever reason, were not screened when their child was younger. The knowledge and skills needed to use the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and provide first-line intervention and onward referral can be developed at practitioner level through close collaborative working.

  16. Stability of extra dimensions in the inflating early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieck, Clemens

    2015-08-01

    Cosmic inflation is an attractive paradigm to explain the initial conditions of the universe. It can be conveniently described by the dynamics of a single scalar field within N=1 supergravity. Due to the high energy scale during the inflationary epoch, which is favored by recent observations of the cosmic microwave background radiation, and the flatness of the inflaton potential it is necessary to consider inflation in the context of a UV-complete theory like string theory. To this end, we study the effects of moduli stabilization on inflation models in supergravity, focussing on Kahler moduli in type IIB string theory which govern the size of extra dimensions. For generic models of F-term inflation we calculate back-reaction terms by integrating out the moduli at a high energy scale. When the moduli are stabilized supersymmetrically, all effects decouple in the limit of very heavy moduli. The corrections, however, may be sizeable for realistic moduli masses above the Hubble scale and affect the predicted observables of many models like chaotic inflation and hybrid inflation. If, on the other hand, moduli stabilization entails spontaneous supersymmetry breaking, there are non-decoupling effects like soft mass terms for the inflaton. By the example of chaotic inflation we show that a careful choice of parameters and initial conditions is necessary to reconcile large-field inflation with popular moduli stabilization schemes like KKLT stabilization or the Large Volume Scenario. Furthermore, we study the interplay of moduli stabilization and D-term inflation. If inflation is driven by a constant Fayet-Iliopoulos term, the back-reaction decouples but the gravitino mass in the vacuum is surprisingly constrained. For a field-dependent Fayet-Iliopoulos term associated with an anomalous U(1) symmetry we discuss a number of obstructions to realizing inflation. Moreover, we propose a way to evade them using a new mechanism for supersymmetric moduli stabilization with world

  17. SPIDER: Probing the Early Universe with a Suborbital Polarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraisse, Aurélien A.; SPIDER Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    SPIDER is a balloon-borne polarimeter designed to detect a divergence-free polarization pattern ("B-modes") in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). In the inflationary scenario, the spectrum of the tensor perturbations that generate this signal is proportional to that of the primordial scalar perturbations through the tensor-to-scalar ratio r. The expected level of systematic error in the SPIDER instrument is significantly below the amplitude of an interesting cosmological B-mode signal with r=0.03. An optimized scanning strategy enables us to minimize uncertainty in the reconstruction of the Stokes parameters used to characterize the CMB, while providing access to a relatively wide range of angular scales. In the SPIDER field, the polarized emission from interstellar dust is as bright or brighter than the cosmological r=0.03 B-mode signal at all SPIDER frequencies (90, 150, and 280 GHz), a situation similar to that found in the "Southern Hole." Despite this foreground contamination, two 20-day flights of the SPIDER instrument will constrain the amplitude of the B-mode signal to rAPRA-NNX07AL64G), the National Science Foundation (ANT-1043515), the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, and the David and Lucile Packard Foundation. Support in Canada is provided by NSERC, the Canadian Space Agency, the Canada Foundation for Innovation, and CIFAR.

  18. Early universe cosmology. In supersymmetric extensions of the standard model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, Jochen Peter

    2012-03-19

    In this thesis we investigate possible connections between cosmological inflation and leptogenesis on the one side and particle physics on the other side. We work in supersymmetric extensions of the Standard Model. A key role is played by the right-handed sneutrino, the superpartner of the right-handed neutrino involved in the type I seesaw mechanism. We study a combined model of inflation and non-thermal leptogenesis that is a simple extension of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) with conserved R-parity, where we add three right-handed neutrino super fields. The inflaton direction is given by the imaginary components of the corresponding scalar component fields, which are protected from the supergravity (SUGRA) {eta}-problem by a shift symmetry in the Kaehler potential. We discuss the model first in a globally supersymmetric (SUSY) and then in a supergravity context and compute the inflationary predictions of the model. We also study reheating and non-thermal leptogenesis in this model. A numerical simulation shows that shortly after the waterfall phase transition that ends inflation, the universe is dominated by right-handed sneutrinos and their out-of-equilibrium decay can produce the desired matter-antimatter asymmetry. Using a simplified time-averaged description, we derive analytical expressions for the model predictions. Combining the results from inflation and leptogenesis allows us to constrain the allowed parameter space from two different directions, with implications for low energy neutrino physics. As a second thread of investigation, we discuss a generalisation of the inflationary model discussed above to include gauge non-singlet fields as inflatons. This is motivated by the fact that in left-right symmetric, supersymmetric Grand Unified Theories (SUSY GUTs), like SUSY Pati-Salam unification or SUSY SO(10) GUTs, the righthanded (s)neutrino is an indispensable ingredient and does not have to be put in by hand as in the MSSM. We discuss

  19. Early universe cosmology. In supersymmetric extensions of the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, Jochen Peter

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis we investigate possible connections between cosmological inflation and leptogenesis on the one side and particle physics on the other side. We work in supersymmetric extensions of the Standard Model. A key role is played by the right-handed sneutrino, the superpartner of the right-handed neutrino involved in the type I seesaw mechanism. We study a combined model of inflation and non-thermal leptogenesis that is a simple extension of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) with conserved R-parity, where we add three right-handed neutrino super fields. The inflaton direction is given by the imaginary components of the corresponding scalar component fields, which are protected from the supergravity (SUGRA) η-problem by a shift symmetry in the Kaehler potential. We discuss the model first in a globally supersymmetric (SUSY) and then in a supergravity context and compute the inflationary predictions of the model. We also study reheating and non-thermal leptogenesis in this model. A numerical simulation shows that shortly after the waterfall phase transition that ends inflation, the universe is dominated by right-handed sneutrinos and their out-of-equilibrium decay can produce the desired matter-antimatter asymmetry. Using a simplified time-averaged description, we derive analytical expressions for the model predictions. Combining the results from inflation and leptogenesis allows us to constrain the allowed parameter space from two different directions, with implications for low energy neutrino physics. As a second thread of investigation, we discuss a generalisation of the inflationary model discussed above to include gauge non-singlet fields as inflatons. This is motivated by the fact that in left-right symmetric, supersymmetric Grand Unified Theories (SUSY GUTs), like SUSY Pati-Salam unification or SUSY SO(10) GUTs, the righthanded (s)neutrino is an indispensable ingredient and does not have to be put in by hand as in the MSSM. We discuss the

  20. Early Wheel Train Damage Detection Using Wireless Sensor Network Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazilah, A. F. M.; Azemi, S. N.; Azremi, A. A. H.; Soh, P. J.; Kamarudin, L. M.

    2018-03-01

    Antenna for a wireless sensor network for early wheel trains damage detection has successfully developed and fabricated with the aim to minimize the risk and increase the safety guaranty for train. Current antenna design is suffered in gain and big in size. For the sensor, current existing sensor only detect when the wheel malfunction. Thus, a compact microstrip patch antenna with operating frequency at 2.45GHz is design with high gain of 4.95dB will attach to the wireless sensor device. Simulation result shows that the antenna is working at frequency 2.45GHz and the return loss at -34.46dB are in a good agreement. The result also shows the good radiation pattern and almost ideal VSWR which is 1.04. The Arduino Nano, LM35DZ and ESP8266-07 Wi-Fi module is applied to the core system with capability to sense the temperature and send the data wirelessly to the cloud. An android application has been created to monitor the temperature reading based on the real time basis. The mainly focuses for the future improvement is by minimize the size of the antenna in order to make in more compact. In addition, upgrade an android application that can collect the raw data from cloud and make an alarm system to alert the loco pilot.

  1. Early Oscillation Detection for DC/DC Converter Fault Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bright L.

    2011-01-01

    The electrical power system of a spacecraft plays a very critical role for space mission success. Such a modern power system may contain numerous hybrid DC/DC converters both inside the power system electronics (PSE) units and onboard most of the flight electronics modules. One of the faulty conditions for DC/DC converter that poses serious threats to mission safety is the random occurrence of oscillation related to inherent instability characteristics of the DC/DC converters and design deficiency of the power systems. To ensure the highest reliability of the power system, oscillations in any form shall be promptly detected during part level testing, system integration tests, flight health monitoring, and on-board fault diagnosis. The popular gain/phase margin analysis method is capable of predicting stability levels of DC/DC converters, but it is limited only to verification of designs and to part-level testing on some of the models. This method has to inject noise signals into the control loop circuitry as required, thus, interrupts the DC/DC converter's normal operation and increases risks of degrading and damaging the flight unit. A novel technique to detect oscillations at early stage for flight hybrid DC/DC converters was developed.

  2. Screening for early detection of radiation-associated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ron, E.; Modan, B.; Lubin, E.

    1984-01-01

    In the 1950s, approximately 20,000 Israeli children received scalp irradiation as treatment for tinea capitis (ringworm of the scalp). To evaluate the necessity and feasibility of early screening of these individuals for thyroid cancer, a small pilot program was undertaken. The examination consisted of a thorough palpation of the thyroid gland and the surrounding area. A sup(99m)Tc thyroid scan and thyroid function tests were performed on individuals in whom palpation suggested a nodular abnormality. A multidisciplinary committee then made a recommendation for or against surgery. A total of 443 persons were screened, and nodular abnormalities of the thyroid were detected in 24 (5.4%). Of these persons, nine displayed symptomatology or reported knowledge of a thyroid condition; despite this, three of them were not receiving treatment. This left 18 subjects - 15 new cases and 3 previously untreated patients - needing follow-up care. Altogether nine persons were recommended for surgery, but one refused. All eight of the excised lesions were benign: four colloid nodules and four adenomas. While the screening program was feasible, the fact that no cancers were detected suggested that in a population exposed to a very low dose of radiation, thyroid screening may not be justified on a large scale.

  3. Vessel and oil spill early detection using COSMO satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revollo, Natalia V.; Delrieux, Claudio A.

    2017-10-01

    Oil spillage is one of the most common sources of environmental damage in places where coastal wild life is found in natural reservoirs. This is especially the case in the Patagonian coast, with a littoral more than 5000 km long and a surface above a million and half square km. In addition, furtive fishery activities in Argentine waters are depleting the food supplies of several species, altering the ecological equilibrium. For this reason, early oil spills and vessel detection is an imperative surveillance task for environmental and governmental authorities. However, given the huge geographical extension, human assisted monitoring is unfeasible, and therefore real time remote sensing technologies are the only operative and economically feasible solution. In this work we describe the theoretical foundations and implementation details of a system specifically designed to take advantage of the SAR imagery delivered by two satellite constellations (the SAOCOM mission, developed by the Argentine Space Agency, and the COSMO mission, developed by the Italian Space Agency), to provide real-time detection of vessels and oil spills. The core of the system is based on pattern recognition over a statistical characterization of the texture patterns arising in the positive and negative conditions (i.e., vessel, oil, or plain sea surfaces). Training patterns were collected from a large number of previously reported contacts tagged by experts in the National Commission on Space Activities (CONAE). The resulting system performs well above the sensitivity and specificity of other avalilable systems.

  4. [Early detection of occupational skin diseases in sewer workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, V; Lauffer, F; Fincan, Y; Biedermann, T; Zink, A

    2018-04-25

    Skin diseases affect 30-70% of the world population, and globally, skin cancer rates are continuously increasing. In this respect, prevention programs and early detection of skin diseases are of particular importance. To screen sewer workers for skin diseases with regard to their work-related risk. Employees of the municipal utilities in Munich (Münchner Stadtentwässerung) underwent a whole-body examination of the skin, conducted by two dermatologists. In addition, all employees completed a paper-based questionnaire on risk behavior and preventive measures. We examined 81 employees (79 men, 2 women, mean age 45.7 ± 9.5 years). Skin lesions in need of treatment were found in 30.9% (n = 25): the most frequent diagnosis was mycosis pedis (16.1%). In addition, one employee was diagnosed with basal cell carcinoma and two with actinic keratoses. According to the questionnaire, 43.5% of the employees had undergone a physician-led skin cancer screening in the past, whereas sun-protection practices were rarely applied. According to our findings, employee skin cancer screening seems to be beneficial for the detection of work-related skin diseases and is associated with a high participation rate. Furthermore, the study suggests that sewer workers have a high rate of mycosis pedis, possibly a work-related effect.

  5. PHI in the Early Detection of Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchsova, Radka; Topolcan, Ondrej; Windrichova, Jindra; Hora, Milan; Dolejsova, Olga; Pecen, Ladislav; Kasik, Petr; Novak, Jaroslav; Casova, Miroslava; Smejkal, Jiri

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate changes in the serum levels of prostate specific antigen (PSA), %free PSA and -2proPSA biomarkers, and prostate health index (PHI) in the diagnostic algorithm of early prostate cancer. The Immunoanalytical Laboratory of the University Hospital in Pilsen examined sera from 263 patients being treated at the Hospital's Urology Department with suspected prostate cancer who had undergone biopsies and were divided into a benign and malignant group. The monitored biomarkers were measured using chemiluminescence. All statistical analyses were calculated using the SAS software. We found statistically significantly increased levels of -2proPSA, PHI and PSA and decreased levels of %freePSA in patients diagnosed with prostate cancer by prostate biopsy vs. patients with benign prostatic hypertrophy (median values: -2proPSA: 16 vs. 21 ng/l, PHI: 35 vs. 62, total PSA: 7.2 vs. 7.7 μg/l and %free PSA: 16.7 vs. 11.7%). Receiver operating characteristic curves showed the best performance for PHI compared to other markers. The assessment of -2proPSA and the calculation of PHI appear to be of great benefit for a more accurate differential diagnosis of benign hyperplasia and prostate cancer. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  6. Kick Detection at the Bit: Early Detection via Low Cost Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tost, Brian [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States). Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE); Rose, Kelly [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States); Aminzadeh, Fred [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering; Ante, Magdalene A. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering; Huerta, Nicolas [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Formation fluid influxes (i.e. kicks) pose persistent challenges and operational costs during drilling operations. Implications of kicks range in scale but cumulatively result in substantial costs that affect drilling safety, environment, schedule, and infrastructure. Early kick detection presents a low-cost, easily adopted solution for avoiding well control challenges associated with kicks near the bit. Borehole geophysical tools used during the drilling process as part of the logging-while-drilling (LWD) and measurement-while-drilling (MWD) provide the advantage of offering real-time downhole data. LWD/MWD collect data on both the annulus and borehole wall. The annular data are normally treated as background, and are filtered out to isolate the formation measurements. Because kicks will change the local physical properties of annular fluids, bottom-hole measurements are among the first indicators that a formation fluid has invaded the wellbore. This report describes and validates a technique for using the annular portion of LWD/MWD data to facilitate early kick detection using first order principles. The detection technique leverages data from standard and cost-effective technologies that are typically implemented during well drilling, such as MWD/LWD data in combination with mud-pulse telemetry for data transmission.

  7. STAR FORMATION IN THE EARLY UNIVERSE: BEYOND THE TIP OF THE ICEBERG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanvir, N. R.; Wiersema, K.; O' Brien, P. T.; Starling, R. L. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Levan, A. J.; Stanway, E. R. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Fruchter, A. S.; Misra, K.; Graham, J. F. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Fynbo, J. P. U.; Hjorth, J.; Watson, D. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark); Bremer, M. N. [HH Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Rhoads, J. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Jakobsson, P. [Centre for Astrophysics and Cosmology, Science Institute, University of Iceland, Dunhagi 5, 107 Reykjavik (Iceland); Bersier, D. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Natarajan, P. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511-208101 (United States); Greiner, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Castro-Tirado, A. J. [Instituto de Astrofsica de Andalucia (IAA-CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomia s/n, 18.008 Granada (Spain); Wijers, R. A. M. J., E-mail: nrt3@star.le.ac.uk [Astronomical Institute ' Anton Pannekoek' , P.O. Box 94248, 1090 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands); and others

    2012-07-20

    We present late-time Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging of the fields of six Swift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) lying at 5.0 {approx}< z {approx}< 9.5. Our data include very deep observations of the field of the most distant spectroscopically confirmed burst, GRB 090423, at z = 8.2. Using the precise positions afforded by their afterglows, we can place stringent limits on the luminosities of their host galaxies. In one case, that of GRB 060522 at z 5.11, there is a marginal excess of flux close to the GRB position which may be a detection of a host at a magnitude J{sub AB} Almost-Equal-To 28.5. None of the others are significantly detected, meaning that all the hosts lie below L* at their respective redshifts, with star formation rates (SFRs) {approx}< 4 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} in all cases. Indeed, stacking the five fields with WFC3-IR data, we conclude a mean SFR <0.17 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} per galaxy. These results support the proposition that the bulk of star formation, and hence integrated UV luminosity, at high redshifts arises in galaxies below the detection limits of deep-field observations. Making the reasonable assumption that GRB rate is proportional to UV luminosity at early times allows us to compare our limits with expectations based on galaxy luminosity functions (LFs) derived from the Hubble Ultra-Deep Field and other deep fields. We infer that an LF, which is evolving rapidly toward steeper faint-end slope ({alpha}) and decreasing characteristic luminosity (L*), as suggested by some other studies, is consistent with our observations, whereas a non-evolving LF shape is ruled out at {approx}> 90% confidence. Although it is not yet possible to make stronger statements, in the future, with larger samples and a fuller understanding of the conditions required for GRB production, studies like this hold great potential for probing the nature of star formation, the shape of the galaxy LF, and the supply of ionizing photons in the early universe.

  8. Spider: Probing the Early Universe with a Large-Scale CMB Polarization Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, William

    The standard dark-matter and dark-energy dominated cosmological model (LCDM) has proven to be remarkably successful in describing the current state and past evolution of the Universe. However, there remain significant uncertainties regarding the physical mechanisms that established the initial conditions upon which the LCDM predictions rely. Theories of cosmic genesis - the extremely high energy mechanisms that established these conditions - should be expected to provide a natural description of the nearly flat geometry of the Universe, the existence of super-horizon density correlations, and the adiabatic, Gaussian and nearly scale-invariant nature of the observed primordial density perturbations. The primary objective of Spider is to subject models of the early Universe to observational test, probing fundamental physics at energy scales far beyond the reach of terrestrial particle accelerators. The main scientific result will be to characterize, or place stringent upper limits on the level of the odd-parity polarization of the CMB. In the context of the inflationary paradigm, Spider will confirm or exclude the predictions of the simplest single-field inflationary models near the Lyth bound, characterized by tensor to scalar ratios r 0.03. While viable alternatives to the inflationary paradigm are an active and important area of investigation, including string cosmologies and cyclic models, early Universe models described by inflationary periods are now widely accepted as the underlying cause behind much of what we observe in cosmology today. Nevertheless, we know very little about the mechanism that would drive inflation or the energy scale at which it occurred, and the paradigm faces significant questions about the viability of the framework as a scientific theory. Fortunately, inflationary paradigms and alternative theories offer distinct predictions regarding the statistical properties of the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation. Spider will use measurements

  9. On the detection of early osteoarthritis by quantitative microscopic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelstaedt, Daniel John

    measurements. These studies demonstrate the ability to use two quantitative microscopic imaging techniques, microCT and microMRI, to detect microscopic changes in collagen and GAG from healthy, biochemically degraded, and early OA cartilage. The capability for microscopic imaging to detect alterations at the earliest stages of OA will ultimately improve the understanding of degradation and may help aid in the detection for the prevention of disease and repair of damaged cartilage.

  10. Early Detection and Identification of Anomalies in Chemical Regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figedy, Stefan; Smiesko, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a brief information about the basic features of a newly developed diagnostic system for early detection and identification of anomalies incoming in the water chemistry regime of the primary and secondary circuit of VVER-440 reactor. This system, called SACHER (System of Analysis of CHEmical Regime) is being installed within the major modernization project at the NPP-V2 Bohunice in the Slovak Republic. System SACHER has been developed fully in MATLAB environment. The availability of prompt information about the chemical conditions of the primary and secondary circuit is very important to prevent the undue corrosion and deposit build-up. The typical chemical information systems that exist and work at the NPPs give the user values of the measured quantities together with their time trends and other derived values. It is then the experienced user's role to recognize the situation the monitored process is in and make the subsequent decisions and take the measures. The SACHER system, based on the computational intelligence techniques, inserts the elements of intelligence into the overall chemical information system. It has the modular structure with the following most important modules: normality module- its aim is to recognize that the process starts to deviate from the normal one and serves as the early warning to the staff to take the adequate measures, fuzzy identification module- its aim is to identify the anomaly on the basis of a set of fuzzy rules, time-prediction module- its aim is to predict the behavior/trend of selected chemical quantities 8 hours ahead in 15 min step from the moment of request, validation module- its aim is to validate the measured quantities, trend module- this module serves for showing the trends of the acquired quantities

  11. Long-term follow-up of the TIPS early detection in psychosis study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik; Hegelstad, Wenche ten Welden; Larsen, Tor Ketil

    2012-01-01

    ill patients dropping out of the study in the usual-detection area. Except for higher levels of excitative symptoms in the early-detection area, there were no symptom differences between the groups. Early-detection recovery rates were higher largely because of higher employment rates for patients...

  12. Social Network Sensors for Early Detection of Contagious Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakis, Nicholas A.; Fowler, James H.

    2010-01-01

    Current methods for the detection of contagious outbreaks give contemporaneous information about the course of an epidemic at best. It is known that individuals near the center of a social network are likely to be infected sooner during the course of an outbreak, on average, than those at the periphery. Unfortunately, mapping a whole network to identify central individuals who might be monitored for infection is typically very difficult. We propose an alternative strategy that does not require ascertainment of global network structure, namely, simply monitoring the friends of randomly selected individuals. Such individuals are known to be more central. To evaluate whether such a friend group could indeed provide early detection, we studied a flu outbreak at Harvard College in late 2009. We followed 744 students who were either members of a group of randomly chosen individuals or a group of their friends. Based on clinical diagnoses, the progression of the epidemic in the friend group occurred 13.9 days (95% C.I. 9.9–16.6) in advance of the randomly chosen group (i.e., the population as a whole). The friend group also showed a significant lead time (pepidemic, a full 46 days before the peak in daily incidence in the population as a whole. This sensor method could provide significant additional time to react to epidemics in small or large populations under surveillance. The amount of lead time will depend on features of the outbreak and the network at hand. The method could in principle be generalized to other biological, psychological, informational, or behavioral contagions that spread in networks. PMID:20856792

  13. An Extreme Protocluster of Luminous Dusty Starbursts in the Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oteo, I.; Ivison, R. J.; Dunne, L.; Manilla-Robles, A.; Maddox, S.; Lewis, A. J. R.; de Zotti, G.; Bremer, M.; Clements, D. L.; Cooray, A.; Dannerbauer, H.; Eales, S.; Greenslade, J.; Omont, A.; Perez–Fournón, I.; Riechers, D.; Scott, D.; van der Werf, P.; Weiss, A.; Zhang, Z.-Y.

    2018-03-01

    We report the identification of an extreme protocluster of galaxies in the early universe whose core (nicknamed Distant Red Core, DRC, because of its very red color in Herschel SPIRE bands) is formed by at least 10 dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs), spectroscopically confirmed to lie at {z}spec}=4.002 via detection of [C I](1–0), 12CO(6–5), 12CO(4–3), 12CO(2–1), and {{{H}}}2{{O}}({2}11{--}{2}02) emission lines with ALMA and ATCA. These DSFGs are distributed over a 260 {kpc}× 310 {kpc} region and have a collective obscured star formation rate (SFR) of ∼ 6500 {M}ȯ {yr}}-1, considerably higher than those seen before in any protocluster at z≳ 4. Most of the star formation is taking place in luminous DSFGs since no Lyα emitters are detected in the protocluster core, apart from a Lyα blob located next to one of the DRC components, extending over 60 {kpc}. The total obscured SFR of the protocluster could rise to {SFR}∼ {{14,400}} {M}ȯ {yr}}-1 if all the members of an overdensity of bright DSFGs discovered around DRC in a wide-field Large APEX BOlometer CAmera 870 μm image are part of the same structure. [C I](1–0) emission reveals that DRC has a total molecular gas mass of at least {M}{{{H}}2}∼ 6.6× {10}11 {M}ȯ , and its total halo mass could be as high as ∼ 4.4× {10}13 {M}ȯ , indicating that it is the likely progenitor of a cluster at least as massive as Coma at z = 0.

  14. Breast cancer early detection and quality assurance in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotelo, Elena D.

    2001-01-01

    In Uruguay, breast cancer incidence is 76.41 per 100.000, and death rate is 25.22 per 100.000. Since 1998, there is a National Programme of breast cancer early detection for females over forty years of age. We studied the state of the mammography facilities throughout the country. There are 657.000 female over forty and 51 mammography X-ray equipment. The Programme includes 2 mammography X-ray equipment in mobile units in the capital and 18 in hospitals all around the country. There are taken 120.000 mammographic exams per year, 15.000 of them belong to women who had participated in the Programme. We found that no mammography facility has established Quality Assurance Programmes. Despite the results of this study showed that is suitable the number and age of the mammography X-ray equipment, the lack of Quality Assurance Programmes will produce, in a short time, a negative cost-benefit balance. The consequences will be serious social, human an economical damages. (author)

  15. Nanotechnology-Based Detection of Novel microRNAs for Early Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0157 TITLE: Nanotechnology -Based Detection of Novel microRNAs for Early Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Nanotechnology -Based Detection of Novel microRNAs for Early Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...identify novel differentially expressed miRNAs in the body fluids (blood, urine, etc.) for an early detection of PCa. Advances in nanotechnology and

  16. Learning and Developing as a University Teacher: Narratives of Early Career Academics in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmik, Marvi; Karm, Mari; Lepp, Liina

    2013-01-01

    In recent years the higher education context in Estonia, as in most European countries, has changed a lot. All changes have an impact on university teachers' practice and their work organisation, and are presenting new challenges. The current research aims at developing an understanding of Estonian early career academics' professional identity by…

  17. Matter-antimatter separation in the early universe by rotating black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    Consideration of the effect of rotating black holes evaporating early in the universe shows that they would have produced oppositely directed neutrino and antineutrino currents, which push matter and antimatter apart. This separation mechanism is, however, too feeble to account for a present baryon-to-photon ratio of 10 to the -9th, and has no significant observational consequences.

  18. Leveraging biospecimen resources for discovery or validation of markers for early cancer detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schully, Sheri D; Carrick, Danielle M; Mechanic, Leah E; Srivastava, Sudhir; Anderson, Garnet L; Baron, John A; Berg, Christine D; Cullen, Jennifer; Diamandis, Eleftherios P; Doria-Rose, V Paul; Goddard, Katrina A B; Hankinson, Susan E; Kushi, Lawrence H; Larson, Eric B; McShane, Lisa M; Schilsky, Richard L; Shak, Steven; Skates, Steven J; Urban, Nicole; Kramer, Barnett S; Khoury, Muin J; Ransohoff, David F

    2015-04-01

    Validation of early detection cancer biomarkers has proven to be disappointing when initial promising claims have often not been reproducible in diagnostic samples or did not extend to prediagnostic samples. The previously reported lack of rigorous internal validity (systematic differences between compared groups) and external validity (lack of generalizability beyond compared groups) may be effectively addressed by utilizing blood specimens and data collected within well-conducted cohort studies. Cohort studies with prediagnostic specimens (eg, blood specimens collected prior to development of clinical symptoms) and clinical data have recently been used to assess the validity of some early detection biomarkers. With this background, the Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences (DCCPS) and the Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) held a joint workshop in August 2013. The goal was to advance early detection cancer research by considering how the infrastructure of cohort studies that already exist or are being developed might be leveraged to include appropriate blood specimens, including prediagnostic specimens, ideally collected at periodic intervals, along with clinical data about symptom status and cancer diagnosis. Three overarching recommendations emerged from the discussions: 1) facilitate sharing of existing specimens and data, 2) encourage collaboration among scientists developing biomarkers and those conducting observational cohort studies or managing healthcare systems with cohorts followed over time, and 3) conduct pilot projects that identify and address key logistic and feasibility issues regarding how appropriate specimens and clinical data might be collected at reasonable effort and cost within existing or future cohorts. © Published by Oxford University Press 2015.

  19. Maltreatment in early childhood: a scoping review of prevention, detection and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Lefio Celedón

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To identify and synthesize the best available evidence on the effectiveness of interventions for universal prevention, detection and treatment of early childhood maltreatment (0-4 years. Design. Scoping Review. Data sources. MEDLINE, LILACS, PsycINFO, Psyclist, SciELO, ISI Web of Knowledge, Science Direct, EBSCO, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, DARE, Google Scholar and UNICEF Base. Methods. A variety of keywords were used to identify quantitative experimental and observational studies on detection, prevention and treatment strategies in different situations of child maltreatment. Sexual abuse was excluded. The search spanned from 2002 to 2012, in English and Spanish. Results. Of 105 articles, 36 met the selection criteria. In prevention, the best evaluated strategies were parenting programs based on cognitive or cognitive-behavioral approach and interactive learning strategies. In detection, only two instruments were identified with optimum specificity and positive predictive value. In treatment, a variety of treatment strategies were identified with favorable effects on behavioral, functional and psycho affective indicators. The population relevance of these interventions is unclear, as the differential effectiveness of these therapeutic approaches. Conclusions. There are many child maltreatment prevention strategies at the individual and family level. The instruments used for detection are not reliable for use at the collective level. Insofar as therapy, not enough evidence was found both in quality and quantity to favor one intervention over another. It is recommended to understand the problem from the public health perspective and to generate multisectoral and interdisciplinary approaches.

  20. Cosmological Imprints of a Generalized Chaplygin Gas Model for the Early Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouhmadi-Lopez, Mariam; /Lisbon, CENTRA; Chen, Pisin; /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Liu, Yen-Wei; /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U.

    2012-06-06

    We propose a phenomenological model for the early universe where there is a smooth transition between an early quintessence phase and a radiation-dominated era. The matter content is modeled by an appropriately modified Chaplygin gas for the early universe. We constrain the model observationally by mapping the primordial power spectrum of the scalar perturbations to the latest data of WMAP7. We compute as well the spectrum of the primordial gravitational waves as would be measured today. We show that the high frequencies region of the spectrum depends on the free parameter of the model and most importantly this region of the spectrum can be within the reach of future gravitational waves detectors.

  1. Microarrays for Universal Detection and Identification of Phytoplasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Mogens; Nyskjold, Henriette; Bertaccini, Assunta

    2013-01-01

    Detection and identification of phytoplasmas is a laborious process often involving nested PCR followed by restriction enzyme analysis and fine-resolution gel electrophoresis. To improve throughput, other methods are needed. Microarray technology offers a generic assay that can potentially detect...... and differentiate all types of phytoplasmas in one assay. The present protocol describes a microarray-based method for identification of phytoplasmas to 16Sr group level....

  2. Estimation for aerial detection effectiveness with cooperation efficiency factors of early-warning aircraft in early-warning detection SoS under BSC framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feng; Hu, Xiaofeng; He, Xiaoyuan; Guo, Rui; Li, Kaiming; Yang, Lu

    2017-11-01

    In the military field, the performance evaluation of early-warning aircraft deployment or construction is always an important problem needing to be explored. As an effective approach of enterprise management and performance evaluation, Balanced Score Card (BSC) attracts more and more attentions and is studied more and more widely all over the world. It can also bring feasible ideas and technical approaches for studying the issue of the performance evaluation of the deployment or construction of early-warning aircraft which is the important component in early-warning detection system of systems (SoS). Therefore, the deep explored researches are carried out based on the previously research works. On the basis of the characteristics of space exploration and aerial detection effectiveness of early-warning detection SoS and the cardinal principle of BSC are analyzed simply, and the performance evaluation framework of the deployment or construction of early-warning aircraft is given, under this framework, aimed at the evaluation issue of aerial detection effectiveness of early-warning detection SoS with the cooperation efficiency factors of the early-warning aircraft and other land based radars, the evaluation indexes are further designed and the relative evaluation model is further established, especially the evaluation radar chart being also drawn to obtain the evaluation results from a direct sight angle. Finally, some practical computer simulations are launched to prove the validity and feasibility of the research thinking and technologic approaches which are proposed in the paper.

  3. Observing the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation: A Unique Window on the Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinshaw, Gary; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The cosmic microwave background radiation is the remnant heat from the Big Bang. It provides us with a unique probe of conditions in the early universe, long before any organized structures had yet formed. The anisotropy in the radiation's brightness yields important clues about primordial structure and additionally provides a wealth of information about the physics,of the early universe. Within the framework of inflationary dark matter models observations of the anisotropy on sub-degree angular scales will reveal the signatures of acoustic oscillations of the photon-baryon fluid at a redshift of approx. 1100. The validity of inflationary models will be tested and, if agreement is found, accurate values for most of the key cosmological parameters will result. If disagreement is found, we will need to rethink our basic ideas about the physics of the early universe. I will present an overview of the physical processes at work in forming the anisotropy and discuss what we have already learned from current observations. I will conclude with a brief overview of the recently launched Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) mission which will observe the anisotropy over the full sky with 0.21 degree angular resolution. At the time of this meeting, MAP will have just arrived at the L2 Lagrange point, marking the start of its observing campaign. The MAP hardware is being produced by Goddard in partnership with Princeton University.

  4. The Progression and Early detection of Subclinical Atherosclerosis (PESA) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández-Ortiz, Antonio; Jiménez-Borreguero, L Jesús; Peñalvo, José L

    2013-01-01

    The presence of subclinical atherosclerosis is a likely predictor of cardiovascular events; however, factors associated with the early stages and progression of atherosclerosis are poorly defined.......The presence of subclinical atherosclerosis is a likely predictor of cardiovascular events; however, factors associated with the early stages and progression of atherosclerosis are poorly defined....

  5. Early detection and intervention in first-episode schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tor Ketil; Friis, Svein; Haahr, U

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the literature on early intervention in psychosis and to evaluate relevant studies. METHOD: Early intervention was defined as intervention in the prodromal phase (primary prevention) and intervention after the onset of psychosis, i.e. shortening of duration of untreated psych...

  6. Molecular biomarker set for early detection of ovarian cancer

    KAUST Repository

    Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2015-06-16

    Embodiments of the present invention concern methods and compositions related to detection of ovarian cancer, including detection of the stage of ovarian cancer, in some cases. In particular, the invention encompasses use of expression of TFAP2A and in some embodiments CA125 and/or E2F5 to identify ovarian cancer, including detecting mRNA and/or protein levels of the respective gene products. Kits for detection of ovarian cancer are also described.

  7. Molecular biomarker set for early detection of ovarian cancer

    KAUST Repository

    Bajic, Vladimir B.; Kaur, Mandeep

    2015-01-01

    Embodiments of the present invention concern methods and compositions related to detection of ovarian cancer, including detection of the stage of ovarian cancer, in some cases. In particular, the invention encompasses use of expression of TFAP2A and in some embodiments CA125 and/or E2F5 to identify ovarian cancer, including detecting mRNA and/or protein levels of the respective gene products. Kits for detection of ovarian cancer are also described.

  8. A novel approach for the detection of early gastric cancer: fluorescence spectroscopy of gastric juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Kai; Zhou, Li Ya; Lin, San Ren; Li, Yuan; Chen, Mo; Geng, Qiu Ming; Li, Yu Wen

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of fluorescence spectroscopy of gastric juice for early gastric cancer (EGC) screening. Gastric juice was collected from 101 participants who underwent endoscopy in the Outpatient Endoscopy Center of Peking University Third Hospital. The participants were divided into three groups: the normal mucosa or chronic non-atrophic gastritis (NM-CNAG) group (n = 35), advanced gastric cancer (AGC) group (n = 33) and EGC group (n = 33). Fluorescence spectroscopic analysis was performed in all the gastric juice samples and the maximum fluorescence intensity of the first peak (P1 FI) was measured. The mean fluorescence intensity of P1 FI of gastric juice in AGC (92.1 ± 10.7) and EGC (90.8 ± 12.0) groups was significantly higher than that in the NM-CNAG group (55.7 ± 7.5) (AGC vs NM-CNAG, P = 0.006 and EGC vs NM-CNAG, P = 0.015, respectively). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves for the detection of AGC and EGC were 0.681 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.553-0.810, P = 0.010) and 0.655 (95% CI 0.522-0.787, P = 0.028). With the P1 FI of ≥47.7, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for detecting EGC were 69.7%, 57.1% and 63.2%, respectively. The enhancement of P1 FI of gastric juice occurs at the early stage of gastric cancer. Fluorescence spectroscopy of gastric juice may be used as a novel screening tool for the early detection of gastric cancer. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Digestive Diseases © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd and Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine.

  9. Direct detection of early-stage cancers using circulating tumor DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phallen, Jillian; Sausen, Mark; Adleff, Vilmos

    2017-01-01

    Early detection and intervention are likely to be the most effective means for reducing morbidity and mortality of human cancer. However, development of methods for noninvasive detection of early-stage tumors has remained a challenge. We have developed an approach called targeted error correction...

  10. Monitoring of lipoxygenase-related plant emission for early detection of drought stress in greenhouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takayama, K.; Jansen, R.M.C.; Verstappen, F.W.A.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Early detection of plant stress is a key to effective plant management for crop production. Drought stress is a common abiotic stress in crop production and early detection of drought stress allows us to improve water usage effi ciency and crop quality by demandbased irrigation. This study

  11. Advancing early detection of autism spectrum disorder by applying an integrated two-stage screening approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterling, Iris J.; Wensing, Michel; Swinkels, Sophie H.; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan; Visser, Janne C.; Woudenberg, Tim; Minderaa, Ruud; Steenhuis, Mark-Peter; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    Background: Few field trials exist on the impact of implementing guidelines for the early detection of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The aims of the present study were to develop and evaluate a clinically relevant integrated early detection programme based on the two-stage screening approach of

  12. Predictive algorithms for early detection of retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piermarocchi, Stefano; Bini, Silvia; Martini, Ferdinando; Berton, Marianna; Lavini, Anna; Gusson, Elena; Marchini, Giorgio; Padovani, Ezio Maria; Macor, Sara; Pignatto, Silvia; Lanzetta, Paolo; Cattarossi, Luigi; Baraldi, Eugenio; Lago, Paola

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate sensitivity, specificity and the safest cut-offs of three predictive algorithms (WINROP, ROPScore and CHOP ROP) for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). A retrospective study was conducted in three centres from 2012 to 2014; 445 preterms with gestational age (GA) ≤ 30 weeks and/or birthweight (BW) ≤ 1500 g, and additional unstable cases, were included. No-ROP, mild and type 1 ROP were categorized. The algorithms were analysed for infants with all parameters (GA, BW, weight gain, oxygen therapy, blood transfusion) needed for calculation (399 babies). Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) was identified in both eyes in 116 patients (26.1%), and 44 (9.9%) had type 1 ROP. Gestational age and BW were significantly lower in ROP group compared with no-ROP subjects (GA: 26.7 ± 2.2 and 30.2 ± 1.9, respectively, p < 0.0001; BW: 839.8 ± 287.0 and 1288.1 ± 321.5 g, respectively, p = 0.0016). Customized alarms of ROPScore and CHOP ROP correctly identified all infants having any ROP or type 1 ROP. WINROP missed 19 cases of ROP, including three type 1 ROP. ROPScore and CHOP ROP provided the best performances with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the detection of severe ROP of 0.93 (95% CI, 0.90-0.96, and 95% CI, 0.89-0.96, respectively), and WINROP obtained 0.83 (95% CI, 0.77-0.87). Median time from alarm to treatment was 11.1, 5.1 and 9.1 weeks, for WINROP, ROPScore and CHOP ROP, respectively. ROPScore and CHOP ROP showed 100% sensitivity to identify sight-threatening ROP. Predictive algorithms are a reliable tool for early identification of infants requiring referral to an ophthalmologist, for reorganizing resources and reducing stressful procedures to preterm babies. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. On the creation of scalar particles in an early stage of the Friedmann closed-universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Hideki; Nariai, Hidekazu.

    1982-03-01

    Under impetus of the two experimental studies on neutrinos by Reines-group and Lyubimov's, it has been shown by Zel'dovich et al. that the cosmological universe is closed, provided that the neutrino masses m sub(#betta#sub(i)) (i = e, μ, tau) satisfy the inequality μ/i m sub(#betta#sub(i))c 2 >= 20 ev. In a previous paper, the senior author dealt with the creation of scalar particles in an expanding universe with non-flat 3-space, but the case of a closed universe was practically ignored owing to the situation that the positive frequency part (in the sense of the author) of a quantized scalar field is not well-defined in that universe. In view of these circumstances, the creation of scalar particles in an early stage of the Friedmann closed-universe is searched for, on the supposition that the Fulling condition is preferable to define the positive frequency part in question near the early stage (as well as the later one). (author)

  14. The Effectiveness of Fraud Prevention and Detection Methods at Universities in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Zamzami, Faiz; Nusa, Nabella Duta; Timur, Rudi Prasetya

    2016-01-01

    Some cases of corruption have taken place in several universities in Indonesia. To prevent and handle the cases, internal auditors play pivotal roles in detecting and preventing fraud. Therefore, effective methods to detect and prevent fraud are needed. The methods are expected to set the appropriate measures to detect and prevent fraud effectively. This research proposed a question how the internal auditors perceive the effectiveness of fraud detection and prevention methods. The research ai...

  15. Promoting Early Detection of Breast Cancer and Care Strategies for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Canada1; University of Witwatersrand, South Africa2; Department Nursing ... decisions and choices about the most appropriate health care for their ... likely help to improve care processes, the quality of clinical decisions and patient treatment.

  16. Markers for prediction and early detection of Pneumoconiosis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Murray, J

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available pathological mechanisms in the pathway from silica exposure to the development of silicosis have been elucidated. If scientifically acceptable existing biomarkers for silica dust exposure can be identified, industry could utilise these for the early...

  17. Tagless and universal biosensor for point detection of pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markelz, Andrea G.; Knab, Joseph R.; Chen, Jing-Yin; Cerne, John; Cox, William A.

    2004-09-01

    We demonstrate the use of terahertz time domain spectroscopy for determination of ligand binding for biomolecules. Vibrational modes associated with tertiary structure conformational motions lay in the THz frequency range. We examine the THz dielectric response for hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL): free and bound with tri-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. Transmission measurements on thin films show that there is a small change in the real part of the refractive index as a function of binding and a sizable decrease in the absorbance. A phenomenological model is used to determine the source of the absorbance change. A change in the vibrational mode density of states and net dipole moment changes will necessarily happen for all biomolecule-ligand binding, thus THz dielectric measurements may provide an universally applicable method to determine probe-target binding for biosensor applications.

  18. Baryogenesis, dark matter and the maximal temperature of the early universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchmueller, Wilfried

    2012-12-15

    Mechanisms for the generation of the matter-antimatter asymmetry and dark matter strongly depend on the reheating temperature T{sub R}, the maximal temperature reached in the early universe. Forthcoming results from the LHC, low energy experiments, astrophysical observations and the Planck satellite will significantly constrain baryogenesis and the nature of dark matter, and thereby provide valuable information about the very early hot universe. At present, a wide range of reheating temperatures is still consistent with observations. We illustrate possible origins of matter and dark matter with four examples: moduli decay, electroweak baryogenesis, leptogenesis in the {nu}MSM and thermal leptogenesis. Finally, we discuss the connection between baryogenesis, dark matter and inflation in the context of supersymmetric spontaneous B-L breaking.

  19. Baryogenesis, dark matter and the maximal temperature of the early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchmueller, Wilfried

    2012-12-01

    Mechanisms for the generation of the matter-antimatter asymmetry and dark matter strongly depend on the reheating temperature T R , the maximal temperature reached in the early universe. Forthcoming results from the LHC, low energy experiments, astrophysical observations and the Planck satellite will significantly constrain baryogenesis and the nature of dark matter, and thereby provide valuable information about the very early hot universe. At present, a wide range of reheating temperatures is still consistent with observations. We illustrate possible origins of matter and dark matter with four examples: moduli decay, electroweak baryogenesis, leptogenesis in the νMSM and thermal leptogenesis. Finally, we discuss the connection between baryogenesis, dark matter and inflation in the context of supersymmetric spontaneous B-L breaking.

  20. Inflaton and metric fluctuations in the early universe from a 5D vacuum state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Membiela, Agustin [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Funes 3350 (7600) Mar del Plata (Argentina)]. E-mail: membiela@argentina.com; Bellini, Mauricio [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Funes 3350 (7600) Mar del Plata (Argentina) and Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONICET) (Argentina)]. E-mail: mbellini@mdp.edu.ar

    2006-04-20

    In this Letter we complete a previously introduced formalism to study the gauge-invariant metric fluctuations from a noncompact Kaluza-Klein theory of gravity, to study the evolution of the early universe. The evolution of both, metric and inflaton field fluctuations are reciprocally related. We obtain that <{delta}{rho}>/{rho}{sub b} depends on the coupling of {phi} with {delta}{phi} and the spectral index of its spectrum is 0.9483

  1. Inflaton and metric fluctuations in the early universe from a 5D vacuum state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Membiela, Agustin; Bellini, Mauricio

    2006-04-01

    In this Letter we complete a previously introduced formalism to study the gauge-invariant metric fluctuations from a noncompact Kaluza Klein theory of gravity, to study the evolution of the early universe. The evolution of both, metric and inflaton field fluctuations are reciprocally related. We obtain that /ρ depends on the coupling of Φ with δφ and the spectral index of its spectrum is 0.9483

  2. Inflaton and metric fluctuations in the early universe from a 5D vacuum state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Membiela, Agustin; Bellini, Mauricio

    2006-01-01

    In this Letter we complete a previously introduced formalism to study the gauge-invariant metric fluctuations from a noncompact Kaluza-Klein theory of gravity, to study the evolution of the early universe. The evolution of both, metric and inflaton field fluctuations are reciprocally related. We obtain that /ρ b depends on the coupling of Φ with δφ and the spectral index of its spectrum is 0.9483 1 <1

  3. On the chaoticity of active-sterile neutrino oscillations in the early universe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braad, Poul-Erik; Hannestad, Steen

    2000-01-01

    We have investigated the evolution of the neutrino asymmetry in active-sterile neutrino oscillations in the early universe. We find that there are large regions of parameter space where the asymmetry is extremely sensitive to variations in the initial asymmetry as well as the external parameters ...... asymmetry is stochastic. We discuss the implications of our findings for Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) and the cosmic microwave background (CMB)....

  4. Were all white holes in the early Universe converted into black holes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, T.K.; Banerji, S.

    1991-01-01

    It has been claimed that in the early Universe any white hole must have been converted to a black hole. But taking the simple case of an expanding homogeneous dust sphere colliding with a homogeneous spherical shell of dust which are mutually noninteracting, we find that the mean motion of the combined system will be expanding or contracting to a distant observer according as the combined radius at the instant of collision is less than or greater than the Schwarzschild radius

  5. Efficient drilling problem detection. Early fault detection by the combination of physical models and artificial intelligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyboe, Roar

    2009-09-15

    The drilling of an oil or gas well is an expensive undertaking. Hence, it is not surprising that mistakes and accidents during drilling incur a high cost. Accidents could result in the loss of expensive equipment and subsequent delays setting back the operation for days or weeks and thus running up large bills on rig-time and personnel hours. Some types of accidents also pose a risk to the personnel or the environment. In this dissertation we study alarm systems which could give the driller an early warning of upcoming problems, and thus provide time to avoid these accidents. We explore alarm systems which combine advanced physical models of the well and drilling process with artificial intelligence and time series analysis. Finally, we determine the advantages as well as the challenges of this approach. It is our hope that this dissertation is accessible to both practitioners in machine learning and control engineering, as well as to petroleum engineers with a passing familiarity with machine learning. Hence this dissertation starts with a quick introduction to drilling problems and some terms from time series analysis and machine learning. We then briefly describe the theory of observer-based fault detection and isolation. Theories of supervisory control systems are also introduced, as these concern both the choice of algorithms and how AI-based alarm systems integrate with the rest of the operation. From chapter 6 and onward, the challenges to fault detection in drilling are discussed. We focus on clarifying what restrictions the available training data put on our choice of machine learning methods. In chapter 8 and 9, we propose ways to combine machine learning and observer-based fault detection. Experimental results are presented in chapter 10, before we end with concluding remarks in chapter 11. Our main conclusion, reflected in our experimental results, is that physical models and artificial intelligence can be combined to produce hybrid alarm systems that

  6. Is the Universe expanding? Fritz Zwicky and the early tired-light hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragh, Helge

    2017-04-01

    The recognition that the Universe is in a state of expansion is a milestone in modern astronomy and cosmology. The discovery dates from the early 1930s but was not unanimously accepted by either astronomers or physicists. The relativistic theory of the expanding Universe rested empirically on the redshift-distance law established by Edwin Hubble in 1929. However, although the theory offered a natural explanation of the observed galactic redshifts, these could be explained also on the assumption of a Static Universe. This was what Fritz Zwicky did when he introduced the idea of "tired light" in the fall of 1929. Hypotheses of a similar kind were proposed by several other scientists but their impact on mainstream astronomy and cosmology was limited. The paper offers a survey of tired-light hypotheses in the 1930s and briefly alludes to the later development.

  7. Supersonic gas streams enhance the formation of massive black holes in the early universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Shingo; Hosokawa, Takashi; Yoshida, Naoki; Kuiper, Rolf

    2017-09-29

    The origin of super-massive black holes in the early universe remains poorly understood. Gravitational collapse of a massive primordial gas cloud is a promising initial process, but theoretical studies have difficulty growing the black hole fast enough. We report numerical simulations of early black hole formation starting from realistic cosmological conditions. Supersonic gas motions left over from the Big Bang prevent early gas cloud formation until rapid gas condensation is triggered in a protogalactic halo. A protostar is formed in the dense, turbulent gas cloud, and it grows by sporadic mass accretion until it acquires 34,000 solar masses. The massive star ends its life with a catastrophic collapse to leave a black hole-a promising seed for the formation of a monstrous black hole. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  8. Improvements in diagnostic tools for early detection of psoriatic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Salvatore; Palazzi, Carlo; Gilio, Michele; Leccese, Pietro; Padula, Angela; Olivieri, Ignazio

    2016-11-01

    Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a heterogeneous chronic inflammatory disease characterized by a wide clinical spectrum. The early diagnosis of PsA is currently a challenging topic. Areas covered: The literature was extensively reviewed for studies addressing the topic area "diagnosis of psoriatic arthritis". This review will summarize improvements in diagnostic tools, especially referral to the rheumatologist, the role of patient history and clinical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging techniques in getting an early and correct diagnosis of PsA. Expert commentary: Due to the heterogeneity of its expression, PsA may be easily either overdiagnosed or underdiagnosed. A diagnosis of PsA should be taken into account every time a patient with psoriasis or a family history of psoriasis shows peripheral arthritis, especially if oligoarticular or involving the distal interphalangeal joints, enthesitis or dactylitis. Magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography are useful for diagnosing PsA early, particularly when isolated enthesitis or inflammatory spinal pain occur.

  9. Ground based THz Spectroscopy of Obscured Starbursts in the Early Universe enabled by the 2nd generation Redshift (z) & Early Universe Spectrometer (ZEUS-2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwas, Amit; Stacey, Gordon; Nikola, Thomas; Ferkinhoff, Carl; Parshley, Stephen; Schoenwald, Justin; Lamarche, Cody James; Higdon, James; Higdon, Sarah; Brisbin, Drew; Güesten, Rolf; Weiss, Axel; Menten, Karl; Irwin, Kent; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Niemack, Michael; Hilton, Gene; Hubmayr, Johannes; Amiri, Mandana; Halpern, Mark; Wiebe, Donald; Hasselfield, Matthew; Ade, Peter; Tucker, Carole

    2018-01-01

    Galaxies were surprisingly dusty in the early Universe, with more than half of the light emitted from stars being absorbed by dust within the system and re-radiated into far infrared (FIR, ~50-150μm) wavelengths. Dusty star forming galaxies (DSFGs) dominate the co-moving star formation rate density of the Universe that peaks around redshift, z~2, making it compelling to study them in rest frame FIR bands. From galaxies at z > 1, the FIR line emission from abundant ions like [O III], [C II] and [N II], are redshifted into the short sub-mm telluric windows. My thesis work is based on building and deploying the 2nd Generation Redshift (z) and Early Universe Spectrometer (ZEUS-2), a long-slit, echelle grating spectrometer optimized to study broad (Δv = 300km/s) spectral lines from galaxies in the 200-650µm telluric windows using TES bolometers. These far-IR lines being extinction free and major coolants of the gas heated by (young) massive stars, are powerful probes of the physical conditions of the gas and the stellar radiation field. I present results from our survey of the [O III] 88µm line in galaxies at redshift, z ~ 2.8 to 4.6, with ZEUS-2 at the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) Telescope. To interpret our observations along with ancillary data from optical to radio facilities, we apply photoionization models for HII regions and Photo Dissociation Region (PDR) models and confirm that the galaxies host substantial ongoing obscured star formation. The presence of doubly ionized oxygen suggests hard radiation fields and hence, elevated ionization parameters that can only be accounted for by a large population of massive stars formed during the ongoing starburst, that contribute a large fraction of the infrared luminosity. This study highlights the use of FIR line emission to trace the assembly of current day massive galaxies, conditions of star formation and details of their stellar populations. The construction and operation of ZEUS-2 were funded by NSF ATI

  10. HUBBLE'S ULTRAVIOLET VIEWS OF NEARBY GALAXIES YIELD CLUES TO EARLY UNIVERSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Astronomers are using these three NASA Hubble Space Telescope images to help tackle the question of why distant galaxies have such odd shapes, appearing markedly different from the typical elliptical and spiral galaxies seen in the nearby universe. Do faraway galaxies look weird because they are truly weird? Or, are they actually normal galaxies that look like oddballs, because astronomers are getting an incomplete picture of them, seeing only the brightest pieces? Light from these galaxies travels great distances (billions of light-years) to reach Earth. During its journey, the light is 'stretched' due to the expansion of space. As a result, the light is no longer visible, but has been shifted to the infrared where present instruments are less sensitive. About the only light astronomers can see comes from regions where hot, young stars reside. These stars emit mostly ultraviolet light. But this light is stretched, appearing as visible light by the time it reaches Earth. Studying these distant galaxies is like trying to put together a puzzle with some of the pieces missing. What, then, do distant galaxies really look like? Astronomers studied 37 nearby galaxies to find out. By viewing these galaxies in ultraviolet light, astronomers can compare their shapes with those of their distant relatives. These three Hubble telescope pictures, taken with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, represent a sampling from that survey. Astronomers observed the galaxies in ultraviolet and visible light to study all the stars that make up these 'cities of stars.' The results of their survey support the idea that astronomers are detecting the 'tip of the iceberg' of very distant galaxies. Based on these Hubble ultraviolet images, not all the faraway galaxies necessarily possess intrinsically odd shapes. The results are being presented today at the 197th meeting of the American Astronomical Society in San Diego, CA. The central region of the 'star-burst' spiral galaxy at far left

  11. Early Detection of Breast Cancer Using Molecular Beacons

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yang, Lily

    2008-01-01

    .... We proposed to use molecular beacon technology to detect the level of expression of several biomarker genes that are highly expressed in breast cancer cells but not in normal breast epithelial cells...

  12. Triple diagnostics for early detection of ambivalent necrotizing fasciitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hietbrink, Falco; Bode, Lonneke G.; Riddez, Louis; Leenen, Luke P H; van Dijk, MR

    2016-01-01

    Background: Necrotizing fasciitis is an uncommon, rapidly progressive and potential lethal condition. Over the last decade time to surgery decreased and outcome improved, most likely due to increased awareness and more timely referral. Early recognition is key to improve mortality and morbidity.

  13. Early detection of breast cancer: results of a screening programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beahrs, O.H.

    1980-01-01

    The results of a mammography screening programme launched by the American Cancer Society and the National Cancer Institute are discussed. Twenty-seven Breast Cancer Detection Demonstration Projects (BCDDP) screened 280,000 women annually for 5 years. During the first 2 screenings, 1810 cancers were detected. An increased rate of discovery in all age groups was achieved. The radiation risk of mammography is also discussed. The results of the BCDDP were evaluated by a review panel. Of the 1810 cancers detected, 45% had been detected by mammography alone, 47% by mammography and physical examination and only 7% by physical examination alone. 592 of the cancers were < 1 cm in diameter. Two-thirds of these lesions were considered to be in-situ carcinoma and one-third invasive cancer. In 66 instances, the tissue first presented was considered not to be cancerous; these cases were further studied clinically and pathologically. It is concluded that, in the experience of the BCDDP, mammography proved to be an excellent method of detection, but it does have a small theoretical risk. As a widely used approach to detection, mammography is probably not practical due to the number of experts necessary for image evaluation. (UK)

  14. THE EARLY DETECTION OF THE EMERALD ASH BORER (EAB USING MULTI-SOURCE REMOTELY SENSED DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Hu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to exploit the synergy of hyperspectral imagery, Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR and high spatial resolution data and their synergy in the early detection of the EAB (Emerald Ash Borer presence in trees within urban areas and to develop a framework to combine information extracted from multiple data sources. To achieve these, an object-oriented framework was developed to combine information derived from available data sets to characterize ash trees. Within this framework, an advanced individual tree delineation method was developed to delineate individual trees using the combined high-spatial resolution worldview-3 imagery was used together with LiDAR data. Individual trees were then classified to ash and non-ash trees using spectral and spatial information. In order to characterize the health state of individual ash trees, leaves from ash trees with various health states were sampled and measured using a field spectrometer. Based on the field measurements, the best indices that sensitive to leaf chlorophyll content were selected. The developed framework and methods were tested using worldview-3, airborne LiDAR data over the Keele campus of York University Toronto Canada. Satisfactory results in terms of individual tree crown delineation, ash tree identification and characterization of the health state of individual ash trees. Quantitative evaluations is being carried out.

  15. The Early Detection of the Emerald Ash Borer (eab) Using Multi-Source Remotely Sensed Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, B.; Naveed, F.; Tasneem, F.; Xing, C.

    2018-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to exploit the synergy of hyperspectral imagery, Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) and high spatial resolution data and their synergy in the early detection of the EAB (Emerald Ash Borer) presence in trees within urban areas and to develop a framework to combine information extracted from multiple data sources. To achieve these, an object-oriented framework was developed to combine information derived from available data sets to characterize ash trees. Within this framework, an advanced individual tree delineation method was developed to delineate individual trees using the combined high-spatial resolution worldview-3 imagery was used together with LiDAR data. Individual trees were then classified to ash and non-ash trees using spectral and spatial information. In order to characterize the health state of individual ash trees, leaves from ash trees with various health states were sampled and measured using a field spectrometer. Based on the field measurements, the best indices that sensitive to leaf chlorophyll content were selected. The developed framework and methods were tested using worldview-3, airborne LiDAR data over the Keele campus of York University Toronto Canada. Satisfactory results in terms of individual tree crown delineation, ash tree identification and characterization of the health state of individual ash trees. Quantitative evaluations is being carried out.

  16. [Detection of thyroid dysfunction in pregnant women: universal screening is justified].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, Lluís; Velasco, Inés; González, Stella; Morales, Francisco; Sánchez, Emilia; Lailla, José Maria; Martinez-Astorquiza, Txanton; Puig-Domingo, Manel

    2012-11-03

    There is a controversy among different scientific societies in relation to the recommendations on whether universal screening for the detection of thyroid dysfunction during gestation should be performed or not. Although various studies have shown an association between subclinical hypothyroidism or hypothyroxinemia with obstetric problems and/or neurocognitive impairment in the offspring, no evidence on the possible positive effects of treatment of such conditions with thyroxin has been demonstrated so far. However, there is a general agreement about the need for treatment of clinical hypothyroidism during pregnancy and the risks of not doing so. Because it is a common, easily diagnosed and effectively treated disorder without special risk, the working Group of Iodine Deficiency Disorders and Thyroid Dysfunction of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition and Spanish Society of Gynaecology and Obstetrics recommends an early evaluation (before week 10) of thyroid function in all pregnant women. Given the complex physiology of thyroid function during pregnancy, hormone assessment should be performed according to reference values for each gestational trimester and generated locally in each reference laboratory. Thyrotropin determination would be sufficient for screening purposes and only if it is altered, free thyroxin or total thyroxin would be required. Adequate iodine nutrition is also highly recommended before and during pregnancy to contribute to a normal thyroid function in the pregnant women and fetus.

  17. Detection of thyroid dysfunction in pregnant women: universal screening is justified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, Lluís; Velasco, Inés; González, Stella; Morales, Francisco; Sánchez, Emilia; Lailla, José Maria; Martinez-Astorquiza, Txanton; Puig-Domingo, Manel

    2012-11-01

    There is a controversy among different scientific societies in relation to the recommendations on whether universal screening for the detection of thyroid dysfunction during gestation should be performed or not. Although various studies have shown an association between subclinical hypothyroidism or hypothyroxinemia with obstetric problems and/or neurocognitive impairment in the offspring, no evidence on the possible positive effects of treatment of such conditions with thyroxin has been demonstrated so far. However, there is a general agreement about the need for treatment of clinical hypothyroidism during pregnancy and the risks of not doing so. Because it is a common, easily diagnosed and effectively treated disorder without special risk, the working Group of Iodine Deficiency Disorders and Thyroid Dysfunction of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition and Spanish Society of Gynaecology and Obstetrics recommends an early evaluation (before week 10) of thyroid function in all pregnant women. Given the complex physiology of thyroid function during pregnancy, hormone assessment should be performed according to reference values for each gestational trimester and generated locally in each reference laboratory. Thyrotropin determination would be sufficient for screening purposes and only if it is altered, free thyroxin or total thyroxin would be required. Adequate iodine nutrition is also highly recommended before and during pregnancy to contribute to a normal thyroid function in the pregnant women and fetus. Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Early Detection of Brain Pathology Suggestive of Early AD Using Objective Evaluation of FDG-PET Scans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C. Patterson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for early detection of AD becomes critical as disease-modifying agents near the marketplace. Here, we present results from a study focused on improvement in detection of metabolic deficits related to neurodegenerative changes consistent with possible early AD with statistical evaluation of FDG-PET brain images. We followed 31 subjects at high risk or diagnosed with MCI/AD for 3 years. 15 met criteria for diagnosis of MCI, and five met criteria for AD. FDG-PET scans were completed at initiation and termination of the study. PET scans were read clinically and also evaluated objectively using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM. Using standard clinical evaluation of the FDG-PET scans, 11 subjects were detected, while 18 were detected using SPM evaluation. These preliminary results indicate that objective analyses may improve detection; however, early detection in at-risk normal subjects remains tentative. Several FDA-approved software packages are available that use objective analyses, thus the capacity exists for wider use of this method for MCI/AD.

  19. The biospeckle method for early damage detection of fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lei; Liu, Jiaxin; Men, Sen

    2017-07-01

    In the field of fruits damage assessment, biospeckle activity is considered relevant to quality properties of plants, such us damage, aging, or diseases. In this paper, biospeckle technique was applied to identify the early bruising of apples. Then a total of 50 undamaged apples were determined to be artificially bruised as samples. Three methods (Fujii, GD, and LSTCA) were used to extract effective information from these speckle images for measuring the intensity of biospeckle activity. The results showed that for all of three methods, the biospeckle activities of the undamaged areas in apple were similar; after the hit, the damaged area showed a lower biospeckle activity. It can be concluded that early bruising can be identified by biospeckle technique.

  20. Combined Screening for Early Detection of Pre-Eclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Jin Park

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Although the precise pathophysiology of pre-eclampsia remains unknown, this condition continues to be a major cause of maternal and fetal mortality. Early prediction of pre-eclampsia would allow for timely initiation of preventive therapy. A combination of biophysical and biochemical markers are superior to other tests for early prediction of the development of pre-eclampsia. Apart from the use of parameters in first-trimester aneuploidy screening, cell-free fetal DNA quantification is emerging as a promising marker for prediction of pre-eclampsia. This article reviews the current research of the most important strategies for prediction of pre-eclampsia, including the use of maternal risk factors, mean maternal arterial pressure, ultrasound parameters, and biomarkers.

  1. Early detection of foot ulcers through asymmetry analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaabouch, Naima; Chen, Yi; Hu, Wen-Chen; Anderson, Julie; Ames, Forrest; Paulson, Rolf

    2009-02-01

    Foot ulcers affect millions of Americans annually. Areas that are likely to ulcerate have been associated with increased local skin temperatures due to inflammation and enzymatic autolysis of tissue. Conventional methods to assess skin, including inspection and palpation, may be valuable approaches, but usually they do not detect changes in skin integrity until an ulcer has already developed. Conversely, infrared imaging is a technology able to assess the integrity of the skin and its many layers, thus having the potential to index the cascade of physiological events in the prevention, assessment, and management of foot ulcers. In this paper, we propose a technique, asymmetry analysis, to automatically analyze the infrared images in order to detect inflammation. Preliminary results show that the proposed technique can be reliable and efficient to detect inflammation and, hence, predict potential ulceration.

  2. Tsunamis detection, monitoring, and early-warning technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Joseph, Antony

    2011-01-01

    The devastating impacts of tsunamis have received increased focus since the Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004, the most devastating tsunami in over 400 years of recorded history. This professional reference is the first of its kind: it provides a globally inclusive review of the current state of tsunami detection technology and will be a much-needed resource for oceanographers and marine engineers working to upgrade and integrate their tsunami warning systems. It focuses on the two main tsunami warning systems (TWS): International and Regional. Featured are comparative assessments of detection, monitoring, and real-time reporting technologies. The challenges of detection through remote measuring stations are also addressed, as well as the historical and scientific aspects of tsunamis.

  3. Early Detection of Parametric Roll Resonance on Container Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galeazzi, Roberto; Blanke, Mogens; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2013-01-01

    Parametric roll resonance on ships is a nonlinear phenomenon where waves encountered at twice the natural roll frequency can bring the vessel dynamics into a bifurcation mode and lead to extreme values of roll. Recent years have seen several incidents with dramatic damage to container vessels...... the ship's speed and course, to escape from the bifurcation condition. This paper proposes nonparametric methods to detect the onset of roll resonance and demonstrates their performance. Theoretical conditions for parametric resonance are revisited and are used to develop efficient methods to detect its...... on experimental data from model tests and on data from a container ship crossing the Atlantic during a storm....

  4. Gas, Dust, and Quenching of Dusty Galaxies in the Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilker, Justin Scott

    In this dissertation, I study various aspects related to the gas and star formation in dusty star-forming galaxies in the distant universe. My dissertation is heavily based on observations made by the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), observing a sample of gravitationally lensed high-redshift dusty galaxies originally discovered by the South Pole Telescope (SPT). In addition to the introductions to the individual chapters, Chapter 1 provides a broader background to the study of these objects and places them in the overall context of galaxy evolution. In Chapter 2 I describe a technique designed to search for faint molecular lines in the spectrum of high-redshift dusty galaxies. The brightest molecular lines in the spectra of these objects are due to carbon monoxide, but a host of other species are present in the interstellar media. These other molecules trace gas of a wide range of temperatures and densities, but are generally ten times fainter than the brighter CO lines. I detected several other molecular lines, and used them to characterize the conditions of the interstellar gas. This work was published in Spilker et al. (2014). In Chapter 3, I describe a technique for modeling the effects of gravitational lensing which is optimized for data from interferometers such as ALMA. Using these models and data for a large sample of objects from ALMA, I studied the intrinsic properties of the sample such as the source sizes and luminosities. I used these intrinsic properties to revisit topics from the literature which benefit from the additional size information I determined. This work was published in Spilker et al. (2016). In Chapter 4, I use the modeling technique I developed to investigate the relationship between the star formation and the cold molecular gas from which stars form in two objects selected from the SPT sample. Using the models of the source, I was able to determine the mass of molecular gas in these objects using several independent

  5. Detection of early squats by axle box acceleration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molodova, M.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis discusses a new method for detection of short track irregularities, particularly squats, with axle box acceleration (ABA) measurements. A squat is a surface initiated short track defect, associated with high frequency vibrations of the wheel-rail system. High stresses in the contact

  6. Biomarkers for the early detection of cancer treatment induced cardiotoxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulten, Ben

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis, the role of several imaging and nonimaging markers for the detection of anthracycline-induced and trastuzumab-induced cardiotoxicity (respectively AIC and TIC) is evaluated. Especially, the pathophysiology of these processes and the interrelationship of the various markers are

  7. Early detection of gray mold in grape using conventional and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Botrytis cinerea affects grape quality and yield, and can be difficult to manage due in part to non-symptomatic, quiescent infection in berry development. The aim of this study was to develop a dual system for the detection, isolation and quantification of B. cinerea. After three days of samples replication on the modified ...

  8. Acoustic particle detection - From early ideas to future benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahnhauer, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    The history of acoustic neutrino detection technology is shortly reviewed from the first ideas 50 years ago to the detailed R and D programs of the last decade. The physics potential of ultra-high energy neutrino interaction studies is discussed for some examples. Ideas about the necessary detector size and suitable design are presented.

  9. Use of sentinel-1 data for vessel detection in South African oceans: Early results

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kleynhans, Waldo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available taking into consideration local incident angles. Early experimental results show promising vessel detection accuracy using the Sentinel-1 data but that polarization and incidence angle are important parameters to take into consideration when working...

  10. Limited scleroderma and early detection of visceral changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalyuzhnaya, L.D.; Potsibina, V.V.; Stychinskaya, L.P.; Turik, N.V.

    1989-01-01

    The state of liver, kidneys, osteoarticular apparatus at the early stages of development of limited scleroderma and with the exclusion of visceral changes on the basis of clinical-laboratory studies is investigated. 11 patients with scleroderma in the age of 7-18 years were examined. Osteoscintigraphy with 99m TC-phosphone and dynamic scintigraphy of kidneys without additional introduction of RF, and hepatocholecyctoscintigraphy with 99m tc-HIPA of the patients were realized. The conclusion is made that radionuclide investigation methods permit to reveal various visceral changes, which are not recognizable by clinical methods

  11. Early detection of Freiberg's disease by radionuclide bone imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Jingjing

    1993-01-01

    56 hallux valgus deformities of 28 patients were studied with radionuclide bone imaging (RNBI). Among them, 24 feet(42.85%) revealed increased uptake of radioactivity in second or third metatarsal. The ratio of radioactivity in lesion and contralateral normal site (D/N) was increased, the difference between the patient and normal groups was significant (P<0.01). The histologic study showed that there have been degenerative changes and bone cell necrosis in increased uptake area. It was concluded that RNBI was more sensitive than X ray and can be used for the early diagnosis of Freiberg's Disease

  12. Early pest detection in soy plantations from hyperspectral measurements: a case study for caterpillar detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tailanián, Matías; Castiglioni, Enrique; Musé, Pablo; Fernández Flores, Germán.; Lema, Gabriel; Mastrángelo, Pedro; Almansa, Mónica; Fernández Liñares, Ignacio; Fernández Liñares, Germán.

    2015-10-01

    Soybean producers suffer from caterpillar damage in many areas of the world. Estimated average economic losses are annually 500 million USD in Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay. Designing efficient pest control management using selective and targeted pesticide applications is extremely important both from economic and environmental perspectives. With that in mind, we conducted a research program during the 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 planting seasons in a 4,000 ha soybean farm, seeking to achieve early pest detection. Nowadays pest presence is evaluated using manual, labor-intensive counting methods based on sampling strategies which are time consuming and imprecise. The experiment was conducted as follows. Using manual counting methods as ground-truth, a spectrometer capturing reflectance from 400 to 1100 nm was used to measure the reflectance of soy plants. A first conclusion, resulting from measuring the spectral response at leaves level, showed that stress was a property of plants since different leaves with different levels of damage yielded the same spectral response. Then, to assess the applicability of unsupervised classification of plants as healthy, biotic-stressed or abiotic-stressed, feature extraction and selection from leaves spectral signatures, combined with a Supported Vector Machine classifier was designed. Optimization of SVM parameters using grid search with cross-validation, along with classification evaluation by ten-folds cross-validation showed a correct classification rate of 95%, consistently on both seasons. Controlled experiments using cages with different numbers of caterpillars--including caterpillar-free plants--were also conducted to evaluate consistency in trends of the spectral response as well as the extracted features.

  13. Lessons learned from early direct measurements at Fukushima Medical University after the Fukushima Nuclear Power Station accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazaki, Makoto; Ohba, Takashi; Ohtsuru, Akira [Fukushima Medical Univ., Dept. of Radiation Health Management, Fukushima, Fukushima (Japan)

    2012-11-15

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS) accident resulted in a month-long discharge of radioactive materials into the environment. These radioactive materials were detected at Fukushima Medical University (FMU), which is 57 km northwest of the FDNPS. Significant levels of six nuclides (i.e., {sup 131}I, {sup 132}Te, {sup 132}I, {sup 133}Xe, {sup 134}Cs, and {sup 137}Cs) were detected by a whole body counter (WBC) on March 15, 2011 when the ambient dose rate was suddenly elevated for the first time. This WBC has a dual detector system consisting of two NaI(Tl) detectors and two Ge detectors. We conducted periodical measurements of 32 humans and the background using the WBC. Because the three nuclides {sup 131}I, {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs were still detected in the background by the WBC a few months after the accident, accurate WBC measurements were difficult. Here we describe the limitations of our measurements conducted in the early stage of the FDNPS accident. (author)

  14. Newborn hearing screening and strategy for early detection of hearing loss in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubíková, Janka; Kabátová, Zuzana; Pavlovcinová, Gabriela; Profant, Milan

    2009-04-01

    More than 80% of permanent hearing losses (HL) in children are congenital. Newborn hearing screening (NHS) is the best method for early detection of suspected hearing loss. If the NHS is not universal more than 30% permanent hearing losses are not identified. There are various methods of NHS: otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE, DPOAE) and automatic auditory brainstem response (AABR). After hearing screening, and when hearing loss is suspected, tympanometry and audiological methods then used for determination of hearing threshold; these include ABR, ASSR or/and behavioral methods. The goal of this study is to evaluate the influence of UNHS on the early detection of hearing loss in children before and after the implementation of obligatory universal newborn hearing screening in Slovakia, and also on the etiologic evaluation of hearing impaired infants identified by screening. In Slovakia NHS started in 1998 and was provided in ENT departments. From May 1, 2006 UNHS has been mandatory in Slovakia, using two stages TEOAE in all newborn departments in Slovakia (64 newborn departments). In year 2005--42% of newborns in Slovakia were screened, in 2006--66% newborns and in 2007--94, 99% (three small newborn departments do not yet have equipment for OAE screening). For determination of hearing thresholds ASSR are used in two ENT departments and ABR in the other four ENT departments. Comparing the number of identified cases with bilateral severe permanent HL or deafness before and after UNHS, 22.8% more cases of PHL were identified in the first year of UNHS. Also the average age of diagnosis of PHL was lower. In the year 2007, 94% of newborns were screened. We found 0.947/1000 newborns with bilateral severe PHL (35.9%) more than before UNHS). After audiologic and etiologic assessment of the 76 infants who failed screening, 5 (6.58%) were found to have normal hearing, 16 (22.54%) had unilateral and 55 (77.46%) had bilateral SNHL. A non-syndromic genetic cause was present in 25

  15. Primary haemochromatosis. Early detection of commitment myocardium through cardiac magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbella, F.; Rivas, Carlos; Dragonetti, Laura; Eyheremendy, Eduardo; Calo, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    Primary haemochromatosis is the most common genetic disease of the West (1 in 300 to 400 people). Cardiac involvement during its early stages is not detected by imaging techniques.During this period potentially lethal arrhythmias can occur. Using cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) with T2 star sequence it is possible an early detection of cardiac involvement as well as a risk stratification and a monitoring the progress of the therapy. [es

  16. Annual meeting on nuclear technology 1980. Technical meeting: Early detection methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The practical methods refer to the neutron noise analysis of BWR-type reactors, the development and implementation of an early detection system for BWR-type reactors and the possibilities of the noise analysis in natrium-cooled fast breeder reactors. The mathematical methods are concerned with the stochastic analysis, high-frequency acoustic monitoring and early detection of damage in PWR-type reactors. (DG) [de

  17. THE ROLE OF DUST IN THE EARLY UNIVERSE. I. PROTOGALAXY EVOLUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamasawa, Daisuke; Habe, Asao; Kozasa, Takashi; Nozawa, Takaya; Nomoto, Ken'ichi; Hirashita, Hiroyuki; Umeda, Hideyuki

    2011-01-01

    We develop one-zone galaxy formation models in the early universe, taking into account dust formation and evolution by supernova (SN) explosions. We focus on the time evolution of dust size distribution, because H 2 formation on the dust surface plays a critical role in the star formation process in the early universe. In the model, we assume that star formation rate (SFR) is proportional to the total amount of H 2 . We consistently treat (1) the formation and size evolution of dust, (2) the chemical reaction networks including H 2 formation both on the surface of dust and in gas phase, and (3) the SFR in the model. First, we find that, because of dust destruction due to both reverse and forward shocks driven by SNe, H 2 formation is more suppressed than in situations without such dust destruction. At the galaxy age of ∼0.8 Gyr, for galaxy models with virial mass M vir = 10 9 M sun and formation redshift z vir = 10, the molecular fraction is 2.5 orders of magnitude less in the model with dust destruction by both shocks than that in the model without dust destruction. Second, we show that the H 2 formation rate strongly depends on the interstellar medium (ISM) density around SN progenitors. The SFR in higher ISM density is lower, since dust destruction by reverse shocks is more effective in higher ISM density. We conclude that not only the amount but also the size distribution of dust related to star formation activity strongly affects the evolution of galaxies in the early universe.

  18. Rapid growth of seed black holes in the early universe by supra-exponential accretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Tal; Natarajan, Priyamvada

    2014-09-12

    Mass accretion by black holes (BHs) is typically capped at the Eddington rate, when radiation's push balances gravity's pull. However, even exponential growth at the Eddington-limited e-folding time t(E) ~ few × 0.01 billion years is too slow to grow stellar-mass BH seeds into the supermassive luminous quasars that are observed when the universe is 1 billion years old. We propose a dynamical mechanism that can trigger supra-exponential accretion in the early universe, when a BH seed is bound in a star cluster fed by the ubiquitous dense cold gas flows. The high gas opacity traps the accretion radiation, while the low-mass BH's random motions suppress the formation of a slowly draining accretion disk. Supra-exponential growth can thus explain the puzzling emergence of supermassive BHs that power luminous quasars so soon after the Big Bang. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  19. Introduction to the theory of the early universe hot Big Bang theory

    CERN Document Server

    Rubakov, Valery A

    2018-01-01

    This book is written from the viewpoint that a deep connection exists between cosmology and particle physics. It presents the results and ideas on both the homogeneous and isotropic Universe at the hot stage of its evolution and in later stages. The main chapters describe in a systematic and pedagogical way established facts and concepts on the early and the present Universe. The comprehensive treatment, hence, serves as a modern introduction to this rapidly developing field of science. To help in reading the chapters without having to constantly consult other texts, essential materials from General Relativity and the theory of elementary particles are collected in the appendices. Various hypotheses dealing with unsolved problems of cosmology, and often alternative to each other, are discussed at a more advanced level. These concern dark matter, dark energy, matter–antimatter asymmetry, etc. Particle physics and cosmology underwent rapid development between the first and the second editions of this book. I...

  20. Neutrinos in the Early Universe, Kalb-Ramond Torsion and Matter-Antimatter Asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavromatos Nick E.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The generation of a matter-antimatter asymmetry in the universe may be induced by the propagation of fermions in non-trivial, spherically asymmetric (and hence Lorentz violating gravitational backgrounds. Such backgrounds may characterise the epoch of the early universe. The key point in these models is that the background induces di_erent dispersion relations, hence populations, between fermions and antifermions, and thus CPT Violation (CPTV appears in thermal equilibrium. Species populations may freeze out leading to leptogenesis and baryogenesis. We consider here a string-inspired scenario, in which the CPTV is associated with a cosmological background with torsion provided by the Kalb-Ramond (KR antisymemtric tensor field of the string gravitational multiplet. In a four-dimensional space time this field is dual to a pseudoscalar “axionlike” field. The mixing of the KR field with an ordinary axion field can lead to the generation of a Majorana neutrino mass.

  1. AGN feedback through UFO and galaxy-wide winds in the early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feruglio, C.; Piconcelli, E.; Bischetti, M.; Zappacosta, L.; Fiore, F.

    2017-10-01

    AGN feedback through massive molecular winds is today routinely observed in local AGN host galaxies, but not as such in the early universe. I will present the first evidence for a massive, AGN-driven molecular wind in the z 4 QSO APM08279, which also hosts the most well studied and persistent nuclear semi-raltivistic wind (UFO). This observation directly probes the expansion mechanism of a nuclear wind into the ISM on galaxy wide scales, that so far was constrained by a couple of other objects only (Feruglio et al. 2015, Tombesi et al. 2015). This result also opens the path toward the exploration of molecular AGN-driven winds at early epochs, close after the end of the Epoch of Reionisation (EoR).

  2. Early Detection of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mustafizur; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Haider, Mohammad Sabbir; Zaman, Rashid Uz; Karmakar, Polash Chandra; Nasreen, Sharifa; Muneer, Syeda Mah-E; Homaira, Nusrat; Goswami, Doli Rani; Ahmed, Be-Nazir; Husain, Mohammad Mushtuq; Jamil, Khondokar Mahbuba; Khatun, Selina; Ahmed, Mujaddeed; Chakraborty, Apurba; Fry, Alicia; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Bresee, Joseph; Azim, Tasnim; Alamgir, A.S.M.; Brooks, Abdullah; Hossain, Mohamed Jahangir; Klimov, Alexander; Rahman, Mahmudur; Luby, Stephen P.

    2012-01-01

    To explore Bangladesh’s ability to detect novel influenza, we examined a series of laboratory-confirmed pandemic (H1N1) 2009 cases. During June–July 2009, event-based surveillance identified 30 case-patients (57% travelers); starting July 29, sentinel sites identified 252 case-patients (1% travelers). Surveillance facilitated response weeks before the spread of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 infection to the general population. PMID:22257637

  3. Detection of early squats by axle box acceleration

    OpenAIRE

    Molodova, M.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis discusses a new method for detection of short track irregularities, particularly squats, with axle box acceleration (ABA) measurements. A squat is a surface initiated short track defect, associated with high frequency vibrations of the wheel-rail system. High stresses in the contact patch at squats cause accumulation of plastic deformation of the rail and growth of cracks. Cracks growing in the subsurface can cause a rail fracture. Light squats can be treated by grinding of the ra...

  4. Early biotic stress detection in tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ) by BVOC emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasal-Slavik, Tina; Eschweiler, Julia; Kleist, Einhard; Mumm, Roland; Goldbach, Heiner E.; Schouten, Sander; Wildt, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    We investigated impacts of early and mild biotic stress on Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOC) emissions from tomato in order to test their potential for early (biotic) stress detection. Tomato plants were exposed to two common fungal pathogens, Botrytis cinerea and Oidium neolycopesici and

  5. Contribution of scanner to early detection of pleuropulmonary manifestations of asbestosis and silicosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champeix, J.; Gabrillargues, D.; Caillaud, D.; Catilina, P.; Catilina, M.J.; Chamoux, A.; Pignide, L.; Puvinel, B.

    1989-01-01

    The early detection of pleuropulmonary diseases in workers previously exposed to asbestos fibers or silica dusts is of importance. Current radiology often provides insufficient data. Can the CT-scan contribute to an early diagnosis. This technique was performed on both miners exposed to silicosis hazard and asbestos exposed workers [fr

  6. FabryScan: a screening tool for early detection of Fabry disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arning, Kathrin; Naleschinski, Dennis; Maag, Rainer; Biegstraaten, Marieke; Kropp, Peter; Lorenzen, Jürgen; Hollak, Carla E. M.; van Schaik, Ivo N.; Harten, Pontus; Zeuner, Rainald A.; Binder, Andreas; Baron, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    Fabry disease, an X-linked lipid storage disorder, is associated early morbidity and mortality. Since enzyme replacement therapy is available, accurate detection of unrecognized cases is important. Characteristic early symptoms are recurrent episodes of burning and lancinating pain in the distal

  7. The continuing challenge of early detection of acute otitis media in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of the study is to highlight the clinical problem of acute otitis media in children as seen in Uyo with particular reference to difficulties of early detection over a 6 year period (1999-2004). Methodology: A six-year retrospective study (1999-2004) was carried out to evaluate the clinical presentation and early ...

  8. Coherent Active-Sterile Neutrino Flavor Transformation in the Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Chad T.; Fuller, George M.; Smith, Christel J.

    2006-10-01

    We solve the problem of coherent Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein resonant active-to-sterile neutrino flavor conversion driven by an initial lepton number in the early Universe. We find incomplete destruction of the lepton number in this process and a sterile neutrino energy distribution with a distinctive cusp and high energy tail. These features imply alteration of the nonzero lepton number primordial nucleosynthesis paradigm when there exist sterile neutrinos with rest masses ms˜1eV. This could result in better light element probes of (constraints on) these particles.

  9. Coherent Active-Sterile Neutrino Flavor Transformation in the Early Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishimoto, Chad T.; Fuller, George M.; Smith, Christel J.

    2006-01-01

    We solve the problem of coherent Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein resonant active-to-sterile neutrino flavor conversion driven by an initial lepton number in the early Universe. We find incomplete destruction of the lepton number in this process and a sterile neutrino energy distribution with a distinctive cusp and high energy tail. These features imply alteration of the nonzero lepton number primordial nucleosynthesis paradigm when there exist sterile neutrinos with rest masses m s ∼1 eV. This could result in better light element probes of (constraints on) these particles

  10. Constraining antimatter domains in the early universe with big bang nucleosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurki-Suonio, H; Sihvola, E

    2000-04-24

    We consider the effect of a small-scale matter-antimatter domain structure on big bang nucleosynthesis and place upper limits on the amount of antimatter in the early universe. For small domains, which annihilate before nucleosynthesis, this limit comes from underproduction of 4He. For larger domains, the limit comes from 3He overproduction. Since most of the 3He from &pmacr; 4He annihilation are themselves annihilated, the main source of primordial 3He is the photodisintegration of 4He by the electromagnetic cascades initiated by the annihilation.

  11. Multi-disciplinary team for early gastric cancer diagnosis improves the detection rate of early gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Lianjun; Wu, Huichao; Zhu, Rong; Li, Youfeng; Wu, Xinglong; Xie, Rui; Li, Hongping; Wang, Haibo; Zhang, Hua; Xiao, Hong; Chen, Hui; Zhen, Hong; Zhao, Kui; Yang, Xuefeng; Xie, Ming; Tuo, Bigung

    2017-12-06

    Gastric cancer is a frequent malignant tumor worldwide and its early detection is crucial for curing the disease and enhancing patients' survival rate. This study aimed to assess whether the multi-disciplinary team (MDT) can improve the detection rate of early gastric cancer (EGC). The detection rate of EGC at the Digestive Endoscopy Center, Affiliated Hospital, Zunyi Medical College, China between September 2013 and September 2015 was analyzed. MDT for the diagnosis of EGC in the hospital was established in September 2014. The study was divided into 2 time periods: September 1, 2013 to August 31, 2014 (period 1) and September 1, 2014 to September 1, 2015 (period 2). A total of 60,800 patients' gastroscopies were performed during the two years. 61 of these patients (0.1%) were diagnosed as EGC, accounting for 16.44% (61/371) of total patients with gastric cancer. The EGC detection rate before MDT (period 1) was 0.05% (16/29403), accounting for 9.09% (16/176) of total patients with gastric cancer during this period. In comparison, the EGC detection rate during MDT (period 2) was 0.15% (45/31397), accounting for 23% (45/195) of total patients with gastric cancer during this period (P cooperation with Department of Pathology (OR = 10.1, 95% CI 2.39-43.3, P < 0.05). MDT could improve the endoscopic detection rate of EGC.

  12. An attempt of early detection of poor outcome after whiplash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien LAPORTE

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The main concern with whiplash is that a large proportion of whiplash patients experience disabling symptoms or whiplash associated disorders (WAD for months if not years following the accident. Therefore, identifying early prognostic factors of WAD development is important as WAD have widespread clinical and economic consequences.In order to tackle that question, our study was specifically aimed at combining several methods of investigation in the same WAD patients at the acute stage and six months later. Our longitudinal, open, prospective, multi-center study included 38 whiplash patients, and 13 healthy volunteers matched for age, gender, and socio-economic status with the whiplash group. Whiplash patients were evaluated 15 to 21 days after road accident, and 6 months later. At each appointment, patients underwent a neuropsychological evaluation, a full clinical neurological examination, neurophysiological and postural tests, oto-neurological tests, cervical spine cord Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI with tractography (DTI. At 6-month, whiplash patients were categorized into two subgroups based on the results of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders as having either favourable or unfavourable progression (an unfavourable classification corresponding to the presence of Post-Concussion Symptom PCS and we searched retrospectively for early prognostic factors of WAD predicting the passage to chronicity. We found that patients displaying high level of catastrophizing at the acute stage and /or post-traumatic stress disorder associated with either abnormalities in head or trunk kinematics, abnormal test of the otolithic function and at the Equitest or a combination of these syndromes, turned to chronicity. That is, the association of a neuropsychological disorder with a somatic one was sufficient to explain the passage to chronicity. This study suggests that low-grade whiplash patients should be submitted as early as possible

  13. An Attempt of Early Detection of Poor Outcome after Whiplash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporte, Sebastien; Wang, Danping; Lecompte, Jennyfer; Blancho, Sophie; Sandoz, Baptiste; Feydy, Antoine; Lindberg, Pavel; Adrian, Julien; Chiarovano, Elodie; de Waele, Catherine; Vidal, Pierre-Paul

    2016-01-01

    The main concern with whiplash is that a large proportion of whiplash patients experience disabling symptoms or whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) for months if not years following the accident. Therefore, identifying early prognostic factors of WAD development is important as WAD have widespread clinical and economic consequences. In order to tackle that question, our study was specifically aimed at combining several methods of investigation in the same WAD patients at the acute stage and 6 months later. Our longitudinal, open, prospective, multi-center study included 38 whiplash patients, and 13 healthy volunteers matched for age, gender, and socio-economic status with the whiplash group. Whiplash patients were evaluated 15–21 days after road accident, and 6 months later. At each appointment, patients underwent a neuropsychological evaluation, a full clinical neurological examination, neurophysiological and postural tests, oto-neurological tests, cervical spine cord magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with tractography (DTI). At 6 months, whiplash patients were categorized into two subgroups based on the results of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders as having either favorable or unfavorable progression [an unfavorable classification corresponding to the presence of post-concussion symptom (PCS)] and we searched retrospectively for early prognostic factors of WAD predicting the passage to chronicity. We found that patients displaying high level of catastrophizing at the acute stage and/or post-traumatic stress disorder associated with either abnormalities in head or trunk kinematics, abnormal test of the otolithic function and at the Equitest or a combination of these syndromes, turned to chronicity. This study suggests that low-grade whiplash patients should be submitted as early as possible after the trauma to neuropsychological and motor control tests in a specialized consultation. In addition, they should be evaluated by a neuro

  14. Early Detection System of Vascular Disease and Its Application Prospect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Markers of imaging, structure, and function reflecting vascular damage, integrating a long time accumulation effect of traditional and unrecognized cardiovascular risk factors, can be regarded as surrogate endpoints of target organ damage before the occurrence of clinical events. Prevention of cardiovascular disease requires risk stratification and treatment of traditional risk factors, such as smoking, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes. However, traditional risk stratification is not sufficient to provide accurate assessment of future cardiovascular events. Therefore, vascular injury related parameters obtained by ultrasound or other noninvasive devices, as a surrogate parameter of subclinical cardiovascular disease, can improve cardiovascular risk assessment and optimize the preventive treatment strategy. Thus, we will summarize the research progress and clinical application of early assessment technology of vascular diseases in the present review.

  15. Neonatal and early infancy management of prenatally detected hydronephrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swords, Kelly A; Peters, Craig A

    2015-09-01

    Hydronephrosis discovered during prenatal ultrasound will often resolve spontaneously; however, it should be evaluated in the postnatal period in a manner commensurate with its risk of renal injury. Early intervention is appropriate in cases of bladder outlet obstruction or the severely obstructed solitary kidney. In most other cases, it is both safe and reasonable to allow the possibility of spontaneous improvement with the intensity of follow-up based on the severity of the hydronephrosis. Clinical decision making should be a shared process between families and caregivers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Interim advice concerning the early detection of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The incidence of breast cancer in the Netherlands and the methods of diagnosis and treatment are outlined. A systematic screening of the total female population would result in a number of breast cancers being found at a relatively early stage. The advantages and disadvantages of five methods of screening are discussed: breast self-examination by women, palpation by doctor or para-medical personnel, mammography, ultrasound and thermography. It is concluded that mammography currently appears to be the best method. The risk that the X-rays might cause cancer is negligible. Two large screening projects in the Netherlands are described and the preliminary results discussed. In the appendices, a number of aspects such as the current projects in the Netherlands, the risks of ionizing radiation, and the attitudes and response of women invited for screening, are elaborated upon. A discussion session between an advisory committee and a number of Dutch and foreign experts is also presented (in English). (Auth.)

  17. Early detection of typhoid by polymerase chain reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haque, A.; Qureshi, Javed A.; Ahmed, J.

    1999-01-01

    Typhoid is a common problem in developing countries. Cultivation ofbacteria and serology (especially Widal test) gives unacceptable levels offalse-negative and false-positive results respectively. In this study, arecently introduced polymerase chain reaction based technique (which has 100%specificity for Salmonella typhi) was compared with blood culture and Widaltest during the first week of illness of 82 suspected cases of typhoid. Therespective figures of positivity for PCR, blood culture and Widal test were71.95%, 34.1% and 36.5%. A control group of 20 healthy persons gave figuresof 0%, 0% and 33.3%, respectively. We conclude that this PCR-based techniqueis not only absolutely specific, but also very sensitive and therefore muchsuperior to blood culture and, Widal test for the early diagnosis of typhoid.(author)

  18. Detection of occupational lead nephropathy using early renal markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, B D; Krishnaswamy, K

    1995-01-01

    Automotive use of leaded gasoline continues to be an important source of occupational exposure to lead in India and other countries. The present study assessed the renal function and markers of early renal damage of 22 mechanics at three automobile garages. Urinary N-acetyl-3-D-glucosaminidase activity and beta-2-microglobulin levels were significantly increased in auto garage mechanics with blood leads of 30-69 micrograms/dL. A significant correlation was observed between blood lead levels and urinary N-acetyl-3-D-glucosaminidase activity but not with urine beta-2-microglobulin levels. A marginal impairment in creatinine clearance was not statistically significant. Urinary N-acetyl-3-D-glucosaminidase activity offers a sensitive monitor of blood lead and renal tubular injury.

  19. [Usefullness of transesophageal echocardiography in early detection of coronary spasm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagara, M; Haraguchi, M; Hamu, Y; Isowaki, S; Yoshimura, N

    1996-04-01

    Intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) was performed on a 62-year-old man who underwent abdominal aortic replacement for abdominal aortic aneurysm under general anesthesia combined with epidural anesthesia. Coronary artery spasm occurred after unexpected massive hemorrhage, and TEE showed hypokinesis in the posterior-inferior left ventricular wall. The changes in TEE preceded the ST elevation in the ECG. Bolus infusion of isosorbide dinitrate and continuous infusion of nitroglycerin alleviated these changes. TEE enabled us to detect and evaluate coronary spasm before the appearance of ST changes in ECG.

  20. Early detection of cancer in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, J W; Gentry-Maharaj, A; Fourkala, E-O

    2013-01-01

    Background:Recent reports from cancer screening trials in high-risk populations suggest that autoantibodies can be detected before clinical diagnosis. However, there is minimal data on the role of autoantibody signatures in cancer screening in the general population.Methods:Informative p53 peptides...... preclinical disease and may be of value in cancer screening. In colorectal cancer screening in particular, where the current need is to improve compliance, it suggests that p53 autoantibodies may contribute towards risk stratification.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 20 November 2012; doi...

  1. Application of nanotechnology in cancers prevention, early detection and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shraddha P; Patel, Parshottambhai B; Parekh, Bhavesh B

    2014-01-01

    Use of nanotechnology in medical science is a rapidly developing area. New opportunities of diagnosis, imaging and therapy have developed due to recent rapid advancement by nanotechnology. The most common areas to be affected are diagnostic, imaging and targeted drug delivery in gastroenterology, oncology, cardiovascular medicine, obstetrics and gynecology. Mass screening with inexpensive imaging might be possible in the near future with the help of nanotechnology. This review paper provides an overview of causes of cancer and the application of nanotechnology in cancer prevention, detection and treatment.

  2. From Data to Knowledge — Faster: GOES Early Fire Detection System to Inform Operational Wildfire Response and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koltunov, A.; Quayle, B.; Prins, E. M.; Ambrosia, V. G.; Ustin, S.

    2014-12-01

    Fire managers at various levels require near-real-time, low-cost, systematic, and reliable early detection capabilities with minimal latency to effectively respond to wildfire ignitions and minimize the risk of catastrophic development. The GOES satellite images collected for vast territories at high temporal frequencies provide a consistent and reliable source for operational active fire mapping realized by the WF-ABBA algorithm. However, their potential to provide early warning or rapid confirmation of initial fire ignition reports from conventional sources remains underutilized, partly because the operational wildfire detection has been successfully optimized for users and applications for which timeliness of initial detection is a low priority, contrasting to the needs of first responders. We present our progress in developing the GOES Early Fire Detection (GOES-EFD) system, a collaborative effort led by University of California-Davis and USDA Forest Service. The GOES-EFD specifically focuses on first detection timeliness for wildfire incidents. It is automatically trained for a monitored scene and capitalizes on multiyear cross-disciplinary algorithm research. Initial retrospective tests in Western US demonstrate significantly earlier identification detection of new ignitions than existing operational capabilities and a further improvement prospect. The GOES-EFD-β prototype will be initially deployed for the Western US region to process imagery from GOES-NOP and the rapid and 4 times higher spatial resolution imagery from GOES-R — the upcoming next generation of GOES satellites. These and other enhanced capabilities of GOES-R are expected to significantly improve the timeliness of fire ignition information from GOES-EFD.

  3. Early Detection of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Young isiZulu-Speaking Children in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Nola J.; Wetherby, Amy M.; Stronach, Sheri T.; Njongwe, Nonyameko; Kauchali, Shuaib; Grinker, Richard R.

    2017-01-01

    Culturally appropriate tools are needed for detecting symptoms of autism spectrum disorder in young South African children. The objectives of this study were to (1) adapt and translate into isiZulu existing measures for detecting early signs of autism spectrum disorder, (2) use the measures to characterize and compare behavioural profiles of young…

  4. Early detection of crop injury from herbicide glyphosate by leaf biochemical parameter inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early detection of crop injury from glyphosate is of significant importance in crop management. In this paper, we attempt to detect glyphosate-induced crop injury by PROSPECT (leaf optical PROperty SPECTra model) inversion through leaf hyperspectral reflectance measurements for non-Glyphosate-Resist...

  5. Early Detection Rapid Response Program Targets New Noxious Weed Species in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreas, Jennifer E.; Halpern, Alison D.; DesCamp, Wendy C.; Miller, Timothy W.

    2015-01-01

    Early detection, rapid response is a critical component of invasive plant management. It can be challenging, however, to detect new invaders before they become established if landowners cannot identify species of concern. In order to increase awareness, eye-catching postcards were developed in Washington State as part of a noxious weed educational…

  6. 75 FR 7282 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-18

    ... Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC) In accordance with section 10(a... detection and control of breast and cervical cancer. The committee makes recommendations regarding national.... Preventive Services Task Force guidelines for breast and cervical cancer screening; Impact of the revised...

  7. Vacuum stability in the early universe and the backreaction of classical gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markkanen, Tommi

    2018-03-06

    In the case of a metastable electroweak vacuum, the quantum corrected effective potential plays a crucial role in the potential instability of the standard model. In the early universe, in particular during inflation and reheating, this instability can be triggered leading to catastrophic vacuum decay. We discuss how the large space-time curvature of the early universe can be incorporated in the calculation and in many cases significantly modify the flat space prediction. The two key new elements are the unavoidable generation of the non-minimal coupling between the Higgs field and the scalar curvature of gravity and a curvature induced contribution to the running of the constants. For the minimal set up of the standard model and a decoupled inflation sector we show how a metastable vacuum can lead to very tight bounds for the non-minimal coupling. We also discuss a novel and very much related dark matter generation mechanism.This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue 'Higgs cosmology'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  8. Early Automatic Detection of Parkinson's Disease Based on Sleep Recordings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kempfner, Jacob; Sorensen, Helge B D; Nikolic, Miki

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY: Idiopathic rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) is most likely the earliest sign of Parkinson's Disease (PD) and is characterized by REM sleep without atonia (RSWA) and consequently increased muscle activity. However, some muscle twitching in normal subjects occurs...... during REM sleep. PURPOSE: There are no generally accepted methods for evaluation of this activity and a normal range has not been established. Consequently, there is a need for objective criteria. METHOD: In this study we propose a full-automatic method for detection of RSWA. REM sleep identification...... the number of outliers during REM sleep was used as a quantitative measure of muscle activity. RESULTS: The proposed method was able to automatically separate all iRBD test subjects from healthy elderly controls and subjects with periodic limb movement disorder. CONCLUSION: The proposed work is considered...

  9. Usher syndrome type 1: early detection of electroretinographic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Guevara, Roberto; Renault, Francis; Loundon, Natalie; Marlin, Sandrine; Pelosse, Béatrice; Momtchilova, Martha; Auzoux-Chevé, Monique; Vermersch, Anne Isabelle; Richard, Pascal

    2009-11-01

    Usher syndrome type 1 needs to be diagnosed at early age in order to timely manage speech therapy, cochlear implantation, and genetic counseling. Few data are available regarding electroretinographic testing before the age of six years. To describe electroretinographic changes in young children with Usher syndrome type 1. Retrospective study of fourteen patients. Age at first neurophysiologic testing was between 17 months and 5 years 4 months. Electroretinogram was performed using flash stimulation in mesopic conditions in the conscious child. Analysis was focused on the amplitudes and latencies of a- and b-waves. Whatever the age, an abnormal fundus was always confirmed with an absent electroretinogram. The youngest patient with absent electroretinogram was 17 month-old. When recorded on and after the 29th month of age, electroretinogram was absent in all cases, including 6 patients with normal fundus. In three patients a low-amplitude electroretinogram was present at first recording within the 26th and 27th months. Electroretinogram showed retinopathy in young children with Usher syndrome type 1, even in the absence of fundoscopic signs of retinal degeneration.

  10. Consumer preferences for teledermoscopy screening to detect melanoma early.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinks, Jean; Janda, Monika; Soyer, H Peter; Whitty, Jennifer A

    2016-01-01

    'Store and forward' teledermoscopy is a technology with potential advantages for melanoma screening. Any large-scale implementation of this technology is dependent on consumer acceptance. To investigate preferences for melanoma screening options compared with skin self-examination in adults considered to be at increased risk of developing skin cancer. A discrete choice experiment was completed by 35 consumers, all of whom had prior experience with the use of teledermoscopy, in Queensland, Australia. Participants made 12 choices between screening alternatives described by seven attributes including monetary cost. A mixed logit model was used to estimate the relative weights that consumers place on different aspects of screening, along with the marginal willingness to pay for teledermoscopy as opposed to screening at a clinic. Overall, participants preferred screening/diagnosis by a health professional rather than skin self-examination. Key drivers of screening choice were for results to be reviewed by a dermatologist; a higher detection rate; fewer non-cancerous moles being removed in relation to every skin cancer detected; and less time spent away from usual activities. On average, participants were willing to pay AUD110 to have teledermoscopy with dermatologist review available to them as a screening option. Consumers preferentially value aspects of care that are more feasible with a teledermoscopy screening model, as compared with other skin cancer screening and diagnosis options. This study adds to previous literature in the area which has relied on the use of consumer satisfaction scales to assess the acceptability of teledermoscopy. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Computer-aided detection in computed tomography colonography. Current status and problems with detection of early colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimoto, Tsuyoshi; Nakijima, Yasuo; Iinuma, Gen; Arai, Yasuaki; Shiraishi, Junji; Moriyama, Noriyuki; Beddoe, G.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of computer-aided detection (CAD) in diagnosing early colorectal cancer using computed tomography colonography (CTC). A total of 30 CTC data sets for 30 early colorectal cancers in 30 patients were retrospectively reviewed by three radiologists. After primary evaluation, a second reading was performed using CAD findings. The readers evaluated each colorectal segment for the presence or absence of colorectal cancer using five confidence rating levels. To compare the assessment results, the sensitivity and specificity with and without CAD were calculated on the basis of the confidence rating, and differences in these variables were analyzed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The average sensitivities for the detection without and with CAD for the three readers were 81.6% and 75.6%, respectively. Among the three readers, only one reader improved sensitivity with CAD compared to that without. CAD decreased specificity in all three readers. CAD detected 100% of protruding lesions but only 69.2% of flat lesions. On ROC analysis, the diagnostic performance of all three readers was decreased by use of CAD. Currently available CAD with CTC does not improve diagnostic performance for detecting early colorectal cancer. An improved CAD algorithm is required for detecting fiat lesions and reducing the false-positive rate. (author)

  12. Can superconducting cosmic strings piercing seed black holes generate supermassive black holes in the early universe?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lake, Matthew J. [The Institute for Fundamental Study, ' ' The Tah Poe Academia Institute' ' , Naresuan University, Phitsanulok (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Ministry of Education, Bangkok (Thailand); Harko, Tiberiu [Department of Physics, Babes-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Department of Mathematics, University College London (United Kingdom)

    2017-10-15

    The discovery of a large number of supermassive black holes (SMBH) at redshifts z > 6, when the Universe was only 900 million years old, raises the question of how such massive compact objects could form in a cosmologically short time interval. Each of the standard scenarios proposed, involving rapid accretion of seed black holes or black hole mergers, faces severe theoretical difficulties in explaining the short-time formation of supermassive objects. In this work we propose an alternative scenario for the formation of SMBH in the early Universe, in which energy transfer from superconducting cosmic strings piercing small seed black holes is the main physical process leading to rapid mass increase. As a toy model, the accretion rate of a seed black hole pierced by two antipodal strings carrying constant current is considered. Using an effective action approach, which phenomenologically incorporates a large class of superconducting string models, we estimate the minimum current required to form SMBH with masses of order M = 2 x 10{sup 9} M {sub CircleDot} by z = 7.085. This corresponds to the mass of the central black hole powering the quasar ULAS J112001.48+064124.3 and is taken as a test case scenario for early-epoch SMBH formation. For GUT scale strings, the required fractional increase in the string energy density, due to the presence of the current, is of order 10{sup -7}, so that their existence remains consistent with current observational bounds on the string tension. In addition, we consider an ''exotic'' scenario, in which an SMBH is generated when a small seed black hole is pierced by a higher-dimensional F-string, predicted by string theory. We find that both topological defect strings and fundamental strings are able to carry currents large enough to generate early-epoch SMBH via our proposed mechanism. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Point/Counterpoint: early detection of prostate cancer: do the benefits outweigh the consequences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Peter R; Vickers, Andrew J

    2014-05-01

    Few clinical issues have polarized the oncology community as much as screening for prostate cancer, with advocates of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing vocal on one side and skeptics just as vocal on the other. At the NCCN 19th Annual Conference, Dr. Peter R. Carroll and Dr. Andrew J. Vickers tackled the controversy surrounding early detection of prostate cancer, focusing attention on the randomized trial results at the heart of the matter; over-detection (the Achilles' heel of screening); and the rationale behind the new, streamlined 2014 NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Prostate Cancer Early Detection, which emphasize selective early detection and treatment and are tightly aligned with the NCCN Guidelines for Prostate Cancer. Copyright © 2014 by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

  14. Early detection of breast and cervical cancer among indigenous communities in Morelos, Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Campero

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze the perception in relation to when and how to perform actions for the early detection of breast and cervical cancer among women and health care providers in communities with a high percentage of indigenous population in Morelos, Mexico. Materials and methods. Ten health providers and 58 women users of health services were interviewed which have a first level of attention in five communities. The analysis was developed under the approach of the Grounded Theory. Results. Providers are poorly informed about current regulations and specific clinical indications for the detection of cervical and breast cancer. Few propitiate health literacy under intercultural sensitization. The users have imprecise or wrong notions of the early detection. Conclusions. The need for training in adherence to norms is evident. It is urgent to assume a culturally relevant approach to enable efficient communication and promote health literacy for early detection of these two cancers.

  15. [Colorimetric card use for early detection visual biliary atresia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Cerecedo, Alicia; Flores-Calderón, Judith; Villasis-Keever, Miguel Á; Chávez-Barrera, José A; Delgado-González, Elba E

    2018-01-01

    Bile duct atresia (BVA) is a condition that causes obstruction to biliary flow, not corrected surgically, causes cirrhosis and death before 2 years of age. In Mexico from 2013 the visual colorimetric card (VVC) was incorporated for the timely detection of BVA to the National Health Card (NHC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of VCT for the detection of BVA before and after the use of NHC incorporation. Ambispective, analytical observational study. We included patients with AVB treated in two pediatric hospitals of third level care. We compared the age of reference, diagnosis and surgery before and after incorporation of the TCV. In addition, a questionnaire was made to the parents to know their perception about the TCV. In 59 children, there were no differences in age at diagnosis (75 vs 70 days) and age at surgery (84 vs 90 days) between the pre and post-implementation period of the VVC. The questionnaire showed that 10 (30%) of the parents received information about the use of the VVC and 13 (38%) identified the abnormal evacuations. This study did not show changes in time for the timely detection of BVA by using VVC. Therefore, it is necessary to reinforce the program in the three levels of care in our country. La atresia de vías biliares (AVB) es una condición que provoca obstrucción al flujo biliar, y de no corregirse quirúrgicamente, provoca cirrosis y la muerte antes de los 2 años de edad. En México, a partir del año 2013 se incorporó la tarjeta colorimétrica visual (TCV) para la detección oportuna de la AVB a la Cartilla Nacional de Salud (CNS). El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el impacto de la TCV para la detección de AVB antes y después de su incorporación a la CNS. Estudio ambispectivo, observacional y analítico. Se incluyeron pacientes con AVB atendidos en dos hospitales pediátricos de tercer nivel de atención. Se compararon la edad de referencia, el diagnóstico y la cirugía antes y después de la incorporaci

  16. Encouraging entrepreneurship in university labs: Research activities, research outputs, and early doctorate careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates how the encouragement of entrepreneurship within university research labs relates with research activities, research outputs, and early doctorate careers. Utilizing a panel survey of 6,840 science & engineering doctoral students at 39 R1 research universities, this study shows that entrepreneurship is widely encouraged across university research labs, ranging from 54% in biomedical engineering to 18% in particle physics, while only a small share of labs openly discourage entrepreneurship, from approximately 3% in engineering to approximately 12% in the life sciences. Within fields, there is no difference between labs that encourage entrepreneurship and those that do not with respect to basic research activity and the number of publications. At the same time, labs that encourage entrepreneurship are significantly more likely to report invention disclosures, particularly in engineering where such labs are 41% more likely to disclose inventions. With respect to career pathways, PhDs students in labs that encourage entrepreneurship do not differ from other PhDs in their interest in academic careers, but they are 87% more likely to be interested in careers in entrepreneurship and 44% more likely to work in a startup after graduation. These results persist even when accounting for individuals’ pre-PhD interest in entrepreneurship and the encouragement of other non-academic industry careers. PMID:28178270

  17. Encouraging entrepreneurship in university labs: Research activities, research outputs, and early doctorate careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates how the encouragement of entrepreneurship within university research labs relates with research activities, research outputs, and early doctorate careers. Utilizing a panel survey of 6,840 science & engineering doctoral students at 39 R1 research universities, this study shows that entrepreneurship is widely encouraged across university research labs, ranging from 54% in biomedical engineering to 18% in particle physics, while only a small share of labs openly discourage entrepreneurship, from approximately 3% in engineering to approximately 12% in the life sciences. Within fields, there is no difference between labs that encourage entrepreneurship and those that do not with respect to basic research activity and the number of publications. At the same time, labs that encourage entrepreneurship are significantly more likely to report invention disclosures, particularly in engineering where such labs are 41% more likely to disclose inventions. With respect to career pathways, PhDs students in labs that encourage entrepreneurship do not differ from other PhDs in their interest in academic careers, but they are 87% more likely to be interested in careers in entrepreneurship and 44% more likely to work in a startup after graduation. These results persist even when accounting for individuals' pre-PhD interest in entrepreneurship and the encouragement of other non-academic industry careers.

  18. Role of the cosmological constant in the holographic description of the early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myung, Yun Soo

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the role of the cosmological constant in the holographic description of a radiation-dominated universe C 2 /R 4 with a positive cosmological constant Λ. In order to understand the nature of cosmological term, we first study the Newtonian cosmology. Here we find two aspects of the cosmological term: entropy (Λ→S Λ ) and energy (Λ→E Λ ). Also we solve the Friedmann equation parametrically to obtain another role. In the presence of the cosmological constant, the solutions are described by the Weierstrass elliptic functions on torus and have modular properties. In this case one may expect to have a two-dimensional Cardy entropy formula but the cosmological constant plays a role of the modular parameter τ(C 2 ,Λ) of torus. Consequently, the entropy concept of the cosmological constant is very suitable for establishing the holographic entropy bounds in the early universe. This contrasts to the role of the cosmological constant as a dark energy in the present universe

  19. Encouraging entrepreneurship in university labs: Research activities, research outputs, and early doctorate careers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Roach

    Full Text Available This paper investigates how the encouragement of entrepreneurship within university research labs relates with research activities, research outputs, and early doctorate careers. Utilizing a panel survey of 6,840 science & engineering doctoral students at 39 R1 research universities, this study shows that entrepreneurship is widely encouraged across university research labs, ranging from 54% in biomedical engineering to 18% in particle physics, while only a small share of labs openly discourage entrepreneurship, from approximately 3% in engineering to approximately 12% in the life sciences. Within fields, there is no difference between labs that encourage entrepreneurship and those that do not with respect to basic research activity and the number of publications. At the same time, labs that encourage entrepreneurship are significantly more likely to report invention disclosures, particularly in engineering where such labs are 41% more likely to disclose inventions. With respect to career pathways, PhDs students in labs that encourage entrepreneurship do not differ from other PhDs in their interest in academic careers, but they are 87% more likely to be interested in careers in entrepreneurship and 44% more likely to work in a startup after graduation. These results persist even when accounting for individuals' pre-PhD interest in entrepreneurship and the encouragement of other non-academic industry careers.

  20. Why the early Universe preferred the non-supersymmetric vacuum: part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abel, Steven A.; Jaeckel, Joerg; Khoze, Valentin V.

    2007-01-01

    It was recently shown that in the context of the ISS models with a metastable supersymmetry breaking vacuum, thermal effects generically drive the Universe to the metastable vacuum even if it began after inflation in the supersymmetry-preserving one. We continue this programme and specifically take into account two new effects. First is the effect of the mass-gap of the gauge degrees of freedom in the confining supersymmetry preserving vacua, and second, is the effect of the back reaction of the MSSM sector on the SUSY breaking ISS sector. It is shown that, even though the mass-gap is parametrically smaller than the (φ), (φ-tilde) vevs, it drastically reduces the temperature required for the Universe to be driven to the metastable vacuum: essentially any temperature larger than the supersymmetry breaking scale μ is sufficient. On the other hand we also find that any reasonable transmission of SUSY breaking to the MSSM sector has no effect on the vacuum transitions to, and the stability of the SUSY breaking vacuum. We conclude that for these models the early Universe does end up in the SUSY breaking vacuum

  1. Integrated Specialized Early-Course Psychosis Treatment Services - University Psychiatric Hospital Vrapce Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostojić, DraŽenka; Čulo, Ilaria; Silić, Ante; Kos, Suzana; Savić, Aleksandar

    2018-06-01

    First episode of psychosis presents a critical period in terms of numerous associated risks, but also possibilities for effective therapeutic interventions. There is a continued focus on early interventions in prodromal states and early course of frank psychosis, aimed at ensuring faster remission, reducing relapses, achieving better long-term functioning, and preventing adverse outcomes linked to untreated psychosis and chronic psychotic disorders. A number of different specialized treatment models and services exist trying to close knowledge gaps and provide clinical interventions to first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients, but there is still no generally accepted standard of care informing our every-day practice. FEP and early-course psychosis specialized treatment model developed in 2004 in University Psychiatric Hospital Vrapce rests on integration of care across different organization units and clinical presentation acuity levels and patient needs (intensive care, FEP inpatient unit, FEP outpatient services including day hospital). Such integration of FEP services allows for flexible entry point on multiple levels, earlier structuring of therapeutic alliance for those requiring inpatient care, reduction of risks associated with FEP, quicker formation of long-term treatment plans, reduction of delay in accessing specialized services, and a more coordinated diagnostic process and recruitment of FEP patient population. Detailed evaluations of outcomes and comparisons with different treatment models are necessary in order to assess strengths and weaknesses of each specific model and inform modifications to current practice models.

  2. Early detection and diagnosis of disturbances in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorlo, T.J.; Berg, O.; Grini, R.E.; Yokobayashi, M.

    1987-01-01

    The surveillance and control of nuclear power plants comprises a number of tasks and functions which have to be shared between the operators and the control and instrumentation systems. The trend in control room design towards a higher degree of computerization of the control and instrumentation systems and replacement of conventional instrument panels by VDU-based man-machine communication systems opens possibilities for improving the support given to the operators in their cognitive tasks. At the OECD Halden Reactor Project these possibilities are explored through a research and development programme centered around the NORS/HAMMLAB experimental control room facility. The full-scale PWR simulator, NORS, coupled with the HAlden Man-Machine LABoratory (HAMMLAB), which includes the experimental control room as well as an established research methodology and staff, constitutes a unique basis ofr the design, development and validation of operator support systems, as well as for more basic operator performance experimentation. The aim of the system development work at the Halden Project is to design, build and validate computer-based systems which can assist and support the operations in their various tasks and through this improve the total performance and safety of complex plant operation. Currently, the Halden Project is developing an integrated disturbance handling system for use at nuclear power plants. This paper describes the activities on fault detection and diagnosis within this development project

  3. Early detection monitoring for larval dreissenid mussels: how much plankton sampling is enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counihan, Timothy D; Bollens, Stephen M

    2017-03-01

    The development of quagga and zebra mussel (dreissenids) monitoring programs in the Pacific Northwest provides a unique opportunity to evaluate a regional invasive species detection effort early in its development. Recent studies suggest that the ecological and economic costs of a dreissenid infestation in the Pacific Northwest of the USA would be significant. Consequently, efforts are underway to monitor for the presence of dreissenids. However, assessments of whether these efforts provide for early detection are lacking. We use information collected from 2012 to 2014 to characterize the development of larval dreissenid monitoring programs in the states of Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington in the context of introduction and establishment risk. We also estimate the effort needed for high-probability detection of rare planktonic taxa in four Columbia and Snake River reservoirs and assess whether the current level of effort provides for early detection. We found that the effort expended to monitor for dreissenid mussels increased substantially from 2012 to 2014, that efforts were distributed across risk categories ranging from high to very low, and that substantial gaps in our knowledge of both introduction and establishment risk exist. The estimated volume of filtered water required to fully census planktonic taxa or to provide high-probability detection of rare taxa was high for the four reservoirs examined. We conclude that the current level of effort expended does not provide for high-probability detection of larval dreissenids or other planktonic taxa when they are rare in these reservoirs. We discuss options to improve early detection capabilities.

  4. Early Detection of Rapidly Developing Cumulus Area using HIMAWARI-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Y.; Kadosaki, G.

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, many disasters have been occured by influence of meteorological change in Japan. So, it becomes more important to inform rapid weather change caused by cumulus which brings concentrated heavy rain/hail, wind gust, lightning in a short period. These severe events should inclease in the future by global warming. Therefore we are developping the alert system for Rapidly Developing Cumulus Area (RDCA) detection using Japanese new satellite. At July 2015, Japan Meteorological Agency started operation of new geostationary meteorological satellite "Himawari-8". This satellite has optical imager named Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI). It can observe Japan area every 2.5 minutes. The frequently infrared image with high resolution (2km) is the key of our alert system. We took some special functions in the algorithm of this system. One of the points is cloud location which shifts to north from true location around Japan by viewing angle from the satellite above the equator. We moved clouds to the correct position using geometric correction method according to its height and latitude. This algorithm also follows a movement of cloud every 2.5 minutes during several observations. It derives the information about degree of the development of cumulus. The prototype system gives the alert before 30 to 60 minutes in advance to the first lightning in typical cumulus case. However, we understand that there are some difficult cases to alert. For example, winter low cloud over the Japan Sea which brings a winter lightning, and tornado (although it is not cumulus). Now, we are adjusting some parameters of the algorithm. In the near future, our algorithm will be used in weather information delivery service to the customer.

  5. Strategies for improving early detection and diagnosis of neovascular age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keane PA

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pearse A Keane,1 Gabriella de Salvo,2 Dawn A Sim,1 Srini Goverdhan,2 Rupesh Agrawal,1 Adnan Tufail1 1NIHR Biomedical Research Centre for Ophthalmology, Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust and UCL Institute of Ophthalmology, London, 2Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust, Southampton, UK Abstract: Treatment of the neovascular form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD has been revolutionized by the introduction of such agents as ranibizumab, bevacizumab, and aflibercept. As a result, the incidence of legal blindness occurring secondary to AMD has fallen dramatically in recent years in many countries. While these agents have undoubtedly been successful in reducing visual impairment and blindness, patients with neovascular AMD typically lose some vision over time, and often lose the ability to read, drive, or perform other important activities of daily living. Efforts are therefore under way to develop strategies that allow for earlier detection and treatment of this disease. In this review, we begin by providing an overview of the rationale for, and the benefits of, early detection and treatment of neovascular AMD. To achieve this, we begin by providing an overview of the pathophysiology and natural history of choroidal neovascularization, before reviewing the evidence from both clinical trials and “real-world” outcome studies. We continue by highlighting an area that is often overlooked: the importance of patient education and awareness for early AMD detection. We conclude the review by reviewing an array of both established and emerging technologies for early detection of choroidal neovascularization, ranging from Amsler chart testing, to hyperacuity testing, to advanced imaging techniques, such as optical coherence tomography. Keywords: Amsler, detection, choroidal neovascularization, hyperacuity, optical coherence tomography

  6. Development of the 2nd generation z(Redshift) and early universe spectrometer & the study of far-IR fine structure emission in high-z galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferkinhoff, Carl

    The 2nd generation z (Redshift) and Early Universe Spectrometer (ZEUS-2), is a long-slit echelle-grating spectrometer (R~1000) for observations at submillimeter wavelengths from 200 to 850 microm. Its design is optimized for the detection of redshifted far-infrared spectral lines from galaxies in the early universe. Combining exquisite sensitivity, broad wavelength coverage, and large (˜2.5%) instantaneous bandwidth, ZEUS-2 is uniquely suited for studying galaxies between z˜0.2 and 5---spanning the peaks in both the star formation rate and number of AGN in the universe. ZEUS-2 saw first light at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) in the Spring of 2012 and was commissioned on the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) in November 2012. Here we detail the design and performance of ZEUS-2, first however we discuss important science results that are examples of the science enabled by ZEUS-2. Using the first generation z (Redshift) and Early Universe Spectrometer (ZEUS-1) we made the first high-z detections of the [NII] 122 microm and [OIII] 88 microm lines. We detect these lines from starburst galaxies between z ˜2.5 and 4 demonstrating the utility of these lines for characterizing the properties of early galaxies. Specifically we are able to determine the most massive star still on the main sequence, the number of those stars and a lower limit on the mass of ionized gas in the source. Next we present ZEUS-2's first science result. Using ZEUS-2 on APEX we have detected the [CII] 158 microm line from the z = 1.78 galaxy H-ATLAS J091043.1-000322 with a line flux of (6.44 +/- 0.42) ˜ 10-18 W m-2. Combined with its far-infrared luminosity and a new Herschel-PACS detection of the [OI] 63 microm line we are able to conclude that H-ATLAS J091043.1-000322 is a high redshift analogue of a local ultra-luminous infrared galaxy, i.e. it is likely the site of a compact starburst due to a major merger. This detection, combined with the ZEUS-1 observations of the [NII

  7. A combination of circulating miRNAs for the early detection of ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Akira; Yoshioka, Yusuke; Hirakawa, Akihiro; Yamamoto, Yusuke; Ishikawa, Mitsuya; Ikeda, Shun-ichi; Kato, Tomoyasu; Niimi, Kaoru; Kajiyama, Hiroaki; Kikkawa, Fumitaka; Ochiya, Takahiro

    2017-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of gynecologic cancer mortality, due to the difficulty of early detection. Current screening methods lack sufficient accuracy, and it is still challenging to propose a new early detection method that improves patient outcomes with less-invasiveness. Although many studies have suggested the utility of circulating microRNAs in cancer detection, their potential for early detection remains elusive. Here, we develop novel predictive models using a combination of 8 circulating serum miRNAs. This method was able to successfully distinguish ovarian cancer patients from healthy controls (area under the curve, 0.97; sensitivity, 0.92; and specificity, 0.91) and early-stage ovarian cancer from patients with benign tumors (0.91, 0.86 and 0.83, respectively). This method also enables subtype classification in 4 types of epithelial ovarian cancer. Furthermore, it is found that most of the 8 miRNAs were packaged in extracellular vesicles, including exosomes, derived from ovarian cancer cells, and they were circulating in murine blood stream. The circulating miRNAs described in this study may serve as biomarkers for ovarian cancer patients. Early detection and subtype determination prior to surgery are crucial for clinicians to design an effective treatment strategy for each patient, as is the goal of precision medicine. PMID:29163790

  8. Hyperspectral remote sensing techniques for early detection of plant diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krezhova, Dora; Maneva, Svetla; Zdravev, Tomas

    Hyperspectral remote sensing is an emerging, multidisciplinary field with diverse applications in Earth observation. Nowadays spectral remote sensing techniques allow presymptomatic monitoring of changes in the physiological state of plants with high spectral resolution. Hyperspectral leaf reflectance and chlorophyll fluorescence proved to be highly suitable for identification of growth anomalies of cultural plants that result from the environmental changes and different stress factors. Hyperspectral technologies can find place in many scientific areas, as well as for monitoring of plants status and functioning to help in making timely management decisions. This research aimed to detect a presence of viral infection in young pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.) caused by Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV) by using hyperspectral reflectance and fluorescence data and to assess the effect of some growth regulators on the development of the disease. In Bulgaria CMV is one of the widest spread pathogens, causing the biggest economical losses in crop vegetable production. Leaf spectral reflectance and fluorescence data were collected by a portable fibre-optics spectrometer in the spectral ranges 450÷850 nm and 600-900 nm. Greenhouse experiment with pepper plants of two cultivars, Sivria (sensitive to CMV) and Ostrion (resistant to CMV) were used. The plants were divided into six groups. The first group consisted of healthy (control) plants. At growth stage 4-6 expanded leaf, the second group was inoculated with CMV. The other four groups were treated with growth regulators: Spermine, MEIA (beta-monomethyl ester of itaconic acid), BTH (benzo(1,2,3)thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid-S-methyl ester) and Phytoxin. On the next day, the pepper plants of these four groups were inoculated with CMV. The viral concentrations in the plants were determined by the serological method DAS-ELISA. Statistical, first derivative and cluster analysis were applied and several vegetation indices were

  9. A Mass Spectrometric Analysis Method Based on PPCA and SVM for Early Detection of Ovarian Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiang; Ji, Yanju; Zhao, Ling; Ji, Mengying; Ye, Zhuang; Li, Suyi

    2016-01-01

    Background. Surfaced-enhanced laser desorption-ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS) technology plays an important role in the early diagnosis of ovarian cancer. However, the raw MS data is highly dimensional and redundant. Therefore, it is necessary to study rapid and accurate detection methods from the massive MS data. Methods. The clinical data set used in the experiments for early cancer detection consisted of 216 SELDI-TOF-MS samples. An MS analysis method based on probabilistic principal components analysis (PPCA) and support vector machine (SVM) was proposed and applied to the ovarian cancer early classification in the data set. Additionally, by the same data set, we also established a traditional PCA-SVM model. Finally we compared the two models in detection accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity. Results. Using independent training and testing experiments 10 times to evaluate the ovarian cancer detection models, the average prediction accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of the PCA-SVM model were 83.34%, 82.70%, and 83.88%, respectively. In contrast, those of the PPCA-SVM model were 90.80%, 92.98%, and 88.97%, respectively. Conclusions. The PPCA-SVM model had better detection performance. And the model combined with the SELDI-TOF-MS technology had a prospect in early clinical detection and diagnosis of ovarian cancer.

  10. On the origin of Hawking mini black-holes and the cold early universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canuto, V.

    1978-01-01

    A simple argument is outlined leading to the result that the mass of mini black holes exploding today is 10 to the 15th power g. A mathematical model is discussed which indicates that the equation of state is greatly softened in the high-density regime and a phase transition may exist, such that any length (particularly very small sizes) will grow with time irrespective of its relation to the size of the particle horizon. It is shown that the effect of spin-2 mesons with respect to the equation of state is to soften the pressure and make it negative. An analytical expression is given for the probability that any particular region in a hot early universe will evolve into a black hole.

  11. Primordial black holes from scalar field evolution in the early universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotner, Eric; Kusenko, Alexander

    2017-11-01

    Scalar condensates with large expectation values can form in the early universe, for example, in theories with supersymmetry. The condensate can undergo fragmentation into Q-balls before decaying. If the Q-balls dominate the energy density for some period of time, statistical fluctuations in their number density can lead to formation of primordial black holes (PBH). In the case of supersymmetry the mass range is limited from above by 1 023 g . For a general charged scalar field, this robust mechanism can generate black holes over a much broader mass range, including the black holes with masses of 1-100 solar masses, which is relevant for LIGO observations of gravitational waves. Topological defects can lead to formation of PBH in a similar fashion.

  12. Violation of CPT invariance in the early universe and leptogenesis/baryogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Mavromatos, Nick E

    2013-01-01

    In this talk, I review some plausible scenarios entailing violation of CPT symmetry in the early Universe, due to space-time backgrounds which do not respect some of the assumptions for the validity of the CPT theorem (here considered will be Lorentz invariance and/or Unitarity). The key point in all these models is that the background induces different populations of fermions as compared to antifermions, and hence CPT Violation (CPTV), already in thermal equilibrium. Such populations may freeze out at various conditions depending on the details of the underlying microscopic model, thereby leading to leptogenesis and baryogenesis. Among the considered scenarios is a stringy one, in which the CPTV is associated with a cosmological background with torsion provided by the Kalb-Ramond antisymmetric tensor field (axion) of the string gravitational multiplet. We also discuss briefly (Lorentz Violating) CPTV models that go beyond the local effective lagrangian framework, such as a stochastic Finsler metric and D-par...

  13. Massive boson-fermion degeneracy and the early structure of the universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kounnas, C.

    2008-01-01

    The existence of a new kind of massive boson-fermion symmetry is shown explicitly in the framework of the heterotic, type II and type II orientifold superstring theories. The target space-time is two-dimensional. Higher dimensional models are defined via large marginal deformations of J anti J-type. The spectrum of the initial undeformed two dimensional vacuum consists of massless boson degrees of freedom, while all massive boson and fermion degrees of freedom exhibit a new Massive Spectrum Degeneracy Symmetry (MSDS). This precise property, distinguishes the MSDS theories from the well known supersymmetric SUSY-theories. Some proposals are stated in the framework of these theories concerning the structure of: (i) The Early Non-singular Phase of the Universe, (ii) The two dimensional boundary theory of AdS 3 Black-Holes, (iii) Plausible applications of the MSDS theories in particle physics, alternative to SUSY. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  14. Chemical Evolution and the Formation of Dwarf Galaxies in the Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, Benoit; JINA-CEE, NuGrid, ChETEC

    2018-06-01

    Stellar abundances in local dwarf galaxies offer a unique window into the nature and nucleosynthesis of the first stars. They also contain clues regarding how galaxies formed and assembled in the early stages of the universe. In this talk, I will present our effort to connect nuclear astrophysics with the field of galaxy formation in order to define what can be learned about galaxy evolution using stellar abundances. In particular, I will describe the current state of our numerical chemical evolution pipeline which accounts for the mass assembly history of galaxies, present how we use high-redshift cosmological hydrodynamic simulations to calibrate our models and to learn about the formation of dwarf galaxies, and address the challenge of identifying the dominant r-process site(s) using stellar abundances.

  15. Portable microfluidic raman system for rapid, label-free early disease signature detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Meiye [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Davis, Ryan Wesley [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Hatch, Anson [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    In the early stages of infection, patients develop non-specific or no symptoms at all. While waiting for identification of the infectious agent, precious window of opportunity for early intervention is lost. The standard diagnostics require affinity reagents and sufficient pathogen titers to reach the limit of detection. In the event of a disease outbreak, triaging the at-risk population rapidly and reliably for quarantine and countermeasure is more important than the identification of the pathogen by name. To expand Sandia's portfolio of Biological threat management capabilities, we will utilize Raman spectrometry to analyze immune subsets in whole blood to rapidly distinguish infected from non-infected, and bacterial from viral infection, for the purpose of triage during an emergency outbreak. The goal of this one year LDRD is to determine whether Raman spectroscopy can provide label-free detection of early disease signatures, and define a miniaturized Raman detection system meeting requirements for low- resource settings.

  16. A Forest Early Fire Detection Algorithm Based on Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHENG Qiang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN adopt GHz as their communication carrier, and it has been found that GHz carrier attenuation model in transmission path is associated with vegetation water content. In this paper, based on RSSI mechanism of WSN nodes we formed vegetation dehydration sensors. Through relationships between vegetation water content and carrier attenuation, we perceived forest vegetation water content variations and early fire gestation process, and established algorithms of early forest fires detection. Experiments confirm that wireless sensor networks can accurately perceive vegetation dehydration events and forest fire events. Simulation results show that, WSN dehydration perception channel (P2P representing 75 % amounts of carrier channel or more, it can meet the detection requirements, which presented a new algorithm of early forest fire detection.

  17. About the role of Higgs boson in the evolution of the early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jegerlehner, Fred

    2014-06-01

    After the discovery of the Higgs particle the most relevant structures of the SM have been verified and for the first time we know all parameters of the SM within remarkable accuracy. Together with recent calculations of the SM renormalization group coefficients up to three loops we can safely extrapolate running couplings high up in energy. Assuming that the SM is a low energy effective theory of a cutoff theory residing at the Planck scale, we are able to calculate the effective bare parameters of the underlying cutoff system. It turns out that the effective bare mass term changes sign not far below the Planck scale, which means that in the early universe the SM was in the symmetric phase. The sign-flip, which is a result of a conspiracy between the SM couplings and their screening/antiscreening behavior, triggers the Higgs mechanism. Above the Higgs phase transition the bare mass term in the Higgs potential must have had a large positive value, enhanced by the quadratic divergence of the bare Higgs mass. Likewise the quartically enhanced positive vacuum energy density is present in the symmetric phase. The Higgs system thus provides the large dark energy density in the early universe, which triggers slow-roll inflation, i.e. the SM Higgs is the inflaton scalar field. Reheating is dominated by the decay of the heavy Higgses into (in the symmetric phase) massless top/anti-top quark pairs. The new scenario possibly could explain the baryon-asymmetry essentially in terms of SM physics.

  18. A tale of two timescales: Mixing, mass generation, and phase transitions in the early universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dienes, Keith R.; Kost, Jeff; Thomas, Brooks

    2016-02-01

    Light scalar fields such as axions and string moduli can play an important role in early-universe cosmology. However, many factors can significantly impact their late-time cosmological abundances. For example, in cases where the potentials for these fields are generated dynamically—such as during cosmological mass-generating phase transitions—the duration of the time interval required for these potentials to fully develop can have significant repercussions. Likewise, in scenarios with multiple scalars, mixing amongst the fields can also give rise to an effective timescale that modifies the resulting late-time abundances. Previous studies have focused on the effects of either the first or the second timescale in isolation. In this paper, by contrast, we examine the new features that arise from the interplay between these two timescales when both mixing and time-dependent phase transitions are introduced together. First, we find that the effects of these timescales can conspire to alter not only the total late-time abundance of the system—often by many orders of magnitude—but also its distribution across the different fields. Second, we find that these effects can produce large parametric resonances which render the energy densities of the fields highly sensitive to the degree of mixing as well as the duration of the time interval over which the phase transition unfolds. Finally, we find that these effects can even give rise to a "reoverdamping" phenomenon which causes the total energy density of the system to behave in novel ways that differ from those exhibited by pure dark matter or vacuum energy. All of these features therefore give rise to new possibilities for early-universe phenomenology and cosmological evolution. They also highlight the importance of taking into account the time dependence associated with phase transitions in cosmological settings.

  19. Does Computer-aided Detection Assist in the Early Detection of Breast Cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hukkinen, K.; Pamilo, M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether breast cancers detected at screening are visible in previous mammograms, and to assess the performance of a computer-aided detection (CAD) system in detecting lesions in preoperative and previous mammograms. Material and Methods: Initial screening detected 67 women with 69 surgically verified breast cancers (Group A). An experienced screening radiologist retrospectively analyzed previous mammograms for visible lesions (Group B), noting in particular their size and morphology. Preoperative and previous mammograms were analyzed with CAD; a relatively inexperienced resident also analyzed previous mammograms. The performances of CAD and resident were then compared. Results: Of the 69 lesions identified, 36 were visible in previous mammograms. Of these 36 'missed' lesions, 14 were under 10 mm in diameter and 29 were mass lesions. The sensitivity of CAD was 81% in Group A and 64% in Group B. Small mass lesions were harder for CAD to detect. The specificity of CAD was 3% in Group A and 9% in Group B. Together, CAD and the resident found more 'missed' lesions than separately. Conclusion: Of the 69 breast cancers, 36 were visible in previous mammograms. CAD's sensitivity in detecting cancer lesions ranged from 64% to 81%, while specificity ranged from 9% to as low as 3%. CAD may be helpful if the radiologist is less subspecialized in mammography

  20. A new method to extract dental pulp DNA: application to universal detection of bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam Tran-Hung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dental pulp is used for PCR-based detection of DNA derived from host and bacteremic microorganims. Current protocols require odontology expertise for proper recovery of the dental pulp. Dental pulp specimen exposed to laboratory environment yields contaminants detected using universal 16S rDNA-based detection of bacteria. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We developed a new protocol by encasing decontaminated tooth into sterile resin, extracting DNA into the dental pulp chamber itself and decontaminating PCR reagents by filtration and double restriction enzyme digestion. Application to 16S rDNA-based detection of bacteria in 144 teeth collected in 86 healthy people yielded a unique sequence in only 14 teeth (9.7% from 12 individuals (14%. Each individual yielded a unique 16S rDNA sequence in 1-2 teeth per individual. Negative controls remained negative. Bacterial identifications were all confirmed by amplification and sequencing of specific rpoB sequence. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The new protocol prevented laboratory contamination of the dental pulp. It allowed the detection of bacteria responsible for dental pulp colonization from blood and periodontal tissue. Only 10% such samples contained 16S rDNA. It provides a new tool for the retrospective diagnostic of bacteremia by allowing the universal detection of bacterial DNA in animal and human, contemporary or ancient tooth. It could be further applied to identification of host DNA in forensic medicine and anthropology.

  1. Early detection of consciousness in patients with acute severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlow, Brian L; Chatelle, Camille; Spencer, Camille A; Chu, Catherine J; Bodien, Yelena G; O'Connor, Kathryn L; Hirschberg, Ronald E; Hochberg, Leigh R; Giacino, Joseph T; Rosenthal, Eric S; Wu, Ona

    2017-09-01

    of language function, responses to language and music were more frequently observed than responses to motor imagery (62.5-80% versus 33.3-42.9%). Similarly, in 16 matched healthy subjects, responses to language and music were more frequently observed than responses to motor imagery (87.5-100% versus 68.8-75.0%). Except for one patient who died in the intensive care unit, all patients with cognitive motor dissociation and higher-order cortex motor dissociation recovered beyond a confusional state by 6 months. However, 6-month outcomes were not associated with early functional magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalography responses for the entire cohort. These observations suggest that functional magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalography can detect command-following and higher-order cortical function in patients with acute severe traumatic brain injury. Early detection of covert consciousness and cortical responses in the intensive care unit could alter time-sensitive decisions about withholding life-sustaining therapies. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Evaluating surveillance strategies for the early detection of low pathogenicity avian influenza infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comin, Arianna; Stegeman, Arjan; Marangon, Stefano; Klinkenberg, Don

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the early detection of low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) viruses in poultry has become increasingly important, given their potential to mutate into highly pathogenic viruses. However, evaluations of LPAI surveillance have mainly focused on prevalence and not on the ability to act as an early warning system. We used a simulation model based on data from Italian LPAI epidemics in turkeys to evaluate different surveillance strategies in terms of their performance as early warning systems. The strategies differed in terms of sample size, sampling frequency, diagnostic tests, and whether or not active surveillance (i.e., routine laboratory testing of farms) was performed, and were also tested under different epidemiological scenarios. We compared surveillance strategies by simulating within-farm outbreaks. The output measures were the proportion of infected farms that are detected and the farm reproduction number (R(h)). The first one provides an indication of the sensitivity of the surveillance system to detect within-farm infections, whereas R(h) reflects the effectiveness of outbreak detection (i.e., if detection occurs soon enough to bring an epidemic under control). Increasing the sampling frequency was the most effective means of improving the timeliness of detection (i.e., it occurs earlier), whereas increasing the sample size increased the likelihood of detection. Surveillance was only effective in preventing an epidemic if actions were taken within two days of sampling. The strategies were not affected by the quality of the diagnostic test, although performing both serological and virological assays increased the sensitivity of active surveillance. Early detection of LPAI outbreaks in turkeys can be achieved by increasing the sampling frequency for active surveillance, though very frequent sampling may not be sustainable in the long term. We suggest that, when no LPAI virus is circulating yet and there is a low risk of virus introduction

  3. Evaluating surveillance strategies for the early detection of low pathogenicity avian influenza infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Comin

    Full Text Available In recent years, the early detection of low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI viruses in poultry has become increasingly important, given their potential to mutate into highly pathogenic viruses. However, evaluations of LPAI surveillance have mainly focused on prevalence and not on the ability to act as an early warning system. We used a simulation model based on data from Italian LPAI epidemics in turkeys to evaluate different surveillance strategies in terms of their performance as early warning systems. The strategies differed in terms of sample size, sampling frequency, diagnostic tests, and whether or not active surveillance (i.e., routine laboratory testing of farms was performed, and were also tested under different epidemiological scenarios. We compared surveillance strategies by simulating within-farm outbreaks. The output measures were the proportion of infected farms that are detected and the farm reproduction number (R(h. The first one provides an indication of the sensitivity of the surveillance system to detect within-farm infections, whereas R(h reflects the effectiveness of outbreak detection (i.e., if detection occurs soon enough to bring an epidemic under control. Increasing the sampling frequency was the most effective means of improving the timeliness of detection (i.e., it occurs earlier, whereas increasing the sample size increased the likelihood of detection. Surveillance was only effective in preventing an epidemic if actions were taken within two days of sampling. The strategies were not affected by the quality of the diagnostic test, although performing both serological and virological assays increased the sensitivity of active surveillance. Early detection of LPAI outbreaks in turkeys can be achieved by increasing the sampling frequency for active surveillance, though very frequent sampling may not be sustainable in the long term. We suggest that, when no LPAI virus is circulating yet and there is a low risk of virus

  4. Detection of IFN-γ Secretion by T Cells Collected Before and After Successful Treatment of Early Lyme Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callister, Steven M; Jobe, Dean A; Stuparic-Stancic, Aleksandra; Miyamasu, Misato; Boyle, Jeff; Dattwyler, Raymond J; Arnaboldi, Paul M

    2016-05-15

    Current serodiagnostics for Lyme disease lack sensitivity during early disease, and cannot determine treatment response. We evaluated an assay based on QuantiFERON technology utilizing peptide antigens derived from Borrelia burgdorferi to stimulate interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) release as an alternative to serodiagnosis for the laboratory detection of Lyme disease. Blood was obtained from patients with erythema migrans before (n = 29) and 2 months after (n = 27) antibiotic therapy. IFN-γ release was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) following overnight stimulation of whole blood with the peptide antigens, and compared to the results of standard serological assays (C6, ELISA, and Western blot). IFN-γ release was observed in pretreatment blood of 20 of 29 (69%) patients with Lyme disease. Following antibiotic treatment, IFN-γ was significantly reduced (P = .0002), and was detectable in only 4 of 20 (20%) initially positive patients. By contrast, anti-C6 antibodies were detected in pretreatment sera from 17 of 29 (59%) subjects, whereas only 5 of 29 (17%) patients had positive Western blot seroreactivity. Antibody responses persisted and expanded following treatment. Our findings suggest that measurement of IFN-γ after incubating blood with Borrelia antigens could be useful in the laboratory diagnosis of early Lyme disease. Also, after antibiotic treatment, this response appears to be short lived. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. CP violation in bilinear R-parity violation and its consequences for the early universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheriguene, Asma; Porod, Werner [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik; Liebler, Stefan [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2014-06-15

    Supersymmetric models with bilinear R-parity violation (BRpV) provide a framework for neutrino masses and mixing angles to explain neutrino oscillation data. We consider CP violation within the new physical phases in BRpV and discuss their effect on the generation of neutrino masses and the decays of the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP), being a light neutralino with mass ∝100 GeV, at next-to-leading order. The decays affect the lepton and via sphaleron transitions the baryon asymmetry in the early universe. For a rather light LSP, asymmetries generated before the electroweak phase transition via e.g. the Affleck-Dine mechanism are reduced up to two orders of magnitude, but are still present. On the other hand, the decays of a light LSP themselves can account for the generation of a lepton and baryon asymmetry, the latter in accordance to the observation in our universe, since the smallness of the BRpV parameters allows for an out-of-equilibrium decay and sufficiently large CP violation is possible consistent with experimental bounds from the non-observation of electric dipole-moments.

  6. The politics of universalism. Strategic uses of human rights discourses in early modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen-Margrethe Simonsen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the political function of human rights in 16th-century Spain just after the conquest of America. It claims that the study of this period of early globalization is relevant for an understanding of the function of human rights discourses today, at the “end” of globalization. Historically speaking, human rights are closely connected with globalization, but at the same time, they raise the question about the foundation of globalization: is there a universal community or only economic and political power-relations? This article argues that the political use of human rights discourses is split down the middle: it serves both as a critique of power and as an extension of power, and the disclosure of this split helps us understand the inner politics of human rights. The article discusses the trial in Valladolid in 1550 when the rights of the barbarian Indians of America were put on trial. It focuses mainly on the arguments made by Bartolomé de las Casas and on the reasons why the King allowed las Casas’ fierce critique of the conquest to be published in a period of otherwise severe censorship. This article is inspired by Etienne Balibar's idea of “politics of universalism,” “political autonomy,” and “equaliberty.”.

  7. Home and Community Language Proficiency in Spanish-English Early Bilingual University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidtke, Jens

    2017-10-17

    This study assessed home and community language proficiency in Spanish-English bilingual university students to investigate whether the vocabulary gap reported in studies of bilingual children persists into adulthood. Sixty-five early bilinguals (mean age = 21 years) were assessed in English and Spanish vocabulary and verbal reasoning ability using subtests of the Woodcock-Muñoz Language Survey-Revised (Schrank & Woodcock, 2009). Their English scores were compared to 74 monolinguals matched in age and level of education. Participants also completed a background questionnaire. Bilinguals scored below the monolingual control group on both subtests, and the difference was larger for vocabulary compared to verbal reasoning. However, bilinguals were close to the population mean for verbal reasoning. Spanish scores were on average lower than English scores, but participants differed widely in their degree of balance. Participants with an earlier age of acquisition of English and more current exposure to English tended to be more dominant in English. Vocabulary tests in the home or community language may underestimate bilingual university students' true verbal ability and should be interpreted with caution in high-stakes situations. Verbal reasoning ability may be more indicative of a bilingual's verbal ability.

  8. Gravity, black holes and the very early Universe an introduction to general relativity and cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Chow, Tai L

    2008-01-01

    In the early 1900s, Albert Einstein formulated two theories that would forever change the landscape of physics: the Special Theory of Relativity and the General Theory of Relativity. By 1925, quantum mechanics had been born out of the dissection of these two theories, and shortly after that, relativistic quantum field theory. We now had in place some important ties between the laws of physics and the types of particle interactions the new physics was uncovering. Gravity is one of the four types of forces that are found throughout the universe. In fact, although it is a relatively weak force, it operates at huge distances, and so must be accounted for in any cosmological system. Unfortunately, gravity continues to defy our neat categorization of how all the forces in nature work together. Professor Tai Chow, from the California State University at Stanislaus in Turlock, lays out for us the basic ideas of Einstein, including his law of gravitation, explains the physics behind black holes, and weaves into this a...

  9. From university research to innovation: Detecting knowledge transfer via text mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woltmann, S.; Clemmensen, L.; Alkærsig, L

    2016-07-01

    Knowledge transfer by universities is a top priority in innovation policy and a primary purpose for public research funding, due to being an important driver of technical change and innovation. Current empirical research on the impact of university research relies mainly on formal databases and indicators such as patents, collaborative publications and license agreements, to assess the contribution to the socioeconomic surrounding of universities. In this study, we present an extension of the current empirical framework by applying new computational methods, namely text mining and pattern recognition. Text samples for this purpose can include files containing social media contents, company websites and annual reports. The empirical focus in the present study is on the technical sciences and in particular on the case of the Technical University of Denmark (DTU). We generated two independent text collections (corpora) to identify correlations of university publications and company webpages. One corpus representing the company sites, serving as sample of the private economy and a second corpus, providing the reference to the university research, containing relevant publications. We associated the former with the latter to obtain insights into possible text and semantic relatedness. The text mining methods are extrapolating the correlations, semantic patterns and content comparison of the two corpora to define the document relatedness. We expect the development of a novel tool using contemporary techniques for the measurement of public research impact. The approach aims to be applicable across universities and thus enable a more holistic comparable assessment. This rely less on formal databases, which is certainly beneficial in terms of the data reliability. We seek to provide a supplementary perspective for the detection of the dissemination of university research and hereby enable policy makers to gain additional insights of (informal) contributions of knowledge

  10. RED Alert – Early warning or detection of global re-emerging infectious disease (RED)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshpande, Alina [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-13

    This is the PDF of a presentation for a webinar given by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) on the early warning or detection of global re-emerging infectious disease (RED). First, there is an overview of LANL biosurveillance tools. Then, information is given about RED Alert. Next, a demonstration is given of a component prototype. RED Alert is an analysis tool that can provide early warning or detection of the re-emergence of an infectious disease at the global level, but through a local lens.

  11. Determinants of Cancer Early Detection Behaviors:Application of Protection Motivation Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Rahaei, Zohreh; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Mohammadi, Eesa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cancer is account for 13% of all deaths around the world and is the third cause of mortality in Iran. More than one third of these cases are pre-ventable and about 33% are curable with early detection. The aim of this study was to determine the predictors of cancer early detection (CED) behaviors ap-plying Protection Motivation Theory (PMT). Methods: In this cross-sectional study, cluster sampling method was employed to recruit 260 individuals of above 20 years old in Yazd, Ira...

  12. Application of SVM classifier in thermographic image classification for early detection of breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleszkiewicz, Witold; Cichosz, Paweł; Jagodziński, Dariusz; Matysiewicz, Mateusz; Neumann, Łukasz; Nowak, Robert M.; Okuniewski, Rafał

    2016-09-01

    This article presents the application of machine learning algorithms for early detection of breast cancer on the basis of thermographic images. Supervised learning model: Support vector machine (SVM) and Sequential Minimal Optimization algorithm (SMO) for the training of SVM classifier were implemented. The SVM classifier was included in a client-server application which enables to create a training set of examinations and to apply classifiers (including SVM) for the diagnosis and early detection of the breast cancer. The sensitivity and specificity of SVM classifier were calculated based on the thermographic images from studies. Furthermore, the heuristic method for SVM's parameters tuning was proposed.

  13. Breast Cancer Awareness and Prevention Behavior Among Women of Delhi, India: Identifying Barriers to Early Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Dey, Subhojit; Sharma, Surabhi; Mishra, Arti; Krishnan, Suneeta; Govil, Jyotsna; Dhillon, Preet K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Globally, breast cancer (BC) has become the leading cause of mortality in women. Awareness and early detection can curb the growing burden of BC and are the first step in the battle against BC. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the awareness and perceived barriers concerning the early detection of BC. Methods A total of 20 focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted during May 2013–March 2014. Pre-existing themes were used to conduct FGDs; each FGD group consisted ...

  14. Biomarkers for Early Detection of Malignant Mesothelioma: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomasetti, Marco, E-mail: m.tomasetti@univpm.it; Santarelli, Lory [Department of Molecular Pathology and Innovative Therapies, Occupational Medicine, Polytechnic University of Marche, via Tronto 10/A Torrette 60020, Ancona (Italy)

    2010-04-14

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a rare and aggressive tumour of the serosal cavities linked to asbestos exposure. Improved detection methods for diagnosing this type of neoplastic disease are essential for an early and reliable diagnosis and treatment. Thus, focus has been placed on finding tumour markers for the non-invasive detection of MM. Recently, some blood biomarkers have been described as potential indicators of early and advanced MM cancers. The identification of tumour biomarkers alone or in combination could greatly facilitate the surveillance procedure for cohorts of subjects exposed to asbestos, a common phenomenon in several areas of western countries.

  15. A Novel Arc Fault Detector for Early Detection of Electrical Fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai; Zhang, Rencheng; Yang, Jianhong; Liu, Canhua; Chen, Shouhong; Zhang, Fujiang

    2016-04-09

    Arc faults can produce very high temperatures and can easily ignite combustible materials; thus, they represent one of the most important causes of electrical fires. The application of arc fault detection, as an emerging early fire detection technology, is required by the National Electrical Code to reduce the occurrence of electrical fires. However, the concealment, randomness and diversity of arc faults make them difficult to detect. To improve the accuracy of arc fault detection, a novel arc fault detector (AFD) is developed in this study. First, an experimental arc fault platform is built to study electrical fires. A high-frequency transducer and a current transducer are used to measure typical load signals of arc faults and normal states. After the common features of these signals are studied, high-frequency energy and current variations are extracted as an input eigenvector for use by an arc fault detection algorithm. Then, the detection algorithm based on a weighted least squares support vector machine is designed and successfully applied in a microprocessor. Finally, an AFD is developed. The test results show that the AFD can detect arc faults in a timely manner and interrupt the circuit power supply before electrical fires can occur. The AFD is not influenced by cross talk or transient processes, and the detection accuracy is very high. Hence, the AFD can be installed in low-voltage circuits to monitor circuit states in real-time to facilitate the early detection of electrical fires.

  16. A Novel Arc Fault Detector for Early Detection of Electrical Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai; Zhang, Rencheng; Yang, Jianhong; Liu, Canhua; Chen, Shouhong; Zhang, Fujiang

    2016-01-01

    Arc faults can produce very high temperatures and can easily ignite combustible materials; thus, they represent one of the most important causes of electrical fires. The application of arc fault detection, as an emerging early fire detection technology, is required by the National Electrical Code to reduce the occurrence of electrical fires. However, the concealment, randomness and diversity of arc faults make them difficult to detect. To improve the accuracy of arc fault detection, a novel arc fault detector (AFD) is developed in this study. First, an experimental arc fault platform is built to study electrical fires. A high-frequency transducer and a current transducer are used to measure typical load signals of arc faults and normal states. After the common features of these signals are studied, high-frequency energy and current variations are extracted as an input eigenvector for use by an arc fault detection algorithm. Then, the detection algorithm based on a weighted least squares support vector machine is designed and successfully applied in a microprocessor. Finally, an AFD is developed. The test results show that the AFD can detect arc faults in a timely manner and interrupt the circuit power supply before electrical fires can occur. The AFD is not influenced by cross talk or transient processes, and the detection accuracy is very high. Hence, the AFD can be installed in low-voltage circuits to monitor circuit states in real-time to facilitate the early detection of electrical fires. PMID:27070618

  17. 2014 CODEPEH recommendations: Early detection of late onset deafness, audiological diagnosis, hearing aid fitting and early intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Batalla, Faustino; Jáudenes-Casaubón, Carmen; Sequí-Canet, Jose Miguel; Vivanco-Allende, Ana; Zubicaray-Ugarteche, Jose

    2016-01-01

    The latest scientific literature considers early diagnosis of deafness as the key element to define the educational and inclusive prognosis of the deaf child, because it allows taking advantage of the critical period of development (0-4 years). Highly significant differences exist between deaf people who have been stimulated early and those who have received late or improper intervention. Early identification of late-onset disorders requires special attention and knowledge on the part of every childcare professional. Programs and additional actions beyond neonatal screening should be designed and planed to ensure that every child with a significant hearing loss is detected early. For this purpose, the CODEPEH would like to highlight the need for continuous monitoring of children's auditory health. Consequently, CODEPEH has drafted the recommendations included in the present document. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Patología Cérvico-Facial. All rights reserved.

  18. Early Detection of Pancreatic Cancer: The Role of Industry in the Development of Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenner, Barbara J; Go, Vay Liang W; Chari, Suresh T; Goldberg, Ann E; Rothschild, Laura J

    A diagnosis of pancreatic cancer is devastating owing to its poor prognosis, with a 5-year survival rate of only 9%. Currently, most individuals are diagnosed at a late stage when treatment options are limited. Early detection of pancreatic cancer provides the greatest hope for making substantial improvements in survival. The Kenner Family Research Fund in partnership with the American Pancreatic Association has sponsored a series of fora to stimulate discussion and collaboration on early detection of pancreatic cancer. At the first forum in 2014, "Early Detection of Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer Summit Conference," a strategic plan was set forth by an international group of interdisciplinary scientific representatives and subsequently The Strategic Map for Innovation was generated. The current conference report is the third forum in the series, "Early Detection of Pancreatic Cancer: The Role of Industry in the Development of Biomarkers," which was held in Boston, Massachusetts, on October 27, 2016. This report provides an overview of examples of innovative initiatives by industry and confirms the critical need for collaboration among industry, government, research institutions, and advocacy groups in order to make pancreatic cancer more easily detectable in its earlier stages, when it is more treatable.

  19. Nanostructured materials with plasmonic nanobiosensors for early cancer detection: A past and future prospect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugumaran, Sathish; Jamlos, Mohd Faizal; Ahmad, Mohd Noor; Bellan, Chandar Shekar; Schreurs, Dominique

    2018-02-15

    Early cancer detection and treatment is an emerging and fascinating field of plasmonic nanobiosensor research. It paves to enrich a life without affecting living cells leading to a possible survival of the patient. This review describes a past and future prospect of an integrated research field on nanostructured metamaterials, microwave transmission, surface plasmonic resonance, nanoantennas, and their manifested versatile properties with nano-biosensors towards early cancer detection to preserve human health. Interestingly, (i) microwave transmission shows more advantages than other electromagnetic radiation in reacting with biological tissues, (ii) nanostructured metamaterial (Au) with special properties like size and shape can stimulate plasmonic effects, (iii) plasmonic based nanobiosensors are to explore the efficacy for early cancer tumour detection or single molecular detection and (iv) nanoantenna wireless communication by using microwave inverse scattering nanomesh (MISN) technique instead of conventional techniques can be adopted to characterize the microwave scattered signals from the biomarkers. It reveals that the nanostructured material with plasmonic nanobiosensor paves a fascinating platform towards early detection of cancer tumour and is anticipated to be exploited as a magnificent field in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Early detection of sporadic pancreatic cancer: strategic map for innovation--a white paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenner, Barbara J; Chari, Suresh T; Cleeter, Deborah F; Go, Vay Liang W

    2015-07-01

    Innovation leading to significant advances in research and subsequent translation to clinical practice is urgently necessary in early detection of sporadic pancreatic cancer. Addressing this need, the Early Detection of Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer Summit Conference was conducted by Kenner Family Research Fund in conjunction with the 2014 American Pancreatic Association and Japan Pancreas Society Meeting. International interdisciplinary scientific representatives engaged in strategic facilitated conversations based on distinct areas of inquiry: Case for Early Detection: Definitions, Detection, Survival, and Challenges; Biomarkers for Early Detection; Imaging; and Collaborative Studies. Ideas generated from the summit have led to the development of a Strategic Map for Innovation built upon 3 components: formation of an international collaborative effort, design of an actionable strategic plan, and implementation of operational standards, research priorities, and first-phase initiatives. Through invested and committed efforts of leading researchers and institutions, philanthropic partners, government agencies, and supportive business entities, this endeavor will change the future of the field and consequently the survival rate of those diagnosed with pancreatic cancer.

  1. Smoke regions extraction based on two steps segmentation and motion detection in early fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Wenlin; Wu, Kaizhi; Yu, Zirong; Chen, Lijuan

    2018-03-01

    Aiming at the early problems of video-based smoke detection in fire video, this paper proposes a method to extract smoke suspected regions by combining two steps segmentation and motion characteristics. Early smoldering smoke can be seen as gray or gray-white regions. In the first stage, regions of interests (ROIs) with smoke are obtained by using two step segmentation methods. Then, suspected smoke regions are detected by combining the two step segmentation and motion detection. Finally, morphological processing is used for smoke regions extracting. The Otsu algorithm is used as segmentation method and the ViBe algorithm is used to detect the motion of smoke. The proposed method was tested on 6 test videos with smoke. The experimental results show the effectiveness of our proposed method over visual observation.

  2. On the potential of ultrasound elastography for pressure ulcer early detection.

    OpenAIRE

    Deprez , Jean-François; Brusseau , Elisabeth; Fromageau , Jérémie; Cloutier , Guy; Basset , Olivier

    2011-01-01

    International audience; PURPOSE: Pressure ulcers are areas of soft tissue breakdown induced by a sustained mechanical stress that damages the skin and underlying tissues. They represent a considerable burden to the society in terms of health care and cost. Yet, techniques for prevention and detection of pressure ulcers still remain very limited. In this article, the authors investigated the potential of ultrasound elastography for pressure ulcer early detection. Elastography is an imaging tec...

  3. A case of early detection of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw

    OpenAIRE

    Mori, Miyu; Koide, Tetsuro; Matsui, Yuriyo; Matsuda, Toru

    2015-01-01

    Osteonecrosis of the jaws is an adverse reaction associated with the use of bisphosphonates. Although the diagnosis of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) is based on symptomatology, it is often detected late because the patients become symptomatic only after osteonecrosis is well established. We describe a case of early oral BRONJ detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) accidentally. Head MRI revealed low signal of T1-weight images in left mandibula. Patient had been...

  4. Helium-3 in Milky Way Reveals Abundance of Matter in Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's 140 Foot Radio Telescope in Green Bank, West Virginia, were able to infer the amount of matter created by the Big Bang, and confirmed that it accounts for only a small portion of the effects of gravity observed in the Universe. The scientists were able to make these conclusions by determining the abundance of the rare element helium-3 (helium with only one neutron and two protons in its nucleus) in the Milky Way Galaxy. The NRAO 140 Foot Radio Telescope The NRAO 140-Foot Radio Telescope "Moments after the Big Bang, protons and neutrons began to combine to form helium-3 and other basic elements," said Robert Rood of the University of Virginia. "By accurately measuring the abundance of this primordial element in our Galaxy today, we were able infer just how much matter was created when the Universe was only a few minutes old." Rood and his colleagues, Thomas Bania from Boston University and Dana Balser from the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), report their findings in the January 3 edition of the scientific journal Nature. Rood began searching for helium-3 in the Milky Way Galaxy in 1978. At that time, scientists believed that stars like our Sun synthesized helium-3 in their nuclear furnaces. Surprisingly, Rood's observations indicated that there was far less of this element in the Galaxy than the current models predicted. "If stars were indeed producing helium-3, as scientists believed, then we should have detected this element in much greater concentrations," he said. This unexpected discovery prompted Rood and his colleagues to broaden their search, and to look throughout the Milky Way for signs of stellar production of helium-3. Over the course of two decades, the researchers discovered that regardless of where they looked -- whether in the areas of sparse star formation like the outer edges of the Galaxy, or in areas of intense star formation near center of the Galaxy -- the relative abundance of

  5. A Universal Fast Colorimetric Method for DNA Signal Detection with DNA Strand Displacement and Gold Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA or gene signal detection is of great significance in many fields including medical examination, intracellular molecular monitoring, and gene disease signal diagnosis, but detection of DNA or gene signals in a low concentration with instant visual results remains a challenge. In this work, a universal fast and visual colorimetric detection method for DNA signals is proposed. Specifically, a DNA signal amplification “circuit” based on DNA strand displacement is firstly designed to amplify the target DNA signals, and then thiol modified hairpin DNA strands and gold nanoparticles are used to make signal detection results visualized in a colorimetric manner. If the target DNA signal exists, the gold nanoparticles aggregate and settle down with color changing from dark red to grey quickly; otherwise, the gold nanoparticles’ colloids remain stable in dark red. The proposed method provides a novel way to detect quickly DNA or gene signals in low concentrations with instant visual results. When applied in real-life, it may provide a universal colorimetric method for gene disease signal diagnosis.

  6. The Development of Prostate Palpation Skills through Simulation Training May Impact Early Detection of Prostate Abnormalities and Early Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    has a high incidence rate (one in six for men in the U.S.), with an estimated 192,280 new cases in 2009. When diagnosed in an early and less...converges in a vector toward the nipple . Study results indicate that use of the vertical strip leads to an increased detection of abnormalities [10], [16...Palpation, Clinical prostate examination. Prostate cancer is one of the most common causes of death in American men , with an estimated 189,280 new cases

  7. Partial discharge early-warning through ultraviolet spectroscopic detection of SO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yu; Wang, Xianpei; Dai, Dangdang; Dong, Zhengcheng; Huang, Yunguang

    2014-01-01

    Surveillance of SF 6  decomposition products is significant for detection of partial discharge (PD) in gas insulation switchgear (GIS). As a basis in on-site detection and diagnosis, PD early-warning aims to quickly find the abnormalities using a simple and cheap device. In this paper, SO 2  is chosen as a feature product and detected through ultraviolet spectroscopy. The derivative method is employed for baseline correction and spectral enhancement. The standard gases of the main decomposition products are qualitatively and quantitatively detected. Then decomposition experiments with different defects are designed to further verify the feasibility. As a stable decomposition product under PD, SO 2  is proved to be applicable for PD early-warning in the field. By selecting the appropriate wavelength range, namely 290–310 nm, ultraviolet derivative spectroscopy is sensitive enough to the trace SO 2  in the decomposed gas and the interference of other products can be avoided. Fast Fourier transform could be used for feature extraction in qualitative detection. Concentrations of SO 2  and other by-products increase with increasing discharge time and could be affected by the discharge energy and PD type. Ultraviolet detection based on SO 2  is effective for PD early-warning but the threshold should still be carefully selected in practice. (paper)

  8. Early non-destructive biofouling detection and spatial distribution: Application of oxygen sensing optodes

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, Nadia

    2015-06-11

    Biofouling is a serious problem in reverse osmosis/nanofiltration (RO/NF) applications, reducing membrane performance. Early detection of biofouling plays an essential role in an adequate anti-biofouling strategy. Presently, fouling of membrane filtration systems is mainly determined by measuring changes in pressure drop, which is not exclusively linked to biofouling. Non-destructive imaging of oxygen concentrations (i) is specific for biological activity of biofilms and (ii) may enable earlier detection of biofilm accumulation than pressure drop. The objective of this study was to test whether transparent luminescent planar O2 optodes, in combination with a simple imaging system, can be used for early non-destructive biofouling detection. This biofouling detection is done by mapping the two-dimensional distribution of O2 concentrations and O2 decrease rates inside a membrane fouling simulator (MFS). Results show that at an early stage, biofouling development was detected by the oxygen sensing optodes while no significant increase in pressure drop was yet observed. Additionally, optodes could detect spatial heterogeneities in biofouling distribution at a micro scale. Biofilm development started mainly at the feed spacer crossings. The spatial and quantitative information on biological activity will lead to better understanding of the biofouling processes, contributing to the development of more effective biofouling control strategies.

  9. Environmental DNA as a new method for early detection of New Zealand mudsnails (Potamopyrgus antipodarum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Caren S.; Sepulveda, Adam; Ray, Andrew; Baumgardt, Jeremy A.; Waits, Lisette P.

    2013-01-01

    Early detection of aquatic invasive species is a critical task for management of aquatic ecosystems. This task is hindered by the difficulty and cost of surveying aquatic systems thoroughly. The New Zealand mudsnail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum) is a small, invasive parthenogenic mollusk that can reach very high population densities and severely affects ecosystem functioning. To assist in the early detection of this invasive species, we developed and validated a highly sensitive environmental deoxyribonucleic acid (eDNA) assay. We used a dose–response laboratory experiment to investigate the relationship between New Zealand mudsnail density and eDNA detected through time. We documented that as few as 1 individual in 1.5 L of water for 2 d could be detected with this method, and that eDNA from this species may remain detectable for 21 to 44 d after mudsnail removal. We used the eDNA method to confirm the presence of New Zealand mudsnail eDNA at densities as low as 11 to 144 snails/m2 in a eutrophic 5th-order river. Combined, these results demonstrate the high potential for eDNA surveys to assist with early detection of a widely distributed invasive aquatic invertebrate.

  10. Recursive SVM biomarker selection for early detection of breast cancer in peripheral blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Kaufman, Howard L; Deng, Youping; Drabier, Renee

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is worldwide the second most common type of cancer after lung cancer. Traditional mammography and Tissue Microarray has been studied for early cancer detection and cancer prediction. However, there is a need for more reliable diagnostic tools for early detection of breast cancer. This can be a challenge due to a number of factors and logistics. First, obtaining tissue biopsies can be difficult. Second, mammography may not detect small tumors, and is often unsatisfactory for younger women who typically have dense breast tissue. Lastly, breast cancer is not a single homogeneous disease but consists of multiple disease states, each arising from a distinct molecular mechanism and having a distinct clinical progression path which makes the disease difficult to detect and predict in early stages. In the paper, we present a Support Vector Machine based on Recursive Feature Elimination and Cross Validation (SVM-RFE-CV) algorithm for early detection of breast cancer in peripheral blood and show how to use SVM-RFE-CV to model the classification and prediction problem of early detection of breast cancer in peripheral blood.The training set which consists of 32 health and 33 cancer samples and the testing set consisting of 31 health and 34 cancer samples were randomly separated from a dataset of peripheral blood of breast cancer that is downloaded from Gene Express Omnibus. First, we identified the 42 differentially expressed biomarkers between "normal" and "cancer". Then, with the SVM-RFE-CV we extracted 15 biomarkers that yield zero cross validation score. Lastly, we compared the classification and prediction performance of SVM-RFE-CV with that of SVM and SVM Recursive Feature Elimination (SVM-RFE). We found that 1) the SVM-RFE-CV is suitable for analyzing noisy high-throughput microarray data, 2) it outperforms SVM-RFE in the robustness to noise and in the ability to recover informative features, and 3) it can improve the prediction performance (Area Under

  11. Computer-assisted detection (CAD) methodology for early detection of response to pharmaceutical therapy in tuberculosis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Robert; Kwong, Heston; Liu, Brent; Huang, H. K.

    2009-02-01

    The chest x-ray radiological features of tuberculosis patients are well documented, and the radiological features that change in response to successful pharmaceutical therapy can be followed with longitudinal studies over time. The patients can also be classified as either responsive or resistant to pharmaceutical therapy based on clinical improvement. We have retrospectively collected time series chest x-ray images of 200 patients diagnosed with tuberculosis receiving the standard pharmaceutical treatment. Computer algorithms can be created to utilize image texture features to assess the temporal changes in the chest x-rays of the tuberculosis patients. This methodology provides a framework for a computer-assisted detection (CAD) system that may provide physicians with the ability to detect poor treatment response earlier in pharmaceutical therapy. Early detection allows physicians to respond with more timely treatment alternatives and improved outcomes. Such a system has the potential to increase treatment efficacy for millions of patients each year.

  12. Universal Detection and Identification of Avian Influenza Virus by Use of Resequencing Microarrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    Recent outbreaks of Nipah virus , severe acute respiratory syndrome virus , and avian influenza virus reiterate the impor- tance of zoonotic microbes as...Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Universal Detection and Identification of Avian Influenza Virus by Use of Resequencing Microarrays...been, and continue to emerge as, threats to human health. The recent outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in bird populations and the

  13. Efficacy of light based detection systems for early detection of oral cancer and oral potentially malignant disorders: Systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagi, R; Reddy-Kantharaj, Y-B; Rakesh, N; Janardhan-Reddy, S; Sahu, S

    2016-07-01

    Earlier detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) is essential for dental professionals to improve patient survival rates. The aim of this systematic review is to to evaluate the effectiveness of devices that utilise the principles of chemiluminescence and tissue autofluorescence as adjuncts in the detection of OSCC and OPMD. The electronic retrieval systems and databases searched for relevant articles were PubMed [MEDLINE] and Science direct. The search was for limited articles published in English or with an English abstract and articles published during the period from January 2005 to April 2014. Clinical trials utilized ViziLite, Microlux TM/DL and Visual Enhanced Light scope (VELscope) for early detection of OPMD and OSCC. Twenty primary studies published satisfied our criteria for selection - 10 utilised chemiluminescence and 10 tissue autofluorescence. Senstivity of Vizilite for detecting OSCC nad OPMD ranged from 77.1 % to 100% and specificity was low that ranged from 0% to 27.8%.Most have shown that chemiluminescence increases the brightness and margins of oral mucosal white lesions and thus assist in identification of mucosal lesions not considered under Conventional visual examination. However, it preferentially detects leukoplakia and may fail to spot red patches. Clinical trials demonstrated that sensitivity of VELscope in detecting malignancy and OPMD ranged from 22 % to 100 % and specificity ranged from 16 % to 100%. Most studies concluded that VELscope can help the experienced clinician to find oral precursor malignant lesions. But it couldnot differentiate between dysplasia and benign inflammatory conditions. Both devices are simple, non-invasive test of the oral mucosa but are suited for clinicians with sufficient experience and training. More clinical trials in future should be conducted to establish optical imaging as an efficacious adjunct tool in early diagnosis of OSCC and OPMD.

  14. Production of light elements by cascades from energetic antiprotons in the early Universe and problem of nuclear cosmoarcheology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitan, Yu.L.; Sobol', I.M.; Khlopov, M.Yu.; Chechetkin, V.M.

    1988-01-01

    The mathematical model of the process of light-element (D and 3 He) production due to disintegration of 4 He nuclei, induced by nonequilibrium processes of production of energetic antiprotons in the early Universe is suggested. Numerical calculations show that formation of the nucleon cascade induced by antiproton slowing down increases the D and 3 He yield due to the growth of probability of disintegration of several 4 He nuclei by a single antiproton and due to disintegration of such nuclei by cascade protons. Restraints on the concentration of possible sources of energetic antiprotons in the early Universe are strengthened respectively

  15. Role of EEG as Biomarker in the Early Detection and Classification of Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Kamal Al-Qazzaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The early detection and classification of dementia are important clinical support tasks for medical practitioners in customizing patient treatment programs to better manage the development and progression of these diseases. Efforts are being made to diagnose these neurodegenerative disorders in the early stages. Indeed, early diagnosis helps patients to obtain the maximum treatment benefit before significant mental decline occurs. The use of electroencephalogram as a tool for the detection of changes in brain activities and clinical diagnosis is becoming increasingly popular for its capabilities in quantifying changes in brain degeneration in dementia. This paper reviews the role of electroencephalogram as a biomarker based on signal processing to detect dementia in early stages and classify its severity. The review starts with a discussion of dementia types and cognitive spectrum followed by the presentation of the effective preprocessing denoising to eliminate possible artifacts. It continues with a description of feature extraction by using linear and nonlinear techniques, and it ends with a brief explanation of vast variety of separation techniques to classify EEG signals. This paper also provides an idea from the most popular studies that may help in diagnosing dementia in early stages and classifying through electroencephalogram signal processing and analysis.

  16. Developing a discrete choice experiment in Malawi: eliciting preferences for breast cancer early detection services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Racquel E; Lee, Clara N; Gopal, Satish; Reeve, Bryce B; Weiner, Bryan J; Wheeler, Stephanie B

    2015-01-01

    In Malawi, routine breast cancer screening is not available and little is known about women's preferences regarding early detection services. Discrete choice experiments are increasingly used to reveal preferences about new health services; however, selecting appropriate attributes that describe a new health service is imperative to ensure validity of the choice experiment. To identify important factors that are relevant to Malawian women's preferences for breast cancer detection services and to select attributes and levels for a discrete choice experiment in a setting where both breast cancer early detection and choice experiments are rare. We reviewed the literature to establish an initial list of potential attributes and levels for a discrete choice experiment and conducted qualitative interviews with health workers and community women to explore relevant local factors affecting decisions to use cancer detection services. We tested the design through cognitive interviews and refined the levels, descriptions, and designs. Themes that emerged from interviews provided critical information about breast cancer detection services, specifically, that breast cancer interventions should be integrated into other health services because asymptomatic screening may not be practical as an individual service. Based on participants' responses, the final attributes of the choice experiment included travel time, health encounter, health worker type and sex, and breast cancer early detection strategy. Cognitive testing confirmed the acceptability of the final attributes, comprehension of choice tasks, and women's abilities to make trade-offs. Applying a discrete choice experiment for breast cancer early detection was feasible with appropriate tailoring for a low-income, low-literacy African setting.

  17. UWB based low-cost and non-invasive practical breast cancer early detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayasarveswari, V.; Khatun, S.; Fakir, M. M.; Jusoh, M.; Ali, S.

    2017-03-01

    Breast cancer is one of the main causes of women death worldwide. Breast tumor is an early stage of cancer that locates in cells of a human breast. As there is no remedy, early detection is crucial. Towards this, Ultra-Wideband (UWB) is a prominent candidate. It is a wireless communication technology which can achieve high bandwidth with low power utilization. UWB is suitable to be used for short range communication systems including breast cancer detection since it is secure, non-invasive and human health friendly. This paper presents the low-cost and non-invasive early breast cancer detection strategy using UWB sensor (or antenna). Emphasis is given here to detect breast tumor in 2D and 3D environments. The developed system consisted of hardware and software. Hardware included UWB transceiver and a pair of home-made directional sensor/antenna. The software included feed-forward back propagation Neural Network (NN) module to detect the tumor existence, size and location along with soft interface between software and hardware. Forward scattering technique was used by placing two sensors diagonally opposite sides of a breast phantom. UWB pulses were transmitted from one side of phantom and received from other side, controlled by the software interface in PC environment. Collected received signals were then fed into the NN module for training, testing and validation. The system exhibited detection efficiency on tumor existence, location (x, y, z), and size were approximately 100%, (78.17%, 70.66%, 92.46%), 85.86% respectively. The proposed UWB based early breast cancer detection system could be more practical with low-cost, user friendly and non-harmful features. This project may help users to monitor their breast health regularly at their home.

  18. NDRG4, an early detection marker for colorectal cancer, is specifically expressed in enteric neurons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaes, N.; Lentjes, M. H. F. M.; Gijbels, M. J.; Rademakers, G.; Daenen, K. L.; Boesmans, W.; Wouters, K. A. D.; Geuzens, A.; Qu, X.; Steinbusch, H. P. J.; Rutten, B. P. F.; Baldwin, S. H.; Sharkey, K. A.; Hofstra, R. M. W.; van Engeland, M.; Vanden Berghe, P.; Melotte, V.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Promoter methylation of N-myc Downstream-Regulated Gene 4 (NDRG4) in fecal DNA is an established early detection marker for colorectal cancer (CRC). Despite its connection to CRC, NDRG4 is predominantly studied in brain and heart, with little to no knowledge about its expression or role

  19. Inclusion of methods for early detection of chronic kidney disease in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background The burden and magnitude of chronic kidney disease (CKD) are enormous. The incidence and prevalence of chronic kidney disease are rising all over the world. Thus, there is the urgent and pressing need for methods of early detection of CKD, to be included in guidelines for management of noncommunicable ...

  20. Rapid and early detection of salmonella serotypes with hyperspectral microscope and multivariate data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to evaluate hyperspectral microscope images for early and rapid detection of Salmonella serotypes: S. Enteritidis, S. Heidelberg, S. Infantis, S. Kentucky, and S. Typhimurium at incubation times of 6, 8, 10, 12, and 24 hours. Images were collected by an acousto-optical tunab...

  1. Early detection of the incidence of malignancy in mammograms using digital image correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espitia, J.; Jacome, J.; Torres, C.

    2016-01-01

    The digital image correlation has proved an effective way for Pattern Recognition, this research to identify the using Findings digitally extracted from a mammographic image, which is the means used by more specialists to determine if a person is a candidate or not, a Suffer Breast Cancer. This shown that early detection of symptom logy 'carcinogenic' is the key . (Author)

  2. Challenges of Early Detection of Oral Cancer: Raising Awareness as a First Step to Successful Campaigning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Eva; Koller, Michael; Wiltfang, Jörg; Wenz, Hans-Jürgen; Möller, Björn; Hertrampf, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    In Germany, ~13 000 people are found to have oral and pharyngeal cancer every year. Awareness and knowledge about this cancer remain insufficient, particularly amongst elderly people. A campaign for early detection was launched in Northern Germany in April 2012. The first step of the campaign was to increase awareness about oral cancer. Prior to a…

  3. The role of men in early detection of their spouses' breast lump(s ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We aim to determine whether men can be of help in the early detection of lumps in their spouses' breast. 230 questionnaires were administered to married men. The responses were accepted as “yes” or “no. 217 men (94.35%) responded. 195 (89.86%) were aware of breast cancer. 212 ( 97.7%) were either Christians or ...

  4. SNIPE: A New Method to Identify Imaging Biomarker for Early Detection of Alzheimer’s Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coupé, Pierrick; Eskildsen, Simon Fristed; Manjón, José V.

    , from a clinical point of view the prediction of AD is the key question since it is in that moment when treatment is possible. The potential use of structural MRI as imaging biomarker for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) for early detection has become generally accepted, especially the use of atrophy...

  5. Imaging spectroscopy for early detection of nitrogen deficiency in grass swards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schut, A.G.T.; Ketelaars, J.J.M.H.

    2003-01-01

    The potential of an experimental imaging spectroscopy system with high spatial (0.16–0.28 mm²) ) and spectral resolution (5–13 nm) was explored for early detection of nitrogen (N) stress. From June through October 2000, a greenhouse experiment was conducted with 15 Lolium perenne L. mini-swards and

  6. Early detection of Alzheimer's disease using the Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmand, B.; Walstra, G.; Lindeboom, J.; Teunisse, S.; Jonker, C.

    2000-01-01

    Dementia screening instruments, such as the Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG), measure a variety of cognitive functions. However, memory impairment generally is the first sign of Alzheimer's disease (AD). It seems logical, therefore, to use only memory-related items for the early detection of

  7. 76 FR 30723 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ... 16, 2011. 9 a.m.-12:30 p.m., June 17, 2011. Place: Westin Atlanta Perimeter North, 7 Concourse... program goals and objectives; implementation strategies; and program, priorities including surveillance... Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program Marketing Tool kit for increased awareness for the state programs...

  8. Early Detection of At-Risk Undergraduate Students through Academic Performance Predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowtho, Vikash

    2017-01-01

    Undergraduate student dropout is gradually becoming a global problem and the 39 Small Islands Developing States (SIDS) are no exception to this trend. The purpose of this research was to develop a method that can be used for early detection of students who are at-risk of performing poorly in their undergraduate studies. A sample of 279 students…

  9. Serial cranial ultrasonography or early MRI for detecting preterm brain injury?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plaisier, Annemarie; Raets, Marlou M A; Ecury-Goossen, Ginette M; Govaert, Paul; Feijen-Roon, Monique; Reiss, Irwin K M; Smit, Liesbeth S; Lequin, Maarten H; Dudink, Jeroen

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate detection ability and feasibility of serial cranial ultrasonography (CUS) and early MRI in preterm brain injury. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Level III neonatal intensive care unit. PATIENTS: 307 infants, born below 29 weeks of gestation. METHODS: Serial CUS

  10. Early complication detection after colorectal surgery (CONDOR): study protocol for a prospective clinical diagnostic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kornmann, Verena; van Ramshorst, Bert; van Dieren, Susan; van Geloven, Nanette; Boermeester, Marja; Boerma, Djamila

    2016-01-01

    Anastomotic leakage is one of the most feared complications following colorectal surgery with a high morbidity and mortality rate. Multiple risk factors have been identified, but leakage still occurs. Early detection is crucial in order to reduce morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study is to

  11. Early detection of fires by means of thermography; Frueherkennung von Braenden mit Thermografie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, Matthias; Doeppner, Joerg; Pohl, Gisbert; Mahler, Guido; Dammass, Gunnar; Wendland, Georg [InfraTec GmbH, Dresden (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    The authors of the contribution under consideration report on the physical and technical fundamentals of an early detection of fires by means of thermal imaging. Hereupon, the technical implementation of these fundamentals into a modular automatic monitoring system by thermography is described. The authors report on practical experiences of this monitoring system.

  12. Allostatic Load Assessment for Early Detection of Stress in the Workplace in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Sayed Ali

    2016-06-01

    CONCLUSION: Female gender and the old age of the Egyptian workforce under study are at higher risk of chronic diseases. Using an alternative way -for example, the cut-point method- instead of the risk quartiles for dichotomization of markers used in ALI calculation could be more precise for early detection of stress among healthy individuals.

  13. A New Supersensitive Flame Detector and its Use for Early Forest Fire Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Peskov, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    A new flame detector, three orders of magnitude more powerful than the existing ones, is presented. This detector needs to be mass-produced for its use in order to be incorporated in an early forest fire detection system. A project able to implement its use to overcome the forest fire emergency is described.

  14. Early detection of COPD in primary care--the Copenhagen COPD Screening Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsø, Anne Marie; Backer, Vibeke; Gottlieb, Vibeke

    2010-01-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is among the leading causes of death in the world, and further increases in the prevalence and mortality are predicted. Delay in diagnosing COPD appears frequently even though current consensus guidelines emphasize the importance of early detection...

  15. 75 FR 57472 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC): Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC): Notice of Charter Renewal This gives notice under the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463) of October 6, 1972, that the...

  16. 77 FR 71193 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Federal Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Federal Advisory Committee Correction: This notice was published in the Federal Register on November 5, 2012, Volume 77, Number 214, Page 66469. A teleconference line...

  17. Phase Transitions in the Early Universe: The Cosmology of Non-Minimal Scalar Sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kost, Jeffrey D.

    Light scalar fields such as axions and string moduli can play an important role in early-universe cosmology. However, many factors can significantly impact their late-time cosmological abundances. For example, in cases where the potentials for these fields are generated dynamically--such as during cosmological mass-generating phase transitions--the duration of the time interval required for these potentials to fully develop can have significant repercussions. Likewise, in scenarios with multiple scalars, mixing amongst the fields can also give rise to an effective timescale that modifies the resulting late-time abundances. Previous studies have focused on the effects of either the first or the second timescale in isolation. In this thesis, by contrast, we examine the new features that arise from the interplay between these two timescales when both mixing and time-dependent phase transitions are introduced together. First, we find that the effects of these timescales can conspire to alter not only the total late-time abundance of the system--often by many orders of magnitude--but also its distribution across the different fields. Second, we find that these effects can produce large parametric resonances which render the energy densities of the fields highly sensitive to the degree of mixing as well as the duration of the time interval over which the phase transition unfolds. Finally, we find that these effects can even give rise to a "re-overdamping" phenomenon which causes the total energy density of the system to behave in novel ways that differ from those exhibited by pure dark matter or vacuum energy. All of these features therefore give rise to new possibilities for early-universe phenomenology and cosmological evolution. They also highlight the importance of taking into account the time dependence associated with phase transitions in cosmological settings. In the second part of this thesis, we proceed to study the early-universe cosmology of a Kaluza-Klein (KK

  18. Early fault detection and on-line diagnosis in real-time environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Bye

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an approach to fault detection and diagnosis involving the simultaneous employment of quantitative and qualitative reasoning techniques. We show that early identification of process anomalies by means of a separate fault detection module paves the way for a fast and accuratc follow-up diagnosis. The diagnosis task is dramatically simplified because the diagnostic inferences can be performed at the soonest possible time: when the detection module first spots deviations between its calculated reference points and the corresponding measurements from the process.

  19. Endoscopic Tri-Modal Imaging (ETMI With Optical Magnification in the Detection of Barrett's Early Neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarmed S. Sami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Early lesion detection and characterisation is vital to ensure accurate management in patients with gastrointestinal neoplasia. Endoscopic Tri-modal Imaging (ETMI technology has been shown to improve the targeted detection of early dysplastic lesions in Barrett's Oesophagus, but these results were not confirmed in non-expert hands [1]. This technology incorporates high resolution while light endoscopy (HRE, Auto Fluorescence Imaging (AFI and Narrow Band Imaging (NBI in one endoscope. The mucosa is first inspected with HRE, and then AFI is switched on to help in highlighting any suspicious areas in the mucosa [2]. These areas can be further examined by switching to NBI mode with magnification which helps to characterise mucosal patterns and identify early neoplasia [3].

  20. Lung Cancer Workshop XI: Tobacco-Induced Disease: Advances in Policy, Early Detection and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulshine, James L; Avila, Rick; Yankelevitz, David; Baer, Thomas M; Estépar, Raul San Jose; Ambrose, Laurie Fenton; Aldigé, Carolyn R

    2015-05-01

    The Prevent Cancer Foundation Lung Cancer Workshop XI: Tobacco-Induced Disease: Advances in Policy, Early Detection and Management was held in New York, NY on May 16 and 17, 2014. The two goals of the Workshop were to define strategies to drive innovation in precompetitive quantitative research on the use of imaging to assess new therapies for management of early lung cancer and to discuss a process to implement a national program to provide high quality computed tomography imaging for lung cancer and other tobacco-induced disease. With the central importance of computed tomography imaging for both early detection and volumetric lung cancer assessment, strategic issues around the development of imaging and ensuring its quality are critical to ensure continued progress against this most lethal cancer.

  1. Cancer early detection program based on awareness and clinical breast examination: Interim results from an urban community in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadgil, Anita; Sauvaget, Catherine; Roy, Nobhojit; Muwonge, Richard; Kantharia, Surita; Chakrabarty, Anuradha; Bantwal, Kanchan; Haldar, Indrani; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy

    2017-02-01

    Indian women with breast cancer are usually diagnosed in advanced stages leading to poor survival. Improving breast awareness and increasing access to early diagnosis and adequate treatment has been advocated for breast cancer control. We implemented a program to increase awareness on breast cancer and access to its early detection in an occupational health care scheme in Mumbai, India. Breast awareness brochures were mailed annually between June 2013 and June 2016 to a cohort of 22,500 eligible women aged 30-69 years old receiving universal health care from an occupational health care scheme comprising of primary health centres and a referral secondary care hospital in Mumbai. Women with suspected breast cancers were provided with diagnostic investigations and treatment. Socio-demographic information and tumour characteristics were compared between the breast awareness pre-intervention period (Jan 2005-May 2013) and the breast awareness intervention period after four rounds of mailers (June 2013-June 2016). The proportion of women with early tumours and axillary lymph node negative cancers increased from 74% to 81% and 46% to 53% respectively, between the two periods. While the proportion of patients receiving breast conserving surgery increased from 39% to 51%, the proportion receiving chemotherapy decreased from 84% to 56%. Interim results following efforts to improve breast awareness and access to care in a cohort of women in an occupational health care scheme indicate early detection and more conservative treatment of breast cancers. Creating awareness and improving access to care may result in cancer down-staging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Self-assembled polymeric nanoparticles as new, smart contrast agents for cancer early detection using magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouffouk F

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fouzi Mouffouk,1,* Teresa Simão,2,* Daniel F Dornelles,2 André D Lopes,3 Pablo Sau,4 Jorge Martins,2,5 Khalid M Abu-Salah,6 Salman A Alrokayan,6 Ana M Rosa da Costa,3 Nuno R dos Santos2 1Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Kuwait University, Safat, Kuwait; 2IBB – Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, CBME – Centre for Molecular and Structural Biomedicine, 3CIQA-Algarve Chemistry Research Center, Department of Chemistry and Pharmacy, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, Faro, Portugal; 4Centro Radiológico Computarizado SA (CERCO, Seville, Spain; 5Department of Biological Sciences and Bioengineering, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, Faro, Portugal; 6King Abdullah Institute for Nanotechnology, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Early cancer detection is a major factor in the reduction of mortality and cancer management cost. Here we developed a smart and targeted micelle-based contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, able to turn on its imaging capability in the presence of acidic cancer tissues. This smart contrast agent consists of pH-sensitive polymeric micelles formed by self-assembly of a diblock copolymer (poly(ethyleneglycol-b-trimethylsilyl methacrylate, loaded with a gadolinium hydrophobic complex (tBuBipyGd and exploits the acidic pH in cancer tissues. In vitro MRI experiments showed that tBuBipyGd-loaded micelles were pH-sensitive, as they turned on their imaging capability only in an acidic microenvironment. The micelle-targeting ability toward cancer cells was enhanced by conjugation with an antibody against the MUC1 protein. The ability of our antibody-decorated micelles to be switched on in acidic microenvironments and to target cancer cells expressing specific antigens, together with its high Gd(III content and its small size (35–40 nm reveals

  3. Replication RCT of Early Universal Prevention Effects on Young Adult Substance Misuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoth, Richard; Trudeau, Linda; Redmond, Cleve; Shin, Chungyeol

    2014-01-01

    Objective For many substances, more frequent and problematic use occurs in young adulthood; these types of use are predicted by the timing of initiation during adolescence. We replicated and extended an earlier study examining whether delayed substance initiation during adolescence, resulting from universal preventive interventions implemented in middle school, reduces problematic use in young adulthood. Method Participants were middle school students from 36 Iowa schools randomly assigned to the Strengthening Families Program plus Life Skills Training (SFP 10–14 + LST), LST-only, or a control condition. Self-report questionnaires were collected at 11 time points, including four during young adulthood. The intercept (average level) and rate of change (slope) in young adult frequency measures (drunkenness, alcohol-related problems, cigarettes, and illicit drugs) across ages 19–22 were modeled as outcomes influenced by growth factors describing substance initiation during adolescence. Analyses entailed testing a two-step hierarchical latent growth curve model; models included the effects of baseline risk, intervention condition assignment, and their interaction. Results Analyses showed significant indirect intervention effects on the average levels of all young adult outcomes, through effects on adolescent substance initiation growth factors, along with intervention by risk interaction effects favoring the higher-risk subsample. Additional direct effects on young adult use were observed in some cases. Relative reduction rates were larger for the higher-risk subsample at age 22, ranging from 5.8% to 36.4% on outcomes showing significant intervention effects. Conclusions Universal preventive interventions implemented during early adolescence have the potential to decrease the rates of substance use and associated problems, into young adulthood. PMID:24821095

  4. Energy Feedback from X-ray Binaries in the Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragos, T.; Lehmer, B..; Naoz, S.; Zezas, A.; Basu-Zych, A.

    2013-01-01

    X-ray photons, because of their long mean-free paths, can easily escape the galactic environments where they are produced, and interact at long distances with the intergalactic medium, potentially having a significant contribution to the heating and reionization of the early universe. The two most important sources of X-ray photons in the universe are active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and X-ray binaries (XRBs). In this Letter we use results from detailed, large scale population synthesis simulations to study the energy feedback of XRBs, from the first galaxies (z (redshift) approximately equal to 20) until today.We estimate that X-ray emission from XRBs dominates over AGN at z (redshift) greater than or approximately equal to 6-8. The shape of the spectral energy distribution of the emission from XRBs shows little change with redshift, in contrast to its normalization which evolves by approximately 4 orders of magnitude, primarily due to the evolution of the cosmic star-formation rate. However, the metallicity and the mean stellar age of a given XRB population affect significantly its X-ray output. Specifically, the X-ray luminosity from high-mass XRBs per unit of star-formation rate varies an order of magnitude going from solar metallicity to less than 10% solar, and the X-ray luminosity from low-mass XRBs per unit of stellar mass peaks at an age of approximately 300 Myr (million years) and then decreases gradually at later times, showing little variation for mean stellar ages 3 Gyr (Giga years, or billion years). Finally, we provide analytical and tabulated prescriptions for the energy output of XRBs, that can be directly incorporated in cosmological simulations.

  5. Domain Walls and Matter-Antimatter Domains in the Early Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolgov A.D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We suggest a scenario of spontaneous (or dynamical C and CP violation according to which it is possible to generate domains of matter and antimatter separated by cosmologically large distances. Such C(CP violation existed only in the early universe and later it disappeared with the only trace of generated matter and antimatter domains. So this scenario does not suffer from the problem of domain walls. According to this scenario the width of the domain wall should grow exponentially to prevent annihilation at the domain boundaries. Though there is a classical result obtained by Basu and Vilenkin that the width of the wall tends to the one of the stationary solution (constant physical width. That is why we considered thick domain walls in a de Sitter universe following paper by Basu and Vilenkin. However, we were interested not only in stationary solutions found therein, but also investigated the general case of domain wall evolution with time. When the wall thickness parameter, δ0 , is smaller than H−1/2 where H is the Hubble parameter in de Sitter space-time, then the stationary solutions exist, and initial field configurations tend with time to the stationary ones. However, there are no stationary solutions for δ0>H−1/2 We have calculated numerically the rate of the wall expansion in this case and have found that the width of the wall grows exponentially fast for δ0≫H−1 An explanation for the critical value δ0c=H−1/2 is also proposed.

  6. Computerized detection of vertebral compression fractures on lateral chest radiographs: Preliminary results with a tool for early detection of osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Satoshi; Li Feng; Shiraishi, Junji; Li Qiang; Doi, Kunio

    2006-01-01

    Vertebral fracture (or vertebral deformity) is a very common outcome of osteoporosis, which is one of the major public health concerns in the world. Early detection of vertebral fractures is important because timely pharmacologic intervention can reduce the risk of subsequent additional fractures. Chest radiographs are used routinely for detection of lung and heart diseases, and vertebral fractures can be visible on lateral chest radiographs. However, investigators noted that about 50% of vertebral fractures visible on lateral chest radiographs were underdiagnosed or under-reported, even when the fractures were severe. Therefore, our goal was to develop a computerized method for detection of vertebral fractures on lateral chest radiographs in order to assist radiologists' image interpretation and thus allow the early diagnosis of osteoporosis. The cases used in this study were 20 patients with severe vertebral fractures and 118 patients without fractures, as confirmed by the consensus of two radiologists. Radiologists identified the locations of fractured vertebrae, and they provided morphometric data on the vertebral shape for evaluation of the accuracy of detecting vertebral end plates by computer. In our computerized method, a curved search area, which included a number of vertebral end plates, was first extracted automatically, and was straightened so that vertebral end plates became oriented horizontally. Edge candidates were enhanced by use of a horizontal line-enhancement filter in the straightened image, and a multiple thresholding technique, followed by feature analysis, was used for identification of the vertebral end plates. The height of each vertebra was determined from locations of identified vertebral end plates, and fractured vertebrae were detected by comparison of the measured vertebral height with the expected height. The sensitivity of our computerized method for detection of fracture cases was 95% (19/20), with 1.03 (139/135) false

  7. Detection of Pathogenic Viruses in Sewage Provided Early Warnings of Hepatitis A Virus and Norovirus Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmér, Maria; Paxéus, Nicklas; Magnius, Lars; Enache, Lucica; Arnholm, Birgitta; Johansson, Annette; Bergström, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    Most persons infected with enterically transmitted viruses shed large amounts of virus in feces for days or weeks, both before and after onset of symptoms. Therefore, viruses causing gastroenteritis may be detected in wastewater, even if only a few persons are infected. In this study, the presence of eight pathogenic viruses (norovirus, astrovirus, rotavirus, adenovirus, Aichi virus, parechovirus, hepatitis A virus [HAV], and hepatitis E virus) was investigated in sewage to explore whether their identification could be used as an early warning of outbreaks. Samples of the untreated sewage were collected in proportion to flow at Ryaverket, Gothenburg, Sweden. Daily samples collected during every second week between January and May 2013 were pooled and analyzed for detection of viruses by concentration through adsorption to milk proteins and PCR. The largest amount of noroviruses was detected in sewage 2 to 3 weeks before most patients were diagnosed with this infection in Gothenburg. The other viruses were detected at lower levels. HAV was detected between weeks 5 and 13, and partial sequencing of the structural VP1protein identified three different strains. Two strains were involved in an ongoing outbreak in Scandinavia and were also identified in samples from patients with acute hepatitis A in Gothenburg during spring of 2013. The third strain was unique and was not detected in any patient sample. The method used may thus be a tool to detect incipient outbreaks of these viruses and provide early warning before the causative pathogens have been recognized in health care. PMID:25172863

  8. A Context-Aware EEG Headset System for Early Detection of Driver Drowsiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Li

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Driver drowsiness is a major cause of mortality in traffic accidents worldwide. Electroencephalographic (EEG signal, which reflects the brain activities, is more directly related to drowsiness. Thus, many Brain-Machine-Interface (BMI systems have been proposed to detect driver drowsiness. However, detecting driver drowsiness at its early stage poses a major practical hurdle when using existing BMI systems. This study proposes a context-aware BMI system aimed to detect driver drowsiness at its early stage by enriching the EEG data with the intensity of head-movements. The proposed system is carefully designed for low-power consumption with on-chip feature extraction and low energy Bluetooth connection. Also, the proposed system is implemented using JAVA programming language as a mobile application for on-line analysis. In total, 266 datasets obtained from six subjects who participated in a one-hour monotonous driving simulation experiment were used to evaluate this system. According to a video-based reference, the proposed system obtained an overall detection accuracy of 82.71% for classifying alert and slightly drowsy events by using EEG data alone and 96.24% by using the hybrid data of head-movement and EEG. These results indicate that the combination of EEG data and head-movement contextual information constitutes a robust solution for the early detection of driver drowsiness.

  9. Universal phase transition in community detectability under a stochastic block model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pin-Yu; Hero, Alfred O

    2015-03-01

    We prove the existence of an asymptotic phase-transition threshold on community detectability for the spectral modularity method [M. E. J. Newman, Phys. Rev. E 74, 036104 (2006) and Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 103, 8577 (2006)] under a stochastic block model. The phase transition on community detectability occurs as the intercommunity edge connection probability p grows. This phase transition separates a subcritical regime of small p, where modularity-based community detection successfully identifies the communities, from a supercritical regime of large p where successful community detection is impossible. We show that, as the community sizes become large, the asymptotic phase-transition threshold p* is equal to √[p1p2], where pi(i=1,2) is the within-community edge connection probability. Thus the phase-transition threshold is universal in the sense that it does not depend on the ratio of community sizes. The universal phase-transition phenomenon is validated by simulations for moderately sized communities. Using the derived expression for the phase-transition threshold, we propose an empirical method for estimating this threshold from real-world data.

  10. Multiparametric MRI of the prostate. Method for early detection of prostate cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter

    2010-01-01

    Current approaches for the early detection of prostate cancer are controversially discussed because the disease is characterized by a high incidence rate with a relatively low morbidity rate, availability of only limited prognostic markers, and continued therapy-related morbidity. Conventional morphological MRI does not play a role in early detection since small tumor foci cannot be delineated. However, if there is clinical suspicion for prostate cancer, multiparametric MRI is currently the most accurate method for detecting and characterizing suspicious lesions in the prostate. The potential to identify the so-called 'index lesion', i.e., the tumor area that is most aggressive and determines treatment, is particularly important. This information can increase the accuracy of prostate biopsy and serve as a biomarker for follow-up during active surveillance. The method may considerably contribute to the urgently required separation of clinically significant from clinically insignificant prostate cancers. (orig.)

  11. Early detection of radioactive fall-out by gamma-spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, Helle Karina; Korsbech, Uffe C C; Bargholz, K.

    2003-01-01

    Radioactive fallout should be detected as early as possible. A new and efficient method for detection of low-level irradiation from manmade radioactivity is developed. Radiation abnormalities are detectable down to air kerma rate, of 0.5 to 1.0 nGy h(-1) for Cs-137 and even lower for I-131...... For multi-gamma energy radioactivity the detection level is 2.6-3.5 nGy h(-1). A standard NaI detector and a 512-channel analyser are used together with noise adjusted singular value decomposition (NASVD). Statistical noise is removed and the measured spectra are reproduced using spectral components...... radioactive sources need to be detected....

  12. Multianalyte Tests for the Early Detection of Cancer: Speedbumps and Barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Tainsky

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available It has become very clear that a single molecular event is inadequate to accurately predict the biology (or pathophysiology of cancer. Furthermore, using any single molecular event as a biomarker for the early detection of malignancy may not comprehensively identify the majority of individuals with that disease. Therefore, the fact that technologies have arisen that can simultaneously detect several, possibly hundreds, of biomarkers has propelled the field towards the development of multianalyte-based in vitro diagnostic early detection tests for cancer using body fl uids such as serum, plasma, sputum, saliva, or urine. These multianalyte tests may be based on the detection of serum autoantibodies to tumor antigens, the presence of cancer-related proteins in serum, or the presence of tumor-specific genomic changes that appear in plasma as free DNA. The implementation of non-invasive diagnostic approaches to detect early stage cancer may provide the physician with evidence of cancer, but the question arises as to how the information will affect the pathway of clinical intervention. The confirmation of a positive result from an in vitro diagnostic cancer test may involve relatively invasive procedures to establish a true cancer diagnosis. If in vitro diagnostic tests are proven to be both specific, i.e. rarely produce false positive results due to unrelated conditions, and sufficiently sensitive, i.e. rarely produce false negative results, then such screening tests offer the potential for early detection and personalized therapeutics using multiple disease-related targets with convenient and non-invasive means. Here we discuss the technical and regulatory barriers inherent in development of clinical multianalyte biomarker assays.

  13. Strategies for Early Outbreak Detection of Malaria in the Amhara Region of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekorchuk, D.; Gebrehiwot, T.; Mihretie, A.; Awoke, W.; Wimberly, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    Traditional epidemiological approaches to early detection of disease outbreaks are based on relatively straightforward thresholds (e.g. 75th percentile, standard deviations) estimated from historical case data. For diseases with strong seasonality, these can be modified to create separate thresholds for each seasonal time step. However, for disease processes that are non-stationary, more sophisticated techniques are needed to more accurately estimate outbreak threshold values. Early detection for geohealth-related diseases that also have environmental drivers, such as vector-borne diseases, may also benefit from the integration of time-lagged environmental data and disease ecology models into the threshold calculations. The Epidemic Prognosis Incorporating Disease and Environmental Monitoring for Integrated Assessment (EPIDEMIA) project has been integrating malaria case surveillance with remotely-sensed environmental data for early detection, warning, and forecasting of malaria epidemics in the Amhara region of Ethiopia, and has five years of weekly time series data from 47 woredas (districts). Efforts to reduce the burden of malaria in Ethiopia has been met with some notable success in the past two decades with major reduction in cases and deaths. However, malaria remains a significant public health threat as 60% of the population live in malarious areas, and due to the seasonal and unstable transmission patterns with cyclic outbreaks, protective immunity is generally low which could cause high morbidity and mortality during the epidemics. This study compared several approaches for defining outbreak thresholds and for identifying a potential outbreak based on deviations from these thresholds. We found that model-based approaches that accounted for climate-driven seasonality in malaria transmission were most effective, and that incorporating a trend component improved outbreak detection in areas with active malaria elimination efforts. An advantage of these early

  14. Early detection of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in apparently healthy attendants of tertiary care hospital and assessment of its severity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubair, T.; Abbassi, A.; Khan, O. A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Early detection of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in apparently healthy attendants of tertiary care hospital and assessment of its severity. Study Design: Cross-sectional, observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Study was conducted from January 2015 to July 2015 at Dow University Hospital, Ojha campus. Methodology: A screening method was designed for apparently healthy individuals including attendants of patients, hospital staff, faculty and students, belonging to age group 18-60 years after excluding severe obesity and already diagnosed respiratory and cardiovascular diseases by means of history. Each participant performed pulmonary function tests via spirometer after filling a questionnaire based on various risk factors and symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Data was entered and analysed by SPSS-20. Results: Out of the 517 participants, 122 (23.6%) were found to have COPD diagnosed by means of spirometry. Out of these, 23 (4.4%) had COPD stage I, 42 (8.1%) had COPD II, 34 (6.6%) had COPD III, and 23 (4.4%) had COPD IV. Exposure to smoking, wooden stoves, pesticides, biomass fuel, aerosol sprays, gas grill and vehicle exhaust were found to be statistically significant factors in relation to development of COPD. Conclusion: Apparently healthy individuals may have underlying COPD and active screening by means of spirometry plays vital role in early detection of COPD. Smoking and exposure to certain hazardous environmental pollutants are responsible for the development and progression of COPD. (author)

  15. Developing an Open Source, Reusable Platform for Distributed Collaborative Information Management in the Early Detection Research Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Andrew F.; Verma, Rishi; Mattmann, Chris A.; Crichton, Daniel J.; Kelly, Sean; Kincaid, Heather; Hughes, Steven; Ramirez, Paul; Goodale, Cameron; Anton, Kristen; hide

    2012-01-01

    For the past decade, the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, in collaboration with Dartmouth University has served as the center for informatics for the Early Detection Research Network (EDRN). The EDRN is a multi-institution research effort funded by the U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI) and tasked with identifying and validating biomarkers for the early detection of cancer. As the distributed network has grown, increasingly formal processes have been developed for the acquisition, curation, storage, and dissemination of heterogeneous research information assets, and an informatics infrastructure has emerged. In this paper we discuss the evolution of EDRN informatics, its success as a mechanism for distributed information integration, and the potential sustainability and reuse benefits of emerging efforts to make the platform components themselves open source. We describe our experience transitioning a large closed-source software system to a community driven, open source project at the Apache Software Foundation, and point to lessons learned that will guide our present efforts to promote the reuse of the EDRN informatics infrastructure by a broader community.

  16. Improving early detection initiatives: a qualitative study exploring perspectives of older people and professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lette, Manon; Stoop, Annerieke; Lemmens, Lidwien C; Buist, Yvette; Baan, Caroline A; de Bruin, Simone R

    2017-06-23

    A wide range of initiatives on early detection and intervention have been developed to proactively identify problems related to health and wellbeing in (frail) older people, with the aim of supporting them to live independently for as long as possible. Nevertheless, it remains unclear what the best way is to design such initiatives and how older people's needs and preferences can be best addressed. This study aimed to address this gap in the literature by exploring: 1) older people's perspectives on health and living environment in relation to living independently at home; 2) older people's needs and preferences in relation to initiating and receiving care and support; and 3) professionals' views on what would be necessary to enable the alignment of early detection initiatives with older people's own needs and preferences. In this qualitative study, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 36 older people and 19 professionals in proactive elderly care. Data were analysed using the framework analysis method. From the interviews with older people important themes in relation to health and living environment emerged, such as maintaining independence, appropriate housing, social relationships, a supporting network and a sense of purpose and autonomy. Older people preferred to remain self-sufficient, and they would rather not ask for help for psychological or social problems. However, the interviews also highlighted that they were not always able or willing to anticipate future needs, which can hinder early detection or early intervention. At the same time, professionals indicated that older people tend to over-estimate their self-reliance and therefore advocated for early detection and intervention, including social and psychological issues. Older people have a broad range of needs in different domains of life. Discrepancies exist between older people and professionals with regard to their views on timing and scope of early detection initiatives. This study aimed

  17. Spontaneous B-L breaking as the origin of the hot early universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchmueller, W.; Domcke, V.; Schmitz, K.

    2012-03-15

    The decay of a false vacuum of unbroken B-L symmetry is an intriguing and testable mechanism to generate the initial conditions of the hot early universe. If B-L is broken at the grand unification scale, the false vacuum phase yields hybrid inflation, ending in tachyonic preheating. The dynamics of the B - L breaking Higgs field and thermal processes produce an abundance of heavy neutrinos whose decays generate entropy, baryon asymmetry and gravitino dark matter. We study the phase transition for the full supersymmetric Abelian Higgs model. For the subsequent reheating process we give a detailed time-resolved description of all particle abundances. The competition of cosmic expansion and entropy production leads to an intermediate period of constant 'reheating' temperature, during which baryon asymmetry and dark matter are produced. Consistency of hybrid inflation, leptogenesis and gravitino dark matter implies relations between neutrino parameters and superparticle masses, in particular a lower bound on the gravitino mass of 10 GeV.

  18. Potential utility of environmental DNA for early detection of Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Jeremy; Sepulveda, Adam; Sylvester, K; Thum, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    Considering the harmful and irreversible consequences of many biological invasions, early detection of an invasive species is an important step toward protecting ecosystems (Sepulveda et al. 2012). Early detection increases the probability that suppression or eradication efforts will be successful because invasive populations are small and localized (Vander Zanden et al. 2010). However, most invasive species are not detected early because current tools have low detection probabilities when target species are rare and the sampling effort required to achieve acceptable detection capabilities with current tools is seldom tractable (Jerde et al. 2011). As a result, many invasive species go undetected until they are abundant and suppression efforts become costly. Novel DNA-based surveillance tools have recently revolutionized early detection abilities using environmental DNA (eDNA) present in the water (Darling and Mahon 2011, Bohmann et al. 2014). In brief, eDNA monitoring enables the identification of organisms from DNA present and collected in water samples. Aquatic and semiaquatic organisms release DNA contained in sloughed, damaged, or partially decomposed tissue and waste products into the water and molecular techniques allow this eDNA in the water column to be identified from simple and easy-tocollect water samples (Darling and Mahon 2011). Despite limited understanding of the production, persistence, and spread of DNA in water (Barnes et al. 2014), eDNA monitoring has been applied not only to invasive species (Jerde et al. 2011), but also to species that are rare, endangered, or highly elusive (Spear et al. 2014). However, most eDNA research and monitoring has focused on detection of invertebrates and vertebrates and less attentionhas been given to developing eDNA techniques for detecting aquatic invasive plants. Eurasian watermilfoil (EWM; Myriophyllum spicatum L.) is an invasive species for which improved early detection would be particularly helpful. Advanced

  19. Using Electronic Portfolio to Promote Professional Learning Community for Pre-Service Early Childhood Teachers at Alquds University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khales, Buad

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to explore whether the electronic portfolio can influence pre-service teachers' education and to examine how professional learning communities develop through electronic portfolios. To achieve this, twenty-four student-teachers taking a course in early childhood education at Al-Quds University participated in a study to…

  20. "Swim or Sink": State of Induction in the Deployment of Early Career Academics into Teaching at Makerere University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ssempebwa, Jude; Teferra, Damtew; Bakkabulindi, Fred Edward K.

    2016-01-01

    Conducted as part of a multi-country study of the teaching-related experiences and expectations of early career academics (ECAs) in Africa, this study investigated the major influences on the teaching practice of ECAs at Makerere University; the mechanisms by which these academics learn to teach; the teaching-related challenges they experience;…

  1. Early stage detection of β→α transition in Sn by Mössbauer spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skwarek, Agata, E-mail: askwarek@ite.waw.pl [Institute of Electron Technology Cracow Division, Zabłocie 39, 30-701 Kraków (Poland); Zachariasz, Piotr [Institute of Electron Technology Cracow Division, Zabłocie 39, 30-701 Kraków (Poland); Żukrowski, Jan [AGH University of Science and Technology, Academic Center for Materials and Nanotechnology, A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Synkiewicz, Beata; Witek, Krzysztof [Institute of Electron Technology Cracow Division, Zabłocie 39, 30-701 Kraków (Poland)

    2016-10-01

    Mössbauer spectroscopy was used for the early stage detection of the β→α transition (tin pest) in Sn matrix. The results were compared with the data from X-ray diffraction and a variance in the sensitivity for both methods has been proven. Mössbauer spectroscopy is more responsive method than XRD to tin pest finding and with possible detection level of even 1.8%. Furthermore, in reference sample, suspected to be pure α-Sn, large content of white tin (β-Sn), even after 6 years of exposure at sub-zero temperature, has been identified. 48% of α-Sn phase but also 52% of non-transferred β-Sn has been still detectable. - Highlights: • β→α transition (tin pest) could completely disintegrate Sn-rich material. • Early stage detection of β→α transition still exhibits substantial difficulties. • Mössbauer spectroscopy is very sensitive method in detection of β→α transition in Sn matrix. • Different values of Mössbauer-Lamb factors for β and α-Sn allow to detect tin pest at the level of 1.8%.

  2. [Validation of three screening tests used for early detection of cervical cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Reyes, Esperanza Rosalba; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M; Quiñones-Pérez, Juan M; Cortés-Gutiérrez, Elva I

    2008-01-01

    to evaluate the validity (sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy) of three screening methods used in the early detection of the cervical carcinoma versus the histopathology diagnosis. a selected sample of 107 women attended in the Opportune Detection of Cervicouterine Cancer Program in the Hospital de Zona 46, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social in Durango, during the 2003 was included. The application of Papa-nicolaou, acetic acid test, and molecular detection of human papillomavirus, and histopatholgy diagnosis were performed in all the patients at the time of the gynecological exam. The detection and tipification of the human papillomavirus was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and analysis of polymorphisms of length of restriction fragments (RFLP). Histopathology diagnosis was considered the gold standard. The evaluation of the validity was carried out by the Bayesian method for diagnosis test. the positive cases for acetic acid test, Papanicolaou, and PCR were 47, 22, and 19. The accuracy values were 0.70, 0.80 and 0.99, respectively. since the molecular method showed a greater validity in the early detection of the cervical carcinoma we considered of vital importance its implementation in suitable programs of Opportune Detection of Cervicouterino Cancer Program in Mexico. However, in order to validate this conclusion, cross-sectional studies in different region of country must be carried out.

  3. [CODEPEH 2014 recommendations for the early detection of delayed hearing loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Batalla, Faustino; Jáudenes-Casaubón, Carmen; Sequí-Canet, José Miguel; Vivanco-Allende, Ana; Zubicaray-Ugarteche, José

    2016-10-01

    The latest scientific literature considers early diagnosis of deafness as key element to define the educational prognosis and inclusion of the deaf child, as advantage can be taken in the critical period of development (0-4 years). Highly significant differences exist between those deaf persons who have been stimulated early and those who have received late or inappropriate intervention. Early identification of late-onset disorders requires special attention and knowledge of all childcare professionals. Programs and additional actions beyond neonatal screening should be designed and planned in order to ensure that every child with a significant hearing loss is detected early. For this purpose, the Committee for the Early Detection of Deafness (CODEPEH) would like to highlight the need for continuous monitoring on the hearing health of children. And, for this reason, CODEPEH drafts the recommendations included in the present document. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Detection of oral early cancerous lesion by using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography: mice model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hong-Yi; Chen, Ping-Hsien; Lee, Tzu-Han; Chang, Kuo-Wei; Kuo, Wen-Chuan

    2018-02-01

    Oral cancer is the 11th most common cancer worldwide, especially in a male adult. The median age of death in oral cancer was 55 years, 10-20 years earlier than other cancers. Presently, oral cancer is often found in late stage, because the lesion is often flat in early stage and is difficult to diagnose under traditional white light imaging. The only definitive method for determining cancer is an invasive biopsy and then using histology examination. How to detect precancerous lesions or early malignant lesions is an important issue for improving prognosis of oral cancer. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a new optical tool for diagnosing early malignant lesions in the skin or gastrointestinal tract recently. Here we report a new method for detecting precancerous or early malignant oral lesions by using swept source polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) with center-wavelength 1310 nm, bandwidth 110 nm and 100 kHz swept rate. We used all single-mode fiber design to detect the change of birefringence information in the epithelium structure. This system has an advantage that enables measurement of backscattered intensity and birefringence simultaneously with only one A-scan per transverse location. In preliminary result, we computed the slope of the every A-scan signal in tissue part using a linear-curve fitting in backscattered intensity and birefringence on the enface. In this research, we used an oral cancer mice model for observing the change of structure and birefringence properties in different stages of oral cancer mice. We presented the parametric enface imaging that can detect the early oral malignant lesions.

  5. Early detection of breast cancer mass lesions by mammogram segmentation images based on texture features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, F.H.

    2012-01-01

    Mammography is at present one of the available method for early detection of masses or abnormalities which is related to breast cancer.The calcifications. The challenge lies in early and accurate detection to overcome the development of breast cancer that affects more and more women throughout the world. Breast cancer is diagnosed at advanced stages with the help of the digital mammogram images. Masses appear in a mammogram as fine, granular clusters, which are often difficult to identify in a raw mammogram. The incidence of breast cancer in women has increased significantly in recent years. This paper proposes a computer aided diagnostic system for the extraction of features like mass lesions in mammograms for early detection of breast cancer. The proposed technique is based on a four-step procedure: (a) the preprocessing of the image is done, (b) regions of interest (ROI) specification, (c) supervised segmentation method includes two to stages performed using the minimum distance (M D) criterion, and (d) feature extraction based on Gray level Co-occurrence matrices GLC M for the identification of mass lesions. The method suggested for the detection of mass lesions from mammogram image segmentation and analysis was tested over several images taken from A L-llwiya Hospital in Baghdad, Iraq.The proposed technique shows better results.

  6. Early detection of venous thromboses of the lower limb in traumatology using labelled fibrinogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasteyer, J.; Lanata, E.; Bonnard, P.; Jean, N.; Kher, A.; Patel, A.

    1975-01-01

    In emergency traumatology, the iodine 125 labelled fibrinogen test is useful in the early detection of phlebitis in patients in whom the routine use of heparin is not possible: fractures of the cervical spine, severe cranial trauma, elderly subjects. It makes possible the institution of appropriate heparin therapy, whithout waiting for clinical signs to become evident. Isotopic venous thromboses occured very frequently and very early and clinical signs, when present (50% of cases) occured 24 to 48 hours after the appearance of isotopic signs [fr

  7. Dielectric Spectroscopic Detection of Early Failures in 3-D Integrated Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeng, Yaw; Okoro, C A; Ahn, Jung-Joon; You, Lin; Kopanski, Joseph J

    The commercial introduction of three dimensional integrated circuits (3D-ICs) has been hindered by reliability challenges, such as stress related failures, resistivity changes, and unexplained early failures. In this paper, we discuss a new RF-based metrology, based on dielectric spectroscopy, for detecting and characterizing electrically active defects in fully integrated 3D devices. These defects are traceable to the chemistry of the insolation dielectrics used in the through silicon via (TSV) construction. We show that these defects may be responsible for some of the unexplained early reliability failures observed in TSV enabled 3D devices.

  8. Early detection of the first episode of schizophrenia and suicidal behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melle, Ingrid; Johannesen, Jan Olav; Friis, Svein

    2006-01-01

    The suicide rate in schizophrenia is high, with the risk being highest early in the course. The rate of suicide attempts before treatment onset is also high and is often the event leading up to first treatment contact. A previous report showed that the duration of untreated psychosis can be reduced...... through an early detection program, and that the reduction was associated with lower symptom levels at treatment initiation. Treatment programs that bring first-episode patients into treatment at lower symptom levels can have the potential to reduce risk for suicide attempts....

  9. Measuring telomere length for the early detection of precursor lesions of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Shih-Wen; Wang, Guo-Qing; Wei, Wen-Qiang; Lu, Ning; Taylor, Philip R; Qiao, You-Lin; Dawsey, Sanford M; Abnet, Christian C; Freedman, Neal D; Murphy, Gwen; Risques, Rosana; Prunkard, Donna; Rabinovitch, Peter; Pan, Qin-Jing; Roth, Mark J

    2013-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is the sixth leading cause of cancer death worldwide; current early detection screening tests are inadequate. Esophageal balloon cytology successfully retrieves exfoliated and scraped superficial esophageal epithelial cells, but cytologic reading of these cells has poor sensitivity and specificity for detecting esophageal squamous dysplasia (ESD), the precursor lesion of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Measuring telomere length, a marker for chromosomal instability, may improve the utility of balloon cytology for detecting ESD and early ESCC. We examined balloon cytology specimens from 89 asymptomatic cases of ESD (37 low-grade and 52 high-grade) and 92 age- and sex-matched normal controls from an esophageal cancer early detection screening study. All subjects also underwent endoscopy and biopsy, and ESD was diagnosed histopathologically. DNA was extracted from the balloon cytology cells, and telomere length was measured by quantitative PCR. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was plotted for telomere length as a diagnostic marker for high-grade dysplasia. Telomere lengths were comparable among the low- and high-grade dysplasia cases and controls, with means of 0.96, 0.96, and 0.92, respectively. The area under the ROC curve was 0.55 for telomere length as a diagnostic marker for high-grade dysplasia. Further adjustment for subject characteristics, including sex, age, smoking, drinking, hypertension, and body mass index did not improve the use of telomere length as a marker for ESD. Telomere length of esophageal balloon cytology cells was not associated with ESCC precursor lesions. Therefore, telomere length shows little promise as an early detection marker for ESCC in esophageal balloon samples

  10. Early period of particle accelerator development and nuclear physics experiments at Taihoku Imperial University and Kyoto University (1/2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takekoshi, Hidekuni

    2007-01-01

    In 1926 Dr. Arakatsu was appointed Professor to Taipei Imperial University in Taiwan which was under the government by Japan in that time, and stared the construction of an electrostatic accelerator in 1930 for nuclear transmutations. He measured the detailed branching ratio of deuteron-lithium reaction following the investigation by Lawrence and Rutherford. In 1936 he was transferred to the physics laboratory of Kyoto University, and constructed a 600kV accelerator of Cockcroft-Walton type. His team studied photo-nuclear reactions using gamma rays produced by the proton-lithium reaction. In 1942 he started on the construction of a cyclotron, which was taken away by US army after the war. He participated in the investigation of the atomic bomb to Hiroshima. (K.Y.)

  11. Stress and hazardous alcohol use: associations with early dropout from university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Claes; Johnsson, Kent O; Berglund, Mats; Ojehagen, Agneta

    2009-09-01

    The transition to studying at university is associated with increased levels of both stress and hazardous alcohol use. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of these factors on first-year dropout from university studies. Two complete cohorts of university freshmen at two homogeneous universities, one in the north and one in the south of Sweden, were asked to participate in an intervention study. Participants responded to a baseline questionnaire including measures of stress and alcohol use. Official university records showing dropout over 12 months were collected. A multivariate analysis established that high stress and admission to the northern university were associated with dropout from university studies, while symptoms of depression and anxiety as well as hazardous drinking were not. There is a need to address the issue of stress associated with the start of university studies. It seems important to offer stress-reducing interventions, specifically aimed at reducing transitional stress, as soon as students start university.

  12. Detection of Early Ischemic Changes in Noncontrast CT Head Improved with "Stroke Windows".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainali, Shraddha; Wahba, Mervat; Elijovich, Lucas

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Noncontrast head CT (NCCT) is the standard radiologic test for patients presenting with acute stroke. Early ischemic changes (EIC) are often overlooked on initial NCCT. We determine the sensitivity and specificity of improved EIC detection by a standardized method of image evaluation (Stroke Windows). Methods. We performed a retrospective chart review to identify patients with acute ischemic stroke who had NCCT at presentation. EIC was defined by the presence of hyperdense MCA/basilar artery sign; sulcal effacement; basal ganglia/subcortical hypodensity; and loss of cortical gray-white differentiation. NCCT was reviewed with standard window settings and with specialized Stroke Windows. Results. Fifty patients (42% females, 58% males) with a mean NIHSS of 13.4 were identified. EIC was detected in 9 patients with standard windows, while EIC was detected using Stroke Windows in 35 patients (18% versus 70%; P Windows (14% and 36%; P Windows (6% and 46%; P Windows significantly improved detection of EIC.

  13. On-line early fault detection and diagnosis of municipal solid waste incinerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jinsong; Huang Jianchao; Sun Wei

    2008-01-01

    A fault detection and diagnosis framework is proposed in this paper for early fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) in order to improve the safety and continuity of production. In this framework, principal component analysis (PCA), one of the multivariate statistical technologies, is used for detecting abnormal events, while rule-based reasoning performs the fault diagnosis and consequence prediction, and also generates recommendations for fault mitigation once an abnormal event is detected. A software package, SWIFT, is developed based on the proposed framework, and has been applied in an actual industrial MSWI. The application shows that automated real-time abnormal situation management (ASM) of the MSWI can be achieved by using SWIFT, resulting in an industrially acceptable low rate of wrong diagnosis, which has resulted in improved process continuity and environmental performance of the MSWI

  14. THE CHEMISTRY OF POPULATION III SUPERNOVA EJECTA. I. FORMATION OF MOLECULES IN THE EARLY UNIVERSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherchneff, Isabelle; Dwek, Eli

    2009-01-01

    outer mass zone of the ejecta. Finally, we discuss the cosmological implication of molecule formation by Pop III SNe in the early universe.

  15. 77 FR 60703 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee: Notice of Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee: Notice of Charter Renewal This gives notice... Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee, Department of Health and Human Services...

  16. A New Paradigm of Technology-Enabled ‘Vital Signs’ for Early Detection of Health Change for Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantz, Marilyn J; Skubic, Marjorie; Popescu, Mihail; Galambos, Colleen; Koopman, Richelle J; Alexander, Gregory L; Phillips, Lorraine J; Musterman, Katy; Back, Jessica; Miller, Steven J

    2015-01-01

    Environmentally embedded (nonwearable) sensor technology is in continuous use in elder housing to monitor a new set of ‘vital signs' that continuously measure the functional status of older adults, detect potential changes in health or functional status, and alert healthcare providers for early recognition and treatment of those changes. Older adult participants' respiration, pulse, and restlessness are monitored as they sleep. Gait speed, stride length, and stride time are calculated daily, and automatically assess for increasing fall risk. Activity levels are summarized and graphically displayed for easy interpretation. Falls are detected when they occur and alerts are sent immediately to healthcare providers, so time to rescue may be reduced. Automated health alerts are sent to healthcare staff, based on continuously running algorithms applied to the sensor data, days and weeks before typical signs or symptoms are detected by the person, family members, or healthcare providers. Discovering these new functional status ‘vital signs', developing automated methods for interpreting them, and alerting others when changes occur have the potential to transform chronic illness management and facilitate aging in place through the end of life. Key findings of research in progress at the University of Missouri are discussed in this viewpoint article, as well as obstacles to widespread adoption.

  17. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET and PET-CT in early detection of cancer recurrent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Yan; Zhao Jinhua

    2007-01-01

    Early detection of recurrent can improve prognosis and survival of patients with cancer. 18 F- fluorodeoxyglucose( 18 F-FDG) PET can detect metabolic changes before structural changes. The fused imaging provided by PET-CT can precisely localize the foci and demonstrate the complementary roles of functional and anatomic assessments in the diagnosis of cancer recurrence. In addition to the accurate diagnosis and definition of the whole extent of recurrent cancer, 18 F-FDG PET and PET-CT can impact patients management. (authors)

  18. Detection of early carious lesions using contrast enhancement with coherent light scattering (speckle imaging)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deana, A M; Jesus, S H C; Koshoji, N H; Bussadori, S K; Oliveira, M T

    2013-01-01

    Currently, dental caries still represent one of the chronic diseases with the highest prevalence and present in most countries. The interaction between light and teeth (absorption, scattering and fluorescence) is intrinsically connected to the constitution of the dental tissue. Decay induced mineral loss introduces a shift in the optical properties of the affected tissue; therefore, study of these properties may produce novel techniques aimed at the early diagnosis of carious lesions. Based on the optical properties of the enamel, we demonstrate the application of first-order spatial statistics in laser speckle imaging, allowing the detection of carious lesions in their early stages. A highlight of this noninvasive, non-destructive, real time and cost effective approach is that it allows a dentist to detect a lesion even in the absence of biofilm or moisture. (paper)

  19. Early Obstacle Detection and Avoidance for All to All Traffic Pattern in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huc, Florian; Jarry, Aubin; Leone, Pierre; Moraru, Luminita; Nikoletseas, Sotiris; Rolim, Jose

    This paper deals with early obstacles recognition in wireless sensor networks under various traffic patterns. In the presence of obstacles, the efficiency of routing algorithms is increased by voluntarily avoiding some regions in the vicinity of obstacles, areas which we call dead-ends. In this paper, we first propose a fast convergent routing algorithm with proactive dead-end detection together with a formal definition and description of dead-ends. Secondly, we present a generalization of this algorithm which improves performances in all to many and all to all traffic patterns. In a third part we prove that this algorithm produces paths that are optimal up to a constant factor of 2π + 1. In a fourth part we consider the reactive version of the algorithm which is an extension of a previously known early obstacle detection algorithm. Finally we give experimental results to illustrate the efficiency of our algorithms in different scenarios.

  20. Emerging Cardiac Imaging Modalities for the Early Detection of Cardiotoxicity Due to Anticancer Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Fernández, Teresa; Thavendiranathan, Paaladinesh

    2017-06-01

    The undeniable advances in the field of oncology have finally led to a decrease in overall cancer-related mortality. However, this population of long-term cancer survivors is now facing a shift toward a substantial increase in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Because the development of overt cardiotoxicity can be associated with poor outcomes, preclinical identification of cardiac toxicity is important. This will promote early instauration of treatments to prevent overt heart dysfunction and allow oncologists to continue cancer therapy in an uninterrupted manner. Surveillance strategies for the early detection of cardiac injury include cardiac imaging and biomarkers during treatment. In this review, we outline existing cardiac imaging modalities to detect myocardial changes in patients undergoing cancer treatment and in survivors, and their strengths and limitations. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.