Full Text Available A limited number of studies have focused on the population genetic structure of vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus in America. This medium-sized bat is distributed in tropical areas of the continent with high prevalence in forested livestock areas. The aim of this work was to characterize the vampire population structure and their genetic differentiation. For this, we followed standard methods by which live vampires (caught by mist-netting and preserved material from scientific collections, were obtained for a total of 15 different locations, ranging from Chihuahua (North to Quintana Roo (Southeast. Tissue samples were obtained from both live and collected animals, and the genetic differentiation, within and among localities, was assessed by the use of seven microsatellite loci. Our results showed that all loci were polymorphic and no private alleles were detected. High levels of heterozygosis were detected when the proportion of alleles in each locus were compared. Pairwise F ST and R ST detected significant genetic differentiation among individuals from different localities. Our population structure results indicate the presence of eleven clusters, with a high percentage of assigned individuals to some specific collecting site. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (2: 659-669. Epub 2014 June 01.
, Desmodus rotundus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae. This study addresses the composition of microbial flora in the vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus primarily because all available data are outdated, and because of the economical significance of this bat species. Twenty-one bats were collected and their aerobic bacteria documented separately for stomach and intestine. Bacteria were identified through the Analytical Profile Index (API, and results analyzed with the APILAB software. A total of thirty bacterial species were isolated from sixteen females and five males. The most common species were Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, although other bacteria, such as Acinetobacter johnsonii, Enterobacter sakazakii, Staphylococcus chromogenes, S. hyicus and S. xylosus were also common. The number of species found in the stomach and intestine was significantly different, and the intestine presented a higher diversity compared to the stomach. This has previously been found in other mammals and it is attributed to a reduction of acidity. Most of the species found in this study are considered normal components of the digestive tract of mammals, although other bacteria common in the skin of mammals and from aquatic environments were found. Bacteria from the skin may invade the vampire’s stomach and/or intestine when the bat has contact with its prey, and may suggest that the vampire’s feeding habit facilitates the invasion of other microbes not common in its digestive tract. The fact that bacteria from aquatic environments were also found suggests that D. rotundus, as previously found by other researchers, drinks free water when available, and water may be another source of microbial invasion. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (3: 717-724. Epub 2006 Sept. 29.
Romero-Nava, Claudia; León-Paniagua, Livia; Ortega, Jorge
A limited number of studies have focused on the population genetic structure of vampire bats (Desmous rotundus) in America. This medium-sized bat is distributed in tropical areas of the continent with high prevalence in forested livestock areas. The aim of this work was to characterize the vampire population structure and their genetic differentiation. For this, we followed standard methods by which live vampires (caught by mist-netting) and preserved material from scientific collections, were obtained for a total of 15 different locations, ranging from Chihuahua (North) to Quintana Roo (Southeast). Tissue samples were obtained from both live and collected animals, and the genetic differentiation, within and among localities, was assessed by the use of seven microsatellite loci. Our results showed that all loci were polymorphic and no private alleles were detected. High levels of heterozygosis were detected when the proportion of alleles in each locus were compared. Pairwise (ST) and R(ST) detected significant genetic differentiation among individuals from different localities. Our population structure results indicate the presence of eleven clusters, with a high percentage of assigned individuals to some specific collecting site.
Full Text Available Surveillance of hematophagous bats is an important public health measure for the prevention and control of rabies epidemics in domestic herbivorous animals. The aim of this study was to locate and georeference D.rotundus shelters in the Municipality of São Pedro - SP, Brazil, and verify their nature (artificial or natural, surrounding landscape and distance from main rivers. To do this, two samples were taken of populations in shelters, with an interval of six months between them, capturing all the bats existent in shelters with fewer than 20 individuals and approximately 20% of the bats present in shelters with over 20 individuals in order to quantify their gender and age distribution. The majority of D. rotundus (67% were verified to be artificial and the remainder (33% natural. Of the six artificial shelters found, five were located in abandoned houses and one in a rain water drainage channel. There were no signs of D. rotundus in other rural buildings and viaducts located in the proximities of pastures. In spite of the majority of D. rotundus shelters being artificial, the three most populated shelters were maternity colonies, two being located in grottos and only one in an artificial shelter (rain water drainage channel. The remaining shelters were occupied by only male individuals. With the exception of one shelter, all the other shelters were at a distance of less than 3 km from the main bodies of water in the study area, corroborating studies that have reported that the main rivers in the State of São Paulo are the main geographic features related to the presence of D. rotundus. It was also verified that 67% of the shelters were inhabited by only male individuals, which confirms other studies conducted in the State of São Paulo, in which over 60% of the groups of Desmodus contain only male individuals.
SAMPEDRO MARÍN ALCIDES C.
Full Text Available Esta investigación se realizó en la zona rural de los municipios Toluviejo, San Onofrey San Antonio de Palmito, pertenecientes al departamento de Sucre, Colombia, duranteel período comprendido entre noviembre de 2004 y noviembre de 2005 y tuvo comoobjetivo la determinación de los tipos de refugio utilizados por Desmodus rotundus enlas localidades mencionadas, así como conocer su composición social en esos sitiosy la época reproductiva. Se hicieron capturas mediante redes de niebla, en huecos detroncos de árboles, cuevas y construcciones humanas, que mostraban evidencia deheces sanguinolentas. Los animales eran obligados a salir mediante el humo y una vezcapturados eran conservados en alcohol al 70%. El número de animales en esos sitiosfluctúa entre 4 y 93. La proporción de machos activos sexualmente resultó siempremenor que la de hembras con diferentes estadios reproductivos (1:6, 1:7, 1:3, 1:2, 1:2para los diferentes refugios. Además aparecen varios machos inactivos sexualmentey neonatos. Esta composición y número parece influir en la eficiencia reproductiva,la estabilidad del grupo y en el establecimiento de su conducta de cooperación parala alimentación. Esta especie es monótoca y la reproducción puede efectuarse encualquier época del año, lo cual garantiza la supervivencia de la misma, dadas lasconocidas dificultades que afrontan cuando no pueden alimentarse
Hausmann, Jennifer C; Manasse, Jorden; Churgin, Sarah; Steinberg, Howard; Clyde, Victoria L; Wallace, Roberta
A 15-yr-old sexually intact female vampire bat ( Desmodus rotundus ) was diagnosed with myositis ossificans traumatica of the abdominal wall. The bat presented with a large ulcerated firm mass along the abdomen. Radiographs and cytology were performed, followed by surgical exploration. The mass was determined to be nonresectable and the bat was euthanized. Histopathology showed severe necrotizing, degenerative, and pyogranulomatous myositis with osseous and cartilaginous metaplasia, fibrosis, and ulceration, which were consistent with myositis ossificans traumatica. Myositis ossificans traumatica is commonly associated with previous trauma to skeletal muscle. Two years prior, this bat had an emergency Caesarian section at this site, which was postulated to elicit a marked tissue response leading to this condition. Myositis ossificans traumatica is infrequently reported in humans, dogs, cats, pigs, and horses. To the author's knowledge, this is the first report of this condition in a bat.
Willian Oliveira Fahl
Full Text Available In Brazil, bats have been assigned an increasing importance in public health as they are important rabies reservoirs. Phylogenetic studies have shown that rabies virus (RABV strains from frugivorous bats Artibeus spp. are closely associated to those from the vampire bat Desmodus rotundus, but little is known about the molecular diversity of RABV in Artibeus spp. The N and G genes of RABV isolated from Artibeus spp. and cattle infected by D. rotundus were sequenced, and phylogenetic trees were constructed. The N gene nucleotides tree showed three clusters: one for D. rotundus and two for Artibeus spp. Regarding putative N amino acid-trees, two clusters were formed, one for D. rotundus and another for Artibeus spp. RABV G gene phylogeny supported the distinction between D. rotundus and Artibeus spp. strains. These results show the intricate host relationship of RABV's evolutionary history, and are invaluable for the determination of RABV infection sources.
Willian Oliveira Fahl
Full Text Available In Brazil, bats have been assigned an increasing importance in public health as they are important rabies reservoirs. Phylogenetic studies have shown that rabies virus (RABV strains from frugivorous bats Artibeus spp. are closely associated to those from the vampire bat Desmodus rotundus, but little is known about the molecular diversity of RABV in Artibeus spp. The N and G genes of RABV isolated from Artibeus spp. and cattle infected by D. rotundus were sequenced, and phylogenetic trees were constructed. The N gene nucleotides tree showed three clusters: one for D. rotundus and two for Artibeus spp. Regarding putative N amino acid-trees, two clusters were formed, one for D. rotundus and another for Artibeus spp. RABV G gene phylogeny supported the distinction between D. rotundus and Artibeus spp. strains. These results show the intricate host relationship of RABV's evolutionary history, and are invaluable for the determination of RABV infection sources.
Fahl, Willian Oliveira; Carnieli, Pedro; Castilho, Juliana Galera; Carrieri, Maria Luiza; Kotait, Ivanete; Iamamoto, Keila; Oliveira, Rafael Novaes; Brandão, Paulo Eduardo
In Brazil, bats have been assigned an increasing importance in public health as they are important rabies reservoirs. Phylogenetic studies have shown that rabies virus (RABV) strains from frugivorous bats Artibeus spp. are closely associated to those from the vampire bat Desmodus rotundus, but little is known about the molecular diversity of RABV in Artibeus spp. The N and G genes of RABV isolated from Artibeus spp. and cattle infected by D. rotundus were sequenced, and phylogenetic trees were constructed. The N gene nucleotides tree showed three clusters: one for D. rotundus and two for Artibeus spp. Regarding putative N amino acid-trees, two clusters were formed, one for D. rotundus and another for Artibeus spp. RABV G gene phylogeny supported the distinction between D. rotundus and Artibeus spp. strains. These results show the intricate host relationship of RABV's evolutionary history, and are invaluable for the determination of RABV infection sources. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Riskin, Daniel K; Parsons, Stuart; Schutt, William A; Carter, Gerald G; Hermanson, John W
Bats (Chiroptera) are generally awkward crawlers, but the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) and the New Zealand short-tailed bat (Mystacina tuberculata) have independently evolved the ability to manoeuvre well on the ground. In this study we describe the kinematics of locomotion in both species, and the kinetics of locomotion in M. tuberculata. We sought to determine whether these bats move terrestrially the way other quadrupeds do, or whether they possess altogether different patterns of movement on the ground than are observed in quadrupeds that do not fly. Using high-speed video analyses of bats moving on a treadmill, we observed that both species possess symmetrical lateral-sequence gaits similar to the kinematically defined walks of a broad range of tetrapods. At high speeds, D. rotundus use an asymmetrical bounding gait that appears to converge on the bounding gaits of small terrestrial mammals, but with the roles of the forelimbs and hindlimbs reversed. This gait was not performed by M. tuberculata. Many animals that possess a single kinematic gait shift with increasing speed from a kinetic walk (where kinetic and potential energy of the centre of mass oscillate out of phase from each other) to a kinetic run (where they oscillate in phase). To determine whether the single kinematic gait of M. tuberculata meets the kinetic definition of a walk, a run, or a gait that functions as a walk at low speed and a run at high speed, we used force plates and high-speed video recordings to characterize the energetics of the centre of mass in that species. Although oscillations in kinetic and potential energy were of similar magnitudes, M. tuberculata did not use pendulum-like exchanges of energy between them to the extent that many other quadrupedal animals do, and did not transition from a kinetic walk to kinetic run with increasing speed. The gait of M. tuberculata is kinematically a walk, but kinetically run-like at all speeds.
Marilene Fernandes de Almeida
Full Text Available Introduction Hematophagous Desmodus rotundus bats play an important role in the rabies lifecycle. This study describes the hematological profile of these bats before and after experimental infection with rabies virus. Methods Cells counts were performed in a Neubauer chamber. Results The average values of erythrocytes and leucocytes counts in blood before experimental infections were 9.97 × 106mm3 and 4.80 × 103mm3, respectively. Neutrophils represented 69.9% of white blood cells and the lymphocytes represented 26.9%. Following the experimental infections, the average numbers of erythrocytes and leucocytes was 9.43 × 106mm3 and 3.98 × 103mm3, respectively. Neutrophils represented 40% of white blood cells and the lymphocytes represented 59%. Conclusions The hematological profile given in this study can serve as reference values for D. rotundus bats.
Salmier, Arielle; Tirera, Sourakhata; de Thoisy, Benoit; Franc, Alain; Darcissac, Edith; Donato, Damien; Bouchier, Christiane; Lacoste, Vincent; Lavergne, Anne
Environmental disturbances in the Neotropics (e.g., deforestation, agriculture intensification, urbanization) contribute to an increasing risk of cross-species transmission of microorganisms and to disease outbreaks due to changing ecosystems of reservoir hosts. Although Amazonia encompasses the greatest diversity of reservoir species, the outsized viral population diversity (virome) has yet to be investigated. Here, through a metagenomic approach, we identified 10,991 viral sequences in the saliva and feces of two bat species, Desmodus rotundus (hematophagous), trapped in two different caves surrounded by primary lowland forest, and Molossus molossus (insectivorous), trapped in forest and urban habitats. These sequences are related to 51 viral families known to infect a wide range of hosts (i.e., bacteria, plants, insects and vertebrates). Most viruses detected reflected the diet of bat species, with a high proportion of plant and insect-related viral families for M. molossus and a high proportion of vertebrate-related viral families for D. rotundus, highlighting its influence in shaping the viral diversity of bats. Lastly, we reconstructed the phylogenetic relationships for five vertebrate-related viral families (Nairoviridae, Circoviridae, Retroviridae, Herpesviridae, Papillomaviridae). The results showed highly supported clustering with other viral sequences of the same viral family hosted by other bat species, highlighting the potential association of viral diversity with the host's diet. These findings provide significant insight into viral bat diversity in French Guiana belonging to the Amazonian biome and emphasize that habitats and the host's dietary ecology may drive the viral diversity in the bat communities investigated.
Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar em uma região cárstica o tipo de refúgio, as espécies de morcegos, a população de animais domésticos, as associações interespecíficas nas coabitações com outros mamíferos silvestres suscetíveis à raiva e a eficácia da warfarina aplicada no dorso do Desmodus rotundus rotundus foi realizada uma pesquisa de maio de 1998 a março de 2000, nos municípios de Cordisburgo e Curvelo, Minas Gerais. Em 49 refúgios vistoriados, 29 naturais e 20 artificiais, localizados em 14 propriedades, encontrou-se o Desmodus rotundus rotundus em 18 abrigos naturais. Destes, 17 eram cavernas formadas pela dissolução ou abatimento de rocha calcária, típica do carste, e um era túnel escavado na terra pela ação das águas de um rio. As características geomorfológicas e de localização espacial foram registradas com base nas coordenadas geográficas, obtidas com auxílio de um sensor geográfico de posição. Nesses abrigos foram capturados e identificados 1457 morcegos de 14 espécies, sendo 640 Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766, 566 Desmodus rotundus (E. Geoffroy, 1810, 73 Anoura geoffroyi (Gray 1838, 58 Trachops cirrhosus (Spix, 1823, 38 Diphylla ecaudata ecaudata (Spix, 1823, 23 Platyhrrinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810, 16 Lasiurus ega (Gervais, 1856, 14 Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758, 13 Phyllostomus hastatus hastatus (Pallas, 1767, 9 Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818, 3 Mimmon bennettii (Gray, 1838, 2 Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821, 1 Eptesicus brasiliensis (Desmarest, 1819 e 1 Pygoderma bilabiatum (Wagner, 1843. Não se conseguiu isolar ou detectar o vírus rábico no cérebro de 25 hematófagos selecionados e em 52 de outras espécies. A maioria desses abrigos também era usada por pacas (Agouti paca Linnaues, 1766, capivaras (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris, Linnaues, 1766, guaxinins (Procyon cancrivorus, G. Cuvier, 1798 e raposas (Lycalopex vetulus, Lund, 1842 que são suscetíveis à raiva. Em 546 Desmodus
Full Text Available Environmental disturbances in the Neotropics (e.g., deforestation, agriculture intensification, urbanization contribute to an increasing risk of cross-species transmission of microorganisms and to disease outbreaks due to changing ecosystems of reservoir hosts. Although Amazonia encompasses the greatest diversity of reservoir species, the outsized viral population diversity (virome has yet to be investigated. Here, through a metagenomic approach, we identified 10,991 viral sequences in the saliva and feces of two bat species, Desmodus rotundus (hematophagous, trapped in two different caves surrounded by primary lowland forest, and Molossus molossus (insectivorous, trapped in forest and urban habitats. These sequences are related to 51 viral families known to infect a wide range of hosts (i.e., bacteria, plants, insects and vertebrates. Most viruses detected reflected the diet of bat species, with a high proportion of plant and insect-related viral families for M. molossus and a high proportion of vertebrate-related viral families for D. rotundus, highlighting its influence in shaping the viral diversity of bats. Lastly, we reconstructed the phylogenetic relationships for five vertebrate-related viral families (Nairoviridae, Circoviridae, Retroviridae, Herpesviridae, Papillomaviridae. The results showed highly supported clustering with other viral sequences of the same viral family hosted by other bat species, highlighting the potential association of viral diversity with the host's diet. These findings provide significant insight into viral bat diversity in French Guiana belonging to the Amazonian biome and emphasize that habitats and the host's dietary ecology may drive the viral diversity in the bat communities investigated.
Carter, Gerald G; Forss, Sofia; Page, Rachel A; Ratcliffe, John M
The effects of age on neophobia and exploration are best described in birds and primates, and broader comparisons require reports from other taxa. Here we present data showing age-dependent exploration in a long-lived social species, the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus). A previous study found that vampire bats regurgitated food to partners trapped in a cage. Interestingly, while only a few adult bats visited the trapped bat, in every trial all or most of the eight young males in the colony would visit the trapped bat without feeding it. To test whether this behavioral difference resulted from age class differences in exploration, we compared responses of the bats to a trapped conspecific versus an inanimate novel object. Some adults and young showed interest in trapped conspecifics, but only the young males explored the novel objects. Additional novel object tests in a second captive colony showed that higher rates of novel object exploration were shown by young of both sexes. Our results corroborate past findings from other mammals and birds that age predicts exploration. If age-dependent exploration is indeed adaptive, then the role of age as a predictor of exploration tendency should depend on species-specific life history traits. Finally, because younger vampire bats also appear to have higher exposure to pathogens such as rabies virus, there may be implications for pathogen transmission if younger and more exploratory vampire bats are more likely to feed on novel hosts.
Danielle Barbosa Morais
Full Text Available Among all bat species, Desmodus rotundus stands out as one of the most intriguing due to its exclusively haematophagous feeding habits. However, little is known about their spermatogenic cycle. This study aimed at describing the spermatogenic process of common vampire bats through testicular histomorphometric characterization of adult specimens, spermatogenic production indexes, description of stages of the seminiferous epithelium cycle and estimative of the spermatogenic process duration. Morphometrical and immunohistochemical analyzes for bromodeoxiuridine were conducted under light microscopy and ultrastructural analyzes were performed under transmission electron microscopy. Vampire bats showed higher investment in gonadal tissue (gonadosomatic index of 0.54% and in seminiferous tubules (tubulesomatic index of 0.49% when compared to larger mammals. They also showed a high tubular length per gram of testis (34.70 m. Approximately half of the intertubular compartment was found to be comprised by Leydig cells (51.20%, and an average of 23.77x106 of these cells was found per gram of testis. The germline cells showed 16.93% of mitotic index and 2.51% of meiotic index. The overall yield of spermatogenesis was 60% and the testicular spermatic reserve was 71.44x107 spermatozoa per gram of testis. With a total spermatogenesis duration estimated at 37.02 days, vampire bats showed a daily sperm production of 86.80x106 gametes per gram of testis. These findings demonstrate a high sperm production, which is commonly observed in species with promiscuous mating system.
Abundes-Gallegos, Judith; Salas-Rojas, Monica; Galvez-Romero, Guillermo; Perea-Martínez, Leonardo; Obregón-Morales, Cirani Y; Morales-Malacara, Juan B; Chomel, Bruno B; Stuckey, Matthew J; Moreno-Sandoval, Hayde; García-Baltazar, Anahi; Nogueda-Torres, Benjamin; Zuñiga, Gerardo; Aguilar-Setién, Alvaro
Blood-feeding arthropods play a major role in the transmission of several flaviviruses, which represent an important problem for human health. Currently, dengue is one of the most important arboviral emerging diseases worldwide. Furthermore, some previous studies have reported the presence of viral nucleic acids and antibodies against dengue virus (DENV) in wild animals. Our knowledge of the role played by wildlife reservoirs in the sylvatic transmission and maintenance of DENV remains limited. Our objective was to screen blood-feeding ectoparasites (bat flies) and their common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) hosts, for flaviviruses in Hidalgo, Mexico. We detected Flavivirus sequences in 38 pools of ectoparasites (Diptera: Streblidae, Strebla wiedemanni and Trichobius parasiticus) and 8 tissue samples of D. rotundus by RT-PCR and semi-nested PCR using FlaviPF1S, FlaviPR2bis, and FlaviPF3S primers specific for NS5, a gene highly conserved among flaviviruses. Phylogenetic inference analysis performed using the maximum likelihood algorithm implemented in PhyML showed that six sequences clustered with DENV (bootstrap value = 53.5%). Although this study supports other reports of DENV detection in bats and arthropods other than Aedes mosquitoes, the role of these ectoparasitic flies and of hematophagous bats in the epidemiology of DENV still warrants further investigation.
Benavides, J A; Shiva, C; Virhuez, M; Tello, C; Appelgren, A; Vendrell, J; Solassol, J; Godreuil, S; Streicker, D G
Antibiotic resistance mediated by bacterial production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) is a global threat to public health. ESBL resistance is most commonly hospital-acquired; however, infections acquired outside of hospital settings have raised concerns over the role of livestock and wildlife in the zoonotic spread of ESBL-producing bacteria. Only limited data are available on the circulation of ESBL-producing bacteria in animals. Here, we report ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in wild common vampire bats Desmodus rotundus and livestock near Lima, Peru. Molecular analyses revealed that most of this resistance resulted from the expression of bla CTX-M-15 genes carried by plasmids, which are disseminating worldwide in hospital settings and have also been observed in healthy children of Peru. Multilocus sequence typing showed a diverse pool of E. coli strains carrying this resistance that were not always host species-specific, suggesting sharing of strains between species or infection from a common source. This study shows widespread ESBL resistance in wild and domestic animals, supporting animal communities as a potential source of resistance. Future work is needed to elucidate the role of bats in the dissemination of antibiotic-resistant strains of public health importance and to understand the origin of the observed resistance. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Roberto C.N. Arruda
Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivos investigar o número de capturas e o controle do morcego hematófago Desmodus rotundus, em pequenas propriedades localizadas no município de Cedral no estado do Maranhão, que foi escolhido por ter sido efetuado o maior número de capturas do estado, sendo todas ao redor de currais. O controle oficial é realizado pela aplicação de pasta vampiricida de uso tópico a base de warfarina a 2%. Para o estudo foram utilizadas fichas de controle de morcegos hematófagos capturados em currais, como também, foi aplicado um questionário a campo para identificação dos locais com maior número de capturas. No período de 2005 a 2010 foram estudados os resultados de 223 buscas ativas por D. rotundus, em 101 propriedades. Foi capturado um total de 408 morcegos hematófagos, distribuídos em 190 das 223 buscas. Em todos os espécimes de D. rotundus capturados foi realizado o tratamento, que consistiu na aplicação da pasta vampiricida, no dorso do animal. Nas propriedades estudadas, verificou-se que dos 754 animais expostos, 344 foram agredidos. Destes, os bovinos foram a maior oferta de alimento aos Desmodus (49%, seguidos dos equídeos (18%, aves (15%, suínos (9% e caprinos (8%. Apesar dos bovinos terem sido os mais atacados, em função do efetivo disponível, verificou-se uma preferência dos morcegos hematófagos por eqüídeos. As falhas nas capturas ocorreram onde havia poucos animais agredidos. Após análise de seis anos de realização do programa de controle com pasta vampiricida, verificou-se que a proporção de macho e fêmeas de D. rotundus capturados foi 1,08 machos para cada fêmea, o que demonstra que o tratamento foi mais efetivo nas fêmeas, uma vez que no primeiro ano do estudo, a proporção era de 1,21 fêmeas para cada macho. Verificou-se ainda que o controle foi realizado com sucesso em 95% das propriedades trabalhadas, com uma média de tempo de três anos de trabalho com até seis
Morgante João S
Full Text Available Abstract Background The common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus is an excellent model organism for studying ecological vicariance in the Neotropics due to its broad geographic range and its preference for forested areas as roosting sites. With the objective of testing for Pleistocene ecological vicariance, we sequenced a mitocondrial DNA (mtDNA marker and two nuclear markers (RAG2 and DRB to try to understand how Pleistocene glaciations affected the distribution of intraspecific lineages in this bat. Results Five reciprocally monophyletic clades were evident in the mitochondrial gene tree, and in most cases with high bootstrap support: Central America (CA, Amazon and Cerrado (AMC, Pantanal (PAN, Northern Atlantic Forest (NAF and Southern Atlantic Forest (SAF. The Atlantic forest clades formed a monophyletic clade with high bootstrap support, creating an east/west division for this species in South America. On the one hand, all coalescent and non-coalescent estimates point to a Pleistocene time of divergence between the clades. On the other hand, the nuclear markers showed extensive sharing of haplotypes between distant localities, a result compatible with male-biased gene flow. In order to test if the disparity between the mitochondrial and nuclear markers was due to the difference in mutation rate and effective size, we performed a coalescent simulation to examine the feasibility that, given the time of separation between the observed lineages, even with a gene flow rate close to zero, there would not be reciprocal monophyly for a neutral nuclear marker. We used the observed values of theta and an estimated mutation rate for the nuclear marker gene to perform 1000 iterations of the simulation. The results of this simulation were inconclusive: the number of iterations with and without reciprocal monophyly of one or more clades are similar. Conclusions We therefore conclude that the pattern exhibited by the common vampire bat, with marked
Ballados-González, G G; Sánchez-Montes, S; Romero-Salas, D; Colunga Salas, P; Gutiérrez-Molina, R; León-Paniagua, L; Becker, I; Méndez-Ojeda, M L; Barrientos-Salcedo, C; Serna-Lagunes, R; Cruz-Romero, A
The genus Leptospira encompass 22 species of spirochaetes, with ten pathogenic species that have been recorded in more than 160 mammals worldwide. In the last two decades, the numbers of records of these agents associated with bats have increased exponentially, particularly in America. Although order Chiroptera represents the second most diverse order of mammals in Mexico, and leptospirosis represents a human and veterinary problem in the country, few studies have been conducted to identify potential wildlife reservoirs. The aim of this study was to detect the presence and diversity of Leptospira sp. in communities of bats in an endemic state of leptospirosis in Mexico. During January to September 2016, 81 bats of ten species from three localities of Veracruz, Mexico, were collected with mist nets. Kidney samples were obtained from all specimens. For the detection of Leptospira sp., we amplified several genes using specific primers. Amplicons of the expected size were submitted to sequencing, and sequences recovered were compared with those of reference deposited in GenBank using the BLAST tool. To identify their phylogenetic position, we realized a reconstruction using maximum-likelihood (ML) method. Twenty-five samples from three bat species (Artibeus lituratus, Choeroniscus godmani and Desmodus rotundus) showed the presence of Leptospira DNA. Sequences recovered were close to Leptospira noguchii, Leptospira weilii and Leptospira interrogans. Our results include the first record of Leptospira in bats from Mexico and exhibit a high diversity of these pathogens circulating in the state. Due to the finding of a large number of positive wild animals, it is necessary to implement a surveillance system in populations of the positive bats as well as in related species, in order to understand their role as carriers of this bacterial genus. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Sotero-Caio, Cibele G.; Baker, Robert J.; Volleth, Marianne
Chiroptera is the second largest order among mammals, with over 1300 species in 21 extant families. The group is extremely diverse in several aspects of its natural history, including dietary strategies, ecology, behavior and morphology. Bat genomes show ample chromosome diversity (from 2n = 14 to 62). As with other mammalian orders, Chiroptera is characterized by clades with low, moderate and extreme chromosomal change. In this article, we will discuss trends of karyotypic evolution within d...
Sotero-Caio, Cibele G; Baker, Robert J; Volleth, Marianne
Chiroptera is the second largest order among mammals, with over 1300 species in 21 extant families. The group is extremely diverse in several aspects of its natural history, including dietary strategies, ecology, behavior and morphology. Bat genomes show ample chromosome diversity (from 2n = 14 to 62). As with other mammalian orders, Chiroptera is characterized by clades with low, moderate and extreme chromosomal change. In this article, we will discuss trends of karyotypic evolution within distinct bat lineages (especially Phyllostomidae, Hipposideridae and Rhinolophidae), focusing on two perspectives: evolution of genome architecture, modes of chromosomal evolution, and the use of chromosome data to resolve taxonomic problems.
Cibele G. Sotero-Caio
Full Text Available Chiroptera is the second largest order among mammals, with over 1300 species in 21 extant families. The group is extremely diverse in several aspects of its natural history, including dietary strategies, ecology, behavior and morphology. Bat genomes show ample chromosome diversity (from 2n = 14 to 62. As with other mammalian orders, Chiroptera is characterized by clades with low, moderate and extreme chromosomal change. In this article, we will discuss trends of karyotypic evolution within distinct bat lineages (especially Phyllostomidae, Hipposideridae and Rhinolophidae, focusing on two perspectives: evolution of genome architecture, modes of chromosomal evolution, and the use of chromosome data to resolve taxonomic problems.
M. B. Freitas
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of seasonal variation and fasting on fat reserves of the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus. Plasma free fatty acids (FFA, along with lipid content of the liver and muscles, and fatty acids from the carcass were obtained from bats fed bovine blood and from whom food was subsequently withheld for 24 and 48 h. Animals were caught during both dry and rainy seasons. In general, fat tissue stores were not significantly influenced by seasonal variation. Lipid content of liver, muscles, and carcass decreased during some food deprivation periods, although the concomitant increase expected in plasma FFA was not observed. Lipid metabolism is hypothesized as being continued by the tissues themselves. In addition, free access to food sources (e.g., domestic livestock throughout the year is believed to contribute to the low seasonal variations in fat reserves observed in the common vampire bat.
Cabral, A D; Gama, A R; Sodré, M M; Savani, E S M M; Galvão-Dias, M A; Jordão, L R; Maeda, M M; Yai, L E O; Gennari, S M; Pena, H F J
There are currently no reports on the isolation and molecular examination of Toxoplasma gondii from bats. Here, we report the isolation and genotypic characterisation of two T. gondii isolates from bats. A total of 369 bats from different municipalities in São Paulo state, southeastern Brazil, were captured and euthanised, and collected tissues (heart and pectoral muscle) were processed for each bat or in pools of two or three bats and bioassayed in mice (a total of 283 bioassays). Eleven PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism) markers were used to genotype positive samples: SAG1, SAG2 (5'-3'SAG2 and alt. SAG2), SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, L358, c22-8, c29-2, PK1, CS3 and Apico. The parasite was isolated from two bats from São Paulo city: an insectivorous bat, the velvety free-tailed bat Molossus molossus, and a hematophagous bat, the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus. Isolates were designated TgBatBr1 and TgBatBr2, respectively. The genotype of the isolate from M. molossus (TgBatBr1) has been previously described in an isolate from a capybara from São Paulo state, and the genotype from the D. rotundus isolate (TgBatBr2) has already been identified in isolates from cats, chickens, capybaras, sheep, a rodent and a common rabbit from different Brazilian states, suggesting that this may be a common T. gondii lineage circulating in some Brazilian regions. Isolation of T. gondii from a hematophagous species is striking. This study reveals that bats can share the same isolates that are found in domesticated and wild terrestrial animals. This is the first report of the isolation and genotyping of T. gondii in chiropterans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Background: Xiang Fu (Cyperus rotundus L) enters the liver, spleen and triple warmer meridians, and has qi stagnation-removing, qi circulation-promoting, menstruation-regulating and pain-relieving effects. Besides, it can improve ovarian function, and has hypolipidemic, hypoglycemic and neuroprotective actions.
Ma, C.; Mizurini, D.M.; Assumpção, T.C.F.; Li, Y.; Qi, Y.; Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Ribeiro, J.M.C.; Monteiro, R.Q.; Francischetti, I.M.B.
Roč. 122, č. 25 (2013), s. 4094-4106 ISSN 0340-6245 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/12/2409 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Desmolaris * anticolagulant * vampire bat saliva * FXIa Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.760, year: 2013
Sotero-Caio, C G; Pieczarka, J C; Nagamachi, C Y; Gomes, A J B; Lira, T C; O'Brien, P C M; Ferguson-Smith, M A; Souza, M J; Santos, N
Substantial effort has been made to elucidate karyotypic evolution of phyllostomid bats, mostly through comparisons of G-banding patterns. However, due to the limited number of G-bands in respective karyotypes and to the similarity of non-homologous bands, an accurate evolutionary history of chromosome segments remains questionable. This is the case for vampire bats (Desmodontinae). Despite several proposed homologies, banding data have not yet provided a detailed understanding of the chromosomal changes within vampire genera. We examined karyotype differentiation of the 3 species within this subfamily using whole chromosomal probes from Phyllostomus hastatus (Phyllostominae) and Carollia brevicauda (Carolliinae). Painting probes of P. hastatus respectively detected 22, 21 and 23 conserved segments in Diphylla ecaudata, Diaemus youngi, and Desmodus rotundus karyotypes, whereas 27, 27 and 28 were respectively detectedwith C. brevicauda paints. Based on the evolutionary relationships proposed by morphological and molecular data, we present probable chromosomal synapomorphies for vampire bats and propose chromosomes that were present in the common ancestor of the 5 genera analyzed. Karyotype comparisons allowed us to relate a number of conserved chromosomal segments among the 5 species, providing a broader database for understanding karyotype evolution in the family. 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Matheus Fonseca de Souza
Full Text Available A Cyperus rotundus é uma planta herbácea perene que se multiplica sexuadamente por semente e assexuadamente por bulbos, tubérculos e rizomas subterrâneos. O objetivo principal desse trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do extrato de Cyperus rotundus no enraizamento de folhas de Solanum lycopersicum. Os estudos foram realizados no laboratório de química e na casa de vegetação, ambos no CCA/Alegre/ES. O experimento foi realizado em duas etapas: a confecção do extrato a partir de 2 g de tiririca em 40 mL de solvente (metanol PA, etanol PA, água destilada, para o teste do extrato no enraizamento empregou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado com 17 tratamentos com 6 repetições e 6 plantas por repetição. Dentre os tratamentos, os que promoveram o enraizamento foram os extratos aquosos 100, 50 e 25%, sendo que o extrato aquoso 50% foi o que demonstrou o melhor resultado, se assemelhando ao controle positivo AIB (Ácido indolbutiríco. Os resultados obtidos com o uso do extrato de Cyperus rotundus, parecem ser promissores. Porém são necessários novos estudos, para demonstrar a utilidade prática do extrato Cyperus rotundus no enraizamento.The Cyperus rotundus is an herbaceous perennial plant that multiplies sexually from seed and asexually from bulbs, tubers and underground rhizomes. Thus, the present work aimed to assay the effect of C. rotundus extract on the rhizogenesis of Solanum lycopersicum leaves. The studies were performed in the laboratory of chemistry and greenhouse, at in CCA/Alegre/ES. The extract was prepared from 2g of C. rotundus and 40mL of solvent (methanol PA, ethanol PA and distilled water. The experimental design utilized to test the extract’s effect on rhizogenesis was entirely random, containing 17 treatments, 6 replicates and 6 plants per replicate. The effective treatments were obtained with aqueous extracts at 100, 50 and 25%. However, the best result was observed for the aqueous extract of 50%, similar to
Seo, Eun Ji; Lee, Dong-Ung; Kwak, Jong Hwan; Lee, Sun-Mee; Kim, Yeong Shik; Jung, Yi-Sook
Cyperus rotundus, a well-known oriental traditional medicine, has been reported to exhibit wide spectrum activity in biological systems including the circulatory system, however, little information is available on its antiplatelet activity. This study was undertaken to investigate the antiplatelet effects of Cyperus rotundus EtOH extract (CRE) and its constituent compounds. The antiplatelet activities of CRE and its eight constituent compounds were evaluated by examining their effects on rat platelet aggregations in vitro and ex vivo, and on mice tail bleeding times. During the in vitro platelet aggregation study, CRE showed significant and concentration-dependent inhibitory effects on collagen-, thrombin-, and/or AA-induced platelet aggregation. Of its eight components, (+)-nootkatone was found to have the most potent inhibitory effect on collagen-, thrombin-, and AA-induced platelet aggregation. In addition, CRE- and (+)-nootkatone-treated mice exhibited significantly prolonged bleeding times. Furthermore, (+)-nootkatone had a significant inhibitory effect on rat platelet aggregation ex vivo. This study demonstrates the antiplatelet effects of CRE and its active component (+)-nootkatone, and suggests that these agents might be of therapeutic benefit for the prevention of platelet-associated cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Conclusion: Administration of Cyperus rotundus extract for 2 weeks .increased thermoalgia tolerance and reducedchemical pain in an experimental model of diabetes mellitus rats . Thus, this administration can act as an auxiliary treatment for diabetic hyperalgesia.
Full Text Available Between 1989 and 1995, twenty caves in the Distrito Federal area in mid-western Brazil were assessed for bat species richness, frequency, spatial distribution, behavior, reproduction and inter-specific cohabitation. The general state of conservation of the caves was also assessed. Of the 20 caves studied, 12 were less than 100 m long, five between 100 m and 300 m, and three were longerthan 300 m. Twenty-two species of six different families were observed: 16 species belonged to Phyllostomidae, two to Vespertilionidae and Mormoopidae and one to Furipteridae and Emballonuridae. In this study, 17 species were characterized as Distrito Federal cave dwellers. The most prevalent were Desmodus rotundus, Glossophaga soricina and Carollia perspicillata. The least prevalent were Lonchorhina aurita, Pteronotus gymnonotus and Phylloderma stenops. Since some Anoura caudifer, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Myotis nigricans, Micronycteris minuta, and Eptesicus brasiliensis individuals were captured only while going into the caves early in the night, they were not considered cave dwellers. Even though, they probably use the caves as a daytime roosting place. Surprisingly, Lonchophylla dekeyseri, considered to be the only endemic bat species in the Cerrado ecosystem, was observed in three of the surveyed caves. Further biological studies are necessary to determine the biology of L. dekeyseri and the necessity of its conservation. The bat colonies observed were usually of a small size. Few colonies of D. rotundus and Anoura geoffroyi contained more than 300 individuals of both sexes. Only a inale group of L. aurita was observed in the Distrito Federal area. Twelve of the surveyed caves were hard to access and therefore well protected. Four of the caves received some public visitation, two were located near limestone mines, one was located near an urban area. and one had both public visitation and deforestation near its entrance. In this latter cave, no bats were observed
Primeiro registro de Rhynchopsyllus pulex (Siphonaptera: Tungidae em Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Chiroptera: Molossidae no Brasil First record of Rhynchopsyllus pulex (Siphonaptera: Tungidae in Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Chiroptera: Molossidae in Brazil
Sílvia Gonzalez Monteiro
Full Text Available Descreve-se o parasitismo de Rhynchopsyllus pulex (Siphonaptera: Tungidae em Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Chiroptera no município de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil.The parasitism of Rhynchopsyllus pulex (Siphonaptera: Tungidae is described in Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Chiroptera in the county of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
Abundância e frugivoria da quiropterofauna (Mammalia, chiroptera de um fragmento no noroeste do Estado do Paraná, Brasil = Chiropterofauna abundance and frugivory in a forest remnant in northwestern Paraná State, Brazil
João Eduardo Cavalcanti Brito
Full Text Available A abundância e a frugivoria de morcegos que compõem a taxocenose em uma área de mata ripária, à margem esquerda do rio Ivaí, foram foco do presente estudo. O Recanto Marista possui 57,6 hectares, dos quais 40,8 são cobertos por Floresta Estacional Semidecidual, situado no município de Doutor Camargo, região Noroeste do Estado do Paraná. Foram realizadas 14 noites de capturas de morcegos de maio de 2007 a janeiro de 2008, com redesneblina (7 x 2,5 m, totalizando 13.475 m² h de esforço amostral, distribuído em 72h de esforço. Foram capturados 193 indivíduos, representantes de dez espécies, pertencentes a duas famílias: Phyllostomidae (Artibeus lituratus, Sturnira lilium, Carollia perspicillata, Artibeus cf. fimbriatus, Artibeus planirotris, Desmodus rotundus e Pygoderma bilabiatum e Vespertilionidae (Myotis nigricans, Eptesicus sp. e Lasiurus blossevillii. Um representante da família Molossidae (Molossus rufus foi encontrado morto no solo. Foram consumidos frutos pertencentes às famílias Moraceae (Ficus guaranitica, Ficus insipida, Ficus sp. e Maclura tinctoria, Solanaceae (Solanum aspero-lanatum e Solanum sp., Piperaceae (Piper aduncum, Piper amalago e Piper sp. e Urticaceae (Cecropia pachystachya e Cecropia sp..This study aims to evaluate the abundance and frugivory of bats from the Recanto Marista, a small riparian forest remnant in the margins of the Ivaí river. The Recanto Marista has 57.6 ha, of which 40.8 ha are covered by semideciduous seasonal forest and is located in the Doutor Camargo municipality. Collections were conducted from May 2007to January 2008 using mist nets (7 x 2.5 m totaling 13,475 m² h and comprising about 72 hours. Ten species were found pertaining to two families, Phyllostomidae (Artibeus lituratus, Sturnira lilium, Carollia perspicillata, Artibeus cf. fimbriatus, Artibeus planirotris, Desmodus rotundus and Pygoderma bilabiatum and Vespertilionidae (Myotis nigricans, Eptesicus sp. and Lasiurus
Patrícia Helena Gallo
Full Text Available Generally, natural environments have been transformed into small forest remnants, with the consequent habitat loss and species extinction. The North Paraná State is not an exception, since only 2 to 4% of the original ecosystem occurs in small fragments of Stational Semidecidual Forest. We studied the species richness and abundance of bats in two forest fragments from the Fazenda Congonhas, in Rancho Alegre city, Paraná State, Brazil. Four samplings were undertaken in a legally protected native area (107.8ha and in a reforested area (11.8ha between April 2007 and March 2008. Samplings began at nightfall and lasted six hours, during two consecutive nights in each location. The individuals were captured using eight mist nets, with the same capture effort in both environments. A total of 397 individuals, 14 species and 10 genera were captured in the native area; while in the reforested area, 105 individuals, six species and four genera. Artibeus lituratus was the most common species in both fragments (n=328, 65.3%, followed by Artibeus fimbriatus (n=44, 8.8% and Artibeus jamaicensis (n=30, 6.0%. Other species including Platyrrhinus lineatus, Carollia perspicillata, Sturnira lilium, Chrotopterus auritus, Desmodus rotundus, Michronycteris megalotis, Phyllostomus hastatus, Phyllostomus discolor, Myoti levis, Myotis nigricans and Lasiurus blossevillii, accounted for 19.9% of the captures. The native area presented higher values of species richness (S=14 and diversity (H’=1.4802 in comparison to the reforested area (S=6, H’=0.57015. The t-test evidenced a significant difference between diversity among the sites (t=7.1075. Chao 1 index indicated that the sampling effort recorded approximately 78% from the total species richness for the native area and 75% for the reforested area. Therefore, the preservation of the forest fragment is essential since it provides habitat for a diverse community of bats. Forest management and reforestation actions may
Sutomo Sutomo; Dini Fardila
Anthropogenic-origin forest disturbance has been known to increase the risk of invasion to native habitat. Invasive species caused problems for local ecosystems and their native species. The research on the dynamics and autecology of invasive species Cyperus rotundus was conducted on anthropogenic disturbed Pohen mountain forest in Bali, Indonesia. Results showed significant changes in microclimatic variables from forest edge to interior. C. rotundus in Pohen mountain forest can be found in ...
Pranasari, Rizka Amalia; Nurhidayati, Tutik; Purwani, Kristanti Indah
Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pertumbuhan Zea mays yang bersaing dengan Cyperus rotundus pada pengaruh cekaman garam (NaCl).Metode yang digunakan replacement series menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap dengan 3 ulangan. Dengan perlakuan cekaman garam (NaCl) 0ppm, 500ppm, 1000ppm, dan 1500ppm. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pada kultur tunggal terjadi persaingan intraspesies antara Zea mays maupun Cyperus rotundus sedangkan pada kultur campuran terjadi persaingan interspesies ant...
Heloísa Monteiro de Andrade
Full Text Available Metabótitos secundários produzidos em algumas plantas podem provocar alterações no desenvolvimento de outras plantas ou até mesmo de outros organismos. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se identificar possíveis efeitos alelopáticos de extratos aquosos de folhas de Cyperus rotundus na germinação e no crescimento de plântulas de Brassica campestris, Brassica oleracea var. botrytis, Brassica oleracea var. capitata, Brassica oleracea var. italica, Brassica rapa, Lactuca sativa cv. Grand rapids, Lycopersicum esculentum e Raphanus sativus. Foram utilizadas sete concentrações do extrato aquoso (0, 10, 30, 50, 70, 90 e 100%. Os tratamentos foram arranjados em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições de dez sementes das espécies cultivadas, constituindo a unidade amostral. Os extratos aquosos de C. rotundus evidenciaram potencialidades alelopáticas na germinação das sementes e no crescimento das duas partes vegetais (raiz e parte aérea, de todas as espécies testadas, exceto na germinação de sementes de tomate e de alface, sendo que a redução aumentou com o aumento das concentrações dos extratos aquosos utilizados. A estrutura vegetal mais afetada em presença dos extratos aquosos foi o sistema radicular das plântulas.Secondary metabolites produced in some plant species may promote changes in the development of other plants or even in other organisms. The aim of this work was to identify the possible allelopathic effects of aqueous extracts of Cyperus rotundus leaves on germination and growth of Brassica campestris, Brassica oleracea var. botrytis, Brassica oleracea var. capitata, Brassica oleracea var. italica, Brassica rapa, Lactuca sativa cv. Grand rapids, Lycopersicum esculentum and Raphanus sativus seedlings. Seven aqueous extract concentrations were used (0, 10, 30, 50, 70, 90, and 100%. The treatments were arranged in a completely randomized desing, with five replications of ten seeds of each cultivated species
Laverghetta, A. V.; Shimizu, T.
The nucleus rotundus is a large thalamic nucleus in birds and plays a critical role in many visual discrimination tasks. In order to test the hypothesis that there are functionally distinct subdivisions in the nucleus rotundus, effects of selective lesions of the nucleus were studied in pigeons. The birds were trained to discriminate between different types of stationary objects and between different directions of moving objects. Multiple regression analyses revealed that lesions in the anterior, but not posterior, division caused deficits in discrimination of small stationary stimuli. Lesions in neither the anterior nor posterior divisions predicted effects in discrimination of moving stimuli. These results are consistent with a prediction led from the hypothesis that the nucleus is composed of functional subdivisions.
Jin, Jeong Ho; Lee, Dong-Ung; Kim, Yeong Shik; Kim, Hyun Pyo
From the 70% ethanol extract of the rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus (CRE), several major constituents including the sesquiterpene derivatives (valencene, nootkatone, and caryophyllene α-oxide), monoterpenes (β-pinene, 1,8-cineole, and limonene) and 4-cymene were isolated and examined for their anti-allergic activity in vitro and in vivo. In rat basophilic leukemia (RBL)-1 cells, the sesquiterpenes strongly inhibited 5-lipoxygenase-catalyzed leukotrienes production. In addition, they inhibited β-hexosaminidase release by antigen-stimulated RBL-2H3 cells, with valencene having the highest inhibitory effect. CRE inhibited leukotrienes production and β-hexosaminidase release at 300 μg/mL. It was also found that the most active sesquiterpene (valencene) and CRE inhibited β-hexosaminidase degranulation by inhibiting the initial activation reaction, Lyn phosphorylation, in IgE-stimulated RBL-2H3 cells. Moreover, CRE, valencene and nootkatone significantly inhibited the delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction in mice when administered orally at 50-300 mg/kg. In conclusion, C. rotundus and its constituents, valencene, nootkatone, and caryophyllene α-oxide, exert anti-allergic activity in vitro and in vivo. These sesquiterpenes, but not monoterpenes, certainly contribute to the anti-allergic activity of the rhizomes of C. rotundus.
Benda, P.; Faizolahi, K.; Andreas, M.; Obuch, J.; Reiter, A.; Ševčík, M.; Uhrin, M.; Vallo, Peter; Ashrafi, S.
Roč. 76, 3-4 (2012), s. 163-562 ISSN 1211-376X Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : distribution * ecology * echolocation * ectoparasites * Chiroptera * Iran * Middle East * Palaearctic Subject RIV: EG - Zoology
Abundância e frugivoria da quiropterofauna (Mammalia, chiroptera de um fragmento no noroeste do Estado do Paraná, Brasil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i3.5351 Chiropterofauna abundance and frugivory in a forest remnant in northwestern Paraná State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i3.5351
Full Text Available A abundância e a frugivoria de morcegos que compõem a taxocenose em uma área de mata ripária, à margem esquerda do rio Ivaí, foram foco do presente estudo. O Recanto Marista possui 57,6 hectares, dos quais 40,8 são cobertos por Floresta Estacional Semidecidual, situado no município de Doutor Camargo, região Noroeste do Estado do Paraná. Foram realizadas 14 noites de capturas de morcegos de maio de 2007 a janeiro de 2008, com redes-neblina (7 x 2,5 m, totalizando 13.475 m² h de esforço amostral, distribuído em 72h de esforço. Foram capturados 193 indivíduos, representantes de dez espécies, pertencentes a duas famílias: Phyllostomidae (Artibeus lituratus, Sturnira lilium, Carollia perspicillata, Artibeus cf. fimbriatus, Artibeus planirotris, Desmodus rotundus e Pygoderma bilabiatum e Vespertilionidae (Myotis nigricans, Eptesicus sp. e Lasiurus blossevillii. Um representante da família Molossidae (Molossus rufus foi encontrado morto no solo. Foram consumidos frutos pertencentes às famílias Moraceae (Ficus guaranitica, Ficus insipida, Ficus sp. e Maclura tinctoria, Solanaceae (Solanum aspero-lanatum e Solanum sp. , Piperaceae (Piper aduncum, Piper amalago e Piper sp. e Urticaceae (Cecropia pachystachya e Cecropia sp..This study aims to evaluate the abundance and frugivory of bats from the Recanto Marista, a small riparian forest remnant in the margins of the Ivaí river. The Recanto Marista has 57.6 ha, of which 40.8 ha are covered by semideciduous seasonal forest and is located in the Doutor Camargo municipality. Collections were conducted from May 2007 to January 2008 using mist nets (7 x 2.5 m totaling 13,475 m² h and comprising about 72 hours. Ten species were found pertaining to two families, Phyllostomidae (Artibeus lituratus, Sturnira lilium, Carollia perspicillata, Artibeus cf. fimbriatus, Artibeus planirotris, Desmodus rotundus and Pygoderma bilabiatum and Vespertilionidae (Myotis nigricans, Eptesicus sp. and Lasiurus
Jamil Qureshi, M.; Anwarul Haq; Uzma Maqbool
The effect of surfactants and oil on bioefficacy of the herbicide, glyphosate in controlling Cyperus rotundus L. was evaluated using potted plants. A mixture of the commercial formulation, ''Roundup'' with 0.2% Triton X-100, 1% diesel oil and 1% of 4% aqueous ammonium sulfate produced the most penetration into the leaf. The results of the field experiments suggested that this mixture applied at a rate of 1.5 kg/ha glyphosate amended ''Roundup'' can effectively control C. rotundus in the field. (author)
Full Text Available Anthropogenic-origin forest disturbance has been known to increase the risk of invasion to native habitat. Invasive species caused problems for local ecosystems and their native species. The research on the dynamics and autecology of invasive species Cyperus rotundus was conducted on anthropogenic disturbed Pohen mountain forest in Bali, Indonesia. Results showed significant changes in microclimatic variables from forest edge to interior. C. rotundus in Pohen mountain forest can be found in a road edge and forest exterior where sunlight is abundant and decrease in a more shady sites and absent under thick forest canopies CCA ordination analysis showed that C. rotundus in Pohen mountain forest tends to co-occur together with Imperata cylindrica and Bidens biternata. To be able to control potentially troublesome exotic invasive species, firstly we have to understand what factors limit their growth and development. Therefore this study is has important value because the data which from result in studying invasive species autecology will act as baseline data that will be useful to generate management program including rehabilitation and restoration program. Key words: species dynamics, autecology, Cyperus rotundus, Pohen mountain forest, Bali
Full Text Available The retinal image changes that occur during locomotion, the optic flow, carry information about self-motion and the three-dimensional structure of the environment. Especially fast moving animals with only little binocular vision depend on these depth cues for manoeuvring. They actively control their gaze to facilitate perception of depth based on cues in the optic flow. In the visual system of birds, nucleus rotundus neurons were originally found to respond to object motion but not to background motion. However, when background and object were both moving, responses increase the more the direction and velocity of object and background motion on the retina differed. These properties may play a role in representing depth cues in the optic flow. We therefore investigated how neurons in nucleus rotundus respond to optic flow that contains depth cues. We presented simplified and naturalistic optic flow on a panoramic LED display while recording from single neurons in nucleus rotundus of anaesthetized zebra finches. Unlike most studies on motion vision in birds, our stimuli included depth information.We found extensive responses of motion selective neurons in nucleus rotundus to optic flow stimuli. Simplified stimuli revealed preferences for optic flow reflecting translational or rotational self-motion. Naturalistic optic flow stimuli elicited complex response modulations, but the presence of objects was signalled by only few neurons. The neurons that did respond to objects in the optic flow, however, show interesting properties.
Oladipupo A. Lawal
Full Text Available The essential oils from the rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus L. collected from two different locations (Empangeni-A and KwaDlangezwa-B; both in the Kwa-Zulu Natal Province of South Africa were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by capillary GC and GC/MS. Forty-one and 43 components were identified, representing 89.9% and 92.0% of sample A and sample B, respectively. α-Cyperone (11.0%, myrtenol (7.9%, caryophyllene oxide (5.4% and β-pinene (5.3% were major compounds in the oil of sample A. The main constituents of the oil of sample B were β-pinene (11.3%, α-pinene (10.8%, α- cyperone (7.9%, myrtenol (7.1% and α-selinene (6.6%.
Conclusion: The current study findings showed that C. Rotundus could improve the learning impairment, following the Aβ treatment, and it may lead to an improvement of AD-induced cognitive dysfunction.
Luciano Nery Tencate
Full Text Available Os morcegos são hospedeiros de uma rica diversidade de microrganismos. Muitos trabalhos apontam uma estreita ligação entre quirópteros e fungos com potencial patogênico, principalmente por habitarem ambientes como cavernas, grutas e ocos de árvores, favoráveis à manutenção e propagação dos fungos. O objetivo do trabalho foi estudar a microbiota fúngica gastrintestinal de morcegos. Das 98 amostras pertencentes a 11 espécies de morcegos procedentes de 15 cidades estudadas, 20% são da espécie Carollia perspicillata, 19% Artibeus lituratus, 17% Molossus rufus, 13% Glossophaga soricina, 9% Nyctinomops macrotis, 8% Molossus molossus, 7% Desmodus rotundus, 2% Lasiurus ega, e 1% Eptesicus furinalis, Myotis nigricans e Tadarida brasiliensis. O gênero Aspergillus sp. foi isolado de 29% das amostras, seguidos por 6% Microsporum sp. e Penicillium sp., 4% Tricophyton sp. e zigomicetos e 2% Fusarium sp. Das espécies de leveduras, 14% foram de Rhodotorula sp., 10% Candida sp. e 2% Cryptococcus sp., 22% dos isolados permaneceram sem identificação. Todos os 82 cultivos de vísceras foram negativos para Histoplasma capsulatum. Houve associação estatística significativa entre os resultados do cultivo microbiológico e as espécies de morcegos (p < 0,05. Concluímos que os morcegos podem atuar como agentes veiculadores de fungos com potencial patogênico, entretanto outros trabalhos devem ser realizados a fim de estabelecer estratégias que permitam identificar os principais fatores correlacionados com o crescimento e a disseminação dos microrganismos na natureza e qual a implicação dos quirópteros no ciclo epidemiológico.
Yunpeng, Liang; Li, Yu
As the second biggest animal group in mammals, Chiroptera (bats) demonstrates many unique adaptive features in terms of flight, echolocation, auditory acuity, feeding habit, hibernation and immune defense, providing an excellent system for understanding the molecular basis of how organisms adapt to the living environments encountered. In this review, we summarize the researches on the molecular mechanism of the adaptive evolution of Chiroptera, especially the recent researches at the genome levels, suggesting a far more complex evolutionary pattern and functional diversity than previously thought. In the future, along with the increasing numbers of Chiroptera species genomes available, new evolutionary patterns and functional divergence will be revealed, which can promote the further understanding of this animal group and the molecular mechanism of adaptive evolution.
Full Text Available Se realizaron tres experimentos bajo condiciones controladas de invernadero con el fin de evaluar la actividad de la mezcla herbicida formulada azimsulfuron (14,0 g i.a./Ha+ metsulfuron metil (4,0 g i.a./Ha en aplicaciones foliares o al suelo sobre plantas de coquito (Cyperus rotundus L.. Plantas de coquito fueron tratadas en tres estados de desarrollo: plántula, plantas juveniles y plantas maduras. El número y materia seca de brotes aéreos, y la producción de estructuras subterráneas (tubérculos y bulbos basales 28 días después del tratamiento fue reducido en los tres estados de desarrollo
de la maleza. Sin embargo, plantas en estado de plántula fueron las más susceptibles. En otro experimento se trataron plantas maduras que ya habían producido un sistema subterráneo de cadenas de rizomas, tubérculos y bulbos. Tres semanas después del tratamiento los bulbos y tubérculos fueron separados y sembrados en arena. La brotación de estas estructuras vegetativas fue casi completamente inhibida, indicando que el herbicida se transloca hasta el sistema subterráneo. Se comprobó que la mezcla herbicida no tiene efecto preemergente sobre la brotación de tubérculos de la maleza sembrados a 1 y 3 cm de profundidad. El máximo valor registrado de inhibición
de la brotación fue de solo 11%.
Three experiments were carried out under glasshouse conditions with the aim of evaluating the activity of azimsulfuron (14,0 g i.a./ Ha+ metsulfuron methyl (4,0 g
La./Ha. herbicide mixture in foliar and soil treatments on purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L.. Purple nutsedge plants were treated in three development stages: Seedling,
young plants and mature plants. Shoot and underground
structures (tubers and basal bulbs number and dry matter
28 days after treatment was reduced in the three stages
of development. However, seedling plants were the most
sensitive. In other experiment mature plants that had
Jamil Qureshi, M.; Anwarul Haq; Uzma Maqbool
The penetration of 14 C-glyphosate was studied in Cyperus rotundus with three nonionic surfactants. Among the three surfactants Synperonic A20 was more effective than A2 and A7 in enhancing penetration of glyphosate 24 hours after treatment both in dry and wet seasons. The addition of diesel oil to Synperonic A20 further increased penetration of glyphosate in both seasons. (author)
Ibrahim, N.E.; Babiker, A.G.T.
Under Gezira field conditions, excellent and lasting Cyperus rotundus suppression was achieved, irrespective of application time or cropping conditions. From visual assessments, suppression was achieved when glyphosate as ''Roundup'' at 1.5 kg a.e./ha was applied alone or with the addition of ammonium sulfate, diesel oil emulsified with Triton X-100. At the rate of 0.75kg a.e./ha the herbicide was moderately effective on the cropped fields but on the uncropped fields it was as effective as the higher rate at 8 weeks. At the lowest rate tested (0.5 kg a.e./ha) the herbicide was less effective and was not significantly improved by the addition of adjuvants or charms, the time of spray application. The fresh and dry weights in the 0.75 kg a.e./ha treatments were reduced by 85% to 98% compared with the controls confirming the visual assessments. Unrestricted competition from the natural weed population combined with C. rotundus, reduced the maize stand by 59%, height by 55%, straw yield by 60% and grain yield by 87%, C. rotundus alone was less competitive reducing maize stand, height, straw and grain yields by 21%, 2%, 61% and 68% respectively. (author)
Hu, Qing-Ping; Cao, Xin-Ming; Hao, Dong-Lin; Zhang, Liang-Liang
Cyperus rotundus L. (Cyperaceae) is a medicinal herb traditionally used to treat various clinical conditions at home. In this study, chemical composition of Cyperus rotundus rhizomes essential oil, and in vitro antioxidant, DNA damage protective and cytotoxic activities as well as antibacterial activity against foodborne pathogens were investigated. Results showed that α-cyperone (38.46%), cyperene (12.84%) and α-selinene (11.66%) were the major components of the essential oil. The essential oil had an excellent antioxidant activity, the protective effect against DNA damage, and cytotoxic effects on the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell, as well as antibacterial activity against several foodborne pathogens. These biological activities were dose-dependent, increasing with higher dosage in a certain concentration range. The antibacterial effects of essential oil were greater against Gram-positive bacteria as compared to Gram-negative bacteria, and the antibacterial effects were significantly influenced by incubation time and concentration. These results may provide biological evidence for the practical application of the C. rotundus rhizomes essential oil in food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:28338066
Plaza Guido A.
Full Text Available
EI uso de aditivos puede mejorar notablemente la homogeneidad de la mezcla del herbicida, la interacción de la actividad del ingrediente activo con la planta objetivo, o ambas características. Cyperus rotundus L., es una de las malezas mas importantes de las regiones del trópico y subtropico cálido del mundo. EI Glifosato dentro de sus características presenta la no selectividad, actividad posemergente y gran movilidad en el interior de las plantas. EI uso de adyuvantes (promedio de la actividad del sulfato de amonio, Synperonic A2, A7, A20 y Kemkol, aceite diesel y mezclas entre adyuvantes, mejoro la absorción del glifosato en los diferentes tiempos evaluados. Por ejemplo, a las 24 horas, el incremento fue del 2%, a las 48 horas este valor fue cercano al 3% y a las 72 horas fue del 1,8%. Este beneficio se vio reflejado en la calidad del control y en la reducción del numero de nuevas macollas producidas por las plantas tratadas. La mezcla de sulfato de amonio y los surfactantes Synperonic A7 y A2 mejoro la absorción del glifosato.
Palabras Claves: Glyphosate, Adjuvants, Cyperus rotundus, #3 CYPRO
Tereba, A.; Čížková, Dagmar; Sundari, A. A.; Rajan, K. E.; Bogdanowicz, W.
Roč. 3, č. 4 (2011), s. 749-751 ISSN 1877-7252 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Chiroptera * Megaderma lyra * Microsatellites * Polymorphism Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.485, year: 2011
Re-examination of a collection of bats from Surinam in the Zoölogisch Museum, Amsterdam, uncovered a specimen representing the Phyllostomatid bat Chiroderma trinitatum Goodwin, 1958. This species does not appear in the monograph of the Chiroptera of Surinam by Husson (1962), nor in his more recent
Kirillova, N Iu; Kirillov, A A; Vekhnik, V P
Fauna of parasitic nematodes from Chiroptera of the Samarskaya Luka has been studied. Seven nematode species has been recorded. Numbers of host specimens, indices of extensiveness and intensiveness of the invasion, parasite abundance, and brief characteristics of the nematode species are given. Some nematode species were for the first time recorded in bats of Russia.
Farkašová, Helena; Hron, Tomáš; Pačes, Jan; Hulva, P.; Benda, P.; Gifford, R.J.; Elleder, Daniel
Roč. 114, č. 12 (2017), s. 3145-3150 ISSN 0027-8424 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LK11215; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015047 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Deltaretroviruses * Endogenous retroviruses * Chiroptera Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Virology Impact factor: 9.661, year: 2016
Sutalangka, Chatchada; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn
Currently, food supplements to improve age-related dementia are required. Therefore, we aimed to determine the effect of the combined extract of Cyperus rotundus and Zingiber officinale (CP1) on the improvement of age-related dementia in rats with AF64A-induced memory deficits. Male Wistar rats weighing 180-200 g were orally given CP1 at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg.kg -1 BW for a period of 14 days after bilateral intracerebroventricular administration of AF64A. Spatial memory was assessed in all rats every 7 days throughout the 14 day-experimental period. At the end of the study, neuronal density, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, oxidative stress status and the activation of MAPK cascades in the hippocampus were determined. Enhanced memory, increased neuronal density, decreased AChE activity and decreased oxidative stress status together with activated pERK1/2 were observed in the hippocampus of CP1-treated rats. These results suggested that CP1 might improve memory via enhanced cholinergic function and decreased neurodegeneration and oxidative stress. CP1 is a potential novel food supplement for dementia. However, further investigations on the subchronic toxicity of CP1 and drug interactions are required.
Rafiq Yanhar, Muhammad; Haris Nasution, A.
The primary purpose of this study is to determine the tensile strength using ASTM D638 - 02a type IVB and density of teki grass (Cyperus rotundus) composite. The production process is carried out by mass variation of 2 gr, 3 gr, and 4 gr. Hand lay-up method with three repetitions is applied. Teki grass is chosen because it is easy to find and has some advantages biodegradable, harmless to health, available in large quantities, and cost-efficient. The test result showed the largest tensile strength is 21,61 MPa at 2-gram mass fiber. Fiber addition to 3 gram and 4-gram cause tensile strength decreases to 18,51 MPa and 11,65 MPa. It happens because the fibers are random and spread in all directions, so many fibers are undirectional with the tensile force. Beside that fibers addition made matrix volume reduced and a bond between fiber and matrix decreases, finally make fiber unable to hold the tensile force properly. It is recommended to use another type of ASTM D638 - 02a which has a larger narrow section like type I (13 mm) and type III (19mm) so specimens are not broken when removed from the mold, and there isn’t any decrease in tensile strength.Density test showed that fiber mass does not significantly affect the density.
Smith, Jillian D L; Bickham, John W; Gregory, T Ryan
Despite being a group of particular interest in considering relationships between genome size and metabolic parameters, bats have not been well studied from this perspective. This study presents new estimates for 121 "microbat" species from 12 families and complements a previous study on members of the family Pteropodidae ("megabats"). The results confirm that diversity in genome size in bats is very limited even compared with other mammals, varying approximately 2-fold from 1.63 pg in Lophostoma carrikeri to 3.17 pg in Rhinopoma hardwickii and averaging only 2.35 pg ± 0.02 SE (versus 3.5 pg overall for mammals). However, contrary to some other vertebrate groups, and perhaps owing to the narrow range observed, genome size correlations were not apparent with any chromosomal, physiological, flight-related, developmental, or ecological characteristics within the order Chiroptera. Genome size is positively correlated with measures of body size in bats, though the strength of the relationships differs between pteropodids ("megabats") and nonpteropodids ("microbats").
Kirillov, A A; Kirillova, N Iu; Vekhnik, V P
The data on species diversity of trematodes from bats collected in the Middle Volga Region are summarized. According to original and literary data, 20 trematode species were recorded in bats of the region examined. Plagiorchis elegans, Lecithodendrium skrjabini, L. rysavyi, Prosthodendrium hurkovaae, and Pycnoporus megacotyle are specified for the bat fauna of Russia for the first time. For 11 species of parasites, new hosts are recorded. The analysis of bat helminthes demonstrated that the fauna of trematodes of the northern bat (12 species of trematodes), of the pond, and of the Brandt's bats is the most diverse, constituting more than 10 parasite species per bat species. The largest number of final hosts in the Middle Volga Region is characteristic of Plagiorchis koreanus and Prosthodendrium chilostomum; the latter species were revealed in 8 and 7 bat species, respectively. Trematodes of bats possess a high degree of host specificity. 17 species parasitize exclusively in bats out of 20 parasite species registered for the order Chiroptera. Only 3 species (Plagiorchis elegans, P. vespertilionis, and Prosthodendrium chilostomum) show wide degree of specificity, being found in other animals. Taxonomic position, the circle of hosts, collecting sites, and brief data in biology and geographical distribution for each helminth species are specified. Morphological descriptions and original figures for all the trematode species revealed in bats of the Middle Volga Region are given.
Jones, Kate E; Bininda-Emonds, Olaf R P; Gittleman, John L
Identifying nonrandom clade diversification is a critical first step toward understanding the evolutionary processes underlying any radiation and how best to preserve future phylogenetic diversity. However, differences in diversification rates have not been quantitatively assessed for the majority of groups because of the lack of necessary analytical tools (e.g., complete species-level phylogenies, estimates of divergence times, and robust statistics which incorporate phylogenetic uncertainty and test appropriate null models of clade growth). Here, for the first time, we investigate diversification rate heterogeneity in one of the largest groups studied thus far, the bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera). We use a recent, robust statistical approach (whole-tree likelihood-based relative rate tests) on complete dated species-level supertree phylogenies. As has been demonstrated previously for most other groups, among-lineage diversification rate within bats has not been constant. However, we show that bat diversification is more heterogeneous than in other mammalian clades thus far studied. The whole-tree likelihood-based relative rates tests suggest that clades within the families Phyllostomidae and Molossidae underwent a number of significant changes in relative diversification rate. There is also some evidence for rate shifts within Pteropodidae, Emballonuridae, Rhinolophidae, Hipposideridae, and Vespertilionidae, but the significance of these shifts depends on polytomy resolution within each family. Diversification rate in bats has also not been constant, with the largest diversification rate shifts occurring 30-50 million years ago, a time overlapping with the greatest number of shifts in flowering plant diversification rates.
Acerbo, Martin J; Lazareva, Olga F; McInnerney, John; Leiker, Emily; Wasserman, Edward A; Poremba, Amy
In primates, neurons sensitive to figure-ground status are located in striate cortex (area V1) and extrastriate cortex (area V2). Although much is known about the anatomical structure and connectivity of the avian visual pathway, the functional organization of the avian brain remains largely unexplored. To pinpoint the areas associated with figure-ground segregation in the avian brain, we used a radioactively labeled glucose analog to compare differences in glucose uptake after figure-ground, color, and shape discriminations. We also included a control group that received food on a variable-interval schedule, but was not required to learn a visual discrimination. Although the discrimination task depended on group assignment, the stimulus displays were identical for all three experimental groups, ensuring that all animals were exposed to the same visual input. Our analysis concentrated on the primary thalamic nucleus associated with visual processing, the nucleus rotundus (Rt), and two nuclei providing regulatory feedback, the pretectum (PT) and the nucleus subpretectalis/interstitio-pretecto-subpretectalis complex (SP/IPS). We found that figure-ground discrimination was associated with strong and nonlateralized activity of Rt and SP/IPS, whereas color discrimination produced strong and lateralized activation in Rt alone. Shape discrimination was associated with lower activity of Rt than in the control group. Taken together, our results suggest that figure-ground discrimination is associated with Rt and that SP/IPS may be a main source of inhibitory control. Thus, figure-ground segregation in the avian brain may occur earlier than in the primate brain. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wu, Yi; Motokawa, Masaharu; Harada, Masashi
A new species of the Rhinolophus philippinensis group (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae) is described from Guangdong, Guangxi, and Jiangxi Provinces in China. Rhinolophus huananus n. sp. is characterized by the horseshoe, as well as by external and cranial characteristics that separate it at the species level from the other members of the philippinensis group. One of the small species of the philippinensis group, R. huananus is intermediate in size between smaller R. siamensis and larger R. macrotis.
Wu, Yi; Motokawa, Masaharu; Harada, Masashi
A new species of the Rhinolophus philippinensis group (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae) is described from Guangdong, Guangxi, and Jiangxi Provinces in China. Rhinolophus huananus n. sp. is characterized by the horseshoe, as well as by external and cranial characteristics that separate it at the species level from the other members of the philippinensis group. One of the small species of the philippinensis group, R. huananus is intermediate in size between smaller R. siamensis and larger R. macrotis.
Tsoyi, Konstantin; Jang, Hwa Jin; Lee, Young Soo; Kim, Young Min; Kim, Hye Jung; Seo, Han Geuk; Lee, Jae Heun; Kwak, Jong Hwan; Lee, Dong-Ung; Chang, Ki Churl
The rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus have been used as traditional folk medicine for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. However, the mechanism by which extract of rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus (ECR) elicits anti-inflammation has not been extensively investigated so far. The aim of the present study was to test whether heme oxygenase (HO)-1 induction is involved in the anti-inflammatory action of ECR. Induction of HO-1 and inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)/NO production by ECR and its 12 constituents (3 monoterpenes, 5 sesquiterpenes, and 4 aromatic compounds) were investigated using RAW264.7 cells in vitro. In addition, anti-inflammatory action of ECR and its two active ingredients (nookkatone, valencene) were confirmed in sepsis animal model in vivo. ECR increased HO-1 expression in a concentration-dependent manner, which was correlated with significant inhibition of iNOS/NO production in LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells. Among 12 compounds isolated from ECR, mostly sesquiterpenes induced stronger HO-1 expression than monoterpenes in macrophage cells. Nootkatone and valencene (sesquiterpenes) significantly inhibited iNOS expression and NO production in LPS-simulated RAW264.7 cells. Inhibition of iNOS expression by nootkatone, valencene, and ECR were significantly reduced in siHO-1 RNA transfected cells. Furthermore, all three showed marked inhibition of high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) in LPS-activated macrophages and increased survival rates in cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis in mice. Taken together, we concluded that possible anti-inflammatory mechanism of ECR is, at least, due to HO-1 induction, in which sesquiterpenes such as nootkatone and valencene play a crucial role. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Xu, Hong-Bo; Ma, Yun-Bao; Huang, Xiao-Yan; Geng, Chang-An; Wang, Hao; Zhao, Yong; Yang, Tong-Hua; Chen, Xing-Long; Yang, Cai-Yan; Zhang, Xue-Mei; Chen, Ji-Jun
The rhizome of Cyperus rotundus (C. rotundus) is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine to cure hepatitis in many formulae, but the active components responsible for hepatitis have not been elucidated. According to our bioassay on HepG2.2.15 cell line in vitro, the ethanol extract of C. rotundus demonstrated potent anti-HBV activity. This current study was designed to isolate and identify the anti-HBV active constituents from the rhizomes of C. rotundus. Bioactivity and LC-MS guided fractionation on the extract of C. rotundus using various chromatographic techniques including open-column, Sephadex LH-20 and semi-preparative high performance liquid chromatography led to the isolation and identification of thirty-seven sesquiterpenoids. Structural elucidation of the isolates was carried out by extensive spectroscopic analyses (UV, IR, HRMS, 1D- and 2D -NMR). The anti-HBV activity and cytotoxicity were evaluated on the HBV-transfected HepG2.2.15 cell line in vitro. The cytotoxicity effects of the isolates were assessed by a MTT assay. The secretions of HBsAg and HBeAg in the culture medium were detected by ELISA method, and the load of HBV DNA was quantified by real-time fluorescent PCR technique. Five new patchoulane-type sesquiterpenoids, namely cyperene-3, 8-dione (1), 14-hydroxy cyperotundone (2), 14-acetoxy cyperotundone (3), 3β-hydroxycyperenoic acid (4) and sugetriol-3, 9-diacetate (5), along with 32 known sesquiterpenoids were isolated from the active fractions of C. rotundus. Compounds 2 and 3 were the first cyperotundone-type sesquiterpenoids with a hydroxyl group at C-14 position. Nine eudesmane-type sesquiterpenoids (15-21 and 23-24) significantly inhibited the HBV DNA replication with IC50 values of 42.7±5.9, 22.5±1.9, 13.2±1.2, 10.1±0.7, 14.1±1.1, 15.3±2.7, 13.8±0.9, 19.7±2.1 and 11.9±0.6 μM, respectively, of which, compounds 17, 21, 23 and 24 possessed high SI values of 250.4, 125.5,>259.6 and 127.5, respectively. Two patchoulane
N. Karimi Arpanahi
Full Text Available Introduction: Drought is one of the most important and common environmental stresses in the country, which affect different stages of plant growth and development. Drought can affect plants growth in various ways, thereby reduces and delays germination, and decreases shoot growth and dry matter production. In the case of high water stress, it results showed great reductions in photosynthesis and disruption of the physiological processes, as well as growth stop and eventually plant death.Purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L. has been listed as the world’s worst weed based onits worldwide distribution (92 countries and interference with over 50 crops. It causes high yield losses in fruiting vegetables and cucurbits in eastern and southeastern parts of Iran, where drought stress is a common phenomenon. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to understand the response of this noxious weed species to drought stress. Materials and Methods: In order to study the effect of drought stress on growth and distribution of purple nutsedge, two separate experiments were carried out in a randomized complete block design with three replications in the Research Greenhouse at Birjand University in 2013. The first experiment consisted of 6 irrigation interval levels (3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18- day irrigation intervals and the second one were 5 irrigation levels based on field capacity (12.5, 25, 50, 75 and 100 % FC. Results and Discussion: ANOVA results of both experiments showed that all growth characteristics of purple nutsedge were affected by drought stress. The results of irrigation interval stress experiment showed that the maximum height (76 cm, leaf area (110.83 cm2, stem number (4.66 stemperpot, shoot dry weight (4.132 gr per plant, tuber number (7.66 tuber per pot and total underground organs dry weight (4.435 gr per plant were observed in 3- day irrigation interval. Also, the lowest amount of these characteristics was obtained in 18- day irrigation interval
Volokhov, D V; Becker, D J; Bergner, L M; Camus, M S; Orton, R J; Chizhikov, V E; Altizer, S M; Streicker, D G
Bats (Order: Chiroptera) have been widely studied as reservoir hosts for viruses of concern for human and animal health. However, whether bats are equally competent hosts of non-viral pathogens such as bacteria remains an important open question. Here, we surveyed blood and saliva samples of vampire bats from Peru and Belize for hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. (hemoplasmas), bacteria that can cause inapparent infection or anemia in hosts. 16S rRNA gene amplification of blood showed 67% (150/223) of common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) were infected by hemoplasmas. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene amplicons revealed three novel genotypes that were phylogenetically related but not identical to hemoplasmas described from other (non-vampire) bat species, rodents, humans, and non-human primates. Hemoplasma prevalence in vampire bats was highest in non-reproductive and young individuals, did not differ by country, and was relatively stable over time (i.e., endemic). Metagenomics from pooled D. rotundus saliva from Peru detected non-hemotropic Mycoplasma species and hemoplasma genotypes phylogenetically similar to those identified in blood, providing indirect evidence for potential direct transmission of hemoplasmas through biting or social contacts. This study demonstrates vampire bats host several novel hemoplasmas and sheds light on risk factors for infection and basic transmission routes. Given the high frequency of direct contacts that arise when vampire bats feed on humans, domestic animals, and wildlife, the potential of these bacteria to be transmitted between species should be investigated in future work.
E. N. Silva Terceiro
Full Text Available Vários fatores estão envolvidos na interferência das plantas daninhas sobre as culturas e os aspectos fisiológicos ainda são pouco estudados. Assim, objetivou-se avaliar a interferência de diferentes populações de Cyperus rotundus L. e da compactação do solo nos caracteres fisiológicos do feijão-caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp] e na fenologia de C. rotundus. O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação no Centro de Ciências e Tecnologia Agroalimentar da Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, CCTA/UFCG, Campus de Pombal-PB. As unidades experimentais foram compostas por vasos com capacidade de 6 litros. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado com tratamentos distribuídos em esquema fatorial 3 x 2, sendo os fatores três populações de C. rotundus (0, 2 e 3 tubérculos por vaso e dois níveis de compactação (solo sem compactação e solo com subsuperfície compactada artificialmente, com quatro repetições. Foram coletados os dados de: taxa de assimilação de CO2 (µmol m-2 s-1, transpiração (mmol de H2O m-2 s-1, condutância estomática (mol de H2O m-2 s-1 e concentração interna de CO2, com um analisador de gás infravermelho – IRGA LCpro (Infra-red Gas Analyzer. Com relação a Cyperaceae, foram coletados os seguintes dados: produção de fitomassa fresca e seca e relação raiz/parte aérea, número de tubérculos por vaso, produção diária de tubérculos e produção de tubérculos por unidade plantada; os quais foram submetidos à análise da variância e teste de médias, quando necessário. A presença de C. rotundus, reduziu a fotossíntese líquida do feijão-caupi de forma mais intensa do que a compactação do solo. C. rotundus expressou notável capacidade de reprodução vegetativa.Physiological Characters of Cowpea and Growth of nut grass (Cyperus rotundus L. under competition in the soil compressiveAbstract - Several factors are involved in weed interference on crops and physiological
Pedro Luís da Costa Aguiar Alves
Full Text Available In the soil, herbicides are submitted to absorption, leaching and degradation by physical, chemical and biological processes or absorbed by plants. All these processes are dependent on soil class and weather conditions and affect the product efficiency on weed control. The objective of this work was to investigate the influence of soil attributes on sulfentrazone efficiency for controlling purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L. . Soil samples from LVAd (Typic Haplustox, LVd, LVdf and LVef (Typic Haplustox and Typic Eutrustox, NVe (Rhodic Kandiustalf, and LVd (Typic Haplustox were collected under two crop conditions aiming to have different clay, Fe oxides, and organic matter contents. The soil samples were submitted to granulometric, chemical and mineralogical characterization. A bioassay was used to evaluate the efficacy of sulfentrazone (1.6 L c.p. ha-1 to control purple nutsedge on pre-emergence. The sulfentrazone behaved differently among the studied soil classes. The product efficiency decreased when the soil Fe oxide content increased, following the order: LVAd, LVd, NVe, LVef and LVdf. Clay content, ranging from 240 to 640 g kg-1, and organic matter content, ranging from 12 to 78 g kg-1, did not influence sulfentrazone efficiency.Herbicidas aplicados ao solo são submetidos à adsorção, lixiviação e degradação por processos físicos, químicos e biológicos, além da absorção pelas plantas. Todos esses processos são afetados pela classe dos solos onde foram aplicados e das condições climáticas reinantes logo após a aplicação, que afetarão a eficiência dos produtos no controle de plantas daninhas. Investigaram-se as influências dos atributos de solos e condições de cultivo na eficiência do herbicida sulfentrazone no controle da planta daninha tiririca (Cyperus rotundus L.. O Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo Distrófico (LVAd, o Latossolo Vermelho (LVd - Distrófico; LVdf - Distroférrico; LVef - Eutroférrico e o Nitossolo
Castonguay, M. [Pesca Environnement, Maria, PQ (Canada)
Environmental monitoring at wind turbine arrays is needed before, during and after project development. Pesca Environmental evaluates the impact of proposed wind turbine arrays on birds and chiroptera by examining their migration patterns through visual and auditory observations during the springtime reproductive and nesting season as well as in the autumn. In order to complete a feasibility study, spring migration patterns of birds and chiroptera must be documented and characterized. In addition to building an inventory of birds and chiroptera, Pesca examines bird behaviour and flight patterns and nesting locations. figs.
Estudo de competição inter e intraespecífica envolvendo Glycine max (L. Merril e Cyperus rotundus (L., em condições de casa de vegetação Inter and intraspecific competitions studies in Glycine max (L. merril and Cyperus rotundus L., in greenhouse conditions
Full Text Available O presente experimento teve por objetivo estudar os efeitos da competição inter e intraespecífica envolvendo Glycine max (L. Merril e Cyperus rotundus L. sobre as características das plantas e acúmulos de N, P, K, Ca e Mg pelas espécies envolvidas. Para tanto, estipulou-se um tratamento em que se desenvolveram três plantas de Glycine max e outro em que se desenvolveram 3 tubérculos de Cyperus rotundus por vaso. Para estudar os efeitos da competição intraespecífica, em dois outros tratamentos dobraram-se as populações por vaso. No estudo da competição interespecífica permitiu-se o desenvolvimento de três plantas de Glycine max e de três tubérculos de Cyperus rotundus num mesmo vaso. De uma maneira geral, pôde-se observar que principalmente devido às diferenças no hábito de crescimento das duas espécies, a expressão da competição inter e intraespecífica, em cada uma delas, assume aspectos distintos. No caso de Cyperus rotundus, o efeito do dobro da densidade pôde ser compensado, em parte, pela maior produção de manifestações epígeas e de tubérculos, aliados ao maior desenvolvimento dos tubérculos na menor densidade de plantio. No caso da competição interespecífica, os resultados sugerem um efeito decisivo do sombreamento de Leguminosae sobre o comportamento da Cyperaceae. Os padrões de efeitos da competição pelos nutrientes foi determinado também pelas diferenças no recrutamento dos elementos do solo pelas espécies envolvidas.Inter and intraspecific competition studies envolving Glycine max (L. Merril and Cyperus rotundus L. were performed by measuring the effects on the growth and accumulation of N, P, K, Ca and Mg in the plants. The standard number of the plants per pot was three. In the interspecific competition plots three shoots of purple nutsedge and three plants of soybeans were cultivated per pot. In the intraspecific competition studies six shoots or plants per pot of C. rotundus or G. max were
Priya Rani, M; Padmakumari, K P
Three sesquiterpenoids solavetivone, aristolone and nootkatone were isolated from the acetone extract of Cyperus rotundus by silica gel column chromatography and identified by spectral studies. Solavetivone has been isolated for the first time from the species. Simple, sensitive and selective HPTLC and HPLC methods with ultraviolet detection (245 nm) were developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification. HPTLC method was validated in terms of their linearity, LOD, LOQ, precision, accuracy and compared with RP-HPLC-UV method. Among the three sesquiterpenoids isolated, nootkatone possessed the highest radical scavenging potential (IC(50) 4.81 μg/ml) followed by aristolone (IC(50) 5.28 μg/ml) and solavetivone (IC(50) 6.82 μg/ml) by DPPH radical scavenging assay. Total antioxidant activity against phosphomolybdenum reagent was also studied. The methods described in this paper were able to identify and quantify sesquiterpenoids from the complex mixtures of phytochemicals and could be extended to the marker based standardization of polyherbal formulations containing C. rotundus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Rediscovery of Meristaspis lateralis (Kolenati) (Acari: Mesostigmata: Spinturnicidae) parasitizing the Egyptian fruit bat, Rousettus aegyptiacus (Geoffroy) (Mammalia: Chiroptera), with a key to mites of bats in Egypt.
Negm, Mohamed W; Fakeer, Mahmoud M
Faunistic information about bat mites in Egypt is scarce. Collection records of parasitic mites, Meristaspis lateralis (Kolenati, 1856) (Mesostigmata: Spinturnicidae), are reported from the Egyptian fruit bat, Rousettus aegyptiacus (Geoffroy, 1810) (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in Assiut Governorate, Egypt. Seven species of bat mites are recognized from Egypt to date. A host-parasite checklist and an identification key to these species are presented.
Makarikova, Tatiana A; Makarikov, Arseny A
Potorolepis gulyaevi sp. n. (Cestoda: Hymenolepididae) is described from the Chinese horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus sinicus Andersen (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae), from southern China. The new species differs from known species of the genus by the shape, number and size of rostellar hooks, the relative position and length of the cirrus-sac and the morphology of gravid uterus. This is the first report of a member of the genus from non-marsupial mammals and the first record of a Potorolepis Spassky, 1994 from eastern Asia. The generic diagnosis of Potorolepis is amended.
Rojas, Danny; Warsi, Omar M; Dávalos, Liliana M
The mechanisms underlying the high extant biodiversity in the Neotropics have been controversial since the 19th century. Support for the influence of period-specific changes on diversification often rests on detecting more speciation events during a particular period. The timing of speciation events may reflect the influence of incomplete taxon sampling, protracted speciation, and null processes of lineage accumulation. Here we assess the influence of these factors on the timing of speciation with new multilocus data for New World noctilionoid bats (Chiroptera: Noctilionoidea). Biogeographic analyses revealed the importance of the Neotropics in noctilionoid diversification, and the critical role of dispersal. We detected no shift in speciation rate associated with the Quaternary or pre-Quaternary periods, and instead found an increase in speciation linked to the evolution of the subfamily Stenodermatinae (∼18 Ma). Simulations modeling constant speciation and extinction rates for the phylogeny systematically showed more speciation events in the Quaternary. Since recording more divergence events in the Quaternary can result from lineage accumulation, the age of extant sister species cannot be interpreted as supporting higher speciation rates during this period. Instead, analyzing the factors that influence speciation requires modeling lineage-specific traits and environmental, spatial, and ecological drivers of speciation. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Wu, Yi; Motokawa, Masaharu; Harada, Masashi; Thong, Vu Dinh; Lin, Liang-Kong; Li, Yu-Chun
Based on 203 specimens belonging to the Rhinolophus "pusillus group" (Mammalia: Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae), univariate and multivariate morphometric analyses using 19 characters were performed to assess the confused species taxonomy. The results indicated that R. pusillus (including calidus, parcus, and szechuanus) in the continental region and Hainan Island of China and "R. cornutus" in Japan are morphologically divergent species. Rhinolophus cornutus should be further split into R. cornutus (including orii, pumilus, and miyakonis) in the main islands of Japan, the Amami and Okinawa Group of the central Ryukyu Archipelago, and Miyako Group of the southern Ryukyus; and R. perditus and R. imaizumii from the Yaeyama Group in the southern Ryukyus. Rhinolophus monoceros from Taiwan is morphologically more similar to species in Japan than to R. pusillus. In addition to R. pusillus, another form that is morphologically similar to species in Japan was recognized from Langzhong in Sichuan Province; this may represent an undescribed species, and further examination is necessary to determine its taxonomic status. Specimens from Guang'an in Sichuan Province, China, are also different from the others, and are characterized by the smallest skull size. Although further studies are required, these specimens were tentatively identified as R. subbadius.
López-Wilchis, Ricardo; Del Río-Portilla, Miguel Ángel; Guevara-Chumacero, Luis Manuel
We described the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the Wagner's mustached bat, Pteronotus personatus, a species belonging to the family Mormoopidae, and compared it with other published mitogenomes of bats (Chiroptera). The mitogenome of P. personatus was 16,570 bp long and contained a typically conserved structure including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, and one control region (D-loop). Most of the genes were encoded on the H-strand, except for eight tRNA and the ND6 genes. The order of protein-coding and rRNA genes was highly conserved in all mitogenomes. All protein-coding genes started with an ATG codon, except for ND2, ND3, and ND5, which initiated with ATA, and terminated with the typical stop codon TAA/TAG or the codon AGA. Phylogenetic trees constructed using Maximum Parsimony, Maximum Likelihood, and Bayesian inference methods showed an identical topology and indicated the monophyly of different families of bats (Mormoopidae, Phyllostomidae, Vespertilionidae, Rhinolophidae, and Pteropopidae) and the existence of two major clades corresponding to the suborders Yangochiroptera and Yinpterochiroptera. The mitogenome sequence provided here will be useful for further phylogenetic analyses and population genetic studies in mormoopid bats.
Tatag Bagus Putra Prakarsa
Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui diversitas kelelawar penghuni gua di gua Ngerong. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian Nature Snapshop Experiment (NSE. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan pada bulan November - Desember 2011 di gua Ngerong, Desa Rengel, Kecamatan Rengel, Kabupaten Tuban, Jawa Timur. Penangkapan dilakukan dengan metode tangkap langsung. Penangkapan dilakukan dengan menggunakan misnet dan handnet. Kelelawar diidentifikasi berdasarkan pengukuran morfometri dan ciri morfologi mengacu kunci identifikasi Suyanto, 2001 dan Payne et al., 2000. Seluruh data dianalisis secara deskriptif. Di gua Ngerong terdapat 9 spesies dari 4 famili atau 60% dari total spesies kelelawar penghuni gua di kawasan karst Tuban. Enam spesies anggota Subordo Microchiroptera yang merupakan insectivor dan 3 spesies anggota Subordo Megachiroptera yang merupakan frugivor dan nictivor. Keanekaragaman di gua Ngerong tergolong tinggi dengan nilai Simpson's Diversity Index sebesar 0,76. Tingginya diversitas kelelawar penghuni gua Ngerong berbanding lurus dengan panjang lorong gua Ngerong. gua Ngerong merupakan gua terpanjang di kawasan karst Tuban, dengan panjang lorong mencapai 1800m.kata kunci: Kelelawar (Chiroptera, Diversitas, Gua Ngerong, Biospeleologi, Karst
Ao, Lei; Mao, Xiuguang; Nie, Wenhui; Gu, Xiaoming; Feng, Qing; Wang, Jinhuan; Su, Weiting; Wang, Yingxiang; Volleth, Marianne; Yang, Fengtang
Bats are a unique but enigmatic group of mammals and have a world-wide distribution. The phylogenetic relationships of extant bats are far from being resolved. Here, we investigated the karyotypic relationships of representative species from four families of the order Chiroptera by comparative chromosome painting and banding. A complete set of painting probes derived from flow-sorted chromosomes of Myotis myotis (family Vespertilionidae) were hybridized onto metaphases of Cynopterus sphinx (2n = 34, family Pteropodidae), Rhinolophus sinicus (2n=36, family Rhinolophidae) and Aselliscus stoliczkanus (2n=30, family Hipposideridae) and delimited 27, 30 and 25 conserved chromosomal segments in the three genomes, respectively. The results substantiate that Robertsonian translocation is the main mode of chromosome evolution in the order Chiroptera, with extensive conservation of whole chromosomal arms. The use of M. myotis (2n=44) probes has enabled the integration of C. sphinx, R. sinicus and A. stoliczkanus chromosomes into the previously established comparative maps between human and Eonycteris spelaea (2n=36), Rhinolophus mehelyi (2n=58), Hipposideros larvatus (2n=32), and M. myotis. Our results provide the first cytogenetic signature rearrangement that supports the grouping of Pteropodidae and Rhinolophoidea in a common clade (i.e. Pteropodiformes or Yinpterochiroptera) and thus improve our understanding on the karyotypic relationships and genome phylogeny of these bat species.
Predação oportunista de Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823 e Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae por marsupiais e anuro na APA do Rio Curiaú, Amapá, Brasil Opportunistic predation of Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823 and Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae by marsupials and anuran in the APA do Rio Curiaú, Amapá State, Brazil
Isai Jorge de Castro
Full Text Available Durante estudos com morcegos em floresta de várzea na APA do Rio Curiaú, Amapá, Brasil, observamos três casos de predações oportunistas de morcegos frugívoros capturados em redes de neblina. Duas destas predações ocorreram por marsupiais e uma por anuro. Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae foi predado por Didelphis marsupialis Linnaeus, 1758 e Philander opossum (Linnaeus, 1758 (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae. Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae foi predado por Leptodactylus pentadactylus (Laurenti, 1768 (Anura, Leptodactylidae. A vocalização dos morcegos provavelmente atraiu os marsupiais para a rede, onde estes os predaram aproveitando que estavam presos. Este tipo de interação pode ocorrer naturalmente, no entanto, com maior dificuldade de registro.We observed three occasional predations of bats captured in mist nets by marsupials and a frog during studies in a várzea forest in the Amapá state. Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae was preyed upon by Didelphis marsupialis Linnaeus, 1758 and Philander opossum (Linnaeus, 1758 (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae. Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae was preyed on by Leptodactylus pentadactylus (Laurenti, 1768 (Anura, Leptodactylidae. The bats vocalizations probably attracted the marsupials and a frog to the mist nets where they preyed. This interaction form can occur naturally, however, are more difficult to observed.
Badrane, Hassan; Tordo, Noël
Lyssaviruses are unsegmented RNA viruses causing rabies. Their vectors belong to the Carnivora and Chiroptera orders. We studied 36 carnivoran and 17 chiropteran lyssaviruses representing the main genotypes and variants. We compared their genes encoding the surface glycoprotein, which is responsible for receptor recognition and membrane fusion. The glycoprotein is the main protecting antigen and bears virulence determinants. Point mutation is the main force in lyssavirus evolution, as Sawyer's test and phylogenetic analysis showed no evidence of recombination. Tests of neutrality indicated a neutral model of evolution, also supported by globally high ratios of synonymous substitutions (dS) to nonsynonymous substitutions (dN) (>7). Relative-rate tests suggested similar rates of evolution for all lyssavirus lineages. Therefore, the absence of recombination and similar evolutionary rates make phylogeny-based conclusions reliable. Phylogenetic reconstruction strongly supported the hypothesis that host switching occurred in the history of lyssaviruses. Indeed, lyssaviruses evolved in chiropters long before the emergence of carnivoran rabies, very likely following spillovers from bats. Using dated isolates, the average rate of evolution was estimated to be roughly 4.3 × 10−4 dS/site/year. Consequently, the emergence of carnivoran rabies from chiropteran lyssaviruses was determined to have occurred 888 to 1,459 years ago. Glycoprotein segments accumulating more dN than dS were distinctly detected in carnivoran and chiropteran lyssaviruses. They may have contributed to the adaptation of the virus to the two distinct mammal orders. In carnivoran lyssaviruses they overlapped the main antigenic sites, II and III, whereas in chiropteran lyssaviruses they were located in regions of unknown functions. PMID:11483755
Kwang Bae Yoon
Full Text Available The complete mitogenome (NC_021119 of the Ussurian tube-nosed bat Murina ussuriensis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae was annotated and characterized in our recent publication (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/NC_021119. Here we provide additional information on methods in detail for obtaining the complete sequence of M. ussuriensis mitogenome. In addition, we describe characteristics of 22 tRNA genes and secondary structure and feature of 22 tRNAs of M. ussuriensis mitogenome.
Meganathan, P R; Pagan, Heidi J T; McCulloch, Eve S; Stevens, Richard D; Ray, David A
Order Chiroptera is a unique group of mammals whose members have attained self-powered flight as their main mode of locomotion. Much speculation persists regarding bat evolution; however, lack of sufficient molecular data hampers evolutionary and conservation studies. Of ~1200 species, complete mitochondrial genome sequences are available for only eleven. Additional sequences should be generated if we are to resolve many questions concerning these fascinating mammals. Herein, we describe the complete mitochondrial genomes of three bats: Corynorhinus rafinesquii, Lasiurus borealis and Artibeus lituratus. We also compare the currently available mitochondrial genomes and analyze codon usage in Chiroptera. C. rafinesquii, L. borealis and A. lituratus mitochondrial genomes are 16438 bp, 17048 bp and 16709 bp, respectively. Genome organization and gene arrangements are similar to other bats. Phylogenetic analyses using complete mitochondrial genome sequences support previously established phylogenetic relationships and suggest utility in future studies focusing on the evolutionary aspects of these species. Comprehensive analyses of available bat mitochondrial genomes reveal distinct nucleotide patterns and synonymous codon preferences corresponding to different chiropteran families. These patterns suggest that mutational and selection forces are acting to different extents within Chiroptera and shape their mitochondrial genomes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Multi-analytical strategy for unassigned peaks using physical/mathematical separation, fragmental rules and retention index prediction: An example of sesquiterpene metabolites characterization in Cyperus rotundus.
He, Min; Yan, Pan; Yang, Zhiyu; Ye, Ying; Cao, Dongsheng; Hong, Liang; Yang, Tianbiao; Pei, Rui
Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC × GC-qMS) can provide powerful physical separation, signal enhancement, and spectral identification for analytes in complex samples. Unassigned peaks are commonly presented in the untargeted profile after a single run with EI-MS spectral matching and retention index (RI) confirmation. The procedure proposed in this work can be applied as a general method for suggesting or narrowing down the candidates of unassigned GC × GC-qMS peaks. To begin, peak purity detection and chemometric resolution are employed to acquire pure mass spectra. In addition, the fragmental rules and in-silico spectra from structures are available for annotating certain unassigned peaks with reference spectra that are not observed in commercial databases. Furthermore, the procedure proposed in this work allows for in silico RI calculation by means of random forest (RF) analysis based on the retention data under the same chromatographic conditions. The calculated RIs can aid in analysis when the RI information of peaks of interest is not available in retention data libraries. Using the proposed strategy, certain unassigned peaks can be attributed to sesquiterpene metabolites in an in-house database for Cyperus rotundus. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Velazco, Paúl M; Lim, Burton K
A new species of broad-nosed bat Platyrrhinus Saussure, 1860 (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae: Stenodermatinae) from the Guianan Shield is described based on molecular and morphological data. Previously confused with P. helleri and P. recifinus, the new taxon is currently known from only Guyana and Suriname and is most closely related to P. recifinus from eastern Brazil and not to the two sympatric species (P. fusciventris and P. incarum) also recently recognized as distinct from P. helleri. Morphometrically the new taxon overlaps with the smaller species of the genus (P. angustirostris, P. brachycephalus, P. fusciventris, P. helleri, P. incarum, and P. matapalensis), but forms a different cluster from the larger P. recifinus. Morphologically the new taxon is distinguished from its congeners by a combination of external and craniodental characteristics. Platyrrhinus now includes 21 species making it the most speciose genus in the Neotropical family Phyllostomidae.
Full Text Available Riassunto Ritrovamento del Vespertilio di Brandt Myotis brandtii (Eversmann, 1845 in Piemonte (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae Viene riportata la cattura con mist-net di 5 maschi adulti di Vespertilio di Brandt Myotis brandtii, nell’agosto 2005, nei pressi dell’abitato di Devero (Baceno, VB, a 1827 metri d’altitudine, nel Parco Naturale Alpe Veglia e Alpe Devero. Tale dato rappresenta la prima segnalazione certa della specie in Piemonte. L’identificazione è stata effettuata sulla base delle caratteristiche dentarie e del pene. Sono fornite indicazioni sulle caratteristiche dei segnali di ecolocalizzazione ottenuti dopo il rilascio degli individui.
Full Text Available Ectoparasites of bats (Chiroptera, Furipteridae, with a description of a new species of Synthesiostrebla Townsend (Diptera, Streblidae from Brazil. Records of ectoparasites from furipterid bats are restricted to bat flies (Streblidae. Only three streblid species were known before this work: Trichobius pallidus (Curran, 1934, Strebla wiedemanni Kolenati, 1856, and Synthesiostrebla amorphochili Townsend, 1913. A second species of Synthesiostrebla is described here, increasing the geographical distribution of the genus to east of the Andes. Synthesiostrebla cisandina sp. nov. was found on Furipterus horrens (Cuvier, 1828 in southeastern Brazil. Anterior parts of the body, wing, tergite 7, epiproct and male genitalia are illustrated, and a key to females for species of Synthesiostrebla is provided.
de Araújo, Ramon Everton Ferreira; Nagamachi, Cleusa Yoshiko; da Costa, Marlyson Jeremias Rodrigues; Noronha, Renata Coelho Rodrigues; Rodrigues, Luís Reginaldo Ribeiro; Pieczarka, Julio César
Twelve specimens of the bat Cormura brevirostris (Emballonuridae: Chiroptera) were collected from four localities in the Brazilian Amazon region and analyzed by classical and molecular cytogenetics. The diploid number and autosomal fundamental number were as previously reported (2n = 22 and FNa = 40, respectively). Fluorescence in situ hybridization using rDNA probes and silver nitrate technique demonstrated the presence of two NOR sites and the presence of internal telomeric sequences at pericentromeric regions of all chromosomes with exception of Y. Based on meiotic studies and chromosome banding we suggest that the sex chromosome pair of C. brevirostris was equivocally identified as it appears in the literature. Meiotic analysis demonstrated that at diplotene-diakinesis the cells had a ring conformation involving four chromosome pairs. This suggests the occurrence of multiple reciprocal translocations among these chromosomes, which is a very rare phenomenon in vertebrates, and has never been described in Eutheria.
Richards, Leigh R; Rambau, Ramugondo V; Lamb, Jennifer M; Taylor, Peter J; Yang, Fengtang; Schoeman, M Corrie; Goodman, Steven M
The chiropteran fauna of Madagascar comprises eight of the 19 recognized families of bats, including the endemic Myzopodidae. While recent systematic studies of Malagasy bats have contributed to our understanding of the morphological and genetic diversity of the island's fauna, little is known about their cytosystematics. Here we investigate karyotypic relationships among four species, representing four families of Chiroptera endemic to the Malagasy region using cross-species chromosome painting with painting probes of Myotis myotis: Myzopodidae (Myzopoda aurita, 2n = 26), Molossidae (Mormopterus jugularis, 2n = 48), Miniopteridae (Miniopterus griveaudi, 2n = 46), and Vespertilionidae (Myotis goudoti, 2n = 44). This study represents the first time a member of the family Myzopodidae has been investigated using chromosome painting. Painting probes of M. myotis were used to delimit 29, 24, 23, and 22 homologous chromosomal segments in the genomes of M. aurita, M. jugularis, M. griveaudi, and M. goudoti, respectively. Comparison of GTG-banded homologous chromosomes/chromosomal segments among the four species revealed the genome of M. aurita has been structured through 14 fusions of chromosomes and chromosomal segments of M. myotis chromosomes leading to a karyotype consisting solely of bi-armed chromosomes. In addition, chromosome painting revealed a novel X-autosome translocation in M. aurita. Comparison of our results with published chromosome maps provided further evidence for karyotypic conservatism within the genera Mormopterus, Miniopterus, and Myotis. Mapping of chromosomal rearrangements onto a molecular consensus phylogeny revealed ancestral syntenies shared between Myzopoda and other bat species of the infraorders Pteropodiformes and Vespertilioniformes. Our study provides further evidence for the involvement of Robertsonian (Rb) translocations and fusions/fissions in chromosomal evolution within Chiroptera.
Mao, Xiuguang; Nie, Wenhui; Wang, Jinhuan; Su, Weiting; Ao, Lei; Feng, Qing; Wang, Yingxiang; Volleth, Marianne; Yang, Fengtang
Rhinolophus (Rhinolophidae) is the second most speciose genus in Chiroptera and has extensively diversified diploid chromosome numbers (from 2n = 28 to 62). In spite of many attempts to explore the karyotypic evolution of this genus, most studies have been based on conventional Giemsa staining rather than G-banding. Here we have made a whole set of chromosome-specific painting probes from flow-sorted chromosomes of Aselliscus stoliczkanus (Hipposideridae). These probes have been utilized to establish the first genome-wide homology maps among six Rhinolophus species with four different diploid chromosome numbers (2n = 36, 44, 58, and 62) and three species from other families: Rousettus leschenaulti (2n = 36, Pteropodidae), Hipposideros larvatus (2n = 32, Hipposideridae), and Myotis altarium (2n = 44, Vespertilionidae) by fluorescence in situ hybridization. To facilitate integration with published maps, human paints were also hybridized to A. stoliczkanus chromosomes. Our painting results substantiate the wide occurrence of whole-chromosome arm conservation in Rhinolophus bats and suggest that Robertsonian translocations of different combinations account for their karyotype differences. Parsimony analysis using chromosomal characters has provided some new insights into the Rhinolophus ancestral karyotype and phylogenetic relationships among these Rhinolophus species so far studied. In addition to Robertsonian translocations, our results suggest that whole-arm (reciprocal) translocations involving multiple non-homologous chromosomes as well could have been involved in the karyotypic evolution within Rhinolophus, in particular those bats with low and medium diploid numbers.
Full Text Available Abstract The lesser horseshoe bat Rhinolophus hipposideros was recorded for the first time from Syria in 2005-06. Two solitary hibernating specimens (a male and a female were collected from an underground cave in Basofan village, NW of Aleppo, and from Al Marqab Citadel, Banyas. External and cranial measurements are given for both specimens. The list of recorded species of bats of Syria includes 17 species. Riassunto Prima segnalazione di Rinolofo minore Rhinolophus hipposideros (Bechstein, 1800 (Rhinolophidae, Chiroptera in Siria La specie è stata rinvenuta nel 2005-06 con il ritrovamento di due esemplari solitari ibernanti (un maschio e una femmina, rispettivamente in una grotta presso il paese di Basofan, NO di Aleppo e in Al Marqab, Banyas. Per entrambi gli esemplari sono riportate le misure craniali e esterne. Con il ritrovamento del Rinolofo minore la chirotterofauna della Siria è attualmente rappresentata da 17 specie.
A modified multiscale peak alignment method combined with trilinear decomposition to study the volatile/heat-labile components in Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort - Cyperus rotundus rhizomes by HS-SPME-GC/MS.
He, Min; Yan, Pan; Yang, Zhi-Yu; Zhang, Zhi-Min; Yang, Tian-Biao; Hong, Liang
Head Space/Solid Phase Micro-Extraction (HS-SPME) coupled with Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometer (GC/MS) was used to determine the volatile/heat-labile components in Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort - Cyperus rotundus rhizomes. Facing co-eluting peaks in k samples, a trilinear structure was reconstructed to obtain the second-order advantage. The retention time (RT) shift with multi-channel detection signals for different samples has been vital in maintaining the trilinear structure, thus a modified multiscale peak alignment (mMSPA) method was proposed in this paper. The peak position and peak width of representative ion profile were firstly detected by mMSPA using Continuous Wavelet Transform with Haar wavelet as the mother wavelet (Haar CWT). Then, the raw shift was confirmed by Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) cross correlation calculation. To obtain the optimal shift, Haar CWT was again used to detect the subtle deviations and be amalgamated in calculation. Here, to ensure there is no peaks shape alternation, the alignment was performed in local domains of data matrices, and all data points in the peak zone were moved via linear interpolation in non-peak parts. Finally, chemical components of interest in Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort - Cyperus rotundus rhizomes were analyzed by HS-SPME-GCMS and mMSPA-alternating trilinear decomposition (ATLD) resolution. As a result, the concentration variation between herbs and their pharmaceutical products can provide a scientific basic for the quality standard establishment of traditional Chinese medicines. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available A Ordem Chiroptera apresenta importância relevante na dinâmica dos ecossistemas, sendo a ordem de mamíferos com maior diversidade de hábitos de vida. Dentre os estados da região Sudeste do Brasil, o Espírito Santo é um dos mais carentes em relação ao conhecimento de morcegos. Este estudo sintetizou o estado do conhecimento sobre quirópteros gerado no Espírito Santo. Para isso, foram catalogados os morcegos depositados no Museu de Biologia Prof. Mello Leitão (MBML, no Laboratório de Estudos de Quirópteros da Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo (LABEQ, Museum of Vertebrate Zoology (MVZ, Royal Ontario Museum (ROM, American Museum of Natural History (AMNH e University of Michigan Museum Zoology (UMMZ. Além disso, foi realizada uma busca por artigos publicados sobre morcegos do Espírito Santo. Foram revistos 49 artigos científicos, realizadas três teses de mestrado e 11 monografias. Considerando as coleções amostradas e artigos publicados totalizam-se 63 espécies de morcegos para o estado, provenientes de 37 dos 78 municípios do Espírito Santo. A maior riqueza de espécies de morcegos foi encontrada nos municípios de Linhares e Santa Teresa, o que é provavelmente reflexo da maior parte dos espécimes depositados nos museus também serem desses municípios. O Espírito Santo apresenta um grande potencial para se encontrar novas ocorrências de espécies, enfatizando a importância da realização de futuros estudos sobre morcegos no estado.The Order Chiroptera plays a vital role in ecosystem dynamics. Among the states of Southeastern Brazil, Espírito Santo State is the one with the least known bat fauna. This study reports on the current state of knowledge on Espírito Santo bats generating this data bank. We have catalogued the bats deposited in the Biology Museum Prof. Mello Leitão (MBML, Laboratory of Bat Studies of the Federal University of Espírito Santo (LABEQ, Museum of Vertebrate Zoology (MVZ, Royal Ontario
Faith M Walker
Full Text Available Bat guano is a relatively untapped reservoir of information, having great utility as a DNA source because it is often available at roosts even when bats are not and is an easy type of sample to collect from a difficult-to-study mammalian order. Recent advances from microbial community studies in primer design, sequencing, and analysis enable fast, accurate, and cost-effective species identification. Here, we borrow from this discipline to develop an order-wide DNA mini-barcode assay (Species from Feces based on a segment of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase I (COI. The assay works effectively with fecal DNA and is conveniently transferable to low-cost, high-throughput Illumina MiSeq technology that also allows simultaneous pairing with other markers. Our PCR primers target a region of COI that is highly discriminatory among Chiroptera (92% species-level identification of barcoded species, and are sufficiently degenerate to allow hybridization across diverse bat taxa. We successfully validated our system with 54 bat species across both suborders. Despite abundant arthropod prey DNA in guano, our primers were highly specific to bats; no arthropod DNA was detected in thousands of feces run on Sanger and Illumina platforms. The assay is extendable to fecal pellets of unknown age as well as individual and pooled guano, to allow for individual (using singular fecal pellets and community (using combined pellets collected from across long-term roost sites analyses. We developed a searchable database (http://nau.edu/CEFNS/Forestry/Research/Bats/Search-Tool/ that allows users to determine the discriminatory capability of our markers for bat species of interest. Our assay has applications worldwide for examining disease impacts on vulnerable species, determining species assemblages within roosts, and assessing the presence of bat species that are vulnerable or facing extinction. The development and analytical pathways are rapid, reliable, and
Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; e Silva, Kylvia Rocha de Castro; Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Moura, Francisco Bergson Pinheiro; Duarte, Naylê Francelino Holanda; Marques, Francisca Jakelyne de Farias; Cordeiro, Rebecca de Aguiar; Filho, Renato Evando Moreira; de Araújo, Roberto Wagner Bezerra; Bandeira, Tereza de Jesus Pinheiro Gomes; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa
To analyze the eco-epidemiologic aspects of Histoplasma capsulatum in Brazil, we tested 83 bats for this fungus. Although H. capsulatum was not isolated, Coccidioides posadasii was recovered from Carollia perspicillata bat lungs. Immunologic studies detected coccidioidal antibodies and antigens in Glossophaga soricina and Desmodus rotundus bats.
Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; Rocha de Castro e Silva, Kylvia; Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Moura, Francisco Bergson Pinheiro; Duarte, Naylê Francelino Holanda; Marques, Francisca Jakelyne de Farias; Cordeiro, Rebecca de Aguiar; Filho, Renato Evando Moreira; Bezerra de Araújo, Roberto Wagner; Bandeira, Tereza de Jesus Pinheiro Gomes; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa
To analyze the eco-epidemiologic aspects of Histoplasma capsulatum in Brazil, we tested 83 bats for this fungus. Although H. capsulatum was not isolated, Coccidioides posadasii was recovered from Carollia perspicillata bat lungs. Immunologic studies detected coccidioidal antibodies and antigens in Glossophaga soricina and Desmodus rotundus bats.
Durettenema guangdongense gen. et sp. nov. (Nematoda: Molineoidea) from Hipposideros larvatus (Horsfield) (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae) with discussion of the taxonomic status of Macielia rhinolophi Yin, 1980.
Ju, Hui-Dong; Li, Liang; Zhang, Lu-Ping
Durettenema guangdongense gen. et sp. nov. is described from Hipposideros larvatus (Horsfield) (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae) in Guangdong Province, China. The new genus differs from the other genera of subfamily Molineinae in the structure of the synlophe, the absence of lateral alae, the arrangement of the bursa rays, the shape of the spicules, the female tail and the presence of gubernaculum. Meanwhile, considering the morphological characters of Macielia rhinolophi Yin, 1980, including the pattern of the bursa ray, the shape of the spicules, and the female tail, this species should be transferred to the genus Durettenema, as D. rhinolophi (Yin, 1980) comb. nov., which can be distinguished from D. guangdongense in the shape of the ovejector. In addition, the ITS-1 sequences of D. guangdongense were also analysed, these sequence added new data for the molecular diagnosis of trichostrongylid nematodes.
José A. Laynez Garsaball
Full Text Available La investigación tuvo por fi nalidad determinar los efectos de extractos acuosos del follaje de Cyperus rotundus L. sobre la germinación de semillas y el crecimiento de plántulas de maíz ( Zea mays L. cv. Pioneer 3031. Un primer extracto al 15% p/v fue preparado con el follaje de plantas mays L. cv . Pioneer 3031. Un primer extracto al 15% p/v fue preparado con el follaje de plantas mays de C. rotundus de 15 días, se dejó reposar por 48 h y luego se obtuvo por dilución extractos al 0; 2,0; 4,0 y 6,0% p/v evaluándoseles pH y conductividad eléctrica (S.cm -1 . Para la siembra se utilizaron bandejas cubiertas con una doble capa de papel absorbente sobre la que se colocó 20 semillas/bandeja, tapadas con dos hojas más de papel y regadas tres veces al día con los extrac- tos foliares. El tratamiento control recibió agua corriente. El diseño estadístico fue bloques al azar con cuatro concentraciones de extracto y cinco repeticiones. A los 12 días después de la siembra se determinaron los diferentes parámetros de germinación y crecimiento. Se práctico un análisis de varianza y regresión para los parámetros estudiados. El pH disminuyó y la CE incrementó al aumentar la concentración del extracto. La germinación, altura de las plántulas, longitud de las radículas, peso seco del vástago y relación peso seco del vástago/peso seco de la radícula dismi- nuyeron proporcionalmente al aumento de la concentración de extracto, contrariamente, el peso seco de la radícula incrementó. La relación altura de la plántula/longitud de la radícula no presentó diferencias signifi cativas en las fuentes de variación.
Tissue-specific metabolite profiling of Cyperus rotundus L. rhizomes and (+)-nootkatone quantitation by laser microdissection, ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques.
Jaiswal, Yogini; Liang, Zhitao; Guo, Ping; Ho, Hing-Man; Chen, Hubiao; Zhao, Zhongzhen
Cyperus rotundus L. is a plant species commonly found in both India and China. The caused destruction of this plant is of critical concern for agricultural produce. Nevertheless, it can serve as a potential source of the commercially important sesquiterpenoid (+)-nootkatone. The present work describes comparative metabolite profiling and (+)-nootkatone content determination in rhizome samples collected from these two countries. Laser dissected tissues, namely, the cortex, hypodermal fiber bundles, endodermis, amphivasal vascular bundles, and whole rhizomes were analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF MS). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was used for profiling of essential oil constituents and quantitation of (+)-nootkatone. The content of (+)-nootkatone was found to be higher in samples from India (30.47 μg/10 g) compared to samples from China (21.72 μg/10 g). The method was validated as per International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) guidelines (Q2 R1). The results from this study can be applied for quality control and efficient utilization of this terpenoid-rich plant for several applications in food-based industries.
Full Text Available The micromammals remains from the Late Pleistocene site of the cave of El Castillo studied here in detail, came from the Aurignacian levels 18b and 18c (dated in 40.000-45.000 BP, level 19, and the Musterian levels 20b, 20c, 20d, 20e (dated in 41.000-49.000 BP, 21a and 21b. The micromammal association is the following: Erinaceus europaeus, Crocidura russula, Sorex coronatus, Sorex minutus, Neomys fodiens, Talpa europaea, Galemys pyrenaicus, cf. Miniopterus schreibersii, Chiroptera indet., Pliomys lenki, Microtus arvalis – Microtus agrestis, Microtus lusitanicus, Microtus oeconomus, Chionomys nivalis, Arvicola terrestris, Apodemus sylvaticus – Apodemus flavicollis and Lepus sp. Most of these species are in the present fauna of Cantabria, except Pliomys lenki that got extinct in the last third of the Upper Pleistocene, and Microtus oeconomus that disappeared from the Iberian Peninsula during the Holocene, in historical times, and is nowadays present in northern Euroasiatic regions. There is a great continuity of most of the taxa in all the levels. The faunal association seems to indicate a mainly open environment, in general with wet meadows (and few dry meadows, with good vegetation cover in the soil, with perhaps also some tree-covered areas, and some watercourses. The thermophiles indicators are very scarce, which could indicate that the climate could be a lesser temperate than other Upper Pleistocene periods and the present-day climate in the area.
Mário Pinzan Scatena
Full Text Available To establish a technique which minimized the effects of fixation on the extraction of DNA from formalin-fixed tissues preserved in scientific collections we extracted DNA samples from fixed tissues using different methods and evaluated the effect of the different procedures on PCR and sequencing analysis. We investigated muscle and liver tissues from museum specimens of five species of fruit-eating (frugivorous bats of the Neotropical genus Artibeus (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae: A. fimbriatus, A. lituratus, A. jamaicensis, A. obscurus, and A. planirostris. The results indicated that treatment of tissues in buffered solutions at neutral pH and about 37 °C for at least four days improves the quality and quantity of extracted DNA and the quality of the amplification and sequencing products. However, the comparison between the performance of DNA obtained from fixed and fresh tissues showed that, in spite of the fact that both types of tissue generate reliable sequences for use in phylogenetic analyses, DNA samples from fixed tissues presented a larger rate of errors in the different stages of the study. These results suggest that DNA extracted from formalin-fixed tissue can be used in molecular studies of Neotropical Artibeus bats and that our methodology may be applicable to other animal groups.
Lord, R D
Studies of pregnancy and lactation in vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) in northern Argentina over a 4 yr period showed an inverse relationship between prevalence of pregnancy and lactation, the consequence of birth and onset of lactation, which was correlated with the wet season. The seasonal influx of young susceptibles into the vampire population in the wet season coincided with the well known increase in vampire transmitted rabies in that season.
virtud de su importancia como reservorio de la diversidad biológica que tipifica los ecosistemas boscosos de la Cordillera de la Costa, una bio-región altamente amenazada como consecuencia de un elevado crecimiento socio-económico.Bats (Chiroptera: Mammalia from Yurubí National Park, Venezuela: taxonomic list and community study. Bats represent a key component in the dynamics of many terrestrial ecosystems, and one of the groups of mammals with the highest levels of diversification in the Neotropics. Here we describe the results of a study of the bat fauna from Yurubí National Park (mountain area in Northern Venezuela, that includes a taxonomic list and the characterization of some community attributes in forested areas. Data was collected from zoological collections and diversified sampling methods from February to July of 2009 in an altitudinal gradient (100-1 500m, with three principal ecological units: semideciduous, evergreen and cloud forests. We recorded 64 species grouped in five families (63% of the bats known from La Cordillera de la Costa, of which Phyllostomidae was the dominant taxa (42 species; 66% of total, followed by Vespertilionidae, Molossidae, Emballonuridae and Mormoopidae. The community with the highest taxonomic diversification was found in the lowest elevation range, while the lowest number of species was found at the highest range. Eleven trophic guilds were identified; the insectivorous guild was the richest, whereas the frugivorous was the most abundant. Our results allow us to indicate these forest ecosystems have an appropriate conservation status, taking into account the presence of a relatively high proportion of species from the subfamily Phyllostominae, as well as the presence of other species with conservation priorities. All these aspects, and the fact that this represents a reservoir of the biological diversity of the forest ecosystems of La Cordillera de la Costa, make this protected area of an essential conservation value, in a
M. Brock Fenton
Full Text Available With over 130 species, bats are the most diverse group of mammals almost everywhere in sub-Saharan Africa. Since 2000, two books (Monadjem et al. 2010; Taylor 2000 have made it much easier to appreciate this reality. Species previously unrecognised are frequent discoveries (e.g. Taylor et al. 2012. Whilst most species are mainly insectivorous, some rely more directly on plants, taking fruit and visiting flowers to obtain nectar and pollen. The combination of mobility, long lifespan and diversity of trophic roles makes bats potentially valuable as indicators of ecosystem health (Cumming & Spiesman 2006. Lack of detailed information, however, makes it easy to overlook bats when focusing on issues of conservation.
M. Brock Fenton
Full Text Available With over 130 species, bats are the most diverse group of mammals almost everywhere in sub-Saharan Africa. Since 2000, two books (Monadjem et al. 2010; Taylor 2000 have made it much easier to appreciate this reality. Species previously unrecognised are frequent discoveries (e.g. Taylor et al. 2012. Whilst most species are mainly insectivorous, some rely more directly on plants, taking fruit and visiting flowers to obtain nectar and pollen. The combination of mobility, long lifespan and diversity of trophic roles makes bats potentially valuable as indicators of ecosystem health (Cumming & Spiesman 2006. Lack of detailed information, however, makes it easy to overlook bats when focusing on issues of conservation.
Laar, van Vincent; Daan, Serge
On a trip to Greece between the 25th April and the 25th July 1963, the authors collected (on the mainland and some islands in the Aegean) insects, amphibians and reptiles as well as 194 mammals. Among the mammals, mainly rodents and insectivores, there were also 27 bats, belonging to five species.
Full Text Available In this study we compared the wing morphology of eight species of bats inhabiting Chile, including two previous studied species. We correlated the results with ecological information. Aspect ratio, wing span, wing area, wing loading and the second moment of area of humerus midshaft were estimated for the molossid Mormopterus kalinowskii, the phyllostomidae Desmodus rotundus and the vespertilionids Histiotus montanus, Histiotus macrotus, Lasiurus borealis, and Lasiurus cinereus. The free-tailed bats T. brasiliensis and M.kalinowskii and D. rotundus, without uropatagyum, showed a low wing area, but whilst the molossids showed large aspect ratios, that of D. rotundus was only moderate. Desmodus rotundus showed the lowest wing span (relative to the expected one and the largest wing loading. The second moment of area of the humerus midshaft of M. chiloensis is lower than the expected values from the allometric predictions, suggesting poorer resistance to bending and torsional forces. All other vespertilionids, showed a high second moment of area of humerus. This may be explained by the highly expensive form of locomotion, especially in species with high parasite power as a consequence of their long ears. The high Ih of D. rotundus that can be explained by its high body mass which increase the torque produced by the weight and a low aspect ratio. The principal component analysis showed two orthogonal axes, the first correlated positively with the wing loading and negatively with the mass corrected wingspan and the second component with the aerodynamic efficiency parameter, AR. Four functional groups, one per quadrant, were described: (1 Desmodus rotundus, with high wing loading but low corrected wing span, was in the increased agility zone, with moderate power consumption during flight; (2 the molossids were located in the high speed flight and low total power zone, showing a high aerodynamic efficiency; (3 most of vespertilionids were in the zone of
Anomalias e variações na fórmula dentária em morcegos do gênero Artibeus Leach (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae Anomalies and variation in the dental formula of bats of the genus Artibeus Leach (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae
Ana Maria Rui
Full Text Available Descreve-se a ocorrência e analisa-se as causas de anomalias dentárias em Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 e A. fimbriatus Gray, 1838 (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae provenientes de populações do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, sul do Brasil. São discutidas, com base no material examinado e em ampla revisão da literatura, as variações quanto à presença dos terceiros molares superior e inferior entre diferentes espécies de Artibeus Leach, 1821. Foram analisados 104 crânios de A. lituratus e 44 de A. fimbriatus quanto à fórmula dentária. Em A. lituratus ocorreram dois casos de dentes extranumerários, um incisivo superior e um terceiro molar superior direito, e um de agênese dentária dos terceiros molares inferiores. Em A. fimbriatus constatou-se a ocorrência de um segundo pré-molar superior direito extranumerário. As ocorrências do terceiro molar superior em A. lituratus e do segundo pré-molar superior em A. fimbriatus são casos de atavismos. Em Artibeus (Artibeus ocorrem variações quanto à presença do terceiro molar superior, de maior ou menor intensidade, em praticamente todas as espécies. Estas variações ocorrem tanto a nível intrapopulacional quanto geográfico. Já o terceiro molar inferior está ausente em baixa freqüência em várias populações de diferentes espécies. Os terceiros molares superiores e inferiores estão em processo de desaparecimento na linhagem dos Artibeus (Artibeus. O fato destes dentes já não ocorrerem em algumas espécies, terem ocorrência variável em outras e serem sempre estruturas reduzidas e simplificadas, sem função na mastigação, são indicativos deste processo evolutivo. A variação intensa observada quanto à ocorrência do terceiro molar superior inviabiliza o seu uso como caráter útil na identificação de espécies.This paper describes and analyzes the causes of dental formula anomalies in the bats Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 and Artibeus fimbriatus Gray, 1838
Oviedo, Mirna C; Ramallo, Geraldine; Claps, Lucía E; Miotti, M Daniela
A new species of Biacantha Wolfgang, 1954 (Nematoda: Molineidae), is described from the common vampire bat, Desmodus rotundus Geoffroy and St. Hilaire, 1810, from northwest Argentina. Biacantha normaliae n. sp. Oviedo, Ramallo, and Claps, is characterized by the disposition and number of ridges of the synlophe, the excretory pore located on a knob, 2 lateral processes on the tail of females, the male caudal bursa morphology, and lack of gubernaculum. This is the first species of nematode described in a vampire bat from Argentina.
Zepeda Mendoza, M. Lisandra; Xiong, Zijun; Escalera-Zamudio, Marina
Adaptation to specialized diets often requires modifications at both genomic and microbiome levels. We applied a hologenomic approach to the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus), one of the only three obligate blood-feeding (sanguivorous) mammals, to study the evolution of its complex dietary...... adaptation. Specifically, we assembled its high-quality reference genome (scaffold N50 = 26.9 Mb, contig N50 = 36.6 kb) and gut metagenome, and compared them against those of insectivorous, frugivorous and carnivorous bats. Our analyses showed a particular common vampire bat genomic landscape regarding...
Zepeda Mendoza, M. Lisandra; Xiong, Zijun; Escalera-Zamudio, Marina
Adaptation to specialized diets often requires modifications at both genomic and microbiome levels. We applied a hologenomic approach to the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus), one of the only three obligate blood-feeding (sanguivorous) mammals, to study the evolution of its complex dietary...... integrated viral elements, a dietary and phylogenetic influence on gut microbiome taxonomic and functional profiles, and that both genetic elements harbour key traits related to the nutritional (for example, vitamin and lipid shortage) and non-nutritional (for example, nitrogen waste and osmotic homeostasis...
difficulté de leur maîtrise. Dans ce cas, le recours au traitement chimique devient incontournable. Mais, les produits chimiques pour contrôler cette adventice en culture cannière font cruellement défaut dans le contexte ivoirien. Ainsi, par exemple, le glyphosate a été testé vainement sur elle mais avec succès sur Imperata ...
Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research April 2017; 16 (4): 867-871 ... 1Shandong University School of Medicine, Jinan, 250012, 2Department of Psychology, People's Hospital of Linyi City, Linyi,. 276003 ..... Academic Press, 1977: 692-698. 8. Porsolt RD, Bertin A ... Lim DW, Jung JW, Park JH, Baek NI, Kim YT, Kim IH,.
in the genus Cyperus of the family Cyperaceae, which is pungent, slightly ... African Health Sciences Vol 16 Issue 4, December, 2016. 1000 ... L. purchased was identified by Teach- er Fang ..... Evaluation of Bcl-2 and Bax protein expressions.
CRLE) in rats. Methods: A rat model of depression was prepared for behavioral tests including tail suspension test or forced swimming test. Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups (n = 10): normal group (0.9 % NaCl), model group ...
Full Text Available Abstract Captivity observation on body weight cycle and digestive efficiency in Pipistrellus kuhlii and Hypsugo savii (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae Many bat species of cold-temperate climate are subject to seasonal variation of temperature and food availability. Fat reserve during summer-autumn is therefore a physiological adaptation to spend the winter months by hibernating or to sustain migration. During a research on bats in urban areas, two juveniles of Kuhl's bat (Pipistrellus kuhlii, 2 females and two juveniles of Savi's bat (Hypsugo savii, 1 male and 1 female were collected in 1997 in the urban area of Florence (central Italy. Bats were kept in a cage of 50x40x30 cm with a temperature between 17° and 22° C. Every day they were weighted with an electronic balance before eating mealworms (Tenebrio molitor. Digestive efficiency, calculated on dry material, was about 90% for both species. In about six months P. kuhlii and H. savii increased on the average of 450% and 280% in weight respectively. Deposition of fat reserve seemed to be faster in P. kuhlii than in H. savii. Both species showed a circannual cycle in the variation of weight. Riassunto Molte specie di pipistrelli dei climi temperato-freddi sono soggette a marcate variazioni stagionali di temperatura e disponibilità di cibo. L'accumulo di grasso in tarda estate-autunno è quindi un adattamento fisiologico per trascorrere in ibernazione i mesi invernali o per intraprendere la migrazione. Nell'ambito di una ricerca pluriennale sui pipistrelli in ambienti urbani, 4 esemplari giovani, di cui 2 di Pipistrello albolimbato (Pipistrellus kuhlii, 2 femmine e due di Pipistrello di Savi (Hypsugo savii, 1 maschio e 1 femmina, sono stati raccolti nella pianura di Firenze durante l'estate del 1997 e mantenuti in un contenitore di 50x40x30 cm ad
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Rabies is an important zoonosis that causes thousands of deaths worldwide each year. Although the terrestrial cycle, mainly transmitted by dogs, is controlled in Brazil, the aerial cycle remains a serious public health issue, besides the economic problem. In the aerial cycle, the haematophagous bat Desmodus rotundus is the main source of infection, where several different species of non-haematophagous bats can be infected and can transmit the virus. METHODS: The aim of this work was to study the epidemiological pattern of rabies using antigenic characterization with monoclonal antibodies and genetic characterization by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction followed by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of non-haematophagous bats' and herbivorous animals' central nervous system samples from the western region of the State of São Paulo, Brazil. RESULTS: From 27 samples, 3 antigenic variants were identified: AgV-3, AgV-4, and AgV-6; and from 29 samples, 5 different clusters were identified, all belonging to the rabies virus species. CONCLUSIONS: Although only non-haematophagous bats were evaluated in the studied region, the majority of samples were from antigenic and genetic variants related to haematophagous bats Desmodus rotundus. Samples from the same antigenic variant were segregated in more than one genetic cluster. This study demonstrated the diversity of rabies virus genetic lineages presented and circulating in non-haematophagous bats in the studied region.
Guillermo L. Claps
Full Text Available Se presentan nuevos registros de Streblidae para el departamento Lima (Perú, que parasitan a tres especies de murciélagos de la familia Phyllostomidae: Anoura geoffroyi Gray, Carollia perspicillata (Linneo y Desmodus rotundus (Geoffroy. Se amplía la distribución geográfica de Anastrebla modestini Wenzel, Aspidoptera falcata Wenzel, Exastinion clovisi (Pessôa & Guimarães, Megistopoda aranea (Coquillett, Speiseria ambigua Kessel y Strebla wiedemanni Kolenati (Diptera, Streblidae, dado que se registran por primera vez en el departamento, y A. modestini y E. clovisi se mencionan por primera vez en Perú.New distributional records for bat ectoparasites (Streblidae, are presented for the Department of Lima (Perú. They were reported as collected on bats of the family Phyllostomidae: Anoura geoffroyi Gray, Carollia perspicillata (Linneo and Desmodus rotundus (Geoffroy. The distribution of Anastrebla modestini Wenzel, Aspidoptera falcata Wenzel, Exastinion clovisi (Pessôa & Guimarães, Megistopoda aranea (Coquillett, Speiseria ambigua Kessel and Strebla wiedemanni Kolenati (Diptera, Streblidae, is extended to the Department of Lima, and Anastrebla modestini and Exastinion clovisi are added to the fauna of Perú.
Noguera-Urbano, Elkin A; Escalante, Tania
The global effort to digitize biodiversity occurrence data from collections, museums and other institutions has stimulated the development of important tools to improve the knowledge and conservation of biodiversity. The Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) enables and opens access to biodiversity data of 321 million of records, from 379 host institutions. Neotropical bats are a highly diverse and specialized group, and the geographic information about them is increasing since few years ago, but there are a few reports about this topic. The aim of this study was to analyze the number of digital records in GBIF of Neotropical bats with distribution in 21 American countries, evaluating their nomenclatural and geographical consistence at scale of country. Moreover, we evaluated the gaps of information on 1 degrees latitude x 1 degrees longitude grids cells. There were over 1/2 million records, but 58% of them have no latitude and longitude data; and 52% full fit nomenclatural and geographic evaluation. We estimated that there are no records in 54% of the analyzed area; the principal gaps are in biodiversity hotspots like the Colombian and Brazilian Amazonia and Southern Venezuela. In conclusion, our study suggests that available data on GBIF have nomenclatural and geographic biases. GBIF data represent partially the bat species richness and the main gaps in information are in South America.
Wibbelt, Gudrun; Moore, Marianne S.; Schountz, Tony; Voigt, Christian C.
A conference entitled ‘2nd International Berlin Bat Meeting: Bat Biology and Infectious Diseases’ was held between the 19 and 21 of February 2010 in Berlin, Germany. Researchers from two major disciplines, bat biologists and disease specialists, met for the first time in an interdisciplinary event to share their knowledge about bat-associated diseases. The focus of the meeting was to understand why in particular bats are the hosts of so many of the most virulent diseases globally. During several sessions, key note speakers and participants discussed infectious diseases associated with bats, including viral diseases caused by Henipa-, Filo-, Corona- and Lyssaviruses, the spread of white-nose syndrome in North American bats, bat immunology/immunogenetics, bat parasites, and finally, conservation and human health issues. PMID:20427329
Full Text Available Currently twelve species of Myotis Kaup, 1829 (Vespertilionidae: Myotinae are recognized from South America, with several other named taxa regarded as synonyms, among them Myotis punensis J.A. Allen, 1914. This name was first regarded as a junior synonym of Myotis albescens (É. Geoffroy, 1806 and subsequently of Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821. To address the taxonomic status of the holotype of M. punensis, we compared it to all South American species in the genus. The fringe of hairs on the trailing edge of the uropatagium, the fur color, and external and skull dimensions all suggest M. punensis should be treated as a junior synonym of M. albescens
Bergmans, Wim; Jachmann, Hugo
Five species of bats are recorded from Kasungu National Park, Malawi: Eidolon helvum (Kerr, 1792); Epomophorus anurus Heuglin, 1864; Epomophorus minor Dobson, 1880; Epomops dobsonii (Bocage, 1889); and Scotoecus hindei Thomas, 1901. Some other Malawian records of these species, based on literature
Barriga Bonilla Ernesto
Full Text Available This work is a contribution to the systematic and zoogeographical knowledge of the Colombian mammals. Three species of bats (Artibeus concolor, Chiroderma trinitatum gorgasi and Todarida laticaudata are recorded by first time from this country Artibeus concolor (a species known up to date by three specimens recorded in the literature, two of them apparently lost is redescribed on the bases of six specimens collected in the vicinity of Mitú, Vaupés, The species is closely related to the sympatric A. cinereus but it is larger size (fairly evident when comparisons are made sex by sex and by the constancy of the M3 with cusps comparatively developed. The highest altitudinal record (2600 m. for Vampyrops dorsalis is reported. Chiroderma gorgasi is regarded as a subspecies of C. trinitatum and it is recorded from the vicinity of Mitú. The nominated subspecies of Lasiurus ega is recorded by the first time from Colombia. Tadarida laticaudata macarenensis (new subspecies known only from the southern end of the Macarena Mountains, Meta, can be distinguished from its closest neighbour (T.I. europs mainly by its larger size. T.I. macarenensis resembles T.l. laticaudata, but it is decidedly smaller, and furthermore their ranges are widely separated by the areal interposition of T. I. europs, a subspecies now recorded from Colombia by the first time. This work is a contribution to the systematic and zoogeographical knowledge of the Colombian mammals. Three species of bats (Artibeus concolor, Chiroderma trinitatum gorgasi and Todarida laticaudata are recorded by first time from this country Artibeus concolor (a species known up to date by three specimens recorded in the literature, two of them apparently lost is redescribed on the bases of six specimens collected in the vicinity of Mitú, Vaupés, The species is closely related to the sympatric A. cinereus but it is larger size (fairly evident when comparisons are made sex by sex and by the constancy of the M3 with cusps comparatively developed. The highest altitudinal record (2600 m. for Vampyrops dorsalis is reported. Chiroderma gorgasi is regarded as a subspecies of C. trinitatum and it is recorded from the vicinity of Mitú. The nominated subspecies of Lasiurus ega is recorded by the first time from Colombia. Tadarida laticaudata macarenensis (new subspecies known only from the southern end of the Macarena Mountains, Meta, can be distinguished from its closest neighbour (T.I. europs mainly by its larger size. T.I. macarenensis resembles T.l. laticaudata, but it is decidedly smaller, and furthermore their ranges are widely separated by the areal interposition of T. I. europs, a subspecies now recorded from Colombia by the first time.
Queiroz, Luzia Helena; Favoretto, Silvana Regina; Cunha, Elenice Maria S; Campos, Angélica Cristine A; Lopes, Marissol Cardoso; de Carvalho, Cristiano; Iamamoto, Keila; Araújo, Danielle Bastos; Venditti, Leandro Lima R; Ribeiro, Erica S; Pedro, Wagner André; Durigon, Edison Luiz
This epidemiological study was conducted using antigenic and genetic characterisation of rabies virus isolates obtained from different animal species in the southeast of Brazil from 1993 to 2007. An alteration in the epidemiological profile was observed. One hundred two samples were tested using a panel of eight monoclonal antibodies, and 94 were genetically characterised by sequencing the nucleoprotein gene. From 1993 to 1997, antigenic variant 2 (AgV-2), related to a rabies virus maintained in dog populations, was responsible for rabies cases in dogs, cats, cattle and horses. Antigenic variant 3 (AgV-3), associated with Desmodus rotundus, was detected in a few cattle samples from rural areas. From 1998 to 2007, rabies virus was detected in bats and urban pets, and four distinct variants were identified. A nucleotide similarity analysis resulted in two primary groups comprising the dog and bat antigenic variants and showing the distinct endemic cycles maintained in the different animal species in this region.
Ferreira, Felipe Silva; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino; Coutinho, Henrique Douglas Melo; Almeida, Waltécio de Oliveira; Alves, Rômulo Romeu da Nóbrega
Over the centuries, a significant part of the Brazilian fauna is widely sold, more specifically in retail stores or street markets. The objective was to characterize the sale of medicinal animals in five large northeast cities. Information about the sale of zootherapeutic items was obtained in the cities of Aracaju-SE, Fortaleza-CE, Maceio-AL, Recife-PE, and Salvador-BA. A total of 68 animal species were sold for medicinal purposes in the cities studied; these are the first results on the use and sale of zootherapeutics in the markets of Aracaju, Fortaleza, and Salvador and first recorded on the medicinal use of the Achatina fulica, Trachycardium muricatum, Philodryas olfersii, Desmodus rotundus, and Leptodactylus vastus. Knowledge of the fauna utilized popular medicine is indispensable for conservation, demonstrating that research on this subject is necessary to determine appropriate practices for the management of the fauna. PMID:22216053
Felipe Silva Ferreira
Full Text Available Over the centuries, a significant part of the Brazilian fauna is widely sold, more specifically in retail stores or street markets. The objective was to characterize the sale of medicinal animals in five large northeast cities. Information about the sale of zootherapeutic items was obtained in the cities of Aracaju-SE, Fortaleza-CE, Maceio-AL, Recife-PE, and Salvador-BA. A total of 68 animal species were sold for medicinal purposes in the cities studied; these are the first results on the use and sale of zootherapeutics in the markets of Aracaju, Fortaleza, and Salvador and first recorded on the medicinal use of the Achatina fulica, Trachycardium muricatum, Philodryas olfersii, Desmodus rotundus, and Leptodactylus vastus. Knowledge of the fauna utilized popular medicine is indispensable for conservation, demonstrating that research on this subject is necessary to determine appropriate practices for the management of the fauna.
Aspectos clínicos e epidemiológicos da raiva bovina apresentados na casuística da Clínica de Bovinos (Oliveira dos Campinhos, Santo Amaro, Bahia), Universidade Federal da Bahia, durante o período de janeiro de 1990 a dezembro de 1999 (Relato de caso)
Reis, M. C.; Costa, J. N.; Peixoto, Ana Paula Cardoso; Figueiredo, L. J. C.; Menezes, R. V.; Ferreira, M. M.; SÁ, J. E. U.
p. 12-17 A raiva é uma doença causada por um vírus que afeta predominantemente os mamíferos e caracteriza-se por apresentar curso agudo e fatal. O morcego hematófago Desmodus rotundus é o principal reservatório do vírus nas áreas rurais. Esta enfermidade tem importância mundial, por ser uma zoonose e provocar perdas econômicas elevadas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os aspectos clínicos e epidemiológicos de bovinos com diagnóstico clínico e laboratorial positivos para raiva. Foram ...
Streicker, Daniel G.; Cabezas-Sanchez, Cesar; Velasco-Villa, Andres
During the past decade, incidence of human infection with rabies virus (RABV) spread by the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) increased considerably in South America, especially in remote areas of the Amazon rainforest, where these bats commonly feed on humans. To better understand the epizootiology of rabies associated with vampire bats, we used complete sequences of the nucleoprotein gene to infer phylogenetic relationships among 157 RABV isolates collected from humans, domestic animals, and wildlife, including bats, in Peru during 2002–2007. This analysis revealed distinct geographic structuring that indicates that RABVs spread gradually and involve different vampire bat subpopulations with different transmission cycles. Three putative new RABV lineages were found in 3 non–vampire bat species that may represent new virus reservoirs. Detection of novel RABV variants and accurate identification of reservoir hosts are critically important for the prevention and control of potential virus transmission, especially to humans.
Ana Maria Navarro V
Full Text Available La rabia es una enfermedad endémica del Perú, que se presenta en dos ciclos, uno urbano relacionado a la transmisión por canes, y otro silvestre causado principalmente por la mordedura de murciélagos hematófagos. La mayoría de casos humanos de las últimas décadas han sido por rabia urbana, sin embargo, las medidas de control empleadas (campañas de vacunación canina, producción de vacunas, identificación del can mordedor, atención oportuna de la víctima y sistemas de vigilancia y notificación han logrado reducir la incidencia de rabia canina y por ende de los casos en humanos. Actualmente, el mayor número de casos humanos que se notifican en el Perú son causados por Desmodus rotundus.
Scheffer, Karin Corrêa; Iamamoto, Keila; Asano, Karen Miyuki; Mori, Enio; Estevez Garcia, Andrea Isabel; Achkar, Samira M; Fahl, Williande Oliveira
Rabies continues to be a challenge for public health authorities and a constraint to the livestock industry in Latin America. Wild and domestic canines and vampire bats are the main transmitter species and reservoirs of the disease. Currently, variations observed in the epidemiological profile of rabies, where the species of hematophagous bat Desmodus rotundus constitutes the main transmitting species. Over the years, knowledge has accumulated about the ecology, biology and behavior of this species and the natural history of rabies, which should lead to continuous development of methods of population control of d. Rotundus as well as prevention and diagnostic tools for rabies. Ecological relationships of this species with other hematophagous and non-hematophagous bats is unknown, and there is much room for improvement in reporting systems and surveillance, as well as creating greater awareness among the farming community. Understanding the impact of human-induced environmental changes on the rabies virus in bats should be cause for further investigation. This will require a combination of field studies with mathematical models and new diagnostic tools. This review aims to present the most relevant issues on the role of hematophagous bats as reservoirs and transmitters of the rabies virus.
Full Text Available The members of the Phyllostomidae, the New-World leaf-nosed family of bats, show a remarkable evolutionary diversification of dietary strategies including insectivory, as the ancestral trait, followed by appearance of carnivory and plant-based diets such as nectarivory and frugivory. Here we explore the microbiome composition of different feeding specialists: insectivore Macrotus waterhousii, sanguivore Desmodus rotundus, nectarivores Leptonycteris yerbabuenae and Glossophaga soricina, and frugivores Carollia perspicillata and Artibeus jamaicensis. The V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene from three intestinal regions of three individuals per species was amplified and community composition and structure was analyzed with α and β diversity metrics. Bats with plant-based diets had low diversity microbiomes, whereas the sanguivore D. rotundus and insectivore M. waterhousii had the most diverse microbiomes. There were no significant differences in microbiome composition between different intestine regions within each individual. Plant-based feeders showed less specificity in their microbiome compositions, whereas animal-based specialists, although more diverse overall, showed a more clustered arrangement of their intestinal bacterial components. The main characteristics defining microbiome composition in phyllostomids were species and feeding strategy. This study shows how differences in feeding strategies contributed to the development of different intestinal microbiomes in Phyllostomidae.
Carrillo-Araujo, Mario; Taş, Neslihan; Alcántara-Hernández, Rocio J.; Gaona, Osiris; Schondube, Jorge E.; Medellín, Rodrigo A.; Jansson, Janet K.; Falcón, Luisa I.
The members of the Phyllostomidae, the New-World leaf-nosed family of bats, show a remarkable evolutionary diversification of dietary strategies including insectivory, as the ancestral trait, followed by appearance of carnivory and plant-based diets such as nectarivory and frugivory. Here we explore the microbiome composition of different feeding specialists: insectivore Macrotus waterhousii, sanguivore Desmodus rotundus, nectarivores Leptonycteris yerbabuenae and Glossophaga soricina, and frugivores Carollia perspicillata and Artibeus jamaicensis. The V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene from three intestinal regions of three individuals per species was amplified and community composition and structure was analyzed with α and β diversity metrics. Bats with plant-based diets had low diversity microbiomes, whereas the sanguivore D. rotundus and insectivore M. waterhousii had the most diverse microbiomes. There were no significant differences in microbiome composition between different intestine regions within each individual. Plant-based feeders showed less specificity in their microbiome compositions, whereas animal-based specialists, although more diverse overall, showed a more clustered arrangement of their intestinal bacterial components. The main characteristics defining microbiome composition in phyllostomids were species and feeding strategy. This study shows how differences in feeding strategies contributed to the development of different intestinal microbiomes in Phyllostomidae. PMID:26042099
Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O laboratório do Pólo da Alta Sorocabana de Presidente Prudente, SP, em parceria com outras instituições de pesquisa, realizou estudos pertinentes aos morcegos da região oeste do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Para tal, foram pesquisadas algumas situações, tais como: a isolamento do vírus rábico, no período 2006 a 2008; b as respectivas variantes antigênicas; c abrigos diurnos do morcego hematófago Desmodus rotundus. MÉTODOS: As amostras para exame foram provenientes de morcegos não hematófagos encaminhadas ao laboratório sendo submetidas aos testes de imunofluorescência direta e prova biológica. As amostras positivas foram caracterizadas antigenicamente por meio do teste de anticorpos monoclonais. Quanto aos morcegos, foram identificados e classificados, e também foi realizado mapeamento de abrigos dos mesmos. RESULTADOS: O laboratório recebeu 1.113 morcegos não hematófagos para diagnóstico laboratorial, sendo 11 (1% deles positivos, e dentre as amostras positivas, 5 (45,5% delas tiveram variante antigênica 3 associada ao morcego D. rotundus e 4 (36,5% foram compatíveis com amostras de morcegos insetívoros. Foram pesquisados 16 abrigos de morcegos hematófagos e observou-se a presença de outras 3 espécies de morcegos não hematófagos convivendo com eles. CONCLUSÕES: Os experimentos mostraram que o vírus rábico continua circulando na região com pelo menos 3 variantes antigênicas, e que, a coabitação de morcegos hematófagos com não hematófagos pode ter alguma relação com a disseminação do vírus rábico.INTRODUCTION: The Polo da Alta Sorocabana Laboratory in Presidente Prudente, SP, in partnership with other research institutions, conducted studies related to bats from the western region of the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Thus, certain situations were investigated, including: a isolation of the rabies virus from 2006 to 2008; b identification of respective antigenic variants; and c
Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Eriksson, Alan; Santos, Carolina Ferreira; Fischer, Erich; de Almeida, Juliana Cardoso; Luz, Hermes R; Labruna, Marcelo B
Ticks associated with bats have been poorly documented in the Neotropical Zoogeographical Region. In this study, a total of 1028 bats were sampled for tick infestations in the southern portion of the Brazilian Pantanal. A total of 368 ticks, morphologically identified as Ornithodoros hasei (n = 364) and O. mimon (n = 4), were collected from the following bat species: Artibeus planirostris, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Phyllostomus hastatus, Mimon crenulatum and Noctilio albiventris. Morphological identification of O. hasei was confirmed by molecular analysis. Regarding the most abundant bat species, only 40 (6.2%) out of 650 A. planirostris were infested by O. hasei, with a mean intensity of 7.2 ticks per infested bat, or a mean abundance of 0.44 ticks per sampled bat. Noteworthy, one single P. hastatus was infested by 55 O. hasei larvae, in contrast to the 2.5-7.2 range of mean intensity values for the whole study. As a complement to the present study, a total of 8 museum bat specimens (6 Noctilio albiventris and 2 N. leporinus), collected in the northern region of Pantanal, were examined for tick infestations. These bats contained 176 ticks, which were all morphologically identified as O. hasei larvae. Mean intensity of infestation was 22, with a range of 1-46 ticks per infested bat. Our results suggest that A. planirostris might play an important role in the natural life cycle of O. hasei in the Pantanal.
Kovaleva, I M
Study on the morphology and morphogenesis of wing membranes in Bats has revealed some peculiarities in their structure and development. Understanding the embryogenesis of these animals, as well as attraction of data obtained on their molecular genetics and paleontology, allows one to single out some factors that could have initiated evolutionary modifications in development programs. A scenario of the key morphofunctional transformations in the forelimbs during the evolution of chiropterans is given.
Barragán, M J L; Martínez, S; Marchal, J A; Fernández, R; Bullejos, M; Díaz de la Guardia, R; Sánchez, A
This paper reports the molecular and cytogenetic characterization of a HindIII family of satellite DNA in the bat species Pipistrellus pipistrellus. This satellite is organized in tandem repeats of 418 bp monomer units, and represents approximately 3% of the whole genome. The consensus sequence from five cloned monomer units has an A-T content of 62.20%. We have found differences in the ladder pattern of bands between two populations of the same species. These differences are probably because of the absence of the target sites for the HindIII enzyme in most monomer units of one population, but not in the other. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) localized the satellite DNA in the pericentromeric regions of all autosomes and the X chromosome, but it was absent from the Y chromosome. Digestion of genomic DNAs with HpaII and its isoschizomer MspI demonstrated that these repetitive DNA sequences are not methylated. Other bat species were tested for the presence of this repetitive DNA. It was absent in five Vespertilionidae and one Rhinolophidae species, indicating that it could be a species/genus specific, repetitive DNA family.
Wu, Yi; Thong, Vu Dinh
A new species of the genus Rhinolophus is described from Yunnan Province, southwestern China. The new taxon belongs to the Rhinolophus "philippinensis-group" and is distinguished by differences in the nose-leaf structures, craniodental characteristics, and bacular features.
Curtis, Abigail A; Simmons, Nancy B
The mammalian nasal fossa contains a set of delicate and often structurally complex bones called turbinals. Turbinals and associated mucosae function in regulating respiratory heat and water loss, increasing surface area for olfactory tissue, and directing airflow within the nasal fossa. We used high-resolution micro-CT scanning to investigate a unique maxilloturbinal morphology in 37 species from the bat family Rhinolophidae, which we compared with those of families Hipposideridae, Megadermatidae, and Pteropodidae. Rhinolophids exhibit numerous structural modifications along the nasopharyngeal tract associated with emission of high duty cycle echolocation calls via the nostrils. In rhinolophids, we found that the maxilloturbinals and a portion of ethmoturbinal I form a pair of strand-like bony structures on each side of the nasal chamber. These structures project anteriorly from the transverse lamina and complete a hairpin turn to project posteriorly down the nasopharyngeal duct, and vary in length among species. The strand-like maxilloturbinals in Rhinolophidae were not observed in our outgroups and represent a synapomorphy for this family, and are unique in form among mammals. Within Rhinolophidae, maxilloturbinal size and cross-sectional shape were correlated with phylogeny. We hypothesize that strand-shaped maxilloturbinals may function to reduce respiratory heat and water loss without greatly impacting echolocation call transmission since they provide increased mucosal surface area for heat and moisture exchange but occupy minimal space. Alternatively, they may play a role in transmission of echolocation calls since they are located directly along the path sound travels between the larynx and nostrils during call emission. Anat Rec, 300:309-325, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Luz, Hermes Ribeiro; Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Almeida, Juliana Cardoso de; Faccini, João Luiz Horacio; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia
In this paper, the authors report ticks parasitizing bats from the Serra das Almas Natural Reserve (RPPN) located in the municipality of Crateús, state of Ceará, in the semiarid Caatinga biome of northeastern Brazil. The study was carried out during nine nights in the dry season (July 2012) and 10 nights in the rainy season (February 2013). Only bats of the Phyllostomidae and Mormoopidae families were parasitized by ticks. The species Artibeus planirostris and Carolia perspicillata were the most parasitized. A total of 409 larvae were collected and classified into three genera: Antricola (n = 1), Nothoaspis (n = 1) and Ornithodoros (n = 407). Four species were morphologically identified as Nothoaspis amazoniensis, Ornithodoros cavernicolous, Ornithodoros fonsecai, Ornithodoros hasei, and Ornithodoros marinkellei. Ornithodoros hasei was the most common tick associated with bats in the current study. The present study expand the distributional ranges of at least three soft ticks into the Caatinga biome, and highlight an unexpected richness of argasid ticks inhabiting this arid ecosystem.
Gunnell, Gregg F; Manthi, Fredrick K
Fossil bats from the Pliocene of Africa are extremely rare, especially in East Africa where meager records have been reported only from two localities in the Omo River Basin Shungura Formation and from a scattering of localities in the Afar Depression, both in Ethiopia. Here we report on a diverse assemblage of bats from Kanapoi in the Turkana Basin that date to approximately 4.19 million years ago. The Kanapoi bat community consists of four different species of fruit bats including a new genus and two new species as well as five species of echolocating bats, the most common of which are two new species of the molossid genus Mops. Additionally, among the echolocating bats, a new species of the emballonurid Saccolaimus is documented at Kanapoi along with an additional Saccolaimus species and a potentially new species of the nycterid Nycteris. Compared to other East African Pliocene bat assemblages, the Kanapoi bat community is unique in preserving molossids and curiously lacks any evidence of cave dwelling bats like rhinolophids or hipposiderids, which are both common at other East African sites. The bats making up the Kanapoi community all typically roost in trees, with some preferring deeper forests and larger trees (molossids), while the others (pteropodids, nycterids and emballonurids) roost in trees near open areas. Living fruit bats that are related to Kanapoi species typically forage for fruits along the margins of forests and in open savannah. The echolocating forms from Kanapoi consist of groups that aerially hawk for insects in open areas between patches of forest and along water courses. The habitats preferred by living relatives of the Kanapoi bats are in agreement with those constructed for Kanapoi based on other lines of evidence. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Koubínová, D.; Sreepada, K. S.; Koubek, Petr; Zima, Jan
Roč. 12, č. 2 (2010), s. 393-400 ISSN 1508-1109 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6093403; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : chromosomal evolution * karyosystematics * Robertsonian translocations Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.012, year: 2010
Hermes Ribeiro Luz
Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, the authors report ticks parasitizing bats from the Serra das Almas Natural Reserve (RPPN located in the municipality of Crateús, state of Ceará, in the semiarid Caatinga biome of northeastern Brazil. The study was carried out during nine nights in the dry season (July 2012 and 10 nights in the rainy season (February 2013. Only bats of the Phyllostomidae and Mormoopidae families were parasitized by ticks. The species Artibeus planirostris and Carolia perspicillata were the most parasitized. A total of 409 larvae were collected and classified into three genera: Antricola (n = 1, Nothoaspis (n = 1 and Ornithodoros (n = 407. Four species were morphologically identified as Nothoaspis amazoniensis, Ornithodoros cavernicolous, Ornithodoros fonsecai, Ornithodoros hasei, and Ornithodoros marinkellei. Ornithodoros hasei was the most common tick associated with bats in the current study. The present study expand the distributional ranges of at least three soft ticks into the Caatinga biome, and highlight an unexpected richness of argasid ticks inhabiting this arid ecosystem.
Albuja V., Luis; Gardner, Alfred L.
We describe Lonchophylla orcesi, sp. nov., from the Choco, a region of high biotic diversity, endemism, and rainfall along the western Andean slopes and Pacific lowlands of Colombia and Ecuador. One of the largest known Lonchophylla, it occurs sympatrically with at least two other species of Lonchophylla including the similar, but somewhat smaller L. robusta. We also recognize L. concava as a Middle American Province species distinct from L. mordax of Brazil and Bolivia on the basis of cranial and dental features.
Valdez, Ernest W.; Ritzi, Christopher M.; Whitaker, John O.
Only a single previous study has examined ectoparasites of the occult bat (Myotis occultus), from which only 2 species of fleas were identified. For our study, we examined 202 individuals, 52 fresh hosts and 150 museum specimens, from New Mexico and southern Colorado for ectoparasites. We recorded 2158 ectoparasites, 634 from fresh hosts and 1524 from museum specimens. Ectoparasites belonged to 10 families and 13 genera of insect or acari and represent new host and locality records. In general, ectoparasites collected from fresh hosts and museum specimens were represented by 4 major species of mite: Macronyssus crosbyi, Alabidocarpus calcaratus, Acanthophthirius lucifugus, and Alabidocarpus nr. eptesicus. From our study, we found fresh hosts to have significantly greater prevalence values for Myodopsylla gentilis (flea), Chiroptonyssus robustipes (mite), and Leptotrombidium myotis (chigger), whereas museum specimens had significantly greater prevalence values for A. calcaratus(mite) and A. nr. eptesicus (mite). There were no significant differences between prevalence values for 4 mites including M. crosbyi, A. lucifugus, Pteracarus nr. minutus, and Cryptonyssussp. Our study represents the only extensive study of ectoparasites on M. occultus and provides evidence for the importance of examining fresh hosts and museum specimens in future ectoparasite studies.
Morales-Malacara, J B; López, R
Four hundred nineteen arthropod ectoparasites were taken from Plecotus mexicanus (Vespertilionidae) collected in the state of Tlaxcala, Mexico: the insects Trichobius corynorhini Cockerell (Diptera: Streblidae) and Myodopsylla collinsi Kohls (Siphonaptera: Ischnopsyllidae) and the mites Macronyssus longisetosus (Furman) and M. unidens Radovsky (Macronyssidae), Spinturnix sp. (Spinturnicidae), Pteracarus elegans Dusbádek & Wilson and Acanthophthirius (Myotimyobia) sp. (Myobiidae), and Whartonia glenni Brennan (Trombiculidae). P. mexicanus is reported in the state of Tlaxcala for the first time. This is the first survey of ectoparasites of this bat, and all parasite associations with P. mexicanus are new host records as well as new range records for Tlaxcala. This is the first report from Mexico; it records a major southern extension of the ranges of M. longisetosus, M. unidens, and P. elegans. The genus Acanthophthirius is also reported in Mexico for the first time.
Ludmilla Moura de Souza Aguiar
Full Text Available In Brazil, there are two published references on the diet of American kestrel falcons, Falco sparverius Linnaeus, 1758, and one is for the Cerrado biome. The only mammal prey so far found in the diet of F. sparverius was the rodent Calomys tener (Winge, 1887. Herein we report on daily hunting activities by American kestrel falcons at a factory in the city of Uberlândia, state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, during an attempt to remove a bat colony. Two American kestrel falcons were observed on 14 occasions during two consecutive days: in two of these occasions, they were hunting in pairs, from 12:00 p.m. to 3:00 p.m. on 06/X/2003, and from 07:00 a.m. to 11:00 a.m. on 07/X/2003. During this period, American kestrel falcons made 27 hunting attempts and captured four bats of the same species, Nyctinomops laticaudatus (E. Geoffroy St.-Hilaire, 1805 (14.81% success. This report corroborates observations made in the Northern hemisphere, where bats are a dietary item of this falcon. Our findings are noteworthy because they reveal that the known natural predators of bats are few not only in Brazil but also worldwide.
The taxonomic history of Scotophilus borbonicus (E. Geoffroy, 1803) from Réunion Island is reviewed and summarised, with the designation of a lectotype. The insular form that it represents is considered conspecific with the small Scotophilus viridis (Peters, 1852) of southern Africa. As a result,
Full Text Available A reproductive colony of Phylloderma stenops was established in captivity. The bats were maintained in 1/2" wired screen cages sized 90 × 60 × 80 cm in a room with cycles of 13 hours of light and 11 hours of dark and with temperature and humidity ranging from 27 to 31 °C and 75 to 90% respectively. Bats were fed with a semi-liquid diet composed of chopped fruits, raw eggs, bovine meat, dog food, honey, dehydrated shrimp, salt and a vitamin and mineral complex offered daily. In the first two years of confinement the diet was complemented with laboratory-raised cockroaches, mealworms, young mice and seasonal fruits. Nine births occurred from three wild caught females 770-1050 days after capture and two captive-born females. Births occurred in September, February and November-December. The neonate measured 15.0 g of weight and present 34.1 mm of forearm length. Two captive-born females gave birth for the first time at 402-445 days of age. Phylloderma stenops species presents postpartum oestrus, gestation of 5.5 months, lactation of 3.3 months and sexual maturity at 8.0-8.5 months. Fetuses are palpable around two months before birth and females may present synchronisation of births.
Benda, P.; Červený, J.; Konečný, Adam; Reiter, A.; Ševčík, M.; Uhrin, M.; Vallo, Peter
Roč. 41, - (2010), s. 151-166 ISSN 0024-7774 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : bats * North Africa * Western Sahara * distribution * echolocation * Maghreb Subject RIV: EG - Zoology
Smith, Thierry; Rana, Rajendra S.; Missiaen, Pieter; Rose, Kenneth D.; Sahni, Ashok; Singh, Hukam; Singh, Lachham
The geographic origin of bats is still unknown, and fossils of earliest bats are rare and poorly diversified, with, maybe, the exception of Europe. The earliest bats are recorded from the Early Eocene of North America, Europe, North Africa and Australia where they seem to appear suddenly and simultaneously. Until now, the oldest record in Asia was from the Middle Eocene. In this paper, we report the discovery of the oldest bat fauna of Asia dating from the Early Eocene of the Cambay Formation at Vastan Lignite Mine in Western India. The fossil taxa are described on the basis of well-preserved fragments of dentaries and lower teeth. The fauna is highly diversified and is represented by seven species belonging to seven genera and at least four families. Two genera and five species are new. Three species exhibit very primitive dental characters, whereas four others indicate more advanced states. Unexpectedly, this fauna presents strong affinities with the European faunas from the French Paris Basin and the German Messel locality. This could result from the limited fossil record of bats in Asia, but could also suggest new palaeobiogeographic scenarios involving the relative position of India during the Early Eocene.
João M. D. Miranda
Full Text Available The first record of Histiotus laephotis Thomas, 1916 from Brazil is reported here. An adult male was caught with a mist net in a barn located within an Araucaria pine forest in the municipality of Passos Maia, State of Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil (26º46'48"S and 52º03'34"W. This record extends the distribution of this species in South America. Morphological and taxonomic notes of this species are described as well.O primeiro registro de Histiotus laephotis Thomas, 1916 o Brasil é aqui reportado. Um macho adulto foi coletado com rede de neblina (em abrigo artificial nos domínios da Floresta com Araucária, no Município de Passos Maia, Estado de Santa Catarina, Sul do Brasil (26º46'48"S e 52º03'34"W. Este registro amplia a distribuição da própria espécie na América do Sul. Aspectos morfológicos e taxonômicos desta espécie são também descritos.
Sánchez Palomino Pedro
Full Text Available In the northern part of the Serranía de La Macarena (Colombia were collected 919 bats of 39 species from the gallery foresf. This number plus previous reports give a total of 44 species, equivalent to 25% of total number of species reported for the country and 15.25% for the neotropical region. This is the highest number of bat species given for any tropical ecosystem up to now. One of the 39 species found (Carollia perspicillata represent the bulk of the relative abundance in all the samples with relative abundances between 44.4% and 69.4%; one species is common (Artibeus planirostris with relative abundaces higher than 5%; five species are common in sorne samples but not in all of them (Artibeus fuliginosus, Carollia castanea, Desmodus rotundus, Uroderma bilobatum and Uroderma magnirostrum and they are a great number(32 ofrare species, with very low relative abundance values. In the pattern of temporal assemblage in the community are changes in the species present and its numbers.En bosques de galería en el sector norte de la Serranía de La Macarena (Colombia, se capturaron 919 individuos de 39 especies de murciélagos. Esta cifra se adiciona a reportes anteriores para un estimativo total de 44 especies que equivale a 125% de todas las especies presentes en el país y al 15.25% de la fauna de quirópteros reportada para la región neotropical, siendo el número más alto de especies hasta ahora encontrado en ecosistemas tropicales. De las 39 especies estudiadas una es muy abundante (Carollia perspicillata en todos los muestreos, con abundancias relativas entre 44.4% y 69.4%; una especie es común (Artibeus planirostris en todos los muestreos, con abundancias relativas mayores de 5%, cinco especies son comunes en algunos muestreos, más no en todos (Artibeus fuliginosus, Carollia castanea, Desmodus rotundus, Uroderma bilobatumy Uroderma magnirostrum y hay un gran número de especies (32 raras, con abundancias relativas muy bajas. En el
Fernanda A G de Andrade
Full Text Available The common hematophagous bat, Desmodus rotundus, is one of the main wild reservoirs of rabies virus in several regions in Latin America. New production practices and changed land use have provided environmental features that have been very favorable for D. rotundus bat populations, making this species the main transmitter of rabies in the cycle that involves humans and herbivores. In the Amazon region, these features include a mosaic of environmental, social, and economic components, which together creates areas with different levels of risk for human and bovine infections, as presented in this work in the eastern Brazilian Amazon.We geo-referenced a total of 175 cases of rabies, of which 88% occurred in bovines and 12% in humans, respectively, and related these cases to a number of different geographical and biological variables. The spatial distribution was analyzed using the Kernel function, while the association with independent variables was assessed using a multi-criterion Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP technique.The spatiotemporal analysis of the occurrence of rabies in bovines and humans found reduction in the number of cases in the eastern state of Pará, where no more cases were recorded in humans, whereas high infection rates were recorded in bovines in the northeastern part of the state, and low rates in the southeast. The areas of highest risk for bovine rabies are found in the proximity of rivers and highways. In the case of human rabies, the highest concentration of high-risk areas was found where the highway network coincides with high densities of rural and indigenous populations.The high-risk areas for human and bovine rabies are patchily distributed, and related to extensive deforested areas, large herds of cattle, and the presence of highways. These findings provide an important database for the generation of epidemiological models that could support the development of effective prevention measures and controls.
Karin Corrêa Scheffer
Full Text Available La rabia continua siendo un desafío para las autoridades de salud pública y una limitante para la industria ganadera en América Latina. Caninos silvestres y domésticos, así como murciélagos hematófagos son las principales especies transmisoras y reservorios de la enfermedad. Actualmente, se observa variaciones en el perfil epidemiológico de la rabia, donde la especie de murciélago hematófago Desmodus rotundus se constituye en la principal especie transmisora. A lo largo del tiempo se ha acumulado conocimiento sobre la ecología, biología y comportamiento de esta especie y sobre la historia natural de la rabia, lo cual debe conducir a una continua evolución de los métodos de control poblacional de D. rotundus, prevención y técnicas de diagnóstico. Aún se desconoce la relación ecológica de esta especie con otras hematófagas y no hematófagas, y queda mucho por mejorar en los sistemas de notificación y vigilancia epidemiológica, así como crear una mayor conciencia entre los ganaderos ante el tema. La comprensión del impacto que las modificaciones ambientales inducidas por el hombre ejercen sobre la dinámica de infección del virus de la rabia en los murciélagos debe ser motivo de investigaciones posteriores. Esto requerirá la combinación de estudios de campo con modelos matemáticos y nuevas herramientas diagnósticas. La presente revisión pretende presentar los aspectos más relevantes sobre el rol de los murciélagos hematófagos como reservorios y transmisores del virus de la rabia
Camila G. Torquetti
Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Since bats shelter in roosts during their period of diurnal inactivity, the quality and availability of roosts are important aspects of their ecology. Karst areas have great potential for the availability of day roosts, since they form caves, which serve as bat shelters. Here we characterize the caves used by bats in a preserved karst area of Southeastern Brazil. Using logistic regression analysis we identified the cave characteristics that influence bat occupation. Sixty-six caves were characterized based on measurements of internal height and width, height and width of the entrance(s of the cave, number of entrances, maximum horizontal development of cave, and internal temperature and humidity. In nineteen months we found 14 species in 32 caves. Most species were eventually recorded in multiple caves, with the exception of D. rotundus, G. soricina and A. planirostris, which were always found in the same caves. Desmodus rotundus showed maternity roost fidelity. We found no differences in microclimate between the caves that are occupied and those that are not. In other words, the microclimate of the caves studied herein can be characterized as stable over the years. The only predictor affecting the presence of bats in the study area was the cave’s maximum horizontal development: the caves that are occupied have greater horizontal development. Based on our results, we conclude that bats occupy many of the caves and that some species are more frequent in certain caves than in others, including some roosts that are used as maternity roosts. These findings indicate that these caves are important resources for the bats in the karst environment studied, and should be preserved.
Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian adalah memperoleh proses pengolahan wedang teki instan, mengetahui kapasitas antioksidan serta mutu (rendemen, waktu rehidrasi, sifat fisik warna, dan uji hedonik wedang teki instan dengan rasio rimpang rumput teki dan jahe berbeda. Jenis penelitian yang dilakukan merupakan penelitian eksperimen menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL dengan dua kali pengulangan. Data hasil analisis diuji menggunakan ANOVA (Analysis of Variances. Hasil penelitian yang diperoleh menunjukkan wedang teki instan dengan rasio rimpang rumput teki dan jahe yang berbeda berpengaruh terhadap kapasitas antioksidan, waktu rehidrasi, sifat fisik warna, serta uji hedonik rasa dan warna. Kapasitas antioksidan dan kesukaan rasa terbaik pada wedang teki instan dengan rasio rimpang rumput teki dan jahe 1 : 2½. Waktu rehidrasi tercepat, sifat fisik warna paling cerah dan kesukaan warna pada wedang teki instan dengan rasio rimpang rumput teki dan jahe 1 : 1½.
Karina de Almeida
Full Text Available Na busca por métodos de manejo com menor impacto ao ambiente e que se enquadrem nos sistemas orgânicos de produção, este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar preparados homeopáticos de plantas de tiririca e o adubo verde mucuna-preta (Stilozobium aterrimum Piper & Tracy no controle da tiririca. O experimento foi desenvolvido em vasos, em casa de vegetação, na Fazenda Experimental Lageado, FCA-UNESP-Botucatu, no período de abril/maio de 2008. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições, sendo os tratamentos constituídos por extrato aquoso da mucuna-preta, palhada de mucuna-preta em cobertura de solo e incorporada, preparados homeopáticos das plantas de tiririca, e a testemunha. O extrato aquoso da mucuna-preta e os preparados homeopáticos proporcionaram redução no crescimento da parte aérea e acúmulo de massas de matéria fresca e seca da tiririca. A massa de matéria fresca da parte aérea da mucuna-preta estimulou o crescimento da tiririca, tanto em cobertura como incorporada ao solo.
Greenhouse, laboratory, and field studies were conducted to investigate the activity of soil and foliar applied chlorimuron on yellow and purple nutsedge. Soil-applied chlorimuron (10 to 60 g/ha) significantly decreased tuber sprouting, shoot emergence, and shoot growth in both yellow and purple nutsedge. Previous exposure to soil-applied chlorimuron was not effective in reducing parent tuber sprouting at any rate in yellow nutsedge, while in purple nutsedge parent tuber sprouting was reduced significantly at 60 g/ha. Shoots of both yellow and purple nutsedge propagules absorbed greater amounts of 14 C than did roots and tubers. However, translocation of 14 C was greater from the roots and tuber than from the shoot. Toxicity of foliar-applied chlorimuron (5 to 30 g/ha) was evident by stunted growth, leaf discoloration, and death in both species. Application of chlorimuron at 20 g/ha gave 84% control in yellow nutsedge and 100% control in purple nutsedge. Chlorimuron treatments reduced shoot dry weight, inhibited secondary shoot production, and killed parent tubers attached to treated plants, regardless of rats, in both species. Over 13% of the foliar-applied 14 C recovered was absorbed and over 15% of that absorbed was translocated at 1 day after application in both species. This increased two-fold by 8 days after application. 14 C translocation was both acropetal and basipetal. Over 68% of the absorbed 14 C in yellow nutsedge and 63% in purple nutsedge was retained in the treated area at 8 days after application. Overall, the basal bulb, rhizomes, and tuber had the least amounts of 14 C in both species
Tsror, L.; Lebiush, S.; Erlich, O.; Ben-Daniel, B.; Wolf, van der J.M.
Recent outbreaks of potato blackleg in Israel, caused by Dickeya spp., on plants grown from seed tubers imported from Northern Europe, are of a great concern. The warm climatic conditions during the growing season favour disease expression, and may result in the establishment of the pathogen in the
Amarilla, A C F; Pompei, J C A; Araujo, D B; Vázquez, F A; Galeano, R R; Delgado, L M; Bogado, G; Colman, M; Sanabria, L; Iamamoto, K; Garcia, R; Assis, D; Recalde, R; Martorelli, L F; Quiñones, E; Cabello, A; Martini, M; Cosivi, O; Durigon, E L; Favoretto, S R
Paraguay has registered no human cases of rabies since 2004, and the last case in dogs, reported in 2009, was due to a variant maintained in the common vampire bat "Desmodus rotundus". In 2014, a dog was diagnosed as positive for rabies with aggression towards a boy and all required measures of control were successfully adopted. Epidemiological investigation revealed that the dog was not vaccinated and had been attacked by a crab-eating fox, "zorro" (Cerdocyon thous). The sample was diagnosed by the Official Veterinary Service of the Country and sent to the Center on Rabies Research from the University of São Paulo, Brazil, for antigenic and genetic characterization. A second sample from a dog positive for rabies in the same region in 2015 and 11 samples from a rabies outbreak from Asuncion in 1996 were also characterized. The antigenic profile of the samples, AgV2, was compatible with one of the variants maintained by dogs in Latin America. In genetic characterization, the samples segregated in the canine (domestic and wild species)-related group in an independent subgroup that also included samples from Argentina. These results and the epidemiology of the case indicate that even with the control of rabies in domestic animals, the virus can still circulate in wildlife and may be transmitted to domestic animals and humans, demonstrating the importance of continuous and improved surveillance and control of rabies, including in wild species, to prevent outbreaks in controlled areas. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Full Text Available Evidence for long-term cooperative relationships comes from several social birds and mammals. Vampire bats demonstrate cooperative social bonds, and like primates, they maintain these bonds through social grooming. It is unclear, however, to what extent vampires are special among bats in this regard. We compared social grooming rates of common vampire bats Desmodus rotundus and four other group-living bats, Artibeus jamaicensis, Carollia perspicillata, Eidolon helvum and Rousettus aegyptiacus, under the same captive conditions of fixed association and no ectoparasites. We conducted 13 focal sampling sessions for each combination of sex and species, for a total of 1560 presence/absence observations per species. We observed evidence for social grooming in all species, but social grooming rates were on average 14 times higher in vampire bats than in other species. Self-grooming rates did not differ. Vampire bats spent 3.7% of their awake time social grooming (95% CI = 1.5-6.3%, whereas bats of the other species spent 0.1-0.5% of their awake time social grooming. Together with past data, this result supports the hypothesis that the elevated social grooming rate in the vampire bat is an adaptive trait, linked to their social bonding and unique regurgitated food sharing behavior.
Full Text Available Rabies virus (RABV isolated from different mammals seems to have unique characteristics that influence the outcome of infection. RABV circulates in nature and is maintained by reservoirs that are responsible for the persistence of the disease for almost 4000 years. Considering the different pattern of pathogenicity of RABV strains in naturally and experimentally infected animals, the aim of this study was to analyze the characteristics of RABV variants isolated from the main Brazilian reservoirs, being related to a dog (variant 2, Desmodus rotundus (variant 3, crab eating fox, marmoset, and Myotis spp. Viral replication in brain tissue of experimentally infected mouse was evaluated by two laboratory techniques and the results were compared to clinical evolution from five RABV variants. The presence of the RABV was investigated in brain samples by fluorescent antibody test (FAT and real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR for quantification of rabies virus nucleoprotein gene (N gene. Virus replication is not correlated with clinical signs and evolution. The pattern of FAT is associated with RABV replication levels. Virus isolates from crab eating fox and marmoset had a longer evolution period and higher survival rate suggesting that the evolution period may contribute to the outcome. RABV virus variants had independent characteristics that determine the clinical evolution and survival of the infected mice.
Full Text Available The Upper Paraná River floodplain is inserted in a region of the Mata Atlântica biome, which is a critical area to preserve. Due to the scarcity of researches about the chiropterofauna in this region, the present study investigated species richness and abundance of bats in remnants from the stational semidecidual forest of the Upper Paraná River, southern Brazil. Samplings were taken every month, from January to December 2006, using 32 mist nets with 8.0 x 2.5 m, resulting in 640 m²/h and totaling a capture effort of 87,040 m²/h. In order to estimate the species richness, the following estimators were employed Chao1 and Jack2. During the study, a total of 563 individuals belonging to 17 species (Artibeus planirostris, Artibeus lituratus, Carollia perspicillata, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Sturnira lilium, Artibeus fimbriatus, Myotis nigricans, Desmodus rotundus, Artibeus obscurus, Noctilio albiventris, Phylostomus discolor, Phylostomus hastatus, Chrotopterus auritus, Lasiurus ega, Chiroderma villosum, Pygoderma bilabiatum and Lasiurus blossevillii were captured. The estimated richness curves tended to stabilize, indicating that most of the species were sampled. Captured species represented 10% of the taxa recorded in Brazil and 28% in Paraná State, revealing the importance of this area for the diversity of bats. These findings indicate the need to determine actions aiming to restrict human activities in these forest fragments, in order to minimize anthropogenic impacts on the chiropterofauna.
Sheeler-Gordon, L L; Smith, J S
A mammalian survey was conducted in Mexico (October 1994-January 1996) and in Paraguay (August 1996-March 1997); a complete specimen was collected for each bat in the survey, including primary voucher specimen, ectoparasites, karyotype, and various frozen tissues. The surveys combined provided 937 brain samples (65 bat species) for rabies diagnosis. One male Lasiurus ega, collected in Paraguay, tested positive for the rabies virus (overall prevalence rate of 0.1%). Nucleotide sequence from a 300 bp region of the rabies nucleoprotein gene was compared with sequence obtained from representative rabies virus samples in the repository at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Atlanta, Georgia, USA). Rabies virus extracted from the brain material of L. ega differed by only one nucleotide from a 300 bp consensus sequence (>99% homology) derived from samples for the variant of rabies virus transmitted by Lasiurus cinereus. Lasiurus ego differed by approximately 15% for the variant transmitted by Desmodus rotundus. Phylogenetic analysis found no evidence to suggest L. ego is a reservoir for rabies antigenic variant 6. The most likely explanation for rabies in L. ega was infection following contact with a rabid L. cinereus.
Setién, Álvaro Aguilar; Baltazar, Anahí García; Leyva, Ignacio Olave; Rojas, Mónica Salas; Koldenkova, Vadim Pérez; García, Mariem Pérez-Peña; Ceballos, Nidia Aréchiga; Romero, Guillermo Gálvez; Villegas, Edgar Olivier López; Malacara, Juan Bibiano Morales; Marín, Cenia Almazán
Recently, the presence of antibodies and dengue virus (DV) RNA in neotropical wild mammals, including Desmodus rotundus, was reported. In a previous study, DV was also found in a high percentage (39.6%) of ectoparasitic hematophagous dipters specifics of these hematophagous bats. In order to verify the susceptibility of these ectoparasites to DV, in this work experimental infections with VD2 of organs explants of Strebla wiedemanni and of Melophagus ovinus were performed using C6/36 cells as control. Viral titers (UFP/mL) were determined at 0, 48 and 96 hrs pi. Infected organs were observed by electron microscopy and under the confocal microscopy indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) using specific conjugates against DV. The infected organs of both species of ectoparasites replicated DV at titers similar to those obtained with the C6/36 cell line (≥10 6 UFP/mL). Electron microscopy and IIF showed DV replication in the digestive tract, tracheoles, reproductive organs of males but not in females, and milk glands (MG) of both species. In the fatty bodies of the MG of M. ovinus, zones with a high affinity for the DV were observed. In this work the susceptibility of S. wiedemanni and M. ovinus to DV was demonstrated and consequently the probable role of this ectoparasites as wild reservoirs of DV. Copyright: © 2017 SecretarÍa de Salud.
Delpietro, H. A.; Russo, R. G.; Lord, R. D.; Delpietro, G. L.
Common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) are a key rabies vector in South America. Improved management of this species requires long-term, region-specific information. To investigate patterns of demography and dispersal, we analysed 13 642 captures of common vampire bats in Northern Argentina from the period 1969–2004. In contrast with findings from more tropical regions, we found reproductive seasonality with peak pregnancy in September and peak lactation in February. Curiously, sex ratios were consistently male-biased both in maternity roosts and at foraging sites. Males comprised 57% of 9509 adults caught at night, 57% of 1078 juveniles caught at night, 57% of 603 juveniles caught in roosts during the day, and 55% of 103 newborns and mature fetuses. Most observed roosts were in man-made structures. Movements of 1.5–54 km were most frequent in adult males, followed by young males, adult females and young females. At night, males visited maternity roosts, and non-pregnant, non-lactating females visited bachelor roosts. Males fed earlier in the night. Finally, we report new longevity records for free-ranging vampire bats: 16 and 17 years of age for a female and male, respectively. Our results are consistent with model predictions that sex-biased movements might play a key role in rabies transmission between vampire bat populations. PMID:28484615
Lopez, A; Miranda, P; Tejada, E; Fishbein, D B
Transmission of rabies to man by vampire bats has been known for 60 years but there have been few reports of the features of rabies transmitted in this way. These aspects of the disease were investigated during an outbreak in Peru in early 1990. Between Jan 1 and April 30, 1990, 29 (5%) of 636 residents of the two rural communities in the Amazon Jungle in Peru acquired an illness characterised by hydrophobia, fever, and headache and died shortly thereafter. A census in one of the two towns revealed that the proportion affected was significantly higher for 5-14 year olds (17%) than for other age-groups (p less than 10(-5). Interviews conducted with 23 of the patients or their families revealed that 22 (96%) had a history of bat bite, compared with 66 (22%) of 301 community members who remained healthy (p less than 10(-6). A rabies virus strain identical to those isolated from vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) was isolated from the brain of the only person on whom necropsy could be done. Because of the extreme isolation of this and other communities affected by bat-transmitted rabies, preventive measures should be directed at decreasing the risk of nocturnal exposure to bats by bat proofing dwellings or use of mosquito nets and at prompt wound care. Rabies pre-exposure or postexposure vaccination is clearly indicated, but may not be feasible in these isolated populations.
Ellison, James A.; Gilbert, Amy T.; Recuenco, Sergio; Moran, David; Alvarez, Danilo A.; Kuzmina, Natalia; Garcia, Daniel L.; Peruski, Leonard F.; Mendonça, Mary T.; Lindblade, Kim A.; Rupprecht, Charles E.
Rabies in bats is considered enzootic throughout the New World, but few comparative data are available for most countries in the region. As part of a larger pathogen detection program, enhanced bat rabies surveillance was conducted in Guatemala, between 2009 and 2011. A total of 672 bats of 31 species were sampled and tested for rabies. The prevalence of rabies virus (RABV) detection among all collected bats was low (0.3%). Viral antigens were detected and infectious virus was isolated from the brains of two common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus). RABV was also isolated from oral swabs, lungs and kidneys of both bats, whereas viral RNA was detected in all of the tissues examined by hemi-nested RT-PCR except for the liver of one bat. Sequencing of the nucleoprotein gene showed that both viruses were 100% identical, whereas sequencing of the glycoprotein gene revealed one non-synonymous substitution (302T,S). The two vampire bat RABV isolates in this study were phylogenetically related to viruses associated with vampire bats in the eastern states of Mexico and El Salvador. Additionally, 7% of sera collected from 398 bats demonstrated RABV neutralizing antibody. The proportion of seropositive bats varied significantly across trophic guilds, suggestive of complex intraspecific compartmentalization of RABV perpetuation. PMID:25080103
Delpietro, H A; Russo, R G; Carter, G G; Lord, R D; Delpietro, G L
Common vampire bats ( Desmodus rotundus ) are a key rabies vector in South America. Improved management of this species requires long-term, region-specific information. To investigate patterns of demography and dispersal, we analysed 13 642 captures of common vampire bats in Northern Argentina from the period 1969-2004. In contrast with findings from more tropical regions, we found reproductive seasonality with peak pregnancy in September and peak lactation in February. Curiously, sex ratios were consistently male-biased both in maternity roosts and at foraging sites. Males comprised 57% of 9509 adults caught at night, 57% of 1078 juveniles caught at night, 57% of 603 juveniles caught in roosts during the day, and 55% of 103 newborns and mature fetuses. Most observed roosts were in man-made structures. Movements of 1.5-54 km were most frequent in adult males, followed by young males, adult females and young females. At night, males visited maternity roosts, and non-pregnant, non-lactating females visited bachelor roosts. Males fed earlier in the night. Finally, we report new longevity records for free-ranging vampire bats: 16 and 17 years of age for a female and male, respectively. Our results are consistent with model predictions that sex-biased movements might play a key role in rabies transmission between vampire bat populations.
Pereira, Armando de Souza; Casseb, Livia Medeiros Neves; Barbosa, Taciana Fernandes Souza; Begot, Alberto Lopes; Brito, Roberto Messias Oliveira; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa; Travassos da Rosa, Elizabeth Salbé
Rabies is an acute, progressive zoonotic viral infection that in general produces a fatal outcome. This disease is responsible for deaths in humans and animals worldwide and, because it can affect all mammals, is considered one of the most important viral infections for public health. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of rabies in bats of different species found in municipalities of the state of Pará from 2005 to 2011. The rabies virus was detected in 12 (0.39%) bats in a total of 3100 analyzed, including hematophagous, frugivorous, and insectivorous bats. Of these, eleven were characterized as AgV3, which is characteristic of the hematophagous bat Desmodus rotundus (E. Geoffroy 1810); one insectivorous animal showed a different profile compatible with the Eptesicus pattern and may therefore be a new antigenic variant. This study identified the need for greater intensification of epidemiological surveillance in municipalities lacking rabies surveillance (silent areas); studies of rabies virus in bats with different alimentary habits, studies investigating the prevalence of AgV3, and prophylactic measures in areas where humans may be infected are also needed.
Blanton, Jesse D.; Palmer, Dustyn; Dyer, Jessie; Rupprecht, Charles E.
Summary During 2010, 48 states and Puerto Rico reported 6,154 rabid animals and 2 human rabies cases to the CDC, representing an 8% decrease from the 6,690 rabid animals and 4 human cases reported in 2009. Hawaii and Mississippi did not report any laboratory-confirmed rabid animals during 2010. Approximately 92% of reported rabid animals were wildlife. Relative contributions by the major animal groups were as follows: 2,246 raccoons (36.5%), 1,448 skunks (23.5%), 1,430 bats (23.2%), 429 foxes (6.9%), 303 cats (4.9%), 71 cattle (1.1%), and 69 dogs (1.1%). Compared with 2009, number of reported rabid animals decreased across all animal types with the exception of a 1% increase in the number of reported rabid cats. Two cases of rabies involving humans were reported from Louisiana and Wisconsin in 2010. Louisiana reported an imported human rabies case involving a 19-year-old male migrant farm worker who had a history of a vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) bite received while in Mexico. This represents the first human rabies case reported in the United States confirmed to have been caused by a vampire bat rabies virus variant. Wisconsin reported a human rabies case involving a 70-year-old male that was confirmed to have been caused by a rabies virus variant associated with tri-colored bats (Perimyotis subflavus). PMID:21916759
SAMPEDRO MARÍN ALCIDES C.
Full Text Available Se realizaron 33 muestreos de murciélagos en diferentes localidades de la zonaurbana y rural del departamento de Sucre, entre los años 2004 y 2005. Se utilizaronredes de niebla, tanto para campo abierto como para refugios, entre las 1800 hs ylas 0600 hs del día siguiente. Se registraron 22 especies, de las cuales seis resultannuevos registros para Sucre: Artibeus obscurus, Sturnira erythromus, Phyllostomuselongatus, Lonchophylla mordax, Peropterix macrotis y Rhogeesa tumida. La familiamás numerosa fue Phyllostomidae. La mayor abundancia relativa (frecuencia decaptura en la zona urbana la presentaron Molossus molossus (78.3%, Artibeusobscurus (65.2% y Loncophylla thomasi (56.5%. En la zona rural la más abundanteresultó Desmodus rotundus (100% de los muestreos, seguida por Noctilio albiventrisy Sacopterix bilineata (30%. Ambas comunidades de murciélagos (urbana y ruralson similares en un 48%, ya que sólo siete de las especies resultaron comunes a lasdos. Los refugios más frecuentados en la zona rural son los árboles, sobre todo elCaracolí (Anacardium excelsum y la mayor riqueza de especies se encontró en losrefugios más grandes. La actividad nocturna es significativamente diferente entre lasespecies (X2 = 323, p mecanismos de reducción de la competencia por el alimento, sobre todo en lasespecies vegetariana
Heffner, Rickye S.; Koay, Gimseong; Heffner, Henry E.
Passive sound-localization acuity and the ability to use binaural time and intensity cues were determined for the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus). The bats were tested using a conditioned suppression/avoidance procedure in which they drank defibrinated blood from a spout in the presence of sounds from their right, but stopped drinking (i.e., broke contact with the spout) whenever a sound came from their left, thereby avoiding a mild shock. The mean minimum audible angle for three bats for a 100-ms noise burst was 13.1°—within the range of thresholds for other bats and near the mean for mammals. Common vampire bats readily localized pure tones of 20 kHz and higher, indicating they could use interaural intensity-differences. They could also localize pure tones of 5 kHz and lower, thereby demonstrating the use of interaural time-differences, despite their very small maximum interaural distance of 60 μs. A comparison of the use of locus cues among mammals suggests several implications for the evolution of sound localization and its underlying anatomical and physiological mechanisms. PMID:25618037
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Until 2008, human rabies had never been reported in French Guiana. On 28 May 2008, the French National Reference Center for Rabies (Institut Pasteur, Paris confirmed the rabies diagnosis, based on hemi-nested polymerase chain reaction on skin biopsy and saliva specimens from a Guianan, who had never travelled overseas and died in Cayenne after presenting clinically typical meningoencephalitis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Molecular typing of the virus identified a Lyssavirus (Rabies virus species, closely related to those circulating in hematophagous bats (mainly Desmodus rotundus in Latin America. A multidisciplinary Crisis Unit was activated. Its objectives were to implement an epidemiological investigation and a veterinary survey, to provide control measures and establish a communications program. The origin of the contamination was not formally established, but was probably linked to a bat bite based on the virus type isolated. After confirming exposure of 90 persons, they were vaccinated against rabies: 42 from the case's entourage and 48 healthcare workers. To handle that emergence and the local population's increased demand to be vaccinated, a specific communications program was established using several media: television, newspaper, radio. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This episode, occurring in the context of a Department far from continental France, strongly affected the local population, healthcare workers and authorities, and the management team faced intense pressure. This observation confirms that the risk of contracting rabies in French Guiana is real, with consequences for population educational program, control measures, medical diagnosis and post-exposure prophylaxis.
Ono, Ekaterina Alexandrovna Durymanova; Taniwaki, Sueli Akemi; Brandão, Paulo
The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro and in vivo effects of short-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against rabies virus phosphoprotein (P) mRNA in a post-infection treatment for rabies as an extension of a previous report (Braz J Microbiol. 2013 Nov 15;44(3):879-82). To this end, rabies virus strain RABV-4005 (related to the Desmodus rotundus vampire bat) were used to inoculate BHK-21 cells and mice, and the transfection with each of the siRNAs was made with Lipofectamine-2000™. In vitro results showed that siRNA 360 was able to inhibit the replication of strain RABV-4005 with a 1log decrease in virus titter and 5.16-fold reduction in P mRNA, 24h post-inoculation when compared to non-treated cells. In vivo, siRNA 360 was able to induce partial protection, but with no significant difference when compared to non-treated mice. These results indicate that, despite the need for improvement for in vivo applications, P mRNA might be a target for an RNAi-based treatment for rabies. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Guilherme D. P. Dornelles
Full Text Available ABSTRACT We described infracommunities, prevalence and mean intensity of infestation of ecotoparasite flies (Nycteribiidae and Streblidae on bats in an ecotone area of Cerrado as predominant vegetation, with influence of Atlantic Forest, in the southeast of Mato Grosso do Sul. In 36 sampling nights between April 2015 and August 2016 (23,328 m².h, we captured 17 bat species, of which ten were infested, and 14 species of fly. The most abundant bats were the phyllostomids Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823, Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1776 and Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 and the most abundant flies were the streblids Trichobius longipes (Rudow, 1871, T. joblingi Wenzel, 1966 and Megistopoda aranea (Coquillett, 1899. Phyllostomus hastatus (Pallas, 1767 was the bat species that presented the highest infestation rate. Platyrrhinus lineatus (É. Geoffroy, 1810 and Desmodus rotundus (É. Geoffroy, 1810 were not infested. Besides that, the frequency of bats that were infested by a single species of fly was higher than the frequency of bats infested for two or more, and it may be a pattern.
Moskaluk, Alexandra E; Stuckey, Matthew J; Jaffe, David A; Kasten, Rickie W; Aguilar-Setién, Alvaro; Olave-Leyva, José Ignacio; Galvez-Romero, Guillermo; Obregón-Morales, Cirani; Salas-Rojas, Mónica; García-Flores, María Martha; Aréchiga-Ceballos, Nidia; García-Baltazar, Anahí; Chomel, Bruno B
Bartonellae are emerging blood-borne bacteria that have been recovered from a wide range of mammalian species and arthropod vectors around the world. Bats are now recognized as a potential wildlife reservoir for a diverse number of Bartonella species, including the zoonotic Candidatus B. mayotimonensis. These bat-borne Bartonella species have also been detected in the obligate ectoparasites of bats, such as blood-feeding flies, which could transmit these bacteria within bat populations. To better understand this potential for transmission, we investigated the relatedness between Bartonella detected or isolated from bat hosts sampled in Mexico and their ectoparasites. Bartonella spp. were identified in bat flies collected on two bat species, with the highest prevalence in Trichobius parasiticus and Strebla wiedemanni collected from common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus). When comparing Bartonella sequences from a fragment of the citrate synthase gene (gltA), vector-associated strains were diverse and generally close to, but distinct from, those recovered from their bacteremic bat hosts in Mexico. Complete Bartonella sequence concordance was observed in only one bat-vector pair. The diversity of Bartonella strains in bat flies reflects the frequent host switch by bat flies, as they usually do not live permanently on their bat host. It may also suggest a possible endosymbiotic relationship with these vectors for some of the Bartonella species carried by bat flies, whereas others could have a mammalian host.
Mariana Gontijo de Brito
Full Text Available The Ministry of Health's National Human Rabies Control Program advocates pre-exposure prophylaxis (PEP for professionals involved with animals that are at risk of contracting rabies. We report an antemortem and postmortem diagnosis of rabies in a veterinarian who became infected when handling herbivores with rabies. The antemortem diagnosis was carried out with a saliva sample and a biopsy of hair follicles using molecular biology techniques, while the postmortem diagnosis used a brain sample and conventional techniques. The veterinarian had collected samples to diagnose rabies in suspect herbivores (bovines and caprines that were subsequently confirmed to be positive in laboratory tests. After onset of classic rabies symptoms, saliva and hair follicles were collected and used for antemortem diagnostic tests and found to be positive by RT-PCR. Genetic sequencing showed that the infection was caused by variant 3 (Desmodus rotundus, a finding confirmed by tests on the brain sample. It is essential that professionals who are at risk of infection by the rabies virus undergo pre-exposure prophylaxis. This study also confirms that molecular biology techniques were used successfully for antemortem diagnosis and therefore not only allow therapeutic methods to be developed, but also enable the source of infection in human rabies cases to be identified accurately and quickly.
Carter, Gerald; Leffer, Lauren
Evidence for long-term cooperative relationships comes from several social birds and mammals. Vampire bats demonstrate cooperative social bonds, and like primates, they maintain these bonds through social grooming. It is unclear, however, to what extent vampires are special among bats in this regard. We compared social grooming rates of common vampire bats Desmodus rotundus and four other group-living bats, Artibeus jamaicensis, Carollia perspicillata, Eidolon helvum and Rousettus aegyptiacus, under the same captive conditions of fixed association and no ectoparasites. We conducted 13 focal sampling sessions for each combination of sex and species, for a total of 1560 presence/absence observations per species. We observed evidence for social grooming in all species, but social grooming rates were on average 14 times higher in vampire bats than in other species. Self-grooming rates did not differ. Vampire bats spent 3.7% of their awake time social grooming (95% CI = 1.5-6.3%), whereas bats of the other species spent 0.1-0.5% of their awake time social grooming. Together with past data, this result supports the hypothesis that the elevated social grooming rate in the vampire bat is an adaptive trait, linked to their social bonding and unique regurgitated food sharing behavior.
Fernando C. Passos
Full Text Available This study was carried out at the Intervales State Park, an Atlantic Rain Forest area in Southeastern Brazil. Bats were monthly mist netted over a full year, and fecal samples were collected for dietary analysis. The seeds found in each sample were identified in the laboratory under a stereoscopic microscope by comparison with seeds taken from ripe fruits collected in the study area. Three hundred and seventy one bats were collected, of which 316 (85.2% were frugivorous. The total number of fecal samples with seeds and/or pulp was 121. Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810 was the most abundant species in the study area (n = 157 captures and Solanaceae fruits accounted for 78.5% of the fecal samples with seeds (n = 56. Artibeus fimbriatus Gray, 1838 (n = 21 samples fed mostly on Cecropiaceae (38% and Moraceae fruits (24%, and Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 (n = 7 samples on Cecropiaceae (57% and Moraceae (29%. Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (n = 16 samples fed mostly on Piperaceae fruits (56,3%, but Solanaceae (31,3% and Rosaceae seeds (12,5% were also found in feces. Overall, seeds found in bat feces belong to eight plant families: Solanaceae (n = 67 samples; Cecropiaceae (n = 14; Piperaceae (n = 14; Moraceae (n = 8; Rosaceae (n = 3; Cucurbitaceae (n = 3; Cluseaceae (n = 1, and Araceae (n = 1. The close association of different bat species with fruits of certain plant families and genus may be related to a possible mechanism of resource partitioning that shapes the structure of the community.
Nélio Roberto dos Reis
Full Text Available Study carried out within the urban perimeter of Londrina, which is located in the North of the state of Paraná. The objectives were the identification of urban species of bats and diurnal roosts used by them and the verification of the problems they can cause to the population. The fire brigade, the Autarquia Municipal do Ambiente de Londrina (Municipal Environment Autarchy of Londrina, the Biology Department of the Universidade Estadual de Londrina (State University of Londrina and local residents helped spot the roosts. The collections were carried out in regular intervals between April 1998 and March 1999. By the end of them, 815 bats of 23 different species had been captured. Among these, 12 were found near or inside human constructions: Noctilio albiventris Desmarest, 1818; Artibeits lituratus (Olfers, 1818; Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Eptesicus brasiliensis Desmarest 1819; Lasiurus bore-alls (Muller 1776; Lasiurus ega (Gervais, 1856; Eumops glaucinus (Wagner, 1843; Molossus rufus (E. Geoffroy, 1805; Molossus molossus (Pallas, 1766; Nyctinomops laticaudatus (E. Geoffroy, 1805; Nyctinomops macrotis (Gray, 1840 e Tadarida brasiliensis (i. Geoffroy, 1824. Roost sites comprised expansion joints, roofs, attics and parks, among others. It can be concluded that bats are treated as undesirable animals by the population due to the lack of knowledge about the subject.
Nélio Roberto dos Reis
Full Text Available Due to the lack of information concerning mammals in the North of Paraná State, Brazil. a preliminary survey of bat species of the region of Londrina is presented. Three hundred and thirty four individuais of 18 species belonging to Phyllostomidae, Desmodontidae, Vespertilionidae and Molossidae families were collected. Data were gathered related to threir feeding habits, reproduction and time of achvity.
Lourenço, Elizabete Captivo; Patrício, Priscilla Maria Peixoto; Pinheiro, Michele da Costa; Dias, Renan Medeiros; Famadas, Kátia Maria
Because of the few records of Streblidae on bats, despite extensive study on these mammals in the state of Rio de Janeiro, a survey was carried out in an area of Atlantic Forest, in the municipality of Nova Iguaçu, known as the Tinguá region. Thirteen species were added to the list of Streblidae in the state of Rio de Janeiro, of which two were new records for Brazil. Thirty-one species have now been reported this state.
Lord, Jennifer S; Parker, Steve; Parker, Fiona; Brooks, Darren R
Although bats are one of the most successful and diverse of mammalian orders, studies that focus upon bat endoparasites are limited. To further knowledge of bat parasitology, pipistrelle bats (Pipistrellus pipistrellus and P. pygmaeus) were acquired from across the Greater Manchester and Lancashire region of England and examined for gastrointestinal helminths using morphological and molecular analyses. Sixty-eight of 90 adult/juvenile bats (76% prevalence) were infected with at least 1 species of helminth and mean helminth abundance was 48·2 (+/-7·0). All helminths were digenean trematodes and the following species were identified in 51 P. pipistrellus specimens (prevalence in parentheses): Lecithodendrium linstowi (80·4%), L. spathulatum (19·6%), Prosthodendrium sp. (35·3%), Plagiorchis koreanus (29·4%) and Pycnoporus heteroporus (9·8%). Statistical analyses, incorporating multifactorial models, showed that male bats exhibited a significantly more aggregated helminth distribution and lower abundance than females. Positive associations were observed between L. linstowi and L. spathulatum, Prosthodendrium sp. and P. heteroporus and between L. spathulatum and P. koreanus. A revised phylogeny of bat-associated Lecithodendriidae, incorporating novel L. spathulatum and Prosthodendrium sp. 28S rRNA sequences, separated the controversial clade formed by L. linstowi and P. hurkovaae. Further studies are likely to assist the understanding of bat-parasite/pathogen relationships, helminth infracommunity structures and phylogenetics.
Ruedi, Manuel; Friedli-Weyeneth, Nicole; Teeling, Emma C; Puechmaille, Sébastien J; Goodman, Steven M
Extant bats of the genus Emballonura have a trans-Indian Ocean distribution, with two endemic species restricted to Madagascar, and eight species occurring in mainland southeast Asia and islands in the western Pacific Ocean. Ancestral Emballonura may have been more widespread on continental areas, but no fossil identified to this genus is known from the Old World. Emballonura belongs to the subfamily Emballonurinae, which occurs in the New and Old World. Relationships of all Old World genera of this subfamily, including Emballonura and members of the genera Coleura from Africa and western Indian Ocean islands and Mosia nigrescens from the western Pacific region, are previously unresolved. Using 1833 bp of nuclear and mitochondrial genes, we reconstructed the phylogenetic history of Old World emballonurine bats. We estimated that these lineages diverged around 30 million years ago into two monophyletic sister groups, one represented by the two taxa of Malagasy Emballonura, Coleura and possibly Mosia, and the other by a radiation of Indo-Pacific Emballonura, hence, rendering the genus Emballonura paraphyletic. The fossil record combined with these phylogenetic relationships suggest at least one long-distance dispersal event across the Indian Ocean, presumably of African origin, giving rise to all Indo-Pacific Emballonura species (and possibly Mosia). Cladogenesis of the extant Malagasy taxa took place during the Quaternary giving rise to two vicariant species, E. atrata in the humid east and E. tiavato in the dry west. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kamani, Joshua; Baneth, Gad; Mitchell, Mark; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Harrus, Shimon
Previous and ongoing studies have incriminated bats as reservoirs of several emerging and re-emerging zoonoses. Most of these studies, however, have focused on viral agents and neglected important bacterial pathogens. To date, there has been no report investigating the prevalence of Bartonella spp. in bats and bat flies from Nigeria, despite the fact that bats are used as food and for cultural ritual purposes by some ethnic groups in Nigeria. To elucidate the role of bats as reservoirs of bartonellae, we screened by molecular methods 148 bats and 34 bat flies, Diptera:Hippoboscoidea:Nycteribiidae (Cyclopodia greeffi) from Nigeria for Bartonella spp. Overall, Bartonella spp. DNA was detected in 76 out of 148 (51.4%) bat blood samples tested and 10 out of 24 (41.7%) bat flies tested by qPCR targeting the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer (ITS) locus. Bartonella was isolated from 23 of 148 (15.5%) bat blood samples, and the isolates were genetically characterized. Prevalence of Bartonella spp. culture-positive samples ranged from 0% to 45.5% among five bat species. Micropterus spp. bats had a significantly higher relative risk of 3.45 for being culture positive compared to Eidolon helvum, Epomophorus spp., Rhinolophus spp., and Chaerephon nigeriae. Bartonella spp. detected in this study fall into three distinct clusters along with other Bartonella spp. isolated from bats and bat flies from Kenya and Ghana, respectively. The isolation of Bartonella spp. in 10.0-45.5% of four out of five bat species screened in this study indicates a widespread infection in bat population in Nigeria. Further investigation is warranted to determine the role of these bacteria as a cause of human and animal diseases in Nigeria.
França, D S; Pereira, S N; Maas, A C S; Martins, M A; Bolzan, D P; Lima, I P; Dias, D; Peracchi, A L
We studied infestation rates and parasite-host associations between streblid flies and phyllostomid bats in an Atlantic Forest area of Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil. We captured 301 individuals from seven Phyllostomidae bat species. Out of that total, 69 bats had been parasitised by nine Streblidae species; the most frequent species were Trichobius joblingi and Trichobius tiptoni. The species Paraeuctenodes longipes, associated with Anoura geoffroyi, was the most frequent species. The highest mean intensity was observed for Paraeuctenodes longipes, associated with A. geoffroyi, and Paratrichobius longicrus associated with Artibeus lituratus, both ectoparasite species with a mean intensity of five individuals per bat. Trichobius joblingi exhibited the highest mean abundance, which was over three on its host species. Streblid richness in the study area was similar to the richness found in other studies carried out in the Atlantic Forest. We observed that streblid richness in this biome depends more on inherent characteristics of each physiognomy and on the host-species than on the sampling effort.
Shen, Bin; Fang, Tao; Yang, Tianxiao; Jones, Gareth; Irwin, David M; Zhang, Shuyi
Frugivorous and nectarivorous bats fuel their metabolism mostly by using carbohydrates and allocate the restricted amounts of ingested proteins mainly for anabolic protein syntheses rather than for catabolic energy production. Thus, it is possible that genes involved in protein (amino acid) catabolism may have undergone relaxed evolution in these fruit- and nectar-eating bats. The tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT, encoded by the Tat gene) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the tyrosine catabolic pathway. To test whether the Tat gene has undergone relaxed evolution in the fruit- and nectar-eating bats, we obtained the Tat coding region from 20 bat species including four Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae) and two New World fruit bats (Phyllostomidae). Phylogenetic reconstructions revealed a gene tree in which all echolocating bats (including the New World fruit bats) formed a monophyletic group. The phylogenetic conflict appears to stem from accelerated TAT protein sequence evolution in the Old World fruit bats. Our molecular evolutionary analyses confirmed a change in the selection pressure acting on Tat, which was likely caused by a relaxation of the evolutionary constraints on the Tat gene in the Old World fruit bats. Hepatic TAT activity assays showed that TAT activities in species of the Old World fruit bats are significantly lower than those of insectivorous bats and omnivorous mice, which was not caused by a change in TAT protein levels in the liver. Our study provides unambiguous evidence that the Tat gene has undergone relaxed evolution in the Old World fruit bats in response to changes in their metabolism due to the evolution of their special diet.
Wang, Li; Li, Gang; Wang, Jinhong; Ye, Shaohui; Jones, Gareth; Zhang, Shuyi
Gap junction protein connexin43 (Cx43), encoded by the GJA1 gene, is the most abundant connexin in the cardiovascular system and was reported as a crucial factor maintaining cardiac electrical conduction, as well as having a very important function in facilitating the recycling of potassium ions from hair cells in the cochlea back into the cochlear endolymph during auditory transduction processes. In mammals, bats are the only taxon possessing powered flight, placing exceptional demand on many organismal processes. To meet the demands of flying, the hearts of bats show many specialties. Moreover, ultrasonic echolocation allows bat species to orientate and often detect and locate food in darkness. In this study, we cloned the full-length coding region of GJA1 gene from 12 different species of bats and obtained orthologous sequences from other mammals. We used the maximum likelihood method to analyse the evolution of GJA1 gene in mammals and the lineage of bats. Our results showed this gene is much conserved in mammals, as well as in bats' lineage. Compared with other mammals, we found one private amino acid substitution shared by bats, which is located on the inner loop domain, as well as some species-specific amino acid substitutions. The evolution rate analyses showed the signature of purifying selection on not only different classification level lineages but also the different domains and amino acid residue sites of this gene. Also, we suggested that GJA1 gene could be used as a good molecular marker to do the phylogenetic reconstruction.
Velazco, Paúl M; Patterson, Bruce D
The Yellow-shouldered bats, Genus Sturnira, are widespread, diverse, and abundant throughout the Neotropical Region, but little is known of their phylogeny and biogeography. We collected 4409 bp of DNA from three mitochondrial (cyt-b, ND2, D-loop) and two nuclear (RAG1, RAG2) sequences from 138 individuals representing all but two recognized species of Sturnira and five other phyllostomid bats used as outgroups. The sequence data were subjected to maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference analyses. Results overwhelmingly support the monophyly of the genus Sturnira but not continued recognition of Corvira as a subgenus; the two species (bidens and nana) allocated to that group constitute separate, basal branches on the phylogeny. A total of 21 monophyletic putatively species-level groups were recovered; pairs were separated by an average 7.09% (SD=1.61) pairwise genetic distance in cyt-b, and three of these groups are apparently unnamed. Several well-supported clades are evident, including a complex of seven species formerly confused with S. lilium, a species that is actually limited to the Brazilian Shield. We used four calibration points to construct a time-tree for Sturnira, using BEAST. Sturnira diverged from other stenodermatines in the mid-Miocene, and by the end of that epoch (5.3 Ma), three basal lineages were present. Most living species belong to one of two clades, A and B, which appeared and diversified shortly afterwards, during the Pliocene. Both parsimony (DIVA) and likelihood (Lagrange) methods for reconstructing ancestral ranges indicate that the radiation of Sturnira is rooted in the Andes; all three basal lineages (in order, bidens, nana, and aratathomasi) have strictly or mainly Andean distributions. Only later did Sturnira colonize the Pacific lowlands (Chocó) and thence Central America. Sturnira species that are endemic to Central America appeared after the final emergence of the Panamanian landbridge ~3 Ma. Despite its ability to fly and to colonize the Antilles overwater, this genus probably accompanied the "legions" of South American taxa that moved overland during the Great American Biotic Interchange. Its eventual colonization of the Lesser Antilles and the appearance of two endemic lineages there did not take place until the Pleistocene. Because of its continual residence and diversification in South America, Andean assemblages of Sturnira contain both basal and highly derived members of the genus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chen, Yao; Shen, Bin; Zhang, Junpeng; Jones, Gareth; He, Guimei
Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae) and New World fruit bats (Phyllostomidae) ingest significant quantities of ethanol while foraging. Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2, encoded by the Aldh2 gene) plays an important role in ethanol metabolism. To test whether the Aldh2 gene has undergone adaptive evolution in frugivorous and nectarivorous bats in relation to ethanol elimination, we sequenced part of the coding region of the gene (1,143 bp, ~73 % coverage) in 14 bat species, including three Old World fruit bats and two New World fruit bats. Our results showed that the Aldh2 coding sequences are highly conserved across all bat species we examined, and no evidence of positive selection was detected in the ancestral branches leading to Old World fruit bats and New World fruit bats. Further research is needed to determine whether other genes involved in ethanol metabolism have been the targets of positive selection in frugivorous and nectarivorous bats.
Dos Santos, Francisco C B; Lisboa, Cristiane V; Xavier, Samanta C C; Dario, Maria A; Verde, Rair de S; Calouro, Armando M; Roque, André Luiz R; Jansen, Ana M
Bats are ancient hosts of Trypanosoma species and their flying ability, longevity and adaptability to distinct environments indicate that they are efficient dispersers of parasites. Bats from Acre state (Amazon Biome) were collected in four expeditions conducted in an urban forest (Parque Zoobotânico) and one relatively more preserved area (Seringal Cahoeira) in Rio Branco and Xapuri municipalities. Trypanosoma sp. infection was detected by hemoculture and fresh blood examination. Isolated parasite species were identified by the similarity of the obtained DNA sequence from 18S rDNA polymerase chain reaction and reference strains. Overall, 367 bats from 23 genera and 32 species were examined. Chiropterofauna composition was specific to each municipality, although Artibeus sp. and Carollia sp. prevailed throughout. Trypanosoma sp. infection was detected in 85 bats (23·2%). The most widely distributed and prevalent genotypes were (in order) Trypanosoma cruzi TcI, T. cruzi marinkellei, Trypanosoma dionisii, T. cruzi TcIV and Trypanosoma rangeli. At least one still-undescribed Trypanosoma species was also detected in this study. The detection of T. cruzi TcI and TcIV (the ones associated with Chagas disease in Amazon biome) demonstrates the putative importance of these mammal hosts in the epidemiology of the disease in the Acre State.
dan Gito Hadiprayitno, Siti Rabiatul Fajri, Agil Al Idrus
A research on diversity of bats of cave in the south area of Lombok island was conducted.Five caves survied for this research were Gale-Gale, Buwun, Kenculit, Raksasa, and cave PantaiSurga. Survey was done during Mart to Mei 2014. Samples of bat were obtained by using Mistnet. The bats were observed and identified in the Biology Laboratorium FMIPA University ofMataram. This research fully identified 12 species from 6 Famili of bats. The species are such as:Hipposederos ater, Rhinolopus simple...
Wu, Yi; Motokawa, Masaharu; Li, Yu-Chun; Harada, Masashi; Chen, Zhong; Lin, Liang-Kong
Karyotypes and chromosomal data are presented for eight bat species representing two families (Rhinolophidae and Vespertilionidae) from Hainan Island, China. The species investigated were Rhinolophus lepidus (2n = 62, FN = 60), R. pusillus (2n = 62, FN = 60), R. affinis (2n = 62, FN = 60), R. sinicus (2n = 36, FN = 60), Myotis horsfieldi (2n = 44, FN = 52), Pipistrellus abramus (2n = 26, FN = 44), Miniopterus australis (2n = 46, FN = 50) and M. schreibersii (2n = 46, FN = 50). The karyotype of Rhinolophus lepidus is reported for the first time.
Yoon, Kwang Bae; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Hye Ri; Cho, Jae Youl; Park, Yung Chul
There are two subspecies of Rhinolophus ferrumequinum currently recognized in South Korea. The Korean greater horseshoe bat subspecies, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum quelpartis, is distributed only in Jeju Island. The complete mitochondrial genome of the island subspecies was determined and revealed 99.7% similarity to the mainland subspecies Rhinolophus ferrumequinum korai. If d-loop region is excluded, similarity of the two genomes was 99.9%.
Ma, Jin-You; Yu, Yan; Peng, Wen-Feng
A new species of Mesotretes (Trematoda: Mesotretidae) parasitizing the small intestine of Rhinolophus ferrumequinum was obtained by the examination of 48 bats collected from 4 localities in Henan Province, China, from August 2003 to January 2005. This species, Mesotretes jiyuanensis n. sp., is similar to Mesotretes orientalis and Mesotretes hangzhouensis, but mainly differs from them in the ratio of the oral sucker and the ventral sucker, and the distance of the intestinal bifurcation from anterior edge of acetabulum, as well as from the former in the extension of the vitellarium. Mesotretes jiyuanensis n. sp. differs from Mesotretes peregrinus chiefly in the shape of the testes and the distribution of cuticular spines. The ratio of the oral sucker and the ventral sucker in this species also differs from that of M. peregrinus.
Full Text Available The qualitative and quantitative analyses of the digenean fauna of bats were conducted for the first time in Serbia. The sample comprised of 118 individuals of 12 bat species (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, Myotis mystacinus, M. alcathoe, M. brandtii, M. oxygnathus, M. myotis, Hypsugo savii, Pipistrellus pipistrellus, P. nathusii, Plecotus auritus, P. austriacus and Nyctalus noctula collected from 15 sites throughout Serbia. Six digenean species were identified: Lecithodendrium linstowi, Plagiorchis sp., Prosthodendrium longiforme, P. chilostomum, P. parvouterus and Mesotretes peregrinus. The helminths were recorded from 35 individual hosts (29.7 %. The species Lecithodendrium linstowi infected the highest percentage of hosts (19.5 %, with a mean abundance of 4.6. GLM analysis of exploratory factors showed that host species and host sex had a significant influence on parasite load, while locality and host age did not influence parasite abundance. No evidence of zoonotic species was found.
Duszynski, D W
Fecal samples from 56 Japanese bats representing 6 species in 2 families were examined for coccidian oocysts. Two of the 56 (Rhinolophidae), but only 2 sporulated oocysts were seen, which is not enough to describe a new species.
Shehab, Adwan; Mamkhair, Inrahim; Amr, Zuhair
Abstract The lesser horseshoe bat Rhinolophus hipposideros was recorded for the first time from Syria in 2005-06. Two solitary hibernating specimens (a male and a female) were collected from an underground cave in Basofan village, NW of Aleppo, and from Al Marqab Citadel, Banyas. External and cranial measurements are given for both specimens. The list of recorded species of bats of Syria includes 17 species. Riassunto&l...
Full Text Available A trade-off between the sensory modalities of vision and hearing is likely to have occurred in echolocating bats as the sophisticated mechanism of laryngeal echolocation requires considerable neural processing and has reduced the reliance of echolocating bats on vision for perceiving the environment. If such a trade-off exists, it is reasonable to hypothesize that some genes involved in visual function may have undergone relaxed selection or even functional loss in echolocating bats. The Gap junction protein, alpha 10 (Gja10, encoded by Gja10 gene is expressed abundantly in mammal retinal horizontal cells and plays an important role in horizontal cell coupling. The interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (Irbp, encoded by the Rbp3 gene is mainly expressed in interphotoreceptor matrix and is known to be critical for normal functioning of the visual cycle. We sequenced Gja10 and Rbp3 genes in a taxonomically wide range of bats with divergent auditory characteristics (35 and 18 species for Gja10 and Rbp3, respectively. Both genes have became pseudogenes in species from the families Hipposideridae and Rhinolophidae that emit constant frequency echolocation calls with Doppler shift compensation at high-duty-cycles (the most sophisticated form of biosonar known, and in some bat species that emit echolocation calls at low-duty-cycles. Our study thus provides further evidence for the hypothesis that a trade-off occurs at the genetic level between vision and echolocation in bats.
Obrist, M K; Fenton, M B; Eger, J L; Schlegel, P A
Using a moveable loudspeaker and an implanted microphone, we studied the sound pressure transformation of the external ears of 47 species of bats from 13 families. We compared pinna gain, directionality of hearing and interaural intensity differences (IID) in echolocating and non-echolocating bats, in species using different echolocation strategies and in species that depend upon prey-generated sounds to locate their targets. In the Pteropodidae, two echolocating species had slightly higher directionality than a non-echolocating species. The ears of phyllostomid and vespertilionid species showed moderate directionality. In the Mormoopidae, the ear directionality of Pteronotus parnellii clearly matched the dominant spectral component of its echolocation calls, unlike the situation in three other species. Species in the Emballonuridae, Molossidae, Rhinopomatidae and two vespertilionids that use narrow-band search-phase echolocation calls showed increasingly sharp tuning of the pinna to the main frequency of their signals. Similar tuning was most evident in Hipposideridae and Rhinolophidae, species specialized for flutter detection via Doppler-shifted echoes of high-duty-cycle narrow-band signals. The large pinnae of bats that use prey-generated sounds to find their targets supply high sound pressure gain at lower frequencies. Increasing domination of a narrow spectral band in echolocation is reflected in the passive acoustic properties of the external ears (sharper directionality). The importance of IIDs for lateralization and horizontal localization is discussed by comparing the behavioural directional performance of bats with their bioacoustical features.
Several ecomorphological aspects in the European horseshoe bats were studied. The analysis of the data allows to draw some conclusions about possible niche separating parameters. The thesis consists of seven parts, details can be found in the abstracts of each chapter. Verschiedene ökomorphologische Aspekte der europäischen Hufeisennasen-Fledermäuse wurden untersucht. Die Auswertung der Daten erlaubt Rückschlüsse auf mögliche Parameter, die eine Nischentrennung ermöglichen. Die Arbeit best...
Shen, Bin; Fang, Tao; Dai, Mengyao; Jones, Gareth; Zhang, Shuyi
A trade-off between the sensory modalities of vision and hearing is likely to have occurred in echolocating bats as the sophisticated mechanism of laryngeal echolocation requires considerable neural processing and has reduced the reliance of echolocating bats on vision for perceiving the environment. If such a trade-off exists, it is reasonable to hypothesize that some genes involved in visual function may have undergone relaxed selection or even functional loss in echolocating bats. The Gap junction protein, alpha 10 (Gja10, encoded by Gja10 gene) is expressed abundantly in mammal retinal horizontal cells and plays an important role in horizontal cell coupling. The interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (Irbp, encoded by the Rbp3 gene) is mainly expressed in interphotoreceptor matrix and is known to be critical for normal functioning of the visual cycle. We sequenced Gja10 and Rbp3 genes in a taxonomically wide range of bats with divergent auditory characteristics (35 and 18 species for Gja10 and Rbp3, respectively). Both genes have became pseudogenes in species from the families Hipposideridae and Rhinolophidae that emit constant frequency echolocation calls with Doppler shift compensation at high-duty-cycles (the most sophisticated form of biosonar known), and in some bat species that emit echolocation calls at low-duty-cycles. Our study thus provides further evidence for the hypothesis that a trade-off occurs at the genetic level between vision and echolocation in bats.
Full Text Available During the winter, bats use hibernation as a means of surviving the period of low prey offer. However, the Mediterranean horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus euryale arouses from torpor quite frequently. Based on the actual climatic conditions, it can profit from occasional foraging oportunities, when they occur. We analysed faeces collected on four nights during the period from November 2012 to February 2013 from the Domica-Baradla cave system (Slovakia and Hungary. In mid-November, the largest proportion of faecal contents were from Lepidoptera. Later on, the proportion of non-consumptive mass in the faeces increased and prey remnants disappeared. We analysed the activity of digestive enzymes (amylase, chitobiase, endochitinase and glukosaminidase in faeces. The activity of these enzymes was detected in fresh faeces throughout the whole winter. The faecal activity of the chitinases was relatively stable during the monitored period, whilst the activity of amylase was highest during late November and December. Some level of active digestive enzymes during the winter could be an adaptation to occasional winter foraging.
Odendaal, Lizelle J; Jacobs, David S
We investigated intraspecific variation in echolocation calls of the Cape horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus capensis, by comparing echolocation and associated morphological parameters among individuals from three populations of this species. The populations were situated in the center and at the western and eastern limits of the distribution of R. capensis. The latter two populations were situated in ecotones between vegetation biomes. Ecotone populations deviated slightly from the allometric relationship between body size and peak frequency for the genus, and there was no relationship between these variables within R. capensis. Nasal chamber length was the best predictor of peak frequency but not correlated with body size. The evolution of echolocation thus appears to have been uncoupled from body size in R. capensis. Furthermore, females used higher frequencies than males, which imply a potential social role for peak frequency. The differences in peak frequency may have originated from random founder effects and then compounded by genetic drift and/or natural selection. The latter may have acted directly on peak frequency altering skull parameters involved in echolocation independently of body size, resulting in the evolution of local acoustic signatures.
Xie, Lifen; Sun, Keping; Feng, Jiang
We present a complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Rhinolophus sinicus sinicus from Central China and provide its annotation, as well as showed the phylogenetic relationship and mitogenomic variation with other published mitochondrial genomes of congeneric bat species. Our results revealed a relatively high mitogenomic variation between two R. s. sinucus from Central and East China, which is similar to interspecific divergence level.
Full Text Available Abstract The present paper summarizes the results of 3 years of observation made at six month intervals for six months at a time (18 field surveys in a man-made cave in Northern Latium (Central Italy from April 1992 to April 1995. Its aim is to analyze the main structural and dynamic features of a bat community which hibernates at the shelter. Rhinolophus ferrumequinum and especially Rhinolophus euryale are the most abundant species. Population dynamics of both species as well as that of Rhinoluphus hipposideros show higher levels of abundance between December and February of each semester. In mid-winter, large and sometimes mixed aggregations of Rhinolophus ferrumequinum and Rhinolophus euryale in deep hypothermia occur. A small number of Rhinolophus hipposideros, mainly adult males, was observed. The paper compares the structure of this community to the structure of another community of the same district which has been previously analyzed, in which Vespertilionidae, especially Miniopterus schreibersi, are much more abundant. Despite the difference in species composition, body size was found to be a significant and common feature (as highlighted by forearm length, of the dominant species in both communities, Rhinolophus euryale and Miniopterus schreibersi respectively.
Sun, Haijian; Dong, Ji; Shi, Huizhen; Ren, Min; Hua, Panyu
There are two subspecies of Rhinolophus sinicus currently recognized in China. In this study, using next generation sequencing approaches, the complete mitochondrial genome of one subspecies R. s. sinicus was obtained. The total length of the genome sequence is 16,898 bp. The arrangement and contents of R. s. sinicus mitochondrial genes exhibit high similarity with other bats of family Rhinolophida. Phylogenetic reconstructions support the sister relationship of the two subspecies and confirm the subspecies status of our specimen.
Yoon, Kwang Bae; Kim, Ji Young; Cho, Jae Youl; Park, Yung Chul
The total length of the mitogenome of Rhinolophus ferrumequinum korai is 16,839 bp with a total base composition of 31.8% A, 25.4% T, 28.7% C, and 14.0% G. The mitogenome consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA (12S and 16S RNA) genes, 22 tRNA genes, and 1 control region.
Beguelini, Mateus R; Taboga, Sebastião R; Morielle-Versute, Eliana
Despite the large number of species, their wide distribution, and unique reproductive characteristics, Neotropical bats have been poorly studied, and important aspects of the reproduction of these animals have not been elucidated. We made an ultrastructural analysis of spermatogenesis in Molossus molossus (Molossidae). The process of spermatogonial differentiation is similar to that found in other bats and is also relatively similar to that of Primates, with three main spermatogonia types: A(d), A(p), and B. Meiotic divisions proceed similarly to those of most mammals, and spermiogenesis is clearly divided into 12 steps, in the middle of the range known for bats (9-16 steps). Formation of the acrosome is similar to that known from other mammals; however, the ultrastructure of spermatozoa was found to have unique characteristics, including many wavy acrosomal projections on its surface, which seems to be specific for the family Molossidae. Comparing the ultrastructure of the spermatozoon of M. molossus with other bats already study, we observed that three characters vary: morphology of the outer dense fibers, of the perforatorium, and of the spermatozoon head. The great similarity of morphological characters between M. molossus and Platyrrhinus lineatus suggests that M. molossus is more closely related to the Phyllostomidae than to the Rhinolophidae and the Vespertilionidae. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Zhang, Lin; Sun, Keping; Feng, Jiang
We sequenced and characterized the complete mitochondrial genome of the big-eared horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus macrotis. Total length of the mitogenome is 16,848 bp, with a base composition of 31.2% A, 25.3% T, 28.8% C and 14.7% G. The mitogenome consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA (12S and 16S rRNA) genes, 22 tRNA genes and 1 control region. It has the same gene arrangement pattern as those of typical vertebrate mitochondrial genome. The results will contribute to our understanding of the taxonomic status and evolution in the genus Rhinolophus bats.
Jojic, Vida; Budinski, Ivana; Blagojevic, Jelena; Vujosevic, Mladen
We report the first evaluation of mandibular and cranial modularity in the greater horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum). Although some authors found no modular pattern of these morphological structures in mammals, we discovered that traits integration in R. ferrumequinum is not uniform throughout the mandible and cranium, but structured into two distinct modules. Allometry does not affect mandibular and cranial modularity in R. ferrumequinum probably as a result of the low fraction of sh...
Marco A. R. Mello
Full Text Available Some bat species seem to be lunar phobic, i.e., they avoid flying in bright areas or during bright periods of the night; however, the evidence is still controversial. We think that part of this controversy comes from pooling data on bat captures and moonlight intensity according to broad categories, such as moon phases, which conceal the high variability among nights. Therefore, we used detailed, long-term field data on three phyllostomid bat species, in order to test the hypothesis of lunar phobia at two different time scales: 1 among nights, by pooling data of different nights according to moon phases and testing for differences in the distribution of captures; and 2 within a night, by analyzing the relationship between capturability and moonlight intensity (measured as illuminance in one-hour intervals for 29 individual nights. Although most captures of the studied bat species occurred in the first half of the night, their activity pattern varied largely among nights, and was not always unimodal as commonly assumed. At the larger time scale, all studied bat species showed evidence of lunar phobia, as they were more frequently captured on dark moon phases. Nevertheless, at the smaller time scale, only Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 was less frequently captured on brighter periods of the night. We propose that the unimodal activity pattern assumed for frugivorous phyllostomid bats may be an artifact of data organization, and that activity and lunar phobia are much more variable than previously assumed.
Tatiana C. Pesenti
Full Text Available Tadarida brasiliensis (Geoffroy, 1824, the Brazilian free-tailed bat, is an insectivorous bat that occurs from southern United States of America to southern South America. In this study we present the first data on diversity of ectoparasitic mites of T. brasiliensis in Brazil. A compilation and analysis of the studies of mite diversity conducted in different points the geographic distribution this bat species are provided. The mites were collected from March 2010 to November 2011 on 160 T. brasiliensis adult bats captured in southern Brazil. Four species of mites have been found: Chiroptonyssus robustipes (Ewing, 1925, Ewingana longa (Ewing, 1938, Ewingana inaequalis (Radford, 1948, and specimens of Cheyletidae. Chiroptonyssus robustipes was the most prevalent species (100%, followed by E. longa (20%, E. inaequalis (10%, and specimens of Cheyletidae (1.25%. The data currently available show that C. robustipes parasitizes T. brasiliensis throughout its region of occurrence, and this mite is highly prevalent and abundant. The two species of Ewingana accompany the geographical distribution of T. brasiliensis, but with much lower prevalence and abundance.
Reichard, Jonathan D.; Fuller, Nathan W.; Bennett, Alyssa B.; Darling, Scott R.; Moore, Marianne S.; Langwig, Kate E.; Preston, Emily D.; von Oettingen, Susi; Richardson, Christopher S.; Reynolds, D. Scott
Reduced populations of Myotis lucifugus (Little Brown Myotis) devastated by white-nose syndrome (WNS) persist in eastern North America. Between 2009 and 2013, we recaptured 113 marked individuals that survived between 1 and 6 winters in New England since the arrival of WNS. We also observed signs of reproductive success in 57 recaptured bats. PMID:26229422
Krizler C. Tanalgo; John Aries G. Tabora
The stable microclimate in caves provides a relatively constant habitat for many bat species in the Philippines, but human encroachment continues to disrupt this habitat and imperil many of the species roosting in the caves. In South central Mindanao, the diversity and conservation status of cave bats remain undocumented and unexplored. We employed mist-netting to capture bats from five different caves within the town of Kabacan, northern Cotabato, Philippines. A total of 14 bat species we...
Krizler C. Tanalgo
Full Text Available The stable microclimate in caves provides a relatively constant habitat for many bat species in the Philippines, but human encroachment continues to disrupt this habitat and imperil many of the species roosting in the caves. In South central Mindanao, the diversity and conservation status of cave bats remain undocumented and unexplored. We employed mist-netting to capture bats from five different caves within the town of Kabacan, northern Cotabato, Philippines. A total of 14 bat species were identified including the Philippine endemics Hipposideros pygmaeus and Ptenochirus jagori and the threatened Megaerops wetmorei. However, despite the declining conservation status of the bats, local disturbance such as bat hunting for bush meat and unregulated tourism are currently taking place in the caves. Large species such as Eonycteris spelaea and Rousettus amplexicaudatus are killed almost every day for food and trade. Therefore, the high species richness, and the presence of endemic and threatened species coupled with the occurrence of anthropogenic disturbances in caves suggests the need for an urgent and effective conservation intervention involving the local government and public community.
van Cakenberghe, V.; de Vree, F.; Leirs, Herwig
The collection of vertebrates made in Kikwit in the aftermath of the 1995 Ebola haemorrhagic fever epidemic included 538 bat specimens, representing 18 species. This collection contains large numbers of a very common species, Chaerephon pumila, but also of Chaerephon ansorgei, which was not yet...
Benda, P.; Vallo, Peter; Hulva, P.; Horáček, I.
Roč. 67, č. 6 (2012), s. 1230-1244 ISSN 0006-3088 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Rousettus * morphometrics * mtDNA * taxonomy * distribution Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.506, year: 2012
Nguyen Truong Son
Full Text Available Bat communities of mainland Southeast Asia can be highly diverse. Many are under threat. Despite this, regional faunal composition is not well documented for many areas, including regions of Vietnam. We assessed the biodiversity of bats in a watershed protection forest in the southeastern Truong Son (Annamite Mountains, southwestern Quang Ngai Province, Vietnam in 2011–2013. Twenty species of insectivorous bats were documented including a high diversity of Murina species Tube-nosed Bats. Diversity and abundance indices were compared with that recorded previously in two nature reserves and one national park in Vietnam, and were higher or comparable in several measures despite the lack of a karst substrate for roosts. Reproduction in the insectivorous bat fauna coincided with the early rainy season. In the late dry season, pregnant females of several species were observed but volant juveniles were not present, whereas in the early wet season adult females were lactating or post-lactating and volant juveniles of nine species were detected. We recorded echolocation calls of 14 bat species; for each species, we compared features of calls with those reported previously in other Asian localities. For some species we found discrepancies in call metrics among studies, perhaps suggesting a greater hidden biodiversity of bats in Southeast Asia.
Kumar, Anjali; Divoll, Timothy J; Ganguli, Priya M; Trama, Florencia A; Lamborg, Carl H
Mercury, a toxic trace metal, has been used extensively as an inexpensive and readily available method of extracting gold from fine-grained sediment. Worldwide, artisanal mining is responsible for one third of all mercury released into the environment. By testing bat hair from museum specimens and field collected samples from areas both impacted and unimpacted by artisanal gold mining in Perú, we show monomethylmercury (MMHg) has increased in the last 100 years. MMHg concentrations were also greatest in the highest bat trophic level (insectivores), and in areas experiencing extractive artisanal mining. Reproductive female bats had higher MMHg concentrations, and both juvenile and adult bats from mercury contaminated sites had more MMHg than those from uncontaminated sites. Bats have important ecological functions, providing vital ecosystem services such as pollination, seed dispersal, and insect control. Natural populations can act as environmental sentinels and offer the chance to expand our understanding of, and responses to, environmental and human health concerns. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In mitochondrial DNA, variations in the sequence of 16S rRNA region were analyzed to infer the genetic relationship and population history of three sympatric hipposiderid bats, Hipposideros speoris, H. fulvus and H. ater. Based on the DNA sequence data, we observed relatively lower haplotype and higher nucleotide diversity in H. speoris than in the other two species. The pairwise comparisons of the genetic divergence inferred a genetic relationship between the three hipposiderid bats. We used haplotype sequences to construct a phylogenetic tree. Maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference analysis generated a tree with similar topology. H. fulvus and H. ater formed one cluster and H. speoris formed another cluster. Analysis of the demographic history of populations using Jajima’s D test revealed past changes in populations. Comparison of the observed distribution of pairwise differences in the nucleotides with expected sudden expansion model accepts for H. fulvus and H. ater but not for H. speoris populations.
Full Text Available Sunset and sunrise regulate the activities of most studied bat species. To verify patterns of foraging activity, 29 bat sampling nights were carried out over a dam in Rio de Janeiro city, which resulted in 363 hours with 730 captures, representing 13 species of insectivorous bats. Molossus molossus constituted the bulk of the captures (79.9% and was present in 82.8% of the sampling nights. This bat species exhibited crepuscular and nocturnal activity (from -6 minutes to 900 minutes after the time of sunset. A bimodal activity pattern was observed, and two non-overlapping capture peaks. The first peak lasted from 6 minutes before sunset to 420 minutes after sunset. The second peak began at 564 minutes after sunset and ended just after sunrise. The first capture peak was observed in 75.9% of the nights, and the second peak in 62.1% of the nights. The time of the first capture exhibited a positive linear relationship with sunset and the time of the last capture, a positive linear relationship with sunrise. The existence of a relationship between night length and the difference between first and last captures of each night shows that M. molossus has longer activity the longer the night, showing a seasonal variation in the activity period.
Maxinová, E.; Šustr, Vladimír; Uhrin, M.
Roč. 3, č. 1 (2017), s. 91-96 E-ISSN 1339-8474 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : bats * winter season * faecal matter * diet analysis * amylase * chitinases Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology
Tavares, Valéria da C.; Gardner, Alfred L.; Ramírez-Chaves, Héctor E.; Velazco, Paúl M.
Vampyressa melissa is a poorly known phyllostomid bat listed as vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Since its description in 1926, fewer than 40 V. melissa have been reported in the literature, and less than half of these may have been correctly identified. During revisionary studies of Vampyressa, we uncovered two previously unrecognized species related to V. melissa, all associated with higher elevation habitats (>1400 m), one from the Andes of Colombia (Vampyressa sinchi, new species) and the other from western Panama (Vampyressa elisabethae, new species) revealing that V. melissa, as traditionally defined, is a composite of at least three species. In this paper, we provide a restricted diagnosis for the genus Vampyressa, an emended diagnosis of V. melissa, and descriptions of the two new species. The separation of these frugivorous bats, previously identified as V. melissa, into three isolated upper-elevation species, each having restricted distributions further highlights their fragile conservation status.
Suzanne J Hand
Full Text Available The New Zealand endemic bat family Mystacinidae comprises just two Recent species referred to a single genus, Mystacina. The family was once more diverse and widespread, with an additional six extinct taxa recorded from Australia and New Zealand. Here, a new mystacinid is described from the early Miocene (19-16 Ma St Bathans Fauna of Central Otago, South Island, New Zealand. It is the first pre-Pleistocene record of the modern genus and it extends the evolutionary history of Mystacina back at least 16 million years. Extant Mystacina species occupy old-growth rainforest and are semi-terrestrial with an exceptionally broad omnivorous diet. The majority of the plants inhabited, pollinated, dispersed or eaten by modern Mystacina were well-established in southern New Zealand in the early Miocene, based on the fossil record from sites at or near where the bat fossils are found. Similarly, many of the arthropod prey of living Mystacina are recorded as fossils in the same area. Although none of the Miocene plant and arthropod species is extant, most are closely related to modern taxa, demonstrating potentially long-standing ecological associations with Mystacina.
Al-Dakhil, Mohamed; Al-Shawa, Yaser
Fecal samples from 12 Pipistrellus kuhlii captured at Shagrah, Saudi Arabia, were examined for coccidia and three (25%) found to harbor a undescribed eimerian, herein described as Eimeria pipistrellus n. sp. Sporulated oocysts were subspherical, 24.8×23.2 (22-27×20-25) µm, with a bilayered and smooth wall. The micropyle was absent, but a large oocyst residuum and a single polar granule were present. Sporocysts were ovoid, 11.6×8.3 (10.5-13×7.5-9) µm, with a prominent Stieda body, but without a substiedal body; sporozoites lay head to tail in sporocysts and contained one large posterior refractile body. Eimeria pipistrellus n. sp. is the 3rd species of the genus Eimeria found from bats of the genus Pipistrellus. PMID:10188376
Oviedo, Mirna C; Ramallo, Geraldine; Claps, Lucía E
Se describe a Cheiropteronema striatum sp. nov. parásita del murciélago Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823). Se caracteriza por presentar vesícula cefálica estriada, superficie de los huevos con puntuaciones, espículas iguales, nacimiento simétrico del ala espicular, particular disposición y número de crestas del synlophe y por carecer de diente esofágico. Es la segunda especie del género y la primera que se registra en quirópteros frugívoros de la Argentina.Cheiropteronema striatum sp. nov. i...
Clarke-Crespo, Emilio; de León, Gerardo Pérez-Ponce; Montiel-Ortega, Salvador; Rubio-Godoy, Miguel
Bats are recognized as potential hosts of pathogens exploiting the food chain to reach them as definitive hosts. However, very little is known about their endoparasites, especially for Neotropical bats. In this study, we assessed the helminth fauna associated with 3 insectivorous bat species roosting in the same single hot cave in central Veracruz, México: Mormoops megalophylla, Pteronotus davyi, and Pteronotus personatus. During a period of 1 yr (April 2007-2008), 135 mormoopid bats in total were collected and examined for helminths. Six parasite species representing 3 types of intestinal helminths were found: 1 cestode Vampirolepis elongatus; 2 trematodes Maxbraunium tubiporum and Ochoterenatrema labda; and 3 nematodes Linustrongylus pteronoti, Molineidae gen. sp., and Capillaria sp. Overall, trematodes were the most abundant parasite group (72.4%), followed by nematodes (20.7%) and cestodes (6.9%). Species-accumulation curves suggest that the worms collected (n = 1,331) from these 6 parasite species comprise the helminth fauna associated with the 3 bat populations studied. The only species shared by the 3 bat species was Capillaria sp. Most (5/6) of the helminth species recorded use Lepidoptera and Diptera as intermediate hosts; therefore, diet is likely the main source of infection. Although insectivorous bats are considered dietary generalist species, the differences found in helminth diversity in these sympatric populations of closely related bat species, suggest that diet partitioning occurs in mormoopid bat communities. Helminths tend to exploit the food chain to reach their final hosts; therefore, studying these parasites can provide useful information to further understand the biology of bats.
Oviedo,Mirna C; Ramallo,Geraldine; Claps,Lucía E
Se describe a Cheiropteronema striatum sp. nov. parásita del murciélago Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823). Se caracteriza por presentar vesícula cefálica estriada, superficie de los huevos con puntuaciones, espículas iguales, nacimiento simétrico del ala espicular, particular disposición y número de crestas del synlophe y por carecer de diente esofágico. Es la segunda especie del género y la primera que se registra en quirópteros frugívoros de la Argentina.
Jiménez, F Agustín; Peralta-Rodríguez, Jorge Luis; Caspeta-Mandujano, Juan; Ramírez-Díaz, Silvia Edith
Macuahuitloides inexpectans n. gen., n. sp. (Molineidae: Anoplostrongylinae) is herein described. The description is based on specimens removed from the small intestine of ghost-faced bats, Mormoops megalophylla, from central Mexico. The monotypic genus is unique in featuring sexual dimorphism on the cuticular ornamentation, which consists of the presence of spines on the anterior quarter of females, and of the presence of rugosities on the surface of the cephalic vesicle of males. The cuticular spines are arranged in spiral rings on the anterior quarter of the body, and there is no trace of said structures on the cuticle of males. The synlophe of the males possess 12 ridges, whereas there is no synlophe in females. Finally, females show a prominent caudal terminus (spine) and 3 subterminal tubercles, whereas males show bursal rays in a 3-2 arrangement, with a relatively prominent dorsal ray.
Antonella C. Falconaro
Full Text Available Most of the studies on chiropteran endoparasites in Argentina come from the Central and Northeast regions of the country, and there is only one parasitological study of bats from the Argentinean Patagonia. The aim of this study is to describe the helminth fauna of 42 Myotis chiloensis, comparing the composition and the structure of the endoparasite communities between two populations, inhabiting different environments in Andean humid forest and the ecotone between forest and Patagonian steppe. A total of 697 helminths were recovered from 33 bats: five species of trematodes, Ochoterenatrema sp., Paralecithodendrium sp., Parabascus limatulus, Parabascus sp., and Postorchigenes cf. joannae, two species of cestodes, Vampirolepis sp. 1 and Vampirolepis sp. 2, and three species of nematodes, Allintoshius baudi, Physaloptera sp., and Physocephalus sp. All the helminths, but Physocephalus sp., were recovered from the small and large intestine. This is the first survey of M. chiloensis’ helminth fauna. All the species, but A. baudi, represent new records of helminths in Patagonian bats. There were differences of parasite species richness between localities and both bat populations share almost half of the endoparasite species. Different preferences for intestinal regions were found for three species of trematodes in the bats from the site in the humid forest. Myotis chiloensis serves as both a definitive and intermediate host for endoparasites in the Patagonian ecosystem. Keywords: Bats, Parasites, South America
Luiz Augustinho Menezes da Silva
Full Text Available Rabies virus was detected in bats (Molossus molossus from an urban area in the City of Recife, State of Pernambuco, Brazil. Four individuals were found during the day in visible, non-habitual places, lying on the ground, but still alive. No contact occurred with people or animals. Of these, only two were identified; it was not possible to identify two specimens, since they were incinerated prior to identification. Diagnosis was positive by direct immunofluorescence and intracerebral inoculation in mice. This study presents the first instance in which the virus was detected in insectivorous bats in the State of Pernambuco.
Full Text Available In the bat genus Carollia, C. brevicauda and C. perspicillata are the most abundant and widely distributed in South America; also, their distributional ranges are almost completely overlapped. Because these species are morphologically very similar, they are frequently misidentified. The aims of this study were to determine the morphological and morphometric differences of C. brevicauda and C. perspicillata. For that reason, I employed a detail morphological assessment and several multivariate morphometric tools. I evaluated 26 normally craniodental variables in 375 adult specimens from Peruvian and Ecuadorian populations. In addition, 54 specimens of C. benkeithi, C. manu, and Carollia sp. were included for comparisons. I found that C. brevicauda and C. perspicillata are differentiated by 28 discrete characters, and are significantly different in 25 morphometric variables. Also, C. brevicauda, C. perspicillata, and C. manu are clustered in a different group from the group of C. benkeithi and Carollia sp. My results complement previous studies adding several characters that confidently differentiate C. brevicauda from C. perspicillata; which needs to be tested in other regions.
Full Text Available Excessive water loss during the day due to heat stress in bats of the genus Pteropus appears to be inevitable, because these bats are exposed to direct sunlight. Rain also affects the rest pattern of the Indian Flying Fox Pteropus giganteus during the day. When rain occurred during the day, most of the bats hung in a slanting position and did not exhibit any movements. After rain, they licked both ventral and dorsal surfaces of the wing membrane and scratched their body with their thumb claws. They also licked the water droplets that remained on the leaves and branches of the tree. Even though their rest had been affected by the rain the bats utilized the water droplets to quench their thirst, cool their body and clean their fur. The construction of water reservoirs near Pteropus roosts will help to assure their long-term conservation.
Boada, C. E.
Full Text Available In Ecuador, Thyroptera tricolor is distributed on the northern coastal region, in Amazonia, and in the foothillsof the Andes between 50 to 1,800 m of altitude. We reported a capture of a non-breeding female at El Descanso, Los RíosProvince, in the central coastal region of Ecuador. With this record, we have extended the geographical distribution of T.tricolor in Ecuador 55 km further south. Using the available data for Ecuador, a predictive distribution model was generatedusing a Maximum Entropy approach.
Júlia Lins Luz
Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated the prevalence and intensity of Hectopsylla pulex infection in Molossus rufus and Molossus molossus, the parasite's choice of attachment site, and whether this host-parasite system varies with host size. Twenty-four bats were captured by hand from the roof of a house in Southeastern Brazil. M. rufus exhibited a prevalence of 71.4% and the mean intensity averaged 5 ectoparasites per bat. M. molossus exhibited a prevalence of 90%, and the average mean intensity was 2.11 ectoparasites. The attachment sites were: ear, tragus, shoulder blade and tibia, anus, wing, axilla, mouth and dactylopatagium. A positive correlation was observed between the bats' weight and the number of fleas.
Marília A. S. Barros
Full Text Available In temperate zones, insectivorous bats use some types of habitat more frequently than others, and are more active in the warmest periods of the year. We assessed the spatial and seasonal activity patterns of bats in open areas of the southernmost region of Brazil. We tested the hypothesis that bat activity differs among habitat types, among seasons, and is influenced by weather variables. We monitored four 1,500-m transects monthly, from April 2009 to March 2010. Transects corresponded to the five habitat types that predominate in the region. In each sampling session, we detected and counted bat passes with an ultrasound detector (Pettersson D230 and measured climatic variables at the transects. We recorded 1,183 bat passes, and observed the highest activity at the edge of a eucalyptus stand (0.64 bat passes/min and along an irrigation channel (0.54 bat passes/min. The second highest activity values (0.31 and 0.20 bat passes/min, respectively were obtained at the edge of a riparian forest and at the margin of a wetland. The grasslands were used significantly less (0.05 bat passes/min. Bat activity was significantly lower in the winter (0.21 bat passes/min and showed similar values in the autumn (0.33 bat passes/min, spring (0.26 bat passes/min, and summer (0.29 bat passes/min. Bat activity was correlated with temperature, but it was not correlated with wind speed and relative humidity of the air. Our data suggest that, in the study area, insectivorous bats are active throughout the year, and use mostly forest and watercourses areas. These habitat types should be considered prioritary for the conservation of bats in the southernmost region of Brazil.
Full Text Available Nudacotyle carollia sp. nov. (Trematoda, Nudacotylidae is described on the basis of specimens from the intestinal tracts of three Colombian bats of the species Carollia perspicillata L. The new species resembles both of the genera of the family, Nudacotyle and Neocotyle, in the general position of the organs and in having a vertical cleft. It differs from Nudacotyle in the position of the ovary and cirrus sac and in the lenth of the ceca. The new species differs from Neocotyle in the shape of the body and the vitelline lobes and in the length of the ceca. The ventral cleft is considered to be an important generic character which can be used to unit all the species of both genera in the single genus, Nudacotyle.
Carter, A M; Goodman, S M; Enders, A C
The reproductive tract was examined in four non-pregnant and two gravid specimens of Myzopoda. The ovaries had little interstitial tissue. The uterus was bicornuate and the lenticular placental disk was situated mesometrially in one horn. The interhaemal barrier of the placental labyrinth was of ...
Full Text Available Occurrence of Scotophilus kuhlii was speculated throughout the southern plain (Tarai of Nepal. However, there was no record of voucher specimen of the species from Nepal. We collected a specimen from the Tikulia tole, Pakali Village Development Committee, Sunsari District of southeastern Nepal and deposited at Central Department of Zoology (CDZ Museum, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu. The specimen was identified as S. kuhlii based on measurement of external body, cranial, dental parts and detail description of the species. This is the first specific locality record of the species from Nepal that confirms its presence in the country.
Full Text Available Phyllostomus hastatus bat is species broadly distributed over the Neotropical region, which uses as diurnal roosts caves, hollow trees, palm leaves and human buildings. Thirteen diurnal roosts of P. hastatus were analysed from 1990 to 2009 in several localities of Rio de Janeiro State, regarding environment (rural, urban or protected area, type of roost (hollow tree, basement or roof, sex ratio and cohabitation. A nocturnal roost was also analysed. Sex ratio of P. hastatus varied considerably among roosts what may be explained by the fact this species can roost alone, in couples, in harems or in groups of bachelor males. Phyllostomus hastatus was observed in cohabitation with three other species: Molossus rufus, Molossus molossus and Myotis nigricans. Due to the frequency of cohabitation observed between P. hastatus and species of the genus Molossus, one or more advantages for the members of this association may be expected. The simultaneous usage of a feeding roost by a group of bachelor males is unknown information in the literature, and may suggest that this kind of group may interact with each other even when away from their diurnal roosts.
Roxanne J Larsen
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cryptic morphological variation in the Chiropteran genus Myotis limits the understanding of species boundaries and species richness within the genus. Several authors have suggested that it is likely there are unrecognized species-level lineages of Myotis in the Neotropics. This study provides an assessment of the diversity in New World Myotis by analyzing cytochrome-b gene variation from an expansive sample ranging throughout North, Central, and South America. We provide baseline genetic data for researchers investigating phylogeographic and phylogenetic patterns of Myotis in these regions, with an emphasis on South America. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cytochrome-b sequences were generated and phylogenetically analyzed from 215 specimens, providing DNA sequence data for the most species of New World Myotis to date. Based on genetic data in our sample, and on comparisons with available DNA sequence data from GenBank, we estimate the number of species-level genetic lineages in South America alone to be at least 18, rather than the 15 species currently recognized. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide evidence that the perception of lower species richness in South American Myotis is largely due to a combination of cryptic morphological variation and insufficient sampling coverage in genetic-based systematic studies. A more accurate assessment of the level of diversity and species richness in New World Myotis is not only helpful for delimiting species boundaries, but also for understanding evolutionary processes within this globally distributed bat genus.
This study began in November, 1960 and involved studies of all bats living within one large and complex roof. Furzebrook House, built in 1885, was of brick with hollow walls and a black slate roof. The roof consisted of 9 distinct sections comprising some 385 m³ of which 60 % was accessible for
Full Text Available Osteoprogenitor cells contribute to the development and maintenance of skeletal tissues. Bats are unique model taxa whose cellular processes are poorly understood, especially in regards to skeletal biology. Forelimb bones of bats, unlike those of terrestrial mammals, bend during flight and function in controlled deformation. As a first step towards understanding the molecular processes governing deposition of this flexible bone matrix, we provide the first method for isolation and differentiation of cell populations derived from the bone marrow and cortical bone of bats, and compare results with those harvested from C57BL/6J mice. Osteogenic capacity of these cells was assessed via absolute quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR and through quantification of in vitro mineral deposition. Results indicate the differentiated bone cells of bats display significantly lower gene expression of known osteogenic markers (Runt-related transcription factor (RUNX2, osteocalcin (BGLAP and osterix (SP7, and deposit a less-mineralized matrix compared with murine controls. By characterizing the in vitro performance of osteoprogenitor cells throughout differentiation and matrix production, this study lays the ground work for in vitro manipulations of bat stem and osteoprogenitor cells and extends our understanding of the cellular diversity across mammals that occupy different habitats.
Oleg N. Artaev
Full Text Available This article presents the specific structure and distribution of the bats made in the territory of the Republic of Mordovia (Central Russia from the first half of the 20th century to the present. Occurence, relative abundance and patterns of distribution are briefly assessed for rare species. On this base, recommendations for inclusion these bats in the regional Red Data Book are presented. .In Mordovia twelve species of bats have been observed. There are widespread and numerous species: Pipistrellus nathusii, Myotis daubentonii, M. dasycneme, Nyctalus noctula and Vespertilio murinus. Widespread but less numerous species are: Myotis brandtii and Plecotus auritus. Finally, rare species are: Myotis nattereri, Nyctalus lasiopterus, N. leisleri, Pipistrellus pygmaeus and P. kuhlii.
Full Text Available Frugivorous and nectarivorous bats fuel their metabolism mostly by using carbohydrates and allocate the restricted amounts of ingested proteins mainly for anabolic protein syntheses rather than for catabolic energy production. Thus, it is possible that genes involved in protein (amino acid catabolism may have undergone relaxed evolution in these fruit- and nectar-eating bats. The tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT, encoded by the Tat gene is the rate-limiting enzyme in the tyrosine catabolic pathway. To test whether the Tat gene has undergone relaxed evolution in the fruit- and nectar-eating bats, we obtained the Tat coding region from 20 bat species including four Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae and two New World fruit bats (Phyllostomidae. Phylogenetic reconstructions revealed a gene tree in which all echolocating bats (including the New World fruit bats formed a monophyletic group. The phylogenetic conflict appears to stem from accelerated TAT protein sequence evolution in the Old World fruit bats. Our molecular evolutionary analyses confirmed a change in the selection pressure acting on Tat, which was likely caused by a relaxation of the evolutionary constraints on the Tat gene in the Old World fruit bats. Hepatic TAT activity assays showed that TAT activities in species of the Old World fruit bats are significantly lower than those of insectivorous bats and omnivorous mice, which was not caused by a change in TAT protein levels in the liver. Our study provides unambiguous evidence that the Tat gene has undergone relaxed evolution in the Old World fruit bats in response to changes in their metabolism due to the evolution of their special diet.
Sreepada, K. S.; Koubínová, D.; Konečný, Adam; Koubek, Petr; Ráb, Petr; Rábová, Marie; Zima, Jan
Roč. 57, č. 4 (2008), s. 347-357 ISSN 0139-7893 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6093403; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519; CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : bats * karyotype evolution * chromosome banding Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.522, year: 2008 http://www.ivb.cz/folia/57/4/347-357_MS1427.pdf
Vallo, Peter; Guillén-Servent, A.; Benda, P.; Pires, D. B.; Koubek, Petr
Roč. 10, č. 2 (2008), s. 193-206 ISSN 1508-1109 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6093404 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : leaf-nosed bats * Africa * cryptic species * cytochrome b * molecular systematics * phylogeny Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.825, year: 2008
I. L Rautenbach
Full Text Available On a recent collecting expedition in the Kruger National Park, the occurrence of seven species of small mammals (one shrew and six bats within the confines of this sanctuary was confirmed for the first time. One species (Pipistrellus rusticus is reported for the first time from within the borders of the Transvaal, whereas another species (Myotis bocagei is reported for the first time for the Republic of South Africa. The seven species are briefly discussed and the collections where the specimens have been accessioned are indicated.
Marcelo C Romano
Full Text Available Bat colonies were sampled in the city of Rosario to increase the understanding of bat ecology in urban areas of the southern cone of South America. Seven species were recorded, of which three are new records for Rosario. One representative colony was chosen for intensive ecological study. Approximately 64 000 Tadarida brasiliensis formed a maternity colony in the attic of an old building. Most of the bats were pregnant or lactating females and their young.. Adults arrive in the colony in mid-September and leave in February, no bats were present at this site from the beginning of March to mid-September. Births occur between mid-November and mid-December. Pups roosted in compact clusters in the nursery areas, spatially segregated from adults. Densities of these aggregations were 643 + 76 bats/m2 (p Con el objetivo de incrementar el conocimiento de la ecología de los murciélagos en áreas urbanas, se muestrearon colonias en la ciudad de Rosario. Fueron registradas siete especies, de las cuales tres son nuevos registros. Se seleccionó una colonia que se consideró más representativa, para realizar un intensivo estudio ecológico. Se realizaron conteos poblacionales, que arrojaron aproximadamente 64 000 Tadarida brasiliensis formando una colonia maternal en el ático de un antigüo edificio. Se hicieron registros de comportamiento (fechas de arribo y partida, patrones diarios de actividad, pariciones, etc.. Los adultos arrivan al refugio a mediados de septiembre y lo abandonan en febrero. Las pariciones ocurren entre mediados de noviembre y mediados de diciembre. Las crías se ubicaron en grupos compactos en áreas separadas de los adultos, siendo su densidad de 643 + 76 /m2 (p < 0.20. y la de los adultos de 161 + 21 /m2 (p < 0.20. 182 animales capturados fueron identificados, sexados y pesados. Los registros incluyeron patrones diarios de actividad.. Se detectó predación por "lechuza de campanario" (Tyto alba y gatos domésticos. La búsqueda de virus rábico resultó negativa. Se estimó el control ejercido sobre poblaciones de insectos que, para esta colonia puede ser de 209 a 385 kg por noche entre septiembre y febrero, demostrando el importante rol que desempeñan en el ecosistema urbano.
PABLO J. GAUDIOSO
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Here we present detailed descriptions and comparisons of the axial skeleton of seven species of bats belonging to five subfamilies of Phyllostomidae of different trophic guilds. The material examined consisted of 34 complete skeletons of seven species. For five of the studied species, previous descriptions have not been conducted, and for the vampires only limited information is available, so that descriptions for these species are here completed. The axial skeleton has characters that allow grouping of the species phylogenetically of the same subfamily and by feeding habits. At the same time, there are characters that associate species from different subfamilies with different types of diet or ways to obtain food.
Enders, A C; Jones, C J P; Taylor, P J
Bats are a highly successful, widely distributed group, with considerable variation in placental structure. The Egyptian slit-faced bat Nycteris thebaica is a member of one of the few families with previously undescribed placentation. It was found that, although the interhemal type of the Nycteris...... placenta is endotheliochorial with a single layer of cytotrophoblast, the arborizing pattern of the maternal vessels and especially the extraordinary major placental artery differs from the placenta of the emballonurid bats to which this family is considered to be most closely related. The major placental...... other bat species. The paraplacenta is extensive with abundant fetal vessels underlying cytotrophoblast and syncytial trophoblast layers, fronting on an endometrium that largely lacks uterine epithelial cells but has large decidual cells and is poorly vascularized. The placenta of Nycteris lacks...
Hiller, Thomas; Honner, Benjamin; Page, Rachel A; Tschapka, Marco
Bat flies (Streblidae) are diverse, obligate blood-feeding insects and probably the most conspicuous ectoparasites of bats. They show preferences for specific body regions on their host bat, which are reflected in behavioural characteristics. In this study, we corroborate the categorization of bat flies into three ecomorphological groups, focusing only on differences in hind leg morphology. As no detailed phylogeny of bat flies is available, it remains uncertain whether these morphological differences reflect the evolutionary history of bat flies or show convergent adaptations for the host habitat type. We show that the division of the host bat into three distinct habitats contributes to the avoidance of interspecific competition of bat fly species. Finally, we found evidence for density-dependent competition between species belonging to the same ecomorphological group.
Bonaccorso, Frank J.; Todd, Christopher M.; Miles, Adam C.; Gorresen, P. Marcos
We documented nightly movements of Hawaiian hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus semotus) on the island of Hawai’i. Based on data from 28 radiotagged individuals mean foraging range (FR) was 230.7±72.3 ha, core-use area (CUA) was 25.5±6.9 ha (or 11.1% of mean FR), and the mean long axis (LAX) across the FR was 3,390.8±754.3 m. There was almost no overlap in CUAs among 4 adult males having overlapping foraging areas and tracked simultaneously or within a 90-day window of each other. CUAs of subadults partially overlapped with multiple adult males or with one other subadult. High variance in FRs, cores use areas, and LAX across the FR perhaps reflect localized stochastic variables such as weather, habitat, and food resources. Hawaiian hoary bats use moderately large FRs among insectivorous bats studied with comparable methodologies; however, foraging activity indicated by documentation of acoustic feeding buzzes is concentrated within one or a few disjunct areas cumulatively forming the 50% fixed kernel of CUA. The concentration of feeding activity, low values of individual overlap, and agonistic chasing behavior within CUAs all demonstrate a structured use of individual space by Hawaiian hoary bats.
Moreno-Brush, Mónica; Portillo, Alejandro; Brändel, Stefan Dominik; Storch, Ilse; Tschapka, Marco; Biester, Harald
In the southeastern Peruvian Amazon, artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is estimated to have released up to 300 tonnes of mercury (Hg) to the environment between 1995 and 2007 alone, and is claimed to be responsible for Hg concentrations above international thresholds for aquatic wildlife species. Here, we examined whether Hg concentrations in bat populations are potentially related to regional ASGM-Hg releases. We determined Hg concentrations in the fur of bats collected at three different distances from the major ASGM areas in Peru. Our findings from 204 individuals of 32 species indicate that Hg concentrations in bat fur mainly resulted from differences in feeding habits, because Hg concentrations were significantly higher in omnivorous bats than in frugivorous bats. At least in two species, populations living in ASGM-affected sites harbored higher Hg concentrations than did populations in unaffected sites. Because Hg concentrations reflect Hg dietary exposure, Hg emissions from amalgam roasting sites appear to deposit locally and enter the terrestrial food web. Although our study demonstrates that ASGM activities (and Hg point sources) increase Hg exposure in wildlife, the overall Hg concentrations reported here are relatively low. The measured Hg concentrations were below the toxicity threshold at which adverse neurological effects have been reported in rodents and mink (>10 µg g -1 ), and were in the range of Hg concentrations in the fur of bats from nonpoint source affected sites in other latitudes. This study emphasizes the importance of considering feeding habits when evaluating Hg concentrations in bats and other vertebrates.
Marcelo R. Nogueira
Full Text Available Saccopteryx leptura (Schreber, 1774 is reported from two new localities in southeastern Brazil, both in Atlantic forest remains in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Analysisof food material showed that individuals from both localities had preyedon insects in the order Hymenoptera. Cheek contents were available from one specimen, and in this case identification of the food item (flying ants achieved generic level (Pheidole Westwood, 1841. Aspects in the social behavior observed in a colony suggest that the same traits documented in Central American populations (small colonies, monogamic mating system, and retention of young for up to a year in the parental unit may also characterize this species in the southern most part of its range. In both external and craniodental selected measurements, specimens from Rio de Janeiro were close to the upper limits of the ranges known for the species.
Vallo, Peter; Benda, P.; Červený, J.; Koubek, Petr
Roč. 79, č. 2 (2015), s. 225-231 ISSN 0025-1461 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP206/09/P624; GA AV ČR IAA6093404 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : cranial morphometrics * cytochrome b * phylogeny * zinc finger protein Y Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.538, year: 2015
Velazco, Paúl M.; Gardner, Alfred L.; Patterson, Bruce D.
Platyrrhinus is a diverse genus of small to large phyllostomid bats characterized by a comparatively narrow uropatagium thickly fringed with hair, a white dorsal stripe, comparatively large inner upper incisors that are convergent at the tips, and three upper and three lower molars. Eighteen species are currently recognized, the majority occurring in the Andes. Molecular, morphological, and morphometric analyses of specimens formerly identified as Platyrrhinus helleri support recognition of Platyrrhinus incarum as a separate species and reveal the presence of two species from western and northern South America that we describe herein as new (Platyrrhinus angustirostris sp. nov. from eastern Colombia and Ecuador, north-eastern Peru, and Venezuela and Platyrrhinus fusciventris sp. nov. from Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Trinidad and Tobago, northern Brazil, eastern Ecuador, and southern Venezuela). These two new species are sister taxa and, in turn, sister to Platyrrhinus incarum.
Full Text Available Metabolic adaptations induced by 24 and 48 hours of fasting were investigated in male and female insectivorous bats (Molossus molossus Pallas, 1766. For this purpose, plasma glucose, non esterified fatty acids (NEFA, glycogen, protein and lipids concentrations in liver and muscles were obtained. Data presented here demonstrate that fed bats showed plasma glucose levels similar to those reported for other mammal species. In response to fasting, glycemia was decreased only in 48 hours fasted females. Plasma NEFA levels were similar in both sexes, and did not exhibit any changes during fasting. Considering the data from energy reserve variations, fed females presented an increased content of liver glycogen as well as higher breast muscle protein and limbs lipids concentrations, compared to fed males. In response to fasting, liver and muscle glycogen levels remained unchanged. Considering protein and lipid reserves, only females showed decreased values following fasting, as seen in breast, limbs and carcass lipids and breast muscle protein reserves, but still fail to keep glucose homeostasis after 48 hours without food. Taken together, our data suggest that the energy metabolism of insectivorous bats may vary according to sexual differences, a pattern that might be associated to different reproduction investments and costs between genders.
Full Text Available This study aimed to elucidate the diversity of bats in two forest fragments in an area of restinga in the municipality of Jaguaruna, south of Santa Catarina. We performed 18 nights of sampling between November 2006 and September 2008, using in each night’s collection five mist nets installed at ground level, open for six hours after sunset. The Shannon index of diversity (H’ and the expected richness (Jackkinife first order were calculated for the total sampled area. We captured 135 individuals belonging to nine species and two families (Phyllostomidae = 5; Vespertilionidae = 4. Sturnira lilium was the most abundant species (40% of the sample. The diversity index was 1.75 and the estimated richness was 9.94. The observed richness represents 21.5% of the bat fauna recorded in the restinga area of Brazil. The diversity index recorded is close to that observed in other studies on areas of restinga. Studies that provide data on richness and abundance of species in restingas are very important, given the lack of studies on this ecosystem, especially regarding bats and the anthropogenic pressure that they are suffering.
Distribución geográfica del riesgo de rabia de origen silvestre y evaluación de los factores asociados con su incidencia en Colombia, 1982-2010 Geographic distribution of wild rabies risk and evaluation of the factors associated with its incidence in Colombia, 1982-2010
Diana Marcela Brito-Hoyos
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Actualizar la información sobre la distribución geográfica de los focos de rabia transmitida por quirópteros en Colombia y evaluar las condiciones bióticas y abióticas asociadas con la incidencia de esta enfermedad en el país. MÉTODOS: Estudio observacional a partir de una base de datos construida con la información de los focos de rabia silvestre detectados entre 1982 y 2010 y la población bovina de cada municipio. Se clasificaron los municipios según el riesgo de transmisión de la enfermedad y se realizó una caracterización ambiental de 15 variables. Se elaboró un modelo de máxima entropía para predecir las zonas con condiciones apropiadas para la presencia del vector Desmodus rotundus infectado por el virus y evaluar la importancia de las variables empleadas. RESULTADOS: Se presentaron 2 330 focos en 359 (31,8% de los 1 128 municipios del país; 144 municipios se clasificaron como de alto riesgo. Montería, Valledupar, Riohacha, Aguachica, Unguía, Acandí, Río de Oro, Tibú, Sahagún y San Onofre concentraron las mayores tasas de incidencia. Los focos de rabia se presentaron a lo largo de todo el año, aunque en los meses secos (de enero a abril se observó una mayor frecuencia (correlación lineal [r] = 0,64. La temperatura y las precipitaciones son las variables que más robustez aportaron al modelo de predicción. CONCLUSIONES: Se recomienda aplicar medidas de control y prevención en los municipios con alto riesgo. Los mejores meses para realizar jornadas de vacunación son junio, noviembre y diciembre. En futuros análisis se deben incluir variables de interacción biótica para mejorar la capacidad predictiva del modelo.OBJECTIVE: To update the information on the geographic distribution of bat-transmitted rabies foci in Colombia and evaluate the biotic and abiotic conditions associated with the incidence of this disease in the country. METHODS: Observational study of a database containing information on the
Janine F R Seetahal
Full Text Available Bat rabies is an emerging disease of public health significance in the Americas. The Caribbean island of Trinidad experiences periodic outbreaks within the livestock population. We performed molecular characterisation of Trinidad rabies virus (RABV and used a Bayesian phylogeographic approach to investigate the extent to which outbreaks are a result of in situ evolution versus importation of virus from the nearby South American mainland. Trinidadian RABV sequences were confirmed as bat variant and clustered with Desmodus rotundus (vampire bat related sequences. They fell into two largely temporally defined lineages designated Trinidad I and II. The Trinidad I lineage which included sequences from 1997-2000 (all but two of which were from the northeast of the island was most closely related to RABV from Ecuador (2005, 2007, French Guiana (1990 and Venezuela (1993, 1994. Trinidad II comprised sequences from the southwest of the island, which clustered into two groups: Trinidad IIa, which included one sequence each from 2000 and 2007, and Trinidad IIb including all 2010 sequences. The Trinidad II sequences were most closely related to sequences from Brazil (1999, 2004 and Uruguay (2007, 2008. Phylogeographic analyses support three separate RABV introductions from the mainland from which each of the three Trinidadian lineages arose. The estimated dates for the introductions and subsequent lineage expansions suggest periods of in situ evolution within Trinidad following each introduction. These data also indicate co-circulation of Trinidad lineage I and IIa during 2000. In light of these findings and the likely vampire bat origin of Trinidadian RABV, further studies should be conducted to investigate the relationship between RABV spatiotemporal dynamics and vampire bat population ecology, in particular any movement between the mainland and Trinidad.
Mandal, Manoj K; Fischer, Rainer; Schillberg, Stefan; Schiermeyer, Andreas
A zinc-dependent matrix metalloproteinase (NtMMP1) found in the plasma membrane of Nicotiana tabacum cv. Bright Yellow 2 (BY-2) suspension cells is thought to be responsible for the degradation of recombinant proteins secreted into the culture supernatant. We have characterized the proteolytic activity of NtMMP1 by expressing a recombinant derivative lacking the C-terminal transmembrane domain in yeast. After purifying the protein by affinity chromatography, its autocatalytic activity was analyzed using monoclonal antibodies raised against its N-terminal and C-terminal portions. Both the unprocessed and processed forms of NtMMP1 displayed caseinolytic activity and N-terminal sequencing identified an autocatalytic cleavage site within the sequence motif HFSFFP, which is similar to the corresponding sequences of the human matrix metalloproteinases stromelysin-1 (MMP-3) and stromelysin-2 (MMP-10). Unlike all other matrix metalloproteinases investigated so far, NtMMP1 contains a disulfide bond within its propeptide thus rendering the proenzyme catalytically active. Kinetic analysis of NtMMP1 with a synthetic substrate revealed a K(m) of 10.55 +/- 0.9 microM, a k(cat) of 0.6 +/- 0.01 s(-1) and maximum activity at pH 7.5. We found that NtMMP1 degrades Desmodus rotundus salivary plasminogen activator alpha 1 (DSPAalpha1), a biopharmaceutical protein, that has proven difficult to produce in tobacco BY-2 cells. This provides a likely explanation for the frequent instability of secreted recombinant biopharmaceuticals produced in plant suspension cell cultures. Our data suggest new avenues that can be explored to improve the production of pharmaceutical proteins in plants and plant cells.
Stasiak, Iga M; Smith, Dale A; Ganz, Tomas; Crawshaw, Graham J; Hammermueller, Jutta D; Bienzle, Dorothee; Lillie, Brandon N
Hepcidin is the key regulator of iron homeostasis in the body. Iron storage disease (hemochromatosis) is a frequent cause of liver disease and mortality in captive Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus), but reasons underlying this condition are unknown. Hereditary hemochromatosis in humans is due to deficiency of hepcidin or resistance to the action of hepcidin. Here, we investigated the role of hepcidin in iron metabolism in one species of pteropodid bat that is prone to iron storage disease [Egyptian fruit bat (with and without hemochromatosis)], one species of pteropodid bat where iron storage disease is rare [straw-colored fruit bat (Eidolon helvum)], and one species of bat with a natural diet very high in iron, in which iron storage disease is not reported [common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus)]. Iron challenge via intramuscular injection of iron dextran resulted in significantly increased liver iron content and histologic iron scores in all three species, and increased plasma iron in Egyptian fruit bats and straw-colored fruit bats. Hepcidin mRNA expression increased in response to iron administration in healthy Egyptian fruit bats and common vampire bats, but not in straw-colored fruit bats or Egyptian fruit bats with hemochromatosis. Hepcidin gene expression significantly correlated with liver iron content in Egyptian fruit bats and common vampire bats, and with transferrin saturation and plasma ferritin concentration in Egyptian fruit bats. Induction of hepcidin gene expression in response to iron challenge is absent in straw-colored fruit bats and in Egyptian fruit bats with hemochromatosis and, relative to common vampire bats and healthy humans, is low in Egyptain fruit bats without hemochromatosis. Limited hepcidin response to iron challenge may contribute to the increased susceptibility of Egyptian fruit bats to iron storage disease.
Seetahal, Janine F. R.; Velasco-Villa, Andres; Allicock, Orchid M.; Adesiyun, Abiodun A.; Bissessar, Joseph; Amour, Kirk; Phillip-Hosein, Annmarie; Marston, Denise A.; McElhinney, Lorraine M.; Shi, Mang; Wharwood, Cheryl-Ann; Fooks, Anthony R.; Carrington, Christine V. F.
Bat rabies is an emerging disease of public health significance in the Americas. The Caribbean island of Trinidad experiences periodic outbreaks within the livestock population. We performed molecular characterisation of Trinidad rabies virus (RABV) and used a Bayesian phylogeographic approach to investigate the extent to which outbreaks are a result of in situ evolution versus importation of virus from the nearby South American mainland. Trinidadian RABV sequences were confirmed as bat variant and clustered with Desmodus rotundus (vampire bat) related sequences. They fell into two largely temporally defined lineages designated Trinidad I and II. The Trinidad I lineage which included sequences from 1997–2000 (all but two of which were from the northeast of the island) was most closely related to RABV from Ecuador (2005, 2007), French Guiana (1990) and Venezuela (1993, 1994). Trinidad II comprised sequences from the southwest of the island, which clustered into two groups: Trinidad IIa, which included one sequence each from 2000 and 2007, and Trinidad IIb including all 2010 sequences. The Trinidad II sequences were most closely related to sequences from Brazil (1999, 2004) and Uruguay (2007, 2008). Phylogeographic analyses support three separate RABV introductions from the mainland from which each of the three Trinidadian lineages arose. The estimated dates for the introductions and subsequent lineage expansions suggest periods of in situ evolution within Trinidad following each introduction. These data also indicate co-circulation of Trinidad lineage I and IIa during 2000. In light of these findings and the likely vampire bat origin of Trinidadian RABV, further studies should be conducted to investigate the relationship between RABV spatiotemporal dynamics and vampire bat population ecology, in particular any movement between the mainland and Trinidad. PMID:23991230
Julio A Benavides
Full Text Available Knowledge of infectious disease burden is necessary to appropriately allocate resources for prevention and control. In Latin America, rabies is among the most important zoonoses for human health and agriculture, but the burden of disease attributed to its main reservoir, the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus, remains uncertain.We used questionnaires to quantify under-reporting of livestock deaths across 40 agricultural communities with differing access to health resources and epidemiological histories of vampire bat rabies (VBR in the regions of Apurimac, Ayacucho and Cusco in southern Peru. Farmers who believed VBR was absent from their communities were one third as likely to report livestock deaths from disease as those who believed VBR was present, and under-reporting increased with distance from reporting offices. Using generalized mixed-effect models that captured spatial autocorrelation in reporting, we project 4.6 (95% CI: 4.4-8.2 rabies cases per reported case and identify geographic areas with potentially greater VBR burden than indicated by official reports. Spatially-corrected models estimate 505-724 cattle deaths from VBR in our study area during 2014 (421-444 deaths/100,000 cattle, costing US$121,797-171,992. Cost benefit analysis favoured vaccinating all cattle over the current practice of partial vaccination or halting vaccination all together.Our study represents the first estimate of the burden of VBR in Latin America to incorporate data on reporting rates. We confirm the long-suspected cost of VBR to small-scale farmers and show that vaccinating livestock is a cost-effective solution to mitigate the burden of VBR. More generally, results highlight that ignoring geographic variation in access to health resources can bias estimates of disease burden and risk.
Berzunza-Cruz, Miriam; Rodríguez-Moreno, Ángel; Gutiérrez-Granados, Gabriel; González-Salazar, Constantino; Stephens, Christopher R.; Hidalgo-Mihart, Mircea; Marina, Carlos F.; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A.; Bailón-Martínez, Dulce; Balcells, Cristina Domingo; Ibarra-Cerdeña, Carlos N.; Sánchez-Cordero, Víctor; Becker, Ingeborg
Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana causes cutaneous leishmaniasis, an endemic zoonosis affecting a growing number of patients in the southeastern states of Mexico. Some foci are found in shade-grown cocoa and coffee plantations, or near perennial forests that provide rich breeding grounds for the sand fly vectors, but also harbor a variety of bat species that live off the abundant fruits provided by these shade-giving trees. The close proximity between sand flies and bats makes their interaction feasible, yet bats infected with Leishmania (L.) mexicana have not been reported. Here we analyzed 420 bats from six states of Mexico that had reported patients with leishmaniasis. Tissues of bats, including skin, heart, liver and/or spleen were screened by PCR for Leishmania (L.) mexicana DNA. We found that 41 bats (9.77%), belonging to 13 species, showed positive PCR results in various tissues. The infected tissues showed no evidence of macroscopic lesions. Of the infected bats, 12 species were frugivorous, insectivorous or nectarivorous, and only one species was sanguivorous (Desmodus rotundus), and most of them belonged to the family Phyllostomidae. The eco-region where most of the infected bats were caught is the Gulf Coastal Plain of Chiapas and Tabasco. Through experimental infections of two Tadarida brasiliensis bats in captivity, we show that this species can harbor viable, infective Leishmania (L.) mexicana parasites that are capable of infecting BALB/c mice. We conclude that various species of bats belonging to the family Phyllostomidae are possible reservoir hosts for Leishmania (L.) mexicana, if it can be shown that such bats are infective for the sand fly vector. Further studies are needed to determine how these bats become infected, how long the parasite remains viable inside these potential hosts and whether they are infective to sand flies to fully evaluate their impact on disease epidemiology. PMID:25629729
Bárcenas-Reyes, I; Loza-Rubio, E; Cantó-Alarcón, G J; Luna-Cozar, J; Enríquez-Vázquez, A; Barrón-Rodríguez, R J; Milián-Suazo, F
Phylogenetic analysis of the rabies virus in molecular epidemiology has been traditionally performed on partial sequences of the genome, such as the N, G, and P genes; however, that approach raises concerns about the discriminatory power compared to whole genome sequencing. In this study we characterized four strains of the rabies virus isolated from cattle in Querétaro, Mexico by comparing the whole genome sequence to that of strains from the American, European and Asian continents. Four cattle brain samples positive to rabies and characterized as AgV11, genotype 1, were used in the study. A cDNA sequence was generated by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) using oligo dT. cDNA samples were sequenced in an Illumina NextSeq 500 platform. The phylogenetic analysis was performed with MEGA 6.0. Minimum evolution phylogenetic trees were constructed with the Neighbor-Joining method and bootstrapped with 1000 replicates. Three large and seven small clusters were formed with the 26 sequences used. The largest cluster grouped strains from different species in South America: Brazil, and the French Guyana. The second cluster grouped five strains from Mexico. A Mexican strain reported in a different study was highly related to our four strains, suggesting common source of infection. The phylogenetic analysis shows that the type of host is different for the different regions in the American Continent; rabies is more related to bats. It was concluded that the rabies virus in central Mexico is genetically stable and that it is transmitted by the vampire bat Desmodus rotundus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jesús Ballesteros C
Full Text Available Objetivo. Contribuir al conocimiento de la diversidad de especies de murciélagos en cuatro localidades de la subregión costanera del departamento de Córdoba. Materiales y métodos. Durante los meses noviembre y diciembre del 2005, se realizó la exploración de la comunidad de murciélagos en cuatro localidades de la zona costanera del departamento de Córdoba. Mediante la metodología de evaluación ecológica rápida (EER, se eligieron áreas con fragmentos boscosos representativos de la zona costanera, con formación vegetal característica de bosque seco tropical. Se realizaron capturas de murciélagos, utilizando redes de niebla durante dos noches seguidas en cada sitio seleccionado, con un esfuerzo de muestreo de 40 horas/red. Resultados. Se registraron 15 especies de murciélagos distribuidos en 10 géneros y 3 familias. La especie más abundante fue Artibeus jamaicensis con el 36,6% de las capturas, seguida de Sturnira lilium y Glossophaga soricina 13,8 y 10,9%, respectivamente. Se registró la presencia de la especie Desmodus rotundus (murciélago vampiro, vector del virus de la rabia bovina. Conclusiones. Los datos indicaron que aún con el alto grado de intervención humana existente en la subregión costanera, y que pese a la homogenización de la matriz del paisaje por los efectos de la ganadería extensiva, los fragmentos de bosques estudiados presentan una importante riqueza de murciélagos, que son considerados tolerantes a habitats con disturbios y de áreas abiertas, especialmente de la familia Phyllostomidae que fue la mejor representada con 12 especies.
Orozco, M M; Enriquez, G F; Cardinal, M V; Piccinali, R V; Gürtler, R E
Understanding the complex epidemiology of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission cycles requires comparative studies in widely different environments. We assessed the occurrence of T. cruzi infection in sylvatic mammals, their infectiousness to the vector, and parasite genotypes in a protected area of the Argentine Chaco, and compared them with information obtained similarly in a nearby disturbed area. A total of 278 mammals from >23 species in the protected area were diagnosed for T. cruzi infection using xenodiagnosis, kDNA-PCR and nuclear satellite DNA-PCR (SAT) from blood samples. The relative abundance and species composition differed substantially between areas. Didelphis albiventris opossums were less abundant in the protected area; had a significantly lower body mass index, and a stage structure biased toward earlier stages. The capture of armadillos was lower in the protected area. The composite prevalence of T. cruzi infection across host species was significantly lower in the protected area (11.1%) than in the disturbed area (22.1%), and heterogeneous across species groups. The prevalence of infection in D. albiventris and Thylamys pusilla opossums was significantly lower in the protected area (nil for D. albiventris), whereas infection in sigmodontine rodents was three times higher in the protected area (17.5 versus 5.7%). Parasite isolates from the two xenodiagnosis-positive mammals (1 Dasypus novemcinctus and 1 Conepatus chinga) were typed as TcIII; both specimens were highly infectious to Triatoma infestans. Fat-tailed opossums, bats and rodents were kDNA-PCR-positive and xenodiagnosis-negative. Desmodus rotundus and Myotis bats were found infected with T. cruzi for the first time in the Gran Chaco. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Velasco-Villa, Andrés; Orciari, Lillian A; Juárez-Islas, Víctor; Gómez-Sierra, Mauricio; Padilla-Medina, Irma; Flisser, Ana; Souza, Valeria; Castillo, Amanda; Franka, Richard; Escalante-Mañe, Maribel; Sauri-González, Isaias; Rupprecht, Charles E
Bat rabies and its transmission to humans and other species in Mexico were investigated. Eighty-nine samples obtained from rabid livestock, cats, dogs, and humans in Mexico were studied by antigenic typing and partial sequence analysis. Samples were further compared with enzootic rabies associated with different species of bats in the Americas. Patterns of nucleotide variation allowed the definition of at least 20 monophyletic clusters associated with 9 or more different bat species. Several lineages associated with distinctive antigenic patterns were found in rabies viruses related to rabies in vampire bats in Mexico. Vampire bat rabies virus lineages associated with antigenic variant 3 are widely spread from Mexico to South America, suggesting these lineages as the most likely ancestors of vampire bat rabies and the ones that have been moved by vampire bat populations throughout the Americas. Rabies viruses related to Lasiurus cinereus, Histiotus montanus, and some other not yet identified species of the genus Lasiurus were found circulating in Mexico. Long-range dissemination patterns of rabies are not necessarily associated with migratory bat species, as in the case of rabies in Desmodus rotundus and Histiotus montanus. Human rabies was associated with vampire bat transmission in most cases, and in one case, rabies transmission from free-tailed bats was inferred. The occurrence of rabies spillover from bats to domestic animals was also demonstrated. Genetic typing of rabies viruses allowed us to distinguish trends of disease dissemination and to address, in a preliminary fashion, aspects of the complex evolution of rabies viruses in different host-reservoir species.
Daiene Karina Azevedo Casagrande
Full Text Available Introduction Rabies is an important zoonosis that occurs in mammals, with bats acting as Lyssavirus reservoirs in urban, rural and natural areas. Rabies cases in bats have been recorded primarily in urban areas in Northwestern State of São Paulo since 1998. This study investigated the circulation of rabies virus by seeking to identify the virus in the brain in several species of bats in this region and by measuring rabies-virus neutralizing antibody levels in the hematophagous bat Desmodus rotundus. Methods From 2008 to 2012, 1,490 bat brain samples were sent to the Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP Rabies Laboratory in Araçatuba, and 125 serum samples from vampire bats that were captured in this geographical region were analyzed. Results Rabies virus was detected in the brains of 26 (2% of 1,314 non-hematophagous bats using the fluorescent antibody test (FAT and the mouse inoculation test (MIT. None of the 176 hematophagous bat samples were positive for rabies virus when a virus detection test was utilized. Out of 125 vampire bat serum samples, 9 (7% had levels of rabies virus neutralization antibodies (RVNAs that were higher than 0.5IU/mL; 65% (81/125 had titers between 0.10IU/mL and 0.5IU/mL; and 28% (35/125 were negative for RVNAs using the simplified fluorescent inhibition microtest (SFIMT in BHK21 cells. The observed positivity rate (1.7% was higher than the average positivity rate of 1.3% that was previously found in this region. Conclusions The high percentage of vampire bats with neutralizing antibodies suggests that recent rabies virus exposure has occurred, indicating the necessity of surveillance measures in nearby regions that are at risk to avoid diffusion of the rabies virus and possible rabies occurrences.
Full Text Available Leishmania (Leishmania mexicana causes cutaneous leishmaniasis, an endemic zoonosis affecting a growing number of patients in the southeastern states of Mexico. Some foci are found in shade-grown cocoa and coffee plantations, or near perennial forests that provide rich breeding grounds for the sand fly vectors, but also harbor a variety of bat species that live off the abundant fruits provided by these shade-giving trees. The close proximity between sand flies and bats makes their interaction feasible, yet bats infected with Leishmania (L. mexicana have not been reported. Here we analyzed 420 bats from six states of Mexico that had reported patients with leishmaniasis. Tissues of bats, including skin, heart, liver and/or spleen were screened by PCR for Leishmania (L. mexicana DNA. We found that 41 bats (9.77%, belonging to 13 species, showed positive PCR results in various tissues. The infected tissues showed no evidence of macroscopic lesions. Of the infected bats, 12 species were frugivorous, insectivorous or nectarivorous, and only one species was sanguivorous (Desmodus rotundus, and most of them belonged to the family Phyllostomidae. The eco-region where most of the infected bats were caught is the Gulf Coastal Plain of Chiapas and Tabasco. Through experimental infections of two Tadarida brasiliensis bats in captivity, we show that this species can harbor viable, infective Leishmania (L. mexicana parasites that are capable of infecting BALB/c mice. We conclude that various species of bats belonging to the family Phyllostomidae are possible reservoir hosts for Leishmania (L. mexicana, if it can be shown that such bats are infective for the sand fly vector. Further studies are needed to determine how these bats become infected, how long the parasite remains viable inside these potential hosts and whether they are infective to sand flies to fully evaluate their impact on disease epidemiology.
Elizabeth L Clare
Full Text Available Levels of sequence divergence at mitochondrial loci are frequently used in phylogeographic analysis and species delimitation though single marker systems cannot assess bi-parental gene flow. In this investigation I compare the phylogeographic patterns revealed through the maternally inherited mitochondrial COI region and the paternally inherited 7(th intron region of the Dby gene on the Y-chromosome in eight common Neotropical bat species. These species are diverse and include members of two families from the feeding guilds of sanguivores, nectarivores, frugivores, carnivores and insectivores. In each case, the currently recognized taxon is comprised of distinct, substantially divergent intraspecific mitochondrial lineages suggesting cryptic species complexes. In Chrotopterus auritus, and Saccopteryx bilineata I observed congruent patterns of divergence in both genetic regions suggesting a cessation of gene flow between intraspecific groups. This evidence supports the existence of cryptic species complexes which meet the criteria of the genetic species concept. In Glossophaga soricina two intraspecific groups with largely sympatric South American ranges show evidence for incomplete lineage sorting or frequent hybridization while a third group with a Central American distribution appears to diverge congruently at both loci suggesting speciation. Within Desmodus rotundus and Trachops cirrhosus the paternally inherited region was monomorphic and thus does not support or refute the potential for cryptic speciation. In Uroderma bilobatum, Micronycteris megalotis and Platyrrhinus helleri the gene regions show conflicting patterns of divergence and I cannot exclude ongoing gene flow between intraspecific groups. This analysis provides a comprehensive comparison across taxa and employs both maternally and paternally inherited gene regions to validate patterns of gene flow. I present evidence for previously unrecognized species meeting the criteria of
Nosratollah Karimi Arpnahy
Full Text Available Introduction: Increasing crop competitive ability is an important part of integrated weed management (IWM. In this regard, identifying weeds reaction to soil fertility status for developing fertilizing methods, as components of IWM programs, is a necessity. Materials and Methods: In order to evaluate the growth characteristics of purple nutsedge under the conditions of interference with onion, a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design was conducted with three replications at the Research Greenhouse of University of Birjand in 2013. The first factor included three sowing methods of onion (seed sowing, onion set and transplanting and the second factor included three levels of nitrogen (50, 100 and 150 kg N ha-1, equivalent to 25, 50 and 75 mg N kg-1 soil, urea fertilizer with a purity of 46% was used for this purpose. Results and Discussion: The results of analysis of variance showed that sowing method and nitrogen levels had significant effects on plant height, leaf area, aboveground dry weight as well as tuber number and underground dry weights. Moreover, the interaction between sowing methods and nitrogen levels had a significant effect on plant height, leaf area, aboveground dry weight as well as tuber number and underground dry weights. The results of the comparisons of the mean for the interaction of planting methods and different levels of nitrogen indicated an increased weeds growth in direct seeding method and high levels of nitrogen in weed height trait, so that the greatest nutsedge height during the growing season (92.33 cm was obtained at direct seeding method and high nitrogen levels . Moreover, the lowest weed height during the growing season was obtained at onion set planting method and 50 kg ha-1 nitrogen. The highest leaf area of purple nutsedge at ten weeks after planting (446.65 cm2, was obtained in direct seeding method and high levels of nitrogen, and the lowest value for this trait (203.38 cm2, was observed in onion set planting method. The greatest shoot dry weight of purple nutsedge during the growing season was observed in direct seeding method and high levels of nitrogen. The maximum amount of this trait at eight and ten weeks after planting was achieved in the level of 100 kg N ha-1 which was about 3.797 and 7.306 gr plant-1, respectively. Also the minimum shoot dry weight of weed was produced in onion set planting method and their amounts were about, 1.161 and 4.229 gr plant-1 at eight and ten weeks after planting, respectively. The greatest tuber number of purple nutsedge during the growing season were observed with seed planting method which were 7 and 15.33 tuber per pot at eight and ten weeks after planting, respectively. Moreover, the minimum tuber number of weed was produced in onion set planting method and were about 1.66 and 5.66 tuber per pot at eight and ten weeks after planting, respectively. The maximum underground dry weight of purple nutsedge during the growing season was obtained at direct seeding method and high levels of nitrogen. The maximum amount of this trait at eight and ten weeks after planting was obtained in the level of 100 kg N ha-1 which were about 2.472 and 5.396 gr plant-1, respectively .The minimum underground dry weight of weed was achieved in onion set planting method which were about, 0.888 and 1.873 gr plant-1 at eight and ten weeks after planting, respectively. Conclusion: Overall ANOVA results showed that the sowing method and level of nitrogen as well as their interaction had a significant effect on all studied traits of purple nutsedge. Evaluation of growth characteristics of purple nutsedge under the conditions of interference with onion showed that the greatest and lowest growth of purple nutsedge were obtained where seed and onion sets planting methods were implemented, respectively. Moreover, the results indicated a positive response of purple nutsedge to high levels of nitrogen. Thus, in order to minimize the damage caused by purple nutsedge, the application of 100 kg N ha-1 nitrogen in onion set method is recommended as the most appropriate treatment for the management of purple nutsedge in infected onions farms. However, this study was conducted under greenhouse conditions and there is no doubt that repeating the test in the field is essential for verifying the results.
N Karimi Arpnahy
Full Text Available Introduction Human always has looked for improving food production through increasing crops yield. In this path, weeds through competition with crop for environmental factors and inputs have reduced the quantity and quality of crop products. Competition for nitrogen absorption not only is the most common form of intra-specific competition amongst crop plants, but also is the most popular form of inter-specific competition in the system of weed-crop interference. Therefore, understanding the method of nitrogen absorption and its allocation in competing plants, will be a key tool to improve weed management strategies. Materials and Methods In order to study the effect of sowing method and nitrogen rate on the growth pattern of onion under interference with purple nutsedge, a factorial experiment based on a randomized complete block design was conducted with three replications at the Research Greenhouse of University of Birjand in 2013. The first factor included three sowing methods of onion (seed sowing, onion set and transplanting and the second factor consisted of three levels of nitrogen (50, 100 and 150 kg N ha-1, equivalent of 25, 50 and 75 mg N kg-1 soil that urea fertilizer with a purity of 46% was used for this purpose. Results and Discussion The results of the analysis of variance showed that nitrogen levels had significant effects on plant height, leaf area index as well as aboveground and bulb dry weights. Furthermore, sowing methods revealed significant effects on plant height, leaf number, leaf area index as well as aboveground and bulb dry weights. Moreover, the interaction between sowing methods and levels of nitrogen had a significant effect on plant height, leaf area index and aboveground dry weight, while it had no significant effect on leaf number and bulb dry weight. The results of the comparisons of the means of onion planting methods and nitrogen levels interactions confirmed that the superiority of the influence of onion set were planted method and high level of nitrogen in plant height trait, so that the maximum plant height was obtained where onion set methods and high nitrogen levels were applied during the growing season. In addition, the lowest plant height during the growing season was observed where the direct seed sowing method and 150 kg N ha-1 were used. The lowest leaf number during the growing season were obtained from direct seed sowing method and the leaf number per plant in this method of planting was 4.33 and 4.66 at eight and ten weeks after planting, respectively. The greatest number of onion leaves was produced in onion set planting method and the leaf number per plant in this method was 12.66 and 13.44 at eight and ten weeks after planting, respectively. The highest leaf area index of onion plants during the growing season was observed under onion set planting method and high levels of nitrogen, while the lowest value of this trait was obtained from direct seed planting method. During the growing season, the maximum shoot dry weight of onions was observed where the onion set planting method and high levels of nitrogen were employed. At eight and ten weeks after planting, the maximum amount of this trait was obtained from 100 kg N ha-1 that was about 4.335 and 5.565 gr plant1, respectively. Conclusions Onion growth pattern under interfering with purple nutsedge demonstrated that the highest and lowest growth of onion plants were obtained where onion sets and seed sowing planting methods were employed, respectively. Moreover, changes of growth characteristics of onion under different levels of nitrogen fertilizer and interference conditions illustrated that the maximum and minimum amount of onions growth were obtained at 100 and 50 kg N ha-1, respectively. In conclusion, the superiority of applying the onion set planting method and 100 kg N ha-1 improved onion growth where it competes with purple nutsedge. Thus, in order to minimize the yield damage due to purple nutsedge presence, application of 100 kg N ha-1 and using the onion set planting method can be recommended as the most appropriate treatment in the management of infected farms with purple nutsedge. However, this study was conducted under greenhouse conditions and there is no doubt that the study should be repeated in the field to verify these results.
Efeito da palha de cana-de-açúcar e do tamanho dos tubérculos na biomassa das estruturas subterrâneas de Cyperus rotundus Effect of sugar cane straw and tuber size on the subterranean system of Cyperus rotundus
Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da adição de palha de cana-de-açúcar RB855156 nas quantidades correspondentes a 0,0, 5,0, 10,0 e 15,0 t ha-1 nas biomassas das estruturas subterrâneas de plantas de tiririca provenientes de tubérculos de tamanho pequeno (0,22 a 0,34 g e grande (1,01 a 1,14 g, plantados em maio, julho e setembro. Para cada época de plantio, a cada 28 até 84 dias, as partes subterrâneas da tiririca foram separadas nas diferentes estruturas, sendo determinadas suas biomassas fresca e seca. De modo geral, o tamanho maior dos tubérculos favoreceu o desenvolvimento da parte subterrânea, e plantas originadas de tubérculos de tamanho grande apresentaram maiores biomassas. A adição de palha de cana-de-açúcar causou redução no desenvolvimento das diferentes estruturas subterrâneas, seguindo uma equação de segundo grau. Verificou-se que as biomassas foram maiores no plantio de setembro, exceto para biomassa fresca de tubérculos, que foi maior em maio. Com relação ao efeito de época de amostragem, foram observados aumentos lineares em função do tempo para todas as variáveis analisadas.The experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of different amounts of sugar cane straw on the biomass of the subterranean structures of purple nutsedge deriving from small (0.22 to 0.34 g and large (1.01 to 1.14 g sized tubers, planted at different times of the year. Dormant purple nutsedge tubers of small and large sizes were planted in plastic pots with clay soil in May, July and September, and RB855156 sugar cane straw was added in quantities corresponding to 0.0, 5.0, 10.0 and 15.0 t ha-1. For each planting period, at every 28 day interval up to 84 days, the subterranean parts of the purple nutsedge were separated into their different structures and their fresh and dry biomasses were determined. In general, the larger size of the tubers favored the development of the subterranean parts. It was noted that the plants originated from large sized tubers presented greater fresh and dry biomasses. The addition of increasing quantities of sugar cane straw reduced the growth of the different subterranean structures following a second degree equation. Greater fresh and dry biomasses were observed on the September planting, except for the fresh biomass of the tubers, which was greater in May. Sampling periods caused linear increases in function of time for all the variables studied.
Cibele M. V. Zanon
Full Text Available The diet, reproduction and activity time of bat species found in Ponta Grossa county, Campos Gerais region, were studied. Collections were conducted in four forest fragments, during 272 hours, on 48 m² of nets and roosting sites; the total capture effort was 1.52.10³ h.m². Eight species (247 individuals were registered: Artibeuslituratus (Olfers, 1818, Sturniralilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810, Desmodusrotundus (E. Geoffroy, 1810 (Phyllostomidae; Tadaridabrasiliensis (Desmarest, 1819, Eumopsauripendulus (Shaw, 1800 (Molossidae; Eptesicusbrasiliensis (Shaw, 1800, Myotisnigricans (Schinz, 1821, and Histiotusvelatus (I. Geoffroy, 1824 (Vespertilionidae. The Phyllostomidae family was the most frequently captured. Solanaceae, Moraceae, Piperaceae, and Rosaceae were found in the diet of frugivores; six orders of insects and the class Arachnida were found in the diets of insectivores. Pregnant females were found in September and October and lactating ones in November and December. The collection peak was reached in the second hour-and-a-half. Preservation of the regional forested and altered areas is required for survival of the local chiropterofauna.Estudou-se as espécies de morcegos presentes em Ponta Grossa, na região dos Campos Gerais, Paraná, com o objetivo de conhecer seus aspectos ecológicos básicos (dieta, reprodução e horário de atividade. Realizou-se coletas em quatro fragmentos florestais, onde foram empregadas 272 horas de esforço com 48 m² de redes, e em locais de repouso, totalizando um esforço de captura de 1,52.10³ h.m². Registrou-se 247 indivíduos, de oito espécies: Artibeuslituratus (Olfers, 1818, Sturniralilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810, Desmodusrotundus (E. Geoffroy, 1810 (Phyllostomidae; Tadaridabrasiliensis (Desmarest, 1819, Eumopsauripendulus (Shaw, 1800 (Molossidae; Eptesicusbrasiliensis(Shaw, 1800, Myotisnigricans (Schinz, 1821, Histiotusvelatus (I. Geoffroy, 1824 (Vespertilionidae. Phyllostomidae foi a família mais capturada. Solanaceae, Moraceae, Piperaceae e Rosaceae fizeram parte da dieta dos frugívoros; constatou-se seis ordens de insetos e a classe Arachnida na dieta dos insetívoros. Fêmeas grávidas foram encontradas nos meses de setembro e outubro; as lactantes, em novembro e dezembro. O maior pico de captura ocorreu na segunda hora e meia de coleta. Faz-se necessário preservar as áreas florestadas, mesmo as já alteradas, pois estas são importantes para a sobrevivência da quiropterofauna local.
Diversidad de frutos que consumen tres especies de murciélagos (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae en la selva lacandona, Chiapas, México Diversity of fruits consumed by three species of bats (Chiroptera:Phyllostomidae in the Lacandona rainforest, Chiapas, Mexico
Full Text Available Este estudio amplía el conocimiento de los hábitos alimentarios de 3 especies de murciélagos frugívoros como dispersores de semillas en 2 localidades de la selva alta perennifolia en la zona sur de la Reserva de la Biosfera de Montes Azules (REBIMA, y dentro del Ejido Playón de la Gloria (PDLG. Se estimó la abundancia relativa de Artibeus lituratus, Carollia perspicillata y Sturnira lilium, así como la diversidad y categoría sucesional de los frutos que consumen estas 3 especies en ambas localidades, mediante la identificación de semillas en las excretas. La división de especies vegetales por categoría sucesional mostró que A. lituratus y C. perspicillata consumen frutos tanto de especies pioneras como de especies persistentes, mientras que S. lilium únicamente se alimenta de especies pioneras. Durante la época seca A. lituratus y C. perspicillata presentaron una mayor diversidad y riqueza de especies consumidas dentro de la REBIMA, en tanto que en la época de lluvia mostraron mayor diversidad y riqueza dentro de PDLG; es decir, la diversidad de semillas colectadas por ambos dispersores responde a la época anual. S. lilium presentó mayor riqueza y diversidad dentro de PDLG a lo largo del muestreo indicando preferencia por frutos establecidos en estadios tempranos en la sucesión vegetal.This study examined the feeding habits of three species of frugivorous bats in relation to their role as seed dispersers in two localities, one in a Neotropical rainforest area in the southern part of the Montes Azules Biosphere Reserve (REBIMA, and the other in Ejido Playón de la Gloria (PDLG. We estimated the relative abundance of Artibeus lituratus, Carollia perspicillata and Sturnira lilium. We determined the diversity and the successional category of fruits consumed by these species in both localities through the identification of seeds in their feces. The plant species diversity based on successional category showed that A. lituratus and C. perspicillata consume fruits of pioneer species as well as persistent species, while S. lilium only feeds on pioneer species. During the dry season A. lituratus and C. perspicillata had higher diversity and richness values of plant species consumed at REBIMA, whereas in the wet season they showed higher diversity and richness at PDLG, indicating that the diversity of seeds collected by both dispersers changes with the time of year. S. lilium presented higher diversity and richness values of plant species consumed at PDLG throughout the year study, indicating preference for fruits from early stages of plant succession.
Marcelo O. Bordignon
Full Text Available Realizou-se um inventário da fauna de morcegos entre abril e novembro de 2004 no norte de Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil (Projeto Jauru/MMA. Oito pontos de coleta foram amostrados com redes-neblina em um ambiente de cerrado, sendo capturados 146 indivíduos de 28 espécies, distribuídos em seis famílias. O total de espécies neste estudo, representa apenas 30% da fauna de morcegos do cerrado. A família mais capturada foi a Phyllostomidae, representada por Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766 e Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818. Algumas espécies raras foram capturadas: Lophostoma brasiliense (Peters, 1866, Lonchophylla mordax Thomas, 1903 e Lionycteris spurrelli Thomas, 1913. O local de maior abundância (0,032 indivíduos/m²/h mostrou um índice de Simpson de D = 3.86 e o de menor abundância (0,003 indivíduos/m²/h um índice de Simpson de D = 3.03. A preservação dos mananciais de água e a cobertura florestal nestes pontos são discutidas.From April to November 2004 was made a bat fauna inventory in Northern of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil (Jauru's Project/MMA. Eight points was sampled with mist-nets in a cerrado's ecosystem and was caught 146 individuals de 28 species, distributed into six bat families. The total of species in this study just represents 30% of cerrado's bat fauna. The more caught family was Phyllostomidae represented by Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766 and Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818. Some rare species were caught: Lophostoma brasiliense (Peters, 1866, Lonchophylla mordax Thomas, 1903 and Lionycteris spurrelli Thomas, 1913. The more abundant point sampled (0.032 bat/m²/h shown a Simpson index of D = 3.86 and the low abundant point sampled (0.003 bat/m²/h was D = 3.03. The preservation of water springs and forest cover in study sites are discussed.
Diet of the fishing bat Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus (Mammalia, Chiroptera in a mangrove area of southern Brazil Dieta do morcego-pescador Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus (Mammalia, Chiroptera em uma área de manguezal do sul do Brasil
Marcelo O. Bordignon
Full Text Available From January to December 1999, the diet of Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758 was determined in a salt-water ecosystem, by analysing the feces of bats captured in mist nets. Of the 61 samples analyzed, most contained remains of fish (90.2%, followed by insects (70.5% and crustaceous (29.5%. The most frequent fishes species were: silversides Atherinella brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825, anchovies Cetengraulis edentulus (Cuvier, 1829 and scaly sardines Ophisthonema oglinum (Lesueur, 1818. The most frequent insects were moths (Saturniidae and beetles (Cerambycidae, Scarabaeidae and Coccinellidae, as well as two species of bat ectoparasites (Streblidae. Among the crustaceous the shrimp (Palaemonidae and crabs (Gecarcinidae are was present. The consumption of fish, insects and crustaceans was different for the males and females throughout the year.De janeiro a dezembro de 1999, foi estudada a dieta de Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758 em um ecossistema de manguezal, através da análise das fezes de morcegos capturados com redes-neblina. Das 61 amostras analisadas, a maioria continha fragmentos de peixes (90.2%, seguido de insetos (70.5% e crustáceos (29,5%. As espécies de peixes mais freqüentes foram: peixe-rei Atherinella brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825, manjuba Cetengraulis edentulus (Cuvier, 1829 e sardinha Ophisthonema oglinum (Lesueur, 1818. Os insetos mais freqüentes foram mariposas (Saturniidae e besouros (Cerambycidae, Scarabaeidae e Coccinellidae, além de duas espécies de ectoparasitas (Streblidae. Entre os crustáceos, houve a presença apenas de camarões (Palaemonidae e siris (Gecarcinidae. O consumo de peixes, insetos e crustáceos foi diferente para machos e fêmeas ao longo do ano.
Una especie nueva de Cheiropteronema (Nematoda, Molineidae en Artibeus planirostris (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae en la Argentina A new species of Cheiropteronema (Nematoda, Molineidae in Artibeus planirostris (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae from Argentina
Mirna C Oviedo
Full Text Available Se describe a Cheiropteronema striatum sp. nov. parásita del murciélago Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823. Se caracteriza por presentar vesícula cefálica estriada, superficie de los huevos con puntuaciones, espículas iguales, nacimiento simétrico del ala espicular, particular disposición y número de crestas del synlophe y por carecer de diente esofágico. Es la segunda especie del género y la primera que se registra en quirópteros frugívoros de la Argentina.Cheiropteronema striatum sp. nov. is a parasite of the bat Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823. This species is characterized by cephalic vesicle striate, thick egg shell punctate, spicules equal, symmetrical development of spicule wings, particular arrangement and number the ridges of synlophe, and lack of esophageal tooth. Cheiropteronema striatum sp. nov. is the second species described for the genus and the first recorded in frugivorous bats of Argentina.
Aspectos sobre a biologia de Tonatia bidens (Spix no estado do Rio de Janeiro, sudeste do Brasil (Mammalia, Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae Biological aspects of Tonatia bidens (Spix in Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil (Mammalia, Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae
Carlos E. L. Esbérard
Full Text Available A biologia de Tonatia bidens (Spix, 1823 foi estudada no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, sudeste do Brasil. Um total de 76 morcegos foi capturado usando redes de neblina e redes manuais para insetos em refúgios diurnos. Algumas observações dos morcegos em cativeiro foram incluídas. Machos compreenderam 47% das capturas. Fêmeas prenhas foram observadas em novembro e maio, e fêmeas lactantes em janeiro, abril e maio. Animais subadultos foram registrados em dezembro, fevereiro, maio e julho. Os restos de presas observadas em refúgios de alimentação demonstram a dieta insetívora e carnívora deste morcego. O comportamento alimentar é similar a de outras espécies carnívoras de morcegos Phyllostomidae.The biology of Tonatia bidens (Spix, 1823 was studied at Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil. A total of 76 bats was captured using mist nets or using hand nets during sampling in diurnal roosts. Some observations of bats in captivity are also included. Males comprised 47% of the captures. Pregnant females were observed in November and May and lactant females in January, April and May. Subadult animals were recorded in December, February, May and July. The prey remains observed in feeding roosts demonstrates the insectivorous and carnivorous diet of this bats. The feeding behavior is similar to other carnivorous species of phyllostomid bats.
Predação de morcegos por Chrotopterus auritus (Peters (Mammalia, Chiroptera no pantanal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil Bat predation by Chrotopterus auritus (Peters (Mammalia, Chiroptera in pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil
Marcelo Oscar Bordignon
Full Text Available Foi registrada a predação de Carollia perspiscillata (Linnaeus, 1758 e Peropterix macrotis (Wagner, 1843 por Chrotopterus autitus (Peters, 1856 em uma caverna na morraria do Urucum em Corumbá, centro-oeste do Brasil. Os fragmentos de asas e um crânio encontrados sob o local de pouso de C. auritus junto às fezes, após comparados com material de coleção, mostraram que este morcego alimenta-se oportunamente de outras espécies de morcegos ocupantes do mesmo abrigo.The predation of Carollia perspiscillata (Linnaeus, 1758 and Peropterix macrotis (Wagner, 1843 by Chrotopterus auritus (Peters, 1856 was registered in a cave at Urucum's mountains of Corumbá, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The wing fragments and cranium finded under feces deposites, in replace point of C. auritus, were comparated with colection reference material and revealed that C. auritus can eat occasionaly other bat species that inhabit in same roost.
Occurrence of white-winged vampire bat, Diaemus youngi (Mammalia, Chiroptera, in the Cerrado of Distrito Federal, Brazil Ocorrência de Diaemus youngi (Mammalia, Chiroptera no Cerrado do Distrito Federal
Ludmilla M. de S. Aguiar
Full Text Available Authors cite Diaemus youngi (Jentik, 1893 as occurring in all the Brazilian territory. In spite of that, there are no reports of capture sites for D. youngi in the literature for Distrito Federal or Cerrado of Central Brazil. Here we report the first precise record of this species for Central Brazil, rural area of Distrito Federal, and provide information on its biology, conservation and distribution in Brazil, according to our data and information from the literature.A espécie Diaemus youngi (Jentik, 1893 é considerada por alguns autores como ocorrendo para todo o Brasil incluindo o bioma Cerrado e área rural do Distrito Federal. No entanto não há na literatura nenhum registro do local de coleta dessa espécie para essas regiões. Reportamos aqui o primeiro registro no Cerrado do Brasil Central, área rural do Distrito Federal, e alguns dados sobre a biologia, conservação e distribuição geográfica da espécie no Brasil, de acordo com dados desse trabalho e da literatura.
Full Text Available We studied discrete and quantitative data from 88 specimens of the subgenus Mimon previously identified as Mimon bennettii (Gray, 1838 and M. cozumelae Goldman, 1914 from diverse parts of their range. Our data indicate that specimens of Mimon bennetii in Brazil presented geographic variation in morphometrical characters and mosaic variation in qualitative traits. Specimens from the Cerrado biome collected in Brazilian states like Piaui, Tocantins, and Goiás have longer forearms than those distributed in the Atlantic and Amazon forested domains. Based on morphometrics, as showed by t-tests, specimens of M. bennettii from the Brazilian Cerrado resemble phenetically more with M. cozumelae than the M. bennettii from Atlantic Forest. Characters presently used to diagnosis M. cozumelae also were also recorded to M. bennettii in diverse parts of Brazil, making that validity of M. cozumelae questionable based on this kind of traits. This research also updated the geographic distribution to the M. bennettii in Brazil.Foi analisada a morfologia quantitativa e qualitativa de 88 espécimes do subgênero Mimon previamente identificados como Mimon bennettii (Gray, 1838 e M. cozumelae Goldman, 1914 de diversas localidades dentro de sua distribuição. Os dados indicam que os espécimes de Mimon bennetii no Brasil apresentam variação geográfica nos caracteres morfométricos e em mosaico nos qualitativos. Espécimes do bioma Cerrado provenientes dos estados brasileiros do Piauí, Tocantins e Goiás têm antebraço mais longo que os indivíduos dos domínios da Amazônia e Floresta Atlântica. Com base na morfometria aplicando teste t-Student, os espécimes de M. bennettii do Cerrado lembram fenéticamente mais M. cozumelae que M. bennettii da Floresta Atlântica. Os caracteres morfológicos atualmente empregados para diagnosticar M. cozumelae também foram registrados para M. bennettii em diversas áreas do Brasil, tornando a validade de M. cozumelae questionável nesses tipos de caracteres. O presente artigo também atualiza a distribuição geográfica de M. bennettii no Brazil.
Christidis, Les; Goodman, Steven M; Naughton, Kate; Appleton, Belinda
The past decade has seen a proliferation of new species of Miniopterus bats (family Miniopteridae) recognized from Madagascar and the neighboring Comoros archipelago. The interspecific relationships of these taxa, their colonization history, and the evolution of this presumed adaptive radiation have not been sufficiently explored. Using the mitochondrial cytochrome-b gene, we present a phylogeny of the Malagasy members of this widespread Old World genus, based on 218 sequences, of which 82 are new and 136 derived from previous studies. Phylogenetic analyses recovered 18 clades, which divide into five primary lineages: (1) M. griveaudi; (2) M. mahafaliensis, M. sororculus and X3; (3) M. majori, M. gleni and M. griffithsi; (4) M. brachytragos; M. aelleniA, and M. aelleniB; and (5) M. manavi and M. petersoni recovered as sister species, which were in turn linked to a group comprising M. egeri and five genetically distinct populations referred to herein as P3, P4, P5, P6 and P7. Beast analysis indicated that the initial divergence within the Malagasy Miniopterus radiation took place 4.5 Myr; most species diverged between 4 and 2.5 Myr, and a secondary period was between 1.25 and 1 Myr. DNA K2P-distances between recognized taxa ranged from 12.9% to 2.5% and intraspecific variation was less than 1.8%. Of the 18 identified clades, Latin binomials are only associated with 11, which indicates much greater differentiation than currently recognized for Malagasy Miniopterus. These data are placed in a context of the dispersal history of this genus on the island and patterns of ecological diversity.
Reis, N R; Gallo, P H; Peracchi, A L; Lima, L P; Fregonezi, M N
Most natural forests have been converted for human use, restricting biological life to small forest fragments. Many animals, including some species of bats are disappearing and the list of these species grows every day. It seems that the destruction of the habitat is one of its major causes. This study aimed to analyze how this community of bats was made up in environments with different sizes and quality of habitat. Data from studies conducted in the region of Londrina, Parana, Brazil, from 1982 to 2000 were used. Originally, this area was covered by a semi deciduous forest, especially Aspidosperma polyneuron (Apocynaceae), Ficus insipida (Moraceae), Euterpe edulis (Arecaceae), Croton floribundus (Euforbiaceae), and currently, only small remnants of the original vegetation still exist. The results showed a decline in the number of species caught in smaller areas compared to the largest remnant. In about 18 years of sampling, 42 species of bats were found in the region, representing 67% of the species that occur in Paraná and 24.4% in Brazil. There were two species of Noctilionidae; 21 of Phyllostoma; 11 Vespertilionidae and eight Molossidae. Eight of these were captured only in the largest fragment, Mata dos Godoy State Park (680 ha). Ten species had a low capture rate in the smaller areas with less than three individuals. Of the total sampled, 14 species were found in human buildings, and were able to tolerate modified environments, foraging and even using them as shelter. As the size of the forest area increases, there is a greater variety of ecological opportunities and their physical conditions become more stable, i.e., conditions favorable for growth and survival of a greater number of species. Forest fragmentation limits and creates subpopulations, preserving only long-lived K-strategist animals for some time, where the supporting capacity of the environment is a limiting factor. The reduction of habitats, species and genetic diversity resulting from human activities are endangering the future adaptability in natural ecosystems, which promotes the disappearance of low adaptive potential species.
Shi, Huizhen; Dong, Ji; Irwin, David M; Zhang, Shuyi; Mao, Xiuguang
Transposition of mitochondrial DNA into the nucleus, which gives rise to nuclear mitochondrial DNAs (NUMTs), has been well documented in eukaryotes. However, very few studies have assessed the frequency of these transpositions during the evolutionary history of a specific taxonomic group. Here we used the horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus) as a case study to determine the frequency and relative timing of nuclear transfers of mitochondrial control region sequences. For this, phylogenetic and coalescent analyzes were performed on NUMTs and authentic mtDNA sequences generated from eight horseshoe bat species. Our results suggest at least three independent transpositions, including two ancient and one more recent, during the evolutionary history of Rhinolophus. The two ancient transpositions are represented by the NUMT-1 and -2 clades, with each clade consisting of NUMTs from almost all studied species but originating from different portions of the mtDNA genome. Furthermore, estimates of the most recent common ancestor for each clade corresponded to the time of the initial diversification of this genus. The recent transposition is represented by NUMT-3, which was discovered only in a specific subgroup of Rhinolophus and exhibited a close relationship to its mitochondrial counterpart. Our similarity searches of mtDNA in the R. ferrumequinum genome confirmed the presence of NUMT-1 and NUMT-2 clade sequences and, for the first time, assessed the extent of NUMTs in a bat genome. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report on the frequency of transpositions of mtDNA occurring before the common ancestry of a genus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hulva, Pavel; Horácek, Ivan; Benda, Petr
The Rhinopomatidae, traditionally considered to be one of the most ancient chiropteran clades, remains one of the least known groups of Rhinolophoidea. No relevant fossil record is available for this family. Whereas there have been extensive radiations in related families Rhinolophidae and Hipposideridae, there are only a few species in the Rhinopomatidae and their phylogenetic relationship and status are not fully understood. Here we present (a) a phylogenetic analysis based on a partial cytochrome b sequence, (b) new fossils from the Upper Miocene site Elaiochoria 2 (Chalkidiki, Greece), which represents the first appearance datum of the family based on the fossil record, and (c) discussion of the phylogeographic patterns in both molecular and morphological traits. We found deep divergences in the Rhinopoma hardwickii lineage, suggesting that the allopatric populations in (i) Iran and (ii) North Africa and the Middle East should have separate species status. The latter species (R. cystops) exhibits a shallow pattern of isolation by distance (separating the Middle East and the African populations) that contrasts with the pattern of geographic variation in the morphometrical traits. A deep genetic gap was also found in Rhinopoma muscatellum (Iran vs. Yemen). We found only minute genetic distance between R. microphyllum from the Levant and India, which fails to support the sub/species distinctness of the Indian form (R. microphyllum kinneari). The mtDNA survey provided phylogenetic tree of the family Rhinopomatidae for the first time and revealed an unexpected diversification of the group both within R. hardwickii and R. muscatellum morphospecies. The paleobiogeographic scenario compiled in respect to molecular clock data suggests that the family originated in the region south of the Eocene Western Tethyan seaway or in India, and extended its range during the Early Miocene. The fossil record suggests a Miocene spread into the Mediterranean region, followed by a post-Miocene retreat. Morphological analysis compared with genetic data indicates considerable phenotypic plasticity in this group.
Hornok, Sándor; Görföl, Tamás; Estók, Péter; Tu, Vuong Tan; Kontschán, Jenő
In a recent study on ixodid bat ticks from Eurasia, a high genetic difference was found between Ixodes vespertilionis from Europe and Vietnam. Accordingly, it was proposed that I. vespertilionis is a species complex, with at least one additional, hitherto undescribed species. The aim of the present study was to investigate the morphology of bat ticks from Vietnam and to assess their taxonomic status in comparison with those collected in Europe. Ixodid bat ticks (two females and two nymphs) collected from the pomona leaf-nosed bat (Hipposideros pomona) (Hipposideridae) and intermediate horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus affinis) (Rhinolophidae) in Vietnam showed major morphological differences from European isolates of I. vespertilionis, including the shape of the scutum, the enclosure and shape of porose areas, the presence of a caudo-lateral collar-like ridge ventrally on the basis capituli, polytrich coxae with short setae, and grouped (non-linear) arrangement of anterior pit sensillae in Haller's organ. In this study the female and the nymph of an ixodid bat tick species from Vietnam are described for the first time. The genetic and morphological differences between I. vespertilionis Koch, 1844 and these bat ticks from Vietnam justify the status of the latter as a distinct species, Ixodes collaris Hornok n. sp.
Dool, Serena E; Puechmaille, Sebastien J; Foley, Nicole M; Allegrini, Benjamin; Bastian, Anna; Mutumi, Gregory L; Maluleke, Tinyiko G; Odendaal, Lizelle J; Teeling, Emma C; Jacobs, David S
Despite many studies illustrating the perils of utilising mitochondrial DNA in phylogenetic studies, it remains one of the most widely used genetic markers for this purpose. Over the last decade, nuclear introns have been proposed as alternative markers for phylogenetic reconstruction. However, the resolution capabilities of mtDNA and nuclear introns have rarely been quantified and compared. In the current study we generated a novel ∼5kb dataset comprising six nuclear introns and a mtDNA fragment. We assessed the relative resolution capabilities of the six intronic fragments with respect to each other, when used in various combinations together, and when compared to the traditionally used mtDNA. We focused on a major clade in the horseshoe bat family (Afro-Palaearctic clade; Rhinolophidae) as our case study. This old, widely distributed and speciose group contains a high level of conserved morphology. This morphological stasis renders the reconstruction of the phylogeny of this group with traditional morphological characters complex. We sampled multiple individuals per species to represent their geographic distributions as best as possible (122 individuals, 24 species, 68 localities). We reconstructed the species phylogeny using several complementary methods (partitioned Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian and Bayesian multispecies-coalescent) and made inferences based on consensus across these methods. We computed pairwise comparisons based on Robinson-Foulds tree distance metric between all Bayesian topologies generated (27,000) for every gene(s) and visualised the tree space using multidimensional scaling (MDS) plots. Using our supported species phylogeny we estimated the ancestral state of key traits of interest within this group, e.g. echolocation peak frequency which has been implicated in speciation. Our results revealed many potential cryptic species within this group, even in taxa where this was not suspected a priori and also found evidence for mtDNA introgression. We demonstrated that by using just two introns one can recover a better supported species tree than when using the mtDNA alone, despite the shorter overall length of the combined introns. Additionally, when combining any single intron with mtDNA, we showed that the result is highly similar to the mtDNA gene tree and far from the true species tree and therefore this approach should be avoided. We caution against the indiscriminate use of mtDNA in phylogenetic studies and advocate for pilot studies to select nuclear introns. The selection of marker type and number is a crucial step that is best based on critical examination of preliminary or previously published data. Based on our findings and previous publications, we recommend the following markers to recover phylogenetic relationships between recently diverged taxa (<20 My) in bats and other mammals: ACOX2, COPS7A, BGN, ROGDI and STAT5A. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mao, Xiu-Guang; Wang, Jin-Huan; Su, Wei-Ting; Wang, Ying-Xiang; Yang, Feng-Tang; Nie, Wen-Hui
Comparing to its sister-family (Rhinolophidae), Hipposideridae was less studied by cytogenetic approaches. Only a few high-resolution G-banded karyotypes have been reported so far, and most of the conclusions on the karyotypic evolution in Hipposideridae were based on conventional Giemsa-staining. In this study, we applied comparative chromosome painting, a method of choice for genome-wide comparison at the molecular level, and G- and C-banding to establish comparative map between five hipposiderid species from China, using a whole set of chromosome-specific painting probes from one of them (Aselliscus stoliczkanus). G-band and C-band comparisons between homologous segments defined by chromosome painting revealed that Robertsonian translocations, paracentric inversions and heterochromatin addition could be the main mechanism of chromosome evolution in Hipposideridae. Comparative analysis of the conserved chromosomal segments among five hipposiderid species and outgroup species suggests that bi-armed chromosomes should be included into the ancestral karyotype of Hipposideridae, which was previously believed to be exclusively composed of acrocentric chromosomes.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Rhinopomatidae, traditionally considered to be one of the most ancient chiropteran clades, remains one of the least known groups of Rhinolophoidea. No relevant fossil record is available for this family. Whereas there have been extensive radiations in related families Rhinolophidae and Hipposideridae, there are only a few species in the Rhinopomatidae and their phylogenetic relationship and status are not fully understood. Results Here we present (a a phylogenetic analysis based on a partial cytochrome b sequence, (b new fossils from the Upper Miocene site Elaiochoria 2 (Chalkidiki, Greece, which represents the first appearance datum of the family based on the fossil record, and (c discussion of the phylogeographic patterns in both molecular and morphological traits. We found deep divergences in the Rhinopoma hardwickii lineage, suggesting that the allopatric populations in (i Iran and (ii North Africa and the Middle East should have separate species status. The latter species (R. cystops exhibits a shallow pattern of isolation by distance (separating the Middle East and the African populations that contrasts with the pattern of geographic variation in the morphometrical traits. A deep genetic gap was also found in Rhinopoma muscatellum (Iran vs. Yemen. We found only minute genetic distance between R. microphyllum from the Levant and India, which fails to support the sub/species distinctness of the Indian form (R. microphyllum kinneari. Conclusion The mtDNA survey provided phylogenetic tree of the family Rhinopomatidae for the first time and revealed an unexpected diversification of the group both within R. hardwickii and R. muscatellum morphospecies. The paleobiogeographic scenario compiled in respect to molecular clock data suggests that the family originated in the region south of the Eocene Western Tethyan seaway or in India, and extended its range during the Early Miocene. The fossil record suggests a Miocene spread into the Mediterranean region, followed by a post-Miocene retreat. Morphological analysis compared with genetic data indicates considerable phenotypic plasticity in this group.
Richards, Leigh R; Rambau, Ramugondo V; Goodman, Steven M; Taylor, Peter J; Schoeman, M Corrie; Yang, Fengtang; Lamb, Jennifer M
Pteropodidae and Hipposideridae are 2 of the 9 chiropteran families that occur on Madagascar. Despite major advancements in the systematic study of the island's bat fauna, few karyotypic data exist for endemic species. We utilized G- and C-banding in combination with chromosome painting with Myotismyotis probes to establish a genome-wide homology among Malagasy species belonging to the families Pteropodidae (Pteropus rufus 2n = 38; Rousettus madagascariensis, 2n = 36), Hipposideridae (Hipposideros commersoni s.s., 2n = 52), and a single South African representative of the Rhinolophidae (Rhinolophus clivosus, 2n = 58). Painting probes of M. myotis detected 26, 28, 28, and 29 regions of homology in R. madagascariensis, P. rufus, H. commersoni s.s, and R. clivosus, respectively. Translocations, pericentric inversions, and heterochromatin additions were responsible for karyotypic differences amongst the Malagasy pteropodids. Comparative chromosome painting revealed a novel pericentric inversion on P. rufus chromosome 4. Chromosomal characters suggest a close evolutionary relationship between Rousettus and Pteropus. H. commersoni s.s. shared several chromosomal characters with extralimital congeners but did not exhibit 2 chromosomal synapomorphies proposed for Hipposideridae. This study provides further insight into the ancestral karyotypes of pteropodid and hipposiderid bats and corroborates certain molecular phylogenetic hypotheses. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Sharifi, Mozafar; Taghinezhad, Najmeh; Mozafari, Fatema; Vaissi, Somaye
We studied variation of ectoparasite load in a free ranging populations of Mehely's horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus mehelyi) on five successive occasions in a nursery roost in western Iran. In total, 87 Rhinolophus mehelyi were captured. The patterns of abundance differed greatly among parasite species but total parasite load was markedly higher in pregnant females in spring and early summer and lower in solitary males. On average, 90% of bats were infested by Eyndhovenia sp. with a mean intensity of 13.79 individuals per bat. Penicillidia sp. and one species from Streblidae were found in 66.7% and 11.49% of bats with parasite load of 2.31 and 1.8 parasite per bat, respectively. Using ratio of forearm length to body mass as an indication of bat health the correlation coefficient between parasite load and the health indicator was 0.002 for males and 0.06 for females indicating that parasite load has no apparent impact on bat's health.
Xiao, Yanhong; Sun, Keping; Feng, Jiang
Rhinolophus ferrumequinum nippon and Rhinolophus ferrumequinum tragatus are two subspecies of Rhinolophus ferrumequinum currently recognized in China. In this study, their mitochondrial genomes were completely sequenced and annotated. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that R. f. nippon has a close relationship with two subspecies of R. ferrumequinum from Korea with 0.1% divergence, which indicated they are synonyms.
Saha, Anik; Feeroz, Mohammed Mostafa; Hasan, Md Kamrul
Rhinolophus pusillus is a common species of India and Nepal in South Asia. Here, we report a new record of this bat captured in the mixed evergreen forest in Rangamati, southeastern part of Bangladesh. The identification was based on external morphology along with cranio-dental measurements. Roost counts was conducted through direct observation.
Puerma, Eva; Acosta, Manuel J; Barragán, Maria José L; Martínez, Sergio; Marchal, Juan Alberto; Bullejos, Mónica; Sánchez, Antonio
The karyotype of individuals of the species Rhinolophus hipposideros from Spain present a chromosome number of 2n = 54 (NFa = 62). The described karyotype for these specimens is very similar to another previously described in individual from Bulgaria. However, the presence of one additional pair of autosomal acrocentric chromosomes in the Bulgarian karyotype and the differences in X chromosome morphology indicated that we have described a new karyotype variant in this species. In addition, we have analyzed several clones of 1.4 and 1 kb of a PstI repeated DNA sequence from the genome of R. hipposideros. The repeated sequence included a region with high identity with the 5S rDNA genes and flanking regions, with no homology with GenBank sequences. Search for polymerase III regulatory elements demonstrated the presence of type I promoter elements (A-box, Intermediate Element and C-box) in the 5S rDNA region. In addition, upstream regulatory elements, as a D-box and Sp1 binding sequences, were present in flanking regions. All data indicated that the cloned repeated sequences are the functional rDNA genes from this species. Finally, FISH demonstrated the presence of rDNA in nine chromosome pairs, which is surprising as most mammals have only one carrier chromosome pair.
Benda, P.; Vallo, Peter; Reiter, A.
Roč. 13, č. 2 (2011), s. 245-270 ISSN 1508-1109 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Asellia * morphology * morphometry * mtDNA * taxonomy * phylogeny Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.116, year: 2011
Ganesh, Ambigapathy; Bogdanowicz, Wieslaw; Haupt, Moritz; Marimuthu, Ganapathy; Rajan, Koilmani Emmanuvel
The role of olfactory bulb (OB) serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] in olfactory learning and memory was tested in the greater short-nosed fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx (family Pteropodidae). Graded concentrations (25, 40, and 60microg) of 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) or saline were injected into the OB of bats one day before training to the novel odor. In a behavioral test, 5,7-DHT (60microg) injected bats made significantly fewer feeding attempts and bouts when compared to saline-injected bats during learning and in the memory test. Subsequent biochemical analysis showed that 5-HT level was effectively depleted in the OB of 5,7-DHT injected bats. To test odor-induced 5-HT mediated changes in 5-HT receptors and second messenger cascade in the OB, we examined the expression of 5-HT receptors and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/Erk cascade after training to the novel odor. We found that odor stimulation up-regulated the expression of 5-HT(1A) receptor, Erk1 and Creb1 mRNA, and phosphorylation of ERK1 and CREB1. Odor stimulation failed to induce expression in 5-HT-depleted bats, which is similar to control bats and significantly low compared to saline-treated bats. Together these data revealed that the level of 5-HT in the OB may regulate olfactory learning and memory in C. sphinx through Erk and CREB.
Full Text Available From a conservation standpoint, inferences about dietary intake are much more robust when placed within a demographic, temporal and nutritional context. We investigated the dietary cornerstones of fruit preference and the dietary energy gained in the Short-nosed Fruit Bat Cynopterus sphinx. Feeding trials were conducted with 15 wild-caught bats kept in a large flight cage in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan, China, over nine weeks. The goal was to estimate the amount of food required for the sustenance of C. sphinx in captivity and calculate the food amount in terms of energy. Of the fruits (apple, banana, pear, papaya and guava offered, apple (89% and banana (93% were found to be preferred. The relative consumption of fruit species tended to be positively correlated with the energy value per gram fruit. Banana (93% was the most preferred and papaya (47% the least preferred of the offered fruits. The results suggest that the minimum recommended dietary intake is 214-267 kJ per day for an individual of C. sphinx in captivity with conditions allowing flight. From this, we can assume that the same energy requirements may represent the minimum intake for bats in the wild. Both body mass and food consumption decreased significantly when bats were kept in a small cage.
Full Text Available Neotropical bats of the genus Carollia are widely studied due to their abundance, distribution and relevance for ecosystems. However, the ecomorphological boundaries of these species are poorly differentiated, and consequently correspondence between their geographic distribution, ecological plasticity and morphological variation remains unclear. In this study, patterns of cranial and mandibular morphological variation were assessed for Carollia brevicauda, C. castanea and C. perspicillata from Colombia. Using geometric morphometrics, morphological variation was examined with respect to: differences in intraspecific variation, morphological modularity and integration, and biogeographic patterns. Patterns of intraspecific variation were different for each species in both cranial and mandibular morphology, with functional differences apparent according to diet. Cranial modularity varied between species whereas mandibular modularity did not. High cranial and mandibular correlation reflects Cranium-Mandible integration as a functional unit. Similarity between the biogeographic patterns in C. brevicauda and C. perspicillata indicates that the Andes do not act as a barrier but rather as an independent region, isolating the morphology of Andean populations of larger-bodied species. The biogeographic pattern for C. castanea was not associated with the physiography of the Andes, suggesting that large body size does not benefit C. brevicauda and C. perspicillata in maintaining homogeneous morphologies among populations.
López-Aguirre, Camilo; Pérez-Torres, Jairo; Wilson, Laura A B
Neotropical bats of the genus Carollia are widely studied due to their abundance, distribution and relevance for ecosystems. However, the ecomorphological boundaries of these species are poorly differentiated, and consequently correspondence between their geographic distribution, ecological plasticity and morphological variation remains unclear. In this study, patterns of cranial and mandibular morphological variation were assessed for Carollia brevicauda, C. castanea and C. perspicillata from Colombia. Using geometric morphometrics, morphological variation was examined with respect to: differences in intraspecific variation, morphological modularity and integration, and biogeographic patterns. Patterns of intraspecific variation were different for each species in both cranial and mandibular morphology, with functional differences apparent according to diet. Cranial modularity varied between species whereas mandibular modularity did not. High cranial and mandibular correlation reflects Cranium-Mandible integration as a functional unit. Similarity between the biogeographic patterns in C. brevicauda and C. perspicillata indicates that the Andes do not act as a barrier but rather as an independent region, isolating the morphology of Andean populations of larger-bodied species. The biogeographic pattern for C. castanea was not associated with the physiography of the Andes, suggesting that large body size does not benefit C. brevicauda and C. perspicillata in maintaining homogeneous morphologies among populations.
Šrámek, J.; Gvoždík, Václav; Benda, P.
Roč. 167, č. 1 (2013), s. 165-190 ISSN 0024-4082 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/09/0888 Keywords : Arabia * bent-winged bats * cryptic species Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.658, year: 2013
Benda, P.; Lučan, R. K.; Obuch, J.; Reiter, A.; Andreas, M.; Bačkor, P.; Bohnenstengel, T.; Eid, E. K.; Ševčík, M.; Vallo, Peter; Amr, Z. S.
Roč. 74, 3-4 (2010), s. 185-353 ISSN 1211-376X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : bats * distribution * ecology * echolocation * ectoparasites * Middle East * Jordan * Arabia * Palaearctic Region Subject RIV: EG - Zoology
Nicholas J. Czaplewski
Full Text Available Thousands of vertebrate fossils have been recovered from the Gray Fossil Site, Tennessee, dating to the Miocene-Pliocene boundary. Among these are but eight specimens of bats representing two different taxa referable to the family Vespertilionidae. Comparison of the fossils with Neogene and Quaternary bats reveals that seven of the eight specimens pertain to a species of Eptesicus that cannot be distinguished from recent North American Eptesicus fuscus. The remaining specimen, a horizontal ramus with m3, is from a smaller vespertilionid bat that cannot confidently be assigned to a genus. Although many vespertilionid genera can be excluded through comparisons, and many extinct named taxa cannot be compared due to nonequivalence of preserved skeletal elements, the second taxon shows morphological similarities to small-bodied taxa with three lower premolar alveoli, three distinct m3 talonid cusps, and m3 postcristid showing the myotodont condition. It resembles especially Nycticeius humeralis and small species of Eptesicus. Eptesicus cf. E. fuscus potentially inhabited eastern North America continuously since the late Hemphillian land mammal age, when other evidence from the Gray Fossil Site indicates the presence in the southern Appalachian Mountains of a warm, subtropical, oak-hickory-conifer forest having autochthonous North American as well as allochthonous biogeographical ties to eastern Asia and tropical-subtropical Middle America.
Elkin A. Noguera-Urbano
Full Text Available Los esfuerzos globales para digitalizar los datos de ocurrencia de la biodiversidad en colecciones, museos y otras instituciones han estimulado el desarrollo de herramientas para mejorar el conocimiento y conservación de la biodiversidad. La “Global Biodiversity Information Facility” GBIF permite el acceso a más de 321 millones de registros, alojados en 379 instituciones. Los murciélagos neotropicales son un grupo muy diverso y especializado y la información geográfica del grupo se ha incrementado desde hace unos años, pero son pocos los reportes acerca del tema. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar el número de registros disponibles en GBIF de los murciélagos neotropicales de 21 países de América. Por lo tanto, se evaluó la consistencia del nombre científico y la calidad geográfica a escala de país. Además, se evaluaron vacíos de información sobre una grilla de 1° latitud y 1° longitud. Hubo cerca de 1/2 millón de registros, de los cuales el 58% no incluyeron coordenadas geográficas; el 52% pasaron las dos evaluaciones. Se estimó que el 54% del área geográfica analizada no tiene registros; los vacíos están en centros de biodiversidad como la Amazonía y la Patagonia. En conclusión nuestros resultados sugieren que los datos disponibles en GBIF tienen sesgos geográficos y en los nombres científicos. Los datos de GBIF representan parcialmente las riquezas de murciélagos, además los principales vacíos de información se encuentran en América del Sur.
Colín-Martínez, Helisama; Morales-Malacara, Juan B; García-Estrada, Carlos
This is the first complete assessment of the ectoparasite fauna on phyllostomid bats in a shaded coffee plantation in Mexico. The study was carried out at Finca San Carlos, in the municipality of Tapachula, southeastern Chiapas, Mexico. The bats were captured over three consecutive nights every month, from December 2005 to November 2006, using four mist nets. We captured 192 phyllostomid bats, representing 18 species, upon which 1,971 ectoparasites, belonging to 11 families and 65 species, were found. We found that 160 of the 192 captured bats were hosts to ectoparasites, giving an infestation prevalence of 83.3%. Of the 65 ectoparasitic species, 14 were classified as monoxenous and 17 as stenoxenous. More ectoparasites were recorded in the dry season (n = 1,439) than the wet season (n = 532), and we recorded some families of ectoparasite on particular areas of the bat body. An ordination of bat species, based on their ectoparasitic species community structure, formed groups at the subfamily level or lower taxonomic categories. We suggest that the close ectoparasite-host relationships could be examined as an additional tool to elucidate the taxonomic relationships between the hosts. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Guzmán-Cornejo, C; García-Prieto, L; Morales-Malacara, J B; Pérez-Ponce De León, G
The Mexican free-tailed bat, Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana, is one of the most widely distributed bats, and its range includes the whole Mexican territory. Ectoparasites of this bat have been the subject of isolated reports, but no studies of its community ecology have been conducted. The acarine infracommunities associated with this bat were analyzed, comparing bat populations from three arid regions of Mexico: an abandoned factory in Nombre de Dios, Durango; a cave in Santiago, Nuevo León; and a church in Concepción del Oro, Zacatecas. The acarine infracommunity in Nuevo Le6n's bats exhibited the highest levels of diversity as reflected by a higher richness, a lower dominance, and a moderate and relatively homogeneous abundance in this locality in relation to the other two. This pattern is influenced by stable cave conditions relative to artificial habitats. Notwithstanding, further studies are required to determine whether or not different habitat conditions are a primary factor in the process of structuring the acari infracommunities.
Villegas-Guzman, Gabriel A; López-González, Celia; Vargas, Margarita
As a part of an inventory of bats in abandoned mines at the municipality of Guanaceví, Durango, Mexico, a sample of long-eared bats (genus Corynorhinus) was collected and ectoparasites were taken. Twenty-three specimens of Corynorhinus mexicanus Allen, 1916, and 18 of Corynorhinus townsendii (Cooper, 1937) were collected in four sampling periods coincident with the seasons. In total, 98 ectoparasites of 10 species and seven families were examined. Five species are recorded for the first time on C. mexicanus and four on C. townsendii. Macronyssus cyclaspis and Trichobius corynorhini had the highest frequency of infestation in both bats. Differences in number of arthropods per bat among seasons were nonsignificant for both species.
McAllister, Chris T.; Seville, R. Scott; Roehrs, Zachary P.
During September 2004, 4 adult northern myotis, Myotis septentrionalis, were collected from LeFlore County, Oklahoma (n = 2), and Logan (n = 1) and Yell (n = 1) counties, Arkansas, and their feces examined for coccidian parasites. Three of 4 bats (75%) were passing oocysts of Eimeria spp. Oocysts of Eimeria tumlisoni n. sp. were ovoidal, 17.6 × 16.8 (16–19 × 14–18) μm with a shape index of 1.0 (1.0–1.1). A micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, although 1–2 bilobed polar granules were often present. Sporocysts were ovoidal, 10.5 × 5.9 (9–12 × 5–7) μm with a shape index of 1.8 (1.6–2.0). A Stieda body was present, but sub–Stieda and para–Stieda bodies were absent. A sporocyst residuum was present consisting of compact to dispersed granules between the sporozoites. The sporozoites were elongate, with subspherical anterior refractile body and spherical posterior refractile body; a nucleus was not discernable. This is the second coccidian reported from this host and the first instance of a bat coccidian reported from Oklahoma. We also document a new geographic record for Eimeria catronensis in Oklahoma, and provide an emended description. PMID:22509940
McAllister, Chris T.; Burt, Scott; Seville, R. Scott; Robison, Henry W.
During November 2009 and March 2010, 20 adult eastern pipistrelles, Perimyotis (=Pipistrellus) subflavus were collected from Polk County, Arkansas, and their feces examined for coccidian parasites. Two (10%) of the bats were found to be passing oocysts of an undescribed species of Eimeria. Oocysts of Eimeria heidti n. sp. were ovoidal to ellipsoidal, 26.1 × 20.5 (23-31 × 18-23) μm, with a bilayered wall, externally rough, internally smooth, and with a shape index of 1.3. Micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a subspherical polar granule was often present. Sporocysts were ovoidal, 13.0 × 8.8 (11-15 × 7-13) μm, the shape index was 1.6, a Stieda body was present and sub-Stieda and para-Stieda bodies were absent. A sporocyst residuum consisting of multiple globules dispersed along the perimeter of the sporocyst and between the sporozoites were present, sporozoites were elongate, with a subspherical anterior refractile body and elongate posterior refractile body; a nucleus not discernable. This is the second coccidian reported from this host and the fourth instance of a coccidian species reported from an Arkansas bat. PMID:21506799
Full Text Available The barbastelle bat, Barbastella barbastellus (Schreber, 1774 is a medium-sized, tree-dwelling vespertilionid classified as ?Endangered? in Italy; in western Europe it may be one of the rarest bat species. B. barbastellus shows roosting preferences that should be regarded as a key point in conservation protocols. We examined roost selection in a breeding population of B. barbastellus from the Abruzzo Lazio and Molise National Park (central Italy at three levels: woodland structure and management type; tree characteristics; and cavity characteristics. In 2001-2002, we fitted 31 adult B. barbastellus (29 lactating females, one pregnant female and one male with 0.48g radio-tags and tracked them to their roost-trees. The bats were tracked for 4.5 ± 3.7 days (range: 0-12 days. We located 33 roosts used by 25 subjects (1.8±1.2 roosts/bat, range 1-5. The bats switched roosts frequently: 13 bats used more than one tree over the study period. A chi-square analysis showed that the roosts were not distributed at random across woodland categories: unmanaged woodland was positively selected, whereas shelterwood-harvested woodland was used in proportion to its availability, and ?pastures+scattered trees? was avoided. Twenty out of 33 roost trees were dead Fagus sylvatica trees; conversely, living F. sylvatica dominated in a tree sample obtained at random; dead trees were used more than expected (Χ² test, P <0.001. Overall, roost trees were significantly taller and had a larger diameter at breast?s height and more cavities than random trees; they also had a lower percent canopy closure than random trees. To highlight which variables were actually associated with selection, we devised a logistic regression model. The full model was significant (P <0.001; removal of tree type and tree height affected the model significantly, but the other variables did not produce detectable effects. The bats roosted under loose bark in 20 of 27 trees, i.e. more frequently than expected (Χ² test, P < 0.05. B. barbastellus preferred cavities at a greater height (median roost height = 10.1 m, n = 22; median random cavity height = 4.5 m, n = 30; Mann-Whitney test, P < 0.01. Most roosts faced south (63.6% south facing: 91-270 degrees; 36.4% north facing: 271-90 degrees, n = 22; Χ² test, P < 0.05. A logistic regression model including cavity type, height above ground and direction faced was significant (P <0.01 and all variables were important for selection. B. barbastellus is probably unable to find suitable roosting sites where intensive and non-selective logging is conducted: areas of ancient woodland should be protected to ensure optimal roosting conditions. In roosting areas, felling operations should be avoided as far as possible; in logged areas, selective timber harvesting protocols preserving dead trees and a significant fraction of mature trees should be adopted. We are indebted to the Nando Peretti Foundation and the Parco Nazionale d?Abruzzo Lazio e Molise for funding our work.
Santana, Sharlene E; Geipel, Inga; Dumont, Elizabeth R; Kalka, Margareta B; Kalko, Elisabeth K V
Ecological specialization and resource partitioning are expected to be particularly high in the species-rich communities of tropical vertebrates, yet many species have broader ecological niches than expected. In Neotropical ecosystems, Neotropical leaf-nosed bats (Phyllostomidae) are one of the most ecologically and functionally diverse vertebrate clades. Resource partitioning in phyllostomids might be achieved through differences in the ability to find and process food. We selected Micronycteris microtis, a very small (5-7 g) animalivorous phyllostomid, to explore whether broad resource use is associated with specific morphological, behavioral and performance traits within the phyllostomid radiation. We documented processing of natural prey and measured bite force in free-ranging M. microtis and other sympatric phyllostomids. We found that M. microtis had a remarkably broad diet for prey size and hardness. For the first time, we also report the consumption of vertebrates (lizards), which makes M. microtis the smallest carnivorous bat reported to date. Compared to other phyllostomids, M. microtis had the highest bite force for its size and cranial shape and high performance plasticity. Bite force and cranial shape appear to have evolved rapidly in the M. microtis lineage. High performance capacity and high efficiency in finding motionless prey might be key traits that allow M. microtis, and perhaps other species, to successfully co-exist with other gleaning bats.
Sharlene E Santana
Full Text Available Ecological specialization and resource partitioning are expected to be particularly high in the species-rich communities of tropical vertebrates, yet many species have broader ecological niches than expected. In Neotropical ecosystems, Neotropical leaf-nosed bats (Phyllostomidae are one of the most ecologically and functionally diverse vertebrate clades. Resource partitioning in phyllostomids might be achieved through differences in the ability to find and process food. We selected Micronycteris microtis, a very small (5-7 g animalivorous phyllostomid, to explore whether broad resource use is associated with specific morphological, behavioral and performance traits within the phyllostomid radiation. We documented processing of natural prey and measured bite force in free-ranging M. microtis and other sympatric phyllostomids. We found that M. microtis had a remarkably broad diet for prey size and hardness. For the first time, we also report the consumption of vertebrates (lizards, which makes M. microtis the smallest carnivorous bat reported to date. Compared to other phyllostomids, M. microtis had the highest bite force for its size and cranial shape and high performance plasticity. Bite force and cranial shape appear to have evolved rapidly in the M. microtis lineage. High performance capacity and high efficiency in finding motionless prey might be key traits that allow M. microtis, and perhaps other species, to successfully co-exist with other gleaning bats.
Rodrigo M. Mello
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Many studies have demonstrated the ecological relevance and great biodiversity of bats in Brazil. However, mountainous areas have been disproportionately less sampled, mainly in the Southeast. The aim of this study was to identify and compare the richness and diversity of Phyllostomidae, the most diverse bat family, in different forest types in Parque Estadual do Ibitipoca, trying to understand the causes of possible differences. The Parque Estadual do Ibitipoca is inserted in the Serra da Mantiqueira's domain, in an Atlantic Forest region known as "Zona da Mata", state of Minas Gerais, with an altitudinal range between 1200-1784 meters. The study was conducted in two forest types, classified as "Nanofloresta Nebular" and "Floresta Nebular", whose respective data on richness and diversity were compared. The bats were captured with 8-10 mist nets for 14 months (April 2011 to May 2012 and four nights per month totaling 62,171.25 m2h of capture effort. A total of 392 captures (12 species belonging to the Phyllostomidae family were obtained. The most abundant species were Sturnira lilium (59.9%, Platyrrhinus lineatus (11.3%, Artibeus lituratus (8.7% and Carollia perspicillata (7.6%. The two sampled areas presented differences in bat richness, diversity and species composition, and this difference was predominantly influenced by S. lilium. It is likely that the observed difference in the assembly of bats between the two study sites depends on the variation in floristic composition. The records of A. lituratus and P. lineatus in a few months of the year and close to Ficus mexiae bearing ripe fruits suggests that at least these species move to the park for a few periods of the year in search of food resources, possibly moving through the altitudinal landscapes.
Full Text Available The family Phyllostomidae belongs to the most abundant and diverse group of bats in the Neotropics with more morphological traits variation at the family level than any other group within mammals. In this work, we present data of chromosome banding (G, C and Ag-NOR and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH for representatives of Rhinophylla pumilio Peters, 1865 collected in four states of Brazil (Amazonas, Bahia, Mato Grosso and Pará. Two karyomorphs were found in this species: 2n=34, FN=64 in populations from western Pará and Mato Grosso states and 2n=34, FN=62 from Amazonas, Bahia, and northeastern Pará and Marajó Island (northern. Difference in the Fundamental Number is determined by variation in the size of the Nucleolar Organizer Region (NOR accompanied with heterochromatin on chromosomes of pair 16 or, alternatively, a pericentric inversion. The C-banding technique detected constitutive heterochromatin in the centromeric regions of all chromosomes and on the distal part of the long arm of pair 15 of specimens from all localities. FISH with a DNA telomeric probe did not show any interstitial sequence, and an 18S rDNA probe and silver staining revealed the presence of NOR in the long arm of the pair 15, associated with heterochromatin, and in the short arm of the pair 16 for all specimens. The intra-specific analysis using chromosome banding did not show any significant difference between the samples. The comparative analyses using G-banding have shown that nearly all chromosomes of R. pumilio were conserved in the chromosome complements of Glossophaga soricina Pallas, 1766, Phyllostomus hastatus Pallas, 1767, Phyllostomus discolor Wagner, 1843 and Mimon crenulatum Geoffroy, 1801, with a single chromosomal pair unique to R. pumilio (pair 15. However, two chromosomes of M. crenulatum are polymorphic for two independent pericentric inversions. The karyotype with 2n=34, NF=62 is probably the ancestral one for the other karyotypes described for R. pumilio.
Hu, Kai-Liang; Wei, Li; Zhu, Teng-Teng; Wang, Xu-Zhong; Zhang, Li-Biao
We investigated food (insect) availability in foraging areas utilized by the long-fingered bat Miniopterus fuliginosus using light traps, fish netting and fecal analysis. The dominant preys of M. fuliginosus were Lepidoptera (55%, by volume percent) and Coleoptera (38%) of a relatively large body size. M. fuliginosus has relatively long, narrow wings and a wing span of 6.58+/-0.12 and high wing loading of 9.85+/-0.83 N/m2. The echolocation calls of free flying M. fuliginosus were FM signals, with a pulse duration of 1.45+/-0.06 ms, interpulse interval of 63.08+/-21.55 ms, and low dominant frequency of 44.50+/-2.26 kHz. This study shows that the morphological characteristics and echolocation calls of long-fingered bats are closely linked to their predatory behavior.
This paper presents the results of an analysis of about four hundred skulls of Myotis mystacinus and M. brandtii of the Holocene age from the Záskočie Cave (Central Slovakia). A review of criteria for species determination is presented, including a new criterion concerning the morphology of P4
Hope, Paul R; Bohmann, Kristine; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.
BACKGROUND: Temperate winters produce extreme energetic challenges for small insectivorous mammals. Some bat species inhabiting locations with mild temperate winters forage during brief inter-torpor normothermic periods of activity. However, the winter diet of bats in mild temperate locations is ...
Dixon, J. W.
Full Text Available Adequate roost sites for hibernacula are an important factor in the distribution and abundance of temperate batspecies and knowledge of specific hibernacula is necessary to make sound management decisions. Caves are recognized asone of the most important roosting sites for bats, yet surveys in caves are uncommon in North America. This paper presentsdata on the distribution and abundance of bats hibernating in Iowa (U.S.A. caves and includes new hibernacula records.These are the first published records of bats in Iowa caves in almost 25 years.
Mourão Elizabeth D
Full Text Available The study of the surface topography added details regarding the disposition of male caudal papillae, spicules and area rugosa apart from vulva and oral aperture. The occurrence of this nematode in the state of Amapá represents a new geographical distribution.
André B. Malekani
Full Text Available As part of biodiversity monitoring in the Kisangani Forest Region, a survey of bats was conducted in three protected areas, specifically Lomami, Yangambi and Epulu. In this pilot study, a total of 201 specimens were collected using Japanese nets of different lengths (6, 9 and 12 m long and a height of 2 m with a mesh size of 2 × 2 cm to capture bats. Captured specimens were identified using determination keys appropriate for the study area. The results of inventories in the three sites revealed that 201 specimens of captured bats belong to 2 sub-orders, 4 families, 9 genera and 12 species. The most abundant species were Epomops franqueti, Megaloglossus woermannii and Myotis bocagii. The following species, Epomops franqueti, Megaloglossus woermanii, Casinycteris argynnis, and Hipposideros caffer were found at all three sites. Based on the Shannon Index, it was observed that the Lomami site has a higher specific diversity than the two other areas (Yangambi and Epulu 1.74 against 1.51 and 1.42 respectively.
Mohammad Nurul Islam
Full Text Available This note provides a morphological confirmation of the occurrence of Ratanaworabhans’s Fruit Bat Megaerops niphanae in Bangladesh. Although previously recorded in neighbouring territories in India, this constitutes the first country record for the taxon and highlights the current incompleteness of faunal knowledge and potential for future discoveries in the country. Greater survey effort and sustained investments into developing taxonomic capacity and museum collections in Bangladesh are required to realize this potential however.
Full Text Available We present a quantitative analysis of sexual dimorphism and geographic variation in the skull of Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 assessed by geometric morphometrics. Differences in size and shape of skulls were investigated using 30 landmarks plotted on two-dimensional images of lateral and ventral views. Results of geometric morphometrics revealed sexual dimorphism in the centroid size of the skull in both views. Females were larger than males. Nevertheless, there was no sexual dimorphism in skull shape of M. nigricans. Geographic variation was detected in size and shape of the skull. South Brazilian specimens were significantly larger than Ceará specimens only in the lateral view. Differences in skull shape were statistically significant in both views: specimens from South Brazil were brevirostri and presented a more expanded skull in the posterior region while Ceará specimens were longirostri and do not present any expansion in the brain case. Ecological factors for these phenomena are discussed in the text.
Full Text Available Forest fragmentation associated with the expansion of human development is a phenomenon that occurs worldwide. Studies reveal that there have been both a decline in species diversity and a decrease in Neotropical bat population size because of habitat loss. The aim of this study was to investigate whether human action has been affecting the food availability to wildlife species, which could impact the storage of body energy reserves. For this purpose, fruit-eating bats (Artibeus lituratus were collected in two areas in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The concentrations of plasma glucose, as well as glycogen, lipids and protein in liver in muscles were performed, in addition to adipose tissue weight and carcass fatty acids. Our results indicate that fat reserves were significantly lower in most tested tissues (muscle of the hindlimbs, breast muscles, adipose tissue and carcass in animals collected in the region with a higher degree of human disturbance. The other parameters showed no significant differences in the groups collected at different locations. In conclusion, we suggest that human action on the environment may be affecting the storage of body fat energy reserves of this species during the autumn, particularly in metropolitan region areas of Belo Horizonte, MG - Brazil, requiring special attention to the species conservation.
Montoya-Bustamante, Sebastián; Rojas-Díaz, Vladimir; Torres-González, Alba Marina
In any ecosystem, fruits are resources that vary in time and space as well as in nutritional content. Coexistence of species from a trophic guild depends on the division and use of resources. Therefore, the organisms that depend on them as a food source, tend to show a certain degree of specialization. This way, understanding the factors that influence the dynamics of seed dispersal is important for the regeneration and conservation of tropical ecosystems. Our aim was to determine variation in consumption of Piper tuberculatum by fruit bat assemblages in the village of Robles (Jamundí, Valle del Cauca, Colombia). P. tuberculatum is a resource used not only by wildlife but also by people in the village of Robles. Bats were captured in mist nets between June and November 2014, their feces were collected, and the length of the forearm, wing area, leg length and mass were recorded. At the Universidad del Valle seed laboratory, fecal samples were washed, and their content determined. Of the 14 species captured, Sturnira lilium, Carollia brevicauda, Carollia perspicillata and Artibeus lituratus showed signs of having consumed P. tuberculatum. Sturnira lilium was the main consumer of P. tuberculatum fruits, with the greatest number of consumption events of fruit from this plant species, whereas the other bats showed more diversified consumption events. The greatest niche overlap was recorded between C. brevicauda and C. perspicillata, species that showed similar sizes (i.e., wing area and forearm length) followed by S. lilium and C. perspicillata. In contrast, A. lituratus showed the least niche overlap with the other three fruit bats captured. In conclusion, Sturnira lilium showed an interaction Sturnira-Piper, which is the result of low Solanum availability, and this bat species was the largest consumer of P. tuberculatum in the region.
The twelve recognized species of nectar-feeding bats of the genus Lonchophylla occur in low- and middle-elevation, humid, Neotropical forests. Morphological and morphometrical analyses of specimens formerly lumped with Lonchophylla mordax O. Thomas (1903) support recognition of Lonchophylla concava Goldman (1914) as a separate species and reveal a third species from the western Pacific lowlands of Colombia and Ecuador that I describe herein as Lonchophylla jornicata. This new species is morphologically similar to Lonchophylla concava but is distinctively larger than that species. Tests for sexual dimorphism within these and other species of Lonchophyllini suggest a tendency for females to have slightly longer, narrower skulls, higher coronoid processes of the mandible, and longer forearms than males.
Hornok, Sándor; Estók, Péter; Kováts, Dávid; Flaisz, Barbara; Takács, Nóra; Szőke, Krisztina; Krawczyk, Aleksandra; Kontschán, Jenő; Gyuranecz, Miklós; Fedák, András; Farkas, Róbert; Haarsma, Anne-Jifke; Sprong, Hein
Bats are among the most eco-epidemiologically important mammals, owing to their presence in human settlements and animal keeping facilities. Roosting of bats in buildings may bring pathogens of veterinary-medical importance into the environment of domestic animals and humans. In this context bats have long been studied as carriers of various pathogen groups. However, despite their close association with arthropods (both in their food and as their ectoparasites), only a few molecular surveys have been published on their role as carriers of vector-borne protozoa. The aim of the present study was to compensate for this scarcity of information. Altogether 221 (mostly individual) bat faecal samples were collected in Hungary and the Netherlands. The DNA was extracted, and analysed with PCR and sequencing for the presence of arthropod-borne apicomplexan protozoa. Babesia canis canis (with 99-100% homology) was identified in five samples, all from Hungary. Because it was excluded with an Ixodidae-specific PCR that the relevant bats consumed ticks, these sequences derive either from insect carriers of Ba. canis, or from the infection of bats. In one bat faecal sample from the Netherlands a sequence having the highest (99%) homology to Besnoitia besnoiti was amplified. These findings suggest that some aspects of the epidemiology of canine babesiosis are underestimated or unknown, i.e. the potential role of insect-borne mechanical transmission and/or the susceptibility of bats to Ba. canis. In addition, bats need to be added to future studies in the quest for the final host of Be. besnoiti.
ROCHA, Mônica Monteiro Barros da
Investigações sobre a quiropterofauna da Amazônia revelam a ocorrência de no mínimo 135 espécies regionais, de hábitos alimentares variados- insetívoras, frugívoras, polinívoras, carnívoras e hematófagas. Os morcegos contribuem ao equilíbrio da biota amazônica por diferentes meios, por exemplo, controle populacional de insetos, dispersão de sementes e polinização. Potencialmente perigosos à saúde humana são os hematófagos portadores do vírus rábico. Os objetivos do estudo foram assim definido...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Various mechanisms such as geographic barriers and glacial episodes have been proposed as determinants of intra-specific and inter-specific differentiation of populations, and the distribution of their genetic diversity. More recently, habitat and climate differences, and corresponding adaptations have been shown to be forces influencing the phylogeographic evolution of some vertebrates. In this study, we examined the contribution of these various factors on the genetic differentiation of the bent-winged bat, Miniopterus schreibersii, in southeastern Europe and Anatolia. Results and conclusion Our results showed differentiation in mitochondrial DNA coupled with weaker nuclear differentiation. We found evidence for restriction of lineages to geographical areas for hundreds of generations. The results showed that the most likely ancestral haplotype was restricted to the same geographic area (the Balkans for at least 6,000 years. We were able to delineate the migration routes during the population expansion process, which followed the coasts and the inland for different nested mitochondrial clades. Hence, we were able to describe a scenario showing how multiple biotic and abiotic events including glacial periods, climate and historical dispersal patterns complemented each other in causing regional and local differentiation within a species.
Robert G. Trujillo; John C. Patton; Duane A. Schlitter; John W. Bickham
The genus Scotophilusis composed of 15 recognized species with 7 species distributed throughout sub-Saharan Africa, 4 distributed across southern and southeastern Asia, 3 endemic to Madagascar, and 1 endemic to Reunion Island. Scotophilusis plagued with problems in species definition, and systematic relationships among members of...
Full Text Available Most natural forests have been converted for human use, restricting biological life to small forest fragments. Many animals, including some species of bats are disappearing and the list of these species grows every day. It seems that the destruction of the habitat is one of its major causes. This study aimed to analyze how this community of bats was made up in environments with different sizes and quality of habitat. Data from studies conducted in the region of Londrina, Parana, Brazil, from 1982 to 2000 were used. Originally, this area was covered by a semi deciduous forest, especially Aspidosperma polyneuron (Apocynaceae, Ficus insipida (Moraceae, Euterpe edulis (Arecaceae, Croton floribundus (Euforbiaceae, and currently, only small remnants of the original vegetation still exist. The results showed a decline in the number of species caught in smaller areas compared to the largest remnant. In about 18 years of sampling, 42 species of bats were found in the region, representing 67% of the species that occur in Paraná and 24.4% in Brazil. There were two species of Noctilionidae; 21 of Phyllostoma; 11 Vespertilionidae and eight Molossidae. Eight of these were captured only in the largest fragment, Mata dos Godoy State Park (680 ha. Ten species had a low capture rate in the smaller areas with less than three individuals. Of the total sampled, 14 species were found in human buildings, and were able to tolerate modified environments, foraging and even using them as shelter. As the size of the forest area increases, there is a greater variety of ecological opportunities and their physical conditions become more stable, i.e., conditions favorable for growth and survival of a greater number of species. Forest fragmentation limits and creates subpopulations, preserving only long-lived K-strategist animals for some time, where the supporting capacity of the environment is a limiting factor. The reduction of habitats, species and genetic diversity resulting from human activities are endangering the future adaptability in natural ecosystems, which promotes the disappearance of low adaptive potential species.
Falcão Fábio de C.
Full Text Available The Serra do Caraça Reserve is situated in the southern portion of the Espinhaço Mountain Range, and contains areas of "campos de altitude", "cerrado" and atlantic forest. This study had as its objective the registering of the bats species that occur in the reserve. The data collection was carried out in one year through monthly samplings, using mist nets set on trails, and also through hand capture. A total of 246 individuals were collected (0.72 bats/net-hour, distributed across 15 species, belonging to the families Phyllostomidae (83.0%; nine species, Vespertilionidae (12.5%; three species and Molossidae (4.5%; three species. The most abundant species were Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810 (n = 121, 60.5%, Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 (n = 21, 10.5% and Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810 (n = 10, 5.0%, and less represented were Lasiurus blossevilli (Lesson y Garnot, 1826 (n = 2, 1.0%, Eumops perotis (Schinz, 1821 (n = 2, 1.0% e Vampyressa pusilla (Wagner, 1843 (n = 1, 0.5%. The richness of species found and the non-occurrence of phyllostomines in the reserve could be indicative of some level of forest disturbance.
Benda, P.; Gazaryan, S.; Vallo, Peter
Roč. 40, č. 6 (2016), s. 842-863 ISSN 1300-0179 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Myotis * mtDNA * cytochrome b * morphometrics * identification * taxonomy * Middle East, Palaearctic Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.785, year: 2016
Liu, He-Qun; Wei, Jing-Kuan; Li, Bo; Wang, Ming-Shan; Wu, Rui-Qi; Rizak, Joshua D; Zhong, Li; Wang, Lu; Xu, Fu-Qiang; Shen, Yong-Yi; Hu, Xin-Tian; Zhang, Ya-Ping
Dim-light vision is present in all bats, but is divergent among species. Old-World fruit bats (Pteropodidae) have fully developed eyes; the eyes of insectivorous bats are generally degraded, and these bats rely on well-developed echolocation. An exception is the Emballonuridae, which are capable of laryngeal echolocation but prefer to use vision for navigation and have normal eyes. In this study, integrated methods, comprising manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI), f-VEP and RNA-seq, were utilized to verify the divergence. The results of MEMRI showed that Pteropodidae bats have a much larger superior colliculus (SC)/ inferior colliculus (IC) volume ratio (3:1) than insectivorous bats (1:7). Furthermore, the absolute visual thresholds (log cd/m(2)•s) of Pteropodidae (-6.30 and -6.37) and Emballonuridae (-3.71) bats were lower than those of other insectivorous bats (-1.90). Finally, genes related to the visual pathway showed signs of positive selection, convergent evolution, upregulation and similar gene expression patterns in Pteropodidae and Emballonuridae bats. Different results imply that Pteropodidae and Emballonuridae bats have more developed vision than the insectivorous bats and suggest that further research on bat behavior is warranted.
Shen, Yong-Yi; Liu, Jie; Irwin, David M; Zhang, Ya-Ping
Rhodopsin, encoded by the gene Rhodopsin (RH1), is extremely sensitive to light, and is responsible for dim-light vision. Bats are nocturnal mammals that inhabit poor light environments. Megabats (Old-World fruit bats) generally have well-developed eyes, while microbats (insectivorous bats) have developed echolocation and in general their eyes were degraded, however, dramatic differences in the eyes, and their reliance on vision, exist in this group. In this study, we examined the rod opsin gene (RH1), and compared its evolution to that of two cone opsin genes (SWS1 and M/LWS). While phylogenetic reconstruction with the cone opsin genes SWS1 and M/LWS generated a species tree in accord with expectations, the RH1 gene tree united Pteropodidae (Old-World fruit bats) and Yangochiroptera, with very high bootstrap values, suggesting the possibility of convergent evolution. The hypothesis of convergent evolution was further supported when nonsynonymous sites or amino acid sequences were used to construct phylogenies. Reconstructed RH1 sequences at internal nodes of the bat species phylogeny showed that: (1) Old-World fruit bats share an amino acid change (S270G) with the tomb bat; (2) Miniopterus share two amino acid changes (V104I, M183L) with Rhinolophoidea; (3) the amino acid replacement I123V occurred independently on four branches, and the replacements L99M, L266V and I286V occurred each on two branches. The multiple parallel amino acid replacements that occurred in the evolution of bat RH1 suggest the possibility of multiple convergences of their ecological specialization (i.e., various photic environments) during adaptation for the nocturnal lifestyle, and suggest that further attention is needed on the study of the ecology and behavior of bats.
Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2009v22n3p193 O estudo teve como objetivo conhecer a diversidade de morcegos em dois fragmentos ﬂorestais em área de restinga no município de Jaguaruna sul de Santa Catarina. Foram realizadas 18 noites de amostragem entre novembro de 2006 e setembro de 2008, sendo utilizadas em cada noite de coleta, cinco redes de neblina instaladas ao nível do solo, abertas por seis horas após pôr-do-sol. Foram calculados o índice de diversidade de Shannon (H’ e a riqueza esperada (Jackkinife de primeira ordem para a área como um todo. Foram capturados 135 indivíduos pertencentes a nove espécies de duas famílias (Phyllostomidae = 5; Vespertilionidae = 4. Sturnira lilium foi à espécie mais abundante (40% da amostra. O índice de diversidade foi de 1,75 e a riqueza estimada de 9,94 espécies. A riqueza observada representa 21,5% da fauna de morcegos registrada para a área de restinga no Brasil. O índice de diversidade obtido ﬁcou próximo ao observado em outros estudos realizados em restingas brasileiras. Mesmo que pontuais, estudos que forneçam dados sobre a riqueza e abundância de espécies nas restingas são de grande importância, dada a carência de estudos neste ecossistema, principalmente sobre os morcegos, assim como, as pressões antrópicas que vem sofrendo.
Full Text Available OBJETIVO:Determinar la distribución geoespacial de los casos de rabia paralítica bovina transmitida por Desmodus rotundus en los estados de Guanajuato, Querétaro y San Luis Potosí, México. MÉTODOS: Estudio epidemiológico transversal a partir de los casos notificados por las campañas estatales de control de la rabia paralítica bovina en Guanajuato (2008-2013, Querétaro (2005-2013 y San Luis Potosí (2001-2013. Se confirmaron los casos por inmunofluorescencia directa. Se elaboraron mapas de distribución de los casos por año y por especie, mediante el software ArcMap versión 10.1. Para identificar áreas con condiciones apropiadas para la presencia de casos se combinaron las variables bioclimáticas con los casos georreferenciados, mediante el programa MaxEnt versión 3.3.3. RESULTADOS: Se registraron 1 037 casos, de los cuales, 911 (87,9% ocurrieron en San Luis Potosí, 82 (7,9% en Querétaro y 44 (4,2% en Guanajuato. Del total, 87,4% ocurrió en alturas menores de 1 500 msnm. En Guanajuato y Querétaro, 77,3% y 42,3% de los casos, respectivamente, ocurrieron en alturas mayores de 1 500 msnm. Los meses de mayor incidencia fueron de diciembre a marzo. La variante antigénica viral V11 fue la más frecuente (173 casos, presente en los tres estados estudiados. En el canal endémico, el promedio de casos se mantiene en la zona de seguridad de enero a marzo, pero de abril a junio excede la mediana. La distribución espacial de los casos muestra la diseminación reciente de la enfermedad, lo que coincide con la presencia del murciélago vampiro. CONCLUSIONES: La rabia paralítica bovina se ha extendido a regiones anteriormente libres de esta enfermedad. Las características ambientales y la altura sobre el nivel del mar no limitan la presentación de casos. Se debe mantener un monitoreo constante para la detección oportuna de casos. La vacunación se debe realizar antes del comienzo de las lluvias, sin esperar la aparición de brotes.
Mark A Hayes
Full Text Available Common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus occur throughout much of South America to northern México. Vampire bats have not been documented in recent history in the United States, but have been documented within about 50 km of the U.S. state of Texas. Vampire bats feed regularly on the blood of mammals and can transmit rabies virus to native species and livestock, causing impacts on the health of prey. Thus cattle producers, wildlife management agencies, and other stakeholders have expressed concerns about whether vampire bats might spread into the southern United States. On the other hand, concerns about vampire-borne rabies can also result in wanton destruction at bat roosts in areas occupied by vampire bats, but also in areas not known to be occupied by this species. This can in turn negatively affect some bat roosts, populations, and species that are of conservation concern, including vampire bats. To better understand the current and possible future distribution of vampire bats in North America and help mitigate future cattle management problems, we used 7,094 vampire bat occurrence records from North America and species distribution modeling (SDM to map the potential distribution of vampire bats in North America under current and future climate change scenarios. We analysed and mapped the potential distribution of this species using 5 approaches to species distribution modeling: logistic regression, multivariate adaptive regression splines, boosted regression trees, random forest, and maximum entropy. We then projected these models into 17 "worst-case" future climate scenarios for year 2070 to generate hypotheses about how the vampire bat distribution in North America might change in the future. Of the variables used in this analysis, minimum temperature of the coldest month had the highest variable importance using all 5 SDM approaches. These results suggest two potential near-future routes of vampire bat dispersal into the U.S., one via
Low, Dolyce H W; Sunagar, Kartik; Undheim, Eivind A B; Ali, Syed A; Alagon, Alejandro C; Ruder, Tim; Jackson, Timothy N W; Pineda Gonzalez, Sandy; King, Glenn F; Jones, Alun; Antunes, Agostinho; Fry, Bryan G
While vampire bat oral secretions have been the subject of intense research, efforts have concentrated only on two components: DSPA (Desmodus rotundus salivary plasminogen activator) and Draculin. The molecular evolutionary history of DSPA has been elucidated, while conversely draculin has long been known from only a very small fragment and thus even the basic protein class was not even established. Despite the fact that vampire bat venom has a multitude of effects unaccounted by the documented bioactivities of DSPA and draculin, efforts have not been made to establish what other bioactive proteins are secreted by their submaxillary gland. In addition, it has remained unclear whether the anatomically distinct anterior and posterior lobes of the submaxillary gland are evolving on separate gene expression trajectories or if they remain under the shared genetic control. Using a combined proteomic and transcriptomic approach, we show that identical proteins are simultaneously expressed in both lobes. In addition to recovering the known structural classes of DSPA, we recovered a novel DSPA isoform as well as obtained a very large sequence stretch of draculin and thus established that it is a mutated version of the lactotransferrin scaffold. This study reveals a much more complex secretion profile than previously recognised. In addition to obtaining novel versions of scaffolds convergently recruited into other venoms (allergen-like, CRiSP, kallikrein, Kunitz, lysozyme), we also documented novel expression of small peptides related to calcitonin, PACAP, and statherin. Other overexpressed protein types included BPI-fold, lacritin, and secretoglobin. Further, we investigate the molecular evolution of various vampire bat venom-components and highlight the dominant role of positive selection in the evolution of these proteins. Conspicuously many of the proteins identified in the proteome were found to be homologous to proteins with known activities affecting vasodilation and
Full Text Available RESUMO: Realizou-se estudo epidemiológico descritivo da raiva dos herbívoros no estado do Paraná entre os anos de 1977 e 2012. Os casos confirmados de raiva e o total de amostras de encéfalo encaminhadas para o diagnóstico foram distribuídos por espécie, por ano, por meses, por mesorregião geográfica e por municípios, aplicando-se o teste de Qui-quadrado para verificar se havia associação com esses fatores. Modelo probabilístico foi ajustado à série histórica para verificação de padrões cíclico ou sazonal. Comprovou-se que a raiva é uma doença endêmica no PR, com ocorrência variável entre os anos, sem padrão sazonal e com ciclicidade aparente a cada 18 anos, acometendo, sobretudo, bovinos (86,9% e equídeos (11,3%. Verificou-se grande difusão no estado (47,6% dos municípios, e a maior expansão geográfica aconteceu na última década. As áreas de ocorrência maior foram as mesorregiões Centro Oriental e de Curitiba, seguidas por Norte Pioneiro e Oeste. O número de casos de raiva por município se correlacionou, ainda que fracamente, com o número de abrigos de Desmodus rotundus (r=0,469; p<0,0001. Sugere-se que a imunização anual de bovinos e equídeos passe a ser adotada nas áreas de maior ocorrência (mesorregiões Centro Oriental e de Curitiba e encorajada nas de ocorrência intermediária (mesorregiões Norte Pioneiro e Oeste.
Ricardo Augusto Dias
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Propor uma metodologia qualitativa de avaliação do risco de circulação do vírus da raiva mantido por morcegos hematófagos (variante 3 em populações de herbívoros de interesse econômico do Vale do Rio Paraíba do Sul, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. MÉTODOS: A partir de árvores de cenário que levam em conta a exposição e a difusão da raiva, estimou-se a probabilidade de ocorrência da raiva em herbívoros de grande porte e a sua associação à localização geográfica das propriedades. RESULTADOS: Com base na série histórica de focos do primeiro semestre de 2006, utilizada para validar o modelo de risco, observou-se que 81,8% dos focos de raiva foram adequadamente previstos pelo modelo e poderiam ter sido prevenidos caso fosse adotada vacinação estratégica em áreas de risco elevado para a circulação do vírus. CONCLUSÕES: Caso fossem desencadeadas medidas de controle direcionadas somente para áreas de risco elevado, a diminuição dos focos poderia ser substancial, a um custo reduzido e com deslocamento otimizado das equipes de campo.OBJECTIVE: To propose a qualitative risk assessment model for the study of livestock exposure to rabies virus from the vampire bat Desmodus rotundus (antigenic variant 3 in the Paraíba do Sul river valley, state of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Based on scenario trees generated considering rabies exposure and its spread, we estimated the probability of rabies cases in large livestock and its association with the geographic location of livestock farms. RESULTS: Assessment of the historical series of rabies focal points in the first semester of 2006, which was used to validate the risk assessment model, revealed that 81.8% of the focal points were adequately foreseen by the model and could have been prevented with strategic vaccination in high-risk areas. CONCLUSIONS: The adoption of control measures specifically targeting high-risk areas might entail a substantial decrease in the
Francineuma P. de Arruda
Full Text Available As plantas infestadas são responsáveis por perdas significativas na produção do algodão a nível mundial, cujo controle é difícil e oneroso. Com o objetivo de se estimar custos de produção e analisar economicamente a eficiência da plasticultura e de métodos de controle de ervas daninhas na cultura do algodoeiro herbáceo irrigado e em sequeiro, utilizaram-se dados obtidos de ensaios conduzidos nos municípios de Barbalha e Missão Velha, no Cariri Cearense, determinando-se o custo de produção, a receita líquida, o índice de lucratividade e os indicadores de viabilidade econômica: Valor Presente Líquido (VPL, Taxa Interna de Retorno (TIR e Relação Benefício-Custo (B/C. Verificou-se que tanto no cultivo irrigado como no cultivo de sequeiro, o método de controle de ervas daninhas mais eficiente e bem menos oneroso, foi o mecânico com preparo do solo convencional, e mais lucrativo no cultivo de sequeiro, apresentando maior VPL e TIR que os demais. O maior custo de produção por hectare foi obtido no cultivo irrigado, utilizando-se o método e controle integrado em sistema de preparo do solo com aiveca. O uso da plasticultura como método de controle de ervas daninhas, é economicamente viável apenas para o cultivo do algodoeiro de sequeiro.Weeds are responsible for significant losses in cotton production in the world and, its control is difficult and expensive. This work has the main objective to estimate production costs and analyse economically the efficiency of plasticulture and different methods of weeds control in irrigated and dry land herbaceous cotton, using data obtained in Barbalha and Missão Velha areas, in the state of Ceará, Brazil, evaluating production costs, net revenues, profitability index and economic viability indicators: Liquid Present Value (LPV, Ratio of Internal Return (RIT and Benefit-Cost Ratio (B/C. It was verified that in irrigated as well as in rainfed crop, the more efficient and economically viable weed control method was the mechanical method with conventional preparation of the soil, being more lucrative in rainfed crop, with higher LPV and RIT. The high production per hectare was verified in irrigated crop, using as integrated system control in land preparation with moldboard plough. The plasticulture used a method of weed control is economically viable only for rainfed cotton.
Endemism in Chiroptera is low, however, with only two endemic species in the fynbos and Karoo biomes. The Carnivora display less biome specificity and endemism than the Chiroptera. Whereas the north-eastern savannas have the highest species richness, the transition between the Nama-Karoo and grassland biomes ...
Fang, Lu; Shen, Bin; Irwin, David M; Zhang, Shuyi
Glycogen synthase, which catalyzes the synthesis of glycogen, is especially important for Old World (Pteropodidae) and New World (Phyllostomidae) fruit bats that ingest high-carbohydrate diets. Glycogen synthase 1, encoded by the Gys1 gene, is the glycogen synthase isozyme that functions in muscles. To determine whether Gys1 has undergone adaptive evolution in bats with carbohydrate-rich diets, in comparison to insect-eating sister bat taxa, we sequenced the coding region of the Gys1 gene from 10 species of bats, including two Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae) and a New World fruit bat (Phyllostomidae). Our results show no evidence for positive selection in the Gys1 coding sequence on the ancestral Old World and the New World Artibeus lituratus branches. Tests for convergent evolution indicated convergence of the sequences and one parallel amino acid substitution (T395A) was detected on these branches, which was likely driven by natural selection.
Lu, Guanjun; Lin, Aiqing; Luo, Jinhong; Blondel, Dimitri V; Meiklejohn, Kelly A; Sun, Keping; Feng, Jiang
China is characterized by complex topographic structure and dramatic palaeoclimatic changes, making species biogeography studies particularly interesting. Previous researchers have also demonstrated multiple species experienced complex population histories, meanwhile multiple shelters existed in Chinese mainland. Despite this, species phylogeography is still largely unexplored. In the present study, we used a combination of microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to investigate the phylogeography of the east Asian fish-eating bat (Myotis pilosus). Phylogenetic analyses showed that M. pilosus comprised three main lineages: A, B and C, which corresponded to distinct geographic populations of the Yangtze Plain (YTP), Sichuan Basin (SCB) and North and South of China (NSC), respectively. The most recent common ancestor of M. pilosus was dated as 0.25 million years before present (BP). Population expansion events were inferred for populations of Clade C, North China Plain region, Clade B and YunGui Plateau region at 38,700, 15,900, 4,520 and 4,520 years BP, respectively. Conflicting results were obtained from mtDNA and microsatellite analyses; strong population genetic structure was obtained from mtDNA data but not microsatellite data. The microsatellite data indicated that genetic subdivision fits an isolation-by-distance (IBD) model, but the mtDNA data failed to support this model. Our results suggested that Pleistocene climatic oscillations might have had a profound influence on the demographic history of M. pilosus. Spatial genetic structures of maternal lineages that are different from those observed in other sympatric bats species may be as a result of interactions among special population history and local environmental factors. There are at least three possible refugia for M. pilosus during glacial episodes. Apparently contradictory genetic structure patterns of mtDNA and microsatellite could be explained by male-mediated gene flow among populations. This study also provides insights on the necessity of conservation of M. pilosus populations to conserve this genetic biodiversity, especially in the areas of YTP, SCB and NSC regions.
Yin, Qiuyuan; Zhu, Lei; Liu, Di; Irwin, David M; Zhang, Shuyi; Pan, Yi-Hsuan
Mammals developed antioxidant systems to defend against oxidative damage in their daily life. Enzymatic antioxidants and low molecular weight antioxidants (LMWAs) constitute major parts of the antioxidant systems. Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2, encoded by the Nrf2 gene) is a central transcriptional regulator, regulating transcription, of many antioxidant enzymes. Frugivorous bats eat large amounts of fruits that contain high levels of LMWAs such as vitamin C, thus, a reliance on LMWAs might greatly reduce the need for antioxidant enzymes in comparison to insectivorous bats. Therefore, it is possible that frugivorous bats have a reduced need for Nrf2 function due to their substantial intake of diet-antioxidants. To test whether the Nrf2 gene has undergone relaxed evolution in fruit-eating bats, we obtained Nrf2 sequences from 16 species of bats, including four Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae) and one New World fruit bat (Phyllostomidae). Our molecular evolutionary analyses revealed changes in the selection pressure acting on Nrf2 gene and identified seven specific amino acid substitutions that occurred on the ancestral lineage leading to Old World fruit bats. Biochemical experiments were conducted to examine Nrf2 in Old World fruit bats and showed that the amount of catalase, which is regulated by Nrf2, was significantly lower in the brain, heart and liver of Old World fruit bats despite higher levels of Nrf2 protein in Old World fruit bats. Computational predictions suggest that three of these seven amino acid replacements might be deleterious to Nrf2 function. Therefore, the results suggest that Nrf2 gene might have experienced relaxed constraint in Old World fruit bats, however, we cannot rule out the possibility of positive selection. Our study provides the first data on the molecular adaptation of Nrf2 gene in frugivorous bats in compensation to the increased levels of LWMAs from their fruit-diet.
Hassanin, Alexandre; Khouider, Souraya; Gembu, Guy-Crispin; Goodman, Steven M; Kadjo, Blaise; Nesi, Nicolas; Pourrut, Xavier; Nakouné, Emmanuel; Bonillo, Céline
The hypothesis of Pleistocene forest refugia was tested using comparative phylogeography of Scotonycterini, a fruit bat tribe endemic to Africa containing four species: Scotonycteris zenkeri, Casinycteris argynnis, C. campomaanensis, and C. ophiodon. Patterns of genetic structure were assessed using 105 Scotonycterini (including material from three holotypes) collected at 37 localities, and DNA sequences from the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (1140 nt) and 12 nuclear introns (9641 nt). Phylogenetic trees and molecular dating were inferred by Bayesian methods. Multilocus analyses were performed using supermatrix, SuperTRI, and *BEAST approaches. Mitochondrial analyses reveal strong phylogeographical structure in Scotonycteris, with four divergent haplogroups (4.9-8.7%), from Upper Guinea, Cameroon, western Equatorial Africa, and eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). In C. argynnis, we identify two mtDNA haplogroups corresponding to western and eastern Equatorial Africa (1.4-2.1%). In C. ophiodon, the mtDNA haplotypes from Cameroon and Ivory Coast differ by only 1.3%. Nuclear analyses confirm the validity of the recently described C. campomaanensis and indicate that western and eastern populations of C. argynnis are not fully isolated. All mtDNA clusters detected in Scotonycteris are found to be monophyletic based on the nuclear dataset, except in eastern DRC. In the nuclear tree, the clade from western Equatorial Africa is closely related to individuals from eastern DRC, whereas in the mitochondrial tree it appears to be the sister-group of the Cameroon clade. Migrate-n analyses support gene flow from western Equatorial Africa to eastern DRC. Molecular dating indicates that Pleistocene forest refugia have played an important role in shaping the evolution of Scotonycterini, with two phases of allopatric speciation at approximately 2.7 and 1.6 Mya, resulting from isolation in three main forest areas corresponding to Upper Guinea, Cameroon, and Equatorial Africa. Two cryptic species and two subspecies are described herein in the genus Scotonycteris. Female philopatry and male biased dispersal are supported for the smallest taxa, i.e., the three species of Scotonycteris and C. argynnis. The Congo, Ntem, and Sanaga rivers are identified as biogeographic barriers to the dispersal of Scotonycteris during interglacial periods. A greater capacity for long-distance dispersal is inferred for the largest species, C. ophiodon. Copyright © 2014 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
Development and characterization of 10 microsatellite markers in the Cape horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus capensis (Chiroptera, Rhinolophidae) and cross-amplification in southern African Rhinolophus species.
Nesi, Nicolas; Jacobs, David S; Feldheim, Kevin; Bishop, Jacqueline M
The Cape horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus capensis, is endemic to the Cape region of South Africa. Coalescent analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequence data suggests extensive historical gene flow between populations despite strong geographic variation of their echolocation call phenotype. Nevertheless the fine-scale genetic structure and evolutionary ecology of R. capensis remains poorly understood. Here we describe the development of 10 novel polymorphic microsatellite loci to investigate of the dispersal ecology of R. capensis and to facilitate taxonomic studies of Rhinolophus species in southern Africa. We report 10 microsatellite primer pairs that consistently amplify scorable and polymorphic loci across 12 African rhinolophid species. Initial analysis of two populations of R. capensis from South Africa revealed moderate to high levels of allelic variation with 4-14 alleles per locus and observed heterozygosities of 0.450-0.900. No evidence of linkage disequilibrium was observed and eight of the loci showed no departure from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Cross-species utility of these markers revealed consistently amplifiable polymorphic loci in eleven additional rhinolophid species. The cross-amplification success of the microsatellites developed here provides a cost-effective set of population genetic marker for the study of rhinolophid evolutionary ecology and conservation in southern Africa.
Wing Membrane Biopsies for Bat Cytogenetics: Finding of 2n = 54 in Irish Rhinolophushipposideros (Rhinolophidae, Chiroptera, Mammalia) Supports Two Geographically Separated Chromosomal Variants in Europe.
Kacprzyk, Joanna; Teeling, Emma C; Kelleher, Conor; Volleth, Marianne
In Europe, 2 different diploid chromosome numbers, 2n = 54 and 2n = 56, have been described in the lesser horseshoe bat (Rhinolophushipposideros). The eastern form with 2n = 56 extends from the Czech Republic to Greece. To date, specimens with 54 chromosomes have been reported only from Spain and Germany. This study expands the distributional area of the western variant to Ireland. Strikingly, this distribution of European chromosomal variants is in contrast to the available molecular data that indicate little genetic differentiation of R. hipposideros populations spanning Northwestern to Central Europe. Further, we have developed an optimized protocol for establishing fibroblast cell cultures, suitable for karyotype analyses, from 3-mm wing membrane biopsies. This is a useful technique for cytogenetic studies of endangered bat species, as this non-lethal sampling method imposes only minimum stress to the animal without lasting adverse effects and is routinely used to sample tissue probes for molecular genetic studies in bats. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Shahabi, Saeed; Akmali, Vahid; Sharifi, Mozafar
To examine the level of genetic differentiation in the sequences of the mitochondrial D-loop gene of Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, and to evaluate the current taxonomic status of this species, 50 tissue samples of greater horseshoe bats were collected in 2011-2015 from 21 different localities in northwest, northeast, west, central, and south regions of Iran. Twenty-two published D-loop sequences from Europe (Switzerland, United Kingdom, Bulgaria, and Tunisia), and Anatolia (south, west, and east Turkey) were downloaded from GenBank. Molecular genetic analyses revealed remarkable variation among populations of R. ferrumequinum. Two major clades with strong support were identified within the greater horseshoe bat. One of these clades consists of individuals of R. ferrumequinum from Iran and eastern Turkey, and is further subdivided into two subclades. A second clade includes samples from western Turkey and Europe. The two subclades from Iran and Turkey and the second clade from western Turkey and Europe represent three diagnosable categories, which most probably warrant three subspecies for the species. Thus, based on genetic differences, it is clear that two subspecific populations are found in Iran: R. f. irani (southern Iran) and R. f. proximus (northern Iran).
Najafi, Nargess; Akmali, Vahid; Sharifi, Mozafar
Molecular phylogeography and species distribution modelling (SDM) suggest that late Quaternary glacial cycles have portrayed a significant role in structuring current population genetic structure and diversity. Based on phylogenetic relationships using Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood of 535 bp mtDNA (D-loop) and 745 bp mtDNA (Cytb) in 62 individuals of the Mediterranean Horseshoe Bat, Rhinolophus euryale, from 13 different localities in Iran we identified two subspecific populations with differing population genetic structure distributed in southern Zagros Mts. and northern Elburz Mts. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) obtained from D-loop sequences indicates that 21.18% of sequence variation is distributed among populations and 10.84% within them. Moreover, a degree of genetic subdivision, mainly attributable to the existence of significant variance among the two regions is shown (θCT = 0.68, p = .005). The positive and significant correlation between geographic and genetic distances (R 2 = 0.28, r = 0.529, p = .000) is obtained following controlling for environmental distance. Spatial distribution of haplotypes indicates that marginal population of the species in southern part of the species range have occupied this section as a glacial refugia. However, this genetic variation, in conjunction with results of the SDM shows a massive postglacial range expansion for R. euryale towards higher latitudes in Iran.
Full Text Available Micronycteris is divided into four subgenera, Micronycteris, Leuconycteris, Xenoctenes, and Schizonycteris. The latter includes Micronycteris (Schizonycteris minuta, Micronycteris (S. schmidtorum, Micronycteris (S. sanborni and Micronycteris (S. yatesi. Little is known of the biology of M. (S. sanborni, which is widely distributed in the dry forests of South America, but is known from only few sites. The scarcity of records of M. sanborni appears to be at least partly related to the difficulty of differentiating this species from the other members of the subgenus Schizonycteris. The present study identifies the key traits that distinguish this species from other Schizonycteris, reviews the geographic distribution of the species, and presents some notes on breeding patterns. Six new localities are presented for M. sanborni, and are analyzed together with those available in the literature, providing new insights into ecological and zoogeographic patterns. A number of the diagnostic features established by Simmons (1996 in the description of M. sanborni proved to have little taxonomic value, especially for the differentiation of M. minuta and M. yatesi, which it closely resembles. The primary external difference is the pure white color of the ventral pelage and the proportion of the white base (2/3-4/5 of the dorsal hair in M. sanborni, in contrast with dirty white or pale gray and a much shorter white base of the dorsal hair in the other species. A number of cranial traits are also important. The distributional data now indicate that M. sanborni occurs mainly in mesic and open areas, including disturbed habitats, in the Caatinga scrublands and the Cerrado savannas of northeastern Brazil, especially in areas with rocky outcrops. Micronycteris sanborni appears to be monoestrous, with births coinciding with the rainy season.
Within the Vespertilionidae the genus Pipistrellus Kaup, 1829 is characterized by the presence of a calcar lobe (epiblema) attached to the calcar bone, the presence of two upper premolars on each side and a forearm length smaller than 38 mm. Two representatives of this genus occur in The
The availability of Piperaceae and the search for this resource by Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae, Carolliinae in Parque Municipal Arthur Thomas, Londrina, Paraná, Brazil
Isaac Passos de Lima
Full Text Available A study about the species of Piperaceae that are consumed by a colony of Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 in Parque Municipal Arthur Thomas (82,72 ha was carried out. Five available species of Piperaceae were found in the park: Piper aduncum Linnaeus, Piper amalago (Jacq. Yuncker, Piper crassinervium H.B.K., Piper gaudichaudianum Kunth and Piper sp. C. perspicillata fed on all of these species. During the spring, the most abundant item was P. amalago, but the consumption of P. aduncum was the highest. At the beginning of the summer, P. crassinervium was the most abundant and most consumed item. At the end of the summer and during the fall, P. gaudichaudianum was the most abundant and consumed item, even in May, when P. amalago was the most abundant item. During the winter, the most highly available items were P. aduncum, Piper sp. and P. amalago, and the ones that were consumed the most were Piper sp., P. gaudichaudianum and P. aduncum. The results have shown that the preferences of C. perspicillata in the park are related to the greater abundance or the higher energetic value of the available Piperaceae. The greater search for the most energetic and least abundant species, which happened in the spring and winter, is related to the energy gain, that is, the species searches for food that will provide a greater quantity of energy per unit of consumption; and the greater search for the most abundant item, which occurred in the summer and fall, is related to saving the energy used in the search for food.Estudou-se quais espécies de piperáceas são consumidas por uma colônia de Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 localizada do Parque Municipal Arthur Thomas (82,72ha. Foram encontradas no parque: Piper aduncum Linnaeus, Piper amalago (Jacq. Yuncker, Piper crassinervium H.B.K., Piper gaudichaudianum Kunth e Piper sp. C. perspicillata alimentou-se de todas essas espécies. Durante a primavera, o item mais abundante foi P. amalago, porém o mais consumido foi P. aduncum. No início do verão, P. crassinervium foi o mais abundante e o mais consumido. No final do verão e no outono, P. gaudichaudianum foi o mais abundante e o mais consumido, mesmo em maio, quando P. amalago foi o mais abundante. No inverno, os itens mais disponíveis foram P. aduncum, Piper sp. e P. amalago, e os mais consumidos, Piper sp., P. gaudichaudianum e P. aduncum. Os resultados mostraram que o maior consumo de C. perspicillata por infrutescências de Piper, no parque, está relacionado à maior abundância ou ao maior valor energético das infrutescências disponíveis: na primavera e no inverno, a maior procura pelas espécies mais energéticas e menos abundantes está relacionada ao ganho energético, ou seja, a espécie procura alimentos que lhe rendam maior quantidade de energia por unidade de consumo; no verão e no outono, a maior procura pela mais abundante está relacionada à economia da energia gasta na procura do alimento.
Walker, Melissa J; Dorrestein, Annabel; Camacho, Jasmin J; Meckler, Lauren A; Silas, Kirk A; Hiller, Thomas; Haelewaters, Danny
The Darién province in eastern Panama is one of the most unexplored and biodiverse regions in the world. The Chucantí Nature Reserve, in Serranía de Majé, consists of a diverse tropical cloud forest ecosystem. The aim of this research was to explore and study host associations of a tripartite system of bats, ectoparasitic flies on bats (Diptera, Streblidae), and ectoparasitic fungi (Ascomycota, Laboulbeniales) that use bat flies as hosts. We captured bats at Chucantí, screened each bat for presence of bat flies, and screened collected bat flies for presence of Laboulbeniales. We mistnetted for 68 mistnet hours and captured 227 bats representing 17 species. We captured Micronycteris schmidtorum, a species previously unreported in Darién. In addition, we encountered the rarely collected Platyrrhinus dorsalis, representing the westernmost report for this species. Of all captured bats, 148 carried bat flies (65%). The number of sampled bat flies was 437, representing 16 species. One species represents a new country record (Trichobius anducei) and five species represent first reports for Darién (Basilia anceps, Anatrichobius scorzai, Nycterophilia parnelli, T. johnsonae, T. parasiticus). All 74 bat fly species currently reported in Panama are presented in tabulated form. Of all screened bat flies, 30 bore Laboulbeniales fungi (7%). Based on both morphology and large ribosomal subunit (LSU) sequence data, we delimited 7 species of Laboulbeniales: Gloeandromyces nycteribiidarum (newly reported for Panama), G. pageanus, G. streblae, Nycteromyces streblidinus, and 3 undescribed species. Of the 30 infected flies, 21 were Trichobius joblingi. This species was the only host on which we observed double infections of Laboulbeniales. © M.J. Walker et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2018.
Full Text Available We examined whether, like many parasite-host systems of coevolution, a group of obligate parasitic bat flies (Trichobius phyllostomae Kessel and related species cospeciate with their hosts. We first did a cladistic analysis of the T. phyllostomae group and combined that analysis with a phylogenetic hypothesis from the literature for the Stenodermatinae bats. The cladistic analysis included, as outgroups, one species from each morphological group and complex of Trichobius Gervais, and one species from the following genera: Paratrichobius Miranda-Ribeiro, Megistopoda Macquart, Megistapophysys Dick & Wenzel, Neotrichobius Wenzel & Aitken, Speiseria Kessel and Strebla Wiedemann. The cladogram was rooted with a species of Strebla in the subfamily Streblinae. One cladogram was obtained and which found Trichobius to be polyphyletic. The phylogenetic hypothesis as follows: (Paratrichobius, (Neotrichobius, (Megistopoda, Megistapophysis is the sister-group of the phyllostomae group and the following relationships within the ingroup, (((T. vampyropis Wenzel, Trichobius sp. 2 ((T. hispidus Wenzel, T. petersoni Wenzel ((Trichobius sp. 1 (T. phyllostomae, T. brennani Wenzel. When we compared phylogenies through historical association analyses, cospeciation was uncommon, while host-switching was more common and better explained the association between the phyllostomae group and their bat hosts.
Patrícia Beloto Bertola
Full Text Available A total of 443 bat flies belonging to the families Nycteribiidae and Strelidae, were collected on 22 species of bats (Molossidae, Phyllostomidae, and Vespertilionidae from Parque Estadual da Cantareira (São Paulo, Brazil, between January, 2000 and January, 2001. Eighteen new occurrences of bat flies were recorded on Anoura geoffroyi (Anastrebla caudiferae, Glossophaga soricina (A. caudiferae, Sturnira lilium (Trichobius phyllostomae, T. furmani, and Paraeuctenodes similis, Artibeus lituratus (A. caudiferae, A. fimbriatus (Megistopoda proxima, A. obscurus (Metelasmus pseudopterus, Myotis nigricans (M. proxima, M. aranea, Paratrichobius longicrus, M. ruber (Anatrichobius passosi, Joblingia sp., M. levis (A. passosi, M. albescens (A. passosi, Basilia andersoni, and Histiotus velatus (M. aranea. Seven new occurrences were recorded for the state of São Paulo, increasing the range for T. tiptoni, T. furmani, M. proxima, Aspidoptera falcata, A. caudiferae, A. modestini and B. andersoni. The relationships between parasitism and host sex, reproductive stage, age hyperparasitism by fungi are discussed.
FÁBIO A.M. SOARES
Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study reports the occurrence of bat species and their ectoparasites to a mangrove area of the State of Pernambuco. The bats were captured for seven consecutive months in four mangrove areas. Sampling occurred for 12 consecutive hours each night collection where mist-nets were used. Eighty-three bats of 14 species were captured. Of these, only 53 Phyllostomidae family bats found themselves parasited. We identified seven species of flies of the family Streblidae parasitizing bats. The diversity of bats is H’ = 2.19 for all areas sampled and the prevalence of streblid ranged from 8.3 to 66,6. The mean intensity ranged from one and five. It is reported for the first time the occurrence of Lophostoma brasiliense to the mangrove ecosystem, besides two species of streblid to Pernambuco.
Jaire M. Torres
Full Text Available RESUMO Os morcegos filostomídeos são potenciais dispersores de sementes, devido ao seu hábito de forrageio e grande mobilidade, sendo os principais responsáveis pela regeneração de florestas neotropicais. No Mato Grosso do Sul as pesquisas com dieta de morcegos se concentram na região do Pantanal, com poucos trabalhos focados na porção de Cerrado, e somente um em área urbana. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a dieta de filostomídeos frugívoros em dois remanescentes urbanos de Cerrado em Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, avaliando-se se a formulação da dieta das espécies é baseada em preferências alimentares específicas ou não. Os morcegos foram capturados em duas unidades de conservação (a Estação Ecológica Dahma e o Parque Estadual do Prosa por 12 noites em cada área, usando-se seis redes-de-neblina, que permaneceram abertas durante seis horas a partir do ocaso. Após a captura, cada morcego foi mantido em saco de algodão individual por uma hora para coleta das fezes. As amostras fecais foram armazenadas individualmente em frasco hermético e imersas em glicerina, sendo posteriormente analisadas em laboratório. Todas as sementes encontradas nas amostras foram identificadas. Foram capturados 250 morcegos, distribuídos em dez espécies, oito gêneros e duas famílias. Os filostomídeos constituíram 93,2% das capturas (n=233. As espécies mais frequentes foram Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (27,6% e Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 (27,2%. Foram encontradas sementes em 46 amostras fecais de sete espécies de morcegos filostomídeos. A maioria das sementes encontradas era da família Piperaceae (69,6% das amostras, sendo um recurso-chave consumido por quase todas as espécies de filostomídeos. Os frugívoros auxiliam na manutenção de unidades de conservação, pois promovem a auto-renovação, sendo a frugivoria um processo importante em remanescentes florestais. O consumo exclusivo de espécies pioneiras é um indício do papel de morcegos na manutenção destes remanescentes urbanos de Cerrado.
Benda, P.; Vallo, Peter
Roč. 58, č. 1 (2009), s. 1-45 ISSN 0139-7893 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6093404 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : bats * morphological analysis * genetic analysis * cytochrome b * Middle East * Afrotropics * Madagascar Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.357, year: 2009
Christian R. Loaiza Salazar
Full Text Available Tomopeas ravus, el murciélago de orejas romas, se conoce solo de 13 localidades confirmadas en Perú y actualmente se encuentra listada como En Peligro (B2 ab (iii por la UICN. La distribución, extensión de ocurrencia y el área de vida de esta especie no han sido esclarecidos completamente. Presentamos el primer modelo predictivo basado en los registros conocidos y el primer acercamiento geográfico para la especie. Basados en los 13 registros confirmados se construyó un modelo de hábitat de máxima entropía determinando previamente las variables ambientales de mayor importancia para el modelo. Se estimó un índice predictivo aceptable (0.970 para el modelo final. Se determinó las zonas de mayor probabilidad de ocurrencia para esta especie y se estimó el área de distribución mediante el método del polígono mínimo convexo (PMC. El área prioritaria más importante identificada para la conservación de esta especie se sitúa al norte de Perú, entre los Departamentos de Tumbes y Piura. Se recomienda utilizar el presente modelo como herramienta útil para futuras evaluaciones de la conservación de esta especie.
Jonard David Echavarría-R
Full Text Available It is reported a new record of the hairy-legged vampire Diphylla ecaudata (SPIX, 1823 in the Choco region of Colombia, of which are known only few studies in the country, registered in the departments of Magdalena (1900, Vaupés (1966, Meta (1970, Caquetá (1999 y Amazonas (2016. This registry is based on two specimens that were properly analyzed and due to its curiosity, discusses the available information on this species in the country in terms of its distribution and ecology, based on specimens in collections and existing reports. This log helps fill a void of the known geographic distribution of the species in the country deposited in the Teriologica Scientific Collection Research Group on Management and Wildlife Management of the Chocó of the Technological University of Chocó (ColTer-Choco. This report extends the geographic distribution until the department of Choco, in contraendose to 464.794 km some of the record closest in Magdalena, adding the Tropical Dry Forest Ecosystem (BST to habitats that occurred for the species. Due to its curiosity, discusses the available information on this species in the country in terms of its distribution and ecology, based on specimens in collections and existing reports. This log helps fill a void of the known geographic distribution of the species in the country.
Full Text Available A new species of Strebla Wiedemann, S. carvalhoi sp. nov., collected, on Anoura caudifer (E. Geoffroy, 1818 from Southern of Brazil, is described. Drawings of the postvertex, occipital plates, gonopods and tergite VII are provided.
Therys M. Sato
Full Text Available A estrutura de comunidades de morcegos no Brasil ainda é pouco estudada e vêm sofrendo sérias modificações devido à perda de habitats. O principal objetivo do presente trabalho foi estudar a comunidade de morcegos da Estação Experimental de Itirapina, município de Itirapina, Estado de São Paulo. Nesta Estação, além das espécies cultivadas de Eucalyptus e Pinus, há diversas plantas que podem fornecer alimento aos morcegos. Entre julho de 2001 e julho de 2006, foram realizadas 58 sessões noturnas de captura de morcegos com 4 a 12 redes-de-neblina dispostas a cada sessão. Nesse período, foram capturados 720 indivíduos de 16 espécies de morcegos dos quais 13 pertencem à família Phyllostomidae, duas à Vespertilionidae e uma à Molossidae. A curva cumulativa de espécies atingiu o equilíbrio, no qual apenas espécies raras são acrescentadas. Cinco espécies (Artibeus lituratus, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Carollia perspicillata, Glossophaga soricina e Sturnira lilium representaram 80% dos morcegos capturados na Estação Experimental, onde se alimentavam de frutos de plantas pioneiras, tais como Cecropia pachystachya, Solanum spp. e Piper spp. A prevalência do vírus rábico foi zero na amostragem das 10 espécies analisadas. Apesar de estar muito modificada, a Estação Experimental de Itirapina pode ser uma importante área de abrigo e alimento para os morcegos e tem potencial de atuar como corredor entre áreas de Cerrado e Mata Atlântica.
Mammalia, Chiroptera, Molossidae, Molossops temminckii (Burmeister, 1854, and Vespertilionidae, Eptesicus furinalis (dOrbigny and Gervais, 1847: New locality record and distribution extension in Cordoba Province, Argentina
Castilla, M. C.
Full Text Available During a field trip to the Ramsar site “Bañados del Río Dulce y Laguna Mar Chiquita” we captured three specimensof Molossops temminckii (Burmeister, 1854 and two of Eptesicus furinalis (d’Orbigny and Gervais, 1847. Molossopstemminckii has a wide distribution in Argentina, but this new record represents the second mention of the species for theCordoba Province after 13 years. The specimens of E. furinalis represent the tenth record for Cordoba and the second for RíoPrimero Department. This new information reflects the scarcity of systematic studies on bats in Cordoba Province.
Mateus R Beguelini
Full Text Available Myotis nigricans is a species of vespertilionid bat, whose males show two periods of total testicular regression within the same annual reproductive cycle in the northwest São Paulo State, Brazil. Studies have demonstrated that its epididymis has an elongation of the caudal portion, which stores spermatozoa during the period of testicular regression in July, but that they had no sperm during the regression in November. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the impact of the total testicular regression in the epididymal morphophysiology and patterns of its hormonal regulation. The results demonstrate a continuous activity of the epididymis from the Active to the Regressing periods; a morphofunctional regression of the epididymis in the Regressed period; and a slow recrudescence process. Thus, we concluded that the processes of total testicular regression and posterior recrudescence suffered by M. nigricans also impact the physiology of the epididymis, but with a delay in epididymal response. Epididymal physiology is regulated by testosterone and estrogen, through the production and secretion of testosterone by the testes, its conduction to the epididymis (mainly through luminal fluid, conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone by the 5α-reductase enzyme (mainly in epithelial cells and to estrogen by aromatase; and through the activation/deactivation of the androgen receptor and estrogen receptor α in epithelial cells, which regulate the epithelial cell morphophysiology, prevents cell death and regulates their protein expression and secretion, which ensures the maturation and storage of the spermatozoa.
M. Fernanda López Berrizbeitia
Full Text Available The mammalian and flea fauna of La Rioja Province is one of the least known from northwestern Argentina. In this study, the distribution and nomenclature of 13 species of fleas of bats and rodents from La Rioja Province are updated. Four species of fleas are recorded for the first time in La Rioja Province including a new record for northwestern Argentina, and two new flea-host associations. An identification key and distribution map are included for all known species of Siphonaptera of bats and rodents from La Rioja Province, Argentina.
Full Text Available Cantor’s leaf-nosed bat is distributed in the South Asian and Southeast Asian region and recorded from few localities of India including one locality record from Bihar in Eastern India. Here we report its range extension in Eastern India and first record from Odisha. We recommend that the chiropteran diversity of Odisha need to be assessed for further inventories, particularly in the Eastern Ghats range.
Full Text Available Los murciélagos constituyen el grupo de mamíferos más diversificado en la región neotropical y representan un componente clave en la dinámica de muchos ecosistemas terrestres. En este trabajo se describen los resultados de un estudio sobre la quiropterofauna del Parque Nacional Yurubí (ubicado en la zona montañosa del norte de Venezuela, se incluye un listado taxonómico y la caracterización de algunos atributos comunitarios en ambientes predominantemente boscosos. Los datos evaluados fueron obtenidos mediante la revisión de colecciones zoológicas y muestreos diversificados realizados entre febrero y julio del 2009, en un gradiente altitudinal (100-1 500m, que integra a tres unidades ecológicas: bosque semideciduo, bosque siempreverde y selva nublada. Se registraron 64 especies agrupadas en cinco familias, lo que constituye el 63% de los murciélagos conocidos en la Cordillera de la Costa. La familia Phyllostomidae fue dominante (42 especies; 66% del total, seguida por Vespertilionidae, Molossidae, Emballonuridae y Mormoopidae. La comunidad presente a baja elevación fue la más diversificada en términos taxonómicos, mientras que la del piso superior evidenció el menor grado de diversificación. Se identificaron 11 categorías tróficas, con dominancia de los insectívoros en cuanto a la riqueza taxonómica y de los frugívoros en lo que respecta a la abundancia. Nuestros resultados permiten inferir, en un contexto general, que los ecosistemas boscosos del área de estudio muestran un buen estado de conservación, en virtud de la presencia de una proporción relativamente alta de especies pertenecientes a la subfamilia Phyllostominae, cuyos componentes han sido considerados por otros autores como indicadores del grado de conservación de hábitats boscosos primarios, así como la presencia de otras especies con prioridades de conservación. Todos estos aspectos, le confieren a esta área protegida un alto valor proteccionista, en virtud de su importancia como reservorio de la diversidad biológica que tipifica los ecosistemas boscosos de la Cordillera de la Costa, una bio-región altamente amenazada como consecuencia de un elevado crecimiento socio-económico.
Woodman, N.; Timm, R.M.
The Neotropical Lonchophyllini (Chiropter: Phyllostomidae) currently comprise four genera and thirteen species of nectar-feeding bats. These species often are separated into larger-bodied (eight species) and smaller-bodied (five species) forms to aid in identification. Our morphological and morphometrical analyses of the smaller Lonchophyllini revealed the existence of two distinctive, previously undescribed species of bats of the genus Lonchophylla from western South America. We describe a new form from Amazonian Peru as Lonchophylla pattoni and one from western Colombia as Lonchophylla cadenai. Phyllogenetic analysis of the Lonchophyllini based primarily on morphological characters indicates that these two new species are closely related to Lonchophylla thomasi.
Hassanin, Alexandre; Nesi, Nicolas; Marin, Julie; Kadjo, Blaise; Pourrut, Xavier; Leroy, Éric; Gembu, Guy-Crispin; Musaba Akawa, Prescott; Ngoagouni, Carine; Nakouné, Emmanuel; Ruedi, Manuel; Tshikung, Didier; Pongombo Shongo, Célestin; Bonillo, Céline
Both Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus were detected in several fruit bat species of the family Pteropodidae, suggesting that this taxon plays a key role in the life cycle of filoviruses. After four decades of Zaire Ebolavirus (ZEBOV) outbreaks in Central Africa, the virus was detected for the first time in West Africa in 2014. To better understand the role of fruit bats as potential reservoirs and circulating hosts between Central and West Africa, we examine here the phylogeny and comparative phylogeography of Pteropodidae. Our phylogenetic results confirm the existence of four independent lineages of African fruit bats: the genera Eidolon and Rousettus, and the tribes Epomophorini and Scotonycterini, and indicate that the three species suspected to represent ZEBOV reservoir hosts (Epomops franqueti, Hypsignathus monstrosus, and Myonycteris torquata) belong to an African clade that diversified rapidly around 8-7 Mya. To test for phylogeographic structure and for recent gene flow from Central to West Africa, we analysed the nucleotide variation of 675 cytochrome b gene (Cytb) sequences, representing eight fruit bat species collected in 48 geographic localities. Within Epomophorina, our mitochondrial data do not support the monophyly of two genera (Epomops and Epomophorus) and four species (Epomophorus gambianus, Epomops franqueti, Epomops buettikoferi, and Micropteropus pusillus). In Epomops, however, we found two geographic haplogroups corresponding to the Congo Basin and Upper Guinea forests, respectively. By contrast, we found no genetic differentiation between Central and West African populations for all species known to make seasonal movements, Eidolon helvum, E. gambianus, H. monstrosus, M. pusillus, Nanonycteris veldkampii, and Rousettus aegyptiacus. Our results suggest that only three fruit bat species were able to disperse directly ZEBOV from the Congo Basin to Upper Guinea: E. helvum, H. monstrosus, and R. aegyptiacus. Copyright © 2016 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
Sein Sein Win
Full Text Available The diet of Pteropus giganteus from three roosts in Mandalay Region, central Myanmar was investigated for over two years by examining feeding remains in and around two villages. It consists of 24 species of fruits, six species of flowers and three of leaves. Of these, 13 species of fruits are eaten by the local people, three of which are also marketed. Two are used in traditional medicine and one for stuffing pillows. Most dietary plants are native, mangoes are seasonally superabundant and are eaten in large numbers. Interviews revealed no evidence of conflict between bats and villagers.
Walker Melissa J.
Full Text Available The Darién province in eastern Panama is one of the most unexplored and biodiverse regions in the world. The Chucantí Nature Reserve, in Serranía de Majé, consists of a diverse tropical cloud forest ecosystem. The aim of this research was to explore and study host associations of a tripartite system of bats, ectoparasitic flies on bats (Diptera, Streblidae, and ectoparasitic fungi (Ascomycota, Laboulbeniales that use bat flies as hosts. We captured bats at Chucantí, screened each bat for presence of bat flies, and screened collected bat flies for presence of Laboulbeniales. We mistnetted for 68 mistnet hours and captured 227 bats representing 17 species. We captured Micronycteris schmidtorum, a species previously unreported in Darién. In addition, we encountered the rarely collected Platyrrhinus dorsalis, representing the westernmost report for this species. Of all captured bats, 148 carried bat flies (65%. The number of sampled bat flies was 437, representing 16 species. One species represents a new country record (Trichobius anducei and five species represent first reports for Darién (Basilia anceps, Anatrichobius scorzai, Nycterophilia parnelli, T. johnsonae, T. parasiticus. All 74 bat fly species currently reported in Panama are presented in tabulated form. Of all screened bat flies, 30 bore Laboulbeniales fungi (7%. Based on both morphology and large ribosomal subunit (LSU sequence data, we delimited 7 species of Laboulbeniales: Gloeandromyces nycteribiidarum (newly reported for Panama, G. pageanus, G. streblae, Nycteromyces streblidinus, and 3 undescribed species. Of the 30 infected flies, 21 were Trichobius joblingi. This species was the only host on which we observed double infections of Laboulbeniales.
Full Text Available In August 2013, an adult male Kerivoula krauensis was captured in a harp trap set in forest understorey in Bala Forest, Hala-Bala Wildlife Sanctuary, Narathiwat Province, Thailand. This is only the second locality recorded for the species, the first outside Malaysia, and represents a range extension of 254 km, northwards from Krau Wildlife Reserve, Malaysia. This discovery has important conservation implications suggesting that the species is more widespread than previously thought but also confirms previous findings that it appears to live in very low population densities as compared to other Kerivoula found in the same habitat. Information on its taxonomy, echolocation call, distribution and ecology is included. In addition, the new material from Thailand is briefly compared to other known species from the country
A new species of Parichoronyssus (Acari: Dermanyssoidea: Macronyssidae) from bats of the genus Phyllostomus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) in Peru and Venezuela, with keys to the species of Parichoronyssus.
Morales-Malacara, Juan B; Guerrero, Ricardo
Parichoronyssus bakeri new species was found on two phyllostomid bats species, the greater spear-nosed bat, Phyllostomus hastatus (Pallas), and the lesser spear-nosed bat, Phyllostomus elongatus (E. Geoffroy), in Pakitza, National Park Manu, Madre de Dios, Peru, including additional material examined from Venezuela. The female, male, deutonymph, and protonymph are described and illustrated. A key to the seven species of Parichoronyssus is provided.
Range extension for Thomas' Mastiff bat Eumops maurus (Chiroptera: Molossidae in northern, central and southeastern Brazil Distribuição geográfica de Thomas' Mastiff Eumops maurus (Chiroptera: Molossidae na região norte, central e sudoeste do Brasil
Miriam M. Sodré
Full Text Available Thomas' Mastiff bat, Eumops maurus (Thomas, 1901 is known from northern South America in Ecuador, Venezuela and Guiana and so it probably occurs in Brazil, yet it has not been reported. Here, we present the first record for E. maurus in Brazil. Captures were from the Brazilian states of Tocantins and Goiás (northern and midwestern Cerrado region of the country, and São Paulo (southeastern Brazil, Atlantic Forest. In the first two locations, all bats were roosting in palm leaves while in the later location, a single animal was found alive in a 15th-storey apartment in the city of São Paulo. This bat inhabits savannas with swamps dominated by the palm Mauritia flexuosa (buriti and gallery forests. This record is the first of E. maurus in an urban area. Brazilian specimens are apparently larger than those from northern South America.Eumops maurus (Thomas, 1901 tem sua ocorrência no norte da América do Sul, no Equador, na Venezuela e na Guiana. O presente estudo descreve a primeira ocorrência de E. maurus para o Brasil, com capturas recentes de espécimes nos estados de Tocantins e Goiás (regiões Norte e Centro-Oeste do país, domínio de Cerrado, e no estado de São Paulo, região sudeste, inserido no domínio da Mata Atlântica. Nos dois primeiros casos, os espécimes estavam no interior de folhas de palmeiras, e último, o indivíduo foi encontrado vivo dentro do quarto de um apartamento na cidade de São Paulo. Dados bibliográficos revelam que esta espécie habita regiões abertas, associada às áreas periodicamente alagadas (no cerrado, veredas dominadas por palmeiras da espécie Mauritia flexuosa (buriti e matas de galeria. Este trabalho ressalta o primeiro registro desse morcego em local urbanizado. Os espécimes brasileiros apresentam dimensões corpóreas maiores que os espécimes provenientes na região norte da América do Sul.
Ocorrência de moscas ectoparasitas (Diptera, Streblidae e Nycteribiidae de morcegos (Mammalia, Chiroptera no cerrado de Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brasil Records of batflies (Diptera, Streblidae and Nycteribiidae on bats (Mammalia, Chiroptera from the cerrado of Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brazil
Full Text Available Two species of Basilia Miranda Ribeiro, 1903 (Nycteribiidae and eigth species of Streblidae were collected from Brasília. Basilia anceps Guimarães & D' Andretta, 1956; B. hughscotti Guimarães & D' Andretta, 1956; Megistopoda aranea (Coquillet, 1899; M. proxima (Séguy, 1926 and Neotrichobius delicatus (Machado-Allison, 1966 are collected for the first time at the Federal District.
Padrão de atividade e comportamento de forrageamento do morcego-pescador Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus (Chiroptera, Noctilionidae na Baía de Guaratuba, Paraná, Brasil Activity pattern and foraging behavior of bulldog-bat Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, (Chiroptera, Noctilionidae in Guaratuba Bay, Paraná State, Brazil
Marcelo O. Bordignon
Full Text Available Entre 18 de janeiro a 16 de dezembro de 1999 foi estudado o comportamento de forrageamento e o padrão de atividade do morcego-pescador Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758, em uma área de manguezal na Baía de Guaratuba, Sul do Brasil. Os grupos de N. leporinus observados permaneceram em atividade ao longo de todo o período noturno, mas com um aparente padrão bimodal. Durante os meses de abril a setembro, N. leporinus inicia a sua atividade geralmente às 18:00 h, uma hora mais cedo do que durante os meses de outubro a março, quando inicia sua atividade geralmente às 19:00 h. O comportamento de predação sobre os cardumes de peixes mostrou variações quanto ao local de forrageamento ao longo do período de atividade. Em baixos níveis de maré, os grupos de morcegos pescaram longe da margem em águas mais profundas, mas nos níveis de maré alta os grupos de morcegos permaneceram pescando sempre junto à margem, em águas mais rasas. Este padrão de comportamento em N. leporinus parece ser determinado pelo padrão de deslocamento dos cardumes de peixes na área de estudo.From January 18 to December 16 of 1999 the foraging behavior and activity pattern of fishing bat Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758 were studied in mangrove ecosystem of Guaratuba Bay, southern Brazil. The groups of N. leporinus observed remained active during all nightly period but showed an apparent bimodal pattern. During April and September N. leporinus generally begin their activity at 18:00h, one hour earlier than October to March months, when their activity started at 19:00 h. The foraging behavior on fish shoal varied spatially along all the activity period. During low tide level the bat groups remained fishing distant from margin on deeper water, but during high tide level the bats were always observed fishing close to the margin on flat water. This pattern in foraging behavior of N. leporinus appears to be determined by the fish shoal displacement pattern in Guaratuba Bay.
Do fly parasites of bats and their hosts coevolve?speciation in Trichobius phyllostomae group (Diptera, Streblidae and their hosts (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae suggests that they do not Moscas parasitas de morcegos e seus hospedeiros co-evoluem?especiação do grupo Trichobius phyllostomae (Diptera, Streblidae e seus hospedeiros (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae sugere que eles não fazem
Full Text Available We examined whether, like many parasite-host systems of coevolution, a group of obligate parasitic bat flies (Trichobius phyllostomae Kessel and related species cospeciate with their hosts. We first did a cladistic analysis of the T. phyllostomae group and combined that analysis with a phylogenetic hypothesis from the literature for the Stenodermatinae bats. The cladistic analysis included, as outgroups, one species from each morphological group and complex of Trichobius Gervais, and one species from the following genera: Paratrichobius Miranda-Ribeiro, Megistopoda Macquart, Megistapophysys Dick & Wenzel, Neotrichobius Wenzel & Aitken, Speiseria Kessel and Strebla Wiedemann. The cladogram was rooted with a species of Strebla in the subfamily Streblinae. One cladogram was obtained and which found Trichobius to be polyphyletic. The phylogenetic hypothesis as follows: (Paratrichobius, (Neotrichobius, (Megistopoda, Megistapophysis is the sister-group of the phyllostomae group and the following relationships within the ingroup, (((T. vampyropis Wenzel, Trichobius sp. 2 ((T. hispidus Wenzel, T. petersoni Wenzel ((Trichobius sp. 1 (T. phyllostomae, T. brennani Wenzel. When we compared phylogenies through historical association analyses, cospeciation was uncommon, while host-switching was more common and better explained the association between the phyllostomae group and their bat hosts.Nós examinamos, como em muitos sistemas parasito-hospedeiro de coevolução, se um grupo de moscas parasitas obrigatórias de morcegos (Trichobius phyllostomae Kessel e espécies relacionadas coespecia com seus hospedeiros. Primeiro, nós fizemos uma análise cladística do grupo T. phyllostomae e combinamos a análise com a hipótese filogenética da literatura para os morcegos da subfamília Stenodermatinae. A análise cladística incluiu, como grupo-externo, uma espécie de cada grupo morfológico de Trichobius Gervais, e uma espécie dos seguintes gêneros: Paratrichobius Miranda-Ribeiro, Megistopoda Macquart, Megistapophysys Dick & Wenzel, Neotrichobius Wenzel & Aitken, Speiseria Kessel e Strebla Wiedemann. O cladograma foi enraizado com a espécie de Strebla da subfamília Streblinae. Um cladograma foi obtido e no qual encontramos Trichobius como polifilético. A hipótese filogenética a seguir: (Paratrichobius, (Neotrichobius, (Megistopoda, Megistapophysis é grupo-irmão do grupo phyllostomae e a relação dentro do grupo-interno a seguir, (((T. vampyropis Wenzel, Trichobius sp. 2 ((T. hispidus Wenzel, T. petersoni Wenzel ((Trichobius sp. 1 (T. phyllostomae, T. brennani Wenzel. Quando comparamos as filogenias através de análises de associação histórica, co-especiação foi pouco comum, enquanto colonização de um novo hospedeiro foi mais comum e explicou melhor a associação netre o grupo phyllostomae e seus hospedeiros.
First record on the use of leaves of Solanum lycocarpum (Solanaceae and fruits of Emmotum nitens (Icacinacea by Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae in the Brazilian Cerrado Primeiro registro do uso de folhas de Solanum lycocarpum (Solanaceae e de frutos de Emmotum nitens (Icacinacea por Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae no Cerrado brasileiro
Ludmilla M. de S. Aguiar
Full Text Available During May, June and July of 2004, the feeding habits of Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810 were investigated. Each morning food remains (dry oral pellets, seeds, feces and partly eaten foods were collected in two day roosts sites located inside the main building at Embrapa Cerrados. Fruits of Emmotum nitens (Benth. Miers (1852 and leaves of Solanum lycocarpum S. Hil. (1833 were items consumed by P. lineatus. Independent of plant and bat distribution area, the use of Solanum leaves by P. lineatus appears to be common.Durante os meses de maio, junho e julho de 2004, os hábitos alimentares de Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810 foram investigados. Toda manhã os restos alimentares (pelotas de matéria seca, sementes, fezes e itens parcialmente comidos foram coletados em dois abrigos diurnos localizados dentro das dependências da Embrapa Cerrados. Além de frutos de Emmotum nitens (Benth. Miers (1852, folhas de Solanum lycocarpum S. Hil. (1833 foram consumidas por P. lineatus. Independentemente da área de distribuição, da planta ou do morcego, o uso de folhas de espécies do gênero Solanum por P. lineatus parece ser comum.
Riqueza de espécies de morcegos (Mammalia, Chiroptera em dois diferentes habitats, na região centro-sul do Paraná, sul do Brasil Richness of bats species (Mammalia, Chiroptera in two different habitats in the center south region, Paraná, Brazil
Nelio R. dos Reis
Full Text Available Estudo preliminar sobre a riqueza de espécies e a freqüência de capturas de morcegos em dois habitats, mata primária e reflorestamento de Araucária, na Região Centro Leste do Paraná. Foi empregado o mesmo esforço para as duas áreas, resultando na captura de 11 espécies na área de mata primária, contra oito no reflorestamento de Araucária. A uniformidade na distribuição da abundância - " equitabilidade" - foi maior na mata primária. No reflorestamento de Araucária, noventa por cento dos indivíduos coletados pertenciam somente a duas espécies. Pelos resultados, conclui-se que a floresta primária com numerosos nichos, apresenta uma riqueza de espécies elevada, mas a ação do homem reduz a riqueza de espécies geral, o que se reflete principalmente na dominância de poucas espécies. Destaca-se aqui, nos dois tipos de ambientes, a presença de Myotis ruber, listada como ameaçada de extinção no Brasil.Preliminary study about the richness of species and the capture frequency of bats from two habitats: native forest and Araucária reforestation area, in the center east region of Paraná. The same capture effort for the two areas resulted in 11 species of bats captured in the native forest and eight in the Araucária reforestation area. The uniformity in species abundance - evenness - was higher in the native forest. In the Araucária reforestation area, ninety per cent of the collected individuals belonged only to two species. Results show that the primary forest with numerous niches presents high richness of species, but human action reduces the general richness, which reflects mainly in the small number of species. Myotis ruber is registered in both environments and related in the Brazilian list of threatened species of extinction.
Moscas ectoparasitas (Diptera, Streblidae de morcegos (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae no sul do Brasil: associações hospedeiros-parasitos e taxas de infestação Ectoparasitic flies (Diptera, Streblidae of bats (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae in southern Brazil: hosts-parasites associations and infestation rates
Ana M. Rui
Full Text Available As associações hospedeiros-parasitos e as taxas de infestação de dípteros ectoparasitos da família Streblidae foram estudadas em morcegos da família Phyllostomidae na Floresta Atlântica no extremo sul do Brasil. Para as espécies mais abundantes de filostomídeos, foi examinado se há diferenças nos valores de prevalência e intensidade média dos ectoparasitos nas diferentes estações do ano e conforme sexo e idade do hospedeiro. Em quatro espécies de filostomídeos (Anoura caudifera (E. Geoffroy, 1818, Artibeus fimbriatus Gray, 1838, Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 e Sturnira lilium E. Geoffroy, 1810 foram coletados 118 indivíduos de sete espécies de Streblidae (Anastrebla caudiferae Wenzel, 1976, Megistopoda aranea (Coquillett, 1899, Megistopoda proxima (Séguy, 1926, Metelasmus pseudopterus Coquillett, 1907, Paratrichobius longicrus (Miranda Ribeiro, 1907, Trichobius phyllostomae Kessel, 1925 e Trichobius tiptoni Wenzel, 1976. Para A. lituratus, A. fimbriatus e S. lilium, as taxas de infestação foram baixas e houve uma tendência à infestação ser maior no verão e outono, fato provavelmente relacionado à sazonalidade de temperatura na região, que afeta as taxas reprodutivas e a mortalidade dos ectoparasitos. A infestação por P. longicrus em A. lituratus não foi afetada pelo sexo e idade do hospedeiro. Para S. lilium, a infestação por M. proxima não foi afetada por sexo e idade do hospedeiro, com exceção da maior prevalência de ectoparasitos em indivíduos jovens. Os dados indicam que não existem diferenças comportamentais ligadas a sexo e idade do hospedeiro que favoreçam ou comprometam a infestação por Streblidae nestas espécies de morcegos filostomídeos.Hosts-parasites associations, including infestation rates, between ectoparasitic bat flies of the family Streblidae and bats of the family Phyllostomidae were studied in Atlantic Forest habitats in southern Brazil. For the more abundant phyllostomid bats, the prevalence and mean intensity of fly infestation were determined during the different seasons of the year and in relation to the sex and age of their hosts. From four species of bats (Anoura caudifera (E. Geoffroy, 1818, Artibeus fimbriatus Gray, 1838, Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 and Sturnira lilium E. Geoffroy, 1810, were collected 118 specimens of bat flies belonging to seven species (Anastrebla caudiferae Wenzel, 1976, Megistopoda aranea (Coquillett, 1899, Megistopoda proxima (Séguy, 1926, Metelasmus pseudopterus Coquillett, 1907, Paratrichobius longicrus (Miranda Ribeiro, 1907, Trichobius phyllostomae Kessel, 1925 and Trichobius tiptoni Wenzel, 1976. Low infestation rates were found in A. lituratus, A. fimbriatus and S. lilium and there were a tendency for the bats to be more parasited in summer and autumn, probably related to the seasonal temperatures in the region studied because such temperatures affect the reproductive and mortality rates of the ectoparasites. For A. lituratus, the age or sex of the host did not affect the infestation rates by P. longicrus. Although the age or sex of S. lilium did not, in general, affect the rate of infestation by M. proxima, juvenile S. lilium appeared to be more frequently parasitized by M. proxima than did adult bats. The data indicate that there are no behavioral differences linked to the age and sex of the species of phyllostomid bats studied which favor or disfavor infestation by Streblidae.
Carter, Anthony M; Mess, Andrea
Recent advances in molecular phylogenetics indicate that the order Chiroptera is monophyletic and that one of four lineages of microbats (Rhinolophoidea) shares a common origin with megabats. Against this background we undertook a comprehensive analysis of placental evolution in bats. We defined...... that characterize higher-level clades within Chiroptera, i.e. the megabats and the four lineages of microbats. The character condition occurring in the last common ancestor of Chiroptera was unequivocal for 21 of the 25 characters included in the analysis. The data did not offer support for a megabat...
Andréa de Cássia RODRIGUES da SILVA
Full Text Available Despite the absence of current official reports showing the number of cattle infected by rabies, it is estimated that nearly 30,000 bovines are lost each year in Brazil. In order to minimize the important economic losses, control of the disease is achieved by eliminating bat colonies and by herd vaccination. In this study, we compare the antibody response in cattle elicited by vaccination with an attenuated ERA vaccine (AEvac and an inactivated-adjuvanted PV (IPVvac vaccine. The antibody titers were appraised by cell-culture neutralization test and ELISA, and the percentage of seropositivity was ascertained for a period of 180 days. IPVvac elicited complete seropositivity rates from day 30 to day 150, and even on day 180, 87% of the sera showed virus-neutralizing antibody titers (VNA higher than 0.5IU/ml. There were no significant differences between the VNA titers and seropositivity rates obtained with IPVvac in the two methods tested. AEvac, however, elicited significantly lower titers than those observed in the group receiving inactivated vaccine. In addition, the profiles of antirabies IgG antibodies, evaluated by ELISA, and VNA, appraised by cell-culture neutralization test, were slightly different, when both vaccines were compared.A raiva bovina, transmitida principalmente pelo morcego hematófago Desmodus rotundus, é endêmica em várias regiões do Brasil, com um crescente número de casos sendo registrados anualmente. O controle desta infecção em bovinos é feito pelo controle de colônias de morcegos hematófagos e pela vacinação dos rebanhos. Embora as vacinas inativadas sejam mais seguras e mais estáveis que as vacinas atenuadas, estas últimas são ainda amplamente utilizadas em muitas regiões do país, por se acreditar que confiram imunidade mais duradoura. Neste estudo, foram comparadas as respostas anticórpicas de dois grupos de bovinos imunizados com uma vacina atenuada e uma inativada disponíveis comercialmente. Os
Andrea I. Estévez Garcia
Full Text Available A raiva transmitida por morcegos hematófagos da espécie Desmodus rotundus representa uma preocupação de saúde pública e causa de importantes prejuízos para a pecuária brasileira. A evidência atual sugere que a ocorrência de raiva está relacionada às características da paisagem, topografia, hidrografia, sistemas de produção animal e usos da terra. Contudo, existem poucos estudos que analisem as possíveis conexões entre fatores geográficos e a diversidade molecular do vírus da raiva, permitindo a compreensão da dinâmica espacial e temporal dos focos de raiva. Um desses trabalhos estabeleceu que a última epizootia de raiva dos herbívoros registrada no leste do estado de São Paulo (na fronteira com Minas Gerais, aconteceu em duas ondas epidêmicas, sendo a primeira em 1998 e, em 1999, a segunda. Considerando esta evidência, o intuito do presente estudo foi analisar casos de raiva em herbívoros na região sudeste de Minas Gerais (2000-2009 e sua possível relação com a epidemia previamente mencionada, incluindo as características geográficas da região. Foram obtidas sequencias parciais dos genes da glicoproteína (539 nt e da nucleoproteína (414 nt a partir de 31 isolados de vírus da raiva procedentes de herbívoros. Foi proposta uma árvore filogenética para cada região genômica usando o método de Neighbor joining, fixando o modelo evolutivo Kimura 2 - parâmetros com um nível de bootstrap de 1000 replicações. As sublinhagens genéticas foram localizadas sobre mapas, considerando as áreas de risco para raiva dos herbívoros em São Paulo, assim como as características topográficas e bacias hidrográficas com o intuito de visualizar qualquer padrão aparente de distribuição segundo essas características. As duas árvores filogenéticas mostraram topologias concordantes, sugerindo uma possível origem comum para os surtos que aconteceram ao longo da fronteira SP/MG, ao redor das porções menos elevadas da
Efecto del corredor vial Buga-Buenaventura, ubicado en la reserva natural bosque de Yotoco (Valle del Cauca, Colombia en la comunidad de mamíferos y fundamento para una propuesta de corredores artificiales
Wendy Francy López Meneses
de movilidad de la fauna, por la carretera Buga-Buenaventura que pasa a través de la Reserva Natural Bosque de Yotoco, Valle del Cauca. La caracterización topográfica y fisionómica de la vegetación mostró un mosaico de diez ambientes asociados a la carretera los cuales se asociaron con los puntos captura, de observación y de atropellamiento. Se encontró que individuos de Melanomys caliginosus, Oryzomys talamancae, Rhipidomys mastacalis y Marmosa robinsoni, recapturados en más de tres ocasiones, tienden a moverse paralelamente a la carretera, sin ninguna evidencia de cruce. A pesar de que no hubo recapturas de individuos de las especies de mamíferos voladores Anoura cauddifer, Artibeus jamaicensis, Artibeus sp., Carollia brevicauda, Desmodus rotundus, Glosophaga Soricina, Sturnira luisi y Myotis riparius se puede afirmar que cruzan indiferentemente la carretera, viven en los desagues bajo esta y algunos forrajean en el borde. Particularmente Myotis riparius se ve atraída por los insectos que llegan por efecto de la luz vehicular. Los mamíferos medianos y grandes Cebus capucinus, Alouatta seniculus, Potos flavus, Aotus sp., Bradypus variegatus y Choloepus hoffmanni, forrajean en el día y en la noche cerca del borde, algunos individuos de Cebus capucinus y Alouatta seniculus fueron vistos cruzando la carretera del fragmento pequeño al grande. La fragmentación de hábitat ocasionada por dicha carretera es evidente y está ocasionando un aislamiento total en las especies de pequeños mamíferos y genera peligro de atropellamiento para algunas especies de murciélagos y monos que la cruzan. Ambientes hostiles como helechales, pastizales, cañaduzales y deslizamientos penetran cada vez más hacia el interior de cada fragmento, aislando las poblaciones y abriendo paso a fauna doméstica y a personas que se adentran a la reserva a cazar o a saquear recursos de supervivencia para la fauna nativa, al tiempo que introducen desechos, plagas (Rattus rattus
Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) from the southern African subregion. M. van der Merwe and I.L. Rautenbach. Mammal Research Institute, University of Pretoria, Pretoria and Transvaal Museum, Pretoria. Nycticeius schlieffenii is a monestrous species that ...
Helminth parasites of amphibians from a rainforest reserve in southwestern Nigeria ... Lion predation on elephants in the Savuti, Chobe National Park, Botswana ... (Chiroptera: Molossidae) from southern Africa and the western Indian Ocean ...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This digital elevation model (DEM) was created from data collected by Leading Edge Geomatics using a Leica Chiroptera II Bathymetric & Topographic Sensor. The...
par Tamarix senegalensis, P. aculeata, S. senegalensis, Hibiscus asper, Brachiaria ramosa,. Combretum glutinosum et. Spermacoce stachydea. A. nilotica, Cyperus rotundus, Mytragyna inermis, Acacia seyal,. Commiphora africana, Dactyloctenium aegyptium, Zornia glochidiata, Cassia obtusifolia, Sida alba, Enterpogon ...
Geographical distribution of bat flies (Diptera: Nycteribiidae and Streblidae), including two new records, Nycteribia allotopa and N. formosana, collected from bats (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae and Vespertilionidae) in the Republic of Korea.
Kim, Heung Chul; Han, Sang Hoon; Dick, Carl W; Choi, Yong Gun; Chong, Sung Tae; Klein, Terry A; Rueda, Leopoldo M
As part of the 65(th) Medical Brigade, U.S. Army, arthropod-borne disease surveillance program and in collaboration with the Korea National Institute of Biological Resources (NIBR), bats were captured from caves and abandoned mines in the Republic of Korea. A total of 39 adult bat flies including five species of Nycteribiidae [Penicillidia jenynsii, Nycteribia parvula, N. formosana, N. allotopa mikado, and an unidentified species of Nycteribia (N. cf. formosana)], and one species of Streblidae, Brachytarsina kanoi, were collected from bats belonging to two families, Rhinolophidae and Vespertilionidae. This is the first report of N. allotopa mikado and N. formosana from the Republic of Korea. © 2012 The Society for Vector Ecology.
Full Text Available Molte specie di pipistrelli delle fasce climatiche temperato-fredde sono soggette a marcate variazioni stagionali di temperatura e disponibilità di cibo. L'accumulo di grasso in autunno è quindi un adattamento per trascorrere, in uno stato di profondo torpore definibile ibernazione, i mesi invernali, aumentando così la probabilità di sopravvivenza durante tale periodo. Nell?ambito di una attività pluriennale relativa alla raccolta, studio e, quando possibile, riabilitazione di pipistrelli in ambienti urbani, due esemplari di Pipistrellus kuhlii (2 femmine e due di Hypsugo savii (1 maschio e 1 femmina, in entrambi casi giovani che ancora non avevano acquisito una sufficiente capacità nel volo e quindi non liberabili, sono stati raccolti nella pianura di Firenze durante l?estate del 1998 e mantenuti in condizioni di temperatura ambientale oscillante tra i 17 e i 22°C, in un contenitore di 150x40x30 cm. Ogni sera sono stati pesati, prima della somministrazione di cibo e acqua, con una bilancia elettronica con precisione di 0.1 g (modello Tanita 1479. L'alimentazione è stata a base di vermi della farina (Tenebrio molitor. L?efficienza digestiva è calcolata nel seguente modo, su materiale disidratato: (quantità ingerita ? quantità escrementi/quantità ingerita*100. Per il calcolo di tale indice gli esemplari delle due specie sono stati separati e mantenuti per 24 ore a partire dalla successiva sera dell?ultima somministrazione, favorendo così lo svuotamento dell?intestino. Successivamente, per due giorni è stato fornito del cibo ad libitum, pesando i singoli esemplari una volta terminata la fase di alimentazione, per determinare la quantità ingerita. Al termine abbiamo mantenuto gli esemplari a digiuno per 24 ore successive all?ultima somministrazione per permettere lo svuotamento dell?intestino. Gli escrementi raccolti sono stati posti in forno elettrico a 90 °C per 24 ore e successivamente pesati. Un campione di 10 vermi della farina è stato soppresso e successivamente disidratato per 36 ore a 90 C° in forno determinandone così il contenuto in acqua. La comparazione dei dati relativi alla variazione del peso, benché il numero di campioni sia limitato, offre la possibilità di evidenziare alcune differenze tra le due specie: 1 l'andamento del peso nel periodo compreso tra lo svezzamento e l'incremento autunnale: in P. kuhlii, dopo un massimo nel peso raggiunto allo svezzamento, tende evidentemente a calare. In H. savii invece si è osservato un leggero incremento nel peso. 2 È evidente che l'inizio del processo di accumulo di grasso è molto più rapido in P. kuhlii che in H. savii. In quest'ultima specie il processo appare più graduale nel tempo. 3 In ambedue le specie osserviamo un leggero decremento del peso nel periodo successivo al momento in cui raggiungono il massimo peso per poi aumentare la velocità di decremento nel periodo terdo-invernale. 4 Il peso medio alla raccolta in P. kuhlii è di 2.6 g (1.9 - 3.3 il peso massimo medio di 11.7 g (11.5 - 12; il peso medio alla raccolta in H. savii è di 3.7 g (3.2 ? 4.2 il peso massimo medio di 10.3 g (11.4 ? 9.3. 5 Si evidenzia un ciclo circannuale. L?efficienza digestiva, valutata a 90.5% per H. savii e 89.7% per P. kuhlii, non evidenzia una differenza significativa tra le due specie e neppure durante le varie stagioni.
Eimeria peltocephali n. sp., (Apicomplexa:Eimeriidae from the Freshwater Turtle Peltocephalus dumerilianus (Chelonia:Pelomusidae and Eimeria molossi n. sp., from the Bat, Molossus ater (Mammalia:Chiroptera
Full Text Available The oocyst is described of Eimeria peltocephali n.sp. from faeces of the freshwater turtle Peltocephalus dumerilianus from Barcelos, State of Amazonas, Brazil. Sporulation is exogenous and fully developed oocysts are elongate, ellipsoidal or cylindrical, frequently curved to a banana-shape, 54.4 x19.1 (37.5 - 68.7 x 18.7-20.0 µm, shape-index 2.8 (1.8 -3.9. The oocyst wall is a single thin, colourless layer about 1 µm thick, with no micropyle. There is a bulky oocyst residuum, at first spherical to ellipsoidal, 19 x 16 (16. 2 -26.2 x 16 - 21.5µm , but becoming dispersed on maturation. There are no polar bodies. The sporocysts, 19.1 x 6.8 ( 17.5 -21.2 x 6.2 -7.5 µm, shape- index 2.8 (2.3 -3.2, are usually disposed in pairs at each end of the oocyst, and bear an inconspicuous Stieda body in the form of a flat cap. The sporozoites are elongate and slightly curved around the residuum. No refractile bodies were seen. Eimeria molossi n.sp., is described from the molossid bat Molossus ater. Sporulation is exogenous and the mature oocysts are predominantly broadly ellipsoidal, 23.4 x 17.5 (18-30 x 15-22.5 µm, shape-index 1.3 (1-1.6. The oocyst wall is about 2 µm thick, and of three layers: an inner thin, colourless one and two outer layers which are thicker, yellowish-brown, prominently striated and in close apposition. There is no micropyle or oocyst residuum, but one and occasionally two polar bodies are usually present. Sporocysts are ellipsoidal, 10.2 x 7.5 (10-12.5 x 7.5 µm, shape-index 1.4 (1.3-1.7 with an inconspicuous Stieda body. Endogenous stages are described in the epithelial cells of the small intestine
Seasonal variation in the number of captures of Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 and Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810 (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae in the upper strata of an Atlantic Forest remnant in southern Brazil
Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the occurrence of seasonal variations in the number of captures of Artibeus lituratus and Sturnira lilium in the upper strata of an Atlantic Forest remnant in southern Brazil. It was conducted in the town of Pedras Grandes, in the southern end of Santa Catarina. The chiropterans were captured with mist nets installed in the canopy and subcanopy. To check whether there were differences in the number of captures between seasons, we used the chi-square test (χ2, with a significance level of 0.05, and, whenever needed, partial χ2 tests. Artibeus lituratus showed significant differences between seasons, and the largest number of captures occurs in autumn. For S. lilium we did not observe statistically significant differences. The seasonal variation found out for A. lituratus may be related to its diet, which is based on fruits whose availability has seasonal variations. For S. lilium, besides the diet, mainly based on plants that do not have seasonal variations with regard to fruit availability, the altitude of the study area and its variations in temperature also seem to explain the absence of seasonal variation.
Altitudinal distribution of the common longeared bat Plecotus auritus (Linnaeus, 1758 and grey long-eared bat Plecotus austriacus (J. B. Fischer, 1829 (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae in the Tatra mountains (southern Poland
Full Text Available Riassunto Distribuzione altitudinale di Orecchione bruno (Plecotus auritus e Orecchione meridionale (Plecotus austriacus nei Monti Tatra (Polonia meridionale. Vengono riportati nuovi dati relativi alla distribuzione altitudinale nei Monti Tatra (Polonia meridionale di Plecotus auritus e P. austriacus. Tali segnalazioni incrementano le conoscenze relative alla presenza di questi chirotteri a quote elevate, in particolare per la Polonia. In inverno P. auritus è stato rinvenuto a 1921 m s.l.m. mentre in estate è stato rinvenuto a 2250 m s.l.m.; in aggiunta, sono stati ritrovati resti ossei a 1929 m s.l.m. P. austriacus è stato segnalato in ibernazione a 1294 m s.l.m.
Streblidae (Diptera, Hippoboscoidea sobre morcegos filostomídeos (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae em cavernas do Distrito Federal Brasil Streblid batflies (Diptera, Streblidae on phyllostomid bats from eaves in Distrito Federal Brazil
Full Text Available A survey of streblid batflies on phyllostomid bats was carried out from caves in Distrito Federal, Brazil during 1997 and 1998. Thirteen species were found on eight species of bats. Two species of batflies, Trichobius lonchophyllae Wenzel, 1966 and T. propinquus Wenzel, 1976, are new records for Brazil.
Phylogenetic reconstruction by cross-species chromosome painting and G-banding in four species of Phyllostomini tribe (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) in the Brazilian Amazon: an independent evidence for monophyly.
Ribas, Talita Fernanda Augusto; Rodrigues, Luis Reginaldo Ribeiro; Nagamachi, Cleusa Yoshiko; Gomes, Anderson José Baia; Rissino, Jorge das Dores; O'Brien, Patricia Caroline Mary; Yang, Fengtang; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm Andrew; Pieczarka, Julio Cesar
The subfamily Phyllostominae comprises taxa with a variety of feeding strategies. From the cytogenetic point of view, Phyllostominae shows different rates of chromosomal evolution between genera, with Phyllostomus hastatus probably retaining the ancestral karyotype for the subfamily. Since chromosomal rearrangements occur rarely in the genome and have great value as phylogenetic markers and in taxonomic characterization, we analyzed three species: Lophostoma silvicola (LSI), Phyllostomus discolor (PDI) and Tonatia saurophila (TSA), representing the tribe Phyllostomini, collected in the Amazon region, by classic and molecular cytogenetic techniques in order to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships within this tribe. LSA has a karyotype of 2n=34 and FN=60, PDI has 2n=32 and FN=60 and TSA has 2n=16 and FN=20. Comparative analysis using G-banding and chromosome painting show that the karyotypic complement of TSA is highly rearranged relative to LSI and PHA, while LSI, PHA and PDI have similar karyotypes, differing by only three chromosome pairs. Nearly all chromosomes of PDI and PHA were conserved in toto, except for chromosome 15 that was changed by a pericentric inversion. A strongly supported phylogeny (bootstrap=100 and Bremer=10 steps), confirms the monophyly of Phyllostomini. In agreement with molecular topologies, TSA was in the basal position, while PHA and LSI formed sister taxa. A few ancestral syntenies are conserved without rearrangements and most associations are autapomorphic traits for Tonatia or plesiomorphic for the three genera analyzed here. The karyotype of TSA is highly derived in relation to that of other phyllostomid bats, differing from the supposed ancestral karyotype of Phyllostomidae by multiple rearrangements. Phylogenies based on chromosomal data are independent evidence for the monophyly of tribe Phyllostomini as determined by molecular topologies and provide additional support for the paraphyly of the genus Tonatia by the exclusion of the genus Lophostoma.
Phylogenetic reconstruction by cross-species chromosome painting and G-banding in four species of Phyllostomini tribe (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae in the Brazilian Amazon: an independent evidence for monophyly.
Talita Fernanda Augusto Ribas
Full Text Available The subfamily Phyllostominae comprises taxa with a variety of feeding strategies. From the cytogenetic point of view, Phyllostominae shows different rates of chromosomal evolution between genera, with Phyllostomus hastatus probably retaining the ancestral karyotype for the subfamily. Since chromosomal rearrangements occur rarely in the genome and have great value as phylogenetic markers and in taxonomic characterization, we analyzed three species: Lophostoma silvicola (LSI, Phyllostomus discolor (PDI and Tonatia saurophila (TSA, representing the tribe Phyllostomini, collected in the Amazon region, by classic and molecular cytogenetic techniques in order to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships within this tribe. LSA has a karyotype of 2n=34 and FN=60, PDI has 2n=32 and FN=60 and TSA has 2n=16 and FN=20. Comparative analysis using G-banding and chromosome painting show that the karyotypic complement of TSA is highly rearranged relative to LSI and PHA, while LSI, PHA and PDI have similar karyotypes, differing by only three chromosome pairs. Nearly all chromosomes of PDI and PHA were conserved in toto, except for chromosome 15 that was changed by a pericentric inversion. A strongly supported phylogeny (bootstrap=100 and Bremer=10 steps, confirms the monophyly of Phyllostomini. In agreement with molecular topologies, TSA was in the basal position, while PHA and LSI formed sister taxa. A few ancestral syntenies are conserved without rearrangements and most associations are autapomorphic traits for Tonatia or plesiomorphic for the three genera analyzed here. The karyotype of TSA is highly derived in relation to that of other phyllostomid bats, differing from the supposed ancestral karyotype of Phyllostomidae by multiple rearrangements. Phylogenies based on chromosomal data are independent evidence for the monophyly of tribe Phyllostomini as determined by molecular topologies and provide additional support for the paraphyly of the genus Tonatia by the exclusion of the genus Lophostoma.
Mancina, Carlos A.; Balseiro, Fernando
Analizamos la variación sexual y geográfica en la forma de la mandíbula de Monophyllus redmani mediante métodos de morfometría geométrica. Las diferencias en el tamaño y la forma de la mandíbula fueron examinadas usando 10 "landmarks" o puntos de referencia sobre la vista lateral de la mandíbula de 69 individuos. La significación de la variación de la forma entre sexos y regiones geográficas fue analizada mediante un análisis múltiple de varianza de dos vías sobre la matriz de las variables d...
Streicker, D. G.; Winternitz, Jamie Caroline; Satterfield, D. A.; Condori-Condori, R. E.; Broos, A.; Tello, C.; Recuenco, S.; Velasco-Villa, A.; Altizer, S.; Valderrama, W.
Roč. 113, č. 39 (2016), s. 10926-10931 ISSN 0027-8424 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Desmodus * zoonotic disease * forecasting * sex bias * spatial dynamics Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 9.661, year: 2016
Full Text Available Seed dispersal by ants (myrmecochory is found worldwide, but the benefits that plants obtain from this mutualism remain uncertain. In the present study, we conducted laboratory experiments to demonstrate seed predator avoidance as a benefit of myrmecochory using the annual ant-dispersed herb Lamium amplexicaule, the disperser ant Tetramorium tsushimae, and the seed predatory burrower bug Adomerus rotundus. We compared the predation intensity of Lamium amplexicaule seeds by Adomerus rotundus under the presence or absence of Tetramorium tsushimae. Both the number of seeds sucked by Adomerus rotundus adults and the feeding duration of sucked seeds by nymphs were significantly reduced in the presence of ants. This effect was most likely due to the behavioral alteration of Adomerus rotundus in response to the ant presence, because ants seldom predated Adomerus rotundus during the experiment. Our results demonstrated that the presence of ants decreases post-dispersal seed predation, even when the ants do not bury the seeds. The present study thus suggests that the non-consumptive effects of ants on seed predators benefit myrmecochorous plants.
Poel, van der W.H.M.; Lina, P.H.C.; Kramps, J.A.
Bats classified in the order Chiroptera are the most abundant and widely distributed non-human mammalian species in the world. Several bat species are reservoir hosts of zoonotic viruses and therefore can be a public health hazard. Lyssaviruses of different genotypes have emerged from bats in
species group with the description of a new species from West Africa (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae). Myotis 40 : 95 - 126. Fiévet E., S. Dolédec and P. Lim. 2001. Distribution of migratory fishes and shrimps along multivariate gradients in Tropical Island streams. J. Fish Biol., 59 : 390 - 402. Fossati O., M. Mosseron and P. Keith.
Volleth, M; Heller, K G; Pfeiffer, R A; Hameister, H
Fluorescence in-situ hybridization with human whole chromosome painting probes (WCPs) was applied to compare the karyotypes of members of five bat families. Twenty-five evolutionarily conserved units (ECUs) were identified by ZOO-FISH analysis. In 10 of these 25 ECUs, thorough GTG-band comparison revealed an identical banding pattern in all families studied. Differences in the remaining ECUs were used as characters to judge the phylogenetic relationships within Chiroptera. Close relationships were found between Rhinolophidae and Hipposideridae. Also closely related are the representatives of the yangochiropteran families Phyllostomidae (genus studied: Glossophaga, Volleth et al. 1999), Molossidae and Vespertilionidae. All microchiropteran species studied here share four common features not found in the megachiropteran species Eonycteris spelaea. Two of these are considered as derived characters with a high probability of parallel evolution. On the other hand, Eonycteris shares one common, probably derived feature with the rhinolophoid families Rhinolophidae and Hipposideridae and an additional one only with Hipposideridae. At the moment, the relationships between Yangochiroptera, Rhinolophoidea and Megachiroptera must be left in an unsolved trichotomy. Comparison of neighboring segment combinations found in Chiroptera with those found in other mammalian taxa revealed six synapomorphic features for Chiroptera. Therefore, for karyological reasons, monophyly of Chiroptera is strongly supported.
Řezanka, Tomáš; Viden, I.; Nováková, Alena; Bandouchová, H.; Sigler, Karel
Roč. 50, č. 7 (2015), s. 633-645 ISSN 0024-4201 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/1064 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Chiroptera * High-resolution atmospheric pressure chemical ionization analysis * Pseudogymnoascus destructans Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.892, year: 2015
Kaňuch, P.; Aghová, Tatiana; Meheretu, Y.; Šumbera, R.; Bryja, Josef
Roč. 50, č. 1 (2015), s. 53-57 ISSN 1562-7020 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/0983 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : acoustics * Chiroptera * eastern Africa * evolutionary radiation * roosts Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.739, year: 2015 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15627020.2015.1021711
Berková, Hana; Pokorný, M.; Zukal, Jan
Roč. 95, č. 5 (2014), s. 1011-1017 ISSN 0022-2372 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/1064 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Chiroptera * habitat * linear landscape elements * maternity roosts * Moravian Karst * Myotis myotis Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.840, year: 2014
Theodore J. Weller; William J. Zielinski
Standardized survey methods are important for obtaining reliable information on wildlife populations. As a precursor to creating a regional bat-survey (Chiroptera) protocol, we distributed a questionnaire via e-mail to biologists responsible for conducting bat surveys in the United States and Canada. We received 415 responses from 45 states and 7 Canadian provinces or...
north-east of the country, owing to the marginal intrusion of 14 tropical species. Endemism in Chiroptera is low, however, with ... Die Nasionale Kruger Wildtuin is nie net 'n belangrike sent rum vir spesies- verskeidenheid wat bet ref die Carnivora en ...... herpetofauna of Michoacan. Mexico. University of Kansas. Publications ...
The present distribution of bats (Chiroptera) in The Netherlands is documented and discussed. For each species a map is given illustrating the distribution before and after 1970. Where available, data are presented on migration, population trends, nursing colonies, roosts and hibernation sites,
Juhl, Peter Møller; Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Vanderelst, Dieter
Overskrift: ChiRoPing (Chiroptera, Robots, and Sonar) is an EU-funded research project aimed at understanding how bats use their echolocation perception ability and apply this knowledge to the design of new robotic senses. Four species of bats are selected for the study and models of their heads...
Bartonička, T.; Banďouchová, H.; Berková, Hana; Blažek, J.; Lučan, R.; Horáček, I.; Martínková, Natália; Pikula, J.; Řehák, Z.; Zukal, Jan
Roč. 63, January (2017), s. 119-123 ISSN 0306-4565 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/1064 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Body temperature * Hibernation * Locomotor performance * Chiroptera * Flight Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 2.157, year: 2016
Zukal, Jan; Pikula, J.; Banďouchová, H.
Roč. 80, č. 3 (2015), s. 220-227 ISSN 1616-5047 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/1064 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Bioaccumulation * Chiroptera * Heavy metals * Metalloids * Review Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.595, year: 2015
Jennifer M. Menzel; Michael A. Menzel; John C. Kilgo; W. Mark Ford; John W. Edwards
Bat activity in the southeastern United States is concentrated over riparian areas and wetland habitats. The restoration and creation of wetlands for mitigation purposes is becoming common in the Southeast. Understanding the effects of these restoration efforts on wetland flora and fauna is thus becoming increasingly important. Because bats (Order: Chiroptera) consist...
Zahradníková Jr., A.; Kováčová, V.; Martínková, Natália; Orlova, M. V.; Orlov, O. L.; Piaček, V.; Zukal, Jan; Pikula, J.
Roč. 65, č. 2 (2018), s. 303-308 ISSN 1865-1674 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-20286S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Chiroptera * ectoparasite * Eurasia * fungal infection * Russia * white-nose syndrome Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine OBOR OECD: Veterinary science Impact factor: 3.585, year: 2016
Turner, G. G.; Meteyer, C. U.; Barton, H.; Gumbs, J. F.; Reeder, D. M.; Overton, B.; Banďouchová, H.; Bartonička, T.; Martínková, Natália; Pikula, J.; Zukal, Jan; Blehert, D. S.
Roč. 50, č. 3 (2014), s. 566-573 ISSN 0090-3558 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/1064 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : bats * Chiroptera * dermatomycosis * fungal infection * ultraviolet (UV) fluorescence * white-nose syndrome Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.355, year: 2014
Ravel, Anthony; Marivaux, Laurent; Tabuce, Rodolphe; Adaci, Mohammed; Mahboubi, Mohammed; Mebrouk, Fateh; Bensalah, Mustapha
The Afro-Arabian Paleogene fossil record of Chiroptera is very poor. In North Africa and Arabia, this record is limited, thus far, to a few localities mainly in Tunisia (Chambi, late early Eocene), Egypt (Fayum, late Eocene to early Oligocene), and Sultanate of Oman (Taqah, early Oligocene). It consists primarily of isolated teeth or mandible fragments. Interestingly, these African fossil bats document two modern groups (Vespertilionoidea and Rhinolophoidea) from the early Eocene, while the bat fossil record of the same epoch of North America, Eurasia, and Australia principally includes members of the "Eochiroptera." This paraphyletic group contains all primitive microbats excluding modern families. In Algeria, the region of Brezina, southeast of the Atlas Mountains, is famous for the early Eocene El Kohol Formation, which has yielded one of the earliest mammalian faunas of the African landmass. Recent fieldwork in the same area has led to the discovery of a new vertebrate locality, including isolated teeth of Chiroptera. These fossils represent the oldest occurrence of Chiroptera in Africa, thus extending back the record of the group to the middle early Eocene (Ypresian) on that continent. The material consists of an upper molar and two fragments of lower molars. The dental character association matches that of "Eochiroptera." As such, although very fragmentary, the material testifies to the first occurrence of "Eochiroptera" in Algeria, and by extension in Africa. This discovery demonstrates that this basal group of Chiroptera had a worldwide distribution during the early Paleogene.
Hluhluwe-Umfolozi Park, Itala Game Reserve), the numbers of mammal species recorded .... Chiroptera and Rodentia, cannot be explained by the level of sampling, and .... generated data. A count of the ...... radarida aI/sorge;. Tmiarida condY/ ...
The dominant taxa on the old waste dumpsite having an average density superior to 5 plants/m2 and occurring less frequently on the control site were Alternanthera sessilis, Amaranthus spinosus, Cyperus rotundus, Cyperus iria, Eleusine indica, Euphorbia glomerifera, Ipomoea triloba, Portulaca oleracea and Trianthema ...
Intan Zahara Arie; Joko Prasetyo; Efri Efri
Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh ekstrak alang-alang (Imperata cylindrica), teki (Cyperus rotundus), dan babadotan (Ageratum conyzoides) terhadap pertumbuhan dan sporulasi Colletotrichum musae. Penelitian juga bertujuan mengetahui pengaruh ekstrak alang-alang, teki dan babadotan terhadap keparahan penyakit antraknosa secara in vivo.Penelitian dilaksanakan di Laboratorium Penyakit Tumbuhan, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Lampung, dari bulan Juni sampai dengan September 2014....
Diagnóstico laboratorial de raiva em quirópteros realizado em área metropolitana na região sudeste do Brasil Laboratory diagnosis of rabies in chiroptera carried out of a metropolitan area of Southeastern Brazil
Marilene F. Almeida
Full Text Available No período de janeiro de 1988 adezembro de 1992, foi realizado diagnóstico de raiva em 289 morcegos através das técnicas de imunofluorescência direta e de inoculação intracerebral em camundongos. Dois morcegos insetívoros da espécie Nyctinomops macrotis se apresentaram positivos, representando 0,69% da amostra. Esses morcegos foram capturados, ainda vivos, em 1988 e 1990, na sala de um apartamento no sétimo andar e no muro de uma casa, respectivamente. Ambos em bairros residenciais. Apresentaram período de incubação de 13 e 11 dias, respectivamente, na prova biológica. A existência de morcegos insetívoros infectados com o vírus da raiva é preocupante, uma vez que essa população parece ser cada vez mais freqüente em áreas urbanas, porém isto não justifica ações predatórias indiscriminadas contra as espécies, principalmente levando-se em consideração a importância do morcego no equilíbrio ecológico da população de insetos, abundante em área urbana.Between January, 1988 and December, 1992 the S. Paulo Animal Disease Control Center subjected 289 bats to rabies examinations, utilizing the direct immunofluorescence and biological techniques. Two insectivorous bats belonging to the species Nyctinomopsmacrotis, representing 0.69% of the total sample, tested positive. Both animals had been captured alive in residential neighborhoods of the city, one in 1988 in the living room of a 7' th floor apartment and the other in 1990 on top of a wall surrounding a private house. In the biological tests, the disease showed incubation periods of 13 and 11 days respectively.Although the existence of infected insectiverous bats in urban areas is cause for concern, indiscriminate predatory action against such species can in no way be justified-particularly bearing in mind their importance in preserving the ecological balance of the insect population so prevalent in cities.
Nelson Alvis G
cuando – en casos caninos y humanos”. Lasrecomendaciones son elocuentes, sin embargo, las acciones fueron negligentes y el costofueron muertes evitables, sin que aparezcan los responsables.Por otro lado, la preocupación respecto a esta zoonosis no debe incluir solo la vigilancia dela población canina. Dadas las características ecológicas y sociales de las áreas tropicalesy subtropicales de las Américas, la rabia transmitida por murciélagos hematófagos(vampiros generalmente de la especie Desmodus rotundus adquiere una particular gravedadpara la salud pública. En ecosistemas de alta densidad ganadera los vampiros se alimentanexclusivamente de ganado y atacan a las personas sólo esporádicamente. Por el contrarioen los sistemas de baja densidad ganadera las poblaciones de vampiros son más pequeñas,se alimentan de varias especies animales y atacan a los humanos más frecuentemente. Engeneral, se ha encontrado que la frecuencia de agresiones de los vampiros al hombre se veinfluenciada por ciertas intervenciones, las más comunes son el retiro de animales de unazona densamente poblada; el inicio de las actividades de desmonte; y la exploración deminas (2,3.Colombia, que dispone hoy de casi tres veces más recursos para salud que hace 15 años,debería contar con un sistema sanitario con mayor centralidad en la Salud Publica. Se esperaque en la próxima reforma al sistema de salud que se encuentra en trámite actualmente en elCongreso de la República (Plan Nacional de Salud Pública el cual se expresará en el respectivoPlan Nacional de Desarrollo, pueda revisar y corregir estas vergüenzas
Bartonička, T.; Kaňuch, Peter; Bímová, Barbora; Bryja, Josef
Roč. 59, č. 3 (2010), s. 175-182 ISSN 0139-7893 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/06/0954 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : olfactory signal * species-specific recognition * pipistrelles * Vespertilionidae * Chiroptera Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.548, year: 2010 http://www.ivb.cz/folia/59/3/1_ms_1551.pdf
Lučan, R. K.; Bartonička, T.; Benda, P.; Bilgin, R.; Jedlička, Petr; Nicolaou, H.; Reiter, A.; Shohdi, W. M.; Šálek, Martin; Řeřucha, Šimon; Uhrin, M.; Abi-Said, M.; Horáček, I.
Roč. 95, č. 5 (2014), s. 1036-1042 ISSN 0022-2372 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA601110905; GA MŠk EE2.3.30.0054; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 ; RVO:68081766 Keywords : Chiroptera * desert * Mediterranean * phenology * Pteropodidae * reproduction * reproductive pattern Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.840, year: 2014
Protists from caves: preliminary data on populations of the "Covolo della guerra", Berici hills (Vicenza, Italy): Jamski enoceličarji: predhodne razsikave o njihovih populacijah v kraški jami "Covolo della guerra" v hribovju Berici (Vicenza, Italija):
Coppellotti Krupa, Olimpia; Guidolin, Laura
Posledica povečanega zanimanja za speleologijo je nekaj prav presenetljivih odkritij iz obdobja zadnjih nekaj let v italijanskih jamah. Toda na podlagi zbranega favnističnega gradiva so bila do danes posebno raziskane le nekatere taksonomske skupine, na primer Insecta, Chilopoda, Gastropoda in Chiroptera. Zaradi pomena organizmov, ki živijo v skoraj vseh ekosistemih, se je zdelo še posebno zanimivo raziskati, kot preproste modele za sistem njihovega spremljanja (monitoringa), populacije enoce...
Analía G. AUTINO
Full Text Available Se cita por primera vez para Jujuy la presencia de pulgas ectoparásitas de murciélagos, habiéndose registrado a Sternopsylla distincta speciosa Johnson sobre Tadarida brasiliensis (Geoffroy (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae. Además se presentan comentarios sobre caracteres de morfología externa y estructuras genitales de las subespecies Sternopsylla distincta speciosa Johnson y Sternopsylla distincta distincta (Rothschild.
Banďouchová, H.; Bartonička, T.; Berková, Hana; Brichta, J.; Černý, J.; Kováčová, V.; Kolařík, Miroslav; Köllner, B.; Kulich, P.; Martínková, Natália; Řehák, Z.; Tumer, G. G.; Zukal, Jan; Pikula, J.
Roč. 62, č. 1 (2015), s. 1-5 ISSN 1865-1674 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/1064 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : white-nose syndrome * Chiroptera * transmission electron microscopy * ultraviolet light diagnostics * morbidity * mortality Subject RIV: EG - Zoology; EE - Microbiology, Virology (MBU-M) Impact factor: 2.714, year: 2015
Lučan, R. K.; Bartonička, T.; Jedlička, Petr; Řeřucha, Šimon; Šálek, Martin; Čížek, Martin; Nicolaou, H.; Horáček, I.
Roč. 97, č. 3 (2016), s. 815-822 ISSN 0022-2372 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA601110905; GA MŠk EE2.3.30.0054; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 ; RVO:68081766 Keywords : Chiroptera * climate change * Cyprus * foraging behavior * radiotracking * Rousettus Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation; EG - Zoology (UBO-W) Impact factor: 1.630, year: 2016
Fluentes, C.L.; Canas, F.; Ramirez German Torres, H.; Quintero, M.
The effect of additives to a commercial formulation of glyphosate on the uptake of added 14 C labelled glyphosate by Cyperus rotundus (purple nutsedge) was studied in the laboratory. Both 1% ammonium sulfate and 1% diesel oil plus the surfactant Triton X-45 improved penetration 24 h after treatment but not after 1 or 2 h. The mixture with ammonium sulfate and Triton X-45 was tested for the control of C. rotundus in the field. It was not significantly better than the unamended formulation at 1.5 kg, a.e. ha -1 but lower application rates (0.75 and 0.5 kg a.e. ha -1 ) were at least as effective as mechanical control. (author)
Amaral, Carita Liberato do [UNESP; Pavan, Guilherme Bacarim [UNESP; Souza, Marcelo Claro de; Martins, José Valcir Fidelis [UNESP; Alves, Pedro Luis da Costa Aguiar [UNESP
The grains of chickpea consumed in Brazil are almost entirely imported. Considering that chickpeas presents conditions to be cultivated in some regions of Brazil, this study aimed to study interference of six weed plants (Amaranthus viridis, Bidens pilosa, Raphanus raphanistrum, Cyperus rotundus, Digitaria nuda and Eleusine indica) on the vegetative development of chickpeas. Thus, we evaluated the shoot length, number of leaves, leaf area, chlorophyll content and dry weight of leaves, stem an...
Tang, Jin; Wu, Qiaoxing; Tang, Xinming; Shi, Ruihan; Suo, Jingxia; Huang, Guangping; An, Junqing; Wang, Jingyuan; Yang, Jinling; Hao, Wenzhuo; She, Ruiping; Suo, Xun
Background Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections can be found throughout the body, especially in epithelial tissue. Animal model was established by inoculation of HCMV (strain AD-169) or coinoculation with Hepatitis E virus (HEV) into the ligated sacculus rotundus and vermiform appendix in living rabbits. The specimens were collected from animals sacrificed 1 and a half hours after infection. Results The virus was found to be capable of reproducing in these specimens through RT-PCR and West...
De Waele, D.; Jordaan, Elizabeth M.; Basson, Selmaré
The host suitability to Ditylenchus destructor of seven common weed species in peanut (Arachis hypogaea) fields in South Africa was determined. Based on the number of nematodes per root unit, white goosefoot (Chenopodium album), feathertop chloris (Chloris virgata), purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus), jimson weed (Datura stramonium), goose grass (Eleusine indica), khaki weed (Tagetes minuta), and cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium) were poor hosts. Ditylenchus destructor survived on all weed spec...
Qureshi, M.J.; Haq, A.; Maqbool, U.
Herbicide effectiveness on the most pernicious weeds including cyperus rotundus may be limited because spray droplets are not well retained or because penetration and/or translocation is restricted. As a result, chemical pollute the environment and is hazardous to the human health. Monitoring studies ad undertaken to check that the flate and environmental effects of herbicides under field condition are consistent with prediction. Studies on /sup 14/-glyphosate in Cyperus rotundus using radiotracer methods indicated that out of five formulations studies formulation No.3 was the best from penetration point of view of the chemical whereas formulation No. 4 with the high dose showed effective retention and uniform translocation of the chemical after five days of the treatment. Cuticular penetration and translocation of glyphosate in the formulations with or without surfactants have also been studied in C. rotundus. It is also concluded that synperonic surfactants, diesel oil or glycerol did not influence the translocation of glyphosate within the weed. The translocation mainly occurred down swards and accumulated in the plant parts located below the treated zone. (author)
Tiwalade Adeyemi ADENIYI
Full Text Available In order to evaluate the medicinal value of notorious sedge weeds, three species:Cyperus esculentus, Cyperus rotundus and Mariscus alternifolius were investigated for their phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial properties. Preliminary qualitative phytochemical constituents and in vitro antimicrobial activities were evaluated against four fungi species: Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium chrysogenum and Candida albicans, and three bacteria species: Escherichia coli,Salmonella typhi and Staphylococcus aureus. Two solvents, water and ethanol, were used to produce the extracts and were screened for their antimicrobial activity. Antimicrobial activity evaluation of the extracts against pathogens was carried out at 100 mg/ml concentration by Disc Diffusion method for fungi, Disc Diffusion and Agar Well Diffusion methods for bacteria. Observed activities were related to standard antibiotics, antifungal and antibacterial, which served as controls. Phytochemically, the plant extracts showed the presence of carbohydrates, flavonoids, ketose sugars, steroids, reducing sugars and tannins. The ethanolic extract of C. rotundus exhibited the highest activity against A. niger, E. coli and S. aureus. No extract was active against C. albicans. From these findings, it was concluded that C. rotundus is a potential source of bioactive compounds for new drugs upon isolation and purification for treating infections caused by these pathogens.
Zhi Long Liu
Full Text Available Eight e ssential oil s of Chinese medicinal herbs ( Angelica sinensis , Curuma aeruginosa , Cyperus rotundus , Eucalyptus robusta , Illicium verum , Lindera aggregate , Ocimum basilicum , and Zanthoxylum bungeanum w ere obtained by hydrodistillation and the essential oil of Eucalyptus robusta leaves was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. A total of 22 components of the essential oil of E. robusta were identified. The principal compounds in E . robusta essential oil were α- p inene (28.74% and 1,8- c ineole (27.18%, spathulenol (6.63%, globulol (6.53% and ρ - m enth-1-en-8-ol (5.20%. The 8 essential oil s and two main components, α -pinene and 1, 8-cineole of the essential oil of E. robusta were evaluated repellency against nymphs of the German cockroaches . Strong repellency (Class V was obtained for Cyperus rotundus and Eucalyptus robusta essential oils and α- p inene and 1, 8- c ineole . However, Illicium verum essential oil possessed weak (Class I repellency. At a concentration of 5 ppm, all the 8 essential oils and the two compounds showed repellent activity after one hour exposure. At 1 ppm concentration, essential oil of Cyperus rotundus showed strong repellency and Class IV repellency was obtained for essential oil of E. robusta and the two compounds after one hour exposure. However, essential oils of I . verum and Lindera aggregata showed strong attractiveness to the German cockroaches at a concentration of 1 ppm .
Ramos Pereira, Maria João; Palmeirim, Jorge M
The increase in species diversity from the Poles to the Equator is a major biogeographic pattern, but the mechanisms underlying it remain obscure. Our aim is to contribute to their clarification by describing the latitudinal gradients in species richness and in evolutionary age of species of New World bats, and testing if those patterns may be explained by the niche conservatism hypothesis. Maps of species ranges were used to estimate species richness in a 100 x 100 km grid. Root distances in a molecular phylogeny were used as a proxy for the age of species, and the mean root distance of the species in each cell of the grid was estimated. Generalised additive models were used to relate latitude with both species richness and mean root distance. This was done for each of the three most specious bat families and for all Chiroptera combined. Species richness increases towards the Equator in the whole of the Chiroptera and in the Phyllostomidae and Molossidae, families that radiated in the tropics, but the opposite trend is observed in the Vespertilionidae, which has a presumed temperate origin. In the whole of the Chiroptera, and in the three main families, there were more basal species in the higher latitudes, and more derived species in tropical areas. In general, our results were not consistent with the predictions of niche conservatism. Tropical niche conservatism seems to keep bat clades of tropical origin from colonizing temperate zones, as they lack adaptations to survive cold winters, such as the capacity to hibernate. However, the lower diversity of Vespertilionidae in the Neotropics is better explained by competition with a diverse pre-existing community of bats than by niche conservatism.
Jorge Luis Costa Pinto
O processo de urbanização possui consequências, uma delas refere-se à presença de animais silvestres no ambiente urbano. Dentre outros animais, os morcegos (Ordem Chiroptera) adaptaram-se à vida nas cidades. Assim como em seu habitat natural, nas cidades os morcegos também exercem importantes funções ambientais como a dispersão de sementes, polinização e controle de insetos, no entanto, os morcegos também podem ser transmissores de zoonoses. Investigar as relações entre esses animais e as var...
Full Text Available The number of studies on mammals of Kapıdag Peninsula is insufficent. The present study is based on mammal species collected and observed in Kapıdag Peninsula. Kapıdag Peninsula was visited as a total of 226 days between 2001-2007. Field collections yielded 32 mammal species from 6 orders: Insectivora (5, Chiroptera (9,Lagomorpha (1, Rodentia (7, Carnivora (7, Artiodactyla (3. Of the species recorded in this study are rare for Kapıdag Peninsula: Lynx lynx and Felis silvestris.
Bernardi, Itiberê Piaia
Orientador : Prof. Dr. Fernando de Camargo Passos Tese (doutorado) - Universidade Federal do Paraná, Setor de Ciências Biológicas, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia e Conservação. Defesa: Curitiba, 06/02/2015 Inclui referências Resumo: A notável diversidade de formas, adaptações morfológicas e hábitos alimentares, além de padrões e histórias biogeográficas únicas, fazem ordem Chiroptera um excelente modelo para estudos de biodiversidade. Tanto o gradiente latitudinal da riqueza, ...
Dutto, M; Bertero, M; Petrosillo, N; Pombi, M; Otranto, D
Ebola virus is a pathogen responsible for a severe disease that affects humans and several animal species. To date, the natural reservoir of this virus is not known with certainty, although it is believed that fruit bats (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae) play an important role in maintaining the virus in nature. Although information on viral transmission from animals to humans is not clear, the role of arthropods has come under suspicion. In this article, we review the potential role of arthropods in spreading Ebola virus, acting as mechanical or biological vectors.
Valent\\u00EDn A. Esqueda
Full Text Available Control de malezas en arroz de temporal con clomazone, solo y en mezcla con propanil y 2,4-D. Se establecieron tres experimentos con el objetivo de evaluar el efecto del herbicida clomazone sólo y en mezcla con propanil y 2,4-D en el control de malezas y la toxicidad al arroz cv. Milagro Filipino desarrollado en condiciones de temporal. Los tres experimentos se establecieron en la zona arrocera de Los Naranjos, localizada en el Mpio. de Tres Valles en el estado de Veracruz. Las especies dominantes de malezas fueron: Cyperus iria, Echinochloa colona, Cyperus rotundus, Scleria setuloso- ciliata y Malachra fasciata. El clomazone aplicado en preemergencia, controló eficientemente E. colona en dosis de 0,72 y 0,96 kg i.a./ha, pero tuvo un efecto temporal y limitado sobre S. setuloso-ciliata y no tuvo efecto sobre C. iria y C. rotundus. La mezcla de clomazone + propanil + 2,4-D controló E. colona y C. iria a partir de la dosis de 0,60 + 1,44 + 0,24 kg i.a./ha. Asimismo, tuvo un buen control inicial de C. rotundus, pero su efecto sobre esta especie se perdió entre los 45 y 60 días después de la aplicación y su efecto sobre S. setuloso-ciliata estuvo influenciado por las condiciones de humedad en el terreno, a mayor humedad se tuvo mejor control de esta maleza y viceversa. En todos los casos, los rendimientos de arroz palay obtenidos con los tratamientos en donde se aplicó el clomazone sólo o en mezcla con propanil y 2,4-D, fueron estadísticamente semejantes a los obtenidos en los testigos regionales
Full Text Available The Rheocricotopus (Psilocricotopus chalybeatus species group from China is reviewed. Three new species, R. (P. brochus sp. n., R. (P. rotundus sp. n. and R. (P. serratus sp. n. are described as adult males. R. (P. imperfectus Makarchenko & Makarchenko, 2005, R. (P. robacki (Beck & Beck, 1964 and R. (P. valgus Chaudhuri & Sinharay, 1983 are recorded from China for the first time and annotated. The diagnosis for the species group is emended and a key to adult males of the species group in China is presented.
Santakumari, M.; Rama Das, V.S.
The effect of diuron or atrazine on the rate of photosynthetic 14 CO 2 uptake of two each crop (Pisum Sativum and Pennisetum typhoides) and weed species (Amaranthus viridis and Cyperus rotundus) was studied. The results indicated a marked inhibition of 14 CO 2 fixation of leaves within two hours after diuron or atrazine treatment. However the resistant plants were able to exhibit a recovery of the net photosynthetic rate subsequently while the susceptible plants failed to recover. The results suggested that even with fully open stomata and available NADPH, the normal CO 2 fixation was not restored by herbicide treated leaves. (author)
Cardoso, Irene A; Burukovsky, Rudolf N
The deep sea shrimp genus Nematocarcinus Milne Edwards, 1881 includes 47 species, ten of them have been recorded from the Atlantic Ocean. Herein, material sampled during three scientific projects (REVIZEE Central Fishery project; Campos Basin Deep Sea Environmental Project; Evaluation of Environmental Heterogeneity in the Campos Basin) made in the Southwestern Atlantic, off Brazil, is examined. In addition, material sampled from the South Mid Atlantic Ridge (MAR-ECO Project) was also examined. Four species are recorded for the first time to the southwestern Atlantic Ocean including Mid Atlantic Ridge area: Nematocarcinus faxoni Burukovsky, 2001; N. gracilipes Filhol, 1884; N. rotundus Crosnier & Forest, 1973 and N. tenuipes Spence-Bate, 1888.
Nélida M. Lizaso
Full Text Available Ectoparasitic mites on Brazilian non-poisonous snakes, collected from March 1976 to December 1979, are herein reported. A systematic study of the Ixodorhynchidae, which include exclusively parasites of snakes is given, including all immature forms. Two new genera are described: Ophiogongylus gen.n. with two species: Ophiogongylus rotundus sp.n. and Ophiogongylus breviscutum sp.n. and Chironobius gen.n. with two species: Chironobius alvus sp.n. and Chironobius nordestinus sp.n. Ixobioides brachispinosus sp.n. and the male of Ixobioides fonsecae (Fain are also described. Immature forms, hosts relations and geographical distribution are given for the species.
C. A. L. dos Santos
Full Text Available Com o objetivo de se verificar a ação do butylate, aplicado isoladamente e em mistura com atrazine, no controle de plantas daninhas da cultura do milho, foi instalado um experimento de campo em solo fino areno-argiloso. Foram utilizados os seguintes tratamentos: butylate a 2,80; 3,60 e 4,32 kg/ha (p.p.i.; butylate + atrazine a 3,24 + 0,80; 3,24 + 1,20 e 3,60 + 0,96 kg/ha (p.p.i.; atrazine a 3,00 kg/ha e atrazine + metolachlor a 1,40 + 2,10 kg/ha, ambos aplicados em pré-emergência e empregados como herbicidas padrão para a cultura. As plantas daninhas encontradas foram: tiririca - Cyperus rotundus L., carurú comum - .:maranthus viridis L., capim de colchão - Digitaria sanguinalis (L. Scop. e capim pé-de-galinha Eleusine indica (L. Gaertn. Butylate nas três doses apresentou-se bem contra C. rotundus e E. indica; nas doses de 3,60 e 4,32 kg foram obtidos bons resultados sobre D. sanguinalis. Butylate + atrazine controlou, nas três doses, todas as espécies incidentes, o mesmo ocorrendo com a mistura atrazine + metolachlor. Atrazine foi mais eficiente para A. viridis e E. indica. Nas condições em que foi conduzido o experimento nenhum dos herbicidas foi prejudicial para a cultura.Butylate at 2.80; 3.60 and 4.32 kg/ha and butylate + atrazine at. 3.24 + 0.80; 3.24 + 1.20 and 3.60 + 0.96 kg, were applied in preplant incorporated; atrazine at 3.00 kg and atrazine + metolachlor at 1.40 + 2.10 kg were applied in preemergence on corn. The weeds were represented by Cyperus rotundus L., Amaranthus viridis L., Digitaria sanguinalis (L. Scop. and Eleusine indica (L. Gaertn. Butylate + atrazine, in all rates, atrazine + metolachlor and atrazine gave good control of the weeds in general. Butylate, in the three rates, controlled C. rotundus and E. indica; at 3.60 and 4.32 kg/ha controlled well D. sanguinalis. The herbicides did not cause injuries to the crop.
The study analyzes the vegetation along Lake Abha in Southwestern Saudi Arabia. A total of 42 plant species were recorded. The annuals decrease and the biennials and perennials increase along the moisture gradient form the terraces to the free-water zone. Six vegetation clusters were identified. The most important are clusters which were identified by the presence of the following species: Phragmites australis, Juncus punctorius, Typha domingensis, Cyperus rotundus, Datura innoxia, Cynodon dactylon, Cornulaca monacantha and Potamogeton nododsus. Each of these communities has been analyzed by classification and ordination techniques and its habitat described and discussed. (author)
Liu, Zhi-Xiao; Zhang, You-Xiang; Zhang, Li-Biao
Chinese chiropterologists have made significant improvements into research on bat taxonomy and distribution. Overall, scholars recorded 6 new species of bats, alongside 11 species recorded species in the Chinese Mainland and 4 new bat species of Murina in Taiwan. Chinese chiropterologists intensively cooperated with the international experts on bats, and adopted several new, multidisciplinary methods to carry out their studies. Likewise, in China, an increased awareness of bat conservation has been growing. While publications on Chiroptera are continuing to increase increased in China, the methodology of these studies remains to be further developed in hopes of revealing the new and cryptic bat species. Considering the vast territory of China and the migrational habit of bats, we expect that with more refined methodology, more new species of bats and their distributions may be uncovered in the near future. Concurrently, it is important to reexamine the known species by the new taxonomic methods and fauna analysis through which the distribution and subdivision of bats can be updated. Additionally, an international platform for exchanging information of bats needs to be established to enhance the academic cooperation for bat researches. It is highly possible that China will soon become an important research center on taxonomy, distribution, phylogenetics and diversity evolution of Chiroptera, especially as Chinese researchers continues create new knowledge for bats at the α, β and γ taxonomic levels.
Sakai, Takahiro; Kikkawa, Yoshiaki; Tsuchiya, Kimiyuki; Harada, Masashi; Kanoe, Masamitsu; Yoshiyuki, Mizuko; Yonekawa, Hiromichi
Microchiroptera have diversified into many species whose size and the shapes of the complicated ear and nose have been adapted to their echolocation abilities. Their speciation processes, and intra- and interspecies relationships are still under discussion. Here we report on the geographical variation of Japanese Rhinolophus ferrumequinum and R. cornutus using the complete sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene to clarify the phylogenetic positions of the 2 species as well as that of Rhinolophidae within the Microchiroptera. We have found that sequence divergence values within each of the 2 species are unexpectedly low (0.07%-0.94%). We have also found that there is no local specificity of their mtCytb alleles. On the other hand, the divergence values for Japanese Microchiroptera (12.7%-16.6%) are much higher than those for other mammalian genera. Similarly, the values among five genera of Vespertilionidae were 20.5%-27.3%. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the 2 species of family Rhinolophidae in the suborder Microchiroptera belong to the Megachiroptera cluster in the constructed maximum parsimony tree. These results suggest that the speciation of Rhinolophidae involved its divergence as an independent lineage from other Microchiroptera, and other microbats might be paraphyletic. In addition, the tree also shows that the order Chiroptera is monophylitic, and the closest group to Chiroptera is the ungulates.
Maseko, Busisiwe C; Bourne, James A; Manger, Paul R
Over the past decade much controversy has surrounded the hypothesis that the megachiroptera, or megabats, share unique neural characteristics with the primates. These observations, which include similarities in visual pathways, have suggested that the megabats are more closely related to the primates than to the other group of the Chiropteran order, the microbats, and suggests a diphyletic origin of the Chiroptera. To contribute data relevant to this debate, we used immunohistochemical techniques to reveal the architecture of the neuromodulatory systems of the Egyptian rousette (Rousettus aegypticus), an echolocating megabat. Our findings revealed many similarities in the nuclear parcellation of the cholinergic, putative catecholaminergic and serotonergic systems with that seen in other mammals including the microbat. However, there were 11 discrete nuclei forming part of these systems in the brain of the megabat studied that were not evident in an earlier study of a microbat. The occurrence of these nuclei align the megabat studied more closely with primates than any other mammalian group and clearly distinguishes them from the microbat, which aligns with the insectivores. The neural systems investigated are not related to such Chiropteran specializations as echolocation, flight, vision or olfaction. If neural characteristics are considered strong indicators of phylogenetic relationships, then the data of the current study strongly supports the diphyletic origin of Chiroptera and aligns the megabat most closely with primates in agreement with studies of other neural characters.
Full Text Available This is the first investigation to demonstrate the use of biochemical contents present within Cyperus rotundus, Eleusin indica, Euphorbia hirta, Melastoma malabathricum, Clidemia hirta and Pachyrhizus erosus extracts for the reduction of silver ion to silver nanoparticles (AgNPs form. In addition, the antibacterial capability of the synthesized AgNPs and plant extracts alone against a rare bacterium, Chromobacterium haemolyticum (C. haemolyticum, was examined. Moreover, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICPOES of the synthesized AgNPs were characterized. The smallest AgNPs can be produced when Cyperus rotundus extracts were utilized. In addition, this study has found that the synthesis efficiencies using all plant extracts are in the range of 72% to 91% with the highest percentage achieved when Eleusin indica extract was employed. All synthesized AgNPs have antibacterial capability against all examined bacteria depending on their size and bacteria types. Interestingly, Melastoma malabathricum and Clidemia hirta extracts have demonstrated an antibacterial ability against C. haemolyticum.
Roy, M J
Dome epithelium (DE), the tissue covering lymphoid domes of gut-associated lymphoid tissues, was examined in both adult and neonatal rabbit appendix or sacculus rotundus to determine if dome epithelial cells matured earlier than epithelial cells covering adjacent villi. The localization of well-differentiated epithelial cells in rabbit gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) was accomplished histochemically by use of molecular probes: fluorescein isothiocyanate or horseradish peroxidase conjugates of Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA), a lectin specific for terminal L-fucose molecules on certain glycoconjugates. The villus epithelial cells of newborn and 2-, 5-, or 10-day-old rabbits did not bind UEA, but between the twelfth and fifteenth days of postnatal life, UEA receptors were expressed by well-differentiated villus epithelial cells. In contrast to villus epithelium, DE in appendix and sacculus rotundus of neonatal rabbits expressed UEA receptors two days after birth, a feature that distinguished the DE of neonatal GALT for the next two weeks. In adult rabbits, UEA receptors were associated with dome epithelial cells extending from the mouths of glandular crypts to the upper domes; in contrast to the domes, UEA receptors were only present on well-differentiated epithelial cells at the villus tips. Results suggested that in neonatal rabbits most dome epithelial cells developed UEA receptors shortly after birth, reflecting precocious development of DE as compared to villus epithelium. In adult rabbit dome epithelium UEA receptors appeared on dome epithelial cells as they left the glandular crypts, representing accelerated epithelial maturation.
Lenka, M; Panda, K K; Panda, B B
In situ aquatic and terrestrial plants including a few vegetable and crop plants growing in and around a chloralkali plant at Ganjam, India were analyzed for concentrations of root and shoot mercury. The aquatic plants found to bioconcentrate mercury to different degrees included Marsilea spp., Spirodela polyrhiza, Jussiea repens, Paspalum scrobiculatam, Pistia stratiotes, Eichhornia crassipes, Hygrophila schulli, Monochoria hastata and Bacopa monniera. Among wild terrestrial plants Chloris barbata, Cynodon dactylon, Cyperus rotundus and Croton bonplandianum were found growing on heavily contaminated soil containing mercury as high as 557 mg/kg. Analysis of mercury in root and shoot of these plants in relation to the mercury levels in soil indicated a significant correlation between soil and plant mercury with the exception of C. bonplandianum. Furthermore, the tolerance to mercury toxicity was highest with C. barbata followed by C. dactylon and C. rotundus, in that order. The rice plants analyzed from the surrounding agricultural fields did not show any significant levels of bioconcentrated mercury. Of the different vegetables grown in a contaminated kitchen garden with mercury level at 8.91 mg/kg, the two leafy vegetables, namely cabbage (Brassica oleracea) and amaranthus (Amaranthus oleraceous), were found to bioconcentrate mercury at statistically significant levels. The overall study indicates that the mercury pollution is very much localized to the specific sites in the vicinity of the chloralkali plant.
Full Text Available Coletores solares planos constituídos de caixas de madeira com canaletas de chapa de alumínio, onde se coloca o substrato e se cobre com plástico transparente, foram testados quanto ao controle de Sclerotium rolfsii, Rhizoctonia solani, Verticillium sp., Meloidogyne arenaria e Cyperus rotundus (tiririca. Dependendo da intensidade de radiação solar, é necessário um dia para desinfestação do substrato com S. rolfsii e dois dias para R. solani, Verticillium sp. e M. arenaria.Flat solar collectors were tested for the control of Sclerotium rolfsii, Rhizoctonia solani, VerticiUium sp., Meloidogyne arenaria and Cyperus rotundus (nut sedge. The equipment developed comprises, basically, gutters of aluminum with termic liner of glass wool and transparent plastic cover. The results showed that, depending upon the solar radiation, one day is required for the disinfestations of substrate infested with S. rolfsii and nut sedge, and two days for R. solani, Verticillium sp. and M. arenaria.
Ebbesson, S O
Fibers undergoing Wallerian degeneration following tectal lesions were demonstrated with the Nauta and Fink-Heimer methods and traced to their termination. Four of the five distinct fiber paths originating in the optic tectum appear related to vision, while one is related to the mesencephalic nucleus of the trigeminus. The latter component of the tectal efferents distributes fibers to 1) the main sensory nucleus of the trigeminus, 2) the motor nucleus of the trigeminus, 3) the nucleus of tractus solitarius, and 4) the intermediate gray of the cervical spinal cord. The principal ascending bundle projects to the nucleus rotundus, three components of the ventral geniculate nucleus and the nucleus ventromedialis anterior ipsilaterally, before it crosses in the supraoptic commissure and terminates in the contralateral nucleus rotundus, ventral geniculate nucleus and a hitherto unnamed region dorsal to the nucleus of the posterior accessory optic tract. Fibers leaving the tectum dorso-medially terminate in the posterodorsal nucleus ipsilaterally and the stratum griseum periventriculare of the contralateral tectum. The descending fiber paths terminate in medial reticular cell groups and the rostral spinal cord contralaterally and in the torus and the lateral reticular regions ipsilaterally. The ipsilateral fascicle also issues fibers to the magnocellular nucleus isthmi.
AGUSTINA YOHANA SETYARINI AROBAYA
Full Text Available The general objective of the study was to provide current information on grassland communities as deer habitat and its future development plan for a sustainable forage management in upland Kebar, Papua. Quantitative estimation of forage production was carried out by measuring a biomass harvest in fresh weight bases, while occasional observations on ranging deer were done within habitat range with the aid of 7x50 binoculars verified by actual visitation of grazed area. The study indicated that Kebar was the only grazing area of deer varies in low layer vegetation composition that comprised of eleven grass species and five legume species. Imperata cylindrica, Paspalum conjugatum, Themeda arguens, Melinis minutiflora and Cyperus rotundus were identified as food plant of deer in Kebar. Among these species T. arguens, M. minutiflora, C. rotundus and I. cylindrica were the most preferred species consumed by deer. The biomass harvest (species productivity was 30.36 kg/ha fresh weight, while deer food productivity in the grassland was slightly lower (26.70 kg/ha than total productivity of the grassland. The major drainage area is Kasi River, but two other rivers across this valley (Api River, Apriri River are also supply water to the swampy area.
Qumsiyeh, M B; Owen, R D; Chesser, R K
Data for nondifferentially stained chromosomes from 10 species of Rhinolophus (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae) suggest a conserved chromosomal evolution. G-banded chromosomes for three well differentiated species (Rhinolophus hipposideros, Rhinolophus blasii, and Rhinolophus acuminatus) corroborate a low level of gross chromosomal rearrangements. Additionally, a comparison between G-banded chromosomes of Rhinolophus (Rhinolophidae) and Hipposideros (Hipposideridae) suggests extreme conservatism in chromosomal arms between these two distantly related groups. On the other hand, we report extensive genic divergence as assayed by starch gel electrophoresis among these 10 species, and between Rhinolophus and two hipposiderid genera (Hipposideros and Aselliscus). The present chromosomal data are not sufficient for phylogenetic analysis. Phylogenies based on electrophoretic data are in many aspects discordant with those based on the classical morphological criteria. Different (and as yet not clearly understood) evolutionary forces affecting chromosomal, morphologic, and electrophoretic variation may be the reason for the apparent lack of concordance in these independent data sets.
Hubálek, Z; Rosický, B; Otcenásek, M
A total of 308 fungi was isolated from interior organs (lungs, spleen, liver) of 529 small mammals belonging to 21 species, 7 families and 3 orders (Insectivora, Chiroptera, Rodentia), some of these being potentially pathogenic to vertebrates (e.g. Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, Geotrichum candidum, Mucor pusillus, Rhizopus arrhizus). In one vole (Microtus arvalis) captured in South Moravia, adiaspiromycosis (Emmonsia crescens) was demonstrated. Comparison of mycoflora of hair and that of interior organs of wild small mammals revealed that out of the total number of isolates the following fungi were represented in a higher proportion from visceral organs than from the hair: Aspergillus (A. amstelodami, A. flavus, A. repens), Aureobasidium (A. pullulans), Candida, Cladosporium (C. herbarum), Cryptococcus, Fusarium, Gliocladium (G. deliquescens), Helminthosporium, Kloeckera, Mucor (M. fragilis, M. hiemalis, M. pusillus), Paecilomyces marquandii, Penicillium (P. purpurogenum), Phoma, Rhizopus arrhizus, Scopulariopsis (S. candida, S. koningii) and Torulopsis.
Widga, Chris; Colburn, Mona
Bat guano deposits are common in the Mammoth Cave system (Kentucky, USA). Paleontological remains associated with these deposits are important records of local landscape changes. Recent excavations in the cave suggest that vertebrate remains in most of these deposits are dominated by Chiroptera. Although no extinct fauna were identified, the presence of a large roost of Tadarida brasiliensis in the Chief City section is beyond the northern extent of its current range suggesting that this deposit dates to an undetermined interglacial period. Stable isotope analyses of Tadarida-associated guano indicate a C3 prey signature characteristic of forested habitat. This was unexpected since this species is typically associated with open environments. Further ecomorphological analysis of wing shape trends in interglacial, Holocene, and historic-aged assemblages indicate that interglacial faunas are dominated by fast-flying, open-space taxa (T. brasiliensis) while late Holocene and Historic assemblages contain more taxa that utilized closed forest or forest gaps.
Daniel Fontana Ferreira Cardia
Full Text Available Pterothominx pulchra (Freitas, 1934 are little known gastric nematodes of Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Chiroptera: Molossidae. Information about the occurrence and host range of these parasites in Neotropical region is still scanty, and the only two morphological descriptions available in the literature are divergent about the presence or absence of a spiny spicular sheath in males, which may lead to incorrect taxonomical positioning, since this feature represents the main difference between the genera Pterothominx and Aonchotheca. Based on the absence of this morphological feature in specimens of this nematode obtained from N. laticaudatus and Nyctinomops macrotis bats captured in two municipalities in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, the present study reclassifies the aforementioned species in the genus Aonchotheca and allocates it to the subgenus Aonchotheca. Additional morphometric data and new host and locality records are also provided.
Rode-Margono, Johanna E; Nekaris, K Anne-Isola
Venom delivery systems (VDS) are common in the animal kingdom, but rare amongst mammals. New definitions of venom allow us to reconsider its diversity amongst mammals by reviewing the VDS of Chiroptera, Eulipotyphla, Monotremata, and Primates. All orders use modified anterior dentition as the venom delivery apparatus, except Monotremata, which possesses a crural system. The venom gland in most taxa is a modified submaxillary salivary gland. In Primates, the saliva is activated when combined with brachial gland exudate. In Monotremata, the crural spur contains the venom duct. Venom functions include feeding, intraspecific competition, anti-predator defense and parasite defense. Including mammals in discussion of venom evolution could prove vital in our understanding protein functioning in mammals and provide a new avenue for biomedical and therapeutic applications and drug discovery.
Eduardo Espinoza Medinilla
Full Text Available Con el objeto de conocer la riqueza de mamíferos de la Reserva de la Biosfera La Sepultura, fue elaborado un listado de especies para esta área natural protegida. Através de transectos lineales, donde se realizaron observaciones directas, búsqueda de rastros y captura de ejemplares, durante el periodo de mayo de 1994 a diciembre de 1999, además de la revisión de bases de datos nacionales y extranjeras; con registros de esta localidad, se pudo recolectar 848 especimenes (248 pieles y cráneos, 32 huellas en molde de yeso y nueve fragmentos óseos. Se obtuvo un listado compuesto de 98 especies, 70 géneros, 29 familias y 10 órdenes. El 86.7 % de estas especies pertenecen a los órdenes Chiroptera, Rodentia y Carnivora. Por lo menos 21 especies están clasificadas dentro de alguna categoría de conservación. Los datos obtenidos de este manuscrito son una base sólida y actualizada y pueden ser usados como parte de los planes de manejo y conservación para esta reservaA species list was elaborated for La Sepultura Biosphere Reserve, Chiapas, Mexico. Line transects and direct observations were made, national and international databases were consulted, and animal traces were registered. Animals were captured during the period May 1994 - December 1999. A total of 848 specimen (248 furs and skulls, 32 tracks in plaster, and 9 osseous fragments were collected. A total of 98 species, 70 genera, 29 families, and 10 orders compose the species list. Of these species 87.7% belong to the orders Chiroptera, Rodentia and Carnivora and 21 species were classified according to some kind of legal protection. These data represent a solid and actualized database useful for designing management and conservation plans for this Biosphere Reserve
Chen, Meng-Yun; Liang, Dan; Zhang, Peng
The interordinal relationships of Laurasiatherian mammals are currently one of the most controversial questions in mammalian phylogenetics. Previous studies mainly relied on coding sequences (CDS) and seldom used noncoding sequences. Here, by data mining public genome data, we compiled an intron data set of 3,638 genes (all introns from a protein-coding gene are considered as a gene) (19,055,073 bp) and a CDS data set of 10,259 genes (20,994,285 bp), covering all major lineages of Laurasiatheria (except Pholidota). We found that the intron data contained stronger and more congruent phylogenetic signals than the CDS data. In agreement with this observation, concatenation and species-tree analyses of the intron data set yielded well-resolved and identical phylogenies, whereas the CDS data set produced weakly supported and incongruent results. Further analyses showed that the phylogeny inferred from the intron data is highly robust to data subsampling and change in outgroup, but the CDS data produced unstable results under the same conditions. Interestingly, gene tree statistical results showed that the most frequently observed gene tree topologies for the CDS and intron data are identical, suggesting that the major phylogenetic signal within the CDS data is actually congruent with that within the intron data. Our final result of Laurasiatheria phylogeny is (Eulipotyphla,((Chiroptera, Perissodactyla),(Carnivora, Cetartiodactyla))), favoring a close relationship between Chiroptera and Perissodactyla. Our study 1) provides a well-supported phylogenetic framework for Laurasiatheria, representing a step towards ending the long-standing "hard" polytomy and 2) argues that intron within genome data is a promising data resource for resolving rapid radiation events across the tree of life. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.
Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho estudar a fitossociologia de comunidades de plantas daninhas de canaviais colhidos no sistema mecanizado, sem queima prévia da palha, e a similaridade entre talhões quanto à composição de espécies. Os levantamentos foram realizados em 28 talhões comerciais na região de Ribeirão Preto-SP. Em cada talhão foram demarcadas áreas de coleta e avaliação, na proporção de duas por hectare, mantidas sem controle, e que serviram de local para as amostragens de plantas daninhas. As amostragens foram feitas com quadrados vazados (0,5 x 0,5 m, lançados aleatoriamente duas vezes em cada uma das áreas. Essas amostragens foram realizadas determinando-se a densidade e a biomassa específica aos 120 dias após o corte da cana. Cyperus rotundus foi a principal espécie, destacando-se quanto aos valores de importância relativa (IR. As plantas dicotiledôneas anuais de propagação por sementes também se destacaram, dentre as quais diversas espécies das famílias Euphorbiaceae e Convolvulaceae. Em contrapartida, as gramíneas tradicionais de áreas de cana colhida queimada tiveram pouco destaque. O índice de Shannon (H de diversidade de espécies das comunidades variou de 0 a 1,61, e o índice de similaridade entre os talhões (S foi muito variável. A maioria das espécies ou grupo de espécies apresentou padrão agregado (V/m > 1,00, com valores relativamente altos de índice de agregação (V/m. Entretanto, na maioria dos casos, Cyperus rotundus e as Convolvulaceas apresentaram os maiores índices.A study was carried out in northeastern São Paulo, Brazil to evaluate the similarity between species composition and phytosociological index in weed communities of no-burn sugar cane crop harvest at different times and number of cut-cycles. Assessments were carried out in twenty-eight sugar cane plots in the Ribeirao Preto-SP region. In each plot, collection and evaluation areas were established, two per hectare, kept
Pardo Cardona Víctor Manuel
Full Text Available Doce especies de Uredinales fueron colectados en las islas de San Andrés y Providencia durante una visita de colección efectuada en el mes de Octubre de 2002. Los hospederos fueron determinados y herborizados y a partir de ellos se elaboraron micropreparados que contenían los soros con las esporas de los hongos, los cuales fueron observados y estudiados al microscopio. Puccinia cyperi-tagetiformis Kem es nuevo registro para Colombia; se registró a Brachiaria distachya (L Stapf como nuevo hospedante de Uromyces clignyi Patouillard & Hariot y a Cyperus rotundus L como nuevo hospedante para P. cyperi-tagetiformis. Las demos especies colectados han sido registradas en el neotrópico sobre hospedantes previamente conocidos.
R. A. Arévalo
6 Aminoácidos no proteicos, 7 Lactonas no saturadas, 8 ácidos orgánicos, alcoholes alifáticos, aldehídos y cetonas, 9 ácidos grasos, naftoquinonas, antraquinonas, y complejos de quinonas, 10 Coumarina. Los mecanismos de acción en la mayoría de los aleloquímicos son aún desconocidos. Las plantas arvenses, como Cypro-Cyperus rotundus L.; Rooex-Rottboellia exaltata L. f. causan alelopatía en caña de azúcar. Las plantas de Cucsa- Cucumis sativus L. son afectadas por efectos alelopáticos de plantas de Rooex. Las coberturas utilizadas en la agricultura sostenible tienen propiedades alelopáticas. Las respuestas de las plantas cultivadas a los aleloquímicos pueden ser susceptibles, tolerantes o resistentes. La alelopatía tiene gran potencial para el manejo de plagas en la agricultura.
Wang, Xiao-feng; Yuan, Xing-zhong; Liu, Hong; Zhang, Lei; Yu, Jian-jun; Yue, Jun-sheng
The Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR), which is the largest water conservancy project ever built in tne world, produced a drawdown area of about 348.93 km2 because of water level control. The biological geochemical cycle of the soil in the drawdown zone has been changed as the result of long-term winter flooding and summer drought and vegetation covering. The loss of soil nitrogen in the drawdown zone poses a threat to the water environmental in TGR. Pengxi river, is an important anabranch, which has the largest drawdown area has been selected in the present study. The four typical vegetation, contained Cynodon dactylon, Cyperus rotundus, Anthium sibiricum and Zea mays L. as the control, were studied to measure nutrient characteristics and nitrogen forms of rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils in three distribution areas with different soil types (paddy soil, purple soil and fluvo-aquic soils). The variables measured included organic matter (OM), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), total potassium (TK), hydrolysis N, available P and available K, pH, ion-exchangeable N (IEE-N), weak acid extractable N (CF-N) , iron-manganese oxides N (IMOF-N), organic matter sulfide N (OSF-N), added up four N forms for total transferable N (TF-N) and TN minus TF-N for non-transferable N (NTF-N). The results showed: (1) pH of rhizosphere soil was generally lower than that of non-rhizosphere soil under different vegetation in different type soils because the possible organic acid and H+ released form plant roots and cation absorption differences, and the OM, TP, TN and hydrolysis N of rhizosphere soil were generally higher than those of non-rhizosphere soil, and that the enrichment ratio (ER) of all the four nutrient indicators showed Cyperus rotundus > Cynodon dactylon > Zea mays L. > Anthium sibiricum. Available P showed enrichment in the rhizosphere of three natural vegetations but lose under corn, and available K, TK showed different ER in different conditions. (2) IEF-N CF
Full Text Available Avaliou-se a eficácia da combinação dos herbicidas fomesafen, fluazifop-p-butil e bentazon no manejo integrado de plantas daninhas do feijoeiro (plantio direto e convencional, cultivados em áreas anteriormente com milho para grão e silagem. Foi avaliado também o resíduo do fomesafen no solo aos 125 dias após a aplicação (DAA. No plantio convencional, Cyperus rotundus foi a espécie dominante, enquanto no plantio direto a infestação dessa espécie foi muito baixa. Nenhuma das combinações de herbicidas foi eficiente no controle de C. rotundus. Com exceção de fluazifop-p-butil + bentazon (125 + 480 g ha-1, todas as combinações foram eficientes no controle das espécies daninhas dicotiledôneas. Não houve efeito dos tratamentos de herbicidas na produtividade do feijoeiro. O fomesafen, aplicado no plantio direto, causou toxicidade no feijão a partir da dose de 100 g ha-1, sobretudo no milho para silagem. No plantio convencional, sintomas mais leves somente foram observados na dose de 200 g ha-1. Houve resíduo de fomesafen no solo apenas na área de plantio direto onde não havia palhada sobre a superfície do solo, ou seja, na área anteriormente cultivada com milho para silagem. É possível reduzir doses do fomesafen quando misturado ao bentazon sem afetar a produtividade do feijoeiro. Em áreas de feijão cultivado após colheita do milho para silagem é importante o uso de doses pequenas do fomesafen, para evitar toxicidade a culturas sensíveis subseqüentes.This work aimed to evaluate the efficacy of combining the herbicides fomesafen, fluazifop-p-butyl and bentazon for integrated weed management in bean culture (no-tillage and conventional tillage, in areas previously cultivated with maize for grain and silage. Fomesafen residue in the soil was also evaluated at 125 days after application (DAA. In the conventional tillage, Cyperus rotundus was the dominant species, while under no-tillage, infestation of this species was
Mohamad, R.B.; Dzolkhifli Omar
The influence of the addition of palm oil to the formulation on the efficacy of glyphosate for the control of Cyperus rotundus was evaluated in the laboratory, glass-house and field. Triton X-100 failed to maintain a stable emulsion of palm oil in the formulation 10 minutes after mixing. In glass-house experiments adding mineral oil and palm oil to the glyphosate spray mixture did not increase the herbicidal efficacy. In general, glyphosate was more effective when sprayed at the volume application rate of 100 L/ha than at 400 L/ha. In contrast to the glass-house studies, in the field trial the addition of palm oil increased the efficacy of glyphosate. (author)
Tan, Qing-long; Xiong, Tian-qin; Liao, Jia-yi; Yang, Tao; Zhao, Yu-min; Lin, Xi; Zhang, Cui-xian
To analyze the chemical components of volatile components from Jia Ga Song Tang. The volatile oils were extracted by water steam distillation. The chemical components of essential oil were analyzed by GC-MS and quantitatively determined by a normalization method. 103 components were separated and 87 components were identified in the volatile oil of Zingiberis Rhizoma. 58 components were separated and 38 components were identified in the volatile oil of Myristicae Semen. 49 components were separated and 38 components were identified in the volatile oil of Amomi Rotundus Fructus. 89 components were separated and 63 components were identified in the volatile oil of Jia Ga Song Tang. Eucalyptol, β-phellandrene and other terpenes were the main compounds in the volatile oil of Jia Ga Song Tang. Changes in the kinds and content of volatile components can provide evidences for scientific and rational compatibility for Jia Ga Song Tang.
Full Text Available Leaf spot disease of oil palm caused by Curvularia sp. is the major disease in nursery. Implementation of best nursery practices is the key to prevent it. Generally, fungicides are used only if epidemic of leaf spot diseases occur in the field. The objectives of this research were to determine causal agent of leaf spot disease of oil palm and the potential alternative weed host around the nursery, to select suitable fungicides, and to study the effect of fungicides rotation to disease incidence. The results showed that the causal agent of leaf spot disease of oil palm was Curvularia lunata. The fungus was also found on grasses, Cyperus rotundus and Imperata cylindrica. Difeconazol, copper oxide, and propineb suppressed leaf spot disease in nursery. Application of fungicide by rotation between difeconazol and copper oxide with frequency every 10 days suppressed the development of leaf spot disease of oil palm in the nursery.
De Waele, D; Jordaan, E M; Basson, S
The host suitability to Ditylenchus destructor of seven common weed species in peanut (Arachis hypogaea) fields in South Africa was determined. Based on the number of nematodes per root unit, white goosefoot (Chenopodium album), feathertop chloris (Chloris virgata), purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus), jimson weed (Datura stramonium), goose grass (Eleusine indica), khaki weed (Tagetes minuta), and cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium) were poor hosts. Ditylenchus destructor survived on all weed species; population densities increased in peanut hulls and caused severe damage to seeds of peanut grown after weeds. Roots of purple nutsedge left in the soil suppressed populations of D. destructor and root and pod development in peanut grown after the weed. However, nematode populations in peanut hulls and seeds were not suppressed. Some weed species, especially purple nutsedge which is common in peanut fields, can be used to indicate the presence of D. destructor in the absence of peanut.
Varón de Agudelo Francia
Full Text Available Se dividió la parte plana del Valle del Cauca en tres zonas (norte, centro y sur, habiéndose visitado 33 fincas. En la zona norte las malezas con mayor porcentaje de frecuencia y distribución en los cultivos de soya fueron Digitaria horizontalis, Echinochloa colonum y Leptochloa filiformis; en la zona centro Ipomoea hirta, Amaranthus dubius y Echinochloa colonum y en la zona sur predominaron Ipomoea hirta, Portulaca oleracea Cyperus rotundus. Los análisis de muestras de suelo y raíces indicaron que H. glycines se encuentra distribuido en todo el Valle del Cauca, presentando la zona sur (Candelaria, Palmira y Puerto Tejada las mayores poblaciones. Entre las especies evaluadas (malezas, cultivos, leguminosas forrajeras y silvestres, solamente Glycine max y Phaseolus vulgaris se consideraron como susceptibles a H. glycines raza 3. y P. angularis y P. multiflora permitieron muy poca infección y multiplicación del nemátodo.A nematode recognition of Heterodera glycines was focused on crops of soybean. Valle del Cauca was divided in three zones (northen, central and southern and 33 farms were visited. The results of the analysis on samples of soils and roots showe that Heterodera glycines is scattered throughout Valle del Cauca, being the southern zone (Palmira, Candelaria and Puerto Tejada the one having the highest standards in nematode population. Weeds showing a greater frequency percentage were : Digitaria horizontalis, Echinochloa colonum and Leptochloa filiformis, in the northen zone; Ipomoea hirta, Amaranthus dubius and Echinochloa colonum, in the central zone, and Ipomoea hirta, Portulaca oleracea and Cyperus rotundus, in the southern zone , From among the whole species evaluated (weeds, crops, leguminous a n d fodder plants, Glycine max and Phaseolus vulgaris were considered to be susceptible to H. Glycines race 3. Phaseolus angularis y P. multiflora let low population levels.
Husni Thamrin Sebayang
Full Text Available The growth and yield of soybeans can decrease due to competition from weeds. Various efforts have been made to control the growth of weeds such as land preparation and weeding periods. An experiment to study the effect of soil tillage systems and weeding time on the growth of weeds and soybean crop yield (Glycine max (L. Merril has been done in Wringinsongo Village, Tumpang Sub-District, Malang Regency from February to May 2017. The split-plot design with three replicates was used with the soil tillage system as the main plot consisting of three levels, T0: no tillage, T1: minimum tillage, and T2: conventional tillage, and weeding time as the sub plot consisting of 4 levels, P0: no weeding, P1: weeding 1 time, P2: weeding two times and P3: weeding three times. The results showed that the dominant weed species before treatment were Amaranthus spinosus (Spiny amaranth, Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass, Cyperus rotundus (Purple nutsedge, Ageratum conyzoides (Billygoat weed, and Portulaca oleracea (Common purslane. After treatment, the dominant weed species were Cyperus rotundus (Purple nutsedge, Amaranthus spinosus (Spiny amaranth, Ageratum conyzoides (Billygoat weed, Physalis peruviana (Cape gooseberry, and Eclipta alba (False daisy. There was no significant difference of the dry weight of weeds in conventional tillage followed by weeding 3 times at 15, 30 and 45 days after planting, and minimum tillage and no tillage. For the yield of soybeans, conventional tillage followed by weeding 3 times at 15, 30 and 45 days after planting were not significant with that of minimum tillage. The yield of soybeans was lower than that of with no tillage and no weeding.
Full Text Available Como resultado de inspeções feitas à ilha de Marajó o autor assinala: 1º O mal de cadeiras continua existindo na ilha de Marajó sob a forma enzoótica, ao contrário do que pensavam os criadores, julgando-o extinto. As doenças designadas por estes como "barriga inchada" e "mormo seco", responsaveis pela grande mortalidade dos equinos, foram identificadas pelo autor como tal de cadeiras. 2º O autor considera indispensável para a pesquisa do trypanosoma o processo de inoculação em animais de laboratório, tendo utilizado para esse fim camondongos e ratos brancos. 3º Os surtos epizoóticos anuais coincidem com a época das chuvas, ocasião em que surgem os insetos hematófagos, o que faz pensar no papel desses últimos como transmissores. 4º Os cavalos podem atravessar o ano com trypanosomas no sangue e em estado de saude aparente, constituindo assim depositários do mal de cadeiras. 5º O extermínio da capivara, em consequência do seu aproveitamento econômico não modificou o carater endêmico da doença na ilha de Marajó. 6º O autor observou que os trypanosomas no tubo digestivo de Stomoxys e Tabanideos, ao cabo de 8 horas, apresentavam com movimentos diminuidos e em formas arrendondadas, não conseguindo inoculações positivas com esse material. 7º A saliva de um morcego do gênero Desmodus, que se infectou no laboratório, alimentando-se em animal doente, colhida de modo a evitar lesões da mucosa e consequente contaminação pelos trypanosomas do sangue circulante, mostrou-se incapaz de infectar, por inoculação, animais sensiveis. Este mesmo morcego não transmitiu a doença a um cão, o qual sugou durante 80 dias. Recentemente (1941 empregando um exemplar do gênero Desmodus, também infectado experimentalmente por alimentação em animal de laboratório, conseguimos transmitir o Trypanosoma equinum a uma cobaia normal. Este assunto será ventilado posteriormente.
Leonardo Santos Avilla
Full Text Available This study proposes to reconstruct the paleoenvironment from Quaternary sites of the caves in the sertão baiano and Lagoa Santa region during the Pleistocene. The paleofauna of bats from these sites were compared to the extant fauna of 25 localities, representing most important Neotropical biome. This study was possible because all bat fossil species from both sites were elements of the extant Neotropical fauna, excepting Desmodus draculae. Because bats are considered goodenvironmental definers, the association of extant and fossil fauna permits the recognition of similar environments. The similarity between faunas was analyzed by Jaccard index with a posterior grouping analysis by UPGMA. The paleofauna of Lagoa Santa matched to Caatinga fauna, suggesting a dry and open environment adjacent to the Lagoa Santa cavesduring the Pleistocene. The paleofauna of sertão baiano caves matched to neither of the analyzed faunas. Most authorssuggest that fossil record of the sertão baiano caves represents a faunal mixture. The dissimilarity between the paleofaunaof bats from the sertão baiano caves and the other analyzed faunas resulted of this study is in agreement to the argumentof a faunal mixture represented by the former.
Complementarity and efficiency of bat capture methods in a lowland tropical dry forest of Yucatán, Mexico Complementariedad y eficiencia de métodos de captura de murciélagos en una selva baja caducifolia de Yucatán, México
Juan M. Pech-Canche
Full Text Available The combined use of different methods for surveying bat assemblages has increased over the last few decades. The objective of this study was to assess the efficiency of bat inventories by comparing assemblages parameters (species richness, abundance and composition using the 3 most conventional capture methods (ground-level and sub-canopy mist nets and harp traps, in a lowland tropical dry forest in Yucatán, Mexico. In ground mist nets, only phyllostomid species were recorded, principally frugivorous and nectarivorous species, while in harp traps the majority were insectivorous species from other families. Our results indicate that for the order Chiroptera the most efficient combination of capture methods is the simultaneous use of ground mist nets and harp traps. However, an inventory of Phyllostomidae is reliably achieved with only ground mist nets. Also, a combination of ground and sub-canopy mist nets does not provide an efficient sampling strategy.El uso combinado de diferentes métodos de muestreo de ensambles de murciélagos se ha incrementado en las últimas décadas. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la eficiencia de los inventarios de murciélagos comparando los parámetros del ensamble (riqueza de especies, abundancia y composición usando los 3 métodos de captura convencionales (redes de niebla a nivel de sotobosque y sub-dosel, y trampas arpa, en una selva baja caducifolia de Yucatán, México. En las redes de sotobosque se registraron solamente especies de filostómidos, principalmente especies frugívoras y nectarívoras; mientras que en las trampas arpa, la mayoría fueron especies insectívoras de otras familias. Nuestros resultados indican que para el orden Chiroptera la combinación más eficiente de métodos de captura es el uso simultáneo de redes de sotobosque y trampas arpa. Sin embargo, se alcanza un inventario confiable de filostómidos sólo con las redes de sotobosque. Además, una combinación de redes de
Frasier, Charles C
The Mass, Metabolism and Length Explanation (MMLE) was advanced in 1984 to explain the relationship between metabolic rate and body mass for birds and mammals. This paper reports on a modernized version of MMLE. MMLE deterministically computes the absolute value of Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) and body mass for individual animals. MMLE is thus distinct from other examinations of these topics that use species-averaged data to estimate the parameters in a statistically best fit power law relationship such as BMR = a(bodymass) (b) . Beginning with the proposition that BMR is proportional to the number of mitochondria in an animal, two primary equations are derived that compute BMR and body mass as functions of an individual animal's characteristic length and sturdiness factor. The characteristic length is a measureable skeletal length associated with an animal's means of propulsion. The sturdiness factor expresses how sturdy or gracile an animal is. Eight other parameters occur in the equations that vary little among animals in the same phylogenetic group. The present paper modernizes MMLE by explicitly treating Froude and Strouhal dynamic similarity of mammals' skeletal musculature, revising the treatment of BMR and using new data to estimate numerical values for the parameters that occur in the equations. A mass and length data set with 575 entries from the orders Rodentia, Chiroptera, Artiodactyla, Carnivora, Perissodactyla and Proboscidea is used. A BMR and mass data set with 436 entries from the orders Rodentia, Chiroptera, Artiodactyla and Carnivora is also used. With the estimated parameter values MMLE can calculate characteristic length and sturdiness factor values so that every BMR and mass datum from the BMR and mass data set can be computed exactly. Furthermore MMLE can calculate characteristic length and sturdiness factor values so that every body mass and length datum from the mass and length data set can be computed exactly. Whether or not MMLE can
Charles C. Frasier
Full Text Available The Mass, Metabolism and Length Explanation (MMLE was advanced in 1984 to explain the relationship between metabolic rate and body mass for birds and mammals. This paper reports on a modernized version of MMLE. MMLE deterministically computes the absolute value of Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR and body mass for individual animals. MMLE is thus distinct from other examinations of these topics that use species-averaged data to estimate the parameters in a statistically best fit power law relationship such as BMR = a(bodymassb. Beginning with the proposition that BMR is proportional to the number of mitochondria in an animal, two primary equations are derived that compute BMR and body mass as functions of an individual animal’s characteristic length and sturdiness factor. The characteristic length is a measureable skeletal length associated with an animal’s means of propulsion. The sturdiness factor expresses how sturdy or gracile an animal is. Eight other parameters occur in the equations that vary little among animals in the same phylogenetic group. The present paper modernizes MMLE by explicitly treating Froude and Strouhal dynamic similarity of mammals’ skeletal musculature, revising the treatment of BMR and using new data to estimate numerical values for the parameters that occur in the equations. A mass and length data set with 575 entries from the orders Rodentia, Chiroptera, Artiodactyla, Carnivora, Perissodactyla and Proboscidea is used. A BMR and mass data set with 436 entries from the orders Rodentia, Chiroptera, Artiodactyla and Carnivora is also used. With the estimated parameter values MMLE can calculate characteristic length and sturdiness factor values so that every BMR and mass datum from the BMR and mass data set can be computed exactly. Furthermore MMLE can calculate characteristic length and sturdiness factor values so that every body mass and length datum from the mass and length data set can be computed exactly. Whether or
Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de estudar os efeitos de períodos de convivência (0, 14, 28, 42, 56, 70, 84 e 98 dias após o transplantio de uma comunidade de plantas daninhas sobre a produtividade de quatro cultivares de cebola (Mercedes, Granex 33, Superex e Serrana, em sistema de transplantio de mudas. O experimento foi instalado em Jaboticabal-SP, de abril a outubro de 2000, utilizando delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, quatro repetições, em esquema fatorial 4 x 8. As principais populações de plantas daninhas no final dos períodos de convivência foram de Coronopus didymus, Amaranthus hybridus e Cyperus rotundus. Os cultivares Mercedes (2,90 kgm-2 e Granex 33 (2,64 kgm-2 foram os mais produtivos, independentemente da interferência das plantas daninhas. A convivência com as plantas daninhas durante os primeiros 98 dias reduziu a produtividade da cebola em 95% e o peso médio de bulbos em 91%. O período anterior à interferência (PAI foi de 42 dias, não havendo diferença entre os cultivares de cebola.This research was carried out to evaluate the effects of weed coexistence periods (0, 14, 28, 42, 56, 70, 84 and 98 days after transplanting on the productivity of four onion cultivars (Mercedez, Granex 33, Superex and Serrana. The experiment was installed in Jaboticabal - SP - Brazil, from April to October 2000, arranged in a randomized complete block design, with four replications, in a factorial design 4 x 8. The main weed populations at the end of the coexistence periods were Coronopus didymus, Amaranthus hybridus and Cyperus rotundus. The cultivars Mercedez (2.90 kg m-2 and Granex-33 (2.64 kg m-2 were the most productive, under the conditions of weed interference.Weed interference during the first 98 days reduced production weight around 95% and the average weight of bulbs was reduced by 91%. For all the cultivars, weed coexistence the during the first 42 days after transplanting did not reduce the total
Khan, H.; Marwat, K. B.; Hassan, M. G.; Khan, M. A.; Hashim, S. [The University of Agriculture, Peshawar (Pakistan). Dept. of Weed Sciences
Parthenium hysterophorus L. is a weed of national significance in Pakistan. Although infesting many districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, but more affected districts are Swabi, Mardan, Charsadda and Peshawar where it is highly invasive and invaded most of the open spaces roadsides, etc and threatening the local biodiversity. Field survey of four districts of the Peshawar valley, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa viz. Swabi, Mardan, Charsadda and Peshawar were carried out during May-June, 2009-2010 to study the distribution and invasion of parthenium weed. Twenty five locations were sampled from each district. Data regarding absolute and relative density, frequency, relative frequency, importance valve %, average importance value, constancy classes and importance value constancy index of parthenium weed and other weeds of the area were recorded by using (1x1 m2) quadrate. The mean data across the surveyed districts reveals that the flora is predominated by parthenium weed with the highest relative density of 42.68% among all species. It was followed by Cannabis sativa, Cynodon dactylon and Cyperus rotundus, with relative densities of 15.17, 13.49 and 5.96, respectively. At different locations, it was observed that parthenium weed is competing with Cannabis sativa which is not so aggressive and problematic weed. While in some areas parthenium weed has already replaced Cannabis sativa. Mean distribution data showed that parthenium weed infestation was abundant and almost not uniform in all districts, however highest relative frequency of 26.14% was recorded for parthenium weed followed by Cannabis sativa, Cynodon dactylon and Cyperus rotundus having relative frequency of 15.17, 13.49 and 9.14, respectively. Rumex crispus and Xanthium strumarium infatuated the smallest relative frequency at most of the locations studied thereby indicating them as insignificant among the weed flora of the study area. Importance value data revealed that P. hysterophorus, Cannabis sativa, Cynodon
Full Text Available Objetivou-se comparar a eficácia de três dosagens do herbicida glyphosate para a dessecação de Brachiaria decumbens, B. brizantha cv. Marandu e vegetação espontânea, visando a adoção do sistema plantio direto. Utilizou-se delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, num esquema fatorial 3 x 3, com quatro repetições. Testaram-se três tipos de cobertura vegetal e três dosagens de glyphosate (1,44, 2,16 e 2,88 kg ha-1. Aos 7, 14, 21 e 28 dias após a aplicação (DAA, foram feitas avaliações visuais da porcentagem de controle das coberturas vegetais e, aos 45 DAA, avaliações visuais da porcentagem de reinfestação da área. Conclui-se que, para as espécies que compunham a vegetação espontânea, o uso de 1,44 kg ha-1 proporcionou bom controle, sem no entanto evitar rebrotes de Digitaria insularis. Para as braquiárias, a mesma taxa de controle foi observada a partir de 2,16 kg ha-1. A camada de palha das braquiárias sobre o solo não foi capaz de suprimir a emergência de Cyperus rotundus, Alternanthera tenella, Raphanus raphanistrum, Bidens pilosa e Euphorbia heterophylla.This work aimed to compare rates of glyphosate to desiccate Brachiaria decumbens, B. brizantha cv. Marandu and spontaneous plants (weeds, aiming to adopt the no-tillage system. A randomized block experimental design in a factorial scheme was used (3x3, with four replications. The factors consisted of three species of cover crops and three rates of glyphosate (1.44, 2.16 and 2.88 kg ha-1. At 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after application of the herbicide, visual evaluations of the percentage of cover crop control were carried out and at 45 days of the reinfestation percentage of the area. It was concluded that the spontaneous plants presented a good control at 1.44 kg ha-1, without, however, preventing Digitaria insularis sprouts. The same control rate starting at 2.16 kg ha-1 was observed for the Brachiaria species. The straw layer of these cover crops on the soil
Khan, H.; Marwat, K.B.; Hassan, M.G.; Khan, M.A.; Hashim, S.
Parthenium hysterophorus L. is a weed of national significance in Pakistan. Although infesting many districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, but more affected districts are Swabi, Mardan, Charsadda and Peshawar where it is highly invasive and invaded most of the open spaces roadsides, etc and threatening the local biodiversity. Field survey of four districts of the Peshawar valley, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa viz. Swabi, Mardan, Charsadda and Peshawar were carried out during May-June, 2009-2010 to study the distribution and invasion of parthenium weed. Twenty five locations were sampled from each district. Data regarding absolute and relative density, frequency, relative frequency, importance valve %, average importance value, constancy classes and importance value constancy index of parthenium weed and other weeds of the area were recorded by using (1x1 m2) quadrate. The mean data across the surveyed districts reveals that the flora is predominated by parthenium weed with the highest relative density of 42.68% among all species. It was followed by Cannabis sativa, Cynodon dactylon and Cyperus rotundus, with relative densities of 15.17, 13.49 and 5.96, respectively. At different locations, it was observed that parthenium weed is competing with Cannabis sativa which is not so aggressive and problematic weed. While in some areas parthenium weed has already replaced Cannabis sativa. Mean distribution data showed that parthenium weed infestation was abundant and almost not uniform in all districts, however highest relative frequency of 26.14% was recorded for parthenium weed followed by Cannabis sativa, Cynodon dactylon and Cyperus rotundus having relative frequency of 15.17, 13.49 and 9.14, respectively. Rumex crispus and Xanthium strumarium infatuated the smallest relative frequency at most of the locations studied thereby indicating them as insignificant among the weed flora of the study area. Importance value data revealed that P. hysterophorus, Cannabis sativa, Cynodon
Maria Rosangela Malheiros Silva
Full Text Available Os experimentos foram desenvolvidos nos anos agrícolas 2003/2004 e 2004/2005, em área experimental da Universidade Estadual Paulista, Campus de Jaboticabal (SP, com o objetivo de se determinarem os períodos de interferência das plantas daninhas na cultura do arroz de terras altas, cultivar Caiapó. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições e 16 tratamentos. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por períodos crescentes de controle ou de convivência das plantas daninhas após a emergência da cultura: 0-10, 0-20, 0-30, 0-40, 0-50, 0-60, 0-70 dias e 0-colheita. Nos dois anos, as famílias predominantes eram Poaceae, Asteraceae, Amaranthaceae e Malvaceae e as principais plantas daninhas presentes foram: Cyperus rotundus L., Cenchrus echinatus L., Digitaria spp Heist., Echinochloa crus-galli (L. P. Beauv., Brachiaria decumbens Stapf., Eleusine indica Gaertn e Alternanthera tenella Colla. A cultivar de arroz de terras altas Caiapó deve ser mantida sem plantas daninhas nos 30 dias após a emergência.The experiments were carried out in two growing seasons (2003/04 and 2004/05 in an experimental area at São Paulo State University - UNESP, Jaboticabal Campus, to evaluate the weed interference periods on the upland Caiapó rice variety. The experimental design was randomized blocks with 4 replicates and 16 treatments. The treatments consisted of increasing periods of control or coexistence after emergence of the culture: 0-10; 0-20; 0-30; 0-40; 0-50; 0-60; 0-70 days; 0-harvest. The predominant families were Poaceae, Asteraceae, Amaranthaceae and Malvaceae, and the main weeds present were Cyperus rotundus L., Cenchrus echinatus L., Digitaria spp Heist., Echinochloa crus-galli (L. P. Beauv., Brachiaria decumbens Stapf., Eleusine indica Gaertn e Alternanthera tenella Colla for both years. The upland rice cultivar Caiapó is to be kept free of weeds for 30 days after emergence.
Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo determinar o efeito da adubação sobre a comunidade infestante e sobre o período anterior à interferência (PAI das plantas daninhas na cultura do amendoim, cv. IAC Runner 886, em sistema convencional. Os períodos de convivência estudados foram: 0, 7, 15, 20, 30, 45, 55 e 126 dias após a emergência (DAE, totalizando oito tratamentos, dispostos em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, em dois níveis de adubação: 0 e 150 kg ha-1 da formulação 00-20-20 (N-P-K. A adubação não alterou a composição da comunidade infestante, destacando-se Cyperus rotundus, Eleusine indica, Indigofera hirsuta, Portulaca oleraceae e Sida rhombifolia como as espécies de maior importância relativa. Contudo, a densidade de plantas daninhas foi maior na área não adubada, mas sem afetar de modo diferenciado a massa seca acumulada por elas. O cultivar de amendoim IAC Runner 886 pode conviver com essa comunidade com e sem adubação por até 15 e 17 DAE (PAI, respectivamente, sem sofrer perdas significativas na produção. A interferência das plantas daninhas reduziu entre 31 e 34% a produtividade do amendoim para as áreas sem adubação e com adubação, respectivamente.This experiment was carried out to study the effect of fertilization on weed community and on the period before weed interference (PBI in peanut culture, IAC Runner 886, under a conventional till system. The weed control periods studied were: 0, 7, 15, 20, 30, 45, 55, and 126 days after emergence (DAE, totaling eight treatments, arranged in a randomized block design, with four replications and two levels of fertilization (0 and 150 kg ha-1 of formulation 00-20-20 (N-P-K. Fertilization did not affect the weed community, with the species Cyperus rotundus, Eleusine indica, Indigofera hirsuta, Portulaca oleracea and Sida rhombifolia being the most prominent at all levels of fertilization. However, weed density was higher in the non- fertilized
Akbar, Haroon; Pinçon, Claire; Aliouat-Denis, Cecile-Marie; Derouiche, Sandra; Taylor, Maria-Lucia; Pottier, Muriel; Carreto-Binaghi, Laura-Helena; González-González, Antonio E.; Courpon, Aurore; Barriel, Véronique; Guillot, Jacques; Chabé, Magali; Suarez-Alvarez, Roberto O.; Aliouat, El Moukhtar; Dei-Cas, Eduardo
Bats belong to a wide variety of species and occupy diversified habitats, from cities to the countryside. Their different diets (i.e., nectarivore, frugivore, insectivore, hematophage) lead Chiroptera to colonize a range of ecological niches. These flying mammals exert an undisputable impact on both ecosystems and circulation of pathogens that they harbor. Pneumocystis species are recognized as major opportunistic fungal pathogens which cause life-threatening pneumonia in severely immunocompromised or weakened mammals. Pneumocystis consists of a heterogeneous group of highly adapted host-specific fungal parasites that colonize a wide range of mammalian hosts. In the present study, 216 lungs of 19 bat species, sampled from diverse biotopes in the New and Old Worlds, were examined. Each bat species may be harboring a specific Pneumocystis species. We report 32.9% of Pneumocystis carriage in wild bats (41.9% in Microchiroptera). Ecological and behavioral factors (elevation, crowding, migration) seemed to influence the Pneumocystis carriage. This study suggests that Pneumocystis-host association may yield much information on Pneumocystis transmission, phylogeny, and biology in mammals. Moreover, the link between genetic variability of Pneumocystis isolated from populations of the same bat species and their geographic area could be exploited in terms of phylogeography. PMID:23001662
A novel association between Rhodnius neglectus and the Livistona australis palm tree in an urban center foreshadowing the risk of Chagas disease transmission by vectorial invasions in Monte Alto City, São Paulo, Brazil.
Carvalho, Danila B; Almeida, Carlos E; Rocha, Cláudia S; Gardim, Sueli; Mendonça, Vagner J; Ribeiro, Aline R; Alves, Zulimar C P V T; Ruellas, Kellem T; Vedoveli, Alan; da Rosa, João A
After several public notifications of domiciliary invasions, palm trees were investigated in downtown Monte Alto City, São Paulo State, Brazil, in proximity to the city hall building, the main church, condominiums and marketing establishments. One hundred seventy four palm trees of 10 species were investigated, in which 72 specimens of Rhodnius neglectus, a potential Chagas disease vector, were captured via manual methods. All insects were collected from dead leaves, organic debris and bird nests in the only three Livistona australis palm trees in the central park square. This was the first record of R. neglectus colonizing this palm species. Although no Trypanosoma cruzi was found by abdominal compression followed by light microscopy, the poor nutritional status of the bugs hampered the examination of gut contents for parasite detection. Furthermore, the central crowns of the trees, which shelter bats (Chiroptera: Mammalia), could not be carefully searched for insects due to difficult access. This new finding highlights the sudden alteration in insect behavior, probably as a result of man's interference. This report aims to warn those involved in the health system about this new threat, justifying detailed research of the area to evaluate the magnitude of this emerging public health issue. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wang, Zhe; Zhu, Tengteng; Xue, Huiling; Fang, Na; Zhang, Junpeng; Zhang, Libiao; Pang, Jian; Teeling, Emma C; Zhang, Shuyi
Bat laryngeal echolocation is considered as one of the most complex and diverse modes of auditory sensory perception in animals and its evolutionary history has been the cause of many scientific controversies in the past two decades. To date, the majority of scientific evidence supports that bats (Chiroptera) are divided into two subordinal groups: Yinpterochiroptera, containing the laryngeal echolocating superfamily Rhinolophidae as sister taxa to the non-laryngeal echolocating family Pteropodidae; and Yangochiroptera, containing all other laryngeal echolocating lineages. This topology has led to an unanswered question in mammalian biology: was laryngeal echolocation lost in the ancestral pteropodids or gained convergently in the echolocating bat lineages? To date, there is insufficient and conflicting evidence from fossil, genomic, morphological and phylogenomic data to resolve this question. We detail an ontogenetic study of fetal cochlear development from seven species of bats and five outgroup mammals and show that in early fetal development, all bats including the non-laryngeal echolocating pteropodids have a similarly large cochlea typically associated with laryngeal echolocation abilities. The subsequent cochlear growth rate in the pteropodids is the slowest of all mammals and leads to the pteropodids and the non-echolocating lineages eventually sharing a similar cochlear morphospace as adults. The results suggest that pteropodids maintain a vestigial developmental stage indicative of past echolocation capabilities and thus support a single origin of laryngeal echolocation in bats.
Schmieder, Daniela A; Benítez, Hugo A; Borissov, Ivailo M; Fruciano, Carmelo
External morphology is commonly used to identify bats as well as to investigate flight and foraging behavior, typically relying on simple length and area measures or ratios. However, geometric morphometrics is increasingly used in the biological sciences to analyse variation in shape and discriminate among species and populations. Here we compare the ability of traditional versus geometric morphometric methods in discriminating between closely related bat species--in this case European horseshoe bats (Rhinolophidae, Chiroptera)--based on morphology of the wing, body and tail. In addition to comparing morphometric methods, we used geometric morphometrics to detect interspecies differences as shape changes. Geometric morphometrics yielded improved species discrimination relative to traditional methods. The predicted shape for the variation along the between group principal components revealed that the largest differences between species lay in the extent to which the wing reaches in the direction of the head. This strong trend in interspecific shape variation is associated with size, which we interpret as an evolutionary allometry pattern.
Daniela A Schmieder
Full Text Available External morphology is commonly used to identify bats as well as to investigate flight and foraging behavior, typically relying on simple length and area measures or ratios. However, geometric morphometrics is increasingly used in the biological sciences to analyse variation in shape and discriminate among species and populations. Here we compare the ability of traditional versus geometric morphometric methods in discriminating between closely related bat species--in this case European horseshoe bats (Rhinolophidae, Chiroptera--based on morphology of the wing, body and tail. In addition to comparing morphometric methods, we used geometric morphometrics to detect interspecies differences as shape changes. Geometric morphometrics yielded improved species discrimination relative to traditional methods. The predicted shape for the variation along the between group principal components revealed that the largest differences between species lay in the extent to which the wing reaches in the direction of the head. This strong trend in interspecific shape variation is associated with size, which we interpret as an evolutionary allometry pattern.
Becker, Daniel J; Chumchal, Matthew M; Broders, Hugh G; Korstian, Jennifer M; Clare, Elizabeth L; Rainwater, Thomas R; Platt, Steven G; Simmons, Nancy B; Fenton, M Brock
Mercury (Hg) is a persistent and widespread heavy metal with neurotoxic effects in wildlife. While bioaccumulation of Hg has historically been studied in aquatic food webs, terrestrial consumers can become contaminated with Hg when they feed on aquatic organisms (e.g., emergent aquatic insects, fish, and amphibians). However, the extent to which dietary connectivity to aquatic ecosystems can explain patterns of Hg bioaccumulation in terrestrial consumers has not been well studied. Bats (Order: Chiroptera) can serve as a model system for illuminating the trophic transfer of Hg given their high dietary diversity and foraging links to both aquatic and terrestrial food webs. Here we quantitatively characterize the dietary correlates of long-term exposure to Hg across a diverse local assemblage of bats in Belize and more globally across bat species from around the world with a comparative analysis of hair samples. Our data demonstrate considerable interspecific variation in hair total Hg concentrations in bats that span three orders of magnitude across species, ranging from 0.04 mg/kg in frugivorous bats (Artibeus spp.) to 145.27 mg/kg in the piscivorous Noctilio leporinus. Hg concentrations showed strong phylogenetic signal and were best explained by dietary connectivity of bat species to aquatic food webs. Our results highlight that phylogeny can be predictive of Hg concentrations through similarity in diet and how interspecific variation in feeding strategies influences chronic exposure to Hg and enables movement of contaminants from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objective: This study aims to characterize the most important aspects of the Devil´s cave, including biophysical, geological, speleological and morphological components. Methods: A descriptive research from observations in situ, specific technical work of topography, geology, speleology and biology, along with study of related literature has been conducted. Results: The methods used allowed us to learn about the natural richness inside the cave, with outstanding karst landforms (speleothems, presence of fish, crustaceans and other organisms that might be endemic. The information obtained indicates that the origin of the cavity is due to fluvial erosion processes and forced circulation of streams, evidenced in its shaped rosary surface on the interior walls of the structure. Landforms are mostly at the entrance of the cavity in varieties like Stalactites, Castings, Sandsicles and Gours. The biophysical component is the most distinctive aspect of the cave, consisting in a good dynamic of ventilation, permanent presence of water, high humidity and variety of wildlife, including taxa as Chiroptera, Araneae, Anura, Lepidoptera, Blattodea stand, Rodents, Oligochaeta, Dermaptera, siluriform and Decapods. Conclusions: Lithologically, the cavity is framed in limestone rocks rich in organic matter with variation in surface color belonging to the La Luna Formation, the low humidity of the cavity at its entrance and high carbonate content favored the formation of large numbers of speleothems. The inside observations and studies on the water stream showed that biophysical conditions of this place are suitable to house a rich diversity of wildlife.