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Sample records for desert egypt determined

  1. Aeromycobiota of Western Desert of Egypt | Ismail | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of airborne mycobiota at six different regions of Western desert (5 regions) and Eastern desert (1) of Egypt was determined using the exposed-plate method. A total of 44 genera, 102 species and one variety in addition to some unidentified yeasts and dark sterile mycelia were collected. Of the above, only 5 ...

  2. Rural childhoods in Egypt's desert lands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine

    Based on fieldwork in Egypt’s desert lands, this paper discusses rural childhoods in an area experiencing rapid social and cultural change. Since 1987, the Egyptian Government has made new villages in the desert as a means to increase agricultural production and solving problems of unemployment....... Many settlers move to the Mubarak villages in order to give their children a good start in life. The desert villages are associated with a type of ‘rural idyll’. The process of settling in the desert impacts upon the children’s possible pathways to adulthood and their identities and social......’s new roles impact upon the children’s lives. The social contexts shaping the desert childhoods are in some ways more similar to contexts in ‘developed’ countries than in other parts of rural Egypt. The paper ends up by contrasting ideas of rural childhoods in Egypt with those found in ‘developed...

  3. Resistivity method contribution in determining of fault zone and hydro-geophysical characteristics of carbonate aquifer, eastern desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, A. I.; Kamal, K. A.

    2018-03-01

    Determination of fault zone and hydro-geophysical characteristics of the fractured aquifers are complicated, because their fractures are controlled by different factors. Therefore, 60 VESs were carried out as well as 17 productive wells for determining the locations of the fault zones and the characteristics of the carbonate aquifer at the eastern desert, Egypt. The general curve type of the recorded rock units was QKH. These curves were used in delineating the zones of faults according to the application of the new assumptions. The main aquifer was included at end of the K-curve type and front of the H-curve type. The subsurface layers classified into seven different geoelectric layers. The fractured shaly limestone and fractured limestone layers were the main aquifer and their resistivity changed from low to medium (11-93 Ω m). The hydro-geophysical properties of this aquifer such as the areas of very high, high, and intermediate fracture densities of high groundwater accumulations, salinity, shale content, porosity distribution, and recharging and flowing of groundwater were determined. The statistical analysis appeared that depending of aquifer resistivity on the water salinities (T.D.S.) and water resistivities add to the fracture density and shale content. The T.D.S. increasing were controlled by Na+, Cl-, Ca2+, Mg2+, and then (SO4)2-, respectively. The porosity was calculated and its average value was 19%. The hydrochemical analysis of groundwater appeared that its type was brackish and the arrangements of cation concentrations were Na+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > K+ and anion concentrations were Cl- > (SO4)2- > HCO3 - > CO3 -. The groundwater was characterized by sodium-bicarbonate and sodium-sulfate genetic water types and meteoric in origin. Hence, it can use the DC-resistivity method in delineating the fault zone and determining the hydro-geophysical characteristics of the fractured aquifer with taking into account the quality of measurements and interpretation.

  4. Application of K0-NAA in the Determination of Gold and other Trace Elements in Mineralized Rocks from El-Sid Gold District, Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Abd, A.; Hamdy, M.; Mostafa, M.; El-Amir, M.

    2009-01-01

    K 0 - neutron activation analysis is an important method for multi-element analysis . The NAA k - 0 was used to determine the concentration of gold and some other trace elements in the mineralized mafic (gabro) and ultramafic (serpentinite) rocks from El-Sid gold district, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt . The samples were properly prepared together with the standards Au, Zr and Ni and simultaneously irradiated in the irradiation position 2, which is characterized with the neutron spectrum parameters a = -0.01 and f =20. After activation, the samples were subjected to gamma-ray spectrometry, using a high-purity germanium detection system and computerized multichannel analyzer. The concentrations of 25 elements, beside gold were determined. The results showed that the concentrations of incompatible elements including rare earth elements, large-ion lithophile elements (Rb, Sr, Th, Ba, Cs and Na) and high field strength elements (Ta, Hf and Zr), and the compatible elements (transition elements Co and Cr) are different from one sample to another. The results were briefly discussed within the text of this research work.

  5. Natural Radioactivity Levels in Environmental Samples in North Western Desert of Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Daly, A.; Hussein, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Soil and sediment samples were collected from North western desert of Egypt. Gamma spectroscopy was used to determine the concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K. The hazard index due to these radionuclides has been calculated. The measurement results obtained from this study indicate that the region has background radioactivity levels within natural limits

  6. Another approaching storm on the desert. Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, D

    1991-01-01

    Examining Egypt's health care crisis, this article discusses the political factors that have led to such a state. Although Egypt possesses considerable resources and receives vast amounts of US foreign aid, the health status of its people is poor. Infant mortality rate stands at 67/1000 live births; the poor nutritional status of children has not improved over the past 10 years; 1/3 of all children are moderately to severely stunted in growth. The author attributes these woeful conditions to the country's political and economic policies. At one time or another, Egypt has allied itself with USSR or the US, and has generally retained only the worst features of socialism and the free market. While operating as a police state, Egypt has moved towards a free market that has led to the concentration of wealth. The author points out how medical care and medical school reflect the political and economic system. The government guarantees free health care for all and a job to all medical school graduates. But doctors now have to wait 7 years to obtain a post. Many have begun practicing private medicine, and many have become corrupt. The author also singles out the country's diarrhea control program as an indication of the impending health care disaster. Though hailed as high successful, the cost has been exceptionally high, and USAID funding will soon cease. Furthermore, mothers have not been taught self-reliance, but have been made to depend on commercially produced oral rehydration packets. Despite the severity of the social problems, Egypt's security forces have so far succeeded in suppressing popular opposition. But the author does detect hopeful signs in the many active progressive groups, and in particular, in the great social accomplishments of the governor of the providence of Ismailia.

  7. Geology of wadi atalla - el missikat area, eastern desert, egypt.

    OpenAIRE

    El Kassas, I. A. [ابراهيم علي القصاص; Bakhit, F. S.

    1989-01-01

    Wadi Atalla-El Missikat area covers about 2,000 Km2 in the central Eastern Desert of Egypt, between latitudes 26° 10' and 26° 40' N, and longitudes 33° 15' and 33° 40' E. The area is mainly formed of basement complex except its extreme south-western corner where it is covered by foreland sediments of Nubian sandstone. The area is structurally complicated where it has been subjected to various stages of successive tectonic movements since the Precambrian times. The basement complex in the stud...

  8. The corrosive well waters of Egypt's western desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Frank Eldridge

    1979-01-01

    The discovery that ground waters of Egypt's Western Desert are highly corrosive is lost in antiquity. Inhabitants of the oases have been aware of the troublesome property for many decades and early investigators mention it in their reports concerning the area. Introduction of modern well-drilling techniques and replacements of native wood casing with steel during the 20th century increased corrosion problems and, in what is called the New Valley Project, led to an intense search for causes and corrective treatments. This revealed that extreme corrosiveness results from combined effects of relatively acidic waters with significant concentrations of destructive sulfide ion; unfavorable ratios of sulfate and chloride to less aggressive ions; mineral equilibria and electrode potential which hinder formation of protective films; relative high chemical reaction rates because of abnormal temperatures, and high surface velocities related to well design. There is general agreement among investigators that conventional corrosion control methods such as coating metal surfaces, chemical treatment of the water, and electrolytic protection with impressed current and sacrificial electrodes are ineffective or impracticable for wells in the Western Desert's New Valley. Thus, control must be sought through the use of materials more resistant to corrosion than plain carbon steel wherever well screens and casings are necessary. Of the alternatives considered, stainless steel appears to. be the most promising where high strength and long-term services are required and the alloy's relatively high cost is acceptable. Epoxy resin-bonded fiberglass and wood appear to be practicable, relatively inexpensive alternatives for installations which do. not exceed their strength limitations. Other materials such as high strength aluminum and Monel Metal have shown sufficient promise to. merit their consideration in particular locations and uses. The limited experience with pumping in these desert

  9. Radioactivity levels of salt for natural sediments in the northwestern desert and local markets in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Bahi, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    Thirteen samples of salt collected from different locations of old sediments in the western desert at El-Harra and Ain Giffara, Sitra lake and local markets in Egypt have been investigated. Natural radionuclide contents have been measured by γ-ray spectrometry employing a shielded HPGe detector. The activities of 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K have been determined in Bq/kg dry weight. The absorbed dose rate of gamma radiation was estimated to be 1.46-16.13 nGy/h. The thorium-to-uranium concentration ratios were also estimated for the samples

  10. Soil seed bank in different habitats of the Eastern Desert of Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomaa, Nasr H

    2012-04-01

    The floristic composition and species diversity of the germinable soil seed bank were studied in three different habitats (desert salinized land, desert wadi, and reclaimed land) in the Eastern Desert of Egypt. Moreover, the degree of similarity between the seed bank and the above-ground vegetation was determined. The seed bank was studied in 40 stands representing the three habitats. Ten soil samples (each 25 × 20 cm and 5 cm depth) were randomly taken per stand. The seed bank was investigated by the seedling emergence method. Some 61 species belonging to 21 families and 54 genera were identified in the germinable seed bank. The recorded species include 43 annuals and 18 perennials. Ordination of stands by Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) indicates that the stands of the three habitats are markedly distinguishable and show a clear pattern of segregation on the ordination planes. This indicates variations in the species composition among habitats. The results also demonstrate significant associations between the floristic composition of the seed bank and edaphic factors such as CaCO3, electrical conductivity, organic carbon and soil texture. The reclaimed land has the highest values of species richness, Shannon-index of diversity and the density of the germinable seed bank followed by the habitats of desert wadi and desert salinized land. Motyka's similarity index between the seed bank and the above-ground vegetation is significantly higher in reclaimed land (75.1%) compared to desert wadi (38.4%) and desert salinized land (36.5%).

  11. Genetic Aspects of Gold Mineralization at Some Occurrences in the Eastern Desert of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El Monsef, M.; Slobodník, M.; Salem, I. A.

    2012-04-01

    The Eastern Desert of Egypt is well known as a gold-mining area since ancient times, there're more than 95 gold deposits and occurrences spread the whole area covered by the basement rocks of Precambrian age. The basement rocks of the Eastern Desert of Egypt constitute the Nubian Shield that has formed a continuous part of the Arabian-Nubian Shield before the opening of Red Sea (Oligocene-Early Miocene). Commonly, the system of gold-bearing quartz veins in the Eastern Desert is clearly structural controlled related to brittle-ductile shear zones that mostly developed during late deformational stages of the evolution history for basement rocks in the Eastern Desert. This running study principally aims to contribute the mineral resource potential of the gold deposits in Egypt, so particularly Fatira, Gidami and Atalla occurrences have been involved into a comprehensive study based on field, structural, mineralogical, geochemical and genetic investigations. It is intended to better understanding for the characteristics, distribution controls, conditions and age of mineralization in relation to the age of the hosting rocks intrusion to find if there're genetic links between the gold mineralization and the evolution of the host intrusive complex. Several authors suggested that the gold mineralization was related to the intrusion of the (postorogenic) Younger granites. Other authors interpret these deposits as products of hydrothermal activity induced either by metamorphism or cooling effects of early Paleozoic magmatism or as combined metamorphic/magmatic episodes. The prime focus will be directed to the ore itself and the associated hydrothermal alteration zones based on detailed maps and well-distributed samples network and geochemical anomalies distribution. The laboratory studies included microscopic examination (reflecting and transmitting microscopy) to allow for determination of the hosting rocks types and mineralogical changes related to the gold mineralization

  12. Significance of Airborne Gamma-ray spectrometric data of Umm bisilla Area, central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabie, S I [Nuclear materials authority, Maadi, Cairo, (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    Umm bisilla area, located in the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt, consists mainly of basement rocks. The present investigation of the airborne spectrometric data is to define the meaningful anomalies from the raw data by applying the significance factor techniques, by calculating the significant radioactive provinces. Determination of the gross structural pattern and broad variations in composition of the crystalline basement, to define the relationships between the tectonic features of the area as interpreted from aeromagnetic data, with the significant anomalies revealed from spectrometric data was carried out through the application of different magnetic techniques. Five significant uraniferous zones were detected associated with Umm Bisilla granite, amphibolite, and grey granite. The intersection of the structural lineaments interpreted from aeromagnetic data illustrated good correlation with the significant uranium anomalous zones interpreted from spectrometric data, and indicated that the concentration is structurally. 15 figs.

  13. Environmental Studies of Natural Radioactivity at Nugrus -Sikait Area, South Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sroor, A.; EI-Shershaby, A.; EI- Bahi, S.; Ali, N.; Ibrahim, M.E.

    2008-01-01

    Twenty seven representative samples were collected from two locations; Wadi Nugrus and Wadi Sikait, south Eastern Desert, Egypt. The area is characterized by abnormal radioactivity and has several archaeological sites (Sikait Temple). Emerald mining is a wide spread activity since Pharonic times at Sikait - Nugrus area. The concentration of the natural radionuclides ( 238 U-series, 232 Th-series and 40 K) are measured in all the rock samples by two techniques (HpGe detector and NaI(TI) detector). The Ra e q, and H e x for all samples are also determined. A comparative study between NaI and HpGe- detectors were carried out. The present work indicated that the equilibrium/disequilibrium ratios by using HpGe detector are more precise than that of Nal detectors. The radioactivity at Wadi Nugrus is higher than Wadi Sikait and also higher than the permissible level

  14. Natural radioactivity and Rare Earth elements in feldspar samples, Central Eastern desert, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walley El-Dine, Nadia, E-mail: nadia_walley5@hotmail.co [Department of physics, Faculty of girls for Art, Science and Education, Ain Shams University, Heliopolis, Cairo (Egypt); El-Shershaby, Amal [Department of physics, Faculty of girls for Art, Science and Education, Ain Shams University, Heliopolis, Cairo (Egypt); Afifi, Sofia [Nuclear Materials Authority (Egypt); Sroor, Amany; Samir, Eman [Department of physics, Faculty of girls for Art, Science and Education, Ain Shams University, Heliopolis, Cairo (Egypt)

    2011-05-15

    The pegmatite bodies of the Eastern Desert of Egypt are widely distributed especially along the Marsa-Alam-Idfu road. The Abu Dob area covers about 150 km{sup 2} of the Arabian Nubian shield at the central part of the Eastern Desert of Egypt. Most of the pegmatite is zoned; the zonation starts with milky quartz at the core followed by alkali feldspar at the margins. The feldspars vary in color from rose to milky and in composition from K-feldspar to Na-feldspar, sometimes interactions of both types are encountered. Thirteen feldspar samples were collected from different locations in the Abu Dob area for measuring the natural radioactivity of {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K using an HPGe detector. The variation in concentration of radionuclides for the area under investigation can be classified into regions of high, medium and low natural radioactivity. The average concentration in BqKg{sup -1} has been observed to be from 9.5 to 183675.7 BqKg{sup -1} for {sup 238}U, between 6.1 and 94,314.2 BqKg{sup -1} for {sup 232}Th and from 0 to 7894.6 BqKg{sup -1} for {sup 40}K. Radium equivalent activities (Ra{sub eq}), dose rate (D{sub R}) and external hazard (H{sub ex}) have also been determined. In the present work, the concentration of rare earth elements are measured for two feldspar samples using two techniques, Environmental Scanning Electron microscope XIL 30 ESEM, Philips, and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The existence of rare earth elements in this area are very high and can be used in different important industries.

  15. Natural radioactivity and Rare Earth elements in feldspar samples, Central Eastern desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walley El-Dine, Nadia; El-Shershaby, Amal; Afifi, Sofia; Sroor, Amany; Samir, Eman

    2011-01-01

    The pegmatite bodies of the Eastern Desert of Egypt are widely distributed especially along the Marsa-Alam-Idfu road. The Abu Dob area covers about 150 km 2 of the Arabian Nubian shield at the central part of the Eastern Desert of Egypt. Most of the pegmatite is zoned; the zonation starts with milky quartz at the core followed by alkali feldspar at the margins. The feldspars vary in color from rose to milky and in composition from K-feldspar to Na-feldspar, sometimes interactions of both types are encountered. Thirteen feldspar samples were collected from different locations in the Abu Dob area for measuring the natural radioactivity of 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K using an HPGe detector. The variation in concentration of radionuclides for the area under investigation can be classified into regions of high, medium and low natural radioactivity. The average concentration in BqKg -1 has been observed to be from 9.5 to 183675.7 BqKg -1 for 238 U, between 6.1 and 94,314.2 BqKg -1 for 232 Th and from 0 to 7894.6 BqKg -1 for 40 K. Radium equivalent activities (Ra eq ), dose rate (D R ) and external hazard (H ex ) have also been determined. In the present work, the concentration of rare earth elements are measured for two feldspar samples using two techniques, Environmental Scanning Electron microscope XIL 30 ESEM, Philips, and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The existence of rare earth elements in this area are very high and can be used in different important industries.

  16. Geochemical water signature in the Bahariya Depression, Western Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciarra, Alessandra; Mazzini, Adriano; Lupi, Matteo; Hammed, Mohammed S.

    2017-04-01

    The Bahariya Oasis is located about 200 km SW of Cairo in the central part of the Western Desert of Egypt. It occupies a sub-elliptic 40 km wide depression stretching NE-SW for approximately 90 km. The Bahariya Oasis has been targeted for numerous geological studies on structural geology, stratigraphy, and iron ore deposits. The oasis was characterized since the Roman times by the presence of natural hydrothermal springs venting water from the relatively shallow Nubia Sandstone formation. Inside the depression are visible numerous circular concentric features that morphologically resemble the hydrothermal vent complexes observed at igneous provinces in other localities of the planet. In order to investigate the origin and the mechanisms of formation of these features, we conducted a fieldwork survey as well as fluids sampling from the available well sites. The aim was to constrain the origin of the fluids that potentially triggered or facilitated the formation of the concentric structures observed on the field. This study presents the geochemical results of groundwaters and soil gas samples. Ten samples were collected from deep wells present in the area. In particular, 8 warm waters were collected by wells between 800 m and 1200 m deep. The measured temperatures at these sites range from 36.5 °C to 52.3°C, while the coldest wells have temperatures ranging from 27.9 °C to 36.5°C. For each sample collected from the wells we analyzed the major, minor and trace elements, dissolved gases (He, Ne, H2, O2, N2, CH4, CO2, Rn), and relative isotopic values. In the areas around the wells we measured CO2 and CH4 fluxes as well as radon activity. Overall, the water showed a high value of dissolved Rn, ranging from 9 to 43 Bq/l, and dissolved CO2 ranging from 5.9 to 17.4 cc/l. The waters show a radiogenic signature of isotopic helium, highlighting very prolonged interaction with local crust enriched in radiogenic elements. The isotopic values of δ18O and δD show a clear

  17. The economics of hybrid power systems for sustainable desert agriculture in Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamel, S.M.; Dahl, C.

    2005-01-01

    Egypt has embarked on an ambitious desert land reclamation program in order to increase total food production. Energy planners for these desert agriculture locations have chosen diesel generation power technology because minimization of the initial capital cost of a power supply system is their top...... priority. This heavy reliance on diesel generation has negative effects on the surrounding environment including soil, groundwater, and air pollution. Although good solar and wind resource prospects exist for the use of cleaner hybrid power systems in certain desert locations, little research has been done...... to investigate the economic potential of such systems in Egypt’s desert agriculture sector. Using optimization software, we assess the economics of hybrid power systems versus the present diesel generation technology in a remote agricultural development area. We also consider the emission reduction advantages...

  18. Application of Nuclear Analytical Techniques in Elemental Characterization of Wadi El-Nakhil Alabaster, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Zain M. Alamoudi; A. El-Taher

    2016-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) is a powerful technique for trace element determination in rocks. Nine alabaster samples were collected from Wadi El-Nakhil located at the intersection of lat. 26°10′50′′N and long. 34°03′40′′E, central Eastern Desert, Egypt, for investigation by INAA and Energy Depressive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF). The samples were irradiated by thermal neutrons at the TRIGA Mainz research reactor at a neutron flux of 7 × 1011 n/cm2·s. Twenty-two elements were...

  19. Aeromagnetic Geophysical Investigation In El-Faiyum District, Western Desert, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    El Awady, M. M. [محمد محمد العوضي; Bakrah, A.; El-Etr, H.

    1985-01-01

    The present paper deals with the interpretation of the aeromagnetic survey executed over the Faiyum area. Western Desert, Egypt. Qualitative as well as quantitative interpretation of the aeromagnetic data were carried out to obtain more information about the crystalline basement structure and the local structure in the sedimentary section. The analysis of the constructed magnetic maps which include the total intensity map, the vertical map, the regional map, the residual map, the second verti...

  20. Goods and services provided by native plants in desert ecosystems: Examples from the northwestern coastal desert of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila M. Bidak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available About one third of the earth’s land surface is covered by deserts that have low and variable rainfall, nutrient-poor soils, and little vegetation cover. Here, we focus on the goods and services offered by desert ecosystems using the northwestern coastal desert of Egypt extending from Burg El-Arab to El-Salloum as an example. We conducted field surveys and collected other data to identify the goods services and provided by native plant species. A total of 322 native plant species were compiled. The direct services provided by these native plants included sources of food, medicine, and energy; indirect vegetation services included promotion of biodiversity, water storage, and soil fertility. The plant diversity in this ecosystem provided economic service benefits, such as sources of fodder, fuel-wood, and traditional medicinal plants. Changes in land use and recent ill-managed human activities may influence the availability of these services and strongly impact biodiversity and habitat availability. Although deserts are fragile and support low levels of productivity, they provide a variety of goods and services whose continuing availability is contingent upon the adoption of rational land management practices.

  1. Assessment of groundwater potentiality using geophysical techniques in Wadi Allaqi basin, Eastern Desert, Egypt - Case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helaly, Ahmad Sobhy

    2017-12-01

    Electrical resistivity surveying has been carried out for the determination of the thickness and resistivity of layered media in Wadi Allaqi, Eastern Desert, Egypt. That is widely used geophysical tool for the purpose of assessing the groundwater potential and siting the best locations for boreholes in the unconfined Nubian Sandstone aquifers within the study area. This has been done using thirteen 1D Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) surveys. 1D-VES surveys provide only layered model structures for the subsurface and do not provide comprehensive information for interpreting the structure and extent of subsurface hydro-geological features. The integration of two-dimensional (2D) geophysical techniques for groundwater prospecting has been done to provide a more detailed identification for the subsurface hydro-geological features from which potential sites for successful borehole locations are recognized. In addition, five magnetic profiles were measured for basement depth determination, expected geological structures and thickness of sedimentary succession that could include some basins suitable for groundwater accumulation as groundwater aquifers.

  2. Kinematic analysis of the Migif area in the Eastern Desert of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Osama M. K.

    2014-11-01

    The use of porphyroclasts rotating in a flowing matrix to estimate mean kinematic vorticity number (Wm) is important for quantifying the relative contributions of pure and simple shear in penetratively deformed rocks. The kinematic vorticity number determined for high temperature mylonitic gneisses in the Migif area in the Eastern Desert of Egypt range from ∼0.6 to 0.9. The results from vorticity and strain analyses indicate that deformation in the area deviated from simple shear. It is concluded that nappe stacking occurred early during the thrusting event, probably by brittle imbrications, and that ductile strain was superimposed on the nappe structure at high-pressure as shown by a penetrative subhorizontal foliation is developed subparallel to the tectonic contacts with the under- and overlying nappes. The accumulation of ductile strain during underplating was not by simple shear but involved a component of vertical shortening, which caused the subhorizontal foliation in the Migif area. In most cases, this foliation was formed during thrusting of the nappes onto each other, suggesting that nappe stacking was associated with vertical shortening.

  3. Geophysical Reservoir Evaluation of Obaiyed Field, Western Desert, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Farag, Mohamed Ibrahim Abdel-Fattah Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    Die Obaiyed-Gaslagerstätte liegt in der westlichen Wüste Ägyptens, etwa 50 km südlich der Mittelmeerküste. Das produzierte Gas entstammt dem oberen Safa-Member der Khatatba Formation (Mitteljura). Das obere Safa Reservoir ist zu einem wichtigen Ziel in der Erforschung des Obaiyed-Feldes geworden und hat dazu beigetragen, die Exploration im nordwestlichen Teil der Western Desert in Ägypten neu zu beleben. Daher ist das Hauptziel dieser Arbeit ist die Bewertung des Kohlenwasserstoff-Potentials ...

  4. Contribution To The Geology Of Basement Rocks In The South Western Desert Of Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadek, M.F.; Khyamy, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    Three major Precambrian basement inliers are exposed in the South Western Desert of Egypt between Long. 29 degree E and the River Nile within the Uweinat-Bir Safsaf-Aswan E-W uplift system. These are Bir Safsaf, Gabal EI-Asr and Gabal Umm Shaghir areas. Smaller outcrops include Gabal EI-Gara El-Hamra and Gabal El-Gara EI-Soda, Gabal Siri, GabaI EI-Fantas and Aswan-Kalabsha area as well as the scattered outcrops around Darb El-Arbain road. Band ratios 5/7, 5/1, 4 of Landsat TM images were applied to delineate the borders, the lithologic units and structural features of low relief basement outcrops within the surrounding flat lying sedimentary rocks and sand plains. These basement rocks comprise ortho gneisses (assumed by many authors as related to old continent pre Pan-African rocks), G 1 tonalite-granodiorite, and G2 monzogranite-alkali feldspar granite intruded by variable dykes. The boundaries between the basement exposures and the sedimentary rocks are marked by nonconformity surfaces or sets of faults. Both basement and sedimentary rocks are intruded by Mesozoic syenite-G3 granites, rhyolite, trachytic plugs and Upper Cretaceous to Tertiary basalts. The basement exposures are structurally controlled by major E- W fault systems. Their vertical uplifting is overprinted by folding the overlying sedimentary rocks. This study revealed that, the different basement exposures in the SE of the Western Desert of Egypt are similar in appearance and field relations to the Pan-African basement rocks extending towards the east of the River Nile and exposed everywhere in the Eastern Desert of Egypt

  5. Impact of fertilizers on background radioactivity level of two newly developed farms in Western Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, F.

    2006-01-01

    A survey of soil and plants were carried out to determine the environmental gamma background radiation levels of two newly developed farms in western desert area, Egypt. The materials and the standards were analyzed by gamma spectroscopy in which a shielded high purity germanium detector has been used to measure the natural concentration of 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K activities in the samples. The radionuclide contents in some commercial fertilizers have been determined. The results of analysis of specific activities in the fertilizers under study were 1.27-950.09 Bq/Kg for 238 U, 0.73 -162.16 Bq/Kg for 232 Th and 10.22- 23845.24 Bq/Kg for 40 K. All natural soil samples showed low activity concentrations. The concentrations of 238 U (6.13-38.84 Bq/Kg) and 232 Th (2.58-25.69 Bq/Kg) were quite similar, while that of 40 K (113.91-9314.11 Bq/Kg) was the highest for plant samples. Some of the results obtained were higher than the permissible international radioactivity levels. It is suitable in this regard to compare the activity values for the imported fertilizers and that fabricated in Egypt. The absorbed dose rate and the radium equivalent activity concentration were found to be 1.91-1027 n Gy/h and 4.02-1840.98 Bq/Kg, respectively, for fertilizers samples. For soil and plant samples, the results were 11.86-415.29 n Gy/h and 24.20-750.52 Bq/Kg for the absorbed dose rate and the radium equivalent activity concentration, respectively, and the banana plant contained the largest values. The present study presents actual data from investigations of the plant-soil transfer of the primordial radio nuclides for some fruits growing at these soils. The transfer factors of 0.35-1.821 for 238 U, 0.227-0.480 for 232 Th and 1.95-31.85 for 40 K were obtained. The increase of the transfer of 40 K reflected its great uptake to the fruits. The observed plant-soil factors were varied widely, mainly as a result of different soil, vegetation types and environmental conditions. Taking into

  6. Epidemiology and clinical presentation of stroke in Upper Egypt (desert area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Tallawy HN

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hamdy N El Tallawy,1 Wafaa M Farghaly,1 Reda Badry,1 Nermin A Hamdy,2 Ghaydaa A Shehata,1 Tarek A Rageh,1 Nabil A Metwally,3 Enas M Hassan,2 Sayed S Elsayed,2 Mohamed A Yehia,2 Wael T Soliman2 1Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Assiut University, Assiut, 2Department of Neurology, El Minia University, El-Minia City, 3Department of Neurology, Al-Azhar University (Assuit Branch, Assiut, Egypt Background: Stroke is a common cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Four out of five strokes occur in the low- and middle-income countries. This study aims to find lifetime prevalence of stroke in Upper Egypt and to identify clinical presentations and possible risk factors of stroke in this population.Methods: This is a door-to-door (every door study conducted on all inhabitants in Al Kharga district (representative of western desert and Al Quseir city (representative of eastern desert. The study was conducted in two stages, and every stage consisted of three phases (screening, diagnostic, and investigatory.Results: The total lifetime prevalence of stroke was 8.5/1,000 in the population aged 20 years and more. It increased with advancing age and was higher among males than females among all age groups except in the childbearing period (20 years to <40 years of age. Lifetime prevalence of ischemic stroke (7.2/1,000 was higher than hemorrhagic stroke (1.1/1,000. Hemiparesis and hemiplegia were the commonest presentation of stroke. Headache, vomiting, and vertigo were found to be significantly more common accompaniments of hemorrhagic stroke. The most common risk factor was hypertension, followed by hyperlipidemia and diabetes mellitus.Conclusion: The total lifetime prevalence of stroke in the population aged 20 years and more in Upper Egypt (desert area lies within the range that is recorded in developing countries. Clinical presentation and risk factors are similar to those recorded from developing and developed countries. Keywords: stroke

  7. Geology, petrography, Geochemistry, and geochronology of the old granite batholith between Quen and Safaga, eastern desert, Egypt. Vol. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attawiya, M.Y.; Nossair, L.M.; El-Debeiky, A.; Ragab, A.I.

    1996-01-01

    A suite of tonalite-granodiorite and monzogranite forms a huge old granite batholith between qena and Safaga, Eastern Desert, Egypt. The batholith was originated from the fractional crystallization of a peraluminous calk-alkaline magma rich in silica and of low potassium content. It is developed in an island arc tectonic setting. The rocks forming the batholith are depleted in both U and Th elements. However, a gradual increase in these two elements from tonalite to monzogranite was observed. Zircon and sphene are responsible for U and Th contents in these rocks. Rh/Sr isotope age determination reported an age of 632.8 ± 4.6 Ma for these old granitoids. The low initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio in these rocks suggested their mantle origin or derivation from lower crustal materials with low Rb/Sr ratios and short residence in the crust. 10 figs., 5 tabs

  8. Geology, petrography, Geochemistry, and geochronology of the old granite batholith between Quen and Safaga, eastern desert, Egypt. Vol. 3.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attawiya, M Y; Nossair, L M; El-Debeiky, A [Nuclear Materials Authority, Cairo, (Egypt); Ragab, A I [Ain Sahms Univ., Cairo, (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    A suite of tonalite-granodiorite and monzogranite forms a huge old granite batholith between qena and Safaga, Eastern Desert, Egypt. The batholith was originated from the fractional crystallization of a peraluminous calk-alkaline magma rich in silica and of low potassium content. It is developed in an island arc tectonic setting. The rocks forming the batholith are depleted in both U and Th elements. However, a gradual increase in these two elements from tonalite to monzogranite was observed. Zircon and sphene are responsible for U and Th contents in these rocks. Rh/Sr isotope age determination reported an age of 632.8 {+-} 4.6 Ma for these old granitoids. The low initial{sup 87} Sr/{sup 86} Sr ratio in these rocks suggested their mantle origin or derivation from lower crustal materials with low Rb/Sr ratios and short residence in the crust. 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Nannobiostrat1graphy Of The Late Cretaceous Paleocene Succession In Esh El-Mallaha Range, Eastern Desert, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    El Dawoddy, Ahmed Sami [احمد سامي الداودي

    1990-01-01

    This paper emphasis the biostratigraphic significance of thirty nannofossil species recorded from the Maestrichtian - Paleocene succession in Esh El-Mellaha Range, Eastern Desert, Egypt. These species participated in making up three nannobiostratigraphic zones, arranged from top to base as follows: 3. Discoaster multiradiatus Zone (Late Paleocene) 2. Lithraphidites quadratus Zone (Maestrichtian) 1. Arkhangelskiella cymbitormis Zone (Maestrichtian) In comparison with the planktonic foram...

  10. Leaching of gallium from gaiter granite, eastern desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahran, M.A.; Mahmoud, KH.F.; Mahdy, M.A.; Abd El-Hamid, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Preliminary leaching tests of gallium from some Egyptian granite rocks such as those of Gabal Gattar area was investigated by using 8 M HCl acid and sodium perchlorate as oxidant. To achieve the optimum leaching conditions, the factors affecting the leaching efficiency as the acid type and concentration, oxidant type and amount, leaching temperature, agitation time, solid / liquid ratio and the effect of grain size were studied. The complete chemical analysis of the collected samples was firstly carried out to determine the chemical features of the Gattarian granite. More than 97% of gallium content was leached when applying these optimum leaching conditions

  11. Microfacies analysis of foraminifera rich sedimentary rocks from the Desert Plateau, central Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnitschar, C.; Briguglio, A.; Hohenegger, J.

    2012-04-01

    Microfacies analysis on some samples from the Thebes Group have been carried on by means of thin sections. The study area is included in the Libyan Desert Plateau (central Egypt) at following coordinates N27° 36'30.58" E29° 44'58.34", near the biggest dune of Egypt, the Ghard Abu Muharik. Because of the round shape of the rocks and the desert patina on the surface they could easily be classified as the so called "Melonstones", which are located more southwards and mainly composed by stromatolites. On the contrary, the investigated samples show a completely different fauna and therefore have been separated from the "Melonstones". Even if shape and size are very similar and the desert patina covers all surfaces the same way the differences are impressive. To investigate the samples, two thin-sections have been prepared and analyzed at the microscope. The observed fauna is composed by: agglutinated benthic foraminifera (e.g., Dictyoconus egypticus), complex larger miliolids (e.g., Pseudolacazina cf. danatae, Fabularia sp.), alveolinids (Alveolina vredenburgi), green algae (Dasycladaceae), echinoids and corals. Because of the presence of symbionts bearing larger benthic foraminifera, which need light to feed photosymbionts, the rock was formed in a shallow water environment. With the abundant rock-building benthic foraminifera and calcareous algae the limestone shows a tendency to the packstone/wackestone facies. Based on the presence of Alveolina vredenburgi, the age of the samples can be estimate as lowermost Eocene belonging to the shallow benthic zone 5 (sensu Serra-Kiel et al., 1998). According the obtained data on stratigraphy and palaeoecology, a partial palaeoenvironmental reconstruction is possible for the Libyan Desert Plateau where outcrops are largely missing. Because of the round shape of the samples and the patina which covers them all around it can be assumed that they have been transported from longer distance. According to the geological map of the

  12. Characteristics and significance of uranium bearing pan african younger granite in the eastern desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, M.A.; Dabbour, G.A.; Mohammden, T.F.

    1998-01-01

    Surficial uranium mineralization was discovered in four pan african younger granite plutons in the eastern desert of egypt. The present study revealed great similarity between these plutons both in petrography and geochemistry. They are two-feldspar, two-mica peraluminous granites which have been formed by melting of crustal materials and emplaced during the late stage stage of a late proterozoic orogenic cycle. Radiometric and geochemical investigations indicate that these granites are fertile with respect to U and form a potential target for primary uranium deposits. Four models are suggested to explain the source and mechanism of the surficial uranium mineralization in these granites. The most applicable model is the oxidation of U +4 found in minute disseminated uraninite grains and its subsequent mobilization. This is supported by petrographic and autoradiographic studies. The bearings of the present study on further exploration for uranium deposits in granites of the arabian- Nubian shield in general are discussed

  13. Leachability Of The Rare Earth Elements From G-II Occurrence, Gabal Gattar, Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Gabal Gattar area is one of the most promising uranium mineralization occurrence located in the north eastern desert of Egypt at the intersection of latitude 27° 7' 30'' N and longitude 33° 17' 5'' E covering about 2 km 2 . The hydrothermal alterations of Gabal Gattar granitic mass at G-II occurrence exhibited an increase in Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, Mo, Nb, Rb and HREE. The sample from G-II occurrence was subjected to extraction of rare earth elements (REE) through both leaching and precipitation processes. The optimum leaching conditions were found to be: 40 g/l HNO 3 acid, 12 hours contact time, 1:2 ore / acid ratio, -60 mesh grain size and 25°C which give REE leaching efficiency of about 97%. REE were directly precipitated using sodium hydroxide where REE hydroxide was obtained.

  14. Petrographic and mineralogical features of the uraniferous pink granites in the north eastern desert of egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atawiya, M.Y.; Salman, A.B.; El-Bayyomi, R.M.

    1998-01-01

    The present work is concerned with the petrological, mineralogical and geochemical studies of some uranium bearing younger granites in the north eastern desert of egypt particularly Gebel Gattar area. The area around Gebel Gattar comprises the following rock units (starting from the oldest): meta volcanic, diorite-grano-diorite complex- Dokhan volcanics- Hammamat sediments, younger granites and dykes. The most significant structural features are represented by NNE-ENE dominantly trending faults and joints. Petrographicaly, the pink granites are divided into normal and mineralized (uraniferous) granites. Normal granites are classified into three types; a) leucocratic perthitic granite, b) hornblende- biotite perthitic granite and c) two feldspars perthitic granite. Mineralized granites are sheared, deformed, pinkish brown in colour and strongly altered. A remarkable secondary uranium mineralization has been recorded along fault and fracture zones

  15. A socio-ecological investigation of options to manage groundwater degradation in the Western Desert, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Caroline; Salem, Boshra

    2012-07-01

    Under increasing water scarcity, collective groundwater management is a global concern. This article presents an interdisciplinary analysis of this challenge drawing on a survey including 50 large and small farms and gardens in a village in an agricultural land reclamation area on the edge of the Western Desert of Egypt. Findings revealed that smallholders rely on a practice of shallow groundwater use, through which drainage water from adjacent irrigation areas is effectively recycled within the surface aquifer. Expanding agroindustrial activities in the surrounding area are socio-economically important, but by mining non-renewable water in the surrounding area, they set in motion a degradation process with social and ecological consequences for all users in the multi-layered aquifer system. Based on the findings of our investigation, we identify opportunities for local authorities to more systematically connect available environmental information sources and common pool resource management precedents, to counterbalance the degradation threat.

  16. Structural interpretation of aeromagnetic data for the Wadi El Natrun area, northwestern desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibraheem, Ismael M.; Elawadi, Eslam A.; El-Qady, Gad M.

    2018-03-01

    The Wadi El Natrun area in Egypt is located west of the Nile Delta on both sides of the Cairo-Alexandria desert road, between 30°00‧ and 30°40‧N latitude, and 29°40‧ and 30°40‧E longitude. The name refers to the NW-SE trending depression located in the area and containing lakes that produce natron salt. In spite of the area is promising for oil and gas exploration as well as agricultural projects, Geophysical studies carried out in the area is limited to the regional seismic surveys accomplished by oil companies. This study presents the interpretation of the airborne magnetic data to map the structure architecture and depth to the basement of the study area. This interpretation was facilitated by applying different data enhancement and processing techniques. These techniques included filters (regional-residual separation), derivatives and depth estimation using spectral analysis and Euler deconvolution. The results were refined using 2-D forward modeling along three profiles. Based on the depth estimation techniques, the estimated depth to the basement surface, ranges from 2.25 km to 5.43 km while results of the two-dimensional forward modeling show that the depth of the basement surface ranges from 2.2 km to 4.8 km. The dominant tectonic trends in the study area at deep levels are NW (Suez Trend), NNW, NE, and ENE (Syrian Arc System trend). The older ENE trend, which dominates the northwestern desert is overprinted in the study area by relatively recent NW and NE trends, whereas the tectonic trends at shallow levels are NW, ENE, NNE (Aqaba Trend), and NE. The predominant structure trend for both deep and shallow structures is the NW trend. The results of this study can be used to better understand deep-seated basement structures and to support decisions with regard to the development of agriculture, industrial areas, as well as oil and gas exploration in northern Egypt.

  17. VEIN-TYPE URANIUM MINERALIZATION IN THE EASTERN DESERT OF EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Ghoneim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Vein type uranium deposits where uranium minerals fill cavities veins, fractures, fissures, pore spaces, shear zone, breccia and stockworks in igneous, meta-sediments and metamorphic rocks are common source of uranium mineralization all over the wold. In Egypt, El-Erediya, El-Missikat and El Sela uranium mineralization occur in younger granite plutons in the Eastern Desert of Egypt. These plutons are considered as good examples of intra-granitic vein-type uranium mineralization. The goal of this review article is to study the characteristics of granites and Th-U vein mineralization El Sela area. Main tasks are characteristics of vein type uranium mineralization in the world and Egypt, characteristics of ore-bearing intrusive rocks in the El Sela area, mineralogy of Th-U vein-type mineralization in El Sela area and secondary U and Th minerals in granites. Results. The article revealed that El Sela granite is a peraluminous, high-K Calc-Alkaline (HKCA granite. Two-mica leucogranitic pluton is considered the source rock of U-mineralization at El-Sela area, while the altered microgranite and dolerite dikes are good traps for these mineralizations. The reactivated faults system trending ENE-WSW and NNW-SSE make favorable condition to form uranium mineralization associated with polymetallic mineralization that are redeposited in the two mica granite, microgranite and dolerite dikes. The metallic mineral assemblages in the veins mainly consist of pyrite, chalcopyrite, galena, sphalerite and fluorite that are associated with primary (uraninite, coffinite and secondary U-mineralization (uranophane and autunite that occur either as disseminated clusters or as microfracture filling and coating joint surface. Five types of thorite-group minerals can be distinguished: thorite, Zr-rich thorite, phosphothorite, uranothorite and Zr-rich uranothorite. ThO2 content of uraninite vary from (1.1 to 3 wt.%, for PbO contents from 1.16 to 2.35 wt.%, P2O5 contents from

  18. Application of Nuclear Analytical Techniques in Elemental Characterization of Wadi El-Nakhil Alabaster, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zain M. Alamoudi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA is a powerful technique for trace element determination in rocks. Nine alabaster samples were collected from Wadi El-Nakhil located at the intersection of lat. 26°10′50′′N and long. 34°03′40′′E, central Eastern Desert, Egypt, for investigation by INAA and Energy Depressive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF. The samples were irradiated by thermal neutrons at the TRIGA Mainz research reactor at a neutron flux of 7 × 1011 n/cm2·s. Twenty-two elements were determined, namely, As, Ba, Ca, Co, Cr, Sc, Fe, Hf, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, U, Zn, Zr, Lu, Ce, Sm, La, Yb, and Eu. The chemical analysis of alabaster indicated having high contents of CaO and MgO and LOI and low contents of SiO2, Al2O3, Na2O, K2O, MnO, and Fe2O3.

  19. Remote sensing and geophysical investigations of Moghra Lake in the Qattara Depression, Western Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shuhab D.; Fathy, Mohamed S.; Abdelazeem, Maha

    2014-02-01

    The Western Desert covers two-thirds of the land area of Egypt and occupies one of the driest regions of the Sahara. Seven depressions within the desert - Siwa, Qattara, Fayum, Bahariya, Farafra, Dakhla, and Kharga - may represent parts of old drainage systems with deflation, extensive erosion, and possibly, some tectonic activity. Oases with freshwater exist in these depressions. Geological and geophysical investigations in the Qattara Depression indicate the presence of buried fluvial channels with southeast to northwest flow directions from the highland areas. The origin of these fluvial systems, as well as the origin of the depressions themselves, is still unresolved, and many ideas have been suggested. Moghra Lake at the northeastern tip of the Qattara basin may be a remnant of a larger paleolake, including the mouth of a paleo-river. We present here the results of our recent work in this area using ALOS PALSAR radar remote sensing data, which indicated the presence of buried channels that may have fed the larger Moghra paleolake. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) data along 2D profiles were acquired; the migrated GPR sections identified a major paleochannel with numerous minor channels at its margins. GPR interpretations are verified by field observations, trenching, and stratigraphic information from outcrop data. Potential field analyses identify possible aquifers that are controlled by regional structures. Density contrasts within the sedimentary units, physical boundaries of uplifted basement blocks and depths to causative sources were also identified. This work contributes to the reconstruction of paleodrainage of this region and helps in understanding processes involved in the formation of the Qattara Depression.

  20. New age constraints on the Middle Stone Age occupations of Kharga Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jennifer R; Hawkins, Alicia L; Asmerom, Yemane; Polyak, Victor; Giegengack, Robert

    2007-06-01

    Spring-deposited carbonate rocks, or tufas, exposed along the flanks of the Libyan Plateau near Kharga Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt, can provide a directly datable stratigraphic context for Middle Stone Age/Middle Paleolithic (MSA/MP) archaeological material, if such material can be found in situ within tufa strata. Two such localities (Mata'na Site G and Bulaq Wadi 3 Locus 1) described by Caton-Thompson were revisited and sampled for uranium-series analysis. At Mata'na Site G (KH/MT-02), Middle Stone Age ("Upper Levalloisian") material is underlain by tufa with a uranium-series age of 127.9+/-1.3 ka, and overlain by tufa with an age of 103+/-14 ka. At Bulaq Wadi 3 Locus 1, a uranium-series age of 114.4+/-4.2 ka on tufa capping a small collection of Middle Stone Age artifacts also provides a minimum age constraint on that material. Tufa underlying an MSA workshop (KH/MD-10) indicates that this assemblage, characterized by use of several Levallois reduction methods, was deposited after approximately 124 ka. Furthermore, uranium-series ages averaging approximately 133 ka on a Wadi Midauwara tufa (WME-10) without associated archaeological material suggest that one period of spring flow in the region began during the Marine Isotope Stage 6/5e transition, prior to the warmest portion of the last interglacial period. The dated archaeological material suggests that the distinction that has been identified between Nubian and non-Nubian complexes in the Nile Valley may hold for the Western Desert, although local complexity has yet to be fully described.

  1. Determinants of Transitions across Formal/Informal sectors in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Tansel, Aysit; Ozdemir, Zeynel / A.

    2014-01-01

    Informality is a salient feature of labor market in Egypt as it is the case with many developing countries. This is the first study of the determinants of worker transitions between various labor market states using panel data from Egypt. We first provide a diagnosis of dynamic worker flows across different labor market states. We develop transition probabilities by gender across different labor market states utilizing Markov transition processes. Next we identify the effects of individual, h...

  2. Mineral chemistry and geochemistry of ophiolitic metaultramafics from Um Halham and Fawakhir, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Karim, Abdel-Aal M.; Ali, Shehata; El-Shafei, Shaimaa A.

    2018-03-01

    This study is focused on ophiolitic metaultramafics from Um Halham and Fawakhir, Central Eastern Desert of Egypt. The rocks include serpentinized peridotites, serpentinites together with talc- and quartz-carbonates. The primary spinel relict is Al-chromite [Cr# > 60], which is replaced by Cr-magnetite during metamorphism. The high Cr# of Al-chromites resembles supra-subduction zone (SSZ) peridotites and suggests derivation from the deeper portion of the mantle section with boninitic affinity. These mantle rocks equilibrated with boninitic melt have been generated by high melting degrees. The estimated melting degrees ( 19-24%) lie within the range of SSZ peridotites. The high Cr# of spinel and Fo content of olivine together with the narrow compositional range suggest a mantle residual origin. Serpentinized peridotite and serpentinites have low Al2O3/SiO2 ratios (mostly serpentinization process. Moreover, they have very low Nb, Ta, Zr and Hf concentrations along with sub-chondritic Nb/Ta (0.3-16) and Zr/Hf (mostly 1-20) ratios further confirming that their mantle source was depleted by earlier melting extraction event. The high chondrite normalized (La/Sm)N ratios (average 10) reflect input of subduction-related slab melts/fluids into their mantle source.

  3. Nutritive value of the Range Plants in the Western Mediterranean Desert of Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Din, A.S.; El-Kady, H.F.

    2001-01-01

    The present study assesses the nutritive value of the range plants in the Western Mediterranean Desert of Egypt to evaluate their usage as forage for domestic animals (mainly sheep and goats). Analysis of plant organs which represent the diet selected by the herbivores indicated that their mean protein content is about 1.1%. This is lower than the proper level, but it is ranked as acceptable protein content. The average digestible protein intake was about 46.4g 100kg live weight-1 day-1, which is inadequate for the protein needs of grazing animals. The amount of total digestible nutrient (TDN) was also lower than the normal requirements of the sheep. The shortfall in the forage nutrition may be attributed to the high stocking rate. If the stocking rate is about seven times lower than the present value, most of the requirements of energy and protein could be fulfilled in the range. The ratio of Ca: P was higher than the optimum, which may lead to lower utilization of both Ca and P by animals. (author)

  4. Gravity and Areomagnetic Signatures and their Geological Significance in the Abu Gharadig Basin, Nortwestern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, H.A.

    2000-01-01

    Geological interpretation of Bouguer gravity anomalies and total intensity magnetic anomalies of two profiles from the Abu Gharadig Basin suggests a general northward increase in basement depth (about 3 to 6 km). Gravity modeling using software given by Enmark (1981) and Beg et. al (1987) are applied along the gravity profiles, giving reliable results agreeing with the available geological information on the area. The magenetic profiles are interpreted and analyzed using two methods: non-linear optimization techniques and interactive techniques. A prominent uplift of the basement rock is observed to the south, which is considered a part of the major basement high in the north Western Desert of the Egypt. In addition a significant deepning of the basement is found to the north, which represents a part of the major subsidence including the present Mediterranean BasinThe abnormal thickness of the sedimentary section of varius facies, and the presence of deep-causative intrabasement (acidic or basic bodies) are possibly considered the main cause for 1) the origin of different gravity anamolies (negative and positive respectively); and 2) the origin of different magnetic anomalies (low and high), particularly those in the middle part of the study area. (author)

  5. Relation between uranium mineralization and structural features, Gebel Gattar, north eastern desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salman, A.B.; Shalaby, M.H.; Abuzaid, M.M.; Ragab, A.

    1998-01-01

    Gebel Gattar area is situated in the northern Eastern Desert of Egypt, SW Hurghada city and is considered as an area of high potentialities for uranium deposits. The area is covered by Hammamat sediments and Gattarian granites. The Hammamat sediments are dissected by different types of dykes, while Gebel Gattar granites are cut only by basic dykes. These granites are mentioned as the younger pink granites, perthitic leucogranites, calc-alkaline and within plate granites. The structural deformations of the study area are represented by primary structures and secondary ones. The most prevailing structures are folding, faulting and jointing. The faults, especially those trending in the NNE-SSW and N-S directions played as pass ways to the ascending uranium-bearing hydrothermal solutions carrying uranium mineralizations. Most of them are located within a large pull apart basin. It is found from the relation between structures and uranium mineralization within the highly pro missing shear zones that uranium mineralizations are located within a large pull-apart basin, having about 2 km length and 0.5 km width. This idea is based up on the distribution of uranium mineralized lenses as shown in a block diagram. This conclusion is based on the structural framework of the area, the shape of mineralization and its distribution and their mutual relationships of Gl, Gll and GVl shear zones

  6. Prospecting for the ferromagnetic mineral accumulations using the magnetic method at the Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabeh, Taha

    2009-01-01

    In this study we delineate the subsurface structures within an area of about 145 000 km 2 in the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt (CED), using magnetic methods. The main goal is to establish the tectonic framework of the study area and to understand the role of tectonics in the mineralization process. Aeromagnetic data covering the study area were used, and also detailed land magnetic surveys were carried out along profiles. More than 300 rock samples were collected for laboratory measurements of magnetic susceptibility. The data set was processed using a series of techniques, namely trend analysis, 3D Euler deconvolution, Werner deconvolution and 2.5 direct modelling. Results indicate that the most predominant tectonic trends are E–W, N15°–25°W and N45°W. The depth to the basement estimates range from the surface to 1.8 km. These results agree with the drilled well data. The measured magnetic susceptibility values range between 0.0001 SI and 5 SI. The high susceptibility values strongly suggest that ferromagnetic minerals accompany the mafic metavolcanics along the shear zones at Barramiya, Hafafit, Dawi and Abu Swayel. We show a good correlation between the structures deduced from the magnetic analysis and the known mineral distributions. Most of these ore accumulations are restricted to the major tectonic shear zones with a NW–SE direction. We conclude that mineralization is structurally controlled by faulting, probably as a result of hydrothermal circulation along fault planes

  7. Occupational Exposures during the U-Exploration Activities at Seila Area, South Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Razek, Y.A.; Masoud, M.S.; Hanfi, M.Y.; El-Nagdy, M.S.

    2017-01-01

    Twenty trenches distributed over a shear zone at Seila area, South Eastern Desert of Egypt were chosen to study the occupational exposures during the U-exploration activities in these trenches. The average value of the activity concentration of "2'3"8 U, "2"3"2Th and "4"0K in the studied granites are 866 , 57 and 1380 Bq.kg"-"1 respectively. These values are higher than the worldwide average of 33, 45 and 412 Bq/kg. According to these activity concentrations , trenches are divided into the non-regulated and regulated categories. The average value of the annual effective dose due to the terrestrial radionuclides is 0.306 mSv for the non-regulated trenches and 0.958 mSv for the regulated trenches corresponding to the absorbed dose rate 219 nGy.h"-"1 for the non-regulated trenches and 684 nGy.h"-"1 for the regulated trenches. The average measured annual effective dose for non-regulated and regulated trenches is 0.81 and 1.42 mSv respectively. This difference is ascribed to the geometry of the studied trenches. However, the total annual effective dose in the non-regulated and the regulated trenches is lower than the recommended value of 20 mSv

  8. Aeromagnetometry and aeroradiometry of Gabal El Kahfa ring complex, Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meleik, M.L.; Ammar, A.A.; Fouad, K.M.; Rabie, S.I.

    1988-01-01

    The existence of Gabal El Kahfa ring complex, located in the Eastern Desert of Egypt, has been ascertained from aeromagnetic and aeroradiometric survey data as well as by aerial photography. Two maps for the net aerial radiometric measurements reduced to ground level and aerial magnetic data corrected for the regional normal gradient of the earth's magnetic field have been constructed. The aeroradioactivity data have been interpreted geologically and analyzed statistically to outline various radiometric units and compute their characteristic statistics. The ring complex showed a circular radiometric feature and yielded a radiometric mean background and a standard deviation of 6.48 and 0.89 μR/h respectively. Besides, the observations showed a normal distribution. The aeromagnetic data have been reduced to the north magnetic pole, then filtered to produce the regional-and residual-component maps. Statistical trend analysis was conducted for the tectonic lineaments resulting from the three magnetic maps, to define the structural framework of the area under study. This statistical study proved the existence of trends in the east-west, northwest-southeast, northeast-southwest and north-south directions. The ring complex is characterized by a circular magnetic feature, whose average relief is 2150 nT. It is included within a high east-west trending magnetic zone. The latter represents a deep-seated uplift or anticline which is bordered from all sides by some faults of different trends. 14 refs., 14 figs

  9. Hydrochemical and Isotopic Assessment of Ground Water in Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atiti, S.Y.; Ali, M.M.; Yousef, L.A.; Dessouki, H.A.

    2011-01-01

    The recharge rate is the most critical factor to ground water resources especially in semi- arid and arid areas. Fourteen representative ground water samples were collected from South Eastern Desert of Egypt and subjected to chemical and isotopic composition. The chemical data reported that, the alkalinity (ph) ranges between 6.5 and 8.5, the salinity of water ranges between 396 and 7874 ppm, sodium is the most dominant cation and chloride is the most dominant anion. The concentration of trace elements (Fe, Pb, Cd, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Mn) was analyzed to evaluate the suitability for drinking and irrigation. Uranium and thorium concentrations were found within the safe limit. Most of ground water was found suitable for drinking water, laundry, irrigation, building, industrial, livestock and poultry. The environmental stable isotopes (D and 18 O) and the radioactive isotope 3 H were evaluated for water samples of the investigated area to focus on the origin of the ground water, sources of recharging and the water rock interaction between aquifers and water. The isotopic compositions of these ground water samples indicated that, there are three different sources of recharge; paleo-water, local precipitation and rain water

  10. Remote Sensing and Shallow Geophysical Investigations on Moghra Lake in Northeastern Qattarra Depression, Western Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, S. D.; Fathy, M. S.; Azeem, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    The Western Desert of Egypt encompasses two thirds of the land area of Egypt and constitutes one of the driest regions of the Sahara. This desert has seven depressions; Siwa, Qattara, Fayium, Bahariya, Farafra, Dakhla and Kharga. These depressions may be the manifestation of old drainage basins with extensive erosion and possibly some tectonic activity. Several oases with freshwater can be found in these depressions. Geological and geophysical investigations in Qattara Depression indicate several buried fluvial channels with flow direction from highlands in southeast to northwest. Moghra Lake at the northeastern tip of Qatarra basin may be a small remnant of a larger paleo-lake including the mouth of a paleo-river. This study probed this area for presence of buried channels that may have fed the larger Moghra paleo-lake. We have used ALOS - PALSAR radar remote sensing data to identify the surface features in this region, such as channels, channel fills, and fractures. In addition, dual polarization PALSAR data (HV, HH) allowed analysis of the near surface geology and assisted in delineating areas of interest for GPR surveys. GPR data along 2D profiles were acquired using the GSSI SIR-3000 system with a 400 MHz antenna that provided images to approximately three meters in depth. All the GPS data were processed using RADAN 6.6 software. A conventional processing flow was used for data processing: The positional correction tool removed the air wave. A range-gain balanced the amplitudes and a final band-pass (50 kHz to 500 kHz) filter was applied to the data. Deconvolution was also applied for highlighting the finer details. In addition, spatial filters were used to attenuate continuous vertical noise. The migrated sections of GPR identified a major paleochannel distributary with two minor channels at the margins. The bedrock of the studied area consists of the Lower Miocene Moghra Formation (sandstone and shale intercalations). The area around the present lake is

  11. Some biomedical applications of Balanites aegyptiaca grown naturally in radioactive area, Southeastern Desert, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morsy, A.M.A., E-mail: Ghostvolca@hotmail.com [Nuclear Materials Authority, P.O. Box 530, El Maadi, Cairo (Egypt); Ahmad, I.A. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University (Egypt); Kamel, A.M. [Labeled Compounds Department, Radioisotopes Production Division, Hot Labs Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Abou-Zaabal 13759 (Egypt)

    2010-06-15

    Balanites aegyptiaca is a naturally grown desert plant at some radioactive places in Wadi El-Gemal area, Southeastern Desert. The aim of the present study was to highlight on the B. aegyptiaca species grown naturally at radioactive places in Wadi El-Gemal area (fruit part) on the ability of using the fruit in some biomedical application (glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and diabetes). The investigated plant was collected from different location at Wadi El-Gemal area. The uranium content was determined previously and different concentrations from the fruit with highest uranium content were used to examine the effect of B. aegyptiaca (fruit part) on the glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol (HDL and LDL-cholesterol) levels using experimental rats. Different analysis techniques were used in order to determine different parameters. The obtained data suggest the beneficial role of B. aegyptiaca fruit as an anti-diabetic and hypo-lipidimic agent.

  12. Some biomedical applications of Balanites aegyptiaca grown naturally in radioactive area, Southeastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morsy, A.M.A.; Ahmad, I.A.; Kamel, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Balanites aegyptiaca is a naturally grown desert plant at some radioactive places in Wadi El-Gemal area, Southeastern Desert. The aim of the present study was to highlight on the B. aegyptiaca species grown naturally at radioactive places in Wadi El-Gemal area (fruit part) on the ability of using the fruit in some biomedical application (glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and diabetes). The investigated plant was collected from different location at Wadi El-Gemal area. The uranium content was determined previously and different concentrations from the fruit with highest uranium content were used to examine the effect of B. aegyptiaca (fruit part) on the glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol (HDL and LDL-cholesterol) levels using experimental rats. Different analysis techniques were used in order to determine different parameters. The obtained data suggest the beneficial role of B. aegyptiaca fruit as an anti-diabetic and hypo-lipidimic agent.

  13. Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    Attention in this discussion of Egypt is directed to the following: geography; the people; history; government and political conditions; the economy; defense; foreign relations; and relations between Egypt and the US. The population totaled 50.5 million in 1986 with an annual growth rate of 2.8%. The infant mortality rate is 102/1000 (1986), and life expectancy is 58.3 years. Located in the northeastern corner of Africa, Egypt has a land area of about 1 million square kilometers and is bounded by the Mediterranean Sea, Libya, Sudan, the Red Sea, the Gulf of Aqaba, and Israel. Egypt is the most populous country in the Arab world. Egyptians are a fairly homogenous people of Hamitic origin. Mediterranean and Arab influences appear in the north, and there is some mixing in the south with the Nubians of northern Sudan. Egypt has been a unified state for over 5000 years, and archeological evidence indicates that a developed Egyptian society has existed for considerably longer. The constitution of Egypt provides for a strong executive with authority vested in an elected president who can appoint 1 or more vice presidents, a prime minister, and a cabinet. Egypt's legislative body has 458 members -- 448 popularly elected and 10 appointed by the president. Power is concentrated in the hands of the president and the National Democratic Party's majority in the People's Assembly, but opposition parties organize, publish their views, and represent their followers at various levels in the political system. The process of gradual political liberalization begun by Sadat has continued under Mubarak. In fiscal year 1987 the gross domestic product (GDP) reached about US$30 billion. Agriculture and services each contribute about 1/3 of GDP; the remainder comes from industry, petroleum, mining, electricity, and construction. At this time, the Egyptian economy faces several challenges. In 1986 the government of Egypt initiated a major review of economic policy and initiated an economic

  14. Land Resources Evaluation Of The Paleodarainage Delta In Western Desert Of Egypt Using Remote Sensing Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afify, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    The study area was selected to represent the sediments of paleodrainage delta in the Western Desert of Egypt, covering about 15615653 feddans (6561199 hectares). The data of Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) 2002 were used for delineating the physiographic units to be a base for the soil taxonomic units (all are hyperthermic). These taxonomic units were potentially evaluated for barley and wheat (grain crops), alfalfa (fodder crop), maize, sun flower and olives (oil seed crops). The illustrated flow of the paleodrainage delta starts from the south as undulating delta apex, which most probably was deposited by the paleodrainage from Eastern Desert through the different rock structures. This apex includes soils of Calcic Petrogypsids loamy skeletal, gypsic; Typic Clacigypsids, loamy skeletal, gypsic and Typic Calcigypsids, sandy skeletal, mixed. The unit is profitable for drip irrigated olives as moderately to marginally suitable and for quarrying Oligocene gravel. Gently undulating inter delta includes sediments that was most probably received by reworking and out washing the slopes of delta apex in relatively more recent fluvial eras. The soils are Typic Calcigypsids, fine loamy, mixed; Typic Calcigypsids, loamy skeletal, mixed and Typic Calcigypsids, sandy, mixed. This unit is profitable for drip irrigated olives as highly suitable and sprinkly irrigated alfalfa, maize and sun flower as marginally suitable. Gently undulating to almost flat inter delta is most probably received its sediments from the southern physiographic units by the paleodrainage erosion. The soils are Leptic Haplogypsids, fine loamy, mixed and Leptic Haplogypsid, sandy, mixed. This unit is profitable for drip irrigated olives as moderately suitable. In the middle front of this unit, a township is proposed to be constructed A I Qattara Town . Flat depressed pro delta includes interfered sediments of different paleodrainage eras being received medium soil matrix over relatively old sediments

  15. Implications of human induced changes on the distribution of important plant species in the northwestern coastal desert of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa Waseem Halmy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of species distribution modeling in deserts is a useful tool for mapping species and assessing the impact of human induced changes on individual species. Such applications are still rare, and this may be attributed to the fact that much of the arid lands and deserts around the world are located in inaccessible areas. Few studies have conducted spatially explicit modeling of plant species distribution in Egypt. The random forest modeling approach was applied to climatic and land-surface parameters to predict the distribution of ten important plant species in an arid landscape in the northwestern coastal desert of Egypt. The impact of changes in land use and climate on the distribution of the plant species was assessed. The results indicate that the changes in land use in the area have resulted in habitat loss for all the modeled species. Projected future changes in land use reveals that all the modeled species will continue to suffer habitat loss. The projected impact of modeled climate scenarios (A1B, A2A and B2A on the distribution of the modeled species by 2040 varied. Some of the species were projected to be adversely affected by the changes in climate, while other species are expected to benefit from these changes. The combined impact of the changes in land use and climate pose serious threats to most of the modeled species. The study found that all the species are expected to suffer loss in habitat, except Gymnocarpos decanderus. The study highlights the importance of assessing the impact of land use/climate change scenarios on other species of restricted distribution in the area and can help shape policy and mitigation measures directed toward biodiversity conservation in Egypt.

  16. Mineralogical Characterization of The Alteration Facies at Gabal El-Missikat Area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sherif, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study deals with the petrographical, mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of the alteration facies zones recognized around the shear zone at Gabal El-Missikat area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt. Petrographically, the fresh granitic samples are composed mainly of quartz, K-feldspars (microcline and microcline perthite), plagioclase, biotite. The secondary minerals are sericite, kaolinite, muscovite, chlorite and epidote as well as zircon, apatite, fluorite, titanite and iron oxides as accessory minerals. Two alteration facies zones are recognized and namely as propylitic and advanced argillic. The propylitic facies zone is composed mainly of sericite with minor kaolinite, muscovite, quartz, relics of plagioclases, chlorite and rare epidote as well as zircon, hematite, goethite, magnetite, ilmenite, ilmenorutile, rutile, titanite, apatite, columbite and fluorite and secondary uranium minerals, the advanced argillic facies zone is composed mainly of kaolinite with minor sericite, quartz, muscovite, chlorite and rare epidote as well as zircon, hematite, goethite, magnetite, ilmenite, ilmenorutile, rutile, titanite, apatite and garnet of spessartine type as accessory minerals. The identified minerals in the studied two alteration facies zones can be grouped into three mineral groups which are: the primary minerals (pyrite, magnetite, galena, columbite and gold), the secondary minerals (uranophane, kasolite and wulfenite) and the gangue minerals (anhydrite, barite, celestine, hematite, goethite and fluorite). The identified mineral assemblage of the studied propylitic alteration facies zone may be attributed to strongly alkaline hydrothermal solutions at ph value of more than 7 with temperature varying between 350 and 450°C, while the advanced argillic alteration facies zone is essentially associated with strongly acidic hydrothermal solutions at ph value less than 7 with temperature varying between 150 and 400°C

  17. Some Physiological Adaptations to Drought in Xerohalophytic Plants Inhabiting Two Oases in Western Desert of Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rayan, A M; Farghali, K A

    2007-01-01

    Under natural drought, some physiological parameters were measured in some wild species inhabiting the western desert of Egypt. Seasonal changes of nitrogen metabolites and Na/K ratio were detected in the investigated species. Effect of seasons, species, and their interaction played an important role on total free amino acids, soluble proteins and Na/K ratio at two oases (Dakhla and Kharga). Species diversity showed more effective variable in regulating such metabolites at Kharga oasis. Plants responded to their environment in two ways, either by increasing their water binding molecules or by preventing the formation of amino acids into proteins. Some of the halophytic and xerophytic species may adjust osmotically to stress by the contribution of nitrogen metabolites. On the other hand, Zygophyllum coccineum, the succulent plant, may adapt to environmental conditions through the accumulation of free amino acids. Correlation analysis between Na+/K+ ratio with free amino acids, soluble proteins and water content in Tamarix aphylla, Salsola imbricata, Balanites aegyptiaca, Trichodesma africanum, and Z. coccineum (Kharga) indicated changes in ionic fraction or accumulating soluble organic compounds which were osmotically active and contribute to osmotic adjustment. Correlations were found between chlorophyll content, ionic and nitrogen metabolites. In Acacia nilotica, Suaeda monoica and Z. coccineum at Dakhla oasis, changes in soluble proteins or ionic ratio could be caused by chlorophyll response to stress, while S. imbricata and T. aphylla may control cellular protein contents. On the other hand, the sharing of both free amino acids and ionic fraction may play an important role of osmoregulation in S. imbricata, Citrullus colocynthis and Z. coccineum at Kharga oasis. (author)

  18. Monitoring of some Wild Plant Species Grown on Natural Radioactive Soils, Wadi EI -Gemal Area, Southeastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morsy, A.M.A.; Afifi, S.Y.

    2008-01-01

    Fore long time ago, human kind has relied on natural products of plants as a primary source for medicine. Herbs, flora, molt and even leeches were employed to bring up relief to the sick and infirmly. As a part of ongoing investigations for the effect of natural radionuclide radiations on biochemical constituents of plants, .two native species (Salvadora persica and Balanites aegyptiaca). grown on virgin radionuclide soils along with Wadi EI-Gemal area, Southeastern Desert, Egypt were collected. This study dealt with amounts of radionuclide taken by plants and their effects on their biochemical constituents, beneficiation uses on remedy of contaminated and even polluted soils and sick treatments as well as exploration of radioactive materials. These plant samples were subjected to certain analysis techniques for the amounts of uranium that were followed by determining carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. The results indicated that both plants uptake uranium but with different amounts. Uranium has a passive effect on the total soluble suger (T.S.S.) of Balanties aegyptiaca plant, while no clear trend appears on T.S.S. of Snlvndora persica root samples. No clear trend appeared for effect of uranium on both fatty acids and amino acids of the investigated plants. Meanwhile uranium has a passive effect on saponin in both plant species, alkaloid in S. persica root and flavonoids in B. aegyptiaca fruits, while showed a positive effect on alkaloids in B. aegyptiaca and no clear trend appeared for flavonoids in S. persica. As for diosgenin uranium has passive effect on its amount in B. aegyptiaca

  19. Genesis of the Abu Marawat gold deposit, central Eastern Desert of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoheir, Basem A.; Akawy, Ahmed

    2010-06-01

    Gold mineralisation at the Abu Marawat mine, central Eastern Desert of Egypt, is related to a system of massive and sheared, milky quartz veins cutting a sequence of Neoproterozoic island arc metavolcanic/volcaniclastic rocks and related banded iron formation (BIF). Sulphide-bearing quartz veins and related hydrothermal breccia bodies display a range of textures including sheared, boudinaged and recrystallised quartz, open space filling and microbreccia. These variable textures imply a complex history of crack-seal mechanism characterising the relation between mineral deposition and a major N-S-trending shear zone, during a late brittle-ductile deformation event which affected the area at about 550 Ma. Gold-base metal mineralisation is associated with brecciation and fracturing of the iron ore bands, close to silicified shears and related quartz veins. The auriferous quartz lodes are characterised by the occurrence of visible pyrite-chalcopyrite ± pyrrhotite ± sphalerite ± galena mineralisation. Gold is refractory in pyrite and chalcopyrite, but rare visible gold/electrum and telluride specks were observed in a few samples. Hydrothermal alteration includes pervasive silicification, pyritisation, sericitisation, carbonatisation confined to a delicate set of veins and altered shears, and a more widespread propylitic alteration assemblage (quartz + chlorite + pyrite + calcite ± epidote). Fluid inclusion petrography and microthermometric studies suggest heterogeneous trapping of a low-salinity (1.4-6.7 wt.% eq. NaCl) aqueous solution and a carbonic fluid. Evidence for fluid immiscibility during ore formation includes variable liquid/vapour ratios in inclusions along individual trails and bulk inclusion homogenisation into liquid and occasionally to vapour at comparable temperatures. The trapping conditions of intragranular aqueous-carbonic inclusions approximate 264-378 °C at 700-1300 bar. Similar temperature estimates have been obtained from Al

  20. Genetic Affiliation of Gold and Uranium Mineralization in El-Missikat Granite, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammar, F.A.; Omar, S.A.M.; El Sawey, El.H.

    2016-01-01

    Gabal El-Missikat granitic pluton is affected by two fault systems trending NW-SE (the oldest) and ENE-WSW directions. It is one of the uranium occurrences in the Eastern Desert of Egypt. The northwestern margins of El-Missikat pluton, along its contact with the gneissose quartz diorite, are dissected by numerous reactivated fractured shear zones running generally ENE-WSW to NE-SW and dipping about 60°-70° to SE. Many white (oldest), smoky or black and jasperoid (youngest) silica veinlets fill the fractures of these shear zones. These veins are of irregular shape and variable thickness ranging from few centimeters to about three meters. They are chiefly affected by silicification, sericitization, hematitization , kaolinization and hydrothermal alterations processes. The smoky black veins are hosting secondary uranium and fluorite-, sulphide-gold mineralizations. Polished surface studies, ICP-ES and Atomic Absorption as well as Scanning Electron Microscope measurements recorded galena, pyrite chalcopyrite, sphalerite and molybdenite in the black and jasperoid mineralized veins. Gold associated with ore mineral assemblage as pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena, sheelite and iron oxides. The identified sulphide minerals not bearing gold are recorded. Gold are relatively coarse-grained, massive and metallic yellow or stretched bronze colored particles. The recorded secondary U minerals associates the sulphide gold-mineralization in the black and jasperoid silica veins. Regarding the mobility of both uranium and gold, U 4+ mobilized in oxidizing medium and migrate and transport as U 6+ , then deposited later as U 4+ when the medium changes to be reducing characterized by high /O 2 . On contrary, gold mobilized when the medium is complex AuCl 3- ion bearing. Consequently, El- Missikat granitic pluton affected by oxidizing Au and Cl 3- bearing high temperature hydrothermal solutions that leached U 4+ , W and Mo from the granitic mass as U 6 + , later decrease of

  1. Peculiar Feldspar And Quartz Inclusions Within Zircons From Anorthosites, North Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliwa, H. A.; Dawoud, M. I.; Khalaf, I. M.; Negendank, J. F.; Itaya, T.

    2004-12-01

    Zircons from three anorthosite outcrops along Wadi Dib area, north Eastern Desert of Egypt contain abundant and conspicuous inclusions of quartz, feldspar, amphibole and apatite. These anorthosites, as (50-100m thick) layers, represent the top of mafic-ultramafic intrusions exhibiting rhythmic layering visible by reputation of melanocratic and leucocratic layers. Field and microscopic studies exhibit that these anorthosites were affected by the action of residual magmatic solutions associated with the late stage crystallization of the younger granites, which modified their mineralogical composition. They are composed totally of plagioclase with subordinate amount of clinoenstatite, augite, amphibole, biotite, K-feldspar, and quartz. Accessories are magnetite, ilmenite, apatite and zircon. The abundance and the mode of occurrence of K-feldspar, quartz, and biotite with apatite and zircon among the megacrysts suggest their formation is ascribed to the interaction with the residual solutions. The microprobe data exhibit difference between feldspar and amphiboles contained herein zircons and those as anorthosite mineral constituents. The genetic relationship between zircons and their inclusions suggests later growth of zircons than inclusions and most probably at the final stage of rock modification. Zircons are magmatic and found in the interstitial feldspar and quartz among plagioclase megacrysts in aggregates or as individual grains. The microscopic and SEM images investigation exhibit that most zircons are subhedral to euhedral equant and prismatic crystals. Most zircons have same range of crystal morphologies and internal growth structures with predominance of prism /{100/} and pyramid /{101/} and occasionally prism /{110/} and pyramid /{111/}. No evidences for poly-faceted grains, inherited cores or later overgrowths were detected. CL images distinguished zircons with visible core-rim structures and others with regular and continuous growth zones contained herein

  2. Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The book covers Egyptian history from the Predynastic to the late Roman Period. It also introduces early contemporary literary references to ancient Egypt and uses a number of theoretical approaches to interrogate the archaeological and textual data. Egyptology and Egyptian archaeology are often...... to demonstrate the emerging interdisciplinary nature in Ancient Egyptian studies and the first to suggest new avenues of approach whilst seeking to open a discussion about how the Egyptian past can be known and understood. The book engages with wider trends from the humanities, which have found currency...

  3. Origin of an extensive network of non-tectonic synclines in Eocene limestones of the Western Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewksbury, Barbara J.; Tarabees, Elhamy A.; Mehrtens, Charlotte J.

    2017-12-01

    Satellite images of the Western Desert of Egypt display conspicuous sinuous color patterning that previous workers have interpreted as erosional flutes formed by catastrophic flooding. Our work with high resolution satellite imagery shows that the patterning is not erosional but, rather, the result of a network of thousands of narrow synclines in the Eocene bedrock capping the Limestone Plateau. Synclines form as isolated, 200-400 meter-wide downwarps in otherwise flat-lying strata. Limb dips are shallow, and doubly plunging hinges form multiple basin closures along syncline lengths. Anticlines form ;accidentally; in inter-syncline areas where two adjacent synclines lie close together. Synclines have two dominant orientations, WNW-ESE and NNW-SSE, parallel to two prominent joint and fault sets, and synclines branch, merge, and change orientation along their lengths. Synclines are all at the same scale with neither larger structures nor parasitic structures and are best described as non-tectonic sag synclines. An Egypt-wide inventory reveals that these synclines are both confined to Eocene limestones and developed, albeit it sporadically, over nearly 100,000 km2. The syncline network predates plateau gravels of the Katkut Formation, which have been interpreted as Oligocene or early Miocene in age, and the network is cut by faults related to Western Desert extension associated with Red Sea rifting. The mechanism that caused sag of overlying layers is not clear. Modern karst collapse, subsurface dissolution of evaporites, and collapse of paleokarst are all unlikely mechanisms given the timing of formation and the underlying stratigraphy. Silica diagenesis and downslope mobilization of underlying shales are possibilities, although uncertainty about the origin of silica in the limestones, plus the consistency of syncline orientations over large areas, make these models problematic. Hypogene karst, perhaps related to aggressive fluids associated with basaltic intrusions

  4. Audio-magnetotelluric surveys to constrain the origin of a network of narrow synclines in Eocene limestone, Western Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarabees, Elhamy A.; Tewksbury, Barbara J.; Mehrtens, Charlotte J.; Younis, Abdellatif

    2017-12-01

    Recent work with high resolution satellite imagery has revealed a network of narrow synclines developed during the Oligocene or Miocene over tens of thousands of square kilometers in Eocene limestone of the Thebes Group in the Western Desert of Egypt. The synclines are non-tectonic, and their scale and geometry strongly resemble sag synclines in Qatar that were produced by dissolution of subsurface evaporites and resulting sag of overlying layers. Evaporite dissolution cannot explain the Egypt synclines, because subsurface evaporites of any significance have never been reported in this part of Egypt. In this study, we use audio-magnetotelluric surveys to illuminate the subsurface under the synclines in order to constrain possible models for their formation. We suspected karst dissolution at depth, and, given a modern water table depth of over 400 m, we expected that dry fracture networks and void spaces under the synclines might result in higher electrical resistivities than surrounding coherent limestone. We also anticipated a significant change from high to low resistivity at the contact between the Thebes Group and the underlying Esna Shale at depths of 400 m or more. Instead, we found localized low resistivity zones extending from about 50-100 m below the surface to depths of more than 400 m that are strongly correlated with synclines. We suggest that these localized low resistivity zones are filled with artesian groundwater that has insufficient hydraulic head to rise to the modern topographic surface and that is localized in subsurface voids and collapse breccias produced by dissolution. Sag of overlying limestone layers is a reasonable model for syncline formation but, given the Oligocene/Miocene age of the synclines, dissolution and sag would be unrelated to young groundwater processes.

  5. Polyphasic characterization of Westiellopsis prolifica (Hapalosiphonaceae, Cyanobacteria) from the El-Farafra Oasis (Western Desert, Egypt)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Saber, A. A.; Cantonati, M.; Mareš, Jan; Anesi, A.; Guella, G.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 6 (2017), s. 697-709 ISSN 0031-8884 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : 16S rRNA * autecology * bio-organic screening * Egypt * polyphasic study Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 1.826, year: 2016

  6. Prehistory of the southern Bahariya Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt. An outline

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Jiří

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 28 (2006), s. 18-30 ISSN 1563-0110. [Early Human Habitation of Central, North and East Asia. Archaeological and Paleoecological Aspects. Gorny Altai, 16.08.2005-25.08.2005] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80010507 Keywords : Acheulian * Middle Paleolithic * Epipaleolithic * Bahariya * Egypt Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  7. Polyphasic characterization of Westiellopsis prolifica (Hapalosiphonaceae, Cyanobacteria) from the El-Farafra Oasis (Western Desert, Egypt)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Saber, A. A.; Cantonati, M.; Mareš, Jan; Anesi, A.; Guella, G.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 6 (2017), s. 697-709 ISSN 0031-8884 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-11912S Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : 16S rRNA * Egypt * Westiellopsis Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 1.826, year: 2016

  8. Deserts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belnap, Jayne; Webb, Robert H.; Esque, Todd; Brooks, Matthew L.; DeFalco, Lesley; MacMahon, James A.

    2016-01-01

    The deserts of California (Lead photo, Fig. 1) occupy approximately 38% of California’s landscape (Table 1) and consist of three distinct deserts: the Great Basin Desert, Mojave Desert, and Colorado Desert, the latter of which is a subdivision of the Sonoran Desert (Brown and Lowe 1980). The wide range of climates and geology found within each of these deserts result in very different vegetative communities and ecosystem processes and therefore different ecosystem services. In deserts, extreme conditions such as very high and low temperatures and very low rainfall result in abiotic factors (climate, geology, geomorphology, and soils) controlling the composition and function of ecosystems, including plant and animal distributions. This is in contrast to wetter and milder temperatures found in other ecosystems, where biotic interactions are the dominant driving force. However, despite the harsh conditions in deserts, they are home to a surprisingly large number of plants and animals. Deserts are also places where organisms display a wide array of adaptations to the extremes they encounter, providing some of the best examples of Darwinian selection (MacMahon and Wagner 1985, Ward 2009). Humans have utilized these regions for thousands of years, despite the relatively low productivity and harsh climates of these landscapes. Unlike much of California, most of these desert lands have received little high-intensity use since European settlement, leaving large areas relatively undisturbed. Desert landscapes are being altered, however, by the introduction of fire following the recent invasion of Mediterranean annual grasses. As most native plants are not fire-adapted, they Many do not recover, whereas the non-native grasses flourish. Because desert lands are slow to recover from disturbances, energy exploration and development, recreational use, and urban development will alter these landscapes for many years to come. This chapter provides a brief description of where the

  9. Trace elements assessment in agricultural and desert soils of Aswan area, south Egypt: Geochemical characteristics and environmental impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Mohamed Abdallah Gad; Pöllmann, Hebert

    2015-12-01

    Determination of chemical elements, Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, Pb, Sc, Sr, Ti, Y, and Zn have been performed in agricultural and desert soils and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) at Aswan area. Consequently, the pollution indices, univariate and multivariate statistical methods have been applied, in order to assess the geochemical characteristics of these elements and their impact on soil environmental quality and plant, and to reach for their potential input sources. The investigation revealed that the mean and range values of all element concentrations in agricultural soil are higher than those in desert soil. Furthermore, the agricultural soil displayed various degrees of enrichment and pollution of Cd, Zn, Mo, Co, P, Ti, Pb. The geochemical pattern of integrated pollution indices gave a clear image of extreme and strong pollution in the agricultural soil stations, their poor quality with high risk to human health and considered as a tocsin for an alert. In contrast, the desert soil is the good environmental quality and safe for plant, animal and human health. Alfalfa is tolerant plant and considered as a biomarker for P and Mo in polluted agricultural soil. Four geochemical associations of analyzing elements in agricultural soil and three ones in desert soil have been generated, and their enhancements were essentially caused by various anthropogenic activities and geogenic sources. The investigation also revealed that the broad extended desert soil is fruitful and promising as cultivable lands for agricultural processes in the futures.

  10. Macroeconomic determinants of savings in Egypt "Statistical Model"

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    Hanaa Abdelaty Hasan Esmail

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Like lot of countries, aggregate consumption constitutes a major portion of Gross Domestic Product (GDP in Egypt. Consumption decisions determine savings decisions. In long term growth literature, differences in long term growth had been explained to a large extent by differences in the rates of savings which also determine a country’s investment in productive capacity, human capital and socio-economic infrastructure. In this study, we analyse macroeconomic determinants of savings in Egypt using Ordinary multiple regression. Our results indicate that national savings rate is positively related with real GDP growth rate. This suggests that saving is a positive function of income. The evidence suggests that national savings rate is negatively related with federal debt growth and inflation. This hints towards crowding out of private sector investment through decline in savings rate as a result of government’s indebtedness. Finally, negative association between savings rate and inflation implies that the consumer is rational and makes decisions based on his perceptions when it comes to allocating the lifetime resources over the period of his life. Increase in inflation dampens the incentive to save and people respond rationally which is made evident by the negative sign on inflation coefficient in our model.

  11. A Proposal for Desert House Design in Egypt Using Passive Ground Cooling Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Medhat Dorra

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available An area less than 5.5% of Egyptian territory is where most of Egypt‘s population lives in. A narrow strip of land forms the Nile Valley and Delta sector.The National Project for Desert Hinterlands is one of the urban projects targeting rehabilitation of the poor in alternative villages in the near desert to stop urban sprawl over agricultural land and decrease the congestion in the old habitats. Low cost energy efficient houses are the aim of the architect in similar projects taking in consideration the high electricity consumption of Egypt’s residential sector. Based on a literature review, this paper presents a proposal for designing desert dwellings   that accommodates the hot dry climate by incorporating passive elements and using stabilized earth blocks as a local building material. Furthermore, simulation is used to test alternative proposals. The results show that an underground constructed house with a sunken courtyard incorporating an Earth to Air Heat Exchanger System (EAHE can reduce between 42-72% of energy consumption used to achieve thermal comfort compared to contemporary desert housing projects.

  12. A new species of the neopterygian fish Enchodus from the Duwi Formation, Campanian, Late Cretaceous, Western Desert, central Egypt

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    Waymon L. Holloway

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The neopterygian fish Enchodus was a widespread, speciose genus consisting of approximately 30 recognized species that were temporally distributed from the late Early Cretaceous through the Paleocene. Many Enchodus specimens are fragmentary cranial remains or isolated dental elements, as is the case for previously reported occurrences in Egypt. Here, we present the most complete specimen of Enchodus recovered from the Late Cretaceous of northeast Africa. The specimen was collected from the upper Campanian Duwi Formation, near the village of Tineida (Dakhla Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt. The new species, Enchodus tineidae sp. nov., consists of right and left dentaries, a partial ectopterygoid, and other cranial bones. The size of the specimen places it into the upper body-size range for the genus. The palatine tooth, an element often useful for diagnosing Enchodus to the species level, is not preserved, but a combination of other cranial characters supports the referral of this specimen to Enchodus. In particular, the dentary preserves three symphysial rostroventral prongs and two tooth rows, the lateral of which consists of small denticles, whereas the medial row comprises large, mediolaterally-compressed teeth. The rostral-most tooth exhibits the highest crown, whereas the rest of the teeth are of lower, variable crown heights. The eight robust, caudal-most medial-row teeth are distributed in a cluster pattern never before observed in Enchodus. Additionally, the dentary and preopercle are both without dermal ornamentation, and the mandibular sensory canal is closed. Phylogenetic analysis recovers this new species as the sister species to E. dirus from North America. Along with previously described materials from Israel, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, Italy, Morocco, and Libya, this specimen represents a thirteenth species from the northwestern Tethyan geographic distribution of Enchodus.

  13. Thrusting and multiple folding in the Neoproterozoic Pan-African basement of Wadi Hodein area, south Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdeen, M. M.; Sadek, M. F.; Greiling, R. O.

    2008-09-01

    Detailed field mapping and structural studies of the area around the mouth of Wadi Hodein, some 20 km west of Shalatein at the Red Sea coast in the south Eastern Desert of Egypt, revealed four phases of structural deformation (D1-D4) affecting the Neoproterozoic Pan-African basement rocks. D1 is related to arc-arc collision and is represented by ENE-WSW oriented megascopic upright open folds associated with low angle thrusts and mesoscopic tight, overturned and recumbent F1 folds. Kinematic indicators indicate thrusting towards the SSE. D2 is represented by NNW-SSE oriented megascopic and mesoscopic folds, which are tight, verge towards the WSW and display a left-stepping en echelon pattern. D3 includes major NNW-SSE trending sinistral shear zones that show subordinate reverse fault components and dip steeply towards the ENE. These sinistral shear zones are comparable with the Najd Fault System, as they display a similar sense of movement and relationships to earlier structures. Therefore, they are interpreted to be the continuation of the Najd Shear System in southern Egypt. D2 and D3 are related to accretion of east and west Gondwana. D4 is represented by E-W oriented dextral faults with left-stepping segments. The first three deformation events are in agreement with the general evolutionary model for the East African Orogen in the Arabian-Nubian Shield that begins with NNW-SSE shortening, followed by ENE-WSW compression and subsequent deformation by the NNW-SSE striking Najd Fault System. The E-W dextral faults may be the conjugate shear fractures to the D3 NNW-SSE oriented sinistral wrench faults or are related to a subsequent event, D4. NW-SE oriented gold-bearing quartz veins originated during D1 and were subsequently deformed by D2-D4 events.

  14. CAPITAL STRUCTURE DETERMINANTS: EVIDENCE FROM PALESTINE AND EGYPT STOCK EXCHANGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Razak Abdul Hadi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract -This study is driven by the motivation to examine the capital structure determinants for Palestine Stock Exchange (PEX and Egypt Stock Exchange (EGX. Within the framework of capital structure theories, this study uses Generalized Method of Moments (GMM,1982 as an estimation model employing quarterly panel data analysis during the observed period from 2008 till 2012. The test results from GMM indicate that all the examined determinants have significant relationship with leverage. It has a negative value with liquidity, non-debt tax shield, profitability, size and growth. The Egyptian firms have some uniqueness in its trend. Current assets, debt ratio and liquidity behave positively with leverage except for growth. The other tested determinants in Egyptian companies are found to be not significant.

  15. Variations in Vegetation Structure, Species Dominance and Plant Communities in South of the Eastern Desert-Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawzy SALAMA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available For two successive years, the floristic diversity and vegetation composition in the southern part of the Eastern Desert ofEgypt were investigated through four transects (3 crossing the Eastern Desert and one along the Red Sea. The data collected from 142 stands covering the study area included the species composition, functional groups, chorology and occurrences (Qvalues. A total of 94 plant species belonging to 33 different families were recorded, with Asteracea, Zygophyllaceae, Fabaceae,Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae and Brassicaceae as the largest families. Shrubs represented the largest functional group (39.4%, while perennial herbs represented the smallest ones (12.8%. Species occurrence (Q-value revealed that Zilla spinosa, Acacia tortilis subsp raddiana, Morettia philaeana, Caroxylon imbricatum, Zygophyllum coccineum and Citrullus colocynthis had wide ecological range of distribution (dominant species, Q-values 0.2. Saharo-Arabian chorotype was highly represented (72.6 % in the flora of this area, eventually as mono, bi or pluriregional. Classification of the data set yielded 7 vegetation groups included: (A Zilla spinosa-Morettia philaeana, (B1 Zilla spinosa-Citrullus colocynthis-Morettia philaeana, (B2 Zilla spinosa, (C1Zygophyllum album-Tamarix nilotica, (C2 Zygophyllum coccineum-Tamarix nilotica, (D1 Zilla spinosa-Zygophyllum coccineum and (D2 Zilla spinosa-Acacia tortilis subsp. raddiana-Tamarix aphylla-Balanites aegyptiaca. Certain vegetation groups were assigned to one or more transects. Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA revealed that electrical conductivity, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chlorides, moisture content, sulphates, pH, organic matter and gravel were the soil variables that affect the species distribution in this study.

  16. Isotope hydrological investigation of Moghra and Ain El-Sharip environment, north western desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, A.I.M.; Nada, A.; Awad, M.; Salman, A.B.; Hamza, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    Groundwater samples collected from some localities in the vicinity of Moghra and Ain El-Sharip in the north western desert were subjected to chemical and to isotopic analyses. The combination of the hydrochemical data with the isotopic compositions of deuterium, oxygen-18 and tritium shows that the groundwater in this region represents a mixture of water recharged from different sources including : Nile, sea and paleo-waters.5 fig.,2 tab

  17. Assessment study about using underground water for tilapia culture for the first time in El-Bahria Oasis Desert, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Hossam H; Ali, Fagr Kh; Kenawy, Amany M

    2008-01-01

    The present study was carried out in El-Bahria Oasis desert (Giza-Egypt) for 8 months (March-October) as a new study to assess the culture of tilapia spp. in underground well water. The obtained results showed a significant increase (P liver > kidney > gills > muscle. Remarkable changes were observed in the chemical muscle composition where the results showed a significant increase (P<0.01) in muscle water content, total lipids and ash. However, a significant decrease (P<0.01) in muscle total protein at the end of the study was observed. The growth of all male farmed tilapia in well water with a 3.2 mg/l iron concentration was unexpected; despite the presence of this high concentration of iron, the weight gain of cultured fish was 250 +/- 14.5 g. Molecular techniques are used nowadays as a good indicator for assessing the alteration in the genomes. RAPD-PCR technique indicated appearance of some changes in polymorphism band patterns. There also exists a distinct distance between the band patterns of cultured fish (T) and control fish (C). Histopathlogical sections showed pathological alterations in liver, kidney gills and spleen and the obtained results were discussed.

  18. Structural elements and incremental strain history of the basement rocks of Um Had area, central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akawy, Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    The Um Had area, central Eastern Desert, Egypt shows a regional stretching in the NW-SE and a contraction in the NE-SW direction. Major NW-SE folds, small recumbent folds, and local thrusts and reverse faults were recognized. Complicated relation between folds and boudinage was identified. This stretching amount ranges from 1.282 to 1.309. Earlier coaxial and later non-coaxial strains were inferred. The change from axial to non-coaxial stress regime was gradual and the latter was associated with minor clockwise and anticlockwise rotation of structural elements. During the non-coaxial strain, strain fringes were formed as a consequence of the high circulation of fluids in low temperature and high pressure conditions. Superimposed strain fringes indicating right- and left-lateral senses of movement were recognized. At least three generations of fringes were recognized, implying three stages of non-coaxial stretching. Each generation has about 15 increments which show irregular strain gradient and intensity over the different increments. Eastwards, the strain increments became mature and westwards, the finite strain increases. The strongest finite strain was found in a narrow belt delimiting the basement rocks on the west and underlying the Phanerozoic sediments. Chocolate-tablet structure was recorded and indicates later multidirectional tension. Not all Nubia Sandstone exposures are overlying the basement rocks and some are separated by NW-SE normal faults. Major NW-SE normal faults are cutting basement rocks of different ages. (author)

  19. 3D slicing of radiogenic heat production in Bahariya Formation, Tut oil field, North-Western Desert, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Alfy, I M; Nabih, M A

    2013-03-01

    A 3D block of radiogenic heat production was constructed from the subsurface total gamma ray logs of Bahariya Formation, Western Desert, Egypt. The studied rocks possess a range of radiogenic heat production varying from 0.21 μWm(-3) to 2.2 μWm(-3). Sandstone rocks of Bahariya Formation have higher radiogenic heat production than the average for crustal sedimentary rocks. The high values of density log of Bahariya Formation indicate the presence of iron oxides which contribute the uranium radioactive ores that increase the radiogenic heat production of these rocks. The average radiogenic heat production produced from the study area is calculated as 6.3 kW. The histogram and cumulative frequency analyses illustrate that the range from 0.8 to 1.2 μWm(-3) is about 45.3% of radiogenic heat production values. The 3D slicing of the reservoir shows that the southeastern and northeastern parts of the study area have higher radiogenic heat production than other parts. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Vertebrate paleontological exploration of the Upper Cretaceous succession in the Dakhla and Kharga Oases, Western Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallam, Hesham M.; O'Connor, Patrick M.; Kora, Mahmoud; Sertich, Joseph J. W.; Seiffert, Erik R.; Faris, Mahmoud; Ouda, Khaled; El-Dawoudi, Iman; Saber, Sara; El-Sayed, Sanaa

    2016-05-01

    The Campanian and Maastrichtian stages are very poorly documented time intervals in Africa's record of terrestrial vertebrate evolution. Upper Cretaceous deposits exposed in southern Egypt, near the Dakhla and Kharga Oases in the Western Desert, preserve abundant vertebrate fossils in nearshore marine environments, but have not yet been the focus of intensive collection and description. Our recent paleontological work in these areas has resulted in the discovery of numerous new vertebrate fossil-bearing localities within the middle Campanian Qusier Formation and the upper Campanian-lower Maastrichtian Duwi Formation. Fossil remains recovered from the Campanian-aged Quseir Formation include sharks, rays, actinopterygian and sarcopterygian fishes, turtles, and rare terrestrial archosaurians, including some of the only dinosaurs known from this interval on continental Africa. The upper Campanian/lower Maastrichtian Duwi Formation preserves sharks, sawfish, actinopterygians, and marine reptiles (mosasaurs and plesiosaurs). Notably absent from these collections are representatives of Mammalia and Avialae, both of which remain effectively undocumented in the Upper Cretaceous rocks of Africa and Arabia. New age constraints on the examined rock units is provided by 23 nannofossil taxa, some of which are reported from the Duwi Formation for the first time. Fossil discoveries from rock units of this age are essential for characterizing the degree of endemism that may have developed as the continent became increasingly tectonically isolated from the rest of Gondwana, not to mention for fully evaluating origin and diversification hypotheses of major modern groups of vertebrates (e.g., crown birds, placental mammals).

  1. Natural radioactivity levels and radiation hazard indices in granite from aswan to wadi el-allaqi south eastern desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Taher, A.; Uosif, M.A.M.; Orabi, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    Studies on radiation level and radionuclide distribution in granite from Aswan to Wadi El-Allaqi area which is located in southeastern desert of Egypt were undertaken. The samples collected from five locations: Gabal El Mesala, Umm Hibal, Abu Herigle, Abu Marw and Deneibit El Quleib. The purpose of this study is to provide a baseline map of radioactivity background levels in the investigated area environment and will be used as reference information to assess any changes in the radioactive background level due to geological processes. The highest average values of 226 R a and 232 T h concentration (24.003 and 31.227 Bq/kg respectively) was observed at Abu Herigle region whereas the highest average value of 40 K concentration 589.984 Bq/kg were detected in Umm Hibal location. The absorbed dose rate in air was found to be in the range between 5.400- 45.109 nGy/h and radium equivalent activity concentration was found in the range between 29.570 - 71.855 Bq/Kg. Also the representative external hazard index values for the corresponding samples was also estimated and given

  2. Investigation of Six Geological Samples From Wady Sitra Eastern Desert - Egypt Using K0 Neutron Activation Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, N.F.; Ashmawy, L.S.; Walley El-Dine, N.; Sroor, A.; Mohamed, T.El.

    2010-01-01

    k 0 - Neutron Activation Analysis (k 0 -NAA) is applied to investigate six geological samples collected from Wady Sitra at Eastern desert of Egypt during the survey of gold presence in this area. The samples together with a group of standard (Mo, Fe, Sb and W) are irradiated for 3 hours in one of the inner irradiation site of the Second Egyptian Training and Research Reactor (ETRR-2) operating at power of 19 MW. Mo, Fe and Sb are used to measure the neutron spectrum parameters α(epithermal non-ideality factor) and f (the thermal to epithermal flux ratio) while W is used to test the obtained results. The α( and f parameters are measured using the so-called bare triple monitor method and the obtained results was found to be f = 17.5 ± 0.35 and α(= 0.03±0.002. A Fortran computer program is designed and used to calculate the values of Q 0 (α)for the analyzed elements . The concentration values of 25 elements in the present rock samples have been presented

  3. Leaching characteristics of Wadi Belih uraniferous Hammamat sediments,eastern desert,Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdy, M.A.; EL-Hazek, M.N.

    1998-01-01

    This work deals with the direct chemical treatment of Wadi Belih uraniferous ore material using the agitation leaching technique. The study ore is mainly localized in siltstones belonging to the Hammamat sediments situated in the northern part of the eastern desert. The uranium mineral in the ore are mainly represented by the silicate mineral uranophane, the vanadate mineral tyuyamunite and to a laser extent the sulphate mineral shroekingerite, both acid (sulphuric acid) alkaline (sodium carbonate and bicarbonate) leaching methods have been applied beside sodium and ferric chlorides. The latter leaching reagents are greatly beneficial in removing radium together with uranium, a matter which is greatly important for environmental concerns

  4. 78 FR 45285 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Egypt's Mysterious Book...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8393] Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Egypt's Mysterious Book of the Faiyum'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the following... exhibition ``Egypt's Mysterious Book of the Faiyum,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within...

  5. Geomorphologic and geologic overview for water resources development: Kharit basin, Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosaad, Sayed

    2017-10-01

    This study demonstrates the importance of geomorphologic, geologic and hydrogeologic assessment as an efficient approach for water resources development in the Kharit watershed. Kharit is one of largest watersheds in the Eastern Desert that lacks water for agricultural and drinking purposes, for the nomadic communities. This study aims to identify and evaluate the geomorphologic, geologic and hydrogeologic conditions in the Kharit watershed relative to water resource development using remote sensing and GIS techniques. The results reveal that the watershed contains 15 sub-basins and morphometric analyses show high probability for flash floods. These hazards can be managed by constructing earth dikes and masonry dams to minimize damage from flash floods and allow recharge of water to shallow groundwater aquifers. The Quaternary deposits and the Nubian sandstone have moderate to high infiltration rates and are relatively well drained, facilitating surface runoff and deep percolation into the underlying units. The sediments cover 54% of the watershed area and have high potential for groundwater extraction.

  6. Flotation of beryl from milky white quartz veins of Igla area, eastern desert of egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Monem, H.M.; Aly, M.M.; Abdel Aty, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    Several milky white quartz veins and lenses occur at the Igla area of the central eastern desert. These veins are beryl-bearing and are introduced into breociated rhyolite and porphyritic dolerites as country rock. An effort has been made to up-grade such a low-grade ore material and therefore a head sample assaying about o.28% Be O was prepared. Flotation technique using sodium alkyl-aryl sulfonate as a collector has proven most satisfactory for separating beryl grains at ph value less than 3.5. indeed, a best recovery exceeding 90% Be O could be obtained by adding an activator of some metal chlorides; viz Fe Cl 3 , and Pb Cl 2 and Ca Cl 2 at various PH value. The study has made possible the elaboration of a proposed flow sheet whereby a beryl concentrate assaying 9.35% Be o was obtained with an overall recovery of about 93%

  7. Heat production rate from radioactive elements in igneous and metamorphic rocks in Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbady, Adel G.E.; El-Arabi, A.M.; Abbady, A.

    2006-01-01

    Radioactive heat-production data of Igneous and Metamorphic outcrops in the Eastern Desert are presented. Samples were analysed using a low level gamma-ray spectrometer (HPGe) in the laboratory. A total of 205 rock samples were investigated, covering all major rock types of the area. The heat-production rate of igneous rocks ranges from 0.11 (basalt) to 9.53 μW m -3 (granite). In metamorphic rocks it varies from 0.28 (serpentinite ) to 0.91 μW m -3 (metagabbro). The contribution due to U is about 51%, as that from Th is 31% and 18% from K. The corresponding values in igneous rocks are 76%, 19% and 5%, respectively. The calculated values showed good agreement with global values except in some areas containing granites

  8. Heat production rate from radioactive elements in igneous and metamorphic rocks in eastern desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbady, A G.E.; Arabi, A.M.; Abbay, A.

    2005-01-01

    Radioactive heat - production data of igneous and metamorphic rocks cropping out from the eastern desert are presented. Samples were analysed using low level gamma-ray spectrometer (HPGe) in the laboratory. A total of 205 rock samples were investigated, covering all major rock types of the area. The heat-production rate of igneous rocks ranges from 0.11 (basalt) to 9.53 Μ Wm-3 (granite). In metamorphic rocks it varies from 0.28 (serpentinite) to 0.91 (metagabroo) Μ W.m-3. The contribution due to U is about (51%), whereas that of Th (31%) and (18%) by K. The corresponding values in igneous rocks are 76%: 19%: 5%, respectively. The calculated values showed good agreement with global values expect in some areas contained granite rocks

  9. Diversity of bacteria nesting the plant cover of north Sinai deserts, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira L. Hanna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available North Sinai deserts were surveyed for the predominant plant cover and for the culturable bacteria nesting their roots and shoots. Among 43 plant species reported, 13 are perennial (e.g. Fagonia spp., Pancratium spp. and 30 annuals (e.g. Bromus spp., Erodium spp.. Eleven species possessed rhizo-sheath, e.g. Cyperus capitatus, Panicum turgidum and Trisetaria koelerioides. Microbiological analyses demonstrated: the great diversity and richness of associated culturable bacteria, in particular nitrogen-fixing bacteria (diazotrophs; the majority of bacterial residents were of true and/or putative diazotrophic nature; the bacterial populations followed an increasing density gradient towards the root surfaces; sizeable populations were able to reside inside the root (endorhizosphere and shoot (endophyllosphere tissues. Three hundred bacterial isolates were secured from studied spheres. The majority of nitrogen-fixing bacilli isolates belonged to Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus polymexa, Bacillus macerans, Bacillus circulans and Bacillus licheniformis. The family Enterobacteriaceae represented by Enterobacter agglomerans, Enterobacter sackazakii, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia adorifera, Serratia liquefaciens and Klebsiella oxytoca. The non-Enterobacteriaceae population was rich in Pantoae spp., Agrobacterium rdiobacter, Pseudomonas vesicularis, Pseudomonas putida, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Ochrobactrum anthropi, Sphingomonas paucimobilis and Chrysemonas luteola. Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus were reported inside root and shoot tissues of a number of tested plants. The dense bacterial populations reported speak well to the very possible significant role played by the endophytic bacterial populations in the survival, in respect of nutrition and health, of existing plants. Such groups of diazotrophs are good candidates, as bio-preparates, to support the growth of future field crops grown in deserts of north Sinai and irrigated by the

  10. Remote sensing detection of gold related alteration zones in Um Rus area, Central Eastern Desert of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Reda; Kusky, Timothy; El Mezayen, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) images covering the Um Rus area in the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt were evaluated for mapping geologic structure, lithology, and gold-related alteration zones. The study area is covered by Pan-African basement rocks including gabbro and granodiorite intruded into a variable mixture of metavolcanics and metasediments. The first three principal component analyses (PCA1, PCA2, PCA3) in a Red-Green-Blue (RGB) of the visible through shortwave-infrared (VNIR + SWIR) ASTER bands enabled the discrimination between lithological units. The results show that ASTER band ratios ((2 + 4)/3, (5 + 7)/6, (7 + 9)/8) in RGB identifies the lithological units and discriminates the granodiorite very well from the adjacent rock units.The granodiorites are dissected by gold-bearing quartz veins surrounded by alteration zones. The microscopic examination of samples collected from the alteration zones shows sericitic and argillic alteration zones. The Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) and Spectral Information Divergence (SID) supervised classification methods were applied using the reference spectra of the USGS spectral library. The results show that these classification methods are capable of mapping the alteration zones as indicated by field verification work. The PALSAR image was enhanced for fracture mapping using the second moment co-occurrence filter. Overlying extracted faults and alteration zone classification images show that the N30E and N-S fractures represent potential zones for gold exploration. It is concluded that the proposed methods can be used as a powerful tool for ore deposit exploration.

  11. Assessment of waterlogging in agricultural megaprojects in the closed drainage basins of the Western Desert of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. El Bastawesy

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the development of waterlogging in the cultivated and arable areas within typical dryland closed drainage basins (e.g. the Farafra and Baharia Oases, which are located in the Western Desert of Egypt. Multi-temporal remote sensing data of the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+ were collected and processed to detect the land cover changes; cultivations, and the extent of water ponds and seepage channels. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM digital elevation model (DEM has been processed to delineate the catchment morphometrical parameters (i.e. drainage networks, catchment divides and surface areas of different basins and to examine the spatial distribution of cultivated fields and their relation to the extracted drainage networks. The soil of these closed drainage basins is mainly shallow and lithic with high calcium carbonate content; therefore, the downward percolation of excess irrigation water is limited by the development of subsurface hardpan, which also saturates the upper layer of soil with water. The subsurface seepage from the newly cultivated areas in the Farafra Oasis has revealed the pattern of buried alluvial channels, which are waterlogged and outlined by the growth of diagnostic saline shrubs. Furthermore, the courses of these waterlogged channels are coinciding with their counterparts of the SRTM DEM, and the recent satellite images show that the surface playas in the downstream of these channels are partially occupied by water ponds. On the other hand, a large water pond has occupied the main playa and submerged the surrounding fields, as a large area has been cultivated within a relatively small closed drainage basin in the Baharia Oasis. The geomorphology of closed drainage basins has to be considered when planning for a new cultivation in dryland catchments to better control waterlogging hazards. The "dry-drainage" concept can be implemented as the drainage and

  12. Static reservoir modeling of the Bahariya reservoirs for the oilfields development in South Umbarka area, Western Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Fattah, Mohamed I.; Metwalli, Farouk I.; Mesilhi, El Sayed I.

    2018-02-01

    3D static reservoir modeling of the Bahariya reservoirs using seismic and wells data can be a relevant part of an overall strategy for the oilfields development in South Umbarka area (Western Desert, Egypt). The seismic data is used to build the 3D grid, including fault sticks for the fault modeling, and horizon interpretations and surfaces for horizon modeling. The 3D grid is the digital representation of the structural geology of Bahariya Formation. When we got a reasonably accurate representation, we fill the 3D grid with facies and petrophysical properties to simulate it, to gain a more precise understanding of the reservoir properties behavior. Sequential Indicator Simulation (SIS) and Sequential Gaussian Simulation (SGS) techniques are the stochastic algorithms used to spatially distribute discrete reservoir properties (facies) and continuous reservoir properties (shale volume, porosity, and water saturation) respectively within the created 3D grid throughout property modeling. The structural model of Bahariya Formation exhibits the trapping mechanism which is a fault assisted anticlinal closure trending NW-SE. This major fault breaks the reservoirs into two major fault blocks (North Block and South Block). Petrophysical models classified Lower Bahariya reservoir as a moderate to good reservoir rather than Upper Bahariya reservoir in terms of facies, with good porosity and permeability, low water saturation, and moderate net to gross. The Original Oil In Place (OOIP) values of modeled Bahariya reservoirs show hydrocarbon accumulation in economic quantity, considering the high structural dips at the central part of South Umbarka area. The powerful of 3D static modeling technique has provided a considerable insight into the future prediction of Bahariya reservoirs performance and production behavior.

  13. Mapping Of The Hydrothermal Alteration Zones At Haimur Gold Mine Area, South Eastern Desert, Egypt, Using Remote Sensing Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madani, A.A.; Abdel Rahman, E.M.; FA WZY, Kh.M.; EMAM, A.

    2003-01-01

    The utilization of the Landsat-7 ETM+ imagery and scanned aerial photograph for mapping hydrothermal alteration zones at the Haimur gold mine area, south Eastern Desert, Egypt and the production of large scale geologic image map, scale 1 :20 000, using fusion technique are the main tasks of this article. The study area lies at the conjunction of two shear zones, namely the Allaqi shear zone (NW-SE) and the Haimur shear zone (NE-SW). The basement rocks covering Haimur gold mine area include ophiolitic blocks and sheets that were tectonically thrusted over and mixed within a matrix of island arc rocks. Principal Component Analysis, band ratios and data fusion are the main remote sensing techniques applied in the present work. The eigenvalue of the first principal component (PCl) includes 95.9% of the information content of the image whereas PC2 and PC5 mark 3.03% and 0.10%, respectively. The PC5 image was found to represent the highly altered rocks in the study area (serpentinites and carbonates), which display dark image signatures. The metagabbros and metapyroclastics can be easily discriminated on the PC1:R, PC2:G and PC5:B false color composite image in which they have dark red and blue image signatures, respectively. The talc carbonates and the serpentinites have bright image signatures on 5/7 band ratio image whereas metapyroxenites have dark image signatures. The talc carbonates are composed mainly of talc, magnesite and calcite with subordinate amounts of fibrous antigorite. These minerals have absorption features near 2.35 m which lead to increase 5/7 band ratio value. The false color composite ratio image 5/7:R, 4/5:G and 3/1:B was merged with scanned high spatial resolution aerial photograph using IHS transformation method. The resultant fused image was then used to delineate the hydrothermal alteration zones as well as listwaenite ridges exposed at the Haimur gold mine area

  14. Geology, Petrography, Geochemistry and Radioactivity Studies on The Dyke Swarms of Gabal Al Aglab area, North Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldabe, M.M.M.

    2016-01-01

    Gabal Al Aglab area is located in the North Eastern Desert of Egypt bounded by lat. 27° 14'-27° 19' N and long. 33° 00'-33° 05' E. It is covered by pan African basement rocks. The present study concern with the geology, petrography, geochemistry and radioactivity of various types of the dyke swarms in Gabal Al Aglab area. The field studies revealed that the area comprises the following litho-tectonic units ; Dokhan volcanic (oldest) and Hamammat sedimentary rocks and younger granites are represented by both Gabal Um Twier and Gabal Al Aglab syenogranites (youngest). Many dykes of acidic, intermediate and basic composition have a large extension and dissect all the mentioned rock units. The dyke swarms intruding Gabal Al Aglab area include the acidic (felsite and granite porphyry) dykes, while the intermediate comprise andesite and andesite porphyry and the basic dykes show basalt and dolerites. The chronologic relations of these dykes indicate the following sequence of emplacement beginning with the oldest acidic, followed by intermediate and then basic ones. The geochemical studies indicate that the acidic dykes were derived from a highly differentiated calc- alkaline magma, while the basic and intermediate dykes were developed from magma of subalkaline nature. The dykes were derived from separate magmas and not by magmatic differentiation of single mother magma. The radioactivity of the studied dyke rocks revealed that the high levels of radioactivity mainly linked to the acidity, differentiation and alkalinity characters. Radioactive granitic spot was observed along the contact with some basic dykes due to their thermal effect during its emplacement on the granite, at the northern part of the studied area. This radioactive spot display anomalies with higher values in U and Th contents, than the normal background value of the younger granite.

  15. 3D slicing of radiogenic heat production in Bahariya Formation, Tut oil field, North-Western Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Alfy, I.M.; Nabih, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    A 3D block of radiogenic heat production was constructed from the subsurface total gamma ray logs of Bahariya Formation, Western Desert, Egypt. The studied rocks possess a range of radiogenic heat production varying from 0.21 μWm −3 to 2.2 μWm −3 . Sandstone rocks of Bahariya Formation have higher radiogenic heat production than the average for crustal sedimentary rocks. The high values of density log of Bahariya Formation indicate the presence of iron oxides which contribute the uranium radioactive ores that increase the radiogenic heat production of these rocks. The average radiogenic heat production produced from the study area is calculated as 6.3 kW. The histogram and cumulative frequency analyses illustrate that the range from 0.8 to 1.2 μWm −3 is about 45.3% of radiogenic heat production values. The 3D slicing of the reservoir shows that the southeastern and northeastern parts of the study area have higher radiogenic heat production than other parts. - Highlights: ► Radiogenic heat production ranging from 0.21 to 2.25 μWm −3 averaging about 0.95 μWm −3 . ► High Stdev. 0.3 μWm −3 indicates a heterogenic distribution of (RHP) values. ► Statistically, the range from 0.8 to 1.2 μWm −3 is about 45.3 % of the values. ► A renew RHP which can be produced from the study area are calculated as 6.3 kW

  16. Percolation leaching and uranium recovery of El erediya granitic rocks, eastern desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Monem, H.M.; Ali, M.M.; Hassan, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    El erediya uranium occurrence is located in the vicinity of qena-safaga road, central eastern desert. A bulk head sample of about 50 kg was prepared for this study. mineralogically, uranophane is the essential uranium mineral identified in the studied bulk head sample. It occurs as yellow flakes and acicular grains filling fractures, whereas the gangue minerals are mainly composed of quartz, altered potash feldspar, and minor plagioclase. The head sample assays as 74.36% SiO 2 , 13.81% Al 2 O 3 and 0.091% U. Percolation leaching utilizing H 2 SO 4 was performed at a fairly low Ph value. The examined factors include Ph of the leach solution, the grain size beside the duration time. More than 97% leaching of the uranium was reported after percolating the leach solution for 6 weeks at ph 1.4. Thus it could be possible to produce a pregnant leach solution assaying more than 1.2 g U/L by using a multi-stage leaching system. For recovering uranium, tri-octyl-phosphine oxide (TOPO) in kerosene was found to be the most powerful U-extractant. Good U-distribution coefficient (E) of 103 has been obtained with 0.1 M TOPO in the presence of 0.1 M HNO 3

  17. Contribution to the radioactivity of Um Ara granitic pluton, south-eastern desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Reedy, M.W.; Kamel, A.F.; Mansour, S.E.I.

    1988-01-01

    Um Ara area lies in the southern part of the eastern desert between latitudes 22 0 30' and 22 0 41'N and longitudes 33 0 46' and 33 0 54'E. Several types of granitic varieties ranging from high silica granite (SiO 2 >75%) to low silica granite (SiO 2 68-70%) occur in Um Ara granitic pluton. Surface samples were collected from the high anomalous locations in the pluton together with trenches samples (about 50cm in depth). The U content in the surface samples ranges from 69 to 7 ppm while in trenches samples, it ranges from 38 to 759 ppm. The thorium content on the other hand ranges from 34 to 402 ppm in surface samples and from 158 to 316 ppm in trenches samples. Some samples show no Th contents. The Th/U ratios ranges from 0.065 to 3.137 in surface samples and from 0.386 to 2.590 in trenches samples. An enrichment of U content is the main feature characterising this granitic pluton, it is mainly connected with the fractured zones. Uranium is mostly present as secondary U mineralization accompanied by Fe, Mn and to some extent by carbonate materials. A hydrothermal origin could be considered for this U mineralization in the pluton. Primary U mineralization (pitchblende) together with secondary mineralization was observed in some locations in the area disseminated in the granite, this reflects the syngenetic origin of this granitic type

  18. Correlation of Aerogravity and BHT Data to Develop a Geothermal Gradient Map of the Northern Western Desert of Egypt using an Artificial Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Haby S.; Abdel Zaher, Mohamed; Senosy, Mahmoud M.; Saibi, Hakim; El Nouby, Mohamed; Fairhead, J. Derek

    2015-06-01

    The northern part of the Western Desert of Egypt represents the second most promising area of hydrocarbon potential after the Gulf of Suez province. An artificial neural network (ANN) approach was used to develop a new predictive model for calculation of the geothermal gradients in this region based on gravity and corrected bottom-hole temperature (BHT) data. The best training data set was obtained with an ANN architecture composed of seven neurons in the hidden layer, which made it possible to predict the geothermal gradient with satisfactory efficiency. The BHT records of 116 deep oil wells (2,000-4,500 m) were used to evaluate the geothermal resources in the northern Western Desert. Corrections were applied to the BHT data to obtain the true formation equilibrium temperatures, which can provide useful constraints on the subsurface thermal regime. On the basis of these corrected data, the thermal gradient was computed for the linear sections of the temperature-versus-depth data at each well. The calculated geothermal gradient using temperature log data was generally 30 °C/km, with a few local high geothermal gradients in the northwestern parts of the study area explained by potential local geothermal fields. The Bouguer gravity values from the study area ranged from -60 mGal in the southern parts to 120 mGal in the northern areas, and exhibited NE-SW and E-W trends associated with geological structures. Although the northern Western Desert of Egypt has low regional temperature gradients (30 °C/km), several potential local geothermal fields were found (>40 °C/km). The heat flow at each well was also computed by combining sets of temperature gradients and thermal conductivity data. Aerogravity data were used to delineate the subsurface structures and tectonic framework of the region. The result of this study is a new geothermal gradient map of the northern Western Desert developed from gravity and BHT log data.

  19. Inverted stream channels in the Western Desert of Egypt: Synergistic remote, field observations and laboratory analysis on Earth with applications to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, Abdallah S.; Pain, Colin F.; Edgett, Kenneth S.; Giegengack, Robert

    2018-07-01

    Inverted relief landforms occur in numerous regions on Mars, ranging in age from Noachian to more recent Amazonian periods (channel features on Earth form, and the geologic records they preserve in arid settings, can yield insights into the development of inverted landforms on Mars. Inverted channel landforms in the Western Desert of Egypt are well represented across an area of ∼27,000 km2. We investigated inverted channel features at seven sites using remotely-sensed data, field observations, and lab analysis. Inverted channel features in the Western Desert record fluvial environments of differing scales and ages. They developed mainly via inversion of cemented valley floor sediment, but there is a possibility that inverted fluvial landforms in the Dakhla Depression might have been buried, lithified, and exhumed. A few examples, in the southeastern part of the Western Desert, record, instead, a resistance to erosion caused by surface armouring of uncemented valley floor sediment. We show that the grain-size distribution for investigated and reviewed inverted channels is highly variable, with boulders that are commonly 0.35 - 1 m in size; large particles provide high porosity that influences the cementation mechanism. The studied inverted channel sediments are mainly cemented with ferricrete, calcrete, gypcrete, and silcrete. Inverted channels are valuable for the reconstruction of paleoclimate cycles or episodes on Earth and Mars; observations from the Western Desert, when offered as analogs, add to the growing list of Earth examples that provide suites of observables relevant to reconstruction of paleoenvironmental conditions on Mars.

  20. Investigation of Chemical and Radiochemical Fingerprints of Water Resources in Siwa Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sayed, S.A.; Allam, Kh.A.; Salama, M.H.; El Begawy, H.

    2017-01-01

    Water resources in Siwa oasis, Egypt; included the Nubian sandstone aquifer system (NSSAS), Tertiary carbonate aquifer system (TCAS) as well as springs and lakes. Existing chemical and radiochemical fingerprints of these resources in the central and western parts of the oasis were examined based on the analyses of 30 water samples collected in 2015. In each sample, the analyzed chemical and radioisotopic constituents were Cl"-, SO_4"2"- , CO_3"2"-, HCO"3 "-, Na"+, K"+, Ca"2"+ and Mg"2"+, Al, B, Ba, Cd, Co, Fe, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sr, V, Zn, Si and Cr, "2"2"6 Ra, "2"3"2Th and "4"0K. Other physical properties included ph and TDS were measured in the field. The chemical analysis was carried out following the ASTM methods, while the radiochemical measurements were done using a hyper pure germanium (HPGe) gamma ray spectrometry. Results of this work may be advantage ous to promote the hydrologic database in the oasis, where levels of the natural radioactivity in groundwater resources were established for the first time. Water resources were classified based on their contents of TDS into fresh water for the NSSAS, brackish to salty water for TCAS, brackish water for springs and brine water for lakes. The artesian water of the NSSAS and TCAS and water of the springs were alkaline, while the water of the lakes was acidic. Chemical characters of the ground water of the NSSAS reflected a little response to the processes of water-rock interactions, and the vice versa was observed for the groundwater of the TCAS. The ground water of the NSSAS was dominated by HCO"3"-Na genetic type characterizing the meteoric origin of water. The ground water of the TCAS was characterized by the presence of three genetic types of water (SO"4"-Na, Cl-Mg, and Cl-CA water), indicating the modification of the recharged water from the underlain NSSAS due to the effects of water sediment interactions and mixing with trapped ancient sea water. The chemical properties of spring water were, greatly

  1. Neoproterozoic Evolution and Najd‒Related Transpressive Shear Deformations Along Nugrus Shear Zone, South Eastern Desert, Egypt (Implications from Field‒Structural Data and AMS‒Technique)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagag, W.; Moustafa, R.; Hamimi, Z.

    2018-01-01

    The tectonometamorphic evolution of Nugrus Shear Zone (NSZ) in the south Eastern Desert of Egypt was reevaluated through an integrated study including field-structural work and magnetofabric analysis using Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) technique, complemented by detailed microstructural investigation. Several lines of evidence indicate that the Neoproterozoic juvenile crust within this high strain zone suffered an impressive tectonic event of left-lateral transpressional regime, transposed the majority of the earlier formed structures into a NNW to NW-directed wrench corridor depicts the northwestern extension of the Najd Shear System (NSS) along the Eastern Desert of Egypt. The core of the southern Hafafit dome underwent a high metamorphic event ( M 1) developed during the end of the main collisional orogeny in the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS). The subsequent M 2 metamorphic event was retrogressive and depicts the tectonic evolution and exhumation of the Nugrus-Hafafit area including the Hafafit gneissic domes, during the origination of the left-lateral transpressive wrench corridor of the NSS. The early tectonic fabric within the NSZ and associated highly deformed rocks was successfully detected by the integration of AMS-technique and microstructural observations. Such fabric grain was checked through a field-structural work. The outcomes of the present contribution advocate a complex tectonic evolution with successive and overlapped deformation events for the NSZ.

  2. Discriminations of Younger Granitic Masses at Gabal Qattar Area, North Eastern Desert, Egypt, Using Remote Sensing Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasfi, S.A.; Lliase, E.L.; Mousa, M.I.

    2009-01-01

    Gabal Qattar area is located in the north Eastern Desert of Egypt between Latitudes 26 degree 52 and 27 degree 08 N, and Longitudes 33 degree 13 and 33 degree 25 E. The exposed rock units, there, from the oldest to the youngest, are meta volcanics; granodiorites- diorite complex; Hammamat sediments and younger granites. Most of the area is densely traversed by felsic and mafic dykes. The Qattarian younger granites are divided into seven granitic areas according to their spectral characters to facilitate the studying and delineating physical characteristic differences between these areas as well as to throw a light about the best conditions of exploration for radioactive mineralizations. This study is based on brightness Digital Number values (DNs) of the granitic areas, predominant trends and densities of the structural lineaments, shape and type of weathering products. Three areas of these seven younger granite areas form Gabal (G.) Qattar, and designated Gr 1, Gr 3 and Gr 4, where the other granite areas which form the G. Urn Dissi (Gr 2), G. Thelma (Gr 5), G. Abu Samyuk (Gr 6) and G. Ayn AI Ruwayshed (Gr 7). Photo geologically, these seven granite areas show some differences in shape, texture, predominant trends and densities of structural lineaments and ability of weathering. This study shows that the seven granite areas could be gathered into three main groups according to their DNs values of Landsat ETM+ spectral bands especially of band 5, where these three main groups representing different, and mainly coincide with the three granite phases previously delineated according to chronological field relation, petrographic and geochemical studies. The Gr 1 area contains all uranium occurrences from locations I to V. This area is characterized by semi circular shape of NW trend, massive appearance with high relief peaks, and high fracture density, where the N 55 degree E, N 5 degree E, N 45 degree E and N 45 degree W are the predominant trends. Some of the N 55

  3. Thrusting and transpressional shearing in the Pan-African nappe southwest El-Sibai core complex, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Wahed, Mohamed A. Abd.

    2008-01-01

    The Wadi El-Shush area in the Central Eastern Desert (CED) of Egypt is occupied by the Sibai core complex and its surrounding Pan-African nappe complex. The sequence of metamorphic and structural events in the Sibai core complex and the enveloping Pan-African nappe can be summarized as follows: (1) high temperature metamorphism associated with partial melting of amphibolites and development of gneissic and migmatitic rocks, (2) between 740 and 660 Ma, oblique island arc accretion resulted in Pan-African nappe emplacement and the intrusion of syn-tectonic gneissic tonalite at about 680 ± 10 Ma. The NNW-SSE shortening associated with oblique island arc accretion produced low angle NNW-directed thrusts and open folds in volcaniclastic metasediments, schists and isolated serpentinite masses (Pan-African nappe) and created NNE-trending recumbent folds in syn-tectonic granites. The NNW-SSE shortening has produced imbricate structures and thrust duplexes in the Pan-African nappe, (3) NE-ward thrusting which deformed the Pan-African nappe into SW-dipping imbricate slices. The ENE-WSW compression event has created NE-directed thrusts, folded the NNW-directed thrusts and produced NW-trending major and minor folds in the Pan-African nappe. Prograde metamorphism (480-525 °C at 2-4.5 kbar) was synchronous with thrusting events, (4) retrograde metamorphism during sinistral shearing along NNW- to NW-striking strike-slip shear zones (660-580 Ma), marking the external boundaries of the Sibai core complex and related to the Najd Fault System. Sinistral shearing has produced steeply dipping mylonitic foliation and open plunging folds in the NNW- and NE-ward thrust planes. Presence of retrograde metamorphism supports the slow exhumation of Sibai core complex under brittle-ductile low temperature conditions. Arc-accretion caused thrusting, imbrication and crustal thickening, whereas gravitational collapse of a compressed and thickened lithosphere initiated the sinistral movement

  4. Environmental airborn radioactivity survey around Burg El Arab Area, Western desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouad, K.M.; Ammar, A.A.; Meleik, M.L.

    1977-01-01

    An environmental airborne radioactivity survey of approximately 250 square kilometres of Burg El Arab area was conducted by the Airborne Geophysical survey Division of the Geology and Raw Materials Department. The environmental levels of gamma radiation are measured so as to determine quickly the amount and extent of any possible future increase in radioactivity levels of the area by the proposed nuclear facility through normal operations or any accident that may occur. The aerial radiometric measurements were obtained by a continuously recording airborne scintillometer type RVS-1. installed in an Antonoff-2 aircraft, flying at an average speed of 170 Km/h, at a nominal ground clearance of 50 m. The survey was carried out along 84 parallel flight lines directed N-S, and spaced 250 m apart. The area is shown on the geological map as composed of four lithological units. The analysis of the data has proved that these units correspond to six distinct levels of characteristic radioactivity, as two of the lithological units could each be separated into two radioactivity levels on the basis of the radioactivity pattern. The six radiometric levels are, from north to south, beach limy sediments (15 to 101. and 97 to 191 cps), detrital limestone (201 to 354 cpt), saline lakes and salt deposits (262 to 444 cps), and alluvial deposits (307 to 308 and 412 to 742 cps)

  5. Ground magnetic exploration for radioactive minerals in Missikat area eastern desert of Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadek, H.S.; Soliman, S.A.; Abdelhady, H.M.; Elsayed, H.I.

    1988-01-01

    The airborne radiometric surveys and subsequent geological investigations proved the occurrence of uranium mineralization in jasperoid vein which cuts across the pink granites of Gebel El Missikat. The Missikat granites are intruded in older granodiorite and diorite exposures where the whole system is intersected by a system of faults and sheers. The relationship between the different structures and the origin of mineralization is not yet understood. The present study is the first step in a systematic approach of subsurface geophysical exploration for the mineral deposits. Ground magnetic survey was conducted along more than 25 lines across the jasperoid vein and separated at 50m while the magnetic measurements were taken at stations spaced 20m apart. The collected data has been reduced and analysed automatically using appropriate advanced software. The interpretation of the resultant magnetic contour map and profiles reveals the subsurface configuration of the different lithologic units in the area. Most of the granodiorites, exposed due west, are just roof pendants where they are underlain by the Missikat granite pluton. In addition it was possible to map the subsurface contacts between the granites and other geologic units beneath the Wadi Alluvium. The structural interpretation of magnetic data succeeded to distinguish additional fault lines and shear zones in the area. In this respect, a system of NE shears parallel to the mineralized vein, was distinguished by the associated weak magnetic anomalies. The anomalies resulting from the vein and shears suggest wider repetition of the mineralization and in addition, they can be used to distinguish the locations of increasing mineral potential in depth. Such locations are recommended for further geophysical exploration using more effective, however, expensive methods such as induced polarization (IP), self potential (SP) and miseala mass. The recommended exploration can be used for precise determination of the

  6. Mineralogy and mineral chemistry of rare-metal pegmatites at Abu Rusheid granitic gneisses, South Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Fahmy Raslan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Abu Rushied area, situated in the South Eastern Desert of Egypt is a distinctive occurrence of economically important rare-metal mineralization where the host rocks are represented by granitic gneisses. Correspondingly, mineralogical and geochemical investigation of pegmatites pockets scattered within Abu Rusheid granitic gneisses revealed the presence of Hf-zircon, ferrocolumbite and uranyl silicate minerals (uranophane and kasolite. Electronmicroprobe analyses revealed the presence of Nb-Ta multioxide minerals (ishikawaite, uranopyrochlore, and fergusonite, uraninite, thorite and cassiterite as numerous inclusions in the recorded Hf-zircon and ferrocolumbite minerals.Abu Rusheid pegmatites are found as small and large bodies that occur as simple and complex (zoned pegmatites.Abu Rusheid rare-metal pegmatites occur as steeply dipping bodies of variable size, ranging from 1 to 5 m in width and 10 to 50 m in length. The zoned pegmatites are composed of wall zone of coarser granitic gneisses, intermediated zone of K-feldspar and pocket of mica (muscovite and biotite, and core of quartz and pocket ofmica with lenses of rare metals.The zircon is of bipyramidal to typical octahedral form and short prisms. Because the zircon of the investigated Abu Rushied pegmatite frequently contains hafnium in amounts ranging between 2.31 and 11.11%, the studied zircon was designated as Hf-rich zircon. This zircon commonly exhibits a normal zoning with rims consistentlyhigher in Hf than cores. The bright areas in the crystal either in core or rim showed a remarkable enrichment in hafnium content (8.83–11.11% with respect to the dark zones (3.19%. The investigated ferroclumbite commonly exhibits zoning; the dark zone is low in the Ta and U but the light zone is enriched in Ta (13% and U (1%. EMPAanalyses indicate the chemical composition of ishikawaite with U ranging from 0.68 to 0.79 per formula unit.Uranopyrochlore species has dominant uranium in the A

  7. Uranium distributions in the mineral constituents of granitoid rocks and the associated pegmatites at Wadi Abu Had, north eastern desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nossair, L.M.; Moharem, A.F.; Abdel Warith, A.

    2007-01-01

    Wadi Abu Had area is located at the northern part of the Eastern Desert of Egypt. It covers about 55 km2 of the crystalline basement rocks stretching between latitudes 28o 15'- 28o 25' N and longitudes 32o 25' - 32o 35' E. Abu Had younger granites are fertile (uraniferous) granites as they possess U-contents greater than 11 ppm. Their associated pegmatites show higher U-contents than those of granitoid rocks and hosting secondary uranium minerals. Numerous unzoned and zoned pegmatite pockets are associated with the marginal parts of granodiorite and within younger granites. Zoned pegmatites are the most radioactive ones. They are composed of extremely coarse-grained milky quartz core, intermediate zone of mica and wall zone of feldspars. An alteration zone with secondary uranium minerals (uranophane and beta-uranophane) is found at the contact between quartz core and the intermediate zone.

  8. A recent Mw 4.3 earthquake proving activity of a shallow strike-slip fault in the northern part of the Western Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzelarab, Mohamed; Ebraheem, Mohamed O.; Zahradník, Jiří

    2018-03-01

    The Mw 4.3 earthquake of September 2015 is the first felt earthquake since 1900 A.D in the northern part of the Western Desert, Egypt, south of the El-Alamein City. The available waveform data observed at epicentral distances 52-391 km was collected and carefully evaluated. Nine broad-band stations were selected to invert full waveforms for the centroid position (horizontal and vertical) and for the focal mechanism solution. The first-arrival travel times, polarities and low-frequency full waveforms (0.03-0.08 Hz) are consistently explained in this paper as caused by a shallow source of the strike-slip mechanism. This finding indicates causal relation of this earthquake to the W-E trending South El-Alamein fault, which developed in Late Cretaceous as dextral strike slip fault. Recent activity of this fault, proven by the studied rare earthquake, is of fundamental importance for future seismic hazard evaluations, underlined by proximity (∼65 km) of the source zone to the first nuclear power plant planned site in Egypt. Safe exploration and possible future exploitation of hydrocarbon reserves, reported around El-Alamein fault in the last decade, cannot be made without considering the seismic potential of this fault.

  9. An approach to locate and map swelling soils around Sohag – Safaga road, Eastern Desert, Egypt using remote sensing techniques for urban development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salwa F. Elbeih

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The detrimental consequences of swelling soils are most apparent in arid and semi-arid regions. Sedimentary clays are mixtures of illite, kaolinite and some montmorillonite. There are various soil types liable to swell such as shale, mudstone, siltstone and marl due to the presence of Smectite group in these soils. Large volume changes of these types of soils can cause extensive damages to civil engineering infrastructures; roads, airport pavements, pipelines and shallow foundations. A number of localities in Egypt are well-known by the presence of swelling soils. Sohag – Safaga highway in the Eastern Desert of Egypt is considered to be an investable transportation road and one of the most important lateral connections between Upper Egypt and the Red Sea area. The study area is located in a buffer zone of 25 km from both sides of the highway. This area is believed to be more influenced by the road and could be fully utilized to share in developing areas in the road vicinity. The research objectives are to use recent ASTER satellite imageries with the aid of field samples to map different swelling clay minerals and compare between the different sensors accuracy in locating them within the buffer zone. Certain engineering measures should be considered to enable construction over these types of swelling soils. The results confirmed the presence of montmorillonite in this buffer zone and in the 5 km buffer around the road which represents a hazard especially for the future planned projects within this area.

  10. Measurement of natural radioactivity in granites and its quartz-bearing gold at El-Fawakhir area (Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.M. Uosif

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of natural radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th and 40K in Granites and its quartz-bearing gold at El-Fawakhir area (Central Eastern Desert, Egypt were measured by using γ-ray spectroscopy [NaI (Tl 3″ × 3″]. X-Ray Fluorescence technique was used for chemical analyses of the studied samples. The specific activity of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K values are in range (3 ± 0.5 to 43 ± 2 Bqkg−1, (5 ± 0.7 to 41 ± 2 Bqkg−1 and (128 ± 6 to 682 ± 35 Bqkg−1 respectively. The absorbed dose rates ranged from 13.8 to 58.4 nGy h−1, where the total effective dose rates were determined to be between 16.7 and 70.9 μSvy−1. The maximum external hazard index (Hex is 0.3 nGyh−1. The calculated values of the excess lifetime cancer risks (ELCR and annual effective dose rate values are in between (8.48 × 10−5 and 2.63 × 10−4 and (24.2 and 72.9 μSvy−1 respectively. Geochemically, the studied granites consist of major oxides, they are characterized by SiO2, K2O, Na2O, Al2O3, and depleted in CaO, MgO, TiO2, and P2O5. The average absorbed dose rate (Do in air is 37.8 nGyh−1 for the whole studied samples, this value is about 3.78% of the 1.0 mSvy−1 recommended by (ICRP-60,1991 to the public, so there is no radiological risk for the workers in that area.

  11. The Climate and its Impacts on deterioration and weathering rate of EI-Nadura Temple in El- Kharga Oasis, Western Desert of Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismael, Hossam

    2015-04-01

    Undoubtedly, El-Kharga Oasis monumental sites are considered an important part of our world's cultural heritage in the South Western Desert of Egypt. These sites are scattered on the floor of the oasis representing ancient civilizations. The Roman stone monuments in Kharga represent cultural heritage of an outstanding universal value. Such those monuments have suffered weathering deterioration. There are various elements which affect the weathering process of stone monuments: climate conditions, shapes of cultural heritages, exposed time periods, terrains, and vegetation around them, etc. Among these, climate conditions are the most significant factor affecting the deterioration of Archeological sites in Egypt. El- Kharga Oasis belongs administratively to the New Valley Governorate. It is located in the southern part of the western desert of Egypt, lies between latitudes 22°30'14" and 26°00'00" N, and between 30°27'00" and 30°47'00" E. The area of El Kharga Oasis covers about 7500 square kilometers. Pilot studies were carried out on the EI-Nadura Temple, composed of sandstones originating from the great sand sea. The major objective of this study is to monitor and measure the weathering features and the weathering rate affecting the building stones forming El-Nadora Roman building rocks in cubic cm. To achieve these aims, the present study used analysis of climatic data such as annual and seasonal solar radiation, Monthly average number of hours of sunshine, maximum and minimum air temperatures, wind speed, which have obtained from actual field measurements and data Meteorological Authority of El-Kharga station for the period 1977 to 2010 (33 years), and from the period 1941-2050 (110 years) as a long term of temperature data. Several samples were collected and examined by polarizing microscopy (PLM), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray analysis system (SEM-EDX). The results were in

  12. Mapping Potential Areas For Gold And Base Metals Mineralization In Southeastern Desert, Egypt: An Approach By Using Remote Sensing And GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElFouly, A.; Salem, H.

    2003-01-01

    Integration of Landsat-Thematic Mapper (TM), aero magnetic data, structural geology along with the known mineralization occurrences in the area are mainly the factors used to recognize favorable sites for structurally controlled mineralization at the northern part of the southeastern Desert of Egypt. Two knowledge-driven models were constructed based on a conceptual gold exploration model. The Density of Lineament Intersection (DLI) results from this study along with Dempster-Shafer (D-S) Belief approach show good results in delineating favorable mineralization areas. The basic assignment probability maps for the heat source, strong magnetism, hydrothermal alteration, geologic structure, and known mineralization occurrences in the area are the main D-S Belief approach recognition criteria component used for mineral exploration in the study area. The DLI method is maximizing the use of Landsat remote sensing data that could be used efficiently in the exploration for structurally controlled hydrothermal related mineralization. The DLI method results show higher resolution and accurate results for gold and base metals exploration. The high favorability areas by using the DLI method is 2196 Km 2 which are concise area than the D-S Belief approach for about 3976.5 Km 2 . These results are useful to be a strong base for planning accurate exploration program. The potential favorability maps of gold and base metals ore deposits from the northern part of the South Eastern Desert predicted the known areas of mineralization as well as identified high potential areas not known before with mineralization for future exploration

  13. Physiographic soil map delineation for the Nile alluvium and desert outskirts in middle Egypt using remote sensing data of EgyptSat-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Afify

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study are to produce a physiographic soil map with correlated attributes to be a base for extra modifiers within the land information system. This integrated data will serve the purposes of land use planning, precision farming practices and to be applied in other areas using the extrapolation approach. The Satellite data of EgyptSat-1 were projected on an area of Middle Egypt that represents unique physiographic features over portions of Beni Suef, El Fayoum, Helwan, and October Provinces. The spectral signatures of the land patterns were delineated by the visual interpretation using the physiographic approach, while soil taxa were categorized according to the key of Soil Taxonomy (USDA, 2010, resulting in two landscape categories. The first category includes older and developed parent materials, covering the following units: (a Pediplains of residual soils over limestone parent rock, having soils of Lithic Haplocalcids, loamy skeletal. (b Terraced old alluvial plains represent the formerly deposited alluvium that preceded the recent one of the River Nile alluvium. They includes soils of Typic Calcigypsids, loamy skeletal and old alluvial plain but are currently managed under cultivation. The soils are dominated by Typic Haplocalcids, loamy skeletal. (c Wadis that were shaped by the paleodrainage erosion, are currently subjected to the seasonal flush flooding and are sparsely vegetated including soils of Typic Torrifluvents, lamy skeletal (calcareous; Typic Torriorthents, sandy skeletal, and Typic Torriorthents, sandy. (d Aeolian plain “partly cultivated” includes soils of Typic Torripsamments (calcareous. The second category is a recent River Nile alluvium that formed the following units: (a Terraced recent alluvial plain “cultivated” includes soils of Entic Calcitorrerts, fine and Typic Haplotorrerts fine. (b Recent flat alluvial plain includes soils of Typic Haplotorrerts, fine. (c Meandering belt is aligning

  14. Determination of Oxygen Production by Cyanobacteria in Desert Environment Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno Prieto, J. E.

    2009-12-01

    The cyanobacteria have been characterized for being precursor in the production of oxygen. By means of photosynthetic reactions, they provide oxygen to the environment that surrounds them and they capture part of surrounding dioxide of carbon. This way it happened since the primitive Earth until today. Besides, these microorganisms can support the harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation. The presence of cyanobacterias in an environment like a dry tropical bioma, such as the geographical location called Desert of The Tatacoa (Huila - Colombia), is determinant to establish parameters in the search of biological origin of atmospheric oxygen detected in Mars. In that case, I work with a random sample of not rhizospheric soil, taken to 15 cm of depth. After determining the presence of cyanobacterias in the sample, this one was in laboratory to stimulate the oxygen production. The presence of oxygen in Mars is very interesting. Since oxygen gas is very reactive, it disappear if it is not renewed; the possibility that this renovation of oxygen has a biological origin is encouraging, bearing in mind that in a dry environment and high radiation such as the studied one, the production of oxygen by cyanobacterias is notable. Also it is necessary to keep in mind that the existence of cyanobacterias would determine water presence in Mars subsoil and the nutrients cycles renovation. An interesting exploration possibility for some future space probe to Mars might be the study of worldwide distribution of oxygen concentration in this planet and this way, indentify zones suitable for microbian life.

  15. Epidemiological determinants correlating hepatitis C and Schistosomiasis mansoni in one of Upper Egypt governorates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samah S. Abdel Gawad

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis and hepatitis C virus (HCV are endemic diseases with high prevalence in Africa especially in Egypt. Many sociodemographic and behavioral related determinants were implicated to be associated with schistosomiasis, HCV or coinfection. Recently, polymerase chain reaction (PCR is used as a diagnostic tool as it is a sensitive and a specific method especially in early stage of infection. But, diagnosis of S. mansoni is depending on microscopic examination remains the most widely used direct diagnostic method in endemic area. The current study was carried out to determine the prevalence of schistosomiasis mansoni, HCV and confection if any among the studied population, to identify any associated factors for schistosomiasis mansoni, HCV or coinfection if any.A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted on 400 participants, inhabitants in Beni-Suef Governorate, Upper Egypt. The studied population was screened for both schistosomiasis mansoni and HCV. They were subjected to fulfill a well-structured field tested interviewing questionnaire focusing on many suspected associated factors. Moreover, testing the performance characteristics of the used techniques was determined. The prevalence of schistosomiasis mansoni was (2.8% and HCV was (42.5% among the studied subjects. The study highlights on many behavioral and sociodemographic determinants significantly associated with HCV infection such as home crowding index, shaving at the community barber, sharing razors within the family, delivery at home and circumcision outside the health settings. Also, the study revealed that there are certain determinants associated with both schistosomiasis mansoni and HCV infection such as blood transfusion and liver cirrhosis. Studying the linked determinates with schistosomisis and HCV is the cornerstone to plan and implement a preventive strategy in the Upper Egypt. Thus, further studying the associated environmental determinants in relation to

  16. ESR analyses for herbivore teeth and molluscs from Kharga, Dakhleh, and Bir Tarfawi Oases: Constraining water availability and hominin paleolithic activity in the Western Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, B. A. B.; Skinner, A. R.; Smith, J. R.; Hill, C. L.; Churcher, C. S.; Kieniewicz, J. M.; Adelsberger, K. A.; Blickstein, J. I. B.; Florentin, J. A.; Deely, A. E.; Spillar, K. V.

    2017-12-01

    Today, Bir Tarfawi, Kharga and Dakhleh Oases all sit in Egypt's hyperarid Western Desert. A dearth of naturally occurring surface water coupled with ≤ 0.1 mm/y of precipitation, and evaporation rates > 2 m/y make Bir Tarfawi uninhabitable today, while Dakhleh and Kharga depend on borehole water to support human inhabitation. Yet in scattered locations dotting the Quaternary surfaces and deposits near each oasis, Paleolithic artefacts, fossil ungulate teeth, and snails record times when surface water did exist in wetlands, small ponds, and even large lakes. At Bir Tarfawi in Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 5, 7, and 13, wetlands or small lakes supported freshwater snails, large herbivores, and hominins. Dakhleh Oasis hosted a large lake in MIS 6 that provided a deep reliable water supply for many millennia subsequently. ESR dates on fossils and tufa dates show thriving lacustrine and terrestrial ecosystems at Dakhleh during MIS 5, 7, 9, 11, and 17, and in shorter episodes in MIS 1, 2, 3, 6, and 12. At Kharga Oasis, springs discharged along the Libyan Escarpment edge, but the water was ponded in small basins dammed within tufa deposits. These dated deposits and fossils attest that water existed there in MIS 2-11, and one spot dating to ∼ 2.3 Ma. This proxy evidence suggest that, thanks to higher rainfall and/or groundwater tables, sufficient water persisted for much of the Pleistocene, supporting food resources, like large herbivores and molluscs, to thrive and enabling hominin habitation. and activity in the Western Desert.

  17. Egypt-United States Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mark, Clyde R

    2003-01-01

    .... Experience gained from Egyptian-U.S. joint military exercises proved valuable in easing coordination during the February 1991 Desert Storm operation to reverse Iraqi aggression against Kuwait. Egypt is seen by U.S...

  18. Egypt-United States Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mark, Clyde R

    2005-01-01

    .... Experience gained from Egyptian-U.S. joint military exercises proved valuable in easing coordination during the February 1991 Desert Storm operation to reverse Iraqi aggression against Kuwait. Egypt is seen by U.S...

  19. Water sources for cyanobacteria below desert rocks in the Negev Desert determined by conductivity

    OpenAIRE

    McKay, Christopher P.

    2016-01-01

    We present year round meteorological and conductivity measurements of colonized hypolithic rocks in the Arava Valley, Negev Desert, Israel. The data indicate that while dew is common in the Negev it is not an important source of moisture for hypolithic organisms at this site. The dominance of cyanobacteria in the hypolithic community is consistent with predictions that cyanobacteria are confined to habitats supplied by rain. To monitor the presence of liquid water under the small Negev rocks ...

  20. Cationic flotation for separating U-bearing phosphorite mineral from uraniferous phosphatic sandstone deposit of Gebel Qatrani, Western desert of Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abel Monem, H.M.

    1986-01-01

    Uraniferous phosphatic sandstone is one of the important radioactive oligocene deposits of Gebel Qatrani, Western desert of Egypt, which is assayed 72,36% SiO 2 , 9.85% P 2 O 5 and 0.091% of oU. Attrition scrubbing process was utilized to assist in the mild of libration of uraniferous phosphorite locked grains of the crushed oversize fraction (+48 mesh). Cationic flotation using AEROMINE 3037 of American Cynamide Company, diluted with kerosene in ratio 1,2 (wt/wt), and 2.5mg/50g pine oil as frothier were used for separating U-bearing phosphorite as hydrophilic mineral from the associated siliceous gangue minerals at pH 6.5. A proposed flowsheet was designed for production of a high grade uraniferous phosphorite concentrate assaying 32.01% P 2 O 5 , 0.39% eU and 5.65% SiO 2 with an overall recovery of 71.98%

  1. Stratigraphy, facies analysis and depositional environments of the Upper Unit of Abu Roash "E" member in the Abu Gharadig field, Western Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewaidy, Abdel Galil; Elshahat, O. R.; Kamal, Samy

    2018-03-01

    Abu Roach "E" member is of an important hydrocarbon reservoir-producing horizon in the Abu Gharadig Field (north Western Desert, Egypt). This study is used to build facies analysis and depositional environments model for the Upper Unit of the Abu Roash "E" member in Abu Gharadig Field. This target has been achieved throughout the sedimentological, wire line logs, lithostratigraphic and biostratigraphic analyses of more than 528 feet cores. The high-resolution biostratigraphic analysis provides a calibration for the paleo-bathymetry and depositional environmental interpretations. Biozonation and lithostratigraphic markers are used to constrain stratigraphic correlation. Integration between the core description and petorographic microfacies analysis by microscope examination provide an excellent indication for the rock types and depositional environments. Five depositional facies types are detected including carbonate inner ramp, tidal flats, tidal channels, supra-tidal and tide dominated delta facies. This model helps in the understanding of the Upper Unit of Abu Roash "E" member reservoir distribution as well as lateral and vertical facies changes that contribute to the development strategy for the remaining hydrocarbon reserves for this important oil reservoir.

  2. Application of kinematic vorticity and gold mineralization for the wall rock alterations of shear zone at Dungash gold mining, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Osama M. K.; Abd El Rahim, Said H.; El Nashar, EL Said R.; AL Kahtany, Kaled M.

    2016-11-01

    The use of porphyroclasts rotating in a flowing matrix to estimate mean kinematic vorticity number (Wm) is important for quantifying the relative contributions of pure and simple shear in wall rocks alterations of shear zone at Dungash gold mine. Furthermore, it shows the relationship between the gold mineralization and deformation and also detects the orientation of rigid objects during progressive deformation. The Dungash gold mine area is situated in an EW-trending quartz vein along a shear zone in metavolcanic and metasedimentary host rocks in the Eastern Desert of Egypt. These rocks are associated with the major geologic structures which are attributed to various deformational stages of the Neoproterozoic basement rocks. We conclude that finite strain in the deformed rocks is of the same order of magnitude for all units of metavolcano-sedimentary rocks. The kinematic vorticity number for the metavolcanic and metasedimentary samples in the Dungash area range from 0.80 to 0.92, and together with the strain data suggest deviations from simple shear. It is concluded that nappe stacking occurred early during the underthrusting event probably by brittle imbrication and that ductile strain was superimposed on the nappe structure during thrusting. Furthermore, we conclude that disseminated mineralization, chloritization, carbonatization and silicification of the wall rocks are associated with fluids migrating along shearing, fracturing and foliation of the metamorphosed wall rocks.

  3. Finite strain analysis of metavolcanics and metapyroclastics in gold-bearing shear zone of the Dungash area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Osama M. K.; Abd El Rahim, Said H.

    2014-11-01

    The Dungash gold mine area is situated in an EW-trending quartz vein along a shear zone in metavolcanic and metasedimentary host rocks in the Eastern Desert of Egypt. These rocks are associated with the major geologic structures, which are attributed to various deformational stages of the Neoproterozoic basement rocks. Field geology, finite strain and microstructural analyses were carried out and the relation-ships between the lithological contacts and major/minor structures have been studied. The R f/ϕ and Fry methods were applied on the metavolcano-sedimentary and metapyroclastic samples from 5 quartz veins samples, 7 metavolcanics samples, 3 metasedimentary samples and 4 metapyroclastic samples in Dungash area. Finite-strain data show that a low to moderate range of deformation of the metavolcano-sedimentary samples and axial ratios in the XZ section range from 1.70 to 4.80 for the R f/ϕ method and from 1.65 to 4.50 for the Fry method. We conclude that finite strain in the deformed rocks is of the same order of magnitude for all units of metavolcano-sedimentary rocks. Furthermore, the contact between principal rock units is sheared in the Dungash area under brittle to semi-ductile deformation conditions. In this case, the accumulated finite strain is associated with the deformation during thrusting to assemble nappe structure. It indicates that the sheared contacts have been formed during the accumulation of finite strain.

  4. Geochemistry of U-Th- REE bearing minerals, in radioactive pegmatite in Um Swassi-Dara area, north eastern desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, B. H.

    2007-01-01

    Some of the pegmatites in the north Eastern Desert of Egypt have high radioactive values, between them the studied radioactive pegmatites which are clustered just in the western margin of Um Swassi-Dara hosted monzogranites. In zoned pegmatite the alteration zones locate between quartz core and intermediate zone are characterizing with the abundance of rare-earth minerals, anderbergite, cenosite, Y-allanite and uranium, thorium minerals such as euxenite, ferro-columbite and complex titanium-yetrum oxides (Kobbite). This zone is a result of many alteration processes developed from volatile-rich magmatic fluids and/or hydrothermal solution which evolved from late differentiated magmatic fluid and lead to increase of U, Th, Zr, Nb, Ti and REE bearing minerals. Such a distinctive alkaline mineralization suite, possibly related to an alkali fluid phase, is superimposed on a more normal, less alkaline group of minerals such as cassiterite, chalcopyrite, and galena. Nb-Ta-Ti minerals bearing U and Th, define a sequence of oxide, cyclosilicate and silicate minerals, showing the effect of hydrothermal overprinting with extreme REE enrichment of the fluids. It can be concluded that the studied mineralization took place in three overlapping stages

  5. Inferring the subsurface basement depth and the structural trends as deduced from aeromagnetic data at West Beni Suef area, Western Desert, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Khalil

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to delineate the subsurface structures and to estimate the magnetic source depth at the selected area lying in West Beni Suef area, Western Desert, Egypt, following different geomagnetic techniques. The analysis of aeromagnetic data demonstrates five significant tectonic faults trending to NW-SE, ENE-WSW, NE-SW, E-W and NNW-SSE directions constructed using Euler deconvolution techniques. The execution of this study is initiated by transformation of the total intensity aeromagnetic data to the reduced to pole (RTP magnetic intensity. This is followed by applying several transformation techniques and various filtering processes through qualitative and quantitative analyses on magnetic data. The reduced to the northern magnetic pole (RTP data are separated spectrally into regional and residual magnetic components using the computed power spectrum of the magnetic data. The estimated mean depths of both regional and residual sources are found to be 5.27 km and 2.78 km respectively. Also, depth estimations have been conducted by application of the Euler deconvolution and 2-D modeling techniques. The results indicate that the eastern and northern parts of the study area discriminate deeper basement relief and the depth of basement surface reaches to 5095 m. While the southern and western parts of the study area discriminate shallower basement relief and the depth of basement surface reaches to 227 m. This study has given a clear picture of the geologic structures beneath the study area.

  6. Vegetation Analysis in the Red Sea-Eastern Desert Ecotone at the Area between Safaga and South Qusseir, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed G. Sheded

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current work is concerned with the studying the impact of environmental conditions on the vegetation in the arid ecotone located between Red Sea and Eastern Desert from Safaga to south Qusseir. Ninety eight quadrats inside 13 transects were selected to cover the environmental gradient across the ecotone, from the coastal region to the boundary of Eastern Desert. Forty five species were recorded belonged to 24 different families and 38 genera. The perennial species were 38 while the annuals were seven species. Zygophyllum coccineum had the highest presence value (89.8% followed by Tamarix nilotica (56.1% and Zilla spinosa (51.02%. Chamaephytes and Hemicryptophytes were the most prevailed life-forms. Chrological analysis exhibited that SaharoSindian and Sahro-Sindian with its extension to Sudano-Zambezian elements were the most dominant. TWINSPAN classification technique produced three vegetation groups include nine clusters at the fourth level. These groups identified according to the first and second dominant species as follows: Convolvulus hystrix - Panicum turgidum, Tamarix aphylla - Limonium pruinosum and Nitraria retusa - Tamarix nilotica. DECORANA results indicated a reasonable segregation among these groups along the ordination axis 1 and 2. Vegetation analysis showed that ecotonal clusters have highest number of species/cluster, high species richness and high species turnover. Therefore, the largest group existed in the ecotone (34 species while the desert group contained eight species and the coastal group included three species. Among the estimated soil variables in this study, pH, coarse sand, HCO3-, SO42- , clay and PO43- have the highest effect on species distribution. Sodium adsorption ratio (SAR was the effective factor in detecting the ecotonal species, Aeluropus lagopoides and Limonium pruinosum.

  7. Isotopic characterization and genetic origin of crude oils from Gulf of Suez and western desert fields in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El Samie, S.G.

    2006-01-01

    Stable carbon isotopes were used to asses the general characteristics of the western desert and Gulf of Suez crude oils in accordance with hydrocarbon generation, source rocks, thermal gradient and maturation level. The carbon isotopic results of all the analyzed oil samples in both areas lie in the range from -29.62 to -24.11 %. The av. σ 13 C values in the Gulf of Suez reaches about -28.6% and -26.4% in western desert. It was accounted a marginal difference between the two areas by about 2.5 : 3% in carbon-13 isotope of the whole oil indicated two distinct oil types of different organic input and varies in the depositional environment. It was found that Gulf of Suez oils are dominated by marine organic matter (plankton algae) deposited in saline environment. The derived oils from the northern and central provinces of the Gulf are isotopically light, higher in sulfur content, lower in API gravity degree and have Pristane/Phytane (Pr/Ph) ratio less than or equal one (Pr/Ph = 1). In the southern province, about 0.5% isotopic enrichment was recorded in the produced oils from shallower depths, associated with gradual increment in API and maturity level as thermal gradient increase. However, low API gravity degree and less maturity of the Gulf of Suez oils could be related to the rifting temperature that forced and accelerated the expulsion rate and hydrocarbon generation prior reaching higher maturation levels. On the other hand, the produced oils from the western desert fields belong mostly to terrestrial organic debris (with minor marine fragment in some basins) deposited at deeper geological formations. It is characterized by isotopic enrichment, paraffinic waxy oils, low in sulphur content, have Pr/Ph = 1, high in API gravity and maturity level. Hydrocarbon generated from the western desert fields has been controlled by time-temperature effect in the source rocks and reservoirs where the humic organic matter are affected by high temperature over longer period of

  8. Recovery of Rare Earth Elements from Solid Residue of El-Sela Ore, South Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salman, A.A.; Sharaby, C.M.; Elnagar, W.A.; Khawassek, Y.M.; Abdo, Sh.M.

    2015-01-01

    The study area of Gabal El Sela at Halaib environ is located at about 20 km west of Abu Ramad City, Egypt. An uraniferous ore material associated with REE was subjected to sulphuric acid leaching for extraction of uranium mainly followed by solid liquid separation through filtration then washing. Physical upgrading was performed upon the dry residue. Chemical treatment by 50% NaOH was carried out where about 250 g residue ground at - 200 mesh were agitated at solid / liquid ratio of 1/2 for one hour. The cake was filtered then dri ed at 100 º C . T he dried cake was subject ed to dissolution by conc. HCl at 80 º C at a solid / liquid ratio 1:1 for one hour . More than 98% of REE was leached out , and then the leach liquor was subjected to selective precipitation by HF and oxalic acid then calcination of REE oxalate

  9. Heterogeneity of Soil and Vegetation in the Urban Habitats of New Industrial Cities in the Desert Landscape of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monier Abd EL-GHANI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between vegetation and soil supporting the habitats in 4 new industrial cities were assessed. Five main habitats were distinguished from inner city toward outskirts: lawns, home gardens, public gardens, waste lands and desert outskirts. After application of Twinspan, 26 vegetation groups were identified in the 5 recognized habitats, demonstrating that some groups are chatracteristic of a certain city, e.g. Asphodelus aestivus - Deverra tortuosa - Thymelaea hirsuta group was confined to the desert habitat of Burg El-Arab city; Thymelaea hirsuta - Linaria albifrons and Atriplex halimus - Atriplex lindleyi subsp. inflata - Suaeda vermiculata - Typha domingensis groups were found in the waste lands of Burg El-Arab city; Conyza bonariensis - Cynodon dactylon - Sonchus oleraceus group in the home garden habitat of 10th Ranadan city; Cynodon dactylon group in the lawns of Burg El-Arab city; Bassia indica - Plantago major group in the public gardens of Burg El-Arab city; Oxalis corniculata - Plantago lagopus group in the public gardens of 10th Ramadan city; Sonchus oleraceus - Cynodon dactylon and Dactyloctenium aegyptium - Leptochloa fusca - Phragmites australis groups in the public gardens of 6th October city. Silt, clay, organic matter, carbonates and carbon contents showed significant diffrences among the 5 habitats.

  10. Water Sources for Cyanobacteria Below Desert Rocks in the Negev Desert Determined by Conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Christopher P.

    2016-01-01

    We present year round meteorological and conductivity measurements of colonized hypolithic rocks in the Arava Valley, Negev Desert, Israel. The data indicate that while dew is common in the Negev it is not an important source of moisture for hypolithic organisms at this site. The dominance of cyanobacteria in the hypolithic community are consistent with predictions that cyanobacteria are confined to habitats supplied by rain. To monitor the presence of liquid water under the small Negev rocks we developed and tested a simple field conductivity system based on two wires placed about 0.5 cm apart. Based on 21 replicates recorded for one year in the Negev we conclude that in natural rains (0.25 mm to 6 mm) the variability between sensor readings is between 20 and 60% decreasing with increasing rain amount. We conclude that the simple small electrical conductivity system described here can be used effectively to monitor liquid water levels in lithic habitats. However, the natural variability of these sensors indicates that several replicates should be deployed. The results and method presented have use in arid desert reclamation programs.

  11. Water sources for cyanobacteria below desert rocks in the Negev Desert determined by conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher P. McKay

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We present year round meteorological and conductivity measurements of colonized hypolithic rocks in the Arava Valley, Negev Desert, Israel. The data indicate that while dew is common in the Negev it is not an important source of moisture for hypolithic organisms at this site. The dominance of cyanobacteria in the hypolithic community is consistent with predictions that cyanobacteria are confined to habitats supplied by rain. To monitor the presence of liquid water under the small Negev rocks we developed and tested a simple field conductivity system based on two wires placed about 0.5 cm apart. Based on 21 replicates recorded for one year in the Negev we conclude that in natural rains (0.25 mm to 6 mm the variability between sensor readings is between 20 and 60% decreasing with increasing rain amount. We conclude that the simple small electrical conductivity system described here can be used effectively to monitor liquid water levels in lithic habitats. However, the natural variability of these sensors indicates that several replicates should be deployed. The results and method presented have use in arid desert reclamation programs.

  12. Use of Remote Sensing Techniques For Geomorphological Study of Some Sites For Eroticism In Farafra Area, Western Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EI Gammal, E.A.; Salem, S.M.

    2008-01-01

    The present study deals with investigating some significant geomorphic features in the Farafra Oasis area such as natural caves and white desert which display remarkable landscapes of high esthetic value and very important sites for ecotourism. The study aims to produce a GIS ready database for registration of the natural caves with stalactites and stalagmites and a set of printed thematic maps for the above mentioned features with an explanatory notes for the features considered. To achieve these goals remote sensing and GIS techniques have been used, verified by field trip and GPS instrument for correct locations. The used thematic maps are: topographic maps for roads and tracks and main cities, and geologic maps. The study will be illustrated by numerous field photos. The description of the considered features and including significant photographs will be presented on a CD

  13. Family planning services quality as a determinant of use of IUD in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montana Livia

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both availability and quality of family planning services are believed to have contributed to increasing contraceptive use and declining fertility rates in developing countries. Yet, there is limited empirical evidence to show the relationship between the quality of family planning services and the population based prevalence of contraceptive methods. This study examined the relationship between quality of family planning services and use of intrauterine devices (IUD in Egypt. Methods The analysis used data from the 2003 Egypt Interim Demographic and Health Survey (EIDHS that included 8,445 married women aged 15–49, and the 2002 Egypt Service Provision Assessment (ESPA survey that included 602 facilities offering family planning services. The EIDHS collected latitude and longitude coordinates of all sampled clusters, and the ESPA collected these coordinates for all sampled facilities. Using Geographic Information System (GIS methods, individual women were linked to a facility located within 10 km of their community. A facility-level index was constructed to reflect the quality of family planning services. Four dimensions of quality of care were examined: counseling, examination room, supply of contraceptive methods, and management. Effects of quality of family planning services on the use of IUD and other contraceptive methods were estimated using multinomial logistic regression. Results are presented as relative risk ratios (RRR with significance levels (p-values. Results IUD use among women who obtained their method from public sources was significantly positively associated with quality of family planning services (RRR = 1.36, p Conclusion This study is one among the few that used geographic information to link data from a population-based survey with an independently sampled health facility survey. The findings demonstrate that service quality is an important determinant of use of clinical contraceptive methods in Egypt

  14. Geochemistry, Radioactivity and Gamma-Ray Dose Assesment of Igneous Rocks, of Abu El Hassan El Aswad Area, North Egypt Eastern Desert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Monem, A.A.; Moussa, E.M.; Abd El Fattah, M.M.G.; Wetait, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Abu El Hassan Al Aswad area, Northern Eastern Desert, Egypt, is located between lat. 26 degree 45/ and 26 degree 58 / N and long. 33 degree 0/ and 33 degree 11 /50// E, covering approximately 270 km 2 . It is covered by a suite of igneous rocks, which are classified according to their silica and potash contents into ultra basic rock class with the least silica and potash contents, basic rock class, intermediated rock class and acidic rock class with the highest silica and potash contents. The ultra basic rocks with SiO 2 2 (42-57%), K (0.15-0.5), U (0.8-3 ppm) and Th (1-7 ppm), produce the gamma ray doses (AEDE, 0.266 mSv/y; AGDE, 0.1475 mSv/y). The intermediate rocks with SiO 2 (57-65%), K (0-8-2.5%), U (2-8 ppm) and Th (3.5-14.5 ppm) produce the gamma ray doses (AEDE, 0.083 mSv/y; AGDE, 0.4784 mSv/y). The acidic rocks with SiO 2 (65-75%), K (2.6-4.3%), U (4.5-10 ppm) and Th (13-26 ppm) produce the gamma ray doses (AEDE, 0.1692 mSv/y; AGDE, 0.9571 mSv/y).It is suggested that the ultra basic, basic and the intermediated rock classes can be used safely as building materials as well as for indoor and outdoor decorations. The acidic rock class may be used for outdoor decorations but not as building materials or indoor decoration due to its high AGDE values, which when added to the other gamma ray exposure source may exceed the International Accepted Radiation Dose Limit to member of the public which is (1-3 mSv/y)

  15. Natural attenuation of uranium and formation of autunite at the expense of apatite within an oxidizing environment, south Eastern Desert of Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Naby, Hamdy H.; Dawood, Yehia H.

    2008-01-01

    X-ray diffraction (XRD), back scattered electron imaging (BSE), wavelength-dispersion spectral scan (WDS), X-ray compositional mapping and quantitative electron probe micro analyses (EPMA) have been used to examine a natural attenuation of U during low temperature alteration of the Sela granite, south Eastern Desert of Egypt. The data confirmed that a pre-existing hydroxyapatite was transformed to autunite through an unidentified intermediate phase. The boundaries between these three phases are not sharp and are generally interfering indicative of the replacement of Ca by U. The hydroxyapatite, intermediate phase and autunite show similar chondrite normalized rare earth elements (REE) patterns suggesting a genetic relationship. Alteration processes have enriched the three phases with heavy rare earth elements (HREE) and Eu and caused Ce, Dy and Yb negative anomalies. Based on the pH of the aqueous solutions, two mechanisms may explain the conversion of hydroxyapatite to autunite: (1) the dissolution of hydroxyapatite and precipitation of autunite which would happen when the uranyl bearing solutions were acidic enough (pH = 3-6.8) to be able to dissolve the pre-existing hydroxyapatite and (2) sorption of the uranyl ion on the surface of hydroxyapatite followed by substitution of (UO 2 ) 2+ at the expense of Ca 2+ . The latter mechanism would have happened if the pH of the aqueous solutions were near neutral and at low dissolved concentrations of uranyl ion. The genesis of uranyl mineralization in the Sela area supports the use of apatite-based technologies for U remediation in an oxidizing environment

  16. Seismic data interpretation for hydrocarbon potential, for Safwa/Sabbar field, East Ghazalat onshore area, Abu Gharadig basin, Western Desert, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser A. Hameed El Redini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Safwa/Sabbar oil field located in the East Ghazalat Concession in the proven and prolific Abu Gharadig basin, Western Desert, Egypt, and about 250 km to the southwest of Cairo, it’s located in the vicinity of several producing oil fields ranging from small to large size hydrocarbon accumulation, adjacent to the NW-SE trending major Abu Gharadig fault which is throwing to the Southwest.All the geological, “structure and stratigraphic” elements, have been identified after interpreting the recent high quality 3D seismic survey for prospect generation, evaluation and their relation to the hydrocarbon exploration.Synthetic seismograms have been carried out for all available wells to tie horizons to seismic data and to define the lateral variation characters of the beds.The analysis has been done using the suitable seismic attributes to understand the characteristics of different types of the reservoir formations, type of trap system, identify channels and faults, and delineating the stratigraphic plays of good reservoirs such as Eocene Apollonia Limestone, AR “F”, AR “G” members, Upper Bahariya, Jurassic Khatatba Sandstone, upper Safa and Lower Safa Sandstone.The top Cenomanian Bahariya level is the main oil reservoir in the Study area, which consist of Sandstone, Siltstone and Shale, the thickness is varying from 1 to 50 ft along the study area.In addition to Upper-Bahariya there are a good accessibility of hydrocarbon potential within the Jurassic Khatatba Sandstone and the Eocene Apollonia Limestone. More exploring of these reservoirs are important to increase productivity of Oil and/or Gas in the study area.

  17. Reservoir petrophysics and hydrocarbon occurrences of the Bahariya Formation, Alamein-Yidma fields, Western Desert of Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Aziz Younes, Mohamed [Alexandria Univ. (Egypt). Geology Dept.

    2012-12-15

    The Bahariya Formation of Cenomanian age is considered to be one of the main oil and gas accumulations in most of the fields of the Western Desert basins. The lithostratigraphic succession of the Bahariya Formation is classified into two main sand units (Unit I and Unit III) separated by shalesiltstone (Unit II). The sandstone of unit-I and III is characterized by being highly enriched in shale content especially glauconite in all wells of the Alamein Field, that has an obvious negative effect on the porosity and oil saturation, where the glauconite increases the grain density of sandstone reservoirs from 2.65 g/cm{sup 3} up to 2.71 g/cm{sup 3}. The well logging data and petrophysical characteristics conducted on Alamein well-28 involving analysis of 30 core samples, were used to evaluate the reservoir characterization and hydrocarbon potentialities. The petrophysical parameters indicate that the primary porosity values are between 8.7 and 29.1%. Decreasing porosity is related to the increase of shale content from 9 to 13%, which occurs as a dispersed habitat. The water saturation changes from 43 to 80%, while the hydrocarbon saturation ranges from 12.1 to 37%. Promising hydrocarbon accumulations are displayed by the sandstone of unit-III due to increased hydrocarbon saturation and effective porosity, thus reflecting the high quality reservoir of this unit. The irreducible and movable hydrocarbon distribution shows a general increase at the eastern and western flanks of the faulted anticline in the Alamein-Yidma fields. The biomarker characteristics and stable carbonisotopic composition of the Bahariya crude oils recovered from the Alamein Field show no obvious variations among them. These oils are paraffinic, containing little branched or cyclic materials waxy n-alkanes(C{sub 25}-C{sub 31}) and characterized by high API gravity, low sulfur content, oleanane index < 2% and moderately high pristane/phytaneratio > 1 and CPI > 1 and the canonical variable parameter is

  18. Application of multivariate statistical analyses in the interpretation of geochemical behaviour of uranium in phosphatic rocks in the Red Sea, Nile Valley and Western Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Arabi, A.M.Abd El-Gabar M.; Khalifa, Ibrahim H.

    2002-01-01

    Factor and cluster analyses as well as the Pearson correlation coefficient have been applied to geochemical data obtained from phosphorite and phosphatic rocks of Duwi Formation exposed at the Red Sea coast, Nile Valley and Western Desert. Sixty-six samples from a total of 71 collected samples were analysed for SiO 2 , TiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , Fe 2 O 3 , CaO, MgO, Na 2 O, K 2 O, P 2 O 5 , Sr, U and Pb by XRF and their mineral constituents were determined by the use of XRD techniques. In addition, the natural radioactivity of the phosphatic samples due to their uranium, thorium and potassium contents was measured by gamma-spectrometry.The uranium content in the phosphate rocks with P 2 O 5 >15% (average of 106.6 ppm) is higher than in rocks with P 2 O 5 2 O 5 and CaO, whereas it is not related to changes in SiO 2 , TiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , Fe 2 O 3 , MgO, Na 2 O and K 2 O concentrations.Factor analysis and the Pearson correlation coefficient revealed that uranium behaves geochemically in different ways in the phosphatic sediments and phosphorites in the Red Sea, Nile Valley and Western Desert. In the Red Sea and Western Desert phosphorites, uranium occurs mainly in oxidized U 6+ state where it seems to be fixed by the phosphate ion, forming secondary uranium phosphate minerals such as phosphuranylite.In the Nile Valley phosphorites, ionic substitution of Ca 2+ by U 4+ is the main controlling factor in the concentration of uranium in phosphate rocks. Moreover, fixation of U 6+ by phosphate ion and adsorption of uranium on phosphate minerals play subordinate roles

  19. Integration of remote sensing, geochemical and field data in the Qena-Safaga shear zone: Implications for structural evolution of the Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Din, Gamal Kamal; Abdelkareem, Mohamed

    2018-05-01

    The Qena-Safaga shear zone (QSSZ) represents a significant structural characteristic in the Eastern Desert of Egypt. Remote Sensing, field and geochemical data were utilized in the present study. The results revealed that the QSSZ dominated by metamorphic complex (MC) that intruded by syn-tectonic granitoids. The low angle thrust fault brings calc-alkaline metavolcanics to overlie MC and its association. Subsequently, the area is dissected by strike-slip faults and the small elongated basins of Hammamat sediments of Precambrian were accumulated. The MC intruded by late-to post-tectonic granites (LPG) and Dokhan Volcanics which comprise felsic varieties forming distinctive columnar joints. Remote sensing analysis and field data revealed that major sub-vertical conspicuous strike-slip faults (SSF) including sinistral NW-SE and dextral ca. E-W shaped the study area. Various shear zones that accompanying the SSF are running NW-SE, NE-SW, E-W, N-S and ENE-WSW. The obtained shear sense presented a multiphase of deformation on each trend. i.e., the predominant NW-SE strike-slip fault trend started with sinistral displacement and is reactivated during later events to be right (dextral) strike slip cutting with dextral displacement the E-W trending faults; while NE-SW movements are cut by both the N-S and NNW - SSE trends. Remote sensing data revealed that the NW-SE direction that dominated the area is associated with hydrothermal alteration processes. This allowed modifying the major and trace elements of the highly deformed rocks that showed depletion in SiO2 and enrichments in Fe2O3, MnO, Al2O3, TiO2, Na2O, K2O, Cu, Zn and Pb contents. The geochemical signatures of major and trace elements revealed two types of granites including I-type calc-alkaline granites (late-to post-tectonic) that formed during an extensional regime. However, syn-tectonic granitoids are related to subduction-related environment.

  20. The evaluation of radon concentration and working levels using SSNTD in the U-exploration galleries in the eastern desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-hafez, A.I.; Eissa, H.M.; Abdel-Monem, A.A.; Abdel-Razek, Y.A.; El-Naggar, A.M.; El-fiki, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    Radon gas concentrations and the working levels (radon daughters concentrations) were measured using solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) namely Cr-39, Mk, Lr 115 and CN 85, in three U-exploration galleries at Qattar-1, El Missikat, and El-Erediya areas, eastern desert, Egypt. In each U-exploration gallery 10 monitoring stations were chosen for measurements. The locations covered the differing intensities of the U-mineralization as well as ventilation conditions. Two sets of measurements were for the time intervals and 50 days). Calibration experiments on the SSNTD were performed using 238 Pu source (6.06/MeV), to find the optimum conditions for etching the detectors. The ranges of alpha track densities (t/mm 2 day) measured for Qattar-1 gallery are 23.7-46.6 (CR-39), 13.4-30.9 (MK), 11.1-22.9 (CN-85) and 8.8-15.4 (LR-115) for 27 day monitoring, whereas the ranges for the 50 days experiment are 8.8-25.8 (CR-39), 8.3-15.4 (MK) and 3.9-8.2 (LR-115). In el Missikat gallery, the alpha track densities ranges are 17.1-128.8 (CR-39), 11.4-73.1 (MK), 8.0-74.4 (CN.85) and 5.7-37.8 (LR-115) for the 27 day interval, whereas the ranges are (CR-39), 6.3-38.0 (MK) and 3.4-21.0 (LR-115) for the 50 days experiments. Alpha tracks densities for El-Erediya gallery ranges are 14.1-39.9 (CR-39), 8.9-20.0 (MK), 7.9-23.1 (CN-85), and 2.7-17.6 (LR-115) for the 27 days experiment. whereas the ranges are 8.5-22.7 (CR-39), 6.4-13.4 (MK), and 2.4-9.3 (LR-115)for the 50 days experiment. Working level measurements are compared with 1 W L equivalent to 16.28 tracks/ mm 2 day. Evaluation of the measurements at each monitoring station is discussed in terms of U-concentration and ventilation conditions. Also, the efficiency of the different SSNTD are discussed as well as the optimum time of monitoring at each U-exploration gallery. 4 figs., 5 tabs

  1. The evaluation of radon concentration and working levels using SSNTD in the U-exploration galleries in the eastern desert, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-hafez, A I; Eissa, H M [National Institute of Measurement and Standards, Technology, Cairo (Egypt); Abdel-Monem, A A; Abdel-Razek, Y A; El-Naggar, A M [Nuclear Materials Authority, Cairo (Egypt); El-fiki, S A [Physicsics Dept., Faculty of Sciences, Ain Shams University. Cairo (Egypt)

    1997-12-31

    Radon gas concentrations and the working levels (radon daughters concentrations) were measured using solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) namely Cr-39, Mk, Lr 115 and CN 85, in three U-exploration galleries at Qattar-1, El Missikat, and El-Erediya areas, eastern desert, Egypt. In each U-exploration gallery 10 monitoring stations were chosen for measurements. The locations covered the differing intensities of the U-mineralization as well as ventilation conditions. Two sets of measurements were for the time intervals and (50 days). Calibration experiments on the SSNTD were performed using {sup 238} Pu source (6.06/MeV), to find the optimum conditions for etching the detectors. The ranges of alpha track densities (t/mm{sup 2} day) measured for Qattar-1 gallery are 23.7-46.6 (CR-39), 13.4-30.9 (MK), 11.1-22.9 (CN-85) and 8.8-15.4 (LR-115) for 27 day monitoring, whereas the ranges for the 50 days experiment are 8.8-25.8 (CR-39), 8.3-15.4 (MK) and 3.9-8.2 (LR-115). In el Missikat gallery, the alpha track densities ranges are 17.1-128.8 (CR-39), 11.4-73.1 (MK), 8.0-74.4 (CN.85) and 5.7-37.8 (LR-115) for the 27 day interval, whereas the ranges are (CR-39), 6.3-38.0 (MK) and 3.4-21.0 (LR-115) for the 50 days experiments. Alpha tracks densities for El-Erediya gallery ranges are 14.1-39.9 (CR-39), 8.9-20.0 (MK), 7.9-23.1 (CN-85), and 2.7-17.6 (LR-115) for the 27 days experiment. whereas the ranges are 8.5-22.7 (CR-39), 6.4-13.4 (MK), and 2.4-9.3 (LR-115)for the 50 days experiment. Working level measurements are compared with 1 W L equivalent to 16.28 tracks/ mm{sup 2} day. Evaluation of the measurements at each monitoring station is discussed in terms of U-concentration and ventilation conditions. Also, the efficiency of the different SSNTD are discussed as well as the optimum time of monitoring at each U-exploration gallery. 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Diurnal pattern of the drying front in desert and its application for determining the effective infiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zeng

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Located in western Inner Mongolia, the Badain Jaran Desert is the second largest desert in China and consists of a regular series of stable megadunes, among which over 70 permanent lakes exist. The unexpected lakes in desert attracted research interests on exploring the hydrological process under this particular landscape; however, a very few literatures exist on the diurnal and spatial variation of the drying front in this area, which is the main issue in the desert hydrological process to characterize the movement of water in soil. In order to understand the drying front in the Badain Jaran Desert, a field campaign was conducted by the observations of soil physical parameters and micrometeorological parameters. With the field data, the performance of a vadose zone soil water balance model, the HYDRUS, was verified and calibrated. Then, the HYDRUS was used to produce the spatial and temporal information of coupled water, water vapour and heat transport in sand to characterize the variation pattern of the drying front before, during and after the rainfall. Finally, the deepest drying front was applied to determine the effective infiltration, which is defined as the amount of soil water captured by the sand beneath the deepest drying front by infiltrating water of an incident rainfall event.

  3. Determination of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol content of cannabis seizures in Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmed M.A.Souleman; Alaa El-Din M. Gaafar; Omar M.Abdel-Salam; Shaimaa A. ElShebiney

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content of cannabis seizures in Egypt. Methods: Unheated and heated extracts of cannabis seizures were prepared from the dried flowering tops and leaves (marijuana) or from the resin (hashish) and subjected to analysis using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results: The heated resin extract had the peak of THC in a relative ratio of 31.34%, while extracting the resin directly without heating contained only 18.34% of THC. On the other hand, marijuana showed minimum percentage of THC at 11.188% on heating and 9.55% without heating. Conclusions:These results indicate the high potency of the abused cannabis plant in the illicit Egyptian market.

  4. Determinants of hand hygiene compliance in Egypt: building blocks for a communication strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohiniva, A-L; Bassim, H; Hafez, S; Kamel, E; Ahmed, E; Saeed, T; Talaat, M

    2015-10-02

    Hand hygiene of health-care staff is one of the most important interventions in reducing transmission of nosocomial infections. This qualitative study aimed to understand the behavioural determinants of hand hygiene in order to develop sustainable interventions to promote hand hygiene in hospitals. Fourteen focus group discussions were conducted with nurses in 2 university hospitals in Egypt. The interviews were tape recorded and transcribed. Thematic analysis was conducted by 2 independent investigators. The findings highlighted that nurses did not perceive the benefits of hand hygiene, and that they linked the need to wash hands to a sense of dirtiness. Knowledge of hand hygiene and related products was limited and preference for water and soap was obvious. Environmental constraints, lack of role models and social control were identified as barriers for compliance with hand hygiene. A multi-faceted hand hygiene strategy was developed based on existing cultural concepts valued by the hospital staff.

  5. 75 FR 27383 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “A Gift From the Desert...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 7003] Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``A Gift From the Desert: The Art, History and Culture of the Arabian Horse'' SUMMARY: Notice is... objects to be included in the exhibition ``A Gift from the Desert: The Art, History and Culture of the...

  6. Geophysical exploration for gold and associated minerals, case study: Wadi El Beida area, South Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultan, Sultan Awad; Mansour, Salah Ahmed; Santos, Fernando Monteiro; Helaly, Ahmad Sobhy

    2009-01-01

    simultaneously with IP measurements. The low-resistivity zones coincide with the altered and sheared acidic meta-volcanics. The quantitative interpretation technique determined the conductive bodies' parameters using the Schulz method (1985) where the depth to the top of the ore body ranged from 21 to 62 m while the maximum width ranged from 52 to 165 m. The induced polarization-chargeability data were measured in the time domain. The positive anomalies on the IP-chargeability map coincide with the sites of alterations, shears and contact zones. Four dipole–dipole sections were carried out along the anomalous sites selected from the constructed maps in the study area and were inverted using the RES2DINV program. The results of resistivity and IP inversions indicated that there are conductive and chargeable bodies at depths ranging from 15 to 65 m. According to the integrated geophysical results, two suggested borehole sites were selected before carrying out any future mining projects

  7. Wind Atlas for Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The results of a comprehensive, 8-year wind resource assessment programme in Egypt are presented. The objective has been to provide reliable and accurate wind atlas data sets for evaluating the potential wind power output from large electricityproducing wind turbine installations. The regional wind...... climates of Egypt have been determined by two independent methods: a traditional wind atlas based on observations from more than 30 stations all over Egypt, and a numerical wind atlas based on long-term reanalysis data and a mesoscale model (KAMM). The mean absolute error comparing the two methods is about...... 10% for two large-scale KAMM domains covering all of Egypt, and typically about 5% for several smaller-scale regional domains. The numerical wind atlas covers all of Egypt, whereas the meteorological stations are concentrated in six regions. The Wind Atlas for Egypt represents a significant step...

  8. Wind Atlas for Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Said Said, Usama; Badger, Jake

    2006-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive, 8-year wind resource assessment programme in Egypt are presented. The objective has been to provide reliable and accurate wind atlas data sets for evaluating the potential wind power output from large electricityproducing wind turbine installations. The regional wind...... climates of Egypt have been determined by two independent methods: a traditional wind atlas based on observations from more than 30 stations all over Egypt, and a numerical wind atlas based on long-term reanalysis data and a mesoscale model (KAMM). The mean absolute error comparing the two methods is about...... 10% for two large-scale KAMM domains covering all of Egypt, and typically about 5% for several smaller-scale regional domains. The numerical wind atlas covers all of Egypt, whereas the meteorological stations are concentrated in six regions. The Wind Atlas for Egypt represents a significant step...

  9. A Study to Determine the Mental Models in Preschool Children’s Conceptualization of a Desert Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berat AHİ

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine mental models and identify codes (schemes used in conceptualizing a desert environment. The sample for this study consisted of 184 – out of a total population of 3,630 - children in preschool education in the central district of Kastamonu, Turkey. Within the scope of this study, the children were initially asked to draw a desert-themed picture, followed by a semi-structured interview to seek their opinions about the drawing and clarify what a desert environment meant to them. According to the findings, the children referred to 38 different codes relevant to the conceptualization of a desert environment; the most frequently used were the sun (f= 160, 86.9%, sand (f= 100, 54.3%, cacti (f= 74, 35.3% and camels (f= 52, 28.6%. During the interview phase, 33 children described a desert as a place where there is no life, although a significant number of the children (f= 65, 39.1% did describe a desert as a place where plants and animals live. Moreover, the sun and its rays were disproportionately bigger in size, in order to emphasize the excessive heat associated with the specific ecosystem found in a desert environment; to reinforce this, humans drenched in sweat, the absence of trees and the prevalence of cacti and exotic wildlife, including camels, scorpions and lizards, were all features of the children’s drawings. Based on these findings, it was inferred that the mental models in some of the children (f= 72, 39.1% were scientifically informed, with a degree of accuracy, about a desert environment. On the basis of the findings, it is considered that determining mental models in children in relation to different ecological concepts can be beneficial to teachers and curriculum programmers involved in environmental education.

  10. A study to determine the mental models in preschool children’s conceptualization of a desert environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berat Ahi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine mental models and identify codes (schemes used in conceptualizing a desert environment. The sample for this study consisted of 184 – out of a total population of 3,630 - children in preschool education in the central district of Kastamonu, Turkey. Within the scope of this study, the children were initially asked to draw a desert-themed picture, followed by a semi-structured interview to seek their opinions about the drawing and clarify what a desert environment meant to them. According to the findings, the children referred to 38 different codes relevant to the conceptualization of a desert environment; the most frequently used were the sun (f= 160, 86.9%, sand (f= 100, 54.3%, cacti (f= 74, 35.3% and camels (f= 52, 28.6%. During the interview phase, 33 children described a desert as a place where there is no life, although a significant number of the children (f= 65, 39.1% did describe a desert as a place where plants and animals live. Moreover, the sun and its rays were disproportionately bigger in size, in order to emphasize the excessive heat associated with the specific ecosystem found in a desert environment; to reinforce this, humans drenched in sweat, the absence of trees and the prevalence of cacti and exotic wildlife, including camels, scorpions and lizards, were all features of the children’s drawings. Based on these findings, it was inferred that the mental models in some of the children (f= 72, 39.1% were scientifically informed, with a degree of accuracy, about a desert environment. On the basis of the findings, it is considered that determining mental models in children in relation to different ecological concepts can be beneficial to teachers and curriculum programmers involved in environmental education.

  11. PIXE micro-mapping of minor elements in Hypatia, a diamond bearing carbonaceous stone from the Libyan Desert Glass area, Egypt: Inheritance from a cold molecular cloud?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreoli, M.A.G., E-mail: marco.andreoli@wits.ac.za [School of Geosciences, University of the Witwatersrand, P.O. Box 3, Wits 2050 (South Africa); Przybylowicz, W.J. [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics & Applied Computer Science, al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Kramers, J.; Belyanin, G. [Department of Geology, University of Johannesburg, Auckland Park 2006 (South Africa); Westraadt, J. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Bamford, M. [Evolutionary Studies Institute, University of the Witwatersrand, P.O. Box 3, Wits 2050 (South Africa); Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, J. [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Venter, A. [South African Nuclear Energy Corporation, P.O. Box 582, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa)

    2015-11-15

    Matter originating from space, particularly if it represents rare meteorite samples, is ideally suited to be studied by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) as this analytical technique covers a broad range of trace elements and is per se non-destructive. We describe and interpret a set of micro-PIXE elemental maps obtained on two minute (weighing about 25 and 150 mg), highly polished fragments taken from Hypatia, a controversial, diamond-bearing carbonaceous pebble from the SW Egyptian desert. PIXE data show that Hypatia is chemically heterogeneous, with significant amounts of primordial S, Cl, P and at least 10 elements with Z > 21 (Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Os, Ir) locally attaining concentrations above 500 ppm. Si, Al, Ca, K, O also occur, but are predominantly confined to cracks and likely represent contamination from the desert environment. Unusual in the stone is poor correlation between elements within the chalcophile (S vs. Cu, Zn) and siderophile (i.e.: Fe vs. Ni, Ir, Os) groups, whereas other siderophiles (Mn, Mo and the Platinum group elements (PGEs)) mimic the distribution of lithophile elements such as Cr and V. Worthy of mention is also the presence of a globular domain (Ø ∼ 120 μm) that is C and metals-depleted, yet Cl (P)-enriched (>3 wt.% and 0.15 wt.% respectively). While the host of the Cl remains undetermined, this chemical unit is enclosed within a broader domain that is similarly C-poor, yet Cr–Ir rich (up to 1.2 and 0.3 wt.% respectively). Our data suggest that the pebble consists of shock-compacted, primitive carbonaceous material enriched in cold, pre-solar dust.

  12. PIXE micro-mapping of minor elements in Hypatia, a diamond bearing carbonaceous stone from the Libyan Desert Glass area, Egypt: Inheritance from a cold molecular cloud?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreoli, M.A.G.; Przybylowicz, W.J.; Kramers, J.; Belyanin, G.; Westraadt, J.; Bamford, M.; Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, J.; Venter, A.

    2015-01-01

    Matter originating from space, particularly if it represents rare meteorite samples, is ideally suited to be studied by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) as this analytical technique covers a broad range of trace elements and is per se non-destructive. We describe and interpret a set of micro-PIXE elemental maps obtained on two minute (weighing about 25 and 150 mg), highly polished fragments taken from Hypatia, a controversial, diamond-bearing carbonaceous pebble from the SW Egyptian desert. PIXE data show that Hypatia is chemically heterogeneous, with significant amounts of primordial S, Cl, P and at least 10 elements with Z > 21 (Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Os, Ir) locally attaining concentrations above 500 ppm. Si, Al, Ca, K, O also occur, but are predominantly confined to cracks and likely represent contamination from the desert environment. Unusual in the stone is poor correlation between elements within the chalcophile (S vs. Cu, Zn) and siderophile (i.e.: Fe vs. Ni, Ir, Os) groups, whereas other siderophiles (Mn, Mo and the Platinum group elements (PGEs)) mimic the distribution of lithophile elements such as Cr and V. Worthy of mention is also the presence of a globular domain (Ø ∼ 120 μm) that is C and metals-depleted, yet Cl (P)-enriched (>3 wt.% and 0.15 wt.% respectively). While the host of the Cl remains undetermined, this chemical unit is enclosed within a broader domain that is similarly C-poor, yet Cr–Ir rich (up to 1.2 and 0.3 wt.% respectively). Our data suggest that the pebble consists of shock-compacted, primitive carbonaceous material enriched in cold, pre-solar dust.

  13. Optimization of Different Physical Parameters For Bio leaching of Uranium and Rare Earth Elements From Nubia Sandstones, Wadi Natash, Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, H.E.; Mira, H.I.; Amin, M.M.; MORSY, W.M.; Abdel Aziz, Z.K.

    2013-01-01

    Five fungal species were isolated from two Nubia sandstone samples at Wadi Natash, Eastern Desert, These species were then tested for their ability in bio leaching of uranium and rare earth elements he two ore samples (G1 and G2) whose assay of U attains 65 and 150 ppm respectively while their assay Es attains 1590 and 1152 ppm respectively. Among the isolated fungi both Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus have been the only species that give the highest leaching efficiencies .Thus in case of G2 sample the leaching of U has reached up to 90% of uranium by using A. niger while that of REEs has attained 84% by A flavus under the studied optimum conditions .The latter involved shaking at 100 rpm for 7 days incubation time, 2% pulp density,> 0.2 mm grain size and 35°C incubation temperature. Production of organic acids (oxalic and, citric acids) by two fungal species in their culture filtrate represents the key realized bio leaching processes

  14. Use of ERS-2 Sar and Landsat TM Images for Geological Mapping and Mineral Exploration Of Sol Hamid Area, South Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, T.M.

    2003-01-01

    Sol hamid area is chiefy occupied by neo proterozoic rocks, partly covered by miocene sediments and recent sand sheets and dunes. The neo proterozoic rocks include ophiolitic ultramafic to mafic rocks, meta volcano-sedimentary rocks, meta volcanics, gabbros-diorite rocks, granodiorites, biotite granites and alkali granites. Magnesite, chromite, iron ores, manganese and barite ore deposits are hosted in different at the study area. ERS-2 SAR data enabled to obtain an image that reveals some buried fluvial features beneath the surface cover of desert sand. These features are not observable in Landsat TM image of similar resolution. In this work, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) technique was used for merging ERS-2 SAR and Landsat TM images to make use of the potential of data fusion technique of image processing in the interpretation of geological features. This procedure has resulted in enhancing subsurface structure such as faults that control distribution of several deposits in the study area. This study represents an example to demonstrate the utility of merging various remote sensing data for exploring mineral deposits in arid region

  15. Determining heterogeneous deformation for granitic rocks in the northern thrust in Wadi Mubarak belt, Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Osama M. K.

    2011-05-01

    Finite-strain was studied in the mylonitic granitic and metasedimentary rocks in the northern thrust in Wadi Mubarak belt to show a relationship to nappe contacts between the old granitic and metavolcano-sedimentary rocks and to shed light on the heterogeneous deformation for the northern thrust in Wadi Mubarak belt. We used the Rf/ϕ and Fry methods on feldspar porphyroclasts, quartz and mafic grains from 7 old granitic and 7 metasedimentary samples in the northern thrust in Wadi Mubarak belt. The finite-strain data shows that old granitic rocks were moderate to highly deformed and axial ratios in the XZ section range from 3.05 to 7.10 for granitic and metasedimentary rocks. The long axes (X) of the finite-strain ellipsoids trend W/WNW and E/ENE in the northern thrust in Wadi Mubarak belt. Furthermore, the short axes (Z) are subvertical associated with a subhorizontal foliation. The value of strain magnitudes mainly constants towards the tectonic contacts between the mylonitic granite and metavolcano-sedimentary rocks. The data indicate oblate strain symmetry (flattening strain) in the mylonitic granite rocks. It is suggested that the accumulation of finite strain was formed before or/and during nappe contacts. The penetrative subhorizontal foliation is subparallel to the tectonic contacts with the overlying nappes and foliation was formed during nappe thrusting.

  16. Solar Energy for Rural Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelsalam, Tarek I.; Darwish, Ziad; Hatem, Tarek M.

    Egypt is currently experiencing the symptoms of an energy crisis, such as electricity outage and high deficit, due to increasing rates of fossil fuels consumption. Conversely, Egypt has a high solar availability of more than 18.5 MJ daily. Additionally, Egypt has large uninhabited deserts on both sides of the Nile valley and Sinai Peninsula, which both represent more than 96.5 % of the nation's total land area. Therefore, solar energy is one of the promising solutions for the energy shortage in Egypt. Furthermore, these vast lands are advantageous for commissioning large-scaled solar power projects, not only in terms of space availability, but also of availability of high quality silicon (sand) required for manufacturing silicon wafers used in photovoltaic (PV) modules. Also, rural Egypt is considered market a gap for investors, due to low local competition, and numerous remote areas that are not connected to the national electricity grid. Nevertheless, there are some obstacles that hinder the progress of solar energy in Egypt; for instance, the lack of local manufacturing capabilities, security, and turbulent market in addition to other challenges. This paper exhibits an experience of the authors designing and installing decentralized PV solar systems, with a total rated power of about 11 kW, installed at two rural villages in at the suburbs of Fayoum city, in addition to a conceptual design of a utility scale, 2 MW, PV power plant to be installed in Kuraymat. The outcomes of this experience asserted that solar PV systems can be a more technically and economically feasible solution for the energy problem in rural villages.

  17. Economic Determinants of Academic Failure and School Desertion in the Guatemala Highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, Manuel J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Explores, from an economic perspective, elementary school system adequacy in the rural, indigenous Guatemalan highlands. Estimates least-squares coefficients and elasticities separately for academic failure and school abandonment for each of four indigenous groups. The model explains academic failure better than school desertion. A national policy…

  18. A new GIS-based model for automated extraction of Sand Dune encroachment case study: Dakhla Oases, western desert of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghadiry

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The movements of the sand dunes are considered as a threat for roads, irrigation networks, water resources, urban areas, agriculture and infrastructures. The main objectives of this study are to develop a new GIS-based model for automated extraction of sand dune encroachment using remote sensing data and to assess the rate of sand dune movement. To monitor and assess the movements of sand dunes in Dakhla oases area, multi-temporal satellite images and a GIS-developed model, using Python script in Arc GIS, were used. The satellite images (SPOT images, 1995 and 2007 were geo-rectified using Erdas Imagine. Image subtraction was performed using spatial analyst in Arc GIS, the result of image subtraction obtains the sand dune movement between the two dates. The raster and vector shape of sand dune migration was automatically extracted using spatial analyst tools. The frontiers of individual dunes were measured at different dates and movement rates were analyzed in GIS. The ModelBuilder in Arc GIS was used in order to create a user friendly tool. The custom built model window is easy to handle by any user who wishes to adapt the model in his work. It was found that the rate of sand dune movement ranged between 3 and 9 m per year. The majority of sand dunes have a rate movement between 0 and 6 m and very few dunes had a movement rate between 6 and 9 m. Integrating remote sensing and GIS provided the necessary information for determining the minimum, maximum, mean, rate and area of sand dune migration.

  19. Crustal structure of northern Egypt from joint inversion of receiver functions and surface wave dispersion velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Ahmed; Hegazi, Mona; Gaber, Hanan; Korrat, Ibrahim

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we used a combined inversion of body wave receiver functions and surface wave dispersion measurements to provide constraints on the crustal structure of northern Egypt. The two techniques are complementary to each other: receiver functions (RFs) are sensitive to shear-wave velocity contrasts, while surface wave dispersion (SWD) measurements are sensitive to finite variations of shear-wave velocity with depth. A database of 122 teleseismic events digitally recorded by the Egyptian National Seismological Network (ENSN) stations has been used as well. To enhance the resulting RFs at each ENSN station, the H-k stacking method was applied. A joint inversion process between the resulting receiver functions and the surface wave dispersion curves was applied as well. We have produced three averaged velocity structure models for distinct geographic and tectonic provinces namely Sinai, eastern desert, and western desert from east to the west respectively. These models will deeply help in estimation the epicenter distance of earthquake, focal mechanism solutions, and earthquake hazard analysis in northern Egypt. An obvious image of the subsurface structure has been determined which shows that generally the crustal structure of northern Egypt consists of three layers covered with a sequence of sediments that differs in thickness from across the region except in the Sharm area where the sedimentary cover is absent. The obtained results indicate that crustal thickness differs from east to west and reaches its maximum value of about 36 km at Siwa station (SWA) in the western desert and its minimum value of about 28 km at Sharm station (SHR) of the southern tip of the Sinai Peninsula. The Vp/Vs ratio varies between 1.71 and 2.07 in northern Egypt. Generally, the high values (1.93) of (Vp/Vs) at SWA station may reflect the well-known rich aquifer with fully saturated sediments of the Swia Oasis in the Western Desert. Moreover, the highest value (2.07) of (Vp/Vs) at

  20. Crustal structure of northern Egypt from joint inversion of receiver functions and surface wave dispersion velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Ahmed; Hegazi, Mona; Gaber, Hanan; Korrat, Ibrahim

    2018-05-01

    In this study, we used a combined inversion of body wave receiver functions and surface wave dispersion measurements to provide constraints on the crustal structure of northern Egypt. The two techniques are complementary to each other: receiver functions (RFs) are sensitive to shear-wave velocity contrasts, while surface wave dispersion (SWD) measurements are sensitive to finite variations of shear-wave velocity with depth. A database of 122 teleseismic events digitally recorded by the Egyptian National Seismological Network (ENSN) stations has been used as well. To enhance the resulting RFs at each ENSN station, the H-k stacking method was applied. A joint inversion process between the resulting receiver functions and the surface wave dispersion curves was applied as well. We have produced three averaged velocity structure models for distinct geographic and tectonic provinces namely Sinai, eastern desert, and western desert from east to the west respectively. These models will deeply help in estimation the epicenter distance of earthquake, focal mechanism solutions, and earthquake hazard analysis in northern Egypt. An obvious image of the subsurface structure has been determined which shows that generally the crustal structure of northern Egypt consists of three layers covered with a sequence of sediments that differs in thickness from across the region except in the Sharm area where the sedimentary cover is absent. The obtained results indicate that crustal thickness differs from east to west and reaches its maximum value of about 36 km at Siwa station (SWA) in the western desert and its minimum value of about 28 km at Sharm station (SHR) of the southern tip of the Sinai Peninsula. The Vp/Vs ratio varies between 1.71 and 2.07 in northern Egypt. Generally, the high values (1.93) of (Vp/Vs) at SWA station may reflect the well-known rich aquifer with fully saturated sediments of the Swia Oasis in the Western Desert. Moreover, the highest value (2.07) of (Vp/Vs) at

  1. Seismic hazard studies in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abuo El-Ela A. Mohamed

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of earthquake activity and seismic hazard assessment of Egypt is very important due to the great and rapid spreading of large investments in national projects, especially the nuclear power plant that will be held in the northern part of Egypt. Although Egypt is characterized by low seismicity, it has experienced occurring of damaging earthquake effect through its history. The seismotectonic sitting of Egypt suggests that large earthquakes are possible particularly along the Gulf of Aqaba–Dead Sea transform, the Subduction zone along the Hellenic and Cyprean Arcs, and the Northern Red Sea triple junction point. In addition some inland significant sources at Aswan, Dahshour, and Cairo-Suez District should be considered. The seismic hazard for Egypt is calculated utilizing a probabilistic approach (for a grid of 0.5° × 0.5° within a logic-tree framework. Alternative seismogenic models and ground motion scaling relationships are selected to account for the epistemic uncertainty. Seismic hazard values on rock were calculated to create contour maps for four ground motion spectral periods and for different return periods. In addition, the uniform hazard spectra for rock sites for different 25 periods, and the probabilistic hazard curves for Cairo, and Alexandria cities are graphed. The peak ground acceleration (PGA values were found close to the Gulf of Aqaba and it was about 220 gal for 475 year return period. While the lowest (PGA values were detected in the western part of the western desert and it is less than 25 gal.

  2. The proximate determinants of fertility and birth intervals in Egypt: An application of calendar data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Hinde

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we use calendar data from the 2000 Egyptian Demographic and Health Survey (DHS to assess the determinants of birth interval length among women who are in union. We make use of the well-known model of the proximate determinants of fertility, and take advantage of the fact that the DHS calendar data provide month-by-month data on contraceptive use, breastfeeding and post-partum amenorrhoea, which are the most important proximate determinants among women in union. One aim of the analysis is to see whether the calendar data are sufficiently detailed to account for all variation among individual women in birth interval duration, in that once they are controlled, the effect of background social, economic and cultural variables is not statistically significant. The results suggest that this is indeed the case, especially after a random effect term to account for the unobserved proximate determinants is included in the model. Birth intervals are determined mainly by the use of modern methods of contraception (the IUD being more effective than the pill. Breastfeeding and post-partum amenorrhoea both inhibit conception, and the effect of breastfeeding remains even after the period of amenorrhoea has ended.

  3. Determination of the columnar aerosol size distribution by inversion of spectral aerosol optical depth measurements at different areas in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EI-Metwally, M.; Madkour, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Aerosols have a great effects on nuclear safety calculations and atmospheric environment. The aerosol optical depth measurements are carried out at four areas in Egypt: Cairo and Helwan as urban/industrial areas, Aswan as an arid area and Mansoura as an agricultural area covering the period from Jun 1992 to May 1993. These measurements were recorded by ground-based pyrheliometers with large band-pass filters. Monthly average values of aerosol optical depth (AOD) showed a pronounced temporal trend, with a maximum AOD during summer and the transition seasons (spring and autumn) at all sites. Levels of AODs are higher at both urban and industrial areas than at other areas. Variation of Angstrom exponent a with the AOD was clear at most sites and the a value depends on the spectral range used in its determination. The mean contribution of anthropogenic sources to AOD over Cairo was at the range of 25.1-54.3%, whereas those values in Helwan were at the range of 34.5-59.8%. Finally, columnar aerosol size distributions have been inferred by inverting particularly AOD measurements as a function of wavelength. The Junge (type I) and bimodal (type III) distributions are dominant at urban and arid areas (Cairo and Aswan), whereas mono dispersion distribution (type II) are dominant in industrial and agricultural areas (Helwan and Mansoura). In Cairo and Aswan, the peak of columnar size distribution for the fine mode at radius r is around 0.1 and 0.2 μm respectively, while it is around 1.0 and 2.0 μm for the coarse mode. .Also, the peak of size distribution for the mono dispersion mode was marked at radius around 0.2 μm at both Helwan and Mansoura. A comprehensive comparison of our results with literature size distributions is very sparse, nevertheless, our size distributions in general agree with them

  4. Determination of phase compositions in ceramics from Gobi desert using complementary diffraction techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilles, R.; Hoelzel, M.; Siouris, I.M.; Katsavounis, S.; Visser, D.; Brunelli, M.

    2013-01-01

    The city Khara Khoto is located in the Gobi desert in Inner Mongolia. This city was deserted in the late 14th century and rediscovered in the beginning of the 20th century. In the present study, ceramic sherds typical for the Khara Khoto area have been analysed using neutrons, laboratory X-ray diffraction, synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction as well as optical microscopy as complementary probes in extracting information on the mineral phase compositions as well as on the firing conditions during the pottery production. The data evaluation was performed with the standard diffraction analysis package GSAS and the new developed program AmPhOrAe. The dominating phase is mullite (∼60 %) compared to a variable mixture of SiO 2 quartz and cristobalite phases (∼35 %) and feldspar as a minority phase. Refiring experiments on one of the sherds allow estimating the firing temperatures of the ceramics within the region of 1,150 and 1,250 deg C. (author)

  5. Determination of natural radioactive elements in Abo Zaabal, Egypt by means of gamma spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morsy, Zeinab; Abd El-Wahab, Magda; El-Faramawy, Nabil

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We examined the radioactivity of different type samples from Abo Zaabaal Lake. ► We evaluated the natural nuclide gamma-ray activities and their annual dose rates. ► We evaluated the concentrations of 226 Ra and its hazard indices. ► We assessed the absorbed dose in human. ► All results are within normal ranges. - Abstract: The natural nuclide gamma-ray activities and their respective annual effective dose rates, produced by 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K and 226 Ra, are determined for 10 different natural samples (soil–plant–water) from Abo Zaabaal Lake. This lake is located very close to the Egyptian reactors. The gamma spectra analysis indicates that the photo-gamma lines represent ten radioactive nuclides 234 Th, 239 Pu, 228 Ac, 226 Ra, 212 Pb, 214 Pb, 208 Tl, 212 Bi, 214 Bi and 40 K. These nuclides represent the daughters of the natural radioactive series 238 U and 232 Th with 40 K. The mean activity concentration of 238 U was found to be 6.57, 10.16 and 5.44 Bq kg −1 for (soil–plant–water); 8.46, 8.33 and 6.04 Bq kg −1 of 232 Th, and 136.3, 216.8 and 119.2 Bq kg −1 of 40 K respectively. The mean activity concentrations of 226 Ra were obtained which help to evaluate the radiation hazard indices as radium equivalent, internal and external hazard indices. In addition, to assess the radiation risk to a biosystem, the annual effective dose rate, the absorbed dose in human and the absorbed dose outdoor are also evaluated.

  6. Rainwater in Egypt: quantity, distribution and harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.I. ABDEL-SHAFY

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Egypt has limited water resources, and it will be under water stress within the year 2030. Therefore, Egypt should consider the natural and non-conventional water resources to overcome such problem. Rain harvesting is one solution; but not all; particularly on the north coast by the Mediterranean Sea and the Red sea. In this paper, the rainwater issue is reviewed and discussed in terms of the quantities and distribution at different selected areas in Egypt. The amount of rain falls at different location in Egypt was collected for a period of 16 months. The data indicated that rainfall in Egypt is very scarce, with an annual average of 12 mm and ranges from 0 mm/year in the desert to 200 mm/year in the north coastal region. The maximum total amount of rain does not exceed 1.8 billion m3per year. However, the average annual amount of rainfall water that is effectively utilized for agriculture purposes is estimated to be 1 billion m3. Harvesting pilot plant was constructed and implemented in Alexandria directly on the Mediterranean Sea. The harvested rain was used for irrigation and treated for drinking. It was, therefore, recommended to develop sustainable catchments at appropriate locations in the rain-fed areas at the north coast as well as cost effective grafting of the indigenous technologies with the innovative techniques.

  7. Regeneration of roots from callus reveals stability of the developmental program for determinate root growth in Sonoran Desert Cactaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkova, Svetlana; García-Mendoza, Edith; Castillo-Díaz, Vicente; Moreno, Norma E; Arellano, Jesús; Dubrovsky, Joseph G

    2007-05-01

    In some Sonoran Desert Cactaceae the primary root has a determinate root growth: the cells of the root apical meristem undergo only a few cell division cycles and then differentiate. The determinate growth of primary roots in Cactaceae was found in plants cultivated under various growth conditions, and could not be reverted by any treatment tested. The mechanisms involved in root meristem maintenance and determinate root growth in plants remain poorly understood. In this study, we have shown that roots regenerated from the callus of two Cactaceae species, Stenocereus gummosus and Ferocactus peninsulae, have a determinate growth pattern, similar to that of the primary root. To demonstrate this, a protocol for root regeneration from callus was established. The determinate growth pattern of roots regenerated from callus suggests that the program of root development is very stable in these species. These findings will permit future analysis of the role of certain Cactaceae genes in the determinate pattern of root growth via the regeneration of transgenic roots from transformed calli.

  8. Oil well fires of Operation Desert Storm--defining troop exposures and determining health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Jack M

    2011-07-01

    During Operation Desert Storm, in February 1991, Iraqi troops began burning Kuwaiti oil wells. Almost immediately there was concern about possible adverse health effects in U.S. personnel exposed to crude oil combustion products. Combustions products were predicted from the known composition of Kuwaiti crude oil. Monitoring sites were established in Saudi Arabia and Kuwait; about 5,000 environmental samples were studied. Data collected were used to develop health risk assessments for the geographic areas sampled. This initial approach to assessing risk had to be greatly expanded when Congress passed Public Law 102-190, requiring development of means to calculate environmental exposures for individual U.S. service members. To estimate daily exposure levels for the entire area over 10 months for all U.S. troops, air dispersion modeling was used in conjunction with satellite imagery and geographic information system technology. This methodology made it possible to separate the risk caused by oil fire smoke from the total risk from all sources for each service member. The U.S. military responses to health concerns related to the oil well fires and to Public Law 102-190 were reviewed. Consideration was given to changes in technology, practices, and policies over the last two decades that might impact a similar contemporary response.

  9. The Toshka mirage in the Egyptian desert - river diversion as political diversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warner, J.F.

    2013-01-01

    Egypt's geography renders it vulnerable to water scarcity, but also enables it to control its inflow. After a run of high influx years from the Nile, Egypt embarked on a project to utilise the surplus water by planning a gigantic desert development project, Toshka, in the late 1990s. The present

  10. Gas industry development in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roze, J.; Longueville, P.

    2000-01-01

    Egypt is a country with major gas potential and its gas industry has grown rapidly over the last ten years. Proven natural gas reserves total an estimated 1,050 billion m 3 . According to the re-evaluation of reserves made in January 2000, probable reserves stand at 3,400 billion m 3 , placing Egypt in ninth position as a potential world producer. These reserves are contained in 120 fields located mainly in the Nile Delta and Mediterranean regions and, to a lesser extent, in the Western Desert and the Gulf of Suez. Over the last two years, 54 new gas field have been discovered and registered. Consumption of oil, Egypt's main primary energy source, has declined steadily since the early 1980's in favour of natural gas, which has enjoyed steady growth. The penetration of natural gas is due to the growth of industries consuming large quantities of gas (chemical, fertilizers, etc), the development of new gas fields and the use of gas as a substitute for oil and coal, especially in the power industry which accounts for a major share of energy consumption, i.e., two-thirds of production in 1997. However, as Egypt is currently neither an importer or exporter of natural gas, the growth in consumption has naturally followed that of production, and the lack of infrastructure explains the limited penetration of gas in the residential sector (less than 2 % in 1997). According to the gas development plan drawn up by the Egyptian authorities, internal consumption should increase from 13.5 billion m 3 per year in 1998 to around 45.5 billion m 3 per year in 2017. This consumption increase will be accelerated to respond to domestic needs and, in particular, to favour the implementation of the national redevelopment plan (distribution of the population over 25% of the country by 2020, compared to 4% day). The energy vector of this urban policy is gas. Moreover, this policy should offset the drop in income resulting from declining oil production. The Egyptian authorities, via a range

  11. Dispersal ability and habitat requirements determine landscape-level genetic patterns in desert aquatic insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipsen, Ivan C; Kirk, Emily H; Bogan, Michael T; Mims, Meryl C; Olden, Julian D; Lytle, David A

    2015-01-01

    Species occupying the same geographic range can exhibit remarkably different population structures across the landscape, ranging from highly diversified to panmictic. Given limitations on collecting population-level data for large numbers of species, ecologists seek to identify proximate organismal traits-such as dispersal ability, habitat preference and life history-that are strong predictors of realized population structure. We examined how dispersal ability and habitat structure affect the regional balance of gene flow and genetic drift within three aquatic insects that represent the range of dispersal abilities and habitat requirements observed in desert stream insect communities. For each species, we tested for linear relationships between genetic distances and geographic distances using Euclidean and landscape-based metrics of resistance. We found that the moderate-disperser Mesocapnia arizonensis (Plecoptera: Capniidae) has a strong isolation-by-distance pattern, suggesting migration-drift equilibrium. By contrast, population structure in the flightless Abedus herberti (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae) is influenced by genetic drift, while gene flow is the dominant force in the strong-flying Boreonectes aequinoctialis (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae). The best-fitting landscape model for M. arizonensis was based on Euclidean distance. Analyses also identified a strong spatial scale-dependence, where landscape genetic methods only performed well for species that were intermediate in dispersal ability. Our results highlight the fact that when either gene flow or genetic drift dominates in shaping population structure, no detectable relationship between genetic and geographic distances is expected at certain spatial scales. This study provides insight into how gene flow and drift interact at the regional scale for these insects as well as the organisms that share similar habitats and dispersal abilities. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Biomphalaria alexandrina in Egypt

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-06-04

    Jun 4, 2013 ... species within Egypt. The National Schistosoma Control Program has made great strides with respect to the .... barley and flax (Caminos 1997). Egyptian ..... Duke L 2008 Schistosomiasis in Ancient Egypt: The 'AAA' De- bate.

  13. Ancient Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Ashwin Balegar

    This thesis involves development of an interactive GIS (Geographic Information System) based application, which gives information about the ancient history of Egypt. The astonishing architecture, the strange burial rituals and their civilization were some of the intriguing questions that motivated me towards developing this application. The application is a historical timeline starting from 3100 BC, leading up to 664 BC, focusing on the evolution of the Egyptian dynasties. The tool holds information regarding some of the famous monuments which were constructed during that era and also about the civilizations that co-existed. It also provides details about the religions followed by their kings. It also includes the languages spoken during those periods. The tool is developed using JAVA, a programing language and MOJO (Map Objects Java Objects) a product of ESRI (Environmental Science Research Institute) to create map objects, to provide geographic information. JAVA Swing is used for designing the user interface. HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) pages are created to provide the user with more information related to the historic period. CSS (Cascade Style Sheets) and JAVA Scripts are used with HTML5 to achieve creative display of content. The tool is kept simple and easy for the user to interact with. The tool also includes pictures and videos for the user to get a feel of the historic period. The application is built to motivate people to know more about one of the prominent and ancient civilization of the Mediterranean world.

  14. An investigation into psychological stress and its determinants in Xinjiang desert oil workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Li; Guan, Suzhen; Liu, Jiwen

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The present study aims to investigate psychological stress and its determinants in Xinjiang field oil workers. Specifically, we aim to elucidate the mechanisms underlying psychological stress by comprehensively and quantitatively evaluating the processes involved in psychological stress, the factors which influence it, and their relationship. The participants were 1200 field oil workers in Xinjiang who had been in service for at least 1 year. A structural equation model based on data from the symptom checklist, social support research scale, personality questionnaire, occupational burnout questionnaire, and occupational stress questionnaire was constructed to investigate the social (environmental) factors that influence physiological stress and the interplay among these factors. The positive incidence of psychological stress in the field oil workers in Xinjiang was 12.54%. The structural equation model indicated that the main factors that influenced psychological stress in these workers included social support (0.077), occupational role (0.165), personal strain response (0.139), personality (0.189), and occupational burnout (0.380). Among these factors, occupational role, personality, and occupational burnout had a relatively strong predictive power for psychological stress reactions. The cortisol level in workers with positive psychological stress was significantly higher than that in workers with negative psychological stress. Occupational stress, personality, and occupational burnout exert an impact on psychological stress in field oil workers. Therefore, interventions to address these factors should be taken to reduce the incidence of psychological stress. PMID:29642166

  15. Geomorphology and drift potential of major aeolian sand deposits in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hereher, Mohamed E.

    2018-03-01

    Aeolian sand deposits cover a significant area of the Egyptian deserts. They are mostly found in the Western Desert and Northern Sinai. In order to understand the distribution, pattern and forms of sand dunes in these dune fields it is crucial to analyze the wind regimes throughout the sandy deserts of the country. Therefore, a set of wind data acquired from twelve meteorological stations were processed in order to determine the drift potential (DP), the resultant drift potential (RDP) and the resultant drift direction (RDD) of sand in each dune field. The study showed that the significant aeolian sand deposits occur in low-energy wind environments with the dominance of linear and transverse dunes. Regions of high-energy wind environments occur in the south of the country and exhibit evidence of deflation rather than accumulation with the occurrence of migratory crescentic dunes. Analysis of the sand drift potentials and their directions help us to interpret the formation of major sand seas in Egypt. The pattern of sand drift potential/direction suggests that the sands in these seas might be inherited from exogenous sources.

  16. Effect Of Soil Contamination Due To Wastewater Irrigation On Total Co As Determined By Neutron Activation And Other Conventional Analytical Techniques In Some Soils Of Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Sabour, M. F.; Al-Salama, Y. J.

    2004-01-01

    Fifteen soil samples were chosen from different locations (five different locations at north greater Cairo, Egypt) to represent different soils (alluvial and sandy) as well as different sources of contaminated wastewater (sewage and industrial effluent). Using sequential extraction technique (extracting the soil with different solutions, which is designed to separate metal fractions), Co was separated into six operationally defined fractions: water soluble, exchangeable, carbonate bound, Fe-Mn oxides bound, organic bound and residual fractions. Moreover, total-Co in soils as determined by three analytical methods (sum of sequential extracting, Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) and neutron activation analysis (NAA) techniques) were compared. Cobalt distribution between different extractants shows that the greatest amounts are found in the residual and Occluded in Fe and Mn-Oxides fractions followed by carbonate or organic fractions. In most cases the proportion of all tested Co-forms has increased in contaminated soil layers with higher enrichment in organically bound Co, occluded in Fe and Mn oxides, carbonate exchangeable and soluble fractions. Results indicate that soil properties have a significant role on Co fractions in soil. In the mean time, soil properties are affected by pollution factors such as source of pollution and load of pollution on the studied soil. Data showed that values of total Co determined by NAA method were always higher than the relevant values determined by AAS or those calculated after the sequential extraction method. (Authors)

  17. Atmospheric turbidity parameters in the high polluted site of egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaltout, M.A.M.; Rahoma, U.A.

    1996-01-01

    Monthly variations of Linke, angstrom and Schuepp turbidity coefficients and gamma exponent as well as the influence of climatic factor on them are analysed. For each of these turbidity coefficients; calculated from measurements of broad band filters at Helwan, egypt, desert climate, are reported. A linear regression model fitted to Angstrom's turbidity turbidity coefficient beta and Linke turbidity L for Helwan. The calculation showed that, it is higher values of atmospheric turbidity coefficients due to, both the effect of air pollutants in the Helwan atmosphere from the four cement companies and some of heavy industrial factories, and the effect of the former's desert climate. 6 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Desertions in nineteenth-century shipping: modelling quit behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Jari Ojala; Jaakko Pehkonen; Jari Eloranta

    2013-01-01

    Ship jumping in foreign ports was widespread throughout the age of sail. Desertion by seamen was illegal, it occurred abroad, and men who deserted only seldom returned home. We analyse desertion quantitatively and link it to the broader question of quit behaviour and labour turnover. Though the better wages paid at the foreign ports were the main reason for desertion, the regression model of the determinants of desertion indicates that outside opportunities, such as migration, and monetary in...

  19. McGET: A rapid image-based method to determine the morphological characteristics of gravels on the Gobi desert surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Yue; Wang, Feng; Zheng, Bangyou; Guo, Wei; Feng, Yiming

    2018-03-01

    The relationship between morphological characteristics (e.g. gravel size, coverage, angularity and orientation) and local geomorphic features (e.g. slope gradient and aspect) of desert has been used to explore the evolution process of Gobi desert. Conventional quantification methods are time-consuming, inefficient and even prove impossible to determine the characteristics of large numbers of gravels. We propose a rapid image-based method to obtain the morphological characteristics of gravels on the Gobi desert surface, which is called the "morphological characteristics gained effectively technique" (McGET). The image of the Gobi desert surface was classified into gravel clusters and background by a machine-learning "classification and regression tree" (CART) algorithm. Then gravel clusters were segmented into individual gravel clasts by separating objects in images using a "watershed segmentation" algorithm. Thirdly, gravel coverage, diameter, aspect ratio and orientation were calculated based on the basic principles of 2D computer graphics. We validated this method with two independent datasets in which the gravel morphological characteristics were obtained from 2728 gravels measured in the field and 7422 gravels measured by manual digitization. Finally, we applied McGET to derive the spatial variation of gravel morphology on the Gobi desert along an alluvial-proluvial fan located in Hami, Xinjiang, China. The validated results show that the mean gravel diameter measured in the field agreed well with that calculated by McGET for large gravels (R2 = 0.89, P < 0.001). Compared to manual digitization, the McGET accuracies for gravel coverage, gravel diameter and aspect ratio were 97%, 83% and 96%, respectively. The orientation distributions calculated were consistent across two different methods. More importantly, McGET significantly shortens the time cost in obtaining gravel morphological characteristics in the field and laboratory. The spatial variation results

  20. IDRC in Egypt

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC began to support research in. Egypt. Five years ... Cutting red tape for business. In Egypt ... 85% of jobs in the private sector, and. 40% of all ... sector to drive economic growth over the next ... and reducing poverty in the Middle East and.

  1. Napoleon in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Brian

    1989-01-01

    Recounts the 1798 Egyptian campaign of Napoleon Bonaparte, whose Scientific and Artistic Commission documented and described the glories of ancient Egypt. The expedition was a disaster by military standards, but the cultural legacies included the Rosetta Stone, and a chronicle entitled "Description de L'Egypte," which did much to…

  2. Management of Disused Radioactive Sealed Sources in Egypt - 13512

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, Y.T.; Hasan, M.A.; Lasheen, Y.F.

    2013-01-01

    The future safe development of nuclear energy and progressive increasing use of sealed sources in medicine, research, industry and other fields in Egypt depends on the safe and secure management of disused radioactive sealed sources. In the past years have determined the necessity to formulate and apply the integrated management program for radioactive sealed sources to assure harmless and ecological rational management of disused sealed sources in Egypt. The waste management system in Egypt comprises operational and regulatory capabilities. Both of these activities are performed under legislations. The Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Center HLWMC, is considered as a centralized radioactive waste management facility in Egypt by law 7/2010. (authors)

  3. Distance-decay relationships partially determine diversity patterns of phyllosphere bacteria on Tamarix trees across the Sonoran Desert [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Omri M; Burch, Adrien Y; Elad, Tal; Huse, Susan M; Lindow, Steven E; Post, Anton F; Belkin, Shimshon

    2012-09-01

    Dispersal limitation in phyllosphere communities was measured on the leaf surfaces of salt-excreting Tamarix trees, which offer unique, discrete habitats for microbial assemblages. We employed 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing to measure bacterial community dissimilarity on leaves of spatially dispersed Tamarix specimens in sites with uniform climatic conditions across the Sonoran Desert in the Southwestern United States. Our analyses revealed diverse bacterial communities with four dominant phyla that exhibited differential effects of environmental and geographic variables. Geographical distance was the most important parameter that affected community composition, particularly that of betaproteobacteria, which displayed a statistically significant, distance-decay relationship.

  4. Up-to-date Probabilistic Earthquake Hazard Maps for Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaber, Hanan; El-Hadidy, Mahmoud; Badawy, Ahmed

    2018-04-01

    An up-to-date earthquake hazard analysis has been performed in Egypt using a probabilistic seismic hazard approach. Through the current study, we use a complete and homogenous earthquake catalog covering the time period between 2200 BC and 2015 AD. Three seismotectonic models representing the seismic activity in and around Egypt are used. A logic-tree framework is applied to allow for the epistemic uncertainty in the declustering parameters, minimum magnitude, seismotectonic setting and ground-motion prediction equations. The hazard analysis is performed for a grid of 0.5° × 0.5° in terms of types of rock site for the peak ground acceleration (PGA) and spectral acceleration at 0.2-, 0.5-, 1.0- and 2.0-s periods. The hazard is estimated for three return periods (72, 475 and 2475 years) corresponding to 50, 10 and 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years. The uniform hazard spectra for the cities of Cairo, Alexandria, Aswan and Nuwbia are constructed. The hazard maps show that the highest ground acceleration values are expected in the northeastern part of Egypt around the Gulf of Aqaba (PGA up to 0.4 g for return period 475 years) and in south Egypt around the city of Aswan (PGA up to 0.2 g for return period 475 years). The Western Desert of Egypt is characterized by the lowest level of hazard (PGA lower than 0.1 g for return period 475 years).

  5. Determination of uranium in environmental samples from the Nile delta and the adjacent regions of Egypt using laser fluorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shawky, S; Ibrahim, N; Farouk, A [National research Center for Nuclear safety and radiation Control, Atomic Energy Authority, cairo (Egypt); Ghods, A [IAEA Laboratories, Chemistry Unit., A 244 Seibersdorf, (Austria)

    1995-10-01

    Total uranium content was determined in soil and plant samples taken from various areas in the Nile delta. Samples from east and west of the delta, the suez canal` cities and from alexandria region were analyzed using laser fluorimetry (LF). Uranium was extracted from digested ashed samples with methyl-isobutyl ketone (MIBK) and measured using laser fluorimeter. The radium content of the same soil samples was determined using gamma spectrometry (GS). The uranium content of plant samples was determined using (LF), since it has a detection limit lower than of (GS). The uranium content varied between 0.6-4.4{mu}g/g and 0.032-0.17 {mu}g/g for soil and plant samples respectively. 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  6. Determination of uranium in environmental samples from the Nile delta and the adjacent regions of Egypt using laser fluorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shawky, S.; Ibrahim, N.; Farouk, A.; Ghods, A.

    1995-01-01

    Total uranium content was determined in soil and plant samples taken from various areas in the Nile delta. Samples from east and west of the delta, the suez canal' cities and from alexandria region were analyzed using laser fluorimetry (LF). Uranium was extracted from digested ashed samples with methyl-isobutyl ketone (MIBK) and measured using laser fluorimeter. The radium content of the same soil samples was determined using gamma spectrometry (GS). The uranium content of plant samples was determined using (LF), since it has a detection limit lower than of (GS). The uranium content varied between 0.6-4.4μg/g and 0.032-0.17 μg/g for soil and plant samples respectively. 1 fig., 3 tabs

  7. Geospatial Analysis for the Determination of Hydro-Morphological Characteristics and Assessment of Flash Flood Potentiality in Arid Coastal Plains: A Case in Southwestern Sinai, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Wahid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coastal plains with a unique geographic setting and renewable natural resources are promising for sustainable development; however, these areas may be subjected to some environmental hazards due to their geological setting. One of those hazards is the seasonal flash flood that can threaten existing and future development projects in such critical areas. Southwestern Sinai, Egypt, is a coastal plain that is characterized by complex geological setting an arid climate with seasonal rainfall which can result in a high runoff. The aim of this work is to model spatially the runoff amount and density related to flash flood development and to create a flash flood hazard map of the plain as an example of coastal plain in a desert environment with large and complex hydrologic setting. In this research, ASTER images are used to develop a digital elevation model (DEM and land use/land cover (LULC data sets of the study area. Geographic information system (GIS was used to perform runoff and ash potential flood analyses of the created databases and to show distributed runoff and flooding potential in spatial maps. A module was created in a GIS environment to develop a flash flood potential index map. It was clear that the main two factors controlling runoff amounts and flash flood potential in such kinds of areas are the slope and soil types. The final dataset map procedure by this work can be very helpful in land use planning by highlighting the areas subjected to flash floods.    Análisis Geoespacial para Determinar las Características Hidromorfológicas y Evaluar las Inundaciones Potenciales en Llanuras Costeras Áridas: Caso de Estudio en el Suroccidente de Sinaí, Egipto  Resumen Las llanuras costeras que poseen recursos naturales renovables y una configuración geográfíca única son promisorias para el desarrollo sostenible. Estas áreas, sin embargo, son objeto de algunas amenazas ambientales debido a su escenario geológico. Una de

  8. Cutaneous water loss and sphingolipids in the stratum corneum of house sparrows, Passer domesticus L., from desert and mesic environments as determined by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with atmospheric pressure photospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Garcia, Agustí; Ro, Jennifer; Brown, Johnie C; Williams, Joseph B

    2008-02-01

    Because cutaneous water loss (CWL) represents half of total water loss in birds, selection to reduce CWL may be strong in desert birds. We previously found that CWL of house sparrows from a desert population was about 25% lower than that of individuals from a mesic environment. The stratum corneum (SC), the outer layer of the epidermis, serves as the primary barrier to water vapor diffusion through the skin. The avian SC is formed by layers of corneocytes embedded in a lipid matrix consisting of cholesterol, free fatty acids and two classes of sphingolipids, ceramides and cerebrosides. The SC of birds also serves a thermoregulatory function; high rates of CWL keep body temperatures under lethal limits in episodes of heat stress. In this study, we used high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with atmospheric pressure photoionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC/APPI-MS) to identify and quantify over 200 sphingolipids in the SC of house sparrows from desert and mesic populations. Principal components analysis (PCA) led to the hypotheses that sphingolipids in the SC of desert sparrows have longer carbon chains in the fatty acid moiety and are more polar than those found in mesic sparrows. We also tested the association between principal components and CWL in both populations. Our study suggested that a reduction in CWL found in desert sparrows was, in part, the result of modifications in chain length and polarity of the sphingolipids, changes that apparently determine the interactions of the lipid molecules within the SC.

  9. Dwarfs in ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozma, Chahira

    2006-02-15

    Ancient Egypt was one of the most advanced and productive civilizations in antiquity, spanning 3000 years before the "Christian" era. Ancient Egyptians built colossal temples and magnificent tombs to honor their gods and religious leaders. Their hieroglyphic language, system of organization, and recording of events give contemporary researchers insights into their daily activities. Based on the record left by their art, the ancient Egyptians documented the presence of dwarfs in almost every facet of life. Due to the hot dry climate and natural and artificial mummification, Egypt is a major source of information on achondroplasia in the old world. The remains of dwarfs are abundant and include complete and partial skeletons. Dwarfs were employed as personal attendants, animal tenders, jewelers, and entertainers. Several high-ranking dwarfs especially from the Old Kingdom (2700-2190 BCE) achieved important status and had lavish burial places close to the pyramids. Their costly tombs in the royal cemeteries and the inscriptions on their statutes indicate their high-ranking position in Egyptian society and their close relation to the king. Some of them were Seneb, Pereniankh, Khnumhotpe, and Djeder. There were at least two dwarf gods, Ptah and Bes. The god Ptah was associated with regeneration and rejuvenation. The god Bes was a protector of sexuality, childbirth, women, and children. He was a favored deity particularly during the Greco-Roman period. His temple was recently excavated in the Baharia oasis in the middle of Egypt. The burial sites and artistic sources provide glimpses of the positions of dwarfs in daily life in ancient Egypt. Dwarfs were accepted in ancient Egypt; their recorded daily activities suggest assimilation into daily life, and their disorder was not shown as a physical handicap. Wisdom writings and moral teachings in ancient Egypt commanded respect for dwarfs and other individuals with disabilities. Copyright (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. LDC nuclear power: Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selim, M.E.S.

    1982-01-01

    This chapter reviews the evolution of Egypt's nuclear program, the major factors that influenced the successive series of nuclear decisions, and the public debate over the far-reaching program attempted by the late President Anwar El-Sadat. Egypt's program is important, not only because it was the first Arab country to enter the nuclear age, but because it is an ambitious program that includes the installation of eight reactors at a time when many countries are reducing their commitment to nuclear power. Major obstacles remain in terms of human, organizational, and natural resource constraints. 68 references, 1 table

  11. Youth employment in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Eekelen, Willem van; De Luca, Loretta; Ismail, Magwa

    2001-01-01

    Examines economic and social factors affecting youth employment in Egypt and describes three national programmes for the promotion of youth employment based on human resources development, direct job creation and support in self-employment and enterprise creation. Describes one public-private project in each case.

  12. IDRC in Egypt

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Some current activities. In Egypt, IDRC-supported research focuses on job creation, shaping climate change adaptation, enhancing women's safety and political participation, and testing the power of social media to address sexual harassment. □ Job creation after the Arab Spring. Funding: $112,400. Duration: 2012–2013.

  13. Linen in Ancient Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    dr.Rehab Mahmoud Ahmed Elsharnouby

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Egypt was famous through the Ancient Near East for both weaving linen cloth and the produced quantities. Cloth was sent as expensive gifts from one king to another and given to a laborer as wages in return for his work. Cloth was regarded as an essential element in everyday life as it could be used for everything: clothing, bedding, trappings for animals, or sails of a ship. It was in fact one of the most widely used item throughout Ancient Egypt. Although other textile fibers were used in Pharaonic Egypt, namely, sheep's wool, goat hair and a form of coir, the majority of textiles were made from the plant Linum usitatissimum, flax. Cloth made from this fiber is defined as linen. The research starts with a brief definition of the flax, and then reviews the scenes representing the sowing and the harvesting of its seeds. It also focuses on the way of removing the seeds heads, the preparing of the flax for spinning: retting, beating and scutching. After that, it deals with transforming flax into orderly lengths, and rolling it into balls or coils. The researcher as well studies the Ancient Egyptian spinning techniques: grasped spindle, support spindle and drop spinning; the different types of weaving: tabby weaves, basket weaves, tapestry weaves and warps-patterned weave and the types of looms that were in use in Egypt, namely, the horizontal and vertical looms.

  14. Ancient Egypt: Personal Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolinski, Arelene

    This teacher resource book provides information on ancient Egypt via short essays, photographs, maps, charts, and drawings. Egyptian social and religious life, including writing, art, architecture, and even the practice of mummification, is conveniently summarized for the teacher or other practitioner in a series of one to three page articles with…

  15. Effects of desert wildfires on desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) and other small vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esque, T.C.; Schwalbe, C.R.; DeFalco, L.A.; Duncan, R.B.; Hughes, T.J.

    2003-01-01

    We report the results of standardized surveys to determine the effects of wildfires on desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) and their habitats in the northeastern Mojave Desert and northeastern Sonoran Desert. Portions of 6 burned areas (118 to 1,750 ha) were examined for signs of mortality of vertebrates. Direct effects of fire in desert habitats included animal mortality and loss of vegetation cover. A range of 0 to 7 tortoises was encountered during surveys, and live tortoises were found on all transects. In addition to desert tortoises, only small (reptiles (11 taxa) were found dead on the study areas. We hypothesize that indirect effects of fire on desert habitats might result in changes in the composition of diets and loss of vegetation cover, resulting in an increase in predation and loss of protection from temperature extremes. These changes in habitat also might cause changes in vertebrate communities in burned areas.

  16. Contribution to the radioactivity of qatrani Area, western desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shazly, E.M.; El-Sokkary, A.A.; Hussein, H.A.

    1974-01-01

    The report presents the results of the preliminary theoretical study of a 50 MW(th) heavy water-natural uranium reactor which serves as a heat source for a desalination plant. The calculations were performed by a simple method suggested by the authors that is sufficiently accurate for design purposes. In the report the following relationships are given: dependence of the effective multiplication constant on the lattice pitch and on thickness of the air gap between the pressure and calandria tubes; the lifetime at full-scale operation as function of the core size; the temperature dependence of the effective multiplication constant. The results of control system estimations and power distribution for the core with different reflectors are also provided

  17. Political history of modern Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA. Islam Islami

    2016-07-01

    Gamal Abdel Nasser was the one who established the Republic of Egypt and ended the monarchy rule in Egypt following the Egyptian revolution in 1952. Egypt was ruled autocratically by three presidents over the following six decades, by Nasser from 1954 until his death in 1970, by Anwar Sadat from 1971 until his assassination 1981, and by Hosni Mubarak from 1981 until his resignation in the face of the 2011 Egyptian revolution.

  18. Allegiance: Egypt Security Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Sadat began a policy of economically opening Egypt to the West which led to mandatory subsidy reductions on cooking fuel, rice , bread and other...by a distance from one another. The Emergency Law was not violated, but protestors could look around and see others wearing a black or white shirt...expected after the uprising of 2011 never truly materialized; the Interior Ministry instituted various cosmetic changes, but its basic construct and

  19. Atacama Desert: Determination of two new extremophilic microbial model systems for space exploration and astrobiology studies - data from a large-scale transect study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boy, Diana; Godoy, Roberto; Guggenberger, Georg; Möller, Ralf; Boy, Jens

    2017-04-01

    The hyper-arid region of Yungay in the Atacama Desert in Chile is believed to be the driest place on Earth thus harboring the most desiccation-resistant microorganisms. Hence the search for new extremophilic model organisms is traditionally limited to this rather narrow strip. However, it is not clear whether Yungay is indeed the most arid place, as this should be the one with the lowest soil organic carbon (SOC) stock and soil water (SW) content. Therefore we tested soil samples from a humidity-gradient transect with comparable sites (inclination, location in the rain shadow of the coastal mountain range, 100 km distance between the sites) spanning roughly 600 km in the Atacama Desert for SOC stocks and SW content. We found, that SOC stocks decreased with aridity from 25.5 to 2.1 kg m-2 cm-1, while the SW contents decreased at 5 of our sites and increased in the hyper-arid zone. To our surprise, we identified two sites located 100 km north and south of Yungay which had substantially lower (1.92 ± 0.73 kg m-2 cm-1) or slightly higher (2.39 ± 1.2 kg m-2 cm-1) SOC stocks than Yungay (2.21 ± 0.75 kg m-2 cm-1), but with 0.043 ± 0.03 g respectively 0.0033 ± 0.0016 g of water per 1 g of soil comparable or substantially lower SW contents, while Yungay has 0.043 ± 0.06 g. Thus we consider these sites to display different growth conditions and ecological niches compared to Yungay and therefore as promising candidate sites for the identification of new species of polyextremophilic radiation-resistant microorganisms, as the resistance against desiccation is paired with a distinct resistance to ionizing radiation due to same microbial DNA repair mechanisms. Soil samples were irradiated with high doses of gamma radiation up to 25 000 Gy. Surviving colonies were cultivated on a medium favoring the growth of Deinococcus-like species, currently the most radiation-resistant organisms on Earth, and their affiliation was determined using 16SrRNA next generation sequencing. Here

  20. The demand for military spending in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Abu-Qarn, A. S.; Dunne, J. P.; Abdelfattah, Y.; Zaher, S.

    2013-01-01

    Egypt plays a pivotal role in the security of the Middle East as the doorway to Europe and its military expenditure reflects its involvement in the machinations of such an unstable region, showing considerable variation over the last forty years. These characteristics make it a particularly interesting case study of the determinants of military spending. This paper specifies and estimates an econometric model of the Egyptian demand for military spending, taking into account important strategi...

  1. Transport of dust and anthropogenic aerosols across Alexandria, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Askary, H. [Chapman Univ., Orange, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics Computational Science and Engineering; Chapman Univ., Orange, CA (United States). Center of Excellence in Earth Observing; Alexandria Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Environmental Sciences; National Authority for Remote Sensing and Space Science (NARSS), Cairo (Egypt); Farouk, R. [Alexandria Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Environmental Sciences; Ichoku, C. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Climate and Radiation Branch; Kafatos, M. [Chapman Univ., Orange, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics Computational Science and Engineering; Chapman Univ., Orange, CA (United States). Center of Excellence in Earth Observing

    2009-07-01

    The flow of pollutants from Europe and desert dust to Europe from the Sahara desert both affects the air quality of the coastal regions of Egypt. As such, measurements from both ground and satellite observations assume great importance to ascertain the conditions and flow affecting the Nile Delta and the large city of Alexandria. We note that special weather conditions prevailing in the Mediterranean Sea result in a westerly wind flow pattern during spring and from North to South during the summer. Such flow patterns transport dust-loaded and polluted air masses from the Sahara desert and Europe, respectively, through Alexandria, and the Nile Delta in Egypt. We have carried out measurements acquired with a ground- based portable sun photometer (Microtops II) and the satellite-borne TERRA/Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor during the periods of October 1999-August 2001 and July 2002-September 2003. These measurements show a seasonal variability in aerosol optical depth (AOD) following these flow patterns. Maximum aerosol loadings accompanied by total precipitable water vapor (W) enhancements are observed during the spring and summer seasons. Pronounced changes have been observed in the Aangstroem exponent ({alpha}) derived from ground-based measurements over Alexandria (31.14 N, 29.59 E) during both dust and pollution periods. We have followed up the observations with a 3-day back-trajectories model to trace the probable sources and pathways of the air masses causing the observed aerosol loadings. We have also used other NASA model outputs to estimate the sea salt, dust, sulfates and black carbon AOD spatial distributions during different seasons. Our results reveal the probable source regions of these aerosol types, showing agreement with the trajectory and Aangstroem exponent analysis results. It is confirmed that Alexandria is subjected to different atmospheric conditions involving dust, pollution, mixed aerosols and clean sky. (orig.)

  2. The eye and its diseases in Ancient Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S. Ry

    1997-01-01

    Ophthalmology, History of ophthalmology, eyes in the Ancient Egypt, eye disease in Ancient Egypt, porotic hyperostosis, mummification......Ophthalmology, History of ophthalmology, eyes in the Ancient Egypt, eye disease in Ancient Egypt, porotic hyperostosis, mummification...

  3. Lut Desert, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Iran is a large country with several desert regions. In the Dasht-E-Lut (Lut Desert) (30.5N, 58.5E) an area known as Namak-Zar, about 100 miles east of the city of Kerman, is at the center of this photograph. Some of the world's most prominent Yardangs (very long, parallel ridges and depressions) have been wind eroded in these desert dry lake bed sediments. At the left of the photo is a large field of sand dunes at right angles to the wind.

  4. Desert Pavement Studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haff, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Combining plan view information from aerial photography showing details of stream channels on desert pavement surfaces with process-based erosion models, a high-resolution, synthetic topography DEM...

  5. Desert Pavement Studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haff, P

    2003-01-01

    Combining plan view information from aerial photography showing details of stream channels on desert pavement surfaces with process-based erosion models, a high-resolution, "synthetic topography" DEM...

  6. Egypt's policy concerning food irradiation research and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roushdy, H.M.

    1978-01-01

    The paper reviews current research in Egypt in the field of radiation preservation of food to accumulate the necessary data for drafting Egypts' policy towards prospects for application. Research activities in Egypt have been oriented to solving problems of local economic importance, e.g. inhibition of sprouting in potatoes, onions and garlic, extension of shelf-life of vegetables and fruits, disinfestation of stored grains and grain products, preservation of meat, meat products, fish, fats and oils, and elimination of parasites and microorganisms from animal feed. Extensive studies have been performed to determine the lowest radiation level required for short-term storage, changes in organoleptic, physical, chemical and microbiological values of irradiated food and wholesomeness studies to give evidence of the safety of irradiated food for human consumption. The paper summarizes Egypt's national planning for the transfer of such new technology, the establishment of the National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology to build up the national infrastructure for food irradiation research and application, and the formation of a Supreme Committee for Radiation Preservation of Food. Finally, the paper also surveys the locally available irradiators and correlates the design, capacity and capital cost against the actual needs of Egypt and the experience acquired. (author)

  7. Solar Energy Perspectives In Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comsan, M.N.H.

    2010-01-01

    Egypt belongs to the global sun-belt. The country is in advantageous position with solar energy. In 1991 solar atlas for Egypt was issued indicating that the country enjoys 2900-3200 hours of sunshine annually with annual direct normal energy density 1970-3200 kWh/m2 and technical solar-thermal electricity generating potential of 73.6 Peta watt hour (PWh). Egypt was among the first countries to utilize solar energy. In 1910, a practical industrial scale solar system engine was built at Maadi south to Cairo using solar thermal parabolic collectors. The engine was used to produce steam which drove a series of large water pumps for irrigation. Nowadays utilization of solar energy includes use of photovoltaic cells, solar water heating and solar thermal power. Use of solar thermal technology may include both electricity generation and water desalination, which is advantageous for Egypt taking in consideration its shortage in water supply. The article discusses perspectives of solar energy in Egypt and developmental trends till 2050

  8. Long-term detection and hydrochemistry of groundwater resources in Egypt: Case study of Siwa Oasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar A. Aly

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Water, it is said, will be the oil of the twenty-first century. Successful water management will be the key to future economic growth and social wealth in both developed and developing countries. Due to the continuous agricultural expansion, urban development, and increased demands on limited water supplies, Egypt is compelled to look for unconventional water resources. One of the most important sources is groundwater in the western desert of Egypt. More water abstraction is currently taking place raising the dangers of overexploitation and deterioration of water quality in Siwa Oasis located in Egypt western desert. The main objectives of this study are to monitor the quality of the Siwa Oasis groundwater over ten years. The present paper presents the results of this investigation and the future outlook for the situation of the limited water resources of the oasis. The data showed spatial differences between water qualities obtained from different locations within the Oasis. It was also observed that there are temporal changes and that water quality is deteriorating in alarming rate over time. Most studied water samples were considered unsuitable for irrigation due to salinity hazards. The reason that may contribute to speeding up groundwater quality deterioration is the unsafe ground water mining on the deep sandstone aquifers which causes the decreases of the fresh water vertical movement from the deep sandstone aquifer to the surface limestone aquifer.

  9. Sacrococcygeal teratoma: 10-year experience in upper Egypt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose To evaluate our experience with 45 patients with sacrococcygeal teratoma (SCT) in our community (upper Egypt) over a period of 10 years between 2001 and 2011 and determine the outcome of the management and recommendations for treatment strategies. Patients and methods A retrospective study was ...

  10. Minerals in deserts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.I.

    1982-01-01

    Almost any kind of mineral deposit can occur in desert areas, and the lack of vegetation and soil cover makes finding them easier. Some kinds of deposits, though, are more likely to occur in deserts than elsewhere. Some of these result from processes genetically related to the present desert climate that improved lower grade deposits of ore. One such process, termed secondary enrichment, is most effective in areas with deep water tables, and many low-grade copper, silver, and uranium deposits have been converted into mineable ore by the downward migration and redeposition of soluble metals. In a desert terrane, placer processes are effective whenever running water flowing over steep slopes erodes outcropping ore bodies and transports and concentrates the heavier ore minerals at lower levels, thus converting low-grade or hard-to-mine bedrock deposits into economically workable concentrations. Other kinds of deposits are better preserved in deserts because the lower rainfall at the surface, and the lower volume of flow and the greater depths to groundwater, result in less destruction of soluble ores; deposits of salines and phosphates are the most notable ores affected by these factors. Still other ore deposits are created as a consequence of the arid climate, mostly because the high evaporation rates operating on standing bodies of water produce brines that can lead directly to concentrations of salts and indirectly to secondary minerals, such as zeolites, that are produced by reaction of silicate minerals with saline waters

  11. IMPRESSIONS OF SOME OTTOMAN POETS FROM EGYPT / BAZI OSMANLI SÂİRLERİNİN MISIR İZLENİMLERİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Mustafa ERDOĞAN

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between Turks and Egyptiansgo back a long time in history. After Yavuz Sultan Selimconquered Egypt and made it an Ottoman state, therelations increased even more. In this respect manyOttoman poets went to Egypt for different purposes andwrote poems that included their impressions andopinions about the country. After a condensed researchand scanning on divans, it is ascertained that there areindependently written poems about Egypt in the divans ofKaramanlı Aynî, Ahmed Pasa, Revânî, Kâbulî, Fehîm-îKadîm, Mezâkî, Tecelli, Râmî Pasha and Neylî. Thesepoems indicate the poets’ points of view to Egypt andEgyptians and reflect their thoughts and impressionsabout Egypt. Furthermore they are sources that giveopinions to us how Istanbul and Anatolia was perceivedfrom there and how much the poets were missing theirhomeland. In the introduction part of this article therelation of the poets with Egypt is explained. Thenchronologically the poets who have poems about thiscountry and their relationships with it are introduced.After that the poem of the chronologically mentioned poetis evaluated according to the criteria of form and content,and the text of the poem is presented. At the end of theresearch of eleven poems of nine poets about Egypt (threepoems of Fehim are taken for evaluation, it isunderstood that some of the poets praise Egypt as it isthe land of the prophet Joseph and also acclaim for itsabundant lands full of betel nut and sugar. On contrarysome of the poets criticize the country as it has a dustyand hot desert climate, and as it is far away from theirhomelands.

  12. High-precision radiocarbon chronometry of ancient Egypt, and comparisons with Nubia, Palestine and Mesopotamia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, F A; Robinson, S W

    1987-03-01

    The use of radiocarbon age measurements in historical chronology is examined for ancient Egypt and neighbouring regions. A methodology is presented aimed at improving the reliability and precision of radiocarbon age determinations.

  13. Gopherus agassizii: Desert tortoise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Kristen H.; Swingland, Ian Richard; Klemens, Michael W.

    1989-01-01

    The desert tortoise is one of four allopatric North American tortoises. It occurs in the Mojave and Sonoran deserts of the southwestern United States and Mexico.Auffenberg (1976) divided the genus Gopherus (consisting of four species, G. agassizi, G. berlandieri, G.flavomarginatus, and G. polyphemus) in two osteological groups. Bramble (1982), using morphological and palaeontological data, divided the genus Gopherus into two separate complexes, each with two species. He established a new genus, Scaptochelys, for agassizi and berlandieri, retaining Gopherus for polyphemus and flavomarginatus. Bour and Dubois (1984) noted that Xerobates Agassiz had priority over Scaptochelys Bramble. Using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), Lamb et al. (1989) evaluated the evolutionary relationships of the North American tortoises, particularly the desert tortoise. They concluded that the mtDNA analysis provides strong support for generic recognition of the two distinct species groups described by Bramble (1982).Until a few decades ago, the desert tortoise was widespread at lower elevations throughout the Mojave and Sonoran deserts of the U.S.A. In the northern and western parts of the geographic range, large and relatively homogeneous populations with densities exceeding 1,000/sq km extended throughout parts of California, and probably into Nevada and Utah. In terms of biomass, the tortoise played an important role in the ecosystems. In most areas, numbers have declined dramatically and the extent of populations has been reduced. Most populations are now isolated and low in numbers. Conservation of the desert tortoise is a highly visible and political issue in the U.S.A., but not in Mexico.

  14. Inventory of Agricultural Land Area of Egypt Using Modis Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hereher, M.E.

    2009-01-01

    A new generation of satellite data has been emerged since the launch of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro radiometer (MODIS), in 1999, for monitoring land resources and terrestrial environments. Agricultural land area of Egypt in 2005 was estimated using MODIS data. Four scenes were utilized to extract the total country area. MODIS vegetation Indices product (MOD 13 QI) was the most suitable to extract the total gross cultivated land area of Egypt. An unsupervised classification algorithm was applied to estimate the cultivated land area, which approached 8.2 million feddans in 2005. The Nile Delta contains the majority of agricultural lands (63.2%). The Nile Valley and EI-Fayoum Depression possess 33.9% and the remaining little percent (∼3%) represents the scattered agricultural land along the Suez Canal, Sinai and the Western Desert. The classification accuracy of agricultural land reached 84%, revealing higher confidence of assessment. The present study asserts on the importance of using remote sensing in monitoring agricultural land resources

  15. Eyewitness introduction to Egypt: "The gift of the Nile".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Geraldine

    2009-01-01

    Northeastern corner of Africa, lying at the crossroads between the two continents of Europe and Asia (in the Sinai Peninsula), while bordering Libya, Sudan, Israel and the Red Sea. Egypt is the most ancient tourist country in the world. Several health fact-finding missions in the last few years were made to this small country that is frequently defined by the Valley of the Nile. With the spreading deserts on either side, or a very rich heritage of ancient relics, these scenic vistas are without equal elsewhere in the world. Although there are significant cultural differences among the population, Egypt has a long history of ethnic and religious compassion. Among the many rarities, main tourist attractions include the three great Pyramids of Giza and the Sphinx, amazing ancient wonders of the world. These fact-finding missions included how health and medical care are defined, how people and culture are intertwined with its physical features, land use, and the economy and its resources.

  16. Oxalosis in wild desert tortoises, Gopherus agassizii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Elliott R.; Berry, Kristin H.; Stacy, Brian; Huzella, Louis M.; Kalasinsky, Victor F.; Fleetwood, Michelle L.; Mense, Mark G.

    2009-01-01

    We necropsied a moribund, wild adult male desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) with clinical signs of respiratory disease and elevated plasma biochemical analytes indicative of renal disease (blood urea nitrogen [415 mg/dl], uric acid [11.8 mg/dl], sodium >180 mmol/l] and chloride [139 mmol/l]). Moderate numbers of birefringent oxalate crystals, based on infrared and electron microscopy, were present within renal tubules; small numbers were seen in colloid within thyroid follicles. A retrospective analysis of 66 additional cases of wild desert tortoises was conducted to determine whether similar crystals were present in thyroid and kidney. The tortoises, from the Mojave and Sonoran deserts, were necropsied between 1992 and 2003 and included juveniles and adults. Tortoises were classified as healthy (those that died due to trauma and where no disease was identified after necropsy and evaluation by standard laboratory tests used for other tortoises) or not healthy (having one or more diseases or lesions). For all 67 necropsied tortoises, small numbers of crystals of similar appearance were present in thyroid glands from 44 of 54 cases (81%) and in kidneys from three of 65 cases (5%). Presence of oxalates did not differ significantly between healthy and unhealthy tortoises, between age classes, or between desert region, and their presence was considered an incidental finding. Small numbers of oxalate crystals seen within the kidney of two additional tortoises also were considered an incidental finding. Although the source of the calcium oxalate could not be determined, desert tortoises are herbivores, and a plant origin seems most likely. Studies are needed to evaluate the oxalate content of plants consumed by desert tortoises, and particularly those in the area where the tortoise in renal failure was found.

  17. Regulatory Body of Egypt: Practices and Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Messiry, A.

    2016-01-01

    In past, Egypt issued the law No. 59 of year 1969 for regulating the use of ionizing radiations inside the country, this law assigns the responsibilities of Egypt Atomic Energy Authority EAEA to control reactors, open sources, and all nuclear and radiation facilities inside its premises, while the ministry of health was responsible for controlling x-ray machine, sealed sources and accelerators. In 1982 EAEA established within its structure a new regulatory body called national centre for Nuclear Safety and radiation Control NC-NSRC as a dependent regulatory body, science EAEA is the operator of reactors and many nuclear and radiation facilities. On 30 March 2010 Egypt issued a nuclear law No 7 of year 2010, followed by its executive regulation in October 2011, the new law replaced the old law 59 of year 1969, in addition, the prime minster issued a decree on march 5td 2012 of establishing an independent regulatory body reported directly to him, it has the name of Egypt Nuclear and Radiological Regulatory Authority ENRRA, it is responsible for regulating all nuclear and radiation facilities and activities inside the country, except X-ray machines and linear accelerators for the medical uses, that still remains under the control of ministry of health. The new nuclear law defines the responsibility of the government to establish, support and determine the authorization and the responsibilities of the independent regulatory body. ENRRA is managed by a board of directors comprises from chairman, vice chairman, head of national security, interior, exterior, customs, export & import, standards, environment, justice organizations, besides two scientific experts from ENRRA. The board of council is the supreme authority of the dominant, and the conduct of ENRRA affairs, and take decisions within the framework of the national plan of Egypt, to achieve the objectives for which the ENRRA was established. ENRRA was organized from the old NC-NSRC staff into three regulatory

  18. Joint Egypt/United States report on Egypt/United States cooperative energy assessment. Volume 4 of 5 Vols. Annexes 6--10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purvis, Edward E.; Teagan, Peter; Little, Arthur D.; Kaplan, George; Kunze, Jay; Warchol, Edward J.

    1979-04-01

    Annex 6, which investigates the possible hydroelectric resources of Egypt, reveals that presently the only existing sites are on the upper Nile at the High and Aswan Dams. There are 8 sites on the Nile where it is practical to add hydroelectric generation and, of these, only 4 are feasible for immediate construction. There are also pumped-storage sites on the Nile and the Red Sea. There is also the Qattara Depression in the Western Desert which can be utilized for conventional, as well as pumped-storage generation, by bringing water from the Mediterranean Sea to the depression by canal or tunnel. The options were considered for construction of hydro plants to met the electric load growth of Egypt when other forms of energy supply would be integrated into a comprehensive supply pattern. In Annex 7, the prospective use of nuclear energy to meet Egypt's resources (uranium and thorium) to implement a nuclear energy program, and potential effects of the expanded use of nuclear energy are discussed. Annex 8 discusses solar energy (technology descriptions and impacts, solar thermal power, photovoltaics). Also wind power generation, biomass utilization, desalination, solar air conditioning and refrigeration, and cost of power from diesel engines are discussed. Annex 9 covers geothermal potentials in Egypt, discussing resources with temperatures above 180/sup 0/C; from 150 to 180/sup 0/C; from 100 to 150/sup 0/C; and with temperatures below 100/sup 0/C. Annex 10 discusses the electric power systems in Egypt. The following subjects are covered: existing electric power systems; electrical power facilities under construction or planned for construction by 1985; past and projected growth of electrical energy; distribution; and electrical power system projected from 1985 to 2000. (MCW)

  19. Russia and Egypt: Reproachment Trend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Mohamed Abdou Hassan Ahmed

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the analysis of Egypt’s foreign policy after Muhammed Morsi’s dismissal as a result of the political crisis in July 2013. The author considers the shift in the regional balance of power and draws a special attention to political, military and economic aspects of the collaboration between Egypt and Russia.

  20. Egypt's fundamentalists say condoms immoral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, S

    1995-06-01

    The first AIDS case in Egypt was reported almost 10 years ago, yet Egypt still does not have reliable statistics on the HIV/AIDS epidemic (officially, 513 HIV infections and 88 AIDS cases; more likely, 3000 and 10,000, respectively). HIV/AIDS bears a stigma. The government claims that every HIV-infected Egyptian acquired the infection through a blood transfusion while in the Gulf or through sexual intercourse in Europe. Cultural, social, and religious norms that discourage promiscuity may explain the low HIV/AIDS rate but these same taboos put women at risk by making it difficult for them to protect themselves. Islamic fundamentalist women reinforce the Islamic principle of forbidding sex education. They consider AIDS a plague of immoral Western society. They refuse to accept the fact that many men do not practice safer sex. These women consider condoms immoral. They think God will curse women who refuse to have sexual intercourse at their husbands' bidding. Many nongovernmental organizations consider an intensive education program as the only means to avert disaster. Egypt has yet to implement its model AIDS program. All hospitals in Cairo and some hospitals in rural areas have equipment to test for HIV. Surveillance systems have been limited to high risk groups. In Egypt, it is mandatory to test foreigners for HIV. Prisoners, prostitutes, homosexuals, and blood donors are tested randomly without their consent. Positive results are often reported to authorities before the persons learn their HIV status. A campaign for widespread sex education is the only action recommended so far. It includes a mass media component and community meetings and conferences. An Egyptian physician has found an anti-viral drug that stimulates the immune system, but his work does not receive much coverage outside Egypt. Egyptians need to tackle their cultural taboos about discussion of sex to curb the HIV/AIDS epidemic.

  1. How desert varnish forms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Randall S.; Kolb, Vera M.; Lynne, Bridget Y.; Sephton, Mark A.; Mcloughlin, Nicola; Engel, Michael H.; Olendzenski, Lorraine; Brasier, Martin; Staley, James T., Jr.

    2005-09-01

    Desert varnish is a black, manganese-rich rock coating that is widespread on Earth. The mechanism underlying its formation, however, has remained unresolved. We present here new data and an associated model for how desert varnish forms, which substantively challenges previously accepted models. We tested both inorganic processes (e.g. clays and oxides cementing coatings) and microbial methods of formation. Techniques used in this preliminary study include SEM-EDAX with backscatter, HRTEM of focused ion beam prepared (FIB) wafers and several other methods including XRPD, Raman spectroscopy, XPS and Tof-SIMS. The only hypothesis capable of explaining a high water content, the presence of organic compounds, an amorphous silica phase (opal-A) and lesser quantities of clays than previously reported, is a mechanism involving the mobilization and redistribution of silica. The discovery of silica in desert varnish suggests labile organics are preserved by interaction with condensing silicic acid. Organisms are not needed for desert varnish formation but Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya, and other organic compounds are passively incorporated and preserved as organominerals. The rock coatings thus provide useful records of past environments on Earth and possibly other planets. Additionally this model also helps to explain the origin of key varnish and rock glaze features, including their hardness, the nature of the "glue" that binds heterogeneous components together, its layered botryoidal morphology, and its slow rate of formation.

  2. Characterization of clay deposits from Egypt and assessment of their potential application for waste water treatment: How dissolved organic matter determines the interaction of heavy metals and clay minerals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Refaey Mohammed, Y.B.

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the potential of using clay minerals abundant in local soils in Egypt as low cost materials to reduce Cu, Ni and Zn pollution of soil and groundwater originating from polluted wastewater; specifically focusing on the influence of the interaction of clay

  3. Obstacles Facing Promoting Tourism for Islamic Landmarks from the Perspective of Tour Operators in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan Bakri Hassan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The UNESCO launched a campaign #unite4heritage in Egypt to defeat extremism and intolerance. The message of such campaigne is peace, dialogue and unity embedded in cultural heritage. As culture and tourism are linked together, such message could be delivered through improving culture heritage tourism in Egypt. Islamic landmarks  are considered as a part of human heritage. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to identify how much tour operators in Egypt include Islamic landmarks in their programs to determine the obstacles facing promoting cultural tourism in Islamic landmarks' areas. Additionally, the study would identify positive results in the case of developing heritage tourism in Egypt. To achieve a high result, a survey approach was employed to collect data from 100 tour operators, using a completed questionnaire technique as well as a Likert Scale and statistical models in order to test and interpret the research outcomes. The research findings indicated that although tour operators in Egypt are convinced of the significance of the Islamic landmarks, there is no contradiction between creating global understanding and at the same time achieving benefit to the local community. However, there is a range of obstacles facing promoting such type of tourism in Egypt. Keywords: Culture heritage tourism, community, Egypt, Islamic civilization.

  4. GOPHERUS AGASSIZII (Desert Tortoise)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JAMES L. BOONE, DANNY L. RAKESTRAW, AND KURT R. RAUTENSTRAUCH

    1997-01-01

    GOPHERLTS AGAISSIZII (Desert Tortoise). Predation. A variety of predators, most notably coyotes (Canis Iatrans) and Common Ravens (Corvis corau) have been reported to prey on hatchling desert tortoises (Emst et al. 1994). Turtles of the United States and Canada (Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 578 pp.). Here, we report an observation of a hatchling tortoise, fitted with a radiotransmitter, that was preyed upon by native fire ants (Solenopsis sp.) in the eastern Mojave Desert at Yucca Mountain, Nevada (36 degrees 50 minutes N, 116 degree 25 minutes E). On 8/27/94, tortoise No.9315 (carapace length = 45 mm, age = 5 d) was found alive with eyes, chin, and parts of the head and legs being eaten by ants. The tortoise was alive, but lethargic, and responded little when touched. Eight of 74 other radiomarked hatchlings monitored at Yucca Mountain during 1992-1994 were found dead with fire ants on their carcass 3-7 days after the hatchlings emerged from their nests. It is not known whether those tortoises were killed by ants or were being scavenged when found. While imported fire ants (S. invicta) have long been known to kill hatchling gopher tortoises (G. polyphemus; Mount 1981. J. Alabama Acad. Sci. 52: 71-78), native fire ants have previously not been implicated as predators of desert tortoises. However, only 1 of 75 (or at worst 9 of 75) was killed by fire ants, suggesting that although fire ants do kill hatchlings, they were not important predators on desert tortoises during this study. Tortoise specimens were deposited at the University of California at Berkeley

  5. Evaluation of SPT energy for Donut and Safety hammers using CPT measurements in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Rami M. El-Sherbiny; Manal A. Salem

    2013-01-01

    Standard Penetration Test (SPT) blow counts require correction prior to utilization in soil characterization and determination of properties and behavior. Among the most important corrections is the energy correction required to adjust the blow counts to 60% energy efficiency. However, there are no published data supporting commonly used value in Egypt. This paper presents an evaluation of the energy efficiency of the Donut and Safety hammers commonly used in Egypt and the associated energy c...

  6. Application of neural network technique to determine a corrector surface for global geopotential model using GPS/levelling measurements in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshambaky, Hossam Talaat

    2018-01-01

    Owing to the appearance of many global geopotential models, it is necessary to determine the most appropriate model for use in Egyptian territory. In this study, we aim to investigate three global models, namely EGM2008, EIGEN-6c4, and GECO. We use five mathematical transformation techniques, i.e., polynomial expression, exponential regression, least-squares collocation, multilayer feed forward neural network, and radial basis neural networks to make the conversion from regional geometrical geoid to global geoid models and vice versa. From a statistical comparison study based on quality indexes between previous transformation techniques, we confirm that the multilayer feed forward neural network with two neurons is the most accurate of the examined transformation technique, and based on the mean tide condition, EGM2008 represents the most suitable global geopotential model for use in Egyptian territory to date. The final product gained from this study was the corrector surface that was used to facilitate the transformation process between regional geometrical geoid model and the global geoid model.

  7. Effect of soil contamination due to wastewater irrigation on total cesium as determined by destructive and nondestructive analytical techniques in some soils of egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Sabour, M.F.; Abdel-Lattif, A.

    2005-01-01

    Fifteen soil samples were chosen from different locations to represent different soils irrigated with different sources of contaminated wastewater (sewage and industrial effluent). Sequential extraction experiment was carried out to determine different forms of Cs in soils. Moreover, Soil samples were analyzed for total Cs using two analytical methods i.e. destructive wet digestion technique (Atomic Absorption Spectrometry, AAS or by summation of all sequential extracted fractions, SUM) and non-destructive technique (Neutron Activation Analysis, NAA). The aim of this study was to evaluate soil total Cs-forms (especially, bio-available fraction) as affected by soil pollution. Cesium was mostly concentrated in the residual fraction, and its values ranged from 57.4% to 82.9 % of total Cs in sandy soils and from 31.5% to 64.5 % of total Cs in tested clayey soil. Then organically bound Cs- fraction followed by Cs-occluded in Fe-Mn fraction, carbonate, exchangeable and water soluble fractions. Results suggested that, Cs level is affected by soil organic matter content, Fe-Mn oxides and clay content. The mobile Cs fraction (the sum of soluble and exchangeable fractions) ranged from 2% up to 9.9 % of total Cs in sandy soils. However, a higher value (9.82% to 15.31 %) could be observed in case of the tested clayey soils. Soils D and E were more contaminated than other tested soils. Data show obviously, that soil contaminated due to the irrigation with either sewage effluent or industrial wastewater has resulted in a drastic increase in both metal-organic and occluded in Fe and Mn oxide fractions followed by the carbonate fraction

  8. Inequality of Opportunity in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Hassine, Nadia Belhaj

    2012-01-01

    The article evaluates the contribution of inequality of opportunity to earnings inequality in Egypt and analyzes its evolution across three time periods and different population groups. It provides parametric and nonparametric estimates of a lower bound for the degree of inequality of opportunity for wage and salary workers. On average, the contribution of opportunity-shaping circumstances to earnings inequality declined from 22 percent in 1988 to 15 percent in 2006. Levels of inequality of o...

  9. Prevalence of neurological disorders in Al Quseir, Egypt: methodological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Tallawy H

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Hamdy El-Tallawy,1 Wafa Farghaly,1 Nabil Metwally,2 Tarek Rageh,1 Ghaydaa A Shehata,1 Reda Badry,1 Esam El Moselhy,2 Mahmoud Hassan,2 Mohamed M Sayed,3 Ahmed A Abdelwarith,1 Y Hamed,2 I Shaaban,2 Talal Mohamed,4 Mohamed Abd El Hamed,1 MR Kandil1 1Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt; 2Department of Neurology and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University (Assiut branch, Assiut, Egypt; 3Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University, Sohag, Egypt; 4Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Qena University, Qena, Egypt Abstract: Methodology and strategy play a very important role in epidemiological studies. Determination of the study area, geographical features, facilities, difficulties, and key personnel from the same area are important factors for successful methodology. Over 31 months (July 1, 2009 to January 31, 2012, a screening and an examination survey were carried out to ascertain the prevalence of epilepsy, stroke, dementia, cerebellar ataxia, migraine, cerebral palsy, Parkinsonism, chorea, athetosis, dystonia, trigeminal neuralgia, Bell's palsy, multiple sclerosis, spinal cord disorders, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders in Al Quseir, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt. A total of 33,285 people were screened by three neurologists in a door-to-door manner, including every door, using a standardized Arabic questionnaire to detect any subject with a neurological disorder. The methodological aspects of this project were carried out through eight phases: (1 data collection; (2 preparation; (3 screening; (4 case ascertainment; (5 investigations; (6 classifications; (7 data entry; and (8 statistics and tabulations. The results of this study reveal that the total prevalence of neurological disorders in Al Quseir was 4.6% and higher among females (5.2% than males (3.9%. The highest prevalence was recorded in the elderly population (60+ years [8.0%] and among the age

  10. Desert farming benefits from microbial potential in arid soils and promotes diversity and plant health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Köberl

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To convert deserts into arable, green landscapes is a global vision, and desert farming is a strong growing area of agriculture world-wide. However, its effect on diversity of soil microbial communities, which are responsible for important ecosystem services like plant health, is still not known. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied the impact of long-term agriculture on desert soil in one of the most prominent examples for organic desert farming in Sekem (Egypt. Using a polyphasic methodological approach to analyse microbial communities in soil as well as associated with cultivated plants, drastic effects caused by 30 years of agriculture were detected. Analysing bacterial fingerprints, we found statistically significant differences between agricultural and native desert soil of about 60%. A pyrosequencing-based analysis of the 16S rRNA gene regions showed higher diversity in agricultural than in desert soil (Shannon diversity indices: 11.21/7.90, and displayed structural differences. The proportion of Firmicutes in field soil was significantly higher (37% than in the desert (11%. Bacillus and Paenibacillus play the key role: they represented 96% of the antagonists towards phytopathogens, and identical 16S rRNA sequences in the amplicon library and for isolates were detected. The proportion of antagonistic strains was doubled in field in comparison to desert soil (21.6%/12.4%; disease-suppressive bacteria were especially enriched in plant roots. On the opposite, several extremophilic bacterial groups, e.g., Acidimicrobium, Rubellimicrobium and Deinococcus-Thermus, disappeared from soil after agricultural use. The N-fixing Herbaspirillum group only occurred in desert soil. Soil bacterial communities were strongly driven by the a-biotic factors water supply and pH. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: After long-term farming, a drastic shift in the bacterial communities in desert soil was observed. Bacterial communities in agricultural

  11. Cost estimates for Operation Desert Shield/Desert Storm: a budgetary analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, J. Andrew.

    1991-01-01

    Operation Desert Shield/Desert Storm (DS/DS) presented unique challenges for estimating the cost of that conflict. This analysis reviews the cost estimates and methodologies developed for that purpose by DoD, CBO and GAO. It considers the budget climate and the role of foreign cash and in-kind contributions. Finally, it reviews the budgeting innovations used to provide and monitor DS/DS defense spending. At the outset of the crisis, costs were estimated to determine the defense funding requir...

  12. Benthic foraminiferal assemblages as bio-indicators of metals contamination in sediments, Qarun Lake as a case study, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El Naby, Ahmed; Al Menoufy, Safia; Gad, Ahmed

    2018-03-01

    Qarun Lake, in the Fayoum Depression of the Western Desert of Egypt, lies within the deepest area in the River Nile flood plain. The drainage water in the Qarun Lake is derived from the discharge of the natural and artificial drainage systems in the Fayoum. Mixed domestic and agricultural pollutants, including heavy metals, nitrates, phosphates, sulfates and pesticides, are discharged into Qarun Lake. Forty-six samples, collected from the undisturbed layer of sediments were used for benthic foraminiferal analysis. Concentrations of some selected trace metal elements (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, V, and Zn) were also determined. Statistical analysis of the abiotic variables (Texture distribution of sediments, Physico-chemical parameters, and metals concentrations) and of the biotic variables (distribution of benthic foraminiferal species) were also performed. The Q-mode cluster analysis of benthic foraminiferal distribution has provided evidence that the Qarun Lake can be subdivided into two cluster groups (A and B), reflecting environmental changes in the lake ecosystem. Cluster B can also be subdivided into two sub-clusters (B1 and B2). The presence of only pollution tolerant taxa with higher faunal density and lower diversity and the absence of the other foraminiferal assemblages in cluster A were attributed to the high concentration of trace metal elements and the strong environmental stress at the eastern and central parts of the Qarun Lake.

  13. Fruit Size Determines the Role of Three Scatter-Hoarding Rodents as Dispersers or Seed Predators of a Fleshy-Fruited Atacama Desert Shrub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loayza, Andrea P.; Squeo, Francisco A.

    2016-01-01

    Scatter-hoarding rodents can act as both predators and dispersers for many large-seeded plants because they cache seeds for future use, but occasionally forget them in sites with high survival and establishment probabilities. The most important fruit or seed trait influencing rodent foraging behavior is seed size; rodents prefer large seeds because they have higher nutritional content, but this preference can be counterbalanced by the higher costs of handling larger seeds. We designed a cafeteria experiment to assess whether fruit and seed size of Myrcianthes coquimbensis, an endangered desert shrub, influence the decision-making process during foraging by three species of scatter-hoarding rodents differing in body size: Abrothrix olivaceus, Phyllotis darwini and Octodon degus. We found that the size of fruits and seeds influenced foraging behavior in the three rodent species; the probability of a fruit being harvested and hoarded was higher for larger fruits than for smaller ones. Patterns of fruit size preference were not affected by rodent size; all species were able to hoard fruits within the entire range of sizes offered. Finally, fruit and seed size had no effect on the probability of seed predation, rodents typically ate only the fleshy pulp of the fruits offered and discarded whole, intact seeds. In conclusion, our results reveal that larger M. coquimbensis fruits have higher probabilities of being harvested, and ultimately of its seeds being hoarded and dispersed by scatter-hoarding rodents. As this plant has no other dispersers, rodents play an important role in its recruitment dynamics. PMID:27861550

  14. Mapping sexual harassment in Egypt | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-03-28

    Mar 28, 2017 ... More than 95 per cent of women in Egypt have experienced sexual harassment at ... HarassMap's map of Cairo shows the location and type of incidents that ... HarassMap: Mapping Sexual Harassment and Violence in Egypt.

  15. Gender, Sibship Composition, and Education in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tfaily, Rania

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between gender, sibship, and education over time in Egypt, focusing on how the number, sex, and birth order configuration of siblings affected boys' and girls' education during 1991-2008, a period characterized by significant social and economic changes in Egypt. This study disaggregates schooling into…

  16. The satellite archaeological survey of Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2011-01-01

    A recent announcement of some pyramids, buried under the sand of Egypt and discovered by means of infrared remote sensing, renewed the interest on the archaeological surveys aided by satellites. Here we propose the use of images, obtained from those of Google Maps after some processing to enhance their details, to locate archaeological remains in Egypt.

  17. Salafis in Political Life of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Сабери Фахиме

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In today's world Salafism, which has evolved from insignificant and apolitical to the very influential movement is the subject of active discussion. This article discusses and analyzes the historical background, the conditions of formation and propagation of Salafi movement in Egypt. In addition, the author disclosed the role and the place of this movement in modern political life of Egypt.

  18. Single Finds. The case of Roman Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Erik

    2006-01-01

    Survery of single or stray finds from Roman Egypt and discussion of them as evidence for the circulation and use of coins......Survery of single or stray finds from Roman Egypt and discussion of them as evidence for the circulation and use of coins...

  19. Egypt`s potential for geothermal energy use and underground storage of thermal energy; Moeglichkeiten zur Nutzung geothermischer Energie und zur unterirdischen thermischen Energiespeicherung in Aegypten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, A M; Sanner, B; Knoblich, K [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften

    1997-12-01

    Egypt belongs to the arid to extremely arid zone. Hot springs or wells are chiefly distributed over the areas of the Golf of Suez shoreline, along the Red Sea coast and in the Bahariya, Dakhla and Kharga oasis in the Western Desert. The Red Sea with it`s branches into the Gulf of Suez and the Gulf of Aqaba/Jordan valley is the northern end of the East African Rift, which is tectonically active and yields further south known geothermal resources (e.g. in Kenya). Thus, a relatively high het flow zone exists on the eastern border of the Gulf of Suez, on Sinai peninsula. The hot springs of Ayun Musa, Hammam Faraon and El Sokhna are located there. Hammam Faroun is the hottest spring in Egypt with water temperature of approx. 70 C. This paper compiles previous studies from Egypt to elucidate the geothermal potential of Egypt and opportunities to make use of it. (orig.) [Deutsch] Aegypten gehoert zur ariden bis extrem ariden Zone. Heisse Quellen oder erbohrte heisse Waesser finden sich hauptsaechlich entlang der Kueste des Golfs von Suez und des Roten Meeres, sowie in den Oasen Bahariya, Dakhla und Kharga in der westlichen Wueste. Das Rote Meer mit seinen Verzweigungen in den Golf von Suez und in den Golf von Akaba/Jordangraben bildet den noerdlichen Abschluss des Ostafrikanischen Grabensystems, das tektonisch sehr aktiv ist und weiter suedlich (z.B. in Kenia) bekannte geothermische Ressourcen bietet. Eine Zone mit hohem geothermischen Waermefluss befindet sich dementsprechend auch am oestlichen Rand des Golfs von Suez, der zur Halbinsel Sinai gehoehrt. Hier werden die heissen Quellen von Ayun Musa, Hammam Faraon und El Sokhna angetroffen. Hammam Faraon ist die heisseste Quelle Aegyptens mit Wassertemperaturen von etwa 70 C. Die vorliegende Arbeit versucht, einige fruehere Studien aus Aegypten zusammenzufassen und das geothermische Potential Aegyptens mit den Moeglichkeiten seiner Nutzung aufzuzeigen. (orig.)

  20. Stable Isotopic Analysis on Water Utilization of Two Xerophytic Shrubs in a Revegetated Desert Area: Tengger Desert, China

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Huang; Zhishan Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Stable isotope studies on stable isotope ratios of hydrogen and oxygen in water within plants provide new information on water sources and water use patterns under natural conditions. In this study, the sources of water uptake for two typical xerophytic shrubs, Caragana korshinskii and Artemisia ordosica, were determined at four different-aged revegetated sites (1956, 1964, 1981, and 1987) in the Tengger Desert, a revegetated desert area in China. Samples from precipitation, soil water at dif...

  1. Microearthquake studies in Egypt carried out by the geological survey of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulos, Fouad K.; Morgan, Paul; Toppozada, Tousson R.

    1987-07-01

    Extensive microearthquake studies have been conducted in Egypt as a joint project between scientists from the Egyptian Geological Survey and Mining Authority (EGSMA) and U.S. scientists. At this stage, a great part of the data has been analyzed and two intensively active areas have been located: one in the Abu Dabbab area of the Eastern Desert, the second at the mouth of the Gulf of Suez near Gubal Island (Daggett et al., 1980). Both sites have been reported to be the epicenters of large earthquakes in 1955 and 1969, respectively. A few scattered earthquakes have also been located in the northern part of the Red Sea, some of which lie along its median axis (Daggett et al., 1986) adding to evidence for the medial opening of the northern Red Sea. After the occurrence of an earthquake (M = 5.5) in the Aswan region on 14 November 1981, continuous recording of the many aftershocks was carried out by EGSMA for about seven months from December 1981 to July 1982, when the temporary network was replaced by a network of telemetered seismographs installed and operated by Helwan Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics in cooperation with scientists from Lamont and Doherty Geological Observatory (LDGO). The majority of epicenters are concentrated in the vicinity of G. Marawa about 65 km upstream of Aswan Dam, along the E-W Kalabsha fault. The observed focal mechanism is consistent with a right-lateral strike-slip motion on the Kalabsha fault. Analysis of Aswan microearthquakes has been done by EGSMA in cooperation with scientists from California Division of Mines and Geology (CDMG).

  2. Population, desert expanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The conditions of desert expansion in the Sahara are highlighted. On the southern border the desert is growing at a rate of 3-6 miles/year. This growth is encroaching on arable land in Ethiopia and Mauritania. The region loses up to 28,000 sq miles/year of farmland. 33% of Africa's fertile land is threatened. Land-use patterns are responsible for the deterioration of the soil. Traditional practices are not effective because the practices are not suitable for permanent farming. Farmers also have stopped environmentally sound practices such as letting the fields remain fallow in order to renew soil fertility. Nomads overgraze areas before moving on. A recent study by the World Bank's Africa Region Office was released; the report details some of the links between rapid population growth, poor agricultural performance, and environmental degradation. Soil conditions are such that valuable topsoil is blow away by the wind because the layer is too thin. Vegetation at the desert's edge is used for cooking purposes or for heating fuel. Tropical and savannah areas are depleted when tree replacement is inadequate. Only 9 trees are planted for every 100 removed. The report emphasized the role of women and children in contributing to population pressure by increased fertility. Women's work load is heavy and children are a help in alleviating some of the burden of domestic and agricultural work. There is hope in meeting demographic, agricultural, food security, and environmental objectives over the next 30 years if the needs of women are met. The needs include access to education for young women, lessening the work loads of women, and decreasing child mortality through improved health care and access to safe water.

  3. Physiological adaptation in desert birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, JB; Tieleman, BI; Williams, Joseph B.

    We call into question the idea that birds have not evolved unique physiological adaptations to desert environments. The rate at which desert larks metabolize energy is lower than in mesic species within the same family, and this lower rate of living translates into a lower overall energy requirement

  4. Epidemiological review of human and animal fascioliasis in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Maha F M

    2008-06-01

    One of the neglected food-borne-diseases in the international public health arena is fascioliasis. It is a serious infectious parasitic disease infecting humans and animals worldwide and tops all the zoonotic helminthes. Human cases are being increasingly reported from Europe, the Americas, Oceania, Africa and Asia. Hence, human fascioliasis is considered now as a zoonosis of major global and regional importance. In Egypt, animal and human fascioliasis is an endemic clinical and epidemiological health problem. Doubtless, understanding the epidemiology of the parasitic diseases and factors affecting their incidence provides the foundation upon which effective prevention and control programs should be established. This article reviews the history, life cycles, transmission, incidence, geographical distribution, and environmental and human determinants that contribute to the epidemiological picture of fascioliasis with special reference to Egypt.

  5. Supersymmetry without the Desert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Yasunori; Poland, David

    2006-01-01

    Naturalness of electroweak symmetry breaking in weak scale supersymmetric theories may suggest the absence of the conventional supersymmetric desert. We present a simple, realistic framework for supersymmetry in which (most of) the virtues of the supersymmetric desert are naturally reproduced without having a large energy interval above the weak scale. The successful supersymmetric prediction for the low-energy gauge couplings is reproduced due to a gauged R symmetry present in the effective theory at the weak scale. The observable sector superpotential naturally takes the form of the next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model, but without being subject to the Landau pole constraints up to the conventional unification scale. Supersymmetry breaking masses are generated by the F-term and D-term VEVs of singlet and U(1) R gauge fields, as well as by anomaly mediation, at a scale not far above the weak scale. We study the resulting pattern of supersymmetry breaking masses in detail, and find that it can be quite distinct. We construct classes of explicit models within this framework, based on higher dimensional unified theories with TeV-sized extra dimensions. A similar model based on a non-R symmetry is also presented. These models have a rich phenomenology at the TeV scale, and allow for detailed analyses of, e.g., electroweak symmetry breaking

  6. Cenozoic to Cretaceous paleomagnetic dataset from Egypt: New data, review and global analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Mireille; Saleh, Ahmed

    2018-04-01

    Different phases of igneous activity took place in Egypt during the Mesozoic and the Cenozoic and oriented samples were collected from three Cenozoic localities (Baharya oasis in the Western Desert, Abu Had in the Eastern Desert and Quseir along the Red Sea coast), and four Cretaceous localities (Toshki & Abu Simbel south of Aswan, and Shalaten & Abu Shihat along the Red Sea coast). Rock magnetic properties of the samples indicate magnetite and titanomagnetite as the main carrier of the remanent magnetization. Following stepwise demagnetization, characteristic remanent directions were identified only for 62% of the samples, a fairly low rate for that type of samples, and 8 new paleomagnetic poles were calculated. All our Cenozoic poles fall clearly off Master Polar Wander Paths proposed for South Africa. Therefore, all paleomagnetic results, previously published for Egypt, were compiled from Cretaceous to Quaternary. The published poles largely overlap, blurring the Egyptian Apparent Polar Wander Path. A new analysis at the site level was then carried out. Only poles having a kappa larger than 50 were selected, and new pole positions were calculated by area and by epoch, when at least 3 sites were available. Even though the selection drastically reduced the number of considered poles, it allows definition of a reliable Cenozoic apparent polar wander trend for Egypt that differs from the South African Master Polar Wander Path by about 10-15 °. If the Cretaceous igneous poles are in good agreement with the rest of the African data, the sedimentary poles plot close to the Cenozoic portion of the South African Master Polar Wander Path, a discrepancy that could be related either to inclination flattening and/or error on age and/or remagnetization in the Cenozoic.

  7. Livestock grazing and the desert tortoise in the Mojave Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldemeyer, John L.

    1994-01-01

    A large part of the Mojave Desert is not in pristine condition, and some current conditions can be related to past grazing-management practices. No information could be found on densities of the desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) or on vegetative conditions of areas that had not been grazed to allow managers a comparison of range conditions with data on tortoises. Experimental information to assess the effect of livestock grazing on tortoises is lacking, and researchers have not yet examined whether the forage that remains after grazing is sufficient to meet the nutritional needs of desert tortoises.

  8. Impact of Geoethics in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbdelMakosud, kholoud Mohamed; Ezzat, Nada

    2016-04-01

    Geoethics, is a new term that could be unknown in the Arab world,where its translation in Arabic language make some kind of problems,with special emphasis on Egypt; spreading this term and the importance of it to professionals and un professionals is not an easy task.Culture and awareness problems face us on dealing with it. In this working paper the researchers study two levels of educational samples, the first one is of young geo-scientists and the other one is of young people of different disciplines to make over view survey (monitoring the base level) about knowing geoethics and another survey after applying some lectures and workshops to the same samples to monitor the second level. The aim of the research is to find out how people will accept this term and its application and how we can spread it through community with different effective ways. In Egypt there are some kind of culture problems could affect on spreading of any new concept, these problems could be overcome by some scientific, social and culture recommendations, these recommendations could be applied in both Arab countries and African Countries with few modifications.

  9. Wang Haili, The History of Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Jianwei[1

    2015-01-01

    The History of Egypt is the first monograph on Egyptian history written by a single Chinese author. As a comprehensive study both in Egyptology and in Egyptian history, it represents a new level of Egyptian historical research in Chinese academia.

  10. Egypt: Security, Political, and Islamist Challenges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zuhur, Sherifa

    2007-01-01

    .... Egyptian failures of governance have taken place through three eras: monarchy and the liberal experiment, the period of Arab socialism, and Egypt's reopening to the West under Presidents Sadat and Mubarak...

  11. Entropy of Egypt's virtual water trade gravity field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakatsanis, Georgios; Bierbach, Sandra

    2016-04-01

    's 20 trading partner countries, for a time frame from 1995 to 2013. The calculations -implemented for each country and each crop- display a network that illustrates the gravity of virtual water trade. It is then possible for us to model the entropy of Egypt's virtual water trade gravity field, via the statistical examination of its spatial fragmentation or continuity for each traded crop and for each water footprint type. Hence, with the distribution's entropy we may conduct a targeted analysis on the comparative advantages of the Egyptian agriculture. Keywords: entropy, virtual water trade, gravity model, agricultural trade, water footprint, water subsidies, comparative advantage References 1. Antonelli, Marta and Martina Sartori (2014), Unfolding the potential of the Virtual Water concept. What is still under debate?, MPRA Paper No. 60501, http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/60501/ 2. Fracasso, Andrea (2014), A gravity model of virtual water trade, Ecological Economics, Vol. 108, p. 215-228 3. Fracasso, Andrea; Martina Sartori and Stefano Schiavo (2014), Determinants of virtual water flows in the Mediterranean, MPRA Paper No. 60500, https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/60500/ 4. Yang, H. et al. (2006), Virtual water trade: An assessment of water use efficiency in the international food trade, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 10, p. 443-454

  12. Egypt receives computers from CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2013-01-01

    On Tuesday 22 October, CERN officially celebrated sending IT equipment to Egypt, the fifth country to benefit from such donations after Morocco, Ghana, Bulgaria and Serbia. Although no longer adequate for CERN's cutting-edge research, these machines are still suitable for less demanding applications.   Rolf Heuer and Amr Radi, during the official ceremony. In a ceremony to mark the occasion, Rolf Heuer, CERN Director-General, and Egyptian physicist Amr Radi, team leader of ASRT (Egypt’s Academy of Scientific Research and Technology) within the CMS collaboration, who has played a major part in the operation, expressed their enthusiasm for the project. A total of 196 servers and 10 routers will be installed on the ASRT premises in Cairo, where they will be used to analyse data from the ALICE and CMS experiments. For more information about CERN’s donations of IT equipment, see this Bulletin article.

  13. Remote Sensing Field Guide - Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    experienced boatmen. Most river water, even in deserts, contains Giardia micro -organisms that can cause serious diarrhea. Sich water should be boiled...water. The solutes and suspended micro -matter can be moved up and down by an oscillating water table and redeposited or precipitated at differ- ent...McCauley, U.S. Geological Survey, Desert Studies Group, Flagstaff, AZ, Nov 1973. B. Servicio Aerofotografia Nacional del Peru (on back). / ...... CONN:MFI

  14. Economical investigation of solar water distillation in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakr, I A; Khalil, M A; Delyannis, A; Delyannis, E [eds.

    1976-01-01

    Many ways of solar water distillation have been suggested but most of them are either too expensive or only a practical solution to different processes under investigation. Solar heat distillation has a bright future because the greatest potential needs appear to be in those sections where the availability of solar energy is high and the availability of potable water is low as in our Egyptian deserts where the solar intensity has a yearly mean value of about 6000 kcal/(m/sup 2/day). The solar distillation method has a number of economic characteristics which are different from other sea water conversion methods, including: The processing equipment is very simple and results in low equipment costs. No special skills are required for both erection and operation. It can be used with saline water of wide range of salt concentration. The still design is essentially modular, and can be made to meet any desired capacity. Scale formation and corrosion are minor problems as compared with other methods. Power requirements are negligible. The cost of unit construction is not markedly influenced by the size of the still. The lack of quantitative and operative data of solar water distillation techniques with respect to their cost needs in investigation from the economical standpoint of view in Egypt. The subject of this work is to find the order of magnitude of the fresh water cost by solar distillation.

  15. Site Characteristics For Long Term Storage in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Hemamy, S.T.

    2008-01-01

    This work deals with the establishment of a new guideline for a new disposal for low and intermediate radioactive waste in Egypt. It is only permitted in natural geological formations with acceptable seismic and tectonic parameters. The representative parameters applied for this evaluation are related to the release process of the strain energy. The examined parameters are magnitude M2, equivalent to the mean annual total strain energy release, and magnitude M3, analogous to the maximum strain energy which may be accumulated and released in a region. Empirical relation between M3 and M2 is obtained and the result shows that it has a worldwide validity. The quantity Dt, showing the time difference per year between the upper bound line (in the energy diagram) and the time since the last seismic activity (strain energy accumulation) is suggested here. An effort is made to forecast the approximate time of the next earthquake occurrence with magnitude less or equal to the maximum strain energy release. Finally, it clears that the Western Desert are a suitable region for establishing the site of radioactive waste repository

  16. Ancient Egypt in our Cultural Heritage?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Vasiljević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Inspiration derived from ancient Egypt is usually expressed through the Egyptian motifs in arts and popular culture of the 19th and 20th centuries, as well as through the non-scientific interpretations of the culture, very much based upon the Renaissance ones. The number and variety of material and non-material traces of this fascination are most expressed in the countries where, along with the early support for the institutional development of Egyptology, there existed economically potent educated middle classes (Western and Central Europe, USA, but may also be traced elsewhere. The public fascination by ancient Egypt has not ceased by the times of foundation of Egyptology, marked by the decipherment of the hieroglyphic script in 1822. Until the end of the 20th century Egyptologists have rarely dealt with the prelude to their discipline, limiting their interest to the critical approach to ancient sources and to noting the attempts to interpret the hieroglyphic script and the function of pyramids. However, the rising importance of the reception studies in other disciplines raised the interest of Egyptologists for the "fascination of Egypt", thus changing the status of various modes of expressing "Egyptomania" – they have thus become a part of the cultural heritage, registered, documented, preserved and studied. The research of this kind is only beginning in Serbia. The line of inquiry enhances the knowledge of the scope, manifestations and roles of the interest in Egypt, not limited by the national or political borders. On the other hand, the existence of the cultural heritage similar to the wider European view of ancient Egypt – short remarks by Jerotej Račanin, Kandor by Atanasije Stojković, the usage of architectural motifs derived from Egypt, the emergence of small private collections, to mention several early examples – all show that the research into the reception of ancient Egypt may contribute to the knowledge about the history

  17. A global vision for small business in Egypt | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Egypt's Ministry of Finance in Enhancing Competitiveness of SMEs in Egypt: General ... SMEPol then supported the policy formulation process, in part by providing urgently needed ... Research also focused on strategies for increasing exports.

  18. Radiopharmaceuticals production activities in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raieh, M.

    1998-01-01

    Applications of radiopharmaceuticals and labelled compounds in the field of nuclear medicine in Egypt have increased so rapidly in the last few years. At present, a large number of hospitals are utilizing these radioisotopic techniques for both diagnosis and treatment. The following production activities are taking place in the Egyptian Radioisotope Production laboratories. By utilizing the research reactor a large number of radioisotopes which find wide applications in nuclear medicine were produced, such as iodine-131, phosphorus-32, sodium-24, potassium-42 and molybdenum-99 / technetium-99m generators. Gallium-67, indium-111 and iodine-123 will be produced locally after installation of the cyclotron at the end of 1998. A large number of Tc-99m based kits for diagnostic medical applications have been produced. Also, many radiopharmaceuticals labelled with iodine-131 were produced. The radioisotope production laboratory is able to supply many hospitals with the radioimmunoassay kits of the thyroid related hormones (T4, T3 and TSH). Research and development activities are taking place in the field of monoclonal antibodies and tumor markers with special consideration of AFP, CEA, PSA and βhCG. (author)

  19. Concentration of plutonium in desert plants from contaminated area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Hui; Jin Yuren; Tian Mei; Li Weiping; Zeng Ke; Wang Yaoqin; Wang Yu

    2012-01-01

    The investigation of plutonium in desert plants from contaminated sites contributes to the evaluation of its pollution situation and to the survey of plutonium hyper accumulator. The concentration of 239 Pu in desert plants collected from a contaminated site was determined, and the influence factors were studied. The concentration of 239 Pu in plants was (1.8±4.9) Bq/kg in dry weight, and it means that the plants were contaminated, moreover, the resuspension results in dramatic plutonium pollution of plant surface. The concentration of plutonium in plants depends on species, live stages and the content of plutonium in the rhizosphere soil. The concentration of plutonium in herbage is higher than that in woody plant, and for the seven species of desert plants investigated, it decreases in the order of Hexinia polydichotoma, Phragmites australis, Halostashys caspica, Halogeton arachnoideus, Lycium ruthenicum, Tamarix hispida and Calligonum aphyllum. (authors)

  20. Identity of Fasciola spp. in sheep in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Said; ElKhatam, Ahmed; Zidan, Shereif; Feng, Yaoyu; Xiao, Lihua

    2016-12-01

    In Egypt, liver flukes, Fasciola spp. (Digenea: Fasciolidae), have a serious impact on the farming industry and public health. Both Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica are known to occur in cattle, providing the opportunity for genetic recombination. Little is known on the identity and genetic variability of Fasciola populations in sheep. This study was performed to determine the prevalence of liver flukes in sheep in Menofia Province as a representative area of the delta region in Egypt, as measured by postmortem examination of slaughtered animals at three abattoirs. The identity and genetic variability of Fasciola spp. in slaughtered animals were determined by PCR-sequence analysis of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) genes. Physical inspection of the liver indicated that 302 of 2058 (14.7%) slaughtered sheep were infected with Fasciola spp. Sequence analysis of the ITS1 and nad1 genes of liver flukes from 17 animals revealed that 11 animals were infected with F. hepatica, four with F. gigantica, and two with both species. Seventy eight of 103 flukes genetically characterized from these animals were F. hepatica, 23 were F. gigantica, and two had ITS1 sequences identical to F. hepatica but nad1 sequences identical to F. gigantica. nad1 sequences of Egyptian isolates of F. gigantica showed pronounced differences from those in the GenBank database. Egyptian F. gigantica haplotypes formed haplogroup D, which clustered in a sister clade with haplogroups A, B and C circulating in Asia, indicating the existence of geographic isolation in the species. Both F. hepatica and F. gigantica are prevalent in sheep in Egypt and an introgressed form of the two occurs as the result of genetic recombination. In addition, a geographically isolated F. gigantica population is present in the country. The importance of these observations in epidemiology of fascioliasis needs to be examined in future

  1. Growth responses of five desert plants as influenced by biological soil crusts from a temperate desert, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanming; Belnap, Jayne

    2015-01-01

    In almost all dryland systems, biological soil crusts (biocrusts) coexist alongside herbaceous and woody vegetation, creating landscape mosaics of vegetated and biocrusted patches. Results from past studies on the interaction between biocrusts and vascular plants have been contradictory. In the Gurbantunggut desert, a large temperate desert in northwestern China, well-developed lichen-dominated crusts dominate the areas at the base and between the sand dunes. We examined the influence of these lichen-dominated biocrusts on the germination, growth, biomass accumulation, and elemental content of five common plants in this desert: two shrubs (Haloxylon persicum, Ephedra distachya) and three herbaceous plants (Ceratocarpus arenarius, Malcolmia africana and Lappula semiglabra) under greenhouse conditions. The influence of biocrusts on seed germination was species-specific. Biocrusts did not affect percent germination in plants with smooth seeds, but inhibited germination of seeds with appendages that reduced or eliminated contact with the soil surface or prevented seeds from slipping into soil cracks. Once seeds had germinated, biocrusts had different influences on growth of shrub and herbaceous plants. The presence of biocrusts increased concentrations of nitrogen but did not affect phosphorus or potassium in tissue of all tested species, while the uptake of the other tested nutrients was species-specific. Our study showed that biocrusts can serve as a biological filter during seed germination and also can influence growth and elemental uptake. Therefore, they may be an important trigger for determining desert plant diversity and community composition in deserts.

  2. Applications of geomorphology, tectonics, geology and geophysical interpretation of, East Kom Ombo depression, Egypt, using Landsat images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Sayed A. El Gammal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Southern Eastern Desert of Egypt, A NW–SE oriented structural graben extends from the North of Aswan to the Red Sea coast with a length of about 400 km and an average width of 30 km. The area has significant potential for development as it may be provided with water from surface and subsurface sources and is the site of prospection for petroleum. The present paper is an attempt to understand the structural evolution and genetic development of the geomorphologic features of the area and constructing presently a new geomorphological map at a scale of 1:250,000 using Landsat ETM images and field checks. Available geological maps and the produced geomorphological map are digitized by using the ARC-GIS software. The same program is also used to produce a 3D DEM for surface and subsurface features. Based on new interpretations of aeromagnetic and radiometric data, the subsurface features of the basement cover were illustrated on a 3D map. Geological–geomorphological profiles have been constructed in different directions in the area to identify present and ancient geomorphologic features. The place and shape of subsurface deep seated NW–SE trending faults have been determined. The faults, which generated the graben have downthrows in the order of 900–5800 m. The surface and subsurface observations delineate the dominant downthrow of about 3750 m. Three E–W subsurface faults have been detected under Nubia sandstone, one of them, displaying a downthrow of about 845 m, cuts through the basement rocks.

  3. Aborigines of the nuclear desert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rujula, A. de

    1985-01-01

    The chart of 'stable nuclides' extends from Hydrogen, to Z proportional 98, A proportional 263. It contains another island of stability - neutron stars - in a narrow range around Z proportional 10 56 , A proportional 10 57 . In between lies a supposedly barren region encompassing more than 50 orders of magnitude. This desert may be populated by strange quark balls: Stable single bags containing similar proportions of u, d and s quarks. These balls are candidates for the constituency of the 'dark mass' in galaxies and in the Universe. We describe seven ways to search for these possible inhabitants of the nuclear desert. (orig.)

  4. Uranium exploration in Egypt past, current and future activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, N.

    2014-01-01

    The Egyptian Nuclear Materials Authority (NMA), is the government body responsible for exploration of the nuclear raw materials in the country. The early NMA U-exploration activities has included training of exploration teams, conduction of airborne, ground follow up and preliminary geological mapping as well as execution of limited exploration drilling. A number of TC projects and expert missions were mainly executed in collaboration with the IAEA for this purpose. These efforts have resulted in the discovery of seven U-potential prospects. NMA has also exercised limited heap leaching on experimental scale and obtained small amounts of U-concentrates, utilized for R & D purposes. However, the exploration activities remained in the preliminary phases and did not succeed to reach either reliable evaluation of the discovered uranium resources or running productive U-exploitation. By the end of the last decade, Egypt has declared the intention to adopt a peaceful program for electric power generation; this implied NMA to implement a twofold plan as described hereafter. Regarding the conventional U-resources, occurring in the Eastern Desert, NMA focus the exploration activities on the younger granites of Pan African type, and the associated inter-mountain basins. The activities will be restricted to the evaluation of U-reserves in at least three of the most promising uranium prospects that still require extensive exploration drilling programs. NMA is now implementing an international bid announcement seeking for partnership of an experienced international firm, to assess the uranium resources in these sites, in addition to receiving relevant IAEA/TC programs. Regarding non-conventional resources, the black sand project is mainly a resource of a titanium and zirconium minerals; however, NMA is now trying to process monazite to obtain mainly Th and minor U by-products. NMA has successfully completed an exploration study and. the Government of Egypt has recently

  5. Status of fertility control in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefnawi, F I

    1982-01-01

    The concern for fertility control is not alien to the cultural and religious heritage of Egypt. Historically, Egyptian interest in fertility dates to the Pharoahs. Contraceptive recipes written at least 15-18 centuries B.C. have been found. Romans may have borrowed some of the more effective methods from Egypt when it became part of the Roman Empire as evidenced by the decline in size of aristocratic Roman families at the beginning of the Christian era. Muslim conquerors of Egypt encouraged fertility control. In the 9th century differences of opinion about the legality of contraception appeared among the interpreters of Islamic law. Some methods found in the writings of Muslim doctors as al-Razi and Avicenna still survive in the folk medicine of Egypt. In modern times use of barrier methods of contraception were encouraged by family planning organizations in Egypt. The medical profession was not deeply involved since these methods did not require much medical assistance. In 1936 a religiouss verdict declared contraception to be a lawful act of Islam. National programs in family planning in the 1960's encouraged the use of the Lippes Loop IUD. The medical problem of blood loss associated with the IUD caused anxiety because of the high incidence of anemia in the female Egyptian population. There was also a cultural limitation on the wide use of the IUD. "Spotting" due to the IUD resulted in females being ritually unclean and therefore unfit to pray or observe the Islamic fast. The Pill, initially favored caused complications due to its effect on breast milk which is the universal source of nutrition for infants in Egypt. Replacement of the Pill by depo-provera injections during the post partum period of lactation is a practical solution. Permanent sterilization is limited to females and only performed when medically indicated. Abortion is illegal and permitted only as a therapeutic measure.

  6. Impacts of tracked vehicles on sediment from a desert soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erek H. Fuchs; Karl M. Wood; Tim L. Jones; Brent Racher

    2003-01-01

    Off-road military vehicle traffic is a major consideration in the management of military lands. The objective of this study was to determine the impacts of military tracked M1A1 heavy combat tank vehicles on sediment loss from runoff, surface plant cover, and surface microtopography in a desert military training environment. A randomized block design was used which had...

  7. Renewable-energy applications in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammad, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    The paper illustrates the main activities carried out concerning development and application of renewable-energy technologies in Egypt. Main attention is devoted to biogas technology, solar and wind energy technologies. The main constraints for implementation of renewable-energy technologies in Egypt and the activities carried out for its release are highlighted. The coordination between the Islamic and other developing countries is highly needed, to achieve marked progress in implementation of renewable energy and sustainable development. Establishment of a network for renewable energy among the Islamic countries can play an active role in these aspects. (author)

  8. Reaching women in Egypt: a success story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mousa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Women in Egypt are more likely than men to suffer from low vision or blindness from avoidable causes.1–3 This is, in large part, because women are not using eye care services as frequently as men, especially in rural areas.4–5 A 2002 community-based survey of 4,500 people in Al Minya Governorate, Upper Egypt showed that the prevalence of cataract in women was double that in men and that trachomatous trichiasis was four times as prevalent in women as in men

  9. The EU and Constitutionalism in Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Peter

    2013-01-01

    of the unrest in Egypt followed by an analysis of the European-Egyptian relationship over the last two years divided in three parts: Egypt and the ENP-UfM complex, the Muslim Brotherhood and the Egyptian political transformation process seen in a European perspective and finally the migration issue...... in the context of Egyptian-European relations. The article argues that the EU policies, which earlier have been dominated by a pragmatic approach towards the Mubarak regime, now have to be rethought considering an Egyptian polity, where the contours of a new constitutionalism are developing....

  10. Updating radiation protection regulations in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomaa, M.A.; El-Naggar, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this treatise is to present -the rational steps taken in the process of updating the Radiation Protection Regulations in Egypt. The contents of the review will include a historical synopsis, and the current state of art regarding competent authorities. Furthermore, the various committees formed with responsibilities for specific issues are indicated, including the role of the Ministry of Health (MOH), and that of the Atomic Energy Authority (AEA). Finally, the efforts made towards updating the radiation Protection Regulations in Egypt are highlighted. (author)

  11. TREATMENT OF FRACTURES IN ANCIENT EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. K. Bashurov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The most complete information about the medicine in Ancient Egypt two papyrus provided: a large medical papyrus of G. Ebers and papyrus about the surgery of E. Smith. Smith’s papyrus is of particular interest as it contains the information on the status of surgery in Ancient Egypt. Papyrus consists of descriptions of the clinical cases. To the present time, 48 cases have survived; it is arranged in order of location - from the head down to the feet. Orthopedic deformities were reflected in the figures on the walls of the pyramids and temples as well as the description of the mummies and archaeological finds.

  12. Women in Post-Revolutionary Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Toft; Hervik, Peter

    and in drawings. Based on the analysis of this material the reader gets insights into personal experiences, believes and opinions of a diverse group of women in terms of age, economic class, education, geography, culture, religion, ethnicity, marital status, and political orientation. The detail-rich empirical......This book addresses how identity, structures, and agency affect women’s everyday lives in post-revolutionary Egypt. The authors analyse the topic both on a macro- as well as on a micro-level. Through interviews and workshops, women around Egypt express their own experiences in dialogue, in groups...

  13. Russian deserters of World War I

    OpenAIRE

    Os'kin Maksim

    2014-01-01

    Desertion is one of the most active forms of ordinary resistance of the people to the state pressure during the low-popular war which is conducting for the purposes unclear for the people. At the same time, mass desertion is a manifestation of «total» war in the world conflicts of the XX century. During World War I in all armies of the world there was the desertion often accepting mass character. In the Russian army, as well as in other, deserters appeared from the war beginning. Desertion sca...

  14. Physiological conjunction of allelochemicals and desert plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yosef Friedjung, Avital; Choudhary, Sikander Pal; Dudai, Nativ; Rachmilevitch, Shimon

    2013-01-01

    Plants exchange signals with other physical and biological entities in their habitat, a form of communication termed allelopathy. The underlying principles of allelopathy and secondary-metabolite production are still poorly understood, especially in desert plants. The coordination and role of secondary metabolites were examined as a cause of allelopathy in plants thriving under arid and semiarid soil conditions. Desert plant species, Origanum dayi, Artemisia sieberi and Artemisia judaica from two different sources (cultivar cuttings and wild seeds) were studied in their natural habitats. Growth rate, relative water content, osmotic potential, photochemical efficiency, volatile composition and vital factors of allelopathy were analyzed at regular intervals along four seasons with winter showing optimum soil water content and summer showing water deficit conditions. A comprehensive analysis of the volatile composition of the leaves, ambient air and soil in the biological niche of the plants under study was carried out to determine the effects of soil water conditions and sample plants on the surrounding flora. Significant morpho-physiological changes were observed across the seasons and along different soil water content. Metabolic analysis showed that water deficit was the key for driving selective metabolomic shifts. A. judaica showed the least metabolic shifts, while A. sieberi showed the highest shifts. All the species exhibited high allelopathic effects; A. judaica displayed relatively higher growth-inhibition effects, while O. dayi showed comparatively higher germination-inhibition effects in germination assays. The current study may help in understanding plant behavior, mechanisms underlying secondary-metabolite production in water deficit conditions and metabolite-physiological interrelationship with allelopathy in desert plants, and can help cull economic benefits from the produced volatiles.

  15. Physiological conjunction of allelochemicals and desert plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avital Yosef Friedjung

    Full Text Available Plants exchange signals with other physical and biological entities in their habitat, a form of communication termed allelopathy. The underlying principles of allelopathy and secondary-metabolite production are still poorly understood, especially in desert plants. The coordination and role of secondary metabolites were examined as a cause of allelopathy in plants thriving under arid and semiarid soil conditions. Desert plant species, Origanum dayi, Artemisia sieberi and Artemisia judaica from two different sources (cultivar cuttings and wild seeds were studied in their natural habitats. Growth rate, relative water content, osmotic potential, photochemical efficiency, volatile composition and vital factors of allelopathy were analyzed at regular intervals along four seasons with winter showing optimum soil water content and summer showing water deficit conditions. A comprehensive analysis of the volatile composition of the leaves, ambient air and soil in the biological niche of the plants under study was carried out to determine the effects of soil water conditions and sample plants on the surrounding flora. Significant morpho-physiological changes were observed across the seasons and along different soil water content. Metabolic analysis showed that water deficit was the key for driving selective metabolomic shifts. A. judaica showed the least metabolic shifts, while A. sieberi showed the highest shifts. All the species exhibited high allelopathic effects; A. judaica displayed relatively higher growth-inhibition effects, while O. dayi showed comparatively higher germination-inhibition effects in germination assays. The current study may help in understanding plant behavior, mechanisms underlying secondary-metabolite production in water deficit conditions and metabolite-physiological interrelationship with allelopathy in desert plants, and can help cull economic benefits from the produced volatiles.

  16. Novel green algal isolates from the Egyptian hyper-arid desert oases: a polyphasic approach with a description of Pharao desertorum gen. et sp. nov. (Chlorophyceae, Chlorophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber, Abdullah A; Fučíková, Karolina; McManus, Hilary A; Guella, Graziano; Cantonati, Marco

    2018-03-30

    The biodiversity of terrestrial algae is still grossly understudied, and African deserts in particular are barely touched in this respect. Here, four coccoid green algae from oases in the Western Desert of Egypt were characterized using a combination of morphotaxonomic, ecological and 18S rDNA data, with additional carotenoid and lipid analyses for two of the strains. Three strains were identified as affiliated with known taxa: Mychonastes sp., Asterarcys sp. (first report of this genus from a desert soil), and Stichococcus cf. deasonii. The fourth strain is proposed to represent a new cryptic genus Pharao gen. nov., with the type species P. desertorum sp. nov. The new taxon is sister to the clade of uncharacterized North American desert strains of Radiococcaceae (Chlorophyceae, Chlorophyta). The pigment profile of P. desertorum gen. et sp. nov. revealed carotenoids and chlorophylls typical of green algae. Bioorganic analysis showed a complex lipidome based on phospho- (PC), galacto- (MGDG and DGDG), betaine- (DGTS), and sulfoquinovosyl- (SQDG) membrane lipids, besides significant amounts of storage neutral lipids such as diacyl- (DAG) and triacylglycerols (TAG). The presence of saturated alkyl chains within all the membrane lipid classes in P. desertorum and Asterarcys sp. appears to reflect the need to maintain membrane fluidity and viscosity. In summary, African deserts likely still harbor new taxa to be described, and lipidomic analyses of such taxa may provide clues about their ability to survive in the extremely harsh desert habitats. © 2018 Phycological Society of America.

  17. Radiometric Data Collection for Environmental Studies in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Fattah, A.T.; Ramadan, A.A.; Gomaa, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    Radiation protection and monitoring in Egypt covers most fields of activities dealing with radioactivity. Such protection measures necessitate measurements of radiation levels, exposure or contamination whatever they are due to natural or man-made sources. A radiation level in foodstuff samples collected from selected main cities in Egypt was followed for several years after Chernobyl accident. Potassium-40 was found to be the main source of radioactivity. It ranges from 9 Bq/kg for macaroni to about 363 Bq/kg for watercress and broad beans. 137 Cs was found in trace amounts. Radiation measurements were carried out in soil samples collected from sixteen locations all over the country. The natural radiation level of 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K was found to be 7-27 Bq/kg, 3.8-24.4 Bq/kg and 105,7-448.9 Bq/kg respectively. This level was found to be higher in eastern parts of Egypt than in the western parts. Radiological control is precisely undertaken on the entry of food items and certain chemical materials used in industry. Contaminated food, higher than international trading levels, is rejected. Chemical materials containing radioactivity are followed during their uses. The annual effective dose from terrestrial gamma rays was determined for most Egyptian Governorates (106-371 UVv/y). Accordingly,the annual collective dose due to natural background radiation (terrestrial gamma rays and cosmic rays) is about 27,253 Man Sv. As a national need together with international attitude a monitoring network has been established few years after Chernobyl accident. It consists of 42 stations for gamma monitors in air,43 stations in water, 44 stations for beta aerosols, and 15 stations for conventional pollutants. The measured radiation levels are transmitted to control station via digital communication every 15 minutes

  18. Studies on geology and radioactivity of a phosphorite occurrence in Taba, Eastern Sinai, Egypt. Vol. 3.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Aassy, I E [Nuclear Materials Authority, Cairo, (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    A phosphorite occurrence belonging to the Sudr Formation of Campanian-Maestrichtian has been located in Taba area, Eastern Sinai, Egypt. The sedimentary succession covering the area ranges from the Lower Cretaceous Malha Formation up to the Lower Eocene Thebes Formation. The phosphorites are occurring near the top of Sudr Formation. The latter is mainly manifested in the form of a carbonate facies of chalky limestone with thin chert and limestone intercalations. Two phosphate beds have been identified, namely, a lower bed of about 0.3 m thick and an upper bed of about 1.7 m thick. The two phosphate beds have been regularly sampled, and the collected samples were subjected to both XRD and chemical analysis for P{sub 2} O{sub 5} and uranium contents. The former indicated that the carbonate fluorapatite is the main phosphate mineral. The P{sub 2} O{sub 5} and uranium contents were found to attain maximum values of 22.4% and 97 Ppm, respectively. Taba phosphorite occurrence is correlated with that of El Qaa plain, southwestern sinai. The two phosphate beds have been compared to those occurring in three main phosphate districts of Egypt, namely, the red sea, the nile valley and the western desert which, belong, however to the Duwi formation. 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. On the Development and Evolution of Astronomy in ancient Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maravelias, S. E.

    In the present paper the development and evolution of astronomy in = Ancient Egypt are briefly examined. Emphasis is given to the = applications of astronomy on: (i) the orientation of temples and = pyramids, and the subsequent determination of the year; (ii) the = reorientation of temples --after the lapse of several centuries-- (due = to the fact that the priesthood was empirically aware of the precession = of equinoxes, and the subsequent use of this very fact in order to = estimate the archaeological age of temples, tombs and pyramids; (iii) = the heliacal rising of Sirius, which was used by ancient = priests-astronomers in order to fix the New Year's Day and determine the = seasons of the civil year, although the discre pancy of the Sothic cycle = in their calendrical system was not seriously taken into account. = Finally the conclusion put forward is that astronomy in Ancient Egypt = never reached the grounds of pure science (as in Ancient Greece), at = least before the Ptolemaic era, but always remained under the influence = of traditionalism and mythology pertaining more to the sphere of = religion and dogma.

  20. Are Wildlife Detector Dogs or People Better at Finding Desert Tortoises (Gopherus Agassizii)?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nussear, Kenneth E; Esque, Todd C; Heaton, Jill S; Cablk, Mary E; Drake, Kristina K; Valentin, Cindee; Yee, Julie L; Medica, Philip A

    2008-01-01

    ...) are cryptic and difficult to detect during surveys, especially the smaller size classes. We conducted comparative surveys to determine whether human or detector dog teams were more effective at locating Desert Tortoises in the wild...

  1. Desert Pathfinder at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    The Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) project celebrates the inauguration of its outstanding 12-m telescope, located on the 5100m high Chajnantor plateau in the Atacama Desert (Chile). The APEX telescope, designed to work at sub-millimetre wavelengths, in the 0.2 to 1.5 mm range, passed successfully its Science Verification phase in July, and since then is performing regular science observations. This new front-line facility provides access to the "Cold Universe" with unprecedented sensitivity and image quality. After months of careful efforts to set up the telescope to work at the best possible technical level, those involved in the project are looking with satisfaction at the fruit of their labour: APEX is not only fully operational, it has already provided important scientific results. "The superb sensitivity of our detectors together with the excellence of the site allow fantastic observations that would not be possible with any other telescope in the world," said Karl Menten, Director of the group for Millimeter and Sub-Millimeter Astronomy at the Max-Planck-Institute for Radio Astronomy (MPIfR) and Principal Investigator of the APEX project. ESO PR Photo 30/05 ESO PR Photo 30/05 Sub-Millimetre Image of a Stellar Cradle [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 627 pix - 200k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 1254 pix - 503k] [Full Res - JPEG: 1539 x 2413 pix - 1.3M] Caption: ESO PR Photo 30/05 is an image of the giant molecular cloud G327 taken with APEX. More than 5000 spectra were taken in the J=3-2 line of the carbon monoxide molecule (CO), one of the best tracers of molecular clouds, in which star formation takes place. The bright peak in the north of the cloud is an evolved star forming region, where the gas is heated by a cluster of new stars. The most interesting region in the image is totally inconspicuous in CO: the G327 hot core, as seen in methanol contours. It is a truly exceptional source, and is one of the richest sources of emission from complex organic molecules in the

  2. Multi scenario seismic hazard assessment for Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Shaimaa Ismail; Abd el-aal, Abd el-aziz Khairy; El-Eraki, Mohamed Ahmed

    2018-05-01

    Egypt is located in the northeastern corner of Africa within a sensitive seismotectonic location. Earthquakes are concentrated along the active tectonic boundaries of African, Eurasian, and Arabian plates. The study area is characterized by northward increasing sediment thickness leading to more damage to structures in the north due to multiple reflections of seismic waves. Unfortunately, man-made constructions in Egypt were not designed to resist earthquake ground motions. So, it is important to evaluate the seismic hazard to reduce social and economic losses and preserve lives. The probabilistic seismic hazard assessment is used to evaluate the hazard using alternative seismotectonic models within a logic tree framework. Alternate seismotectonic models, magnitude-frequency relations, and various indigenous attenuation relationships were amended within a logic tree formulation to compute and develop the regional exposure on a set of hazard maps. Hazard contour maps are constructed for peak ground acceleration as well as 0.1-, 0.2-, 0.5-, 1-, and 2-s spectral periods for 100 and 475 years return periods for ground motion on rock. The results illustrate that Egypt is characterized by very low to high seismic activity grading from the west to the eastern part of the country. The uniform hazard spectra are estimated at some important cities distributed allover Egypt. The deaggregation of seismic hazard is estimated at some cities to identify the scenario events that contribute to a selected seismic hazard level. The results of this study can be used in seismic microzonation, risk mitigation, and earthquake engineering purposes.

  3. Occidentalisms. Images of 'the West' in Egypt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltering, Robbert Antonius Fransiscus Leonardus

    2009-01-01

    This thesis researches images of ‘the West’ in contemporary Egyptian non-fiction. These images – or: Occidentalisms - are found to have a history going back to the early nineteenth century, and are clearly related to political and social developments in Egypt and the wider Arab world, in which

  4. Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    right to govern; the more the Brotherhood charges ahead, the more it confirms the others’ belief of its monopolistic designs over power. Even if...appropriate market -reform and economic growth activities.” Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations Congressional Research Service 18 according to the State

  5. Egypt | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Our research support in Egypt has shifted focus with the country's changing needs. ... With support from IDRC and other partners, the university established the Alexandria Research Centre for ... stimulate technology start ups; prepare youth for in high-demand jobs in retail, hospitality, ... Careers · Contact Us · Site map.

  6. Microsatellite analysis of Fasciola spp. in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Yasser; Amer, Said; Courtioux, Bertrand; Dreyfuss, Gilles

    2011-12-01

    Recently, the topic of diversity in Fasciola population in Egypt is controversial. The present study was performed to study the genetic diversity of isolated flukes based on microsatellites markers. Fasciola worms were collected from different hosts and geographical locations in Egypt. Control samples of Fasciola hepatica from France as well as Fasciola gigantica from Cameroon were included in the study. Collected flukes were identified morphologically and subjected for analysis using four microsatellite markers. Results of microsatellite profile (FM1 and FM2) proved that both species of Fasciola are distributed in Egypt irrespective of geographical location and host. Nevertheless, the microsatellite profile of some analyzed loci (FM2 and FM3) proved that Egyptian flukes showed more alleles compared to the reference ones. Differences of microsatellite profile in Egyptian isolates than that of corresponding reference samples indicate the remarkable diversity of these isolates. The present results highlighted the utility of microsatellite profile to discriminate between Fasciola species and to elucidate the diversity within the species. To our knowledge, this is the first time to study microsatellite polymorphism in Fasciola populations in Egypt.

  7. Experience with the INES scale in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashad, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    Thirty years experience with Egypt first Research Reactor (ET-RR-1) operation, was introduced focusing on the famous events that were initiated and the procedures that were taken for their recovery or mitigation is given. Four out of seven events can be attributed to human errors, the events if classified using the INES

  8. Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-25

    exhortations to report critics of the government to the authorities; and censorship , prosecution, and attacks on journalists.” 19  Reporters Without...upon between the above-mentioned representatives.” See Agreement between the United States of America and Egypt, signed at Cairo, August 16, 1978

  9. Unprotected Palestinians in Egypt since 1948

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    £E: Egyptian pound. FMRS: Forced Migration Refugee Studies Program. GAP: ...... Generally, our research team located Palestinians by word of mouth. After finding the ...... I then applied for a tourist visa to Egypt and I got one for two weeks.

  10. Adolescent tramadol use and abuse in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassiony, Medhat M; Salah El-Deen, Ghada M; Yousef, Usama; Raya, Yasser; Abdel-Ghani, Mohamed M; El-Gohari, Hayam; Atwa, Samar A

    2015-05-01

    Tramadol abuse liability is underestimated and the evidence of abuse and dependence is emerging. It has many health and social consequences especially in adolescents. Tramadol abuse has not been well studied in Egypt. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and associated correlates of tramadol use and abuse among school students in Egypt. A total of 204 students, aged 13-18 years, from six schools in Zagazig, Egypt, were screened for tramadol use using The Drug Use Disorders Identification Test and a urine screen for tramadol. The prevalence of tramadol use was 8.8% among school students and the average age at onset of tramadol use was 16.5 ± 1.1. Some 83% of the users were using tramadol alone while the rest (17%) were using a combination of tramadol, alcohol, and cannabis. Two-thirds of these students started with tramadol as the first drug after the onset of tobacco smoking. Over one third of tramadol users had drug-related problems and 6% had dependence. There was a significant association between tramadol use and older age, male gender, and smoking. Drug-related problems were negatively correlated with age at onset of tramadol use. Tramadol use was common among adolescents and over one third of tramadol users had drug-related problems. Population-based longitudinal studies are needed to investigate tramadol use and the possible role of tramadol as a gateway drug in the development of substance abuse in Egypt.

  11. Tourism in Egypt | Raslan | Africa Insight

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Algeria (5); Benin (2); Botswana (3); Burkina Faso (3); Cameroon (8); Congo, Republic (1); Côte d'Ivoire (4); Egypt, Arab Rep. (14); Eritrea (1); Ethiopia (30); Ghana (27); Kenya (29); Lesotho (1); Libya (2); Madagascar (1); Malawi (4); Mauritius (3); Mozambique (1); Nigeria (221); Rwanda (3); Senegal (6); Sierra Leone (1) ...

  12. Optimization of the cropping pattern in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Osama

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Continuous increase of population in Egypt, limited fresh water, poor maintenance and low efficiency of irrigation systems lead to a real burden on the Egyptian natural water resources. Accordingly, for Egypt, land and water resources management is considered an absolutely strategic priority. In this study, a linear optimization model is developed to maximize the net annual return from the three old regions of Egypt. Data for 28 crops in five years from 2008 to 2012 are being analyzed. The spatial variations of crops, irrigation water needs, crop yields and food requirements are incorporated in the model. The results show that there is a significant reduction in the allocated areas for onion, garlic, barley, flax, fenugreek, chickpeas, lentil and lupine since they are considered as non-strategic crops. On the other side, the allocated areas for strategic crops such as wheat, maize, clover, rice, sugar products and cotton remained almost the same to satisfy their actual food requirements. However, crops with high net returns such as tomatoes have increased substantially. The trend for the gross net benefit is decreasing and is expected to reach a lower value in year 2017. Different approaches and scenarios are analyzed. The developed model proposes a change in the cropping pattern in the old lands of Egypt to increase the gross net return without adding further any other expenses. Keywords: Cropping pattern, Linear programming, Net return, Optimization

  13. Long-Term Observations of Dust Storms in Sandy Desert Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Hye-Won; Kim, Jung-Rack; Choi, Yun-Soo

    2015-04-01

    Mineral dust occupies the largest portion of atmospheric aerosol. Considering the numerous risks that dust poses for socioeconomic and anthropogenic activities, it is crucial to understand sandy desert environments, which frequently generate dust storms and act as a primary source of atmospheric aerosol. To identify mineral aerosol mechanisms, it is essential to monitor desert environmental factors involving dust storm generation in the long term. In this study, we focused on two major environmental factors: local surface roughness and soil moisture. Since installments of ground observation networks in sandy deserts are unfeasible, remote sensing techniques for mining desert environmental factors were employed. The test area was established within the Badain Jaran and Kubuqi Deserts in Inner Mongolia, China, where significant seasonal aeolian processes emit mineral dust that influences all of East Asia. To trace local surface roughness, we employed a multi-angle imaging spectroradiometer (MISR) image sequence to extract multi-angle viewing (MAV) topographic parameters such as normalized difference angular index, which represents characteristics of the target desert topography. The backscattering coefficient from various space-borne SAR and stereotopography were compared with MAV observations to determine calibrated local surface roughness. Soil moisture extraction techniques from InSAR-phase coherence stacks were developed and compiled with advanced scatterometer (ASCAT) soil moisture data. Combined with metrological information such as the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ERA interim, correlations between intensity of sand dune activity as a proxy of aeolian processes in desert environments, surface wind conditions, and surface soil moisture were traced. Overall, we have confirmed that tracking sandy desert aeolian environments for long-term observations is feasible with space-borne, multi-sensor observations when combined with

  14. Mediterranean Energy Perspectives, Egypt - Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Egypt is a significant oil producer and a rapidly growing natural gas producer. Its strategic location makes it an important transit corridor for world energy markets. Mediterranean Energy Perspectives - Egypt provides insights into the country's energy situation today and over the next two decades. It presents detailed data and analysis of interest to those who have a stake in both the supply and demand side of the energy equation. It is the first in-depth country review in OME's Mediterranean Energy Perspectives (MEP) series. The publication draws upon the extensive expertise of the Observatoire Mediterraneen de l'Energie (OME) and its members. MEP-Egypt is a unique and comprehensive analysis of the energy sector in Egypt. It contains data from the early days of its energy industry up to today as well as a view on its evolution to 2030 based on the supply and demand model developed by OME (Mediterranean Energy Model). Current efforts related to renewable energy sources are carefully considered as they are key issues for the Egyptian energy sector and for the whole economic and environment future of the country. MEP-Egypt presents: - Historical and forecast data on the supply and demand balance for each segment of the Egyptian energy sector. - Past, present and future of oil and gas exploration and discoveries. - Oil and gas fields: production and development. - Oil and gas production profiles and prospects to 2030. - Detailed information on refineries, pipelines, LNG terminals and storage facilities. - Evolution of electricity generation and installed capacity. - Developments of innovative and renewable energy sources. - Prospects for CO 2 emissions and sustainable development. - Fiscal regime of the energy industry. - Alternative energy scenarios: a Conservative scenario, a Proactive scenario and two High Economic Growth variants. MEP-Egypt has been prepared by a joint-team of Egyptian industry experts and OME staff, supported by related companies, institutions

  15. Agnes high, Western Desert, Egypt: A structural study in view of potential data modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Azab

    2014-06-01

    Results of the qualitative analysis show that Agnes high gravity and magnetic association is mainly caused by a near surface igneous intrusion of NW orientation. Quantitatively, regional models indicate a normal continental type of crust, which is divided into upper and lower by the Conrad surface (21.5–22 km. The crust–mantle interface lies at 32–33 km meanwhile the magnetic crust reaches a depth of 16 km. Local models reveal that the basement rocks north and south of the Agnes high were offset by some 6–8 km and 3–4.5 km, respectively. Statistically, the area was controlled by two main old trends; the most prevailing WNW to NNW (East African and the less abundant ENE (Syrian Arc trends. These two principal trends almost have its doubtless impact on preservation of possible accumulations.

  16. Magnetization of three Nubia Sandstone formations from Central Western Desert of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. El-Shayeb

    2013-06-01

    The first magnetic component obtained from the two older formations is considered primary, as the corresponding pole reflects the age when compared with the previously obtained Cretaceous poles for North Africa. On other hand, the second pole obtained from the Maghrabi formation (the younger is inconsistent with the Cretaceous pole positions for North Africa, but falls closer to the Eocene pole indicating that the rocks of this formation could have suffered remagnetization during the late Eocene time.

  17. Recovery of uranium and molybdenum elements from gebel gattar raw material, eastern desert, Egypt. Vol. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Hazek, N.T.; Mahdy, M.A.; Mahmoud, H.M.K.

    1996-01-01

    G. Gatter uranium mineralizations are located along the faults and fracture zones crossing G.Gattar granitic pluton and long the contact of the pluton with the hammamat sediments. Also, molybdenum id presented in more than one mode of occurrence. The molybdenum mineralization treated in this work is the dessimenated type. The uranium and molybdenum raw material was subjected to series of leaching experiments including acid and alkaline agitation, alkaline percolation, and acid heap leaching techniques. Recovery of uranium and molybdenum was achieved by anion-exchange method followed by their elution by acidified sodium chloride. Uranium precipitation was performed in the form of ammonium diuranate (Yellow Cake). On the other hand molybdenum was precipitated in the form of molybdenum oxide. A tentative flowsheet for the extraction of both uranium and molybdenum is proposed and discussed. 13 figs., 3 tabs

  18. Radioactivity and uranium potentialities of wadi hammad area, north eastern desert, Egypt. Vol. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salman, A.B.; Shalaby, M.H.; Khamis, H.A.

    1996-01-01

    Late proterozoic, pan-african rocks exposed at Wadi Hammad area are represented by metamorphosed and un metamorphosed sediments and volcanics in addition to different types of intensive rocks. Systematic radiometric survey is conducted at W.Hammad area in order to reveal the distribution of radioactivity and uranium potentialities. Statistical analysis of the field data collected indicate that, high level of δ-radioactivity is linked to the younger granites compared with the other rock types. The tree types of younger granites recorded in the area namely: porphyritic granites, biotite granites, and perthitic leucogranites differ among each other in their ground radioactivity. The increase in ground δ- radioactivity from the porphyritic to biotite granites to perthitic leucogranites corresponds to the increase in the uranium content of these granites. Four radioactive anomalies were discovered in the younger granites of the area of W.Hammad. The genetic relation between certain set of fractures and the distribution of δ- radioactivity in G. El Gulf granites indicates that the area of anomalous radioactivity are structurally controlled by joint sets trending N-S, NNE-SSW and NNW-SSE. The presence of intensive hematitization episyenitization, red and milky silica veins, aplites and pegmatite veins indicate the presence of hydrothermal activities along these fractures. It is worth to mention that, the presence of episyentizied zone associated with radioactive anomaly, represents a good indication for the possibility of hosting uranium deposits in deeper horizon. Moreover, the presence of high back-ground of magnetic uranium in the perthitic leucogranites increases studied the possibility of concentration of uranium by leaching from the granites. 12 figs., 1 tab

  19. Study of fluid inclusions in rodioactive mineralized pegmatites, dara area northern eastern desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, B.H.; Abdel Warith, A.

    2003-01-01

    Numerous pegmatite pockets of un zoned and zoned types are the most important rock types from the radioactive point of view. They occur at the marginal parts and higher topographic level of G.Dara younger granites. Zoned pegmatites are composed of extremely coarse-grained milky quartz core, intermediate zone and wall zone. The alteration zone is found at the contact between quartz core and intermediate zone. It is recorded the highest radioactive values due to their mineral composition, as a result of alteration processes associated with radioactive minerals. Only two alteration zones (P1 and P2) has been studied in this paper. The late magmatic alteration process (hematization, kaolinization, chloritization and fluortization) of the pegmatite resulted in the formation of chlorite, fluorite, clay minerals and carbonates (calcite) in the alteration zones as mineral assemblage. opaque minerals are found as pyrite, iron oxyhydroxide and garnet. Fluid inclusion studies by microthermometry were carried out on authigenic minerals (such as quartz and fluorite) in alteration zones (primary fluid inclusions). This study revealed that, at least two stages of the post-magmatic hydrothermal alteration are involved. The first stages of high temperature, low saline fluids are involved. The first stage is of high temperature, low saline fluids which characterized with hematization and/or chloritization resulted from fluid-rock interaction with late magmatic fluids that very probably mixed with external low salinity fluids along brittle structure. The second stage is of low temperature the main role in re high saline fluids characterized the fluoritized alteration due to consequent reaction with wall rocks and mixing with meteoric water. Mixing of low salinity meteoric water with hot a sending saline hydrothermal solution leads to ph change and continuous interaction with wall rock

  20. STATISTICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE GROUNDWATER SYSTEM IN DARB EL-ARBAEIN, SOUTHWESTERN DESERT, EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashouty Mohamed El

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In Darb El Arbaein, the groundwater is the only water resources. The aquifer system starts from Paleozoic-Mesozoic to Upper Cretaceous sandstone rocks. They overlay the basement rocks and the aquifer is confined. In the present research, the performance of the statistical analyses to classify groundwater samples depending on their chemical characters has been tested. The hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical data of 92 groundwater samples was obtained from the GARPAD authority in northern, central, and southern Darb El Arbaein. A robust classification scheme for partitioning groundwater chemistry into homogeneous groups was an important tool for the characterization of Nubian sandstone aquifer. We test the performance of the many available graphical and statistical methodologies used to classify water samples. R-mode, Q-mode, correlation analysis, and principal component analysis were investigated. All the methods were discussed and compared as to their ability to cluster, ease of use, and ease of interpretation. The correlation investigation clarifies the relationship among the lithology, hydrogeology, and anthropogenic. Factor investigation revealed three factors namely; the evaporation process-agriculturalimpact-lithogenic dissolution, the hydrogeological characteristics of the aquifer system, and the surface meteoric water that rechargethe aquifer system. Two main clusters that subdivided into four sub clusters were identified in groundwater system based on hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical data. They reflect the impact of geomedia, hydrogeology, geographic position, and agricultural wastewater. The groundwater is undersaturated with respect to most selected minerals. The groundwater was supersaturated with respect to iron minerals in northern and southern Darb El Arbaein. The partial pressure of CO2 of the groundwater versus saturation index of calcite shows the gradual change in PCO2 from atmospheric to the present aquifer pressures.

  1. Mineralogical, geochemical and hydrocarbon potential of subsurface Cretaceous shales, Northern Western Desert, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. Mousa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Twenty four Cretaceous shale core samples of Gibb Afia-1, Betty-1, Salam-1X and Mersa Matruh-1 wells were mineralogically and geochemically studied using XRD, XRF and Rock Eval Pyrolysis. Kaolinite, smectite and illite are the main clay minerals in addition to rare chlorite, while the non-clay minerals include quartz, calcite, dolomite and rare siderite. The shales were derived through intensive chemical weathering of mafic basement and older sedimentary rocks. These sediments were deposited in a near-shore shallow marine environment with some terrestrial material input. The shales have poor to fair organic content. It is marginally to rarely mature.

  2. Recovery of uranium and molybdenum elements from gebel gattar raw material, eastern desert, Egypt. Vol. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Hazek, N T; Mahdy, M A; Mahmoud, H M.K. [Nuclear Materials Authority, Cairo, (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    G. Gatter uranium mineralizations are located along the faults and fracture zones crossing G.Gattar granitic pluton and long the contact of the pluton with the hammamat sediments. Also, molybdenum id presented in more than one mode of occurrence. The molybdenum mineralization treated in this work is the dessimenated type. The uranium and molybdenum raw material was subjected to series of leaching experiments including acid and alkaline agitation, alkaline percolation, and acid heap leaching techniques. Recovery of uranium and molybdenum was achieved by anion-exchange method followed by their elution by acidified sodium chloride. Uranium precipitation was performed in the form of ammonium diuranate (Yellow Cake). On the other hand molybdenum was precipitated in the form of molybdenum oxide. A tentative flowsheet for the extraction of both uranium and molybdenum is proposed and discussed. 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Pilot plant studies on the treatment of El Atshan Uranium Ores, Eastern Desert, Egypt.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd Elghany, M S; Mahdy, M A [Nuclear materials authority, El-Maadi, Cairo, (Egypt); Abd El-Monem, A M; El-Hazek, A T [Faculty of engineering, Cairo university, Cairo, (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    The present work deals with studying the different processes leading to the preparation of commercial uranium concentrate (yellow cake) from El Atshan granitic ore material (0.077%U) after acid leading of the latter, the two common extraction techniques of uranium from the obtained sulphate leach liquor; namely, anion exchange rein and solvent extraction have been studied. The studied leaching and extraction conditions-realized on the lab scale-were applied to inches pilot plant unit (capacity 150 kg ore). An average leaching leaching efficiency exceeding 88% has been achieved. Using anion exchange resin, it has been possible to prepare a uranium peroxide concentrate assaying a uranium content of about 67% U{sub 3} O{sub 8}. Only trace amount of Ca, Fe, Po{sub 4}, Cr and Pb have been detected. On the other hand, sodium uranate, as a uranium precipitate was prepared from the strip solution of the loaded solvent (di-2-ethyl) phosphoric acid concerned with the evaluation of a new optimized technique for the principle of chloramine-T method used for insulin iodination for the modified procedure can be carried out under normal condition of room temperature, employed longer reaction times and omitted the addition of inorganic reducing salts maintaining efficient iodination and avoiding denaturation to obtain labels of exceedingly high specific activity and small quantities of insulin for in vitro usage in the investigation of human erythrocytes 125 I-inulin binding capacity in normal and in some disease status. 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Application of electrical resistivity method for groundwater exploration at the Moghra area, Western Desert, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I.I. Mohamaden

    2016-09-01

    Structurally, the study area is influenced by three faults two of them are geological/geoelectrical faults forming a graben structure at the central part; the third fault is a geoelectrical fault and is located to the west of the graben structure forming a horest structure.

  5. Rock Art Paintings (Rock Inscriptions) At Gebel Abraq, South Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaghloul, E.A.; Yehia, M.A.; Elewa, H.H.

    2003-01-01

    This article presents rock art painting in an area located at the scarp face of Wadi Abraq (Latitude 230 28' N and Longitude 340 45' E). The site is a sandstone protruding ledge rising about 30m. above the ground level. The Gebel Abraq paintings depict a tropical fauna including Elephants, Giraffes, Cows and Ostrich denoting that the area was previously subjected to intensive rainfall during the last pluvial periods. The result was a savana type of land. During recent times, the climate became dry and the communities were forced to move to other areas wher natural springs are still flowing such as Ain Abraq and Bir Abu-Safa. The present founding of the prehistoric paintings (Graffiti) has revealed a mass of evidence that many of the concepts regarding Sahara rock art should be studied

  6. Petrography, Gamma Radiation Measurements and Dose Rate, Northeastern Um Ara Area, South Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moghazy, N.M.

    2016-01-01

    The northern part of Um Ara alkali feldspar micro granite has subjected to extensive post-magmatic metasomatic reworking resulting in development of amazonitized and albitized zones, reflecting K- and Na metasomatism leading to gross enrichment in U and Th towards the more evolved phases (e.g., albitized zones). Spectrometric survey data indicate that eU in Dokhan volcanics has the range of 2 to 42 ppm with an average value of 10 ppm and in monzogranites. It varies from 3 to 13 ppm with an average of 7 ppm while in alkali feldspar microgranites eU contents vary from 3 to 282 ppm with an average value of 30 ppm. The (eTh) contents in Dokhan volcanics ranges from 5-51 ppm with an average 18 ppm, in monzogranites their content was in the range of 11 to 47 ppm with an average value of 27 ppm where it ranges from 14 to 83 ppm with an average 46 ppm in alkali feldspar granite. The enhanced uranium content in altered zones was attributed to disseminated and fracture filling uranophane, autonite, in addition to other U and Th bearing minerals (such as columbite, zircon, monazite, xenotime and fluorite). Gamma-radiation dose rate and annual effective dose equivalents in mSv/y, Radium equivalent activity, external (H e x) and internal hazard index (H i n) and gamma activity index (Iγ) for all investigated samples were calculated to assess the potential radiation hazard for people living in dwellings made of the studied granites. Alkali feldspar granite activities would suggest that caution must be taken when using granites as building materials because they have radioactivity above the proposed acceptable level.

  7. Radioactivity and uranium potentialities of wadi hammad area, north eastern desert, Egypt. Vol. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salman, A B; Shalaby, M H; Khamis, H A [Nuclear Material Authority, Cairo, (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    Late proterozoic, pan-african rocks exposed at Wadi Hammad area are represented by metamorphosed and un metamorphosed sediments and volcanics in addition to different types of intensive rocks. Systematic radiometric survey is conducted at W.Hammad area in order to reveal the distribution of radioactivity and uranium potentialities. Statistical analysis of the field data collected indicate that, high level of {delta}-radioactivity is linked to the younger granites compared with the other rock types. The tree types of younger granites recorded in the area namely: porphyritic granites, biotite granites, and perthitic leucogranites differ among each other in their ground radioactivity. The increase in ground {delta}- radioactivity from the porphyritic to biotite granites to perthitic leucogranites corresponds to the increase in the uranium content of these granites. Four radioactive anomalies were discovered in the younger granites of the area of W.Hammad. The genetic relation between certain set of fractures and the distribution of {delta}- radioactivity in G. El Gulf granites indicates that the area of anomalous radioactivity are structurally controlled by joint sets trending N-S, NNE-SSW and NNW-SSE. The presence of intensive hematitization episyenitization, red and milky silica veins, aplites and pegmatite veins indicate the presence of hydrothermal activities along these fractures. It is worth to mention that, the presence of episyentizied zone associated with radioactive anomaly, represents a good indication for the possibility of hosting uranium deposits in deeper horizon. Moreover, the presence of high back-ground of magnetic uranium in the perthitic leucogranites increases studied the possibility of concentration of uranium by leaching from the granites. 12 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Pilot plant studies on the treatment of El Atshan Uranium Ores, Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Elghany, M.S.; Mahdy, M.A.; Abd El-Monem, A.M.; El-Hazek, A.T.

    1995-01-01

    The present work deals with studying the different processes leading to the preparation of commercial uranium concentrate (yellow cake) from El Atshan granitic ore material (0.077%U) after acid leading of the latter, the two common extraction techniques of uranium from the obtained sulphate leach liquor; namely, anion exchange rein and solvent extraction have been studied. The studied leaching and extraction conditions-realized on the lab scale-were applied to inches pilot plant unit (capacity 150 kg ore). An average leaching leaching efficiency exceeding 88% has been achieved. Using anion exchange resin, it has been possible to prepare a uranium peroxide concentrate assaying a uranium content of about 67% U 3 O 8 . Only trace amount of Ca, Fe, Po 4 , Cr and Pb have been detected. On the other hand, sodium uranate, as a uranium precipitate was prepared from the strip solution of the loaded solvent (di-2-ethyl phosphoric acid concerned with the evaluation of a new optimized technique for the principle of chloramine-T method used for insulin iodination for the modified procedure can be carried out under normal condition of room temperature, employed longer reaction times and omitted the addition of inorganic reducing salts maintaining efficient iodination and avoiding denaturation to obtain labels of exceedingly high specific activity and small quantities of insulin for in vitro usage in the investigation of human erythrocytes 125 I-inulin binding capacity in normal and in some disease status. 9 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Mineralogical investigations of the area to the North-West of Qattara Depression, Western Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosson, S.; Roshdy, H.M.K.

    2000-01-01

    Petrophysical and mineralogical investigations are given for subsurface samples from this area. The paper deals with mineralogical investigations of Middle Jurassic, Lower Cretaceous and Upper Cretaceous sedimentary rocks. It includes thin section examinations for 14 samples of sandstone, siltstone and carbonates, and x-ray powder diffraction analyses of some argillaceous samples, untreated and glycolated. It was found that the kaolinite group is the main clay mineral recorded in the argillaceous sandstone and siltstone samples. Illite and montmorillonite are identified in the shale sample representing the Kharita Formation. Siderite was also recorded in the sample. Illite and montmorillonite were recorded as well as kaolinite in two siltstone samples. (Author)

  10. Remote Sensing, Geology and Geochemistry on the GVIII Uranium Mineralization, Gabal Gattar, North Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkholy, D.M.; Elhusseiny, M.O.; Saleh, W.H.; Elzalaky, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    GVIII- uranium occurrence of Gabal Gattar is located at the intersection of Lat. 27° 05' 56 a nd Long. 33° 16' 33 t o the south of GH-uranium occurrence. This occurrence is hosted in the alkali feldspar granite of Gabal Gattar. It is dissected by NNE-SSW, ENE-WSW and NW-SE faults and fractures. The granite is strongly altered in the zones of these faults and fractures. This granite is composed of K-feldspars, quartz, plagioclase and biotite as essential minerals and zircon, apatite, fluorite as accessories. The secondary minerals are chlorite, sericite, muscovite and iron oxides. The main alterations along the fault and fracture zones are hematitization, silicification, kaolintiization, chloritization and fluoritization that increase at the zones of intersection.The Advanced Spacebome Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) discriminated and mapped the hematitized zones in the studied granitic rocks predicting iron oxides as pathfinder minerals that be helpful in localizing high uranium concentration. The compilated and integrated data as alteration zones, geological and structural features using Geographic Information System (GIS) played an important role in correlating, manipulating, visualizing and extracting the information getting a better result for interpretation and evaluation of this occurrence. The study granite is geochemically, alkali- feldspar granite to syenogranite originated from weakly peraluminous magma of alkaline affinity and of within plate tectonic setting due to crustal relaxation. This granite shows many geochemical characterestics similar to the A-type granite, high contents of SiO 2 , (Na 2 O + K 2 O), Rb, Nb, Y, low contents of MgO, CaO and Sr and apparently F-rich granite.Radiometric measurements of GVIII U-occurrence show that the study granite records uranium values between 15 and 28 ppm, while the anomalies record uranium values range from 400 to more than 30000 ppm. Surfacial yellow secondary uranium mineralization was recorded closely to the altered hematitized zones. Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM) and XRD techniques recorded secondary uranium minerals as uranophane and U-bearing accessory minerals as columbite, betafite, zircon and violet fluorite.

  11. Morphogenetic Study Of Wadi Araba Eastern Desert Egypt, Using Landsat Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Gammal, E.A.

    2003-01-01

    Geologically Wadi Araba is a horst, but its topography may misleadingly suggest that it is a Graben-shape, as it appears as a depression surrounded by two high walls rising at about 1 000 m above its mid-ground. The main geomorphic features found in the area are: plateaus, cuestas, fault scarps, slopes, badlands, alluvial fans (upper and lower), terraces and wadi deposits and a coastal plain. The analysis of the geological setting, geomorphology and structure of Wadi Araba suggests that the evolution of its topography proceeded in several stages (cycles): a pre-Jurassic cycle, a Cretaceous cycle of folding, a pre-Eocene phase of tectonic movements, an Eocene stage of sedimentation, an Oligocene cycle of weathering and a post-Miocene cycle (with Pliocene and Quaternary sedimentation)

  12. In the remote western desert oasis of Egypt -Abu Minqar community ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Nesrine

    Les habitants du village oasien d'Abu Minqar, au centre du désert occidental, ont démontré que les populations peuvent prendre en mains leurs ressources et en assurer une gestion des plus efficaces et équitables. Comme tous les habitants de l'oasis de Farafra, les agriculteurs d'Abu. Minqar font face à nombreux défis ...

  13. Prevalence of external parasites in the south eastern desert of Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Baky, S M

    2001-04-01

    External parasites in the triangle region (Halaib & Shalatin) affecting the animal health were studied. Ectoparasites were collected in several sites by using bait traps and directly from animal bodies. Results indicated the presence of twelve species of insects belonging to seven genera included in three families (Calliphoridae, Muscidae and Sarcophagidae). Concerning ectoparasites on animal bodies, there were two species of biting lice infested goats and sheep (Bovicola caprae and B. ovis, respectively) and two species of sucking lice on goats (Linognathus africanus and L. stenopsis). Melophagus ovinus (family Hippoboscidae) collected from goats. Moreover, all camels suffered infestation with hard ticks four Hyalomma species. On the other hand, sheep and goats were infested with two Rhipicephalus species and one Haemaphysalis species.

  14. Polychlorinated Biphenyls Water Pollution along the River Nile, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Mohamed Megahed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB congeners were determined in water samples collected along the River Nile using gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD. PCB concentrations ranged from 14 to 20 μg/L, which were higher than those reported in previous studies, indicating serious PCB pollution in the River Nile. PCB congener profiles varied depending on the sampling sties. PCB-138 was the predominant congener accounting for more than 18% of total PCBs. The composition of PCB congeners in the water revealed that highly chlorinated PCB technical mixtures such as Aroclor 1254 was the main PCB production historically used in Egypt. An increasing trend in PCB levels from the upper stream to the Nile estuaries was observed. The calculated flux of PCBs indicated that 6.8 tons of PCBs is dumped into the Mediterranean Sea each year from the River Nile. The hazard quotients and carcinogenic risk caused by PCB pollution in the River Nile were above the acceptable level indicating that PCBs in the River Nile water pose adverse health effects for all age groups. Our findings revealed that PCBs possess a serious risk to the Egyptian population that depends mainly on the River Nile as a source of water. Thus, stricter legislation and regulatory controls should be applied to reduce the risk of PCBs in Egypt.

  15. Polychlorinated Biphenyls Water Pollution along the River Nile, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megahed, Ayman Mohamed; Dahshan, Hesham; Abd-El-Kader, Mahdy A; Abd-Elall, Amr Mohamed Mohamed; Elbana, Mariam Hassan; Nabawy, Ehab; Mahmoud, Hend A

    2015-01-01

    Ten polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were determined in water samples collected along the River Nile using gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). PCB concentrations ranged from 14 to 20 μg/L, which were higher than those reported in previous studies, indicating serious PCB pollution in the River Nile. PCB congener profiles varied depending on the sampling sties. PCB-138 was the predominant congener accounting for more than 18% of total PCBs. The composition of PCB congeners in the water revealed that highly chlorinated PCB technical mixtures such as Aroclor 1254 was the main PCB production historically used in Egypt. An increasing trend in PCB levels from the upper stream to the Nile estuaries was observed. The calculated flux of PCBs indicated that 6.8 tons of PCBs is dumped into the Mediterranean Sea each year from the River Nile. The hazard quotients and carcinogenic risk caused by PCB pollution in the River Nile were above the acceptable level indicating that PCBs in the River Nile water pose adverse health effects for all age groups. Our findings revealed that PCBs possess a serious risk to the Egyptian population that depends mainly on the River Nile as a source of water. Thus, stricter legislation and regulatory controls should be applied to reduce the risk of PCBs in Egypt.

  16. Abrasive supply for ancient Egypt revealed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltz, C.; Bichler, M.

    2008-01-01

    In the framework of the major research scheme 'Synchronization of Civilizations in the Eastern Mediterranean Region in the 2nd Millennium B.C' instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to determine 30 elements in pumice from archaeological excavations to reveal their specific volcanic origin. In ancient time, the widespread pumiceous products of several eruptions in the Aegean region have been used as abrasive tools and were therefore popular trade objects. The correlation of such archaeological findings to a specific eruption of known age would therefore allow to certify a maximum age of the respective stratum ('dating by first appearance'). Pumices from the Aegean region can easily be distinguished by their trace element distribution patterns. This has been shown by previous studies of the group. The elements Al, Ba, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Dy, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, Ti, U, V, Yb, Zr and Zn were determined in 16 samples of pumice lumps from excavations in Tell-el-Dab'a and Tell-el-Herr (Egypt). Two irradiation cycles and five measurement runs were applied. To show the accuracy of the results obtained, typical samples of the most important pumice sources in the Aegean region, particularly from Milos, Nisyros, Kos and Thera were analyzed together with the Egyptian samples of unknown origin. A reliable identification of the samples is achieved by comparing these results to the database compiled in previous studies. The geographical positions of these islands are shown. Within the error range, most of the elements determined in typical representatives of Milos, Nisyros, Kos and Santorini were in perfect agreement with values from the literature. On the basis of the Cluster graphics presented, it is possible to relate unknown pumice to its primary source, just by comparing the relation of a few elements, like Ta-Eu and Th-Hf. One concludes that all samples except one can be related to the Minoan eruption of Thera

  17. Influence of surface roughness of a desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sud, Y. C.; Smith, W. E.

    1984-01-01

    A numerical simulation study, using the current GLAS climate GCM, was carried out to examine the influence of low bulk aerodynamic drag parameter in the deserts. The results illustrate the importance of yet another feedback effect of a desert on itself, that is produced by the reduction in surface roughness height of land once the vegetation dies and desert forms. Apart from affecting the moisture convergence, low bulk transport coefficients of a desert lead to enhanced longwave cooling and sinking which together reduce precipitation by Charney's (1975) mechanism. Thus, this effect, together with albedo and soil moisture influence, perpetuate a desert condition through its geophysical feedback effect. The study further suggests that man made deserts is a viable hypothesis.

  18. Palaeogeographical type of the geological heritage of Egypt: A new evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallam, Emad S.; Ruban, Dmitry A.

    2017-05-01

    The geoconservation and geotourism potential of Northeast Africa and, particularly, Egypt is big, but the knowledge of geosites of this territory remains limited. Another urgent task is establishment of the geological heritage of different types. The literature review and the personal field experience permit to propose several geosites that reflect the geological history of Egypt. These include El-Goza El-Hamra, Gebel Qatrani and Birqash, Khashm El-Galala, Wadi El-Hitan, Kom El-Shelul, Wadi Araba, Gebel Umm Bisilla, Maadi Petrified Forest, Dababiya Quarry, and Atud. The noted geosites represent all six main subtypes (facies, palaeoecological, ichnological, taphonomic, event, and geoarchaeological) of the palaeogeographical type of the geological heritage. Their rank varies between local and global. The entire palaeogeographical heritage of Egypt is of international importance. It is argued that three kinds of geodiversity are linked to this heritage. These are determined by the number of subtypes in the country, the co-occurrence of subtypes in the geosites, and the combination of the palaeogeographical and other geological heritage types. The proposed palaeogeographical geosites can be employed successfully for the purposes of geoconservation and geotourism. Presumably, the importance of archaeological objects for tourism activities in Egypt may facilitate attractiveness of the palaeogeographical heritage.

  19. Nomenclatural notes on the genus Pteranthus (Caryophyllaceae) with lectotypification of the name Camphorosma pteanthus and Pteranthus trigynus, and comments on Forsskål's seeds sent from Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iamonico, Dulio; Friis, Ib; Jarvis, Charles

    2015-01-01

    The nomenclatural history of the genus Pteranthus ( Caryophyllaceae) is reviewed. Original material of Camphorosma pteranthus and Pteranthus dichotomus came from a single gathering made by Forsskål in the desert outside Cairo, Egypt, in March 1762. The original material of C. pteranthus was grown...... from seed collected with the herbarium material of P. dicho­tomus. Pteranthus dichotomus is therefore considered a replacement name for C. pteranthus and lectotypified with the same specimen, no. 165.5 LINN (right-hand plant). A supporting epitype is chosen from flowering herbarium material of the same...

  20. Demographic change in the Arab world: the impact of migration, education and taxes in Egypt and Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courbage, Y

    1994-01-01

    The populations of Egypt and Morocco have grown since the beginning of the century from approximately 10 to 57 million and less than 5 to 25.5 million, respectively. Egypt and Morocco are two of the most populous Arab countries. After a long period of demographic growth, they adopted less pronatalist legislation and implemented family planning programs starting in the 1960s. Egypt's rate of total fertility (TFR) at that time was 6.7 children per woman, lower than most of the Arab world and lower than Morocco's 7.2. Egypt's fertility since then, however, has remained at 5-6, only dropping below 5 in 1989. TFR in Morocco increased to 7.4 in 1973, declined to 5.9 over the period 1973-77, and fell below 4 in 1989. The author questions why the goals of fertility control programs have not been reached in Egypt, yet have been surpassed in Morocco. Available data on contraceptive prevalence and breastfeeding practices would predict the opposite to be the case. 35.9% used birth control methods in Morocco in 1987 and 37.8% in Egypt in 1988. 6.9%, however, used less effective traditional methods in Morocco compared to only 2.4% who used such methods in Egypt. Egyptian women breastfeed their babies for 17.3 months compared to 14.4 months among Moroccan women, while between the ages 20-24, 60% of Egyptian women are married compared to 45% of women in Morocco. Moroccan and Egyptian families resist traditional explanations of demographic transition. It is concluded that although educational status affects fertility in the Maghrib and Mashriq, greater female labor force participation, state-citizen fiscal relations, and foreign migration play major determining roles.

  1. Provenance studies of pottery fragments from medieval Cairo, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beal, J.W.; Olmez, I.

    1997-01-01

    In the analysis of archeological pottery fragments, instrumental neutron activation analysis has been utilized to establish the elemental concentrations of up to 37 chemical elements for each of 53 archeological pottery samples from medieval Cairo, Egypt, and one additional sample of Chinese porcelain. These elemental concentrations have been utilized in a statistical analysis procedure in order to determine similarities and correlations between the various samples. Multivariate analyses have been used to quantitatively determine these interrelationships. This methodology successfully separated the Egyptian samples into two broad categories: polychrome decorated ceramic ware and monochrome celadon ware. In addition the methodology successfully identified the one unique sample of Chinese porcelain. Several samples appeared to be either a mixture of categories or outliers in the data set and were not attributable to any distinct category. (author)

  2. Opportunities for woody crop production using treated wastewater in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.S. Zalesny; S.R.  Evett; N.F. Kandil; C.  Soriano; John Stanturf

    2011-01-01

    The Nile River provides nearly 97% of Egypt’s freshwater supply. Egypt’s share of Nile waters is fixed at 55.5 billion cubic meters annually. As a result, Egypt will not be able to meet increasing water demand using freshwater from the Nile and has been developing non-conventional wastewater reuse strategies to meet future demands. The USAID Mission in Cairo began...

  3. Franchising in the Middle East: The Example of Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Elsaman, Radwa S.

    2017-01-01

    With the largest population in the Arab Middle East and a central location between Europe and East Asia, Egypt offers one of the biggest sources of franchising markets in the world for new business opportunities. Egypt, however, does not have specialized laws regulating franchising, which results in real challenges for investors who are seeking to franchise their businesses in Egypt, along with their legal advisors. It also creates problems for the courts who must rule on disputes arising fro...

  4. Prevalence of undiagnosed asymptomatic bacteriuria and associated risk factors during pregnancy: a cross-sectional study at two tertiary centres in Cairo, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Aziz Elzayat, Mohamed; Barnett-Vanes, Ashton; Dabour, Mohamed Farag Elmorsy; Cheng, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Background The prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) during pregnancy is poorly understood in Egypt?a country with a high birth rate. Objectives To determine the prevalence of ASB among pregnant women booking at El Hussein and Sayed Galal Hospitals in Al-Azhar University in Egypt; and to observe the relationship between ASB prevalence and risk factors such as socioeconomic level and personal hygiene. Setting Obstetrics and gynaecology clinics of 2 university hospitals in the capital of...

  5. Factores determinantes de la deserción escolar en el Policlínico Docente "Frank País García" Determinant factors of the school desertion in «Frank País García» Teaching Polyclinic from Santiago de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Inés Infante Tavío

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio de tipo investigación en el campo de la educación médica de pregrado a 33 estudiantes del primer año de medicina en el primer semestre del curso 2010-2011 en el Policlínico Docente "Frank País García" de Santiago de Cuba, con vistas a identificar los factores determinantes de la deserción escolar de este período. Para obtener la información, se aplicó un cuestionario a los educandos, avalado por criterios de expertos, y se llevaron a cabo métodos teóricos y empíricos (descritos en el trabajo. Se obtuvo que la deserción escolar fuera elevada y entre sus principales causas estuvieron la insuficiencia docente, el abandono y la falta de orientación vocacional.A study of investigation type was carried out in the field of pregraduate medical education to 33 first year students in the first semester of the course 2010-2011 at "Frank País García" Polyclinic in Santiago de Cuba, with the objective of identifying the determinant factors of the school desertion in this period. To obtain the information, a inquiry was applied to the students, endorsed by experts' criteria, and theoretical and empiric methods (described in the work were carried out. It was obtained that the school desertion was high and among its main causes there were teaching inadequacy, desertion and the lack of vocational guide.

  6. All projects related to Egypt | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... POLITICAL REFORM, ECONOMIC REFORM, WOMEN, EMPOWERMENT, Gender ... IDRC's Women's Rights and Citizenship (WRC) program initiative is ... Asia, Algeria, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Egypt, Yemen, Bahrain, Kuwait.

  7. Review of environmental physics activities in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comsan, M.N.H.

    2005-01-01

    Efforts and activities in Egypt serving the environment went back to 1962. At that time simultaneously were established the Atomic Fallout Laboratory at the premises of Atomic Energy Establishment in Inshas, and the A ir Pollution Unit w ithin the premises of the National Research Centre in Dokki. Recent activities include: radiation monitoring, atmospheric physics, renewable energy pollution control, environmental impact, etc.The article aims at reviewing environmental physics activities in Egypt ; both on governmental and non-governmental scales.The environment is one of the most vital axes of development, so the deterioration of the environment represents a major danger threatening social and economic development, the sustainability of natural resources, and human health.Recognizing this major importance and necessity of the protection of environment and its vital role in our lives, governments all over the globe began to take larger steps towards a better and healthier environment

  8. Benchmarking performance: Environmental impact statements in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badr, El-Sayed A.; Zahran, Ashraf A.; Cashmore, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) was formally introduced in Egypt in 1994. This short paper evaluates 'how well' the EIA process is working in practice in Egypt, by reviewing the quality of 45 environmental impact statements (EISs) produced between 2000 and 2007 for a variety of project types. The Lee and Colley review package was used to assess the quality of the selected EISs. About 69% of the EISs sampled were found to be of a satisfactory quality. An assessment of the performance of different elements of the EIA process indicates that descriptive tasks tend to be performed better than scientific tasks. The quality of core elements of EIA (e.g., impact prediction, significance evaluation, scoping and consideration of alternatives) appears to be particularly problematic. Variables that influence the quality of EISs are identified and a number of broad recommendations are made for improving the effectiveness of the EIA system.

  9. Anthropogenic water sources and the effects on Sonoran Desert small mammal communities

    OpenAIRE

    Aaron B. Switalski; Heather L. Bateman

    2017-01-01

    Anthropogenic water sources (AWS) are developed water sources used as a management tool for desert wildlife species. Studies documenting the effects of AWS are often focused on game species; whereas, the effects on non-target wildlife are less understood. We used live trapping techniques to investigate rodent abundance, biomass, and diversity metrics near AWS and paired control sites; we sampled vegetation to determine rodent-habitat associations in the Sauceda Mountains of the Sonoran Desert...

  10. Ecosystem responses to warming and watering in typical and desert steppes

    OpenAIRE

    Zhenzhu Xu; Yanhui Hou; Lihua Zhang; Tao Liu; Guangsheng Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Global warming is projected to continue, leading to intense fluctuations in precipitation and heat waves and thereby affecting the productivity and the relevant biological processes of grassland ecosystems. Here, we determined the functional responses to warming and altered precipitation in both typical and desert steppes. The results showed that watering markedly increased the aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) in a typical steppe during a drier year and in a desert steppe over two ...

  11. Turkish and Malaysian experiences: Lessons for Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Rezeg, Ali Abo

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The Egyptian uprising was triggered on January 25, 2011 after thirty years of political and economic corruption through Mubarak‟s administration. The thirst for development, political freedom, and social equality were the most significant factors behind thisuprising. There are widespread discussions on which developmental experience Egypt might adopt in the post-Mubarak era. Turkey and Malaysia are the two cases that are mostly referred to aspossible models for the Egyptian case. Th...

  12. Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-12

    contributions from Germany , Japan, and Switzerland. For more information on the MFO, see http://www.mfo.org/Default.asp?bhcp=1. Egypt: Background and...2008 Report, Egypt’s pace of business reforms and deregulation between 2006 and 2007 ranked first worldwide. In recent years, the state has...reinvigorated its privatization program by divesting shares in the state-dominated banking and insurance sectors. Additionally, the government removed import

  13. Egypt: Security, Political, and Islamist Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    Islamist militance has been developing in a wide variety of social and economic settings, including England, France , 6 Germany, and elsewhere. We might...political wedge between the United States and Egypt led to Nasir’s nationalization of the Suez Canal. Britain then plotted with France and Israel...than the membership, which, at the time, came from the petit bourgeoisie , or were migrants to urban areas. Shukri Mustafa, leader of TWH, was

  14. Consumer Demand for Major Foods in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Basem Fayaad; Stanley R. Johnson; Mohamed El-Khishin

    1995-01-01

    This study provides information on the structure of the consumer demand for major foods in Egypt. The information is in the form of key parameters for consumer demand systems. The modern theory of consumer behavior is the basis for estimating systems of demand equations. These systems yield estimates of own- and cross-price elasticities. The Linear Almost Ideal Demand System (LAIDS) model is applied in estimating a system of demand equations for food commodities. A full demand matrix results ...

  15. Lyme borreliosis: A neglected zoonosis in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhelw, Rehab A; El-Enbaawy, Mona I; Samir, Ahmed

    2014-12-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the causal organism of Lyme borreliosis. In Egypt, available data about the occurrence of Lyme disease are scarce and no structured studies documented the presence of Lyme borreliosis in Egyptian animals and tick reservoirs verifying its zoonotic evidence. Besides, no successful trials to isolate B. burgdorferi from clinical samples have occurred. This study was conducted to investigate B. burgdorferi infection as an emerging zoonosis neglected in Egypt. A total number of 92 animals, tick and human companion specimens were collected and subjected for culture, PCR and/or serodetection. B. burgdorferi has been detected and isolated from Egyptian animal breeds. We also detected the presence of outer surface protein A gene of B. burgdorferi by PCR as well as anti-B. burgdorferi IgM by ELISA in human contacts who were suffering from fever of unknown origin. This report represents the first systematic study on animals associated with patients suffering from febrile illness to confirm the emerging of such neglected zoonosis in Egypt. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Integrated Human Futures Modeling in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passell, Howard D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Aamir, Munaf Syed [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bernard, Michael Lewis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Beyeler, Walter E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fellner, Karen Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hayden, Nancy Kay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jeffers, Robert Fredric [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Keller, Elizabeth James Kistin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Malczynski, Leonard A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mitchell, Michael David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Silver, Emily [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tidwell, Vincent C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Villa, Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vugrin, Eric D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Engelke, Peter [Atlantic Council, Washington, D.C. (United States); Burrow, Mat [Atlantic Council, Washington, D.C. (United States); Keith, Bruce [United States Military Academy, West Point, NY (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The Integrated Human Futures Project provides a set of analytical and quantitative modeling and simulation tools that help explore the links among human social, economic, and ecological conditions, human resilience, conflict, and peace, and allows users to simulate tradeoffs and consequences associated with different future development and mitigation scenarios. In the current study, we integrate five distinct modeling platforms to simulate the potential risk of social unrest in Egypt resulting from the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) on the Blue Nile in Ethiopia. The five platforms simulate hydrology, agriculture, economy, human ecology, and human psychology/behavior, and show how impacts derived from development initiatives in one sector (e.g., hydrology) might ripple through to affect other sectors and how development and security concerns may be triggered across the region. This approach evaluates potential consequences, intended and unintended, associated with strategic policy actions that span the development-security nexus at the national, regional, and international levels. Model results are not intended to provide explicit predictions, but rather to provide system-level insight for policy makers into the dynamics among these interacting sectors, and to demonstrate an approach to evaluating short- and long-term policy trade-offs across different policy domains and stakeholders. The GERD project is critical to government-planned development efforts in Ethiopia but is expected to reduce downstream freshwater availability in the Nile Basin, fueling fears of negative social and economic impacts that could threaten stability and security in Egypt. We tested these hypotheses and came to the following preliminary conclusions. First, the GERD will have an important short-term impact on water availability, food production, and hydropower production in Egypt, depending on the short- term reservoir fill rate. Second, the GERD will have a very small impact on

  17. Strategies and options for electricity generation in Egypt up to 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yassin, I. M.; Megahed, M. M.; Motayasser, S. S.

    2004-01-01

    Over the period 1970-2000, the total primary energy requirements in Egypt have increased from 7.8 million tones of oil equivalent (Mtoe) to 44.2 Mtoe. In the same period, electricity generation has increased from 6.7 TWh to 73.3 TWh. The demand for both primary energy and electricity is expected to continue at higher growth rates in the future due to the ambitious governmental plans aiming at increasing the gross domestic product (GDP) at an average annual growth rate of 8% up to the year 2020. Because of the limited fossil fuel energy resources and the almost fully utilized hydro energy, Egypt has been considering for sometime the various options for satisfying the increasing demand for electricity, including nuclear energy. To this end, the Nuclear Power Plants Authority carried out a comparative study of the various strategies and options for electricity generation in Egypt with technical assistance from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) utilizing the DECADES Tool. The main objective of the study was to determine the optimal electricity generation mix up to the year 2020, including nuclear and renewable (solar and wind) energies. DECADES is restricted by some limitation that it did not take into its consideration modeling of some energy forms and systems such as simulation of Renewable Energy Options (REO), in particular thermal/solar and wind plants and simulation of Independent Power Producers (IPP). REO and IPP, as well as the nuclear energy option are expected to play an important role in the future electricity generation mix in Egypt. Therefore it is important to consider its effects economically and environmentally when studying the best expansion system in Egypt. This paper presents the modifications for DECADES modeling to enable simulation for the above energy forms and systems, as well as the results of the comparative assessment study.(author)

  18. Changing patterns of drug-resistant Shigella isolates in egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Elmeged, Ghada M; Khairy, Rasha M; Abo-Eloyoon, Sahar M; Abdelwahab, Sayed F

    2015-06-01

    The emergence of multidrug resistance (MDR) is a serious problem in treating shigellosis. There are limited existing data examining the change in the antimicrobial resistance profile of Shigella in Egypt. We previously reported that 58% of the Shigella isolates in Egypt were resistant to at least one member of the three different antimicrobial groups. This study was performed to determine the antimicrobial resistance profile of Shigella, determine their possible mechanisms of resistance, and compare their resistance profile to those reported 20 years ago. Stool samples were collected from 500 subjects and processed for the isolation and identification of Shigella. The susceptibility of the isolates to 11 different antimicrobials was determined using the disc diffusion method. Of 500 stool cultures, 24 (4.8%) samples were positive for Shigella. There was a high percentage of resistance to ampicillin (88%), tetracycline (83%), and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (75%). Also, there was a moderate percentage of resistance to chloramphenicol (46%), streptomycin (42%), ceftazidime (33%), and cefotaxime (25%). A lower percentage of resistance was recorded for amikacin, nalidixic acid (17% each), and ofloxacin (7%), while no resistance was found to ciprofloxacin (0%). Twenty-one of the isolates (88%) were resistant to at least three different antimicrobial groups (indicating MDR). The average number of antimicrobial agents to which the Shigella isolates were resistant was 4.3±1.4, while it was 3.4±1.5 in the same locality in 1994. These data demonstrate that there is a marked increase in MDR and change in the resistance patterns of Shigella over the past 20 years.

  19. Field Performance of Photovoltaic Systems in the Tucson Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsburn, Sean; Brooks, Adria; Cormode, Daniel; Greenberg, James; Hardesty, Garrett; Lonij, Vincent; Salhab, Anas; St. Germaine, Tyler; Torres, Gabe; Cronin, Alexander

    2011-10-01

    At the Tucson Electric Power (TEP) solar test yard, over 20 different grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems are being tested. The goal at the TEP solar test yard is to measure and model real-world performance of PV systems and to benchmark new technologies such as holographic concentrators. By studying voltage and current produced by the PV systems as a function of incident irradiance, and module temperature, we can compare our measurements of field-performance (in a harsh desert environment) to manufacturer specifications (determined under laboratory conditions). In order to measure high-voltage and high-current signals, we designed and built reliable, accurate sensors that can handle extreme desert temperatures. We will present several benchmarks of sensors in a controlled environment, including shunt resistors and Hall-effect current sensors, to determine temperature drift and accuracy. Finally we will present preliminary field measurements of PV performance for several different PV technologies.

  20. Prospects of ''solar'' hydrogen for desert development in the Arab world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Aal, H.K.; Al-Naafa, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, the Arab world is surveyed initially for the availability of new and renewable energy sources (NRES) including solar energy. A classification is made based on the level of development and on the energy balance of each Arab country. The target is to utilize these NRES for hydrogen production and hence for desert development claiming more arable land. The emphasis is on using solar energy. Hydrogen will be harnessed along the following avenues: (a) to provide energy for land development, (b) to provide energy for pumping and irrigation, (c) to produce fresh water, (d) to produce fertilizers based on ammonia as a starting raw material. Case studies are presented for Egypt and Saudi Arabia. (author)

  1. Application of the czech landscape research experience in the desert environment to support archaeological study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolejka, Jaromír; Misáková, L.; Brůna, V.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 115, č. 3 (2010), s. 347-360 ISSN 1210-115X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : Al-Baharíya * Present landscape map * Western desert * Egypt-natural landscape map Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography http://www.scopus.com/record/display.url?eid=2-s2.0-77957561574&origin=resultslist&sort=plf-f&src=s&st1=kolejka%2cj&sid=zbbUMrLRHfn7VC9WPXglCte%3a30&sot=b&sdt=b&sl=22&s=AUTHOR-NAME%28kolejka%2cj%29&relpos=1&relpos=1&searchTerm=AUTHOR-NAME%28kolejka,j%29#

  2. The Riparianness of a Desert Herpetofauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles H. Lowe

    1989-01-01

    Within the Mojave, Sonoran, and Chihuahuan Desert subdivisions of the North American Desert in the U.S., more than half of 143 total amphibian and reptilian species perform as riparian and/or wetland taxa. For the reptiles, but not the amphibians, there is a significant inverse relationship between riparianness (obligate through preferential and facultative to...

  3. Fog deposition to the Atacama desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbeld, A.; Klemm, O.; Griessbaum, F.; Sträter, E.; Larrain, H.; Osses, P.; Cereceda, P.

    2010-07-01

    In the Atacama Desert, one of the driest places on earth, fog deposition plays an important role for the water balance and for the survival of vulnerable ecosystems. The eddy covariance method, previously applied for the quantification of fog deposition to forests in various parts of the world, was used for the first time to measure deposition of fog water to a desert. We estimated the amount of water available for the ecosystem by deposition and determined the relevant processes driving fog deposition. This is especially important for the species Tillandsia landbecki living in coastal Atacama at the limit of plant existence with fog and dew being the only sources of liquid water. Between 31 July and 19 August, 2008, measurements were realized in a 31 ha large Tillandsia carpet at Cerro Guanaco, located 15 km south of Iquique, northern Chile. Several data quality assurance procedures were applied. For the values in compliance with the applied criteria, the mean total deposition per hour was determined (0.04 L per m2) for foggy periods. This number was applied to estimate the amount of water deposited during the measuring period, during the entire month of August 2008, and throughout a whole year. For August 2008, a frequency of fog of 16 %, as established during the measuring period, was assumed. The frequency for a whole year was estimated from the differences of the collected amount of water obtained with standard fog collectors installed at Cerro Guanaco in an earlier study. Calculations resulted in an amount of 2.5 L per m2 of deposited fog water for the measuring period. During the entire August, 4.4 L per m2 have likely been available, and for a whole year, a total of 25 L per m2 was estimated to have reached the surface. Inaccuracies could have been caused by the low amount of data applied, and by a possible underestimation of the deposition due to additional formation of radiation fog during the fog events. Three days were used for further analysis because

  4. Are wildlife detector dogs or people better at finding Desert Tortoises (Gopherus agassizii)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussear, K.E.; Esque, T.C.; Heaton, J.S.; Cablk, Mary E.; Drake, K.K.; Valentin, C.; Yee, J.L.; Medica, P.A.

    2008-01-01

    Our ability to study threatened and endangered species depends on locating them readily in the field. Recent studies highlight the effectiveness of trained detector dogs to locate wildlife during field surveys, including Desert Tortoises in a semi-natural setting. Desert Tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) are cryptic and difficult to detect during surveys, especially the smaller size classes. We conducted comparative surveys to determine whether human or detector dog teams were more effective at locating Desert Tortoises in the wild. We compared detectability of Desert Tortoises and the costs to deploy human and dog search teams. Detectability of tortoises was not statistically different for either team, and was estimated to be approximately 70% (SE = 5%). Dogs found a greater proportion of tortoises located in vegetation than did humans. The dog teams finished surveys 2.5 hours faster than the humans on average each day. The human team cost was approximately $3,000 less per square kilometer sampled. Dog teams provided a quick and effective method for surveying for adult Desert Tortoises; however, we were unable to determine-their effectiveness at locating smaller size classes. Detection of smaller size classes during surveys would improve management of the species and should be addressed by future research using Desert Tortoise detector dogs.

  5. Russian deserters of World War I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Os'kin Maksim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Desertion is one of the most active forms of ordinary resistance of the people to the state pressure during the low-popular war which is conducting for the purposes unclear for the people. At the same time, mass desertion is a manifestation of «total» war in the world conflicts of the XX century. During World War I in all armies of the world there was the desertion often accepting mass character. In the Russian army, as well as in other, deserters appeared from the war beginning. Desertion scales in the Russian army explained as objective factors - diffi cult fights, shortage of supply, defeat at the front, and subjective - unwillingness to participate in war, melancholy for the house, desire to help a family the work. Desertion in different years of war had various forms. If at the beginning of war there were mainly «self-arrows», in 1915, during defeats at the front - evasion from entrenchments. By the end of 1916, because of the general fatigue from war, desertion takes the real form - flight from the front to the back. After February revolution desertion becomes mass in which hundreds thousands military personnel take part already. Disorder of army and development of revolutionary process extremely strengthen desertion scales that is explained by the actual lack of punishment for this crime. Destruction of the Russian state during revolution became the main reason of coming to power of Bolsheviks, an exit of Russia from war and the army demobilization which essential part in 1917 already deserted from the front.

  6. Bioconversion of Egypt's agricultural wastes into biogas and compost

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Elfeki, M.; Elbestawy, E.; Tkadlec, Emil

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 6 (2017), s. 2445-2453 ISSN 1230-1485 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : agricultural wastes * biogas in Egypt * bioconversion * compost in Egypt * organic wastes Subject RIV: DM - Solid Waste and Recycling OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 0.793, year: 2016

  7. Egypt and the Augustan Cultural Revolution : an interpretative archaeological overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aerde, (Marike) van M.E.J.J.

    2015-01-01

    As part of the VIDI 'Cultural innovation in a globalising society: Egypt in the Roman world', this research explores manifestations of Egypt in the material culture of Augustan Rome. This period was a crucial turning point for the urban landscape of Rome, which was characterised by cultural

  8. The Antiquities Trade in Egypt 1880-1930

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Frederik Norland; Ryholt, Kim

    these objects came to be here. The book presents the first in-depth analysis of this market during its “golden age” in Egypt in the late 19th and early 20th Century. It is primarily based on the archival material of the Danish Egyptologist H. O. Lange (1863-1943) who, during two prolonged stays in Egypt (1899...

  9. Tech Talk for Social Studies Teachers: Ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahl, Ronald H.

    1998-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of 10 Web sites concerning ancient Egypt that have materials appropriate for social studies classes. Includes virtual tours of Egypt and specific temples, explorations of the pyramids, archaeological and geographic information, and information on the Egyptian "Book of the Dead." (MJP)

  10. The Zoril, Ictonyx striatus erythreae De Winton, 1898 in Egypt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Zoril Ictonyx striatus is one of the rarest mammals of Egypt, known from only two specimens collected more than 50 years ago. The collection of two new specimens and the observation of others in the Gabal Elba area provide new data on this little-known animal in Egypt. In this paper we provide information on the ...

  11. Three New Records of Pottiaceae (Musci) from Egypt | Shabbara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three taxa of Pottiacea; Barbula sardoa (Schimp.) J.P. Frahm, Didymodon ceratodentus (Müll.Hal.) Dixon and Syntrichia fragilis (Taylor) Ochyra collected from Nile Delta are new records to Egypt. This increases the number of taxa known from Egypt to 187. D. ceratodentus and S. fragilis are new records to North Africa.

  12. Cultural Diversity or Cultural Imperialism: Liberal Education in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanks, David R.

    1998-01-01

    A faculty member's experience at the American University in Cairo (Egypt) reveals that pluralism and tolerance are western concepts, even within the college curriculum. National identity affords cultural stability: where the American melting-pot experience is reinforced by the notion of cultural diversity, the national identity of Egypt is…

  13. First Ladies' Symposium on Early Childhood in Egypt (Cairo, Egypt, May 21, 2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gara, Chloe

    This document is comprised of the papers presented at the First Ladies' Symposium on Early Childhood in Egypt in May 2001. Participating in the symposium were representatives from the World Bank, the Amsterdam Institute for International Development, the Children's Project, and the Academy for Educational Development. The symposium opened with an…

  14. Framing Egypt : Roman literary perceptions of Egypt from Cicero to Juvenal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemreize, M.E.C.

    2016-01-01

    This is a comprehensive study of Roman literary references to Egypt without preference for one particular period, author or subject, in contrast to most previous scholarship. In doing so, it shows that these references vary greatly, are context-dependent, and cannot be rightly understood when

  15. Serologic and molecular evidence for testudinid herpesvirus 2 infection in wild Agassiz’s desert tortoise, Gopherus agassizii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Elliott R.; Berry, Kristin H.; Wellehan, James F. X.; Origgi, Francesco; Childress, April L.; Braun, Josephine; Schrenzel, Mark; Yee, Julie; Rideout, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Following field observations of wild Agassiz’s desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) with oral lesions similar to those seen in captive tortoises with herpesvirus infection, we measured the prevalence of antibodies to Testudinid herpesvirus (TeHV) 3 in wild populations of desert tortoises in California. The survey revealed 30.9% antibody prevalence. In 2009 and 2010, two wild adult male desert tortoises, with gross lesions consistent with trauma and puncture wounds, respectively, were necropsied. Tortoise 1 was from the central Mojave Desert and tortoise 2 was from the northeastern Mojave Desert. We extracted DNA from the tongue of tortoise 1 and from the tongue and nasal mucosa of tortoise 2. Sequencing of polymerase chain reaction products of the herpesviral DNA-dependent DNA polymerase gene and the UL39 gene respectively showed 100% nucleotide identity with TeHV2, which was previously detected in an ill captive desert tortoise in California. Although several cases of herpesvirus infection have been described in captive desert tortoises, our findings represent the first conclusive molecular evidence of TeHV2 infection in wild desert tortoises. The serologic findings support cross-reactivity between TeHV2 and TeHV3. Further studies to determine the ecology, prevalence, and clinical significance of this virus in tortoise populations are needed.

  16. The impact of desert solar power utilization on sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadiq Ali Shah; Yang Zhang

    2011-01-01

    This paper evaluates the prospects of developing a solar based desert economy in the deserts of solar-rich countries. The potential deserts are analysed to study their positive impact on the sustainable development processes in these regions. The sustainability of the processes is established on the basis of self-contained nature of energy generation, environmental emission reduction and desert land reclamation. (authors)

  17. Relative abundance of desert tortoises on the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rautenstrauch, K.R.; O'Farrell, T.P.

    1993-01-01

    Seven hundred fifty-nine transects having a total length of 1,191 km were walked during 1981--1986 to determine the distribution and relative abundance of desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The abundance of tortoises on NTS was low to very low relative to other populations in the Mojave Desert. Sign of tortoises was found from 880 to 1,570 m elevation and was more abundant above 1,200 m than has been reported previously for Nevada. Tortoises were more abundant on NTS on the upper alluvial fans and slopes of mountains than in valley bottoms. They also were more common on or near limestone and dolomite mountains than on mountains of volcanic origin

  18. Area Handbook Series: Egypt: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    iI~torical Settinlg Sphinx and pyramids at Giza (Al jizah) THE ROOTS OF EGYPTIAN civilization go back more than 6,000 years to the beginning of...built by Snoferu, the first king of the Fourth Dynasty. His son and successor, Kheops, built the Great Pyramid at Giza (AlJizah); this, with its two... Pyramid and Sphinx at Giza , Fourth Dynasty, ca. 2540 B. C. Courtesy Boris Boguslavsky 19 Egypt: A Country Study In June 640, reinforcements for the Arab

  19. Egypt site of first CSM marketing audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The 1st application of the marketing audit concept to a CSM project was implemented in Egypt's Family of the Future (FOF) contraceptive social marketing program in 1982. The audit defined the basic mission of the FOF as one of assisting the government in achieving its long range family planning goals. The stated FOF objectives are as follows: to create an awareness or an increase in demand for family planning services, particularly among the lower socioeconomic strata in urban Egypt; to establish and maintain a reliable supply mechanism to make FOF products more readily acceptable and available from pharmacies; and to consolidate the CSM operations and services first in the greater Cairo area and then expand to other urban areas in Egypt. The core strategy of the FOF incorporates several elements, including intensive media based advertising and personal promotion to promote the concept of family planning and to educate the general public about contraceptive alternatives. FOF product prices are considerably lower than commercial prices. Dr. Alan R. Andreasen, who conducted the audit on behalf of the FOF technical assistance contractor, noted that the FOF is growing rapidly and stated that the audit recommendations were intended to help FOF management. Dr. Andreasen conducted interviews with all the senior personnel at FOF and met with various specialized staff members such as the Public Relations Manager. Dr. Andreasen noted that at the time of the audit the FOF could claim major accomplishments in creating an awareness of the need for family planning and in product sales. From the time products were launched in 1979 through 1981 condom sales increased 260%. Foaming tablet sales increased more than 320% and IUD sales increased nearly 330%. The introduction of the Copper 7 IUD accounted for 35% of the growth of IUD sales in 1981. Couple years of protection (CYP) provided by all products increased from 45,533 in 1979 to 190,831 in 1981, an increase over 300%. The

  20. Egypt satellite images for land surface characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay

    images used for mapping the vegetation cover types and other land cover types in Egypt. The mapping ranges from 1 km resolution to 30 m resolution. The aim is to provide satellite image mapping with land surface characteristics relevant for roughness mapping.......Satellite images provide information on the land surface properties. From optical remote sensing images in the blue, green, red and near-infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum it is possible to identify a large number of surface features. The report briefly describes different satellite...

  1. Ambient Air Pollution Monitoring Network Over Alexandria City And The Nile DELTA, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Raey, M.; Shalaby, E.; Guirguis, S.; Ghatass, Z.; Said, H.H.; Zahran, A.; Rashad, M.; Sivertsen, B.

    2007-01-01

    The Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA) has established a National Air Pollution Network for Egypt. A part of this network covers Alexandria and the Nile delta region and is being operated by the Institute of Graduate Studies and Research (IGSR), University of Alexandria. This paper presents a description of the network, the QA/QC program as well as results from automatic monitors and manually operated instruments . . Preliminary interpretations and implications of air pollution levels have also been discussed. The network monitors ambient air quality indicators including SO 2 , NO 2 , CO, O 3 and PM 10 . The sites for measurements were selected to represent industrial, traffic and domestic sources. Eight stations are established over Alexandria City and seven stations are distributed over Nile delta major cities Damanhur, Kafr EI-Dawwar, Kafr EI-Zayat, Mahala, Tanta, Damietta and Mansoura. The results represent the first long term air quality data for the southern Mediterranean region, which have been properly quality assured and quality controlled. The main results indicate that measured NO 2 concentrations have not exceeded the national air quality limit (AQL) values given for Egypt. The same occurred for SO 2 except at one site located in Kafr Elzayat in the Delta, where large emissions from brick factories impact the site. The 8-hour average CO concentrations were exceeded at a few occasions. PM 10 concentrations have been identified as the major air pollution problem. Concentrations exceeding 70 μm 3 (AQL) have been observed over many sites most of the time. It is suggested that a strong program for tree cultivation on the western desert may be essential for protection

  2. Q fever in Egypt: Epidemiological survey of Coxiella burnetii specific antibodies in cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats and camels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Klemmer

    Full Text Available Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii. Clinical presentation in humans varies from asymptomatic to flu-like illness and severe sequelae may be seen. Ruminants are often sub-clinically infected or show reproductive disorders such as abortions. In Egypt, only limited data on the epidemiology of Q fever in animals are available. Using a stratified two stage random sampling approach, we evaluated the prevalence of Coxiella burnetii specific antibodies among ruminants and camels in 299 herds. A total of 2,699 blood samples was investigated using enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Coxiella burnetii specific antibodies were detected in 40.7% of camels (215/528, 19.3% of cattle (162/840, 11.2% of buffaloes (34/304, 8.9% of sheep (64/716 and 6.8% of goats (21/311, respectively. Odds of seropositivity were significantly higher for cattle (aOR: 3.17; 95% CI: 1.96-5.13 and camels (aOR: 9.75; 95% CI: 6.02-15.78. Significant differences in seropositivity were also found between domains (Western Desert, Eastern Desert and Nile Valley and Delta and 25 governorates (p 0.05. Only 8.7% of the interviewed people living on the farms consumed raw camel milk and none reported prior knowledge on Q fever. Findings from this nationwide study show that exposure to Coxiella burnetii is common in ruminants and camels. Disease awareness among physicians, veterinarians and animal owners has to be raised. Future epidemiological investigations have to elucidate the impact of Q fever on human health and on the economy of Egypt.

  3. Ecosystem responses to warming and watering in typical and desert steppes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhenzhu; Hou, Yanhui; Zhang, Lihua; Liu, Tao; Zhou, Guangsheng

    2016-10-01

    Global warming is projected to continue, leading to intense fluctuations in precipitation and heat waves and thereby affecting the productivity and the relevant biological processes of grassland ecosystems. Here, we determined the functional responses to warming and altered precipitation in both typical and desert steppes. The results showed that watering markedly increased the aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) in a typical steppe during a drier year and in a desert steppe over two years, whereas warming manipulation had no significant effect. The soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and the soil respiration (SR) were increased by watering in both steppes, but the SR was significantly decreased by warming in the desert steppe only. The inorganic nitrogen components varied irregularly, with generally lower levels in the desert steppe. The belowground traits of soil total organic carbon (TOC) and the MBC were more closely associated with the ANPP in the desert than in the typical steppes. The results showed that the desert steppe with lower productivity may respond strongly to precipitation changes, particularly with warming, highlighting the positive effect of adding water with warming. Our study implies that the habitat- and year-specific responses to warming and watering should be considered when predicting an ecosystem’s functional responses under climate change scenarios.

  4. A demographic approach to study effects of climate change in desert plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salguero-Gómez, Roberto; Siewert, Wolfgang; Casper, Brenda B.; Tielbörger, Katja

    2012-01-01

    Desert species respond strongly to infrequent, intense pulses of precipitation. Consequently, indigenous flora has developed a rich repertoire of life-history strategies to deal with fluctuations in resource availability. Examinations of how future climate change will affect the biota often forecast negative impacts, but these—usually correlative—approaches overlook precipitation variation because they are based on averages. Here, we provide an overview of how variable precipitation affects perennial and annual desert plants, and then implement an innovative, mechanistic approach to examine the effects of precipitation on populations of two desert plant species. This approach couples robust climatic projections, including variable precipitation, with stochastic, stage-structured models constructed from long-term demographic datasets of the short-lived Cryptantha flava in the Colorado Plateau Desert (USA) and the annual Carrichtera annua in the Negev Desert (Israel). Our results highlight these populations' potential to buffer future stochastic precipitation. Population growth rates in both species increased under future conditions: wetter, longer growing seasons for Cryptantha and drier years for Carrichtera. We determined that such changes are primarily due to survival and size changes for Cryptantha and the role of seed bank for Carrichtera. Our work suggests that desert plants, and thus the resources they provide, might be more resilient to climate change than previously thought. PMID:23045708

  5. Deserts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graulund, Rune

    2016-01-01

    , comic sketches and lyrical reveries; travel writing is now a crucial focus for discussion across many subjects within the humanities and social sciences. An ideal starting point for beginners, but also offering new perspectives for those familiar with the field, The Routledge Companion to Travel Writing...

  6. An Analysis of the United States-Led Coalition Air Campaign Conducted During the 1991 War with IRAQ: Desert Storm

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murphy, John

    2002-01-01

    Evaluation of the 1991 United States led coalition Persian Gulf War (DESERT STORM) Air Campaign is performed to measure its adherence to basic principles of war and to determine the potential implications for the future conduct of war...

  7. Natural radioactivity and radon exhalation rate of soil in southern Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sroor, A.; El-Bahi, S.M.; Ahmed, F.; Abdel-Haleem, A.S.

    2001-01-01

    The level of natural radioactivity in soil of 30 mining samples collected from six locations in southern Egypt was measured. Concentrations of radionuclides in samples were determined by γ-ray spectrometer using HPGe detector with a specially designed shield. The obtained results of uranium and thorium series as well as potassium (K-40) are discussed. The present data were compared with data obtained from different areas in Egypt. Also, a solid state nuclear track detector SSNTD (Cr-39) was used to measure the radon concentration as well as exhalation rate for these samples. The radon concentrations were found to vary from 1.54 to 5.37 Bq/kg. The exhalation rates were found to vary from 338.81 to 1426.47 Bq/m 2 d. The values of the radon exhalation rate are found to correspond with the uranium concentration values measured by the germanium detector in the corresponding soil samples

  8. Utilization of cement treated recycled concrete aggregates as base or subbase layer in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Ebrahim Abu El-Maaty Behiry

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, environmental protection has a great concern in Egypt where recycling of increased demolition debris has become a viable option to be incorporated into roads applications. An extensive laboratory program is conducted to study the feasibility of using recycled concrete aggregate (RCA mixed with traditional limestone aggregate (LSA which is currently being used in base or subbase applications in Egypt. Moreover, the influence of mixture variables on the mechanical properties of cement treated recycled aggregate (CTRA is investigated. Models to predict the compressive and tensile strengths based on mixture parameters are established. The results show that the adding of RCA improves the mechanical properties of the mixture where the unconfined compressive strength (UCS is taken as an important quality indicator. Variables influencing the UCS such as cement content, curing time, dry density play important roles to determine the performance of CTRA.

  9. Complete Mitochondrial Genome Sequencing of a Burial from a Romano–Christian Cemetery in the Dakhleh Oasis, Egypt: Preliminary Indications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Eldon Molto

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The curse of ancient Egyptian DNA was lifted by a recent study which sequenced the mitochondrial genomes (mtGenome of 90 ancient Egyptians from the archaeological site of Abusir el-Meleq. Surprisingly, these ancient inhabitants were more closely related to those from the Near East than to contemporary Egyptians. It has been accepted that the timeless highway of the Nile River seeded Egypt with African genetic influence, well before pre-Dynastic times. Here we report on the successful recovery and analysis of the complete mtGenome from a burial recovered from a remote Romano–Christian cemetery, Kellis 2 (K2. K2 serviced the ancient municipality of Kellis, a village located in the Dakhleh Oasis in the southwest desert in Egypt. The data were obtained by high throughput sequencing (HTS performed independently at two ancient DNA facilities (Armed Forces DNA Identification Laboratory, Dover, DE, USA and Carl R. Woese Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA. These efforts produced concordant haplotypes representing a U1a1a haplogroup lineage. This result indicates that Near Eastern maternal influence previously identified at Abusir el-Meleq was also present further south, in ancient Kellis during the Romano–Christian period.

  10. Spatial and temporal changes in desertification in the southern region of the Tengger Desert from 1973 to 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Qingyu; Guan, Wenqian; Yang, Jing; Zhao, Shilei; Pan, Baotian; Wang, Lei; Song, Na; Lu, Min; Li, Fuchun

    2017-07-01

    The sandy land in the southern region of the Tengger Desert is adjacent to cities and towns, and land desertification poses a threat to the livelihood and production of local residents. To determine dynamic changes in local desertification, five periods (1973, 1987, 1992, 2001, and 2009) of remote sensing data are studied by remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS). The desert contraction area is primarily centered around three units (Wuwei, Gulang, and Jingtai) and nearby regions of Zhongwei City. The primary desert expansion areas include the west side of Helan Mountain (WSHM), the Central Mountainous Area (CMA), and the eastern and western Zhongwei units far from towns. From 1973 to 2009, the degree of change in the contracting part of the primary desert expansion unit showed an increasing trend; in brief, most of the desert (especially after 2001) has been developing in a direction in which desertification has been gradually controlled. The primary desert expansion areas are less affected by human activity, but they are primarily controlled by natural factors (especially wind and terrain). The desert contraction areas occur around the towns and nearby regions with frequent human activity; desertification is primarily controlled by human factors. With rapid economic development (especially after 2000), the scale of the cultivated area, town, and ecological protection engineering has gradually expanded, and the latter two are primarily built on a previous desert, which is the root cause of the reduction in the desert areas around the towns and the shrinkage toward north of border. Therefore, reasonable and effective human activity in the southern region of the Tengger Desert is playing a crucial role in preventing desertification.

  11. Geospatial techniques to Identify the Location of Farmers Markets and Community Gardens within Food Deserts in Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriharan, S.; Meekins, D.; Comar, M.; Bradshaw, S.; Jackson, L.

    2017-12-01

    Specifically, a food desert is defined as an area where populations live more than one mile from a supermarket or large grocery store if in an urban area or more than 10 miles from a supermarket or large grocery store if in a rural area (Ver Ploeg et al. 2012). According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, a food desert is "an area in the United States with limited access to affordable and nutritious food, particularly such an area composed of predominately lower-income neighborhoods and communities" (110th Congress 2008). Three fourths of these food deserts are urban. In the Commonwealth of Virginia, Petersburg City is among the eight primary localities, where its population is living in a food desert. This project will compare those identified food deserts in Virginia (areas around Virginia State University) with focus to where farmers markets and community gardens are being established. The hypothesis of this study is that these minority groups do not get healthy food due to limited access to grocery stores and superstores. To address this problem, the community development activities should focus on partnering local Petersburg convenience stores with farmers and community gardeners to sell fresh produce. Existing data was collected on convenient stores and community gardens in Petersburg City and Chesterfield County. Rare data was generated for Emporia, Lynchburg and Hopewell. The data was compiled through field work and mapping with ArcGIS where markets and gardens are being established, and create a spatial analysis of their location We have localities that reflect both rural and urban areas. The project provides educational support for students who will find solution to community problems by developing activities to: (a) define and examine characteristics of food deserts, (b) identify causes and consequences of food deserts and determine if their community is a food desert, (c) research closest food desert to their school, and (d) design solutions to help

  12. Comparisons of diazotrophic communities in native and agricultural desert ecosystems reveal plants as important drivers in diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köberl, Martina; Erlacher, Armin; Ramadan, Elshahat M; El-Arabi, Tarek F; Müller, Henry; Bragina, Anastasia; Berg, Gabriele

    2016-02-01

    Diazotrophs provide the only biological source of fixed atmospheric nitrogen in the biosphere. Although they are the key player for plant-available nitrogen, less is known about their diversity and potential importance in arid ecosystems. We investigated the nitrogenase gene diversity in native and agricultural desert soil as well as within root-associated microbiota of medicinal plants grown in Egypt through the combination of nifH-specific qPCR, fingerprints, amplicon pyrosequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization-confocal laser scanning microscopy. Although the diazotrophic microbiota were characterized by generally high abundances and diversity, statistically significant differences were found between both soils, the different microhabitats, and between the investigated plants (Matricaria chamomilla L., Calendula officinalis L. and Solanum distichum Schumach. and Thonn.). We observed a considerable community shift from desert to agriculturally used soil that demonstrated a higher abundance and diversity in the agro-ecosystem. The endorhiza was characterized by lower abundances and only a subset of species when compared to the rhizosphere. While the microbiomes of the Asteraceae were similar and dominated by potential root-nodulating rhizobia acquired primarily from soil, the perennial S. distichum generally formed associations with free-living nitrogen fixers. These results underline the importance of diazotrophs in desert ecosystems and additionally identify plants as important drivers in functional gene pool diversity. © FEMS 2015.

  13. Desert potholes: Ephemeral aquatic microsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, M.A.; Moser, K.; Davis, J.M.; Southam, G.; Hughes, K.; Graham, T.

    2005-01-01

    An enigma of the Colorado Plateau high desert is the "pothole", which ranges from shallow ephemeral puddles to deeply carved pools. The existence of prokaryotic to eukaryotic organisms within these pools is largely controlled by the presence of collected rainwater. Multivariate statistical analysis of physical and chemical limnologic data variables measured from potholes indicates spatial and temporal variations, particularly in water depth, manganese, iron, nitrate and sulfate concentrations and salinity. Variation in water depth and salinity are likely related to the amount of time since the last precipitation, whereas the other variables may be related to redox potential. The spatial and temporal variations in water chemistry affect the distribution of organisms, which must adapt to daily and seasonal extremes of fluctuating temperature (0-60 ??C), pH changes of as much as 5 units over 12 days, and desiccation. For example, many species become dormant when potholes dry, in order to endure intense heat, UV radiation, desiccation and freezing, only to flourish again upon rehydration. But the pothole organisms also have a profound impact on the potholes. Through photosynthesis and respiration, pothole organisms affect redox potential, and indirectly alter the water chemistry. Laboratory examination of dried biofilm from the potholes revealed that within 2 weeks of hydration, the surface of the desiccated, black biofilm became green from cyanobacterial growth, which supported significant growth in heterotrophic bacterial populations. This complex biofilm is persumably responsible for dissolving the cement between the sandstone grains, allowing the potholes to enlarge, and for sealing the potholes, enabling them to retain water longer than the surrounding sandstone. Despite the remarkable ability of life in potholes to persist, desert potholes may be extremely sensitive to anthropogenic effects. The unique limnology and ecology of Utah potholes holds great scientific

  14. Mercury Removal from Natural Gas in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korkor, H.; AI-Alf, A.; EI-Behairy, S.

    2004-01-01

    Worldwide natural gas is forecasted to be the fastest growing primary energy source. In Egypt, natural gas is recently playing a key role as one of the major energy sources. This is supported by adequate gas reserves, booming gas industry, and unique geographical location. Egypt's current proven gas reserves accounted for about 62 TCF, in addition to about 100 TCF as probable gas reserves. As a result, it was decided to enter the gas exporting market, where gas is transported through pipelines as in the Arab Gas pipelines project and as a liquid through the liquefied natural gas (LNG) projects in Damietta, and ld ku. With the start up of these currently implemented LNG projects that are dealing with the very low temperatures (down to -162 degree c), the gas has to be subjected to a regular analysis in order to check the compliance with the required specifications. Mercury is a trace component of all fossil fuels including natural gas, condensates, crude oil, coal, tar sands, and other bitumens. The use of fossil hydrocarbons as fuels provides the main opportunity for emissions of mercury they contain to the atmospheric environment: while other traces exist in production, transportation and processing systems

  15. Mercury Removal from Natural Gas in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korkor, H; AI-Alf, A; EI-Behairy, S [EGAS, Cairo (Egypt)

    2004-07-01

    Worldwide natural gas is forecasted to be the fastest growing primary energy source. In Egypt, natural gas is recently playing a key role as one of the major energy sources. This is supported by adequate gas reserves, booming gas industry, and unique geographical location. Egypt's current proven gas reserves accounted for about 62 TCF, in addition to about 100 TCF as probable gas reserves. As a result, it was decided to enter the gas exporting market, where gas is transported through pipelines as in the Arab Gas pipelines project and as a liquid through the liquefied natural gas (LNG) projects in Damietta, and ld ku. With the start up of these currently implemented LNG projects that are dealing with the very low temperatures (down to -162 degree c), the gas has to be subjected to a regular analysis in order to check the compliance with the required specifications. Mercury is a trace component of all fossil fuels including natural gas, condensates, crude oil, coal, tar sands, and other bitumens. The use of fossil hydrocarbons as fuels provides the main opportunity for emissions of mercury they contain to the atmospheric environment: while other traces exist in production, transportation and processing systems.

  16. Aid for family planning in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-02-01

    A $5 million credit has been approved by the International Development Association, an affilate of the World Bank, to help finance a population project in Egypt. The project provides for the construction, equipping and furnishing of 22 general health centers, 12 polyclinics, 3 centers for training nursing teachers and 3 centers for in service training. 100 and 50 multipurpose vehicles will be provided to improve mobility of family planning services. Also included are a study on the maintenance of health facilities, 3 evaluation studies of family planning acceptors, an experimental home visiting program to inform and motivate people on family planning, and assistance in the production of health education material useful for family planning information and motivation. Simple demographic facts illustrate the seriousness of the population problem in Egypt. The current population of 35 million will be double by the year 2000 if the present 2.5% annual increase continues. This will put strains on a country whose population density quadrupled during the last century, and which stands to day at 950 persons per square kilometer of habitable land, a density rivalled by only 2 or 3 other countries in the world. The IDA credit will cover about 1/2 of the project's expense. The Egyptian government will finance the local costs. full text

  17. Community adaptations to an impending food desert in rural Appalachia, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Wayne C; Rogalla, Denver; Spencer, Dustin; Zia, Nida; Griffith, Brian N; Heinsberg, Haylee B

    2016-01-01

    The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) describes a food desert as an urban neighborhood or rural town without ready access to fresh, healthy, and affordable food. An estimated 2.3 million rural Americans live in food deserts. One goal of the USDA is to eliminate food deserts. However, at a time when some food deserts are being eliminated, hundreds of grocery stores are closing, causing other food deserts to arise. The literature is scarce on how a community adapts to an impending food desert. Alderson, West Virginia, USA (population 1184) rallied to face an impending food desert when the only grocery store in town closed in December 2014. This study investigated how this small rural community adapted to its oncoming food desert. A community member survey was administered to 155 Alderson families (49%) to determine how the new food desert affected family food acquisition and storage behaviors. A restaurant survey was given to the town's four restaurants to determine how the food desert affected their businesses. Sales data for a new food hub (Green Grocer) was obtained to see if this new initiative offset the negative effects of the food desert. ANOVA and t-tests were used to compare group numerical data. Two group response rates were compared by testing the equality of two proportions. Categorical data were analyzed with the χ2 or frequency distribution analysis. Group averages are reported as mean ± standard error of the mean. Significance for all analyses was set at pp=0.16) from the number before the food desert (2.8±0.3). Price comparisons among the Green Grocer and three distant supermarkets showed a 30% savings by traveling to distant supermarkets. Frequency of monthly restaurant visits did not change after the emergence of the food desert (2.98±0.54 vs 3.05±0.51, p=0.85). However, restaurant patrons requested to buy fresh produce and dairy from the restaurants to use for their own home cooking. Food pantry use increased by 43%, with

  18. Controls on the variability of net infiltration to desert sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilweil, Victor M.; McKinney, Tim S.; Zhdanov, Michael S.; Watt, Dennis E.

    2007-01-01

    As populations grow in arid climates and desert bedrock aquifers are increasingly targeted for future development, understanding and quantifying the spatial variability of net infiltration becomes critically important for accurately inventorying water resources and mapping contamination vulnerability. This paper presents a conceptual model of net infiltration to desert sandstone and then develops an empirical equation for its spatial quantification at the watershed scale using linear least squares inversion methods for evaluating controlling parameters (independent variables) based on estimated net infiltration rates (dependent variables). Net infiltration rates used for this regression analysis were calculated from environmental tracers in boreholes and more than 3000 linear meters of vadose zone excavations in an upland basin in southwestern Utah underlain by Navajo sandstone. Soil coarseness, distance to upgradient outcrop, and topographic slope were shown to be the primary physical parameters controlling the spatial variability of net infiltration. Although the method should be transferable to other desert sandstone settings for determining the relative spatial distribution of net infiltration, further study is needed to evaluate the effects of other potential parameters such as slope aspect, outcrop parameters, and climate on absolute net infiltration rates.

  19. Fog deposition to a Tillandsia carpet in the Atacama Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbeld, A.; Klemm, O.; Grießbaum, F.; Sträter, E.; Larrain, H.; Osses, P.; Cereceda, P.

    2009-09-01

    In the Atacama Desert, one of the driest places on earth, fog deposition plays an important role for the water balance and for the survival of vulnerable ecosystems. The eddy covariance method, previously applied for the quantification of fog deposition to forests in various parts of the world, was used for the first time to measure deposition of fog water to a desert. In this exploratory study we estimate the amount of water available for the ecosystem by deposition and determine the relevant processes driving fog deposition. This is especially important for the species Tillandsia landbecki living in coastal Atacama at the limit of plant existence with fog and dew being the only sources of water. Between 31 July and 19 August 2008 approximately 2.5 L m-2 of water were made available through deposition. Whole-year deposition was estimated as 25 L m-2. Turbulent upward fluxes occurred several times during the evenings and are explained by the formation of radiation fog. In connection with that, underestimates of the deposition are assumed. More detailed studies covering various seasons and all parameters and fluxes contributing to the local energy balance are suggested. This will help to further develop understanding about the processes of (i) deposition of water to the desert, and (ii) intensification of advection fog through additional formation of radiation fog.

  20. Fog deposition to a Tillandsia carpet in the Atacama Desert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westbeld, A.; Klemm, O.; Griessbaum, F.; Straeter, E. [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Landscape Ecology; Larrain, H. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Chile (Chile). Atacama Desert Center ADC; Univ. Bolivariana, Iquique (Chile); Osses, P.; Cereceda, P. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Chile, Santiago de Chile (Chile). Inst. of Geography

    2009-07-01

    In the Atacama Desert, one of the driest places on earth, fog deposition plays an important role for the water balance and for the survival of vulnerable ecosystems. The eddy covariance method, previously applied for the quantification of fog deposition to forests in various parts of the world, was used for the first time to measure deposition of fog water to a desert. In this exploratory study we estimate the amount of water available for the ecosystem by deposition and determine the relevant processes driving fog deposition. This is especially important for the species Tillandsia landbecki living in coastal Atacama at the limit of plant existence with fog and dew being the only sources of water. Between 31 July and 19 August 2008 approximately 2.5 L m{sup -2} of water were made available through deposition. Whole-year deposition was estimated as 25 L m{sup -2}. Turbulent upward fluxes occurred several times during the evenings and are explained by the formation of radiation fog. In connection with that, underestimates of the deposition are assumed. More detailed studies covering various seasons and all parameters and fluxes contributing to the local energy balance are suggested. This will help to further develop understanding about the processes of (i) deposition of water to the desert, and (ii) intensification of advection fog through additional formation of radiation fog. (orig.)

  1. Fog deposition to a Tillandsia carpet in the Atacama Desert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Osses

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Atacama Desert, one of the driest places on earth, fog deposition plays an important role for the water balance and for the survival of vulnerable ecosystems. The eddy covariance method, previously applied for the quantification of fog deposition to forests in various parts of the world, was used for the first time to measure deposition of fog water to a desert. In this exploratory study we estimate the amount of water available for the ecosystem by deposition and determine the relevant processes driving fog deposition. This is especially important for the species Tillandsia landbecki living in coastal Atacama at the limit of plant existence with fog and dew being the only sources of water. Between 31 July and 19 August 2008 approximately 2.5 L m−2 of water were made available through deposition. Whole-year deposition was estimated as 25 L m−2. Turbulent upward fluxes occurred several times during the evenings and are explained by the formation of radiation fog. In connection with that, underestimates of the deposition are assumed. More detailed studies covering various seasons and all parameters and fluxes contributing to the local energy balance are suggested. This will help to further develop understanding about the processes of (i deposition of water to the desert, and (ii intensification of advection fog through additional formation of radiation fog.

  2. Microbial communities in a High Arctic polar desert landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare M McCann

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The High Arctic is dominated by polar desert habitats whose microbial communities are poorly understood. In this study, we used next generation sequencing to describe the α- and β-diversity of polar desert soils from the Kongsfjorden region of Svalbard. Ten phyla consistently dominated the soils and accounted for 95 % of all sequences, with Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Chloroflexi being the dominant lineages. In contrast to previous investigations of Arctic soils, Acidobacterial relative abundances were low as were the Archaea throughout the Kongsfjorden polar desert landscape. Lower Acidobacterial abundances were attributed to the circumneutral soil pH in this region which has resulted from the weathering of the underlying carbonate geology. In addition, we correlated previously measured geochemical variables to determine potential controls on the communities. Soil phosphorus, pH, nitrogen and calcium significantly correlated with β-diversity indicating a landscape scale lithological control of soil nutrients which in turn influenced community composition. In addition, soil phosphorus and pH significantly correlated with α- diversity, specifically the Shannon diversity and Chao 1 richness indices.

  3. Granitoid-associated gold mineralization in Egypt: a case study from the Atalla mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoheir, Basem; Deshesh, Fatma; Broman, Curt; Pitcairn, Iain; El-Metwally, Ahmed; Mashaal, Shabaan

    2018-06-01

    Gold-bearing sulfide-quartz veins cutting mainly through the Atalla monzogranite intrusion in the Eastern Desert of Egypt are controlled by subparallel NE-trending brittle shear zones. These veins are associated with pervasive sericite-altered, silicified, and ferruginated rocks. The hosting shear zones are presumed as high-order structures of the Najd-style faults in the Central Eastern Desert ( 615-585 Ma). Ore minerals include an early pyrite-arsenopyrite (±pyrrhotite) mineralization, partly replaced by a late pyrite-galena-sphalerite-chalcopyrite (±gold/electrum ± tetrahedrite ± hessite) assemblage. Gold occurs as small inclusions in pyrite and arsenopyrite, or more commonly as intergrowths with galena and sphalerite/tetrahedrite in microfractures. Arsenopyrite geothermometry suggests formation of the early Fe-As-sulfide mineralization at 380-340 °C, while conditions of deposition of the late base metal-gold assemblage are assumed to be below 300 °C. Rare hessite, electrum, and Bi-galena are associated with sphalerite and gold in the late assemblage. The early and late sulfide minerals show consistently a narrow range of δ34S ‰ (3.4-6.5) that overlaps with sulfur isotopic values in ophiolitic rocks. The Au-quartz veins are characterized by abundant CO2 and H2O ± CO2 ± NaCl inclusions, where three-dimensional clusters of inclusions show variable aqueous/carbonic proportions and broad range of total (bimodal) homogenization temperatures. Heterogeneous entrapment of immiscible fluids is interpreted to be caused by unmixing of an originally homogenous, low salinity ( 2 eq. mass % NaCl) aqueous-carbonic fluid, during transition from lithostatic to hydrostatic conditions. Gold deposition occurred generally under mesothermal conditions, i.e., 1.3 kbar and 280 °C, and continued during system cooling to chemistry of the ore fluids.

  4. Vegetation - Central Mojave Desert [ds166

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Department of Defense and the other desert managers are developing and organizing scientific information needed to better manage the natural resources of the...

  5. Microbial ecology of hot desert edaphic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhalanyane, Thulani P; Valverde, Angel; Gunnigle, Eoin; Frossard, Aline; Ramond, Jean-Baptiste; Cowan, Don A

    2015-03-01

    A significant proportion of the Earth's surface is desert or in the process of desertification. The extreme environmental conditions that characterize these areas result in a surface that is essentially barren, with a limited range of higher plants and animals. Microbial communities are probably the dominant drivers of these systems, mediating key ecosystem processes. In this review, we examine the microbial communities of hot desert terrestrial biotopes (including soils, cryptic and refuge niches and plant-root-associated microbes) and the processes that govern their assembly. We also assess the possible effects of global climate change on hot desert microbial communities and the resulting feedback mechanisms. We conclude by discussing current gaps in our understanding of the microbiology of hot deserts and suggest fruitful avenues for future research. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. In vitro germination of desert rose varieties(

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiane Lemos Varella; Gizelly Mendes Silva; Kaliane Zaira Camacho Maximiliano da Cruz; Andréia Izabel Mikovski; Josué Ribeiro da Silva Nunes; Ilio Fealho Carvalho; Maurecilne Lemes Silva

    2015-01-01

    The drought stress resistance is a characteristic of the desert rose and its estimable beauty flowers, which gave it great relevance in the ornamental market. However, the desert rose production and germination is hampered by possible sterility of their male and female flowers and frequent problems in pollination, so the tissue culture is a promising alternative to the propagation of these plants. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of gibberellic acid on four commercial varieties of dese...

  7. Late Quaternary history of the Atacama Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre, Claudio; Betancourt, Julio L.; Rech, Jason A.; Quade, Jay; Holmgren, Camille; Placzek, Christa; Maldonado, Antonio; Vuille, Mathias; Rylander, Kate A.; Smith, Mike; Hesse, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Of the major subtropical deserts found in the Southern Hemisphere, the Atacama Desert is the driest. Throughout the Quaternary, the most pervasive climatic influence on the desert has been millennial-scale changes in the frequency and seasonality of the scant rainfall, and associated shifts in plant and animal distributions with elevation along the eastern margin of the desert. Over the past six years, we have mapped modern vegetation gradients and developed a number of palaeoenvironmental records, including vegetation histories from fossil rodent middens, groundwater levels from wetland (spring) deposits, and lake levels from shoreline evidence, along a 1200-kilometre transect (16–26°S) in the Atacama Desert. A strength of this palaeoclimate transect has been the ability to apply the same methodologies across broad elevational, latitudinal, climatic, vegetation and hydrological gradients. We are using this transect to reconstruct the histories of key components of the South American tropical (summer) and extratropical (winter) rainfall belts, precisely at those elevations where average annual rainfall wanes to zero. The focus has been on the transition from sparse, shrubby vegetation (known as the prepuna) into absolute desert, an expansive hyperarid terrain that extends from just above the coastal fog zone (approximately 800 metres) to more than 3500 metres in the most arid sectors in the southern Atacama.

  8. Evaluation of SPT energy for Donut and Safety hammers using CPT measurements in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami M. El-Sherbiny

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Standard Penetration Test (SPT blow counts require correction prior to utilization in soil characterization and determination of properties and behavior. Among the most important corrections is the energy correction required to adjust the blow counts to 60% energy efficiency. However, there are no published data supporting commonly used value in Egypt. This paper presents an evaluation of the energy efficiency of the Donut and Safety hammers commonly used in Egypt and the associated energy correction factor. The energy efficiency is estimated by comparing N-values from the SPT to back-calculated N60 values from the Cone Penetration Test (CPT using well established correlations. Results indicate that the energy efficiency of the Donut hammer based on current practice in Egypt is approximately 50%. Thus, the back-calculated energy correction factor is approximately 0.82. For the Safety hammer, results indicate that the energy efficiency is approximately 60%, and the energy correction factor is approximately 1.0.

  9. Regional distribution of released earthquake energy in northern Egypt along with Inahass area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-hemamy, S.T.; Adel, A.A. Othman

    1999-01-01

    A review of the seismic history of Egypt indicates sone areas of high activity concentrated along Oligocene-Miocene faults. These areas support the idea of recent activation of the Oligocene-Miocene stress cycle. There are similarities in the special distribution of recent and historical epicenters. Form the tectonic map of Egypt, distribution of Intensity and magnitude show strong activity along Nile Delta. This due to the presence of a thick layers of recent alluvial sediments. The released energy of the earthquakes are effective on the structures. The present study deals with the computed released energies of the reported earthquakes in Egypt and around Inshas area . Its effect on the urban and nuclear facilities inside Inshas site is considered. Special consideration will be given to old and new waste repository sites. The application of the determined released energy reveals that Inshas site is affected by seismic activity from five seismo-tectonic source zones, namely the Red Sea, Nile Delta, El-Faiyum, the Mediterranean Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba seismo-tectonic zones. El-Faiyum seismo-tectonic source zone has the maximum effect on the site and gave a high released energy reaching to 5.4E +2 1 erg

  10. Observed 20th Century Desert Dust Variability: Impact on Climate and Biogeochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahowald, Natalie [Cornell University; Kloster, Silvia [Cornell University; Engelstaedter, S. [Cornell University; Moore, Jefferson Keith [University of California, Irvine; Mukhopadhyay, S. [Harvard University; McConnell, J. R. [Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV; Albani, S. [Cornell University; Doney, Scott C. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), Woods Hole, MA; Bhattacharya, A. [Harvard University; Curran, M. A. J. [Antarctic Climate and Ecosystems Cooperative Research Centre; Flanner, Mark G. [University of Michigan; Hoffman, Forrest M [ORNL; Lawrence, David M. [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Lindsay, Keith [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Mayewski, P. A. [University of Maine; Neff, Jason [University of Colorado, Boulder; Rothenberg, D. [Cornell University; Thomas, E. [British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, UK; Thornton, Peter E [ORNL; Zender, Charlie S. [University of California, Irvine

    2010-01-01

    Desert dust perturbs climate by directly and indirectly interacting with incoming solar and outgoing long wave radiation, thereby changing precipitation and temperature, in addition to modifying ocean and land biogeochemistry. While we know that desert dust is sensitive to perturbations in climate and human land use, previous studies have been unable to determine whether humans were increasing or decreasing desert dust in the global average. Here we present observational estimates of desert dust based on paleodata proxies showing a doubling of desert dust during the 20th century over much, but not all the globe. Large uncertainties remain in estimates of desert dust variability over 20th century due to limited data. Using these observational estimates of desert dust change in combination with ocean, atmosphere and land models, we calculate the net radiative effect of these observed changes (top of atmosphere) over the 20th century to be -0.14 {+-} 0.11 W/m{sup 2} (1990-1999 vs. 1905-1914). The estimated radiative change due to dust is especially strong between the heavily loaded 1980-1989 and the less heavily loaded 1955-1964 time periods (-0.57 {+-} 0.46 W/m{sup 2}), which model simulations suggest may have reduced the rate of temperature increase between these time periods by 0.11 C. Model simulations also indicate strong regional shifts in precipitation and temperature from desert dust changes, causing 6 ppm (12 PgC) reduction in model carbon uptake by the terrestrial biosphere over the 20th century. Desert dust carries iron, an important micronutrient for ocean biogeochemistry that can modulate ocean carbon storage; here we show that dust deposition trends increase ocean productivity by an estimated 6% over the 20th century, drawing down an additional 4 ppm (8 PgC) of carbon dioxide into the oceans. Thus, perturbations to desert dust over the 20th century inferred from observations are potentially important for climate and biogeochemistry, and our understanding

  11. Observed 20th century desert dust variability: impact on climate and biogeochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Mahowald

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Desert dust perturbs climate by directly and indirectly interacting with incoming solar and outgoing long wave radiation, thereby changing precipitation and temperature, in addition to modifying ocean and land biogeochemistry. While we know that desert dust is sensitive to perturbations in climate and human land use, previous studies have been unable to determine whether humans were increasing or decreasing desert dust in the global average. Here we present observational estimates of desert dust based on paleodata proxies showing a doubling of desert dust during the 20th century over much, but not all the globe. Large uncertainties remain in estimates of desert dust variability over 20th century due to limited data. Using these observational estimates of desert dust change in combination with ocean, atmosphere and land models, we calculate the net radiative effect of these observed changes (top of atmosphere over the 20th century to be −0.14 ± 0.11 W/m2 (1990–1999 vs. 1905–1914. The estimated radiative change due to dust is especially strong between the heavily loaded 1980–1989 and the less heavily loaded 1955–1964 time periods (−0.57 ± 0.46 W/m2, which model simulations suggest may have reduced the rate of temperature increase between these time periods by 0.11 °C. Model simulations also indicate strong regional shifts in precipitation and temperature from desert dust changes, causing 6 ppm (12 PgC reduction in model carbon uptake by the terrestrial biosphere over the 20th century. Desert dust carries iron, an important micronutrient for ocean biogeochemistry that can modulate ocean carbon storage; here we show that dust deposition trends increase ocean productivity by an estimated 6% over the 20th century, drawing down an additional 4 ppm (8 PgC of carbon dioxide into the oceans. Thus, perturbations to desert dust over the 20th century inferred from observations are potentially important for climate and

  12. HIGH FOLIAR NITROGEN IN DESERT SHRUBS: AN IMPORTANT ECOSYSTEM TRAIT OR DEFECTIVE DESERT DOCTRINE?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen concentrations in green and senesced leaves of perennial desert shrubs were compiled from a worldwide literature search to test the validity of the doctrine that desert shrubs produce foliage and leaf litter much richer in nitrogen than that in the foliage of plants from...

  13. Mitigation options for the industrial sector in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelil, I.A.; El-Touny, S.; Korkor, H. [Organization for Energy Conservation and Planning (OECP), Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-12-31

    Though its contribution to the global Greenhouse gases emission is relatively small, Egypt has signed and ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UN FCCC) and has been playing an active role in the international efforts to deal with such environmental challenges. Energy efficiency has been one of the main strategies that Egypt has adopted to improve environmental quality and enhance economic competitiveness. This paper highlights three initiatives currently underway to improve energy efficiency of the Egyptian industry. The first is a project that has been recently completed by OECP to assess potential GHG mitigation options available in Egypt`s oil refineries. The second initiative is an assessment of GHG mitigation potential in the Small and Medium size Enterprises (SME) in the Mediterranean city of Alexandria. The third one focuses on identifying demand side management options in some industrial electricity consumers in the same city.

  14. Unprotected: Palestinians in Egypt since 1948 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-01-01

    Jan 1, 2009 ... With limited basic human rights and in the context of very poor living ... HarassMap and Uber Egypt partner to raise awareness about sexual harassment ... Syrian refugees: Shifting from crisis response to opportunity.

  15. All projects related to egypt | Page 3 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Refugees and migrants in transit countries such as Egypt have links to wider diaspora ... In its 2006-2011 Strategic Plan, IDRC's Acacia program identified small-scale agriculture, including environment and natural ... Program: Climate Change.

  16. All projects related to Egypt | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: Middle East, Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Syria, Tunisia, Egypt, Yemen, Bahrain, ... state-controlled religious institutions, and state-owned media - to assess the ... POLICY MAKING, MIDDLE EAST, Civil society, SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT.

  17. All projects related to egypt | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Arab Families and Youth : a Century of War, Migration and Displacement ... North of Sahara, South of Sahara, North and Central America, Central Asia, South Asia, Egypt ... ISLAM, HUMAN RIGHTS, CIVIL RIGHTS, WOMEN'S RIGHTS, Gender.

  18. Copper isotope fractionation by desert shrubs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarrete, Jesica U.; Viveros, Marian; Ellzey, Joanne T.; Borrok, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Copper has two naturally occurring stable isotopes of masses 63 and 65 which can undergo mass dependent fractionation during various biotic and abiotic chemical reactions. These interactions and their resulting Cu isotope fractionations can be used to determine the mechanisms involved in the cycling of Cu in natural systems. In this study, Cu isotope changes were investigated at the organismal level in the metal-accumulating desert plant, Prosopis pubescens. Initial results suggest that the lighter Cu isotope was preferentially incorporated into the leaves of the plant, which may suggest that Cu was actively transported via intracellular proteins. The roots and stems show a smaller degree of Cu isotope fractionation and the direction and magnitude of the fractionations was dependent upon the levels of Cu exposure. Based on this and previous work with bacteria and yeast, a trend is emerging that suggests the lighter Cu isotope is preferentially incorporated into biological components, while the heavier Cu isotope tends to become enriched in aqueous solutions. In bacteria, plants and animals, intracellular Cu concentrations are strictly regulated via dozens of enzymes that can bind, transport, and store Cu. Many of these enzymes reduce Cu(II) to Cu(I). These initial results seem to fit into a broader picture of Cu isotope cycling in natural systems where oxidation/reduction reactions are fundamental in controlling the distributions of Cu isotopes.

  19. Political Participation and Power Relations in Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shehata, Mostafa

    2017-01-01

    The political use of media in Egypt post-2011 revolution brought about drastic transformations in political activism and power structures. In the context of communication power theory, this article investigates the effects of newspapers and social network sites on political participation...... and political power relations. The research employed a mixed methodology, comprised of a survey of 527 Egyptian youth and semi-structured interviews of 12 political activists and journalists. The results showed a significant relationship between reading newspapers and youth’s political participation......, but not between using social network sites and political participation. In addition, newspapers and social network sites were platforms for a series of conflicts and coalitions that emerged between pro- and anti-revolution actors. Despite the importance of social network sites as key tools for informing...

  20. Status of marine protected areas in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samy, M.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Egypt has sought to protect its natural resources and marine biodiversity by establishing a network of six MPAs that are generally located in the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea; most of them include interconnected marine and terrestrial sectors based on conserving coral reefs and accompanying systems. We assessed the present status of MPA networks that showed a set of important results manifested in some strengths (i.e. proper selection according to specific criteria, management plans, etc., and also some weaknesses (i.e. a relatively small protected proportion of the Egyptian marine territorial waters, significant pressures mainly by tourism activities, etc.. Finally, some recommendations are proposed from this work (i.e. incorporate more habitats that are not well represented in the network, especially on the Mediterranean Sea; establishing a touristic carrying capacity of each area; etc. to improve the current situation.

  1. Economic study of rice irradiation in egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkhateeb, M.A.; Elgmeel, E.A.

    2004-01-01

    The paper discusses the economics of rice irradiation and the effect of various parameters on unit processing costs. It provides a model for calculating specific unit processing costs by correlating known capital costs with annual operation cost and annual throughputs. It is intended to provide the investors with a general knowledge of how unit processing costs are derived. The investment criteria utilized for commercial evaluation were internal rate of return (I.I.R), pay back period (P.B.P), and average rate of return (A.R.R). The irradiation cost and the additional income are also discussed. The result of the analysis showed that the installation of an irradiation unit in Egypt would be economically feasible

  2. The global and UV-B radiation over Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    BASSET, H. A.; KORANY, M. H.

    2007-01-01

    This work studies the relation between UV-B radiation and global radiation over Egypt. The relationships between the global solar radiation and UV-B radiation at four stations in Egypt have been studied, and linear empirical formulas for estimating UV-B from global radiation at these stations has been deduced. The deduced equations were applied to calculate the UV-B radiation for other stations where measurements were unavailable, using records of global radiation at these stations. Because o...

  3. Development of the Qattara Project, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The River Nile, as a huge source of cheap hydroelectric energy, was fully exploited in Egypt upstream of Aswan in 1968 by the construction of the famous Aswan and High Dam Hydroelectric Complex. The growth of demand for electrical power is such that an additional large source of energy is required. The Qattara Project would offer not only an ideal source of low cost power production, but a vital boost for Egypt's national economy. The fundamental idea of the scheme is to channel Mediterranean Sea water into the Qattara Depression, using the difference in levels to produce hydroelectric power. The rate of discharge of sea water into the depression should be equivalent to the rate of evaporation from the lake surface. This situation will arise ten years after starting to fill the lake, when the water has reached a level of 60 m below sea level. The possibility of using PNE to excavate a Mediterranean Sea - Qattara Depression canal was first postulated by the Egyptian Atomic Energy Establishment in 1971. In 1973 a pre-feasibility study was prepared, based on preliminary site investigations performed during the period 1964-1965, namely geological and cartographic surveys, as well as on comparative economic evaluation of various solutions. The study showed clearly that the project including both base-load and peak-load hydroelectric power stations and using nuclear excavation of a canal between the sea and the depression offers a competitive solution for cheap power production. A subsequent feasibility study, which was started in 1975, investigates alternative ways of constructing the canal/tunnel system, using conventional tunnelling and PNE. For the nuclear solution, two cases are considered, one using unlimited yields and another with 150 kt maximum yield. A preliminary assessment of the effects of the explosion and costs of the nuclear component of the project are given. (author)

  4. Geotechniques of landfill design in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elleboudy, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    The remarkable pollution and the deteriorating environmental conditions in the capital city and other major cities in Egypt have created serious health problems and had great impact on social and economical development. This situation has urged the government to establish a new ministry for environment. The ministry put a national action plan to overcome all the local environmental problems. Among them, the tremendous amounts of solid wastes that are produced daily by the overpopulated cities used to be dumped in open areas causing a terrible unbearable pollution. The ministry has recently initiated several projects for solid and hazardous waste management and disposal to be executed according to the international standards. The Ministry of Environment has appointed a team of multidisciplinary experts to carry out the environmental impact assessment of site selection and the engineering design of landfills. I was fortunate enough to join the team as a geotechnical consulting engineer to review the design of the proposed landfills from the geotechnical point of view. The criteria for landfill design included the physical size, its proximity and access, topography, geotechnical and geological aspects, surface water, ground water hydrology, and future site development and land use. Several sites have been selected to start the project; in Nasr City, 15th of May City, and Assalam City, which are districts of Cairo, Abu-Zaabal in Kalubia Governrate, Shabramont in Giza, Shawa in Dakahlia, Borg El-Arab near Alexandria, two sites in Monofia, and another one in El-Katamia. The paper presents the studies carried out for site selection, geotechnical design, and the possible impact on the environment of the surrounding areas. The studies also included the hydro-geological conditions and the assessment of the ground water conditions in each site and the potential contamination. Socioeconomic measures and public participation in decision making were also taken into consideration

  5. Opportunities for woody crop production using treated wastewater in Egypt. II. Irrigation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evett, Steven R; Zalesny, Ronald S; Kandil, Nabil F; Stanturf, John A; Soriano, Chris

    2011-01-01

    An Egyptian national program targets annual reuse of 2.4 billion m3 of treated wastewater (TWW) to irrigate 84,000 ha of manmade forests in areas close to treatment plants and in the desert. To evaluate the feasibility of such afforestation efforts, we describe information about TWW irrigation strategies based on (1) water use of different tree species, (2) weather conditions in different climate zones of Egypt, (3) soil types and available irrigation systems, and (4) the requirement to avoid deep percolation losses that could lead to groundwater contamination. We conclude that drip irrigation systems are preferred, that they should in most cases use multiple emitters per tree in order to increase wetted area and decrease depth of water penetration, that deep rooting should be encouraged, and that in most situations irrigation system automation is desirable to achieve several small irrigations per day in order to avoid deep percolation losses. We describe directed research necessary to fill knowledge gaps about depth of rooting of different species in sandy Egyptian soils and environments, tree crop coefficients needed for rational irrigation scheduling, and depth of water penetration under different irrigation system designs. A companion paper addresses recommendations for afforestation strategies (see Zalesny et al. 2011, this issue).

  6. Influence of structures on drainage patterns in the Tushka region, SW Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, C. A.; El-Kaliouby, H.; Ghoneim, E.

    2017-12-01

    Remote sensing (radar, thermal and topographic) and geophysical (Vertical Electrical Sounding and Ground Penetrating Radar) data are used to understand areas with enhanced groundwater potential in deeper aquifer settings between 22°0‧-22°56‧N and 30°21-31°20‧E in the Tushka area of southwest Egypt. The premise is that areas with enhanced groundwater accumulations represent the best locations for agricultural development that is underway in this region and that deeper sources groundwater resources are the most sustainable. New fluvial and structural interpretations emphasize that the desert landscape was produced by fluvial action in the past. The correlation of high drainage and fault densities, coincident with gentle slope, guided sites for geophysical investigation that provides information about the aquifer depth and distribution, and the subsurface distribution of faults. Results confirm the presence of subsurface fault plains and fault zones and potential water aquifers at these locations. Surface environments further demonstrated an abundance of shrubs and cultivatable soils. The new approach therefore is a cost effective and noninvasive technique that can be applied throughout the eastern Sahara to assist in resource management decisions and support the planned agricultural expansion.

  7. Recent environmental change and prehistoric human activity in Egypt and Northern Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoll, Kathleen

    2004-03-01

    This paper reviews the various Late Quaternary records that are available from western Egypt and northern Sudan, which includes more than 500 published radiocarbon dates and various sedimentary archives from local landscape components, including palaeolakes, soils, drainages (wadis), and archaeological sites. This palaeoenvironmental compilation frames the spatial and temporal context of local cultural activities when the region was most hospitable ˜9000-6000 BP; at this time, monsoonal weather influenced the portion of the African continental interior, creating enough convective rainfall for occasional surface water storage. In this part of the modern Sahara, rapid hydroclimatic changes play a key role in geomorphic evolution and resource availability. As 'watering holes' formed and dried up in the Early to Middle Holocene, Neolithic people developed various subsistence strategies, including opportunistic hunting of small animals (e.g. gazelle and hare), and food-related (e.g. wild sorghum, millet, and legumes) activities: gathering, plant cultivation and livestock-rearing. During its wettest phases during the 'monsoonal maximum,' the area was drought-prone, sustaining a meager steppe-shrub desert flora. Further desertification and aeolian deflation during the Middle and Late Holocene fostered technological innovation, migration and settlement, as well as the further development of agrarian communities and complex culture.

  8. Synoptic view of the different domains of application of airborne radiometric and spectrometric surveys in egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouad, K.M.

    1998-01-01

    Airborne radiometric survey has been applied for more than three decades in egypt. Experience gained from the acquired data over different geological environments has revealed the importance of this geophysical tool in: 1. disclosure of anomalies of potential uranium deposits, 2. geological mapping, 3. environmental monitoring of natural radiometric background around nuclear facilities, as well as the detection of nuclear fallout resulting from local or foreign nuclear activities. The advent of recording of the discriminated gamma ray energies in the airborne 256-channel spectrometer has eventually resulted in the quantitative detection of uranium, thorium, and potassium and their elemental ratios in the rocks. This has greatly widened the scope of geophysical and geochemical application. When this type is coupled with airborne magnetometry, the geological and structural configuration is appreciably revealed in three dimensions. The important role played by the statistical method of analysis is also shown. Case histories from the eastern desert, and sinai peninsula, are exhibited to help manifest the wide variety of applications of radiometric and spectrometric surveys

  9. Urology and the scientific method in ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordetsky, Jennifer; O'Brien, Jeanne

    2009-03-01

    To examine the practice of urology in ancient Egypt using various sources, including the Edwin Smith and Ebers Papyri. The sources of knowledge of ancient Egyptian medicine include medical papyri, paleopathology, art, and hieroglyphic carvings. A brief overview of the medical system in ancient Egypt was completed, in addition to an examination of the training and specialization of the physician in the ancient world. Urologic diseases treated in ancient Egypt and some of the first documented urologic surgeries are presented. Finally, we studied the role of the physician-priest and the intertwined use of religion and magic in ancient Egyptian medicine. The same medical conditions urologists treat in the office today were methodically documented thousands of years ago. Medical papyri show evidence that the ancient Egyptians practiced medicine using a scientific method based on the clinical observation of disease. This has been exemplified by the Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus, a collection of surgical cases that gives a diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis for each ailment, and the discovery of medical specialization in ancient Egypt, giving us perhaps the world's first urologists. Intertwined with the scientific method was also the rich mysticism and religion of ancient Egypt, which were integral components of the healing process. We present an overview of the practice of urology in ancient Egypt, in terms of both pharmacologic and surgical intervention, as well as with a look into the religion of medicine practiced at that time.

  10. Factors Affecting Accidents Risks among Truck Drivers In Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elshamly Ahmed Fathalla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Egypt is ranked among the countries with the highest rates of road accidents. According to the American Chamber of Commerce more than 96% of Egypt's goods are transported by trucks and due to their large volume and excessive weight, the severity and number of truck accident fatalities are much higher than other vehicles in Egypt. The present study aims at identifying truck driver's behavior and its influence on crash involvement. Due to the shortage in recording accident data and the inaccurate road accident audit, data was collected from several governorates in Egypt through questionnaire. Questionnaire forms were filled out through personal interviews with truck drivers. The total number of respondents was 643. The final analysis was made on the 615 questionnaires with complete answers. The data was analyzed and logistic regression was applied to accident related data to examine the contributing factors affecting accident occurrence of truck drivers. Results showed that fatigue in terms of driving hours (continuous and total and lack of sleep, drug use during driving, and driver obesity are the most influencing factors on the occurrence of truck accidents in Egypt. The findings of this research highlight the important role human factors have on the risk of crash involvement amongst Egypt's truck drivers and the need to improve their work conditions.

  11. Risk factors for bango abuse in upper Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassa, Heba A; Dawood, Abd El-Wahaab A; Shehata, Manal M; Abdel-Hady, Randa H; Abdel-Aal, Khaled M

    2009-11-01

    Cannabis is the most commonly abused drug in the world. In Egypt, the Anti Narcotic General Administration, showed that the narcotics problem costs the Egyptian economy approximately 800 million dollars annually. The present study was designed to determine the risk factors that lead to bango abuse among secondary school students and drivers in Assiut province. Urine samples were taken from 1000 volunteers after filling questionnaires and the risk factors were determined. Ethical consideration and informed consent was taken on. In drivers, the study found that bango abuse was concentrated in age group (21 to abuse concentrated in male students by 100%, and in those with high daily fund. The abused students tend to be more aggressive. Also, tend to be lazy to share in school activities. Abused students present in large family (8-11 persons) and families with troubles between parents (81% in divorced parents). In conclusion, bango abuse leads to deterioration of the academic achievement, and may be associated with antisocial and violent behavior. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The burden of trachoma in the rural Nile Delta of Egypt: a survey of Menofiya governorate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezz al Arab, G; Tawfik, N; El Gendy, R; Anwar, W; Courtright, P

    2001-12-01

    Evidence of widespread distribution of trachoma in Egypt had not been clarified as previous surveys were limited to individual communities which may not have been representative of the general population. The Nile Delta of Egypt presents a unique environment for trachoma to persist. Economic improvements in the past decade have affected even the poorest rural environments; availability of electricity is now found in many rural communities. Availability of water in Nile Delta has always been good but poor hygienic conditions have been the primary factor in trachoma transmission. A survey of trachoma was undertaken in Menofiya governorate to determine if Egypt should be identified as trachoma endemic and targeted for trachoma control efforts. A multistage random cluster study design was used with the target population defined as adults aged 50 and over and children aged 2-6 years from throughout the governorate. Among preschool children only trachoma was graded while among adults presenting visual acuity and cause of vision loss or blindness were also recorded. Adults were interviewed regarding past trichiasis surgery; those currently with trichiasis or a history of trichiasis surgery were also interviewed regarding outcome of surgery. A total of 3272 children aged 2-6 and 3322 adults age 50+ were enumerated. Among the children 81.3% were examined and among the adults 73.0% were examined. Active trachoma (follicles (TF) and/or intense inflammation (TI)) was found among 36.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) 34.7-38.3%) of the children. TI was 1.89 (95% CI 1.22-2.94) times more common in rural children compared to urban children. The prevalence of trichiasis (TT) in adults was 6.5%; women had an age adjusted odds of trichiasis of 1.68 (95% CI 1.18-2.39) compared to men. Trichiasis was 2.11 times (95% CI 1.33-3.37) more common in rural Menofiya compared to urban Menofiya. TT accounts for blindness (presenting vision vision loss. These findings would suggest that continued

  13. Comparison of microscopic and immunoassay examination in the diagnosis of intestinal protozoa of humans in Mansoura, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elswaifi, Shaadi F; Palmieri, James R; El-Tantawy, Nora; El-Hussiny, Mona; Besheer, Tarek; Abohashem, Ekbal

    2016-09-01

    Protozoal diseases are prevalent globally and especially in developing countries that have relatively lower socioeconomic populations such as Egypt. Direct microscopic examination (DME) is used for the detection and identification of protozoa but lacks sufficient reliability, and thus may be detrimental in obtaining accurate diagnostic or epidemiological data. In this study, we determine the prevalence of infections by Giardia intestinalis, Cryptosporidium sp., and Entamoeba histolytica in humans in Egypt. Furthermore, we determine the reliability of DME in determining infections caused by these protozoa and compare the results to enzyme linked Immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Our results indicate that the prevalence of giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis, and entamoebiasis is 38, 22, and 16 %, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of DME for detection of G. intestinalis is 45 and 99 %, for Cryptosporidium 66 and 99 %, and for Entamoeba 45 and 100 %, respectively. Our findings demonstrate that ELISA is more reliable for diagnostic and epidemiologic study purposes.

  14. Desert basins of the Southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, Stanley A.; Konieczki, Alice D.; Rees, Julie A.H.

    2000-01-01

    Ground water is among the Nation’s most important natural resources. It provides drinking water to urban and rural communities, supports irrigation and industry, sustains the flow of streams and rivers, and maintains riparian and wetland ecosystems. In many areas of the Nation, the future sustainability of ground-water resources is at risk from overuse and contamination. Because ground-water systems typically respond slowly to human actions, a long-term perspective is needed to manage this valuable resource. This publication is one in a series of fact sheets that describe ground-water-resource issues across the United States, as well as some of the activities of the U.S. Geological Survey that provide information to help others develop, manage, and protect ground-water resources in a sustainable manner. Ground-water resources in the Southwest are among the most overused in the United States. Natural recharge to aquifers is low and pumping in many areas has resulted in lowering of water tables. The consequences of large-scale removal of water from storage are becoming increasingly evident. These consequences include land subsidence; loss of springs, streams, wetlands and associated habitat; and degradation of water quality. Water managers are now seeking better ways of managing ground-water resources while looking for supplemental sources of water. This fact sheet reviews basic information on ground water in the desert basins of the Southwest. Also described are some activities of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) that are providing scientific information for sustainable management of ground-water resources in the Southwest. Ground-water sustainability is defined as developing and using ground water in a way that can be maintained for an indefinite time without causing unacceptable environmental, economic, or social consequences.

  15. Assessment and management of water resources in Egypt to face drought and water scarcity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, Wouter; El Guindy, Samia; Salah El Deen, Magdy; Roest, Koen; Smit, Robert; Froebrich, Jochen

    2013-04-01

    Egypt is one of the countries hardest hit by global and climate change. Challenges include population growth; increased demands for food, water, and energy; as well as changing land use patterns and urbanization. Egypt's part of the Mediterranean is characterized by a very complex hydrological system, as it lacks rainfall (Cairo average 30 mm/year) and it is completely dependent on the Nile river flow. The growth of the Egyptian population and its economy in the near future leads to an increase in the demand for water and the overall water allocation priority basically is: first drinking water, then industry, and whatever is remaining will be available for agriculture and nature. Because the agricultural sector uses more than 80 per cent of available water, the main option available to reduce water scarcity in the priority sectors of the economy is to allocate less to the agriculture sector. Scientifically based advances in facing future drought and water scarcity through innovations increasing yields and food security by measures leading to "more crop per drop" are required. New and modern large- and medium-scale agriculture is being developed in desert areas with participation of the private sector for investments. To prepare the farming community and others elsewhere, for the future situation of water shortages, a paradigm shift is needed. New farming systems under tight water supply conditions are in development to prepare for a future with less water. Egyptian farming systems need a major transition to prevent further marginalization of agriculture, which would also have a major impact on food security. Central to this transition should be the increase of value generated per volume available water, also referred to as "more crop per drop" or "more cash per splash". There is room for the urgently required improvement: the present return on water in agriculture in Egypt is about US 0.25 /m3, where values of over US 1 /m3 are "easily" reached elsewhere. Moreover

  16. Introduction and domestication of woody plants for sustainable agriculture in desert areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelef, Oren; Soloway, Elaine; Rachmilevitch, Shimon

    2014-05-01

    High radiation in hot deserts results in high salinity, especially in irrigated fields. Whenever not treated properly, this salinization may harm crops and eventually bring to soil destruction, field abandonment, or literally desertification. Furthermore, the range of crops that can be grown commercially in hot deserts is limited (Nerd et al. 1990). With the globalization of the last century, Introduction of exotic species for commercial use became more accessible. However, these attempts may involve extreme land changes including establishment of potential invasive species. Therefore domestication of native species should be preferred rather than introduction of exotics. In the last six years we did first steps of domesticating several native species, searching for commercial potential (pharmaceutics, food, biomass for energy and desalination of constructed wetlands). We studied aspects of desert plant physiology in drought and saline conditions. We wish to share the knowledge we gained regarding the physiology and commercial potential of the following desert plant species: 1) Bassia indica is an annual halophyte. We proposed to use it for salt phytoremediation in constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment and as feed for livestock; 2) Commiphora gileadensis is considered as the balm tree of Judea, praised for its use as holy oil and in perfumes but also considered as a cure for many diseases. C. gileadensis today grows naturally in southwest Arabia and Somaliland. We found anti-proliferative and apoptotic effect of C. gileadensis extracts on several human cancer cells. Ben Gurion University of the Negev has patented these findings. 3) Artemisia sieberi and A. judaica are both known for various therapeutic traits. While studying effects of irrigation intensity on these traits, some allopathic characters were discovered. 4) Fichus palmate disappeared from Israel, but remind in neighbouring Jordan and Egypt. This tree may serve as a robust stand for fig

  17. Physiological ecology of desert iguana (Dipsosaurus dorsalis) eggs: temperature and water relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muth, A.

    1980-12-01

    The soil environment imposes constraints on the timing of oviposition and the location of suitable sites for egg burrows of the desert iguana (Dipsosaurus dorsalis). The effects of temperature and water potential on the developmental period and hatching success of eggs were determined. Eggs hatch normally between 28/sup 0/ and 38/sup 0/C at environmental water potentials between -50 and -1500 kPa. Predictions were derived for the timing and placement of egg clutches based on soil water potential and temperature profiles measured in the field and on the results of laboratory incubation experiments. The results suggest that egg burrows should be located at depths >22 cm in washes or possibly in sparsely vegetated areas away from creosote bushes. The biogeography of desert iguanas within the United States is discussed in relation to soil environments and tolerances of eggs. The physical factors affecting incubation may limit the geographical range of desert iguanas.

  18. HarassMap and Uber Egypt partner to raise awareness about ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-12-11

    Dec 11, 2017 ... HarassMap has also led to another profound impact in Egypt: Cairo ... of sexual harassment in Egypt is empowering women and changing men's attitudes. ... IDRC congratulates first cohort of Women in Climate Change ...

  19. Egypt v literatuře před polovinou 19. století

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baďurová, Anežka

    -, č. 4 (2013) E-ISSN 1805-2800 Keywords : egypt ian literature * literature * Week of science and technology 2013 http://www.lib.cas.cz/casopis-informace/ egypt -v-literature-pred-polovinou-19-stoleti/

  20. Evaluation of seismic hazard at the northwestern part of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzelarab, M.; Shokry, M. M. F.; Mohamed, A. M. E.; Helal, A. M. A.; Mohamed, Abuoelela A.; El-Hadidy, M. S.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the seismic hazard at the northwestern Egypt using the probabilistic seismic hazard assessment approach. The Probabilistic approach was carried out based on a recent data set to take into account the historic seismicity and updated instrumental seismicity. A homogenous earthquake catalogue was compiled and a proposed seismic sources model was presented. The doubly-truncated exponential model was adopted for calculations of the recurrence parameters. Ground-motion prediction equations that recently recommended by experts and developed based upon earthquake data obtained from tectonic environments similar to those in and around the studied area were weighted and used for assessment of seismic hazard in the frame of logic tree approach. Considering a grid of 0.2° × 0.2° covering the study area, seismic hazard curves for every node were calculated. Hazard maps at bedrock conditions were produced for peak ground acceleration, in addition to six spectral periods (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 s) for return periods of 72, 475 and 2475 years. The unified hazard spectra of two selected rock sites at Alexandria and Mersa Matruh Cities were provided. Finally, the hazard curves were de-aggregated to determine the sources that contribute most of hazard level of 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years for the mentioned selected sites.

  1. Antimicrobial susceptibility of tinea capitis in children from Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reham William Doss

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dermatophytic fungi of genera Trichophyton and Microsporum are the most important fungal species causing tinea capitis. Choice of treatment for tinea capitis is determined by the species of fungus. Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the most prevalent fungal species causing tinea capitis in children from Egypt and the most useful antifungal agent for treatment. Patients and Methods: A total of 100 patients diagnosed clinically with tinea capitis were included in the study. Samples were collected and sent to the microbiology and immunology laboratory for sample processing and fungal identification by routine laboratory techniques. A study of antifungal susceptibility to chosen antifungal medications (fluconazole, ketoconazole, clotrimazole, miconazole, amphotericin, caspofungin, itraconazole, terbinafine, and griseofulvin was done by minimum inhibitory concentration technique. Results: Our analysis revealed that Microsporum canis is the most commonly isolated strain. Amphotericin was the most effective antifungal agent followed by terbinafine. The most sensitive strain to fluconazole and griseofulvin is Microsporum gypseum, while Microsporum audouinii was mostly responsive to terbinafine. Conclusion: Identification and evaluation of the antifungal susceptibility of the pathogenic species in a certain geographic region is important to achieve a good clinical response.

  2. Assessment of Energy Conservation in Egypt's Electric System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhar El Saeed Awad Abou Ghoniem

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an evaluation of energy saving policy as a key factor in Egypt's electric system in terms of benefits, invested cost, power quality and environmental impact, solutions have been made by system planners and decision makers aiming to face the challenges that being encountered by the electric system such as scarce and precious of prime energies are compared in terms of invested cost, implementation time and advantages for both of power providers and end users w.r.to energy savings. A case study that implemented in a pilot program for energy savings was given. It is a group of facilities include industrial, commercial, administrative companies and worship houses, they are connected to Alexandria electrical distribution network, they are classified as big customers, i.e. contracted power for each is higher than 0.5 mega watt, the goals of the program were evaluating potentials of energy saving opportunities in the system and estimating the outcomes. Options were evaluated with regard to savings in electricity, fuels and water. Cost of investments and pay back periods were calculated. Environmental impact as a result of saving in emitted green house gas co2 is determined. Potentials of energy savings are analyzed and benefits to both electric utilities and end users were assessed.

  3. BATHYMETRIC STUDY OF WADI EL-RAYAN LAKES, EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radwan Gad Elrab ABD ELLAH

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bathymetry is a technique of measuring depths to determine the morphometry of water bodies. The derivation of bathymetry from the surveys is one of the basic researches of the aquatic environment, which has several practical implications to on the lake environment and it's monitoring. Wadi El-Rayan, as Ramsar site, is a very important wetland, in Egypt, as a reservoir for agricultural drainage water, fisheries and tourism. The Lakes are man-made basins in the Fayoum depression. Wadi El-Rayan Lakes are two reservoirs (upper Lake and Lower Lake, at different elevations. The Upper Lake is classified as open basin, while the Lower Lake is a closed basin, with no significant obvious water outflow. During recent decades, human impact on Wadi El-Rayan Lakes has increased due to intensification of agriculture and fish farming. Analyses of bathyemtric plans from 1996, 2010 and 2016 showed, the differences between morphometric parameters of the Upper Lake were generally small, while the Lower Lake changes are obvious at the three periods. The small fluctuate, in the features of Upper Lake is due to the water balance between the water inflow and water. The Lower Lake has faced extreme water loss through last twenty years is due to the agricultural lands and fish farms extended in the depression. The Upper Lake is rich in Lakeshores macrophyets, while decline the water plants in the Lower Lake. With low water levels, in the Lower Lake, the future continuity of the Lake system is in jeopardy

  4. New Media and Political Dissent in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirschkind, Charles

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores some of the ways that the Internet, and particularly the practice of blogging, has opened up new political possibilities in Egypt. As I examine, political bloggers in this country (Islamist as well as secularist have pioneered new language forms and video styles in order to articulate an arena of political life they refer to as “the street.” Egyptian bloggers render visible and publicly speakable practices of state violence that other media outlets cannot easily disclose. In discussing the sensory epistemology informing these blogging practices, I give particular attention to the way traditions concerning the sonority of the Arabic language and the relation of written to spoken forms are exploited and reworked by some of Egypt’s most prominent political bloggers. I also examine how these language practices find a visual and aural analogy in the grainy cellphone video recordings found on many of Egypt’s political blogs. This paper analyzes such practices in relation to emergent forms of political agency and contestation in contemporary Egypt.

    El autor explora algunos de los modos como Internet, en particular el escribir y publicar en un blog, ha abierto nuevas posibilidades políticas en Egipto. El estudio revela que los blogueros políticos en este país (que incluye tanto a islamistas como a laicistas han creado nuevas formas de lenguaje y nuevos estilos de vídeo con los que vertebrar un espacio de vida política al que se refieren como “la calle”. Los blogueros egipcios hacen visibles y motivo de debate público acciones violentas del Estado que otros medios informativos no pueden divulgar con la misma facilidad. El autor se detiene especialmente en el modo como los blogueros políticos más sobresalientes del país recurren y adaptan las tradiciones relativas a la sonoridad de la lengua árabe y a la conexión que existe en ella entre las formas habladas y las escritas. Asimismo, examina el modo como

  5. Jojoba could stop the desert creep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-03-25

    The Sahara desert is estimated to be expanding at a rate of 5km a year. The Sudanese government is experimenting with jojoba in six different regions as the bush has the potential to stop this ''desert creep''. The plant, a native to Mexico, is long known for its resistance to drought and for the versatile liquid wax that can be extracted from its seeds. It is estimated that one hectare of mature plants could produce 3000 kg of oil, currently selling at $50 per litre, and so earn valuable foreign currency.

  6. CAMEL REARING IN CHOLISTAN DESERT OF PAKISTAN

    OpenAIRE

    I. ALI, M. SHAFIQ CHAUDHRY1 AND U. FAROOQ

    2009-01-01

    The camel is one of the typical and the best adopted animals of the desert, capable of enduring thirst and hunger for days and is the most patient of land animals. For desert nomads of Pakistani Cholistan, it is a beloved companion, a source of milk and meat, transport facility provider and a racing/dancing animal, thus, playing an important role in the socioeconomic uplift of the local community. Camels of Marrecha or Mahra breed are mainly used for riding and load carrying but may be traine...

  7. Morbidity, Mortality, and Seasonality of Influenza Hospitalizations in Egypt, November 2007-November 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Kandeel, Amr; Dawson, Patrick; Labib, Manal; Said, Mayar; El-Refai, Samir; El-Gohari, Amani; Talaat, Maha

    2016-01-01

    Background Influenza typically comprises a substantial portion of acute respiratory infections, a leading cause of mortality worldwide. However, influenza epidemiology data are lacking in Egypt. We describe seven years of Egypt?s influenza hospitalizations from a multi-site influenza surveillance system. Methods Syndromic case definitions identified individuals with severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) admitted to eight hospitals in Egypt. Standardized demographic and clinical data were ...

  8. Landscape-scale distribution and density of raptor populations wintering in anthropogenic-dominated desert landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerr, Adam E.; Miller, Tricia A.; Cornell Duerr, Kerri L; Lanzone, Michael J.; Fesnock, Amy; Katzner, Todd E.

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic development has great potential to affect fragile desert environments. Large-scale development of renewable energy infrastructure is planned for many desert ecosystems. Development plans should account for anthropogenic effects to distributions and abundance of rare or sensitive wildlife; however, baseline data on abundance and distribution of such wildlife are often lacking. We surveyed for predatory birds in the Sonoran and Mojave Deserts of southern California, USA, in an area designated for protection under the “Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan”, to determine how these birds are distributed across the landscape and how this distribution is affected by existing development. We developed species-specific models of resight probability to adjust estimates of abundance and density of each individual common species. Second, we developed combined-species models of resight probability for common and rare species so that we could make use of sparse data on the latter. We determined that many common species, such as red-tailed hawks, loggerhead shrikes, and especially common ravens, are associated with human development and likely subsidized by human activity. Species-specific and combined-species models of resight probability performed similarly, although the former model type provided higher quality information. Comparing abundance estimates with past surveys in the Mojave Desert suggests numbers of predatory birds associated with human development have increased while other sensitive species not associated with development have decreased. This approach gave us information beyond what we would have collected by focusing either on common or rare species, thus it provides a low-cost framework for others conducting surveys in similar desert environments outside of California.

  9. MONETARY COSTS OF THE STUDENT DESERTION IN THE ACADEMIC PROGRAMS IN THE UNIVERSITY OF LA GUAJIRA COLOMBIA COSTOS MONETARIOS DE LA DESERCION ESTUDIANTIL EN LOS PROGRAMAS ACADEMICOS EN LA UNIVERSIDAD DE LA GUAJIRA COLOMBIA

    OpenAIRE

    Marlenis Ucros Brito; Dalmer Vargas Palacios; Charles J. Blanco Martes

    2013-01-01

    This research determines the monetary costs of the student desertion in academic programs of the University of La Guajira-Colombia and their extensions 2007-2011. The investigation is descriptive, under a quantitative approach. The results show the costs of desertion in the University of La Guajira are a relevant indicator to the extent that it reflects the degree of efficiency of its institutional policies. However, the estimation of monetary costs and rates of desertion, present differences...

  10. Nest site selection in a hot desert : Trade-off between microclimate and predation risk?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieleman, B. Irene; van Noordwijk, Hendrika J.; Williams, Joseph B.

    Nest placement affects the risk of predation on both eggs and incubating parents and determines the microclimate for incubation, two functions that may be in conflict, especially in hot deserts. We studied the roles of microclimate and nest predation on nest site selection by Hoopoe Larks (Alaemon

  11. Opportunities for woody crop production using treated wastewater in Egypt. I. Afforestation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald S. Zalesny Jr.; John A. Stanturf; Steven R. Evett; Nabil F. Kandil; Christopher Soriano

    2011-01-01

    The Nile River provides nearly 97% of Egypt's freshwater supply. Egypt's share of Nile waters is fixed at 55.5 billion cubic meters annually. As a result, Egypt will not be able to meet increasing water demand using freshwater from the Nile and has been developing non-conventional wastewater reuse strategies to meet future demands. The USAID Mission in Cairo...

  12. Views of Ancient Egypt. Teacher's Guide. School Arts: Looking/Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Linda; Brenner, Carla

    This teaching guide discusses ancient Egyptian culture, the lithographs made by Napoleon's scientists in 1798-99 to study and record every aspect of Egypt, the world's subsequent fascination with Egypt, ancient Egyptian architecture, Egyptian writing, and archeologists' illustrations of Egypt. The guide suggests activities for elementary school,…

  13. Renewable energy potential from biomass residues in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Said, N.; Zamorano, M. [Civil Engineering Dept., Univ. of Granada, Campus de Fuentenueva, Granada (Spain); El-Shatoury, S.A. [Botany Dept., Faculty of Sciences, Suez Canal Univ., Ismailia (Egypt)

    2012-11-01

    Egypt has been one of the developing countries following successful programs for the development of renewable energy resources, with special emphasis on solar, wind and biomass. Utilization of biomass as a source of energy is important from energetic as well as environmental viewpoint. Furthermore, Egypt produces millions of biomass waste every year causing pollution and health problems. So, the incorporation of biomass with other renewable energy will increase the impact of solving energy and environmental problem. There is a good potential for the utilization of biomass energy resources in Egypt. Four main types of biomass energy sources are included in this study: agricultural residues, municipal solid wastes, animal wastes and sewage sludge. Analysis of the potential biomass resource quantity and its theoretical energy content has been computed according to literature review. The agriculture crop residue represents the main source of biomass waste with a high considerable amount of the theoretical potential energy in Egypt. Rice straw is considered one of the most important of such residue due to its high amount and its produced energy through different conversion techniques represent a suitable candidate for crop energy production in Egypt.

  14. Future studies and research in Egypt. Overview, examples, perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goell, Edgar

    2012-02-15

    During the last decade there have been several distinct activities and efforts with regards to future research in Egypt. Several institutions and capacities have been created. Although these capacities do not always meet high scientific standards, their results and studies offer important and well-grounded elements for future-oriented discussions and political decisions. Not least because of the Egypt revolt which started in January 2011 and the ongoing complex and conflicting societal struggles in Egypt the objective needs as well as the demand for systematic future thinking and future studies will very likely increase further. For that reason this report presents an overview about the context conditions, experiences and forms of future research in Egypt. The major challenges as well as the major issues are described. The main part is the description of the most important institutions, which are conducting future research, their projects and in addition two concrete projects, which try to practice Sustainable Development in different ways. Finally, several (self-)critical assessments and perspectives from selected experts of the future research community in Egypt will be presented.

  15. Hepatitis C in Egypt – past, present, and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elgharably A

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed Elgharably,1,2 Asmaa I Gomaa,2 Mary ME Crossey,1,2 Peter J Norsworthy,1 Imam Waked,2 Simon D Taylor-Robinson1 1Division of Digestive Health, Department of Surgery and Cancer, St Mary’s Hospital, Imperial College London, London, UK; 2National Liver Institute, Menoufiya University, Shebeen El Kom, Egypt Abstract: Hepatitis C viral infection is endemic in Egypt with the highest prevalence rate in the world. It is widely accepted that the implementation of mass population antischistosomal treatment involving administration of tartar emetic injections (from 1950s to 1980s led to widespread infection. What is less well known, however, is that these schemes were implemented by the Egyptian Ministry of Health on the advice of the World Health Organization. There has been a spectrum of treatments to target the public health disaster represented by the hepatitis C problem in Egypt: from the use of PEGylated interferon to the recent use of direct acting antiviral drugs. Some new treatments have shown >90% efficacy. However, cost is a key barrier to access these new medicines. This is coupled with a growing population, limited resources, and a lack of infection control practices which means Egypt still faces significant disease control issues today. Keywords: hepatitis C, Egypt, schistosomiasis

  16. Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Diversity in Cephalosporium maydis from Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Amgad A; Zeller, Kurt A; Ismael, Abou-Serie M; Fahmy, Zeinab M; El-Assiuty, Elhamy M; Leslie, John F

    2003-07-01

    ABSTRACT Cephalosporium maydis, the causal agent of late wilt of maize, was first described in Egypt in the 1960s, where it can cause yield losses of up to 40% in susceptible plantings. We characterized 866 isolates of C. maydis collected from 14 governates in Egypt, 7 in the Nile River Delta and 7 in southern (Middle and Upper) Egypt, with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. The four AFLP primer-pair combinations generated 68 bands, 25 of which were polymorphic, resulting in 52 clonal haplotypes that clustered the 866 isolates into four phylogenetic lineages. Three lineages were found in both the Nile River Delta and southern Egypt. Lineage IV, the most diverse group (20 haplotypes), was recovered only from governates in the Nile River Delta. In some locations, one lineage dominated (up to 98% of the isolates recovered) and, from some fields, only a single haplotype was recovered. Under field conditions in Egypt, there is no evidence that C. maydis reproduces sexually. The nonuniform geographic distribution of the pathogen lineages within the country could be due to differences in climate or in the farming system, because host material differs in susceptibility and C. maydis lineages differ in pathogenicity.

  17. Congenital hand anomalies in Upper Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek Abulezz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Congenital hand anomalies are numerous and markedly variant. Their significance is attributed to the frequent occurrence and their serious social, psychological and functional impacts on patient's life. Patients and Methods: This is a follow-up study of 64 patients with hand anomalies of variable severity. All patients were presented to Plastic Surgery Department of Sohag University Hospital in a period of 24 months. Results: This study revealed that failure of differentiation and duplication deformities were the most frequent, with polydactyly was the most common anomaly encountered. The mean age of presentation was 6 years and female to male ratio was 1.46:1. Hand anomalies were either isolated, associated with other anomalies or part of a syndrome. Conclusion: Incidence of congenital hand anomalies in Upper Egypt is difficult to be estimated due to social and cultural concepts, lack of education, poor registration and deficient medical survey. Management of hand anomalies should be individualised, carefully planned and started as early as possible to achieve the best outcome.

  18. Dermatoses among automobile mechanics in Mansoura, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-ElWafa, Hala Samir; Albadry, Ahmed A; El-Gilany, Abdel-Hady; Ismael, Ahmed Fawzi

    2018-01-02

    This cross-sectional study was carried out in Mansoura, Egypt to assess the prevalence of occupational dermatoses and their possible risk factors on a convenience sample of car mechanics. Sociodemographic and occupational data were collected, and clinical examination was done. Prevalence of skin diseases was 45.4% and that of exclusively occupational skin diseases was 9.2%. Irritant contact dermatitis, eczema, and tar/oil acne were the most common types (4.6%, 3.1%, 3.1%, respectively). The logistic regression analysis revealed that the risk of occupational dermatoses increased significantly with lack of use of personal protective equipment, longer duration of work, and presence of workplace chemicals (adjusted odds ratio [95% CI] were 7.2 [2.7, 19.0], 4.3 [1.7, 10.9], and 3.7 [1.3, 10.5], respectively). Health education and safety measures are essential for prevention and control of hazardous workplace practices and exposure.

  19. Safe transport of radioactive materials in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shinawy, R.M.K.

    1994-01-01

    In Egypt the national regulations for safe transport of radioactive materials (RAM) are based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) regulations. In addition, regulations for the safe transport of these materials through the Suez Canal (SC) were laid down by the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority (EAEA) and the Suez Canal Authority (SCA). They are continuously updated to meet the increased knowledge and the gained experience. The technical and protective measures taken during transport of RAM through SC are mentioned. Assessment of the impact of transporting radioactive materials through the Suez Canal using the INTERTRAN computer code was carried out in cooperation with IAEA. The transported activities and empty containers, the number of vessels carrying RAM through the canal from 1963 and 1991 and their nationalities are also discussed. The protective measures are mentioned. A review of the present situation of the radioactive wastes storage facilities at the Atomic Energy site at Inshas is given along with the regulation for safe transportation and disposal of radioactive wastes. (Author)

  20. Probabilistic earthquake hazard analysis for Cairo, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Ahmed; Korrat, Ibrahim; El-Hadidy, Mahmoud; Gaber, Hanan

    2016-04-01

    Cairo is the capital of Egypt and the largest city in the Arab world and Africa, and the sixteenth largest metropolitan area in the world. It was founded in the tenth century (969 ad) and is 1046 years old. It has long been a center of the region's political and cultural life. Therefore, the earthquake risk assessment for Cairo has a great importance. The present work aims to analysis the earthquake hazard of Cairo as a key input's element for the risk assessment. The regional seismotectonics setting shows that Cairo could be affected by both far- and near-field seismic sources. The seismic hazard of Cairo has been estimated using the probabilistic seismic hazard approach. The logic tree frame work was used during the calculations. Epistemic uncertainties were considered into account by using alternative seismotectonics models and alternative ground motion prediction equations. Seismic hazard values have been estimated within a grid of 0.1° × 0.1 ° spacing for all of Cairo's districts at different spectral periods and four return periods (224, 615, 1230, and 4745 years). Moreover, the uniform hazard spectra have been calculated at the same return periods. The pattern of the contour maps show that the highest values of the peak ground acceleration is concentrated in the eastern zone's districts (e.g., El Nozha) and the lowest values at the northern and western zone's districts (e.g., El Sharabiya and El Khalifa).

  1. Rocks, climate and the survival of human societies in hyper-arid and arid environments - Are the human civilization in deserts at a permanent risk of collapse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoav, Avni; Noa, Avriel-Avni

    2017-04-01

    The great challenges of living in the arid and hyper arid regions worldwide are the shortage of water, limited resources and the permanent uncertainty of the desert climate. These challenges are known as the main weaknesses of desert societies that are prone, according to the existing paradigm, to a permanent risk of collapse. However, in the Middle East deserts, human societies are known since prehistoric times and during the entire hyper-dry Holocene. This hints that the simple paradigm of desert societies' high vulnerability to harsh desert environments needs to be better examined. In this context we examine three case studies: 1. The Southern Sinai region in Egypt: In this region, the annual precipitation fluctuates between 20-50 mm/y. However, in this highly mountainous area, desert agriculture plots including orchards were constructed, located mainly around the byzantine monastery of Santa Katerina. During the last 1500 years, much of the water supply needed for humans and agriculture was generated from runoff developed on exposed granite rocks. 2. The southern Jordan region south of Petra: Much of this wide area connecting the deserts of the Arabian Peninsula and southern Jordan receive only 20-30 mm/y. However, the main caravan route established by the Arabian tribes during the first millennia BC managed to cross this land, supplying the water needs of many camels. Most of this water was stored in large cisterns dug into the sandstone rock formations exposed along the route, especially within the Disi Formation. 3. The Negev Highlands of southern Israel: This region is divided between the hyper arid region to the south, receiving 70-80 mm/y, and the arid region to the north receiving 90-130 mm/y. During the last two millennia, the hyper arid area was used for camel grazing and goats herds, while the northern sector was used for the construction of agriculture plots, agriculture farms and even desert towns. All these activities were sustained by runoff

  2. Desert bighorn sheep lambing habitat: Parturition, nursery, and predation sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsch, Rebekah C.; Cain, James W.; Rominger, Eric M.; Goldstein, Elise J.

    2016-01-01

    Fitness of female ungulates is determined by neonate survival and lifetime reproductive success. Therefore, adult female ungulates should adopt behaviors and habitat selection patterns that enhance survival of neonates during parturition and lactation. Parturition site location may play an important role in neonatal mortality of desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis mexicana) when lambs are especially vulnerable to predation, but parturition sites are rarely documented for this species. Our objectives were to assess environmental characteristics at desert bighorn parturition, lamb nursery, and predation sites and to assess differences in habitat characteristics between parturition sites and nursery group sites, and predation sites and nursery group sites. We used vaginal implant transmitters (VITs) to identify parturition sites and capture neonates. We then compared elevation, slope, terrain ruggedness, and visibility at parturition, nursery, and lamb predation sites with paired random sites and compared characteristics of parturition sites and lamb predation sites to those of nursery sites. When compared to random sites, odds of a site being a parturition site were highest at intermediate slopes and decreased with increasing female visibility. Odds of a site being a predation site increased with decreasing visibility. When compared to nursery group sites, odds of a site being a parturition site had a quadratic relationship with elevation and slope, with odds being highest at intermediate elevations and intermediate slopes. When we compared predation sites to nursery sites, odds of a site being a predation were highest at low elevation areas with high visibility and high elevation areas with low visibility likely because of differences in hunting strategies of coyote (Canis latrans) and puma (Puma concolor). Parturition sites were lower in elevation and slope than nursery sites. Understanding selection of parturition sites by adult females and how habitat

  3. Divining Jordan's desert waters | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... in the area have a long history of being water-conservers, and the idea of using the ... Dr Abu-Jaber examined is covered by an ancient, volcanic rock called basalt. ... When a desert cloudburst drops rain on the area, the raindrops quickly roll ...

  4. Liquid Water Restricts Habitability in Extreme Deserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockell, Charles S; Brown, Sarah; Landenmark, Hanna; Samuels, Toby; Siddall, Rebecca; Wadsworth, Jennifer

    2017-04-01

    Liquid water is a requirement for biochemistry, yet under some circumstances it is deleterious to life. Here, we show that liquid water reduces the upper temperature survival limit for two extremophilic photosynthetic microorganisms (Gloeocapsa and Chroococcidiopsis spp.) by greater than 40°C under hydrated conditions compared to desiccated conditions. Under hydrated conditions, thermal stress causes protein inactivation as shown by the fluorescein diacetate assay. The presence of water was also found to enhance the deleterious effects of freeze-thaw in Chroococcidiopsis sp. In the presence of water, short-wavelength UV radiation more effectively kills Gloeocapsa sp. colonies, which we hypothesize is caused by factors including the greater penetration of UV radiation into hydrated colonies compared to desiccated colonies. The data predict that deserts where maximum thermal stress or irradiation occurs in conjunction with the presence of liquid water may be less habitable to some organisms than more extreme arid deserts where organisms can dehydrate prior to being exposed to these extremes, thus minimizing thermal and radiation damage. Life in extreme deserts is poised between the deleterious effects of the presence and the lack of liquid water. Key Words: Deserts-Extremophiles-Stress-High temperatures-UV radiation-Desiccation. Astrobiology 17, 309-318.

  5. Preventing desert locust plagues: optimizing management interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis, van A.; Cressman, K.; Magor, J.I.

    2007-01-01

    Solitarious desert locusts, Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål) (Orthoptera: Acrididae), inhabit the central, arid, and semi-arid parts of the species¿ invasion area in Africa, the Middle East, and South-West Asia. Their annual migration circuit takes them downwind to breed sequentially where winter,

  6. Abiotic drivers of Chihuahuan Desert plant communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura Marie Ladwig

    2014-01-01

    Within grasslands, precipitation, fire, nitrogen (N) addition, and extreme temperatures influence community composition and ecosystem function. The differential influences of these abiotic factors on Chihuahuan Desert grassland communities was examined within the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, located in central New Mexico, U.S.A. Although fire is a natural...

  7. Reclaiming freshwater sustainability in the Cadillac Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, John L.; Sinha, Tushar; Bowling, Laura C.; Schoups, Gerrit H.W.; Wallender, Wesley W.; Campana, Michael E.; Cherkauer, Keith A.; Fuller, Pam L.; Graf, William L.; Hopmans, Jan W.; Kominoski, John S.; Taylor, Carissa; Trimble, Stanley W.; Webb, Robert H.; Wohl, Ellen E.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing human appropriation of freshwater resources presents a tangible limit to the sustainability of cities, agriculture, and ecosystems in the western United States. Marc Reisner tackles this theme in his 1986 classic Cadillac Desert: The American West and Its Disappearing Water. Reisner's analysis paints a portrait of region-wide hydrologic dysfunction in the western United States, suggesting that the storage capacity of reservoirs will be impaired by sediment infilling, croplands will be rendered infertile by salt, and water scarcity will pit growing desert cities against agribusiness in the face of dwindling water resources. Here we evaluate these claims using the best available data and scientific tools. Our analysis provides strong scientific support for many of Reisner's claims, except the notion that reservoir storage is imminently threatened by sediment. More broadly, we estimate that the equivalent of nearly 76% of streamflow in the Cadillac Desert region is currently appropriated by humans, and this figure could rise to nearly 86% under a doubling of the region's population. Thus, Reisner's incisive journalism led him to the same conclusions as those rendered by copious data, modern scientific tools, and the application of a more genuine scientific method. We close with a prospectus for reclaiming freshwater sustainability in the Cadillac Desert, including a suite of recommendations for reducing region-wide human appropriation of streamflow to a target level of 60%.

  8. Regional inequalities in child malnutrition in Egypt, Jordan, and Yemen: a Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharaf, Mesbah Fathy; Rashad, Ahmed Shoukry

    2016-12-01

    There is substantial evidence that on average, urban children have better health outcomes than rural children. This paper investigates the underlying factors that account for the regional disparities in child malnutrition in three Arab countries, namely; Egypt, Jordan, and Yemen. We use data on a nationally representative sample from the most recent rounds of the Demographic and Health Survey. A Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition analysis is conducted to decompose the rural-urban differences in child nutrition outcomes into two components; one that is explained by regional differences in the level of the determinants (covariate effects), and another component that is explained by differences in the effect of the determinants on the child nutritional status (coefficient effects). Results show that the under-five stunting rates are 20 % in Egypt, 46.5 % in Yemen, and 7.7 % in Jordan. The rural- urban gap in child malnutrition was minor in the case of Egypt (2.3 %) and Jordan (1.5 %), while the regional gap was significant in the case of Yemen (17.7 %). Results of the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition show that the covariate effect is dominant in the case of Yemen while the coefficients effect dominates in the case of Jordan. Income inequality between urban and rural households explains most of the malnutrition gap. Results were robust to the different decomposition weighting schemes. By identifying the underlying factors behind the rural- urban health disparities, the findings of this paper help in designing effective intervention measures aimed at reducing regional inequalities and improving population health outcomes.

  9. Needs versus bottlenecks in utilization of wind energy in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Semery, M.M.

    1991-01-01

    The company AOI Engine Factory in Cairo, Egypt, is involved in the production of renewable energy systems. It is shown, that with respect to wind, Egypt has a good potential. However, along the river Nile wind speed is moderate (<4,4 m/s). The three main wind energy developments in Egypt are discussed. Four 100 kW machines for grid connection have been imported from Denmark. These machines have been adapted for local production and operation circumstances. After a testing period the first batch of 100 turbines is now being manufactured. For water pumping in isolated areas, a 15 kW wind generator with two submergible electric pumps have been tested. For small wind generators a considerable market exists, but a design, suitable for local production and adapted to the local wind regime, is not available yet

  10. Green buildings for Egypt: a call for an integrated policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bampou, P.

    2017-11-01

    As global warming is on the threshold of each country worldwide, Middle East and North African (MENA) region has already adopted energy efficiency (EE) policies on several consuming sectors. The present paper valuates the impact of temperature increase in the residential building sector of Egypt that is the most integrated example of the 7 out of the 20 MENA countries that have started their green efforts upon building environment. Furthermore, as it is based on a literature research upon socio-economic characteristics, existing building stock, existing legal and institutional framework, it elaborates a quantitative evaluation of Egypt's energy-saving potential, outlining basic constraints upon energy conservation, in order for Egypt to be able to handle the high energy needs due to its warm climate. Last but not least, the paper proposes a policy pathway for the implementation of green building codes and concludes with the best available technologies to promote EE in the Egyptian building sector.

  11. Marketing and economic analysis of mango irradiation processing in egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkhateeb, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this work is to examine the marketing and economic feasibility of a project for mango irradiation in Egypt. The Egyptian market was analyzed considering the production size and cultivated area distributed over several years,the percentage of the total loss of mango that can be avoided by irradiation, the market tests in Egypt and other countries was presented and the normal distribution channels of mango when using radiation technology. The financial and economic analysis of the establishment of pallet carrier unite for the irradiation of mango was also carried out. The following investment criteria were utilized for the commercial evaluation: benefit-cost ratio, pay back period, average rate of return and net present value. The results of this analysis showed that the installation of a unit for the irradiation of mango in Egypt would be economically viable. The unit cost of irradiation would decline if the irradiator is be used as a multipurpose facility

  12. Gravity, magnetic, and physical property data in the Smoke Creek Desert area, northwest Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilden, Janet E.; Ponce, David A.; Glen, Jonathan M.G.; Chuchel, Bruce A.; Tushman, Kira; Duvall, Alison

    2006-01-01

    The Smoke Creek Desert, located approximately 100 km (60 mi) north of Reno near the California-Nevada border, is a large basin situated along the northernmost parts of the Walker Lane Belt (Stewart, 1988), a physiographic province defined by northwest-striking topographic features and strike-slip faulting. Because geologic framework studies play an important role in understanding the hydrology of the Smoke Creek Desert, a geologic and geophysical effort was begun to help determine basin geometry, infer structural features, and estimate depth to Pre-Cenozoic rocks, or basement. In May and June of 2004, and June of 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected 587 new gravity stations, more than 160 line-kilometers (100 line-miles) of truck-towed magnetometer data, and 111 rock property samples in the Smoke Creek Desert and vicinity in northwest Nevada, as part of an effort to characterize its hydrogeologic framework. In the Smoke Creek Desert area, gravity highs occur over rocks of the Skedaddle Mountains, Fox Range, Granite Range, and over portions of Tertiary volcanic rocks in the Buffalo Hills. These gravity highs likely reflect basement rocks, either exposed at the surface or buried at shallow depths. The southern Smoke Creek Desert corresponds to a 25-mGal isostatic gravity low, which corresponds with a basin depth of approximately 2 km. Magnetic highs are likely due to granitic, andesitic, and metavolcanic rocks, whereas magnetic lows are probably associated with less magnetic gneiss and metasedimentary rocks in the region. Three distinctive patterns of magnetic anomalies occur throughout the Smoke Creek Desert and Squaw Creek Valley, likely reflecting three different geological and structural settings.

  13. An electrified dust storm over the Negev desert, Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yair, Yoav; Katz, Shai; Yaniv, Roy; Ziv, Baruch; Price, Colin

    2016-11-01

    We report on atmospheric electrical measurements conducted at the Wise Observatory in Mitzpe-Ramon, Israel (30°35‧N, 34°45‧E) during a large dust storm that occurred over the Eastern Mediterranean region on 10-11 February 2015. The dust was transported from the Sahara, Egypt and the Sinai Peninsula ahead of an approaching Cyprus low. Satellite images show the dust plume covering the Negev desert and Southern Israel and moving north. The concentrations of PM10 particles measured by the air-quality monitoring network of the Israeli Ministry of the Environment in Beer-Sheba reached values > 450 μg m- 3 and the AOT from the AERONET station in Sde-Boker was 1.5 on February 10th. The gradual intensification of the event reached peak concentrations on February 11th of over 1200 μg m- 3 and an AOT of 1.8. Continuous measurements of the fair weather vertical electric field (Ez) and vertical current density (Jz) were conducted at the Wise Observatory with 1 minute temporal resolution. Meteorological data was also recorded at the site. As the dust was advected over the observatory, very large fluctuations in the electrical parameters were registered. From the onset of the dust storm, the Ez values changed between + 1000 and + 8000 V m- 1 while the current density fluctuated between - 10 pA m2 and + 20 pA m2, both on time-scales of a few minutes. These values are significant departures from the average fair-weather values measured at the site, which are ~- 200 V m- 1 and ~ 2 pA m2. The disturbed episodes lasted for several hours on February 10th and the 11th and coincided with local meteorological conditions related to the wind speed and direction, which carried large amounts of dust particles over our observation station. We interpret the rapid changes as caused by the transport of electrically charged dust, carrying an excess of negative charge at lower altitudes.

  14. Design of a small scale stand-alone solar thermal co-generation plant for an isolated region in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelhady, Suzan; Borello, Domenico; Tortora, Eileen

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • In the selected area, connection to the grid is very difficult and expensive. • The integrated unsteady CSP/ORC system, was modeled TRNSYS. • Assuming a CSP of 200,000 m 2 , 6 MW e and 21.5 MW th can be obtained. • The energy is sufficient to feed more than 3,300 rural users and two big factories. • PER = 1.43, LCOE = 1.25 USD/kW h and the GHG emissions are reduced of 7300 toe/year. - Abstract: Most of Egypt’s population is concentrated in the Nile Valley (5% of Egypt’s area), while the western desert occupies an area of 50% of the total area of Egypt with a small number of inhabitants. The New Valley is the largest governorates in Egypt which occupies 45.8% of the total area of the Country and 65% of the Western Desert and it is the least densely populated governorate in Egypt. However, New Valley has started to receive the migrated people from the Nile valley and Delta region and the demand for the energy is continuously increasing. However, the rural area in New Valley still suffers from lack of access to energy services. The very high transmission losses and costs are the main challenges for electrification in this area. Then, it is worth to investigate the opportunities for distributed energy generation. This area of Egypt receives some of the highest solar radiation in the world (up to 3000 kW h per square meters per year), making it a prime location for use of this resource. In this study, performance and economic assessment of a small scale stand-alone solar thermal co-generation plant using diathermic oil is presented. This configuration is considered as a promising and sustainable solution to provide electricity and heat to an isolated area satisfying the local loads. Parabolic trough plant has been modeled in TRNSYS simulation environment integrated with the Solar Thermal Electric Components (STEC) model library. Both solar and power cycle performances have been modeled based on the solar energy data of the plant site. The

  15. Geology and geochemistry of the Atacama Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, J; González, R; Townley, B; Oliveros, V; Álvarez, F; Aguilar, G; Menzies, A; Calderón, M

    2018-02-14

    The Atacama Desert, the driest of its kind on Earth, hosts a number of unique geological and geochemical features that make it unlike any other environment on the planet. Considering its location on the western border of South America, between 17 and 28 °S, its climate has been characterized as arid to hyperarid for at least the past 10 million years. Notably dry climatic conditions of the Atacama Desert have been related to uplift of the Andes and are believed to have played an important role in the development of the most distinctive features of this desert, including: (i) nitrates and iodine deposits in the Central Depression, (ii) secondary enrichment in porphyry copper deposits in the Precordillera, (iii) Li enrichment in salt flats of the Altiplano, and (iv) life in extreme habitats. The geology and physiography of the Atacama Desert have been largely shaped by the convergent margin present since the Mesozoic era. The geochemistry of surface materials is related to rock geochemistry (Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, V, and Zn), salt flats, and evaporite compositions in endorheic basins (As, B, and Li), in addition to anthropogenic activities (Cu, Mo, and Pb). The composition of surface water is highly variable, nonetheless in general it presents a circumneutral pH with higher conductivity and total dissolved solids in brines. Major water constituents, with the exception of HCO 3 - , are generally related to the increase of salinity, and despite the fact that trace elements are not well-documented, surface waters of the Atacama Desert are enriched in As, B, and Li when compared to the average respective concentrations in rivers worldwide.

  16. Atmospheric dilution factors for radioactive releases from Inshas research reactor, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Aal, M.M.; Aly, A.I.M.; Tawfik, F.S.

    1994-01-01

    In the frame of assessing the suitability of Inshas site for constructing a new research reactor 20 MW, the meteorological condition are analyzed to determine the most affected population sectors. The atmospheric stability classes are estimated by a developed computer program in which the meteorological data for one year are used as input data. The results indicate that stability class F (moderately stable) is predominant one. The dilution factor is calculated using the computer code XOQDOQ for meteorological evaluation of routine effluent releases at nuclear power stations, which implements regulatory Guide 1.111 for both normal and desert conditions and for ground and elevated releases. The concentration isopleths are plotted and the most affected sector is the southern one with higher values for desert condition than the corresponding normal condition at same distance from the source. 4 fig., 3 tab

  17. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of bacterial meningitis in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaban Lamyaa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Infectious diseases are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the developing world. In Egypt bacterial diseases constitute a great burden, with several particular bacteria sustaining the leading role of multiple serious infections. This article addresses profound bacterial agents causing a wide array of infections including but not limited to pneumonia and meningitis. The epidemiology of such infectious diseases and the prevalence of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae are reviewed in the context of bacterial meningitis. We address prevalent serotypes in Egypt, antimicrobial resistance patterns and efficacy of vaccines to emphasize the importance of periodic surveillance for appropriate preventive and treatment strategies.

  18. Liver transplantation in Egypt from West to East

    OpenAIRE

    Galal H El-Gazzaz; Azza H El-Elemi

    2010-01-01

    Galal H El-Gazzaz1, Azza H El-Elemi21Department of General Surgery, 2Department of Forensic Medicine and Ethics, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, EgyptBackground: Egyptian patients with end-stage liver disease need to seek whole cadaveric liver transplantation (CLT) abroad. We studied the outcome of Egyptian patients who underwent CLT in China.Methods: Between 2004–2006, 22 patients who underwent CLT in China and attended two liver surgery outpatient clinics in Egypt for follow-up w...

  19. MODIFIED APPROACH FOR SITE SELECTION OF UNWANTED RADIOACTIVE SEALED SOURCES DISPOSAL IN ARID COUNTRIES (CASE STUDY - EGYPT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABDEL AZIZ, M.A.H.; COCHRAN, J.R.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to present a systematic methodology for siting of radioactive sealed sources disposal in arid countries and demonstrate the use of this methodology in Egypt. Availing from the experience gained from the greater confinement disposal (GCD) boreholes in Nevada, USA, the IAEA's approach for siting of near disposal was modified to fit the siting of the borehole disposal which suits the unwanted radioactive sealed sources. The modifications are represented by dividing the surveyed area into three phases; the exclusion phase in which the areas that meet exclusion criteria should be excluded, the site selection phase in which some potential sites that meet the primary criteria should be candidate and the preference stage in which the preference between the potential candidate sites should be carried out based on secondary criteria to select one or two sites at most. In Egypt, a considerable amount of unwanted radioactive sealed sources wastes have accumulated due to the peaceful uses of radio-isotopes.Taking into account the regional aspects and combining of the proposed developed methodology with geographic information system (GIS), the Nile Delta and its valley, the Sinai Peninsula and areas of historical heritage value are excluded from our concern as potential areas for radioactive waste disposal. Using the primary search criteria, some potential sites south Kharga, the Great Sand Sea, Gilf El-Kebear and the central part of the eastern desert have been identified as candidate areas meeting the primary criteria of site selection. More detailed studies should be conducted taking into account the secondary criteria to prefer among the above sites and select one or two sites at most

  20. Long-Term, High-Resolution Survey of Atmospheric Aerosols over Egypt with NASA’s MODIS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Shokr

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A decadal survey of atmospheric aerosols over Egypt and selected cities and regions is presented using daily aerosol optical depth (AOD data from NASA’s Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS at 550 nm wavelength onboard the Aqua satellite. We explore the AOD spatio-temporal variations over Egypt during a 12-year record (2003 to 2014 using the MODIS high-resolution (10 km Level 2 data product. Five cities and two geographic regions that feature different landscape and human activities were selected for detailed analysis. For most of the examined areas, AOD is found to be most frequent in the 0.2–0.3 range, and the highest mean AOD was found to be over Cairo, Alexandria, and the Nile Delta region. Severe events are identified based on AOD higher than a selected threshold. Most of these events are engendered by sand and dust storms that originate from the Western Desert during January–April. Spatial analysis indicates that they cover the Nile Delta region, including cities of Cairo and Alexandria, on the same day. Examination of the spatial gradient of AOD along the four cardinal directions originating from the city’s center reveals seasonally dependent gradients in some cases. The gradients have been linked to locations of industrial activity. No trend of AOD has been observed in the studied areas during the study period, though data from Cairo and Asyut reveal a slight linear increase of AOD. Considering Cairo is commonly perceived as a city of poor air quality, the results show that local events are fairly constrained. The study highlights spatial and seasonal distributions of AOD and links them to geographic and climatic conditions across the country.

  1. [Light and blindness in ancient Egypt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria Rosso, Ana

    2010-01-01

    In Ancient Egypt, light and fire, which were closely related to the Sun God Ra, were the sources of life and well-being, while the dark meant danger and death. Similar to death, darkness drops on human beings in deep sleep and they enter a space inhabited by shadows. Dreams were believed to reveal an unknown world, to give the sleeper a glimpse into the future. Vision attracts distant objects and their light, on the other hand, can hurt the eyes like a burning flame. Eyes were the most important organ in Egyptian thought, as they allowed perception of the real world. Their importance has been immortalised in the myth of the Eye of Horus that explains the role of either eye. One represents the moonlight, which disperses the darkness of the night, and the other represents the sunshine, which creates life, and both could also represents the power of human intellect. Blindness, in turn, congenital or disease-related, was considered a divine punishment. A man, thus handicapped, would sink in a state of uncertainty and darkness. To protect the eyes from blindness, people used drops and ointments, which were believed to chase away all kinds of insects and demons that threatened with a variety of eye infections. Egyptian eye doctors or physicians, carried a special kit that contained green chrysocolla and a black kohl makeup, highly appreciated as prophylaxis because they personified Osiris' humours or body fluids. These products were offered to Gods to restore the brightness of divine glance and incite sun and moon to spread their beneficial light.

  2. The geochemical associations of nitrate and naturally formed perchlorate in the Mojave Desert, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lybrand, Rebecca A.; Michalski, Greg; Graham, Robert C.; Parker, David R.

    2013-03-01

    Perchlorate is a widely studied environmental contaminant that may adversely affect human health, and whose natural occurrence has emerged as a subject of great interest. Naturally formed perchlorate has been found to co-occur with nitrate in arid environments worldwide, but the relationship is not fully understood in the desert soils of the southwestern United States. The main objective of this research was to explore the origin, pedogenic distribution, and possible preservation of perchlorate and nitrate in the Mojave Desert mud hill deposits of California and to determine if the co-occurrence of putatively natural perchlorate was significantly correlated with nitrate in these soils. We identified 39 soil horizons in the Mojave Desert, California that contained reportable levels of perchlorate (MRL >165 μg kg-1) with a maximum concentration of 23 mg kg-1. A weak yet significant correlation was observed between perchlorate and nitrate (r2 = 0.321∗∗∗), which could be indicative of similar mechanisms of accumulation. When compared to published data for the Atacama Desert, the Mojave Desert perchlorate concentrations were remarkably lower for a given nitrate concentration. Oxygen isotopes in the nitrate were examined to identify variation within the Mojave Desert field sites, and to compare with the available literature for the Atacama Desert. The Mojave Desert Δ17O values ranged from 7‰ to 13‰, indicating a mixture of biologically and atmospherically-derived nitrate. An investigation of the distribution of perchlorate among soil horizons revealed that over sixty percent of the samples containing perchlorate were from C horizons while only twenty percent of the samples were from B horizons and even fewer in the overlying A horizons. Soil chemical, morphologic, and geologic characteristics of the soils suggest that the perchlorate, nitrate and/or other soluble salts have moved in a "bottom-up" manner wherein the salts were deposited in strata through

  3. Effect of desertification on productivity in a desert steppe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhuangsheng; An, Hui; Deng, Lei; Wang, Yingying; Zhu, Guangyu; Shangguan, Zhouping

    2016-06-14

    Desertification, one of the most severe types of land degradation in the world, is of great importance because it is occurring, to some degree, on approximately 40% of the global land area and is affecting more than 1 billion people. In this study, we used a space-for-time method to quantify the impact of five different desertification regimes (potential (PD), light (LD), moderate (MD), severe (SD), and very severe (VSD)) on a desert steppe ecosystem in northern China to examine the relationship between the productivity of the vegetation and soil properties and to determine the mechanism underlying the effects of desertification on productivity. Our results showed that the effects of desertification on TP (total phosphorus) and AP (available phosphorus) were not significant, and desertification decreased productivity in the desert steppe as a result of direct changes to soil physical properties, which can directly affect soil chemical properties. Therefore, intensive grassland management to improve soil quality may result in the long-term preservation of ecosystem functions and services.

  4. Radiative forcing of the desert aerosol at Ouarzazate (Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahiri, Abdelouahid; Diouri, Mohamed

    2018-05-01

    The atmospheric aerosol contributes to the definition of the climate with direct effect, the diffusion and absorption of solar and terrestrial radiations, and indirect, the cloud formation process where aerosols behave as condensation nuclei and alter the optical properties. Satellites and ground-based networks (solar photometers) allow the terrestrial aerosol observation and the determination of impact. Desert aerosol considered among the main types of tropospheric aerosols whose optical property uncertainties are still quite important. The analysis concerns the optical parameters recorded in 2015 at Ouarzazate solar photometric station (AERONET/PHOTONS network, http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov/) close to Saharan zone. The daily average aerosol optical depthτaer at 0.5μm, are relatively high in summer and less degree in spring (from 0.01 to 1.82). Daily average of the Angstrom coefficients α vary between 0.01 and 1.55. The daily average of aerosol radiative forcing at the surface range between -150W/m2 and -10 W/m2 with peaks recorded in summer, characterized locally by large loads of desert aerosol in agreement with the advections of the Southeast of Morocco. Those recorded at the Top of the atmosphere show a variation from -74 W/m2 to +24 W/m2

  5. Costs of CO2 abatement in Egypt using both bottom-up and top-down approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Mahgary, Y.; Ibrahim, A.-F.; Shama, M.A.-F.

    1994-01-01

    Within the frame of UNEP's project on the Methodologies of Determining the Costs of Abatement of GHG emissions, a case study on Egypt was undertaken by the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) in cooperation with the Egyptian Environment Affairs Authority (EEAA), together with an expert team from different Egyptian organizations. Both bottom-up and top-down approaches were used. Several measures/technologies, including energy conservation, fuel switching, use of renewable energy and material replacement, were considered to decrease CO 2 emissions. It was found that most of the measures were cost-effective, as a considerable potential for energy conservation exists in Egypt. The impact of energy conservation measures on the economy of the country was found to be positive using a macroeconomic model. (author)

  6. Prevalence of visual impairment and blindness in Upper Egypt: a gender-based perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, Ahmed; Courtright, Paul; Kazanjian, Arminee; Bassett, Ken

    2014-06-01

    To estimate the prevalence, causes of and risk factors for vision loss in Upper Egypt. In this cross-sectional study, four villages in Upper Egypt were randomly selected; within these four villages, households were randomly selected and within the selected households all residents aged ≥ 40 years were enumerated and enrolled. Door-to-door eye examinations of household members were conducted. Data on relevant demographic and socioeconomic characteristics were collected. The prevalence and causes of vision loss and associated risk factors were assessed. Sex differences in prevalence and determinants were also evaluated. The prevalence of best eye presenting visual impairment, severe visual impairment, and blindness were 23.9%, 6.4%, and 9.3% respectively. The prevalence of blindness among women significantly exceeded that among men (11.8% vs. 5.4%, respectively, p = 0.021). The prevalence of cataract was 22.9% (higher in women, 26.5% than men 17.2%, p = 0.018). The prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis was 9.7% (higher among women, 12.5%, than men, 5.4%, p = 0.012). The principal causes of blindness were cataract (60%), uncorrected refractive errors (16%) and corneal opacities (12%). Age, sex, family size, illiteracy, unemployment, water source and sanitation methods and living conditions were the major risk factors for vision loss. The prevalence of visual impairment remains high in Egypt, particularly among women. Risk factors for blindness may differ between men and women. There is a need for qualitative investigations to better understand the causes behind the excess in prevalence of blindness among women.

  7. Leptospirosis in animals and human contacts in Egypt: broad range surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Samir

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Leptospirosis is a re-emerging zoonotic disease of humans and animals worldwide. The disease is caused by pathogenic species of the genus Leptospira. These organisms are maintained in nature via chronic renal infection of carrier animals, which excrete the organisms in their urine. Humans become infected through direct or indirect exposure to infected animals and their urine or through contact with contaminated water and soil. This study was conducted to investigate Leptospira infections as a re-emerging zoonosis that has been neglected in Egypt. METHODS: Samples from 1,250 animals (270 rats, 168 dogs, 625 cows, 26 buffaloes, 99 sheep, 14 horses, 26 donkeys and 22 camels, 175 human contacts and 45 water sources were collected from different governorates in Egypt. The samples were collected from different body sites and prepared for culture, PCR and the microscopic agglutination test (MAT. RESULTS: The isolation rates of Leptospira serovars were 6.9%, 11.3% and 1.1% for rats, dogs and cows, respectively, whereas the PCR results revealed respective detection rates of 24%, 11.3% and 1.1% for rats, dogs and cows. Neither the other examined animal species nor humans yielded positive results via these two techniques. Only six Leptospira serovars (Icterohaemorrhagiae, Pomona, Canicola, Grippotyphosa, Celledoni and Pyrogenes could be isolated from rats, dogs and cows. Moreover, the seroprevalence of leptospiral antibodies among the examined humans determined using MAT was 49.7%. CONCLUSIONS: The obtained results revealed that rats, dogs and cows were the most important animal reservoirs for leptospirosis in Egypt, and the high seroprevalence among human contacts highlights the public health implications of this neglected zoonosis.

  8. Safety assessment of borehole disposal of unwanted radioactive sealed sources in Egypt using Goldsim

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochran, John Russell; Mattie, Patrick D.

    2004-01-01

    A radioactive sealed source is any radioactive material that is encased in a capsule designed to prevent leakage or escape of the radioactive material. Radioactive sealed sources are used for a wide variety of applications at hospitals, in manufacturing and research. Typical uses are in portable gauges to measure soil compaction and moisture or to determine physical properties of rocks units in boreholes (well logging). Hospitals and clinics use radioactive sealed sources for teletherapy and brachytherapy. Oil exploration and medicine are the largest users. Accidental mismanagement of radioactive sealed sources each year results in a large number of people receiving very high or even fatal does of ionizing radiation. Deliberate mismanagement is a growing international concern. Sealed sources must be managed and disposed effectively in order to protect human health and the environment. Effective national safety and management infrastructures are prerequisites for efficient and safe transportation, treatment, storage, and disposal. The Integrated Management Program for Radioactive Sealed Sources in Egypt (IMPRSS) is a cooperative development agreement between the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority (EAEA), Egyptian Ministry of Health (MOH), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), the University of New Mexico (UNM), and Agriculture Cooperative Development International (ACDI/VOCA). The EAEA, teaming with SNL, is conducting a Preliminary Safety Assessment (PSA) of an intermediate-depth borehole disposal in thick arid alluvium in Egypt based on experience with the U.S. Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD). Goldsim has been selected for the preliminary disposal system assessment for the Egyptian GCD Study. The results of the PSA will then be used to decide if Egypt desires to implement such a disposal system

  9. Adaptation to climate change in desertified lands of the marginal regions in Egypt through sustainable crop and livestock diversification systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hassan M. El Shaer

    2015-01-01

    Environmental degradation resulting from current climate changes, including prolonged drought, land degradation, desertification, and loss of biodiversity, is presenting enormous challenges to achieve food security and eradication of poverty in the marginal regions (about 90%of the total area) of Egypt. In addition to the natural constraints of high temperature, wind erosion, sand dune movement, and recurrent drought, such regions are subjected to improper land and water management. Moreover, there is a lack of knowledge, technologies, and experiences to match with the current severe climatic changes. There is a great need for establishing sustainable integrated ecosystem rehabilitation and management programs to overcome such problems in the marginal areas, particularly in the Sinai Peninsula due to its strategic and social importance. A series of research and development programs have been conducted in 2006 to im-prove the livelihoods of smallholders through enhancing the efficient management and utilization of local resources that can cope with the drastic changes of climate in the Sinai Peninsula. An integrated livestock/salt-tolerant fodder crop system was introduced, in 2010 by the project teamwork of Desert Research center, Egypt, to many smallholders in the South Sinai region, where studies were conducted at both the general research and individual farmer levels. The most important results were:(1) adoption of the most salt-tolerant genotypes of three forage crops:pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), and Sudan grass (Sorghum sudanense (Piper) Stapf.); two cereal crops (triticale and barley);and two oil crops:safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) and Brassica (Mustard). Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. and Medicago arborium), cowpeas (Vigna sinensis L.), fodder beets (Beta vulgaris L.), clumping desert bunchgrass (Panicum turgedum), ryegrass (Lolium perenne) Ray grass, forage shrubs (Kochia indica, Atriplex num-mularia, Sesbania sesban L

  10. Mesozoic carbonate-siliciclastic platform to basin systems of a South Tethyan margin (Egypt, East Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassy, Aurélie; Crouzy, Emmanuel; Gorini, Christian; Rubino, Jean-Loup

    2015-04-01

    The Mesozoïc Egyptian margin is the south margin of a remnant of the Neo-Tethys Ocean, at the African northern plate boundary. East Mediterranean basin developed during the late Triassic-Early Jurassic rifting with a NW-SE opening direction (Frizon de Lamotte et al., 2011). During Mesozoïc, Egypt margin was a transform margin with a NW-SE orientation of transform faults. In the Eastern Mediterranean basin, Mesozoïc margins are characterized by mixed carbonate-siliciclastics platforms where subsidence and eustacy are the main parameters controlling the facies distribution and geometries of the platform-to-basin transition. Geometries and facies on the platform-slope-basin system, today well constrained on the Levant area, where still poorly known on the Egyptian margin. Geometries and stratigraphic architecture of the Egyptian margin are revealed, thanks to a regional seismic and well data-base provided by an industrial-academic group (GRI, Total). The objective is to understand the sismostratigraphic architecture of the platform-slope-basin system in a key area from Western Desert to Nile delta and Levant margin. Mapping of the top Jurassic and top Cretaceous show seismic geomorphology of the margin, with the cartography of the hinge line from Western Desert to Sinaï. During the Jurassic, carbonate platform show a prograding profile and a distally thickening of the external platform, non-abrupt slope profiles, and palaeovalleys incisions. Since the Cretaceous, the aggrading and retrograding mixed carbonate-siliciclastic platform show an alternation of steep NW-SE oblique segments and distally steepened segments. These structures of the platform edge are strongly controlled by the inherited tethyan transform directions. Along the hinge line, embayments are interpreted as megaslides. The basin infilling is characterised by an alternation of chaotic seismic facies and high amplitude reflectors onlaping the paleoslopes. MTC deposits can mobilize thick sedimentary

  11. Genesis of Uranium in the younger granites of gabal abu hawis area, central eastern desert of Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, F.Y.; Moharem, A.F.

    2003-01-01

    The younger granites cropping out in gabal abu hawis area are considered as uraniferous (fertile) granites (the fertile is mainly is mainly attributed to presence of radioactive zircon). Abu hawis granitic pluton is dissected by joints faults of different trends forming two mineralized shear zones in the northern peripheries and southern border. The younger granites hosting uranium mineralizations along the two mineralized shear zones. The uranium minerals include uranophane and carnotite. The altered granites have much lower Th/U ratios (0.03-0.10) than those of the fresh granites (1.69-2.05), indicating strong mobilization of uranium in this pluton by super-heated solutions that resulted from supergence meteoric water as well as U-addition by hypogene fluids. These solutions could pass through the structural network of fractures, joints and fault planes and have leached some of labile uranium from the surrounding rocks and/or the younger granites themselves. Then, changing in the physicochemical conditions of these solutions caused uranium precipitation as uranium minerals filling the cracks in the rock and/or adsorbed on the surface of clay minerals and iron oxides in the two shear zones

  12. Comparative Study on The Geological and Geochemical Characteristics of Some Rare-Metal Granites, Southeastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Galy, M.M.; Khaleal, F.M.; Bakhit, A.F.

    2016-01-01

    The Egyptian younger granites are characterized by the presence of more than 14 exposures of rare- metal granites. The studied granites are included into three geological modes of occurrence. The first includes Igla and Abu Dabbab plutons, which occur as small stocks of circular, ovoid, or apophyses and leucocratic outcrops. The second comprises the plugs and dyke-like bodies intruded peralkaline granites of Bir Um Hibal. The third includes Homrit Waggat and Muweilha plutons. vThey cover small areas and exhibit obvious pervasive post magmatic alterations. The petrographic and mineralogical studies are confirmed by the geochemical investigations indicating that the concerned rare-metal granites being broadly distinguished into magmatic and metasomatic associations. The magmatic granite associations are further subdivided into two subgroups; i) peraluminous granites (Li-mica rich) including Igla and Abu Dabbab plutons and ii) peralkaline granites including Um Hibal pluton. The studied peraluminous granites are generally enriched in Nb, Rb, Ta, Li, F, Y, Zr, U and Th elements. The peralkaline granites are enriched in K_,0 oxide as well as Zr, Nb, F, U, Th and Ta elements. On the other hand, the metasomatic granite associations are represented by Homrit Waggat and Muweilha plutons. They are characterized by high contents of Na_2O oxide as well as Nb, Ta, U, Th and Rb elements. Igla pluton has highest average U and Th contents (42 ppm and 58 ppm respectively), while Um Hibal pluton has lowest average U and Th contents (14 ppm and 26 ppm respectively)

  13. Integration of geophysical and geological data for delimitation of mineralized zones in Um Naggat area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Gaafar

    2015-06-01

    Interpretations of the aeromagnetic maps delineated four regional structural trends oriented due NNW, NW, ENE and E–W directions. They are identified as strike-slip faults, which coincide well with field observations, where NW-trending faults cut and displace right laterally ENE-trending older ones. The interaction between these two strike-slip fault systems confining the albite granite is easily identified on the regional data presenting longer wavelength anomalies, implying deep-seated structures. They could represent potential pathways for migration of enriched mineralized fluids. Geochemically, albite granites of peraluminous characteristics that had suffered extensive post-magmatic metasomatic reworking, resulted into development of (Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta, U, Th, Sn and albite-enriched and greisenized granite body of about 600 m thick, and more than 3 km in strike length. The albite granite is characterized by sharp increase in average rare metal content: Zr (830 ppm, Hf (51 ppm, Nb (340 ppm, Ta (44 ppm, and U (90 ppm. Thorite, uranothorite, uraninite and zircon are the main uranium-bearing minerals of magmatic origin within the enclosing granite. However, with respect to Zr, Nb, and Ta, the albitized granite can be categorized as rare metal granite. The integration of airborne geophysical (magnetic and γ-ray spectrometric, geological, geochemical and mineralogical data succeeded in assigning the albite granite of Um Naggat pluton as a mineralized zone. This zone is characterized by its high thorium and uranium of hydrothermal origin as indicated by its low Th/U ratio, with rare metals mineralization controlled by two main structural trends in the NW- and ENE-directions.

  14. Mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of uranium-rich fluoriteinEl-Missikat mineralized granite,Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Fahmy Raslan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A unique, highly radioactive variety of fluor it emineral has been recorded in the uranium occurrence of El-Missikat sheared granite pluton. In this occurrence, the uranium assumes different forms, including its presence as discrete, visible, secondary minerals, rare uraninite and its association with the jasperoid and silica veinlets. However,in some other parts of the sheared zone, the uranium was found to be solely incorporated with fluorite crystals,filling veinlet sand fractures with out any other manife station.This paper focuses ont her elevant mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of this unique fluorite variety.In addition to an investigation with binocular and polarizing microscopes, the separated fluorite grains were analyzed usingan environmental scanning electronmicroscope(ESEM and a field-emission scanning electron microscope.In addition to this,some fluorite crystals were subjected to electron microprobe analyses. While the fluorite accounted for as much as 20% of the sheared granite samples studied, it was found to range from 82 to 96 % in the different size fractions of the separated heavy mineral content. In some parts of the separated fluorite crystals,uranium inquantities of up to 2200 ppm was found to be heterogeneously distributed in the fluoritelattice,regardless of its coloration.

  15. Preliminary crustal deformation model deduced from GPS and earthquakes’ data at Abu-Dabbab area, Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Abdel-Monem S.; Hosny, A.; Abou-Aly, N.; Saleh, M.; Rayan, A.

    2013-06-01

    A local geodetic network consisting of eleven benchmarks has been established to study the recent crustal deformation in the Abu-Dabbab area. Seven campaigns of GPS measurements have been collected started from October 2008 and ended in March 2012. The collected data were processed using Bernese version 5.0, and the result values were adjusted to get the more accurate positions of the GPS stations. The magnitudes of horizontal displacements are variable from one epoch to another and in the range of 1-3 (±0.2) mm/yr. Due to the differences in rates of the horizontal displacement; the area is divided into two main blocks. The first one, moves to the east direction of about 3 mm/yr, while the second block, moves to the SW direction of about 6 mm/yr. According to the strain fields that were calculated for the different epochs of measurement, the main force is compression force and is taken the NW-SE to NWW-SEE direction. This force could be because of local and regional tectonic processes affecting on the study area. The maximum values of compression stress are found in the southern central and western part of study area. Estimated accumulation of this strain energy may be considered as an indicator of the possibility of earthquake occurrence. From the seismic tomography study, the 3D Vp and Vp/Vs crustal models indicate high Vp/Vs values forms an elongated anomaly, in the central part of the study area, that extends from a depth of 12 km to about 1-2 km of depth is obtained. By using this crustal model in relocations all seismicity informed that most of the seismicity strongly tend to occur in a cluster manner exactly above the southern part of the study area. Based on the conducted source mechanism study, it is noticed that shallow earthquakes are associated by a high CLVD ratio (up to 40%). Furthermore, initiation of a high level seismic activity, without a large seismic main shock is observed in the Abu-Dabbab area. The distribution of micro-earthquakes tends to align in an ENE-WSW direction marking a zone of activity verse the Red Sea. The nucleation of the seismic activity beneath the southern part of the Abu-Dabbab crust is more consistent with the obtained crustal deformation result by increasing the crustal movement in the south part than the northern part. Then, based on the obtained results of the above mentioned studies; seismic tomography; source mechanisms, and crustal deformation we conclude that these seismic activities that are associated by crustal deformation are owing to some magma activity beneath the crust of the Abu-Dabbab area.

  16. Thermal reduction and U-recovery from uraniferous phosphorite concentrate of phosphatic sandstone deposit of G. Qatrani, western desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Monem, H.M.

    1988-01-01

    The produced uraniferous phosphorite concentrate from cationic floatation of phosphatic sandstone of G. Qatrani contain 32.01% P 2 O 5 , 0.39% eU and 5.65% SiO 2 . Thermal reduction technique using a high calorific hydrocarbon (Mazout) is used to recover U and P 2 O 5 . At elevated temperature ranging from 500 to 800 0 C, reducing gases mainly, Co are evolved due to mazout cracking; beside a carbon film is precipitated around the treated phosphate grains. These conditions have proved quite beneficial in reducing U+6 into U+4, as well as creating a sufficiently low redox potential below 350 mV in the subsequent leach solution. The effect of different relevant factors are studied and optimized as 700 C, 30 minutes and 20% (wt/wt) ratio for reducing temperature, duration time and amount of reductant added respectively. Hydrochloric acid of 8 N appears to offer the best potential for acidulation of the reduced phosphates at room temperature (25 0 C) and 30 minutes retention time of agitation leaching. The results showed that, more than 98% of P 2 O 5 reports in solution as phosphoric acid and about 97% of uranium is retained in an insoluble form (U+4). Applying oxidizing roast of the leached reduced materials at 800 0 C in the presence of 2% NaCl, would result in both removing the carbon content and oxidizing the contained U+4 to U+6. By subsequent leaching with dilute acidic solution (2N HCl) more than 98% of the contained U+6 is readily soluble

  17. Phanerozoic extensional faulting and alteration control on uranium mineralization in trachytes of the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdy, Mohamed M.; Waheeb, Anton G.; Aly, Samir M.; Farag, Nagdy M.; Sadek, Adel F.

    2017-12-01

    The Gabal Nasb El Atshan Upper Carboniferous-Lower Permian altered trachytes include uranium up to 3165 ppm. The paleostress and resolved shear stress analyses of the deformation systems in Gabal Nasb El Atshan area indicate that the trachyte was subjected to WNW-ESE to E-W tensile shear stress directed extensional regimes. The low-stress regions in the vicinity of extensional faults and their associated joints were favorable locations for fluid flow and the consequence alteration and U-mineralization. This occurred more extensively along the contacts between the sills of trachyte and the Hammamat sedimentary rocks; where the latter acted as a physical barrier for the alteration fluids migration outward. Alteration styles include albitization, aegirinization, arfvedsonization, chloritization and ferruginisation. The albitization is the most common sodic metasomatism, giving sanidine from Or98.8Ab0.7 to Or62.3Ab37.6, anorthoclase from Or51.4Ab48.0 to Or12.2Ab87.6 and albite from Or11.0Ab89.0 to Or0.8Ab99.2. Aegirine and arfvedsonite formed due to decreasing sodium activity in the metasomatic fluids. Sodic metasomatism may be the source of uranium-enrichment, taking place during the late magmatic to deuteric processes. This was followed by a retrograde alteration of chloritization between 175 and 42 °C toward precipitation of Fe-oxides and alteration of primary uranium. Surficial low-temperature alteration remobilized and redistributed the produced uranylhydroxides and ferruginisation caused the reduction and adsorption of U forming betafite, uranophane, soddyite, umohoite, uranotile and uranopilite.

  18. Structure roles for the localization of metasomatite uranium deposit type at Wadi Belih area, Northern Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton G. Waheeb

    2016-06-01

    Due to the resulting younger extension NW–SE event the hydrothermal solution gradually migrates upward forming alkali metasomatite, contemporaneous with uranium mineralization. They are developed along that shear zone where structure contact and the low-stress regions in the vicinity of the shear zone are favorable locations for fluid flow focusing and hence U mineralizations occur in the highly fractured and mylonitized zones along the contact as lensoidal bodies.

  19. Assessment And Management Of Natural Hazards And Disasters Along Qena-Safaga Road, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azab, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Hazard assessment studies are necessary to identify the investigated area along Qena-Safaga road, between km 20 - km 30 from Qena City, where extensive damage has constantly been reported. This damage includes, asphalt road, breaking of the potable water pipeline, tilting of tower line and telephone poles, as well as of Safaga-Abu Tartur railroad. These types of damage result from tectonic activity around the Qena-Safaga district. The structural and seismic maps are used to interpret and evaluate the deep-seated structures and the tectonic setting of the study area. Strong ground motion is the most important phenomenon of natural hazard. It has an effect on the nature, human life and man-made structures. Geographic Information Systems and Remote Sensing are useful tools in disaster management for the study area. These automated tools are used for the storage, analysis and visualization all geological and geophysical data of the investigated area to the decision support. Also, by using the Landsat image acquired in 2001 and Aerial photograph dated 1955 reveals that, the spatial deformation of the recent surface features has been estimated during 46 years

  20. Extraction And Separation Of GALLIUM With Tributyl Phosphate From The Chloride Leach Liquor Of GATTAR Granite, Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MAHDY, M.A.; MAHMOUD, K.F.; ABD EL-HAMEED, A.M.; ZAHRAN, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    The studied optimum conditions for gallium extraction have confirmed that more than 98.5% of the gallium present in HCl leach liquor of Gattar granite was extracted using 10 % tributyl phosphate (TBP) solvent concentration (v/v) in kerosene as diluent, 15 min shaking time and 1 : 3 organic/ aqueous ratio. About 96 % of the extracted gallium has been stripped from the organic solvent using 0.04 M HCl as aqueous stripping solution. The obtained data clarify that the optimum stripping conditions include 4 min shaking time and 2 : 1 organic/ aqueous ratio.

  1. Strain analysis and microstructural evolution characteristic of neoproterozoic rocks associations of Wadi El Falek, centre Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Osama M. K.; Rahim, Said H. Abd El; Nashar, El Said R. El

    2012-09-01

    The estimation of finite strain in rocks is fundamental to a meaningful understanding of deformational processes and products on all scales from microscopic fabric development to regional structural analyses. The Rf/φ and Fry methods on feldspar porphyroclasts and mafic grains from 5 granite, 1 metavolcanic, 3 metasedimentary and 1 granodiorite samples were used in Wadi El Falek region. Finite-strain data shows that a high to moderate range of deformation of the granitic to metavolcano-sedimentary samples and axial ratios in the XZ section range from 1.60 to 4.10 for the Rf/φ method and from 2.80 to 4.90 for the Fry method. Furthermore, the short axes are subvertical associated with a subhorizontal foliation. We conclude that finite strain in the deformed granite rocks is of the same order of magnitude as that from metavolcano-sedimentary rocks. Furthermore, contacts formed during intrusion of plutons with some faults in the Wadi El Falek area under brittle to semi-ductile deformation conditions. In this case, finite strain accumulated during superimposed deformation on the already assembled nappe structure. It indicates that the nappe contacts formed during the accumulation of finite strain.

  2. Finite-strain analysis of Metavolcano-sedimentary rocks at Gabel El Mayet area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Osama M. K.; Abd El Rahim, Said H.

    2010-09-01

    Finite strain was estimated in the metavolcano-sedimentary rocks, which surround by serpentinites of Gabel El Mayet area. Finite strain shows a relationship to nappe contacts between the metavolcano-sedimentary rocks and serpentinite and sheds light on the nature of the subhorizontal foliation typical for the Gable Mayet shear zone. We used the Rf/ ϕ and Fry methods on feldspar porphyroclasts and mafic grains from 10 metasedimentary and six metavolcanic samples in Gabel El Mayet region. Our finite-strain data show that the metavolcano-sedimentary rocks were moderately deformed and axial ratios in the XZ section range from 1.9 to 3.9. The long axes of the finite-strain ellipsoids trend W/WNW in the north and W/WSW in the south of the Gabel El Mayet shear zone. Furthermore, the short axes are subvertical to a subhorizontal foliation. The strain magnitudes increase towards the tectonic contacts between the metavolcano-sedimentary rocks and serpentinite. The data indicate oblate strain symmetry in the metavolcano-sedimentary rocks. Hence, our strain data also indicate flattening strain. We assume that the metasedimentary and metavolcanics rocks have similar deformation behaviour. The fact that finite strain accumulated during the metamorphism indicates that the nappe contacts formed during the accumulation of finite strain and thus during thrusting. We conclude that the nappe contacts formed during progressive thrusting under brittle to semi-brittle deformation conditions by simple shear and involved a component of vertical shortening, which caused the subhorizontal foliation in the Gabel El Mayet shear zone.

  3. Contribution To The Sedimentology Of The Bahariya Formation Of Gebel El-Dist, Bahariya Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Hilmy, M. E. [محمد عز الدين حلمي; Saad, N.; Abu-Zeid, M. M.

    1983-01-01

    Combined microscopic, grain-size and heavy-mineral analyses were carried out on the Bahariya Formation at Gebel El-Dist (type section), Bahariya Oasis. These studies revealed that the formation is composed of moderately poorly-sorted silty sandstones and sandy siltstones with few intercalations of sandstones, siltstones and clayey siltstones. The heavy-mineral suite is composed of (in order of decreasing abundance): opaques, zircon, rutile. staurolite, tourmaline, kyanite, garnet and bioti...

  4. Mineralogical and Fluid Inclusions Evidence For The Genesis of Umm Addebaa-Umm Kabu Beryl Belt, South Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omar, S.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Beryl mineralization in quartz veins and pegmatites, are common deposits of tectonic-hydrothermal and/or igneous origin. The beryl-specialized granites association at Umm Addebaa-Umm Kabu belt is manifested in the field by the development of a system of beryl-bearing pegmatitic pods and quartz veins. The emplacement of these syn-tectonic pegmatitic leucogranites from which K- and Be-rich fluid phases were derived, are confined to the shear zones, as well as a broad zone of alkali metasomatism. Microthermometic studies of primary fluid inclusions within beryl growth zones are consistent with beryl precipitation from H 2 O-CO 2 ± CH 4 bearing saline brines. The estimated fluid composition is approximately 0.88 mol% H 2 O, 0.017 mol% CO 2 ± 0.001 mol% CH 4 and 0.10 mol% NaCl (2- 11 wt.% NaCl eq.). Fluid inclusion results are consistent with that mineralization in pegmatites and quartz veins that are formed by two genetic stages. The first stage is characterized by temperature of formation in the range of 216.4 - 378.3 °C, with corresponding pressures along fluid inclusion isochore paths ranging from 1.04 to 2.25 bar. The second stage is of aqueous fluid represented with low temperature (177-255°C) and pressure ≤ 1 bar, but high saline (16-22 wt.% NaCl eq.) which might explain mixing of the early carbonaceous fluid with late meteoric water accompanied with pressure release. Thus, it can be inferred that the Be-bearing solutions were moderately saline, but CO 2 (and possible CH 4 )-rich fluid implies that Be was most probably complexed by carbonate ( + CH 4 ) - chloride base. The different paragenetic types of emerald and beryl associated with granitoid rocks indicates that the chemistry of the Be-bearing fluids (rather than that of the bulk rock), and syn-tectonic intrusions of leucogranites and pegmatites (Be deriving sources) along major ductile shear zones are the important factors controlling the crystallization of beryl.

  5. Preliminary crustal deformation model deduced from GPS and earthquakes’ data at Abu-Dabbab area, Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Monem S. Mohamed

    2013-06-01

    From the seismic tomography study, the 3D Vp and Vp/Vs crustal models indicate high Vp/Vs values forms an elongated anomaly, in the central part of the study area, that extends from a depth of 12 km to about 1–2 km of depth is obtained. By using this crustal model in relocations all seismicity informed that most of the seismicity strongly tend to occur in a cluster manner exactly above the southern part of the study area. Based on the conducted source mechanism study, it is noticed that shallow earthquakes are associated by a high CLVD ratio (up to 40%. Furthermore, initiation of a high level seismic activity, without a large seismic main shock is observed in the Abu-Dabbab area. The distribution of micro-earthquakes tends to align in an ENE–WSW direction marking a zone of activity verse the Red Sea. The nucleation of the seismic activity beneath the southern part of the Abu-Dabbab crust is more consistent with the obtained crustal deformation result by increasing the crustal movement in the south part than the northern part. Then, based on the obtained results of the above mentioned studies; seismic tomography; source mechanisms, and crustal deformation we conclude that these seismic activities that are associated by crustal deformation are owing to some magma activity beneath the crust of the Abu-Dabbab area.

  6. Highlight of Grid-connected PV systems in administrative buildings in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Said

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy applications are becoming increasingly common in Egypt. The abundant sunshine in Egypt, as well as the increasing competitiveness of solar energy systems including- but not limited to photovoltaic (PV, – predicts that these technologies could be weighed to be raised in Egypt.PV systems are installed on roof tiles or other parts of building structures to supplement grid utility, reduce electric bills, and provide emergency back–up energy. Moreover, they simultaneously reduce significant amounts of CO2 emissions. It is foreseen, a number of residential and public buildings in Egypt are using solar power to cut electric utility bills significantly. The approximately payback period to recover the investment costs for PV systems is up to about 5 years.  In addition, it is more economical to use PV system than grid utility systems. The two components that determine the total initial price of a grid- connected PV system are the modules and the balance of systems (BOS. The BOS includes different components such as mounting frames, inverters and site- specific installation hardware.The Government of Egypt (GOE has endorsed the deployment of PV systems through three approaches. It started with a prime minister decree to install PV projects on one-thousand of the governmental buildings. This was followed by as an initiative called "Shamsk ya Masr", and finally the Feed-in Tariff (FiT projects.Following the prime minster decree the Egyptian Electricity Holding Company (EEHC and its affiliated companies took the lead to install PV systems at the top roof of their administrative buildings and interconnect these systems to the electricity network where the suitable locations have been selected for mounting them. About 90 PV systems have been already mounted with about a capacity of 9 MW. On the other hand, "Shamsk ya Masr" has considered energy efficiency (EE so as to complement the PV systems, which will be installed on administrative

  7. Metropolitan food supply in Egypt : hydroponics production of leafy vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waldhauer, N.; Broek, van den W.H.A.M.; Soethoudt, J.M.; Boerrigter, H.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study incorporates the follow up activities of the two earlier missions of Wageningen UR/Food & Biobased Research (FBR) to Egypt, the exploration mission of 2013 (Broek and Boerrigter, 2014a) and the commitment mission of 2014 (Broek, Boerrigter and Waldhauer, 2014b), targeting the

  8. Unmet need for postpartum family planning in Alexandria, Egypt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amenorrhea, breast feeding, fear of side effects, discontinuation due to health concerns and pressure from the surroundings were the most common cited reasons for non-use. Conclusion: Integration of family planning education during antenatal, natal and postnatal care services in Egypt should be actively initiated. Women ...

  9. Wind atlas for Egypt: Measurements, micro- and mesoscale modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, N.G.; Hansen, J.C.; Badger, J.

    2006-01-01

    – close to consumers and the electrical grid. The KAMM simulations seem to capture the main features of the wind climate of Egypt, but in regions where the horizontal wind gradients are large, the uncertainties are large as well and additional measurements are required. The results are now published...

  10. Mapping sexual harassment in Egypt | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    28 mars 2017 ... More than 95 per cent of women in Egypt have experienced sexual harassment at least once, but many citizens there turn a blind eye when it happens. The HarassMap project is aiming to change that attitude at home and abroad, empowering women and changing the attitudes of men in the process.

  11. Egypt beyond representation : materials and materiality of Aegyptiaca Romana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müskens, S.W.G.

    2017-01-01

    This study develops and applies a new approach to study Aegyptiaca Romana from a bottom-up, Roman perspective. Current approaches to these objects are often still plagued by top-down projections of modern definitions and understandings of Egypt and Egyptian material culture onto the Roman world.

  12. Surge flow irrigation under short field conditions in Egypt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ismail, S.M.; Depeweg, H.; Schultz, E.

    2004-01-01

    Several studies carried out in long furrows have shown that surge flow irrigation offers the potential of increasing the efficiency of irrigation. The effects of surge flow in short fields, such as in Egypt, are still not well known, however. To investigate the effect of surge flow irrigation in

  13. Mitochondrial DNA genetic variations among four horse populations in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman E. Othman

    2017-12-01

    It is concluded that sequence analysis of mtDNA control region is still the most informative tool for the identification of genetic biodiversity and phylogeny of different horse breeds and populations. The horse populations reared in Egypt possess low genetic diversity and all of them are belonged to Equus caballus breed.

  14. Cytochrome b conservation between six camel breeds reared in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman E. Othman

    2017-06-01

    It is concluded that cyto b sequence is highly conserved among all camel breeds reared in Egypt which belong to Camelus dromedaries in addition to the advantage of cyto b in differentiation between different livestock sources which enables it to widely use for the adulteration detection in mixed meat.

  15. Air Quality Monitoring and Information System for Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivertsen, B.

    1996-06-01

    The publication relates to the main objectives and design of a modern monitoring and information system developed in Norway. The system is to be installed in Egypt. Themes being discussed cover technical features of the system, meteorological data, environmental indicators, data transfer and quality assurance, the data bases, data presentation - graphics and GIS, and environmental information to the public. 11 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Avian fossils from the Early Miocene Moghra Formation of Egypt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Avian remains from the Early Miocene (~17 Ma) Moghra Formation of Egypt include new records of 'waterbirds' (storks, herons, pelicans and allies) and a ratite. Only a single avian fossil has been previously reported from Wadi Moghra and, thus, additional knowledge of the avifauna complements previously documented ...

  17. Cladistic analysis of the antlions (Myrmeleontidae) of Egypt | El ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cladistic analysis of the antlions (Myrmeleontidae) of Egypt. Hiam El-Hamoley, Samy Zalat, Sohair Gad Allah. Abstract. Egyptian Journal of Biology Vol.2 2000: 85-96. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

  18. Site selection and evaluation of nuclear power units in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnefille, R.

    1980-01-01

    The selection of sites for nuclear power units in Egypt by SOFRATOME for Nuclear Plants Authority is carried on using a method based on interaction between different criteria. The method and the main results on criterion 'radio-ecological impact' are sketched briefly [fr

  19. Numerical taxonomic studies of some tribes of Brassicaceae from Egypt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdel Khalik, K.; Maesen, van der L.J.G.; Koopman, W.J.M.; Berg, van den R.G.

    2002-01-01

    A systematic study of 45 taxa belonging to 23 genera of tribes Arabideae, Euclidieae, Hesperideae, Lunarieae, Matthioleae and Sisymbrieae of Brassicaceae from Egypt was conducted by means of numerical analysis based on sixty two morphological characters, including vegetative parts, pollen grains and

  20. African Refugees in Egypt: Trauma, Loss, and Cultural Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Hani M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of pre-immigration trauma on the acculturation process of refugees, as reflected in the manifestations of their continuing bonds with native cultures. Six African refugees who sought refuge in Egypt because of wars and political persecution were interviewed about the circumstances of their departure from their…