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Sample records for descending stairs forwards

  1. Comparative Effect of Forward and Backward Stair Climbing on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olagbegi

    SUMMARY. Forward stair climbing (FSC) is associated with cardiovascular fitness benefits, but the training effects of backward stair climbing (BSC) have not been reported in the literature. This study compared the effects of 8 weeks of FSC and BSC on the cardiovascular parameters of apparently healthy young adults.

  2. Comparative Effect of Forward and Backward Stair Climbing on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forward stair climbing (FSC) is associated with cardiovascular fitness benefits, but the training effects of backward stair climbing (BSC) have not been reported in the literature. This study compared the effects of 8 weeks of FSC and BSC on the cardiovascular parameters of apparently healthy young adults. Forty apparently ...

  3. Kinematic compensations as children reciprocally ascend and descend stairs with unilateral and bilateral solid AFOs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahorniak, M T; Gorton GE3rd; Gannotti, M E; Masso, P D

    1999-07-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the compensations made when a child with normal motor control ascends and descends stairs while wearing a solid AFO. Ten healthy children were asked to ascend and descend stairs with shoes, right and bilateral AFOs. Repeated measures ANOVA identified differences in selected kinematic parameters. Peak-to-peak excursion of pelvic rotation, pelvic obliquity, and hip ab/adduction increased with AFO use (PAFO use (P<0.05). Compensations at the trunk and the pelvis facilitated limb advancement and clearance. This information may be helpful in developing strategies for training patients with motor planning difficulties.

  4. Effects of Descending Stair Walking on Health and Fitness of Elderly Obese Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Trevor C; Hsieh, Chung-Chan; Tseng, Kuo-Wei; Ho, Chih-Chiao; Nosaka, Kazunori

    2017-08-01

    Eccentric exercise training produces positive fitness and health outcomes, but whether this is also the case for descending stair walking (DSW) is unknown. This study investigated the hypothesis that DSW would improve insulin sensitivity, lipid profiles and physical fitness better than ascending stair walking (ASW). Elderly (≥60 yr) obese women were placed to either DSW or ASW group (n = 15 per group). An elevator was used to eliminate ascending stairs for DSW, and descending stairs for ASW. Descending stair walking and ASW were performed twice a week for 12 wk by increasing the repetitions gradually. Overnight fasting blood samples were taken 3 d before the first training session and 4 d after the last training session, and analyzed for insulin sensitivity and lipid profile markers. Resting HR, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure, bone mineral density, knee extensor maximal voluntary isometric contraction strength and several functional physical fitness measures were taken before and after the intervention. Average HR during DSW (88.6 ± 7.8 bpm) was lower (P fitness measures showed greater (P health and fitness.

  5. Altered control strategy between leading and trailing leg increases knee adduction moment in the elderly while descending stairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamanidis, Kiros; Arampatzis, Adamantios

    2011-02-24

    The aim of the study was to examine the external knee adduction moments in a group of older and younger adults while descending stairs and thus the possibility of an increased risk of knee osteoarthritis due to altered knee joint loading in the elderly. Twenty-seven older and 16 younger adults descended a purpose-built staircase. A motion capture system and a force plate were used to determine the subjects' 3D kinematics and ground reaction forces (GRF) during locomotion. Calculation of the leg kinematics and kinetics was done by means of a rigid, three-segment, 3D leg model. In the initial portion of the support phase, older adults showed a more medio-posterior GRF vector relative to the ankle joint, leading to lower ankle joint moments (Pelderly (Pcontrol strategy while stepping down is a more medially directed GRF vector increasing the magnitude of external knee adduction moment in the elderly. The observed changes between leading and trailing leg in the elderly may cause a redistribution of the mechanical load at the tibiofemoral joint, affecting the initiation and progression of knee osteoarthritis in the elderly. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Feedback control of the neuromusculoskeletal system in a forward dynamics simulation of stair locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selk Ghafari, A; Meghdari, A; Vossoughi, G

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study is to employ feedback control loops to provide a stable forward dynamics simulation of human movement under repeated position constraint conditions in the environment, particularly during stair climbing. A ten-degrees-of-freedom skeletal model containing 18 Hill-type musculotendon actuators per leg was employed to simulate the model in the sagittal plane. The postural tracking and obstacle avoidance were provided by the proportional-integral-derivative controller according to the modulation of the time rate change of the joint kinematics. The stability of the model was maintained by controlling the velocity of the body's centre of mass according to the desired centre of pressure during locomotion. The parameters of the proposed controller were determined by employing the iterative feedback tuning approach to minimize tracking errors during forward dynamics simulation. Simultaneously, an inverse-dynamics-based optimization was employed to compute a set of desired musculotendon forces in the closed-loop simulation to resolve muscle redundancy. Quantitative comparisons of the simulation results with the experimental measurements and the reference muscles' activities illustrate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method during the stable ascending simulation.

  7. Stair climbing/descending exercise for a short time decreases blood glucose levels after a meal in people with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Hiroto; Igaki, Makoto; Hatanaka, Yuki; Komatsu, Motoaki; Tanaka, Shin-Ichiro; Miki, Tetsuo; Suzuki, Taiga; Takaishi, Tetsuo; Hayashi, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    We examined whether stair climbing-descending exercise (ST-EX), a convenient method to increase physical activity in daily life, for a short period would acutely improve the postprandial blood glucose (BG) response in people with type 2 diabetes (T2D). 16 people with T2D (age 65.4±1.1 years) participated in 2 separate sessions. After an overnight fast, each participant consumed a test meal and then kept resting for 180 min, except when performing each 3 min bout of ST-EX at 60 and 120 min after the meal (ST-EX session), or kept resting for 180 min (REST session). ST-EX comprised 6 continuous repetitions of climbing to the second floor (21 steps) at a rate of 80-110 steps/min followed by walking down slowly to the first floor at a free step rate. The BG at 60 min after the meal during the ST-EX session (immediately before the first ST-EX) did not differ from that during the REST session, but analysis of variance revealed a significant interaction between time and treatment (p<0.01). The BG at 150 min after the meal (30 min after the second ST-EX) was significantly lower than that during the REST session (p<0.01). The area under the curve was also 18% lower during the ST-EX session than during the REST session (p<0.05). The heart rate and blood lactate levels indicated that the actual intensity of ST-EX was 'hard'. In contrast, the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) indicated that the overall intensity of ST-EX was 'moderate' because of decreased RPE scores during descent. The present findings suggest that performing 3 min ST-EX 60 and 120 min after a meal may be a useful strategy to accelerate the decrease in postprandial BG levels in people with T2D.

  8. Does a video displaying a stair climbing model increase stair use in a worksite setting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Calster, L; Van Hoecke, A-S; Octaef, A; Boen, F

    2017-08-01

    This study evaluated the effects of improving the visibility of the stairwell and of displaying a video with a stair climbing model on climbing and descending stair use in a worksite setting. Intervention study. Three consecutive one-week intervention phases were implemented: (1) the visibility of the stairs was improved by the attachment of pictograms that indicated the stairwell; (2) a video showing a stair climbing model was sent to the employees by email; and (3) the same video was displayed on a television screen at the point-of-choice (POC) between the stairs and the elevator. The interventions took place in two buildings. The implementation of the interventions varied between these buildings and the sequence was reversed. Improving the visibility of the stairs increased both stair climbing (+6%) and descending stair use (+7%) compared with baseline. Sending the video by email yielded no additional effect on stair use. By contrast, displaying the video at the POC increased stair climbing in both buildings by 12.5% on average. One week after the intervention, the positive effects on stair climbing remained in one of the buildings, but not in the other. These findings suggest that improving the visibility of the stairwell and displaying a stair climbing model on a screen at the POC can result in a short-term increase in both climbing and descending stair use. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Elevators or stairs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sachin; O’Byrne, Michael; Wilson, Merne; Wilson, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Background: Staff in hospitals frequently travel between floors and choose between taking the stairs or elevator. We compared the time savings with these two options. Methods: Four people aged 26–67 years completed 14 trips ranging from one to six floors, both ascending and descending. We compared the amount of time per floor travelled by stairs and by two banks of elevators. Participants reported their fatigue levels using a modified Borg scale. We performed two-way analysis of variance to compare the log-transformed data, with participant and time of day as independent variables. Results: The mean time taken to travel between each floor was 13.1 (standard deviation [SD] 1.7) seconds by stairs and 37.5 (SD 19.0) and 35.6 (SD 23.1) seconds by the two elevators (F = 8.61, p elevator equaled about 15 minutes a day. Self-reported fatigue was less than 13 (out of 20) on the Borg scale for all participants, and they all stated that they were able to continue their duties without resting. The extra time associated with elevator use was because of waiting for its arrival. There was a difference in the amount of time taken to travel by elevator depending on the time of day and day of the week. Interpretation: Taking the stairs rather than the elevator saved about 15 minutes each workday. This 3% savings per workday could translate into improved productivity as well as increased fitness. PMID:22159365

  10. Reliable Stair Climbing in the Simple Hexapod 'RHex'

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moore, E. Z; Campbell, D; Grimminger, F; Buehler, M

    2002-01-01

    RHex is a hexapod with compliant legs and only six actuated degrees of freedom. Its ability to traverse highly fractured and unstable terrain, as well ascend and descend a particular flight of stairs has already been documented...

  11. Estimating Stair Running Performance Using Inertial Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauro V. Ojeda

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Stair running, both ascending and descending, is a challenging aerobic exercise that many athletes, recreational runners, and soldiers perform during training. Studying biomechanics of stair running over multiple steps has been limited by the practical challenges presented while using optical-based motion tracking systems. We propose using foot-mounted inertial measurement units (IMUs as a solution as they enable unrestricted motion capture in any environment and without need for external references. In particular, this paper presents methods for estimating foot velocity and trajectory during stair running using foot-mounted IMUs. Computational methods leverage the stationary periods occurring during the stance phase and known stair geometry to estimate foot orientation and trajectory, ultimately used to calculate stride metrics. These calculations, applied to human participant stair running data, reveal performance trends through timing, trajectory, energy, and force stride metrics. We present the results of our analysis of experimental data collected on eleven subjects. Overall, we determine that for either ascending or descending, the stance time is the strongest predictor of speed as shown by its high correlation with stride time.

  12. Stair Descent in the Simple Hexapod ’RHex’

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    robots that successfully do so. Notable exceptions are the Honda bipeds - P2, P3 and Asimo, and Raibert’s tethered biped , yet no specific publications...Stair Descent in the Simple Hexapod ‘RHex’ D. Campbell and M. Buehler dcampb@cim.mcgill.ca, buehler@cim.mcgill.ca, Ambulatory Robotics ...first controller that allows our small hexapod robot , RHex, to descend a wide variety of regular sized, “real-world” stairs. After selecting one of

  13. Control of a stair climbing wheelchair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Maniha Abdul Ghani

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents investigations into the control of a stair climbing wheelchair particularly for indoor usage. A virtual wheelchair model is developed using Visual Nastran software and linked with Matlab/Simulink for control purposes. The goals are to have a simple, compact and stable stairs climbing wheelchair in order to complete the ascending and descending tasks. The challenges are to ensure the wheelchair seat always stay at the upright position and to control both the front and rear wheel motors while climbing. PID control is used to provide appropriate torque to both front and rear wheels as well as at to the wheelchair seat during climbing. Results show that the wheelchair movement can be controlled smoothly and the seat maintained at the desired position with the adapted approach.

  14. Markerless Knee Joint Position Measurement Using Depth Data during Stair Walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ami Ogawa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Climbing and descending stairs are demanding daily activities, and the monitoring of them may reveal the presence of musculoskeletal diseases at an early stage. A markerless system is needed to monitor such stair walking activity without mentally or physically disturbing the subject. Microsoft Kinect v2 has been used for gait monitoring, as it provides a markerless skeleton tracking function. However, few studies have used this device for stair walking monitoring, and the accuracy of its skeleton tracking function during stair walking has not been evaluated. Moreover, skeleton tracking is not likely to be suitable for estimating body joints during stair walking, as the form of the body is different from what it is when it walks on level surfaces. In this study, a new method of estimating the 3D position of the knee joint was devised that uses the depth data of Kinect v2. The accuracy of this method was compared with that of the skeleton tracking function of Kinect v2 by simultaneously measuring subjects with a 3D motion capture system. The depth data method was found to be more accurate than skeleton tracking. The mean error of the 3D Euclidian distance of the depth data method was 43.2 ± 27.5 mm, while that of the skeleton tracking was 50.4 ± 23.9 mm. This method indicates the possibility of stair walking monitoring for the early discovery of musculoskeletal diseases.

  15. Umbrella Wheel - a stair-climbing and obstacle-handling wheel design concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Simon; Jouffroy, Jerome

    This paper proposes a new design for stair-climbing using a wheel that can split into segments and walk up stairs or surmount other obstacles often found where humans traverse, while still being able to retain a perfectly round shape for traveling on smooth ground. Using this change of configurat......This paper proposes a new design for stair-climbing using a wheel that can split into segments and walk up stairs or surmount other obstacles often found where humans traverse, while still being able to retain a perfectly round shape for traveling on smooth ground. Using this change...... of configuration, staircases with a wide range of dimensions can be covered efficiently and safely. The design, named Umbrella Wheel, can consist of as many wheel segments as desired, and as few as two. A smaller or higher number of wheel segments has advantages and disadvantages depending on the specific...... situation. Modeling the trajectory of the wheel when as it ascends or descends stairs is given and the results are analyzed....

  16. Umbrella Wheel - a stair-climbing and obstacle-handling wheel design concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Simon; Jouffroy, Jerome

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a new design for stair-climbing using a wheel that can split into segments and walk up stairs or surmount other obstacles often found where humans traverse, while still being able to retain a perfectly round shape for traveling on smooth ground. Using this change of configurat......This paper proposes a new design for stair-climbing using a wheel that can split into segments and walk up stairs or surmount other obstacles often found where humans traverse, while still being able to retain a perfectly round shape for traveling on smooth ground. Using this change...... of configuration, staircases with a wide range of dimensions can be covered efficiently and safely. The design, named Umbrella Wheel, can consist of as many wheel segments as desired, and as few as two. A smaller or higher number of wheel segments has advantages and disadvantages depending on the specific...... situation. Modeling the trajectory of the wheel when as it ascends or descends stairs is given and the results are analyzed....

  17. Perceptual Modification of the Built Environment to Influence Behavior Associated with Physical Activity: Quasi-Experimental Field Studies of a Stair Banister Illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Rich; Capio, Catherine; Poolton, Jamie; Uiga, Liis

    2018-02-15

    Re-engineering the built environment to influence behaviors associated with physical activity potentially provides an opportunity to promote healthier lifestyles at a population level. Here we present evidence from two quasi-experimental field studies in which we tested a novel, yet deceptively simple, intervention designed to alter perception of, and walking behavior associated with, stairs in an urban area. Our objectives were to examine whether adjusting a stair banister has an influence on perceptions of stair steepness or on walking behavior when approaching the stairs. In study 1, we asked participants (n = 143) to visually estimate the steepness of a set of stairs viewed from the top, when the stair banister was adjusted so that it converged with or diverged from the stairs (± 1.91°) or remained neutral (± 0°). In study 2, the walking behavior of participants (n = 36) was filmed as they approached the stairs to descend, unaware of whether the banister converged, diverged, or was neutral. In study 1, participants estimated the stairs to be steeper if the banister diverged from, rather than converged with, the stairs. The effect was greater when participants were unaware of the adjustment. In study 2, walking speed was significantly slower when the banister diverged from, rather than converged with, the stairs. These findings encourage us to speculate about the potential to economically re-engineer features of the built environment to provide opportunities for action (affordances) that invite physical activity behavior or even promote safer navigation of the environment.

  18. Descendent necrotizing mediastinitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Rodrigo Armando; Rueda, Luis Fernando

    2004-01-01

    Descendent necrotizing mediastinitis (DNM) is a rare and serious disease with a high mortality. A deep infection in the neck appears generally as the primary focus, as a odontogenic abscess, tonsil infection, pharyngeal or epiglottitis among others. Six cases of descendent necrotizing mediastinitis occurs between January of 1999 to June of 2004 in the hospital santa clara of bogota, colombia, are discussed. Different etiologies were present like odontogenic abscess, submaxillar abscess, retropharyngeal abscess, a cervical esophageal perforation secondary to treatment of a stenosis in the anastomosis between the cenical esophagus and the colon. All of the patients required surgical handling by means of drainage and debridement by cerevicotomy and thoracotomy, and in one case by means of sternotomy, added to antibiotic and intensive care support. Mortality was of 67%, with an average of hospital stay of 17 days

  19. Descendants of Slaves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marselis, Randi

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the Danish television documentary series Slavernes Slægt (Descendants of Slaves, 2005) has been to enhance public awareness of Danish colonial history. As is typical of contemporary mediated memories, the account of national history is combined with 'small histories' that focus on live...... stories of individuals and their families. Participating in the series are present-day descendants of enslaved Africans who, as a result of an interest in family historical research, have found information about their black ancestry. The series challenges the supposed historical homogeneity of Nordic...... nation-states by pointing out the historical presence of black individuals. However, this article will show how discourses of family history (e.g. the focus on bloodlines) converge with old 'race' theory; the result of which is that the series inadvertently reproduces processes of visual Othering....

  20. Age affects the attentional demands of stair ambulation: evidence from a dual-task approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, Heidi A; Kern, Rebecca W; Lin, Chien-Ho Janice; Winstein, Carolee J

    2009-10-01

    Approximately 75% of all injury-producing falls on steps for people of all ages occur in people 65 years of age and older. Diminished attentional capacity contributes to fall risk in older adults, particularly when task demands are high. The purpose of this study was to compare the attentional demands of ascending and descending a set of stairs (stair ambulation) in older adults and younger adults. This was a nonblinded, prospective, single-site, observational cohort study. Ten older (>65 years of age) and 10 younger (21-33 years of age) adults without disabilities were recruited. A dual-task approach was used for 2 task conditions: the first task was standing and responding verbally to an unanticipated auditory tone as quickly as possible (probe task), and the second task was ascending or descending a set of stairs with the same probe task. A 2-factor (group x task) analysis of variance with repeated measures on task (standing and stair ambulation) was performed for voice response time (VRT). Significance for the analysis was set at Ptask interaction was significant for VRT. Post hoc analyses indicated that during stair ambulation, the VRT for older adults was significantly longer than that for younger adults. For the standing task, the VRTs (X+/-SD) were similar for younger (322+/-65 milliseconds) and older (306+/-22 milliseconds) participants. For stair ascent and descent, the average VRTs were more than 100 milliseconds longer for older participants (493+/-113 and 470+/-127 milliseconds, respectively) than for younger participants (365+/-56 and 356+/-67 milliseconds, respectively). Because of the small sample size and generally fit older group, generalization of findings to older people at risk for falls is not recommended until further research is done. The results demonstrated that although both older and younger adults required similar attentional resources for the standing task, older adults required significantly more resources during stair ambulation. The

  1. Use of stairs in a hospital increased by a sign near the stairs or the elevator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houweling, ST; Stoopendaal, J; Kleefstra, N; Meyboom-de Jong, B; Bilo, HJG

    2005-01-01

    Objective. To investigate whether signs encouraging taking the stairs or discouraging taking the elevator lead to an increasing number of patients taking the stairs instead of the elevator in a hospital. Design. Interventional study. Method. During a period of 6 weeks in the period October-December

  2. [Use of stairs in a hospital increased by a sign near the stairs or the elevator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houweling, S T; Stoopendaal, J; Kleefstra, N; Meyboom-de Jong, B; Bilo, H J G

    2005-12-24

    To investigate whether signs encouraging taking the stairs or discouraging taking the elevator lead to an increasing number of patients taking the stairs instead of the elevator in a hospital. Interventional study. During a period of 6 weeks in the period October-December 2004, an investigator recorded how many patients took the stairs and how many took the elevator on the first floor of a hospital close to a diabetes outpatient clinic. A baseline measurement was done over a period of 2 weeks and 4 weeks were used for evaluating the effect of 2 different interventions, each lasting 2 weeks. During the first intervention, a sign was hung up near the elevator, which read: 'Exercise is healthy, take the stairs'. During the second intervention the sign read: 'Use of this elevator is exclusively for personnel and persons with restricted mobility'. Staff members and disabled patients were excluded from the study. A total of 2674 movements were counted. Use of the stairs increased statistically significantly during both interventions: from 54.6% to 63.4% during the first intervention and to 70.4% during the second intervention. Signs in a diabetes outpatient clinic that either encouraged the use of the stairs or discouraged the use of the elevator increased the patients' use of the stairs.

  3. Factors affecting stair-ascent patterns in unilateral transfemoral amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobara, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Yoshiyuki; Tominaga, Shuichi; Nakamura, Takashi; Yamasaki, Nobuya; Ogata, Toru

    2013-06-01

    Patterns and ease of stair ambulation influence amputees' level of satisfaction with their rehabilitation, confidence level, and motivation for continued rehabilitation, demonstrating the importance of stair-ascent data for rehabilitation. However, little is known about the determinants of stair-ascent patterns in unilateral transfemoral amputees. To investigate the factors affecting stair-ascent patterns in transfemoral amputees. Cross-sectional survey. Stair-ascent patterns were evaluated using the Stair Assessment Index. We collected Stair Assessment Index data as well as demographic and clinical data (sex, age, height, mass, amputation side, reason for amputation, time since amputation, and residual limb length) from 25 transfemoral amputees. Statistical analyses revealed that age was negatively correlated and time since amputation was positively correlated with Stair Assessment Index. In contrast, height, body mass, and residual limb lengths were not correlated with Stair Assessment Index. The results of this study suggest that in unilateral transfemoral amputee, (1) both age and time since amputation could affect stair-climbing patterns and (2) residual limb length should not be a limiting factor for stair climbing if the transfemoral amputee has a certain minimum residual limb length. Rehabilitation teams should carefully consider nonmodifiable predisposing factors such as age and time since amputation. However, they may be able to carry on stair-ascent rehabilitation for transfemoral amputees disregarding residual limb length (depending on the length).

  4. The effects of hip external rotator exercises and toe-spread exercises on lower extremity muscle activities during stair-walking in subjects with pronated foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goo, Young-Mi; Kim, Da-Yeon; Kim, Tae-Ho

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of toe-spread (TS) exercises and hip external rotator strengthening exercises for pronated feet on lower extremity muscle activities during stair-walking. [Subjects and Methods] The participants were 20 healthy adults with no present or previous pain, no past history of surgery on the foot or the ankle, and no foot deformities. Ten subjects performed hip external rotator strengthening exercises and TS exercises and the remaining ten subjects performed only TS exercises five times per week for four weeks. [Results] Less change in navicular drop height occurred in the group that performed hip external rotator exercises than in the group that performed only TS exercises. The group that performed only TS exercises showed increased abductor hallucis muscle activity during both stair-climbing and -descending, and the group that performed hip external rotator exercises showed increased muscle activities of the vastus medialis and abductor hallucis during stair-climbing and increased muscle activity of only the abductor hallucis during stair-descending after exercise. [Conclusion] Stair-walking can be more effectively performed if the hip external rotator muscle is strengthened when TS exercises are performed for the pronated foot.

  5. Dynamic stability control in younger and older adults during stair descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse, Iris; Oberländer, Kai Daniel; Savelberg, Hans Hubert; Meijer, Kenneth; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter; Karamanidis, Kiros

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine dynamic stability control in older and younger adults while descending stairs. Thirteen older (aged 64-77 years) and 13 younger (aged 22-29 years) adults descended a staircase at their preferred speed. A motion capture system and three force plates were used to determine locomotion mechanics. Dynamic stability was investigated by using the margin of stability, calculated as the instantaneous difference between anterior boundary of the base of support and extrapolated centre of mass. At the initiation of the single support phase, older adults demonstrated a more negative (pelderly was the higher velocity of the centre of mass (pcontrol the motion of the body's centre of mass while stepping down. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Stair negotiation time in community-dwelling older adults: normative values and association with functional decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh-Park, Mooyeon; Wang, Cuiling; Verghese, Joe

    2011-12-01

    To establish reference values for stair ascent and descent times in community-dwelling, ambulatory older adults, and to examine their predictive validity for functional decline. Longitudinal cohort study. Mean follow-up time was 1.8 years (maximum, 3.2y; total, 857.9 person-years). Community sample. Adults 70 years and older (N=513; mean age, 80.8 ± 5.1y) without disability or dementia. Not applicable. Time to ascend and descend 3 steps measured at baseline. A 14-point disability scale assessed functional status at baseline and at follow-up interviews every 2 to 3 months. Functional decline was defined as an increase in the disability score by 1 point during the follow-up period. The mean±SD stair ascent and descent times for 3 steps were 2.78 ± 1.49 and 2.83 ± 1.61 seconds, respectively. The proportion of self-reported and objective difficulty was higher with longer stair ascent and descent times (PRehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Study of Movement Speeds Down Stairs

    CERN Document Server

    Hoskins, Bryan L

    2013-01-01

    The Study of Movement Speeds Down Stairs closely examines forty-three unique case studies on movement patterns down stairwells. These studies include observations made during evacuation drills, others made during normal usage, interviews with people after fire evacuations, recommendations made from compiled studies, and detailed results from laboratory studies. The methodology used in each study for calculating density and movement speed, when known, are also presented, and this book identifies an additional seventeen variables linked to altering movement speeds. The Study of Movement Speeds Down Stairs is intended for researchers as a reference guide for evaluating pedestrian evacuation dynamics down stairwells. Practitioners working in a related field may also find this book invaluable.

  8. Eye Movement Patterns of the Elderly during Stair Descent:Effect of Illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, Satoko; Okabe, Sonoko; Nakazato, Naoko; Ohno, Yuko

    The relationship between the eye movement pattern during stair descent and illumination was studied in 4 elderly people in comparison with that in 5 young people. The illumination condition was light (85.0±30.9 lx) or dark (0.7±0.3 lx), and data of eye movements were obtained using an eye mark recorder. A flight of 15 steps was used for the experiment, and data on 3 steps in the middle, on which the descent movements were stabilized, were analyzed. The elderly subjects pointed their eyes mostly directly in front in the facial direction regardless of the illumination condition, but the young subjects tended to look down under the light condition. The young subjects are considered to have confirmed the safety of the front by peripheral vision, checked the stepping surface by central vision, and still maintained the upright position without leaning forward during stair descent. The elderly subjects, in contrast, always looked at the visual target by central vision even under the light condition and leaned forward. The range of eye movements was larger vertically than horizontally in both groups, and a characteristic eye movement pattern of repeating a vertical shuttle movement synchronous with descent of each step was observed. Under the dark condition, the young subjects widened the range of vertical eye movements and reduced duration of fixation. The elderly subjects showed no change in the range of eye movements but increased duration of fixation during stair descent. These differences in the eye movements are considered to be compensatory reactions to narrowing of the vertical visual field, reduced dark adaptation, and reduced dynamic visual acuity due to aging. These characteristics of eye movements of the elderly lead to an anteriorly leaned posture and lack of attention to the front during stair descent.

  9. Descendants of the Chiral Anomaly

    OpenAIRE

    Jackiw, R.

    2000-01-01

    Chern-Simons terms are well-known descendants of chiral anomalies, when the latter are presented as total derivatives. Here I explain that also Chern-Simons terms, when defined on a 3-manifold, may be expressed as total derivatives.

  10. Stair negotiation in women with fibromyalgia: A descriptive correlational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Mateo, Daniel; Domínguez-Muñoz, Francisco J; Olivares, Pedro R; Adsuar, José C; Gusi, Narcis

    2017-10-01

    Walking up and down stairs is a common and important activity of daily living. Women with fibromyalgia often show a reduced ability to perform this task.The objective of this study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of stair negotiation tasks and to assess the impact of fibromyalgia symptoms on the ability to negotiate stairs.Forty-two women with fibromyalgia participated in this descriptive correlational study. The relevance of the stair negotiation (both walking up and down) was evaluated by assessing its association with the revised version of the fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQ-R) and other health-related variables. Test-retest reliability was also analyzed. The main outcome measures were time spent walking up and down stairs and impact of fibromyalgia, quality of life, number of falls, weight, and lower limb strength and endurance.The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for stair descent was 0.929 whereas that for ascent was 0.972. The score in these tests correlated significantly with the total score for the FIQ-R and the score for many of dimensions and symptoms: that is, physical function, overall impact of fibromyalgia, pain, energy, stiffness, restorative sleep, tenderness, self-perceived balance problems, and sensitivity.Given the importance of the stair negotiation as activity of daily living and the high reliability, both stair ascent and descent tasks may be useful as outcome measures in studies on patients with fibromyalgia.

  11. The detailed measurement of foot clearance by young adults during stair descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telonio, A; Blanchet, S; Maganaris, C N; Baltzopoulos, V; McFadyen, B J

    2013-04-26

    Foot clearance is an important variable for understanding safe stair negotiation, but few studies have provided detailed measures of it. This paper presents a new method to calculate minimal shoe clearance during stair descent and compares it to previous literature. Seventeen healthy young subjects descended a five step staircase with step treads of 300 mm and step heights of 188 mm. Kinematic data were collected with an Optotrak system (model 3020) and three non-colinear infrared markers on the feet. Ninety points were digitized on the foot sole prior to data collection using a 6 marker probe and related to the triad of markers on the foot. The foot sole was reconstructed using the Matlab (version 7.0) "meshgrid" function and minimal distance to each step edge was calculated for the heel, toe and foot sole. Results showed significant differences in minimum clearance between sole, heel and toe, with the shoe sole being the closest and the toe the furthest. While the hind foot sole was closest for 69% of the time, the actual minimum clearance point on the sole did vary across subjects and staircase steps. This new method, and the findings on healthy young subjects, can be applied to future studies of other populations and staircase dimensions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Musical stairs: the impact of audio feedback during stair-climbing physical therapies for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ajmal; Biddiss, Elaine

    2015-05-01

    Enhanced biofeedback during rehabilitation therapies has the potential to provide a therapeutic environment optimally designed for neuroplasticity. This study investigates the impact of audio feedback on the achievement of a targeted therapeutic goal, namely, use of reciprocal steps. Stair-climbing therapy sessions conducted with and without audio feedback were compared in a randomized AB/BA cross-over study design. Seventeen children, aged 4-7 years, with various diagnoses participated. Reports from the participants, therapists, and a blinded observer were collected to evaluate achievement of the therapeutic goal, motivation and enjoyment during the therapy sessions. Audio feedback resulted in a 5.7% increase (p = 0.007) in reciprocal steps. Levels of participant enjoyment increased significantly (p = 0.031) and motivation was reported by child participants and therapists to be greater when audio feedback was provided. These positive results indicate that audio feedback may influence the achievement of therapeutic goals and promote enjoyment and motivation in young patients engaged in rehabilitation therapies. This study lays the groundwork for future research to determine the long term effects of audio feedback on functional outcomes of therapy. Stair-climbing is an important mobility skill for promoting independence and activities of daily life and is a key component of rehabilitation therapies for physically disabled children. Provision of audio feedback during stair-climbing therapies for young children may increase their achievement of a targeted therapeutic goal (i.e., use of reciprocal steps). Children's motivation and enjoyment of the stair-climbing therapy was enhanced when audio feedback was provided.

  13. The stair-step approach in mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Sedrakyan, Hayk

    2018-01-01

    This book is intended as a teacher’s manual and as an independent-study handbook for students and mathematical competitors. Based on a traditional teaching philosophy and a non-traditional writing approach (the stair-step method), this book consists of new problems with solutions created by the authors. The main idea of this approach is to start from relatively easy problems and “step-by-step” increase the level of difficulty toward effectively maximizing students' learning potential. In addition to providing solutions, a separate table of answers is also given at the end of the book. A broad view of mathematics is covered, well beyond the typical elementary level, by providing more in depth treatment of Geometry and Trigonometry, Number Theory, Algebra, Calculus, and Combinatorics.

  14. Boosting workplace stair utilization: a study of incremental reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Joseph E; Utley, Janice; Sutton, Lindsay; Horton, Trudi; Hamer, Trey; You, Zhiying; Klapow, Joshua C

    2013-02-01

    This study was designed to determine whether engagement in stair taking can be increased in a worksite setting through the provision of an employer-sponsored, behavior-based incentive system in which employees (members) accumulate points that can be redeemed for merchandise. ChipRewards implemented stair utilization in one employer as a part of a larger health incentive engagement program. Using an AB (baseline-intervention) design, members (N = 216) were observed for 6 months (6.17.10 to 12.14.10 or 129 weekdays after excluding 52 weekend days) before the intervention (baseline) and after 6 months (1.1.11 to 6.30.11 with the same number of weekdays) of implementation. Members were 84% female, 51% Caucasian, 48% African American, 3% Hispanic, and 45 years average age. The number of total stair transactions for all members for all days monitored increased from 5,070 to 38,900, and the average number of stair transactions per day rose from 39 to 301, representing over a 600% increase. The overall cost of incentives for stair utilization was $3,739.30 or $17.55 per member on average. This study supports that stair usage in the workplace is a viable way to increase physical activity. This study adds to existing research that attempted to increase stair utilization through promotion only by adding a behavioral reinforcement strategy. Finally, this study demonstrates that a physical activity among employees at the worksite can be increased with minimal relative cost.

  15. Effect of dual task type on gait and dynamic stability during stair negotiation at different inclinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madehkhaksar, F.; Egges, J.

    Stair gait is a common daily activity with great potential risk for falls. Stairs have varying inclinations and people may perform other tasks concurrently with stair gait. This study investigated dual-task interference in the context of complex gait tasks, such as stair gait at different

  16. Descending necrotising mediastinitis: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canan Eren

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Descending necrotising mediastinitis is a rare but usually fatal infection. It commonly results of oropharyngeal and odontogenic infections. Complete recovery may be achieved by early diagnosis, prompt medical and surgical approach. We are reporting our desending necrotizing mediastinitis case secondary to tooth abscess, and it’s successfull surgical treatment.A-48-year-old man admitted with fever, exhaustion neck distendion for a week. He had a tooth abscess one week ago. Chest tomography showed neck and mediastinal air and fluid collections. Antibiothreapy was started and urgent surgical management applied. Neck drainage was performed via transcervical approach. Mediastinal drainage was performed via right thoracotomy. Continue mediastinal washing feasibility was done by drainage tubes. Drainage was ended after nonextra drainage and cultural growthless. Vital signs became stable and control tomography showed complete recovery. He was healthfull at the 6th month’s follow-up.Broad antibiothreapy, surgical management are the main approaches for descending necrotising mediastinitis. The most common surgical procedure is the combination of transcervical approach and thoracotomy. We suggest early and agressive surgical management for the complete recovery. J Clin Exp Invest 2010; 1(3: 228-231

  17. Effects of mid-foot contact area ratio on lower body kinetics/kinematics in sagittal plane during stair descent in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinkyu; Hong, Yoon No Gregory; Shin, Choongsoo S

    2016-07-01

    The mid-foot contact area relative to the total foot contact area can facilitate foot arch structure evaluation. A stair descent motion consistently provides initial fore-foot contact and utilizes the foot arch more actively for energy absorption. The purpose of this study was to compare ankle and knee joint angle, moment, and work in sagittal plane during stair descending between low and high Mid-Foot-Contact-Area (MFCA) ratio group. The twenty-two female subjects were tested and classified into two groups (high MFCA and low MFCA) using their static MFCA ratios. The ground reaction force (GRF) and kinematics of ankle and knee joints were measured while stair descending. During the period between initial contact and the first peak in vertical GRF (early absorption phase), ankle negative work for the low MFCA ratio group was 33% higher than that for the high MFCA ratio group (pfoot differs depending upon foot arch types classified by MFCA. The low MFCA ratio group seemed to absorb more impact energy using strain in the planar fascia during early absorption phase, whereas the high MFCA ratio group absorbed more impact energy using increased dorsiflexion during late absorption phase. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Research on Dynamics and Stability in the Stairs-Climbing of a Tracked Mobile Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijun Tao

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the functional requirement of climbing up the stairs, the dynamics and stability during a tracked mobile robot's climbing of stairs is studied. First, from the analysis of its cross-country performance, the mechanical structure of the tracked mobile robot is designed and the hardware composition of its control system is given. Second, based on the analysis to its stairs-climbing process, the dynamical model of stairs-climbing is established by using the classical mechanics method. Next, the stability conditions for its stairs-climbing are determined and an evaluation method of its stairs-climbing stability is proposed, based on a mechanics analysis on the robot's backwards tumbling during the stairs-climbing process. Through simulation and experiments, the effectiveness of the dynamical model and the stability evaluation method of the tracked mobile robot in stairs-climbing is verified, which can provide design and analysis foundations for the tracked mobile robots' stairs-climbing.

  19. Ground reaction forces and frictional demands during stair descent: effects of age and illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christina, Kathryn A; Cavanagh, Peter R

    2002-04-01

    Stair descent is an inherently risky and demanding task that older adults often encounter in everyday life. It is believed that slip between the foot or shoe sole and the stair surface may play a role in stair related falls, however, there are no reports on slip resistance requirements for stair descent. The aim of this study was to determine the required coefficient of friction (RCOF) necessary for safe stair descent in 12 young and 12 older adults, under varied illuminance conditions. The RCOF during stair descent was found to be comparable in magnitude and time to that for overground walking, and thus, with adequate footwear and dry stair surfaces, friction does not appear to be a major determinant of stair safety. Illuminance level had little effect on the dependent variables quantified in this study. However, the older participants demonstrated safer strategies than the young during stair descent, as reflected by differences in the ground reaction forces and lower RCOF.

  20. Balance control during stair negotiation in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heng-Ju; Chou, Li-Shan

    2007-01-01

    Stair negotiation is among the most challenging and hazardous types of locomotion for older people. However, the effect of aging on balance control during stair negotiation has not been investigated. Instantaneous inclination angles between the center of mass (CoM) and center of pressure (CoP) have been reported to detect gait instability effectively in the elderly. The purpose of this study was to compare the CoM-CoP inclination angles between 12 healthy elderly and 13 healthy young adults when performing stair ascent (SA) and descent (SD) on a three-step staircase. Whole body motion data were collected with an eight-camera motion analysis system. Four force plates were mounted on the floor as well as the first two steps to measure ground reaction forces. No significant group differences were detected in any of the temporal-distance gait measures and CoM-CoP inclination angles during SA and SD. Compared to the floor-to-stair transition phase, both groups demonstrated a significantly greater CoM-CoP medial inclination angle while ascending the stairs. However, a significant reduction in medial inclination was only detected in young adults when transferring from SD to level ground walking. Elderly adults were found to demonstrate a significantly greater medial inclination angle during the stair-to-floor transition phase when compared to young adults. Age-related degenerations in the elderly could compromise their ability to regulate body sway during the stair-to-floor transition, which may subsequently increase the risk of falling.

  1. Novel knee joint mechanism of transfemoral prosthesis for stair ascent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Koh; Wada, Takahiro; Harada, Ryuchi; Tachiwana, Shinichi

    2013-06-01

    The stability of a transfemoral prosthesis when walking on flat ground has been established by recent advances in knee joint mechanisms and their control methods. It is, however, difficult for users of a transfemoral prosthesis to ascend stairs. This difficulty is mainly due to insufficient generation of extension moment around the knee joint of the prosthesis to lift the body to the next step on the staircase and prevent any unexpected flexion of the knee joint in the stance phase. Only a prosthesis with an actuator has facilitated stair ascent using a step-over-step gait (1 foot is placed per step). However, its use has issues associated with the durability, cost, maintenance, and usage environment. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to develop a novel knee joint mechanism for a prosthesis that generates an extension moment around the knee joint in the stance phase during stair ascent, without the use of any actuators. The proposed mechanism is based on the knowledge that the ground reaction force increases during the stance phase when the knee flexion occurs. Stair ascent experiments with the prosthesis showed that the proposed prosthesis can realize stair ascent without any undesirable knee flexion. In addition, the prosthesis is able to generate a positive knee joint moment power in the stance phase even without any power source.

  2. Descending necrotizing mediastinitis: surgical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalia, E; Rena, O; Oliaro, A; Cavallo, A; Giobbe, R; Casadio, C; Maggi, G; Mancuso, M

    2001-10-01

    Descending necrotizing mediastinitis (DNM) is a primary complication of cervical or odontogenical infections that can spread to the mediastinum through the anatomic cervical spaces. Between April 1994 and April 2000, 13 patients, mean age 39.23+/-18.47 (median 38, range 16-67) years, with DNM were submitted to surgical treatment. Primary odontogenic abscess occurred in six, peritonsillar abscess in five and post-traumatic cervical abscess in two patients. Diagnosis was confirmed by computed tomography (CT) of the neck and chest. All patients underwent surgical drainage of the cervico-mediastinal regions by a bilateral collar incision associated with right thoracotomy in ten cases. Six patients out of 13 required reoperation. Two patients previously submitted only to cervical drainage required thoracotomy; four patients, which have been submitted to cervico-thoracic drainage, underwent contralateral thoracotomy in two cases and ipsilateral reoperation in two cases. Ten patients evolved well and were discharged without major sequelae; three patients died of multiorgan failure related to septic shock. Mortality rate was 23%. Early diagnosis by CT of the neck and chest suggest a rapid indication of surgical approach to DNM. Ample cervicotomy associated with mediastinal drainage via large thoracotomic incision is essential in managing these critically ill patients and can significantly reduce the mortality rate for this condition, often affecting young people, to acceptable values.

  3. USAID Forward

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The USAID Forward reform initiative ran from 2010-2016. USAID Forward improved the way that the Agency delivers foreign assistance by embracing new partnerships,...

  4. Investigating behavioural mimicry in the context of stair/escalator choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Oliver J; Eves, Frank F; Smith, Lee

    2011-05-01

    We investigated whether individuals mimic the stair/escalator choices of preceding pedestrians. Our methodology sought to separate cases where the 'model' and 'follower' were acquaintances or strangers. Natural experiment. Infrared monitors provided a second-by-second log of when pedestrians ascended adjacent stairs/escalators in a mall. Manual timings established that stair climbers spent ≥ 7 s on ascent, during which time they could act as models to following pedestrians. Thus, individuals who mounted the stairs/escalator ≤ 7 s after the previous stair climber were assigned to a 'stair model' condition. A 'no stair model' condition comprised individuals with a gap to the previous stair climber of ≥ 60 s. The stair model condition was subdivided, depending if the gap between model and follower was 1-2 s or 3-7 s. It was hypothesized that the former cohort may know the model. Percentage stair climbing was significantly higher in the 'stair model' versus 'no stair model' condition (odds ratio [OR]= 2.08). Subgroup analyses showed greater effects in the '1-2 s' cohort (OR = 3.33) than the '3-7 s' cohort (OR = 1.39). Individuals appear to mimic the stair/escalator choices of fellow pedestrians, with more modest effects between strangers. People exposed to message prompts at stair/escalator sites are known to take the stairs unprompted in subsequent situations. Our results suggest that these individuals could recruit a second generation of stair climbers via mimicry. Additionally, some of the immediate behavioural effects observed in interventions may be a product of mimicry, rather than a direct effect of the messages themselves. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  5. Stair-Walking Performance in Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wann-Yun Shieh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Most individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID demonstrate problems in learning and movement coordination. Consequently, they usually have difficulties in activities such as standing, walking, and stair climbing. To monitor the physical impairments of these children, regular gross motor evaluation is crucial. Straight-line level walking is the most frequently used test of their mobility. However, numerous studies have found that unless the children have multiple disabilities, no significant differences can be found between the children with ID and typically-developed children in this test. Stair climbing presents more challenges than level walking because it is associated with numerous physical factors, including lower extremity strength, cardiopulmonary endurance, vision, balance, and fear of falling. Limited ability in those factors is one of the most vital markers for children with ID. In this paper, we propose a sensor-based approach for measuring stair-walking performance, both upstairs and downstairs, for adolescents with ID. Particularly, we address the problem of sensor calibration to ensure measurement accuracy. In total, 62 participants aged 15 to 21 years, namely 32 typically-developed (TD adolescents, 20 adolescents with ID, and 10 adolescents with multiple disabilities (MD, participated. The experimental results showed that stair-walking is more sensitive than straight-line level walking in capturing gait characteristics for adolescents with ID.

  6. Neuromuscular function during stair descent in meniscectomized patients and controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlund, Jonas Bloch; Roos, Ewa M; Aagaard, Per

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify differences in knee range of motion (ROM), movement speed, ground reaction forces (GRF) profile, neuromuscular activity, and muscle coactivation during the transition between stair descent and level walking in meniscectomized patients at high risk of knee...

  7. Diabetic patients with and without peripheral neuropathy reveal different hip and ankle biomechanical strategies during stair descent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja P. Picon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The progression of diabetes and the challenge of daily tasks may result in changes in biomechanical strategies. Descending stairs is a common task that patients have to deal with, however it still has not been properly studied in this population. OBJECTIVES: We describe and compare the net joint moments and kinematics of the lower limbs in diabetic individuals with and without peripheral neuropathy and healthy controls during stair descent. METHOD: Forty-two adults were assessed: control group (13, diabetic group (14, and neuropathic diabetic group (15. The flexor and extensor net moment peaks and joint angles of the hip, knee, and ankle were described and compared in terms of effect size and ANOVAs (p<0.05. RESULTS: Both diabetic groups presented greater dorsiflexion [large effect size] and a smaller hip extensor moment [large effect size] in the weight acceptance phase. In the propulsion phase, diabetics with and without neuropathy showed a greater hip flexor moment [large effect size] and smaller ankle extension [large effect size]. CONCLUSION: Diabetic patients, even without neuropathy, revealed poor eccentric control in the weight acceptance phase, and in the propulsion phase, they showed a different hip strategy, where they chose to take the leg off the ground using more flexion torque at the hip instead of using a proper ankle extension function.

  8. A descendent relation in genus 2

    OpenAIRE

    Belorousski, Pasha; Pandharipande, Rahul

    1998-01-01

    A new codimension 2 relation among descendent strata in the moduli space of stable, 3-pointed, genus 2 curves is found. The space of pointed admissible double covers is used in the calculation. The resulting differential equations satisfied by the genus 2 gravitational potentials of varieties in Gromov-Witten theory are described. These are analogous to the WDVV-equations in genus 0 and Getzler's equations in genus 1. As an application, genus 2 descendent invariants of the projective plane ar...

  9. Resistance exercise training increases lower limb speed of strength generation during stair ascent and descent in people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handsaker, J C; Brown, S J; Bowling, F L; Maganaris, C N; Boulton, A J M; Reeves, N D

    2016-01-01

    To examine the effects of a 16-week resistance exercise training intervention on the speed of ankle and knee strength generation during stair ascent and descent, in people with neuropathy. A total of 43 people: nine with diabetic peripheral neuropathy, 13 with diabetes but no neuropathy and 21 healthy control subjects ascended and descended a custom-built staircase. The speed at which ankle and knee strength were generated, and muscle activation patterns of the ankle and knee extensor muscles were analysed before and after a 16-week intervention period. Ankle and knee strength generation during both stair ascent and descent were significantly higher after the intervention than before the intervention in the people with diabetes who undertook the resistance exercise intervention (P strength generation observed after the intervention would be expected to improve stability during the crucial weight acceptance phase of stair ascent and descent, and ultimately contribute towards reducing the risk of falling. Improvements in muscle strength as a result of the resistance exercise training intervention are likely to be the most influential factor for increasing the speed of strength generation. It is recommended that these exercises could be incorporated into a multi-faceted exercise programme to improve safety in people with diabetes and neuropathy. © 2015 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2015 Diabetes UK.

  10. Mirror, Mirror by the Stairs: The Impact of Mirror Exposure on Stair versus Elevator Use in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgin, Katie L; Graham, Dan J

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that self-awareness-inducing mirrors can successfully incite behaviors that align with one's personal values, such as helping others. Other research has found a large discrepancy between the high percentage of young adults who report valuing the healthfulness of physical activity (PA) and the low percentage who actually meet PA participation standards. However, few studies have examined how mirror exposure and both perceived and actual body size influence highly valued PA participation among college students. The present study assessed stair versus elevator use on a western college campus and hypothesized that mirror exposure would increase the more personally healthy transportation method of stair use. In accordance with previous research, it was also hypothesized that males and those with a lower body mass index (BMI) would be more likely to take the stairs, and that body size distorting mirrors would impact the stair-elevator decision. One hundred sixty-seven students (51% male) enrolled in an introductory psychology course were recruited to take a survey about their "transportation choices" at an indoor campus parking garage. Participants were individually exposed to either no mirror, a standard full-length mirror, or a full-length mirror manipulated to make the reflected body size appear either slightly thinner or slightly wider than normal before being asked to go to the fourth floor of the garage for a survey. Participants' choice of floor-climbing method (stairs or elevator) was recorded, and they were administered an Internet-based survey assessing demographic information, BMI, self-awareness, perceived body size, and other variables likely to be associated with stair use. Results from logistic regression analyses revealed that participants who were not exposed to a mirror [odds ratios (OR) = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.14-0.96], males (OR = 0.33, 95% CI: 0.13-0.85), those with lower BMI (OR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.71-0.99), those

  11. Risk and protective factors for falls on stairs in young children: multicentre case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, D; Zou, K; Ablewhite, J; Watson, M; Coupland, C; Kay, B; Hawkins, A; Reading, R

    2016-10-01

    To investigate risk and protective factors for stair falls in children aged children with medically attended stair fall injuries. Controls were matched on age, sex, calendar time and study centre. A total of 610 cases and 2658 controls participated. Cases' most common injuries were bangs on the head (66%), cuts/grazes not requiring stitches (14%) and fractures (12%). Parents of cases were significantly more likely not to have stair gates (adjusted OR (AOR) 2.50, 95% CI 1.90 to 3.29; population attributable fraction (PAF) 21%) or to leave stair gates open (AOR 3.09, 95% CI 2.39 to 4.00; PAF 24%) both compared with having closed stair gates. They were more likely not to have carpeted stairs (AOR 1.52, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.10; PAF 5%) and not to have a landing part-way up their stairs (AOR 1.34, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.65; PAF 18%). They were more likely to consider their stairs unsafe to use (AOR 1.46, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.99; PAF 5%) or to be in need of repair (AOR 1.71, 95% CI 1.16 to 2.50; PAF 5%). Structural factors including having landings part-way up the stairs and keeping stairs in good repair were associated with reduced stair fall injury risk. Family factors including having stair gates, not leaving gates open and having stair carpets were associated with reduced injury risk. If these associations are causal, addressing these factors in housing policy and routine child health promotion could reduce stair fall injuries. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. PNRI mutant variety: Freycinetia multi flora 'Golden Stairs'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurigue, Fernando B.

    2010-01-01

    Ferricyanate multi flora 'Golden Stairs,' with the proposed common name Golden Stairs Ferricyanate, is a chlorophyll mutant of a selected female clone registered by the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute as Nic 2008 Or-67. The new mutant variety was developed by treating stem cuttings with acute gamma radiation from a Cobalt-60 source. It is similar to the original and control plants except for the leaf color. This shows that mutation induction by gamma radiation can alter only one characteristics (e.g., leaf color) without affecting the other good attributes of the plant. Propagation is by shoot-tip cutting, stem cutting and division of the clump or the rhizome. The plant may be used as potted ornamental, landscaping material or source of cut foliage and cut flower for flower arrangements. (author)

  13. A simple model of a Slinky walking down stairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ai-Ping

    2010-01-01

    The motion of a Slinky walking down a set of stairs is modeled by a simple dynamical system with two degrees of freedom undergoing inelastic collisions. Numerical integration of the model's equations of motion shows that the model's behavior is similar to observations of the motion of an actual Slinky. In particular, it is found that the model's motion exhibits a periodic gait, although subject to more restrictive launch conditions than an actual Slinky.

  14. Reliable Stair Climbing in the Simple Hexapod ’RHex’

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    legged robots have successfully climbed stairs – recently the Honda bipeds climbed quasi- statically.6 Raibert built a biped that could hop over...cim.mcgill.ca, fgrimminger@web.de, buehler@cim.mcgill.ca Ambulatory Robotics Laboratory, Centre for Intelligent Machines, McGill University Montreal, Quebec...this paper, we describe an open loop controller that enables our small robot (Length: 51 cm, Width: 20 cm, Height: 12.7 cm. Leg length: 16 cm), to

  15. Descending necrotizing mediastinitis in the elderly patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazzella Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Descending Necrotizing Mediastinitis (DNM is a polymicrobic, dangerous and often fatal process, arising from head or neck infections and spreading along the deep fascial cervical planes, descending into the mediastinum. It can rapidly progress to sepsis and can frequently lead to death. It has a high mortality rate, up to 40% in the different series, as described in the literature. Surgical and therapeutic management has been discussed for long time especially in an elderly patient population. The literature has been reviewed in order to evaluate different pathogenesis and evolution and to recognise a correct therapeutic management.

  16. Diversity of Cortico-descending Projections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Innocenti, Giorgio M; Caminiti, Roberto; Rouiller, Eric M

    2018-01-01

    The axonal composition of cortical projections originating in premotor, supplementary motor (SMA), primary motor (a4), somatosensory and parietal areas and descending towards the brain stem and spinal cord was characterized in the monkey with histological tract tracing, electron microscopy (EM) a...

  17. Amount of balance necessary for the independence of transfer and stair-climbing in stroke inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Takaaki; Sato, Atsushi; Ohashi, Yuji; Nishiyama, Kazutaka; Ohashi, Takuro; Yamane, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Yuichi; Tsuchiya, Kenji; Otsuki, Koji; Tozato, Fusae

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the amount of balance necessary for the independence of transfer and stair-climbing in stroke patients. This study included 111 stroke inpatients. Simple and multiple regression analyses were conducted to establish the association between the FIM ® instrument scores for transfer or stair-climbing and Berg Balance Scale. Furthermore, receiver operating characteristic curves were used to elucidate the amount of balance necessary for the independence of transfer and stair-climbing. Simple and multiple regression analyses showed that the FIM ® instrument scores for transfer and stair-climbing were strongly associated with Berg Balance Scale. On comparison of the independent and supervision-dependent groups, Berg Balance Scale cut-off values for transfer and stair-climbing were 41/40 and 54/53 points, respectively. On comparison of the independent-supervision and dependent groups, the cut-off values for transfer and stair-climbing were 30/29 and 41/40 points, respectively. The calculated cut-off values indicated the amount of balance necessary for the independence of transfer and stair-climbing, with and without supervision, in stroke patients. Berg Balance Scale has a good discriminatory ability and cut-off values are clinically useful to determine the appropriate independence levels of transfer and stair-climbing in hospital wards. Implications for rehabilitation The Berg Balance Scale's (BBS) strong association with transfer and stair-climbing independence and performance indicates that establishing cut-off values is vitally important for the established use of the BBS clinically. The cut-off values calculated herein accurately demonstrate the level of balance necessary for transfer and stair-climbing independence, with and without supervision, in stroke patients. These criteria should be employed clinically for determining the level of independence for transfer and stair-climbing as well as for setting balance training

  18. Suicide awareness of japanese family descendants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Tiemi Kawaziri Diogo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to comprehend the meaning of suicide for Japanese descendants. This was a qualitative study, based on Grounded Theory, using a structured interview with sixteen questions, digitally recorded. Subjects were ten descendants who were interviewed in 2011. The opinions of the interviewed showed factors of psychological, social and cultural origin involved in suicide, such as: heredity, religion, mental health, personality characteristics and interpersonal relationships, pleasure and pain at work, stigma and consequences of the act on the family. Family without case of suicide showed attitudes of prejudice and judgment, while those with case displayed feelings of pain in their reports. It was concluded that the Japanese rigid culture, personality, interpersonal communication and the way family and work have effects on their behavior are predisposing factors to suicide, as well as the identification of these factors contributes to a better performance of the nurse.

  19. 29 CFR 1910.24 - Fixed industrial stairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... within the permissible range. Table D-1 gives rise/tread dimensions which will produce a stairway within... rise/tread combinations are not limited to those given in Table D-1. Table D-1 Angle to horizontal Rise... providing the leading edge can be readily identified by personnel descending the stairway and provided the...

  20. Descending necrotizing mediastinitis of oropharyngeal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Sokouti

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Descending necrotizing mediastinitis (DNM is a rare and life-threatening infection. Management of this condition is very difficult and before 1990s, DNM had a mortality rate of 40% despite the use of antibiotics. One of the etiologies of this condition is rapid downward spread of oropharyngeal infection along the cervical fascia planes into the mediastinum. Materials and methods. Patients with DNM from odontogenic, peritonsillar and retropharyngeal origins, who underwent surgical treatment from 1990 to 2007, were reviewed. Data extracted from medical records of the patients included age, gender, origin of the infection, surgical approaches, and the cause of mortality. Descriptive data were expressed as a Mean ± SE. Results. Thirteen patients aged 15 to 56 (mean, 34.5 years old; 8 males and 5 females were studied. The origins of infection included odontogenic abscess in 10 cases and peritonsillar and retropharyngeal abscess in 3 patients. The mean duration from onset of symptoms to the surgery was 12.18 ± 0.98 days (range 3 to 24 days and the mean duration from initial surgery to discharges was 28.51 ± 3.25 days (range 5 to 92 days. Post-operative mortality was seen in three patients. Conclusion. Descending necrotizing mediastinitis can arise from odontogenic abscesses and must be detected as early as possible, as it is a life-threatening infection.

  1. A Concept Of Modification And Simulation Studies Of A Mechatronic Stair Transporter For The Disabled

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wudarczyk Sławomir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A numerical model of existing stair climber with its passenger was built and its operation was analysed through simulations. A modification of the stair climber has been developed on a basis of the simulation studies. The modification depends on equipping the device with additional controllable mechanism the function of which is to change the position of the passenger’s centre of gravity. Comparative simulation studies were carried out for the standard version and the modified version of the stair transporter in a system for the dynamic.

  2. A common perceptual parameter for stair climbing for children, young and old adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesari, P; Formenti, F; Olivato, P

    2003-02-01

    In this paper we examine whether a common perceptual parameter is available for guiding old adults, young adults and children in climbing the highest stair mountable in a bipedal fashion. Previous works have shown that the ratio between the height of the stair and the hip height was the body-scaled invariance adopted as information for selecting the highest stair by young adults [Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 10 (1984) 683-703] but not by older adults [Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 3 (1992) 691-697]. Indeed, for older adults additional bio-mechanical parameters needed to be added to the model due to their decrease in leg strength and flexibility.Up to now, no perceptual invariant has been identified yet for determining the relevant information used for guiding the stair climbing action for normal healthy people. We propose a new parameter as the angle defined by the ratio between the height of the stair and the distance taken from the feet to the top edge of the stair before the initiation of the movement. We show that this angle is the same for children, young adults and older adults despite the different kinematics of the motion, the anthropometrics and the skill ability exhibit by the participants. In summary we show that even when the climbability judgments, based on the simple ratio leg length-stair height, are influenced by differences in age, participants use a common perceptual variable when they are coordinating their stair climbing action.

  3. Foot clearance strategy for step-over-step stair climbing in transfemoral amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobara, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Yoshiyuki; Nakamura, Takashi; Yamasaki, Nobuya; Ogata, Toru

    2014-08-01

    Stair ascent is a particularly challenging task for transfemoral amputees. The aim of this clinical note was to describe the kinematic features of foot clearance in transfemoral amputee who can ascend stairs using a step-over-step strategy. The marker trajectories of the first metatarsophalangeal joint (Mt1) and clearance height were measured in two transfemoral amputees who could (TF1) and could not (TF2) climb stairs using a step-over-step strategy. The Mt1 marker trajectories of the TF1 moved backward in the early swing phase, and the trajectory followed an off-centered parabolic arc to achieve a similar clearance height as able-bodied subjects. TF2 could not climb the stairs without tripping in each step. An effective compensatory strategy to avoid tripping during stair climbing may be to use the hip joint for a backward extension and rapid flexion of the prosthetic leg during the early swing phase. The foot clearance strategy in transfemoral amputees who can climb stairs using a step-over-step strategy will help us better understand adaptive prosthetic control and thus develop more effective gait rehabilitation programs. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2013.

  4. Semantics and technologies in modern design of interior stairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukhta, M.; Sokolov, A.; Pelevin, E.

    2015-10-01

    Use of metal in the design of interior stairs presents new features for shaping, and can be implemented using different technologies. The article discusses the features of design and production technologies of forged metal spiral staircase considering the image semantics based on the historical and cultural heritage. To achieve the objective was applied structural- semantic method (to identify the organization of structure and semantic features of the artistic image), engineering methods (to justify the construction of the object), anthropometry method and ergonomics (to provide usability), methods of comparative analysis (to reveale the features of the way the ladder in different periods of culture). According to the research results are as follows. Was revealed the semantics influence on the design of interior staircase that is based on the World Tree image. Also was suggested rational calculation of steps to ensure the required strength. And finally was presented technology, providing the realization of the artistic image. In the practical part of the work is presented version of forged staircase.

  5. Inverted Lymphoglandular Polyp in Descending Colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengmei Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 47-year-old male with a history of left colon cancer, status post left colon resection for 12 years, presented with rectal bleeding. Colonoscopic examination revealed an 8 mm sessile polyp in the proximal descending colon. Microscopic examination showed that the surface of this polyp was covered with a layer of normal colonic mucosa with focal surface erosion. In the submucosal layer, an intimate admixture of multiple cystically dilated glands and prominent lymphoid aggregates with germinal centers was seen. The glands were lined by columnar epithelium. Immunohistochemical staining showed the glands were positive for CK20 and CDX2 and negative for CK7, with a low proliferative index, mostly consistent with reactive colonic glands. The patient remained asymptomatic after one-year follow-up. A review of the literature shows very rare descriptions of similar lesions, but none fits exactly this pattern. We would designate this inverted lymphoglandular polyp and present this case to raise the awareness of recognizing this unusual histological entity.

  6. The intramyocardial left anterior descending artery: Prevalence and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The intramyocardial left anterior descending artery: Prevalence and surgical considerations in coronary artery bypass grafting. ... The left anterior descending (LAD) artery is the most commonly bridged vessel. Its prevalence ... Techniques are described to address this anatomical variation when it is encountered at surgery.

  7. A combinatorial approach for analyzing the number of descendants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work is devoted to a study of the number of descendants of node j in random increasing trees, previously treated in [5, 8, 10, 15], and also to a study of the number of descendants of node j in pairs of random trees generated by a certain growth process generalizing the corresponding analysis of various classes of ...

  8. Reliability of electromyography parameters during stair deambulation in patellofemoral pain syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Ferraz Pazzinatto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Reliability is essential to all aspects of the measure, as it shows the quality of the information and allows rational conclusions with regard to the data. There has been controversial results regarding the reliability of electromyographic parameters assessed during stair ascent and descent in individuals with patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS. Therefore, this study aims to determine the reliability of time and frequency domain electromyographic parameters on both gestures in women with PFPS. Thirty-one women with PFPS were selected to participate in this study. Data from vastus lateralis and medialis were collected during stair deambulation. The selected parameters were: automatic onset, median frequency bands of low, medium and high frequency. Reliability was determined by intraclass correlation coefficient and the standard error of measurement. The frequency domain variables have shown good reliability, with the stair ascent presenting the best rates. On the other hand, onset has proved to be inconsistent in all measures. Our findings suggest that stair ascent is more reliable than stair descent to evaluate subjects with PFPS in the most cases.

  9. Stairs or escalator? Using theories of persuasion and motivation to facilitate healthy decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suri, Gaurav; Sheppes, Gal; Leslie, Sara; Gross, James J

    2014-12-01

    To encourage an increase in daily activity, researchers have tried a variety of health-related communications, but with mixed results. In the present research-using the stair escalator choice context-we examined predictions derived from the Heuristic Systematic Model (HSM), Self Determination Theory (SDT), and related theories. Specifically, we tested whether (as predicted by HSM) signs that encourage heuristic processing ("Take the Stairs") would have greatest impact when placed at the stair/escalator point of choice (when processing time is limited), whereas signs that encourage systematic processing ("Will You Take the Stairs?") would have greatest impact when placed at some distance from the point of choice (when processing time is less limited). We also tested whether (as predicted by SDT) messages promoting autonomy would be more likely to result in sustained motivated behavior (i.e., stair taking at subsequent uncued choice points) than messages that use commands. A series of studies involving more than 9,000 pedestrians provided support for these predictions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Symptomatic Type IV Dual Left Anterior Descending Coronary Artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriacos Papadopoulos MD

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Dual left anterior descending coronary artery is a rare congenital anomaly with 4 subtypes. Double left anterior descending coronary artery originating from the left main stem and the right coronary artery (type IV dual left anterior descending artery has been reported to occur in 0.01% to 0.7% of patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. We report a case of a 49-year-old woman who was found to have this anomaly during coronary angiography. The patient had been complaining of chest pain that mimics angina pectoris and exercise tolerance test was positive for myocardial ischemia.

  11. Stair evacuation simulation based on cellular automata considering evacuees’ walk preferences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Ning; Luh, Peter B.; Zhang Hui; Chen Tao

    2015-01-01

    As a physical model, the cellular automata (CA) model is widely used in many areas, such as stair evacuation. However, existing CA models do not consider evacuees’ walk preferences nor psychological status, and the structure of the basic model is unapplicable for the stair structure. This paper is to improve the stair evacuation simulation by addressing these issues, and a new cellular automata model is established. Several evacuees’ walk preference and how evacuee’s psychology influences their behaviors are introduced into this model. Evacuees’ speeds will be influenced by these features. To validate this simulation, two fire drills held in two high-rise buildings are video-recorded. It is found that the simulation results are similar to the fire drill results. The structure of this model is simple, and it is easy to further develop and utilize in different buildings with various kinds of occupants. (paper)

  12. Using a body sensor network to measure the effect of fatigue on stair climbing performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, Jeroen H M; Smith, Ian C H; Mayagoitia, Ruth E

    2012-01-01

    In terms of self-rated health, the most important activities of daily living are those involving mobility. Of these activities stair climbing is regarded as the most strenuous. A loss of stair climbing ability with age is normally associated with a loss of muscle strength and power, while other factors that influence muscle function, such as fatigue, are often not taken into account. So far no research has been published on how long-lasting fatigue affects activities of daily living, despite the fact that it has been repeatedly proven, in laboratory settings, to influence muscle force production over long periods of time. Technological advances in body sensor networks (BSNs) now provide a method to measure performance during complex real-life situations. In this study the use of a BSN was explored to investigate the effects of long-lasting fatigue on stair climbing performance in 20 healthy adults. Stair climbing performance was measured before and after a fatiguing protocol using a BSN. Performance was defined by temporal and spatial parameters. Long-lasting fatigue was successfully induced in all participants using an exercise protocol. The BSN showed that post-exercise fatigue did not influence stair climbing times (p > 0.2) and no meaningful changes in joint angles were found. No effect on overall stair climbing performance was found, despite a clear presence of long-lasting fatigue. This study shows that physiological paradigms can be further explored using BSNs. Ecological validity of lab-based measurements can be increased by combining them with BSNs. (paper)

  13. Life courses of immigrants and their descendants. Doctoral thesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinepier, T.

    2016-01-01

    Zijn proefschrift is getiteld 'Life courses of immigrants and their descendants', een onderzoek naar hoe jongeren van diverse etnische herkomstgroepen in Nederland de transitie naar volwassenheid maken, waarbij voornamelijk is gekeken naar gebeurtenissen in hun familie- en gezinsleven. Academic and

  14. Braking and propulsive impulses in individuals with patellofemoral pain syndrome when walking up and down stairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Camargo Saad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS is a prevalent clinical condition and it affects gait behavior. Braking and propulsive impulses are important biomechanical parameters obtained from ground reaction forces (GRF, which combine the amount of force applied over a period of time. The aim of this study was to evaluate these impulses while walking up and down stairs in healthy controls and PFPS individuals. The results did not reveal significant differences in braking and propulsive impulses between groups during these activities. Thus, the painful condition on a simple functional activity was insufficient to change the motor strategy to walking up or down the stairs.

  15. Increased Difficulties in Managing Stairs in Visually Impaired Older Adults: A Community-Based Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Wei Pan

    Full Text Available Managing stairs is a challenging aspect of daily activities of living for older people. We assessed whether older adults with visual impairment (VI have greater difficulties of managing stairs in daily lives.The study was designed as a community-based cross-sectional study based on a Chinese cohort aged 60 years and older in rural China. Visual acuity (VA was measured in both eyes using a retro-illuminated Snellen chart with tumbling-E optotypes. VI (including blindness was defined as presenting VA of worse than 20/60 in either eye. Having any difficulties in managing stairs was self-reported based on a question drawn from the Barthel Index. Information on participants' socioeconomic status, lifestyle-related factors, diseases histories and medication intake was collected using a questionnaire.The Barthel Index, Activities of Daily Living questionnaire was completed by 4597 (99.7% participants including 2218 men and 2379 women. The age of the participants ranged from 60 to 93 years with a mean of 67.6 ± 6.3 years. In age and gender adjusted models, adults with VI had a higher likelihood of having difficulties in managing stairs (odds ratio [OR] = 2.7; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.0, 3.7 compared with those without. The association of VI with the likelihood of having difficulties in managing stairs was stronger in older adults who lived alone (OR = 3.2; 95%CI 1.8, 4.5 compared with those who lived with other family members (OR = 2.0; 95%CI 1.3, 4.3. Compared with hypertension, diabetes, obesity and cognitive dysfunction, VI had the greatest impact on people's abilities of managing stairs.VI was associated with an increased likelihood of having difficulties in managing stairs, especially in those who lived alone. However, whether the finding could be extrapolated to other populations warrants further studies as different environmental exposures such as illumination and types of stairs may alter the association observed in this study.

  16. A multistage controlled intervention to increase stair climbing at work: effectiveness and process evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellicha, Alice; Kieusseian, Aurélie; Fontvieille, Anne-Marie; Tataranni, Antonio; Copin, Nane; Charreire, Hélène; Oppert, Jean-Michel

    2016-04-11

    Stair climbing helps to accumulate short bouts of physical activity throughout the day as a strategy for attaining recommended physical activity levels. There exists a need for effective long-term stair-climbing interventions that can be transferred to various worksite settings. The aims of this study were: 1) to evaluate short- and long-term effectiveness of a worksite stair-climbing intervention using an objective measurement of stair climbing and a controlled design; and 2) to perform a process evaluation of the intervention. We performed a controlled before-and-after study. The study was conducted in two corporate buildings of the same company located in Paris (France), between September, 2013 and September, 2014. The status of either "intervention site" or "control site" was assigned by the investigators. Participants were on-site employees (intervention site: n = 783; control site: n = 545 at baseline). Two one-month intervention phases using signs (intervention phase 1) and enhancement of stairwell aesthetics (intervention phase 2) were performed. The main outcome was the change in stair climbing, measured with automatic counters and expressed in absolute counts/day/100 employees and percent change compared to baseline. Qualitative outcomes were used to describe the intervention process. Stair climbing significantly increased at the intervention site (+18.7%) but decreased at the control site (-13.3%) during the second intervention phase (difference between sites: +4.6 counts/day/100 employees, p < 0.001). After the intervention and over the long term, stair climbing returned to baseline levels at the intervention site, but a significant difference between sites was found (intervention site vs. control site: +2.9 counts/day/100 employees, p < 0.05). Some important facets of the intervention were implemented as intended but other aspects had to be adapted. The main difficulty reported by the company's staff members lay in matching the internal

  17. Wa-Chair: A concept for development of economical stair-climbing wheelchair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyoti Baishya, Nayan; Ogai, Harutoshi

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, a concept for development of cost effective and reliable stair climbing wheelchair is being proposed. Slider-crank mechanism is being used to compensate for any variation in inclination angle of the wheelchair during ascent or descent on stairs. Controlling wheelchair’s inclination angle can reduce risk for the rider as it prevents the wheelchair from toppling. A prototype is being developed to validate proposed mechanism. Proposed mechanism allows rider to view in the direction of progress which adds additional safety to the rider.

  18. Stair Climbing Control for 4-DOF Tracked Vehicle Based on Internal Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Endo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In search-and-rescue missions, multi-degrees-of-freedom (DOF tracked robots that are equipped with subtracks are commonly used. These types of robots have superior locomotion performance on rough terrain. However, in teleoperated missions, the performance of tracked robots depends largely on the operators’ ability to control every subtrack appropriately. Therefore, an autonomous traversal function can significantly help in the teleoperation of such robots. In this paper, we propose a planning and control method for 4-DOF tracked robots climbing up/down known stairs automatically based on internal sensors. Experimental results obtained using mockup stairs verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  19. Point-of-Decision Signs and Stair Use in a University Worksite Setting: General Versus Specific Messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, Mary R; Kerr, Jacqueline; Taylor, Wendell C

    2015-01-01

    This study tested the effectiveness of two point-of-decision signs to increase stair use and investigated message content by comparing signs with general and specific messages. This study used a quasi-experimental time series design, including a 2-week baseline period: 2 weeks with a general message and 2 weeks with a specific message. The signs were placed in an eight-story university building. The subjects comprised all adults entering the building. During the study, 2997 observations of stair/elevator choice were made. A stair-prompt sign with a general message and a sign with a specific message served as the interventions. Observers measured stair/elevator choice, demographics, and traffic volume. Logistic regression analyses were employed, adjusting for covariates. The specific sign intervention showed significantly increased odds of stair use compared to baseline (odds ratio [OR] = 2.04, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.46-2.84). The odds of stair use were also significantly greater with the specific sign than the general sign (OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.13-2.20). Only the specific sign significantly increased stair use. The results indicate that a specific message may be more effective at promoting stair use.

  20. 49 CFR 214.519 - Floors, decks, stairs, and ladders of on-track roadway maintenance machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... roadway maintenance machines. 214.519 Section 214.519 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... SAFETY On-Track Roadway Maintenance Machines and Hi-Rail Vehicles § 214.519 Floors, decks, stairs, and ladders of on-track roadway maintenance machines. Floors, decks, stairs, and ladders of on-track roadway...

  1. Do older people with visual impairment and living alone in a rural developing country report greater difficulty in managing stairs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hairi, Noran N; Bulgiba, Awang; Peramalah, Devi; Mudla, Izzuna

    2013-01-01

    Managing stairs is a challenging activity of daily living (ADL) for older people. This study aims to examine the association between visual impairment and difficulty in managing stairs among older people living alone and those living with others. A population-based cross sectional study was conducted in rural Malaysia from 2007 till 2008. Seven hundred and sixty five older people aged 60 years and over underwent eye examination for visual impairment. Visual acuity criteria were used to define visual impairment. Presenting visual acuity was assessed using a standard metric Snellen Chart of E type. Difficulty in managing stairs was measured according to a question drawn from the Barthel Index which asks "do you need help in climbing stairs". Overall, the prevalence of difficulty in managing stairs among older people in our population was 135 (18.3%, 95% CI 15.7-21.2). After adjusting for important confounders the odds ratio (OR) for visual impairment and difficulty in managing stairs among older people living alone was 5.04 (95% CI 2.27, 10.62). Among older people living with others, the adjusted OR for visual impairment and difficulty in managing stairs was 3.10 (95% CI 1.52, 6.80). In a sample of older people aged 60 years and over, those living alone with visual impairment had greater difficulty in managing stairs than those living with others. Identification of these groups of older people is useful for targeting interventions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Construct Validity and Test-Retest Reliability of the Climbing Stairs Questionnaire in Lower-Limb Amputees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Laat, Fred A.; Rommers, Gerardus M.; Geertzen, Jan H.; Roorda, Leo D.

    de Laat FA, Rommers GM, Geertzen JH, Roorda LD. Construct validity and test-retest reliability of the Climbing Stairs Questionnaire in lower-limb amputees. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2010;91:1396-401. Objective: To investigate the construct validity and test-retest reliability of the Climbing Stairs

  3. To Take the Stairs or Not to Take the Stairs? Employing the Reflective–Impulsive Model to Predict Spontaneous Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Daou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The reflective–impulsive model (RIM has been employed to explain various health behaviors. The present study used RIM to predict a spontaneous physical activity behavior. Specifically, 107 participants (75 females; Mage = 20.6 years, SD = 1.92 years completed measures of (1 reflections about spontaneous physical activity, as indexed by self-report questionnaire; (2 impulse toward physical activity, as indexed by the manikin task; and (3 (state self-control, as indexed by the Stroop task. The dependent variable was whether participants took the stairs or the elevator to the study laboratory. Results revealed reflections toward spontaneous physical activity positively predicted stair-taking. Further, a significant impulse toward physical activity × self-control interaction was observed. This interaction revealed that participants with high self-control who had a high impulse toward PA were more likely to take the stairs than their counterparts with a low impulse toward PA, whereas the opposite was the case for participants with low self-control. However, the impulse × self-control interaction was not significant when employing a self-report measure of trait self-control. Thus, RIM may be a good framework with which to consider spontaneous physical activity, but careful consideration must be given when examining variables within RIM (e.g., the boundary condition of self-control.

  4. And She's Buying a Stairway to Health: Signs and Participant Factors Influencing Stair Ascent at a Public Airport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellettiere, John; Liles, Sandy; BenPorat, Yael; Bliss, Natasha; Hughes, Suzanne C; Bishop, Brent; Robusto, Kristi; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2017-12-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that point-of-choice prompts modestly increase stair use (i.e., incidental physical activity) in many public places, but evidence of effectiveness in airport settings is weak. Furthermore, evaluating the effects of past physical activity on stair use and on point-of-choice prompts to increase stair use is lacking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of sign prompts and participant factors including past physical activity on stair ascent in an airport setting. We used a quasi-experimental design, systematically introducing and removing sign prompts daily across 22 days at the San Diego International Airport. Intercept interviewers recruited stair and escalator ascenders (N = 1091; 33.0% interview refusal rate) of the only stairs/escalators providing access to Terminal 1 from the parking lot. A 13-item questionnaire about demographics, physical activity, health behavior, and contextual factors provided data not available in nearly all other stair use studies. We examined the effects of signs and self-reported covariates using multivariable logistic regression analyses, and tested whether physical activity and other covariates modified the intervention effect. Adjusting for all significant covariates, prompts increased the odds of stair use (odds ratio 3.67; p point-of-choice prompts are independent of past physical activity, making them effective interventions for active adults and the higher risk population of inactive adults. Signs can prompt stair use in an airport setting and might be employed at most public stairs to increase rates of incidental physical activity and contribute to overall improvements in population health.

  5. ALICE Forward Multiplicity Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Christensen, C

    2013-01-01

    The Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) extends the coverage for multiplicity of charge particles into the forward regions - giving ALICE the widest coverage of the 4 LHC experiments for these measurements.

  6. Forward tracking detectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Forward tracking is an essential part of a detector at the international linear collider (ILC). The requirements for forward tracking are explained and the proposed solutions in the detector concepts are shown.

  7. Stair ascent with an innovative microprocessor-controlled exoprosthetic knee joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellmann, Malte; Schmalz, Thomas; Ludwigs, Eva; Blumentritt, Siegmar

    2012-12-01

    Climbing stairs can pose a major challenge for above-knee amputees as a result of compromised motor performance and limitations to prosthetic design. A new, innovative microprocessor-controlled prosthetic knee joint, the Genium, incorporates a function that allows an above-knee amputee to climb stairs step over step. To execute this function, a number of different sensors and complex switching algorithms were integrated into the prosthetic knee joint. The function is intuitive for the user. A biomechanical study was conducted to assess objective gait measurements and calculate joint kinematics and kinetics as subjects ascended stairs. Results demonstrated that climbing stairs step over step is more biomechanically efficient for an amputee using the Genium prosthetic knee than the previously possible conventional method where the extended prosthesis is trailed as the amputee executes one or two steps at a time. There is a natural amount of stress on the residual musculoskeletal system, and it has been shown that the healthy contralateral side supports the movements of the amputated side. The mechanical power that the healthy contralateral knee joint needs to generate during the extension phase is also reduced. Similarly, there is near normal loading of the hip joint on the amputated side.

  8. Stairs to Skałka. From Iconography of Martyrdom of Bishop Stanislaus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Węcławowicz

    2003-12-01

    flights of stairs or ladders leading to the gates from the site where the hired assassins mutilate the body of the Saint. Moreover, nearly in every depiction figures can be seen mounting the stairs towards the open gates. These figures as well as stairs or ladders or gates are not to be found in the texts of The Life o f the Saint because painted and graphic renderings have primarily moralizing aim. The archetype of ‘the stairs to Heaven’ is substantiated in the iconography of the Martyrdom as stairs to the church on Skałka. The interpretation of the stairs to Skałka can therefore be resented as follows: L i t e r a l l y , stairs to the gates are indeed stairs leading to the church ‘Na Skałce’. I n a n a l l e g o r i c a l interpretation, they are the Cross of Christ, who enabled the faithful to ascend to Redemption. A typological unity of steps on Jacob’s ladder and the Cross of Christ has frequently been raised in exegesis, and St. Stanislaus appears here, like every martyr, as alter Christus. In a t r o p o l o g i c a l interpretation, ascending stairs indicate aspiring towards perfection through mounting the steps of deeds. I n a n a n a g o g i c interpretation, these stairs lead to the gates of heavenly Jerusalem.

  9. Longitudinal Evaluation of Stair Walking Biomechanics in Patients with ACL Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepley, Adam S; Gribble, Phillip A; Thomas, Abbey C; Tevald, Michael A; Sohn, David H; Pietrosimone, Brian G

    2016-01-01

    After anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and reconstruction, abnormal biomechanics during daily tasks may have prominent and detrimental long-term consequences on knee joint health. The purpose of this study was to longitudinally evaluate hip and knee joint biomechanics during stair ascent and descent in patients with acute ACL injury and at return to activity after ACL reconstruction. Twenty individuals with unilateral ACL injury (age, 20.9 ± 4.4 yr; height, 172.4 ± 7.5 cm; mass, 76.2 ± 12.2 kg) that were scheduled to undergo surgical reconstruction were compared with 20 healthy matched controls (age, 21.7 ± 3.7 yr; height, 173.7 ± 9.9 cm; mass, 76.1 ± 19.7 kg). Lower extremity biomechanics were recorded using three-dimensional motion analysis during stair ascent and descent at two testing sessions (before surgery and at approximately 6 months after surgery or when they were allowed to return to unrestricted physical activity). Time between sessions for healthy participants was matched on the basis of the ACL group. Peak sagittal and frontal plane knee and hip joint angles and moments, joint angles at initial contact, and joint excursions across stance phase were evaluated. The ACL-injured limb of patients experienced smaller knee extension moments than the uninjured limb and healthy controls during stair ascent and descent (P ACL reconstruction. During stair ascent, ACL patients experienced more extended knee joint positions and less sagittal plane knee joint excursions, coupled with greater frontal plane hip joint excursions (P ACL injury experience reductions in knee flexion angle and knee extension moments during stair walking. These alterations were observed both before and after reconstruction, suggesting that early gait retraining interventions may be beneficial in these patients.

  10. Performance of women with fibromyalgia in walking up stairs while carrying a load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Collado-Mateo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Fibromyalgia is a chronic disease characterized by widespread pain and other associated symptoms. It has a relevant impact on physical fitness and the ability to perform daily living tasks. The objective of the study was to analyze the step-by-step-performance and the trunk tilt of women with fibromyalgia in the 10-step stair climbing test compared with healthy controls. Methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out. Twelve women suffering from fibromyalgia and eight healthy controls were recruited from a local association. Participants were asked to climb 10 stairs without carrying a load and 10 stairs carrying a load of 5 kg in each hand. Mediolateral trunk tilt was assessed using the “Functional Assessment of Biomechanics (FAB” wireless motion capture device, and the time between steps was assessed via weight-bearing insoles. Results. Trunk tilt in the stair-climbing task carrying a load was significantly higher in women with fibromyalgia when compared to the healthy controls (2.31 (0.63 vs. 1.69 (0.51 respectively. The effect of carrying a load was significantly higher for women with fibromyalgia compared with healthy controls at the intermediate and final part of the task. Discussion. Trunk tilt during stair climbing while carrying a load was higher in women with FM, which could increase the risk of falling. Additionally, women with FM experienced a higher pace slowdown as a consequence of the load, which supports the need of including specific strength and resistance training to physical therapies for this population.

  11. Interface stress in socket/residual limb with transtibial prosthetic suspension systems during locomotion on slopes and stairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshraghi, Arezoo; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan; Gholizadeh, Hossien; Ali, Sadeeq; Abas, Wan Abu Bakar Wan

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the effects of different suspension methods on the interface stress inside the prosthetic sockets of transtibial amputees when negotiating ramps and stairs. Three transtibial prostheses, with a pin/lock system, a Seal-In system, and a magnetic suspension system, were created for the participants in a prospective study. Interface stress was measured as the peak pressure by using the F-socket transducers during stairs and ramp negotiation. Twelve individuals with transtibial amputation managed to complete the experiments. During the stair ascent and descent, the greatest peak pressure was observed in the prosthesis with the Seal-In system. The magnetic prosthetic suspension system caused significantly different peak pressure at the anterior proximal region compared with the pin/lock (P = 0.022) and Seal-In (P = 0.001) during the stair ascent. It was also observed during the stair descent and ramp negotiation. The prostheses exhibited varying pressure profiles during the stair and ramp ascent. The prostheses with the pin/lock and magnetic suspension systems exhibited lower peak pressures compared with the Seal-In system. The intrasystem pressure distribution at the anterior and posterior regions of the residual limb was fairly homogenous during the stair and ramp ascent and descent. Nevertheless, the intrasystem pressure mapping revealed a significant difference among the suspension types, particularly at the anterior and posterior sensor sites.

  12. Do lower-extremity joint dynamics change when stair negotiation is initiated with a self-selected comfortable gait speed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallabhajosula, Srikant; Yentes, Jennifer M; Momcilovic, Mira; Blanke, Daniel J; Stergiou, Nicholas

    2012-02-01

    Previous research on the biomechanics of stair negotiation has ignored the effect of the approaching speed. We examined if initiating stair ascent with a comfortable self-selected speed can affect the lower-extremity joint moments and powers as compared to initiating stair ascent directly in front of the stairs. Healthy young adults ascended a custom-built staircase instrumented with force platforms. Kinematics and kinetics data were collected simultaneously for two conditions: starting from farther away and starting in front of the stairs and analyzed at the first and second ipsilateral steps. Results showed that for the first step, participants produced greater peak knee extensor moment, peak hip extensor and flexor moments and peak hip positive power while starting from farther away. Also, for both the conditions combined, participants generated lesser peak ankle plantiflexor, greater peak knee flexor moment, lesser peak ankle negative power and greater peak hip negative power while encountering the first step. These results identify the importance of the starting position in experiments dealing with biomechanics of stair negotiation. Further, these findings have important implications for studying stair ascent characteristics of other populations such as older adults. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Descending colon endometriosis misdiagnosis as diverticulitis: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Hyun; Kim, Min Jeong; Ha, Hong Il; Lee, Kwan Seop; Min, Soo Kee [Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Endometriosis is defined as the presence of ectopic endometrial tissue outside the uterus. It is a common disease in menstruating females and intestinal involvement is not uncommon. Intestinal endometriosis most commonly involves the sigmoid colon, rectum, ileum, appendix, and cecum. However, the descending colon is a rare site of intestinal endometriosis. Although computed tomography (CT) findings of bowel endometriosis have been presented in several articles, there has been no report describing the CT findings of descending colon endometriosis above the pelvic cavity. Here, we report a rare case of descending colon endometriosis located in the retroperitoneal space, in which the initial impression was acute colonic diverticulitis with a small abscess on preoperative multidetector CT.

  14. Descending colon endometriosis misdiagnosis as diverticulitis: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Hyun; Kim, Min Jeong; Ha, Hong Il; Lee, Kwan Seop; Min, Soo Kee

    2016-01-01

    Endometriosis is defined as the presence of ectopic endometrial tissue outside the uterus. It is a common disease in menstruating females and intestinal involvement is not uncommon. Intestinal endometriosis most commonly involves the sigmoid colon, rectum, ileum, appendix, and cecum. However, the descending colon is a rare site of intestinal endometriosis. Although computed tomography (CT) findings of bowel endometriosis have been presented in several articles, there has been no report describing the CT findings of descending colon endometriosis above the pelvic cavity. Here, we report a rare case of descending colon endometriosis located in the retroperitoneal space, in which the initial impression was acute colonic diverticulitis with a small abscess on preoperative multidetector CT

  15. Forward Physics with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Carquin, E; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    An overview of the latest results of physical measurements in the forward region (|eta|>3) using the ATLAS detector at the LHC is presented. The data used comprise the 2010 proton-proton data taken at sqrt(s)=7TeV by ATLAS at low luminosity and with low pile-up contamination. In particular, the measurement of (forward) rapidity gap differential cross section as function of the rapidity gap size, the inclusive forward jet cross section, the total forward energy and the energy density flow measured with the ATLAS Forward Calorimeter (FCAL) are discussed. The main results and the conclusions of the comparison with theoretical models incorporated in montecarlo event generators is drawn. Performance results of the Zero Degree Calorimeter (ZDC) detector in pp and in HI collisions are shown and the potential of this detector to tag forward going neutrons produced in Ultraperipheral collisions (UPCs) in ion-ion and ion-proton interactions is shown.

  16. Forward optical glory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nussenzveig, H.M.

    Forward optical glory effects in Mie scattering are displayed here for the first time. These effects include regular oscillations in Mie efficiency factors and characteristic deviations from zero polarization in near-forward scattering which are observable for real refractive indices near √2 and 2. Complex angular momentum theory predicts the period of oscillation correctly and shows the important role played by surface waves with shortcuts through the sphere. three possible types of experiments for detecting the forward glory are proposed, involving measurements of extinction, radiation pressure, and polarization in near-forward scattering. (Author) [pt

  17. Long Maturity Forward Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte

    2001-01-01

    The paper aims to improve the knowledge of the empirical properties of the long maturity region of the forward rate curve. Firstly, the theoretical negative correlation between the slope at the long end of the forward rate curve and the term structure variance is recovered empirically and found...... to be statistically significant. Secondly, the expectations hypothesis is analyzed for the long maturity region of the forward rate curve using "forward rate" regressions. The expectations hypothesis is numerically close to being accepted but is statistically rejected. The findings provide mixed support...

  18. Spanish language teaching and afro-descendant identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Ester Cuba Vega

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There is no question about the role of education in the struggle against racism and for racial equality. However, schools still underachieve in the construction of cultural and social paradigms that allow to break with racial stereotypes and their treatment. What happens in Cuba, a country where there is no institutionalized racism and which promotes equality among all its citizens? What happens in Cuban schools regarding language teaching and race issues? How do afro-descendant teachers of Spanish assume this reality? By answering these questions, the present article is aimed at providing an approximation to the teaching of Spanish as a second language in Cuba from the perspective of afro-descendant teachers. Starting from the concepts of racial and ethnic identity and afro-descendant, the article presents the results of data collected among afro-descendant university teachers of Spanish in Cuba who give their viewpoints on several topics, including the use in their lessons of lear-ning materials which deal with African descent and race issues.

  19. Resection and anastomosis of the descending colon in 43 horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prange, Timo; Holcombe, Susan J; Brown, Jennifer A; Dechant, Julie E; Fubini, Susan L; Embertson, Rolf M; Peroni, John; Rakestraw, Peter C; Hauptman, Joe G

    2010-08-01

    To determine (1) the short- (to hospital discharge) and long- (>6 months) term survival, (2) factors associated with short-term survival, and (3) the perioperative course for horses with resection and anastomosis of the descending colon. Multicentered case series. Horses (n=43) that had descending colon resection and anastomosis. Medical records (January 1995-June 2009) of 7 equine referral hospitals were reviewed for horses that had descending colon resection and anastomosis and were recovered from anesthesia. Retrieved data included history, results of clinical and clinicopathologic examinations, surgical findings, postsurgical treatment and complications, and short-term survival (hospital discharge). Long-term survival was defined as survival > or =6 months after hospital discharge. Of 43 horses, 36 (84%) were discharged from the hospital. Twenty-eight of 30 horses with follow-up information survived > or =6 months. No significant associations between perioperative factors and short-term survival were identified. Lesions included strangulating lipoma (n=27), postfoaling trauma (4), infarction (4), intraluminal obstruction (2), and other (6). Common postoperative complications included fever and diarrhea. During hospitalization 7 horses were euthanatized or died because of septic peritonitis (3), endotoxemia (3), and colic and ileus (1). Descending colon resection and anastomosis has a favorable prognosis for hospital discharge and survival > or =6 months. The most common cause of small colon incarceration was strangulating lipoma. Complications include postoperative fever and diarrhea but the prognosis is good after small colon resection and anastomosis.

  20. CASE REPORT Dual (type IV) left anterior descending artery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    about 1.38%. [1,3] This anomaly is seen relatively often with congenital malformations such as complete transposition of the great arteries and tetralogy of Fallot.[2]. When a short or hypoplastic LAD is detected, a differential diagnosis should be sought. There may be a long dominant posterior descending branch of the RCA, ...

  1. A definition of descendants at one point in graph calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Shadrin, Sergey

    2007-01-01

    We study the genus expansion of Barannikov-Kontsevich solutions of the WDVV equation. In terms of the related graph calculus, we give a definition of descendants at one point and prove that this definition satisfies the topological recursion relations in genera 0, 1, and 2, string and dilaton equations, and the pull-back formula.

  2. Entanglement entropy for descendent local operators in 2D CFTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Bin; Guo, Wu-Zhong; He, Song; Wu, Jie-qiang

    2015-01-01

    We mainly study the Rényi entropy and entanglement entropy of the states locally excited by the descendent operators in two dimensional conformal field theories (CFTs). In rational CFTs, we prove that the increase of entanglement entropy and Rényi entropy for a class of descendent operators, which are generated by L (−) L̄ (−) onto the primary operator, always coincide with the logarithmic of quantum dimension of the corresponding primary operator. That means the Rényi entropy and entanglement entropy for these descendent operators are the same as the ones of their corresponding primary operator. For 2D rational CFTs with a boundary, we confirm that the Rényi entropy always coincides with the logarithmic of quantum dimension of the primary operator during some periods of the evolution. Furthermore, we consider more general descendent operators generated by ∑d {n i }{n j } (∏ i L −n i ∏ j L̄ −n j ) on the primary operator. For these operators, the entanglement entropy and Rényi entropy get additional corrections, as the mixing of holomorphic and anti-holomorphic Virasoro generators enhance the entanglement. Finally, we employ perturbative CFT techniques to evaluate the Rényi entropy of the excited operators in deformed CFT. The Rényi and entanglement entropies are increased, and get contributions not only from local excited operators but also from global deformation of the theory.

  3. Contribution of afferent feedback and descending drive to human hopping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuur, Abraham T.; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Leukel, Christian

    2010-01-01

    to inhibit the motor cortex and this resulted in a suppression of the early EMG burst. These results suggest that sensory feedback and descending drive from the motor cortex are integrated to drive the motor neuron pool during the early EMG burst in hopping. Thus, simple reflexes work in concert with higher...

  4. Stair locomotion in children with spastic hemiplegia: the impact of three different ankle foot orthosis (AFOs) configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sienko Thomas, Susan; Buckon, Cathleen E; Jakobson-Huston, Sabrina; Sussman, Michael D; Aiona, Michael D

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of three different ankle foot orthoses (AFO) configurations on the function and kinematics of stair locomotion in children with spastic hemiplegia. Nineteen children were evaluated barefoot and with a hinged, posterior leaf spring (PLS) and solid AFO during stair ascent and descent. Stair specific items from the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) were used to evaluate function, while a motion measurement system was used to evaluate kinematics. The PEDI revealed no significant differences between AFOs and barefoot, although a greater percentage of children were able to keep up with their peers while wearing a hinged AFO. At the ankle, the hinged AFO provided the greatest amount of dorsiflexion during stance. All AFOs reduced plantarflexion in comparison to barefoot. The results of this study indicate that for children with spastic hemiplegia the use of an AFO did not impair stair ambulation.

  5. Moving Forward - Progress on Forward Detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    Grafstrom, P.

    2006-01-01

    You might have been sitting in some meeting hearing about the ATLAS forward detectors. Coming back to your office wanting to learn more you look in the ATLAS TDR’s and disappointingly you find nothing about forward detectors. The explanation is of course that the forward detectors are newcomers in the ATLAS detector arsenal. ATLAS is designed to measure high Pt particles with pseudo rapidities up to 5 which in terms of angles means angles bigger than one degree (0.8 degree to be more accurate). Particles produced with smaller angles close to the beam escape detection. The hole in the forward direction will now partly be filled. Several new detectors have recently been proposed. These detectors are designed for various luminosity measurements but they also have a physics potential in themselves. Closest to the IP there is LUCID (LUminosity measurement using Cerenkov Integrating Detector). LUCID comprises some 170 Cerenkov tubes sitting around the beam pipe at about 17 m away from the IP. The tubes are 1.5 ...

  6. nanoSTAIR: a new strategic proposal to impulse standardization in nanotechnology research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Ipiña, J M López; Salvi, O; Hazebrouck, B; Jovanovic, A; Carre, F; Saamanen, A; Brouwer, D; Schmitt, M; Martin, S

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology is considered one of the key technologies of the 21 st century within Europe and a Key-Enabling Technology (KET) by Horizon 2020. Standardization has been identified in H2020 as one of the innovation-support measures by bridging the gap between research and the market, and helping the fast and easy transfer of research results to the European and international market. The development of new and improved standards requires high quality technical information, creating a fundamental interdependency between the standardization and research communities. In the frame of project nanoSTAIR (GA 319092), the present paper describes the European scenario on research and standardization in nanotechnology and presents a proposal of a European strategy (nanoSTAIR) to impulse direct “pipelines” between research and standardization. In addition, strategic actions focused on integration of standardization in the R and D projects, from the early stages of the design of a future business (Project Proposal), are also described. (paper)

  7. Physiological responses to simulated stair climbing in professional firefighters wearing rubber and leather boots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Jung; Garten, Ryan S; Wade, Chip; Webb, Heather E; Acevedo, Edmund O

    2009-09-01

    No studies have considered whether a firefighter's boots are a factor influencing physiological responses. The purpose of this study was to examine physiological responses to a fire simulation activity (stair climb) in professional firefighters wearing rubber boots (RB) and leather boots (LB). Twelve professional firefighters participated in two counterbalanced simulated firefighter stair climb (SFSC) sessions, one wearing RB and the other wearing LB. Heart rate, oxygen uptake (VO(2)), expiratory ventilation (V(E)), blood lactate (BLa), salivary cortisol (SCORT), and leg strength were assessed prior to and following a SFSC. LB elicited significantly greater SCORT values and knee flexion time to peak torque. Furthermore, RB revealed significantly greater ankle dorsiflexion peak torque after SFSC. BLa was positively related to knee flexion peak torque after SFSC in the RB. Firefighters when wearing the RB may be more effective at resisting fatigue and increase more force production.

  8. nanoSTAIR: a new strategic proposal to impulse standardization in nanotechnology research

    Science.gov (United States)

    López de Ipiña, J. M.; Salvi, O.; Hazebrouck, B.; Jovanovic, A.; Carre, F.; Saamanen, A.; Brouwer, D.; Schmitt, M.; Martin, S.

    2015-05-01

    Nanotechnology is considered one of the key technologies of the 21st century within Europe and a Key-Enabling Technology (KET) by Horizon 2020. Standardization has been identified in H2020 as one of the innovation-support measures by bridging the gap between research and the market, and helping the fast and easy transfer of research results to the European and international market. The development of new and improved standards requires high quality technical information, creating a fundamental interdependency between the standardization and research communities. In the frame of project nanoSTAIR (GA 319092), the present paper describes the European scenario on research and standardization in nanotechnology and presents a proposal of a European strategy (nanoSTAIR) to impulse direct “pipelines” between research and standardization. In addition, strategic actions focused on integration of standardization in the R&D projects, from the early stages of the design of a future business (Project Proposal), are also described.

  9. Biomechanical demands of the 2-step transitional gait cycles linking level gait and stair descent gait in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcock, Lisa; O'Brien, Thomas D; Vanicek, Natalie

    2015-12-16

    Stair descent is an inherently complex form of locomotion posing a high falls risk for older adults, specifically when negotiating the transitional gait cycles linking level gait and descent. The aim of this study was to enhance our understanding of the biomechanical demands by comparing the demands of these transitions. Lower limb kinematics and kinetics of the 2-step transitions linking level and descent gait at the top (level-to-descent) and the bottom (descent-to-level) of the staircase were quantified in 36 older women with no falls history. Despite undergoing the same vertical displacement (2-steps), the following significant (pvelocity; reduced hip extension and increased ankle dorsiflexion (late stance/pre-swing); reduced ground reaction forces, larger knee extensor moments and powers (absorption; late stance); reduced ankle plantarflexor moments (early and late stance) and increased ankle powers (mid-stance). Top transition biomechanics were similar to those reported previously for continuous descent. Kinetic differences at the knee and ankle signify the contrasting and prominent functions of controlled lowering during the top transition and forward continuance during the bottom transition. The varying musculoskeletal demands encountered during each functional sub-task should be addressed in falls prevention programmes with elderly populations where the greatest clinical impact may be achieved. Knee extensor eccentric power through flexion exercises would facilitate a smooth transition at the top and improving ankle plantarflexion strength during single and double limb stance activities would ease the transition into level gait following continuous descent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Stair walking is more energizing than low dose caffeine in sleep deprived young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Derek D; O'Connor, Patrick J

    2017-05-15

    The acute energizing effect of exercise and caffeine has never been examined in a single study of adults with chronic sleep deprivation but evidence from a study of this type could help individuals choose between these two common alertness-enhancing options. The apriori primary aim of this experiment was to compare the influence of 10-min of low-to-moderate intensity stair walking to the consumption of capsules containing 50mg caffeine or flour (placebo) on feelings of energy in physically active, college female caffeine users with chronic insufficient sleep. Effects on secondary outcomes related to feelings of energy also were assessed. A repeated measures crossover experiment was conducted with 18 college women (18-23years) who reported (i) daily caffeine consumption that was not extreme (40-400mg), (ii) typical leisure time physical activity that was not extreme (at least 2 weekly mild 15-min or longer bouts and no >5 strenuous 15-min or longer bouts), and (iii) sleeping attention (CPT), simple reaction time (SRT), and motivation to complete the cognitive tasks were measured before and after a 10-min exercise condition (20min seated rest followed by 10min of low-to-moderate intensity stair walking) and compared to both a caffeine condition (50mg caffeine capsule followed by 30min of seated rest) and a similar flour (placebo) capsule condition. Condition (exercise, caffeine, placebo)×Time (Baseline, Post-1, Post-2, and for mood Post-3) ANCOVAs (controlling for Condition order) tested the hypothesized effects. Condition×Time interactions showed that stair walking increased POMS-BF vigor at Post-1 compared to both placebo and caffeine. Other interactions were not significant. A brief bout of low-to-moderate intensity stair walking has transient energizing effects that exceed a low dose of caffeine for active young women with chronic insufficient sleep. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Kinematics and kinetics during stair ascent in individuals with Gluteal Tendinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Kim; Vicenzino, Bill; Bennell, Kim L; Wrigley, Tim V; Grimaldi, Alison; Hodges, Paul W

    2016-12-01

    Individuals with gluteal tendinopathy commonly report lateral hip pain and disability during stair ascent. This study aimed to compare kinematics and kinetics between individuals with and without gluteal tendinopathy during a step up task. 35 individuals with unilateral gluteal tendinopathy and 35 pain-free controls underwent three-dimensional motion analysis of stance phase during stair ascent. An analysis of covariance was performed to compare hip, pelvis and trunk kinematic and kinetic variables between groups. A K-means cluster analysis was performed to identify subgroups from the entire group (n=70) based on the characteristics of the external hip adduction moment. Finally, a Newcombe-Wilson test was performed to evaluate the relationship between group and cluster codes and a 3×2 ANOVA to investigate the differences in kinematics between groups and cluster codes. Individuals with gluteal tendinopathy exhibited a greater hip adduction moment impulse during stair ascent (ES=0.83), greater internal rotation impulse during the first 50% stance phase (ES=0.63) and greater contralateral trunk lean throughout stance than controls (ranging from ES=0.67-0.93). Three subgroups based on hip adduction moment characteristics were identified. Individuals with GT were 4.5 times more likely to have a hip adduction moment characteristic of a large impulse and greater lateral pelvic translation at heel strike than the subgroup most likely to contain controls. Individuals with GT exhibit greater hip adduction moment impulse and alterations in trunk and pelvic kinematics during stair ascent. Findings provide a basis to consider frontal plane trunk and pelvic control in the management of gluteal tendinopathy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The effects of stair gait training using proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation on stroke patients' dynamic balance ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, KyoChul; Park, Seung Hwan; Park, KwangYong

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] This study aims to examine stroke patients' changes in dynamic balance ability through stair gait training where in proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) was applied. [Subjects and Methods] In total 30 stroke patients participated in this experiment and were randomly and equally allocated to an experimental group and a control group. The experimental group received exercise treatment for 30 min and stair gait training where in PNF was applied for 30 min and the control group received exercise treatment for 30 min and ground gait training where in PNF was applied for 30 min. For the four weeks of the experiment, each group received training three times per week, for 30 min each time. Berg Balance Scale (BBS) values were measured and a time up and go (TUG) test and a functional reach test (FRT) were performed for a comparison before and after the experiment. [Results] According to the result of the stroke patients' balance performance through stair gait training, the BBS and FRT results significantly increased and the TUG test result significantly decreased in the experimental group. On the contrary, BBS and FRT results did not significantly increase and the TUG test result did not significantly decrease in the control group. According to the result of comparing differences between before and after training in each group, there was a significant change in the BBS result of the experimental group only. [Conclusions] In conclusion, the gait training group to which PNF was applied saw improvements in their balance ability, and a good result is expected when neurological disease patients receive stair gait training applying PNF.

  13. The effects of stair gait training using proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation on stroke patients’ dynamic balance ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, KyoChul; Park, Seung Hwan; Park, KwangYong

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aims to examine stroke patients’ changes in dynamic balance ability through stair gait training where in proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) was applied. [Subjects and Methods] In total 30 stroke patients participated in this experiment and were randomly and equally allocated to an experimental group and a control group. The experimental group received exercise treatment for 30 min and stair gait training where in PNF was applied for 30 min and the control group received exercise treatment for 30 min and ground gait training where in PNF was applied for 30 min. For the four weeks of the experiment, each group received training three times per week, for 30 min each time. Berg Balance Scale (BBS) values were measured and a time up and go (TUG) test and a functional reach test (FRT) were performed for a comparison before and after the experiment. [Results] According to the result of the stroke patients’ balance performance through stair gait training, the BBS and FRT results significantly increased and the TUG test result significantly decreased in the experimental group. On the contrary, BBS and FRT results did not significantly increase and the TUG test result did not significantly decrease in the control group. According to the result of comparing differences between before and after training in each group, there was a significant change in the BBS result of the experimental group only. [Conclusions] In conclusion, the gait training group to which PNF was applied saw improvements in their balance ability, and a good result is expected when neurological disease patients receive stair gait training applying PNF. PMID:26157240

  14. Forward tracking detectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    At the ILC many of the most important physics reactions are central, so that the forward region, which is suppressed by the cos θ phase space factor often is a bit neglected. However, many processes at the ILC are peaked in the forward region like Bhabha scattering or W-pair production [1]. Fermion pair production has its.

  15. Autonomous motivation is not enough: the role of compensatory health beliefs for the readiness to change stair and elevator use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Theda; Rackow, Pamela

    2014-11-28

    Compensatory health beliefs (CHBs) are beliefs that an unhealthy behavior can be compensated with a healthy behavior. In line with the CHBs model, the aim of this study was twofold. First, the study investigated the relationship between autonomous motivation and CHBs that physical inactivity can be compensated by taking the stairs instead of the elevator. Second, the study focused on the associations between CHBs and readiness to use the stairs more often and stair and elevator use. Thus, a cross-sectional online questionnaire was designed that was filled out by 135 participants. Path analysis showed that individuals with stronger autonomous motivation to use the stairs strongly agreed that sedentary behavior could be compensated by taking the stairs instead of the elevator. Moreover, CHBs were positively related to readiness to change behavior, but not to self-reported stair and elevator use. Even though future research is necessary to replicate these findings, autonomous motivation seems to have a positive impact on CHBs which, in turn, might boost an intended behavior change. Thus, promoting possible compensation of physical inactivity might foster the readiness to change the unhealthy behavior.

  16. Autonomous Motivation Is Not Enough: The Role of Compensatory Health Beliefs for the Readiness to Change Stair and Elevator Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theda Radtke

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Compensatory health beliefs (CHBs are beliefs that an unhealthy behavior can be compensated with a healthy behavior. In line with the CHBs model, the aim of this study was twofold. First, the study investigated the relationship between autonomous motivation and CHBs that physical inactivity can be compensated by taking the stairs instead of the elevator. Second, the study focused on the associations between CHBs and readiness to use the stairs more often and stair and elevator use. Thus, a cross-sectional online questionnaire was designed that was filled out by 135 participants. Path analysis showed that individuals with stronger autonomous motivation to use the stairs strongly agreed that sedentary behavior could be compensated by taking the stairs instead of the elevator. Moreover, CHBs were positively related to readiness to change behavior, but not to self-reported stair and elevator use. Even though future research is necessary to replicate these findings, autonomous motivation seems to have a positive impact on CHBs which, in turn, might boost an intended behavior change. Thus, promoting possible compensation of physical inactivity might foster the readiness to change the unhealthy behavior.

  17. Kinetic comparison of older men and women during walk-to-stair descent transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Kunal; Kim, Jemin; Casebolt, Jeffrey; Lee, Sangwoo; Han, Ki Hoon; Kwon, Young-Hoo

    2014-09-01

    Stair walking is one of the most challenging tasks for older adults, with women reporting higher incidence of falls. The purpose of this study was to investigate the gender differences in kinetics during stair descent transition. Twenty-eight participants (12 male and 16 female; 68.5 and 69.0 years of mean age, respectively) performed stair descent from level walking in a step-over-step manner at a self-selected speed over a custom-made three-step staircase with embedded force plates. Kinematic and force data were combined using inverse dynamics to generate kinetic data for gender comparison. The top and the first step on the staircase were chosen for analysis. Women showed a higher trail leg peak hip abductor moment (-1.0 Nm/kg), lower trail leg peak knee extensor moment and eccentric power (0.74 Nm/kg and 3.15 W/kg), and lower peak concentric power at trail leg ankle joint (1.29 W/kg) as compared to men (ppredispose women to a higher risk of fall. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [How to make your own custom cutting guides for both mandibular and fibular stair step osteotomies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rem, K; Bosc, R; De Kermadec, H; Hersant, B; Meningaud, J-P

    2017-12-01

    Using tailored cutting guides for osteocutaneous free fibula flap in complex mandibular reconstruction after cancer resection surgery constitutes a substantial improvement. Autonomously conceiving and manufacturing the cutting guides within a plastic surgery department with computer-aided design (CAD) and three-dimensional (3D) printing allows planning more complex osteotomies, such as stair-step osteotomies, in order to achieve more stable internal fixations. For the past three years, we have been producing by ourselves patient-tailored cutting guides using CAD and 3D printing. Osteotomies were virtually planned, making the cutting lines more complex in order to optimize the internal fixation stability. We also printed reconstructed mandible templates and shaped the reconstruction plates on them. We recorded data including manufacturing techniques and surgical outcomes. Eleven consecutive patients were operated on for an oral cavity cancer. For each patient, we planned the fibular and mandibular stair-step osteotomies and we produced tailored cutting guides. In all patients, we achieved to get immediately stable internal fixations and in 10 patients, a complete bone consolidation after 6 months. Autonomously manufacturing surgical cutting guides for mandibular reconstruction by free fibula flap is a significant improvement, regarding ergonomics and precision. Planning stair-step osteotomies to perform complementary internal fixation increases contact surface and congruence between the bone segments, thus improving the reconstructed mandible stability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Walking and stair climbing abilities in individuals after chronic stroke with and without mental health problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasomsri, Jaruwan; Jalayondeja, Chutima; Bovonsunthonchai, Sunee; Khemthong, Supalak

    2014-07-01

    To compare muscle strength, balance, walking and stair climbing abilities among individuals after chronic stroke with or without mental health problems; to describe their physiological response after stress stimulation. Subjects who had their first stroke more than one year ago were classified for mental health problems according to the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21. Lower extremity muscle strength of the quadriceps and plantar flexors, was measured by dynamometer Balance and walking performance was measured by the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), 10-m walk test and timing of stair climbing. Community participation and spiritual well-being were measured. The physiological response of stress stimulation was assessed by the long stress test protocol of the biofeedback device. Forty-five subjects with chronic stroke aged 40-80 years were grouped by with (n = 25) and without mental health problems (n = 20). Significant differences were found in quadriceps muscle strength, BBS, walking and stair climbing speed, community participation and spiritual well-being between two groups. In the stress stimulus phase, the electromyography and heart rate variability demonstrated significant difference between those with and without stress. Individuals with chronic stroke with mental health problems demonstrated decreased quadriceps muscle strength, balance and locomotor performances.

  20. Kinematic characteristics of anterior cruciate ligament deficient knees with concomitant meniscus deficiency during ascending stairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Huang, Wenhan; Ma, Limin; Lin, Zefeng; Huang, Huayang; Xia, Hong

    2017-02-01

    It is commonly believed that a torn ACL or a damaged meniscus may be associated with altered knee joint movements. The purpose of this study was to measure the tibiofemoral kinematics of ACL deficiency with concomitant meniscus deficiency. Unilateral knees of 28 ACL deficient participants were studied while ascending stairs. Among these patients, 6 had isolated ACL injuries (group I), 8 had combined ACL and medial meniscus injuries (group II), 8 had combined ACL and lateral meniscus injuries (group III) and 6 had combined ACL and medial-lateral meniscus injuries (group IV). Both knees were then scanned during a stair climb activity using single fluoroscopic image system. Knee kinematics were measured at 0°, 5°, 10°, 15°, 30° and 60° of flexion during ascending stairs. At 0°, 15° and 30° flexion of the knee, the tibia rotated externally by 13.9 ± 6.1°,13.8 ± 9.5° and 15.9 ± 9.8° in Group I. Group II and III exhibited decreased external rotation from 60° to full extension. Statistical differences were found in 0°, 15°and 30° of flexion for the 2 groups compared with Group I. In general, the tibia showed anterior translation with respect to the femur during ascending stairs. It was further determined that Group III had larger anterior translation compared with Group IV at 0° and 5° of flexion (-6.9 ± 1.7 mm vs. 6.2 ± 11.3 mm, P = 0.041; -9.0 ± 1.8 mm vs. 8.1 ± 13.4 mm, P = 0.044). During ascending stairs the ACL deficient knee with different deficiencies in the meniscus will show significantly different kinematics compared with that of uninjured contralateral knee. Considering the varying effect of meniscus injuries on knee joint kinematics, future studies should concentrate on specific treatment of patients with combined ACL and meniscus injuries to protect the joint from abnormal kinematics and subsequent postoperative degeneration.

  1. Facial height in Japanese-Brazilian descendants with normal occlusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Fabiano Paiva; Pinzan, Arnaldo; Janson, Guilherme; Fernandes, Thais Maria Freire; Sathler, Renata Carvalho; Henriques, Rafael Pinelli

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the standards of facial height in 30 young (14-year-old) Japanese-Brazilian descendants with normal occlusion, and assess whether sexual dimorphism is evident. METHODS: The cephalometric measurements used followed the analyses by Wylie-Johnson, Siriwat-Jarabak, Gebeck, Merrifield and Horn. RESULTS: Results showed dimorphism for total anterior facial height (TAFH), lower anterior facial height (LAFH), anterior facial height (AFH), total posterior facial height (TPFH) and upper posterior facial height (UPFH) measurements. CONCLUSIONS: The standards of facial heights in young Japanese-Brazilian descendants with normal occlusion were observed. Sexual dimorphism was identified in five out of thirteen evaluated variables at this age range. PMID:25715717

  2. Descending thoracic aorta dissection associated with esophageal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik Saha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The association of aortic dissection with a malignancy is a rare finding and previous reports are usually those of primary aortic sarcomas. A 45-year-old male presented to us with chest pain and dysphagia for 1 month with a background history of obstructive airway disease and uncontrolled hypertension. In this report we present a case of typical descending aorta dissection with associated esophageal carcinoma.

  3. Giant left anterior descending artery aneurysm resulting in sudden death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan-Hee Lee

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery aneurysm is a rare congenital or vascular inflammation-based anomaly for which the clinical course and optimal timing of treatment remain unclear. Here, we report a case of sudden death caused by a giant coronary artery aneurysm of the left anterior descending artery that presented with chest pain. This case suggests that urgent interventional or surgical repair is needed when a large coronary aneurysm presents with acute ischemic symptoms.

  4. Descending necrotizing mediastinitis as a complication of odontogenic infection

    OpenAIRE

    Diamantis, S.; Giannakopoulos, H.; Chou, J.; Foote, J.

    2011-01-01

    Descending necrotizing mediastinitis (DNM) is a serious, life threatening complication that can occur from a common odontogenic infection. Even with advancements in antibiotics, diagnostic imaging, and surgical management, the mortality rate remains between 20 and 40%. It is imperative that the practitioner taking care of patients with odontogenic infections be sensitized to this potentially fatal complication. We report the successful management of a case of mediastinitis complicating an odo...

  5. Total arch and descending thoracic aortic replacement by left thoracotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvera, Joel S; Fehrenbacher, John W

    2012-05-01

    The hybrid treatment of transverse aortic arch pathologies with supraaortic debranching and endovascular repair is associated with significant morbidity and death and lacks long-term follow-up. The traditional two-stage open surgical approach to extensive arch and descending thoracic aneurysms carries a significant interval mortality rate. We report the results of a single-stage technique of total arch and descending thoracic aortic replacement by a left thoracotomy. From January 1995 to February 2011, 426 patients underwent thoracic or thoracoabdominal aneurysm repair, of which a highly selected group of 27 patients underwent total arch replacement with descending thoracic or thoracoabdominal aortic replacement. All procedures were performed with hypothermic circulatory arrest and selective antegrade cerebral perfusion. Two patients required transverse division of the sternum. Two patients had emergency or urgent operations. Five patients had concomitant coronary artery bypass, and 1 had concomitant mitral valve replacement. There were no hospital deaths, no cerebrovascular accidents, and one instance of transient spinal cord ischemia. Three patients had acute renal failure not requiring hemodialysis. Intubation in 5 patients exceeded 48 hours, and 1 patient needed tracheostomy. Two patients required reexploration for postoperative bleeding. Survival at 1, 3, and 5 years was 95%, 78%, and 73%, respectively. Replacement of the total arch and descending thoracic aorta by a left thoracotomy provides excellent short-term and long-term results for the treatment of extensive arch and thoracic aortic pathology, without the need for a second-stage operation. Other cardiac pathologies, such as left-sided coronary disease and mitral valve disease, can be addressed concurrently. Copyright © 2012 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Depressed fertility among descendants of immigrants in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Andersson

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous research shows evidence of an interrelation between family formation and the migration of immigrants in Europe. Less research has been conducted on the fertility and family behavior of the descendants of immigrants. Objective: Our study provides analyses of the childbearing behavior of daughters of immigrants in Sweden. The context is that of a country with near-replacement-level fertility and social policies oriented towards social equality. Methods: The study is based on register data covering 1998-2012, which allows for highly detailed analyses of the childbearing behavior of 20 country origin groups of second-generation women. By means of event history techniques, we analyze the transition to any first, second, and third births. Results: Our analyses show that most groups of descendants of immigrants have lower fertility than those with a full Swedish background. The risk of having a first child is particularly depressed, and the risk of having a second child is also lower for daughters of immigrants than for women with two Swedish-born parents. In contrast, many groups of immigrant-descendant two-child mothers display elevated third-birth risks. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate the necessity to account for parity-specific differences in fertility when studying the fertility of descendants of migrants. Contribution: Our study is based on data large enough to allow for a disaggregated analysis by birth order and parental country background. It shows that, on average, the fertility of women in the so-called second generation in Sweden is lower than that of women with a full Swedish background.

  7. The Last Descendant of Tycho Brahe Lives in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavinschi, M.

    On 24 October 1601 passed away, in the 55th year of his life, the great astronomer Tycho Brahe. Now, four centuries since his death, his last descendant is living in Romania: Lydia Baroness Løvendal-Papae. An encyclopedic culture and training as hers can rarely be found today; she also is an excellent specialist in genealogy and heraldry. She has not only the merit of studying the cosmic symbols in heraldry, but especially that of establishing the genealogical tree of the famous Danish astronomer. She also holds a genealogical record: as the last descendant of the old Danish dynasty, she descends from all European dynasties, including the founders of the Romanian countries. We shall dwell here neither upon the great personality of Tycho Brahe, nor on his role in the modern astronomy. We shall not refer to the Tycho catalogue resulted from the space mission Hipparcos. We shall dwell upon the ancient aristocratic family Brahe. The oldest firm mention goes as far back as in 1364, but there are data enough on the existence of some members of this family in the 13th century. The Brahe family was related to a no less famous family, that of the Barons Løvendal. One of the ancestors of Lydia Baroness Løvendal is the renowned Ulrik Frederik Voldemar, Baron, then Count Lovendal, marshal of France (1700-1755), whose name was assigned to one of the most important boulevards of Paris.

  8. DLA Forward Stocking

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Flory, John

    2007-01-01

    .... This study evaluates the feasibility of forward stocking in terms of DoD savings. The performance of DLA's criteria is evaluated and a new criteria using a cost and demand threshold is proposed...

  9. Innovative gait robot for the repetitive practice of floor walking and stair climbing up and down in stroke patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Stair climbing up and down is an essential part of everyday's mobility. To enable wheelchair-dependent patients the repetitive practice of this task, a novel gait robot, G-EO-Systems (EO, Lat: I walk), based on the end-effector principle, has been designed. The trajectories of the foot plates are freely programmable enabling not only the practice of simulated floor walking but also stair climbing up and down. The article intended to compare lower limb muscle activation patterns of hemiparetic subjects during real floor walking and stairs climbing up, and during the corresponding simulated conditions on the machine, and secondly to demonstrate gait improvement on single case after training on the machine. Methods The muscle activation pattern of seven lower limb muscles of six hemiparetic patients during free and simulated walking on the floor and stair climbing was measured via dynamic electromyography. A non-ambulatory, sub-acute stroke patient additionally trained on the G-EO-Systems every workday for five weeks. Results The muscle activation patterns were comparable during the real and simulated conditions, both on the floor and during stair climbing up. Minor differences, concerning the real and simulated floor walking conditions, were a delayed (prolonged) onset (duration) of the thigh muscle activation on the machine across all subjects. Concerning stair climbing conditions, the shank muscle activation was more phasic and timely correct in selected patients on the device. The severely affected subject regained walking and stair climbing ability. Conclusions The G-EO-Systems is an interesting new option in gait rehabilitation after stroke. The lower limb muscle activation patterns were comparable, a training thus feasible, and the positive case report warrants further clinical studies. PMID:20584307

  10. Forward physics with CMS

    OpenAIRE

    Grothe, Monika

    2008-01-01

    Forward physics with CMS at the LHC covers a wide range of physics subjects, including very low-x_Bj QCD, underlying event and multiple interactions characteristics, gamma-mediated processes, shower development at the energy scale of primary cosmic ray interactions with the atmosphere, diffraction in the presence of a hard scale and even MSSM Higgs discovery in central exclusive production. Selected feasibility studies to illustrate the forward physics potential of CMS are presented.

  11. Forward Affect Bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonshtein, Udi; Torem, Moshe

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a modification of the affect bridge technique. The Forward Affect Bridge enables practitioners to create and maintain hope when it is missing. Hope is relevant for diminishing avoidance and being involved with necessary activities. The main idea is to build up a positive atmosphere in the here and now (relying on rapport), to amplify it, and to project it forward. By using clinical vignettes, the authors illustrate these techniques.

  12. How to monitor and mitigate stair-casing in l1 trend filtering

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas, Cristian R.; Wahlberg, Bo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study the estimation of changing trends in time-series using $\\ell_1$ trend filtering. This method generalizes 1D Total Variation (TV) denoising for detection of step changes in means to detecting changes in trends, and it relies on a convex optimization problem for which there are very efficient numerical algorithms. It is known that TV denoising suffers from the so-called stair-case effect, which leads to detecting false change points. The objective of this paper is to show...

  13. Taking the stairs instead: The impact of workplace design standards on health promotion strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Tye

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground Comprehensive health promotion in Western Australia has been conducted from the point of views of policy development, promotion, education and service delivery. Much of this recent work has been focused on supporting workplaces – but there has yet to be any real focus on the design of the actual physical workplace environment from a health promotion perspective. Aims This paper is aimed at highlighting the gap in health promotion knowledge by addressing how the disciplines of architecture and health promotion can work together to challenge the regulations that dictate design practice and ultimately bridge that gap for long-term change. The overarching aim is to undertake further evidenced-based research that will inform best practice in the planning and design of workplaces to reduce sedentary behaviour and increase opportunities for physical activity. Method Within this wide objective this paper focuses in particular on the idea of stairs-versus-lift movement strategies within office buildings. By examining building design guidelines from a health promotion perspective we expose a central dichotomy, where health promotion posters say “Take the stairs instead” whereas the language of building design suggests that the lift is best. Results From a design point of view, the National Codes of Construction (NCC, formally known as the Building Codes of Australia (BCA, the essential technical regulation for all building design and construction, primarily addresses the concepts of ‘egress’ and ‘travel distance’ for escape in the event of fire, and building access in terms of universal access. Additionally, The Property Council of Australia’s Guide to Office Building Quality prioritises lift performance criteria along with the quality and experience of lift use as a major grading factor. There is no provision in either set of standards for staircase quality and experience. Conclusion The stairs, despite being promoted

  14. The Impact of the Organism on Its Descendants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Bateson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Historically, evolutionary biologists have taken the view that an understanding of development is irrelevant to theories of evolution. However, the integration of several disciplines in recent years suggests that this position is wrong. The capacity of the organism to adapt to challenges from the environment can set up conditions that affect the subsequent evolution of its descendants. Moreover, molecular events arising from epigenetic processes can be transmitted from one generation to the next and influence genetic mutation. This in turn can facilitate evolution in the conditions in which epigenetic change was first initiated.

  15. Descending necrotizing mediastinitis as a complication of odontogenic infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamantis, S; Giannakopoulos, H; Chou, J; Foote, J

    2011-01-01

    Descending necrotizing mediastinitis (DNM) is a serious, life threatening complication that can occur from a common odontogenic infection. Even with advancements in antibiotics, diagnostic imaging, and surgical management, the mortality rate remains between 20 and 40%. It is imperative that the practitioner taking care of patients with odontogenic infections be sensitized to this potentially fatal complication. We report the successful management of a case of mediastinitis complicating an odontogenic infection in a 39-year-old male. Copyright © 2011 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Responsibility of parents for misdemeanors committed by their descendants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristivojević Branislav R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the authors' attention are certain questions concerning the responsibility for the acts of other persons in the misdemeanor law of the Republic of Serbia. Under certain conditions, if a child or a minor (descendants commits a misdemeanor, instead of him or together with him, other persons can be held responsible as well, foremost his parents who had not exercised due supervision. There is a difference between the responsibility of a parent whose children have committed a misdemeanor and are under 14, and that of a parent whose children are between 14 and 18 years old. Therefore, there is a difference in terms of responsibility of the parent depending on if the person who committed the misdemeanor is, from the perspective of the Misdemeanor Law, a child or a minor. The authors critically analyze the articles of the Misdemeanor Law that concern the responsibility of the parent for the misdemeanors committed by their descendants. In the end, they conclude that the Misdemeanor Law undermines one of the essential legal principle that the 'scope of rights has to correspond to the scope of obligations and responsibility'.

  17. Multiple curved descending approaches and the air traffic control problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, S. G.; Mcpherson, D.; Kreifeldt, J.; Wemple, T. E.

    1977-01-01

    A terminal area air traffic control simulation was designed to study ways of accommodating increased air traffic density. The concepts that were investigated assumed the availability of the microwave landing system and data link and included: (1) multiple curved descending final approaches; (2) parallel runways certified for independent and simultaneous operation under IFR conditions; (3) closer spacing between successive aircraft; and (4) a distributed management system between the air and ground. Three groups each consisting of three pilots and two air traffic controllers flew a combined total of 350 approaches. Piloted simulators were supplied with computer generated traffic situation displays and flight instruments. The controllers were supplied with a terminal area map and digital status information. Pilots and controllers also reported that the distributed management procedure was somewhat more safe and orderly than the centralized management procedure. Flying precision increased as the amount of turn required to intersect the outer mark decreased. Pilots reported that they preferred the alternative of multiple curved descending approaches with wider spacing between aircraft to closer spacing on single, straight in finals while controllers preferred the latter option. Both pilots and controllers felt that parallel runways are an acceptable way to accommodate increased traffic density safely and expeditiously.

  18. Surgical treatment of penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer of the descending aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Pavle

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The term “penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer” (PAU of the aorta describes the condition in which ulceration of an aortic atherosclerotic lesion penetrates the internal elastic lamina into media. PAU is a high-risk lesion due to its deleterious effects on the integrity of aortic wall, with potentially fatal outcome. Case report. A patient with intensive, sharp chest pain irradiating to the back but with no signs of myocardial ischemia on an electrocardiogram was referred to our hospital. Transthoracic echocardiography showed no pathological changes of the ascending aorta. However, multislice computed tomography (CT showed an aortic ulcer with varying degree of the subadventitial hemorrhage in the region of the thoracic aorta at the level of Th 8-9. Due to imminent rupture of the penetrating aortic ulcer, the patient was promptly prepared for surgery. A 15 cm long subadventitial hematoma was found intraoperatively in the right posterolateral aspect of the descending aorta, 5 cm above the diaphragm and 7 cm below the origin of the left subclavial artery. The affected segment of the aorta was resected, followed by an inlay aortic reconstruction with a Dacron tube graft of 24 mm. Control CT revealed satisfactory reconstruction of the descending aorta. Conclusion. PAU is a rare, but potentially fatal disease. Open surgery in patients with PAU is an effective treatment strategy, although endovascular treatment options are emerging.

  19. Knee Joint Loads and Surrounding Muscle Forces during Stair Ascent in Patients with Total Knee Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasnick, Robert; Standifird, Tyler; Reinbolt, Jeffrey A.; Cates, Harold E.

    2016-01-01

    Total knee replacement (TKR) is commonly used to correct end-stage knee osteoarthritis. Unfortunately, difficulty with stair climbing often persists and prolongs the challenges of TKR patents. Complete understanding of loading at the knee is of great interest in order to aid patient populations, implant manufacturers, rehabilitation, and future healthcare research. Musculoskeletal modeling and simulation approximates joint loading and corresponding muscle forces during a movement. The purpose of this study was to determine if knee joint loadings following TKR are recovered to the level of healthy individuals, and determine the differences in muscle forces causing those loadings. Data from five healthy and five TKR patients were selected for musculoskeletal simulation. Variables of interest included knee joint reaction forces (JRF) and the corresponding muscle forces. A paired samples t-test was used to detect differences between groups for each variable of interest (pknee extension moment and muscle forces during the loading response phase indicates the presence of deficits in TKR in quadriceps muscle force production during stair ascent. This result combined with greater flexor muscle forces resulted in similar compressive JRF during loading response between groups. PMID:27258086

  20. The Question of the Difference: a study with the descendants of Japanese immigrants in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Helena Britisqui Yabiku

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this work are: to understand the perceptions that undergraduate students, descendants of Japanese immigrants, have on themselves; to identify the images that Brazilian undergraduate students whose ascendants are not Japanese have on the Japanese descendants; to compare these images to the expected images the Japanese students have on others’ perceptions about them. In such a way we conducted half-structuralized interviews with the Japanese descendants and applied a Likert type scale of 5 points questionnaire to the non Japanese group. The analyzed data don’t allowed to conclude on the existence of preconceptions in relation to the Japanese descendants , but it shows the Japanese and their descendants are perceived as different by the own Japanese descendants and their friends, which points to the importance of deepening the discussion about the identity formation of the immigrants and their descendants in Brazilian society.

  1. Effect of health-promoting posters placed on the platforms of two train stations in Copenhagen, Denmark, on the choice between taking the stairs or the escalators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Mette Kathrine; Händel, M N; Nydal Jensen, Eva

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether posters placed on the platforms of two train stations in Copenhagen, promoting use of the stairs, would encourage people to use the stairs rather than the adjacent escalator. An additional purpose was to see if the effect...

  2. Forward tracking detectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In order to get a forward tracking that fulfils the needs, it has to be implemented in the design of the detectors from the beginning. Past experience shows that this part was often underestimated and upgrades at a later stage could not deliver the required performance because the needed space was already taken by other ...

  3. Descending necrotizing mediastinitis after a trigger point injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Jae Young; Kim, Jong Kun; Lee, Dong Eun; Seo, Kang Suk; Park, Jung Bae; Lee, Mi Jin; Ryoo, Hyun Wook; Ahn, Jae Yun; Moon, Sungbae

    2017-09-01

    Descending necrotizing mediastinitis (DNM) is a rare form of mediastinal infection. Most cases are associated with esophageal rupture. DNM after a trigger point injection in the upper trapezius has not been described previously. We present a case of DNM after a trigger point injection in the upper trapezius. A 70-year-old man visited the emergency department with chest discomfort and fever after a trigger point injection in the left upper trapezius. Chest computed tomography showed evidence of DNM, and antibiotic therapy was immediately administered intravenously. Because of the risk of sudden death, poor prognosis due to underlying disease, and his age, he declined surgical treatment and died of septic shock. Although trigger point injections are generally considered safe, caution should be used in patients with an underlying disease or in the elderly. Early diagnosis, broad-spectrum antibiotics, and aggressive surgical management are essential to improve the prognosis.

  4. An extinct vertebrate preserved by its living hybridogenetic descendant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Sylvain; Dufresnes, Christophe

    2017-10-06

    Hybridogenesis is a special mode of hybrid reproduction where one parental genome is eliminated and the other is transmitted clonally. We propose that this mechanism can perpetuate the genome of extinct species, based on new genetic data from Pelophylax water frogs. We characterized the genetic makeup of Italian hybridogenetic hybrids (P. kl. hispanicus and esculentus) and identified a new endemic lineage of Eastern-Mediterranean origin as one parental ancestor of P. kl. hispanicus. This taxon is nowadays extinct in the wild but its germline subsists through its hybridogenetic descendant, which can thus be considered as a "semi living fossil". Such rare situation calls for realistic efforts of de-extinction through selective breeding without genetic engineering, and fuels the topical controversy of reviving long extinct species. "Ghost" species hidden by taxa of hybrid origin may be more frequent than suspected in vertebrate groups that experienced a strong history of hybridization and semi-sexual reproduction.

  5. Testicular Descend, How and Why: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujan Narayan Agrawal

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The testis develops in the dorsal abdominal wall, and then descends to scrotum. The development begins as early as 6th week of intrauterine life and is completed by fifth month of intrauterine life. The testis may get arrested during its descent from dorsal abdominal wall to scrotum. The anomalies of descent includes cryptorchism (and its variant like anarchism, monarchism or partially descended testis, ectopic testis, persistent processus vaginalis and encysted hydrocoel of spermatic cord etc. Cryptorchism is usually diagnosed during the new born examination. The recognition of this condition, identification of associated syndromes, proper diagnostic evaluation and timely treatment by surgical urologist is important to prevent adverse consequences like sterility, congenital hernia & hydrocoel, testicular carcinoma etc. Objectives: the objective of this review is to study the role of gubernaculum in the testicular migration process. Material & Method: We performed a descriptive review of the literature about the role of the gubernaculum in testicular migration during the human fetal life. This article provides an overview of role of gubernaculum and other factors responsible for gonadal migration. Results: In the first phase of testicular migration the gubernaculum enlarges to hold the testis near groin and in the second phase the gubernaculum migrates across the pubic region to reach the scrotum. The proximal end of gubernaculum is attached to the testis and epididymis. The lower end reaches to bottom of scrotum. A failure in the proper functioning of gubernaculum causes cryptorchism. Rarely male gonads may deviate from main pathway due to presence of many tails of distal gubernaculum, and it may give rise to ectopic testis. The processus vaginalis usually closes by birth. If it remains patent, it leads to congenital hernia, hydrocoel, encysted hydrocoel etc. Conclusion: the gubernaculum presents a significant structure during

  6. [Foods native to indigenous and afro-descendents in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas Abadía, Ximena; Carolina Pazos, Sonia; Castillo Castillo, Silvana Katerin; Pachón, Helena

    2010-09-01

    For social programs in Colombia, like those administered by the Instituto Colombiano de Bienestar Familiar (ICBF), it's important to know what native foods minority groups consume. This research obtained information on native foods consumed by indigenous and afro-descendents living in 10 Colombian departments: Cauca, Nariño, Amazonas, Chocó, Guainia, Vichada, Magdalena, Guajira, Cesar y Vaupés. A questionnaire was applied to key informants (individually or in groups), addressing the following topics: personal information on the informant, name and type of food, if consumed by indigenous and/or afro-Colombians, climate where produced, time of year when harvested, if consumed raw or cooked, preparations, properties ascribed to the food, and current production, use and availability. Key informants included participants in ICBF's programs, indigenous authorities, teachers, traditional healers, and others, under the supervision of professionals from ICBF's mobile unit in each department. Bibliography (n = 123 documents) was compiled and reviewed. In the departments selected, 13 municipalities were visited, 139 individuals were interviewed and at least 92 new foods (i.e., not currently included in the Colombian Food Composition Table) were identified. Among the 92, the scientific name was obtained for 62 foods. Of these, 2 were classified as other, 18 as meats, 3 as insects, and 39 as plants. Among the plants, informants mentioned fruit (n=29), leaves (n=4), seed (n=3) and roots (n=3). Indigenous and afro-descendent communities in Colombia report consuming dozens of foods that are not currently in the Colombian Food Composition Table.

  7. Forward Osmosis Process

    KAUST Repository

    Duan, Jintang

    2013-12-05

    A process that can alleviate the internal concentration polarization and can enhance membrane performance of a forward osmosis system includes the steps of passing a fluid in a forward osmosis system from a feed solution with a first osmotic pressure, through a membrane into a draw solution comprising a draw solute with a second osmotic pressure, where the first osmotic pressure is lower than the second osmotic pressure, the membrane includes an active layer and a support layer, and the membrane is oriented such that the active layer of the membrane faces a draw side, and the support layer faces a feed side; and applying an external force to the fluid on the feed side of the membrane.

  8. LHC Forward Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Akiba, K.

    2016-10-17

    The goal of this report is to give a comprehensive overview of the rich field of forward physics, with a special attention to the topics that can be studied at the LHC. The report starts presenting a selection of the Monte Carlo simulation tools currently available, chapter 2, then enters the rich phenomenology of QCD at low, chapter 3, and high, chapter 4, momentum transfer, while the unique scattering conditions of central exclusive production are analyzed in chapter 5. The last two experimental topics, Cosmic Ray and Heavy Ion physics are presented in the chapter 6 and 7 respectively. Chapter 8 is dedicated to the BFKL dynamics, multiparton interactions, and saturation. The report ends with an overview of the forward detectors at LHC. Each chapter is correlated with a comprehensive bibliography, attempting to provide to the interested reader with a wide opportunity for further studies.

  9. LHC forward physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cartiglia, N. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC), Menlo Park, CA (United States); Royon, C. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC), Menlo Park, CA (United States). et al.

    2015-10-02

    The goal of this report is to give a comprehensive overview of the rich field of forward physics, with a special attention to the topics that can be studied at the LHC. The report starts presenting a selection of the Monte Carlo simulation tools currently available, chapter 2, then enters the rich phenomenology of QCD at low, chapter 3, and high, chapter 4, momentum transfer, while the unique scattering conditions of central exclusive production are analyzed in chapter 5. The last two experimental topics, Cosmic Ray and Heavy Ion physics are presented in the chapter 6 and 7 respectively. Chapter 8 is dedicated to the BFKL dynamics, multiparton interactions, and saturation. The report ends with an overview of the forward detectors at LHC. Each chapter is correlated with a comprehensive bibliography, attempting to provide to the interested reader with a wide opportunity for further studies.

  10. Association between body composition and stair negotiation ability among individuals >55 years of age: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dip RM

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Renata Maciulis Dip, Marcos AS Cabrera, Sabrina Ferrari Prato Department of Public Health, Postgraduate Program in Public Health, State University of Londrina (UEL, Londrina, Paraná, Brazil Background: Loss of muscle strength exerts a considerable impact on the quality of life and mortality of older adults. The present household survey study measured body composition and muscle strength with the aim of analyzing the roles of low lean mass, low muscle strength and obesity in stair negotiation ability and the effect of comorbidities on the relationship between body composition and functional capacity.Methods: Body composition was assessed using bioelectrical impedance analysis and muscle strength was assessed with a hand grip dynamometer. The study population comprised individuals >55 years of age from a medium-sized Brazilian municipality. The sample included 451 participants.Results: A total of 368 subjects were interviewed; their ages varied from 56 to 91 years. Among males, low muscle strength was associated with stair negotiation difficulty independent of muscle mass, age and obesity but muscle mass was not. However, when we analyzed comorbidities and body composition jointly, chronic lower limb pain and obesity were independently associated with stair negotiation difficulty but body composition and age were not. Among women, after comorbidities were included into the model, low muscle strength and obesity remained associated with stair negotiation difficulty as chronic lower limb pain and depression. The relationship between muscle function and comorbidities is discussed in this article. Keywords: sarcopenia, obesity, depression, older people

  11. Stair-Step Particle Flux Spectra on the Lunar Surface: Evidence for Nonmonotonic Potentials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Michael R.; Newheart, Anastasia; Poppe, Andrew R.; Hills, H. Kent; Farrell, William M.

    2016-01-01

    We present examples of unusual "stair-step" differential flux spectra observed by the Apollo 14 Suprathermal Ion Detector Experiment on the lunar dayside surface in Earth's magnetotail. These spectra exhibit a relatively constant differential flux below some cutoff energy and then drop off precipitously, by about an order of magnitude or more, at higher energies. We propose that these spectra result from photoions accelerated on the lunar dayside by nonmonotonic potentials (i.e.,potentials that do not decay to zero monotonically) and present a model for the expected differential flux. The energy of the cutoff and the magnitude of the differential flux are related to the properties of the local space environment and are consistent with the observed flux spectra. If this interpretation is correct, these surface-based ion observations provide a unique perspective that both complements and enhances the conclusions obtained by remote-sensing orbiter observations on the Moon's exospheric and electrostatic properties.

  12. Inheriting discontinued bonds: trauma-descendant relations with the genocide dead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidron, Carol A

    2014-01-01

    Despite the scholarship on continuing bonds with the dead and the critique of pathologizing paradigms in trauma theory, little is known of the engagement between trauma descendants and relatives who perished prior to their birth. A sample of 55 Holocaust descendants was recruited in Israel to participate in semistructured ethnographic interviews. Descendants reported on the normalized presence of and engagement with the dead and the restoration of previously "discontinued" bonds. Findings were consistent with the scholarship on the therapeutic role of continuing bonds and with meta-analyses normalizing descendant psychosocial legacies. Jewish-Israeli paradigms of memory facilitated therapeutic bonds with the dead.

  13. Forward with Hoare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Mike; Collavizza, Hélène

    Hoare's celebrated paper entitled "An Axiomatic Basis for Computer Programming" appeared in 1969, so the Hoare formula P{S}Q is now 40 years old! That paper introduced Hoare Logic, which is still the basis for program verification today, but is now mechanised inside sophisticated verification systems. We aim here to give an accessible introduction to methods for proving Hoare formulae based both on the forward computation of postconditions and on the backward computation of preconditions. Although precondition methods are better known, computing postconditions provides a verification framework that encompasses methods ranging from symbolic execution to full deductive proof of correctness.

  14. A multi-component stair climbing promotional campaign targeting calorific expenditure for worksites; a quasi-experimental study testing effects on behaviour, attitude and intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eves Frank F

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accumulation of lifestyle physical activity is a current aim of health promotion, with increased stair climbing one public health target. While the workplace provides an opportunity for regular stair climbing, evidence for effectiveness of point-of-choice interventions is equivocal. This paper reports a new approach to worksite interventions, aimed at changing attitudes and, hence, behaviour. Methods Pre-testing of calorific expenditure messages used structured interviews with members of the public (n = 300. Effects of multi-component campaigns on stair climbing were tested with quasi-experimental, interrupted time-series designs. In one worksite, a main campaign poster outlining the amount of calorific expenditure obtainable from stair climbing and a conventional point-of-choice prompt were used (Poster alone site. In a second worksite, additional messages in the stairwell about calorific expenditure reinforced the main campaign (Poster + Stairwell messages site. The outcome variables were automated observations of stair and lift ascent (28,854 and descent (29,352 at baseline and for three weeks after the intervention was installed. Post-intervention questionnaires for employees at the worksites assessed responses to the campaign (n = 253. Analyses employed Analysis of Variance with follow-up Bonferroni t-tests (message pre-testing, logistic regression of stair ascent and descent (campaign testing, and Bonferroni t-tests and multiple regression (follow-up questionnaire. Results Pre-testing of messages based on calorific expenditure suggested they could motivate stair climbing if believed. The new campaign increased stair climbing, with greater effects at the Poster + Stairwell messages site (OR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.40-1.66 than Posters alone (OR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.15-1.34. Follow-up revealed higher agreement with two statements about calorific outcomes of stair climbing in the site where they

  15. Forward Osmosis Brine Drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Michael; Shaw, Hali; Hyde, Deirdre; Beeler, David; Parodi, Jurek

    2015-01-01

    The Forward Osmosis Brine Drying (FOBD) system is based on a technique called forward osmosis (FO). FO is a membrane-based process where the osmotic potential between brine and a salt solution is equalized by the movement of water from the brine to the salt solution. The FOBD system is composed of two main elements, the FO bag and the salt regeneration system. This paper discusses the results of testing of the FO bag to determine the maximum water recovery ratio that can be attained using this technology. Testing demonstrated that the FO bag is capable of achieving a maximum brine water recovery ratio of the brine of 95%. The equivalent system mass was calculated to be 95 kg for a feed similar to the concentrated brine generated on the International Space Station and 86 kg for an Exploration brine. The results have indicated that the FOBD can process all the brine for a one year mission for between 11% to 10% mass required to bring the water needed to make up for water lost in the brine if not recycled. The FOBD saves 685 kg and when treating the International Space Station brine and it saves 829 kg when treating the Exploration brine. It was also demonstrated that saturated salt solutions achieve a higher water recovery ratios than solids salts do and that lithium chloride achieved a higher water recovery ratio than sodium chloride.

  16. Store and forward teledermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanthraj Garehatty

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Store and forward and real time or videoconferences are the two types of teledermatology services practiced. Dermatology and radio-diagnosis are visual specialties suited for store-and-forward teledermatology (SAFT. Advances in information technology, electronic instruments and biotechnology have revolutionized and brought changes in SAFT. Cellular phone, digital camera, personal digital assistants, Wi-Fi, Wi-Max and computer- aided-design software are incorporated to deliver the quality health care to remote geographic regions. Complete SAFT care equivalent to face-to-face consultation (Gold standard is essential. Health care providers in rural areas are the ′eyes′ for the consultants. Consultants to guide them should have a rapid periodic audit of visual parameters and dimensions of lesions. Given this background, this article reviews advances in 1 capture, store and transfer of images. 2 Computer Aided measurements of generalized and localized lesions and 3 the integration model to meet all the above two requirements in a centralized location. This process enables diagnosis, management, periodic assessment and complete follow-up care to achieve patient and physician satisfaction. Preservation of privacy and confidentiality of digital images is important. Uniform rules and regulations are required. Indian space research organization (ISRO, Government of India has demonstrated telemedicine pilot projects utilizing the satellite communication and mobile telemedicine units to be useful in meeting the health care needs of remote and rural India. we have to join hands with them to meet dermatology problems in rural areas.

  17. Ten years of descending necrotizing mediastinitis: management of 23 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roccia, Fabio; Pecorari, Gian Carlo; Oliaro, Alberto; Passet, Ettore; Rossi, Paolo; Nadalin, Juri; Garzino-Demo, Paolo; Berrone, Sid

    2007-09-01

    Through a 10-year retrospective study, we report our experience in the management of descending necrotizing mediastinitis (DNM), a rare and often lethal complication of odontogenic and oropharyngeal infections. We reassessed 23 patients between the ages of 16 and 69 years (mean, 49 years) seen between 1996 and 2005, with DNM secondary to odontogenic abscess or phlegmon in 9 cases or secondary to peritonsillar abscess in 14 cases. In this study, 48% of the patients had immune system disorders, mainly diabetes mellitus (6 patients). The diagnosis of DNM was confirmed by cervicothoracic computed tomography. Eight patients underwent a bilateral collar cervicotomy, and 15 underwent a combined cervicothoracic approach. Five, 2, 1, and 1 patients underwent surgery 2, 3, 4, and 5 times, respectively. Seven patients died as a result of septic shock and multiorgan failure, for a mortality rate of 30.4%. Four of those who died had a compromised immune system. The relatively high mortality rate seen in this study shows that, in addition to early diagnosis and aggressive treatment, it is important to give greater attention to and be more medically and surgically aggressive in the management of patients whose immune system is compromised in any way.

  18. Identifying local and descending inputs for primary sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Zhao, Shengli; Rodriguez, Erica; Takatoh, Jun; Han, Bao-Xia; Zhou, Xiang; Wang, Fan

    2015-10-01

    Primary pain and touch sensory neurons not only detect internal and external sensory stimuli, but also receive inputs from other neurons. However, the neuronal derived inputs for primary neurons have not been systematically identified. Using a monosynaptic rabies viruses-based transneuronal tracing method combined with sensory-specific Cre-drivers, we found that sensory neurons receive intraganglion, intraspinal, and supraspinal inputs, the latter of which are mainly derived from the rostroventral medulla (RVM). The viral-traced central neurons were largely inhibitory but also consisted of some glutamatergic neurons in the spinal cord and serotonergic neurons in the RVM. The majority of RVM-derived descending inputs were dual GABAergic and enkephalinergic (opioidergic). These inputs projected through the dorsolateral funiculus and primarily innervated layers I, II, and V of the dorsal horn, where pain-sensory afferents terminate. Silencing or activation of the dual GABA/enkephalinergic RVM neurons in adult animals substantially increased or decreased behavioral sensitivity, respectively, to heat and mechanical stimuli. These results are consistent with the fact that both GABA and enkephalin can exert presynaptic inhibition of the sensory afferents. Taken together, this work provides a systematic view of and a set of tools for examining peri- and extrasynaptic regulations of pain-afferent transmission.

  19. Partnership dynamics among migrants and their descendants in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leen Rahnu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extensive scholarly literature documents the decline in marriage and increase in non-marital cohabitation and divorce across regions and countries of Europe, but we know less about the extent to which these new family behaviours that have emerged in host societies are adopted by migrants. Objective: The aim of this study is to examine partnership transitions among the migrants and their descendants in Estonia, who mainly originate from the European part of Russia. By investigating an East European context, the study contributes to a more comprehensive account of migrant populations in different socio-economic and cultural settings. Methods: The study is based on the Estonian Generations and Gender Survey (2004/2005 and the Estonian Family and Fertility Survey (1994/1997, and employs proportional hazards models. Results: The results show that new family formation patterns, associated with the Second Demographic Transition, are less prevalent among migrants. The difference between migrants and native Estonians is most pronounced in the mode of partnership formation and outcomes of cohabiting unions, whereas the results pertaining to union dissolution reveal a less systematic difference between population groups. Reflecting the relatively slow integration, the second-generation migrants exhibit partnership behaviour that differs from that of the native population. The observed differences between migrants and the native population appear largely similar for both men and women. Conclusions: The results lend support to socialisation, cultural maintenance, and adaptation hypotheses, and underscore the importance of contextual factors. The analysis reveals disruption effects of migration on partnership processes.

  20. Hybrid Approach of Aortic Diseases: Zone 1 Delivery and Volumetric Analysis on the Descending Aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, José Augusto; Dias, Ricardo Ribeiro; Dinato, Fabrício José; Fernandes, Fábio; Ramirez, Félix José Álvares; Mady, Charles; Jatene, Fabio Biscegli

    2017-01-01

    Conventional techniques of surgical correction of arch and descending aortic diseases remains as high-risk procedures. Endovascular treatments of abdominal and descending thoracic aorta have lower surgical risk. Evolution of both techniques - open debranching of the arch and endovascular approach of the descending aorta - may extend a less invasive endovascular treatment for a more extensive disease with necessity of proximal landing zone in the arch. To evaluate descending thoracic aortic remodeling by means of volumetric analysis after hybrid approach of aortic arch debranching and stenting the descending aorta. Retrospective review of seven consecutive patients treated between September 2014 and August 2016 for diseases of proximal descending aorta (aneurysms and dissections) by hybrid approach to deliver the endograft at zone 1. Computed tomography angiography were analyzed using a specific software to calculate descending thoracic aorta volumes pre- and postoperatively. Follow-up was done in 100% of patients with a median time of 321 days (range, 41-625 days). No deaths or permanent neurological complications were observed. There were no endoleaks or stent migrations. Freedom from reintervention was 100% at 300 days and 66% at 600 days. Median volume reduction was of 45.5 cm3, representing a median volume shrinkage by 9.3%. Hybrid approach of arch and descending thoracic aorta diseases is feasible and leads to a favorable aortic remodeling with significant volume reduction.

  1. Hybrid Approach of Aortic Diseases: Zone 1 Delivery and Volumetric Analysis on the Descending Aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Duncan

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Conventional techniques of surgical correction of arch and descending aortic diseases remains as high-risk procedures. Endovascular treatments of abdominal and descending thoracic aorta have lower surgical risk. Evolution of both techniques - open debranching of the arch and endovascular approach of the descending aorta - may extend a less invasive endovascular treatment for a more extensive disease with necessity of proximal landing zone in the arch. Objective: To evaluate descending thoracic aortic remodeling by means of volumetric analysis after hybrid approach of aortic arch debranching and stenting the descending aorta. Methods: Retrospective review of seven consecutive patients treated between September 2014 and August 2016 for diseases of proximal descending aorta (aneurysms and dissections by hybrid approach to deliver the endograft at zone 1. Computed tomography angiography were analyzed using a specific software to calculate descending thoracic aorta volumes pre- and postoperatively. Results: Follow-up was done in 100% of patients with a median time of 321 days (range, 41-625 days. No deaths or permanent neurological complications were observed. There were no endoleaks or stent migrations. Freedom from reintervention was 100% at 300 days and 66% at 600 days. Median volume reduction was of 45.5 cm3, representing a median volume shrinkage by 9.3%. Conclusion: Hybrid approach of arch and descending thoracic aorta diseases is feasible and leads to a favorable aortic remodeling with significant volume reduction.

  2. Diffuse descending necrotising mediastinitis and pleural empyema secondary to acute odontogenic infection resulting in severe dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glen, Peter; Morrison, James

    2016-03-24

    We report a case of acute odontogenic sepsis in a 59-year-old man, presenting with diffuse, descending necrotising mediastinitis complicated by pleural empyema. Despite surviving the odds, his recovery was complicated by severe dysphagia, resulting in gastrostomy feeding for 6 months. Until now, severe dysphagia following descending necrotising mediastinitis has been unreported. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  3. Intima-media thickness of the descending aorta in patients with bicuspid aortic valve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Petrini

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: Intima-media thickness of the descending aorta is not affected by aortic valve morphology (BAV/TAV; age is the main determinant of AoIMT. Genetic markers (SNPs known to influence IMT in the carotid artery seem to correlate to IMT in the descending aorta only in patients with TAV.

  4. The BIOSIS data base: Evaluation of its indexes and the STRATBLDR, CHEMFILE, STAIRS and DIALOG systems for on-line searching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nees, M.; Green, H. O.

    1977-01-01

    An IBM-developed program, STAIRS, was selected for performing a search on the BIOSIS file. The evaluation of the hardware and search systems and the strategies used are discussed. The searches are analyzed by type of end user.

  5. The effects of container design and stair climbing on maximal acceptable lift weight, wrist posture, psychophysical, and physiological responses in wafer-handling tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, H C; Wang, M J

    2001-12-01

    Despite the high level of automation in semiconductor manufacturing processes, many manual operations are still involved in the workplace. Due to inadequate human-machine interface design, stairs are frequently used to help operators perform wafer-handling tasks. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of climbing stairs and carrying wafer containers (pods) on psychophysical responses (maximal acceptable weight of lift--MAWL, and ratings of perceived exertion--RPE), physiological responses (oxygen consumption--VO2, and heart rate--HR), and wrist posture (ulnar and radial deviations). Each of 12 subjects (six males and six females) performed six sessions (3 climbing stairs x 2 pods types). The results indicate that climbing stairs had a significant influence on MAWL and VO2 (pJob design implications are discussed.

  6. Argillization by descending acid at Steamboat Springs, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, Robert; White, Donald E.; Hemley, J.J.

    1974-01-01

    Steamboat Springs, Nevada, an area of present-day hot springs, clearly illustrates the genetic dependence of some kaolin deposits on hot-spring activity. Andesite, granodiorite and arkosic sediments are locally altered at the land surface to siliceous residues consisting of primary quartz and anatase, plus opal from primary silicates. These siliceous residues commonly exhibit the textural and structural features of their unaltered equivalents. Beneath the siliceous residues, kaolin and alunite replace primary silicates and fill open spaces, forming a blanketlike deposit. Beneath the kaolin-alunite zone, montmorillonite, commonly accompanied by pyrite, replaces the primary silicates. On the ground surface, the same alteration mineral zones can be traced outward from the siliceous residue; however, hematite rather than pyrite accompanies montmorillonite.Chemical analysis indicates that sulfuric acid is the active altering agent. The acid forms from hydrogen sulfide that exsolves from deep thermal water, rises above the water table and is oxidized by sulfur-oxidizing bacteria living near the ground surface. This acid dissolves in precipitation or condensed water vapor and percolates downward destroying most of the primary minerals producing a siliceous residue. Coincidence of the water table with the downward transition from siliceous residue to kaolin-alunite signifies decreasing hydrogen metasomatism because of dilution of descending acid by ground water.In hot-spring areas, beds of siliceous sinter deposited at the surface by hypogene thermal water look, superficially, like areas of surficial acid alteration. Features diagnostic of a surficial alteration are the relict rock structures of a siliceous residue and a kaolin-alunite zone immediately beneath.

  7. Falling up the stairs: the equivalent of 'bashing it with a bible' for an ACL ganglion cyst of the knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacombe, Peter Jonathan; Robinson, James

    2012-03-27

    Intra-articular anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) cysts are rare, the pathogenesis remains unknown, with trauma often implicated. Often asymptomatic, incidental MRI findings, 11% produce symptoms such as pain, locking or instability. Treatment of intra-articular ganglia differs from the traditional 'bash it with a bible' mantra for ganglia elsewhere with surgical debridement generally indicated for symptomatic cases. This case report describes a 43-year-old male car mechanic who presented with a symptomatic ACL cyst diagnosed on MRI. While waiting for surgery the patient fell up his stairs at home, causing forced hyperflexion of his knee. After an initial sharp pain, within 24 h the patient experienced complete resolution of symptoms. Postfall MRI showed no evidence of the initial lesion, leading to our conclusion that for this patient, a fall up the stairs was the equivalent of 'bashing it with a bible' for an ACL ganglion cyst of the knee.

  8. Stair-rod dislocation cores acting as one-dimensional charge channels in GaAs nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bologna, Nicolas; Agrawal, Piyush; Campanini, Marco; Knödler, Moritz; Rossell, Marta D.; Erni, Rolf; Passerone, Daniele

    2018-01-01

    Aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy and density-functional theory calculations have been used to investigate the atomic and electronic structure of stair-rod dislocations connected via stacking faults in GaAs nanowires. At the apexes, two distinct dislocation cores consisting of single-column pairs of either gallium or arsenic were identified. Ab initio calculations reveal an overall reduction in the energy gap with the development of two bands of filled and empty localized states at the edges of valence and conduction bands in the Ga core and in the As core, respectively. Our results suggest the behavior of stair-rod dislocations along the nanowire as one-dimensional charge channels, which could host free carriers upon appropriate doping.

  9. Single-leg squats identify independent stair negotiation ability in older adults referred for a physiotherapy mobility assessment at a rural hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockings, Rowena L; Schmidt, David D; Cheung, Christopher W

    2013-07-01

    To determine whether single-leg squats identify ability to negotiate stairs in older adults at a rural hospital. Cross-sectional analytical study. Acute wards and emergency department of a rural hospital in Australia. A systematic sample of 143 older adults (72 men, 71 women, 80.0 ± 6.8 years) from the emergency department or acute wards of Shoalhaven Hospital referred for a physiotherapy mobility assessment. Ability to complete up to three single-leg squats and negotiate up to three steps were measured. Covariates and demographic variables were collected. The squat test had 86% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% positive predictive value, and 49% negative predictive value in correctly identifying stair negotiation ability. Participants who could complete single-leg squats were 57 times more likely to be able to independently negotiate stairs than participants who could not complete squats. Multivariate regression analysis indicated that walker use, pain severity and whether participants lived alone were significant and independent predictors of ability to negotiate stairs independently. Single-leg squats may be an accurate identifier of stair negotiation ability in older adults admitted to the hospital for an acute illness or injury. A traditional stairs assessment would be required if older adults were unable to complete the squat test or had moderate to severe pain, used a walker to ambulate, or did not live alone. The squat test is a potentially more-efficient assessment tool than traditional stair assessments in determining an individual's ability to negotiate stairs and suitability for discharge where poor mobility is a problem. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, The American Geriatrics Society.

  10. The ATLAS Forward Physics Program

    OpenAIRE

    Royon, C

    2010-01-01

    After a brief review of the approved ATLAS forward detector system we describe the main ATLAS forward physics program. This program currently includes such topics as soft and hard diffraction, double pomeron exchange, central exclusive production, rapidity gap survival, two photon physics, the determination of the total cross-section and the determination of the absolute luminosity A possible high luminosity upgrade program involving new forward proton detectors is also briefly reviewed. This...

  11. Forward energy measurement with CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Kheyn, Lev

    2016-01-01

    Energy flow is measured in the forward region of CMS at pseudorapidities up to 6.6 in pp interactions at 13 TeV with forward (HF) and very forward (CASTOR) calorimeters. The results are compared to model predictions. The CMS results at different center-of-mass energies are intercompared using pseudorapidity variable shifted by beam rapidity, thus studying applicability of hypothesis of limiting fragmentation.

  12. 〈Original Papers〉A Design of Stair-climbing Personal Mobility Robot Based on Inverted Pendulum Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    友國, 伸保

    2012-01-01

    [synopsis] In this paper, an inverted pendulum type personal mobility robot with virtual wheel is described. The robot enables to climb a stairs only with two virtual wheels consist of one rotary link and two wheels which are attached to the both ends of the rotary link. The mechanical dimensions of the rotary link and tire restrict applicable step size. Therefore these mechanical dimensions are delivered by an analysis based on Building Code.

  13. Development of a Stair-Step Multifrequency Synchronized Excitation Signal for Fast Bioimpedance Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, He; Du, Fangling; Sun, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Wideband excitation signal with finite prominent harmonic components is desirable for fast bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) measurements. This work introduces a simple method to synthesize and realize a type of periodical stair-step multifrequency synchronized (MFS) signal. The Fourier series analysis shows that the p-order MFS signal f(p, t) has constant 81.06% energy distributed equally on its p  2nth primary harmonics. The synthesis principle is described firstly and then two examples of the 4-order and 5-order MFS signals, f(4, t) and f(5, t), are synthesized. The method to implement the MFS waveform based on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) and a digital to analog converter (DAC) is also presented. Both the number and the frequencies of the expected primary harmonics can be adjusted as needed. An impedance measurement experiment on a RC three-element equivalent model is performed, and results show acceptable precision, which validates the feasibility of the MFS excitation. PMID:24701563

  14. Development of a Stair-Step Multifrequency Synchronized Excitation Signal for Fast Bioimpedance Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxiang Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wideband excitation signal with finite prominent harmonic components is desirable for fast bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS measurements. This work introduces a simple method to synthesize and realize a type of periodical stair-step multifrequency synchronized (MFS signal. The Fourier series analysis shows that the p-order MFS signal f(p,t has constant 81.06% energy distributed equally on its p  2nth primary harmonics. The synthesis principle is described firstly and then two examples of the 4-order and 5-order MFS signals, f(4,t and f(5,t, are synthesized. The method to implement the MFS waveform based on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA and a digital to analog converter (DAC is also presented. Both the number and the frequencies of the expected primary harmonics can be adjusted as needed. An impedance measurement experiment on a RC three-element equivalent model is performed, and results show acceptable precision, which validates the feasibility of the MFS excitation.

  15. Characteristics and Outcomes of Ascending Versus Descending Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vapnik, Joshua S; Kim, Joon Bum; Isselbacher, Eric M; Ghoshhajra, Brian B; Cheng, Yisha; Sundt, Thoralf M; MacGillivray, Thomas E; Cambria, Richard P; Lindsay, Mark E

    2016-05-15

    Thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAs) occur in reproducible patterns, but etiologic factors determining the anatomic distribution of these aneurysms are not well understood. This study sought to gain insight into etiologic differences and clinical outcomes associated with repetitive anatomic distributions of TAs. From 3,247 patients registered in an institutional Thoracic Aortic Center database from July 1992 to August 2013, we identified 844 patients with full aortic dimensional imaging by computerized axial tomography or magnetic resonance imaging scan (mean age 62.8 ± 14 years, 37% women, median follow-up 40 months) with TA diameter >4.0 cm and without evidence of previous aortic dissection. Patient demographic and imaging data were analyzed in 3 groups: isolated ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms (AAs; n = 628), isolated descending TAs (DTAs; n = 130), and combined AA and DTA (mixed thoracic aortic aneurysm, MTA; n = 86). Patients with DTA had more hypertension (82% vs 59%, p <0.001) and a higher burden of atherosclerosis (88% vs 9%, p <0.001) than AA. Conversely, patients with isolated AA were younger (59.5 ± 13.5 vs 71.0 ± 11.8 years, p <0.001) and contained almost every case of overt, genetically triggered TA. Patients with isolated DTA were demographically indistinguishable from patients with MTA. In follow-up, patients with DTA/MTA experienced more aortic events (aortic dissection/rupture) and had higher mortality than patients with isolated AA. In multivariate analysis, aneurysm size (odds ratio 1.1, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.16, p <0.001) and the presence of atherosclerosis (odds ratio 5.7, 95% CI 2.02 to 16.15, p <0.001) independently predicted adverse aortic events. We find that DTA with or without associated AA appears to be a disease more highly associated with atherosclerosis, hypertension, and advanced age. In contrast, isolated AA appears to be a clinically distinct entity with a greater burden of genetically triggered disease. Copyright © 2016

  16. The ALICE forward multiplicity detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm Christensen, Christian; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan; Sogaard, Carsten

    2007-01-01

    The ALICE Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) is a silicon strip detector with 51,200 strips arranged in 5 rings, covering the range $-3.4......The ALICE Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) is a silicon strip detector with 51,200 strips arranged in 5 rings, covering the range $-3.4...

  17. The ALICE forward muon spectrometer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ICE detector will allow to identify the quarkonium states through both the dielectron and the dimuon channels. For this purpose the apparatus is equipped with a transition radiation detector in its central part and with a forward muon spectrometer at small angles. After a brief description of the forward muon spectrometer, ...

  18. Is there equity in use of healthcare services among immigrants, their descendents, and ethnic Danes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Signe S; Hempler, Nana F; Waldorff, Frans B

    2012-01-01

    Legislation in Denmark explicitly states the right to equal access to healthcare. Nevertheless, inequities may exist; accordingly evidence is needed. Our objective was to investigate whether differences in healthcare utilisation in immigrants, their descendents, and ethnic Danes could be explained...

  19. Electrocortical correlates of human level-ground, slope, and stair walking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trieu Phat Luu

    Full Text Available This study investigated electrocortical dynamics of human walking across different unconstrained walking conditions (i.e., level ground (LW, ramp ascent (RA, and stair ascent (SA. Non-invasive active-electrode scalp electroencephalography (EEG signals were recorded and a systematic EEG processing method was implemented to reduce artifacts. Source localization combined with independent component analysis and k-means clustering revealed the involvement of four clusters in the brain during the walking tasks: Left and Right Occipital Lobe (LOL, ROL, Posterior Parietal Cortex (PPC, and Central Sensorimotor Cortex (SMC. Results showed that the changes of spectral power in the PPC and SMC clusters were associated with the level of motor task demands. Specifically, we observed α and β suppression at the beginning of the gait cycle in both SA and RA walking (relative to LW in the SMC. Additionally, we observed significant β rebound (synchronization at the initial swing phase of the gait cycle, which may be indicative of active cortical signaling involved in maintaining the current locomotor state. An increase of low γ band power in this cluster was also found in SA walking. In the PPC, the low γ band power increased with the level of task demands (from LW to RA and SA. Additionally, our results provide evidence that electrocortical amplitude modulations (relative to average gait cycle are correlated with the level of difficulty in locomotion tasks. Specifically, the modulations in the PPC shifted to higher frequency bands when the subjects walked in RA and SA conditions. Moreover, low γ modulations in the central sensorimotor area were observed in the LW walking and shifted to lower frequency bands in RA and SA walking. These findings extend our understanding of cortical dynamics of human walking at different level of locomotion task demands and reinforces the growing body of literature supporting a shared-control paradigm between spinal and

  20. Electrocortical correlates of human level-ground, slope, and stair walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Trieu Phat; Brantley, Justin A; Nakagome, Sho; Zhu, Fangshi; Contreras-Vidal, Jose L

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated electrocortical dynamics of human walking across different unconstrained walking conditions (i.e., level ground (LW), ramp ascent (RA), and stair ascent (SA)). Non-invasive active-electrode scalp electroencephalography (EEG) signals were recorded and a systematic EEG processing method was implemented to reduce artifacts. Source localization combined with independent component analysis and k-means clustering revealed the involvement of four clusters in the brain during the walking tasks: Left and Right Occipital Lobe (LOL, ROL), Posterior Parietal Cortex (PPC), and Central Sensorimotor Cortex (SMC). Results showed that the changes of spectral power in the PPC and SMC clusters were associated with the level of motor task demands. Specifically, we observed α and β suppression at the beginning of the gait cycle in both SA and RA walking (relative to LW) in the SMC. Additionally, we observed significant β rebound (synchronization) at the initial swing phase of the gait cycle, which may be indicative of active cortical signaling involved in maintaining the current locomotor state. An increase of low γ band power in this cluster was also found in SA walking. In the PPC, the low γ band power increased with the level of task demands (from LW to RA and SA). Additionally, our results provide evidence that electrocortical amplitude modulations (relative to average gait cycle) are correlated with the level of difficulty in locomotion tasks. Specifically, the modulations in the PPC shifted to higher frequency bands when the subjects walked in RA and SA conditions. Moreover, low γ modulations in the central sensorimotor area were observed in the LW walking and shifted to lower frequency bands in RA and SA walking. These findings extend our understanding of cortical dynamics of human walking at different level of locomotion task demands and reinforces the growing body of literature supporting a shared-control paradigm between spinal and cortical

  1. Timed Stair Climbing is the Single Strongest Predictor of Perioperative Complications in Patients Undergoing Abdominal Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Sushanth; Contreras, Carlo M; Singletary, Brandon; Bradford, T Miller; Waldrop, Mary G; Mims, Andrew H; Smedley, W Andrew; Swords, Jacob A; Thomas N, Wang; Martin J, Heslin

    2016-01-01

    Background Current methods to predict patients' peri-operative morbidity utilize complex algorithms with multiple clinical variables focusing primarily on organ-specific compromise. The aim of the present study is to determine the value of a timed stair climb (SC) in predicting peri-operative complications for patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Study Design From March 2014 to July 2015, 362 patients attempted SC while being timed prior to undergoing elective abdominal surgery. Vital signs were measured before and after SC. Ninety day post-operative complications were assessed by the Accordion Severity Grading System. The prognostic value of SC was compared to the ACS NSQIP risk calculator. Results A total of 264 (97.4%) patients were able to complete SC. SC time directly correlated to changes in both mean arterial pressure and heart rate as an indicator of stress. An Accordion grade 2 or higher complication occurred in 84 (25%) patients. There were 8 mortalities (2.4%). Patients with slower SC times had an increased complication rate (P<0.0001). In multivariable analysis SC time was the single strongest predictor of complications (OR=1.029, P<0.0001), and no other clinical co-morbidity reached statistical significance. Receiver operative characteristic curves predicting post-operative morbidity by SC time was superior to that of the ACS risk calculator (AUC 0.81 vs. 0.62, P<0.0001). Additionally slower patients had a greater deviation from predicted length of hospital stay (P=0.034) Conclusions SC provides measurable stress, accurately predicts post-operative complications, and is easy to administer in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Larger patient populations with a diverse group of operations will be needed to further validate the use of SC in risk prediction models. PMID:26920993

  2. Stairs instead of elevators at the workplace decreases PCSK9 levels in a healthy population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamani, Christel H; Gencer, Baris; Montecucco, Fabrizio; Courvoisier, Delphine; Vuilleumier, Nicolas; Meyer, Philippe; Mach, François

    2015-10-01

    Regular physical activity is recommended to lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in a healthy population. Inhibition of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) was shown to reduce (LDL-C) levels; however, the impact of physical exercise on PCSK9 levels remains unclear. We used data from 67 healthy hospital employees who participated in a 6-month intervention promoting active use of stairs instead of elevators during 3 months, followed by 3 months without recommendation. We confirmed the degree of physical activity with estimated aerobic capacity (VO2 max ) and measured serum PCSK9 levels at baseline, 3 and 6 month. Using a multilevel regression model, we analysed changes of PCSK9 levels over time adjusting for age, gender, aerobic capacity, baseline LDL-C, and LDL-C and body mass index (BMI) changes. At baseline, PCSK9 levels were associated with higher aerobic capacity (P-value = 0·024). At 3 months, we observed a significant decrease in mean PCSK9 levels from 403·6 to 324·3 ng/mL (P-value = 0·001), as well a significant decrease in mean LDL-C levels from 3·5 to 3·3 mM (P-value = 0·01). During this period, mean aerobic capacity (VO2 max ) increased from 37·0 to 40·4 mL/kg/min (P-value < 0·001). Physical activity was independently associated with a decrease in PCSK9 levels after adjustment for age, gender, baseline aerobic capacity, and LDL-C and BMI changes. Daily physical activity at the work place is independently associated with a decrease in PCSK9 levels over time. © 2015 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  3. The Descending Diencephalic Dopamine System Is Tuned to Sensory Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinig, Sebastian; Driever, Wolfgang; Arrenberg, Aristides B

    2017-02-06

    The vertebrate diencephalic A11 system provides the sole dopaminergic innervation of hindbrain and spinal cord and has been implicated in modulation of locomotion and sensory processes. However, the exact contributions of sensory stimuli and motor behavior to A11 dopaminergic activity remain unclear. We recorded cellular calcium activity in four anatomically distinct posterior tubercular A11-type dopaminergic subgroups and two adjacent hypothalamic dopaminergic groups in GCaMP7a-transgenic, semi-restrained zebrafish larvae. Our analyses reveal the contributions of different sensory modalities and motor states to dopaminergic activity. Each posterior tubercular and hypothalamic subgroup showed distinct activity patterns, while activity was synchronous within individual subgroups. Caudal and dorsomedial hypothalamic dopaminergic neurons are activated following vigorous tail movements and stay active for about 10 s, revealing predominantly post-motor activity. In contrast, posterior tubercular dopaminergic neurons are predominantly sensory driven, with subgroups differentially responding to different tactile or visual sensory modalities. In the anterior subgroups, neuronal response magnitudes are tuned to tactile stimulus intensities, revealing features similar to sensory systems. We identify the lateral line system as source for this tactile tuning. In contrast, the posterior subgroup is responsive to distinct moving visual stimuli. Specifically, translational forward stimuli, which may indicate insufficient rheotaxis and drift, induce dopaminergic activity, but backward or rotational stimuli not. The activation of posterior tubercular dopaminergic neurons by sensory stimuli, and their projections onto peripheral mechanosensory systems, suggests a participation of A11-type neurons in the feedback regulation of sensory systems. Together with the adjacent hypothalamic neurons, they may serve to set basic behavioral states. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  4. A Case of Advanced Descending Colon Cancer in an Adult Patient with Intestinal Malrotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshifumi Nakayama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents an operative case of advanced descending colon cancer in an adult patient with intestinal malrotation. A 63-year-old Japanese male was suffering from left side abdominal pain, abdominal distension, and constipation. An endoscopic examination revealed an advanced tumor in the descending colon. Computed tomography (CT of the abdomen revealed the thickening of the descending colon wall and superior mesenteric vein rotation. An opaque enema detected severe stenosis of the descending colon. An abdominal X-ray examination revealed the dilation of the colon and small intestine with niveau. At the insertion of an ileus tube, the C-loop of the duodenum was observed to be absent and the small intestine was located on the right side of the abdomen. After the decompression of the bowel contents, laparotomy was performed. Descending colon cancer was observed to have directly invaded the left side of the transverse colon. Left hemicolectomy, lymph node dissection, and appendectomy were performed. The patient had an uneventful recovery and was discharged from the hospital on the 16th day after surgery. This report presents a rare operative case of descending colon cancer in an adult patient with intestinal malrotation.

  5. Effects of ascending and descending climbers on space elevator cable dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Yoji; Otsuka, Kiyotoshi; Yamagiwa, Yoshiki; Doi, Hinata

    2018-04-01

    Based on a mass-point model, the cable dynamics of a space elevator during a climber's travel motion are examined. The cable response during a single operation of one ascending or descending climber is analyzed first, and then, based on the results, the cable dynamics for simultaneous operation of an ascending and a descending climber are evaluated. For the single operation, bending is significant when the climber is traveling near the Earth's surface. The cable also inclines with periodic oscillation as a result of a Coriolis force corresponding to the climber velocity. However, simultaneous operation of ascending and descending climbers can suppress the inclination of the cable by almost a factor of ten. In simultaneous operation, compared to single operation, a descending climber has a smaller amplitude of libration angle and less cable bending, while an ascending climber has a smaller amplitude when the climber is traveling at a higher altitude with climber velocities of 200 km/h and 400 km/h. The phase of the oscillation of the overall cable is found to be close to that of the descending climber. Cable bending is suppressed for any examined climber velocity, but the dependency of this suppression of displacement on climber velocity is not found. In summary, simultaneous operation can surely suppress the inclination of the cable via the cancellation of Coriolis forces by the two climbers.

  6. Long-term Tai Chi exercise increases body stability of the elderly during stair ascent under high and low illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qipeng; Wang, Shen; Wong, Del P; Zhou, Jingyi; Sun, Wei; Zhang, Cui; Gu, Houxin; Mao, Dewei

    2017-09-07

    The effects of long-term Tai Chi exercise on body stability of the elderly during stair ascent under high and low illumination were investigated. Forty-five healthy elderly women were divided into three groups, namely, Tai Chi exercise group, brisk walking group and no-exercise control group. All the participants ascended a staircase, during which force platforms and a motion capture system collected the data. Under the high illumination, Tai Chi exercise participants exhibited higher loading rate and anteroposterior centre of pressure (COP ap ) displacement as well as a lower braking impulse than no-exercise group. Under the low illumination, Tai Chi exercise participants demonstrated higher COP ap and mediolateral centre of pressure (COP ml ) displacements as well as lower braking and lateral impulses compared with no-exercise participants. The centre of mass (COM) ml sway in Tai Chi and no exercise participants were higher, the loading rates in Tai Chi and walking participants were higher, and the lateral impulse in no exercise participants was higher under low illumination than under high illumination. Thus, low illumination increases the risk of falling. Tai Chi participants increased their foot clearance, head inclination angle and COP ap displacement under low illumination to increase their stability during stair ascent.

  7. Is there Equity in Use of Healthcare Services among immigrants, their descendents, and ethnic Danes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Signe Smith; Hempler, Nana Folmann; Waldorff, Frans Boch

    2012-01-01

    were linked to registries on healthcare utilization. Using Poisson regression models, contacts to hospital, emergency room (ER), general practitioner (GP), specialist in private practice, and dentist were estimated. Analyses were adjusted for health symptoms, sociodemographic factors, and proxies...... of integration. Results: In adjusted analyses, immigrants and their descendents had increased use of ER (multiplicative effect=1.19–5.02 dependent on immigrant and descendent group) and less frequent contact to dentist (multiplicative effect=0.04–0.80 dependent on the group). For hospitalization, GP......, and specialist doctor, physical health symptoms had positive but different explanatory effects within groups; however, most immigrant and descendent groups had increased use of services compared with that of ethnic Danes. Socioeconomic position and integration had no systematic effect on the use in the different...

  8. Comparison of frailty among Japanese, Brazilian Japanese descendants and Brazilian community-dwelling older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Priscila Yukari Sewo; Sampaio, Ricardo Aurélio Carvalho; Yamada, Minoru; Ogita, Mihoko; Arai, Hidenori

    2015-06-01

    To investigate frailty in Japanese, Brazilian Japanese descendants and Brazilian older women. The collected data included sociodemographic and health-related characteristics, and the frailty index Kihon Checklist. We analyzed the differences between the mean scores of Kihon Checklist domains (using ancova) and the percentage of frail women (using χ(2)-test). We carried out a binary logistic regression with Kihon Checklist domains. A total of 211 participants (Japanese n = 84, Brazilian Japanese descendants n = 55, Brazilian n = 72) participated in this research. The Brazilian participants had the highest total Kihon Checklist scores (more frail), whereas the Brazilian Japanese descendants had the lowest scores (P Brazilian group had more participants with oral dysfunction (P Brazilian women were likely to be more frail than the participants in other groups. More than the environment itself, the lifestyle and sociodemographic conditions could affect the frailty of older Brazilian women. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  9. Descending pain modulation and its interaction with peripheral sensitization following sustained isometric muscle contraction in fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ge, H-Y; Nie, Hongling; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Sustained isometric muscle contraction (fatiguing contraction) recruits segmental and/or extrasegmental descending inhibition in healthy subjects but not in fibromyalgia (FM). We hypothesized that fatiguing contraction may shift descending pain modulation from inhibition towards...... facilitation and that the effect of descending pain modulation be dependent on peripheral muscle pain sensitivity. METHODS: Pressure pain thresholds (PPT) were measured from 13 points bilaterally in the upper trapezius muscle and from the mid-point bilaterally in the tibialis anterior before-, immediately......) than healthy control groups (286.2±24.1s) (P0.05). Following the contraction, PPTs were increased significantly and heterogeneously in the upper trapezius over time, but not, in the tibialis anterior muscle in healthy controls. However, PPT were significantly decreased over time in the tibialis...

  10. Moving Tourism Social Entrepreneurship Forward

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheldon, Pauline; Dredge, Dianne; Daniele, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    This chapter concludes the book by considering the role that research and education can play to move the TSE agenda forward. In addition to consolidating the chapter authors’ thoughts about the future of SE and tourism, it also lays out some directions for research tracks in the future. It consid......This chapter concludes the book by considering the role that research and education can play to move the TSE agenda forward. In addition to consolidating the chapter authors’ thoughts about the future of SE and tourism, it also lays out some directions for research tracks in the future...

  11. Torsion and volvulus of the transverse and descending colon in a German shepherd dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfacree, Z J; Beck, A L; Lee, K C L; Lipscomb, V J

    2006-08-01

    A German shepherd dog was presented two months after surgery for correction of acute gastric dilatation volvulus. The dog had been diagnosed with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Radiographs revealed marked gaseous distension of one loop of intestine with a generalised increase in intestinal gas content. A 360 degrees anticlockwise rotation of the descending and transverse colon, around the longitudinal axis of the mesocolon, was diagnosed at exploratory coeliotomy. The transverse and descending colon appeared uniformly necrotic and an end-to-end colo-colic resection and anastomosis was performed. The dog initially made satisfactory postoperative progress but was euthanased on the third postoperative day after it developed an intestinal intussusception.

  12. Seawifs Technical Report Series. Volume 2: Analysis of Orbit Selection for Seawifs: Ascending Versus Descending Node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Gregg, Watson W.

    1992-01-01

    Due to range safety considerations, the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) ocean color instrument may be required to be launched into a near-noon descending node, as opposed to the ascending node used by the predecessor sensor, the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS). The relative importance of ascending versus descending near-noon orbits was assessed here to determine if descending node will meet the scientific requirements of SeaWiFS. Analyses focused on ground coverage, local times of coverage, solar and viewing geometries (zenith and azimuth angles), and sun glint. Differences were found in the areas covered by individual orbits, but were not important when taken over a 16 day repeat time. Local time of coverage was also different: for ascending node orbits the Northern Hemisphere was observed in the morning and the Southern Hemisphere in the afternoon, while for descending node orbits the Northern Hemisphere was observed in the afternoon and the Southern in the morning. There were substantial differences in solar azimuth and spacecraft azimuth angles both at equinox and at the Northern Hemisphere summer solstice. Negligible differences in solar and spacecraft zenith angles, relative azimuth angles, and sun glint were obtained at the equinox. However, large differences were found in solar zenith angles, relative azimuths, and sun glint for the solstice. These differences appeared to compensate across the scan, however, an increase in sun glint in descending node over that in ascending node on the western part of the scan was compensated by a decrease on the eastern part of the scan. Thus, no advantage or disadvantage could be conferred upon either ascending node or descending node for noon orbits. Analyses were also performed for ascending and descending node orbits that deviated from a noon equator crossing time. For ascending node, afternoon orbits produced the lowest mean solar zenith angles in the Northern Hemisphere, and morning orbits produced

  13. Integration of Descending Command Systems for the Generation of Context-Specific Locomotor Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda H. Kim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade there has been a renaissance in our understanding of spinal cord circuits; new technologies are beginning to provide key insights into descending circuits which project onto spinal cord central pattern generators. By integrating work from both the locomotor and animal behavioral fields, we can now examine context-specific control of locomotion, with an emphasis on descending modulation arising from various regions of the brainstem. Here we examine approach and avoidance behaviors and the circuits that lead to the production and arrest of locomotion.

  14. The ALICE forward muon spectrometer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    which requires excellent detector capabilities and high precision measurements. The AL-. ICE detector will allow to identify the quarkonium states through both the dielectron and the dimuon channels. For this purpose the apparatus is equipped with a transition radiation detector in its central part and with a forward muon ...

  15. Dynamic measurement of forward scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel-Hansen, Jørgen; Rusch, W.

    1975-01-01

    A dynamic method for the measurement of forward scattering in a radio anechoic chamber is described. The quantity determined is the induced-field-ratio (IFR) of conducting cylinders. The determination of the IFR is highly sensitive to 1) multiple scattering between the cylinder and the obpring...

  16. Forward!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Ed

    2018-01-01

    The announcement that Taiwanese manufacturing giant Foxconn will bring 13,000 jobs to Wisconsin and partner with Gateway Technical College is great news for the state's community and technical colleges and their students, but it's not particularly surprising. The state's two-year colleges have been notching all sorts of workforce development…

  17. Reservoir-based Online Adaptive Forward Models with Neural Control for Complex Locomotion in a Hexapod Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manoonpong, Poramate; Dasgupta, Sakyasingha; Goldschmidt, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Walking animals show fascinating locomotor abilities and complex behaviors. Biological study has revealed that such complex behaviors is a result of a combination of biomechanics and neural mechanisms. While biomechanics allows for flexibility and a variety of movements, neural mechanisms generate...... for generating basic rhythmic patterns and coordinated movements, 2) reservoir-based adaptive forward models with efference copies for sensory prediction as well as state estimation, and 3) searching and elevation control for adapting the movement of an individual leg to deal with different environmental...... conditions. Simulation results show that this bio-inspired approach allows the walking robot to perform complex locomotor abilities including walking on undulated terrains, crossing a large gap, as well as climbing over a high obstacle and a fleet of stairs....

  18. Interpretation of movement during stair ascent for predicting severity and prognosis of knee osteoarthritis in elderly women using support vector machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Tae Keun; Kim, Sung Kean; Choi, Soo Beom; Kim, Deog Young; Kim, Deok Won

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that pathologic movement changes in knee osteoarthritis (OA) may contribute to disease progression. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between movement changes during stair ascent and pain, radiographic severity, and prognosis of knee OA in the elderly women using machine learning (ML) over a seven-year follow-up period. Eighteen elderly female patients with knee OA and 20 healthy controls were enrolled. Kinematic data for stair ascent were obtained using a 3D-motion analysis system at baseline. Kinematic factors were analyzed based on one of the popular ML methods, support vector machines (SVM). SVM was used to search kinematic predictors associated with pain, radiographic severity of knee OA, and unfavorable outcomes, which were defined as persistent knee pain as reported at the seven-year follow-up or as having undergone total knee replacement during the follow-up period. Six patients (46.2%) had unfavorable outcomes at the seven-year follow-up. SVM showed accuracy of detection of knee OA (97.4%), prediction of pain (83.3%), radiographic severity (83.3%), and unfavorable outcomes (69.2%). The predictors with SVM included the time of stair ascent, maximal anterior pelvis tilting, knee flexion at initial foot contact, and ankle dorsiflexion at initial foot contact. The interpretation of movement during stair ascent using ML may be helpful for physicians not only in detecting knee OA, but also in evaluating pain and radiographic severity.

  19. the priests and the descendants of levi in the book of malachi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article argues that the phrase “the descendants of Levi” in Mal 3:3 includes both priests and Levites and that the author of the book of Malachi was an inspired temple preacher, or writer, who probably belonged to the ranks of priests or. Levites. He was a voice of the late 5th century, who with prophetic authority, like his.

  20. the priests and the descendants of levi in the book of malachi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fanie Snyman for his hospitality and for all his generous efforts to make my stay ... This interpretation of the descendants of Levi has long since found many ...... 1998. Malachi. A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary. New. York: Doubleday. AB 25D. kessLer, r. 2011. Maleachi. Übersetzt und ausgelegt.

  1. ranching pattern of the left anterior descending coronary artery in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Branching pattern of the left anterior descending coronary artery is important in explaining variations in occurrence of coronary atherosclerosis, informing management strategies for coronary heart disease and interventional cardiology. Data on African populations are, however, scarce. Since coronary heart disease is ...

  2. Being one of the few : Professionally successful descendants of migrants from Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Konyali (Ali)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractDrawing on data collected through semi-structured, in-depth interviews in Germany, France, Sweden, and the Netherlands, this dissertation focuses on descendants of labour migrants from Turkey in leading professional positions. The dissertation explains how individuals from a

  3. Dual (type IV) left anterior descending artery | Baskan | SA Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Congenital coronary artery anomalies are uncommon. Dual left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) is defined as the presence of two LADs within the anterior interventricular sulcus (AIVS), and is classified into four types. Type IV is a rarely reported subtype and differs from the others, with a long LAD originating from ...

  4. Descending inhibitory pain modulation is impaired in patients with chronic pancreatitis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olesen, S.S.; Brock, C.; Krarup, A.L.; Funch-Jensen, P.; Arendt-Nielsen, L.; Wilder-Smith, O.H.G.; Drewes, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Pain is a prominent symptom in chronic pancreatitis (CP), but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. We investigated the role of descending pain modulation from supraspinal structures as well as central nervous system sensitization in patients with pain from CP.

  5. [Descending necrotizing mediastinitis: the need for early diagnosis and aggressive treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmakers, M.C.J.; Marres, H.A.M.; Merkx, M.A.W.; Verhagen, A.F.T.M.; Swieten, H.A. van

    2009-01-01

    Three patients developed descending necrotizing mediastinitis (DNM): a 44-year-old man due to poor dental status; a 54-year-old women due to a throat infection, 6 weeks after a tooth extraction; and a 30-year-old man a few days after a tooth extraction. Presenting symptoms were dyspnoea, fever,

  6. The effects of laser radiation on the descendants of irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, J.W.R.; Barbosa, C.A.A.; Moderno, L.A.O.; Parizzotto, N.A.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of low energy laser radiation on the descendants of irradiated rats were investigated by comparing natimortality and the frequency of congenital malformations in three experimental and a control group. Natimortality was not significantly different among the groups. However, cardiomegaly, anophtalmia, dilated abdominal viscera, and premature closures of cranial sutures were recorded only in the experimental groups. (author)

  7. Deep Neck Infection and Descending Mediastinitis as a Complication of Propionibacterium acnes Odontogenic Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Brotfain, Evgeni; Koyfman, Leonid; Saidel-Odes, Lisa; Borer, Abraham; Refaely, Yael; Klein, Moti

    2015-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is an anaerobic, Gram-positive bacterium which causes numerous types of infections. Isolated Propionibacterium acnes deep neck infections are very rare. We present an interesting case of deep neck infection complicated by descending mediastinitis of isolated Propionibacterium acnes infection.

  8. Exploring the potential of the descending-point method to measure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, in Karoo veld, resting may be considered a more practicable veld management strategy than attempts to achieve a specific utilization intensity. The descending-point method is time-consuming in determining canopy cover. Thus, methods based on more effective point sampling, within the canopy spread, may be ...

  9. Astronaut Edwin Aldrin descends steps of Lunar Module ladder to walk on moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot, descends the steps of the Lunar Module (LM) ladder as he prepares to walk on the Moon. He had just egressed the LM. This picture was taken by Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, commander, with a 70mm lunar surface camera.

  10. Deep Neck Infection and Descending Mediastinitis as a Complication of Propionibacterium acnes Odontogenic Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeni Brotfain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Propionibacterium acnes is an anaerobic, Gram-positive bacterium which causes numerous types of infections. Isolated Propionibacterium acnes deep neck infections are very rare. We present an interesting case of deep neck infection complicated by descending mediastinitis of isolated Propionibacterium acnes infection.

  11. Cartographies of the Political Camp of Afro-Descendents in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Lao-Montes

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This article lays out, in general terms, what it calls the political camp of Afro-descendents in Latin America. After establishing a series of theoretical and methodological criteria for the historical analysis of black movements in modernity and the Afro-American movements in particular, the article focuses on the emergence of afro-descendant movements in Latin America during the last part of the 1980s. One of the principal arguments is that in the 1990s a political camp of afro-descendents starts to emerge in the region of Latin America based on a series of developments, including the emergence of new social movements that included ethno-racial movements of Afros and indigenous people, events of regional importance like the contra-celebration of 1492 in 1992, the World Conference against Racism 2001 in Durban, South Africa, and the effects of the neoliberal pattern of globalization. The political camp of Afro-descendents is composed not only of social movements, but also of state actors and transnational actors (such as the World Bank and the Ford Foundation. The article concludes with an analysis of the challenges and perspectives of Afro-American politics in general and of Afro-Latin movements in particular considering the current crisis of the modern/colonial world-system.

  12. Descending motor pathways and the spinal motor system. Limbic and non-limbic components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Holstege (Gert)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractFor a thorough understanding of the descending pathways of the motor system originating in the forebrain, knowledge about the anatomy and function of the structures in the more caudally located parts of the central nervous system is indispensable. In this paper an overview will be

  13. Forward Jets and Forward-Central Jets at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00176215

    2012-01-01

    We report on cross section measurements for inclusive forward jet production and for the simultaneous production of a forward and a central jet in sqrt{s} = 7 TeV pp-collisions. Data collected in 2010, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.14 pb^{-1}, is used for the measurements. Jets in the transverse momentum range pT = 35 - 140 GeV/c are reconstructed with the anti-kT (R = 0.5) algorithm. The extended coverage of large pseudo-rapidities is provided by the Hadronic Forward calorimeter (3.2 < \\eta < 4.7), while central jets are limited to \\eta < 2.8, covered by the main detector components. The two differential cross sections are presented as a function of the jet transverse momentum. Comparisons to next-to-leading order perturbative calculations, and predictions from event generators based on different parton showering mechanisms (PYTHIA and HERWIG) and parton dynamics (CASCADE) are shown.

  14. Are immigrants and descendants with ill health more prone to unemployment? Evidence from 18 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggebø, Kristian

    2017-08-01

    Previous research has established that both ill health and minority status are associated with unemployment. Less is known, however, about the interplay between having ill health and being from minority background. The present study examines whether immigrants and descendants with ill health are particularly prone to unemployment during an economic downturn in Europe. The European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) cross-sectional data material is utilized, and linear probability models are estimated. The analysis is run for countries in which the two minority samples are acceptably large (N ≥ 100), resulting in 18 included European countries. The year 2011 is chosen because it is possible to identify both immigrants and descendants in EU-SILC due to a module on intergenerational transfer of disadvantages. The results indicate - as expected - that both ill health and minority status are independently related to higher unemployment likelihood. Immigrants and descendants with ill health, however, are not particularly likely to be unemployed. This finding is robust to a number of sensitivity tests, and the empirical pattern is very similar across the 18 included countries. Both minority status and ill health are associated with high unemployment probability in Europe. However, there does not seem to exist a 'double disadvantage' for immigrants and descendants with ill health, which is in line with a human capital perspective on how employers evaluate potential employees. Both a non-native-sounding name and bad health status are interpreted as a risk factor, but there is no reason to expect ill health to lower the productivity level more if the applicant is a descendant or immigrant.

  15. Power forward curves: a managerial perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagarajan, Shankar

    1999-01-01

    This chapter concentrates on managerial application of power forward curves, and examines the determinants of electricity prices such as transmission constraints, its inability to be stored in a conventional way, its seasonality and weather dependence, the generation stack, and the swing risk. The electricity forward curve, classical arbitrage, constructing a forward curve, volatilities, and electricity forward curve models such as the jump-diffusion model, the mean-reverting heteroscedastic volatility model, and an econometric model of forward prices are examined. A managerial perspective of the applications of the forward curve is presented covering plant valuation, capital budgeting, performance measurement, product pricing and structuring, asset optimisation, valuation of transmission options, and risk management

  16. Credit risk & forward price models

    OpenAIRE

    Gaspar, Raquel Medeiros

    2006-01-01

    Doutoramento em Gestão This thesis consists of three distinct parts. Part I introduces the basic concepts and the notion of general quadratic term structures (GQTS) essential in some of the following chapters. Part II focuses on credit risk models and Part III studies forward price term structure models using both the classical and the geometrical approach. Part I is organized as follows. Chapter 1is divided in two main sections. The first section presents some of ...

  17. Human Forward Contamination Strategic Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    When we send humans to search for life on Mars, we'll need to know what we brought with us versus what may already be there. Unlike the Mars rovers that we cleaned once and sent on their way, humans will provide a constantly regenerating contaminant source. Are we prepared to certify that we can meet forward contamination protocols as we search for life at new destinations?

  18. Computational modeling of a forward lunge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkjær, Tine; Wieland, Maja Rose; Andersen, Michael Skipper

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the function of the cruciate ligaments during a forward lunge movement. The mechanical roles of the anterior and posterior cruciate ligament (ACL, PCL) during sagittal plane movements, such as forward lunging, are unclear. A forward lunge movement contains a knee joint fle...

  19. Advantages and application of forward osmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This month's Processing column explores the use of forward osmosis to dewater and concentrate. Forward osmosis is performed with specially designed membranes and requires very little energy. Where thermal evaporation and reverse osmosis may damage or alter products, forward osmosis preserves the s...

  20. Ectopic paragonimiasis on colon wall and mesocolon of the descending colon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Hae Jeong; Hong, Kyung Chun; Chung, Hye Kyung; Suh, Won Hyuck [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-06-15

    Paragonimiasis is prevalent in Far East and a kind of endemic Korean diseases. The primary site of human paragonimiasis is the lung, but the ectopic infection of lung fluke has been reported by many authors. We experienced one case of abdominal paragonimiasis in a 44 year old male with a complaint of left lower quadrant pain. Physical examination, barium enema, and other data suggested the possibility of tumor originating from the wall of descending colon. (intramural tumor). Postoperative specimen taken from the solid tumorous lesion showed parasitic granuloma, characteristic of Paragonimus Westermani. Here, we report a cases of very peculiar ectopic paragonimiasis involved descending colon wall simulating neoplastic tumor, and also review the literatures briefly.

  1. Papillary Adenocarcinoma of the descending colon in a dog: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G.P.A. Ferreira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this report was to describe the clinical findings and therapeutic management of a case of papillary adenocarcinoma of the descending colon in a Beagle. The patient presented soft stools, haematochezia, tenesmus, and dyschezia. Clinical examination revealed alterations on the ultrasonographic features of the descending colon suggestive of colitis and neoplasia. Following local mass resection, histopathology analysis revealed mild lymphoplasmocytic enteritis and papillary adenocarcinoma of the colon. Enterectomy for tumoral resection and biopsy of locoregional lymph nodes were carried out. Subsequent to the surgical procedure, it was possible to confirm the previous diagnosis and the tumor was classified as intestinal intraluminal papillary adenocarcinoma, with incomplete surgical margins. Adjuvant chemotherapy was performed using carboplatin, cyclophosphamide, and piroxicam, leading to remission of clinical signs and absence of any clinical or imaging alterations compatible with the patient’s previous clinical condition.

  2. Descending necrotizing mediastinitis following dental extraction. Radiological features and surgical treatment considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, Raúl; Risco-Rojas, Roberto; Román-Romero, Leticia; Moreno-García, Carlos; López García, Cipriano

    2011-07-01

    Descending necrotizing mediastinitis (DNM) following dental extraction is an extremely serious infection with a high mortality rate. Oral infection may rapidly descend into the mediastinum across the retropharyngeal and retrovisceral spaces. Once established, mediastinitis is rapidly followed by sepsis and death. If DNM is suspected cervical and thoracic CT must be carried out urgently. After this, prompt control of the upper airway with tracheostomy, aggressive surgical debridement of the deep cervical spaces and mediastinum, and intravenous broad spectrum antibiotic therapy are mandatory. The present paper reports two new cases of DNM following dental extraction, and focuses on radiological features of abscess progression through the cervical spaces down into the mediastinum. 2010 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Patients with chronic peripheral vestibular hypofunction compared to healthy subjects exhibit differences in gaze and gait behaviour when walking on stairs and ramps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanenburg, Jaap; Bäbler, Edith; Adelsberger, Rolf; Straumann, Dominik

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to compare gaze behaviour during stair and ramp walking between patients with chronic peripheral vestibular hypofunction and healthy human subjects. Methods Twenty four (24) patients with chronic peripheral vestibular hypofunction (14 unilateral and 10 bilateral) and 24 healthy subjects performed stair and ramp up and down walks at self-selected speed. The walks were repeated five times. A mobile eye tracker was used to record gaze behaviour (defined as time directed to pre-defined areas) and an insole measurement device assessed gait (speed, step time, step length). During each walk gaze behaviour relative to i) detection of first transition area “First TA”, ii) detection of steps of the mid-staircase area and the handrail “Structure”, iii) detection of second transition area “Second TA”, and iv) looking elsewhere “Elsewhere” was assessed and expressed as a percentage of the walk duration. For all variables, a one-way ANOVA followed by contrast tests was conducted. Results Patients looked significantly longer at the “Structure” (p<0.001) and “Elsewhere” (p<0.001) while walking upstairs compared to walking downstairs (p<0.013). Patients looked significantly longer at the “Structure” (p<0.001) and “Elsewhere” (p<0.001) while walking upstairs compared to walking downstairs (p<0.013). No differences between groups were observed for the transition areas with exception of stair ascending. Patients were also slower going downstairs (p = 0.002) and presented with an increased step time (p = 0.003). Patients were walking faster up the ramp (p = 0.014) with longer step length (p = 0.008) compared to walking down the ramp (p = 0.050) with shorter step length (p = 0.024). Conclusions Patients with chronic peripheral vestibular hypofunction differed in time directed to pre-defined areas during stair and ramp walking and looked longer at stair and ramp areas of interest during walking compared to healthy

  4. Patients with chronic peripheral vestibular hypofunction compared to healthy subjects exhibit differences in gaze and gait behaviour when walking on stairs and ramps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaap Swanenburg

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare gaze behaviour during stair and ramp walking between patients with chronic peripheral vestibular hypofunction and healthy human subjects.Twenty four (24 patients with chronic peripheral vestibular hypofunction (14 unilateral and 10 bilateral and 24 healthy subjects performed stair and ramp up and down walks at self-selected speed. The walks were repeated five times. A mobile eye tracker was used to record gaze behaviour (defined as time directed to pre-defined areas and an insole measurement device assessed gait (speed, step time, step length. During each walk gaze behaviour relative to i detection of first transition area "First TA", ii detection of steps of the mid-staircase area and the handrail "Structure", iii detection of second transition area "Second TA", and iv looking elsewhere "Elsewhere" was assessed and expressed as a percentage of the walk duration. For all variables, a one-way ANOVA followed by contrast tests was conducted.Patients looked significantly longer at the "Structure" (p<0.001 and "Elsewhere" (p<0.001 while walking upstairs compared to walking downstairs (p<0.013. Patients looked significantly longer at the "Structure" (p<0.001 and "Elsewhere" (p<0.001 while walking upstairs compared to walking downstairs (p<0.013. No differences between groups were observed for the transition areas with exception of stair ascending. Patients were also slower going downstairs (p = 0.002 and presented with an increased step time (p = 0.003. Patients were walking faster up the ramp (p = 0.014 with longer step length (p = 0.008 compared to walking down the ramp (p = 0.050 with shorter step length (p = 0.024.Patients with chronic peripheral vestibular hypofunction differed in time directed to pre-defined areas during stair and ramp walking and looked longer at stair and ramp areas of interest during walking compared to healthy subjects. Patients did not differ in time directed to pre-defined areas during

  5. Runtime Verification Through Forward Chaining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Perotti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a novel rule-based approach for Runtime Verification of FLTL properties over finite but expanding traces. Our system exploits Horn clauses in implication form and relies on a forward chaining-based monitoring algorithm. This approach avoids the branching structure and exponential complexity typical of tableaux-based formulations, creating monitors with a single state and a fixed number of rules. This allows for a fast and scalable tool for Runtime Verification: we present the technical details together with a working implementation.

  6. The CLAS forward electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Amarian, M; Beard, K; Brooks, W; Burkert, V; Carstens, T; Coleman, A; Demirchyan, R; Efremenko, Yu V; Egiyan, H; Egiyan, K; Funsten, H; Gavrilov, V; Giovanetti, K; Marshall, R M; Mecking, B; Minehart, R C; Mkrtchan, H; Ohandjanyan, M; Sharabyan, Yu G; Smith, L C; Stepanyan, S; Stephens, W A; Tung, T Y; Zorn, C

    2001-01-01

    The CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) at Jefferson Lab utilizes six iron-free superconducting coils to provide an approximately toroidal magnetic field. The six sectors are instrumented individually to form six independent spectrometers. The forward region (8 deg. < 45 deg.) of each sector is equipped with a lead-scintillator electromagnetic sampling calorimeter (EC), 16 radiation lengths thick, using a novel triangular geometry with stereo readout. With its good energy and position resolution, the EC is used to provide the primary electron trigger for CLAS. It is also used to reject pions, reconstruct pi deg. and eta decays and detect neutrons. This paper treats the design, construction and performance of the calorimeter.

  7. Forward Osmosis System And Process

    KAUST Repository

    Duan, Jintang

    2013-08-22

    A forward osmosis fluid purification system includes a cross-flow membrane module with a membrane, a channel on each side of the membrane which allows a feed solution and a draw solution to flow through separately, a feed side, a draw side including a draw solute, where the draw solute includes an aryl sulfonate salt. The system can be used in a process to extract water from impure water, such as wastewater or seawater. The purified water can be applied to arid land.

  8. Chediak-Higashi syndrome: case report in afro-descendant individual

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos, Judde Lacerda Andrade; Oliveira, Márcio Vasconcelos; Souza, Claudio Lima

    2014-01-01

    This is a Chediak-Higashi Syndrome (CHS) case report in afro-descendant individual, male, 3 months old, born from consanguineous union. On admission he had fever for a month, unresolved pneumonia, and hepatosplenomegaly. He evolved to bacterial sepsis, septic shock, and death. CHS presents quantitative and morphological and hematological changes. Abnormal leukocyte inclusions are the pathognomonic finding of the disease; its recognition and differentiation from other leukocyte inclusions is e...

  9. The priests and the descendants of Levi in the Book of Malachi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article argues that the phrase “the descendants of Levi” in Mal 3:3 includes both priests and Levites and that the author of the book of Malachi was an inspired temple preacher, or writer, who probably belonged to the ranks of priests or Levites. He was a voice of the late 5th century, who with prophetic authority, like his ...

  10. An anatomic and clinical study of the adductor magnus tendon-descending genicular artery bone flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dong; Wang, Hai-Wen; Xu, Da-Chuan; Wang, Hong-Gang; Wu, Wei-Zhi; Zhang, Hui-Ru

    2011-01-01

    The composite tissue flap of the descending genicular vessels with the adductor magnus tendon is a newly developed, reliable method to repair the Achilles tendon and relevant skin defects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anatomy of the adductor magnus tendon-descending genicular artery bone flap, and the feasibility and value for the repair of the Achilles tendon and relevant skin defects. There were 34 adult specimens used for the anatomy of this flap. The descending genicular artery originates 10.5 ± 1.6 cm above the adductor tubercle, with a diameter of 1.8 ± 0.6 mm and a length of 1.2 ± 0.5 cm. Its articular branch is distributed in the adductor magnus tendon and the medial condyle of the femur. The saphenous branch has a diameter of 1.1 ± 0.3 mm and is distributed in the skin of the upper medial calf. A total of 16 cases of trauma-induced Achilles tendon damage and calcaneus and skin defects were repaired with the vascularized adductor magnus tendon bone flap, including the reconstruction of Achilles tendon insertion and repair of relevant skin defects. All of the composite tissue flaps were viable, the skin sensation of the flaps was recovered, and all patients walked with a normal gait. Our results suggested that the adductor magnus tendon-descending genicular artery bone flap is an alternative method to repair composite tissue defects of the Achilles tendon. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Curative effect of endoscopic resection in non-ampullary descending duodenal tubulovillous adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-feng ZHAO

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To assess the curative effect of endoscopic resection in patients with non-ampullary descending duodenal tubulovillous adenoma. Methods The clinical data of 9 patients with non-ampullary descending duodenal tubulovillous adenoma from Jan. 2004 to Dec. 2012 in the Department of Endoscopy of General Hospital of Shenyang Command were retrospectively reviewed. All patients were diagnosed with endoscopy, ultrasound endoscopy and preoperative pathology, and all of them underwent endoscopic dissection. Pathological examination and follow-up were carried out after operation. Results Nine patients, including 4 men and 5 women aged 45-78 (59.6±11.5 years old were involved. Tubulovillous adenomas were found in descending duodenum of all patients, with the size of 1.8 to 2.5cm, with a mean of 2.03±0.24cm. Endoscopic resection (EMR was used in all patients successfully. No complication was found during operation and after operation. Postoperative pathology confirmed that all the tumors were tubulovillous adenomas. Low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia was found in 4 cases, and high-grade in 5 cases. Mucosal focal carcinoma was confirmed in one case, without involvement of muscularis mucosae. The position emission tomography (PET showed no abnormal radionuclide accumulation. There were no hemorrhage or death during and after the operation. The average follow-up time was 6-58 (25.6±16.4 months. Metastases and recurrence had not been found. Conclusion Endoscopic mucosal resection is a safe, adequate method for non-ampullary descending duodenal tubulovillous adenomas. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2013.11.012

  12. A Computational Model of a Descending Mechanosensory Pathway Involved in Active Tactile Sensing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan M Ache

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Many animals, including humans, rely on active tactile sensing to explore the environment and negotiate obstacles, especially in the dark. Here, we model a descending neural pathway that mediates short-latency proprioceptive information from a tactile sensor on the head to thoracic neural networks. We studied the nocturnal stick insect Carausius morosus, a model organism for the study of adaptive locomotion, including tactually mediated reaching movements. Like mammals, insects need to move their tactile sensors for probing the environment. Cues about sensor position and motion are therefore crucial for the spatial localization of tactile contacts and the coordination of fast, adaptive motor responses. Our model explains how proprioceptive information about motion and position of the antennae, the main tactile sensors in insects, can be encoded by a single type of mechanosensory afferents. Moreover, it explains how this information is integrated and mediated to thoracic neural networks by a diverse population of descending interneurons (DINs. First, we quantified responses of a DIN population to changes in antennal position, motion and direction of movement. Using principal component (PC analysis, we find that only two PCs account for a large fraction of the variance in the DIN response properties. We call the two-dimensional space spanned by these PCs 'coding-space' because it captures essential features of the entire DIN population. Second, we model the mechanoreceptive input elements of this descending pathway, a population of proprioceptive mechanosensory hairs monitoring deflection of the antennal joints. Finally, we propose a computational framework that can model the response properties of all important DIN types, using the hair field model as its only input. This DIN model is validated by comparison of tuning characteristics, and by mapping the modelled neurons into the two-dimensional coding-space of the real DIN population. This

  13. Histamine in the locus coeruleus promotes descending noradrenergic inhibition of neuropathic hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hong; Jin, Cong-Yu; Viisanen, Hanna; You, Hao-Jun; Pertovaara, Antti

    2014-12-01

    Among brain structures receiving efferent projections from the histaminergic tuberomammillary nucleus is the pontine locus coeruleus (LC) involved in descending noradrenergic control of pain. Here we studied whether histamine in the LC is involved in descending regulation of neuropathic hypersensitivity. Peripheral neuropathy was induced by unilateral spinal nerve ligation in the rat with a chronic intracerebral and intrathecal catheter for drug administrations. Mechanical hypersensitivity in the injured limb was assessed by monofilaments. Heat nociception was assessed by determining radiant heat-induced paw flick. Histamine in the LC produced a dose-related (1-10μg) mechanical antihypersensitivity effect (maximum effect at 15min and duration of effect 30min), without influence on heat nociception. Pretreatment of LC with zolantidine (histamine H2 receptor antagonist), but not with pyrilamine (histamine H1 receptor antagonist), and spinal administration of atipamezole (an α2-adrenoceptor antagonist), prazosine (an α1-adrenoceptor antagonist) or bicuculline (a GABAA receptor antagonist) attenuated the antihypersensitivity effect of histamine. The histamine-induced antihypersensitivity effect was also reduced by pretreatment of LC with fadolmidine, an α2-adrenoceptor agonist inducing autoinhibition of noradrenergic cell bodies. Zolantidine or pyrilamine alone in the LC failed to influence pain behavior, while A-960656 (histamine H3 receptor antagonist) suppressed hypersensitivity. A plausible explanation for these findings is that histamine, due to excitatory action mediated by the histamine H2 receptor on noradrenergic cell bodies, promotes descending spinal α1/2-adrenoceptor-mediated inhibition of neuropathic hypersensitivity. Blocking the autoinhibitory histamine H3 receptor on histaminergic nerve terminals in the LC facilitates release of histamine and thereby, increases descending noradrenergic pain inhibition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  14. Supracardiac total anomalous pulmonary venous connection with a descending vertical vein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sejal; Singh, Mukesh; John, Colin; Maheshwari, Sunita

    2009-10-01

    The commonly used Darling classification for total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC) consists of supracardiac, cardiac, infracardiac, and mixed types (Craig et al., Lab Invest 6:44-64, 1967). In supracardiac TAPVC, the common pulmonary vein drains superiorly into the left innominate vein, the superior vena cava, or the azygos vein by way of an ascending vertical vein. We describe a case of supracardiac TAPVC draining into the azygos vein atypically by way of a descending vertical vein.

  15. Resection of left anterior descending coronary artery aneurysm on a beating heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misthos, P; Kokotsakis, J N; Lioulias, A G; Skouteli, E A

    2009-01-01

    We report on the case of a 65-year-old man with unstable angina due to a left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery single aneurysm. On a beating heart, the aneurysm was partially resected and the left internal thoracic artery was grafted in situ as a patch to the LAD opening. The patient remains well and free of symptoms two years after the operation.

  16. Telecast of Astronaut Neil Armstrong descending ladder to surface of the moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, Apollo 11 commander, descends the ladder of the Apollo 11 Lunar Module prior to making the first step by man on the moon. This view is a black and white reproduction taken from a telecast by the Apollo 11 lunar surface camera during extravehicular activity. The black bar running through the center of the picture is an anamoly in the television ground data system at the Goldstone Tracking Station.

  17. Traumatic Left Anterior Descending Coronary Artery-Right Ventricle Fistula: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Sheikhi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic coronary artery-cameral fistulas (TCAF are rare and may present secondary to penetrating injuries (80% or iatrogenic traumas. Early operative intervention remains the recommended treatment modality for accidental traumatic coronary artery fistulas. We report the case of a 17-year-old man who presented with left anterior descending coronary artery-right ventricle fistula following penetrating cardiac trauma, which was successfully repaired surgically.

  18. Traumatic Left Anterior Descending Coronary Artery-Right Ventricle Fistula: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Rezaee

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic coronary artery-cameral fistulas (TCAF are rare and may present secondary to penetrating injuries (80%or iatrogenic traumas. Early operative intervention remains the recommended treatment modality for accidental traumatic coronary artery fistulas. We report the case of a 17-year-old man who presented with left anterior descending coronary artery-right ventricle fistula following penetrating cardiac trauma, which was successfully repaired surgically.

  19. Interictal dysfunction of a brainstem descending modulatory center in migraine patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric A Moulton

    Full Text Available The brainstem contains descending circuitry that can modulate nociceptive processing (neural signals associated with pain in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and the medullary dorsal horn. In migraineurs, abnormal brainstem function during attacks suggest that dysfunction of descending modulation may facilitate migraine attacks, either by reducing descending inhibition or increasing facilitation. To determine whether a brainstem dysfunction could play a role in facilitating migraine attacks, we measured brainstem function in migraineurs when they were not having an attack (i.e. the interictal phase.Using fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging, we mapped brainstem activity to heat stimuli in 12 episodic migraine patients during the interictal phase. Separate scans were collected to measure responses to 41 degrees C and noxious heat (pain threshold+1 degrees C. Stimuli were either applied to the forehead on the affected side (as reported during an attack or the dorsum of the hand. This was repeated in 12 age-gender-matched control subjects, and the side tested corresponded to that in the matched migraine patients. Nucleus cuneiformis (NCF, a component of brainstem pain modulatory circuits, appears to be hypofunctional in migraineurs. 3 out of the 4 thermal stimulus conditions showed significantly greater NCF activation in control subjects than the migraine patients.Altered descending modulation has been postulated to contribute to migraine, leading to loss of inhibition or enhanced facilitation resulting in hyperexcitability of trigeminovascular neurons. NCF function could potentially serve as a diagnostic measure in migraine patients, even when not experiencing an attack. This has important implications for the evaluation of therapies for migraine.

  20. Factors influencing the mechanical behaviour of healthy human descending thoracic aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinea, Gustavo V; Atienza, José M; Rojo, Francisco J; Yiqun, Li; Claes, Els; Elices, Manuel; García-Herrera, Claudio M; Goicolea, José M; García-Montero, Carlos; Burgos, Raúl L; Goicolea, Francisco J

    2010-01-01

    In recent times, significant effort has been made to understand the mechanical behaviour of the arterial wall and how it is affected by the different vascular pathologies. However, to be able to interpret the results correctly, it is essential that the influence of other factors, such as aging or anisotropy, be understood. Knowledge of mechanical behaviour of the aorta has been customarily constrained by lack of data on fresh aortic tissue, especially from healthy young individuals. In addition, information regarding the point of rupture is also very limited. In this study, the mechanical behaviour of the descending thoracic aorta of 28 organ donors with no apparent disease, whose ages vary from 17 to 60 years, is evaluated. Tensile tests up to rupture are carried out to evaluate the influence of age and wall anisotropy. Results reveal that the tensile strength and stretch at failure of healthy descending aortas show a significant reduction with age, falling abruptly beyond the age of 30. This fact places age as a key factor when mechanical properties of descending aorta are considered

  1. [Descending hypoglossal branch-facial nerve anastomosis in treating unilateral facial palsy after acoustic neuroma resection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jiantao; Li, Mingchu; Chen, Ge; Guo, Hongchuan; Zhang, Qiuhang; Bao, Yuhai

    2015-12-15

    To evaluate the efficiency of the descending hypoglossal branch-facial nerve anastomosis for the severe facial palsy after acoustic neuroma resection. The clinical data of 14 patients (6 males, 8 females, average age 45. 6 years old) underwent descending hypoglossal branch-facial nerve anastomosis for treatment of unilateral facial palsy was analyzed retrospectively. All patients previously had undergone resection of a large acoustic neuroma. House-Brackmann (H-B) grading system was used to evaluate the pre-, post-operative and follow up facial nerve function status. 12 cases (85.7%) had long follow up, with an average follow-up period of 24. 6 months. 6 patients had good outcome (H-B 2 - 3 grade); 5 patients had fair outcome (H-B 3 - 4 grade) and 1 patient had poor outcome (H-B 5 grade) Only 1 patient suffered hemitongue myoparalysis owing to the operation. Descending hypoglossal branch-facial nerve anastomosis is effective for facial reanimation, and it has little impact on the function of chewing, swallowing and pronunciation of the patients compared with the traditional hypoglossal-facial nerve anastomosis.

  2. Mitochondrial DNA mapping of social-biological interactions in Brazilian Amazonian African-descendant populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Maia Carvalho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The formation of the Brazilian Amazonian population has historically involved three main ethnic groups, Amerindian, African and European. This has resulted in genetic investigations having been carried out using classical polymorphisms and molecular markers. To better understand the genetic variability and the micro-evolutionary processes acting in human groups in the Brazilian Amazon region we used mitochondrial DNA to investigate 159 maternally unrelated individuals from five Amazonian African-descendant communities. The mitochondrial lineage distribution indicated a contribution of 50.2% from Africans (L0, L1, L2, and L3, 46.6% from Amerindians (haplogroups A, B, C and D and a small European contribution of 1.3%. These results indicated high genetic diversity in the Amerindian and African lineage groups, suggesting that the Brazilian Amazonian African-descendant populations reflect a possible population amalgamation of Amerindian women from different Amazonian indigenous tribes and African women from different geographic regions of Africa who had been brought to Brazil as slaves. The present study partially mapped the historical biological and social interactions that had occurred during the formation and expansion of Amazonian African-descendant communities.

  3. Clinical outcomes of laparoscopic surgery for transverse and descending colon cancers in a community setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Takeru; Fujita, Hirofumi; Kunimoto, Yukihiro; Kimura, Taisei; Hayashi, Tomomi; Maeda, Toshiyuki; Yamakawa, Junichi; Mizumoto, Takuya; Ogino, Kazunori

    2013-08-01

    The feasibility, safety and oncological outcomes of laparoscopic surgery for transverse and descending colon cancers in a community hospital setting were evaluated. Twenty-six patients with transverse or descending colon cancers who underwent laparoscopic surgery at our hospital were included in this retrospective analysis (group A). Their outcomes were compared with those of 71 patients who underwent laparoscopic surgery for colon cancer at other tumor sites (group B). There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of operative time, estimated blood loss, postoperative hospital stay and morbidity rate. Extended lymphadenectomy was performed more frequently and the number of harvested lymph nodes was significantly higher in group B than in group A. However, no recurrence developed in group A, while recurrence occurred in four patients from group B. The 3-year disease-free survival rates were 100% for group A and 93.5% for group B. The 3-year overall survival rates were 100% for group A and 91.6% for group B. Laparoscopic surgery for transverse and descending colon cancers can be performed safely with oncological validity in a community hospital setting, provided there is careful selection of the patients and adequate lymphadenectomy considering the clinical stage of their disease. © 2013 Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Asia Endosurgery Task Force and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Opportunities for mourning when grief is disenfranchised: descendants of Nazi perpetrators in dialogue with Holocaust survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the concepts of unmourned and disenfranchised grief as a way to understand the experiences of adult children of Nazi perpetrators, who grew up with cultural norms of grieving alone or in silence. The scholarly literature on descendants of Nazis reflects a group unlikely to warrant empathy or support from others because of the stigma surrounding their family's possible involvement in the Holocaust atrocities. This article uses, as a case study approach, the testimony given by Monika Hertwig, the adult daughter of a high ranking Nazi, who appears in the documentary film, Inheritance. From the perspective of disenfranchised grief, defined as grief that is not socially recognized or supported, the article links Monika's testimony with existing research from in-depth interviews with other descendants of Nazis to suggest that, as a group, they lacked permission to grieve their deceased parents, acknowledgment of their grief, and opportunities to mourn. Based on the theory that the effects of grief can be transgenerational, the disenfranchisement experienced by the "children of the Third Reich" does not have to pass to subsequent generations if opportunities for mourning are made possible and some resolution of grief occurs. Studies have shown that ongoing dialogue groups between Holocaust survivors and descendants of Nazis provide opportunities for mourning to both groups.

  5. Cervical necrotising fasciitis and descending mediastinitis secondary to unilateral tonsillitis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Asad

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Cervical necrotizing fasciitis is an aggressive infection with high morbidity and mortality. We present a case of cervical necrotizing fasciitis and descending mediastinitis in a healthy young man, caused by unilateral tonsillitis with a successful outcome without aggressive debridement. Case presentation A 41-year-old man was admitted to our unit with a diagnosis of severe acute unilateral tonsillitis. On admission, he had painful neck movements and the skin over his neck was red, hot and tender. Computed tomography scan of his neck and chest showed evidence of cervical necrotizing fasciitis and descending mediastinitis secondary to underlying pharyngeal disease. He was treated with broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics. His condition improved over the next 3 days but a tender and fluctuant swelling appeared in the suprasternal region. A repeat scan showed the appearance of an abscess extending from the pretracheal region to the upper mediastinum which was drained through a small transverse anterior neck incision. After surgery, the patient's condition quickly improved and he was discharged on the 18th day of admission. Conclusion Less invasive surgical techniques may replace conventional aggressive debridement as the treatment of choice for cervical necrotizing fasciitis and descending necrotizing mediastinitis.

  6. Descending aorta-to-femoral artery bypass: preliminary experience with a thoracoscopic technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolvenbach, R; Da Silva, L; Schwierz, E; Deling, O

    2000-04-01

    Descending aorta-to-femoral artery bypass is a durable procedure with excellent long-term patency rates. The operation is usually performed using a lateral thoracotomy combined with retroperitoneal tunneling of the graft. Assuming that a smaller incision would reduce the operative trauma, minimally invasive video endoscopic techniques were used to perform a thoracoscopic bypass operation. In all patients, exposure of the descending aorta was obtained using thoracoscopy. This was accomplished with a maximum of four ports. For placing the conventional side-biting aortic clamp, a 3- to 4-cm incision was necessary. Using this incision as an access port, the proximal anastomosis was sutured endoscopically. Retroperitoneal tunneling was performed using laparoscopically guided balloon dissection. Eleven consecutive patients underwent surgery. In two patients, conversion to a standard thoracotomy was necessary because of extensive intrathoracic adhesions. There were no major complications, except for one hematoma. After a mean follow-up of 9.5 months, all bypass grafts were still patent. Patients could be discharged after a mean postprocedural hospital stay of 7.4 days (range, 5-12). Thoracoscopic descending aorta-to-femoral artery bypass is an operation with excellent patency rates; however, it is a novel technique that still requires further technical improvements. Clinical studies are needed to prove the safety and efficacy of this minimally invasive technique.

  7. Descending pain modulation in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS): a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakiath, Rosemary J; Siddall, Philip J; Kellow, John E; Hush, Julia M; Jones, Mike P; Marcuzzi, Anna; Wrigley, Paul J

    2015-12-10

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder. While abdominal pain is a dominant symptom of IBS, many sufferers also report widespread hypersensitivity and present with other chronic pain conditions. The presence of widespread hypersensitivity and extra-intestinal pain conditions suggests central nervous dysfunction. While central nervous system dysfunction may involve the spinal cord (central sensitisation) and brain, this review will focus on one brain mechanism, descending pain modulation. We will conduct a comprehensive search for the articles indexed in the databases Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, Ovid PsycINFO and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trial (CENTRAL) from their inception to August 2015, that report on any aspect of descending pain modulation in irritable bowel syndrome. Two independent reviewers will screen studies for eligibility, assess risk of bias and extract relevant data. Results will be tabulated and, if possible, a meta-analysis will be carried out. The systematic review outlined in this protocol aims to summarise current knowledge regarding descending pain modulation in IBS. PROSPERO CRD42015024284.

  8. Forward Osmosis in Wastewater Treatment Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korenak, Jasmina; Basu, Subhankar; Balakrishnan, Malini

    2017-01-01

    is the application of forward osmosis. Essentially, forward osmosis is a process in which water is driven through a semipermeable membrane from a feed solution to a draw solution due to the osmotic pressure gradient across the membrane. The immediate advantage over existing pressure driven membrane technologies...... is that the forward osmosis process per se eliminates the need for operation with high hydraulic pressure and forward osmosis has low fouling tendency. Hence, it provides an opportunity for saving energy and membrane replacement cost. However, there are many limitations that still need to be addressed. Here we...... briefly review some of the applications within water purification and new developments in forward osmosis membrane fabrication....

  9. Simulation Results of Double Forward Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Vijaya KUMAR

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to find a better forward converter for DC to DC conversion.Simulation of double forward converter in SMPS system is discussed in this paper. Aforward converter with RCD snubber to synchronous rectifier and/or to current doubleris also discussed. The evolution of the forward converter is first reviewed in a tutorialfashion. Performance parameters are discussed including operating principle, voltageconversion ratio, efficiency, device stress, small-signal dynamics, noise and EMI. Itscircuit operation and its performance characteristics of the forward converter with RCDsnubber and double forward converter are described and the simulation results arepresented.

  10. Forward Scattering of Loaded and Unloaded Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Mats; Andersen, Jørgen Bach; Kristensson, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    Forward scattering of antennas is related to antenna performance via the forward-scattering sum rule. The forward-scattering sum rule is an integral identity that shows that a weighted integral of the extinction cross section over all spectrum is proportional to the static polarizability...... of the antenna structure. Here, the forward-scattering sum rule is experimentally verified for loaded, short-circuit, and open-circuit cylindrical dipole antennas. It is also shown that the absorption efficiency cannot be greater than 1/2 for reciprocal linearly polarized lossless matched antennas...... with a symmetric radiation pattern in the forward and backward directions....

  11. Relationship between the climbing up and climbing down stairs domain scores on the FES-DMD, the score on the Vignos Scale, age and timed performance of functional activities in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian A. Y. Fernandes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Knowing the potential for and limitations of information generated using different evaluation instruments favors the development of more accurate functional diagnoses and therapeutic decision-making. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between the number of compensatory movements when climbing up and going down stairs, age, functional classification and time taken to perform a tested activity (TA of going up and down stairs in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD. METHOD: A bank of movies featuring 30 boys with DMD performing functional activities was evaluated. Compensatory movements were assessed using the climbing up and going down stairs domain of the Functional Evaluation Scale for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (FES-DMD; age in years; functional classification using the Vignos Scale (VS, and TA using a timer. Statistical analyses were performed using the Spearman correlation test. RESULTS: There is a moderate relationship between the climbing up stairs domain of the FES-DMD and age (r=0.53, p=0.004 and strong relationships with VS (r=0.72, p=0.001 and TA for this task (r=0.83, p<0.001. There were weak relationships between the going down stairs domain of the FES-DMD-going down stairs with age (r=0.40, p=0.032, VS (r=0.65, p=0.002 and TA for this task (r=0.40, p=0.034. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that the evaluation of compensatory movements used when climbing up stairs can provide more relevant information about the evolution of the disease, although the activity of going down stairs should be investigated, with the aim of enriching guidance and strengthening accident prevention. Data from the FES-DMD, age, VS and TA can be used in a complementary way to formulate functional diagnoses. Longitudinal studies and with broader age groups may supplement this information.

  12. Acute Type II Aortic Dissection with Severe Aortic Regurgitation and Chronic Descending Aortic Dissection in Pregnant Patient with Marfan Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seok-Soo; Jung, Tae-Eun; Lee, Dong Hyup

    2012-12-01

    Aortic dilatation and dissection are severe complications during pregnancy that can be fatal to both the mother and the fetus. The risks of these complications are especially high in pregnant patients with Marfan syndrome; however, incidents of descending aortic dissection are very rare. This case report involves a successful Bentall procedure for and recovery from a rare aortic dissection in a pregnant Marfan patient who developed acute type II aortic dissection with severe aortic regurgitation and chronic descending aortic dissection immediately after Cesarean section. Regular follow-up will be needed to monitor the descending aortic dissection.

  13. Forward instrumentation for ILC detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowicz, H; Abusleme, A; Afanaciev, K; Emeliantchik, I; Aguilar, J; Ambalathankandy, P; Fiutowski, T; Bambade, P; Bergholz, M; Castro, E; Grah, C; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I; Chelkov, G; Gostkin, M; Coca, C; Dumitru, L; Daniluk, W; Grzelak, G; Dragone, A; Elsener, K

    2010-01-01

    Two special calorimeters are foreseen for the instrumentation of the very forward region of the ILC detector, a luminometer designed to measure the rate of low angle Bhabha scattering events with a precision better than 10 -3 and a low polar angle calorimeter, adjacent to the beam-pipe. The latter will be hit by a large amount of beamstrahlung remnants. The amount and shape of these depositions will allow a fast luminosity estimate and the determination of beam parameters. The sensors of this calorimeter must be radiation hard. Both devices will improve the hermeticity of the detector in the search for new particles. Finely segmented and very compact calorimeters will match the requirements. Due to the high occupancy fast front-end electronics is needed. The design of the calorimeters developed and optimised with Monte Carlo simulations is presented. Sensors and readout electronics ASICs have been designed and prototypes are available. Results on the performance of these major components are summarised.

  14. Forward instrumentation for ILC detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowicz, Halina; Abusleme, Angel; Afanaciev, Konstantin

    2010-09-01

    Two special calorimeters are foreseen for the instrumentation of the very forward region of the ILC detector, a luminometer designed to measure the rate of low angle Bhabha scattering events with a precision better than 10 -3 and a low polar angle calorimeter, adjacent to the beam-pipe. The latter will be hit by a large amount of beamstrahlung remnants. The amount and shape of these depositions will allow a fast luminosity estimate and the determination of beam parameters. The sensors of this calorimeter must be radiation hard. Both devices will improve the hermeticity of the detector in the search for new particles. Finely segmented and very compact calorimeters will match the requirements. Due to the high occupancy fast front-end electronics is needed. The design of the calorimeters developed and optimised with Monte Carlo simulations is presented. Sensors and readout electronics ASICs have been designed and prototypes are available. Results on the performance of these major components are summarised. (orig.)

  15. The CLAS Forward Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Amarian; Geram Asryan; Kevin Beard; Will Brooks; Volker Burkert; Tom Carstens; Alan Coleman; Raphael Demirchyan; Yuri Efremenko; Hovanes Egiyan; Kim Egiyan; Herb Funsten; Vladimir Gavrilov; Kevin L. Giovanetti; R.M. Marshall; Berhard Mecking; R.C. Minehart; H. Mkrtchan; Mavrik Ohandjanyan; Youri Sharabian; L.C. Smith; Stepan Stepanyan; W.A. Stephens; T.Y. Tung; Carl Zorn

    2001-05-01

    The CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) at Jefferson Lab utilizes six iron-free superconducting coils to provide an approximately toroidal magnetic field. The six sectors are instrumented individually to form six independent spectrometers. The forward region (8deg < (theta) < 45deg) of each sector is equipped with a lead-scintillator electromagnetic sampling calorimeter (EC), 16 radiation lengths thick, using a novel triangular geometry with stereo readout. With its good energy and position resolution, the EC is used to provide the primary electron trigger for CLAS. It is also used to reject pions, reconstruct pi-0 and eta decays and detect neutrons, This paper treats the design, construction and performance of the calorimeter.

  16. Frontal Plane Tibiofemoral Alignment is Strongly Related to Compartmental Knee Joint Contact Forces and Muscle Control Strategies during Stair Ascent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Hunter J; Weinhandl, Joshua T; Fleenor, Kristina; Zhang, Songning

    2018-03-12

    Static frontal plane tibiofemoral alignment is an important factor in dynamic knee alignment and knee adduction moments. However, little is known about the relationship between alignment and compartment contact forces or muscle control strategies. The purpose of this study was to estimate medial (MCF) and lateral (LCF) compartment knee joint contact forces and muscle forces during stair ascent using a musculoskeletal model implementing subject specific knee alignments. Kinematic and kinetic data from 20 healthy individuals with radiographically confirmed varus or valgus knee alignments were simulated using alignment specific models to predict MCFs and LCFs. Muscle forces were determined using static optimization. Independent samples t-tests compared contact and knee and frontal plane hip muscle forces between groups during weight acceptance and during pushoff. The varus group exhibited increased weight acceptance peak MCFs, while the valgus group exhibited increased pushoff peak LCFs. The varus group utilized increased vasti muscle forces during weight acceptance and hip adductor forces during pushoff. The valgus group utilized increased hip abductor forces during pushoff. The alignment dependent contact forces provide evidence of the significance of frontal plane knee alignment in healthy individuals, which may be important in considering future knee joint health. The differing muscle control strategies between alignments detail specific neuromuscular responses to control frontal plane knee loads.

  17. The effects of stair climbing on arterial stiffness, blood pressure, and leg strength in postmenopausal women with stage 2 hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Alexei; Figueroa, Arturo; Son, Won-Mok; Chernykh, Oksana; Park, Song-Young

    2018-02-12

    Menopause is accompanied by a progressive arterial stiffening associated with increases in blood pressure (BP) and decline in muscular function. It is crucial to prevent or reduce the negative effects of menopause on vascular and muscular function by implementing appropriate lifestyle interventions, such as exercise training. We examined the effects of a stair climbing (SC) regimen on arterial stiffness (pulse wave velocity [PWV]), BP, and leg strength in postmenopausal women with stage 2 hypertension. Using a parallel experimental design, participants were randomly assigned to either SC (n = 21) or nonexercising control group (n = 20) for 12 weeks. Participants in the SC group trained 4 d/wk, climbing 192 steps 2 to 5 times/d. Participants' brachial-to-ankle PWV (baPWV), BP, and leg strength were measured at baseline and after 12 weeks of their assigned intervention. There was a significant group by time interaction (P hypertensive postmenopausal women. The decrease in arterial stiffness partially explained the improvements in SBP and leg strength. SC may be an effective intervention in the prevention and treatment of menopause/aging-related vascular complications and muscle weakness.

  18. High-Order Sliding Mode-Based Synchronous Control of a Novel Stair-Climbing Wheelchair Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanxiu Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For the attitude control of a novel stair-climbing wheelchair with inertial uncertainties and external disturbance torques, a new synchronous control method is proposed via combing high-order sliding mode control techniques with cross-coupling techniques. For this purpose, a proper controller is designed, which can improve the performance of the system under conditions of uncertainties and torque perturbations and also can guarantee the synchronization of the system. Firstly, a robust high-order sliding mode control law is designed to track the desired position trajectories effectively. Secondly, considering the coordination of the multiple joints, a high-order sliding mode synchronization controller is designed to reduce the synchronization errors and tracking errors based on the controller designed previously. Stability of the closed-loop system is proved by Lyapunov theory. The simulation is performed by MATLAB to verify the effectiveness of the proposed controller. By comparing the simulation results of two controllers, it is obvious that the proposed scheme has better performance and stronger robustness.

  19. Indigenous Arabs are descendants of the earliest split from ancient Eurasian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Flores, Juan L; Fakhro, Khalid; Agosto-Perez, Francisco; Ramstetter, Monica D; Arbiza, Leonardo; Vincent, Thomas L; Robay, Amal; Malek, Joel A; Suhre, Karsten; Chouchane, Lotfi; Badii, Ramin; Al-Nabet Al-Marri, Ajayeb; Abi Khalil, Charbel; Zirie, Mahmoud; Jayyousi, Amin; Salit, Jacqueline; Keinan, Alon; Clark, Andrew G; Crystal, Ronald G; Mezey, Jason G

    2016-02-01

    An open question in the history of human migration is the identity of the earliest Eurasian populations that have left contemporary descendants. The Arabian Peninsula was the initial site of the out-of-Africa migrations that occurred between 125,000 and 60,000 yr ago, leading to the hypothesis that the first Eurasian populations were established on the Peninsula and that contemporary indigenous Arabs are direct descendants of these ancient peoples. To assess this hypothesis, we sequenced the entire genomes of 104 unrelated natives of the Arabian Peninsula at high coverage, including 56 of indigenous Arab ancestry. The indigenous Arab genomes defined a cluster distinct from other ancestral groups, and these genomes showed clear hallmarks of an ancient out-of-Africa bottleneck. Similar to other Middle Eastern populations, the indigenous Arabs had higher levels of Neanderthal admixture compared to Africans but had lower levels than Europeans and Asians. These levels of Neanderthal admixture are consistent with an early divergence of Arab ancestors after the out-of-Africa bottleneck but before the major Neanderthal admixture events in Europe and other regions of Eurasia. When compared to worldwide populations sampled in the 1000 Genomes Project, although the indigenous Arabs had a signal of admixture with Europeans, they clustered in a basal, outgroup position to all 1000 Genomes non-Africans when considering pairwise similarity across the entire genome. These results place indigenous Arabs as the most distant relatives of all other contemporary non-Africans and identify these people as direct descendants of the first Eurasian populations established by the out-of-Africa migrations. © 2016 Rodriguez-Flores et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  20. Descending facilitation from the rostral ventromedial medulla maintains nerve injury-induced central sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Portocarrero, L P; Zhang, E-T; Ossipov, M H; Xie, J Y; King, T; Lai, J; Porreca, F

    2006-07-21

    Nerve injury can produce hypersensitivity to noxious and normally innocuous stimulation. Injury-induced central (i.e. spinal) sensitization is thought to arise from enhanced afferent input to the spinal cord and to be critical for expression of behavioral hypersensitivity. Descending facilitatory influences from the rostral ventromedial medulla have been suggested to also be critical for the maintenance, though not the initiation, of experimental neuropathic pain. The possibility that descending facilitation from the rostral ventromedial medulla is required for the maintenance of central sensitization was examined by determining whether ablation of mu-opioid receptor-expressing cells within the rostral ventromedial medulla prevented the enhanced expression of repetitive touch-evoked FOS within the spinal cord of animals with spinal nerve ligation injury as well as nerve injury-induced behavioral hypersensitivity. Rats received a single microinjection of vehicle, saporin, dermorphin or dermorphin-saporin into the rostral ventromedial medulla and 28 days later, underwent either sham or spinal nerve ligation procedures. Animals receiving rostral ventromedial medulla pretreatment with vehicle, dermorphin or saporin that were subjected to spinal nerve ligation demonstrated both thermal and tactile hypersensitivity, and showed significantly increased expression of touch-evoked FOS in the dorsal horn ipsilateral to nerve injury compared with sham-operated controls at days 3, 5 or 10 post-spinal nerve ligation. In contrast, nerve-injured animals pretreated with dermorphin-saporin showed enhanced behaviors and touch-evoked FOS expression in the spinal dorsal horn at day 3, but not days 5 and 10, post-spinal nerve ligation when compared with sham-operated controls. These results indicate the presence of nerve injury-induced behavioral hypersensitivity associated with nerve injury-induced central sensitization. Further, the results demonstrate the novel concept that once

  1. NPS ARIES Forward Look Sonar Integration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Healey, A. J; Horner, D. P

    2004-01-01

    This work integrated an experimental Blazed Array Forward Looking Sonar (FLS) developed by the University of Washington, Applied Physics Laboratories into the ARIES autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV...

  2. Constructing forward price curves in electricity markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleten, S.-E.; Lemming, Jørgen Kjærgaard

    2003-01-01

    We present and analyze a method for constructing approximated high-resolution forward price curves in electricity markets. Because a limited number of forward or futures contracts are traded in the market, only a limited picture of the theoretical continuous forward price curve is available...... to the analyst. Our method combines the information contained in observed bid and ask prices with information from the forecasts generated by bottom-up models. As an example, we use information concerning the shape of the seasonal variation from a bottom-up model to improve the forward price curve quoted...

  3. Constructing forward price curves in electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleten, Stein-Erik; Lemming, Jacob

    2003-01-01

    We present and analyze a method for constructing approximated high-resolution forward price curves in electricity markets. Because a limited number of forward or futures contracts are traded in the market, only a limited picture of the theoretical continuous forward price curve is available to the analyst. Our method combines the information contained in observed bid and ask prices with information from the forecasts generated by bottom-up models. As an example, we use information concerning the shape of the seasonal variation from a bottom-up model to improve the forward price curve quoted on the Nordic power exchange

  4. Allelic Lineages of the Ficolin Genes (FCNs) Are Passed from Ancestral to Descendant Primates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hummelshøj, Tina; Nissen, Janna; Fog, Lea Munthe

    2011-01-01

    The ficolins recognize carbohydrates and acetylated compounds on microorganisms and dying host cells and are able to activate the lectin pathway of the complement system. In humans, three ficolin genes have been identified: FCN1, FCN2 and FCN3, which encode ficolin-1, ficolin-2 and ficolin-3, res...... serum. Taken together all the FCN genes show the same characteristics in lower and higher primates. The existence of trans-species polymorphisms suggests that different FCN allelic lineages may be passed from ancestral to descendant species....

  5. Allelic lineages of the ficolin genes (FCNs) are passed from ancestral to descendant primates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hummelshøj, Tina; Nissen, Janna; Munthe-Fog, Lea

    2011-01-01

    The ficolins recognize carbohydrates and acetylated compounds on microorganisms and dying host cells and are able to activate the lectin pathway of the complement system. In humans, three ficolin genes have been identified: FCN1, FCN2 and FCN3, which encode ficolin-1, ficolin-2 and ficolin-3, res...... serum. Taken together all the FCN genes show the same characteristics in lower and higher primates. The existence of trans-species polymorphisms suggests that different FCN allelic lineages may be passed from ancestral to descendant species....

  6. Anomalous origin of the left anterior descending coronary artery from the right coronary artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriacos Papadopoulos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dual left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD originating from the left main stem and the right coronary artery (RCA (Type IV dual LAD is a very rare coronary artery anomaly. In this report, we describe a 49 year old woman presenting with unstable angina and positive for myocardial ischemia exercise tolerance test who subsequently was found to have this coronary anomaly.The diagnosis was made with coronary angiography.This anomaly has been reported to occur in 0.01 — 0.7% of patients under going cardiac catheterization. To our knowledge, only a few such cases have been published in the literature so far.

  7. Two Successful Term Pregnancies with a Large Descending Aorta Aneurysm: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saghar Salehpour

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Aortic aneurysm is a rare but potentially lethal complication during pregnancy. In this article we described a 30-year-old woman with a large size descending aorta aneurysm (11 cm in length and 5.6 cm in its greatest diameter, who had two term uncomplicated pregnancies. The patient received prophylactic ß-blocker drug during her second pregnancy. Both pregnancies were terminated by caesarean section without any serious complications. Postpartum period was recovered successfully, but a noticeable increase in aneurysm’s length was detected in the period between two pregnancies.

  8. Descending aortic mechanics and atrial fibrillation: a two-dimensional speckle tracking transesophageal echocardiography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Rogério; Monteiro, Ricardo; Dinis, Paulo; Santos, Maria José; Botelho, Ana; Quintal, Nuno; Cardim, Nuno; Gonçalves, Lino

    2017-04-01

    Vascular mechanics assessed with two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (2D-STE) could be used as a new imaging surrogate of vascular stiffening. The CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc score is considered accurate as an estimate of stroke risk in non-valvular AF, although many potential stroke risk factors have not been included in this scoring method. The purpose of this research is to study the feasibility of evaluating vascular mechanics at the descending aorta in non-valvular AF patients using transesophageal 2D-STE and to analyze the association between descending aortic mechanics and stroke. We prospectively recruited a group of 44 patients referred for a transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE) in the context of cardioversion for non-valvular AF. A short-axis view of the descending aorta, one to two centimeters after the aortic arch was selected for the vascular mechanics assessment with the 2D-STE methodology. The vascular mechanics parameters analyzed were circumferential aortic strain (CAS) and early circumferential aortic strain rate (CASR). A clinical assessment was performed with focus on the past stroke history and the CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc score. The mean age of our cohort was 65 ± 13 years and 75% were men; AF was known for 2.8 ± 2.5 years and it was considered paroxystic in 41% of cases. Waveforms adequate for measuring 2D-STE were present in 85% of the 264 descending aortic wall segments. The mean CAS was 3.5 ± 1.2% and the mean CASR was 0.7 ± 0.3 s -1 . The inter- and intra-observer variability for aortic mechanics was considered adequate. The median CHA 2 DS 2 VASc score was 2 (2-3). As the score increased we noted that both the CAS (r = -0.38, P = 0.01) and the CASR (r = -0.42, P mechanics assessed with transesophageal 2D-STE.

  9. Health state of children-descendants of Chernobyl NPP accident consequences cleaners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etsko, L.; Stratulat, P.; Vasilos, L.; Arameh, M.

    2007-01-01

    The frequency analysis of stochastic clinical effects of ionizing radiation - malignant neoplasms, endocrine abnormalities and congenital malformations was performed. For revealing dependence of prevalence marker pathology from various environmental factors, morbidity of children-descendants of the cleaners of Chernobyl NPP accident consequences was compared to those in Moldavian children (under official data) and children from ecologically adverse areas of the republic. The comparative analysis has shown that the pathology at these children does not differ from those at other children from the republic and may be consider as ecopathology. (authors)

  10. Chediak-Higashi syndrome: case report in afro-descendant individual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judde Lacerda Andrade Carlos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a Chediak-Higashi Syndrome (CHS case report in afro-descendant individual, male, 3 months old, born from consanguineous union. On admission he had fever for a month, unresolved pneumonia, and hepatosplenomegaly. He evolved to bacterial sepsis, septic shock, and death. CHS presents quantitative and morphological and hematological changes. Abnormal leukocyte inclusions are the pathognomonic finding of the disease; its recognition and differentiation from other leukocyte inclusions is essential for diagnosis and institution of therapy. Early diagnosis of CHS increases the life expectancy of the individual and provides appropriate therapeutic approach for patients affected by the disease.

  11. [The assimilation of Italians and their descendants in Argentine society (1880-1925)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimbene, M C

    1996-09-01

    "The impact of massive immigration in the post-1870 period produced major changes in... Argentine society. Integration of immigrant groups (Italians, Spaniards, the French and others) was nevertheless fiercely opposed by local elites. The essay is firstly concerned with size and development of immigration flows; secondly it deals with the characteristics of local reaction against the immigrants; thirdly it reveals how, in spite of the latter, the Italians' integration did take place in the Argentine middle classes. Finally, a particular case-study is presented, in connection with integration of immigrants and their descendants in the national army." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND FRE) excerpt

  12. Descending serotonergic facilitation and the antinociceptive effects of pregabalin in a rat model of osteoarthritic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolphin Annette C

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Descending facilitation, from the brainstem, promotes spinal neuronal hyperexcitability and behavioural hypersensitivity in many chronic pain states. We have previously demonstrated enhanced descending facilitation onto dorsal horn neurones in a neuropathic pain model, and shown this to enable the analgesic effectiveness of gabapentin. Here we have tested if this hypothesis applies to other pain states by using a combination of approaches in a rat model of osteoarthritis (OA to ascertain if 1 a role for descending 5HT mediated facilitation exists, and 2 if pregabalin (a newer analogue of gabapentin is an effective antinociceptive agent in this model. Further, quantitative-PCR experiments were undertaken to analyse the α2δ-1 and 5-HT3A subunit mRNA levels in L3–6 DRG in order to assess whether changes in these molecular substrates have a bearing on the pharmacological effects of ondansetron and pregabalin in OA. Results Osteoarthritis was induced via intra-articular injection of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA into the knee joint. Control animals were injected with 0.9% saline. Two weeks later in vivo electrophysiology was performed, comparing the effects of spinal ondansetron (10–100 μg/50 μl or systemic pregabalin (0.3 – 10 mg/kg on evoked responses of dorsal horn neurones to electrical, mechanical and thermal stimuli in MIA or control rats. In MIA rats, ondansetron significantly inhibited the evoked responses to both innocuous and noxious natural evoked neuronal responses, whereas only inhibition of noxious evoked responses was seen in controls. Pregabalin significantly inhibited neuronal responses in the MIA rats only; this effect was blocked by a pre-administration of spinal ondansetron. Analysis of α2δ-1 and 5-HT3A subunit mRNA levels in L3–6 DRG revealed a significant increase in α2δ-1 levels in ipsilateral L3&4 DRG in MIA rats. 5-HT3A subunit mRNA levels were unchanged. Conclusion These data suggest

  13. Descending necrotising mediastinitis: two case reports and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Weaver

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Descending necrotising mediastinitis is a rare and serious infection with a high mortality rate, which complicates pharyngeal or odontogenic infection. Early recognition and treatment are essential in order to minimise morbidity. Evaluation with computed tomography is necessary to confirm the diagnosis and facilitate surgical planning. In addition to prompt empirical antiobiotic therapy, surgical intervention is necessary in nearly all cases. Surgical drainage and debridement may be performed through cervicotomy alone, or through combined cervicotomy and thoracotomy, depending upon the extent of disease. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy may play an auxiliary role. We present two recent cases with characteristic imaging findings, and review the relevant literature.

  14. Descending necrotizing mediastinitis and mediastinal abscesses following odontogenic infection: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Ekinci

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Descending necrotising mediastinitis (DNM is a typeof mediastinitis caused by head and neck infections,which spreads to the mediastinum via the cervical fascialplanes. This infection is a rarely reported but highly lethalinfection. Computed tomography was used to diagnosisthe disease and assess the efficacy of treatment. Delayin diagnosis and insufficient drainage of the mediastinumand deep neck infection are the main causes of mortalityin DNM. We report on a case that was treated successfully,even if with a long, protracted course. J Clin ExpInvest 2012; 3(2: 287-289

  15. A case of descending mediastinitis caused by Streptococcus pyogenes harboring genotype emm25 and sequence type 660.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohya, Hiroaki; Mori, Nobuaki; Hayashi, Tetsuro; Minami, Shujiro; Higuchi, Akiko; Takahashi, Takashi

    2017-06-01

    Descending mediastinitis caused by Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus, GAS) is rare among cases of invasive GAS infection. In this report, we describe a case of a cervical abscess and secondary descending mediastinitis in a previously healthy 39-year-old Japanese man. The patient presented with a 2-week history of a sore throat, and subsequently developed an abscess and descending mediastinitis. We treated the cervical abscess using ampicillin/sulbactam and drainage, and GAS was subsequently isolated in two blood cultures from the patient's admission. Microbiological analyses revealed that the isolate harbored genotype emm25 and sequence type (ST) 660. This strain was susceptible to erythromycin (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC]: ≤0.12 μg/mL), resistant to minocycline (MIC: >4 μg/mL), and possessed the tet(M) determinant. Although we have reviewed the literature regarding the clinical and microbiological characteristics of descending mediastinitis cause by GAS, little is known regarding epidemiological and clinical characteristics of emm25/ST660 GAS. Furthermore, to best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of descending mediastinitis caused by emm25/ST660 GAS. Therefore, physicians should be aware of case with a cervical abscess and secondary descending mediastinitis caused by GAS infection, even if the patient is immunocompetent. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. iPhone Sensors in Tracking Outcome Variables of the 30-Second Chair Stand Test and Stair Climb Test to Evaluate Disability: Cross-Sectional Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adusumilli, Gautam; Joseph, Solomon Eben; Samaan, Michael A; Schultz, Brooke; Popovic, Tijana; Souza, Richard B; Majumdar, Sharmila

    2017-10-27

    Performance tests are important to characterize patient disabilities and functional changes. The Osteoarthritis Research Society International and others recommend the 30-second Chair Stand Test and Stair Climb Test, among others, as core tests that capture two distinct types of disability during activities of daily living. However, these two tests are limited by current protocols of testing in clinics. There is a need for an alternative that allows remote testing of functional capabilities during these tests in the osteoarthritis patient population. Objectives are to (1) develop an app for testing the functionality of an iPhone's accelerometer and gravity sensor and (2) conduct a pilot study objectively evaluating the criterion validity and test-retest reliability of outcome variables obtained from these sensors during the 30-second Chair Stand Test and Stair Climb Test. An iOS app was developed with data collection capabilities from the built-in iPhone accelerometer and gravity sensor tools and linked to Google Firebase. A total of 24 subjects performed the 30-second Chair Stand Test with an iPhone accelerometer collecting data and an external rater manually counting sit-to-stand repetitions. A total of 21 subjects performed the Stair Climb Test with an iPhone gravity sensor turned on and an external rater timing the duration of the test on a stopwatch. App data from Firebase were converted into graphical data and exported into MATLAB for data filtering. Multiple iterations of a data processing algorithm were used to increase robustness and accuracy. MATLAB-generated outcome variables were compared to the manually determined outcome variables of each test. Pearson's correlation coefficients (PCCs), Bland-Altman plots, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), standard errors of measurement, and repeatability coefficients were generated to evaluate criterion validity, agreement, and test-retest reliability of iPhone sensor data against gold-standard manual

  17. Forward instrumentation for ILC detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramowicz, Halina [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel); Abusleme, Angel [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Afanaciev, Konstantin [NCPHEP, Minsk (BY)] (and others)

    2010-09-15

    Two special calorimeters are foreseen for the instrumentation of the very forward region of the ILC detector, a luminometer designed to measure the rate of low angle Bhabha scattering events with a precision better than 10{sup -3} and a low polar angle calorimeter, adjacent to the beam-pipe. The latter will be hit by a large amount of beamstrahlung remnants. The amount and shape of these depositions will allow a fast luminosity estimate and the determination of beam parameters. The sensors of this calorimeter must be radiation hard. Both devices will improve the hermeticity of the detector in the search for new particles. Finely segmented and very compact calorimeters will match the requirements. Due to the high occupancy fast front-end electronics is needed. The design of the calorimeters developed and optimised with Monte Carlo simulations is presented. Sensors and readout electronics ASICs have been designed and prototypes are available. Results on the performance of these major components are summarised. (orig.)

  18. Responses to The Way Forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-11-01

    In November 1987 United Kingdom Nirex Limited launched a discussion document entitled The Way Forward. The stated aims of the document were to promote discussion and to seek constructive contributions to the task of ensuring that radioactive waste is managed safely. It further aimed to promote public understanding of the issues involved and to stimulate comment which would assist Nirex in developing acceptable proposals for the disposal of radioactive waste. From the 2,526 replies received the main findings are: there is a clear welcome for the consultation exercise among local authorities and the majority of responding organisations; there is no overall unanimity of view; there appears to be little support for the under sea-bed accessed off-shore repository; safety is judged to be the paramount factor for all consultees, though clearly views differ as to how best to achieve this. The safe transport of wastes is the next major area of concern; views differ as to whether areas of high amenity value should be excluded from consideration at the outset, though the majority view is probably that they should be; the monitoring and recoverability of wastes is generally deemed to be important; potential detrimental local economic impact and blight through social stigma associated with the public perception of radioactive waste disposal is also a key concern and there is opposition from local authorities and environmental groups to the use of the Special Development Order procedure for obtaining planning permission for either investigative drilling or subsequent development. (author)

  19. Pedicled Descending Branch Latissimus Dorsi Mini-flap for Repairing Partial Mastectomy Defect: A New Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruizhao Cai, M.D.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary:. Volume loss is 1 of the major factors influencing cosmetic outcomes of breast after partial mastectomy (PM, especially for smaller breasts, and therefore, volume replacement is critical for optimizing the final aesthetic outcome. We present a novel technique of raising a pedicled descending branch latissimus dorsi (LD mini-flap for reconstruction of PM defects via an axillary incision. After PM, the LD mini-flap is harvested through the existing axillary incision of the axillary dissection or the sentinel lymph node biopsy. The descending branches of thoracodorsal vessels and nerve are carefully identified and isolated. The transverse branches are protected to maintain muscle innervation and function. The LD muscle is then undermined posteriorly and inferiorly to create a submuscular pocket and a subcutaneous pocket between LD muscle and superficial fascia. Once the submuscular plane is created, the muscle is divided along the muscle fibers from the deep surface including a layer of fat above the muscle. Finally, the LD mini-flap is transferred to the breast defect. Given the limited length and mobility of the LD mini-flap, this approach is best utilized for lateral breast defects. However, for medial defects, the lateral breast tissue is rearranged to reconstruct the medial breast defect, and an LD mini-flap is then used to reconstruct the lateral breast donor site. This technique can therefore be employed to reconstruct all quadrants of the breast and can provide aesthetic outcomes without scars on the back, with minimal dysfunction of LD muscle.

  20. Math modeling for helicopter simulation of low speed, low altitude and steeply descending flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, P. F.; Robinson, C.; Shaw, J.; White, F.

    1982-01-01

    A math model was formulated to represent some of the aerodynamic effects of low speed, low altitude, and steeply descending flight. The formulation is intended to be consistent with the single rotor real time simulation model at NASA Ames Research Center. The effect of low speed, low altitude flight on main rotor downwash was obtained by assuming a uniform plus first harmonic inflow model and then by using wind tunnel data in the form of hub loads to solve for the inflow coefficients. The result was a set of tables for steady and first harmonic inflow coefficients as functions of ground proximity, angle of attack, and airspeed. The aerodynamics associated with steep descending flight in the vortex ring state were modeled by replacing the steady induced downwash derived from momentum theory with an experimentally derived value and by including a thrust fluctuations effect due to vortex shedding. Tables of the induced downwash and the magnitude of the thrust fluctuations were created as functions of angle of attack and airspeed.

  1. Measurement of hemodynamic changes with the axial flow blood pump installed in descending aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Eiji; Yano, Tetsuya; Miura, Hidekazu; Shiraishi, Yasuyuki; Yambe, Tomoyuki; Mitamura, Yoshinori

    2017-12-01

    We have developed various axial flow blood pumps to realize the concept of the Valvo pump, and we have studied hemodynamic changes under cardiac assistance using an axial flow blood pump in series with the natural heart. In this study, we measured hemodynamic changes of not only systemic circulation but also cerebral circulation and coronary circulation under cardiac support using our latest axial flow blood pump placed in the descending aorta in an acute animal experiment. The axial flow blood pump was installed at the thoracic descending aorta through a left thoracotomy of a goat (43.8 kg, female). When the pump was on, the aortic pressure and aortic flow downstream of the pump increased with preservation of pulsatilities. The pressure drop upstream of the pump caused reduction of afterload pressure, and it may lead to reduction of left ventricular wall stress. However, cerebral blood flow and coronary blood flow were decreased when the pump was on. The axial flow blood pump enables more effective blood perfusion into systemic circulation, but it has the potential risk of blood perfusion disturbance into cerebral circulation and coronary circulation. The results indicate that the position before the coronary ostia might be suitable for implantation of the axial flow blood pump in series with the natural heart to avoid blood perfusion disturbances.

  2. Quantification of progression and regression of descending thoracic aortic wall thickness by enhanced computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Kenichi; Takasu, Junichiro; Yamamoto, Rie; Taguchi, Rie; Itani, Yasutaka; Ito, Yuichi; Watanabe, Shigeru; Masuda, Yoshiaki

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to verify the usefulness of the quantification of aortic wall involvement by enhanced computed tomography (CT). One-hundred thirteen Japanese patients underwent two enhanced CT of the descending thoracic aorta at intervals. We sliced the descending thoracic aorta continuously from the level of the tracheal bifurcation with 1 cm intervals, and we defined aortic wall volume (AWV) (cm 3 ) as the sum of a 7-slice area of aortic wall involving calcification. The average of AWV increased from 7.95±2.92 cm 3 to 8.70±2.98 cm 3 . The developmental rate of AWV (ΔAWV) was 0.270±0.281 cm 3 /year. ΔAWV did not have a significant correlation with any risk factor at the baseline. ΔAWV had significant correlation with total cholesterol, (LDL-C) low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and LDL-C/(HDL-C) high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio at the follow-up, and by multivariate analysis with only the LDL-C/HDL-C ratio. ΔAWV was not correlated with the intake status of hypoglycemic, antihypertensive or lipid-lowering drugs. The cut-off level of total cholesterol with the most significant odds ratio for progression of aortic wall was 190 mg/dl, and that of LDL-C was 130 mg/dl. This method proved to be useful for the non-invasive assessment of aortic wall thickness. (author)

  3. Electroacupuncture Potentiates Cannabinoid Receptor-Mediated Descending Inhibitory Control in a Mouse Model of Knee Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Cui Yuan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Knee osteoarthritis (KOA is a highly prevalent, chronic joint disorder, which can lead to chronic pain. Although electroacupuncture (EA is effective in relieving chronic pain in the clinic, the involved mechanisms remain unclear. Reduced diffuse noxius inhibitory controls (DNIC function is associated with chronic pain and may be related to the action of endocannabinoids. In the present study, we determined whether EA may potentiate cannabinoid receptor-mediated descending inhibitory control and inhibit chronic pain in a mouse model of KOA. We found that the optimized parameters of EA inhibiting chronic pain were the low frequency and high intensity (2 Hz + 1 mA. EA reversed the reduced expression of CB1 receptors and the 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG level in the midbrain in chronic pain. Microinjection of the CB1 receptor antagonist AM251 into the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG can reversed the EA effect on pain hypersensitivity and DNIC function. In addition, CB1 receptors on GABAergic but not glutamatergic neurons are involved in the EA effect on DNIC function and descending inhibitory control of 5-HT in the medulla, thus inhibiting chronic pain. Our data suggest that endocannabinoid (2-AG-CB1R-GABA-5-HT may be a novel signaling pathway involved in the effect of EA improving DNIC function and inhibiting chronic pain.

  4. Ascending Midbrain Dopaminergic Axons Require Descending GAD65 Axon Fascicles for Normal Pathfinding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Marcela Garcia-Peña

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Nigrostriatal pathway (NSP is formed by dopaminergic axons that project from the ventral midbrain to the dorsolateral striatum as part of the medial forebrain bundle. Previous studies have implicated chemotropic proteins in the formation of the NSP during development but little is known of the role of substrate-anchored signals in this process. We observed in mouse and rat embryos that midbrain dopaminergic axons ascend in close apposition to descending GAD65-positive axon bundles throughout their trajectory to the striatum. To test whether such interaction is important for dopaminergic axon pathfinding, we analyzed transgenic mouse embryos in which the GAD65 axon bundle was reduced by the conditional expression of the diphtheria toxin. In these embryos we observed dopaminergic misprojection into the hypothalamic region and abnormal projection in the striatum. In addition, analysis of Robo1/2 and Slit1/2 knockout embryos revealed that the previously described dopaminergic misprojection in these embryos is accompanied by severe alterations in the GAD65 axon scaffold. Additional studies with cultured dopaminergic neurons and whole embryos suggest that NCAM and Robo proteins are involved in the interaction of GAD65 and dopaminergic axons. These results indicate that the fasciculation between descending GAD65 axon bundles and ascending dopaminergic axons is required for the stereotypical NSP formation during brain development and that known guidance cues may determine this projection indirectly by instructing the pathfinding of the axons that are part of the GAD65 axon scaffold.

  5. Relationship between the climbing up and climbing down stairs domain scores on the FES-DMD, the score on the Vignos Scale, age and timed performance of functional activities in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Lilian A Y; Caromano, Fátima A; Assis, Silvana M B; Hukuda, Michele E; Voos, Mariana C; Carvalho, Eduardo V

    2014-01-01

    Knowing the potential for and limitations of information generated using different evaluation instruments favors the development of more accurate functional diagnoses and therapeutic decision-making. To investigate the relationship between the number of compensatory movements when climbing up and going down stairs, age, functional classification and time taken to perform a tested activity (TA) of going up and down stairs in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). A bank of movies featuring 30 boys with DMD performing functional activities was evaluated. Compensatory movements were assessed using the climbing up and going down stairs domain of the Functional Evaluation Scale for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (FES-DMD); age in years; functional classification using the Vignos Scale (VS), and TA using a timer. Statistical analyses were performed using the Spearman correlation test. There is a moderate relationship between the climbing up stairs domain of the FES-DMD and age (r=0.53, p=0.004) and strong relationships with VS (r=0.72, p=0.001) and TA for this task (r=0.83, pDMD-going down stairs with age (r=0.40, p=0.032), VS (r=0.65, p=0.002) and TA for this task (r=0.40, p=0.034). These findings indicate that the evaluation of compensatory movements used when climbing up stairs can provide more relevant information about the evolution of the disease, although the activity of going down stairs should be investigated, with the aim of enriching guidance and strengthening accident prevention. Data from the FES-DMD, age, VS and TA can be used in a complementary way to formulate functional diagnoses. Longitudinal studies and with broader age groups may supplement this information.

  6. Management Accounting in freight-forwarding companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Ocksen; Lynggaard, Peter

    2002-01-01

    The article describes the internal business management processes in a freight forwarding compagny on the operative/tactical level. This is done as an explorative study of how these processes are organized in two medium-sized Danish freight-forwarding compagnies....

  7. Asymptotic analysis of the Forward Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren; Nielsen, Bent

    The Forward Search is an iterative algorithm concerned with detection of outliers and other unsuspected structures in data. This approach has been suggested, analysed and applied for regression models in the monograph Atkinson and Riani (2000). An asymptotic analysis of the Forward Search is made...

  8. Legal Conceptualisations of the Freight Forwarder: Some Comparative Reflections on the Disunified Law of Forwarding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.G.M. Smeele (Frank)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractUnder a forwarding contract a forwarder may play several roles simultaneously. As principal to the forwarding contract he undertakes to arrange for the dispatch of the goods. As a direct agent or a commission agent of the client he may enter into contracts of carriage, and other

  9. Forward Osmosis in Wastewater Treatment Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenak, Jasmina; Basu, Subhankar; Balakrishnan, Malini; Hélix-Nielsen, Claus; Petrinic, Irena

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, membrane technology has been widely used in wastewater treatment and water purification. Membrane technology is simple to operate and produces very high quality water for human consumption and industrial purposes. One of the promising technologies for water and wastewater treatment is the application of forward osmosis. Essentially, forward osmosis is a process in which water is driven through a semipermeable membrane from a feed solution to a draw solution due to the osmotic pressure gradient across the membrane. The immediate advantage over existing pressure driven membrane technologies is that the forward osmosis process per se eliminates the need for operation with high hydraulic pressure and forward osmosis has low fouling tendency. Hence, it provides an opportunity for saving energy and membrane replacement cost. However, there are many limitations that still need to be addressed. Here we briefly review some of the applications within water purification and new developments in forward osmosis membrane fabrication.

  10. Characterize Human Forward Contamination Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Let's face it: wherever we go, we will inevitably carry along the little critters that live in and on us. Conventional wisdom has long held that it's unlikely those critters could survive the space environment, but in 2007 microscopic animals called Tardigrades survived exposure to space and in 2008 Cyanobacteria lived for 548 days outside the International Space Station (ISS). But what about the organisms we might reasonably expect a crewed spacecraft to leak or vent? Do we even know what they are? How long might our tiny hitch-hikers survive in close proximity to a warm spacecraft that periodically leaks/vents water or oxygen-and how might they mutate with long-duration exposure? Unlike the Mars rovers that we cleaned once and sent on their way, crew members will provide a constantly regenerating contaminant source. Are we prepared to certify that we can meet forward contamination protocols as we search for life at new destinations? This project has four technical objectives: 1. TEST: Develop a test plan to leverage existing equipment (i.e. ISS) to characterize the kinds of organisms we can reasonably expect pressurized, crewed volumes to vent or leak overboard; as part of testing, we'll need to develop an Extravehicular Activity (EVA)-compatible tool that can withstand the pressure and temperature extremes of space, as well as collect, separate, and store multiple samples; 2. ANALYSIS: Develop an analysis plan to study those organisms in relevant destination environments, including spacecraft-induced conditions; 3. MODEL: Develop a modeling plan to model organism transport mechanisms in relevant destination environments; 4. SHARE: Develop a plan to disseminate findings and integrate recommendations into exploration requirements & ops. In short, we propose a system engineering approach to roadmap the necessary experiments, analysis, and modeling up front--rather than try to knit together disparate chunks of data into a sensible conclusion after the fact.

  11. Inequality in self-rated health among immigrants, their descendants and ethnic Danes: examining the role of socioeconomic position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinesen, Cecilie; Nielsen, Signe Smith; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Krasnik, Allan

    2011-10-01

    We investigated inequalities in self-rated health between immigrants, their descendants, and ethnic Danes and explored mediation by socioeconomic position and interactions between country of origin and socioeconomic position. Cross-sectional survey data on self-rated health from 4,985 individuals aged 18-66 years including immigrants from seven non-Western countries, their descendants, and ethnic Danes was linked to registry-based data on education, employment status, and income as indicators of socioeconomic position. Using multiple logistic regression analysis, we estimated the association between country of origin and self-rated health. Immigrants reported poorer health compared with ethnic Danes [age-adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 2.0-7.3 for men; 2.1-10.5 for women, dependent on country of origin] as well as their descendants (OR = 1.6-3.8 for men; 1.5-2.0 for women). Adjustment for socioeconomic position attenuated this association. Stratified analysis indicated that the effect of socioeconomic position on self-rated health varied across the groups. Policies addressing inequalities in health between immigrants, their descendants, and ethnic Danes should target underlying socioeconomic inequalities. Further research of the effects of socioeconomic position on health among immigrants and descendants is needed.

  12. Pregnant Students Of Secondary Schools As Descendants Of Unwed Mothers Some Lessons To Learn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenda M. Wamelda

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This phenomenological study was designed to determine the experiences of pregnant secondary school students aged 12-19 students who were descendants of unwed mothers. In-depth-interview and focus group discussion were applied with 14 pregnant students who were utilized in selecting the participants of the study. The participants revealed that their experiences were on humiliation and disdain remorse fear and insecurity escape and remediation support and love financial constraints and acquiescence. Their coping mechanisms were being positive about the situation having the aid and support of the family faith and hope to the divine God and the wisdom of the family. Importantly the teenage mothers valued the lessons learned from the experience the values of resilience and elasticity resolution and repentance for what they have done and hopes and dreams for the future.

  13. Descending Necrotizing Mediastinitis Treated with Tooth Extractions following Mediastinal and Cervical Drainage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoru Fukuchi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Descending necrotizing mediastinitis (DNM is a rare condition in which oropharyngeal infection spreads to the mediastinum via the cervical fascia. Delayed diagnosis and surgery result in a high mortality rate among patients with DNM. We present a case of DNM resulting from odontogenic infection treated successfully with tooth extraction following mediastinal and cervical drainage. A 43-year-old, previously healthy Japanese man was admitted to our hospital for treatment of acute mediastinitis. Computed tomography revealed gas collection around the mid-thoracic esophagus and bilateral pleural effusion. We performed mediastinal drainage via right thoracotomy. Cervicotomy was performed on postoperative day 14 to drain a residual cervical abscess. The patient required the extraction of ten teeth over three procedures to address primary odontogenic infection before his fever resolved on postoperative day 40. Prompt diagnosis, aggressive drainage and removal of the source of infection can improve survival among patients with this life-threatening disease.

  14. Scuba diving, acute left anterior descending artery occlusion and normal ECG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, Sébastien Xavier; Rigamonti, Fabio; Roffi, Marco; Noble, Stéphane

    2013-01-01

    We report the case of an acute proximal occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary (LAD) artery following a scuba diving decompression accident and associated with normal ECG. Following uneventful thromboaspiration and coronary stenting, the patient was discharged on day  4 with secondary preventative therapies. A transthoracic echocardiography performed at this point showed a complete recovery compared with an initial localised akinesia involving the anterior and apical portion of the left ventricle upon admission. This case highlights that significant acute coronary lesions involving the LAD can occur without any ECG anomaly. The presence of acute and persistent angina associated with troponin elevation should prompt physicians to consider coronary angiography without delay, independently of the ECG results. PMID:23376677

  15. Status of forward physics projects at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Ask, S

    2007-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the LHC is building several detector systems for forward physics studies and to determine the luminosity. The main forward systems consist of a Cerenkov detector called LUCID, a Zero Degree Calorimeter (ZDC) and Roman Pots which initially will house a scintillating fiber tracker system called ALFA. This presentation will describe the foreseen forward physics activities in ATLAS together with the status of the related detector systems. The detector performance obtained from beam tests both at DESY and at CERN will be presented and the final steps to completion will be outlined.

  16. Modelling electricity forward markets by ambit fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole; Fred Espen Benth, Fred Espen; Veraart, Almut

    This paper proposes a new modelling framework for electricity forward markets, which is based on ambit fields. The new model can capture many of the stylised facts observed in energy markets. One of the main differences to the traditional models lies in the fact that we do not model the dynamics......, but the forward price directly, where we focus on models which are stationary in time. We give a detailed account on the probabilistic properties of the new model and we discuss martingale conditions and change of measure within the new model class. Also, we derive a model for the spot price which is obtained...... from the forward model through a limiting argument....

  17. Additive Feed Forward Control with Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, O.

    1999-01-01

    . A suitable 'shaped' (low-pass filtered) reference is used to overcome problems with excessive control action when using a controller acting as the inverse process model. The control concept is Additive Feed Forward Control, where the trained neural network controller, acting as the inverse process model......, is placed in a supplementary pure feed-forward path to an existing feedback controller. This concept benefits from the fact, that an existing, traditional designed, feedback controller can be retained without any modifications, and after training the connection of the neural network feed-forward controller...

  18. Effects of unilateral and bilateral experimental low-back pain on trunk muscle activity during stair walking in healthy and recurrent low-back pain patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Henrik; Hirata, Rogerio Pessoto; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    with recurrent mild to moderate LBP were included. All participants completed questionnaires on personal and functional status and Oswestry disability index scoring (ODI). The participants performed maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and series of 10 stair ascent and descent motor tasks, initiated...... by the dominant side foot. Bilateral footswitch data and electromyography (EMG) from the dominant side m. iliocostalis, m. multifidus, m. longissimus, m. rectus abdominis and externus and internus obliquus muscles were recorded before and during experimental unilateral and bilateral LBP were induced in randomized...

  19. Case Study: A Bio-Inspired Control Algorithm for a Robotic Foot-Ankle Prosthesis Provides Adaptive Control of Level Walking and Stair Ascent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzma Tahir

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Powered ankle-foot prostheses assist users through plantarflexion during stance and dorsiflexion during swing. Provision of motor power permits faster preferred walking speeds than passive devices, but use of active motor power raises the issue of control. While several commercially available algorithms provide torque control for many intended activities and variations of terrain, control approaches typically exhibit no inherent adaptation. In contrast, muscles adapt instantaneously to changes in load without sensory feedback due to the intrinsic property that their stiffness changes with length and velocity. We previously developed a “winding filament” hypothesis (WFH for muscle contraction that accounts for intrinsic muscle properties by incorporating the giant titin protein. The goals of this study were to develop a WFH-based control algorithm for a powered prosthesis and to test its robustness during level walking and stair ascent in a case study of two subjects with 4–5 years of experience using a powered prosthesis. In the WFH algorithm, ankle moments produced by virtual muscles are calculated based on muscle length and activation. Net ankle moment determines the current applied to the motor. Using this algorithm implemented in a BiOM T2 prosthesis, we tested subjects during level walking and stair ascent. During level walking at variable speeds, the WFH algorithm produced plantarflexion angles (range = −8 to −19° and ankle moments (range = 1 to 1.5 Nm/kg similar to those produced by the BiOM T2 stock controller and to people with no amputation. During stair ascent, the WFH algorithm produced plantarflexion angles (range −15 to −19° that were similar to persons with no amputation and were ~5 times larger on average at 80 steps/min than those produced by the stock controller. This case study provides proof-of-concept that, by emulating muscle properties, the WFH algorithm provides robust, adaptive control of level walking at

  20. Fertility among descendants of immigrants in Belgium: The role of the partner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Van Landschoot

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research on the fertility behavior of descendants of immigrants has focused on female characteristics and has largely neglected those of the male partner. One key aspect is whether the partner is of same (endogamous or of different (exogamous ethnic origin. Moreover, the male partner may be born in the same country as the female partner, or he may have migrated to that country later in the life course. Consequently, both his ethnic origin and migration history may affect the fertility behavior of second-generation women. Objective: This study analyzes to what extent second and higher order births of second-generation women of Southern European, Turkish, or Moroccan origin in Belgium differ by the ethnic origin and migration history of the male partner. Methods: We apply event history methods using the 2001 Belgian Census, linked with the 2006 Belgian National Population Register. Results: Women of Turkish and Moroccan origin in an endogamous union experience higher second and subsequent birth rates than their counterparts in an exogamous union. However, no variation is found within the endogamous unions: Whether or not the endogamous partner has been born in the country of origin does not seem to affect second and higher order birth rates. For women of Southern European origin, second and higher order birth rates do not differ by origin and generation of their partner. Contribution: This study extends the literature on the fertility behavior of the descendants of immigrants by demonstrating the importance of male partner characteristics in explaining the transition to a second or a higher order birth.

  1. Nutritional profile in children under five years of Afro-descendant communities in Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Sánchez-Bernal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Paraguay, little is known about the Afro-descendant population. It is important to know about their nutritional status, mainly in childhood, to guide appropriate action. Objective: To determine the nutritional profile of children under five years from the African descendants’ communities in Paraguay and its associated factors. Material and methods: A cross-sectional and observational design with analytical component was developed. It involved healthy male and female children under five years old, with at least one African descendant as immediate family. Dietary habits and nutritional status (WHO criteria were assessed. WHO Anthro and SPSS 16.0 software were used. Results: 150 children were included. The median of age was 26.9 months (1.2-59.9 m, and 50.7% were males. The median maternal age was 28.3 years (16-49 years. Children with Exclusive Breast Feeding (EBF, n=119 had a mean duration of 3.5±1.8 months (1-7m. 26.9% were exclusively breastfed during six months. The starting of complementary feeding was on average 5.2 months. The underweight prevalence (UW, zP/E 0.05. Children with UW had a lower average of age of onset of complementary feeding (1.7 vs 4.9 months, p˂0.0001 compare with their pairs without malnutrition. Conclusion: Chronic malnutrition was the most prevalent chronic disease affecting over 1 in 10 children. Early initiation of complementary feeding could be a risk factor for malnutrition.

  2. Numerical simulation of left ventricular assist device implantations: comparing the ascending and the descending aorta cannulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnemain, Jean; Malossi, A Cristiano I; Lesinigo, Matteo; Deparis, Simone; Quarteroni, Alfio; von Segesser, Ludwig K

    2013-10-01

    In this work we present numerical simulations of continuous flow left ventricle assist device implantation with the aim of comparing difference in flow rates and pressure patterns depending on the location of the anastomosis and the rotational speed of the device. Despite the fact that the descending aorta anastomosis approach is less invasive, since it does not require a sternotomy and a cardiopulmonary bypass, its benefits are still controversial. Moreover, the device rotational speed should be correctly chosen to avoid anomalous flow rates and pressure distribution in specific location of the cardiovascular tree. With the aim of assessing the differences between these two approaches and device rotational speed in terms of flow rate and pressure waveforms, we set up numerical simulations of network of one-dimensional models where we account for the presence of an outflow cannula anastomosed to different locations of the aorta. Then, we use the resulting network to compare the results of the two different cannulations for several stages of heart failure and different rotational speed of the device. The inflow boundary data for the heart and the cannulas are obtained from a lumped parameters model of the entire circulatory system with an assist device, which is validated with clinical data. The results show that ascending and descending aorta cannulations lead to similar waveforms and mean flow rate in all the considered cases. Moreover, regardless of the anastomosis region, the rotational speed of the device has an important impact on wave profiles; this effect is more pronounced at high RPM. Copyright © 2013 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Descending projections arising from the parafascicular nucleus in rats: trajectory of fibers, projection pattern and mapping of terminations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, G; Pianca, L; Tredici, G

    1999-01-01

    The organization of the descending projections from the intralaminar parafascicular nucleus was studied using biocytin as an anterograde tracer in rats. After biocytin injection into the lateral parafascicular nucleus, three bundles of fibers descending throughout the brainstem were seen. Terminal fields were found in several structures, for example the lateral geniculate nucleus, nucleus reticularis thalami, subthalamus, zona incerta, substantia nigra, red nucleus, periaqueductal gray, superior colliculus, reticular formation, raphe nuclei, pontine nuclei, trigeminal complex, and ventral horn of the spinal cord. Different types of labeled terminals (small terminal boutons, en passant varicosities, large claw-like terminals) were observed, particularly in the substantia nigra and reticular formation where the density of terminals was highest. The organization of these extensive descending connections to both motor and sensory structures does not allow functions to be conclusively attributed to the parafascicular nucleus neurons. Further investigations are required to resolve this question.

  4. Infections of the neck leading to descending necrotizing mediastinitis: Role of multi-detector row computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, Antonio; Scaglione, Mariano; Scuderi, Maria Giuseppina; Tortora, Giovanni; Daniele, Stefania; Romano, Luigia

    2008-01-01

    Descending necrotizing mediastinitis is an acute, polymicrobial infection of the mediastinum, originating from odontogenic, oropharyngeal and cervical infections. Anatomical continuity of the fascial spaces between the neck and the mediastinum leads to an occasional mediastinal extension of deep neck infection as a serious sequela. An understanding of the anatomy of the deep spaces of the neck and familiarity with the imaging findings in descending necrotizing mediastinitis may allow rapid diagnosis and treatment of this rare and life-threatening complication of deep neck space infection. In this article, we discuss the current role of radiology in diagnosing descending necrotizing mediastinitis, in determining the level of infection and the pathways of spread of infections from the neck to the mediastinum and in planning a successful treatment

  5. Infections of the neck leading to descending necrotizing mediastinitis: Role of multi-detector row computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Antonio [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, A. Cardarelli Hospital, 80131 Naples (Italy)], E-mail: antopin1968@libero.it; Scaglione, Mariano; Scuderi, Maria Giuseppina; Tortora, Giovanni; Daniele, Stefania; Romano, Luigia [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, A. Cardarelli Hospital, 80131 Naples (Italy)

    2008-03-15

    Descending necrotizing mediastinitis is an acute, polymicrobial infection of the mediastinum, originating from odontogenic, oropharyngeal and cervical infections. Anatomical continuity of the fascial spaces between the neck and the mediastinum leads to an occasional mediastinal extension of deep neck infection as a serious sequela. An understanding of the anatomy of the deep spaces of the neck and familiarity with the imaging findings in descending necrotizing mediastinitis may allow rapid diagnosis and treatment of this rare and life-threatening complication of deep neck space infection. In this article, we discuss the current role of radiology in diagnosing descending necrotizing mediastinitis, in determining the level of infection and the pathways of spread of infections from the neck to the mediastinum and in planning a successful treatment.

  6. Semi-automated segmentation of the sigmoid and descending colon for radiotherapy planning using the fast marching method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losnegaard, Are; Hodneland, Erlend; Lundervold, Arvid; Hysing, Liv Bolstad; Muren, Ludvig Paul

    2010-01-01

    A fast and accurate segmentation of organs at risk, such as the healthy colon, would be of benefit for planning of radiotherapy, in particular in an adaptive scenario. For the treatment of pelvic tumours, a great challenge is the segmentation of the most adjacent and sensitive parts of the gastrointestinal tract, the sigmoid and descending colon. We propose a semi-automated method to segment these bowel parts using the fast marching (FM) method. Standard 3D computed tomography (CT) image data obtained from routine radiotherapy planning were used. Our pre-processing steps distinguish the intestine, muscles and air from connective tissue. The core part of our method separates the sigmoid and descending colon from the muscles and other segments of the intestine. This is done by utilizing the ability of the FM method to compute a specified minimal energy functional integrated along a path, and thereby extracting the colon centre line between user-defined control points in the sigmoid and descending colon. Further, we reconstruct the tube-shaped geometry of the sigmoid and descending colon by fitting ellipsoids to points on the path and by adding adjacent voxels that are likely voxels belonging to these bowel parts. Our results were compared to manually outlined sigmoid and descending colon, and evaluated using the Dice coefficient (DC). Tests on 11 patients gave an average DC of 0.83 (±0.07) with little user interaction. We conclude that the proposed method makes it possible to fast and accurately segment the sigmoid and descending colon from routine CT image data.

  7. High Performance Forward Osmosis Membrane Element Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Forward Osmosis (FO) is a promising technology for wastewater treatment applications. FO-based treatment does not require external pressure, can use lightweight...

  8. Very forward calorimeters readout and machine interface

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The paper describes the requirements for the readout electronics and DAQ for the instrumentation of the forward region of the future detector at the international linear collider. The preliminary design is discussed.

  9. Efficient Dynamic Searchable Encryption with Forward Privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etemad Mohammad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Searchable symmetric encryption (SSE enables a client to perform searches over its outsourced encrypted files while preserving privacy of the files and queries. Dynamic schemes, where files can be added or removed, leak more information than static schemes. For dynamic schemes, forward privacy requires that a newly added file cannot be linked to previous searches. We present a new dynamic SSE scheme that achieves forward privacy by replacing the keys revealed to the server on each search. Our scheme is efficient and parallelizable and outperforms the best previous schemes providing forward privacy, and achieves competitive performance with dynamic schemes without forward privacy. We provide a full security proof in the random oracle model. In our experiments on the Wikipedia archive of about four million pages, the server takes one second to perform a search with 100,000 results.

  10. Very forward calorimeters readout and machine interface

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . Abstract. The paper describes the requirements for the readout electronics and DAQ for the instrumentation of the forward region of the future detector at the international linear collider. The preliminary design is discussed. Keywords. LumiCal ...

  11. The Forward Observer Personal Computer Simulator (FOPCSIM)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brannon, David

    2002-01-01

    This joint thesis addresses the need for a task trainer for the artillery forward observer task, In recent years, declining budgets, limitations on artillery ammunition and encroachment into training...

  12. Estimating Economic Benefits of Naval Forward Presence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Looney, Robert

    2000-01-01

    This study extends the analysis of the economic benefits of naval crisis response enabled by forward presence undertaken by the Naval Postgraduate School for the 1997 Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR97...

  13. Portable UDP port forwarding in user space

    OpenAIRE

    Vancea Florin; Vancea Codruţa

    2009-01-01

    Port forwarding is frequently used to selectively expose services available on remote machines to clients running on the local machine or on machines connected to the local network. Services running over TCP are easy to forward using SSH, at least as long as the details of the transported protocol are transparent. Tools are available for other classes of tunneling, including UDP tunneling. However, thesetools are not very portable and may be limited to root/admin usage or may simply not be av...

  14. Bistatic Forward Scattering Radar Detection and Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Cheng

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Forward Scattering Radar (FSR is a special type of bistatic radar that can implement image detection, imaging, and identification using the forward scattering signals provided by the moving targets that cross the baseline between the transmitter and receiver. Because the forward scattering effect has a vital significance in increasing the targets’ Radar Cross Section (RCS, FSR is quite advantageous for use in counter stealth detection. This paper first introduces the front line technology used in forward scattering RCS, FSR detection, and Shadow Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (SISAR imaging and key problems such as the statistical characteristics of forward scattering clutter, accurate parameter estimation, and multitarget discrimination are then analyzed. Subsequently, the current research progress in FSR detection and SISAR imaging are described in detail, including the theories and experiments. In addition, with reference to the BeiDou navigation satellite, the results of forward scattering experiments in civil aircraft detection are shown. Finally, this paper considers future developments in FSR target detection and imaging and presents a new, promising technique for stealth target detection.

  15. Crutches and children - stairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Edelstein JE. Canes, crutches, and walkers. In: Hsu JD, Michael JW, Fisk JR, eds. AAOS Atlas of ... Ma, MD, Professor, Chief, Sports Medicine and Shoulder Service, UCSF Department of Orthopaedic ...

  16. One-dimensional, forward-forward mean-field games with congestion

    KAUST Repository

    Gomes, Diogo A.

    2017-03-29

    Here, we consider one-dimensional forward-forward mean-field games (MFGs) with congestion, which were introduced to approximate stationary MFGs. We use methods from the theory of conservation laws to examine the qualitative properties of these games. First, by computing Riemann invariants and corresponding invariant regions, we develop a method to prove lower bounds for the density. Next, by combining the lower bound with an entropy function, we prove the existence of global solutions for parabolic forward-forward MFGs. Finally, we construct traveling-wave solutions, which settles in a negative way the convergence problem for forward-forward MFGs. A similar technique gives the existence of time-periodic solutions for non-monotonic MFGs.

  17. Canted antiferromagnetism in KNi3[PO3(F,OH)]2[PO2(OH)2]F2 with a stair-case Kagomé lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Chen; Ren, Wei-Jian; Huang, Ya-Xi; Pan, Yuanming; Mi, Jin-Xiao

    2017-10-01

    A new nickel phosphate KNi3[PO3(F,OH)]2[PO2(OH)2]F2 has been synthesized using a modified hydrothermal method. Structural characterizations show that it adopts a 3D framework structure with 2D layers of Ni octahedra in a stair-case Kagomé lattice. The Ni2 octahedron at the inversion center shares two trans-faces with Ni1 octahedra to form a linear trimer (Ni3O8F6) as the basic structural unit. The Ni-trimers are linked between themselves by sharing F-corners and to [PO3(F,OH)] tetrahedral groups by sharing O-corners to form 2D stair-case Kagomé layers, which are parallel to the (100) plane and are stacked along the a-axis. Successive Kagomé layers are combined together by [PO2(OH)2] tetrahedral groups and interstice cations K+. Magnetic measurements reveal that KNi3[PO3(F,OH)]2[PO2(OH)2]F2 exhibits a canted antiferromagnetic ordering with a ferromagnetic component at low temperatures.

  18. Reproducible deep-inspiration breath-hold irradiation with forward intensity-modulated radiotherapy for left-sided breast cancer significantly reduces cardiac radiation exposure compared to inverse intensity-modulated radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolukbasi, Yasemin; Saglam, Yucel; Selek, Ugur; Topkan, Erkan; Kataria, Anglina; Unal, Zeynep; Alpan, Vildan

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the objective utility of our clinical routine of reproducible deep-inspiration breath-hold irradiation for left-sided breast cancer patients on reducing cardiac exposure. Free-breathing and reproducible deep-inspiration breath-hold scans were evaluated for our 10 consecutive left-sided breast cancer patients treated with reproducible deep-inspiration breath-hold. The study was based on the adjuvant dose of 50 Gy in 25 fractions of 2 Gy/fraction. Both inverse and forward intensity-modulated radiotherapy plans were generated for each computed tomography dataset. Reproducible deep-inspiration breath-hold plans with forward intensity-modulated radiotherapy significantly spared the heart and left anterior descending artery compared to generated free-breathing plans based on mean doses - free-breathing vs reproducible deep-inspiration breath-hold, left ventricle (296.1 vs 94.5 cGy, P = 0.005), right ventricle (158.3 vs 59.2 cGy, P = 0.005), left anterior descending artery (171.1 vs 78.1 cGy, P = 0.005), and whole heart (173.9 vs 66 cGy, P = 0.005), heart V20 (2.2% vs 0%, P = 0.007) and heart V10 (4.2% vs 0.3%, P = 0.007) - whereas they revealed no additional burden on the ipsilateral lung. Reproducible deep-inspiration breath-hold and free-breathing plans with inverse intensity-modulated radiotherapy provided similar organ at risk sparing by reducing the mean doses to the left ventricle, left anterior descending artery, heart, V10-V20 of the heart and right ventricle. However, forward intensity-modulated radiotherapy showed significant reduction in doses to the left ventricle, left anterior descending artery, heart, right ventricle, and contralateral breast (mean dose, 248.9 to 12.3 cGy, P = 0.005). The mean doses for free-breathing vs reproducible deep-inspiration breath-hold of the proximal left anterior descending artery were 1.78 vs 1.08 Gy and of the distal left anterior descending artery were 8.11 vs 3.89 Gy, whereas mean distances to the 50 Gy

  19. Forward problem of electrocardiography: is it solved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bear, Laura R; Cheng, Leo K; LeGrice, Ian J; Sands, Gregory B; Lever, Nigel A; Paterson, David J; Smaill, Bruce H

    2015-06-01

    The relationship between epicardial and body surface potentials defines the forward problem of electrocardiography. A robust formulation of the forward problem is instrumental to solving the inverse problem, in which epicardial potentials are computed from known body surface potentials. Here, the accuracy of different forward models has been evaluated experimentally. Body surface and epicardial potentials were recorded simultaneously in anesthetized closed-chest pigs (n=5) during sinus rhythm, and epicardial and endocardial ventricular pacing (65 records in total). Body surface potentials were simulated from epicardial recordings using experiment-specific volume conductor models constructed from magnetic resonance imaging. Results for homogeneous (isotropic electric properties) and inhomogeneous (incorporating lungs, anisotropic skeletal muscle, and subcutaneous fat) forward models were compared with measured body surface potentials. Correlation coefficients were 0.85±0.08 across all animals and activation sequences with no significant difference between homogeneous and inhomogeneous solutions (P=0.85). Despite this, there was considerable variance between simulated and measured body surface potential distributions. Differences between the body surface potential extrema predicted with homogeneous forward models were 55% to 78% greater than observed (P<0.05) and attenuation of potentials adjacent to extrema were 10% to 171% greater (P<0.03). The length and orientation of the vector between potential extrema were also significantly different. Inclusion of inhomogeneous electric properties in the forward model reduced, but did not eliminate these differences. These results demonstrate that homogeneous volume conductor models introduce substantial spatial inaccuracies in forward problem solutions. This probably affects the precision of inverse reconstructions of cardiac potentials, in which this assumption is made. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Percutaneous coronary intervention with ABSORB biodegradable vascular scaffold in patients with left anterior descending artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    К. М. Ваккосов

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The article evaluates 30-day results of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI with ABSORB biodegradable vascular scaffold (BVS implanted in the case of stenosis of the left anterior descending (LAD coronary artery in patients with stable angina.Methods. 64 patients with significant (≥ 70% LAD disease were included in the study. At 30 days, scaffold thrombosis and major adverse cardiovascular events (all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, stroke, target vessel revascularization were evaluated. The indicator of successful percutaneous coronary intervention (residual stenosis ≤20% in the presence of counterpulsation corresponding to TIMI 3rd Grade and in the absence of significant in-patient clinical complications and successful intervention assessed by clinical criteria (successful percutaneous coronary intervention alongside with a decrease in objective and subjective symptoms of myocardial ischemia, or their complete disappearance were also analyzed. Results. Mean age of patients was 61.6±8.5 years, with males accounting for 64%; 33% had earlier MI, 14% – diabetes mellitus. Mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 61.3±6.8%. Left anterior descending artery disease was presented in 89% of patients with SYNTAX Score 6.6±2.2. Mean number of implanted stents was 1.2±0.4, with mean length of the stented segment equal to18.7±1.8 mm and mean diameter 3.2±0.3 mm. At 30-day follow-up, the success of intervention assessed by clinical criteria amounted to 96.9% (n=62; that of myocardial infarction 3.1% (n=2; stent thrombosis 1.56% (n=1; repeated revascularization 1.56% (n=1; major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE 3.1%.Conclusion. The implantation of everolimus-eluting BVS for LAD stenosis demonstrates satisfactory results at 30-day follow-up.Received 16 January 2017. Accepted 21 March 2017.Financing: The study did not have sponsorship.Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

  1. Cervical necrotizing fasciitis with descending mediastinitis: literature review and case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarna, Thomas; Sengupta, Trina; Miloro, Michael; Kolokythas, Antonia

    2012-06-01

    Cervical necrotizing fasciitis (CNF) can develop from odontogenic infections that spread to the deep fascial planes of the neck. This polymicrobial infection is rapidly progressive, destructive, and often fatal. Prompt diagnosis, recognition of acuity, aggressive, repeated surgical treatment, and medical management contribute to improved survival. Nevertheless, the progression of the disease to descending mediastinitis and septic shock leads to a poor prognosis and decreased survival. A comprehensive review of the current data regarding CNF was conducted using MEDLINE, PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar. The diagnostic elements, comorbid conditions, treatment modalities, complications, and survival rates were analyzed. CNF has a reported mortality rate of 7% to 20%, depending on the extent of neck involvement. When the disease progresses into the thorax, such as in the subset of patients with CNF complicated by descending necrotizing mediastinitis (DNM) of odontogenic origin, the mortality rate increases to 41%. This is greater than the reported mortality rate of 22% for DNM in cardiothoracic studies. When DNM is present, the risk of developing septic shock appears to be much greater, 22% versus 7%. In the presence of CNF, DNM, and sepsis, the mortality rate increases to 64%. Those who survive CNF complicated by DNM and sepsis have truly beaten the odds. CNF is an uncommon, but potentially fatal, condition that oral and maxillofacial surgeons might be called on to manage emergently. Treatment includes surgery and medical intensive care. Surgeons offer the best odds of patient survival by following these basic principles: airway security, early aggressive incision and drainage plus debridement with thoracotomy, as needed, close surveillance with computed tomography, and a low threshold for retreatment. In immunocompromised patients, even greater vigilance is required. Antibiotic therapy should be adjusted as cultures and sensitivities become available. Advances in

  2. Origins of descending projections to the medulla oblongata and rostral medulla spinalis in the urodele Salamandra salamandra (amphibia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naujoks-Manteuffel, C; Manteuffel, G

    1988-07-08

    Descending projections to the medulla oblongata and rostral medulla spinalis have been examined in the urodele Salamandra salamandra with retrograde horseradish peroxidase tracing. Ipsilateral projections originate from the striatum and the nucleus ventrolateralis thalami and reach the medulla oblongata. The ipsilateral nucleus praeopticus magnocellularis reaches the medulla spinalis. The rostral part of the nucleus tuberculi posterioris projects to the ipsilateral medulla oblongata; its caudal part projects further caudally. Tectal efferents and the efferents of the nucleus praetectalis profundus project bilaterally, the nucleus praetectalis superficialis, nucleus mesencephalicus nervi trigemini, torus semicircularis, nucleus Darkschewitsch, and nucleus fasciculi longitudinalis medialis project ipsilaterally to the medulla oblongata. The nucleus mesencephalicus nervi trigemini, nucleus fasciculi longitudinalis medialis, and tectal efferents reach the rostral medulla spinalis. The nucleus ruber projects mainly via the contralateral dorsolateral funiculus to the medulla spinalis. A largely crossed medullary projection arises in the nucleus dorsalis tegmenti pars anterior, a bilateral projection arises in the nucleus dorsalis tegmenti pars posterior, and an ipsilateral projection arises in the nucleus ventralis tegmenti pars anterior. Cerebellar and statoacoustic efferents descend to the medulla spinalis. The nucleus reticularis isthmi, superior, medius and inferior as well as the nucleus raphes exhibit spinal trajectories. The nucleus vestibularis magnocellularis projects bilaterally, the nucleus vestibularis medialis projects ipsilaterally spinalward. The supposed nucleus descendens nervi trigemini descends mainly contralaterally. A small spinal projection arises in the nucleus tractus solitarii. The results indicate that salamander brains display elaborate descending connections which are similar to those in other vertebrates despite their scarcely differentiated

  3. Neuroplasticity of ascending and descending pathways after somatosensory system injury: reviewing knowledge to identify neuropathic pain therapeutic targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boadas-Vaello, P; Castany, S; Homs, J; Álvarez-Pérez, B; Deulofeu, M; Verdú, E

    2016-05-01

    This is a narrative review of the literature. This review aims to be useful in identifying therapeutic targets. It focuses on the molecular and biochemical neuroplasticity changes that occur in the somatosensory system, including ascending and descending pathways, during the development of neuropathic pain. Furthermore, it highlights the latest experimental strategies, based on the changes reported in the damaged nociceptive neurons during neuropathic pain states. This study was conducted in Girona, Catalonia, Spain. A MEDLINE search was performed using the following terms: descending pain pathways; ascending pain pathways; central sensitization; molecular pain; and neuropathic pain pharmacological treatment. Neuropathic pain triggered by traumatic lesions leads to sensitization and hyperexcitability of nociceptors and projection neurons of the dorsal horn, a strengthening in the descendent excitatory pathway and an inhibition of the descending inhibitory pathway of pain. These functional events are associated with molecular plastic changes such as overexpression of voltage-gated ion channels, algogen-sensitive receptors and synthesis of several neurotransmitters. Molecular studies on the plastic changes in the nociceptive somatosensory system enable the development of new pharmacological treatments against neuropathic pain, with higher specificity and effectiveness than classical drug treatments. Although research efforts have already focused on these aspects, additional research may be necessary to further explore the potential therapeutic targets in neuropathic pain involved in the neuroplasticity changes of neuropathological pathways from the injured somatosensory system.

  4. Clinical outcomes of laparoscopic surgery for advanced transverse and descending colon cancer: a single-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masashi; Okuda, Junji; Tanaka, Keitaro; Kondo, Keisaku; Tanigawa, Nobuhiko; Uchiyama, Kazuhisa

    2012-06-01

    The role of laparoscopic surgery in management of transverse and descending colon cancer remains controversial. The aim of the present study is to investigate the short-term and oncologic long-term outcomes associated with laparoscopic surgery for transverse and descending colon cancer. This cohort study analyzed 245 patients (stage II disease, n = 70; stage III disease, n = 63) who underwent resection of transverse and descending colon cancers, including 200 laparoscopic surgeries (LAC) and 45 conventional open surgeries (OC) from December 1996 to December 2010. Short-term and oncologic long-term outcomes were recorded. The operative time was longer in the LAC group than in the OC group. However, intraoperative blood loss was significantly lower and postoperative recovery time was significantly shorter in the LAC group than in the OC group. The 5-year overall and disease-free survival rates for patients with stage II were 84.9% and 84.9% in the OC group and 93.7% and 90.0% in the LAC group, respectively. The 5-year overall and disease-free survival rates for patients with stage III disease were 63.4% and 54.6% in the OC group and 66.7% and 56.9% in the LAC group, respectively. Use of laparoscopic surgery resulted in acceptable short-term and oncologic outcomes in patients with advanced transverse and descending colon cancer.

  5. Evidence for modulation of pericryptal sheath myofibroblasts in rat descending colon by Transforming Growth Factor β and Angiotensin II.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedley Kevin C

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Absorption of water and Na+ in descending colonic crypts is dependent on the barrier function of the surrounding myofibroblastic pericryptal sheath. Here the effects of high and low Na+ diets and exposure to whole body ionising radiation on the growth and activation of the descending colonic pericryptal myofibroblasts are evaluated. In addition the effect of a post-irradiation treatment with the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor Captopril was investigated. Methods The levels of Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1, ACE, collagen type IV, transforming growth factor-β type 1 receptor (TGF-βR1, OB cadherin and α-smooth muscle actin in both descending colon and caecum were evaluated, using immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy, in rats fed on high and low Na+ diets (LS. These parameters were also determined during 3 months post-irradiation with 8Gy from a 60Co source in the presence and absence of the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, Captopril. Results Increases in AT1 receptor (135.6% ± 18.3, P Conclusions These results demonstrate an activation of descending colonic myofibroblasts to trophic stimuli, or irradiation, which can be attenuated by Captopril, indicative of local trophic control by angiotensin II and TGF-β release.

  6. Collateralization of the pathways descending from the cerebral cortex to brain stem and spinal cord in cat and monkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Keizer (Koos)

    1989-01-01

    textabstractThe present study deals with the collateralization of the descending pathways from the cerebral cortex to the brain stem and the spinal cord in cat and monkey. The distributions of the branching cortical neurons were studied using retrograde fluorescent tracers. In addition, a new

  7. Forward and backward inference in spatial cognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Will D Penny

    Full Text Available This paper shows that the various computations underlying spatial cognition can be implemented using statistical inference in a single probabilistic model. Inference is implemented using a common set of 'lower-level' computations involving forward and backward inference over time. For example, to estimate where you are in a known environment, forward inference is used to optimally combine location estimates from path integration with those from sensory input. To decide which way to turn to reach a goal, forward inference is used to compute the likelihood of reaching that goal under each option. To work out which environment you are in, forward inference is used to compute the likelihood of sensory observations under the different hypotheses. For reaching sensory goals that require a chaining together of decisions, forward inference can be used to compute a state trajectory that will lead to that goal, and backward inference to refine the route and estimate control signals that produce the required trajectory. We propose that these computations are reflected in recent findings of pattern replay in the mammalian brain. Specifically, that theta sequences reflect decision making, theta flickering reflects model selection, and remote replay reflects route and motor planning. We also propose a mapping of the above computational processes onto lateral and medial entorhinal cortex and hippocampus.

  8. Very forward measurements at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Berretti, Mirko

    2017-01-01

    In this talk we present a selection of forward physics results recently obtained with the run-1 and run-2 LHC data by the CMS, LHCf and TOTEM experiments. The status of the very forward LHC proton spectrometer, CT-PPS, is discussed: emphasis is given to the physics potential of CT-PPS and to the analyses that are currently ongoing with the data collected in 2016. Very recent forward measurements obtained with the LHCf and the CMS-CASTOR calorimeter are then addressed. In particular, CMS measured the inclusive energy spectrum in the very forward direction for proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV and the jet cross sections for p+Pb collisions at 5.02 TeV. The LHCf experiment has instead recently published the inclusive energy spectra of forward photons for pp collisions at 13 TeV. Finally, the new measurements of the total, elastic and inelastic cross sections obtained by the TOTEM collaboration at 2.76 and 13 TeV center of mass energy are presented.

  9. Genome-wide Ancestry and Demographic History of African-Descendant Maroon Communities from French Guiana and Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes-Lima, Cesar; Gessain, Antoine; Ruiz-Linares, Andres; Bortolini, Maria-Cátira; Migot-Nabias, Florence; Bellis, Gil; Moreno-Mayar, J Víctor; Restrepo, Berta Nelly; Rojas, Winston; Avendaño-Tamayo, Efren; Bedoya, Gabriel; Orlando, Ludovic; Salas, Antonio; Helgason, Agnar; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Sikora, Martin; Schroeder, Hannes; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel

    2017-11-02

    The transatlantic slave trade was the largest forced migration in world history. However, the origins of the enslaved Africans and their admixture dynamics remain unclear. To investigate the demographic history of African-descendant Marron populations, we generated genome-wide data (4.3 million markers) from 107 individuals from three African-descendant populations in South America, as well as 124 individuals from six west African populations. Throughout the Americas, thousands of enslaved Africans managed to escape captivity and establish lasting communities, such as the Noir Marron. We find that this population has the highest proportion of African ancestry (∼98%) of any African-descendant population analyzed to date, presumably because of centuries of genetic isolation. By contrast, African-descendant populations in Brazil and Colombia harbor substantially more European and Native American ancestry as a result of their complex admixture histories. Using ancestry tract-length analysis, we detect different dates for the European admixture events in the African-Colombian (1749 CE; confidence interval [CI]: 1737-1764) and African-Brazilian (1796 CE; CI: 1789-1804) populations in our dataset, consistent with the historically attested earlier influx of Africans into Colombia. Furthermore, we find evidence for sex-specific admixture patterns, resulting from predominantly European paternal gene flow. Finally, we detect strong genetic links between the African-descendant populations and specific source populations in Africa on the basis of haplotype sharing patterns. Although the Noir Marron and African-Colombians show stronger affinities with African populations from the Bight of Benin and the Gold Coast, the African-Brazilian population from Rio de Janeiro has greater genetic affinity with Bantu-speaking populations from the Bight of Biafra and west central Africa. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Discovery of magnetic A supergiants: the descendants of magnetic main-sequence B stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiner, Coralie; Oksala, Mary E.; Georgy, Cyril; Przybilla, Norbert; Mathis, Stéphane; Wade, Gregg; Kondrak, Matthias; Fossati, Luca; Blazère, Aurore; Buysschaert, Bram; Grunhut, Jason

    2017-10-01

    In the context of the high resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio, high sensitivity, spectropolarimetric survey BritePol, which complements observations by the BRITE constellation of nanosatellites for asteroseismology, we are looking for and measuring the magnetic field of all stars brighter than V = 4. In this paper, we present circularly polarized spectra obtained with HarpsPol at ESO in La Silla (Chile) and ESPaDOnS at CFHT (Hawaii) for three hot evolved stars: ι Car, HR 3890 and ɛ CMa. We detected a magnetic field in all three stars. Each star has been observed several times to confirm the magnetic detections and check for variability. The stellar parameters of the three objects were determined and their evolutionary status was ascertained employing evolution models computed with the Geneva code. ɛ CMa was already known and is confirmed to be magnetic, but our modelling indicates that it is located near the end of the main sequence, I.e. it is still in a core hydrogen burning phase. ι Car and HR 3890 are the first discoveries of magnetic hot supergiants located well after the end of the main sequence on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. These stars are probably the descendants of main-sequence magnetic massive stars. Their current field strength (a few G) is compatible with magnetic flux conservation during stellar evolution. These results provide observational constraints for the development of future evolutionary models of hot stars including a fossil magnetic field.

  11. Value of internal thoracic artery grafting to the left anterior descending coronary artery at coronary reoperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabik, Joseph F; Raza, Sajjad; Blackstone, Eugene H; Houghtaling, Penny L; Lytle, Bruce W

    2013-01-22

    The study sought to determine if left internal thoracic artery (LITA) grafting of the left anterior descending (LAD) at reoperative coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) improves patient outcomes. LITA grafting to the LAD is the gold standard for primary CABG, but its value for reoperative CABG is unknown. From January 1985 to January 2007, reoperative CABG was performed in 3,473 patients who did not receive a LITA during their primary CABG and whose anterior myocardium (LAD) was at risk at reoperation: 2,389 had LITA grafting and 1,084 saphenous vein (SV) grafting to the LAD. Propensity matching (908 matched pairs) was used for balanced comparison of outcomes. Follow-up was continued to 20 years post-operatively, with a mean follow-up of 11 ± 8.2 years. Unadjusted hospital mortality was 2.2% and 6.5% in the LITA and SV groups, respectively (p grafting of the LAD at reoperation resulted in an absolute mortality risk reduction of 6.0% and a hazard ratio of 0.85, with number needed to treat of 16 patients. LITA-to-LAD grafting at reoperation is safe and confers a risk-adjusted survival advantage. When appropriate, a LITA should be used to revascularize the LAD at coronary reoperations. Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Occlusion of secondary branches after angioplasty of the left descending coronary artery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, E C; Sousa, A G; Nicolela Júnior, E L; Cano, M N; Maldonado, G; Feres, F; Mattos, L A; Pinto, I M; Tanajura, L F; Fontes, V F

    1990-05-01

    To evaluate the incidence and clinical presentation of the occlusion of such secondary branches in patients with single vessel coronary artery disease in the left anterior descending artery, who underwent a first elective and successful PTCA. Two hundred and thirteen side branches of 121 patients considered to be at risk. They were divided into group I (GI-85 side branches, 39.9%), if they originated from the atherosclerotic site; and group II (GII-120 side branches, 61.5%), if their origin would be involved during the balloon inflation. In the GI there were 54 septal branches and 31 diagonal branches, and 36& had angiographic evidence of ostium disease. GII was constituted by 77 septal and 51 diagonal branches, and 7.8% of them had evidence of ostium disease. Seven side branches (3.3%) at risk occluded, 4 from GI (4.7%) and 3 (2.3%) from GII. As for the clinical presentation, 57% of them had angina, where as 28.6% showed minor abnormalities in the ECG. No patient elevated its serum CK-MB, and silent occlusion occurred in 43% of them. Occlusion of side branches is a low incidence phenomenon, which happens more often in septal branches with ostium disease that originates from the atherosclerotic site; that about half of the patient had silent occlusion (43%) or mild ischemic manifestations.

  13. Central terminal sensitization of TRPV1 by descending serotonergic facilitation modulates chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yu Shin; Chu, Yuxia; Han, Liang; Li, Man; Li, Zhe; LaVinka, Pamela Colleen; Sun, Shuohao; Tang, Zongxiang; Park, Kyoungsook; Caterina, Michael J; Ren, Ke; Dubner, Ronald; Wei, Feng; Dong, Xinzhong

    2014-02-19

    The peripheral terminals of primary nociceptive neurons play an essential role in pain detection mediated by membrane receptors like TRPV1, a molecular sensor of heat and capsaicin. However, the contribution of central terminal TRPV1 in the dorsal horn to chronic pain has not been investigated directly. Combining primary sensory neuron-specific GCaMP3 imaging with a trigeminal neuropathic pain model, we detected robust neuronal hyperactivity in injured and uninjured nerves in the skin, soma in trigeminal ganglion, and central terminals in the spinal trigeminal nucleus. Extensive TRPV1 hyperactivity was observed in central terminals innervating all dorsal horn laminae. The central terminal TRPV1 sensitization was maintained by descending serotonergic (5-HT) input from the brainstem. Central blockade of TRPV1 or 5-HT/5-HT3A receptors attenuated central terminal sensitization, excitatory primary afferent inputs, and mechanical hyperalgesia in the territories of injured and uninjured nerves. Our results reveal central mechanisms facilitating central terminal sensitization underlying chronic pain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cytogenetic abnormalities of the descendants of permanent residents of heavily contaminated East Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaizhunusova, Nailya; Madiyeva, Madina; Tanaka, Kimio; Hoshi, Masaharu; Kawano, Noriyuki; Noso, Yoshihiro; Takeichi, Nobuo; Rakhypbekov, Tolebay; Urazalina, Nailya; Dovgal, Galina; Rymbaeva, Tamara; Tokanova, Sholpan; Beisengazina, Meruert; Kembayeva, Kulypash; Inoue, Ken

    2017-11-01

    More than 400 nuclear explosion tests were conducted at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) and significant radioactive substances were released. The long-term consequences of the activities at the SNTS and the appearance of any hereditary effects remain insufficiently studied about 25 years after the test site was closed. The population living in villages near the SNTS are considered to have been heavily exposed to external and internal radiation. This study aims to perform an assessment and comprehensive cytogenetic analysis of the inhabitants living near the SNTS, and their first-(F1) and second-(F2) generation children. Residents of the East Kazakhstan region living in the area covered by the former SNTS were included in the study. To evaluate the hereditary effects of nuclear testing, comprehensive chromosome analyses were performed in lymphocytes using conventional Giemsa and fluorescent in situ hybridization methods in 115 F1 and F2 descendants in the villages of Dolon and Sarzhal, which were heavily contaminated. The parents of the subjects had permanently lived in the villages. A higher number of stable-type chromosome aberrations such as translocations was found in these residents than in 80 residents of the control area, Kokpecty, which indicates the possibility that radiation had biological effects on the exposed subjects.

  15. Speeches and trajectories of brazilian afro-descendents in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Ferreira da Silva

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, one has observed an increase in studies linking the debate over racial relations to specific questions, such as that of power relations, identity, culture, and so forth. This scenario, no matter how widespread, of researches and analyses is not repeated in the more specific field of the pedagogic relations evolved in the process of forming/instructing teachers. Some recent works have focused on this latter aspect, highlighting the histories and paths taken by these professionals who have already graduated from college. Two subjects, however, are lacking research: the first is that African-descendant students in this process of studying to become teacher are not taken in consideration in this context; the second is that the methodology of analysis of the oral interviews is incipient. In a quest to fill in this methodological gap, without excluding the problematic situation above mentioned, the authors built a theoretical model for interpreting the interviews. The goal was not only to work on a description, but to uncover the meaning of the text, by means of an analysis that required understanding how a phenomenon found itself in the context was it was.

  16. Marginal reticular cells: a stromal subset directly descended from the lymphoid tissue organizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoya eKatakai

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The architecture of secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs is supported by several nonhematopoietic stromal cells. Currently it is established that two distinct stromal subsets, follicular dendritic cells and fibroblastic reticular cells, play crucial roles in the formation of tissue compartments within SLOs, i.e., the follicle and T zone, respectively. Although stromal cells in the anlagen are essential for SLO development, the relationship between these primordial cells and the subsets in adulthood remains poorly understood. In addition, the roles of stromal cells in the entry of antigens into the compartments through some tissue structures peculiar to SLOs remain unclear. A recently identified stromal subset, marginal reticular cells (MRCs, covers the margin of SLOs that are primarily located in the outer edge of follicles and construct a unique reticulum. MRCs are closely associated with specialized endothelial or epithelial structures for antigen transport. The similarities in marker expression profiles and successive localization during development suggest that MRCs directly descend from organizer stromal cells in the anlagen. Therefore, MRCs are thought to be a crucial stromal component for the organization and function of SLOs.

  17. Dynamics of coronal rain and descending plasma blobs in solar prominences. I. Fully ionized case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, R.; Soler, R.; Terradas, J. [Departament de Física, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Zaqarashvili, T. V.; Khodachenko, M. L., E-mail: ramon.oliver@uib.es [Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Schmiedlstrasse 6, A-8042 Graz (Austria)

    2014-03-20

    Observations of active regions and limb prominences often show cold, dense blobs descending with an acceleration smaller than that of free fall. The dynamics of these condensations falling in the solar corona is investigated in this paper using a simple fully ionized plasma model. We find that the presence of a heavy condensation gives rise to a dynamical rearrangement of the coronal pressure that results in the formation of a large pressure gradient that opposes gravity. Eventually this pressure gradient becomes so large that the blob acceleration vanishes or even points upward. Then, the blob descent is characterized by an initial acceleration phase followed by an essentially constant velocity phase. These two stages can be identified in published time-distance diagrams of coronal rain events. Both the duration of the first stage and the velocity attained by the blob increase for larger values of the ratio of blob to coronal density, for larger blob mass, and for smaller coronal temperature. Dense blobs are characterized by a detectable density growth (up to 60% in our calculations) and by a steepening of the density in their lower part, that could lead to the formation of a shock. They also emit sound waves that could be detected as small intensity changes with periods of the order of 100 s and lasting between a few and about 10 periods. Finally, the curvature of falling paths with large radii is only relevant when a very dense blob falls along inclined magnetic field lines.

  18. DYNAMICS OF CORONAL RAIN AND DESCENDING PLASMA BLOBS IN SOLAR PROMINENCES. II. PARTIALLY IONIZED CASE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, R.; Soler, R.; Terradas, J. [Departament de Física, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Zaqarashvili, T. V., E-mail: ramon.oliver@uib.es [Institute of Physics, IGAM, University of Graz, Universitätsplatz 5, 8010, Graz (Austria)

    2016-02-20

    Coronal rain clumps and prominence knots are dense condensations with chromospheric to transition region temperatures that fall down in the much hotter corona. Their typical speeds are in the range 30–150 km s{sup −1} and of the order of 10–30 km s{sup −1}, respectively, i.e., they are considerably smaller than free-fall velocities. These cold blobs contain a mixture of ionized and neutral material that must be dynamically coupled in order to fall together, as observed. We investigate this coupling by means of hydrodynamic simulations in which the coupling arises from the friction between ions and neutrals. The numerical simulations presented here are an extension of those of Oliver et al. to the partially ionized case. We find that, although the relative drift speed between the two species is smaller than 1 m s{sup −1} at the blob center, it is sufficient to produce the forces required to strongly couple charged particles and neutrals. The ionization degree has no discernible effect on the main results of our previous work for a fully ionized plasma: the condensation has an initial acceleration phase followed by a period with roughly constant velocity, and, in addition, the maximum descending speed is clearly correlated with the ratio of initial blob to environment density.

  19. Spontaneous comedones on the skin of hairless descendants of Mexican hairless dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, T; Doi, K

    1996-10-01

    In the first experiment, the skin sebum and humidity, perspiration ability of sweat glands, and histology of spontaneous comedones were examined in hairless descendants of Mexican hairless dogs. The skin of females showed lower humidity than that of males. Some animals with a large number of comedones exhibited remarkably high skin sebum scores. The comedones were distributed throughout the dorsal skin, and a cluster of lesions was found mainly in the limbs and prepuces. The sweat glands showed no perspiration in the sudorific test. Histologically, both infant and adult animals had lesions of micro- and/or "blackhead" comedones. Plugged follicles containing abundant keratic substances associated well-developed sebaceous glands. Spontaneous comedones in the skin of hairless dogs were grossly and histologically similar to the acne vulgaris observed in human beings. The skin of some adult animals showed a large number of protrusive comedones which were solid cystic structures containing organized substances. In the second experiment, three kinds of antiacne agents (sulfur and camphor, sulfur and resorcinol, and ibuprofen piconol) were applied daily to the test sites for one month. These antiacne agents caused prominent extrusion of keratin plugs from follicular sites. The results suggest that the hairless dogs are a predictive model for evaluating the efficacy of antiacne agents proposed for acne treatment.

  20. Descending and ascending trajectories of dialogical analysis: seventh analytic interpretation on the short story "The guerrillero"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Silva Guimarães

    Full Text Available Abstract: The dialogical unity for the analysis of the Self includes the descending intersubjective interpenetration of the psychologist's lens into the self-others' feeling/thinking together with the analytic demonstration concerning the transformations of the objects that participate in the intrapsychological stream of the focused feeling/thinking. The theoretical and methodological issues selected for our present study concern how to make dialogical analysis out of empirical data and how to articulate the analyzed content to the interpretative whole situation from which the researcher and the subject matter are part of. Dialogism does not have a standardized procedure and we are not considering that there is only one correct methodological procedure in dialogical psychology. Nevertheless, discussing some dialogical approaches to a short story from Albalucía Ángel (1979, we found that the starting point for the dialogical analysis should be the mediated relation of the Self with the others, emphasizing the relevance of the extra-verbal concrete situation.

  1. Endovascular Treatment of Descending Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms with the EndoFit Stent-Graft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saratzis, N.; Saratzis, Athanasios; Melas, N.; Ginis, G.; Lioupis, A.; Lykopoulos, D.; Lazaridis, J.; Kiskinis, Dimitrios

    2007-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the mid-term feasibility, efficacy, and durability of descending thoracic aortic aneurysm (DTAA) exclusion using the EndoFit device (LeMaitre Vascular). Methods. Twenty-three (23) men (mean age 66 years) with a DTAA were admitted to our department for endovascular repair (21 were ASA III+ and 2 refused open repair) from January 2003 to July 2005. Results. Complete aneurysm exclusion was feasible in all subjects (100% technical success). The median follow-up was 18 months (range 8-40 months). A single stent-graft was used in 6 cases. The deployment of a second stent-graft was required in the remaining 17 patients. All endografts were attached proximally, beyond the left subclavian artery, leaving the aortic arch branches intact. No procedure-related deaths have occurred. A distal type I endoleak was detected in 2 cases on the 1 month follow-up CT scan, and was repaired with reintervention and deployment of an extension graft. A nonfatal acute myocardial infarction occurred in 1 patient in the sixth postoperative month. Graft migration, graft infection, paraplegia, cerebral or distal embolization, renal impairment or any other major complications were not observed. Conclusion. The treatment of DTAAs using the EndoFit stent-graft is technically feasible. Mid-term results in this series are promising

  2. Creation of DNA bank on the irradiated people and their descendants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusinova, G.G.; Adamova, G.V.; Okladnikova, N.D.

    2000-01-01

    Now special interest in the scientific world acquiring the researches on influence of radiation and estimation of the remote consequences of an irradiation on a genome of the man with the help of modern molecular-genetic methods. The decision of this problem has connected with reception and preservation of a hereditary material at cohorts who were exposed to an irradiation. Such cohort are the workers of the first atomic enterprise in Russia. In period of starting of this enterprise the workers were exposed by a chronic irradiation and combined radiation (Pu-239) in more then permissible doses. Now average age of these workers exceed 65 years. With the purpose of study of genetic consequences of an irradiation in Branch N 1 the Biophysics Institute Russian Federation (Ozyorsk, Chelyabinsk region) DNA Bank is creating. The methodological and methodical bases of its creation are developed. The creation of DNA Bank will enable widely to use the saved genetic material in the newest techniques for the analysis mini - and microsatellite DNA, structural genes (genes of a reparation and stress-response genes), both in somatic (parents), and in germinal cells of the individuals (descendants). The selection of families for DNA study is rather wide - one of the parents is irradiated or both parents have exposed to radiation. DNA, received from sputum and blood serum of the workers with incorporation Pu (the group of risk) will allow to investigate a role of some genes (K-ras, p16, p53) in development of tumor process. (author)

  3. Descending necrotizing mediastinitis with diffuse ST elevation mimicking pericarditis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young Soon; Choi, Jae Hyung

    2014-10-01

    Descending necrotizing mediastinitis (DNM) is a potentially fatal disease that requires aggressive treatment, including mediastinal exploration. The inflammation associated with DNM may involve the heart, which produces acute changes in the electrocardiogram (ECG). As a result, the ECG may mimic pericarditis, causing some diagnostic confusion. The objectives of this case report are to describe a case of DNM presenting electrocardiographically with pericarditis, and to discuss how to differentiate between benign viral pericarditis and DNM, and the management of these two diseases. We present the case of a previously healthy 50-year-old man who presented to the Emergency Department for chest pain and presumed pericarditis. The patient presented with ST elevation on multiple leads on ECG, tenderness in the neck, widened mediastinum on the chest radiograph, and nonspecific laboratory test results. Echocardiography revealed normal ventricle function and the presence of mild pericardial effusion. The emergency physician performed contrast-enhanced neck computed tomography (CT) to rule out deep-neck infection. The CT scan showed marginal rim-enhancing abscesses in the retropharyngeal, bilateral submandibular, and anterior visceral spaces with extension into the thoracic cavity. Contrast-enhanced chest CT was performed consecutively. The final diagnosis was deep-neck infection with DNM. The patient underwent mediastinoscopy-assisted drainage and neck fasciotomy twice and received 7 weeks of therapy with intravenous meropenem. The present case highlights the importance of considering a mediastinal cause for acute ECG changes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Velocity distribution around a sphere descending in a salt-stratified water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanazaki, Hideshi; Akiyama, Shinsaku; Okino, Shinya

    2017-11-01

    When a sphere descends at constant speed in a salt-stratified water, a thin and high-speed jet is often generated above the sphere. The phenomenon has first been observed by shadowgraph and then has been investigated numerically. In this study, a systematic measurement by particle image velocimetry (PIV) has been performed for a wide range of Froude number Fr and Reynolds number Re , to actually observe the numerically simulated velocity distributions and confirm the accuracy of the numerical simulations for a very high Schmidt (Prandtl) number of Sc =(Pr =) 700 . The results show that the radius of the jet is proportional to both Fr 1 / 2 and Re - 1 / 2 , meaning that it is proportional to √{ Fr / Re } (when F < 1). The boundary layer on the sphere surface has a thickness comparable to the jet radius, and it is also proportional to √{ Fr / Re }. These results are in agreement with the recent numerical simulations and a simple dimensional analysis. Typical diverging internal-wave patterns, whose vertical wavelength has been predicted to be proportional to Fr , could also be observed.

  5. Descending perineum syndrome: a review of the presentation, diagnosis, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Zaid; Tarnay, Christopher

    2016-08-01

    Defecatory dysfunction is a relatively common and challenging problem among women and one that practicing pelvic reconstructive surgeons and gynecologists deal with frequently. A subset of defecatory dysfunction includes obstructed defecation, which can have multiple causes, one of which is descending perineum syndrome (DPS). A literature search was performed to identify the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of DPS. Although DPS has been described in the literature for many decades, it is still uncommonly diagnosed and difficult to manage. A high index of suspicion combined with physical examination consistent with excess perineal descent, patient symptom assessment, and imaging in the form of defecography are required for the diagnosis to be accurately made. Primary management options of DPS include conservative measures consisting of bowel regimens and biofeedback. Although various surgical approaches have been described in limited case series, no compelling evidence can be demonstrated at this point to support surgical intervention. Knowledge of DPS is essential for the practicing pelvic reconstructive surgeon to make a timely diagnosis, avoid harmful treatments, and initiate therapy early on.

  6. Conservation laws arising in the study of forward-forward Mean-Field Games

    KAUST Repository

    Gomes, Diogo A.

    2017-04-24

    We consider forward-forward Mean Field Game (MFG) models that arise in numerical approximations of stationary MFGs. First, we establish a link between these models and a class of hyperbolic conservation laws as well as certain nonlinear wave equations. Second, we investigate existence and long-time behavior of solutions for such models.

  7. Forward, Forward Option and No Hedging Which One is the Best for Managing Currency Risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riko Hendrawan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Bank Indonesia Regulation No.18/18/PBI/2016 concerning foreign exchange transactions against rupiah between banks and domestic parties, indicates that the importance of hedging for business actors in Indonesia. Based on the data of the rupiah exchange rate movement against the dollar from January 2006 to December 2016 shows that the fluctuation of the rupiah against the US dollar tends to weaken, although at some point the observation shows the strengthening of the rupiah against the US dollar. The purpose of this research is to assess impact of Forward, Forward Option and No Hedging Strategy for managing currency exposure between IDR to USD. Using data from January 2006–December 2016 taken from website of Bank Indonesia and Federal Reserve. Total 396 simulations,consists of 132 using Forward simulations, 132 using Forward Option simulations and 132 using No Hedging simulations. Findings from this research show that Forward Option was has no positive contribution in managing currency exposure, No Hedging Strategy has 36,36 percent positive contribution and forward contract has 72,73 percent positive contribution in managing currency exposure. Its means Forward Contract was better than Forward Option and No Hedging Strategies in managing currency exposure.

  8. TRADING FORWARD IN THE BRAZILIAN ELECTRICITY MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar Coutinho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the interaction between forward and spot electricity markets in a scenario where buyers and sellers are price takers in the forward market and trade through marketers, who play a Cournot game. Our model’s main features come from the Brazilian electricity market, where a free contract market coexists with a regulated contract market, and the spot price is the output of a stochastic dynamic algorithm. We are able to show that the price of energy bought (sold forward decreases (increases with the number of marketers, and that, as a result, full hedging is achieved in the limit. We also investigate the effects on prices of changes in the number of market participants and in aggregate consumption and supply, an exercise that yields important policy recommendations for the Brazilian regulator.

  9. Forward-Looking Search Within Innovation Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jissink, Tymen; Rohrbeck, René; Schweitzer, Fiona

    To develop highly-innovative projects, which are fraught with uncertainty and longer development times, one cannot solely rely on initial planning and budgeting to ensure the project’s outcome remains novel. This study posits that to develop innovative projects, project teams need to engage...... in forward-looking search during development to ensure the project’s outcome remains novel and relevant. We refer to forward-looking search as the search and evaluation of information on markets, customers, and technologies in terms of their future impact. Data on 159 unique innovation projects from...... the Danish manufacturing industry shows that forward-looking search significantly impacts innovativeness. The effect follows an inverted-U shape where the greatest positive effect on innovativeness occurs in moderately planned projects and significantly lower effects in low- and highly planned projects...

  10. Feasibility studies for the Forward Spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biernat, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    The Forward Spectrometer designed for the P-barANDA detector will consist of many different detector systems allowing for precise track reconstruction and particle identification. Feasibility studies for Forward Spectrometer done by means of specific reactions will be presented. In the first part of the paper, results of simulations focussing on rate estimates of the tracking stations based on straw tubes will be presented. Next, the importance of the Forward Tracker will be demonstrated through the reconstruction of the ψ(4040) → DD-bar decay. Finally, results from the analysis of the experimental data collected with a straw tube prototype designed and constructed at the Research Center in Juelich will be discussed. (paper)

  11. Forward modeling. Route to electromagnetic inversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groom, R.; Walker, P. [PetRos EiKon Incorporated, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-05-01

    Inversion of electromagnetic data is a topical subject in the literature, and much time has been devoted to understanding the convergence properties of various inverse methods. The relative lack of success of electromagnetic inversion techniques is partly attributable to the difficulties in the kernel forward modeling software. These difficulties come in two broad classes: (1) Completeness and robustness, and (2) convergence, execution time and model simplicity. If such problems exist in the forward modeling kernel, it was demonstrated that inversion can fail to generate reasonable results. It was suggested that classical inversion techniques, which are based on minimizing a norm of the error between data and the simulated data, will only be successful when these difficulties in forward modeling kernels are properly dealt with. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  12. Saturation and forward jets at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquet, C.; Peschanski, R.; Royon, C.

    2004-01-01

    We analyse forward-jet production at HERA in the framework of the Golec-Biernat and Wusthoff saturation models. We obtain a good description of the forward-jet cross-sections measured by the H1 and ZEUS Collaborations in the two-hard-scale region (k T∼ Q >> Λ QCD ) with two different parametrizations with either significant or weak saturation effects. The weak saturation parametrization gives a scale compatible with the one found for the proton structure function F2. We argue that Mueller-Navelet jets at the Tevatron and the LHC could help distinguishing between both options

  13. Prospects for forward photon measurements at LHC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Leeuwen Marco

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the opportunities to experimentally probe the gluon density at small x in nuclei to explore non-linear gluon evolution, saturation and the physics of the Color Glass Condensate by measuring photon production at forward rapidity in proton-nucleus collisions at the LHC. Performance studies for π0 and direct photon measurements based on simulations of a Forward Calorimeter (FoCal, which is under consideration as an upgrade for the ALICE detector, are presented. Other aspects of the FoCal physics program for pp, p+Pb and Pb+Pb collisions are briefly discussed as well.

  14. The forward Detectors of the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Vittori, Camilla; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    In this poster, a review of the ATLAS forward detectors operating in the 2015-2016 data taking is given. This includes a description of LUCID, the preferred ATLAS luminosity provider; of the ALFA detector, aimed to measure elastically scattered protons at small angle for the total proton-proton cross section measurement; of the ATLAS Forward Proton project AFP, which was partially installed and took the first data in 2015, and of the Zero Degree Calorimeter ZDC built for the ATLAS Heavy Ions physics program. The near future plans for these detectors will also be addressed.

  15. Forward Field Computation with OpenMEEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Gramfort

    2011-01-01

    must be computed. We present OpenMEEG, which solves the electromagnetic forward problem in the quasistatic regime, for head models with piecewise constant conductivity. The core of OpenMEEG consists of the symmetric Boundary Element Method, which is based on an extended Green Representation theorem. OpenMEEG is able to provide lead fields for four different electromagnetic forward problems: Electroencephalography (EEG, Magnetoencephalography (MEG, Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT, and intracranial electric potentials (IPs. OpenMEEG is open source and multiplatform. It can be used from Python and Matlab in conjunction with toolboxes that solve the inverse problem; its integration within FieldTrip is operational since release 2.0.

  16. Combining or Separating Forward and Reverse Logistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbert-Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Larsen, Samuel; Nielsen, Anders

    2018-01-01

    % combination to 100% combination (i.e. full separation). Second, using contingency theory the paper identifies the contextual factors described in RL-literature that determine the most advantageous degree of combination. The set of factors is subsequently tested using a case study, which applies......-research addresses intra-RL issues while the relationship between forward and reverse logistics is under-researched. This paper contributes to RL-theory by identifying the contextual factors that determine the most advantageous relationship between forward and reverse logistics, and proposes a novel decision making...

  17. JLEIC forward detector design and performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Rikutaro [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-11-01

    A major part of the physics program at the Electron-Ion Collider being planned in the US is the exploration of nucleon and nuclear structure. This program means that detection of particles that move in the forward direction and are associated with the beam electrons and protons(ions) is an important part of the detector design as well as of the accelerator and interaction area designs. The current planning of the forward detection for the Jefferson Lab Electron-Ion Collider is discussed.

  18. Feldenkrais sensory imagery and forward reach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, P A; Rogers, D K

    2000-12-01

    To investigate the effect of sensory imagery on subsequent movement, a unilateral Fleldenkrais lesson of imaging a soft bristle brush passing over one half of the body and in which no movement occurred, was given to 12 naive subjects. Forward flexion for each side of the body was measured at a sit-and-reach box. For 8 and 10 subjects who reported the perception of a side as being longer and lighter following the sensory imagery, there was also a significant increase in the forward flexion range on that side.

  19. Reliability and Minimal Detectable Change Values for Predictions of Knee Forces during Gait and Stair Ascent Derived from the FreeBody Musculoskeletal Model of the Lower Limb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil D. B. Price

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available FreeBody is a musculoskeletal model of the lower limb used to calculate predictions of muscle and joint contact forces. The validation of FreeBody has been described in a number of publications; however, its reliability has yet to be established. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to establish the test–retest reliability of FreeBody in a population of healthy adults in order to add support to previous and future research using FreeBody that demonstrates differences between cohorts after an intervention. We hypothesized that test–retest estimations of knee contact forces from FreeBody would demonstrate a high intra-class correlation. Kinematic and kinetic data from nine older participants (4 men: mean age = 63 ± 11 years; 5 women: mean age = 49 ± 4 years performing level walking and stair ascent was collected on consecutive days and then analyzed using FreeBody. There was a good level of intra-session agreement between the waveforms for the individual trials of each activity during testing session 1 (R = 0.79–0.97. Similarly, overall there was a good inter-session agreement within subjects (R = 0.69–0.97 although some subjects showed better agreement than others. There was a high level of agreement between the group mean waveforms of the two sessions for all variables (R = 0.882–0.997. The intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC were very high for peak tibiofemoral joint contact forces (TFJ and hamstring forces during gait, for peak patellofemoral joint contact forces and quadriceps forces during stair ascent and for peak lateral TFJ and the proportion of TFJ accounted for by the medial compartment during both tasks (ICC = 0.86–0.96. Minimal detectable change (MDC of the peak knee forces during gait ranged between 0.43 and 1.53 × body weight (18–170% of the mean peak values. The smallest MDCs were found for medial TFJ share (4.1 and 5.8% for walking and stair ascent, respectively

  20. Allelic lineages of the ficolin genes (FCNs are passed from ancestral to descendant primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Hummelshøj

    Full Text Available The ficolins recognize carbohydrates and acetylated compounds on microorganisms and dying host cells and are able to activate the lectin pathway of the complement system. In humans, three ficolin genes have been identified: FCN1, FCN2 and FCN3, which encode ficolin-1, ficolin-2 and ficolin-3, respectively. Rodents have only two ficolins designated ficolin-A and ficolin-B that are closely related to human ficolin-1, while the rodent FCN3 orthologue is a pseudogene. Ficolin-2 and ficolin-3 have so far only been observed in humans. Thus, we performed a systematic investigation of the FCN genes in non-human primates. The exons and intron-exon boundaries of the FCN1-3 genes were sequenced in the following primate species: chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, rhesus macaque, cynomolgus macaque, baboon and common marmoset. We found that the exon organisation of the FCN genes was very similar between all the non-human primates and the human FCN genes. Several variations in the FCN genes were found in more than one primate specie suggesting that they were carried from one species to another including humans. The amino acid diversity of the ficolins among human and non-human primate species was estimated by calculating the Shannon entropy revealing that all three proteins are generally highly conserved. Ficolin-1 and ficolin-2 showed the highest diversity, whereas ficolin-3 was more conserved. Ficolin-2 and ficolin-3 were present in non-human primate sera with the same characteristic oligomeric structures as seen in human serum. Taken together all the FCN genes show the same characteristics in lower and higher primates. The existence of trans-species polymorphisms suggests that different FCN allelic lineages may be passed from ancestral to descendant species.

  1. Contemporary economic and clinical evaluations of endovascular repair for intact descending thoracic aortic aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silingardi, Roberto; Gennai, Stefano; Coppi, Giovanni; Chester, Johanna; Marcheselli, Luigi; Brunetti, Massimo

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess clinical and contemporary costs associated with elective endovascular repair of intact descending thoracic aortic aneurysms (DTAA) into the mid-term follow-up. A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained clinical database including 29 consecutive patients from July 2005 to December 2009 treated with elective endovascular repair (TEVAR) or TEVAR and surgical infrarenal repair (hybrid) of intact DTAA was performed. Mean age was 74.5 years old (±7.1). Primary clinical endpoints include mortality and major morbidity. Additionally a comprehensive economic appraisal of individual in-hospital and follow-up costs was executed. Economic endpoints include in-hospital and follow-up costs and patient discharge status. Elective endovascular and open repairs' clinical and economical outcomes in contemporary literature were assessed for comparison according to PRISMA standards. Immediate mortality was 6.9% (1/24 TEVAR and 1/5 hybrid). Three respiratory complications were recorded (11%; 2 TEVAR, 1 hybrid). Renal and cardiac complication rates were 7.4% (1 TEVAR, 1 hybrid) and 3.7% (1 TEVAR) respectively. Routine discharge home was achieved for 85% of patients (95.7% TEVAR, 25% hybrid). Three endoleaks were treated throughout the follow-up (2 TEVAR, 1 hybrid; mean 30.4 mo, ±19.9) rendering an 11% (3/27) reintervention rate. Average immediate cost was €21,976.87 for elective endovascular repair and €33,783.21 for elective endovascular hybrid repair. Additional reintervention and routine follow-up costs augmented immediate costs by 12.4%. This study supports satisfying immediate clinical outcomes for TEVAR and TEVAR+surgical infrarenal procedures. Although limited by a small population size and difficulties in economic comparisons, this study presents the real world social and economic cost scenario for both elective TEVAR and TEVAR hybrid treatment of DTAA of both the in-hospital and at mid term follow-up periods.

  2. Descending and tonotopic projection patterns from the auditory cortex to the inferior colliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straka, M M; Hughes, R; Lee, P; Lim, H H

    2015-08-06

    The inferior colliculus (IC) receives many corticofugal projections, which can mediate plastic changes such as shifts in frequency tuning or excitability of IC neurons. While the densest projections are found in the IC's external cortices, fibers originating from the primary auditory cortex (AI) have been observed throughout the IC's central nucleus (ICC), and these projections have shown to be organized tonotopically. Some studies have also found projections from other core and non-core cortical regions, though the organization and function of these projections are less known. In guinea pig, there exists a non-core ventrorostral belt (VRB) region that has primary-like properties and has often been mistaken for AI, with the clearest differentiating characteristic being VRB's longer response latencies. To better understand the auditory corticofugal descending system beyond AI, we investigated if there are projections from VRB to the ICC and if they exhibit a different projection pattern than those from AI. In this study, we performed experiments in ketamine-anesthetized guinea pigs, in which we positioned 32-site electrode arrays within AI, VRB, and ICC. We identified the monosynaptic connections between AI-to-ICC and VRB-to-ICC using an antidromic stimulation method, and we analyzed their locations across the midbrain using three-dimensional histological techniques. Compared to the corticocollicular projections to the ICC from AI, there were fewer projections to the ICC from VRB, and these projections had a weaker tonotopic organization. The majority of VRB projections were observed in the caudal-medial versus the rostral-lateral region along an isofrequency lamina of the ICC, which is in contrast to the AI projections that were scattered throughout an ICC lamina. These findings suggest that the VRB directly modulates sound information within the ascending lemniscal pathway with a different or complementary role compared to the modulatory effects of AI, which may

  3. Increased wall stress of saccular versus fusiform aneurysms of the descending thoracic aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Derek P; Xu, Chun; Pouch, Alison M; Chandran, Krishnan B; Desjardins, Benoit; Gorman, Joseph H; Fairman, Ron M; Gorman, Robert C; Jackson, Benjamin M

    2011-11-01

    Repair of fusiform descending thoracic aortic aneurysms (DTAs) is indicated when aneurysmal diameter exceeds a certain threshold; however, diameter-related indications for repair of saccular DTA are less well established. Human subjects with fusiform (n = 17) and saccular (n = 17) DTAs who underwent computed tomographic angiography were identified. Patients with aneurysms related to connective tissue disease were excluded. The thoracic aorta was segmented, reconstructed, and triangulated to create a mesh. Finite element analysis was performed using a pressure load of 120 mm Hg and a uniform aortic wall thickness of 3.2 mm to compare the pressure-induced wall stress of fusiform and saccular DTAs. The mean maximum diameter of the fusiform DTAs (6.0 ± 1.5 cm) was significantly greater (p = 0.006) than that of the saccular DTAs (4.4 ± 1.8 cm). However, mean peak wall stress of the fusiform DTAs (0.33 ± 0.15 MPa) was equivalent to that of the saccular DTAs (0.30 ± 0.14 MPa), as found by using an equivalence threshold of 0.15 MPa. The mean normalized wall stress (peak wall stress divided by maximum aneurysm radius) of the saccular DTAs was greater than that of the fusiform DTAs (0.16 ± 0.09 MPa/cm vs. 0.11 ± 0.03 MPa/cm, p = 0.035). The normalized wall stress for saccular DTA is greater than that for fusiform DTA, indicating that geometric factors such as aneurysm shape influence wall stress. These results suggest that saccular aneurysms may be more prone to rupture than fusiform aneurysms of similar diameter, provide a theoretical rationale for the repair of saccular DTAs at a smaller diameter, and suggest investigation of the role of biomechanical modeling in surgical decision making is warranted. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Spinal fMRI reveals decreased descending inhibition during secondary mechanical hyperalgesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torge Rempe

    Full Text Available Mechanical hyperalgesia is one distressing symptom of neuropathic pain which is explained by central sensitization of the nociceptive system. This sensitization can be induced experimentally with the heat/capsaicin sensitization model. The aim was to investigate and compare spinal and supraspinal activation patterns of identical mechanical stimulation before and after sensitization using functional spinal magnetic resonance imaging (spinal fMRI. Sixteen healthy subjects (6 female, 10 male, mean age 27.2 ± 4.0 years were investigated with mechanical stimulation of the C6 dermatome of the right forearm during spinal fMRI. Testing was always performed in the area outside of capsaicin application (i.e. area of secondary mechanical hyperalgesia. During slightly noxious mechanical stimulation before sensitization, activity was observed in ipsilateral dorsolateral pontine tegmentum (DLPT which correlated with activity in ipsilateral spinal cord dorsal gray matter (dGM suggesting activation of descending nociceptive inhibition. During secondary mechanical hyperalgesia, decreased activity was observed in bilateral DLPT, ipsilateral/midline rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM, and contralateral subnucleus reticularis dorsalis, which correlated with activity in ipsilateral dGM. Comparison of voxel-based activation patterns during mechanical stimulation before/after sensitization showed deactivations in RVM and activations in superficial ipsilateral dGM. This study revealed increased spinal activity and decreased activity in supraspinal centers involved in pain modulation (SRD, RVM, DLPT during secondary mechanical hyperalgesia suggesting facilitation of nociception via decreased endogenous inhibition. Results should help prioritize approaches for further in vivo studies on pain processing and modulation in humans.

  5. Descending projections of the hamster intergeniculate leaflet: relationship to the sleep/arousal and visuomotor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Lawrence P.; Blanchard, Jane H.

    2005-01-01

    The intergeniculate leaflet (IGL), homolog of the primate pregeniculate nucleus, modulates circadian rhythms. However, its extensive anatomical connections suggest that it may regulate other systems, particularly those for visuomotor function and sleep/arousal. Here, descending IGL-efferent pathways are identified with the anterograde tracer, Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin, with projections to over 50 brain stem nuclei. Projections of the ventral lateral geniculate are similar, but more limited. Many of the nuclei with IGL afferents contribute to circuitry governing visuomotor function. These include the oculomotor, trochlear, anterior pretectal, Edinger-Westphal, and the terminal nuclei; all layers of the superior colliculus, interstitial nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus, supraoculomotor periaqueductal gray, nucleus of the optic tract, the inferior olive, and raphe interpositus. Other target nuclei are known to be involved in the regulation of sleep, including the lateral dorsal and pedunculopontine tegmentum. The dorsal raphe also receives projections from the IGL and may contribute to both sleep/arousal and visuomotor function. However, the locus coeruleus and medial vestibular nucleus, which contribute to sleep and eye movement regulation and which send projections to the IGL, do not receive reciprocal projections from it. The potential involvement of the IGL with the sleep/arousal system is further buttressed by existing evidence showing IGL-efferent projections to the ventrolateral preoptic area, dorsomedial, and medial tuberal hypothalamus. In addition, the great majority of all regions receiving IGL projections also receive input from the orexin/hypocretin system, suggesting that this system contributes not only to the regulation of sleep, but to eye movement control as well.

  6. Risk Factors Affecting the Prognosis of Descending Necrotizing Mediastinitis From Odontogenic Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Luyao; Liang, Xiang; Jiang, Bin; Qian, Wentao; Zhang, Weijie; Cai, Xieyi

    2017-12-13

    Descending necrotizing mediastinitis (DNM) is a serious complication of head and neck infections and has an excessively high mortality rate owing to the lack of understanding of DNM. We assessed the clinical characteristics, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes of odontogenic DNM and evaluated the risk factors affecting the prognosis of DNM to provide an up-to-date overview for clinical practice. We performed a retrospective cohort study, enrolling a sample of patients with DNM due to odontogenic infection who had been referred from January 2013 to December 2016. The patients were classified into surviving and deceased groups. The primary predictors in the present study were the presence of multiple comorbidities, complications, demographic data (age, gender), laboratory tests (white blood cell count, percentage of neutrophils), and time (duration before diagnosis, length of hospital stay). The primary outcome variable was the patient outcome (dead or alive). The continuous variables were evaluated using Student's t test or the t test, and the categorical and binary variables were compared using the χ 2 test or Fisher exact test. A total of 81 patients (68 men, 13 women; median age of 57.2 ± 12.2 years) were included. The mortality was 4.9%. The most frequent cause of DNM was periapical periodontitis (66.7%). The lower posterior molars were involved in 39.5% of the cases. Treatment consisted of antibiotic therapy, aggressive transcervical mediastinal drainage (n = 74), and thoracotomy (n = 7). The associated risk factors for mortality were complications (P aggressive mediastinal drainage are fundamental to reducing the incidence of complications and the development of septic shock in odontogenic DNM patients. Copyright © 2018 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Dipyridamole coronary flow reserve stratifies prognosis in acute coronary syndrome patients without left anterior descending disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascione, Luigi; Carlomagno, Guido; Sordelli, Chiara; Iengo, Raffaele; Monda, Vittorio; Severino, Sergio; Merenda, Raffaele; D'Andrea, Antonello; Caso, Pio

    2013-09-01

    Coronary flow reserve (CFR) assessment by transthoracic ultrasound of the left anterior descending (LAD) artery during dipyridamole stress echocardiography has been shown to predict prognosis in large unselected populations. Low values of CFR are strongly correlated with significant stenosis of the LAD; aim of the present study was to assess the prognostic impact of CFR in patients recovering from an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) with proven absence of LAD disease. From an overall cohort of 325 patients with ACS who underwent a high-dose dipyridamole stress with combined assessment of CFR in the LAD and wall motion, 152 patients without LAD disease (stenosis <50%) were included in the present analysis; all subjects underwent coronary angiography and were subsequently monitored for the incidence of major cardiac events (MACE). After a median follow-up of 29 months, 22 patients developed MACE. Patients who experienced MACE differed from stable patients in terms of age, prevalence of diabetes, and CFR. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis defined a CFR <2.25 as the optimal cut point for prediction of MACE. Cox multivariable analysis for the prediction of MACE demonstrated independent predictive value only for CFR <2.25, smoking status, and number of stenotic vessels at angiogram. In high-risk patients with ACS, even in the absence of LAD disease, CFR significantly improves prediction of adverse events when added to standard evaluation. This finding supports a role of CFR in the risk stratification early after ACS and is in context with the concept that CFR reflects global atherosclerotic burden, endothelial dysfunction, and microvascular damage, more than just mirroring focal LAD disease.

  8. Descendants of Hardship: Prevalence, Drivers and Scarring Effects of Social Exclusion in Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cok Vrooman

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The social exclusion of children is problematic for two reasons. Young people typically inherit their marginal position from their family, and therefore cannot be held responsible for their hardship themselves; and social exclusion in childhood may affect their wellbeing and subsequent development, possibly leading to a “scarring effect” in later life. In this contribution we develop an instrument for measuring social exclusion among children. Social exclusion is regarded as a theoretical construct with four sub-dimensions: material deprivation, limited social participation, inadequate access to social rights, and a lack of normative integration. First we analyse data from a survey of 2,200 Dutch children, which contains a large set of social exclusion items. We applied nonlinear principal components analysis in order to construct a multidimensional scale. Measured in this way, the prevalence of social exclusion among children is 4.5%. Boys and children living in large families are more likely to experience social exclusion than girls and children with few siblings. The parental level of education and dependency on social security benefits are also important driving factors of childhood social exclusion. Subsequently we investigate the scarring effect. Longitudinal administrative income and household data covering 25 years were combined with a new survey of just under 1,000 Dutch adults, a third of whom were poor as a child. The survey assessed their past and current degree of social exclusion, and their health and psychosocial development, educational career, past family circumstances, etc. In an absolute sense scarring turns out to have been limited during this period: a very large majority of those who were poor or excluded as a child are above the threshold values in adult life. However, the “descendants of hardship” are still more likely to be socially excluded as adults than people who grew up in more favourable conditions. A

  9. [Arterial prehypertension in slave-descendant communities in southeast Bahia State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Vanessa Moraes; Andrade, Amanda Cristina de Souza; Medeiros, Danielle Souto de; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

    2017-10-26

    Arterial prehypertension is a precursor of arterial hypertension and a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Vulnerable populations are more prone to this condition due to difficulties in access to health services. A previous study in quilombola communities (descendants of African slaves) reported a high prevalence of arterial hypertension. The current study aimed to estimate the prevalence of arterial prehypertension in quilombolas and to assess associated factors. This was a cross-sectional population-based study in individuals 18 years and older. Prehypertension was defined as arterial systolic pressure ≥ 121mmHg and < 140mmHg and/or diastolic ≥ 81mmHg and < 90mmHg. Multivariate Poisson regression with robust variance was used. Population-attributable fractions (PAF) were also calculated for the modifiable associated factors. Prevalence of prehypertension was 55% (95%CI: 50.2-59.7). Male gender (PR = 1.54), 1 to 4 complete years of schooling (PR = 1.44), and BMI classified as overweight (PR = 1.39) and obesity (PR = 1.87) showed positive association with prehypertension. Higher attributable fractions were observed in individuals with 1 to 4 years of schooling (13.7%) and those classified as overweight (9.35%) and obese (4.6%). Prevalence of prehypertension in quilombola communities was high, and its identification may allow screening and awareness-raising in a group with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and progression to full-blown hypertension. The study highlights the need for broad access to health services and specific measures for orientation, prevention, and health promotion in this population.

  10. Italian citizenship and the descendants of Italian citizens emigrated in Colombia. Removing a social injustice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Castellari

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Law is often the source of social discriminations, but, at the same time, it can be thekey to delete these social discriminations. The authors try to give an example of thisphenomenon, by analyzing the impact of the Italian citizenship’s rules over the descendantsof the Italian citizens emigrated abroad and, especially, in South America.Indeed, according to the former Italian law, only fathers could transmit iure sanguinisthe citizenship to their children: moreover, women automatically lost theItalian citizenship if they get a foreign citizenship by concluding a marriage witha foreign husband.These rules hardly discriminate the Italian women emigrated abroad and, especially,their descendants who were prevented to get the Italian’s citizenship.These discriminatory rules were finally deleted by the Italian Constitutional Courtin the Seventies and in the Eighties: however, the effects of those rules still persisted,since the decision of the Constitutional Court could not overcome the temporal limit of the entry into force of the Constitution (01.01.1948 and, therefore, could not“cover” the discriminatory facts occurred before that date.Finally in 2009, the Italian Supreme Court, by extending the effects ratione temporisof the decisions of the Constitutional Court, “reopened the doors” of the Italiancitizenship to a huge number of Italian citizenship born from Italian women beforethe 01.01.1948.Therefore, the authors focus on the social impact of this decision for all the potentialItalian citizens living in South America and try to assess its juridical effects overthe Italian law.

  11. When is visual information used to control locomotion when descending a kerb?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G Buckley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Descending kerbs during locomotion involves the regulation of appropriate foot placement before the kerb-edge and foot clearance over it. It also involves the modulation of gait output to ensure the body-mass is safely and smoothly lowered to the new level. Previous research has shown that vision is used in such adaptive gait tasks for feedforward planning, with vision from the lower visual field (lvf used for online updating. The present study determined when lvf information is used to control/update locomotion when stepping from a kerb. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 12 young adults stepped down a kerb during ongoing gait. Force sensitive resistors (attached to participants' feet interfaced with an high-speed PDLC 'smart glass' sheet, allowed the lvf to be unpredictably occluded at either heel-contact of the penultimate or final step before the kerb-edge up to contact with the lower level. Analysis focussed on determining changes in foot placement distance before the kerb-edge, clearance over it, and in kinematic measures of the step down. Lvf occlusion from the instant of final step contact had no significant effect on any dependant variable (p>0.09. Occlusion of the lvf from the instant of penultimate step contact had a significant effect on foot clearance and on several kinematic measures, with findings consistent with participants becoming uncertain regarding relative horizontal location of the kerb-edge. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest concurrent feedback of the lower limb, kerb-edge, and/or floor area immediately in front/below the kerb is not used when stepping from a kerb during ongoing gait. Instead heel-clearance and pre-landing-kinematic parameters are determined/planned using lvf information acquired in the penultimate step during the approach to the kerb-edge, with information related to foot placement before the kerb-edge being the most salient.

  12. Neutron forward diffraction by single crystal prisms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    November 2008 physics pp. 1109–1114. Neutron forward diffraction by single crystal prisms. SOHRAB ABBAS1,∗, APOORVA G WAGH1, MARKUS STROBL2 and. WOLFGANG ... vicinity of a Bragg reflection, the neutron deflection deviates sharply from that for an ... Bragg reflection, for several single crystal prisms.

  13. Neutron forward diffraction by single crystal prisms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We have derived analytic expressions for the deflection as well as transmitted fraction of monochromatic neutrons forward diffracted by a single crystal prism. In the vicinity of a Bragg reflection, the neutron deflection deviates sharply from that for an amorphous prism, exhibiting three orders of magnitude greater ...

  14. Neutron forward diffraction by single crystal prisms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have derived analytic expressions for the deflection as well as transmitted fraction of monochromatic neutrons forward diffracted by a single crystal prism. In the vicinity of a Bragg reflection, the neutron deflection deviates sharply from that for an amorphous prism, exhibiting three orders of magnitude greater sensitivity to ...

  15. Very forward calorimeters readout and machine interface

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The paper describes the requirements for the readout electronics and DAQ for the instrumentation of the forward region of the future detector at the international linear collider. The preliminary design is discussed. Author Affiliations. Wojciech Wierba1 on behalf of the FCAL Collaboration. The Henryk Niewodniczański ...

  16. Reclaiming Water from Wastewater using Forward Osmosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutchmiah, K.

    2014-01-01

    Water scarcity is a global issue and waste accumulation is a steadily growing one. The innovative Sewer Mining concept, described in this thesis, is an example of an integrated forward osmosis application which incorporates different technologies to attain one goal: water recovery from wastewater,

  17. Location-based Forwarding in Vehicular Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Wolterink, W.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we focus on location-based message forwarding in vehicular networks to support intelligent transportation systems (ITSs). ITSs are transport systems that utilise information and communication technologies to increase their level of automation, in this way levering the performance of

  18. Evaluation of Calcine Disposition Path Forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birrer, S.A.; Heiser, M.B.

    2003-01-01

    This document describes an evaluation of the baseline and two alternative disposition paths for the final disposition of the calcine wastes stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The pathways are evaluated against a prescribed set of criteria and a recommendation is made for the path forward

  19. Probabilistic forward model for electroencephalography source analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plis, Sergey M; George, John S; Jun, Sung C; Ranken, Doug M; Volegov, Petr L; Schmidt, David M

    2007-01-01

    Source localization by electroencephalography (EEG) requires an accurate model of head geometry and tissue conductivity. The estimation of source time courses from EEG or from EEG in conjunction with magnetoencephalography (MEG) requires a forward model consistent with true activity for the best outcome. Although MRI provides an excellent description of soft tissue anatomy, a high resolution model of the skull (the dominant resistive component of the head) requires CT, which is not justified for routine physiological studies. Although a number of techniques have been employed to estimate tissue conductivity, no present techniques provide the noninvasive 3D tomographic mapping of conductivity that would be desirable. We introduce a formalism for probabilistic forward modeling that allows the propagation of uncertainties in model parameters into possible errors in source localization. We consider uncertainties in the conductivity profile of the skull, but the approach is general and can be extended to other kinds of uncertainties in the forward model. We and others have previously suggested the possibility of extracting conductivity of the skull from measured electroencephalography data by simultaneously optimizing over dipole parameters and the conductivity values required by the forward model. Using Cramer-Rao bounds, we demonstrate that this approach does not improve localization results nor does it produce reliable conductivity estimates. We conclude that the conductivity of the skull has to be either accurately measured by an independent technique, or that the uncertainties in the conductivity values should be reflected in uncertainty in the source location estimates

  20. Finding Funds to Move Summer Learning Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Bob

    2015-01-01

    Summer learning loss creates a permanent drag on the US education system. With the generous support of the Charles Stewart Mott Foundation, the National Summer Learning Association (NSLA) developed "Moving Summer Learning Forward: A Strategic Roadmap for Funding in Tough Times" to provide out-of-school time programs, school districts,…

  1. Splitting forward simulations to cope with liveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, Wim H.

    In the literature, the conditions on history variables or forward simulations that are related to liveness are expressed in terms of behaviours, and are stronger than convenient and necessary. In this paper, we propose alternative conditions on the simulation relation, which are expressed in terms

  2. Forward | Malan | African Journal on Conflict Resolution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal on Conflict Resolution. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 16, No 2 (2016) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Forward. Jannie Malan. Abstract. No Abstract ...

  3. Associations of the stair climb power test with muscle strength and functional performance in people with COPD: A cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roig, Marc; Eng, Janice J.; MacIntyre, Donna L.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Stair Climb Power Test (SCPT) is a functional test associated with leg muscle power in older people. OBJECTIVE: The purposes of this study were to compare the results of the SCPT in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and people who were healthy and to explore...... associations of the SCPT with muscle strength (force-generating capacity) and functional performance. DESIGN: The study was a cross-sectional investigation. METHODS: Twenty-one people with COPD and a predicted mean (SD) percentage of forced expiratory volume in 1 second of 47.2 (12.9) and 21 people who were...... healthy and matched for age, sex, and body mass were tested with the SCPT. Knee extensor and flexor muscle torque was assessed with an isokinetic dynamometer. Functional performance was assessed with the Timed "Up & Go" Test (TUG) and the Six-Minute Walk Test (6MWT). RESULTS: People with COPD showed lower...

  4. Effects of unilateral and bilateral experimental low back pain on trunk muscle activity during stair walking in healthy and recurrent low back pain patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Henrik; Hirata, Rogerio Pessoto; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    Aim To explore the trunk muscle activity in healthy and recurrent low back pain (R-LBP) patients with no present pain during stair ascent and descent before and after unilateral and bilateral experimental low back pain (LBP). Methods Twenty-five healthy controls and 25 pain-free R-LBP patients...... in m. rectus abdominis during all phases, with larger decrease during bilateral compared with unilateral pain (Ppain in the back muscles (P....04). Conclusions The impact of unilateral and bilateral experimental LBP on trunk muscle activity was different between healthy participants and R-LBP patients. Pain resulted in increased trunk muscle activity in healthy, while R-LBP patients decreased the back and increased the abdominal muscle activity. However...

  5. Comparative Evaluation of Core and Knee Extensor Mechanism Muscle Activation Patterns in a Stair Stepping Task in Healthy Controls and Patellofemoral Pain Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Motealleh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patellofemoral pain (PFP is a common affliction and complex clinical entity. Deficit in neuromotor control of the core may be a remote contributing factor to the development of PFPS. Comparative evaluation of core and extensor mechanism muscle activation patterns between healthy group and patients involved by patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS in a stair stepping task is the aim of this study. Methods: In this non-randomized interventional study fifteen males with PFPS and fifteen asymptomatic controls participated. Electromyographic (EMG activity of Vastusmedialisobliquus (VMO, Vastuslateralis (VL, Gluteus medius (GMED, Gluteus Maximus (GMAX, Internal oblique (IO and Erector spinae (ES were recorded and EMG onsets were assessed in both stepping up (SU and down (SD. The time of foot contact determined by a foot switch. Results: During SU: Onset times of all muscles except, VL and ES in the controls were significantly less than PFPS group (P<0.05. In PFPS group the temporal sequence of ES, VL and VMO were different from control groups. During SD: Onset times of all muscles except, GMAX and ES in the control group were significantly less than PFP group (P<0.05. The sequence of muscle activity in both healthy and PFP groups were the same. Conclusion: Our findings are in line with previous researches about the effects of core on function and control of lower extremity. Activation patterns of core and vasti muscles are different between control and PFPS group during stair stepping task. Designing exercises to correct inappropriate timing of core muscles may have a role in management of PFPS and it needs more future researches.

  6. Toward a clinical definition of early osteoarthritis: onset of patient-reported knee pain begins on stairs. Data from the osteoarthritis initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensor, Elizabeth M A; Dube, Bright; Kingsbury, Sarah R; Tennant, Alan; Conaghan, Philip G

    2015-01-01

    Early detection of osteoarthritis (OA) would increase the chances of effective intervention. We aimed to investigate which patient-reported activity is first associated with knee pain. We hypothesized that pain would occur first during activities requiring weight bearing and knee bending. Data were obtained from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI), a multicenter, longitudinal prospective observational cohort of people who have or are at high risk of OA. Participants completed the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC; Likert scale) annually for up to 7 years. Rasch analysis was used to rank the WOMAC pain questions (activities) in order of affirmation as the pain score increased from 0. For each total WOMAC score category (0-20) we selected 25 individuals at random based on their maximum score across all visits. Fit to the Rasch model was assessed in this subset; stability of question ranking over successive visits was confirmed in the full OAI. WOMAC data on 4,673 people were included, with 491 selected for subset analysis. The subset data showed good fit to the Rasch model (χ(2) = 43.31, P = 0.332). In the full OAI, the "using stairs" question was the first to score points as the total pain score increased from 0 (baseline logit score ± 95% confidence interval -4.74 ± 0.07), then "walking" (-2.94 ± 0.07), "standing" (-2.65 ± 0.07), "lying/sitting" (-2.00 ± 0.08), and finally "in bed" (-1.32 ± 0.09). This ordering was consistent over successive visits. Knee pain is most likely to first appear during weight-bearing activities involving bending of the knee, such as using stairs. First appearance of this symptom may identify a group suitable for early intervention strategies. © 2015 The Authors. Arthritis Care & Research is published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Rheumatology.

  7. Assessment of transmission in specific descending pathways in relation to gait and balance following spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthélemy, Dorothy; Willerslev-Olsen, Maria; Lundell, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Human bipedal gait requires supraspinal control and gait is consequently severely impaired in most persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). Little is known of the contribution of lesion of specific descending pathways to the clinical manifestations of gait deficits. Here, we assessed transmission...... in descending pathways using imaging and electrophysiological techniques and correlated them with clinical measures of impaired gait in persons with SCI. Twenty-five persons with SCI participated in the study. Functional assessment of gait included the Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury (WISCI), the Timed...... correlation to the assessments of gait function (r(2)~0.4). 6MWT and gait speed were correlated to atrophy of the lateral sections of the spinal cord bilaterally, whereas BBS was correlated to atrophy of both lateral and ventral sections of the spinal cord. No significant correlation was observed between...

  8. Primary Mucinous Cystadenoma Arising from Behind the Posterior Peritoneum of the Descending Colon in a Child: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Tamura

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available This is the first report of a primary mucinous cystadenoma (MCA arising from behind the posterior peritoneum of the descending colon in a paediatric patient. A large intra-abdominal cystic lesion was found incidentally during renal ultrasonography in a 14-year-old girl. Imaging studies showed a 13 × 9 × 15 cm homogeneous cystic lesion with mild contrast enhancement of the wall. The cyst appeared to originate from the retroperitoneum, but was separated from the left kidney, ovary, and pancreas. At laparotomy, there was a cyst behind the posterior peritoneum of the descending colon. The cyst was successfully excised, and histopathology showed MCA. Although primary MCA in the retroperitoneum is extremely rare in children, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of an intra-abdominal cyst, since it needs to be excised to eliminate the risk of infection, recurrence, and malignancy.

  9. Frozen elephant trunk repair for descending thoracic aortic dissection in a man with a hostile left pleural cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, William D T; Manjunath, Adarsh; Malaisrie, S Chris

    2014-06-01

    The frozen elephant trunk procedure is a hybrid, single-staged alternative to conventional surgery for repairing diffuse pathologic conditions of the thoracic aorta. This approach is particularly advantageous in patients who have pathologic conditions of the left side of the chest, because the descending thoracic aorta can be repaired without entering a hostile pleural cavity. We present the case of a 67-year-old man who had undergone repair of acute type A aortic dissection. He presented with aneurysmal dilation of the descending thoracic aorta secondary to chronic dissection, a large acute dissection of the proximal ascending aorta, and a large paraesophageal hernia that made him a poor candidate for conventional, 2-staged open aortic repair. We describe the hybrid frozen elephant trunk technique that we used to repair the aorta, and its broader advantages.

  10. Acute Type II Aortic Dissection with Severe Aortic Regurgitation and Chronic Descending Aortic Dissection in Pregnant Patient with Marfan Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Seok-Soo; Jung, Tae-Eun; Lee, Dong Hyup

    2012-01-01

    Aortic dilatation and dissection are severe complications during pregnancy that can be fatal to both the mother and the fetus. The risks of these complications are especially high in pregnant patients with Marfan syndrome; however, incidents of descending aortic dissection are very rare. This case report involves a successful Bentall procedure for and recovery from a rare aortic dissection in a pregnant Marfan patient who developed acute type II aortic dissection with severe aortic regurgitat...

  11. Avsenik in Buenos Aires: Transnational identification processes through polka performances among the descendants of Slovenian political exiles in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Molek, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the transnational music practices and political reinforcement of national identities. It presents preliminary results of a research in progress about transnational cultural practices among the younger generations of Slovenian political exiles’ descendants in Argentina. It will explore the case of Baires Polka, a Slovenian Alpine Style music band that mainly performs cover versions of the Slovenian Avsenik Ensemble, as the basis for the analysis of the ways in which descen...

  12. Subjective perceptions associated with the ascending and descending slopes of breath alcohol exposure vary with recent drinking history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherill, Leah; Morzorati, Sandra L; Foroud, Tatiana; Windisch, Kyle; Darlington, Todd; Zimmerman, Ulrich S; Plawecki, Martin H; O'Connor, Sean J

    2012-06-01

    The differentiator model predicts that individuals with a positive family history of alcoholism (FHA) or heavy alcohol consumers will feel more sensitive to the effects of alcohol on the ascending phase of the blood alcohol content while feeling less sedated on the descending phase. This study tested whether subjective perceptions are sensitive to the slope of breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) and whether that sensitivity is associated with an FHA and/or recent drinking history (RDH). Family-history-positive (FHP, n = 27) and family-history-negative (FHN, n = 27) young adult nondependent drinkers were infused intravenously with alcohol in 2 sessions separated by 1 week. After 20 minutes, one session had an ascending BrAC (+3.0 mg%/min), while the other session had a descending BrAC (-1 mg%/min). The BrAC for both sessions at this point was approximately 60 mg%, referred to as the crossover point. Subjective perceptions of intoxication, high, stimulated, and sedation were sampled frequently and then interpolated to the crossover point. Within-subject differences between ascending and descending responses were examined for associations with FHA and/or RDH. Recent moderate drinkers reported increased perceptions of feeling intoxicated (p Subjective perceptions in young adult social drinkers depend on the slope of the BrAC when examined in association with RDH. These results support the differentiator model hypothesis concerning the ascending slope and suggest that moderate alcohol consumers could be at risk for increased alcohol consumption because they feel more intoxicated and high on the ascending slope. Subjects did not feel less sedated on the descending slope, contrary to the differentiator model but replicating several previous studies. Copyright © 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  13. Descendant root volume varies as a function of root type: estimation of root biomass lost during uprooting in Pinus pinaster

    OpenAIRE

    Danjon, Frédéric; Caplan, Joshua S.; Fortin, Mathieu; Meredieu, Céline

    2013-01-01

    Root systems of woody plants generally display a strong relationship between the cross-sectional area or cross-sectional diameter (CSD) of a root and the dry weight of biomass (DWd) or root volume (Vd) that has grown (i.e., is descendent) from a point. Specification of this relationship allows one to quantify root architectural patterns and estimate the amount of material lost when root systems are extracted from the soil. However, specifications of this relationship generally do not account ...

  14. Uses of medicinal plants by Haitian immigrants and their descendants in the Province of Camagüey, Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpato, Gabriele; Godínez, Daimy; Beyra, Angela; Barreto, Adelaida

    2009-01-01

    Background Haitian migrants played an important role shaping Cuban culture and traditional ethnobotanical knowledge. An ethnobotanical investigation was conducted to collect information on medicinal plant use by Haitian immigrants and their descendants in the Province of Camagüey, Cuba. Methods Information was obtained from semi-structured interviews with Haitian immigrants and their descendants, direct observations, and by reviewing reports of traditional Haitian medicine in the literature. Results Informants reported using 123 plant species belonging to 112 genera in 63 families. Haitian immigrants and their descendants mainly decoct or infuse aerial parts and ingest them, but medicinal baths are also relevant. Some 22 herbal mixtures are reported, including formulas for a preparation obtained using the fruit of Crescentia cujete. Cultural aspects related to traditional plant posology are addressed, as well as changes and adaptation of Haitian medicinal knowledge with emigration and integration over time. Conclusion The rapid disappearance of Haitian migrants' traditional culture due to integration and urbanization suggests that unrecorded ethnomedicinal information may be lost forever. Given this, as well as the poor availability of ethnobotanical data relating to traditional Haitian medicine, there is an urgent need to record this knowledge. PMID:19450279

  15. Activity in descending dopaminergic neurons represents but is not required for leg movements in the fruit fly Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschida, Katherine; Bhandawat, Vikas

    2015-01-01

    Modulatory descending neurons (DNs) that link the brain to body motor circuits, including dopaminergic DNs (DA-DNs), are thought to contribute to the flexible control of behavior. Dopamine elicits locomotor-like outputs and influences neuronal excitability in isolated body motor circuits over tens of seconds to minutes, but it remains unknown how and over what time scale DA-DN activity relates to movement in behaving animals. To address this question, we identified DA-DNs in the Drosophila brain and developed an electrophysiological preparation to record and manipulate the activity of these cells during behavior. We find that DA-DN spike rates are rapidly modulated during a subset of leg movements and scale with the total speed of ongoing leg movements, whether occurring spontaneously or in response to stimuli. However, activating DA-DNs does not elicit leg movements in intact flies, nor do acute bidirectional manipulations of DA-DN activity affect the probability or speed of leg movements over a time scale of seconds to minutes. Our findings indicate that in the context of intact descending control, changes in DA-DN activity are not sufficient to influence ongoing leg movements and open the door to studies investigating how these cells interact with other descending and local neuromodulatory inputs to influence body motor output. PMID:25742959

  16. Spastic diparetic does not directly affect the capacity to ascend and descend access ramps: three-dimensional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tainá Ribas Mélo

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Diplegic children have difficulties in gait and therefore ramps are used as strategies of accessibility. Objective: The present study investigated the influence of an inclined surface (ascending and descending on the kinematic characteristics during gait of the diplegic group (DG when compared to typically developing children of the control group (CG. Methods: Study participants included 20 children (10 with DG and 10 CG matched by age, which were evaluated in three experimental conditions (horizontal and inclined ascending and inclined descending surfaces of 7º through an optoelectronic imaging system. Results: Among the linear kinematic variables, only step width differed among groups, however, without influence of the surface. The foot height differed among the groups only in the descending phase, where DG had greater difficulty in raising the foot. The 3-dimensional gait analyses could not provide more evidences of differences in kinematics variables, especially in transverse plane, between DG and CG, but provide some evidence to support that hip range of motion (ROM during the gait cycle, hip flexion-extension in initial contact, knee ROM and the 2nd anterior-posterior trunk peak amplitude of the DG were influenced on descent by their flexor pattern. Conclusion: The DG was most affected by the inclination plane than CG especially on descent. Although a hip and knee flexor pattern is evident for DG on inclination of 7º, this angle is accessible since it allows independent gait functional activity.

  17. Hereditary position of kins in the first descending line of kinship, of the spouses and cohabitation partner: Comparative legal analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidić Jelena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses hereditary position of descendants, a surviving spouse and cohabitation partner, as heirs of the first class in intestate succession, in the law of Serbia and other modern laws of Europe. Through comparative legal analysis we point out both the similarities and differences, as well as the tendencies, that can be discerned in laws of Europe, regarding the manner in which the relationship between kinship, in the lineal descending line on one side and marriage, that is concubinage, on the other side, as legally relevant facts in creating the rules of intestacy, is established. In this way we aim to answer the question, to what extent is the relationship between the kinship in the lineal descending line and marriage in the law of Serbia synchronized with legal standards present in legal systems of the most European countries; and whether there is possibly a need for certain inheritance law reforms in the law of Serbia. Besides that, taking into account the fact that Serbian law belongs to the circle of legislations which give no merit to the fact of cohabitation when it comes to intestacy, this paper considers the justification of the need to legally regulate the inheritance of cohabitation partners in our law.

  18. Emergency treatment of acute rupture of the descending thoracic aorta using endovascular stent-grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amabile, Philippe; Rollet, Gilles; Vidal, Vincent; Collart, Frédéric; Bartoli, Jean-Michel; Piquet, Philippe

    2006-11-01

    Open surgical management of acute rupture of the descending thoracic aorta (DTA) is associated with high mortality and morbidity. Endovascular stent-grafts (ESGs) could provide a less invasive treatment alternative to conventional open surgery. The purpose of this report detailing our experience using ESG for treatment of acute rupture of the DTA is to determine the indications for endovascular repair. From June 2000 to April 2005, 17 patients presenting rupture of the DTA were treated using commercially available ESGs at our institution. There were two women and 15 men, with a mean age of 41.9 +/- 20.5 years. The cause of aortic rupture was traumatic in 13 cases and nontraumatic in four. Treatment was undertaken immediately in 10 cases and delayed in seven (range 5-68 days, mean 23.5). In one patient, the proximal neck landing zone was prepared prior to endovascular repair. No patients died during the postoperative period. The technical success rate was 84%. One patient developed a proximal type 1 endoleak at the end of the procedure. Three complications, i.e., two iliac dissections and one femoral artery rupture, occurred during the procedure. No paraplegia was observed. Mean follow-up was 13.3 months (range 1-41). One patient treated for traumatic rupture was lost from follow-up 21 months after initial treatment. No procedure-related complication was observed in this traumatic rupture group. Control computed tomographic scan at 13 months following the procedure demonstrated no evidence of periprosthetic leak or false aneurysm. In the nontraumatic rupture group, two patients died of aortic rupture and one treated for aortobronchial fistula developed recurrent hemoptysis 23 months after initial treatment and required placement of two additional ESGs. The immediate outcome of covered stent-graft placement for management of acute aortic rupture of the DTA is good. However, long-term surveillance is mandatory, especially in patients treated for nontraumatic aortic

  19. The development of descending projections from the brainstem to the spinal cord in the fetal sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooke Ian RC

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the fetal sheep is a favoured model for studying the ontogeny of physiological control systems, there are no descriptions of the timing of arrival of the projections of supraspinal origin that regulate somatic and visceral function. In the early development of birds and mammals, spontaneous motor activity is generated within spinal circuits, but as development proceeds, a distinct change occurs in spontaneous motor patterns that is dependent on the presence of intact, descending inputs to the spinal cord. In the fetal sheep, this change occurs at approximately 65 days gestation (G65, so we therefore hypothesised that spinally-projecting axons from the neurons responsible for transforming fetal behaviour must arrive at the spinal cord level shortly before G65. Accordingly we aimed to identify the brainstem neurons that send projections to the spinal cord in the mature sheep fetus at G140 (term = G147 with retrograde tracing, and thus to establish whether any projections from the brainstem were absent from the spinal cord at G55, an age prior to the marked change in fetal motor activity has occurred. Results At G140, CTB labelled cells were found within and around nuclei in the reticular formation of the medulla and pons, within the vestibular nucleus, raphe complex, red nucleus, and the nucleus of the solitary tract. This pattern of labelling is similar to that previously reported in other species. The distribution of CTB labelled neurons in the G55 fetus was similar to that of the G140 fetus. Conclusion The brainstem nuclei that contain neurons which project axons to the spinal cord in the fetal sheep are the same as in other mammalian species. All projections present in the mature fetus at G140 have already arrived at the spinal cord by approximately one third of the way through gestation. The demonstration that the neurons responsible for transforming fetal behaviour in early ontogeny have already reached the

  20. Results of the Valiant Mona LSA early feasibility study for descending thoracic aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roselli, Eric E; Arko, Frank R; Thompson, Matthew M

    2015-12-01

    Stent graft coverage of the left subclavian artery (LSA) may be required to achieve an adequate landing zone in up to 40% of descending thoracic aneurysms (DTAs). The Valiant Mona LSA Thoracic Stent Graft System (Medtronic, Santa Rosa, Calif) consists of a main stent graft and a branch stent graft designed to maintain LSA patency while diverting circulation through the encroaching aneurysm. Participating in the United States Food and Drug Administration's new Innovation Pathway, this first-in-human, early feasibility study evaluates early clinical experience of the Valiant Mona LSA Stent Graft System in patients with DTAs where the proximal landing zone necessitates LSA coverage. This premarket, nonrandomized, single-arm prospective study recruited nine patients (age 72.9 ± 7.6 years). Primary end points were aneurysm-related mortality, stroke, paraplegia, left arm/hand ischemia, and treatment success. Neurologic events were assessed by imaging and by independent neurologists. Inclusion criteria required patients with a DTA or penetrating aortic ulcer to have a distance of ≥10 mm between the left common carotid artery and the LSA. Mean aneurysm diameter was 53.7 ± 10.0 mm. The indication for repair was for saccular DTA in five patients or fusiform DTA in four. Seven patients were at American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status Classification III/IV. All nine patients received one main stent graft (diameter 28 to 42 mm) and one branch stent graft (diameter 10 to 14 mm). To extend device coverage distally, a commercial Valiant Captivia device was implanted in seven patients. No uncorrected endoleaks were observed at the end of the implant procedure. Four endoleaks developed before discharge in four of eight evaluable patients. Two were identified as type II and two were of undetermined type. No endoleak resulted in a secondary intervention. Technical success, defined by the clinical investigational plan, was achieved in all nine patients intraoperatively

  1. An attempt to detect reflected waves from the lower boundary of a descending slab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiyoshi, Takahiro; Yoshioka, Shoichi

    1997-12-01

    We attempted to detect reflected waves from deep-focus earthquakes at the lower boundary of a descending slab. For this purpose, we calculated theoretical waveforms in the realistic heterogeneous velocity and Q structures beneath the Japanese islands, and compared them with seismic waveforms observed in the Kanto-Tokai districts of central Japan. Assuming that earthquakes occur within the deeper portion of the slab, we investigated the effects of variation in focal mechanisms, focal depths, velocity contrasts near the lower plate boundary, and the Q structures on theoretical seismograms on the earth's surface. The results show that the amplitudes of the P to P and S to S reflected waves gradually increase toward the subduction zone, and take maximum values near the trench axis. However, travel time difference between the direct wave and the following reflected wave decreases there, making it difficult to detect the reflected wave. Based on these theoretical calculations, we investigated digital three-component seismograms observed in the Kanto-Tokai districts by the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention, Science and Technology Agency (NIED). The seismograms observed were obtained from deep-focus earthquakes, from 1990 through 1996, with magnitude of 5.0 and greater. After carefully checking seismograms from 15 deep-focus events, we could not detect the reflected waves from the lower plate boundary systematically at expected arrival times from the theoretical calculation. This indicates that the reflected waves are either masked by coda waves followed by the direct P and S waves or below the noise level that is detectable by seismometers. There is also a possibility that the seismic velocity contrast between the slab and the underlying upper mantle may not be so sharp. However, the possibility to detect the S to S reflected waves increases if we check observed waveforms in the horizontal range between 200 to 300 km landward from

  2. Physiologic capacity of well-developed collaterals in patients with isolated left anterior descending artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakata, Kazuyuki; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Ono, Norihisa; Ohtani, Seiji; Mori, Noriko; Yokoyama, Shoichi; Hoshino, Tsuneo; Kaburagi, Tsuneo; Kurata, Chinori.

    1992-01-01

    To assess the physiologic significance of well-developed collaterals, 34 patients, with isolated left anterior descending artery disease (LAD) and without overt prior myocardial infarction, underwent cardiac catheterization and exercise thallium-201 emission computed tomography. The patients were divided into 3 groups: 11 patients with 90% stenosis of the proximal LAD and without collaterals (group 1), 11 with 99% stenosis of the proximal LAD, and without collaterals (group 2) and 12 with a total occlusion of the proximal LAD which was completely filled by well-developed collaterals (group 3). On left ventriculography, shortening fractions of the anterior wall were significantly reduced in group 2 as compared to groups 1 and 3 (group 1 vs group 2: p<0.01, group 2 vs group 3: p<0.05), which reflected the lower ejection fraction of group 2 (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively). The perfusion defects of the anterior wall on both the initial and the delayed images were severer in groups 2 and 3 than in group 1 (group 1 vs group 2 and group 1 vs group 3 on the initial image: p<0.01, for both, group 1 vs group 2 and group 1 vs group 3 on the delayed image: p<0.05, for both). However, recovery of the perfusion defects from the initial image to the delayed image was better in group 3 than in groups 1 and 2 (group 1 vs group 2 and group 1 vs group 3: p<0.05, for both). Therefore, coronary blood flow through well-developed collaterals was considered to be comparable to the flow through a diseased vessel with 90% stenosis at rest. During maximal exercise, blood flow through well-developed collaterals was considered to be comparable to the flow through a diseased vessel with 99% stenosis, although the blood flow through well-developed collaterals was considered to be better than that through 99% stenosis during the recovery period. These findings suggest that patients with well-developed collaterals must be treated like those with severe stenosis. (author)

  3. WHOLESALER TO RETAILER GOODS FORWARDING CONTROLLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg NIKIFOROV

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The modern trends in the development of logistics controlling through the prism of collaboration between wholesale companies and retail chains have been considered. The nature and structure of cargo transportation by the wholesale company to the retail chain have been analysed. The key transportation processes have been identified and the reliance on transportation drivers-forwarders for their effectiveness has been determined. The study has resulted in the program-mathematical approach to the transportation controlling automation used by the wholesale company to deliver goods to the retail chain as well as the mathematical model of the system information flow. The practical recommendations for the mathematical software implementation using the AWS Forwarder software product as an example have been illustrated.

  4. Forward elastic scattering above the physical threshold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, R.F. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Matematica, Estatistica e Computacao Cientifica; Menon, M.J. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Gleb Wataghin

    2006-07-01

    Making use of the 'extended derivative dispersion relations', recently introduced by Avila and Menon, we analyze forward elastic proton-proton and antiproton-proton scattering at any energy above the physical threshold ({radical}s=2m{sub p} {approx} 1,88 GeV). The analysis is based on an analytical parametrization for the total cross section with leading triple pole pomeron (high energies) and full nondegenerated secondary reggeons (intermediate and low energies). Experimental data on total cross section and the ratio r between the real and imaginary parts of the forward amplitude are simultaneously fitted with the CERN-Minuit code and energy cutoff at 4 GeV. We show that, the results are exactly the same as those obtained through standard integral dispersion relations. Physical implications of the results in the pomeron-reggeon context are also discussed. (author)

  5. ATLAS Forward Detectors: present and future

    CERN Document Server

    Fabbri, Laura; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    In addition to the main central detectors, the ATLAS experiment has also four subdetectors situated in a forward region hundreds of meters far from the interaction point and dedicated to measure particles leaving under very small angles the ATLAS proton-proton impact point. Particularly, LUCID is dedicated to luminosity measurement while ALFA, ZDC and AFP are committed to forward physics studies. ALFA is devoted to the measurement of proton elastic scattering, ZDC is dedicated to detect proton and neutral particles travelling along the beam axis and AFP aims to measure momenta and angles of diffractively scattered protons. This presentation will give an overview on the detectors status, the results obtained during the RUN 2 period of data taking and the future plans for the next years.

  6. W87 JTA4 Forward Support Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LePlant, Steve

    2011-06-08

    The purpose of this project was to establish the capability to manufacture the forward supports to the original specifications with one of the original cable grooves widened for JTA4 use. The resin system used in the original version of the part was Keramid 601, which was no longer available since it was shown to be a carcinogen. Much of the existing processing knowledge had been lost, and several changes had been made to the requirements since the last production run. The main processing steps include molding, machining, and assembly. All three steps were addressed in this project. Operations that required development are detailed in the text of the paper. This report summarizes the major steps taken to re-establish the manufacturing capability for the forward supports as well as issues seen during the development of these processes.

  7. Multicriteria Optimisation in Logistics Forwarder Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Poletan Jugović

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Logistics forwarder, as organizer and planner of coordinationand integration of all the transport and logistics chains elements,uses adequate ways and methods in the process of planningand decision-making. One of these methods, analysed inthis paper, which could be used in optimisation of transportand logistics processes and activities of logistics forwarder, isthe multicriteria optimisation method. Using that method, inthis paper is suggested model of multicriteria optimisation of logisticsforwarder activities. The suggested model of optimisationis justified in keeping with method principles of multicriteriaoptimization, which is included in operation researchmethods and it represents the process of multicriteria optimizationof variants. Among many different processes of multicriteriaoptimization, PROMETHEE (Preference Ranking OrganizationMethod for Enrichment Evaluations and Promcalc& Gaia V. 3.2., computer program of multicriteria programming,which is based on the mentioned process, were used.

  8. Multiple Openings and Competitiveness of Forward Markets: Experimental Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, José Luis; Kujal, Praveen; Rassenti, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    We test the competition enhancing effect of selling forward in experimental Cournot duopoly and quadropoly with multiple forward markets. We find that two forward periods yields competitive outcomes and that the results are very close to the predicted theoretical results for quantity setting duopolies and quadropolies. Our experiments lend strong support to the hypothesis that forward markets are competition enhancing. We then test a new market that allows for endogenously determined indefinitely many forward periods that only close when sellers coordinate on selling a zero amount in a forward market. We find that the outcomes under an endogenous close rule are also very competitive. These results hold for both duopolies and quadropolies.

  9. Diabetic patients with and without peripheral neuropathy reveal different hip and ankle biomechanical strategies during stair descent Pacientes diabéticos com e sem a neuropatia periférica mostram diferentes estratégias biomecânicas de quadril e tornozelo ao descer escada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja P. Picon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The progression of diabetes and the challenge of daily tasks may result in changes in biomechanical strategies. Descending stairs is a common task that patients have to deal with, however it still has not been properly studied in this population. OBJECTIVES: We describe and compare the net joint moments and kinematics of the lower limbs in diabetic individuals with and without peripheral neuropathy and healthy controls during stair descent. METHOD: Forty-two adults were assessed: control group (13, diabetic group (14, and neuropathic diabetic group (15. The flexor and extensor net moment peaks and joint angles of the hip, knee, and ankle were described and compared in terms of effect size and ANOVAs (pCONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: A progressão do Diabetes Mellito e as atividades desafiadoras do dia a dia podem resultar em mudanças da estratégia biomecânica adotada. Descer escadas é uma tarefa comum do dia a dia, vivenciada pelos pacientes, mas ainda não foi satisfatoriamente estudada nessa população. OBJECTIVOS: Descrever e comparar os momentos articulares e a cinemática de membros inferiores em indivíduos diabéticos com e sem a neuropatia periférica e controles saudáveis durante o descer escadas. MÉTODO: Quarenta e dois adultos foram avaliados: grupo controle (13, grupo diabético (15 e grupo de diabéticos neuropatas (14. Os picos flexores e extensores dos momentos articulares e os ângulos articulares de quadril, joelho e tornozelo foram comparados e descritos por análise do tamanho do efeito e ANOVAs (p<0,05. RESULTADOS: Na fase de aceitação do peso, ambos os grupos diabéticos apresentaram maior ângulo de dorsiflexão de tornozelo [tamanho de efeito grande] e menor momento extensor de quadril [tamanho de efeito grande]. Na fase de propulsão, diabéticos com e sem a neuropatia apresentaram maior momento flexor de quadril [tamanho de efeito grande] e menor ângulo de extensão de tornozelo [tamanho de efeito grande

  10. Diabetic patients with and without peripheral neuropathy reveal different hip and ankle biomechanical strategies during stair descent Pacientes diabéticos com e sem a neuropatia periférica mostram diferentes estratégias biomecânicas de quadril e tornozelo ao descer escada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja P. Picon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The progression of diabetes and the challenge of daily tasks may result in changes in biomechanical strategies. Descending stairs is a common task that patients have to deal with, however it still has not been properly studied in this population. OBJECTIVES: We describe and compare the net joint moments and kinematics of the lower limbs in diabetic individuals with and without peripheral neuropathy and healthy controls during stair descent. METHOD: Forty-two adults were assessed: control group (13, diabetic group (14, and neuropathic diabetic group (15. The flexor and extensor net moment peaks and joint angles of the hip, knee, and ankle were described and compared in terms of effect size and ANOVAs (pCONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: A progressão do Diabetes Mellito e as atividades desafiadoras do dia a dia podem resultar em mudanças da estratégia biomecânica adotada. Descer escadas é uma tarefa comum do dia a dia, vivenciada pelos pacientes, mas ainda não foi satisfatoriamente estudada nessa população. OBJECTIVOS: Descrever e comparar os momentos articulares e a cinemática de membros inferiores em indivíduos diabéticos com e sem a neuropatia periférica e controles saudáveis durante o descer escadas. MÉTODO: Quarenta e dois adultos foram avaliados: grupo controle (13, grupo diabético (15 e grupo de diabéticos neuropatas (14. Os picos flexores e extensores dos momentos articulares e os ângulos articulares de quadril, joelho e tornozelo foram comparados e descritos por análise do tamanho do efeito e ANOVAs (p<0,05. RESULTADOS: Na fase de aceitação do peso, ambos os grupos diabéticos apresentaram maior ângulo de dorsiflexão de tornozelo [tamanho de efeito grande] e menor momento extensor de quadril [tamanho de efeito grande]. Na fase de propulsão, diabéticos com e sem a neuropatia apresentaram maior momento flexor de quadril [tamanho de efeito grande] e menor ângulo de extensão de tornozelo [tamanho de efeito grande

  11. Neutron forward diffraction by single crystal prisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, Sohrab; Wagh, Apoorva G.; Strobl, Markus; Treimer, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    We have derived analytic expressions for the deflection as well as transmitted fraction of monochromatic neutrons forward diffracted by a single crystal prism. In the vicinity of a Bragg reflection, the neutron deflection deviates sharply from that for an amorphous prism, exhibiting three orders of magnitude greater sensitivity to the incidence angle. We have measured the variation of neutron deflection and transmission across a Bragg reflection, for several single crystal prisms. The results agree well with theory. (author)

  12. Physics with tagged forward protons at RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yip,K.

    2009-08-30

    The physics reach of the STAR detector at RHIC has been extended to include elastic and inelastic diffraction measurements with tagged forward protons. This program has started at RHIC in p+p collisions with a special optics run of {beta}* {approx} 21 m at STAR, at the center-of-mass energy {radical}s = 200 GeV during the last week of the RHIC 2009 run.

  13. Optional forward contracts for electric power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gedra, T.W.

    1994-01-01

    This paper extends the idea of callable forward contracts, which are potentially useful as demand-side (interruptible-load) contracts, to their supply-side analogues. Together, these contracts allow market participants to take advantage of flexibility in generation or consumption to obtain a monetary benefit, while simultaneously removing the risk of market price fluctuations. This paper also considers the effects of strategic behavior on the part of market participants in their contract sales/purchase decisions

  14. The CMS forward calorimeter with quartz fibres

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1999-01-01

    Part of the forward hadron calorimeter for the CMS experiment at the LHC is seen here. The calorimeter will be placed at the ends of the experiment barrel to measure the energy of particles produced in the 14 TeV proton-proton collisions. In consists of an iron absorber and specially designed radiation-hard quartz so that it survives the high radiation levels produced by collisions.

  15. Harmonization of Market Conditions in Provision of Freight Forwarding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliak Miloš

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the issue of different market access for the transport procurement in the EU in context of open market of providing forwarding services. It highlights different requirements of market access in freight forwarding. The article proposes conditions of market access unification in freight forwarding based on analysis of the existing situation. It also refers to the different responsibility of freight forwarder depending on membership in the national associations of freight forwarders. The contribution analyses the limitation of liability in freight forwarding and shows differences in contract of freight forwarding for particular shipments by model examples. There is also pointed to the need for the development of uniform freight forwarding conditions in the EU.

  16. CAMEX-4 DC-8 FORWARD AND NADIR VIDEO V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The CAMEX-4 DC-8 Forward and NADIR Video dataset consists of DVDs which capture the forward and nadir views from the NASA DC-8 aircraft during CAMEX-4 flights. These...

  17. 48 CFR 47.404 - Air freight forwarders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air freight forwarders. 47.404 Section 47.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Air Transportation by U.S.-Flag Carriers 47.404 Air freight forwarders. (a) Agencies may use air freight forwarders that are...

  18. 47 CFR 51.505 - Forward-looking economic cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Forward-looking economic cost. 51.505 Section... (CONTINUED) INTERCONNECTION Pricing of Elements § 51.505 Forward-looking economic cost. (a) In general. The forward-looking economic cost of an element equals the sum of: (1) The total element long-run incremental...

  19. Electroacupuncture Inhibits the Activation of p38MAPK in the Central Descending Facilitatory Pathway in Rats with Inflammatory Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man-Li Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs, especially p38MAPK, play a pivotal role in chronic pain. Electroacupuncture (EA relieves inflammatory pain underlying the descending pathway, that is, the periaqueductal gray (PAG, the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM, and the spinal cord dorsal horn (SCDH. However, whether EA antagonizes inflammatory pain through regulation of p38MAPK in this descending facilitatory pathway is unclear. Complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA was injected into the hind paw of rats to establish inflammatory pain model. EA was administrated for 30 min at Zusanli and Kunlun acupoints at 0.5, 24.5, 48.5, and 72.5 h, respectively. The paw withdrawal threshold (PWT, paw edema, and Phosphor-p38MAPK-Immunoreactivity (p-p38MAPK-IR cells were measured before (0 h and at 1, 3, 5, 7, 25, and 73 h after CFA or saline injection. EA increased PWT at 1, 3, 25, and 73 h and inhibited paw edema at 25 and 73 h after CFA injection. Moreover, the increasing number of p-p38MAPK-IR cells which was induced by CFA was suppressed by EA stimulation in PAG and RVM at 3 and 5 h and in SCDH at 5, 7, 25, and 73 h. These results suggest that EA suppresses inflammation-induced hyperalgesia probably through inhibiting p38MAPK activation in the descending facilitatory pathway.

  20. Rapid genome-wide evolution in Brassica rapa populations following drought revealed by sequencing of ancestral and descendant gene pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Steven J; Kane, Nolan C; O'Hara, Niamh B; Tittes, Silas; Rest, Joshua S

    2016-08-01

    There is increasing evidence that evolution can occur rapidly in response to selection. Recent advances in sequencing suggest the possibility of documenting genetic changes as they occur in populations, thus uncovering the genetic basis of evolution, particularly if samples are available from both before and after selection. Here, we had a unique opportunity to directly assess genetic changes in natural populations following an evolutionary response to a fluctuation in climate. We analysed genome-wide differences between ancestors and descendants of natural populations of Brassica rapa plants from two locations that rapidly evolved changes in multiple phenotypic traits, including flowering time, following a multiyear late-season drought in California. These ancestor-descendant comparisons revealed evolutionary shifts in allele frequencies in many genes. Some genes showing evolutionary shifts have functions related to drought stress and flowering time, consistent with an adaptive response to selection. Loci differentiated between ancestors and descendants (FST outliers) were generally different from those showing signatures of selection based on site frequency spectrum analysis (Tajima's D), indicating that the loci that evolved in response to the recent drought and those under historical selection were generally distinct. Very few genes showed similar evolutionary responses between two geographically distinct populations, suggesting independent genetic trajectories of evolution yielding parallel phenotypic changes. The results show that selection can result in rapid genome-wide evolutionary shifts in allele frequencies in natural populations, and highlight the usefulness of combining resurrection experiments in natural populations with genomics for studying the genetic basis of adaptive evolution. © 2016 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Laser induced forward transfer of soft materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palla-Papavlu, A; Dinca, V; Luculescu, C; Dinescu, M; Shaw-Stewart, J; Lippert, T; Nagel, M

    2010-01-01

    A strong research effort is presently aimed at patterning methodologies for obtaining controlled defined micrometric polymeric structures for a wide range of applications, including electronics, optoelectronics, sensors, medicine etc. Lasers have been identified as appropriate tools for processing of different materials, such as ceramics and metals, but also for soft, easily damageable materials (biological compounds and polymers). In this work we study the dynamics of laser induced forward transfer (LIFT) with a gap between the donor and the receiver substrates, which is the basis for possible applications that require multilayer depositions with high spatial resolution

  2. Multi-annual forward estimate - gas 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    GRDF, GRTgaz, SPEGNN and TIGF gas transport and distribution operators have the responsibility to publish a reference document about the multi-annual forward estimate of gas consumption evolution and renewable gas production. This document is the first joint forecast report published by the 4 French gas operators. It presents, first, the situation, hypotheses, analysis and perspectives of the 4 main sectoral gas markets (residential, tertiary, industrial, mobility), then, the centralized power generation and cogeneration, next, the production of renewable gas (different sectors, hypotheses, analysis and perspectives), and finally, a multi-sectorial vision according to 3 different scenarios

  3. Test of the ZEUS forward calorimeter prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, U.; Dierks, K.; Holm, U.; Koell, O.; Krueger, J.; Tsurugai, T.; Vogel, W.; Wick, K.; Youngman, C.; Crittenden, J.; Kraemer, M.; Drews, G.; Klanner, R.; Koetz, U.; Lueke, D.; Rohde, M.; Ros, E.; Selonke, F.; Engelen, J.; Kooijman, P.; Straver, J.; Tiecke, H.; Hamatsu, R.; Hanna, D.; Neelin, P.; Garcia, M.A.; Troconiz, J.F.; Hasegawa, T.; Levman, G.; Martin, J.; Stairs, G.; Smith, G.

    1990-01-01

    Four prototype modules following the same design as the ZEUS forward calorimeter (FCAL) modules have been constructed and tested with electrons, hadrons and muons in the momentum range of 1 to 100 GeV/c. The main topics under investigation were: calibration, uniformity of response, noise, light yield, energy resolution and the electron to hadron response (e/h ratio). The result of the measurements is presented and the expected performance of the FCAL is discussed in the light of these results. (orig.)

  4. The forward tracking, an optical model method

    CERN Document Server

    Benayoun, M

    2002-01-01

    This Note describes the so-called Forward Tracking, and the underlying optical model, developed in the context of LHCb-Light studies. Starting from Velo tracks, cheated or found by real pattern recognition, the tracks are found in the ST1-3 chambers after the magnet. The main ingredient to the method is a parameterisation of the track in the ST1-3 region, based on the Velo track parameters and an X seed in one ST station. Performance with the LHCb-Minus and LHCb-Light setups is given.

  5. Deuteron forward photodisintegration: meson currents and relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friar, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    The few-nucleon problem in nuclear physics and the few-electron problem in atomic physics are shown to possess similarities. Relativistic aspects of the latter are reviewed. The radiative decay of the 3 P 1 excited state of helium-like ions to the 1 S 0 ground state is shown to be a theoretical analogue of low-energy deuteron forward photodisintegration. Both have large relativistic components. The extended Siegert's theorem, which permits application of Siegert's technique to arbitrary photon wave lengths, is applied to both transitions. Physical arguments for the two processes are stressed, and the relevance of interaction currents is discussed. 28 references

  6. Physics with the CMS forward CASTOR calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Katkov, Igor

    2011-01-01

    The design of the calorimeter is determined by space constraints inside a shield for radiation and for magnetic field and restricted to materials which tolerate a high radiation level. The calorimeter surrounds the beam pipe as a very compact sampling structure of tungsten and quartz plates with a depth of 10 hadronic interaction lengths. The granularity of 16 transversal segments and 14 longitudinal sections allows to reconstruct shower profiles, to separate electron sand photons from hadrons and to search for phenomena with anomalous hadronic energy depositions as expected from exotica. Performance as measured in test beams, first operation experience and first measurements in the very forward region of CMS will be presented.

  7. The H1 forward muon spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenyon, I.R.; Phillips, H.; Cronstroem, H.I.; Hedberg, V.; Jacobsson, C.; Joensson, L.; Lohmander, H.; Nyberg, M.; Biddulph, P.; Finnegan, P.; Foster, J.; Gilbert, S.; Hilton, C.; Ibbotson, M.; Mehta, A.; Sutton, P.; Stephens, K.; Thompson, R.

    1993-02-01

    The H1 detector started taking data at the electron- proton collider HERA in the beginning of 1992. In HERA 30 GeV electrons collide with 820 GeV protons giving a strong boost of the centre-of-mass system in the direction of the proton, also called the forward region. For the detection of high momentum muons in this region a muon spectrometer has been constructed, consisting of six drift chamber planes, three either side of a toroidal magnet. A first brief description of the system and its main parameters as well as the principles for track reconstruction and Τ 0 determination is given. (orig.)

  8. The Fast Forward MBA in Project Management

    CERN Document Server

    Verzuh, Eric

    2011-01-01

    An updated and revised edition of the bestselling guide to managing projects For any professional responsible for coordinating projects among different departments, across executive levels, or with technical complexity, The Fast Forward MBA in Project Management offers comprehensive instruction on how to deliver on time and on budget. Get the step-by-step advice you need to find the right sponsor, clarify objectives, and set realistic schedules and budget projections. This Fourth Edition of the 200,000-copy bestseller now covers critical new topics including: software and IT projects, agile te

  9. Optimization of the CMS forward shielding

    CERN Document Server

    Huhtinen, Mika

    2000-01-01

    A first realistic version of the CMS forward shielding was presented in the 1999 Engineering Design Review. It was discovered that the background increased by a factor of 2 with respect to the TDR where an idealized shielding had been assumed. This note describes the optimizations implemented in the realistic shielding with the aim to recover the TDR performance. An optimization of the shielding geometry, the beam pipe and a filling of major cracks has allowed to achieve the goal. Although the differences to the TDR are very minor, these new calculations should be understood as an update to those presented in the TDR.

  10. Multi-annual forward estimate - gas 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    GRDF, GRTgaz, SPEGNN and TIGF gas transport and distribution operators have the responsibility to publish a reference document about the multi-annual forward estimate of gas consumption evolution and renewable gas production. This document is the second joint forecast report published by the 4 French gas operators. It presents, first, the situation, hypotheses, analysis and perspectives of the 4 main sectoral gas markets (residential, tertiary, industrial, mobility), then, the centralized power generation and cogeneration, next, the production of renewable gas (different sectors, hypotheses, analysis and perspectives), and finally, a multi-sectorial vision according to 3 different scenarios

  11. Non-Anastomotic Rupture of a Woven Dacron Graft in the Descending Thoracic Aorta Treated with Endovascular Stent Grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngok Lee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The intrinsic structural failure of a Dacron graft resulting from the loss of structural integrity of the graft fabric can cause late graft complications. Late non-anastomotic rupture has traditionally been treated surgically via open thoracotomy. We report a case of the successful use of thoracic endovascular repair to treat a Dacron graft rupture in the descending aorta. The rupture occurred 20 years after the graft had been placed. Two stent grafts were placed at the proximal portion of the surgical graft, covering almost its entire length.

  12. Forward-viewing radial-array echoendoscope for staging of colon cancer beyond the rectum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongkam, Pradermchai; Linlawan, Sittikorn; Aniwan, Satimai; Lakananurak, Narisorn; Khemnark, Suparat; Sahakitrungruang, Chucheep; Pattanaarun, Jirawat; Khomvilai, Supakij; Wisedopas, Naruemon; Ridtitid, Wiriyaporn; Bhutani, Manoop S; Kullavanijaya, Pinit; Rerknimitr, Rungsun

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate feasibility of the novel forward-viewing radial-array echoendoscope for staging of colon cancer beyond rectum as the first series. METHODS: A retrospective study with prospectively entered database. From March 2012 to February 2013, a total of 21 patients (11 men) (mean age 64.2 years) with colon cancer beyond the rectum were recruited. The novel forward-viewing radial-array echoendoscope was used for ultrasonographic staging of colon cancer beyond rectum. Ultrasonographic T and N staging were recorded when surgical pathology was used as a gold standard. RESULTS: The mean time to reach the lesion and the mean time to complete the procedure were 3.5 and 7.1 min, respectively. The echoendoscope passed through the lesions in 13 patients (61.9%) and reached the cecum in 10 of 13 patients (76.9%). No adverse events were found. The lesions were located in the cecum (n = 2), ascending colon (n = 1), transverse colon (n = 2), descending colon (n = 2), and sigmoid colon (n = 14). The accuracy rate for T1 (n = 3), T2 (n = 4), T3 (n = 13) and T4 (n = 1) were 100%, 60.0%, 84.6% and 100%, respectively. The overall accuracy rates for the T and N staging of colon cancer were 81.0% and 52.4%, respectively. The accuracy rates among traversable lesions (n = 13) and obstructive lesions (n = 8) were 61.5% and 100%, respectively. Endoscopic ultrasound and computed tomography had overall accuracy rates of 81.0% and 68.4%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The echoendoscope is a feasible staging tool for colon cancer beyond rectum. However, accuracy of the echoendoscope needs to be verified by larger systematic studies. PMID:24627604

  13. Forward-viewing radial-array echoendoscope for staging of colon cancer beyond the rectum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongkam, Pradermchai; Linlawan, Sittikorn; Aniwan, Satimai; Lakananurak, Narisorn; Khemnark, Suparat; Sahakitrungruang, Chucheep; Pattanaarun, Jirawat; Khomvilai, Supakij; Wisedopas, Naruemon; Ridtitid, Wiriyaporn; Bhutani, Manoop S; Kullavanijaya, Pinit; Rerknimitr, Rungsun

    2014-03-14

    To evaluate feasibility of the novel forward-viewing radial-array echoendoscope for staging of colon cancer beyond rectum as the first series. A retrospective study with prospectively entered database. From March 2012 to February 2013, a total of 21 patients (11 men) (mean age 64.2 years) with colon cancer beyond the rectum were recruited. The novel forward-viewing radial-array echoendoscope was used for ultrasonographic staging of colon cancer beyond rectum. Ultrasonographic T and N staging were recorded when surgical pathology was used as a gold standard. The mean time to reach the lesion and the mean time to complete the procedure were 3.5 and 7.1 min, respectively. The echoendoscope passed through the lesions in 13 patients (61.9%) and reached the cecum in 10 of 13 patients (76.9%). No adverse events were found. The lesions were located in the cecum (n = 2), ascending colon (n = 1), transverse colon (n = 2), descending colon (n = 2), and sigmoid colon (n = 14). The accuracy rate for T1 (n = 3), T2 (n = 4), T3 (n = 13) and T4 (n = 1) were 100%, 60.0%, 84.6% and 100%, respectively. The overall accuracy rates for the T and N staging of colon cancer were 81.0% and 52.4%, respectively. The accuracy rates among traversable lesions (n = 13) and obstructive lesions (n = 8) were 61.5% and 100%, respectively. Endoscopic ultrasound and computed tomography had overall accuracy rates of 81.0% and 68.4%, respectively. The echoendoscope is a feasible staging tool for colon cancer beyond rectum. However, accuracy of the echoendoscope needs to be verified by larger systematic studies.

  14. Sentence alignment using feed forward neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattah, Mohamed Abdel; Ren, Fuji; Kuroiwa, Shingo

    2006-12-01

    Parallel corpora have become an essential resource for work in multi lingual natural language processing. However, sentence aligned parallel corpora are more efficient than non-aligned parallel corpora for cross language information retrieval and machine translation applications. In this paper, we present a new approach to align sentences in bilingual parallel corpora based on feed forward neural network classifier. A feature parameter vector is extracted from the text pair under consideration. This vector contains text features such as length, punctuate score, and cognate score values. A set of manually prepared training data has been assigned to train the feed forward neural network. Another set of data was used for testing. Using this new approach, we could achieve an error reduction of 60% over length based approach when applied on English-Arabic parallel documents. Moreover this new approach is valid for any language pair and it is quite flexible approach since the feature parameter vector may contain more/less or different features than that we used in our system such as lexical match feature.

  15. Forward scattering effects on muon imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, H.; Gibert, D.; Goy, C.; Jourde, K.; Karyotakis, Y.; Katsanevas, S.; Marteau, J.; Rosas-Carbajal, M.; Tonazzo, A.

    2017-12-01

    Muon imaging is one of the most promising non-invasive techniques for density structure scanning, specially for large objects reaching the kilometre scale. It has already interesting applications in different fields like geophysics or nuclear safety and has been proposed for some others like engineering or archaeology. One of the approaches of this technique is based on the well-known radiography principle, by reconstructing the incident direction of the detected muons after crossing the studied objects. In this case, muons detected after a previous forward scattering on the object surface represent an irreducible background noise, leading to a bias on the measurement and consequently on the reconstruction of the object mean density. Therefore, a prior characterization of this effect represents valuable information to conveniently correct the obtained results. Although the muon scattering process has been already theoretically described, a general study of this process has been carried out based on Monte Carlo simulations, resulting in a versatile tool to evaluate this effect for different object geometries and compositions. As an example, these simulations have been used to evaluate the impact of forward scattered muons on two different applications of muon imaging: archaeology and volcanology, revealing a significant impact on the latter case. The general way in which all the tools used have been developed can allow to make equivalent studies in the future for other muon imaging applications following the same procedure.

  16. Forward, backward, and weighted stochastic bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Peter D.

    2017-10-01

    We define stochastic bridges as conditional distributions of stochastic paths that leave a specified point in phase-space in the past and arrive at another one in the future. These can be defined relative to either forward or backward stochastic differential equations and with the inclusion of arbitrary path-dependent weights. The underlying stochastic equations are not the same except in linear cases. Accordingly, we generalize the theory of stochastic bridges to include time-reversed and weighted stochastic processes. We show that the resulting stochastic bridges are identical, whether derived from a forward or a backward time stochastic process. A numerical algorithm is obtained to sample these distributions. This technique, which uses partial stochastic equations, is robust and easily implemented. Examples are given, and comparisons are made to previous work. In stochastic equations without a gradient drift, our results confirm an earlier conjecture, while generalizing this to cases with path-dependent weights. An example of a two-dimensional stochastic equation with no potential solution is analyzed and numerically solved. We show how this method can treat unexpectedly large excursions occurring during a tunneling or escape event, in which a system escapes from one quasistable point to arrive at another one at a later time.

  17. Analysis of the interaction of participants freight forwarding system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlo Popovych

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Main goal of this work is the analysis of the interaction of participants of freight forwarding activities. Research methods included analysis of scientific literature, theory of systems and systems analysis, methods of induction and deduction. As sources of information used and applied work of fundamental importance known foreign and local scientists and regulatory and legislative documents of Ukraine for the state transport policy. In the article the basic interactions of participants of freight forwarding activities. Classified components freight forwarding services. Assign the concept freight forwarding system and its aim. Established element and forms of cooperation in the freight forwarding system. The main task of forwarding companies are organizing, coordinating and ensuring the delivery from shipper to consignee. Freight forwarding company responsible for the timely delivery of the goods on the condition of preservation of the quantity and quality specified time conditions. Currently used methods are uneffective decision-making, leading to losses. These circumstances require improvement methodology management of freight forwarding companies. This is possible only using modern mathematical methods and information technologies that will improve the operation of freight forwarding companies. The article presents a theoretical exposition of the basic processes of interaction between participants in freight forwarding system. The article may be of interest to specialists of freight forwarding companies.

  18. A moving fluoroscope to capture tibiofemoral kinematics during complete cycles of free level and downhill walking as well as stair descent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renate List

    Full Text Available Videofluoroscopy has been shown to provide essential information in the evaluation of the functionality of total knee arthroplasties. However, due to the limitation in the field of view, most systems can only assess knee kinematics during highly restricted movements. To avoid the limitations of a static image intensifier, a moving fluoroscope has been presented as a standalone system that allows tracking of the knee during multiple complete cycles of level- and downhill-walking, as well as stair descent, in combination with the synchronous assessment of ground reaction forces and whole body skin marker measurements. Here, we assess the ability of the system to keep the knee in the field of view of the image intensifier. By measuring ten total knee arthroplasty subjects, we demonstrate that it is possible to maintain the knee to within 1.8 ± 1.4 cm vertically and 4.0 ± 2.6 cm horizontally of the centre of the intensifier throughout full cycles of activities of daily living. Since control of the system is based on real-time feedback of a wire sensor, the system is not dependent on repeatable gait patterns, but is rather able to capture pathological motion patterns with low inter-trial repeatability.

  19. Mixed-source reintroductions lead to outbreeding depression in second-generation descendents of a native North American fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, D.D.; Miller, L.M.; Chizinski, C.J.; Vondracek, B.

    2011-01-01

    Reintroductions are commonly employed to preserve intraspecific biodiversity in fragmented landscapes. However, reintroduced populations are frequently smaller and more geographically isolated than native populations. Mixing genetically, divergent sources are often proposed to attenuate potentially low genetic diversity in reintroduced populations that may result from small effective population sizes. However, a possible negative tradeoff for mixing sources is outbreeding depression in hybrid offspring. We examined the consequences of mixed-source reintroductions on several fitness surrogates at nine slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus) reintroduction sites in south-east Minnesota. We inferred the relative fitness of each crosstype in the reintroduced populations by comparing their growth rate, length, weight, body condition and persistence in reintroduced populations. Pure strain descendents from a single source population persisted in a greater proportion than expected in the reintroduced populations, whereas all other crosstypes occurred in a lesser proportion. Length, weight and growth rate were lower for second-generation intra-population hybrid descendents than for pure strain and first-generation hybrids. In the predominant pure strain, young-of the-year size was significantly greater than any other crosstype. Our results suggested that differences in fitness surrogates among crosstypes were consistent with disrupted co-adapted gene complexes associated with beneficial adaptations in these reintroduced populations. Future reintroductions may be improved by evaluating the potential for local adaptation in source populations or by avoiding the use of mixed sources by default when information on local adaptations or other genetic characteristics is lacking. ?? 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Daytime descending intermediate layers observed over a sub-tropical Indian station Waltair during low-solar activity period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Niranjan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Study on daytime descending intermediate layer over subtropical Indian station Waltair (17.7° N, 83.3° E geographic, 6.4° N, 10° E geomagnetic, 20° N dip located in the equatorial anomaly transition region, using an IPS 42 Digital Ionosonde during the low solar activity year 2004 showed that the layers occur in the altitude range of 140–160 km with maximum occurrence during winter solstice. The layers observed during daytime occur with a double peak variation throughout the year with less occurrence probability and shorter duration presence during forenoon hours. The morning layer descent was associated with a density increase where as during afternoon hours a decrease in density was observed. The downward drift velocity was about 8 km/h during morning hours and between 7–11 km/h during afternoon hours, with a low descent rate of around 4.5 km/h during summer morning hours. The results indicate the presence of a 6 h tide at this location as observed from the characteristics of the descending layers, unlike at majority of locations where a significant semi diurnal trend is observed. The study brings out the complex nature of the tidal interaction at different locations.

  1. Free-flap cover of complex defects around the knee using the descending genicular artery as the recipient pedicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatramani, H; Sabapathy, S R; Nayak, S

    2014-01-01

    Selection of ideal recipient vessels is one of the most important factors determining success in free-flap reconstruction of the lower limb. At the knee, the choice of vessels has traditionally been either the common femoral or the popliteal vessels and their branches but these are often difficult to use or cannot be used. A series of 32 free flaps for cover of complex injuries of the knee involving the distal femur, the knee joint and the upper tibia were reconstructed using the descending genicular branch of the femoral artery in the adductor canal and its muscular branches to the vastus medialis as the recipient vessels. All but one flap survived with no major complications. The use of the descending genicular artery as the recipient vessel for reconstruction with free flaps around the knee has various advantages including: (i) it is mostly remote from the zone of trauma, (ii) it is constant in location, (iii) the recipient vessels are an excellent size match for end-to-end anastomosis, (iv) there is no need for changes of position of the patient when using most free flaps commonly used for knee reconstruction, (v) it is easy to harvest these simultaneously, (vi) secondary exposure of the underlying skeleton from all quadrants is unlikely to divide the flap pedicle as it is superior and (vii), perhaps most important of all, it obviates the need for exploration of the popliteal fossa. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Extended right hemicolectomy and left hemicolectomy for colorectal cancers between the distal transverse and proximal descending colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravante, G; Elshaer, M; Parker, R; Mogekwu, A C; Drake, B; Aboelkassem, A; Rahman, E U; Sorge, R; Alhammali, T; Gardiner, K; Al-Hamali, S; Rashed, M; Kelkar, A; Agarwal, R; El-Rabaa, S

    2016-05-01

    We report our experience with extended right hemicolectomy (ERH) and left hemicolectomy (LH) for the treatment of cancers located between the distal transverse and the proximal descending colon, and compare postoperative morbidity, mortality, pathological results and survival for the two techniques. A retrospective review was performed of a single institution series over ten years. Patients who underwent different operations, had benign disease or received palliative resections were excluded. Data collected were patient demographics, type and duration of surgery, tumour site, postoperative complications and histology results. Ninety-eight patients were analysed (64 ERHs, 34 LHs). ERH was conducted using an open approach in 93.8% of cases compared with 73.5% for LH. The anastomotic leak rate was similar for both groups (ERH: 6.3%, LH: 5.9%). This was also the case for other postoperative complications, mortality (ERH: 1.6%, LH: 2.9%) and overall survival (ERH: 50.4 months, LH: 51.8 months). All but one patient in the ERH cohort had clear surgical margins. Nodal evaluation for staging was adequate in 78.1% of ERH cases and 58.8% of LH cases. In our experience, both ERH and LH are adequate for tumours located between the distal transverse and the proximal descending colon.

  3. Age-related changes in skin color and histologic features of hairless descendants of Mexican hairless dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, T; Doi, K

    1994-04-01

    Age-related changes in skin color and histologic features of hairless descendants of Mexican Hairless dogs were investigated and compared with those of haired descendants of Mexican Hairless dogs and Beagles. According to age, dogs studied were allotted to 4 groups: 0 to 2 weeks, 4 to 5 months, 1 to 1.5 years, and 3 to 4 years old. Skin color, histologic features, and numbers of dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA)-positive melanocytes were examined. The luminance values measured, using a spectrophotometer, decreased with advancing age up to 1.5 years, but they increased again at 3 to 4 years in hairless dogs. The number of DOPA-positive melanocytes in hairless dogs decreased with advancing age, whereas there were no DOPA-positive melanocytes in haired dogs and Beagles. Histologically, the epidermis of newborn hairless pups was thick. The border between the epidermis and dermis was wavy, and epidermal ingrowths were found projecting into the dermis. As hairless dogs grew older, the epidermis became thinner and flatter. Although numbers of hair follicles and sebaceous and apocrine sweat glands were apparently fewer in hairless dogs than in haired dogs and Beagles, these structures were detected at least up to 4 years of age. On the other hand, haired dogs and Beagles had a thin epidermis at birth and aging had little effect on their epidermal structures. The dermis of hairless dogs contained fewer mast cells than did that of haired dogs and Beagles.

  4. [Domains of physical activity in slave-descendant communities in Southwest Bahia State, Brazil: a population-based study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Vanessa Moraes; Andrade, Amanda Cristina de Souza; César, Cibele Comini; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to describe the prevalence of physical activity (PA) and associated factors in various domains (leisure-time, work, home, and commuting) among quilombolas (descendants of African slaves) in Bahia State, Brazil. This was a cross-sectional study of 797 individuals from 18 to 100 years of age. The study adopted a cutoff point of 150 minutes of PA per week. A hierarchical Poisson model was used. The highest prevalence of PA was at work (42.1%), followed by the home environment (39.3%), commuting (35.5%), and leisure time (13.1%). PA at work was associated with male gender, lower age, higher schooling, and consumption of alcohol and fruits. PA in the household domain was associated with female gender, lower age, marital status (married), and negative self-rated health. In commuting, PA was associated with male gender and lower age bracket, and during leisure time with safety, male gender, lower age, and higher schooling. The study concludes that this slave-descendant community displays a profile of PA that is characteristic of rural groups (more active at work, with little leisure-time activity). The determinants of PA were similar to those seen in urban groups.

  5. A theoretical study of optimal methods for the determination of the activities of the descendants of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, B.M.

    1990-01-01

    The accurate determiantion of the potential alpha energy of the descendants of radon relies on the determination of the individual number of atoms of those isotopes present. These are usually found by counting the particles emitted during radioactive decay of the individual atoms. By fitting the experimental count curve to the theoretical curve by a least squares method and using the number of atoms of the individual descendants present as the variable parameters, an optimal result can be obtained. Examination of the algorithm for generating the best fit indicates that it could be done in real time using microprocessors and gives the possibility of continuous evaluation of the number of atoms present and of the total potential alpha energy during counting. A comparison of ten different counting methods has been done theoretically using computer simulations of the count. For short counting times the method which can distinguish between each of the alpha particles and the beta particles is the most precise method available. It is shown that other methods of counting give comparable results when counting time is extended to over 2000 seconds. 4 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  6. Preventing Mitochondrial Disease: A Path Forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adashi, Eli Y; Cohen, I Glenn

    2018-03-01

    In a possible first, the heritable transmission of a fatal mitochondrial DNA disease (Leigh syndrome) may have been prevented by replacing the mutation-bearing mitochondria of oocytes with donated mutation-free counterparts. The procedure, carried out by a U.S.-led team, took place in Mexico in circumvention of a statutory U.S. moratorium on mitochondrial replacement. This development calls into question the regulatory utility of a national moratorium in a globalized world wherein cross-border care is increasingly prevalent. This development also calls to account the moral defensibility of a moratorium that acquiesces in the birth of gravely ill children whose afflictions could have been prevented. In this Current Commentary, we outline a potential path forward by analyzing the dual imprint of the moratorium, examining its legislative shortcomings, exploring its motivational roots, considering its national effect, and proposing its unlinking from the related yet distinct ban on editing the genome of the human embryo.

  7. Forward electron study with the HGTD

    CERN Document Server

    Mauritzsson, Nicholai

    2016-01-01

    A study of the forward region of the ATLAS detector, using $Z\\rightarrow ee$, $\\mu=200$ data, was performed with the goal of decreasing the pile-up effect and improving the reconstruction resolution for electrons using a timing detector (HGTD) in front of the end-cap calorimeters under consideration for the ATLAS upgrade at the high luminosity LHC. The report focuses on the $2.5<|\\eta|<3.5$ region with the \\emph{timing} and \\emph{pre-shower} configuration of the HGTD as well as different $p_T$-cuts. Using the HGTD data the resolution was generally improved for all configuration by 12-15\\% except with the \\emph{timing} configuration at $2.5<|\\eta|<3.0$ which remained unchanged within the statistical errors.

  8. A forward looking definition of drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd-Hughes, Benjamin

    2014-05-01

    Drought is typically defined by measures which characterise the deficit of water relative to normal conditions. Whilst undoubtedly useful for ranking moisture deficits in the historical context, such measures fail to provide much useful information regarding the future impacts of a given shortfall. This paper describes an alternative view which characterises drought in a forward looking sense by defining drought severity as a function of the probability that the water requirements of a given process will be satisfied within some future window of time from the present. These probabilities are fundamentally different from the implied climatological probabilities that underpin the traditional view of drought severity in that they are conditional upon the existing state of drought. The new approach is explored through a case study which investigates the effects of the 1976 drought on the production of winter wheat in the UK.

  9. Forward-backward asymmetries with quark jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davier, M.; Richard, F.

    1979-01-01

    One of the most challenging experimental problems at LEP is the measurement of the weak couplings of the quarks. As is well known for lepton pair production, forward-backward asymmetries are very sensitive to these couplings. The problem of determining the jet flavour in order to measure such asymmetries is considered. Two methods are discussed: (i) measuring the charge of the jet which should reflect the quark charge with unfortunately large fluctuations. This could be a way to isolate Q=2/3 quarks (top) and measure the asymmetry for these tanti t pairs; and (ii) using leading particles to assign the jet flavour. It is known that, when E/Esub(beam) =x→1, the probability that the leading meson carries the initial quark with approach unity. The second method is discussed in detail. (Auth.)

  10. 3D Morphology Design for Forward Osmosis

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Meixia

    2016-06-06

    We propose a multi-scale simulation approach to model forward osmosis (FO) processes using substrates with layered homogeneous morphology. This approach accounts not only for FO setup but also for detailed microstructure of the substrate using the digitally reconstructed morphology. We fabricate a highly porous block copolymer membrane, which has not been explored for FO heretofore, and use it as the substrate for interfacial polymerization. The substrate has three sub-layers, namely a top layer, a sponge-like middle layer, and a nonwoven fabric layer. We generate a digital microstructure for each layer, and verify them with experimental measurements. The permeability and effective diffusivity of each layer are computed based on their virtual microstructures and used for FO operation in cross-flow setups at the macro scale. The proposed simulation approach predicts accurately the FO experimental data.

  11. CMS Forward Calorimetry R&D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilki, Burak [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-11-11

    This is a technical scope of work (TSW) between the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) and the experimenters of the CMS Forward Calorimetry Taskforce (FCAL group) who have committed to participate in beam tests to be carried out during the 2013-2016 Fermilab Test Beam Facility program. The TSW is intended primarily for the purpose of recording expectations for budget estimates and work allocations for Fermilab, the funding agencies and the participating institutions. It reflects an arrangement that currently is satisfactory to the parties; however, it is recognized and anticipated that changing circumstances of the evolving research program will necessitate revisions. The parties agree to modify this scope of work to reflect such required adjustments. Actual contractual obligations will be set forth in separate documents.

  12. Forward-Looking Planning of Technology Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Halicka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this article is to adapt the Future-Oriented Technology Analysis (FTA to prospective planning of technology development. Firstly, the article presents the assumptions, methods and idea, as well as the concept of the FTA method. Moreover, selected publications on the use of this method were analysed. Then, an original, base model of forward-looking planning of technology development was constructed and presented. The end result of this process will be the development of the localized in time, presented in graphic form, action plan referred to as the route of technology development. Basing on the literature review and the research projects a preliminary route of development of arbitrarily chosen technology was also built and presented.

  13. Message Scheduling and Forwarding in Congested DTNs

    KAUST Repository

    Elwhishi, Ahmed

    2012-08-19

    Multi-copy utility-based routing has been considered as one of the most applicable approaches to effective message delivery in Delay Tolerant Networks (DTNs). By allowing multiple message replicas launched, the ratio of message delivery or delay can be significantly reduced compared with other counterparts. Such an advantage, nonetheless, is at the expense of taking more buffer space at each node and higher complexity in message forwarding decisions. This paper investigates an efficient message scheduling and dropping policy via analytical modeling approach, aiming to achieve optimal performance in terms of message delivery delay. Extensive simulation results, based on a synthetic mobility model and real mobility traces, show that the proposed scheduling framework can achieve superb performance against its counterparts in terms of delivery delay.

  14. Feed forward control: An implementation at CIRFEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnaswamy, J.; Lehrman, I.S.; Hartley, R.

    1995-01-01

    An integral part of the Compact InfraRed Free Electron LASER (CIRFEL) is control of the phase and amplitude stability in the RF power system. We have implemented such a Feed Forward system using the LabView software package, by National Instruments. We will discuss implementation and performance data of the Feed Forward control of the RF power system at CIRFEL. We will also briefly discuss some conditions under which the problem is ill-conditioned, and what idealizations can be made to remedy these ill-conditioned systems. Using an arbitrary function generator, we generate a driving signal for a voltage-controlled attenuator at the input side of the RF system, and we monitor the RF voltage in cell I of the photocathode gun using a digital storage oscilliscope in averaging mode. The system is stable enough to use data from one shot to modify the inputs for future shots. After downloading the averaged data to a personal computer via a GPIB (IEEE 488) bus, we use a simple linear transformation on the difference waveform between the current shot and the target to produce a correction signal. This signal is added to the driving signal in the arbitrary function generator, and the process is repeated until we get the flatness we need in the output signals from cell 1. The system for phase control is similar, with a voltage-controlled phase shifter replacing the attenuator, and monitoring of the RF phase in cell I replacing the monitoring of RF voltage. By repeatedly alternating between correcting the RF voltage (equivalent to correcting the RF power) and RF phase in cell 1, we are able to achieve simultaneous phase variations of <±1 degrees and amplitude variations of <±0.1% over a 3μsec pulse

  15. Feed forward control: An implementation at CIRFEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnaswamy, J.; Lehrman, I.S.; Hartley, R. [Northrop Grumman Advanced Technology and Development Center, Princeton, NJ (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    An integral part of the Compact InfraRed Free Electron LASER (CIRFEL) is control of the phase and amplitude stability in the RF power system. We have implemented such a Feed Forward system using the LabView software package, by National Instruments. We will discuss implementation and performance data of the Feed Forward control of the RF power system at CIRFEL. We will also briefly discuss some conditions under which the problem is ill-conditioned, and what idealizations can be made to remedy these ill-conditioned systems. Using an arbitrary function generator, we generate a driving signal for a voltage-controlled attenuator at the input side of the RF system, and we monitor the RF voltage in cell I of the photocathode gun using a digital storage oscilliscope in averaging mode. The system is stable enough to use data from one shot to modify the inputs for future shots. After downloading the averaged data to a personal computer via a GPIB (IEEE 488) bus, we use a simple linear transformation on the difference waveform between the current shot and the target to produce a correction signal. This signal is added to the driving signal in the arbitrary function generator, and the process is repeated until we get the flatness we need in the output signals from cell 1. The system for phase control is similar, with a voltage-controlled phase shifter replacing the attenuator, and monitoring of the RF phase in cell I replacing the monitoring of RF voltage. By repeatedly alternating between correcting the RF voltage (equivalent to correcting the RF power) and RF phase in cell 1, we are able to achieve simultaneous phase variations of <{+-}1{degrees} and amplitude variations of <{+-}0.1% over a 3{mu}sec pulse.

  16. The PHENIX Forward Silicon Vertex Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aidala, C.; Anaya, L.; Anderssen, E.; Bambaugh, A.; Barron, A.; Boissevain, J.G.; Bok, J.; Boose, S.; Brooks, M.L.; Butsyk, S.; Cepeda, M.; Chacon, P.; Chacon, S.; Chavez, L.; Cote, T.; D'Agostino, C.; Datta, A.; DeBlasio, K.; DelMonte, L.; Desmond, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    A new silicon detector has been developed to provide the PHENIX experiment with precise charged particle tracking at forward and backward rapidity. The Forward Silicon Vertex Tracker (FVTX) was installed in PHENIX prior to the 2012 run period of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The FVTX is composed of two annular endcaps, each with four stations of silicon mini-strip sensors, covering a rapidity range of 1.2<|η|<2.2 that closely matches the two existing PHENIX muon arms. Each station consists of 48 individual silicon sensors, each of which contains two columns of mini-strips with 75 μm pitch in the radial direction and lengths in the ϕ direction varying from 3.4 mm at the inner radius to 11.5 mm at the outer radius. The FVTX has approximately 0.54 million strips in each endcap. These are read out with FPHX chips, developed in collaboration with Fermilab, which are wire bonded directly to the mini-strips. The maximum strip occupancy reached in central Au–Au collisions is approximately 2.8%. The precision tracking provided by this device makes the identification of muons from secondary vertices away from the primary event vertex possible. The expected distance of closest approach (DCA) resolution of 200 μm or better for particles with a transverse momentum of 5 GeV/c will allow identification of muons from relatively long-lived particles, such as D and B mesons, through their broader DCA distributions

  17. Using forward markets to improve electricity market design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ausubel, Lawrence M.; Cramton, Peter [University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Forward markets, both medium term and long term, complement the spot market for wholesale electricity. The forward markets reduce risk, mitigate market power, and coordinate new investment. In the medium term, a forward energy market lets suppliers and demanders lock in energy prices and quantities for one to three years. In the long term, a forward reliability market assures adequate resources are available when they are needed most. The forward markets reduce risk for both sides of the market, since they reduce the quantity of energy that trades at the more volatile spot price. Spot market power is mitigated by putting suppliers and demanders in a more balanced position at the time of the spot market. The markets also reduce transaction costs and improve liquidity and transparency. Recent innovations to the Colombia market illustrate the basic elements of the forward markets and their beneficial role. (author)

  18. Using forward markets to improve electricity market design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ausubel, Lawrence M.; Cramton, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Forward markets, both medium term and long term, complement the spot market for wholesale electricity. The forward markets reduce risk, mitigate market power, and coordinate new investment. In the medium term, a forward energy market lets suppliers and demanders lock in energy prices and quantities for one to three years. In the long term, a forward reliability market assures adequate resources are available when they are needed most. The forward markets reduce risk for both sides of the market, since they reduce the quantity of energy that trades at the more volatile spot price. Spot market power is mitigated by putting suppliers and demanders in a more balanced position at the time of the spot market. The markets also reduce transaction costs and improve liquidity and transparency. Recent innovations to the Colombia market illustrate the basic elements of the forward markets and their beneficial role. (author)

  19. The Carrier Strike Group: Examining Approaches to Forward Presence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    a purpose rather than simply marking time offers a better use of available resources by limiting deployment length while increasing the sustainment...9,000 Sailors in safely repositioning crews and ships while conducting forward presence and forward engagement missions throughout their transit to...focused mainly on repositioning ships and crews to their newly assigned homeports and overseas duty- stations, it also resulted in forward engagement

  20. Status of the Forward Physics Projects in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Ask, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the LHC is building several detector systems for forward physics studies and to determine the luminosity. The main forward systems consist of a Cerenkov detector called LUCID, a Zero Degree Calorimeter (ZDC) and Roman Pots which will house a scintillating fiber tracker system called ALFA. Here we report some of the forward physics activities that are foreseen in ATLAS together with the status of the related detector systems.

  1. Model investigations 3D of gas-powder two phase flow in descending bed with consideration radial distribution of flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Panic

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The results of experimental investigations concerning radial distribution of powder accumulation in bed and static pressure were presented in this paper. To realize this research physical model of gas-powder two phase flow with descending bed was projected and constructed. Amounts of “dynamic” and “static” powder accumulated in bed, in dependence on gas velocity and of bed particles were investigated. In 3D model “static” powder (with its radial distribution at the tuyere level and in the higher part of bed was measured. The influence of bed particles, powder and gas radial distribution on values of interaction forces between flow phases in investigated system was defined.

  2. Close Proximity of Left Anterior Descending Artery to the Right Ventricular Lead Apparently Implanted into the Mid-septum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Osmancik, MD, PhD, FESC, Petr Stros, MD

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Right ventricular (RV mid-septal pacing should have fewer negative effects on left ventricular function compared to apical pacing. However, targeting the mid-septum may be technically challenging since it is usually done with two-dimensional fluoroscopy. The rotation of the heart and various shapes of the RV make it difficult to assess, whether the lead is really anchored in the septum. Many leads, apparently anchored in the septum, are in fact anchored in the anterior wall or anteroseptal groove, and some can get anchored in close proximity to the left anterior descending artery (LAD. We report three cases from our series of 51 patients, in whom the RV lead thought to be implanted in the mid-septum was in fact anchored in close proximity of LAD when assessed using computed tomography.

  3. The Shadow of the Italian Colonial Experience: The Impact of Collective Emotions on Intentions to Help the Victims’ Descendants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Volpato

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Recalling the Italian colonial experience elicits the collective emotions of guilt, shame, and ingroup-focused anger. We expected that these emotions would predict different reparation intentions in favor of the colonized populations' descendants. Students and non-students were recruited (N = 152 and asked to rate their emotions of collective guilt, shame, and anger for the violence that their ingroup had perpetrated against colonized people. Results showed that shame affected intentions to provide economic compensation to current inhabitants of the ex-colonies. This relationship was mediated by concerns of damage for the ingroup's image. Anger toward the ingroup predicted intentions to help immigrants from the ex-colonies now living in Italy. Interestingly, empathy toward the outgroup mediated the latter relation. Finally, collective guilt was not reliably associated with any reparation strategy. These findings have implications for theory and for the historical collective memory of Italian colonialism.

  4. Mean blood velocities and flow impedance in the fetal descending thoracic aortic and common carotid artery in normal pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilardo, C M; Campbell, S; Nicolaides, K H

    1988-12-01

    A linear array pulsed Doppler duplex scanner was used to establish reference ranges for mean blood velocities and flow impedance (Pulsatility Index = PI) in the descending thoracic aorta and in the common carotid artery from 70 fetuses in normal pregnancies at 17-42 weeks' gestation. The aortic velocity increased with gestation up to 32 weeks, then remained constant until term, when it decreased. In contrast, the velocity in the common carotid artery increased throughout pregnancy. The PI in the aorta remained constant throughout pregnancy, while in the common carotid artery it fell steeply after 32 weeks. These results suggest that with advancing gestation there is a redistribution of the fetal circulation with decreased impedance to flow to the fetal brain, presumably to compensate for the progressive decrease in fetal blood PO2.

  5. The genetic diversity of three peculiar populations descending from the slave trade: Gm study of Noir Marron from French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucato, Nicolas; Tortevoye, Patricia; Plancoulaine, Sabine; Guitard, Evelyne; Sanchez-Mazas, Alicia; Larrouy, Georges; Gessain, Antoine; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel

    2009-10-01

    The Noir Marron communities are the direct descendants of African slaves brought to the Guianas during the four centuries (16th to 19th) of the Atlantic slave trade. Among them, three major ethnic groups have been studied: the Aluku, the Ndjuka and the Saramaka. Their history led them to share close relationships with Europeans and Amerindians, as largely documented in their cultural records. The study of Gm polymorphisms of immunoglobulins may help to estimate the amount of gene flow linked to these cultural exchanges. Surprisingly, very low levels of European contribution (2.6%) and Amerindian contribution (1.7%) are detected in the Noir Marron gene pool. On the other hand, an African contribution of 95.7% redraws their origin to West Africa (F(ST) < or = 0.15). This highly preserved African gene pool of the Noir Marron is unique in comparison to other African American populations of Latin America, who are notably more admixed.

  6. Axillary artery to left anterior descending coronary artery bypass with an externally stented graft: a technical report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Loris

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With the proliferation of minimally invasive cardiac surgery a number of alternative inflow sites for coronary artery bypass grafting have been utilized, especially in higher risk patients. The use of axillary-coronary artery bypass is a safe and effective alternative especially in the case of patients requiring redo coronary revascularization. However, the length and convoluted course of the axillary-coronary vein graft makes is susceptible to twisting, trauma and neointimal hyperplasia. We therefore report a case of an axillary-coronary artery bypass in a high risk patient in which a Dacron conduit was used to externally support and protect the vein graft to the left anterior descending artery. Surgical technique and considerations are presented and discussed.

  7. 3-Dimensional Iterative Forward Model for Microwave Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.; Meincke, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The efficient solution of a forward scattering problem is the key point in nonlinear inversion schemes associated with microwave imaging. In this paper the solution is presented for the volume integral equation based on the method of moments (MoM) and accelerated with the adaptive integral method...... in each iteration of the forward solution. Thus, the presented technique allows us to avoid the time-consuming procedure of the MoM matrix filling in each inversion iteration. Furthermore, the forward solution from the previous inversion iteration can be utilized in the next one as an initial guess, thus...... reducing the solution time for the forward model....

  8. The joint dynamic of spot and forward exchange rates

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Francisco de; Novales Cinca, Alfonso

    1997-01-01

    Los tipos de cambio forward a uno y tres meses para un conjunto de divisas están cointegrados con tipos de cambio futuros, pero no con los tipos de cambio actuales. Mantenemos la hipótesis de insesgo como relación de cointegración entre los tipos forward y los tipos de cambio futuros, aunque la capacidad predictiva de los tipos forward a estos horizontes es muy limitada. El comportamiento de los tipos forward parece bastante consistente con impredictibilidad de los tipos de cambio. Los tipo...

  9. Detection of significant stenosis in the left anterior descending artery by 'virtual myocardial perfusion' bolus tracking, 320 slice computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Funabashi, Nobusada; Fujimoto, Yoshihide; Kobayashi, Yoshio

    2014-12-20

    We used bolus-tracking CT-images, which are usually used only to detect contrast-material in target organs for optimal-starting of acquisition, as virtual first pass myocardial perfusion images. Retrospective-analysis of 14 patients (10 male, 63 ± 10 years) diagnosed with ≥ 75% stenosis confined to left-anterior-descending-artery (LAD) (7 patients, Group-1) or insignificant stenosis of any coronary artery (7 patients Group-2) diagnosed using invasive-coronary-angiograms (ICA) and enhanced 320-slice-CT within 3-months and without incident between examinations. Bolus-tracking CT-images were acquired at mid-level left-ventricle (LV) until CT-attenuation of descending-aorta increased to 200 HU. We measured CT-attenuation (HU) in the LV anterior-wall (AW), the basal inter-ventricular-septum (BIVS), and LV basal lateral-wall (BLW) in end-systole using both bolus-tracking images and routine, enhanced, early-phase CT-images. In the bolus-tracking images, the Group-1 LV AW, BIVS, BLW CT-attenuation and ratio of LV AW CT attenuation to the average of BIVS and BLW were 36 ± 7HU, 62 ± 11HU, 58 ± 25HU, and 0.6 ± 0.1 respectively. In Group-2, they were 53 ± 14HU, 56 ± 9HU, 54 ± 15HU, and 1.0 ± 0.3 respectively. LV AW CT attenuation and the ratio of LV AW CT values to the average of BIVS and BLW, were significantly lower in Group-1 (both P BLW and without the need for drugs, exercise or additional radiation-exposure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Human Cardiac-Derived Stem/Progenitor Cells Fine-Tune Monocyte-Derived Descendants Activities toward Cardiac Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noémie Dam

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac repair following MI relies on a finely regulated immune response involving sequential recruitment of monocytes to the injured tissue. Monocyte-derived cells are also critical for tissue homeostasis and healing process. Our previous findings demonstrated the interaction of T and natural killer cells with allogeneic human cardiac-derived stem/progenitor cells (hCPC and suggested their beneficial effect in the context of cardiac repair. Therefore, we investigated here whether monocytes and their descendants could be also modulated by allogeneic hCPC toward a repair/anti-inflammatory phenotype. Through experimental in vitro assays, we assessed the impact of allogeneic hCPC on the recruitment, functions and differentiation of monocytes. We found that allogeneic hCPC at steady state or under inflammatory conditions can incite CCL-2/CCR2-dependent recruitment of circulating CD14+CD16− monocytes and fine-tune their activation toward an anti-inflammatory profile. Allogeneic hCPC also promoted CD14+CD16− monocyte polarization into anti-inflammatory/immune-regulatory macrophages with high phagocytic capacity and IL10 secretion. Moreover, hCPC bended the differentiation of CD14+CD16− monocytes to dendritic cells (DCs toward anti-inflammatory macrophage-like features and impaired their antigen-presenting function in favor of immune-modulation. Collectively, our results demonstrate that allogeneic hCPC could reshape monocytes, macrophages as well as DCs responses by favoring their anti-inflammatory/tolerogenic activation/polarization. Thereby, therapeutic allogeneic hCPC might also contribute to post-infarct myocardial healing by modeling the activities of monocytes and their derived descendants.

  11. Radiologic Placement of Uncovered Stents for the Treatment of Malignant Colonic Obstruction Proximal to the Descending Colon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jehong; Kwon, Se Hwan, E-mail: Kwon98@khu.ac.kr [Kyung Hee University, Department of Radiology, College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chang-Kyun [Kyung Hee University, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sun Jin [Kyung Hee University, Department of Surgery, College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Ji Young [Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Joo Hyeong [Kyung Hee University, Department of Radiology, College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    PurposeTo evaluate the safety, feasibility, and patency rates of radiologic placement of uncovered stents for the treatment of malignant colonic obstruction proximal to the descending colon.Materials and MethodsThis was a retrospective, single-center study. From May 2003 to March 2015, 53 image-guided placements of uncovered stents (44 initial placements, 9 secondary placements) were attempted in 44 patients (male:female = 23:21; mean age, 71.8 years). The technical and clinical success, complication rates, and patency rates of the stents were also evaluated. Technical success was defined as the successful deployment of the stent under fluoroscopic guidance alone and clinical success was defined as the relief of obstructive symptoms or signs within 48 h of stent deployment.ResultsIn total, 12 (27.3 %) patients underwent preoperative decompression, while 32 (72.7 %) underwent decompression with palliative intent. The technical success rate was 93.2 % (41/44) for initial placement and 88.9 % (8/9) for secondary placement. Secondary stent placement in the palliative group was required in nine patients after successful initial stent placement due to stent obstruction from tumor ingrowth (n = 7) and stent migration (n = 2). The symptoms of obstruction were relieved in all successful cases (100 %). In the palliative group, the patency rates were 94.4 % at 1 month, 84.0 % at 3 months, 64.8 % at 6 months, and 48.6 % at 12 months.ConclusionsThe radiologic placement of uncovered stents for the treatment of malignant obstruction proximal to the descending colon is feasible and safe, and provides acceptable clinical results.

  12. Metastatic Small Bowel Tumor from Descending Colon Cancer with Extensive Hematogenous or Lymphogenous Spread: Survey of the Japanese Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Kojima

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a 68-year-old female patient who was diagnosed with cancer of the descending colon in July 1994 and underwent partial resection of the colon (type 2, moderately to well differentiated adenocarcinoma, se, ly1, v1, n(–. In April 1996, she was admitted to a nearby hospital for symptoms of ileus, which improved at the hospital. However, she was referred to our hospital for melena. In blood test, Hb was 8.7 g/dl, showing anemia, and carcinoembryonic antigen level was elevated to 50.7 ng/ml. Abdominal CT and small bowel series showed only mild expansion of the small bowel, suggesting no obvious occlusion. Abdominal surgery was performed in May 1995 for repeated development of ileus symptoms and suspicion of bleeding from the small bowel. Since the findings of the abdominal surgery showed a circular tumor in the lower ileum, partial resection of the small bowel was performed. Histopathological examination showed type 3, moderately to well differentiated adnocarcinoma, se, ly2, v0, n = 1/13. The principal tumor was located within the subserosa and grew up exclusively through the muscularis propria and the submucosa, into the mucous layer. The mucosa remained slightly on the surface layer. Based on these findings, the patient was diagnosed with metastasis of descending colon cancer to the small bowel. Her prognosis was good, and neither metastasis nor redevelopment of the cancer have been confirmed to date, 11 years and 7 months since the surgery.

  13. The View from the Trees: Nocturnal Bull Ants, Myrmecia midas, Use the Surrounding Panorama While Descending from Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cody A. Freas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Solitary foraging ants commonly use visual cues from their environment for navigation. Foragers are known to store visual scenes from the surrounding panorama for later guidance to known resources and to return successfully back to the nest. Several ant species travel not only on the ground, but also climb trees to locate resources. The navigational information that guides animals back home during their descent, while their body is perpendicular to the ground, is largely unknown. Here, we investigate in a nocturnal ant, Myrmecia midas, whether foragers travelling down a tree use visual information to return home. These ants establish nests at the base of a tree on which they forage and in addition, they also forage on nearby trees. We collected foragers and placed them on the trunk of the nest tree or a foraging tree in multiple compass directions. Regardless of the displacement location, upon release ants immediately moved to the side of the trunk facing the nest during their descent. When ants were released on non-foraging trees near the nest, displaced foragers again travelled around the tree to the side facing the nest. All the displaced foragers reached the correct side of the tree well before reaching the ground. However, when the terrestrial cues around the tree were blocked, foragers were unable to orient correctly, suggesting that the surrounding panorama is critical to successful orientation on the tree. Through analysis of panoramic pictures, we show that views acquired at the base of the foraging tree nest can provide reliable nest-ward orientation up to 1.75 m above the ground. We discuss, how animals descending from trees compare their current scene to a memorised scene and report on the similarities in visually guided behaviour while navigating on the ground and descending from trees.

  14. Serological and molecular inquiry of Chagas disease in an Afro-descendant settlement in Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Furquim da Silva Martins

    Full Text Available Furnas do Dionísio is a Brazilian Afro-descendant settlement in the city of Jaraguari, 21.4 miles from Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Approximately 96 families live in this quilombola (Maroon settlement, also known in Brazil as a remnant community of descendants of African slaves. Recent studies found 20% of households were infested by triatomines, 18% of insects captured in the community were infected by Trypanosoma cruzi, and 22.7% of dogs presented T. cruzi antibodies. The low prevalence of Chagas disease observed in humans in Mato Grosso do Sul State is attributed to its arrival via colonist migration and subsequent transplacental transmission. In order to gain a better understanding of the T. cruzi cycle in residents of the study community, serological and molecular tests were carried out to diagnose Chagas disease. In the present study, 175 residents between 2 and 80 years old were included. A total of 175 participants were interviewed and 170 provided blood samples, which were tested for T. cruzi antibodies with serological tests. Molecular diagnosis was performed in 167 participants by PCR (KDNA and NPCR (satellite DNA tests. One of the 170 samples tested positive for all serological tests performed. The overall frequency of Chagas disease in the community was low (0.6%. Interview responses revealed that 66.3% knew of triatomine insects and 65.7% reported having had no contact with them. Physical improvements to residences, together with vector surveillance and control by the State and municipal governments and local ecological conservation contribute to the low frequency of the Chagas disease in this quilombola community.

  15. Serological and molecular inquiry of Chagas disease in an Afro-descendant settlement in Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Mariana Furquim da Silva; Pereira, Mariane Barroso; Ferreira, Juliana de Jesus Guimarães; França, Adriana de Oliveira; Cominetti, Marlon Cézar; Ferreira, Eduardo de Castro; Dorval, Maria Elizabeth Moraes Cavalheiros; Rossi, Cláudio Lúcio; Mazon, Sílvia de Barros; de Almeida, Eros Antonio; Costa, Sandra Cecília Botelho; Marcon, Gláucia Elisete Barbosa

    2018-01-01

    Furnas do Dionísio is a Brazilian Afro-descendant settlement in the city of Jaraguari, 21.4 miles from Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Approximately 96 families live in this quilombola (Maroon) settlement, also known in Brazil as a remnant community of descendants of African slaves. Recent studies found 20% of households were infested by triatomines, 18% of insects captured in the community were infected by Trypanosoma cruzi, and 22.7% of dogs presented T. cruzi antibodies. The low prevalence of Chagas disease observed in humans in Mato Grosso do Sul State is attributed to its arrival via colonist migration and subsequent transplacental transmission. In order to gain a better understanding of the T. cruzi cycle in residents of the study community, serological and molecular tests were carried out to diagnose Chagas disease. In the present study, 175 residents between 2 and 80 years old were included. A total of 175 participants were interviewed and 170 provided blood samples, which were tested for T. cruzi antibodies with serological tests. Molecular diagnosis was performed in 167 participants by PCR (KDNA) and NPCR (satellite DNA) tests. One of the 170 samples tested positive for all serological tests performed. The overall frequency of Chagas disease in the community was low (0.6%). Interview responses revealed that 66.3% knew of triatomine insects and 65.7% reported having had no contact with them. Physical improvements to residences, together with vector surveillance and control by the State and municipal governments and local ecological conservation contribute to the low frequency of the Chagas disease in this quilombola community.

  16. JFKengine: A Jacobian and Forward Kinematics Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, K.N.

    2003-02-13

    During robot path planning and control the equations that describe the robot motions are determined and solved. Historically these expressions were derived analytically off-line. For robots that must adapt to their environment or perform a wide range of tasks, a way is needed to rapidly re-derive these expressions to take into account the robot kinematic changes, such as when a tool is added to the end-effector. The JFKengine software was developed to automatically produce the expressions representing the manipulator arm motion, including the manipulator arm Jacobian and the forward kinematic expressions. Its programming interface can be used in conjunction with robot simulation software or with robot control software. Thus, it helps to automate the process of configuration changes for serial robot manipulators. If the manipulator undergoes a geometric change, such as tool acquisition, then JFKengine can be invoked again from the control or simulation software, passing it parameters for the new arm configuration. This report describes the automated processes that are implemented by JFKengine to derive the kinematic equations and the programming interface by which it is invoked. Then it discusses the tree data structure that was chosen to store the expressions, followed by several examples of portions of expressions as represented in the tree. The C++ classes and their methods that implement the expression differentiation and evaluation operations are described. The algorithms used to construct the Jacobian and forward kinematic equations using these basic building blocks are then illustrated. The activity described in this report is part of a larger project entitled ''Multi-Optimization Criteria-Based Robot Behavioral Adaptability and Motion Planning'' that focuses on the development of a methodology for the generalized resolution of robot motion equations with time-varying configurations, constraints, and task objective criteria. A specific

  17. Hanford spent nuclear fuel project recommended path forward, volume III: Alternatives and path forward evaluation supporting documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulton, J.C.

    1994-10-01

    Volume I of the Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel Project - Recommended Path Forward constitutes an aggressive series of projects to construct and operate systems and facilities to safely retrieve, package, transport, process, and store K Basins fuel and sludge. Volume II provided a comparative evaluation of four Alternatives for the Path Forward and an evaluation for the Recommended Path Forward. Although Volume II contained extensive appendices, six supporting documents have been compiled in Volume III to provide additional background for Volume II

  18. Calibration of the ZEUS forward calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraemer, M.

    1990-10-01

    The physics at the ep-collider HERA requires high resolution calorimetry calibrated with an accuracy of better than 2%. The ZEUS detector meets these conditions by means of a compensating uranium scintillator sandwich calorimeter with an energy resolution of σ/E = 35%/√E + σ cal , where σ cal is the calibration error. One of the tools to minimize σ cal is the calibration with the signals of the radioactivity of the Uranium plates (UNO). Taking UNO data every 8 hours keeps the calibration stable within ≅ 1%. The muon calibration is done employing an algorithm, that determines the most probable energy loss with a precision of ≅ 1%. The channel-to-channel fluctuations of the ratio μ/UNO for a forward calorimeter (FCAL) prototype show a spread of 5.2% for the electromagnetic calorimeter and ≅ 2.5% for the hadronic sections. Improvements in the construction of the FCAL modules decreased these fluctuations to 2.0% and ≅ 1.8% respectively. The influence of the cracks between the calorimeter modules amounts to ≅ 1.7% on average for the ZEUS geometry, if a 2 mm thick Pb-sheet is introduced between the modules. We conclude that we are able to keep σ cal below 2%. (orig.)

  19. Forward ramp and Twin Peaks - 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    A lander petal and the forward ramp are featured in this image, taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. There are several prominent rocks, including Wedge at left; Shark, Half-Dome, and Pumpkin in the background; and Flat Top and Little Flat Top at center.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  20. Climate change and species interactions: ways forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angert, Amy L; LaDeau, Shannon L; Ostfeld, Richard S

    2013-09-01

    With ongoing and rapid climate change, ecologists are being challenged to predict how individual species will change in abundance and distribution, how biotic communities will change in structure and function, and the consequences of these climate-induced changes for ecosystem functioning. It is now well documented that indirect effects of climate change on species abundances and distributions, via climatic effects on interspecific interactions, can outweigh and even reverse the direct effects of climate. However, a clear framework for incorporating species interactions into projections of biological change remains elusive. To move forward, we suggest three priorities for the research community: (1) utilize tractable study systems as case studies to illustrate possible outcomes, test processes highlighted by theory, and feed back into modeling efforts; (2) develop a robust analytical framework that allows for better cross-scale linkages; and (3) determine over what time scales and for which systems prediction of biological responses to climate change is a useful and feasible goal. We end with a list of research questions that can guide future research to help understand, and hopefully mitigate, the negative effects of climate change on biota and the ecosystem services they provide. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  1. China in space the great leap forward

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, Brian

    2013-01-01

    The 21st century has seen the emergence, after the Soviet Union and the United States, of the third great space superpower: China. Here, in China in Space - The Great Leap Forward, Brian Harvey takes a contemporary look at the new Chinese space program. China has already launched its first space station, Tiangong; has sent its first spacecraft to the Moon, the Chang e; and has plans to send spaceships to Mars and further afield. China's annual launch rate has already overtaken those of both Europe and the United States. Huge new production plants and launch centers are under construction, to build and launch the new family of Long March 5, 6, and 7 rockets. In Roadmap 2050, the Academy of Sciences indicates that China intends to be the leading spacefaring nation by mid-century, with bases on the Moon and Mars. This book gives an informed, fully up-to-date commentary on all aspects of the Chinese space program, including its history, development, technology, missions, and the personalities involved. It lists a...

  2. Single transverse spin asymmetry of forward neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Potashnikova, I. K.; Schmidt, Ivan; Soffer, J.

    2011-01-01

    We calculate the single transverse spin asymmetry A N (t), for inclusive neutron production in pp collisions at forward rapidities relative to the polarized proton in the energy range of RHIC. Absorptive corrections to the pion pole generate a relative phase between the spin-flip and nonflip amplitudes, leading to a transverse spin asymmetry which is found to be far too small to explain the magnitude of A N observed in the PHENIX experiment. A larger contribution, which does not vanish at high energies, comes from the interference of pion and a 1 -Reggeon exchanges. The unnatural parity of a 1 guarantees a substantial phase shift, although the magnitude is strongly suppressed by the smallness of diffractive πp→a 1 p cross section. We replace the Regge a 1 pole by the Regge cut corresponding to the πρ exchange in the 1 + S state. The production of such a state, which we treat as an effective pole a, forms a narrow peak in the 3π invariant mass distribution in diffractive πp interactions. The cross section is large, so one can assume that this state saturates the spectral function of the axial current and we can determine its coupling to nucleons via the partially conserved axial-vector-current constraint Goldberger-Treiman relation and the second Weinberg sum rule. The numerical results of the parameter-free calculation of A N are in excellent agreement with the PHENIX data.

  3. A lot to look forward to

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    CERN moves from momentous year to momentous year, and although 2013 will be very different for us than 2012, there is still a lot to look forward to. As I write, the proton-lead run is just getting under way, giving the LHC experiments a new kind of data to investigate. But the run will be short, and our main activity this year will be the start of the LHC’s first long shutdown.   This is the first year I can remember in which all of CERN’s accelerators will be off. The reason is that there is much to be done: the older machines need maintenance, and the LHC has to be prepared for higher energy running. That involves opening up the interconnections between each of the machine’s 1,695 main magnet cryostats, consolidating all of the 10,170 splices carrying current to the main dipole and quadrupole windings, and a range of other work to improve the machine. The CERN accelerator complex will start to come back to life in 2014, and it’s fair to say that when...

  4. Data Science in Radiology: A Path Forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Hugo J W L

    2018-02-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI), especially deep learning, has the potential to fundamentally alter clinical radiology. AI algorithms, which excel in quantifying complex patterns in data, have shown remarkable progress in applications ranging from self-driving cars to speech recognition. The AI application within radiology, known as radiomics, can provide detailed quantifications of the radiographic characteristics of underlying tissues. This information can be used throughout the clinical care path to improve diagnosis and treatment planning, as well as assess treatment response. This tremendous potential for clinical translation has led to a vast increase in the number of research studies being conducted in the field, a number that is expected to rise sharply in the future. Many studies have reported robust and meaningful findings; however, a growing number also suffer from flawed experimental or analytic designs. Such errors could not only result in invalid discoveries, but also may lead others to perpetuate similar flaws in their own work. This perspective article aims to increase awareness of the issue, identify potential reasons why this is happening, and provide a path forward. Clin Cancer Res; 24(3); 532-4. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  5. Moving interprofessional learning forward through formal assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Judy

    2010-04-01

    There is increasing agreement that graduates who finish tertiary education with the full complement of skills and knowledge required for their designated profession are not 'work-ready' unless they also acquire interpersonal, collaborative practice and team-working capabilities. Health workers are unable to contribute to organisational culture in a positive way unless they too attain these capabilities. These capabilities have been shown to improve health care in terms of patient safety, worker satisfaction and health service efficiency. Given the importance of interprofessional learning (IPL) which seeks to address these capabilities, why is IPL not consistently embedded into the education of undergraduates, postgraduates and vocationally qualified personnel through formal assessment? This paper offers an argument for the formal assessment of IPL. It illustrates how the interests of the many stakeholders in IPL can benefit from, and contribute to, the integration of IPL into mainstream professional development and tertiary education. It offers practical examples of assessment in IPL which could drive learning and offer authentic, contextual teaching and learning experiences to undergraduates and health workers alike. Assessment drives learning and without formal assessment IPL will continue to be viewed as an optional topic of little relative importance for learners. In order to make the next step forward, IPL needs to be recognised and endorsed through formal assessment, both at the tertiary education level and within the workplace environment. This is supported by workforce initiatives and tertiary education policy which can be used to specify the capabilities or generic skills necessary for effective teamwork and collaborative practice.

  6. Innate immunity and the new forward genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutler, Bruce

    2016-12-01

    As it is a hard-wired system for responses to microbes, innate immunity is particularly susceptible to classical genetic analysis. Mutations led the way to the discovery of many of the molecular elements of innate immune sensing and signaling pathways. In turn, the need for a faster way to find the molecular causes of mutation-induced phenotypes triggered a huge transformation in forward genetics. During the 1980s and 1990s, many heritable phenotypes were ascribed to mutations through positional cloning. In mice, this required three steps. First, a genetic mapping step was used to show that a given phenotype emanated from a circumscribed region of the genome. Second, a physical mapping step was undertaken, in which all of the region was cloned and its gene content determined. Finally, a concerted search for the mutation was performed. Such projects usually lasted for several years, but could produce breakthroughs in our understanding of biological processes. Publication of the annotated mouse genome sequence in 2002 made physical mapping unnecessary. More recently we devised a new technology for automated genetic mapping, which eliminated both genetic mapping and the search for mutations among candidate genes. The cause of phenotype can now be determined instantaneously. We have created more than 100,000 coding/splicing mutations. And by screening for defects of innate and adaptive immunity we have discovered many "new" proteins needed for innate immune function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Eyes On the Ground: Path Forward Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brost, Randolph; Little, Charles Q.; peter-stein, natacha; Wade, James Rokwel

    2018-03-01

    A previous report assesses our progress to date on the Eyes On the Ground project, and reviews lessons learned [1]. In this report, we address the implications of those lessons in defining the most productive path forward for the remainder of the project. We propose two main concepts: Interactive Diagnosis and Model-Driven Assistance. Among these, the Model-Driven Assistance concept appears the most promising. The Model-Driven Assistance concept is based on an approximate but useful model of a facility, which provides a unified representation for storing, viewing, and analyzing data that is known about the facility. This representation provides value to both inspectors and IAEA headquarters, and facilitates communication between the two. The concept further includes a lightweight, portable field tool to aid the inspector in executing a variety of inspection tasks, including capture of images and 3-d scan data. We develop a detailed description of this concept, including its system components, functionality, and example use cases. The envisioned tool would provide value by reducing inspector cognitive load, streamlining inspection tasks, and facilitating communication between the inspector and teams at IAEA headquarters. We conclude by enumerating the top implementation priorities to pursue in the remaining limited time of the project. Approved for public release; further dissemination unlimited.

  8. Important ATLAS Forward Calorimeter Milestone Reached

    CERN Document Server

    Loch, P.

    The ATLAS Forward Calorimeter working group has reached an important milestone in the production of their detectors. The mechanical assembly of the first electromagnetic module (FCal1C) has been completed at the University of Arizona on February 25, 2002, only ten days after the originally scheduled date. The photo shows the University of Arizona FCal group in the clean room, together with the assembled FCal1C module. The module consists of a stack of 18 round copper plates, each about one inch thick. Each plate is about 90 cm in diameter, and has 12260 precision-drilled holes in it, to accommodate the tube/rod electrode assembly. The machining of the plates, which was done at the Science Technology Center (STC) at Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada, required high precision to allow for easy insertion of the electrode copper tube. The plates have been carefully cleaned at the University of Arizona, to remove any machining residue and metal flakes. This process alone took about eleven weeks. Exactly 122...

  9. NGNP Program 2013 Status and Path Forward

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hans Gougar

    2014-03-01

    High temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) technology can play an important role in the energy future of the United States by extending the use of nuclear energy for non-electricity energy production missions, as well as continuing to provide a considerable base load electric power generation capability. Extending nuclear energy into the industrial and transportation sectors through the coproduction of process heat and electricity provides safe, reliable energy for these sectors in an environmentally responsible manner. The modular HTGR provides a substantial improvement in nuclear plant safety for the protection of the public and the environment, and supports collocation of the HTGRhigh temperature gas-cooled reactor with major industrial facilities. Under U.S. Department of Energy direction since 2006, the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project at Idaho National Laboratory has been working toward commercializing the HTGR technology. However, a recent decision by the Secretary of Energy to reduce the scope of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project to a research and development program, considerable realignment has taken place. This report: (1) summarizes the accomplishments of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Program from FY2011 through FY2013; (2) lays out the path forward necessary to achieve the ultimate objective of commercializing HTGR technology; and (3) discusses ongoing technical, licensing, and evaluation activities under the realigned Next Generation Nuclear Plant program considered important to preserve the significant investment made by the government to-date and to maintain some progress in meeting the objectives of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct2005).

  10. Fouling distribution in forward osmosis membrane process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Junseok; Kim, Bongchul; Hong, Seungkwan

    2014-06-01

    Fouling behavior along the length of membrane module was systematically investigated by performing simple modeling and lab-scale experiments of forward osmosis (FO) membrane process. The flux distribution model developed in this study showed a good agreement with experimental results, validating the robustness of the model. This model demonstrated, as expected, that the permeate flux decreased along the membrane channel due to decreasing osmotic pressure differential across the FO membrane. A series of fouling experiments were conducted under the draw and feed solutions at various recoveries simulated by the model. The simulated fouling experiments revealed that higher organic (alginate) fouling and thus more flux decline were observed at the last section of a membrane channel, as foulants in feed solution became more concentrated. Furthermore, the water flux in FO process declined more severely as the recovery increased due to more foulants transported to membrane surface with elevated solute concentrations at higher recovery, which created favorable solution environments for organic adsorption. The fouling reversibility also decreased at the last section of the membrane channel, suggesting that fouling distribution on FO membrane along the module should be carefully examined to improve overall cleaning efficiency. Lastly, it was found that such fouling distribution observed with co-current flow operation became less pronounced in counter-current flow operation of FO membrane process. Copyright © 2014 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Forward Modeling of a Coronal Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, T. A.; Gibson, S. E.; Schmit, D. J.

    2011-01-01

    We apply a forward model of emission from a coronal cavity in an effort to determine the temperature and density distribution in the cavity. Coronal cavities are long, low-density structures located over filament neutral lines and are often seen as dark elliptical features at the solar limb in white light, EUV and X-rays. When these structures erupt they form the cavity portions of CMEs The model consists of a coronal streamer model with a tunnel-like cavity with elliptical cross-section and a Gaussian variation of height along the tunnel length. Temperature and density can be varied as a function of altitude both in the cavity and streamer. We apply this model to a cavity observed in Aug. 2007 by a wide array of instruments including Hinode/EIS, STEREO/EUVI and SOHO/EIT. Studies such as these will ultimately help us understand the the original structures which erupt to become CMEs and ICMES, one of the prime Solar Orbiter objectives.

  12. Food safety measurement issues. Way forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesh Iyengar

    2013-01-01

    Ensuring food safety (FS) is a persistent concern frequently faced by many countries. Safeguarding the quality of food that is fit for human consumption is the primary responsibility of the governmental regulatory agencies. For most part, agro-industries and food processors assume voluntary leadership for producing safe food. However, in the event of FS breach, the regulatory responsibility kicks into identify and rectify the situation. Notwithstanding whether it is the regulator or the industry that institutes the remedial action (e.g. improved hygiene and refined agricultural and manufacturing practices), the role of laboratory measurements is central in safeguarding the integrity of a functioning FS system. There are many analytical tools available to implement this task, such as validated analytical methods, natural matrix reference materials, field tested monitoring systems (proactive assessment) and effective surveillance systems (constant vigilance to prevent repeat safety violations). Way forward: existing FS tools are insufficient and should be strengthened with innovative approaches. Examples are: assembling swift intervention logistics to face FS breaches; rapid response systems including communication; robust metrology based measurement systems located at strategic locations in the country; and inter-disciplinary human resource to match the need for capacity development. These issues are discussed. (author)

  13. Neoadjuvant and Concurrent Chemotherapy Have Varied Impacts on the Prognosis of Patients with the Ascending and Descending Types of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Treated with Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Jin Yao

    Full Text Available To compare the outcomes of patients with ascending type (T4&N0-1 and descending type (T1-2&N3 of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT, neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT + intensity-modulated radiotherapy (RT or NACT + CCRT.Retrospective analysis of 839 patients with ascending or descending types of NPC treated at a single institution between October 2009 to February 2012. CCRT was delivered to 236 patients, NACT + RT to 302 patients, and NACT + CCRT to 301 patients.The 4-year overall survival rate, distant metastasis-free survival rate, local relapse-free survival rate, nodal relapse-free survival rate, loco-regional relapse-free survival rate, and progression free survival rate were 75.2% and 73.4% (P = 0.114, 85.7% and 74.1% (P = 0.008, 88.8% and 97.1% (P = 0.013, 96.9% and 94.1% (P = 0.122, 86.9% and 91.2% (P = 0.384, 73.7% and 66.2% (P = 0.063 in ascending type and descending type. Subgroup analyses indicated that NACT + RT significantly improved distant metastasis-free survival rate and progression-free survival rate when compared with CCRT in the ascending type, and there were no significant differences between the survival curves of NACT +RT and NACT + CCRT. For descending type, there were no significant differences among the survival curves of NACT +RT, CCRT, and NACT + CCRT groups, and the survival benefit mainly came from CCRT.Compared with NACT + CCRT or CCRT, NACT + RT may be a reasonable approach for ascending type. Although concurrent chemotherapy was effective in descending type, NACT + CCRT may be a more appropriate strategy for descending type.

  14. Effect of Tractor Forward Speed on Sandy Loam Soil Physical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results indicate significant differences in soil physical conditions arising from different levels of tractor forward speed. A forward speed of approximately 7km/h resulted in appreciable amelioration of soil structure as reflected in improvements in the soil strength properties and maximum reduction in clod mean weight ...

  15. ThinkForward: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demack, Sean; McCaig, Colin; Wolstenholme, Claire; Stevens, Anna; Fumagalli, Laura

    2016-01-01

    ThinkForward is a coaching programme, developed by Impetus Private Equity Foundation, which is designed to support secondary school pupils. ThinkForward is targeted at pupils who have been identified as being at high risk of not being in education, employment or training (NEET) following the completion of compulsory education. Coaches are assigned…

  16. Gender differences in variability patterns of forward bending

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Morten; Madeleine, Pascal; Jørgensen, Marie Birk

    2016-01-01

    The variability pattern is highly relevant in the analysis of occupational physical exposures. It is hypothesized that gender differences exist in the variability pattern of forward bending between work and leisure.......The variability pattern is highly relevant in the analysis of occupational physical exposures. It is hypothesized that gender differences exist in the variability pattern of forward bending between work and leisure....

  17. Mathematical modelling of generation and forward propagation of dispersive waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lie She Liam, L.S.L.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation concerns the mathematical theory of forward propagation and generation of dispersive waves. We derive the AB2-equation which describes forward traveling waves in two horizontal dimension. It is the generalization of the Kadomtsev-Petviashvilli (KP) equation. The derivation is based

  18. Evaluation of brightness temperature from a forward model of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sensing technique from ground-based instruments by which high vertical resolution measurements at surface levels are ... the planetary boundary layer, this technique may get importance by providing high resolution data ... Elements of forward model for an upward-looking microwave radiometer. this forward model with a ...

  19. Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell control with feed-forward ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feed-forward and feedback control is developed in this work for Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell stacks. The feed-forward control is achieved using different methods, including look-up table, fuzzy logic and neural network, to improve the fuel cell stack breathing control and prevent the problem of oxygen ...

  20. ANALYSIS OF CONTEMPORARY SOFTWARE BEING USED FOR FORWARDING SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naumov, V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of information technologies in the forwarding services has been specified. The typical structure of the logistic sites providing the search of requests of freight owners and carriers has been described. The analysis of the software for transportation companies was conducted. The perspective directions of improvement of forwarding services process have been revealed.