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Sample records for depression scale scores

  1. Validation of Geriatric Depression Scale--5 Scores among Sedentary Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, David X.; McAuley, Edward; Motl, Robert W.; Elavsky, Steriani; Konopack, James F.; Jerome, Gerald J.; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the validity of Geriatric Depression Scale--5 (GDS-5) scores among older sedentary adults based on its structural properties and relationship with external criteria. Participants from two samples (Ns = 185 and 93; M ages = 66 and 67 years) completed baseline assessments as part of randomized controlled exercise trials.…

  2. Impact of a high Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score on obstetric and perinatal outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navaratne, Pathmila; Foo, Xin Y; Kumar, Sailesh

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to characterise intrapartum and neonatal outcomes in women with an antenatally recorded Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Score (EPDS) ≤ 9 compared with women with a score of ≥12 at a major Australian tertiary maternity hospital. Women with scores ≥12 are at particularly high risk of major depressive symptomatology. There were 20512 (78.6%) women with a score ≤ 9 and 2708 (10.4%) had a score ≥ 12. Category 1 caesarean sections where there was immediate threat to life (maternal or fetal) were more common in women with EPDS scores ≥12 (5.2% vs. 4.3%, OR 1.24 95% CI 1.03–1.49, p = 0.024). Pre-term birth (birth weights birth (34.4% vs. 30.6%, p < 0.001) and neonatal death (0.48% vs. 0.13%, OR 2.52 95% CI 1.2–5.0, p < 0.001) were higher in babies of these women. These results suggest poorer intrapartum and neonatal outcomes for women with high EPDS scores. PMID:27658526

  3. The Utility of MMPI-2-RF Scale Scores in the Differential Diagnosis of Schizophrenia and Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tayla T C; Graham, John R; Arbisi, Paul A

    2017-04-07

    This study was designed to determine whether scores on selected Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) scales could be used to differentiate between individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia (SCZ) and major depressive disorder (MDD). The sample was drawn from 2 psychiatric inpatient hospitals and included data from 199 individuals with SCZ and 808 individuals with MDD. A series of multivariate analyses of variance, analyses of variance, and odds ratios were calculated to determine which MMPI-2-RF scales provide the best differentiation between individuals presenting with these 2 disorders. Results indicated scales assessing internalizing dysfunction, including Emotional/Internalizing Dysfunction (EID), Restructured Clinical Scales Demoralization (RCd), Low Positive Emotions (RC2), Suicidal/Death Ideation (SUI), and Self Doubt (SFD) best discriminated MDD from SCZ. Scales assessing thought dysfunction, incluidng Thought Dysfunction (THD), Restructured Clinical Scales Ideas of Persecution (RC6) and Aberrant Experiences (RC8), and Psychoticism-Revised (PSYC-r) were demonstrated to best identify SCZ. Comparisons of the examined MMPI-2-RF scales to MMPI-2 scales assessing similar constructs suggested scales from the MMPI-2-RF perform similarly to their MMPI-2 counterparts in detecting MDD or SCZ, but might have increased ability to discriminate SCZ from other conditions. Overall, results of this study suggest that scores on the examined MMPI-2-RF scales provide important information about the differential diagnosis of MDD and SCZ to clinicians working in inpatient settings.

  4. Psychometric evaluation of the Signs of Depression Scale with a revised scoring mechanism in stroke patients with communicative impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Mariska J; de Man-van Ginkel, Janneke M; Hafsteinsdóttir, Thóra B; Schuurmans, Marieke J

    2017-05-01

    To investigate (1) the diagnostic value of the Signs of Depression Scale (SODS) in a Likert scale format and (2) whether the Likert scale improves the diagnostic value compared with the original dichotomous scale. Cross-sectional multicentre study. One general and one university hospital in the Netherlands. A total of 116 consecutive hospitalized stroke patients, of whom 53 were patients with communicative impairment. Depression was diagnosed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) administered to the patients' relatives. The Barthel Index (BI) was used as an external validator. The correlation between the CIDI and the SODS-Likert or the SODS was small ( rb = 0.18), and the correlation between the Barthel Index and the SODS-Likert ( rs = -0.30) or the SODS ( rs = -0.33) was moderate. For both instruments, the discriminatory power for diagnosing depression when compared with the CIDI was best at a cut-off score of ⩾2. The internal consistency of the SODS-Likert was acceptable (α = 0.69) and slightly higher than that of the SODS (α = 0.57). The inter-rater reliability of the SODS-Likert and the SODS was acceptable (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) 0.66 and ICC 0.80, respectively). The clinical utility was rated good. The diagnostic value of the SODS did not improve using a Likert scale format. However, the diagnostic value of the original dichotomous SODS is reasonable for the initial mood assessment of stroke patients with communicative impairment.

  5. How to compare scores from different depression scales: equating the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) and the ICD-10-Symptom Rating (ISR) using Item Response Theory.

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    Fischer, H Felix; Tritt, Karin; Klapp, Burghard F; Fliege, Herbert

    2011-12-01

    A wide range of questionnaires for measuring depression are available. Item Response Theory models can help to evaluate the questionnaires exceeding the boundaries of Classical Test Theory and provide an opportunity to equate the questionnaires. In this study after checking for unidimensionality, a General Partial Credit Model was applied to data from two different depression scales [Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and ICD-10-Symptom Rating (ISR)] obtained in clinical settings from a consecutive sample, including 4517 observations from a total of 2999 inpatients and outpatients of a psychosomatic clinic. The precision of each questionnaire was compared and the model was used to transform scores based on the assumed underlying latent trait. Both instruments were constructed to measure the same construct and their estimates of depression severity are highly correlated. Our analysis showed that the predicted scores provided by the conversion tables are similar to the observed scores in a validation sample. The PHQ-9 and ISR depression scales measure depression severity across a broad range with similar precision. While the PHQ-9 shows advantages in measuring low or high depression severity, the ISR is more parsimonious and also suitable for clinical purposes. Furthermore, the equation tables derived in this study enhance the comparability of studies using either one of the instruments, but due to substantial statistical spread the comparison of individual scores is imprecise.

  6. Analysis of scores of Hamilton depression rating scale in patients with myasthenia gravis%重症肌无力患者汉密尔顿抑郁量表评分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马姗; 赵代弟; 李柱一; 范玲玲; 杨永祥; 闫忠军; 张慜; 王钧刚; 王圣元; 李川; 郭鹏

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the scores of Hamilton depression rating scale (HDRS) in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG ) and the related influencing factors. Methods A cross‐sectional study of the clinical data and HDRS score was carried out in 188 MG patients who were admitted to Tangdu Hospital of the Fourth Military Medical University from July 2013 to March 2015. All the recruited patients were classified into the with depression group and the without depression group according to the HDRS score. The judge criterion of depression was as follow :HDRS scores of patients without depression were 0‐9 and patients with depression were above 9. The clinical features of the two groups and their relation with HDRS scores were analyzed. Results Among those MG patients , the male to female ratio was 1.02 ∶ 1. The ratio of ocular myasthenia gravis (OMG) to generalized myasthenia gravis (GMG) was 1.2 ∶ 1.The ratio of patients with onset symptom of OMG to patients with onset symptom of GMG was 6.2 ∶ 1. The median disease course was 2 years and the interquartile range was 1.8 years. The average quantitative myasthenia gravis (QMG) score was 6.7 ± 2.3 and the average HDRS score was 8.7 ± 3.4.One hundred and twenty‐three MG patients were not complicated with depression ,while 65 cases were complicated with depression.Factors correlated with HDRS score and depression state included gender (P<0.01) ,clinical type of MG (P<0.01) ,QMG score (P<0.01) ,myasthenia gravis foundation of America (MGFA ) classification ( P< 0.01 ) , with or without hyperthyreosis ( P< 0.05 ). Conclusions Factors correlated with HDRS score and depression state include gender , clinical type of MG , QMG score and MGFA classification , sufficient understanding of the depression state in MG patients might be helpful for better treatment.%目的:探讨重症肌无力(myasthenia gravis ,MG)患者汉密尔顿抑郁量表(Hamilton depression rating scale ,HDRS)评分情况及其影响

  7. Measuring Depression Over Time . . . or not? : Lack of Unidimensionality and Longitudinal Measurement Invariance in Four Common Rating Scales of Depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fried, Eiko I.; van Borkulo, Claudia D.; Epskamp, Sacha; Schoevers, Robert A.; Tuerlinckx, Francis; Borsboom, Denny

    2016-01-01

    In depression research, symptoms are routinely assessed via rating scales and added to construct sum-scores. These scores are used as a proxy for depression severity in cross-sectional research, and differences in sum-scores over time are taken to reflect changes in an underlying depression construc

  8. Measuring depression over time . . . Or not? : Lack of unidimensionality and longitudinal measurement invariance in four common rating scales of depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fried, E.I.; van Borkulo, C.D.; Epskamp, S.; Schoevers, R.A.; Tuerlinckx, F.; Borsboom, D.

    2016-01-01

    In depression research, symptoms are routinely assessed via rating scales and added to construct sum-scores. These scores are used as a proxy for depression severity in cross-sectional research, and differences in sum-scores over time are taken to reflect changes in an underlying depression construc

  9. Measuring Depression Over Time ... or not? Lack of Unidimensionality and Longitudinal Measurement Invariance in Four Common Rating Scales of Depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fried, Eiko I.; van Borkulo, Claudia D.; Epskamp, Sacha; Schoevers, Robert A.; Tuerlinckx, Francis; Borsboom, Denny

    2016-01-01

    In depression research, symptoms are routinely assessed via rating scales and added to construct sum-scores. These scores are used as a proxy for depression severity in cross-sectional research, and differences in sum-scores over time are taken to reflect changes in an underlying depression construc

  10. Clinical use of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale: Is increased efficiency possible? A post hoc comparison of HDRS, Maier and Bech sub-scales, CGI and SCL-90 scores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruhe, H.G.; Dekker, J.J.M.; Peen, J.; Jonghe, de F.

    2005-01-01

    Background The 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) is used as a semi–gold standard in research. In treatment guidelines, the HDRS measurements serve to determine response and remission and guide clinical decision making for nonresponders. However, its use in clinical practice is limited,

  11. Freudenfreude and Schadenfreude Test (FAST) scores of depressed and non-depressed undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambliss, Catherine; Cattai, Ashley; Benton, Peter; Elghawy, Ahmed; Fan, Madde; Thompson, Kayleigh; Scavicchio, Daniel; Tanenbaum, Joshua

    2012-08-01

    The Freudenfreude and Schadenfreude Test (FAST) had moderate test-retest reliability in an undergraduate sample. Freudenfreude scores were lower and Schadenfreude scores were higher among mildly depressed than nondepressed students. Distinctive reactions to personal success and failure were associated with depression. Responses to others' success and failure may also be related to depression.

  12. The Validity of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Geriatric Depression Scale in Parkinson’s Disease

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    Federica Mondolo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the concurrent validity of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS against the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (Ham-D in patients with Parkinson’ disease (PD. Forty-six non-demented PD patients were assessed by a neurologist on the Ham-D. Patients also completed four mood rating scales: the HADS, the GDS, the VAS and the Face Scale. For the HADS and the GDS, Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC curves were obtained and the positive and negative predictive values (PPV, NPV were calculated for different cut-off scores. Maximum discrimination between depressed and non-depressed PD patients was reached at a cut-off score of 10/11 for both the HADS and the GDS. At the same cut-off score of 10/11 for both the HADS and the GDS, the high sensitivity and NPV make these scales appropriate screening instruments for depression in PD. A high specificity and PPV, which is necessary for a diagnostic test, was reached at a cut-off score of 12/13 for the GDS and at a cut-off score of 11/12 for the HADS. The results indicate the validity of using the HADS and the GDS to screen for depressive symptoms and to diagnose depressive illness in PD.

  13. Effects of endorphin massage on B-endorphin level and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS score in women with postpartum blues

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    Hidayati Hidayati

    2014-06-01

    Results: Endorphin massage treatment significantly increase the B-endorphin level compared to before treatment (P 0.05. The level of EPDS significantly decrease after treatment than that before treatment (P 0.05. There is significantly negative correlation between B-endorphin level and EPDS score (r = -0,517; P 0.05. Conclusion: Endorphin massage is good alternative treatment to increase B-endorphin level and decresae EPDS score among mother with postpartum blues. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(3.000: 512-516

  14. The effect of anxiety and depression scores of couples who ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of anxiety and depression scores of couples who underwent assisted ... using a semi-structured questionnaire and the Turkish version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and Beck .... tics (age, education, marriage history and infertility) of couples ..... however, for both groups, the mean trait anxiety scores.

  15. The Relationship of Perfectionism, Depression, and Therapeutic Alliance during Treatment for Depression: Latent Difference Score Analysis

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    Hawley, Lance L.; Ho, Moon-Ho Ringo; Zuroff, David C.; Blatt, Sidney J.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the longitudinal relationship of patient-rated perfectionism, clinician-rated depression, and observer-rated therapeutic alliance using the latent difference score (LDS) analytic framework. Outpatients involved in the Treatment for Depression Collaborative Research Program completed measures of perfectionism and depression at…

  16. Characteristics of depression in Parkinson's disease: evaluating with Zung's Self-Rating Depression Scale.

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    Kanda, Fumio; Oishi, Kenichi; Sekiguchi, Kenji; Kuga, Atsushi; Kobessho, Hiroshi; Shirafuji, Toshihiko; Higuchi, Masatsugu; Ishihara, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to elucidate characteristics of depression in Parkinson's disease (PD). Fifty-eight PD patients were evaluated with Zung's Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). Scores for "suicidal ideation" on the SDS correlated with posture and gait disturbances on the UPDRS. Twenty-six patients with spinocerebellar degeneration (SCD) were also evaluated with the SDS. SDS scores for "indecisiveness" and "constipation" were significantly higher in PD patients than SCD patients. Our results suggest that depression is common in disabled persons but PD patients might have a characteristic clinical presentation.

  17. A Reliability Generalization Study of the Geriatric Depression Scale.

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    Kieffer, Kevin M.; Reese, Robert J.

    2002-01-01

    Conducted a reliability generalization study of the Geriatric Depression Scale (T. Brink and others, 1982). Results from this investigation of 338 studies shows that the average score reliability across studies was 0.8482 and identifies the most important predictors of score reliability. (SLD)

  18. Rasch Analysis of the Geriatric Depression Scale--Short Form

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    Chiang, Karl S.; Green, Kathy E.; Cox, Enid O.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine scale dimensionality, reliability, invariance, targeting, continuity, cutoff scores, and diagnostic use of the Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form (GDS-SF) over time with a sample of 177 English-speaking U.S. elders. Design and Methods: An item response theory, Rasch analysis, was conducted with…

  19. Rasch Analysis of the Geriatric Depression Scale--Short Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Karl S.; Green, Kathy E.; Cox, Enid O.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine scale dimensionality, reliability, invariance, targeting, continuity, cutoff scores, and diagnostic use of the Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form (GDS-SF) over time with a sample of 177 English-speaking U.S. elders. Design and Methods: An item response theory, Rasch analysis, was conducted with…

  20. Development of a Geriatric Scale of Hopelessness: Implications for Counseling and Intervention with the Depressed Elderly.

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    Fry, P. S.

    1984-01-01

    Evaluated hopelessness, depression, and self-esteem among depressed elderly people (N=78) and developed a Geriatric Hopelessness Scale (GHS). As predicted, elderly subjects who scored high on the GHS showed significantly higher depression and lower self-esteem scores. (JAC)

  1. Development of a Geriatric Scale of Hopelessness: Implications for Counseling and Intervention with the Depressed Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, P. S.

    1984-01-01

    Evaluated hopelessness, depression, and self-esteem among depressed elderly people (N=78) and developed a Geriatric Hopelessness Scale (GHS). As predicted, elderly subjects who scored high on the GHS showed significantly higher depression and lower self-esteem scores. (JAC)

  2. Internet administration of the Edinburgh Depression Scale.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spek, V.; Nyklicek, I.; Cuijpers, P.; Pop, V.

    2008-01-01

    Background Internet-based screening for depression is becoming increasingly important. The aim of this study is to validate the Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS) for internet administration. Methods In 407 participants (64% women; 36% men) with subthreshold depression (mean age = 55 years; S.D. = 4.9

  3. Effect of progressive self-focus meditation on attention, anxiety, and depression scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, José Roberto; Ornellas, Felipe Leite de Moraes; Amemiya, Tascila Mary; de Almeida, Anna Alice F; Dias, Arnaldo Aparecido; Afonso, Rui; Little, Stephen; Kozasa, Elisa Harumi

    2010-06-01

    This study evaluated the effects of Progressive Self-focus Meditation with 42 volunteers (M age = 46.0 yr., SD = 14.1) allocated to two groups: one that had weekly 1-hr. training sessions in the practice for 5 wk. and one waiting-list group. Participants were evaluated before and after 5 wk. on the Beck Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, the Digit Symbol subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, and the Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale. After 5 wk., a significant reduction in scores on depression was found in the Meditation group as well as an increase in attention in comparison with the waiting-list Control group.

  4. The Effect of Isotretinoin Administration on Anxiety and Depression Scores in Patients with Acne Vulgaris

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    Hatice Nur Azaklı

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: In this study, we aimed to determine whether isotretinoin, used in the treatment of acne vulgaris, causes depression and anxiety symptoms by evaluating its effect on depression and anxiety scale scores. Materials and Methods: Eighty-nine acne vulgaris patients (F/M: 60/29, age range: 16-36 years, who had attended the outpatient clinic of the Department of Dermatology at Haseki Education and Research Hospital between 2007 and 2009, were enrolled in the study. The clinical severity of acne vulgaris was between grade 4 and grade 8 according to Allen-Smith Scale. All patients were unresponsive to several previously applied topical acne preparations or systemic antibiotics treatments and had indication for isotretinoin use. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was administered to all patients twice; before and at the end of 16-week treatment. Results: There was no significant difference between pre- and post-treatment anxiety and depression frequency and scores in patients treated with isotretinoin (p>0.05. Conclusion: The findings of the present study do not support the presence of association between isotretinoin and depression.

  5. Rating scales in general practice depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Per; Paykel, Eugene; Sireling, Lester

    2015-01-01

    within major depressive disorder. The CID was compared to the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D17). METHODS: 146 patients from a previous study in general practice with the CID were investigated. The item response theory model established by Rasch was used to investigate the scalability (a scale......׳s psychometric adequacy) of the subscales, and principal component analysis was used to identify subsyndromes with the symptoms of major depression according to DSM-5 or ICD-10. RESULTS: Whereas the HAM-D17 was found not to have an acceptable scalability, the three brief CID subscales for depression (six items......), anxiety (five items), and apathy (five items) all had an acceptable scalability. Within the major depressive symptoms, principal component analysis identified the CID items of hypersomnia, increased appetite or weight gain as defining the subsyndrome of atypical depression. In total 29 patients...

  6. Endothelial dysfunction is associated with a greater depressive symptom score in a general elderly population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Sloten, T T; Schram, Miranda T; Adriaanse, M C

    2014-01-01

    , in a population-based cohort study, the association between ED, LGI and OxS on the one hand and depressive symptoms on the other. METHOD: We used data from the Hoorn Study and determined biomarkers of ED [flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), von Willebrand factor, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1...... were quantified by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) questionnaire (n = 493; age 68 years; 49.9% female). Regression analyses were performed with the use of biomarker Z scores. Adjustments were made for age, sex and glucose metabolism status (cohort stratification variables...... of circulating biomarkers and FMD, was independently associated with depressive symptoms. This study supports the hypothesis that ED plays an important role in the pathobiology of depression....

  7. Attitude scale and general health questionnaire subscales predict depression?

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    Ebrahimi, Amrollah; Afshar, Hamid; Doost, Hamid Taher Neshat; Mousavi, Seyed Ghafur; Moolavi, Hoseyn

    2012-01-01

    According to Beck theory, dysfunctional attitude has a central role in emergence of depression. The aim of this study was to determine contributions of dysfunctional attitude and general health index to depression. In this case-control study, two groups of subjects participated. The first group consisted of 65 patients with major depression and dysthymic disorder, who were recruited from Noor and Navab Safavi Psychiatry Clinics in Isfahan. The control group was consisted of 65 non-patient individuals who were accompanied or relatives of the patients and was matched with them based on age, sex and education. Both groups completed 26-item Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS-26) and 28-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). Logistic regression and correlation methods were applied for statistical analysis. Logistic regression analysis showed that by an increase of one level in categorized DAS-26 scores and one score in the physical symptoms, anxiety, social dysfunction and depression subscales of GHQ-28 the risk of depression increase by 6.8, 1.6, 1.9, 3.7, 4.78 times, respectively. Capability of dysfunctional attitude and general health subscales to predict depression supports the Beck's cognitive diathesis stress theory of depression that dysfunctional attitude may be a predisposing risk factor for depression.

  8. Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS: A Tool for Assessment of Depression in Elderly

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    Vandana A. Kakrani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: India is in the process of rapid demographic progression of increased life expectancy and aging with geriatric population of 7.2 percent which is estimated to rise to 20 percent in 2050. With increasing geriatric population elderly with dementia and associated depressive illness are expected to rise in number to almost an epidemic. Among the morbidity encountered in elderly, depressive disorders are common. Aim & Objectives: The present study was conducted with the objective to assess the extent and degree of depression in elderly, and study some correlates associated with depression in them. Material & Methods: The study was carried out at geriatric clinic of Dr. D. Y. Patil Medical College, Pune under the guidance of department of community medicine. Methodology:The randomly selected elderly above the age of 60 years attending the clinic and willing to participate in study were administered the questionnaire of Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS, scores were given, based on which the subjects were categorized as mild, moderate and severe. Those with score >5 were considered as suggestive of depression and some factors studied were analysed to find out their association with depression. Results: It was revealed that the proportion of elderly having depression was 52.4% with 84.6% of depressed in age group of 76-80 years. Moderate to severe type was more commonly seen in illiterate; however some degree of depression was present in all elderly irrespective of literacy status. Moderate to severe type was seen more commonly in elderly living in nuclear families (23.8%, and living alone (33.3%. Thus more than half of elderly studied were having depression, and it was observed that as the age advanced the degree of depression significantly increased. Some of the factors studied like low education status, poor economic status, nuclear family status, single status, loneliness, were associated with depression. The GDS Scale can be considered as

  9. Facilitating the Interpretation of English Language Proficiency Scores: Combining Scale Anchoring and Test Score Mapping Methodologies

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    Powers, Donald; Schedl, Mary; Papageorgiou, Spiros

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop, for the benefit of both test takers and test score users, enhanced "TOEFL ITP"® test score reports that go beyond the simple numerical scores that are currently reported. To do so, we applied traditional scale anchoring (proficiency scaling) to item difficulty data in order to develop performance…

  10. Inpatients with major depressive disorder: Psychometric properties of the new Multidimensional Depression Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darharaj, Mohammad; Habibi, Mojtaba; Power, Michael J; Farzadian, Farzaneh; Rahimi, Maesoumeh; Kholghi, Habibeh; Kazemitabar, Maryam

    2016-12-01

    The New Multi-dimensional Depression Scale (NMDS) is one of the most comprehensive scales that measures depression symptoms in four domains, including emotional, cognitive, somatic, and interpersonal. This study aimed to evaluate the factor structure and psychometric properties of the NMDS in a group of Iranian inpatients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). At first, the scale was translated into Persian and used as part of a battery consisting of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), Oxford Happiness Inventory (OHI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). The battery was administered to 271 inpatients with MDD (90 men and 181 women) aged from 18 to 60 who had been referred to psychiatric hospitals in Tehran, Iran. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Persian version of the NMDS upheld its original four-factor structure. Moreover, the results showed its good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha coefficient ranging from 0.70 for the emotional subscale to 0.83 for the interpersonal subscale). In addition, the NMDS scores were correlated with other constructs in empirically and theoretically expected ways, which provides evidence for the convergent (positive significant relationships with anxiety and cognitive and somatic-affective symptoms of depression) and divergent (negative significant relationships with happiness and mental health and physical health) validity of the scale. These findings supported the Persian version of the NMDS as a reliable and valid measure for the assessment of depression symptoms in patients with MDD.

  11. Clinical scoring scales in thyroidology: A compendium

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    Sanjay Kalra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This compendium brings together traditional as well as contemporary scoring and grading systems used for the screening and diagnosis of various thyroid diseases, dysfunctions, and complications. The article discusses scores used to help diagnose hypo-and hyperthyroidism, to grade and manage goiter and ophthalmopathy, and to assess the risk of thyroid malignancy.

  12. Discriminant possibilities of the Hamilton depression scale: ROC analysis

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    Novović Zdenka

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to compare discrimination power of original and reconstructed version of Hamilton’s depression scale in separation of depressive vs. anxious patients and to suggest some possibilities which offer ROC analysis. The subjects of the study were 119 patients of Psychiatric clinic in Novi Sad. 67 of them were diagnosed with some of the forms of affective disorders and 52 with an anxious-phobic diagnosis. Results of ROC analysis suggest that both instruments can be used in distinguishing depressive from anxious patients, but reconstructed version shows greater sensitivity and specificity with optimal cut-off score. It also has more significant AUC, which refers to probability of prediction on the basis of the whole spectrum of the results. These data is commented in relation with current debates, between unitaristic and pluralistic oriented authors, about the nature of the anxious-depression relationship.

  13. Demystifying the GMAT: Where Do Scale Scores Comes from?

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    Rudner, Lawrence M.

    2012-01-01

    GMAT (Graduate Management Admission Test) scaled scores convey the same level of ability over time, and GMAT percentiles convey the competitiveness of scores relative to today's GMAT test takers. In an earlier column, the author discussed the role of the GMAT scaled scores and percentiles. Here, he gets more technical and discusses how GMAT scaled…

  14. Depression, anxiety and quality of life scores in seniors after an endurance exercise program

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    Antunes Hanna Karen Moreira

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Mood disorders are a frequent problem in old age, and their symptoms constitute an important public health issue. These alterations affect the quality of life mainly by restricting social life. The participation in a regular exercise program is an effective way of reducing or preventing the functional decline associated with aging. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of fitness-endurance activity (at the intensity of Ventilatory Threshold 1 (VT-1 in depression, anxiety and quality of life scores in seniors. METHODS: The study involved 46 sedentary seniors aged 60-75 (66.97 ± 4.80 who were randomly allocated to two groups: 1 Control group, which was neither asked to vary their everyday activities nor to join a regular physical fitness program; and 2 Experimental group, whose members took part in an aerobic fitness program consisting of ergometer cycle sessions 3 times a week on alternate days for six months working at a heart rate corresponding to ventilatory threshold (VT-1 intensity. Subjects were submitted to a basal evaluation using the geriatric depression screening scale - GDS, STAI trait/state (anxiety scale and SF-36 (quality of life scale. RESULTS: Comparing the groups after the study period, we found a significant decrease in depressive and anxiety scores and an improvement in the quality of life in the experimental group, but no significant changes in the control group. CONCLUSION: The data suggest that an aerobic exercise program at VT-1 intensity suffices to promote favorable modifications in depressive and anxiety scores to improve the quality of life in seniors.

  15. Rates of computational errors for scoring the SIRS primary scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyner, Elizabeth A; Frederick, Richard I

    2013-12-01

    We entered item scores for the Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS; Rogers, Bagby, & Dickens, 1991) into a spreadsheet and compared computed scores with those hand-tallied by examiners. We found that about 35% of the tests had at least 1 scoring error. Of SIRS scale scores tallied by examiners, about 8% were incorrectly summed. When the errors were corrected, only 1 SIRS classification was reclassified in the fourfold scheme used by the SIRS. We note that mistallied scores on psychological tests are common, and we review some strategies for reducing scale score errors on the SIRS. (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. The Hamilton depression scale. Evaluation of objectivity using logistic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bech, P; Allerup, P; Gram, L F; Reisby, N; Rosenberg, R; Jacobsen, O; Nagy, A

    1981-03-01

    The consistency of the Hamilton Depression Scale (HDS) as a measure of the severity of depressive states has been examined when the scale was used weekly during a trial when imipramine. By use of logistic models (Rasch) the consistency of the HDS has been considered across patient-variables as age, sex, plasma levels of imipramine, and diagnosis. The results showed that the original 17-item HDS was without adequate consistency, i.e. the total score of the sample of items was no one-dimensional measure of depressive states. However, a melancholia subscale of the HDS contained items the total of which can be used to compare patients quantitatively, although in some part of the analysis one of these items showed ceiling effect. It was concluded that the melancholia subscale (containing the items depressed mood, guilt, work and interests, retardation, psychic anxiety, and general somatic symptoms) can form the basis for further improvements in the field of quantitative rating scales for depressive states.

  17. Do mothers with high sodium levels in their breast milk have high depression and anxiety scores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serim Demirgoren, Burcu; Ozbek, Aylin; Ormen, Murat; Kavurma, Canem; Ozer, Esra; Aydın, Adem

    2017-04-01

    Objective This study aimed to assess the possible association of high breast milk sodium levels with postpartum depression and anxiety. Methods A total of 150 mothers and their healthy, exclusively breastfed newborns aged 8 to 15 days were recruited. Mothers were asked to complete scales for evaluation of postnatal depression and anxiety following an interview for consent and sociodemographic data collection. Breast milk samples were obtained to measure sodium and potassium (K) levels. Results Forty-nine mothers had higher than expected breast milk Na concentrations and a high Na/K ratio. These mothers scored significantly higher on the scales of postnatal depression and state anxiety ( P = 0.018 and P = 0.048, respectively). Conclusions This study shows that compared to normal breast milk Na levels and Na/K ratio, high breast milk Na and high Na/K ratio, with possible serious consequences in infants, are associated with maternal depressive and anxious symptoms in the postpartum period.

  18. Internet administration of the Edinburgh Depression Scale.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spek, V.; Nyklicek, I.; Cuijpers, P.; Pop, V.

    2008-01-01

    .001). A major limitation is that the study was conducted without a control group of healthy subjects. Conclusion The psychometric properties of the internet-administered EDS are comparable to those of the paper and pencil EDS. Keywords: Edinburgh Depression Scale; Psychometric properties; Internet

  19. The Techniques for Overcoming Depression Questionnaire: Mokken Scale Analysis, Reliability, and Concurrent Validity in Depressed Cardiac Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedland, Kenneth E; Lemos, Mariantonia; Doyle, Frank; Steinmeyer, Brian C; Csik, Iris; Carney, Robert M

    2017-02-01

    The Techniques for Overcoming Depression (TOD) questionnaire assesses the frequency with which patients being treated for depression use cognitive-behavioral techniques in daily life. This study examined its latent structure, reliability and concurrent validity in depressed cardiac patients. The TOD was administered at the initial and final treatment sessions in three trials of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) (n = 260) for depression in cardiac patients. Mokken scaling was used to determine its dimensionality. The TOD is unidimensional in depressed cardiac patients, both at the initial evaluation (H = .46) and the end of treatment (H = .47). It is sensitive to change and the total score correlates with therapist ratings of the patient's socialization to CBT (r=.40, povercoming depression in cardiac patients. Studies of the TOD in other depressed patient populations are needed.

  20. Validity of the Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale for youth with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Lindsey; Renno, Patricia; Storch, Eric A; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Lewin, Adam B; Arnold, Elysse; Lin, Enjey; Wood, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    High rates of anxiety and depression are reported among youth with autism spectrum disorders. These conditions are generally assessed using measures validated for typically developing youth. Few studies have investigated their validity for autism spectrum disorders, which is crucial for accurate assessment and the provision of proper treatment. The Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale was evaluated with 67 youth with autism spectrum disorders to examine its utility in measuring anxiety and depression in this population. Parents and children (aged 11-15 years) referred to a multisite intervention study completed the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale, Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children, Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule, Child Behavior Checklist, and Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale. Results suggest acceptable internal consistency of the Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale. Modest convergent validity was found among the Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale and other standardized measures of anxiety and depression. There were stronger correlations between Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale Total scores and subscales of measures expected to correlate significantly than those not expected to correlate. One exception was a significant association between the Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale and Child Behavior Checklist Attention subscale, calling into question the divergent validity in separating anxiety from attention problems. Overall, results suggest preliminary support for the Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale in youth with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders.

  1. Psychometric evaluation of the Major Depression Inventory (MDI) as depression severity scale using the LEAD (Longitudinal Expert Assessment of All Data) as index of validity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Per; Timmerby, N; Martiny, K

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Major Depression Inventory (MDI) was developed to cover the universe of depressive symptoms in DSM-IV major depression as well as in ICD-10 mild, moderate, and severe depression. The objective of this study was to evaluate the standardization of the MDI as a depression severity......-IV major depression. The conventional VAS scores for no, mild, moderate, and severe depression were used for the standardization of the MDI. RESULTS: The inter-correlation for the MDI with the clinician ratings (VAS, MES, HAM-D17 and HAM-D6) increased over the rating weeks in terms of Pearson coefficients....... After nine weeks of therapy the coefficient ranged from 0.74 to 0.83. Using the clinician-rated VAS depression severity scale, the conventional MDI cut-off scores for no or doubtful depression, and for mild, moderate and severe depression were confirmed. CONCLUSIONS: Using the VAS as index of external...

  2. Concurrent Validity of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory Depression Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Joel O.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Compared two new measures of depression (Millon Multiaxial Inventory Dysthymia and Major Depression subscales) with two established instruments: Beck Depression Inventory, a self-report measure which emphasizes the cognitive-affective aspects of depression, and Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, an interview measure that emphasizes somatic…

  3. Development of an Interview-Based Geriatric Depression Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamison, Christine; Scogin, Forrest

    1992-01-01

    Developed interview-based Geriatric Depression Rating Scale (GDRS) and administered 35-item GDRS to 68 older adults with range of affective disturbance. Found scale to have internal consistency and split-half reliability comparable to those of Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression and Geriatric Depression Scale. Concurrent validity, construct…

  4. Construct validity of the Depression and Somatic Symptoms Scale: evaluation by Mokken scale analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Ya-Hsin; Lee, Chin-Pang; Liu, Chia-Yih; Hung, Ching-I

    2017-01-01

    Objective Previous studies of the Depression and Somatic Symptoms Scale (DSSS), a free scale, have been based on the classical test theory, and the construct validity and dimensionality of the DSSS are as yet uncertain. The aim of this study was to use Mokken scale analysis (MSA) to assess the dimensionality of the DSSS. Methods A sample of 214 psychiatric outpatients with mood and anxiety disorders were enrolled at a medical center in Taiwan (age: mean [SD] =38.3 [10.5] years; 63.1% female) and asked to complete the DSSS. MSA was used to assess the dimensionality of the DSSS. Results All 22 items of the DSSS formed a moderate unidimensional scale (Hs=0.403), supporting its construct validity. The DSSS was divided into 4 subscales (Hs ranged from 0.35 to 0.67), including a general somatic scale (GSS), melancholic scale (MS), muscular pain scale (MPS), and chest symptom scale (CSS). The GSS is a weak reliable Mokken scale; the other 3 scales are strong reliable Mokken scales. Conclusion The DSSS is a psychometrically sound measure of depression and somatic symptoms in adult psychiatric outpatients with depression or anxiety. The summed score of the DSSS and its 4 subscales are valid statistics. Further research is required for replication of the 4 subscales of the DSSS. PMID:28182138

  5. Maternal depression, antidepressant use in pregnancy and Apgar scores in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Mørch; Grøn, Randi; Lidegaard, Øjvind

    2013-01-01

    Use of antidepressants during pregnancy has been associated with a low Apgar score in infants but a contribution from the underlying depressive disorder might influence this association.......Use of antidepressants during pregnancy has been associated with a low Apgar score in infants but a contribution from the underlying depressive disorder might influence this association....

  6. In Systemic Sclerosis, Anxiety and Depression Assessed by Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale Are Independently Associated with Disability and Psychological Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Del Rosso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Anxious and depressive symptoms are frequent in Systemic Sclerosis (SSc. Our objective is to assess their prevalence and association with district and global disability and psychological variables. Methods. 119 SSc patients were assessed by Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS. Clinical depression and anxiety were defined for HADS score cutoff ≥8. Patients were assessed for psychological symptoms (RSES, COPE-NIV, hand (HAMIS, CHFDS, fist closure, and hand opening and face disability (MHISS, mouth opening, global disability, and fatigue (HAQ, FACIT. Results. Both depression and anxiety in SSc are 36%. Depressive patients with comorbid anxiety have higher HADS-D score than patients with depression only (. HADS-A and -D are positively correlated with global disability, hands and mouth disability, fatigue, self-esteem and avoidance coping strategy, and, only HADS-A, also with social support (. By multiple regression, HADS-D is independently associated with FACIT-F (, RSES (, and MHISS total score (, together explaining 50% of variance. HADS-A is independently associated with RSES (, COPE-NIV SA (, COPE-NIV SS (, FACIT-F (, and MHISS mouth opening (, explaining 41% of variance. Conclusions. In SSc depression and anxiety correlate to local and global disabilities and psychological characteristics. Depressive patients with comorbid anxiety have higher level of depressive symptoms.

  7. THE VALIDITY OF THE HAMILTON DEPRESSION RATING SCALE AS A SCREENING AND DIAGNOSTIC INSTRUMENT FOR DEPRESSION IN PATIENTS WITH EPILEPSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koraliya S. Todorova

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the concurrent validity of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17 against ICD-10 criteria for depressive disorder and its performance as a screening and diagnostic tool for depression in patients with epilepsy (PWE.Subjects and Methods: One hundred and six PWE underwent clinical psychiatric examination followed by evaluation on HAMD-17. ICD-10 criteria for comorbid depressive disorder were applied. Internal consistency was assessed using Cronbach’s α. A “receiver operating characteristics” (ROC curve was obtained and the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (PPV, NPV were calculated for different cut-off points of the HAMD-17.Results: Internal consistency measured by Cronbach’s α was 0.74. Maximal discrimination between depressed and non depressed was obtained at a cut-off score of 8/9 (sensitivity 0.93, specificity 0.98. High sensitivity and NPV at the same cut-off score (sensitivity 0.93, NPV 1.0 show the screening properties, and high specificity and PPV at cut-offs 9/10, the diagnostic properties of the instrument. The area under the ROC curve (AUC=0.746 indicates the concurrent validity of the HAMD-17 score with the ICD-10 criteria for depressive disorder.Conclusion: The validity of the HAMD-17 against ICD-10 criteria for depressive disorder in PWE in our study is fair. The concurrent administration of diagnostic criteria can ascertain the presence of core symptoms of depression.

  8. The development and initial validation of the Terminally Ill Grief or Depression Scale (TIGDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periyakoil, Vyjeyanthi S; Kraemer, Helena C; Noda, Art; Moos, Rudolf; Hallenbeck, James; Webster, Maria; Yesavage, Jerome A

    2005-01-01

    Patients often experience 'preparatory-grief' as they cope with the dying process. Some may be depressed. The Terminally Ill Grief or Depression Scale (TIGDS), comprising grief and depression sub-scales, is a new self-report measure designed to differentiate between preparatory-grief and depression in adult inpatients. The initial 100-item inventory was assembled based on literature review, interviews with clinicians and dying patients and then shortened to 42 items based on consensus expert opinion. Validity and reliability were tested in a sample of 55 terminally ill adults. The consensus clinical opinion was used as the gold standard to differentiate between preparatory grief and depression. The intra-class correlation coefficient was high (it was calculated to estimate the test-retest reliability for the 47 patients who had completed the TIGDS twice--retest was administered 2 to 7 days after the initial test), ranging from 0.86 (grief) to 0.97 (depression). The validity of TIGDS was assessed using a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, comparing the first test with the clinical criterion. The first and only variable and cut-point was the depression score (chi-square = 18.4, p depression = 3 cutoff score. The construct validity of the TIGDS was tested by comparing with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The TIGDS depression subscale showed strong convergent validity and the TIGDS grief subscale showed strong discriminant validity with the HADS total score.

  9. Use of Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale in a North American population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, A; Gang, P; Cole, K; Rutsky, M; Reese, L; Weisbord, J A

    1993-05-01

    1. The authors mailed the Edinburgh Post-natal Depression Scale to 308 women at six weeks postpartum. 2. It was completed and return by 185 women (60.0%). 3. Thirty-two of them (17.4%) scored 12 and above, the threshold reported to identify most women with postpartum depressive disorder.

  10. The use of Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale to identify postnatal depression symptoms at well child visit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvestri Maria

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives 1 to evaluate the role of the pediatrician in detecting postnatal depression (PD symptoms by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS; 2 to detect factors increasing the risk of PD and, 3 to assess the importance of scores gained from fathers' questionnaire. Methods we surveyed 1122 mothers and 499 fathers who were assessed using the EPDS during the first well-child visit. After 5 weeks, high scoring parents, completed a second EPDS. High scoring parents were examined by a psychiatrist who had to confirm the PD diagnosis. Results 26.6% of mothers and 12.6% of fathers at the first visit, 19.0% of mothers and 9.1% of fathers at the second visit, gained scores signaling the risk of PD. Four mothers and two fathers had confirmed PD diagnosis. Younger maternal age, non-Italian nationality and low socio-economic condition were related to higher EPDS scores. Conclusion PD is common in the average population. Using a simple and standardized instrument, pediatricians are able to detect parents with higher risk of suffering from PD.

  11. BASIC Computer Scoring Program for the Leadership Scale for Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Daniel J.

    This paper describes a computer scoring program, written in Commodore BASIC, that offers an efficient approach to the scoring of the Leadership Scale for Sports (LSS). The LSS measures: (1) the preferences of athletes for specific leader behaviors from the coach; (2) the perception of athletes regarding the actual leader behavior of their coach;…

  12. Construct validity of the Depression and Somatic Symptoms Scale: evaluation by Mokken scale analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chou YH

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ya-Hsin Chou,1 Chin-Pang Lee,1,2 Chia-Yih Liu,1,2 Ching-I Hung1,2 1Department of Psychiatry, Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital at Linkou, 2School of Medicine, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan Objective: Previous studies of the Depression and Somatic Symptoms Scale (DSSS, a free scale, have been based on the classical test theory, and the construct validity and dimensionality of the DSSS are as yet uncertain. The aim of this study was to use Mokken scale analysis (MSA to assess the dimensionality of the DSSS.Methods: A sample of 214 psychiatric outpatients with mood and anxiety disorders were enrolled at a medical center in Taiwan (age: mean [SD] =38.3 [10.5] years; 63.1% female and asked to complete the DSSS. MSA was used to assess the dimensionality of the DSSS.Results: All 22 items of the DSSS formed a moderate unidimensional scale (Hs=0.403, supporting its construct validity. The DSSS was divided into 4 subscales (Hs ranged from 0.35 to 0.67, including a general somatic scale (GSS, melancholic scale (MS, muscular pain scale (MPS, and chest symptom scale (CSS. The GSS is a weak reliable Mokken scale; the other 3 scales are strong reliable Mokken scales.Conclusion: The DSSS is a psychometrically sound measure of depression and somatic symptoms in adult psychiatric outpatients with depression or anxiety. The summed score of the DSSS and its 4 subscales are valid statistics. Further research is required for replication of the 4 subscales of the DSSS. Keywords: depression, somatization, Mokken scale analysis, item response theory, construct validity

  13. Validation of the Edinburgh Depression Scale during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergink, Veerle; Kooistra, Libbe; Lambregtse-van den Berg, Mijke P.; Wijnen, Henny; Bunevicius, Robertas; van Baar, Anneloes; Pop, Victor

    2011-01-01

    Background: Untreated depression during pregnancy may have adverse outcomes for the mother and her child. Screening for depression in the general pregnant population is thus recommended. The Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS) is widely used for postpartum depression screening. There is no consensus on

  14. Self-statements, self-esteem, and locus of control in discriminating college students' scores on the Beck Depression Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madonna, S; Philpot, V D

    1996-04-01

    To study the use of the ratio of positive to negative self-statements, locus of control, and self-esteem in discriminating between scores on the Beck Depression Inventory 145 undergraduate college students were administered the Beck Depression Inventory, Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire-Revised, Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory-Adult Form, and the Rotter Locus of Control scale in their classrooms. A stepwise discriminant analysis indicated that five variables combined to yield a statistically significant discrimination among low, middle, and high scores on the Beck Depression Inventory. The classification analysis indicated that 77.1% (n = 111) of the undergraduate students were correctly classified; 93.2% (82 of 88) were correctly classified as low scorers and 73.3% (18 of 46) were correctly classified as high scorers.

  15. Psychometric Properties of Scores on Three Black Racial Identity Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Crystal; Worrell, Frank C.; Berry, Jane M.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we examined the internal consistency and the structural validity of scores on the African Self-Consciousness Scale (ASCS), the Multidimensional Inventory of Black Identity (MIBI), and the Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS). Participants consisted of 225 African American college students--75 attending predominantly White institutions…

  16. The structure of the Montgomery-Åsberg depression rating scale over the course of treatment for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilty, Lena C; Robinson, Jennifer J; Rolland, Jean-Pierre; Fruyt, Filip De; Rouillon, Frédéric; Bagby, R Michael

    2013-09-01

    The Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) is a widely used clinician-rated measure of depressive severity. Empirical support for the factor structure of the MADRS is mixed; further, the comparison of MADRS scores within and between patients requires the demonstration of consistent instrument properties. The objective of the current investigation was to evaluate MADRS factor structure as well as MADRS factorial invariance across time and gender. The MADRS was administered to 821 depressed outpatients participating in a large-scale effectiveness study of combined pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy for depression. Treatment outcome did not differ across treatment groups. Factor structure and invariance was evaluated via confirmatory factor analysis. A four-factor model consisting of Sadness, Negative Thoughts, Detachment and Neurovegetative symptoms demonstrated a good fit to the data. This four-factor structure was invariant across time and gender. A hierarchical model, in which these four factors served as indicators of a general depression factor, was also supported. A limitation of the current study is the lack of comprehensive characterization of patient clinical features; results need to be replicated in more severely depressed or treatment refractory patients. Overall, evidence supported the use of the MADRS total score as well as subscales focused on affective, cognitive, social and somatic aspects of depression in male and female outpatients. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Acupuncture/electroacupuncture enhances anti-depressant effect of Seroxat:the Symptom Checklist-90 scores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junqi Chen; Weirong Lin; Shengxu Wang; Chongqi Wang; Ganlong Li; Shanshan Qu; Yong Huang; Zhangjin Zhang; Wei Xiao

    2014-01-01

    One hundred and ifve patients with primary unipolar depression were randomly divided into three groups:drug group (Seroxat administration), acupuncture group (Seroxat plus acupunc-ture), and electroacupuncture group (Seroxat plus acupuncture plus electroacupuncture). Patients’ symptoms were evaluated using a psychometric questionnaire, the Symptom Check-list-90, before intervention and after 2, 4, 6 and 10 weeks of treatment. The individual factor scores and the total score from the Symptom Checklist-90 reduced in all three groups as treat-ment progressed. In the acupuncture and electroacupuncture groups, the total score and the factor scores for obsessive-compulsive symptoms, depression, and anxiety were significantly lower than those in the drug group. There was no signiifcant difference in the factor scores or total scores between the acupuncture and electroacupuncture groups. Some factor scores in the electroacupuncture group, such as somatization, depression, hostility, and phobic anxiety, were increased at 10 weeks compared with the respective score immediately after the course of electroacupuncture at 6 weeks. Our ifndings indicate that administration of Seroxat alone or in combination with acupuncture/electroacupuncture can produce a signiifcant effect in patients with primary unipolar depression. Furthermore, acupuncture/electroacupuncture has a rapid onset of therapeutic effect and produces a noticeable improvement in obsessive-compulsive, de-pressive and anxiety symptoms.

  18. Relationship between depression score and acid-base status in Japanese Black calves with diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Mitsuhide; Suzuki, Kazuyuki; Taguchi, Kiyoshi

    2007-05-01

    We evaluated the relationship between depression score and acid-base status in 84 purebred and crossbred Japanese Black calves. The bicarbonate (psystem is a useful tool for evaluation of the acid-base status of purebred and crossbred Japanese Black calves. In addition, a depression score of 6.5 suggests severe metabolic acidosis and that intravenous infusion of sodium bicarbonate solution is necessary.

  19. Automatic scoring of the severity of psoriasis scaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomez, David Delgado; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Carstensen, Jens Michael

    2004-01-01

    In this work, a combined statistical and image analysis method to automatically evaluate the severity of scaling in psoriasis lesions is proposed. The method separates the different regions of the disease in the image and scores the degree of scaling based on the properties of these areas....... The proposed method provides a solution to the lack of suitable methods to assess the lesion and to evaluate changes during the treatment. An experiment over a collection of psoriasis images is conducted to test the performance of the method. Results show that the obtained scores are highly correlated...

  20. Screening for depression among community-dwelling elders: Usefulness of the center for epidemiologic studies depression scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebind Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Though common, depressive disorders often remain undetected in late life. Aim: To examine the usefulness of Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D for identifying depression among older people. Settings and Design: Community resident older people (aged 65 years or more, were evaluated by clinicians trained in psychiatry, as part of a cross-sectional study of late-life depression. Assessments were done in the community. Methods and Material: The participants were assigned ICD-10 diagnoses and assessed using Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS and CES-D. A short version of CES-D with 10 items, translated to the local language Malayalam, was used. Statistical Analysis: The sensitivity and specificity of CES-D was evaluated against ICD-10 clinical diagnosis of depression. The correlation of CES-D and MADRS was assessed using Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: 220 consenting adults from 3 wards of the Panchayath were assessed. On analysis of the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve of CES-D scores in relation to clinical diagnosis, the large Area Under Curve (AUC showed efficient screening and a cut off score of 4 in CES-D had a sensitivity of 97.7% and a specificity of 79.1% for depression. There was also good correlation between the MADRS and CES-D scores (0.838. Conclusion: CES-D is a short simple scale which can be used by health care professionals for detecting depression in older people in primary care settings.

  1. Clinical and psychometric validation of the psychotic depression assessment scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Søren Dinesen; Pedersen, Christina H; Uggerby, Peter

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent studies have indicated that the 11-item Psychotic Depression Assessment Scale (PDAS), consisting of the 6-item melancholia subscale (HAM-D6) of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and 5 psychosis items from the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), is a valid measure for the ...

  2. The Impact of Emotional Priming on MMPI-2 Scale Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tayla T. C.; Forbey, Johnathan D.; Ritchey, Kristin A.

    2011-01-01

    The current study investigated potential emotional priming effects on Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) scale scores. Participants included 98 college students who completed a personal narrative intended to induce temporary mood states, the MMPI-2, and a mood rating inventory. Results of the mood manipulation indicated that…

  3. Validity of Childhood Career Development Scale Scores in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stead, Graham B.; Schultheiss, Donna E. Palladino

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide evidence of the construct and concurrent validity of the Childhood Career Development Scale's (CCDS) scores among South African primary school children. Using a sample of 808 children in grades four through seven, evidence for the CCDS's construct validity was provided using confirmatory factor analysis,…

  4. Exploratory Factor Analysis of African Self-Consciousness Scale Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagwat, Ranjit; Kelly, Shalonda; Lambert, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    This study replicates and extends prior studies of the dimensionality, convergent, and external validity of African Self-Consciousness Scale scores with appropriate exploratory factor analysis methods and a large gender balanced sample (N = 348). Viable one- and two-factor solutions were cross-validated. Both first factors overlapped significantly…

  5. Characterizing Sources of Uncertainty in Item Response Theory Scale Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ji Seung; Hansen, Mark; Cai, Li

    2012-01-01

    Traditional estimators of item response theory scale scores ignore uncertainty carried over from the item calibration process, which can lead to incorrect estimates of the standard errors of measurement (SEMs). Here, the authors review a variety of approaches that have been applied to this problem and compare them on the basis of their statistical…

  6. The Impact of Emotional Priming on MMPI-2 Scale Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tayla T. C.; Forbey, Johnathan D.; Ritchey, Kristin A.

    2011-01-01

    The current study investigated potential emotional priming effects on Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) scale scores. Participants included 98 college students who completed a personal narrative intended to induce temporary mood states, the MMPI-2, and a mood rating inventory. Results of the mood manipulation indicated that…

  7. A study of remitted and treatment-resistant depression using MMPI and including pessimism and optimism scales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatoshi Suzuki

    Full Text Available The psychological aspects of treatment-resistant and remitted depression are not well documented.We administered the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI to patients with treatment-resistant depression (n = 34, remitted depression (n = 25, acute depression (n = 21, and healthy controls (n = 64. Pessimism and optimism were also evaluated by MMPI.ANOVA and post-hoc tests demonstrated that patients with treatment-resistant and acute depression showed similarly high scores for frequent scale (F, hypochondriasis, depression, conversion hysteria, psychopathic device, paranoia, psychasthenia and schizophrenia on the MMPI compared with normal controls. Patients with treatment-resistant depression, but not acute depression registered high on the scale for cannot say answer. Using Student's t-test, patients with remitted depression registered higher on depression and social introversion scales, compared with normal controls. For pessimism and optimism, patients with treatment-resistant depression demonstrated similar changes to acutely depressed patients. Remitted depression patients showed lower optimism than normal controls by Student's t-test, even though these patients were deemed recovered from depression using HAM-D.The patients with remitted depression and treatment-resistant depression showed subtle alterations on the MMPI, which may explain the hidden psychological features in these cohorts.

  8. A study of remitted and treatment-resistant depression using MMPI and including pessimism and optimism scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masatoshi; Takahashi, Michio; Muneoka, Katsumasa; Sato, Koichi; Hashimoto, Kenji; Shirayama, Yukihiko

    2014-01-01

    The psychological aspects of treatment-resistant and remitted depression are not well documented. We administered the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) to patients with treatment-resistant depression (n = 34), remitted depression (n = 25), acute depression (n = 21), and healthy controls (n = 64). Pessimism and optimism were also evaluated by MMPI. ANOVA and post-hoc tests demonstrated that patients with treatment-resistant and acute depression showed similarly high scores for frequent scale (F), hypochondriasis, depression, conversion hysteria, psychopathic device, paranoia, psychasthenia and schizophrenia on the MMPI compared with normal controls. Patients with treatment-resistant depression, but not acute depression registered high on the scale for cannot say answer. Using Student's t-test, patients with remitted depression registered higher on depression and social introversion scales, compared with normal controls. For pessimism and optimism, patients with treatment-resistant depression demonstrated similar changes to acutely depressed patients. Remitted depression patients showed lower optimism than normal controls by Student's t-test, even though these patients were deemed recovered from depression using HAM-D. The patients with remitted depression and treatment-resistant depression showed subtle alterations on the MMPI, which may explain the hidden psychological features in these cohorts.

  9. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD) as a screening instrument in tinnitus evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zöger, Sigyn; Svedlund, Jan; Holgers, Kajsa-Mia

    2004-09-01

    The identification of anxiety and depressive disorders in tinnitus patients is important from a therapeutic point of view. We have addressed this question by investigating the screening performance of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD) in a consecutive series of tinnitus patients (n = 82) without severe socially disabling hearing loss referred to an audiological clinic. The structured clinical interview for DSM-III criteria was used as the gold standard. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to compare the screening abilities of the HAD subscales for anxiety and depression and the total HAD Scale. The ROC analysis showed that the HAD Scale was better at detecting depression than anxiety disorders in tinnitus patients. The optimal cut-off score for the subscales was > or = 5 when we were screening for any anxiety or depressive disorder as well as for major depression. The performance of the HAD depression subscale was superior, especially when we were screening for major depression only (sensitivity 1.00; specificity 0.75). The findings of the study suggest that the HAD Scale is more useful for screening for depression than for anxiety disorders in tinnitus patients

  10. The Simplified Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS for Antenatal Depression: Is It a Valid Measure for Pre-Screening?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sea Kyung Choi, Jung Jin Kim, Yong Gyu Park, Hyun Sun Ko, In Yang Park, Jong Chul Shin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of antenatal depression is critical but poorly conducted. The aim of this study was to construct a simplified depression survey scale and to verify its efficacy as a pre-screening for antenatal depression. A total of 494 pregnant women in the third trimester of gestation who had received antenatal care at Seoul St. Mary's Hospital from July 2009 to June 2010 were included. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS questionnaire was completed by them. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups: 250 of training set and 244 of validation set. We designed a simplified questionnaire comprising two items of EPDS using the training set. We then validated its efficacy with the training set and reaffirmed the results with the validation set. The sum of item 5 (scare or panic and item 8 (sadness or misery explained 75.5% of the total score of the EPDS (AUC = 0.947. Using a score of 3 as a cut-off value of the simplified scale, sensitivity was 92.4% and specificity was 86.3%. The positive and negative predictive values were 56.2% and 98.4%, retrospectively. This study suggests that the simplified EPDS can be an efficient instrument to rule out depression during pregnancy.

  11. Braden Scale cumulative score versus subscale scores: are we missing opportunities for pressure ulcer prevention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadd, Molly M

    2014-01-01

    Hospital-acquired pressure ulcer incidence rates continue to rise in the United States in the acute care setting despite efforts to extinguish them, and pressure ulcers are a nursing-sensitive quality indicator. The Braden Scale for Predicting Pressure Sore Risk instrument has been shown to be a valid and reliable instrument for assessing pressure ulcer risk. This case study represented 1 patient out of a chart audit that reviewed 20 patients with confirmed hospital-acquired pressure ulcers. The goal of the audit was to determine whether these ulcers might be avoided if preventive interventions based on Braden subscale scores versus the cumulative score were implemented. This case study describes a patient who, deemed at low risk for pressure ulcer development based on cumulative Braden Scale, may have benefited from interventions based on the subscale scores of sensory perception, activity, and mobility. Further research is needed to determine whether interventions based on subscales may be effective for preventing pressure ulcers when compared to a protocol based exclusively on the cumulative score.

  12. Measuring depression in women around menopausal age. Towards a validation of the Edinburgh Depression Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becht, M.C.; van Erp, C.F.; Teeuwisse, T.M.; van Heck, G.L.; van Son, M.J.; Pop, V.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Background: The relationship between menopause and depression is still rather unclear. Studies using different methodology especially those lacking a clear definition of depression are hardly comparable. Since the Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS) is not influenced by (menopause-related) somatic symp

  13. Measurement-based Treatment of Residual Symptoms Using Clinically Useful Depression Outcome Scale: Korean Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Sang Won; Han, Changsu; Ko, Young-Hoon; Yoon, Seo Young; Pae, Chi-Un; Choi, Joonho; Park, Yong Chon; Kim, Jong-Woo; Yoon, Ho-Kyoung; Ko, Seung-Duk; Patkar, Ashwin A.; Zimmerman, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study was aimed at evaluating the diagnostic validity of the Korean version of the Clinically Useful Depression Outcome Scale (CUDOS) with varying follow-up in a typical clinical setting in multiple centers. Methods In total, 891 psychiatric outpatients were enrolled at the time of their intake appointment. Current diagnostic characteristics were examined using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (41% major depressive disorder). The CUDOS was measured and compared with three clinician rating scales and four self-report scales. Results The CUDOS showed excellent results for internal consistency (Cronbach’s α, 0.91), test-retest reliability (patients at intake, r=0.81; depressed patients in ongoing treatment, r=0.89), and convergent and discriminant validity (measures of depression, r=0.80; measures of anxiety and somatization, r=0.42). The CUDOS had a high ability to discriminate between different levels of depression severity based on the rating of Clinical Global Impression for depression severity and the diagnostic classification of major depression, minor depression, and non-depression. The ability of the CUDOS to identify patients with major depression was high (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve=0.867). A score of 20 as the optimal cutoff point was suggested when screening for major depression using the CUDOS (sensitivity=89.9%, specificity=69.5%). The CUDOS was sensitive to change after antidepressant treatment: patients with greater improvement showed a greater decrease in CUDOS scores (pKorean version of the CUDOS is a very useful measurement for research and for clinical practice. PMID:28138107

  14. Depression Affects the Scores of All Facets of the WHOQOL-BREF and May Mediate the Effects of Physical Disability among Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chen Chang

    Full Text Available Geriatric depression is associated with the overall quality of life (QOL. However, how depressive symptoms affect the different domains and facets of QOL in older adults, and whether depressive symptoms mediate the relationship between physical disability and QOL in older adults are unclear.A total of 490 ambulatory community-dwelling older adults aged 65 years or above were interviewed using the brief version of the World Health Organisation Quality of Life instrument (WHOQOL-BREF, the Modified Barthel Index (MBI, the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15, and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE. Sequential models for multiple linear regressions were analysed to determine if the MBI, GDS-15 and MMSE scores predict the WHOQOL-BREF scores. The potential mediation effects of depression (as determined by the GDS-15 on the relationship between MBI and WHOQOL-BREF were also analysed.The GDS-15 score was predictive of the scores of the four domains and all 26 facets of the WHOQOL-BREF. The significant predictive effects of the MBI score on 15 of the 26 facets of the WHOQOL-BREF were reduced to three after the adjustment for the GDS-15 score. Depression (as assessed by the GDS-15 is a mediator of the relationship between MBI and the physical, psychological and environmental domains of the WHOQOL-BREF.Depression (assessed by the GDS-15 may affect the scores of every domain and all facets of the WHOQOL-BREF in the elderly. Furthermore, it may mediate the relationship between the MBI and on QOL scores. We recommend taking depressive symptoms into consideration when measuring community-dwelling older adults' QOL and providing active ageing programs.

  15. Characterizing Sources of Uncertainty in IRT Scale Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ji Seung; Hansen, Mark; Cai, Li

    2011-01-01

    Traditional estimators of item response theory (IRT) scale scores ignore uncertainty carried over from the item calibration process, which can lead to incorrect estimates of standard errors of measurement (SEM). Here, we review a variety of approaches that have been applied to this problem and compare them on the basis of their statistical methods and goals. We then elaborate on the particular flexibility and usefulness of a Multiple Imputation (MI) based approach, which can be easily applied to tests with mixed item types and multiple underlying dimensions. This proposed method obtains corrected estimates of individual scale scores, as well as their SEM. Furthermore, this approach enables a more complete characterization of the impact of parameter uncertainty by generating confidence envelopes (intervals) for item tracelines, test information functions, conditional SEM curves, and the marginal reliability coefficient. The MI based approach is illustrated through the analysis of an artificial data set, then applied to data from a large educational assessment. A simulation study was also conducted to examine the relative contribution of item parameter uncertainty to the variability in score estimates under various conditions. We found that the impact of item parameter uncertainty is generally quite small, though there are some conditions under which the uncertainty carried over from item calibration contributes substantially to variability in the scores. This may be the case when the calibration sample is small relative to the number of item parameters to be estimated, or when the IRT model fit to the data is multidimensional. PMID:23049139

  16. Depressive Symptoms on the Geriatric Depression Scale and Suicide Deaths in Older Middle-aged Men: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Sang-Wook

    2016-05-01

    Prospective evaluations of the associations between depressive symptoms and suicide deaths have been mainly performed in high-risk populations, such as individuals with psychiatric disorders or histories of self-harm. The purpose of this study was to prospectively examine whether more severe depressive symptoms assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) were associated with a greater risk of death from suicide in a general-risk population. A total of 113 478 men from the Korean Veterans Health Study (mean age, 58.9 years) who participated in a postal survey in 2004 were followed up for suicide mortality until 2010. Over 6.4 years of follow-up, 400 men died by suicide (56.7 deaths per 100 000 person-years). More severe depressive symptoms were associated with greater risk of suicide death (p for trend depression were 2.18 for mild depression, 2.13 for moderate depression, 3.33 for severe depression, and 3.67 for extreme depression. After adjusting for potential confounders, men with a potential depressive disorder had an approximate 90% higher mortality from suicide (adjusted HR, 1.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.38 to 2.68; pdepression. Each five-point increase in the GDS score was associated with a higher risk of death by suicide (adjusted HR, 1.22; pDepressive symptoms assessed using the GDS were found to be a strong independent predictor of future suicide. However, the estimate of relative risk was weaker than would be expected based on retrospective psychological autopsy studies.

  17. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Geriatric Depression Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Kathryn Betts; Matto, Holly C.; Sanders, Sara

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) is widely used in clinical and research settings to screen older adults for depressive symptoms. Although several exploratory factor analytic structures have been proposed for the scale, no independent confirmation has been made available that would enable investigators to confidently identify scores…

  18. Effects of cognitive behavioral therapy in patients with depressive disorder and comorbid insomnia: A propensity score-matched outcome study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hui-Min; Chou, Kuei-Ru; Lin, Kuan-Chia; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Su, Shu-Fang; Chung, Min-Huey

    2015-10-01

    We evaluated the effects of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) in inpatients with a diagnosis of depression and comorbid insomnia. This study used a prospective, parallel-group design. The experimental group received CBT-I for no more than 90 min once weekly for 6 weeks and the control group only have health education manuals for insomnia. The following questionnaires were administered at baseline: the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D), Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep (DBAS), Presleep Arousal Scale (PSAS), Sleep Hygiene Practice (SHP), and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. The questionnaires were readministered after the completion of the 6-wk CBT-I intervention and 1 month following the completion of CBT-I, to determine the effects of the CBT-I intervention over time. The analysis of Generalized Estimation Equations was identified the difference between the experimental group and the control group by controlling for the variables in BZD dose and propensity score of gender, age, and the scores for the DBAS-16, PSAS, SHPS, and HAM-D. Consequently, the significant difference in the PSQI scores was observed at the 1-month follow-up assessment however, no significant intergroup difference in the PSQI scores was found at the completion of the CBT-I intervention between two groups. As a conclusion, we found that overall sleep quality significantly improved in patients who received CBT-I after we controlled for the BZD dose and propensity score, which suggests that CBT-I may represent a useful clinical strategy for improving sleep quality in patients with depression and comorbid insomnia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Concordance of Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) to assess increased risk of depression among postpartum women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yawn, Barbara P; Pace, Wilson; Wollan, Peter C; Bertram, Susan; Kurland, Margary; Graham, Deborah; Dietrich, Allen

    2009-01-01

    To compare the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) as screening tools for postpartum depression. This study population included the first 500 women to enroll and return their packets during an ongoing study of postpartum depression. The primary outcome of this study was to find rates of concordance and discordance in the EPDS and PHQ-9 categories of "normal" and "increased risk for major depressive disorder." Overall, 97% of eligible women enrolled and 70% returned the packets that included the EPDS and PHQ-9. Four hundred eighty-one of the first 500 packets had complete data, with elevated EPDS or PHQ-9 scores in 138 and 132 women, respectively. Concordance of the EPDS and PHQ-9 were present in 399 women (83%): 326 (67.8%) had "normal" score on both, and 73 (15.2%) had elevated scores for both. Discordant scores in 82 women included 17 with elevated PHQ-9 scores but normal EPDS scores and 65 with elevated EPDS scores and PHQ-9 scores 30 and low education level were predictive of discordant scores, using EPDS and PHQ-9 scores of > or =10 as elevated (odds ratio, 1.9 and P = .02; and odds ratio, 2.3 and P = .01, respectively). PHQ-9 scores of 5 to 9 have been referred to as consistent with "mild depressive symptoms" and appropriate for "watchful waiting" and repeat PHQ-9 at follow-up. Using this follow-up approach would require re-evaluation of 120 (25%) of the women screened. Postpartum depression screening is feasible in primary care practices, and for most women the EPDS and PHQ-9 scores were concordant. Further work is required to identify reasons for the 17% discordant scores as well as to provide definitive recommendations for PHQ-9 scores of 5 to 9.

  20. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Portuguese Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apóstolo, João Luís Alves; Tanner, Barry Allen; Arfken, Cynthia Lee

    2012-01-01

    To determine which of three published models best characterizes the factor structure of the Portuguese version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 and to assess its validity and reliability. Confirmatory factor analysis of Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 for 1,297 adult, primary care outpatients (66.7% female, Mage = 48.57 years) comparing 3 models. The relationship between the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule was analyzed. The correlated 3-factor model fit the data best. The scale demonstrated good internal consistency, with alpha scores of the subscales ranging from 0.836 to 0.897. Correlation with the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule was positive and moderate with the negative affect scale; it was negative and limited with the positive affect. These findings support the correlated 3-factor structure. The test demonstrated adequate reliability and construct validity, which supports its use for screening in primary care settings with Portuguese speakers.

  1. Development and Validation of a Screening Scale for Depression in Korea: The Lee and Rhee Depression Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Seon Hee; Rhee, Min Kyu; Kang, Rhee Hun; Lee, Hwa Young; Ham, Byung Joo; Lee, Young Sun; Lee, Min Soo

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to develop a culturally sensitive instrument that addressed how individuals express and experience depression to detect this disorder in Koreans. We also assessed the validity, reliability, and diagnostic utility of this scale (Lee and Rhee Depression Scale; LRDS). Methods The sample consisted of 3,697 normal adults selected from 12 administrative districts (Do) and 448 Korean patients diagnosed with depression using the Structured Clinical Interview for DS...

  2. Screening for depressive symptoms in adolescents at school: New validity evidences on the short form of the Reynolds Depression Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aritio-Solana, Rebeca; Inchausti, Félix; Chocarro de Luis, Edurne; Lucas Molina, Beatriz; Pérez de Albéniz, Alicia

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of the present study was to assess the depressive symptomatology and to gather new validity evidences of the Reynolds Depression Scale-Short form (RADS-SF) in a representative sample of youths. The sample consisted of 2914 adolescents with a mean age of 15.85 years (SD = 1.68). We calculated the descriptive statistics and internal consistency of the RADS-SF scores. Also, confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) at the item level and successive multigroup CFAs to test measurement invariance, were conducted. Latent mean differences across gender and educational level groups were estimated, and finally, we studied the sources of validity evidences with other external variables. The level of internal consistency of the RADS-SF Total score by means of Ordinal alpha was .89. Results from CFAs showed that the one-dimensional model displayed appropriate goodness of-fit indices with CFI value over .95, and RMSEA value under .08. In addition, the results support the strong measurement invariance of the RADS-SF scores across gender and age. When latent means were compared, statistically significant differences were found by gender and age. Females scored 0.347 over than males in Depression latent variable, whereas older adolescents scored 0.111 higher than the younger group. In addition, the RADS-SF score was associated with the RADS scores. The results suggest that the RADS-SF could be used as an efficient screening test to assess self-reported depressive symptoms in adolescents from the general population. PMID:28222193

  3. Patterns of adaptation to conflict and schizoid personality scale scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubino, I Alex; Mascis, Maria Cristina; Siracusano, Alberto

    2006-02-01

    A previous investigation gave no evidence of a significant relationship of patterns of adaptation to conflict, as measured with the Serial Color-Word Test, with the Schizoid Personality Scale of the Coolidge Axis II Inventory. As a new scoring algorithm has subsequently been proposed for the latter scale, a replication was done with the modified schizoid scale. A group of 75 consecutive nonpsychotic women outpatients was given the Serial Color-Word Test and Coolidge's inventory. Both multiple and logistic regressions selected two significant predictors of schizoid personality, corresponding to high values of linear change in reading times during Trials 3 and 5 of the Serial Color-Word Test, i.e., to an increasingly rigid and inflexible style of the adaptive process. A multivariate analysis of variance yielded an effect size of .22 (partial eta2).

  4. Depression in France and Brazil: factorial structure of the 17-item Hamilton Depression Scale in inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, Marcelo Pio de Almeida; Chaves, Márcia Lorena Fagundes; Poirier-Littré, Marie France; Bourdel, Marie Chantal; Loo, Henri; Guelfi, Julien Daniel

    2004-02-01

    Among various research strategies for depression, the cross-cultural approach is a useful tool to investigate depressive disorders. The Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression was applied to 130 depressed inpatients in France and Brazil. Items were factorized by principal component analysis with Varimax rotation using the Kaiser or simulation method for factor sorting. Three factors were obtained in France, and four in Brazil. The first factor includes the core symptoms of depression in both samples. Qualitative and quantitative differences appeared in the anxiety factor between Brazilian and French samples. Insomnia items appeared as another factor for both groups. A limitation of this study is that it was conducted with small inpatient samples. Principal component analysis of the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression for depressive inpatients in these two countries showed a similar structure. Differences observed were in the way anxiety items were distributed.

  5. Validity of the definite and semidefinite questionnaire version of the Hamilton Depression Scale, the Hamilton subscale and the Melancholia Scale. Part I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Bent; Bech, Per

    2011-01-01

    -reporting versions (definitely and semidefinitely anchored) corresponding to the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD), the Hamilton Subscale (HAM6), and the Bech-Rafaelsen Melancholia Scale (MES) were compared to each other and the clinician-rated version. The unidimensional property of the sum score in each scale...

  6. Differences in Patient Health Questionnaire and Aachen Depression Item Bank scores between tablet versus paper-and-pencil administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangenberg, Lena; Glaesmer, Heide; Boecker, Maren; Forkmann, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    To extend knowledge about measurement equivalence of depression measures assessed by tablet and paper-pencil administration, the present study evaluated the effect of mode of administration (MoA) on scale and item level for the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the Aachen Depression Item Bank (ADIB) in elderly patients. Primary care patients (N = 193, ≥60 years) were assessed following a crossover design in Leipzig, Germany. All participants filled out the PHQ-9 and the ADIB in both MoAs under study. Effects of MoA were analyzed by intra-class correlation, mixed-effects regression, and differential item functioning (DIF). Additionally, detection rates between both MoAs were compared using receiver operating characteristics analysis compared to a diagnostic interview (SCID-I, N = 163). No effect of MoA was found in the PHQ-9 on scale score or item level. Two ADIB items showed DIF according to MoA. In terms of discriminatory power, MoA did not influence detection rates of both instruments. In summary, our findings suggest that no severe effect of mode of administration on self-report assessments of depression should be expected. It can be concluded that tablets provide a valid way to electronically assess depressive symptoms in elderly patients. Yet changes in item presentation can influence the psychometric properties and require equivalence testing using sophisticated analyses on item level such as DIF.

  7. Rating scales measuring the severity of psychotic depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, S D; Rothschild, A J; Flint, A J

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Unipolar psychotic depression (PD) is a severe and debilitating syndrome, which requires intensive monitoring. The objective of this study was to provide an overview of the rating scales used to assess illness severity in PD. METHOD: Selective review of publications reporting results...... into the following categories: (i) rating scales predominantly covering depressive symptoms, (ii) rating scales predominantly covering psychotic symptoms, (iii) rating scales covering delusions, and (iv) rating scales covering PD. For the vast majority of the scales, the clinical and psychometric validity had...... not been tested empirically. The only exception from this general tendency was the 11-item Psychotic Depression Assessment Scale (PDAS), which was developed specifically to assess the severity of PD. CONCLUSION: In PD, the PDAS represents the only empirically derived rating scale for the measurement...

  8. Efficacy of aripiprazole augmentation in Japanese patients with major depressive disorder: a subgroup analysis and Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale and Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression item analyses of the Aripiprazole Depression Multicenter Efficacy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Norio; Otsubo, Tempei; Kato, Masaki; Higuchi, Teruhiko; Ono, Hiroaki; Kamijima, Kunitoshi

    2015-01-01

    Results from this randomized, placebo-controlled study of aripiprazole augmentation to antidepressant therapy (ADT) in Japanese patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) (the Aripiprazole Depression Multicenter Efficacy [ADMIRE] study) revealed that aripiprazole augmentation was superior to ADT alone and was well tolerated. In subgroup analyses, we investigated the influence of demographic- and disease-related factors on the observed responses. We also examined how individual symptom improvement was related to overall improvement in MDD. Data from the ADMIRE study were analyzed. Subgroup analyses were performed on the primary outcome measures: the mean change in the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) total score from the end of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)/serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) treatment to the end of the randomized treatment. Changes in the MADRS total scores were consistently greater with aripiprazole than placebo in each of the subgroups. Efficacy was not related to sex, age, number of adequate ADT trials in the current episode, MDD diagnosis, number of depressive episodes, duration of the current episode, age at first depressive episode, time since the first depressive episode, type of SSRI/SNRI, or severity at the end of SSRI/SNRI treatment phase. Compared to placebo, aripiprazole resulted in significant and rapid improvement on seven of the 10 MADRS items, including sadness. These post-hoc analyses indicated that aripiprazole was effective for a variety of Japanese patients with MDD who had exhibited inadequate responses to ADT. Additionally, we suggest that aripiprazole significantly and rapidly improved the core depressive symptoms. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  9. A reliability generalization meta-analysis of coefficient alpha for the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassar, Matt; Bradley, Greg

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to use a meta-analytic method known as reliability generalization to investigate the score reliability for a popular depression measure: The Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale. We used the technique to provide an aggregate estimate of coefficient alpha across empirical studies that have employed the measure over time and across populations. Furthermore, we identified sample and demographic characteristics associated with variance in coefficient alpha. We discuss conditions associated with variability in coefficient alpha and alert researchers and practitioners to appropriate uses of the scale based on common reliability benchmarks.

  10. Accelerometry-based berg balance scale score estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simila, Heidi; Mantyjarvi, Jani; Merilahti, Juho; Lindholm, Mikko; Ermes, Miikka

    2014-07-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the validity of 3-D-accelerometry-based Berg balance scale (BBS) score estimation. In particular, acceleration patterns of BBS tasks and gait were the targets of analysis. Accelerations of the lower back were measured during execution of the BBS test and corridor walking for 54 subjects, consisting of neurological patients, older adults, and healthy young persons. The BBS score was estimated from one to three BBS tasks and from gait-related data, separately, through assessment of the similarity of acceleration patterns between subjects. The work also validated both approaches' ability to classify subjects into high- and low-fall-risk groups. The gait-based method yielded the best BBS score estimates and the most accurate BBS-task-based estimates were produced with the stand to sit, reaching, and picking object tasks. The proposed gait-based method can identify subjects with high or low risk of falling with an accuracy of 77.8% and 96.6%, respectively, and the BBS-task based method with corresponding accuracy of 89.5% and 62.1%.

  11. Correlative study of peripheral ATP1A1 gene expression level to anxiety severity score on major depressive disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jingjie; Guo, Xu; Du, Yi; Han, Yu; Wang, Yongzhi; Li, Li; Qian, Jialin; Li, Mingzhen; Wu, Huijuan; Golden, Teresa; Wu, Ning

    2016-11-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) frequently co-occurs with other psychiatric problems. Our previous study showed that ATP1A1 gene expression level was significantly decreased in MDD patients. This research explores the potential correlations between the ATP1A1 expression level reduction and MDD patients' clinical manifestation. All participant patients were diagnosed by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - 4th edition (DSM-IV). Hamilton rating scale for depression (HAM-D) and anxiety (HAM-A) were applied to group patients into different categories. ATP1A1 expression level was measured by reverse transcript real-time polymerase chain reaction. ATP1A1 expression levels of all MDD subgroups showed significant reduction compared to the control group (p0.05). ATP1A1 expression level reduction is related to MDD anxiety score, which may be an explanation for the clinical manifestations and the underlining physiological mechanisms.

  12. Uncontrollable and unpredictable stress interacts with subclinical depression and anxiety scores in determining anxiety response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havranek, Michael M; Bolliger, Bianca; Roos, Sophie; Pryce, Christopher R; Quednow, Boris B; Seifritz, Erich

    2016-01-01

    According to learned helplessness theory, uncontrollable stress is assumed to be a critical etiological factor in the pathogenesis of depression. In contrast, unpredictability of stressors is assumed to facilitate the development of sustained anxiety. Despite the frequent co-morbidity of depression and anxiety disorders, these two factors have rarely been studied simultaneously in humans. Therefore, we investigated whether there are interaction effects of uncontrollability and unpredictability on anxiety response in healthy participants. Seventy-nine healthy participants performed a visual dot probe task with emotional faces, while receiving mild electrical shocks in four different conditions (2 × 2 factorial design). In (un)controllable conditions, participants were (not) able to attenuate shock intensity. In (un)predictable conditions, participants were (not) able to anticipate shock occurrence. Before the experiment, participants' subclinical depression and anxiety scores were measured using the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories (BDI/BAI). During the experiment, continuous skin conductance and self-reported state anxiety were assessed and attentional biases towards angry faces were calculated. As expected, participants showed greater anxiety in uncontrollable compared to controllable and in unpredictable compared to predictable conditions. Additionally, anxiety decreased within the test sessions in participants with low BDI/BAI scores but not in participants with higher BDI/BAI scores. Most importantly, controllability and predictability interacted with each other and with BDI/BAI scores with regard to anxiety. Our results provide evidence that uncontrollability and unpredictability of stressors not only have separate but also interaction effects on several anxiety measures in susceptible individuals and may provide insights into the psychological mechanisms underlying a depressive/anxiety co-morbidity.

  13. Measurement invariance of the depressive symptoms scale during adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Brunet, Jennifer; Sabiston, Catherine M.; Chaiton, Michael; Low, Nancy CP; Contreras, Gisèle; Barnett, Tracie A.,; O’Loughlin, Jennifer L

    2014-01-01

    Background This study examined (1) the factor structure of a depressive symptoms scale (DSS), (2) the sex and longitudinal invariance of the DSS, and (3) the predictive validity of the DSS scale during adolescence in terms of predicting depression and anxiety symptoms in early adulthood. Methods Data were drawn from the Nicotine Dependence in Teens (NDIT) study, an ongoing prospective cohort study of 1,293 adolescents. Results The analytical sample included 527 participants who provided compl...

  14. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale is an adequate screening instrument for depression and anxiety disorder in adults with congential heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Ju Ryoung; Huh, June; Song, Jinyoung; Kang, I-Seok; Park, Seung Woo; Chang, Sung-A; Yang, Ji-Hyuk; Jun, Tae-Gook

    2017-09-05

    The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) is an instrument that is commonly used to screen for depression in patients with chronic disease, but the characteristics of the CES-D in adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) have not yet been studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the criterion validities and the predictive powers of the CES-D for depression and anxiety disorders in adults with CHD. Two hundred patients were screened with the CES-D and secondarily interviewed with a diagnostic instrument, i.e., the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Instrument. The sensitivity and specificity values of the CES-D were calculated by cross-tabulation at different cutoff scores. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to assess the optimal cutoff point for each disorder and to assess the predictive power of the instrument. The CES-D exhibited satisfactory criterion validities for depression and for all combinations of depression and/or anxiety. With a desired sensitivity of at least 80%, the optimal cutoff scores were 18. The predictive power of the CES-D in the patients was best for major depression and dysthymia (area under the ROC curve: 0.92) followed by the score for any combination of depression and/or anxiety (0.88). The use of CES-D to simultaneously screen for both depression and anxiety disorders may be useful in adults with CHD. CESDEP 212. Registered 2 March 2014 (retrospectively registered).

  15. Adolescent cannabis problems and young adult depression: male-female stratified propensity score analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Valerie S; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Anthony, James C

    2008-09-15

    Cannabis use and depression are two of the most prevalent conditions worldwide. Adolescent cannabis use is linked to depression in many studies, but the effects of adolescent cannabis involvement on young adult depression remain unclear and may differ for males versus females. In this cohort study of youth from a mid-Atlantic metropolitan area of the United States, repeated assessments from 1985 (at age 6 years) through 2002 (at age 21 years) were made for 1,494 individuals (55% female). Measured covariate differences between individuals with and without cannabis problems were controlled via propensity score techniques. The estimated risk of young adult depression for adolescents with cannabis problems was not significantly different from that for comparison adolescents for either females (odds ratio = 0.7, 95% confidence interval: 0.2, 2.3) or males (odds ratio = 1.7, 95% confidence interval: 0.8, 3.6). The evidence does not support a causal association linking adolescent-onset cannabis problems with young adult depression.

  16. The Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale: Psychometric Properties in Depressed Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Gregory M.; Park, Jong-Hyo; Essex, Marilyn J.; Klein, Marjorie H.; Silva, Susan G.; Hoyle, Rick H.; Curry, John F.; Feeny, Norah C.; Kennard, Betsy; Kratochvil, Christopher J.; Pathak, Sanjeev; Reinecke, Mark A.; Rosenberg, David R.; Weller, Elizabeth B.; March, John S.

    2009-01-01

    The psychometric properties and factor structure of the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale were examined in a sample of 422 male and female adolescents (ages 12-17) with current major depressive disorder. The scale demonstrated high internal consistency ([alpha] = 0.93) and correlated significantly with self-report and interview-based measures of…

  17. Correlation of the Scores on Barron's Ego Strength Scale with the Scores on the Bender-Gestalt Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, John D.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The degree of relationship between scores on the Barron Ego Strength Scale and the scores on the Bender-Gestalt Test was investigated on a sample of college students. Correlations were moderate to low. Racial differences were observed on the Bender-Gestalt Test. (Author/JKS)

  18. Scaled Score Transformations of Bender Gestalt Expectancy Levels for Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartlage, Lawrence C.; Lucas, David G.

    1971-01-01

    The present study was aimed at developing a method for the transformation of Bender performance into scaled score equivalents and at testing the validity of such scaled score equivalents. The use of scaled scores permits a more direct comparison between Bender performance and performance on measures of intellectual ability. (Author)

  19. Dimensionality and scale properties of the Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: the DiaDDzoB study

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    Pop Victor JM

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression is a common complication in type 2 diabetes (DM2, affecting 10-30% of patients. Since depression is underrecognized and undertreated, it is important that reliable and validated depression screening tools are available for use in patients with DM2. The Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS is a widely used method for screening depression. However, there is still debate about the dimensionality of the test. Furthermore, the EDS was originally developed to screen for depression in postpartum women. Empirical evidence that the EDS has comparable measurement properties in both males and females suffering from diabetes is lacking however. Methods In a large sample (N = 1,656 of diabetes patients, we examined: (1 dimensionality; (2 gender-related item bias; and (3 the screening properties of the EDS using factor analysis and item response theory. Results We found evidence that the ten EDS items constitute a scale that is essentially one dimensional and has adequate measurement properties. Three items showed differential item functioning (DIF, two of them showed substantial DIF. However, at the scale level, DIF had no practical impact. Anhedonia (the inability to be able to laugh or enjoy and sleeping problems were the most informative indicators for being able to differentiate between the diagnostic groups of mild and severe depression. Conclusions The EDS constitutes a sound scale for measuring an attribute of general depression. Persons can be reliably measured using the sum score. Screening rules for mild and severe depression are applicable to both males and females.

  20. Measurement invariance of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 across medical student genders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Peyman; Nozari, Farnoosh; Ahrari, Forooghosadat; Bagheri, Zahra

    2017-03-30

    This study aimed to assess whether male and female Iranian medical students perceived the meaning of the items in the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 consistently. A convenience sample of 783 preclinical medical students from the first to sixth semester was invited to this cross-sectional study. Of the 477 respondents, 238 were male and 239 were female. All participants completed the Persian version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21. The graded response model was used to assess measurement invariance of the instrument across the gender groups. Categorical confirmatory factor analysis was used to evaluate the construct validity of the measure. Moreover, internal consistency was assessed via Cronbach's Alpha. Statistically significant differential item functioning was flagged for just item 6 in the depression subscales (c(2)=6.5, df=1, p=0.011). However, removing or retaining the item 6 in the stress subscale did not change our findings significantly, when we compared stress scores across two genders. The results of categorical confirmatory factor analysis supported the fit of the three-factor model of Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21. Moreover, Cronbach's alpha was greater than 0.7 in depression, anxiety and stress subscales. This study revealed that Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 is an invariant measure across male and female medical students. Hence, this reliable and valid instrument can be used for meaningful comparison of distress scores between medical student genders. Gender comparisons of medical students' psychological profiles provide a better insight into gender influences on the outcome of medical education and medical practice.

  1. Beta-Arrestin1 Levels in Mononuclear Leukocytes Support Depression Scores for Women with Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder

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    Farzana Alam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Depression is very common in reproductive women particularly with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD, which is a severe form of premenstrual syndrome (PMS. Beta-arrestins were previously implicated in the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment for mood disorders. This study examined whether a measurement for beta-arrestin1 levels in peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes (PBMC, could aid to distinguish between PMDD and PMS. Study participants (n = 25 were non-pregnant women between 18–42 years of age with the symptoms of PMS/PMDD, but not taking any antidepressants/therapy and at the luteal phase of menstruation. The levels of beta-arrestin1 protein in the PBMCs were determined by ELISA using human beta-arrestin1 kit. The beta-arrestin1 levels were compared with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores among these women. The magnitude of the different parameters for Axis 1 mental disorders were significantly higher and beta arrestin1 protein levels in PBMCs were significantly lower in women with PMDD as compared to PMS women. The reduction in beta arrestin1 protein levels was significantly correlated with the severity of depressive symptoms. Beta-arrestin1 measurements in women may potentially serve for biochemical diagnostic purposes for PMDD and might be useful as evidence-based support for questionnaires.

  2. Correlation between dietary zinc intakes and its serum levels with depression scales in young female students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amani, Reza; Saeidi, Somaye; Nazari, Zahra; Nematpour, Sorour

    2010-11-01

    It has been suggested that mood disorders and depressive status may be accompanied by lowered zinc status in the body, and adequate consumption of zinc increases a general perceived well-being. The main objective of this study was to assess the correlation between serum zinc concentrations and dietary zinc intakes with depression scores in university female students. In the first phase, Beck's depression questionnaire was applied in a random sampling of 308 selected 20-25-year-old female students (one third of total students in Ahvaz Jondi-Shapour University of Medical Sciences Golestan dormitories) to assess the major depressive disorder (MDD) scales. Then, in the second phase, 23 students who identified as having moderate and severe depression were selected as the case group, and 23 healthy age matched were chosen as the controls. Each of them completed a 12-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire containing the main food sources of zinc in the usual dietary patterns and also a 24-h food recall questionnaire to assure the daily zinc intakes. Daily zinc intakes were obtained by multiplying each portion size by its zinc content using food tables. A 5-ml blood sample was taken for further serum zinc status using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry technique. Pearson's r was used to show the correlation between quantitative variables. Both daily zinc intake and serum zinc concentrations of MDD group were about two thirds of healthy index (p Depressed individuals used to eat lower servings of red meats and chicken as the main food sources of zinc in students' usual diets (p students (r = 0.55; p students(r = -0.65; p depressed female students, dietary zinc intake is correlated to its serum concentrations; however, the serum zinc levels are inversely correlated to depression scales. Consumption of the main dietary sources of zinc such as red meats and chicken should be encouraged in young depressed girls.

  3. Clinical utility of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) for an outpatient fibromyalgia education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Seungree; Tin, Diane; Bain, Lorna; Thorne, J Carter; Ginsburg, Liane

    2014-05-01

    This paper examines the clinical utility of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) in the context of evaluating the Fibromyalgia Outpatient Education Program at Southlake Regional Health Centre (Newmarket, Canada). A pre-test/post-test design was implemented for data analysis. A total of 232 patients' data were obtained through retrospective patient chart review. Complete pre-post data were available for 70 patients and qualitative analysis was done for 12 patients. Main outcome measures included HADS and Arthritis Self-Efficacy (ASE) scores. At the end of the education program, subgroups of patients (high attendance, high exercise habit, low medication) experienced significant improvement on HADS-depression and ASE scores. Linear regression analysis found that HADS pre-program scores explain far more variance in HADS post-test scores than ASE pre-program scores explain in ASE post-program scores; more variance in ASE post-program scores was explained by other variables. In contrast to the quantitative analysis of the Anxiety subscale of HADS, patients in the focus group indicated that their anxiety level decreased through attending the education program. These findings suggest that HADS is an appropriate tool for evaluating fibromyalgia and related patient education programs. Moreover, patient education programs have positive effects on enhancing patients' psychological well-being and self-confidence in controlling fibromyalgia-related symptoms.

  4. Generating an efficient version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale in an urban obstetrical population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollan, Jackie K; Wisniewski, Stephen R; Luther, James F; Eng, Heather F; Dills, John Louis; Sit, Dorothy; Ciolino, Jody D; Wisner, Katherine L

    2017-01-15

    Postpartum depression incurs significant burden and suffering. We investigated the latent structure of the most commonly used screening measure, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in women (N=15,172) and tested its predictive validity for the diagnosis of depression as determined with a structured clinical interview. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, Receiver Operating Characteristic curves, and logistic regression analyses were conducted. A seven-item one factor scale (items 1, 2, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10) emerged with a Goodness of Index Fit Index (GFI) =.96, relative to the ten-item two factor version of the EPDS (GFI =.94). The seven-item EPDS achieved good sensitivity and specificity in predicting the 10-item EPDS, with a cut point score of 4 on the seven item EPDS to predict a 10-item EPDS score of 10 or more (sensitivity =95%, specificity =91%). The seven and 10-item EPDS showed a similar ability to predict a diagnoses of depression (area under the ROC curve=.795 for the 10-item, .770 for the seven-item EPDS). Logistic regression analyses showed similar predictive ability between the seven- and 10-item scales in predicting scores higher than 18 on the clinical interview LIMITATIONS: The sample represents women from one Midwest medical center and the EPDS was measured via phone. The seven-item one factor version of the EPDS is an efficient and effective measure of depression severity on par with the two factor 10-item version of the EPDS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Rasch analysis of the hospital anxiety and depression scale (hads for use in motor neurone disease

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    Shaw Pamela J

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS is commonly used to assess symptoms of anxiety and depression in motor neurone disease (MND. The measure has never been specifically validated for use within this population, despite questions raised about the scale's validity. This study seeks to analyse the construct validity of the HADS in MND by fitting its data to the Rasch model. Methods The scale was administered to 298 patients with MND. Scale assessment included model fit, differential item functioning (DIF, unidimensionality, local dependency and category threshold analysis. Results Rasch analyses were carried out on the HADS total score as well as depression and anxiety subscales (HADS-T, D and A respectively. After removing one item from both of the seven item scales, it was possible to produce modified HADS-A and HADS-D scales which fit the Rasch model. An 11-item higher-order HADS-T total scale was found to fit the Rasch model following the removal of one further item. Conclusion Our results suggest that a modified HADS-A and HADS-D are unidimensional, free of DIF and have good fit to the Rasch model in this population. As such they are suitable for use in MND clinics or research. The use of the modified HADS-T as a higher-order measure of psychological distress was supported by our data. Revised cut-off points are given for the modified HADS-A and HADS-D subscales.

  6. Sensitivity to changes during antidepressant treatment: a comparison of unidimensional subscales of the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS-C) and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) in patients with mild major, minor or subsyndromal depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmreich, Isabella; Wagner, Stefanie; Mergl, Roland; Allgaier, Antje-Kathrin; Hautzinger, Martin; Henkel, Verena; Hegerl, Ulrich; Tadić, André

    2012-06-01

    In the efficacy evaluation of antidepressant treatments, the total score of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) is still regarded as the 'gold standard'. We previously had shown that the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS) was more sensitive to detect depressive symptom changes than the HAMD17 (Helmreich et al. 2011). Furthermore, studies suggest that the unidimensional subscales of the HAMD, which capture the core depressive symptoms, outperform the full HAMD regarding the detection of antidepressant treatment effects. The aim of the present study was to compare several unidimensional subscales of the HAMD and the IDS regarding their sensitivity to changes in depression symptoms in a sample of patients with mild major, minor or subsyndromal depression (MIND). Biweekly IDS-C28 and HAMD17 data from 287 patients of a 10-week randomised, placebo-controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of sertraline and cognitive-behavioural group therapy in patients with MIND were converted to subscale scores and analysed during the antidepressant treatment course. We investigated sensitivity to depressive change for all scales from assessment-to-assessment, in relation to depression severity level and placebo-verum differences. The subscales performed similarly during the treatment course, with slight advantages for some subscales in detecting treatment effects depending on the treatment modality and on the items included. Most changes in depressive symptomatology were detected by the IDS short scale, but regarding the effect sizes, it performed worse than most subscales. Unidimensional subscales are a time- and cost-saving option in judging drug therapy outcomes, especially in antidepressant treatment efficacy studies. However, subscales do not cover all facets of depression (e.g. atypical symptoms, sleep disturbances), which might be important for comprehensively understanding the nature of the disease depression. Therefore, the cost-to-benefit ratio must be

  7. Development and validation of a postpartum depression risk score in delivered women, Iran

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    Mohammad R Maracy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Investigators describe a dramatic increase in the incidence of mood disorder after childbirth, with the largest risk in the 90 days after delivery. This study is designed to develop a relatively simple screening tool and validate it from the significant variables associated with postpartum depression (PPD to detect delivered women at high risk of having PPD. Materials and Methods: In the cross-sectional study, 6,627 from a total of 7,300 delivered women, 2-12 months after delivery were recruited and screened for PPD. Split-half validation was used to develop the risk score. The training data set was used to develop the model, and the validation data set was used to validate the developed the risk factors of postpartum depression risk score using multiple logistic regression analysis to compute the β coefficients and odds ratio (OR for the dependent variables associated with possible PPD in this study. Calibration was checked using the Hosmer and Lemeshow test. A score for independent variables contributing to PPD was calculated. Cutoff points using a trade-off between the sensitivity and specificity of risk scores derived from PPD model using the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve. Results: The predicted and observed PPD were not different (P value = 0.885. The aROC with area under the curve (S.E. of 0.611 (0.008 for predicting PPD using the suggested cut-off point of -0.702, the proportion of participants screening positive for PPD was 70.9% (sensitivity (CI 95%; 69.5, 72.3 while the proportion screening negative was 60.1% (specificity (CI 95%; 58.2, 62.1. Conclusion: Despite of the relatively low sensitivity and specificity in this study, it could be a simple, practical and useful screening tool to identify individual at high risk for PPD in the target population.

  8. A Korean validation study of the Clinically Useful Anxiety Outcome Scale: Comorbidity and differentiation of anxiety and depressive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Sang Won; Han, Changsu; Ko, Young-Hoon; Yoon, Seoyoung; Pae, Chi-Un; Choi, Joonho; Kim, Jae-Min; Yoon, Ho-Kyoung; Lee, Hoseon; Patkar, Ashwin A; Zimmerman, Mark

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Korean version of the Clinically Useful Anxiety Outcome Scale (CUXOS) and to examine the current diagnostic comorbidity and differential severity of anxiety symptoms between major depressive disorder (MDD) and anxiety disorders. In total, 838 psychiatric outpatients were analyzed at their intake appointment. Diagnostic characteristics were examined using the structured clinical interview from the DSM-IV because the DSM5 was not available at the start of the study. The CUXOS score was measured and compared with that of 3 clinician rating scales and 4 self-report scales. The CUXOS showed excellent results for internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.90), test-retest reliability (r = 0.74), and discriminant and convergent validity. The CUXOS significantly discriminated between different levels of anxiety severity, and the measure was sensitive to change after treatment. Approximately 45% of patients with MDD were additionally diagnosed with anxiety disorders while 55% of patients with anxiety disorders additionally reported an MDD. There was a significant difference in CUXOS scores between diagnostic categories (MDD only, anxiety only, both disorders, and no MDD or anxiety disorder). The CUXOS scores differed significantly between all categories of depression (major, minor, and non-depression) except for the comparison between minor depression and non-depression groups. The Korean version of the CUXOS is a reliable and valid measure of the severity of anxiety symptoms. The use of the CUXOS could broaden the understanding of coexisting and differentiating characteristics of anxiety and depression.

  9. The self-stigma of depression scale: Translation and validation of the Arabic version

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    Hussain Ahmed Darraj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Self-stigma may feature strongly and be detrimental for people with depression, but the understanding of its nature and prevalence is limited by the lack of psychometrically validated measures. This study is aimed to validate the Arabic version self-stigma of depression scale (SSDS among adolescents. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study involved 100 adolescents randomly selected. The analyses include face validation, factor analysis, and reliability testing. A test–retest was conducted within a 2-week interval. Results: The mean score for self-stigma of depression among study participants was 68.9 (Standard deviation = 8.76 median equal to 71 and range was 47. Descriptive analysis showed that the percentage of those who scored below the mean score (41.7% is shown less than those who scored above the mean score (58.3%. Preliminary construct validation analysis confirmed that factor analysis was appropriate for the Arabic-translated version of the SSDS. Furthermore, the factor analysis showed similar factor loadings to the original English version. The total internal consistency of the translated version, which was measured by Cronbach's alphas ranged from 0.70 to 0.77 for the four subscales and 0.84 for the total scale. Test–retest reliability was assessed in 65 respondents after 2 weeks. Cronbach's alphas ranged from 0.70 to 0.77 for the four subscales and 0.84 for the total scale. Conclusions: Face validity, construct validity, and reliability analysis were found satisfactory for the Arabic-translated version of the SSDS. The Arabic-translated version of the SSDS was found valid and reliable to be used in future studies, with comparable properties to the original version and to previous studies.

  10. Mokken scaling analysis of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in individuals with cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosco, Theodore D; Doyle, Frank; Watson, Roger; Ward, Mark; McGee, Hannah

    2012-01-01

    The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) is a prolifically used scale of anxiety and depression. The original bidimensional anxiety-depression latent structure of the HADS has come under significant scrutiny, with previous studies revealing one-, two-, three- and four-dimensional structures. The current study examines the latent structure of the HADS using a non-parametric item response theory method. Using data conglomerated from four independent studies of cardiovascular disease employing the HADS (n=893), Mokken scaling procedure was conducted to assess the latent structure of the HADS. A single scale consisting of 12 of 14 HADS items was revealed, indicating a unidimensional latent HADS structure. The HADS was initially intended to measure mutually exclusive levels of anxiety and depression; however, the current study indicates that a single dimension of general psychological distress is captured. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Detection of Mental Disorders Other Than Depression with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale in a Sample of Pregnant Women in Northern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sifuentes-Alvarez, Antonio; Salas-Martinez, Carlos

    2016-05-18

    We sought to evaluate the capacity of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in discriminating mental disorders other than depression in pregnant women in northern Mexico. Three hundred pregnant women attending prenatal consultations in a public hospital in Durango City, Mexico submitted a validated EPDS and were examined for mental disorders other than depression using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - 4(th) Ed. (DSM-IV) criteria. Sensitivity and specificity of cut-off points of the EPDS, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated. Of the 300 pregnant women studied, 21 had mental disorders other than depression by the DSM-IV criteria. The best EPDS score for screening mental disorders other than depression was 8/9. This threshold showed a sensitivity of 52.4%, a specificity of 67.0%, a positive predictive value of 11.5%, a negative predictive value of 95.4%, and an area under the curve of 0.643 (95% confidence interval: 0.52-0.76). The EPDS can be considered for screening mental disorders other than depression in Mexican pregnant women whenever a cut-off score of 8/9 is used. However, the tool showed small power to separate pregnant women with and without mental disorders other than depression.

  12. [The ICD-10 Symptom Rating (ISR): validation of the depression scale in a clinical sample].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Wolfram Alexis; Loew, Thomas; von Heymann, Friedrich; Stadtmüller, Godehard; Georgi, Alexander; Tischinger, Michael; Strom, Frederik; Mutschler, Friederike; Tritt, Karin

    2015-06-01

    The ICD-10 Symptom Rating (ISR) 1 measures the severity of psychiatric disorders with 29 items on 5 subscales as comprehensively as possible. The following syndromes are measured: Depressive syndrome, anxiety syndrome, obsessive-compulsive syndrome, Somatoform syndrome, eating disorder syndrome as well as additional items that cover various mental syndromes, and an overall score. The study reports findings on the validity and sensitivity to change of the depression subscale (ISR-D). In a clinical sample of N=949 inpatients with depression spectrum disorders the convergent validity was determined by correlation with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) 3 and the subscale "depression" of the Symptom-Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R) 4. The high correlation between the different instruments confirms the validity of the ISR-Depression Scale. The sensitivity to change of the ISR seems higher than that of the BDI and the SCL-90. Because of its economy and the good psychometric properties the ISR is recommended for use in clinical samples.

  13. Aesthetic satisfaction scoring - introducing an aesthetic numeric analogue scale (ANA-scale).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Wolfgang; Podmelle, Fred; Guiol, Claudia; Metelmann, Hans Robert

    2012-07-01

    To objectively and reproducibly assess the outcome of aesthetic procedures remains one of the major, unmet challenges in maxillo-facial and plastic surgery. Frequently employed scoring systems for the evaluation of aesthetic procedures are confounded by observer bias, be it that of the patient or of the surgeon. A new approach of pragmatic and simple scoring is the ANA [Aesthetic Numeric Analogue] scale, which facilitates the objective, reproducible, standardized and internationally uniform evaluation of aesthetic procedure outcome by converting all ratings for any kind of aesthetic procedures from a subjective value to an objective figure. The intention of the ANA-scale is to relate aesthetic satisfaction from wording to figures and by this create a rating system. The study is arranging matching pairs of verbal description and figures to finally queue up generating a scale. The clinical feasibility of this rating system is demonstrated in a surgical case. As a detail of the results the influence of the viewer's age to the aesthetic benefit assessment is obvious. In summary the ANA-scale looks to be a tool useful in individual treatment protocols as well as analysis of different techniques of aesthetic surgery for rating of the pure aesthetic satisfaction of the patients.

  14. Alternative Smoothing and Scaling Strategies for Weighted Composite Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Tim

    2014-01-01

    In this study, smoothing and scaling approaches are compared for estimating subscore-to-composite scaling results involving composites computed as rounded and weighted combinations of subscores. The considered smoothing and scaling approaches included those based on raw data, on smoothing the bivariate distribution of the subscores, on smoothing…

  15. Calibration of unified Parkinson's disease rating scale scores to Movement Disorder Society-unified Parkinson's disease rating scale scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Christopher G; Stebbins, Glenn T; Tilley, Barbara C

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop formulas to convert the UPDRS to Movement Disorder Society (MDS)-UPDRS scores. The MDS-UPDRS is a revision of the UPDRS with sound clinimetric properties. Reliable formulas to recalculate UPDRS scores into MDS-UPDRS equivalents are pivotal to the practical transition and definitive adoption of the MDS-UPDRS. UPDRS and MDS-UPDRS scores were collected on 875 PD patients. A developmental sample was used to regress UPDRS scores on corresponding MDS-UPDRS scores based on three H & Y groupings (I/II, III, and IV/V). Regression weighting factors and intercept terms provided formulas for UPDRS conversions to be tested in a validation sample. Concordance between the true MDS-UPDRS Part scores and those derived from the formulas was compared using Bland-Altman's plots and Lin's concordance coefficient (LCC). Significant concordance between UPDRS-estimated MDS-UPDRS scores was achieved for Parts II (Motor Experiences of Daily Living) (LCC = 0.93) and III (Motor Examination) (LCC = 0.97). The formulas resulted in mean differences between the true MDS-UPDRS and estimated MDS-UPDRS scores of less than 1 point for both Parts II and III. Concordance was not achieved for Parts I and IV (Non-motor Experiences of Daily Living and Complications of Therapy). Formulas allow archival UPDRS Parts II and III individual patient data to be accurately transferred to MDS-UPDRS scores. Because Part I collects data on much more extensive information than the UPDRS, and because Part IV is structured differently in the two versions, old ratings for these parts cannot be converted. © 2012 Movement Disorder Society.

  16. Exploratory Study of the Diagnostic Abilities of the Baptista Depression Scale Adult Version (EBADEP-A

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    Makilim Nunes Baptista

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study’s objective was to analyze the diagnostic capabilities of a depression screening scale. For that, this scale was administered along with two diagnostic instruments, namely, the structured clinical interview from the DSM-IV (SCID-CV and the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D, which are considered to be the gold standard for diagnosing depressive disorders. Participants were 22 subjects diagnosed by psychiatrists with Major Depressive Disorder. The EBADEP-A correctly identified cases of depression, showing a high correlation with the HAM-D, which indicates the scale correctly captures most depressive symptoms, even though it was initially used as a depression-screening tool.

  17. Assessing depression related severity and functional impairment: the Overall Depression Severity and Impairment Scale (ODSIS.

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    Masaya Ito

    Full Text Available The Overall Depression Severity and Impairment Scale (ODSIS is a brief, five-item measure for assessing the frequency and intensity of depressive symptoms, as well as functional impairments in pleasurable activities, work or school, and interpersonal relationships due to depression. Although this scale is expected to be useful in various psychiatric and mental health settings, the reliability, validity, and interpretability have not yet been fully examined. This study was designed to examine the reliability, factorial, convergent, and discriminant validity of a Japanese version of the ODSIS, as well as its ability to distinguish between individuals with and without a major depressive disorder diagnosis.From a pool of registrants at an internet survey company, 2830 non-clinical and clinical participants were selected randomly (619 with major depressive disorder, 619 with panic disorder, 576 with social anxiety disorder, 645 with obsessive-compulsive disorder, and 371 non-clinical panelists. Participants were asked to respond to the ODSIS and conventional measures of depression, functional impairment, anxiety, neuroticism, satisfaction with life, and emotion regulation.Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of three split subsamples indicated the unidimensional factor structure of ODSIS. Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis showed invariance of factor loadings between non-clinical and clinical subsamples. The ODSIS also showed excellent internal consistency and test-retest intraclass correlation coefficients. Convergence and discriminance of the ODSIS with various measures were in line with our expectations. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses showed that the ODSIS was able to detect a major depressive syndrome accurately.This study supports the reliability and validity of ODSIS in a non-western population, which can be interpreted as demonstrating cross-cultural validity.

  18. A comparative study of the effects of problem-solving skills training and relaxation on the score of self-esteem in women with postpartum depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Saeideh; Kordi, Masoumeh; Gharavi, Morteza Modares

    2015-01-01

    Self-esteem is a determinant factor of mental health. Individuals with low self-esteem have depression, and low self-esteem is one of main symptoms of depression. Aim of this study is to compare the effects of problem-solving skills and relaxation on the score of self-esteem in women with postpartum depression. This clinical trial was performed on 80 women. Sampling was done in Mashhad healthy centers from December 2009 to June 2010. Women were randomly divided and assigned to problem-solving skills (n = 26), relaxation (n = 26), and control groups (n = 28). Interventions were implemented for 6 weeks and the subjects again completed Eysenck self-esteem scale 9 weeks after delivery. Data analysis was done by descriptive statistics, Kruskal-Wallis test, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) test by SPSS software. The findings showed that the mean of self-esteem scale scores was 117.9 ± 9.7 after intervention in the problem-solving group, 117.0 ± 11.8 in the relaxation group, and 113.5 ± 10.4 in the control group and there was significant difference between the groups of relaxation and problem solving, and also between intervention groups and control group. According to the results, problem-solving skills and relaxation can be used to prevent and recover from postpartum depression.

  19. Reporting and Interpreting Scores Derived from Likert-Type Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmbrod, J. Robert

    2014-01-01

    Forty-nine percent of the 706 articles published in the "Journal of Agricultural Education" from 1995 to 2012 reported quantitative research with at least one variable measured by a Likert-type scale. Grounded in the classical test theory definition of reliability and the tenets basic to Likert-scale measurement methodology, for the…

  20. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale: translation and validation for a Greek sample

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    Kogevinas Manolis

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS is an important screening instrument that is used routinely with mothers during the postpartum period for early identification of postnatal depression. The purpose of this study was to validate the Greek version of EPDS along with sensitivity, specificity and predictive values. Methods 120 mothers within 12 weeks postpartum were recruited from the perinatal care registers of the Maternity Departments of 4 Hospitals of Heraklion municipality, Greece. EPDS and Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II surveys were administered in random order to the mothers. Each mother was diagnosed with depression according to the validated Greek version of BDI-II. The psychometric measurements that were performed included: two independent samples t-tests, One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, reliability coefficients, Explanatory factor analysis using a Varimax rotation and Principal Components Method. Confirmatory analysis -known as structural equation modelling- of principal components was conducted by LISREL (Linear Structural Relations. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis was carried out to evaluate the global functioning of the scale. Results 8 (6.7% of the mothers were diagnosed with major postnatal depression, 14 (11.7% with moderate and 38 (31.7% with mild depression on the basis of BDI-II scores. The internal consistency of the EPDS Greek version -using Chronbach's alpha coefficient- was found 0.804 and that of Guttman split-half coefficient 0.742. Our findings confirm the multidimensionality of EPDS, demonstrating a two-factor structure which contained subscales reflecting depressive symptoms and anxiety. The Confirmatory Factor analysis demonstrated that the two factor model offered a very good fit to our data. The area under ROC curve AUC was found 0.7470 and the logistic estimate for the threshold score of 8/9 fitted the model sensitivity at 76.7% and model specificity at 68

  1. Performance of the Visual Analogue Scale of Happiness and of the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia in the Tremembé Epidemiological Study, Brazil

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    Karolina G. César

    Full Text Available Depression is a major growing public health problem. Many population studies have found a significant relationship between depression and the presence of cognitive disorders. OBJECTIVE: To establish the correlation between the Visual Analogue Scale of Happiness and the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia in the population aged 60 years or over in the city of Tremembé, state of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: An epidemiological survey involving home visits was carried out in the city of Tremembé. The sample was randomly selected by drawing 20% of the population aged 60 years or older from each of the city's census sectors. In this single-phase study, the assessment included clinical history, physical and neurological examination, cognitive evaluation, and application of both the Cornell Scale and the Analogue Scale of Happiness for psychiatric symptoms. The presence of depressive symptoms was defined as scores greater than or equal to 8 points on the Cornell Scale. RESULTS: A total of 623 subjects were evaluated and of these 251 (40.3% had clinically significant depressive symptoms on the Cornell Scale, with a significant association with female gender (p<0.001 and with lower education (p=0.012. One hundred and thirty-six participants (21.8% chose the unhappiness faces, with a significant association with age (p<0.001, female gender (p=0.020 and low socioeconomic status (p=0.012. Although there was a statistically significant association on the correlation test, the correlation was not high (rho=0.47. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of depressive symptoms was high in this sample and the Visual Analogue Scale of Happiness and Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia should not be used as similar alternatives for evaluating the presence of depressive symptoms, at least in populations with low educational level.

  2. PSYCHOMETRIC PROPERTY OF FATIGUE SEVERITY SCALE AND CORRELATION WITH DEPRESSION AND QUALITY OF LIFE IN CIRRHOTICS

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    Danusa ROSSI

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Fatigue is a common complaint in cirrhotic patients and may be considered a debilitating symptom with negative impact on quality of life. Research on its etiology and treatment has been hampered by the lack of relevant and reproducible measures of fatigue. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the psychometric properties of the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS in cirrhotic patients and to correlate with depressive symptomatology and quality of life. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with a convenience sample of 106 cirrhotic patients, aged between 18 and 70 years, both genders, literate, pre and post liver transplantation in outpatient follow-up. Internal consistency, reproducibility, discriminant validity, criterion validity, construct validity, responsiveness criterion, depressive symptomatology and quality of life were evaluated through questionnaires between January and October 2015. RESULTS: The mean age was 54.75±9.9 years, 65.1% male and 32.1% of the sample had cirrhosis due to hepatitis C virus. The mean FSS score was 4.74±1.64. Cronbach’s alpha was 0.93, and the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient was 0.905 (95% CI: 0.813-0.952. For discriminant validity, FSS differentiated scores from different groups (P=0.009 and presented a correlation with the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (r=0.606, P=0.002. FSS correlated significantly and positively with depressive symptomatology and correlated negatively with the SF-36 domains for construct validity. For responsiveness, no significant changes were observed in the fatigue scores in the pre and post-liver transplantation periods (P=0.327. CONCLUSION: FSS showed good psychometric performance in the evaluation of fatigue in patients with cirrhosis. Fatigue presented a strong correlation with depressive symptomatology and quality of life.

  3. Validation of an Arabic translation of the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkby, Russel; Al Saif, Abdulaziz; el-din Mohamed, Gamal

    2005-01-01

    Depression is a common condition in primary care medicine in all population groups. We wanted to validate an Arabic translation Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale for Arabic speakers as it has been validated in a number of other languages. The hospital translation service translated the English version into Arabic, which was verified by back translation. This version was tested in a pilot study with 40 bilingual Arabic-English clinicians and Arabic linguistic experts. Revised questions were subjected to another translation-back translation and the final version tested in a clinical trial with 240 consenting bilingual English-Arabic speakers. The subjects were randomly assigned to answer either the English or Arabic version of the Zung questionnaire first, ensuring that subjects had no access to previous answers when answering the questionnaire in the other language. The scores obtained were tested for agreement using the kappa statistic. We found substantial agreement between the scores obtained from the two questionnaires. The kappa measurement of agreement was 0.652 (95% confidence interval, 0.571-0.732) We believe the Arabic translation of the English Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale is valid and reliable, and will be useful to practitioners who would like to use this tool in Arabic-speaking patients.

  4. Normalization Procedure for the Baptista Depression Scale - Adult Version (EBADEP-A: Transferring of Norms

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    Juliana Oliveira Gomes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the standardization of psychological instruments, that is, the construction of referential interpretations of a test, we can find different procedures performed both by Classical Test Theory and the Theory of Item Response. Especially in this case (IRT, we can admit a test as a norm, in order to use its standardization and transfer the cut-off point to another instrument. Based on this information, the present study aimed to provide a cutoff score for the Baptista Depression Scale - Adult Version (EBADEP-A through procedures of norms-transfer based on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies – Depression Scale (CES-D. The EBADEP-A presented good distribution and ability to discriminate depressive symptoms, and the sample, consisting of Brazilian College students, received a cutoff score of 32 points. It is emphasized that this is an exploratory and preliminary study, and it we suggest further analyzes to be performed with clinical samples for which results can be corroborated or confronted.

  5. Factor analysis of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale from a large cancer population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Adam B; Selby, Peter J; Velikova, Galina; Stark, Dan; Wright, E Penny; Gould, Ann; Cull, Ann

    2002-06-01

    The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) is widely used as a tool for assessing psychological distress in patients and non-clinical groups. Previous studies have demonstrated conflicting results regarding the factor structure of the questionnaire for different groups of patients, and the general population. This study investigated the factor structure of the HADS in a large heterogeneous cancer population of 1474 patients. It also sought to investigate emerging evidence that the HADS conforms to the tripartite model of anxiety and depression (Clark & Watson, 1993), and to test the proposal that detection rates for clinical cases of anxiety and depression could be enhanced by partialling out the effects of higher order factors from the HADS (Dunbar et al., 2000). The results demonstrated a two-factor structure corresponding to the Anxiety and Depression subscales of the questionnaire. The factor structure remained stable for different subgroups of the sample, for males and females, as well as for different age groups, and a subgroup of metastatic cancer patients. The two factors were highly correlated (r =.52) and subsequent secondary factor analyses demonstrated a single higher order factor corresponding to psychological distress or negative affectivity. We concluded that the HADS comprises two factors corresponding to anhedonia and autonomic anxiety, which share a common variance with a primary factor namely psychological distress, and that the subscales of the HADS, rather than the residual scores (e.g. Dunbar et al., 2000) were more effective at detecting clinical cases of anxiety and depression.

  6. Assessing Latina/o Undergraduates' Depressive Symptomatology: Comparisons of the Beck Depression Inventory-II, the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale, and the Self-Report Depression Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloria, Alberta M.; Castellanos, Jeanett; Kanagui-Munoz, Marlen; Rico, Melissa A.

    2012-01-01

    The use of depression scales as screening tools at university and college centers is increasing and thus, the question of whether scales are culturally valid for different student groups is increasingly more relevant with increased severity of depression for students and changing student demographics. As such, this study examined the reliability…

  7. Depression Subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale applied preoperatively in spinal surgery

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    Asdrubal Falavigna

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy of the Depression Subscale of Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D in spine surgery, comparing it to Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, the HADS-D and the BDI were applied to patients undergoing spine surgery for lumbar (n=139 or cervical spondylosis (n=17. Spearman correlation tests for HADS-D and BDI were applied. The internal consistency of HADS-D was estimated by Cronbach's alpha coefficient. RESULTS: According to the BDI, the prevalence of depression was of 28.8% (n=45. The Spearman r coefficient between HADS-D and BDI was 0.714 (p10, there was a sensitivity of 71.1%, specificity of 95.4%, and positive likelihood-ratio of 15.78. CONCLUSIONS: HADS-D showed a strong correlation with BDI and good reliability. HADS-D is a good alternative for screening depression and assessing its severity.

  8. Factor structure and reliability of the depression, anxiety and stress scales in a large Portuguese community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos-Raposo, José; Fernandes, Helder Miguel; Teixeira, Carla M

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the factor structure and reliability of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS-21) in a large Portuguese community sample. Participants were 1020 adults (585 women and 435 men), with a mean age of 36.74 (SD = 11.90) years. All scales revealed good reliability, with Cronbach's alpha values between .80 (anxiety) and .84 (depression). The internal consistency of the total score was .92. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the best-fitting model (*CFI = .940, *RMSEA = .038) consisted of a latent component of general psychological distress (or negative affectivity) plus orthogonal depression, anxiety and stress factors. The Portuguese version of the DASS-21 showed good psychometric properties (factorial validity and reliability) and thus can be used as a reliable and valid instrument for measuring depression, anxiety and stress symptoms.

  9. Autism Spectrum Disorder Scale Scores in Pediatric Mood and Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, Daniel S.; Guyer, Amanda E.; Goldwin, Michelle; Towbin, Kenneth A.; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    A study compares the scores on autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptom scales in healthy children and in children with mood or anxiety disorders. It is observed that children with mood or anxiety disorders obtained higher scores on ASD symptom scales than healthy children.

  10. River Discharge and Local Scale Habitat Influence LIFE Score Macroinvertebrate LIFE Scores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunbar, Michael J.; Pedersen, Morten Lauge; Cadman, Dan

    2010-01-01

    . This is the first time that the combined importance of these two factors has been demonstrated using routine invertebrate biomonitoring data. These results complement other site-specific studies that have shown how channel structure interacts with flow to create physical habitat, and should assist future work...... Midlands of the U.K., we describe how local-scale habitat features (indexed through River Habitat Survey or Danish Habitat Quality Survey) and changing river flow (discharge) influence the response of a macroinvertebrate community index. The approach has broad applicability in developing regional flow...

  11. An association study of DRD2 and COMT polymorphisms with novelty seeking and harm avoidance scores, in two independent samples of depressed patients

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    Frampton Christopher MA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It was recently reported that an interaction of the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2 and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT influences the behavioural approach system – as measured using Carver and White's Behavioural Inhibition and Behavioural Approach System (BIS/BAS scales – in a sample of healthy German subjects. The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI, in particular the novelty seeking (NS and harm avoidance (HA scales, correlates moderately with the BIS/BAS measure. This study aimed to examine support for an association of DRD2 and COMT with behavioural activation, using the TCI within two independent samples of depressed outpatients (for both samples n = 146. Methods Two clinical samples of depressed patients were ascertained to assess the efficacy of two different pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy treatments. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to analyse NS and HA scale and subscale scores with respect to gene loci within each clinical sample. Analysis of covariance were undertaken to examine the association of age and gender with NS and HA scores. An association of age group or gender with gene loci were explored using chi-squared tests, in each sample. Results No significant effect of DRD2 or COMT, either independently or as an interaction, on NS or HA scores was observed, within either sample. Whilst age was significantly negatively associated with NS scores, including age in the two- and three-way interactions did not affect the significance of the association of personality with gene loci. Conclusion This study suggests that the COMT-DRD2 Equilibrium Model of Positive Emotionality recently proposed by Reuter and his colleagues is not applicable amongst currently depressed individuals, whose behavioural approach and inhibition tendencies have been assessed using the TCI.

  12. Psychometric Limitations of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale for Assessing Depressive Symptoms among Adults with HIV/AIDS: A Rasch Analysis

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    Caryl L. Gay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D scale is a widely used measure of depressive symptoms, but its psychometric properties have not been adequately evaluated among adults with HIV/AIDS. This study used an item response theory approach (Rasch analysis to evaluate the CES-D’s validity and reliability in relation to key demographic and clinical variables in adults with HIV/AIDS. A convenience sample of 347 adults with HIV/AIDS (231 males, 93 females, and 23 transgenders; age range 22–77 years completed the CES-D. A Rasch model application was used to analyze the CES-D’s rating scale functioning, internal scale validity, person-response validity, person-separation validity, internal consistency, differential item functioning (DIF, and differential test functioning. CES-D scores were generally high and associated with several demographic and clinical variables. The CES-D distinguished 3 distinct levels of depression and had acceptable internal consistency but lacked unidimensionality, five items demonstrated poor fit to the model, 15% of the respondents demonstrated poor fit, and eight items demonstrated DIF related to gender, race, or AIDS diagnosis. Removal of misfitting items resulted in minimal improvement in the CES-D’s substantive and structural validity. CES-D scores should be interpreted with caution in adults with HIV/AIDS, particularly when comparing scores across gender and racial groups.

  13. A longitudinal analysis of diet quality scores and the risk of incident depression in the SUN Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena; Henríquez-Sánchez, Patricia; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Lahortiga, Francisca; Molero, Patricio; Toledo, Estefanía; Martínez-González, Miguel A

    2015-09-17

    Some studies have pointed out that several dietary patterns could be associated with a reduced risk of depression among adults. This association seems to be consistent across countries, cultures and populations. The objective of the study was to compare and to establish the type of relationship between three diet quality scores and depression in the SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra) Cohort study. We performed a dynamic cohort study based on Spanish university graduates free of depression at baseline. Dietary intake was repeatedly assessed at baseline and after 10 years of follow-up with a validated semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Three previously described diet quality scores: Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS), Pro-vegetarian Dietary Pattern (PDP) and Alternative Healthy Eating Index-2010 (AHEI-2010) were built. Participants were classified as having depression if they reported a new clinical diagnosis of depression by a physician or initiated the use of an antidepressant drug during follow-up. Time-dependent Cox regression models with cumulative averages of diet and restricted cubic splines were used to estimate hazard ratios of depression according to quintiles of adherence to the MDS, PDP and AHEI-2010. One thousand and fifty one incident cases of depression were observed among 15,093 participants from the SUN Cohort after a median follow-up of 8.5 years. Inverse and significant associations were observed between the three diet quality scores and depression risk. The hazard ratios and 95 % confidence intervals for extreme quintiles (fifth versus first) of updated adherence to MDS, PDP and AHEI-2010 were 0.84 (0.69-1.02), 0.74 (0.61-0.89) and 0.60 (0.49-0.72), respectively. The dose-response analyses showed non-linear associations, suggesting that suboptimal adherence to these dietary patterns may partially be responsible for increased depression risk. Better adherence to the MDS, PDP and AHEI-2010 was associated with a reduced risk of

  14. Cross-cultural validation of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kui; Shi, Hai-Song; Geng, Fu-Lei; Zou, Lai-Quan; Tan, Shu-Ping; Wang, Yi; Neumann, David L; Shum, David H K; Chan, Raymond C K

    2016-05-01

    The gap between the demand and delivery of mental health services in mainland China can be reduced by validating freely available and psychometrically sound psychological instruments. The present research examined the Chinese version of the 21-item Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21). Study 1 administered the DASS-21 to 1,815 Chinese college students and found internal consistency indices (Cronbach's alpha) of .83, .80, and .82 for the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress subscales, respectively, and .92 for the total DASS total. Test-retest reliability over a 6-month interval was .39 to .46 for each of the 3 subscales and .46 for the total DASS. Moderate convergent validity of the Depression and Anxiety subscales was demonstrated via significant correlations with the Chinese Beck Depression Inventory (r = .51 at Time 1 and r = .64 at Time 2) and the Chinese State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (r = .41), respectively. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the original 3-factor model with 1 minor change (nonnormed fit index [NNFI] = .964, comparative fit index [CFI] = .968, and root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA] = .079). Study 2 examined the clinical utility of the Chinese DASS-21 in 166 patients with schizophrenia and 90 matched healthy controls. Patients had higher Depression and Anxiety but not Stress subscale scores than healthy controls. A discriminant function composed of the linear combination of 3 subscale scores correctly discriminated 69.92% of participants, which again supported the potential clinical utility of the DASS in mainland China. Taken together, findings in these studies support the cross-cultural validity of the DASS-21 in China. (PsycINFO Database Record

  15. A literature review of the application of the Geriatric Depression Scale, Depression Anxiety Stress Scales and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist to community nursing cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jacqui; Annells, Merilyn

    2009-04-01

    To explore through literature review the appropriateness of three common tools for use by community nurses to screen war veteran and war widow(er) clients for depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder. War veterans and, to a lesser extent, war widow(er)s, are prone to mental health challenges, especially depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder. Community nurses do not accurately identify such people with depression and related disorders although they are well positioned to do so. The use of valid and reliable self-report tools is one method of improving nurses' identification of people with actual or potential mental health difficulties for referral to a general practitioner or mental health practitioner for diagnostic assessment and treatment. The Geriatric Depression Scale, Depression Anxiety Stress Scales and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist are frequently recommended for mental health screening but the appropriateness of using the tools for screening war veteran and war widow(er) community nursing clients who are often aged and have functional impairment, is unknown. Systematic review. Current literature informs that the Geriatric Depression Scale accurately predicts a diagnosis of depression in community nursing cohorts. The three Depression Anxiety Stress Scales subscales of depression, anxiety and stress are valid; however, no studies were identified that compared the performance of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales in predicting diagnoses of depression or anxiety. The Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist predicts post-traumatic stress disorder in community cohorts although no studies meeting the selection criteria included male participants. This review provides recommendations for the use of the Geriatric Depression Scale, Depression Anxiety Stress Scales and The Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist based on examination of the published evidence for the application of these screening tools in samples

  16. Impact of Prenatal Cognitive-Behavioral Stress Management Intervention on Maternal Anxiety and Depression and Newborns’ Apgar Scores

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    Mahsa Karamoozian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Motherhood is a transformative and pleasing experience in a woman’s life. However, given the physical and psychological changes, it can induce a degree of stress and anxiety in mothers. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of cognitive-behavioral stress management (CBSM on maternal anxiety and depression during pregnancy and newborns’ Apgar scores. Methods: This semi-experimental study was performed by applying a pretest-posttest control-group design. Overall, 30 primiparous mothers were selected among women referring to health clinics of Kerman, Iran, using convenience sampling. Subjects were randomly allocated to experimental and control groups. Data were collected, using Pregnancy-Related Anxiety Questionnaire and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Questionnaire. After completing the pretest, the experimental group was subjected to 12 sessions of CBSM training; posttest data were collected after the intervention. Multivariate analysis of covariance was performed, using SPSS version 16. P-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The obtained results revealed a significant decrement in the average posttest scores of anxiety and depression in the experimental group, compared to pretest scores and the control group. Moreover, differences in 1- and 5-minute Apgar scores between the two groups were statistically significant. These findings indicated the effectiveness of CBSM during pregnancy in reducing maternal anxiety and depression. Conclusion: Pregnant women can benefit from psychological interventions such as CBSM in medical and health care centers.

  17. Orthognathic surgery improves quality of life and depression, but not anxiety, and patients with higher preoperative depression scores improve less.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunault, P; Battini, J; Potard, C; Jonas, C; Zagala-Bouquillon, B; Chabut, A; Mercier, J-M; Bedhet, N; Réveillère, C; Goga, D; Courtois, R

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed quality of life (QoL), depression, and anxiety before and after orthognathic surgery and identified risk factors for poorer postoperative outcome. This multicentre prospective study included 140 patients from five French medical centres. We assessed patients before surgery (T1), 3 months after surgery (T2), and 12 months after surgery (T3). We assessed the severity of the orofacial deformity, physical, psychological, social, and environmental QoL (WHOQOL-BREF), and depression and anxiety (GHQ-28). Risk factors for poorer outcome were identified using linear mixed models. Between baseline and 12 months, there was significant improvement in psychological and social QoL and in depression (although below the norms reported in the general population), but not in anxiety. Physical QoL was poorer in patients who were younger, who had a mild orofacial deformity, and who were depressed. Psychological QoL was poorer in younger patients and in depressed patients. Social QoL was poorer in patients who were single, who had a mild orofacial deformity, and who were depressed. Although orthognathic surgery provides a moderate improvement in psychological and social QoL, the systematic screening and treatment of depression could further improve QoL after surgery because it is a major predictor of poor QoL in this population.

  18. Thurstone's Scaling Model Applied to the Assessment of Self-Reported Depressive Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Joan

    1994-01-01

    Thurstone's scaling based on judgments of 527 students and 37 clinical faculty members was applied to the Beck Depression Inventory, the Zung Depression Scale, and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory and fitted the observed data well. A psychological continuum was derived for severity of depression. (SLD)

  19. Factor structure of the Japanese version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale in the postpartum period.

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    Chika Kubota

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS is a widely used screening tool for postpartum depression (PPD. Although the reliability and validity of EPDS in Japanese has been confirmed and the prevalence of PPD is found to be about the same as Western countries, the factor structure of the Japanese version of EPDS has not been elucidated yet. METHODS: 690 Japanese mothers completed all items of the EPDS at 1 month postpartum. We divided them randomly into two sample sets. The first sample set (n = 345 was used for exploratory factor analysis, and the second sample set was used (n = 345 for confirmatory factor analysis. RESULTS: The result of exploratory factor analysis indicated a three-factor model consisting of anxiety, depression and anhedonia. The results of confirmatory factor analysis suggested that the anxiety and anhedonia factors existed for EPDS in a sample of Japanese women at 1 month postpartum. The depression factor varies by the models of acceptable fit. CONCLUSIONS: We examined EPDS scores. As a result, "anxiety" and "anhedonia" exist for EPDS among postpartum women in Japan as already reported in Western countries. Cross-cultural research is needed for future research.

  20. Quality of Life in Depression Scale (QLDS – development of the scale and Polish adaptation

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    Majkowicz, Mikołaj

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this study was to adapt the Quality of Life in Depression Scale to Polish conditions. The scale determines the quality of life, defined in terms of the concept of needs, and focuses on patients with depressive disorders. Since its basic version has been developed, the tool was adapted in many countries, also outside Europe.Method. The adaptation procedure included the translation of the original version into Polish, followed by the English retranslation, and was performed by four independent, qualified translators. The final Polish version was verified during a pilot study.Results. This pilot study confirmed high reliability of the Polish version of Quality of Life in Depression Scale.Conclusion. The Quality of Life in Depression Scale (QLDS can be considered an interesting tool in view of its broad theoretical background, and a simple procedure to complete during a clinical evaluation. The use of a specialist translation procedure, and the results of our pilot study suggest that the QLDS can be used in further research, both when evaluating a clinical population and when dealing with individual patients.

  1. The Kimberley assessment of depression of older Indigenous Australians: prevalence of depressive disorders, risk factors and validation of the KICA-dep scale.

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    Osvaldo P Almeida

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to develop a culturally acceptable and valid scale to assess depressive symptoms in older Indigenous Australians, to determine the prevalence of depressive disorders in the older Kimberley community, and to investigate the sociodemographic, lifestyle and clinical factors associated with depression in this population. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey of adults aged 45 years or over from six remote Indigenous communities in the Kimberley and 30% of those living in Derby, Western Australia. The 11 linguistic and culturally sensitive items of the Kimberley Indigenous Cognitive Assessment of Depression (KICA-dep scale were derived from the signs and symptoms required to establish the diagnosis of a depressive episode according to the DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10 criteria, and their frequency was rated on a 4-point scale ranging from 'never' to 'all the time' (range of scores: 0 to 33. The diagnosis of depressive disorder was established after a face-to-face assessment with a consultant psychiatrist. Other measures included sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, and clinical history. RESULTS: The study included 250 participants aged 46 to 89 years (mean±SD = 60.9±10.7, of whom 143 (57.2% were women. The internal reliability of the KICA-dep was 0.88 and the cut-point 7/8 (non-case/case was associated with 78% sensitivity and 82% specificity for the diagnosis of a depressive disorder. The point-prevalence of a depressive disorder in this population was 7.7%; 4.0% for men and 10.4% for women. Heart problems were associated with increased odds of depression (odds ratio = 3.3, 95% confidence interval = 1.2,8.8. CONCLUSIONS: The KICA-dep has robust psychometric properties and can be used with confidence as a screening tool for depression among older Indigenous Australians. Depressive disorders are common in this population, possibly because of increased stressors and health morbidities.

  2. A new clinical rating scale for work absence and productivity: validation in patients with major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatham Lakshmi N

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale (LEAPS, a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete. Methods The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR, the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS and the Health and Work Performance Questionnaire (HPQ. Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted. Results A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p Conclusion The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.

  3. Pattern analysis of total item score and item response of the Kessler Screening Scale for Psychological Distress (K6) in a nationally representative sample of US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomitaka, Shinichiro; Kawasaki, Yohei; Ide, Kazuki; Akutagawa, Maiko; Yamada, Hiroshi; Yutaka, Ono; Furukawa, Toshiaki A

    2017-01-01

    Several recent studies have shown that total scores on depressive symptom measures in a general population approximate an exponential pattern except for the lower end of the distribution. Furthermore, we confirmed that the exponential pattern is present for the individual item responses on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). To confirm the reproducibility of such findings, we investigated the total score distribution and item responses of the Kessler Screening Scale for Psychological Distress (K6) in a nationally representative study. Data were drawn from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS), which comprises four subsamples: (1) a national random digit dialing (RDD) sample, (2) oversamples from five metropolitan areas, (3) siblings of individuals from the RDD sample, and (4) a national RDD sample of twin pairs. K6 items are scored using a 5-point scale: "none of the time," "a little of the time," "some of the time," "most of the time," and "all of the time." The pattern of total score distribution and item responses were analyzed using graphical analysis and exponential regression model. The total score distributions of the four subsamples exhibited an exponential pattern with similar rate parameters. The item responses of the K6 approximated a linear pattern from "a little of the time" to "all of the time" on log-normal scales, while "none of the time" response was not related to this exponential pattern. The total score distribution and item responses of the K6 showed exponential patterns, consistent with other depressive symptom scales.

  4. Comparing the MMPI-2 Scale Scores of Parents Involved in Parental Competency and Child Custody Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resendes, John; Lecci, Len

    2012-01-01

    MMPI-2 scores from a parent competency sample (N = 136 parents) are compared with a previously published data set of MMPI-2 scores for child custody litigants (N = 508 parents; Bathurst et al., 1997). Independent samples t tests yielded significant and in some cases substantial differences on the standard MMPI-2 clinical scales (especially Scales…

  5. Psychometric Properties of Raw and Scale Scores on Mixed-Format Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolen, Michael J.; Lee, Won-Chan

    2011-01-01

    This paper illustrates that the psychometric properties of scores and scales that are used with mixed-format educational tests can impact the use and interpretation of the scores that are reported to examinees. Psychometric properties that include reliability and conditional standard errors of measurement are considered in this paper. The focus is…

  6. Dimensionality and scale properties of the Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Cock, Evi S A; Emons, Wilco H M; Nefs, Giesje

    2011-01-01

    Scale (EDS) is a widely used method for screening depression. However, there is still debate about the dimensionality of the test. Furthermore, the EDS was originally developed to screen for depression in postpartum women. Empirical evidence that the EDS has comparable measurement properties in both......BACKGROUND: Depression is a common complication in type 2 diabetes (DM2), affecting 10-30% of patients. Since depression is underrecognized and undertreated, it is important that reliable and validated depression screening tools are available for use in patients with DM2. The Edinburgh Depression...... to laugh or enjoy) and sleeping problems were the most informative indicators for being able to differentiate between the diagnostic groups of mild and severe depression. CONCLUSIONS: The EDS constitutes a sound scale for measuring an attribute of general depression. Persons can be reliably measured using...

  7. The Effects of Testing Circumstance and Education Level on MMPI-2 Correction Scale Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    Report The Effects of Testing Circumstance and Education Level on MMPI - 2 Correction Scale Scores DOT/FAA/AM-10/3 Office of Aerospace Medicine Washington...Education Level on MMPI - 2 Correction Scale Scores 6. Performing Organization Code 7. Author(s) 8. Performing Organization Report No...Inventory- 2 ( MMPI - 2 ) is used by the Federal Aviation Administration to assess psychopathology in air traffic control specialist applicants after a

  8. The accuracy of diagnosis of major depression in patients with Parkinson's disease: a comparative study among the UPDRS, the geriatric depression scale and the Beck depression inventory A precisão do diagnóstico de depressão na doença de Parkinson: um estudo comparativo entre a UPDRS, a escala geriátrica de depressão e o inventário de depressão de Beck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Tumas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the accuracy of diagnosis of major depression in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD using the UPDRS, the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS15 and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. METHOD: 50 consecutive patients with PD were evaluated. The diagnosis of major depression was made according to the DSM-IV criteria. RESULTS: We found a 24% prevalence of major depression. All depression scales were highly correlated but UPDRS depression item had the lowest diagnostic value. The GDS15 had the more appropriate "receiver operating characteristics" curve. The best cut-off scores for screening depression were 17/18 for BDI and 8/9 for GDS15. We did not find any correlation between the level of depression and intensity of motor symptoms, functional capacity and duration of the disease. CONCLUSION: GDS15 is better than the BDI and the UPDRS for screening depression in PD and depression is not related to the degree of parkinsonian symptoms.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a precisão do diagnóstico de depressão em pacientes com doença de Parkinson avaliados pela UPDRS, pela Escala Geriátrica de Depressão com 15 itens (EGD15 e pelo Inventário de Depressão de Beck (IDB. MÉTODO: 50 pacientes com DP foram avaliados. O diagnóstico de depressão maior foi feito segundo os critérios do DSM-IV. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de depressão foi 24%. As escalas de depressão tiveram elevada correlação entre si. A UPDRS apresentou a menor sensibilidade para o diagnóstico. A EGD15 mostrou uma curva ROC mais apropriada que o IDB. Os melhores escores-de-corte para diagnóstico de depressão foram 17/18 para o IDB e 8/9 para a EGD15. Não houve correlação entre os níveis de depressão e a intensidade do parkinsonismo, a capacidade funcional ou a duração da doença. CONCLUSÃO: A EGD15 é melhor que o IDB para diagnosticar depressão na DP. A depressão não está relacionada à gravidade dos sintomas parkinsonianos.

  9. Items of the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale Associated With Response to Paroxetine Treatment in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Tetsu; Sato, Yasushi; Nakagami, Taku; Tsuchimine, Shoko; Kaneda, Ayako; Kaneko, Sunao; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Yasui-Furukori, Norio

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the association between the severity of each symptom evaluated by the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) at baseline and responsiveness to treatment in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) to identify the items that predict treatment response. The patients received a diagnosis of MDD if they had a score greater than 20 points on the MADRS. Following admission, 120 patients were enrolled in the study, and 89 patients completed the study. For the first week, a 20-mg/d dose of paroxetine was administered; thereafter, the dose was increased to 40 mg/d. The MADRS was applied at baseline and after 1, 2, 4, and 6 weeks. We defined responders as patients with improvements in their MADRS scores of more than 50% after 6 weeks of treatment. A multiple regression analysis of MADRS scores at 6 weeks was performed to identify patients who responded to treatment. There was a significant difference between responders and nonresponders in the reported sadness (RS) score for all MADRS items. In the multiple logistic regression analysis, only the RS and concentration difficulties (C) scores showed a significant association with treatment response. Based on the results of χ tests, RS score cutoff values of 2/3 and 3/4 revealed significant differences in the responder rate. None of the cutoff values for the C score revealed significant differences. The RS score was significantly associated with responsiveness to paroxetine treatment for MDD, with higher RS scores predicting poor responses to treatment.

  10. Shortened questionnaires to assess anxiety and depression during in-hospital rehabilitation: clinical validation and cutoff scores

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    Bertolotti G

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Giorgio Bertolotti,1 Loretta Moroni,1 Roberto Burro,2 Antonio Spanevello,3 Roberto FE Pedretti,4 Giandomenico Giorgetti5 1Psychology Unit, Salvatore Maugeri Foundation, IRCCS, Scientific Institute, Tradate, 2Department of Human Sciences – University of Verona, Verona, 3Department of Cardiology, 4Division of Pulmonary Disease, 5Department of Neuromotor Rehabilitation, Salvatore Maugeri Foundation, IRCCS, Scientific Institute of Tradate, Italy Background: A postacute phase needs reliable routine screening instruments in order to identify the patients to be referred for a clinical interview with a psychologist. The aim of this study was to estimate the clinical cutoff scores of the anxiety and depression questionnaires and their clinical validity using a gold standard. Methods: The study involved 177 patients with pulmonary, cardiac, or neurological disease undergoing in-hospital rehabilitation. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to determine the best concordance between questionnaire’s scores and the gold standards. Results: There was a significant difference (P<0.001 between clinically anxious and depressed patients and nonclinical subjects. The receiver operating characteristic curve for anxiety indicated that the best area under the curve for State Anxiety Inventory is obtained with a cutoff point of 21 for males and 25 for females; for depression scores, the highest area under the curve for Depression Questionnaire-Reduced Form is obtained with a cutoff point of six for males and eight for females. Conclusion: Using appropriate cutoff values, the State Anxiety Inventory and Depression Questionnaire-Reduced Form allow psychologists to optimize early clinical intervention strategies selecting patients with significant needs. Keywords: anxiety, depression, questionnaire, sensitivity and specificity, rehabilitation

  11. The validity of dysthymia to predict clinical depressive symptoms as measured by the Hamilton Depression Scale at the 5-year follow-up of patients with first episode depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Per; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Bukh, Jens Drachmann

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In long-term follow-up studies on depression, the Eysenck Neuroticism Scale (ENS) at the score level of dysthymia has been found to be valid at predicting poor outcome. AIMS: The ENS dysthymia level was compared with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) level to predict the prevalence......, and HAM-D from 2005-2007. At 5-year follow-up from 2011-2013, the participants were re-assessed by HAM-D. The HAM-D was used to measure depressive symptoms at the 5-year follow-up. The Mokken analysis was used to indicate scalability of the BDI and ENS. RESULTS: A total of 185 participants were available...... as measured by the two self-rating scales ENS and BDI can be considered part of a 'double depression' in patients with first episode depression, implying an existence of depressive symptoms at the 5-year follow-up. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Evaluation of dysthymia or neuroticism is important to perform, even...

  12. Validation of the depression anxiety stress scales (DASS 21 as a screening instrument for depression and anxiety in a rural community-based cohort of northern Vietnamese women

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    Tran Thach Duc

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression and anxiety are recognised increasingly as serious public health problems among women in low- and lower-middle income countries. The aim of this study was to validate the 21-item Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS21 for use in screening for these common mental disorders among rural women with young children in the North of Vietnam. Methods The DASS-21 was translated from English to Vietnamese, culturally verified, back-translated and administered to women who also completed, separately, a psychiatrist-administered Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IV Axis 1 diagnoses of depressive and anxiety disorders. The sample was a community-based representative cohort of adult women with young children living in Ha Nam Province in northern Viet Nam. Cronbach’s alpha, Exploratory Factor Analyses (EFA and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC analyses were performed to identify the psychometric properties of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress subscales and the overall scale. Results Complete data were available for 221 women. The internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha of each sub-scale and the overall scale were high, ranging from 0.70 for the Stress subscale to 0.88 for the overall scale, but EFA indicated that the 21 items all loaded on one factor. Scores on each of the three sub-scales, and the combinations of two or three of them were able to detect the common mental disorders of depression and anxiety in women with a sensitivity of 79.1% and a specificity of 77.0% at the optimal cut off of >33. However, they did not distinguish between those experiencing only depression or only anxiety. Conclusions The total score of the 21 items of the DASS21-Vietnamese validation appears to be comprehensible and sensitive to detecting common mental disorders in women with young children in primary health care in rural northern Vietnam and therefore might also be useful to screen for these conditions in other resource

  13. Confirmatory factor analysis of the portuguese Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21

    OpenAIRE

    Apóstolo,João Luís Alves; Tanner,Barry Allen; Arfken,Cynthia Lee

    2012-01-01

    To determine which of three published models best characterizes the factor structure of the Portuguese version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 and to assess its validity and reliability. Confirmatory factor analysis of Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 for 1,297 adult, primary care outpatients (66.7% female, Mage = 48.57 years) comparing 3 models. The relationship between the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule was analyzed. The co...

  14. Creation and validation of the Cognitive and Behavioral Response to Stress Scale in a depression trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Adam S; Schueller, Stephen M; Lattie, Emily G; Mohr, David C

    2015-12-30

    The Cognitive and Behavioral Response to Stress Scale (CB-RSS) is a self-report measure of the use and helpfulness of several cognitive and behavioral skills. Unlike other measures that focus on language specific to terms used in therapy, the CB-RSS was intended to tap the strategies in ways that might be understandable to those who had not undergone therapy. The measure was included in a clinical trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy for depression and completed by 325 participants at baseline and end of treatment (18 weeks). Psychometric properties of the scale were assessed through iterative exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. These analyses identified two subscales, cognitive and behavioral skills, each with high reliability. Validity was addressed by investigating relationships with depression symptoms, positive affect, perceived stress, and coping self-efficacy. End of treatment scores predicted changes in all outcomes, with the largest relationships between baseline CB-RSS scales and coping self-efficacy. These findings suggest that the CB-RSS is a useful tool to measure cognitive and behavioral skills both at baseline (prior to treatment) as well as during the course of treatment.

  15. Can Tongue Acupuncture Enhance Body Acupuncture? First Results from Heart Rate Variability and Clinical Scores in Patients with Depression

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    Xian Shi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tongue acupuncture (TA is a method which is not used in western medicine and even in China it is applied very rarely in clinical practice. This study aimed at investigating whether additional TA can improve the efficacy of body acupuncture (BA in patients with depression. Twenty patients with a mean age of ± SD of 42.9±11.2 years were randomly divided into two groups (n=10 patients each, one group receiving BA (Zusanli, Sanyinjiao, Neiguan, Shenting, Yintang, and Baihui and the other receiving BA and TA (Liver, Heart, and Brain. The quantitative and qualitative outcome measures were heart rate (HR, heart rate variability (HRV, and different clinical scores. We found that in both groups all scores and HR improved significantly, whereas HRV increased partly significantly. It seems that TA can enhance acute and treatment effects of BA in patients with depression. The investigation of de qi sensation in TA needs further attention.

  16. Reliability and validity of the Ethiopian version of the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS in HIV infected patients.

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    Ayalu Aklilu Reda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS is a widely used instrument for evaluating psychological distress from anxiety and depression. HADS has not yet been validated in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Amharic (Ethiopian language version of HADs among HIV infected patients. METHODS: The translated scale was administered to 302 HIV/AIDS patients on follow up for and taking anti-retroviral treatment. Consistency assessment was conducted using Cronbach's alpha, test-retest reliability using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC. Construct validity was examined using principal components analysis (PCA. Parallel analysis, Kaiser's criterion and the scree test were used for factor extraction. RESULTS: The internal consistency was 0.78 for the anxiety, 0.76 for depression subscales and 0.87 for the full scale of HADS. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC was 80%, 86%, and 84% for the anxiety and depression subscales, and total score respectively. PCA revealed a one dimensional scale. CONCLUSION: This preliminary validation study of the Ethiopian version of the HADs indicates that it has promising acceptability, reliability and validity. The adopted scale has a single underlying dimension as indicated by Razavi's model. The HADS can be used to examine psychological distress in HIV infected patients. Findings are discussed and recommendations made.

  17. Determining minimally important score differences in scales of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pejtersen, Jan Hyld; Bjorner, Jakob Bue; Hasle, Peter

    2010-01-01

    the following MID values for the COPSOQ scales: ''Quantitative demands'', 0.3 SD; ''Influence'', 0.2 SD; ''Predictability'', 0.3 SD; ''Social support from colleagues'', 0.3 SD; ''Social support from supervisor'', 0.7 SD; and ''Job satisfaction'', 0.4 SD. For all other COPSOQ scales, where we do not have anchor......). On the basis of the population survey, the MID for each COPSOQ scale was calculated as one-half of a standard deviation (0.5 SD). For the core COPSOQ scales on ''Quantitative demands'', ''Influence at work'', ''Predictability'', ''Social support (from colleagues and supervisors, respectively)'', and ''Job...... satisfaction'', the MIDs were evaluated in the intervention study, where score differences for the scales were linked to the respondents' global self-evaluation of the impact of the interventions. The scales were scored from 0 to 100 in both studies. RESULTS: The MIDs calculated as 0.5 SD were, on average, 9...

  18. An Analysis of Cross Racial Identity Scale Scores Using Classical Test Theory and Rasch Item Response Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Joshua; Beaujean, A. Alexander; Worrell, Frank C.; Watson, Stevie

    2013-01-01

    Item response models (IRMs) were used to analyze Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS) scores. Rasch analysis scores were compared with classical test theory (CTT) scores. The partial credit model demonstrated a high goodness of fit and correlations between Rasch and CTT scores ranged from 0.91 to 0.99. CRIS scores are supported by both methods.…

  19. Validation of the Rasch-based Depression Screening in a large scale German general population sample

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    Norra Christine

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study aimed at presenting normative data for both parallel forms of the "Rasch-based Depression Screening (DESC", to examine its Rasch model conformity and convergent and divergent validity based on a representative sample of the German general population. Methods The sample was selected with the assistance of a demographic consulting company applying a face to face interview (N = 2509; mean age = 49.4, SD = 18.2; 55.8% women. Adherence to Rasch model assumptions was determined with analysis of Rasch model fit (infit and outfit, unidimensionality, local independence (principal component factor analysis of the residuals, PCFAR and differential item functioning (DIF with regard to participants' age and gender. Norm values were calculated. Convergent and divergent validity was determined through intercorrelations with the depression and anxiety subscales of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D and HADS-A. Results Fit statistics were below critical values (rDESC-I = .61 and rDESC-II = .60, whereas correlations with HADS-A were rDESC-I = .62 and rDESC-II = .60. Conclusions This study provided further support for the psychometric quality of the DESC. Both forms of the DESC adhered to Rasch model assumptions and showed intercorrelations with HADS subscales that are in line with the literature. The presented normative data offer important advancements for the interpretation of the questionnaire scores and enhance its usefulness for clinical and research applications.

  20. Comparing the MMPI-2 scale scores of parents involved in parental competency and child custody assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resendes, John; Lecci, Len

    2012-12-01

    MMPI-2 scores from a parent competency sample (N = 136 parents) are compared with a previously published data set of MMPI-2 scores for child custody litigants (N = 508 parents; Bathurst et al., 1997). Independent samples t tests yielded significant and in some cases substantial differences on the standard MMPI-2 clinical scales (especially Scales 4, 8, 2, and 0), with the competency sample obtaining higher clinical scores as well as higher scores on F, FB, VRIN, TRIN, and L, but lower scores on K, relative to the custody sample. Despite the higher scores in the competency sample, MMPI-2 mean scores did not exceed the clinical cutoff (T > 65). Moreover, the present competency sample essentially replicates the MMPI-2 scores of a previously published competency sample, suggesting that the present findings are representative of that population. The present findings suggest that separate reference groups be used when conducting child custody vs. parental competency evaluations, as these appear to be distinct populations despite there being similarities in the testing circumstances.

  1. The Distribution of Scaled Scores and Possible Floor Effects on the WISC-III and WAIS-III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Simon; Wood, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Objective: It has been suggested that, as the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III) and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III) give a scaled score of one even if a client scores a raw score of zero, these assessments may have a hidden floor effect at low IQ levels. The study looked for…

  2. www.common-metrics.org: a web application to estimate scores from different patient-reported outcome measures on a common scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Felix Fischer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, a growing number of Item-Response Theory (IRT models has been published, which allow estimation of a common latent variable from data derived by different Patient Reported Outcomes (PROs. When using data from different PROs, direct estimation of the latent variable has some advantages over the use of sum score conversion tables. It requires substantial proficiency in the field of psychometrics to fit such models using contemporary IRT software. We developed a web application ( http://www.common-metrics.org , which allows estimation of latent variable scores more easily using IRT models calibrating different measures on instrument independent scales. Results Currently, the application allows estimation using six different IRT models for Depression, Anxiety, and Physical Function. Based on published item parameters, users of the application can directly estimate latent trait estimates using expected a posteriori (EAP for sum scores as well as for specific response patterns, Bayes modal (MAP, Weighted likelihood estimation (WLE and Maximum likelihood (ML methods and under three different prior distributions. The obtained estimates can be downloaded and analyzed using standard statistical software. Conclusions This application enhances the usability of IRT modeling for researchers by allowing comparison of the latent trait estimates over different PROs, such as the Patient Health Questionnaire Depression (PHQ-9 and Anxiety (GAD-7 scales, the Center of Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, PROMIS Anxiety and Depression Short Forms and others. Advantages of this approach include comparability of data derived with different measures and tolerance against missing values. The validity of the underlying models needs to be investigated in the future.

  3. www.common-metrics.org: a web application to estimate scores from different patient-reported outcome measures on a common scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, H Felix; Rose, Matthias

    2016-10-19

    Recently, a growing number of Item-Response Theory (IRT) models has been published, which allow estimation of a common latent variable from data derived by different Patient Reported Outcomes (PROs). When using data from different PROs, direct estimation of the latent variable has some advantages over the use of sum score conversion tables. It requires substantial proficiency in the field of psychometrics to fit such models using contemporary IRT software. We developed a web application ( http://www.common-metrics.org ), which allows estimation of latent variable scores more easily using IRT models calibrating different measures on instrument independent scales. Currently, the application allows estimation using six different IRT models for Depression, Anxiety, and Physical Function. Based on published item parameters, users of the application can directly estimate latent trait estimates using expected a posteriori (EAP) for sum scores as well as for specific response patterns, Bayes modal (MAP), Weighted likelihood estimation (WLE) and Maximum likelihood (ML) methods and under three different prior distributions. The obtained estimates can be downloaded and analyzed using standard statistical software. This application enhances the usability of IRT modeling for researchers by allowing comparison of the latent trait estimates over different PROs, such as the Patient Health Questionnaire Depression (PHQ-9) and Anxiety (GAD-7) scales, the Center of Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), PROMIS Anxiety and Depression Short Forms and others. Advantages of this approach include comparability of data derived with different measures and tolerance against missing values. The validity of the underlying models needs to be investigated in the future.

  4. Somatic symptom overlap in Beck Depression Inventory-II scores following myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thombs, Brett D.; Ziegelstein, Roy C.; Pilote, Louise; Dozois, David J. A.; Beck, Aaron T.; Dobson, Keith S.; Fuss, Samantha; de Jonge, Peter; Grace, Sherry L.; Stewart, Donne E.; Ormel, Johan; Abbey, Susan E.

    2010-01-01

    Background Depression measures that include somatic symptoms may inflate severity estimates among medically ill patients, including those with cardiovascular disease. Aims To evaluate whether people receiving in-patient treatment following acute myocardial infarction (AMI) had higher somatic symptom

  5. Reassessing the "traditional background hypothesis" for elevated MMPI and MMPI-2 Lie-scale scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Gerald M; Baldwin, Scott A; Smith, Ronald E

    2016-10-01

    The Lie (L) scale of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) is widely regarded as a measure of conscious attempts to deny common human foibles and to present oneself in an unrealistically positive light. At the same time, the current MMPI-2 manual states that "traditional" and religious backgrounds can account for elevated L scale scores as high as 65T-79T, thereby tempering impression management interpretations for faith-based individuals. To assess the validity of the traditional background hypothesis, we reviewed 11 published studies that employed the original MMPI with religious samples and found that only 1 obtained an elevated mean L score. We then conducted a meta-analysis of 12 published MMPI-2 studies in which we compared L scores of religious samples to the test normative group. The meta-analysis revealed large between-study heterogeneity (I2 = 87.1), L scale scores for religious samples that were somewhat higher but did not approach the upper limits specified in the MMPI-2 manual, and an overall moderate effect size (d¯ = 0.54, p < .001; 95% confidence interval [0.37, 0.70]). Our analyses indicated that religious-group membership accounts, on average, for elevations on L of about 5 t-score points. Whether these scores reflect conscious "fake good" impression management or religious-based virtuousness remains unanswered. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Full Outline of Unresponsiveness score and the Glasgow Coma Scale in prediction of pediatric coma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Atahar; Sankhyan, Naveen; Jayashree, Murlidharan; Singhi, Sunit; Singhi, Pratibha

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study was done to compare the admission Full Outline of Unresponsiveness (FOUR) score and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) as predictors of outcome in children with impaired consciousness. METHODS: In this observational study, children (5–12 years) with impaired consciousness of Pediatric Overall Performance Category Scale at 3 months. RESULTS: Of the 63 children, 20 died during hospital stay. AUC for in-hospital mortality for GCS was 0.83 (CI 0.7 to 0.9) and FOUR score was 0.8 (CI 0.7 to 0.9) [difference between areas –0.0250 (95%CI 0.0192 to 0.0692), Z statistic 1.109, P=0.2674]. AUC for mortality at 3 months for GCS was 0.78 (CI 0.67 to 0.90) and FOUR score was 0.74 (CI 0.62 to 0.87) (P=0.1102) and AUC for poor functional outcome for GCS was 0.82 (CI 0.72 to 0.93) and FOUR score was 0.79 (CI 0.68 to 0.9) (P=0.2377), which were also comparable. Inter-rater reliability for GCS was 0.96 and for FOUR score 0.98. CONCLUSION: FOUR score was as good as GCS in prediction of in-hospital and 3-month mortality and functional outcome at 3 months. FOUR score had a good inter-rater reliability. PMID:28123622

  7. Dimensionality of the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) in cardiac patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emons, Wilco H M; Sijtsma, Klaas; Pedersen, Susanne S.

    2012-01-01

    The hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) measures anxiety and depressive symptoms and is widely used in clinical and nonclinical populations. However, there is some debate about the number of dimensions represented by the HADS. In a sample of 534 Dutch cardiac patients, this study examined...... items each were found to be structurally sound and reliable. These scales covered the two key attributes of anxiety and (anhedonic) depression. The findings suggest that the HADS may be reduced to a 10-item questionnaire comprising two 5-item scales measuring anxiety and depressive symptoms....

  8. Up-regulation of leucocytes genes implicated in telomere dysfunction and cellular senescence correlates with depression and anxiety severity scores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Raymond Teyssier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD is frequently associated with chronic medical illness responsible of increased disability and mortality. Inflammation and oxidative stress are considered to be the major mediators of the allostatic load, and has been shown to correlate with telomere erosion in the leucocytes of MDD patients, leading to the model of accelerated aging. However, the significance of telomere length as an exclusive biomarker of aging has been questioned on both methodological and biological grounds. Furthermore, telomeres significantly shorten only in patients with long lasting MDD. Sensitive and dynamic functional biomarkers of aging would be clinically useful to evaluate the somatic impact of MDD. METHODOLOGY: To address this issue we have measured in the blood leucocytes of MDD patients (N=17 and controls (N=16 the expression of two genes identified as robust biomarkers of human aging and telomere dysfunction: p16(INK4a and STMN1. We have also quantified the transcripts of genes involved in the repair of oxidative DNA damage at telomeres (OGG1, telomere regulation and elongation (TERT, and in the response to biopsychological stress (FOS and DUSP1. RESULTS: The OGG1, p16(INK4a, and STMN1 gene were significantly up-regulated (25 to 100% in the leucocytes of MDD patients. Expression of p16(INK4a and STMN1 was directly correlated with anxiety scores in the depression group, and that of p16(INK4a, STMN and TERT with the depression and anxiety scores in the combined sample (MDD plus controls. Furthermore, we identified a unique correlative pattern of gene expression in the leucocytes of MDD subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Expression of p16(INK4 and STMN1 is a promising biomarker for future epidemiological assessment of the somatic impact of depressive and anxious symptoms, at both clinical and subclinical level in both depressive patients and general population.

  9. Reliability and preliminary evidence of validity of a Farsi version of the depression anxiety stress scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayani, Ali Asghar

    2010-08-01

    The internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct validity of the Farsi version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales were examined, with a sample of 306 undergraduate students (123 men, 183 women) ranging from 18 to 51 years of age (M age = 25.4, SD = 6.1). Participants completed the Satisfaction with Life Scale, Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales. The findings confirmed the preliminary reliabilities and preliminary construct validity of the Farsi translation of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales.

  10. Validation of the Arab Youth Mental Health scale as a screening tool for depression/anxiety in Lebanese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakkash Rima

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early detection of common mental disorders, such as depression and anxiety, among children and adolescents requires the use of validated, culturally sensitive, and developmentally appropriate screening instruments. The Arab region has a high proportion of youth, yet Arabic-language screening instruments for mental disorders among this age group are virtually absent. Methods We carried out construct and clinical validation on the recently-developed Arab Youth Mental Health (AYMH scale as a screening tool for depression/anxiety. The scale was administered with 10-14 year old children attending a social service center in Beirut, Lebanon (N = 153. The clinical assessment was conducted by a child and adolescent clinical psychiatrist employing the DSM IV criteria. We tested the scale's sensitivity, specificity, and internal consistency. Results Scale scores were generally significantly associated with how participants responded to standard questions on health, mental health, and happiness, indicating good construct validity. The results revealed that the scale exhibited good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.86 and specificity (79%. However, it exhibited moderate sensitivity for girls (71% and poor sensitivity for boys (50%. Conclusions The AYMH scale is useful as a screening tool for general mental health states and a valid screening instrument for common mental disorders among girls. It is not a valid instrument for detecting depression and anxiety among boys in an Arab culture.

  11. Depressants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Depressants KidsHealth > For Teens > Depressants A A A What's ... How Can Someone Quit? Avoiding Depressants What Are Depressants? Depressants are drugs that calm nerves and relax ...

  12. VALIDITY OF THE GHQ AND SCL ANXIETY AND DEPRESSION SCALES - A COMPARATIVE-STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KOETER, MWJ

    1992-01-01

    This article presents the results of a comparison between the validity of the SCL anxiety, phobic anxiety and depression scales and the GHQ-28 anxiety-/insomnia and severe depression scales in a psychiatric outpatient population. Validity was studied at a categorical level with DSM-III diagnosis, an

  13. Excellent reliability of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-21) in Indonesia after training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Istriana, E.; Kurnia, A.; Weijers, A.; Hidayat, T.; Pinxten, W.J.L.; Jong, C.A.J. de; Schellekens, A.F.A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) is the most widely used depression rating scale worldwide. Reliability of HDRS has been reported mainly from Western countries. The current study tested the reliability of HDRS ratings among psychiatric residents in Indonesia, before and afte

  14. Screening for Depression after Cardiac Events Using the Beck Depression Inventory-II and the Geriatric Depression Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Gail D.; Hubley, Anita M.

    2007-01-01

    Despite findings that depression is a risk factor for heart disease and for death following cardiac events and that depressed cardiac patients experience significantly reduced quality of life and are less likely to follow treatment regimens, depression is neither adequately identified nor treated in cardiac patients. Recent calls in the literature…

  15. Validation of patient determined disease steps (PDDS) scale scores in persons with multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The Patient Determined Disease Steps (PDDS) is a promising patient-reported outcome (PRO) of disability in multiple sclerosis (MS). To date, there is limited evidence regarding the validity of PDDS scores, despite its sound conceptual development and broad inclusion in MS research. This study examined the validity of the PDDS based on (1) the association with Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores and (2) the pattern of associations between PDDS and EDSS scores with Functional System (FS) scores as well as ambulatory and other outcomes. Methods 96 persons with MS provided demographic/clinical information, completed the PDDS and other PROs including the Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale-12 (MSWS-12), and underwent a neurological examination for generating FS and EDSS scores. Participants completed assessments of cognition, ambulation including the 6-minute walk (6 MW), and wore an accelerometer during waking hours over seven days. Results There was a strong correlation between EDSS and PDDS scores (ρ = .783). PDDS and EDSS scores were strongly correlated with Pyramidal (ρ = .578 &ρ = .647, respectively) and Cerebellar (ρ = .501 &ρ = .528, respectively) FS scores as well as 6 MW distance (ρ = .704 &ρ = .805, respectively), MSWS-12 scores (ρ = .801 &ρ = .729, respectively), and accelerometer steps/day (ρ = -.740 &ρ = -.717, respectively). Conclusion This study provides novel evidence supporting the PDDS as valid PRO of disability in MS. PMID:23617555

  16. Reliability of the Italian INFVo scale and correlations with objective measures and VHI scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, A; Ginocchio, D; Atac, M; Maruzzi, P; Madaschi, S; Ottaviani, F; Mozzanica, F

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the reliability of the INFVo scale and its relationship with objective measures and VHI scores in 40 native Italian-speaking patients with substitution voice. The maximum phonation time (MPT), diadochokinesis (DDK) of the three syllabic sequence [pa/ta/ka], reading of a passage and a single word repetition test were recorded. Each patient completed the Italian version of the VHI. Three speech-language pathologists blindly rated the recordings using the auditory perceptual INFVo scale; one listened and assessed the voice recording twice. The INFVo intra- and inter-rater reliability reached good values. Strong to moderate correlations between the INFVo scale scores and MPT, DDK, distortions in the repetition test, speech rate during reading and the functional subscale of the VHI were found. In conclusion, the INFVo scale is a reliable tool and can be recommended for the perceptual assessment of substitution voices in Italian speaking patients.

  17. Fifty years with the Hamilton scales for anxiety and depression. A tribute to Max Hamilton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, P

    2009-01-01

    From the moment Max Hamilton started his psychiatric education, he considered psychometrics to be a scientific discipline on a par with biochemistry or pharmacology in clinical research. His clinimetric skills were in operation in the 1950s when randomised clinical trials were established...... as the method for the evaluation of the clinical effects of psychotropic drugs. Inspired by Eysenck, Hamilton took the long route around factor analysis in order to qualify his scales for anxiety (HAM-A) and depression (HAM-D) as scientific tools. From the moment when, 50 years ago, Hamilton published his first...... placebo-controlled trial with an experimental anti-anxiety drug, he realized the dialectic problem in using the total score on HAM-A as a sufficient statistic for the measurement of outcome. This dialectic problem has been investigated for more than 50 years with different types of factor analyses without...

  18. Factors related to agreement between self-reported and conventional Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, E M; Hays, R D; Myers, L W; Ellison, G W; Beckstrand, M; Vickrey, B G

    2001-12-01

    Although the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) remains a widely used scale for evaluating impairments in people with multiple sclerosis (MS), EDSS assessments are infeasible in certain situations. A self-administered version of the EDSS would be potentially useful if it yielded similar results as the conventional physician-based version. We developed a self-administered patient questionnaire to obtain ratings of neurologic impairments, and developed algorithms to estimate EDSS scores. We mailed the questionnaires to all new consecutive patients scheduled to be seen at an MS clinic. Questionnaires were completed prior to the visit and traditional EDSS ratings were made by one of two neurologists at the visit. One hundred and forty-six pairs of patient questionnaires and physician EDSS assessments were obtained. Kappa values for agreement between the physician's EDSS scores and the questionnaire-derived scores were 0.13 (for exact agreement), 0.39 (+/-0.5 EDSS steps), and 0.56 (+/-1.0 EDSS steps). A scatterplot showed that agreement was best at EDSS scores 5.0. Better agreement was obtained when patients had a higher level of education, and when the physician was more certain of the diagnosis of MS. While the self-assessed EDSS scores do not agree highly enough to take the place of conventional EDSS scores, they may be sufficient for MS trial screening or for assessing outcomes across broad categories of disability.

  19. Serial position effects scoring in the assessment of memory in Alzheimer's disease and major depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemelmans, Karel Jozef

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to validate serial position effects (SPE’S) scoring in the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). The RAVLT is a much used clinical method for assessing memory performance, but the method of scoring obfuscates that two memory processes underlie free recall. This

  20. Serial position effects scoring in the assessment of memory in Alzheimer's disease and major depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemelmans, Karel Jozef

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to validate serial position effects (SPE’S) scoring in the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). The RAVLT is a much used clinical method for assessing memory performance, but the method of scoring obfuscates that two memory processes underlie free recall. This

  1. The Impact of Overreporting on MMPI-2-RF Substantive Scale Score Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchett, Danielle L.; Ben-Porath, Yossef S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the impact of overreporting on the validity of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) substantive scale scores by comparing correlations with relevant external criteria (i.e., validity coefficients) of individuals who completed the instrument under instructions to (a) feign psychopathology…

  2. Alignment of Scores on Large-Scale Assessments and Report-Card Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, John A.; Gray, Peter

    2008-01-01

    We examined how much agreement there was between scores from large-scale mandated assessments and report-card grades for 14,776 students in grades 3, 6, and 9 of a district in which conditions were conducive to alignment of assessments. We found significant mean differences between internal and external assessments: effect sizes were 0.29 to 0.63…

  3. Validation of Scores on the Homework Management Scale for Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianzhong

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the validity of scores on the Homework Management Scale (HMS) using 699 rural and 482 urban eighth graders. The study revealed that the HMS comprised 5 separate yet related factors: arranging the environment, managing time, handling distraction, monitoring motivation, and controlling emotion. Given an adequate…

  4. Comparison of WAIS-III Short Forms for Measuring Index and Full-Scale Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Todd A.; Axelrod, Bradley N.; Wilkins, Leanne K.

    2010-01-01

    This investigation assessed the ability of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III) short forms to estimate both index and IQ scores in a large, mixed clinical sample (N = 809). More specifically, a commonly used modification of Ward's seven-subtest short form (SF7-A), a recently proposed index-based SF7-C and eight-subtest…

  5. Technical Analysis of Scores on the "Self-Efficacy Self-Report Scale"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erford, Bradley T.; Schein, Hallie; Duncan, Kelly

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide preliminary analysis of reliability and validity of scores on the "Self-Efficacy Self-Report Scale", which was designed to assess general self-efficacy in students aged 10 to 17 years. Confirmatory factor analysis on cross-validated samples was conducted revealing a marginal fit of the data to the…

  6. A Note on the Score Reliability for the Satisfaction with Life Scale: An RG Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassar, Matt

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to meta-analytically investigate the score reliability for the Satisfaction With Life Scale. Four-hundred and sixteen articles using the measure were located through electronic database searches and then separated to identify studies which had calculated reliability estimates from their own data. Sixty-two…

  7. The Toronto Hospital Alertness Test scale: relationship to daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and symptoms of depression and anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid A

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Azmeh Shahid,1–5 Sharon A Chung,1,2,5 Lance Maresky,1 Affan Danish,1 Arina Bingeliene,1,4,5 Jianhua Shen,1 Colin M Shapiro1–5 1Sleep Research Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry, University Health Network, University of Toronto, 2Youthdale Treatment Centres, 3Youthdale Child and Adolescent Sleep Centre, 4Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, 5Department of Psychiatry, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, ON, Canada Objective: The Toronto Hospital Alertness Test (THAT scale was designed to measure alertness, defined as the capacity of the mind to respond appropriately to external and internal stimuli. The present study’s aim is to determine normative values of alertness on the THAT and to explore the relationship among excessive daytime sleepiness, fatigue, depressive symptoms, and alertness. Methods: Normative data were collected from 60 healthy males and females. To explore the relationship among alertness, daytime sleepiness, fatigue, depression, and anxiety, data were collected from charts of sleep clinic patients. All study subjects completed measures for fatigue, sleepiness, depressive symptoms, and anxiety. Results: The average score on the THAT was 34.9±7.2 (range 22–50 for the control group. The cutoff score for the THAT, indicative of clinically significant reduced alertness, was determined to be ≤20.5 (mean –2 SD. THAT alertness scores were found to be modestly, significantly, and negatively correlated with fatigue levels (r=–0.39, P<0.001, depressive symptoms (r=–0.53, P<0.001, and anxiety symptoms (r=–0.41, P<0.001. No correlations were found between alertness levels and daytime sleepiness. Regression analyses revealed a significant model (F=19.9, P<0.001, adjusted R2=0.35 with depressive symptoms (P<0.001 and fatigue (P=0.006 emerging as the only significant predictors of scores on the THAT. Conclusion: The findings of this study support that sleepiness is not the same as

  8. Attitude scale and general health questionnaire subscales predict depression?

    OpenAIRE

    Amrollah Ebrahimi; Hamid Afshar; Hamid Taher Neshat Doost; Seyed Ghafur Mousavi; Hoseyn Moolavi

    2012-01-01

    Background: According to Beck theory, dysfunctional attitude has a central role in emergence of depression. The aim of this study was to determine contributions of dysfunctional attitude and general health index to depression. Methods: In this case-control study, two groups of subjects participated. The first group consisted of 65 patients with major depression and dysthymic disorder, who were recruited from Noor and Navab Safavi Psychiatry Clinics in Isfa-han. The control group was consi...

  9. Have University Sport Students Higher Scores Depression, Anxiety and Psychological Stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, Havva

    2016-01-01

    Multiple studies have now shown that people who maintain appropriate body fitness, using judicious regimens of exercise and weight control, have the additional benefit of prolonged life. In fact, sport or exercise may be also expected to be helpful for psychological health. In the present study, depression, anxiety and psychological stress points…

  10. Is the geriatric depression scale a reliable screening tool for depressive symptoms in elderly patients with cognitive impairment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debruyne, Hans; Van Buggenhout, Michael; Le Bastard, Nathalie; Aries, Marcel; Audenaert, Kurt; De Deyn, Peter Paul; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan

    2009-06-01

    To determine the reliability of the 30-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-30) for the screening of depressive symptoms in dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) using the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD) as the 'gold standard'. Diagnosed according to strictly applied clinical diagnostic criteria, patients with MCI (n = 156) and probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) (n = 247) were included. GDS-30, CSDD, Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Global Deterioration Scale were assessed in all patients at inclusion. The AD group was divided in three subgroups: mild AD (MMSE>or=18) (n = 117), moderate AD (MMSEor=10) (n = 89) and severe AD (MMSEdepressive symptoms in MCI but not in AD patients. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. A Reconsideration of the Self-Compassion Scale's Total Score: Self-Compassion versus Self-Criticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Angélica; Sanderman, Robbert; Smink, Ans; Zhang, Ying; van Sonderen, Eric; Ranchor, Adelita; Schroevers, Maya J

    2015-01-01

    The Self-Compassion Scale (SCS) is currently the only self-report instrument to measure self-compassion. The SCS is widely used despite the limited evidence for the scale's psychometric properties, with validation studies commonly performed in college students. The current study examined the factor structure, reliability, and construct validity of the SCS in a large representative sample from the community. The study was conducted in 1,736 persons, of whom 1,643 were included in the analyses. Besides the SCS, data was collected on positive and negative indicators of psychological functioning, as well as on rumination and neuroticism. Analyses included confirmatory factor analyses (CFA), exploratory factor analyses (EFA), and correlations. CFA showed that the SCS's proposed six-factor structure could not be replicated. EFA suggested a two-factor solution, formed by the positively and negatively formulated items respectively. Internal consistency was good for the two identified factors. The negative factor (i.e., sum score of the negatively formulated items) correlated moderately to strongly to negative affect, depressive symptoms, perceived stress, as well as to rumination and neuroticism. Compared to this negative factor, the positive factor (i.e., sum score of the positively formulated items) correlated weaker to these indicators, and relatively more strongly to positive affect. Results from this study do not justify the common use of the SCS total score as an overall indicator of self-compassion, and provide support for the idea, as also assumed by others, that it is important to make a distinction between self-compassion and self-criticism.

  12. A Reconsideration of the Self-Compassion Scale's Total Score: Self-Compassion versus Self-Criticism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica López

    Full Text Available The Self-Compassion Scale (SCS is currently the only self-report instrument to measure self-compassion. The SCS is widely used despite the limited evidence for the scale's psychometric properties, with validation studies commonly performed in college students. The current study examined the factor structure, reliability, and construct validity of the SCS in a large representative sample from the community. The study was conducted in 1,736 persons, of whom 1,643 were included in the analyses. Besides the SCS, data was collected on positive and negative indicators of psychological functioning, as well as on rumination and neuroticism. Analyses included confirmatory factor analyses (CFA, exploratory factor analyses (EFA, and correlations. CFA showed that the SCS's proposed six-factor structure could not be replicated. EFA suggested a two-factor solution, formed by the positively and negatively formulated items respectively. Internal consistency was good for the two identified factors. The negative factor (i.e., sum score of the negatively formulated items correlated moderately to strongly to negative affect, depressive symptoms, perceived stress, as well as to rumination and neuroticism. Compared to this negative factor, the positive factor (i.e., sum score of the positively formulated items correlated weaker to these indicators, and relatively more strongly to positive affect. Results from this study do not justify the common use of the SCS total score as an overall indicator of self-compassion, and provide support for the idea, as also assumed by others, that it is important to make a distinction between self-compassion and self-criticism.

  13. Modified Ashworth scale and spasm frequency score in spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baunsgaard, C. B.; Nissen, U. V.; Christensen, K. B.;

    2016-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Intra- and inter-rater reliability study. OBJECTIVES: To assess intra- and inter-rater reliability of the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) and Spasm Frequency Score (SFS) in lower extremities in a population of spinal cord-injured persons, as well as correlations between the two scales....... SETTING: Clinic for Spinal Cord Injuries, Rigshospitalet, Hornbaek, Denmark. METHODS: Thirty-one persons participated in the study and were tested four times in total with MAS and SFS by three experienced raters. Cohen's kappa (κ), simple and quadratic weighted (nominal and ordinal scale level...

  14. Psychometric assessment of the Rat Grimace Scale and development of an analgesic intervention score.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Oliver

    Full Text Available Our limited ability to assess spontaneous pain in rodent models of painful human conditions may be associated with a translational failure of promising analgesic compounds in to clinical use. If measurement of spontaneous pain behaviours can be used to generate an analgesic intervention score their use could expand to guide the use of analgesics, as mandated by regulatory bodies and ethical and welfare obligations. One such measure of spontaneous pain, the Rat Grimace Scale (RGS, has recently been described and shown to exhibit reliability. However, reliability of measurement scores is context and content specific, and further testing required to assess translation to a heterogenous setting (different model, raters, environment. The objectives of this study were to perform reliability testing with the Rat Grimace Scale in a heterogenous setting and generate an analgesic intervention score for its use. In a randomised, blinded study, sixteen adult female rats received one of three analgesia treatments (0.05 mg/kg buprenorphine subcutaneously, 1 mg/kg meloxicam subcutaneously, 0.2 mg/kg oral buprenorphine in jelly peri-operatively (telemetry unit implantation surgery. Rats were video-recorded (before, 1-6 and 12 hours post-operatively and images collected for independent scoring by three blinded raters using the RGS, and five experts based on "pain/no pain" assessment. Scores were used to calculate inter- and intra-rater reliability with an intraclass correlation coefficient and generate an analgesic intervention score with receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The RGS scores showed very good inter- and intra-rater reliability (0.85 [0.78-0.90 95% CI] and 0.83 [0.76-0.89], respectively. An analgesic intervention threshold of greater than 0.67 was determined. These data demonstrate that the RGS is a useful tool which can be successfully employed in a heterogenous setting, and has the potential to guide analgesic intervention.

  15. Evaluation of the Cardiac Depression Visual Analogue Scale in a medical and non-medical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Benedetto, Mirella; Sheehan, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Comorbid depression and medical illness is associated with a number of adverse health outcomes such as lower medication adherence and higher rates of subsequent mortality. Reliable and valid psychological measures capable of detecting a range of depressive symptoms found in medical settings are needed. The Cardiac Depression Visual Analogue Scale (CDVAS) is a recently developed, brief six-item measure originally designed to assess the range and severity of depressive symptoms within a cardiac population. The current study aimed to further investigate the psychometric properties of the CDVAS in a general and medical sample. The sample consisted of 117 participants, whose mean age was 40.0 years (SD = 19.0, range 18-84). Participants completed the CDVAS, the Cardiac Depression Scale (CDS), the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) and a demographic and health questionnaire. The CDVAS was found to have adequate internal reliability (α = .76), strong concurrent validity with the CDS (r = .89) and the depression sub-scale of the DASS (r = .70), strong discriminant validity and strong predictive validity. The principal components analysis revealed that the CDVAS measured only one component, providing further support for the construct validity of the scale. Results of the current study indicate that the CDVAS is a short, simple, valid and reliable measure of depressive symptoms suitable for use in a general and medical sample.

  16. Recognizing depression in patients with Parkinson’s disease: accuracy and specificity of two depression rating scale Reconhecimento de depressão em pacientes com doença de Parkinson: acurácia e especificidade de duas escalas de avaliação de depressão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Débora Silberman

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to find cut-off scores for the Montgomery-Asberg rating scale (MADRS and the Beck depression inventory (BDI that can relate to specific clinical diagnoses of depression in Parkinson´s disease (PD. Mild and moderate PD patients (n=46 were evaluated for depression according to the DSM IV criteria. All patients were assessed with the MADRS and the BDI. A "receiver operating characteristics" (ROC curve was obtained and the sensibility, specificity, positive and the negative predictive values were calculated for different cut-off scores of the MADRS and the BDI. The Kappa statistic was calculated for different cut-off scores to assess the agreement between the clinical judgment and both scales. Depression was present in 18 patients. MADRS cut-off scores of 6 and 10 showed Kappa 0.5 and 0.56, respectively. Specificity of cut-off score of 6 was 78.6% and of cut-off score of 10 was 96.4%. Kappa agreement of BDI cut-off scores of 10 and 18 were 0.36 and 0.62, respectively. Specificity was 60.7% for 10 and 92.9% for 18. Both rating scales show similar accuracy within the ROC curves (84.3% for MADRS and 79.7% for BDI. The MADRS and the BDI show a good accuracy and correlation to the clinical diagnosis when a cut-off score of 10 is used to MADRS and a cut-off score of 18 is used to BDI to recognize depression in mild to moderate PD patients. This may help clinicians to recognize depression in PD.Este estudo objetivou encontrar pontos de corte da escala de depressão de Montgomery-Asberg (MADRS e inventário de depressão de Beck (IDB que possam estar relacionados ao diagnóstico clínico específico de depressão na doença de Parkinson (DP. Os pacientes com DP leve e moderada (n= 46 foram avaliados para depressão de acordo com os critérios diagnósticos da DSM-IV. MADRS e IDB foram aplicadas em todos os pacientes. Uma curva "receiver operating characteristics" (ROC foi obtida calculando-se sensibilidade, especificidade, valores

  17. Depression and anxiety in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: prevalence rates based on a comparison of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS and the hospital, Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Covic Tanya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While it is recognised that depression is prevalent in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA, recent studies have also highlighted significant levels of anxiety in RA patients. This study compared two commonly used scales, the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, in relation to their measurement range and cut points to consider the relative prevalence of both constructs, and if prevalence rates may be due to scale-specific case definition. Methods Patients meeting the criteria for RA were recruited in Leeds, UK and Sydney, Australia and asked to complete a survey that included both scales. The data was analysed using the Rasch measurement model. Results A total of 169 RA patients were assessed, with a repeat subsample, resulting in 323 cases for analysis. Both scales met Rasch model expectations. Using the 'possible+probable' cut point from the HADS, 58.3% had neither anxiety nor depression; 13.5% had anxiety only; 6.4% depression only and 21.8% had both 'possible+probable' anxiety and depression. Cut points for depression were comparable across the two scales while a lower cut point for anxiety in the DASS was required to equate prevalence. Conclusions This study provides further support for high prevalence of depression and anxiety in RA. It also shows that while these two scales provide a good indication of possible depression and anxiety, the estimates of prevalence so derived could vary, particularly for anxiety. These findings are discussed in terms of comparisons across studies and selection of scales for clinical use.

  18. Effects of type of physical exercise and leisure activities on the depression scores of obese Brazilian adolescent girls

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    Stella S.G.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have indicated that depressive states may lead to hypokinesia with diminished metabolic rate and energy use. Hypokinesia associated with certain eating behaviors may lead to an unfavorable energy balance that can contribute to the emergence and prevalence of obesity among children and adults. The purpose of the present study was to examine the possibility of reducing depression inventory scores in female adolescents with third-degree obesity while testing the effectiveness of different exercise programs in reducing anxiety and depression scores. The sample consisted of 40 female subjects (mean age 16 ± 1.56 years divided into 4 groups (aerobic training, anaerobic training, leisure activities, and control. Subjects had a body mass index of 95% or more in relation to the 50th percentile. The aerobic program consisted of three ergometric bicycle sessions per week over a 3-month period (12 weeks and the activities were prescribed after determining the anaerobic ventilatory threshold (VO2 threshold. Anaerobic training was based on the Wingate anaerobic power test. The leisure program consisted of a varied range of activities (games, exercises, etc.. A nutritionist interviewed the members of these two groups and the control group every week in order to adapt them to the nutritional guidelines proposed for the study. The study showed that all three programs (aerobic exercise, anaerobic exercise and leisure activities were effective in reducing body mass. However, we found a significant reduction when analyzing the depression scores only for aerobic exercise (18.9 ± 9.33 to 10.6 ± 9.56 or 43.9% but no significant alterations for anaerobic exercise (11.36 ± 5.23 to 9.63 ± 4.78 or 15.22% and leisure (17.28 ± 7.55 to 15.07 ± 7.54 or 12.78%, thus indicating that in principle this type of activity could be included to improve emotional well-being of obese adolescent girls.

  19. The Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D) and the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Scale (MADRS). A psychometric re-analysis of the European Genome-Based Therapeutic Drugs for Depression Study using Rasch analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Per; Allerup, Peter; Larsen, Erik Roj

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this re-analysis of the European Genome-Based Therapeutic Drugs for Depression Study (GENDEP) was to psychometrically test the unidimensionality of the full Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS10) and the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D17) versus their respective...... 2030 had to be supplemented with the Friedman two-way analysis of variance by ranks. The HAM-D6 but not the MADRS5 was accepted. It was therefore concluded that the HAM-D6 is a psychometrically valid outcome scale to measure change in clinical trials of antidepressants....

  20. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY - CONSTRUCTION OF A PROTOTYPICAL ANXIETY AND DEPRESSION SCALE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KOETER, MWJ; VANDENBRINK, W

    1992-01-01

    The question of the relationship between anxiety and depression remains to be solved. The fact that clinical pictures show substantial overlap makes it difficult, using conventional instruments, to distinguish between the co-occurrence of anxiety and depression and overlap in definitions and measure

  1. A useful new coma scale in acute stroke patients: FOUR score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocak, Yusuf; Ozturk, Serefnur; Ege, Fahrettin; Ekmekci, Hakan

    2012-01-01

    Assessment of the severity of unconsciousness in patients with impaired consciousness, prediction of mortality and prognosis are currently the most studied subjects in intensive care. The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of the Full Outline of UnResponsiveness (FOUR) score in intensive care unit patients with stroke and the associations of FOUR score with the clinical outcome and with other coma scales (Glasgow [GCS] and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II). One hundred acute stroke patients (44 male, 56 female), who were followed in a neurology intensive care unit, were included in this prospective study. The mean age of the patients was 70.49 ± 12.42 years. Lesion types were determined as haemorrhagic in 30 and ischaemic in 70 patients. FOUR scores on the day of admission and the first, third and 10th days of patients who died within 15 days were lower when compared to scores of patients who survived (P=0.005, P=0.000, P=0.000 and P=0.000 respectively). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed significant trending with both FOUR score and GCS for prognosis; the area under curve ranged from 0.675 (95% confidence interval 0.565 to 0.786) when measurements had been made on day 3 to 0.922 (95% confidence interval 0.867 to 0.977) and 0.981 (95% confidence interval 0.947 to 1.015) for day 10. We suggest that FOUR score is a useful scale for evaluation of acute stroke patients in the intensive care unit as a homogeneous group, with respect to the outcome estimation.

  2. Examining the Factor Structure of the Self-Compassion Scale in Four Distinct Populations: Is the Use of a Total Scale Score Justified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Kristin D; Whittaker, Tiffany A; Karl, Anke

    2017-01-31

    This study examined the factor structure of the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS) using a bifactor model, a higher order model, a 6-factor correlated model, a 2-factor correlated model, and a 1-factor model in 4 distinct populations: college undergraduates (N = 222), community adults (N = 1,394), individuals practicing Buddhist meditation (N = 215), and a clinical sample of individuals with a history of recurrent depression (N = 390). The 6-factor correlated model demonstrated the best fit across samples, whereas the 1- and 2-factor models had poor fit. The higher order model also showed relatively poor fit across samples, suggesting it is not representative of the relationship between subscale factors and a general self-compassion factor. The bifactor model, however, had acceptable fit in the student, community, and meditator samples. Although fit was suboptimal in the clinical sample, results suggested an overall self-compassion factor could still be interpreted with some confidence. Moreover, estimates suggested a general self-compassion factor accounted for at least 90% of the reliable variance in SCS scores across samples, and item factor loadings and intercepts were equivalent across samples. Results suggest that a total SCS score can be used as an overall mesure of self-compassion.

  3. A pediatric FOUR score coma scale: interrater reliability and predictive validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaikowski, Brianna L; Liang, Hong; Stewart, C Todd

    2014-04-01

    The Full Outline of UnResponsiveness (FOUR) Score is a coma scale that consists of four components (eye and motor response, brainstem reflexes, and respiration). It was originally validated among the adult population and recently in a pediatric population. To enhance clinical assessment of pediatric intensive care unit patients, including those intubated and/or sedated, at our children's hospital, we modified the FOUR Score Scale for this population. This modified scale would provide many of the same advantages as the original, such as interrater reliability, simplicity, and elimination of the verbal component that is not compatible with the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), creating a more valuable neurological assessment tool for the nursing community. Our goal was to potentially provide greater information than the formally used GCS when assessing critically ill, neurologically impaired patients, including those sedated and/or intubated. Experienced pediatric intensive care unit nurses were trained as "expert raters." Two different nurses assessed each subject using the Pediatric FOUR Score Scale (PFSS), GCS, and Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale at three different time points. Data were compared with the Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category (PCPC) assessed by another nurse. Our hypothesis was that the PFSS and PCPC should highly correlate and the GCS and PCPC should correlate lower. Study results show that the PFSS is excellent for interrater reliability for trained nurse-rater pairs and prediction of poor outcome and in-hospital mortality, under various situations, but there were no statistically significant differences between the PFSS and the GCS. However, the PFSS does have the potential to provide greater neurological assessment in the intubated and/or sedated patient based on the outcomes of our study.

  4. Depressive Symptoms, Depletion, or Developmental Change? Withdrawal, Apathy, and Lack of Vigor in the Geriatric Depressive Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Kathryn Betts

    2001-01-01

    This study has dual goals of confirming the existence of a "Withdrawal/Apathy/[Lack of] Vigor" (WAV) dimension of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and determining if it is descriptive of either depletion or disengagement-related change in older adults. High endorsement rates suggest WAV may be congruent with disengagement or depletion and may…

  5. Relationship between family history of alcohol addiction, parents' education level, and smartphone problem use scale scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beison, Ashley; Rademacher, David J

    2017-03-01

    Background and aims Smartphones are ubiquitous. As smartphones increased in popularity, researchers realized that people were becoming dependent on their smartphones. The purpose here was to provide a better understanding of the factors related to problematic smartphone use (PSPU). Methods The participants were 100 undergraduates (25 males, 75 females) whose ages ranged from 18 to 23 (mean age = 20 years). The participants completed questionnaires to assess gender, ethnicity, year in college, father's education level, mother's education level, family income, age, family history of alcoholism, and PSPU. The Family Tree Questionnaire assessed family history of alcoholism. The Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale (MPPUS) and the Adapted Cell Phone Addiction Test (ACPAT) were used to determine the degree of PSPU. Whereas the MPPUS measures tolerance, escape from other problems, withdrawal, craving, and negative life consequences, the ACPAT measures preoccupation (salience), excessive use, neglecting work, anticipation, lack of control, and neglecting social life. Results Family history of alcoholism and father's education level together explained 26% of the variance in the MPPUS scores and 25% of the variance in the ACPAT scores. The inclusion of mother's education level, ethnicity, family income, age, year in college, and gender did not significantly increase the proportion of variance explained for either MPPUS or ACPAT scores. Discussion and conclusions Family history of alcoholism and father's education level are good predictors of PSPU. As 74%-75% of the variance in PSPU scale scores was not explained, future studies should aim to explain this variance.

  6. The Behavioral Activation for Depression Scale-Short Form: Development and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manos, Rachel C.; Kanter, Jonathan W.; Luo, Wen

    2011-01-01

    Following a landmark component analysis of cognitive therapy by Jacobson and colleagues (1996), there has been renewed interest in behavioral activation (BA) treatments for depression. The Behavioral Activation for Depression Scale (BADS) was developed to measure when and how clients become activated over the course of BA treatment. Multiple…

  7. The Behavioral Activation for Depression Scale-Short Form: Development and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manos, Rachel C.; Kanter, Jonathan W.; Luo, Wen

    2011-01-01

    Following a landmark component analysis of cognitive therapy by Jacobson and colleagues (1996), there has been renewed interest in behavioral activation (BA) treatments for depression. The Behavioral Activation for Depression Scale (BADS) was developed to measure when and how clients become activated over the course of BA treatment. Multiple…

  8. The minimal important difference of the hospital anxiety and depression scale in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Büchi Stefan

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interpretation of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, commonly used to assess anxiety and depression in COPD patients, is unclear. Since its minimal important difference has never been established, our aim was to determine it using several approaches. Methods 88 COPD patients with FEV1 ≤ 50% predicted completed the HADS and other patient-important outcome measures before and after an inpatient respiratory rehabilitation. For the anchor-based approach we determined the correlation between the HADS and the anchors that have an established minimal important difference (Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire [CRQ] and Feeling Thermometer. If correlations were ≥ 0.5 we performed linear regression analyses to predict the minimal important difference from the anchors. As distribution-based approach we used the Effect Size approach. Results Based on CRQ emotional function and mastery domain as well as on total scores, the minimal important difference was 1.41 (95% CI 1.18–1.63 and 1.57 (1.37–1.76 for the HADS anxiety score and 1.68 (1.48–1.87 and 1.60 (1.38–1.82 for the HADS total score. Correlations of the HADS depression score and CRQ domain and Feeling Thermometer scores were Conclusion The minimal important difference of the HADS is around 1.5 in COPD patients corresponding to a change from baseline of around 20%. It can be used for the planning and interpretation of trials.

  9. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) as screening instruments for depression in patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Tim J; Friedrich, Michael; Johansen, Christoffer; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Faller, Herman; Koch, Uwe; Brähler, Elmar; Härter, Martin; Keller, Monika; Schulz, Holger; Wegscheider, Karl; Weis, Joachim; Mehnert, Anja

    2017-06-27

    Depression screening in patients with cancer is recommended by major clinical guidelines, although the evidence on individual screening tools is limited for this population. Here, the authors assess and compare the diagnostic accuracy of 2 established screening instruments: the depression modules of the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D), in a representative sample of patients with cancer. This multicenter study was conducted with a proportional, stratified, random sample of 2141 patients with cancer across all major tumor sites and treatment settings. The PHQ-9 and HADS-D were assessed and compared in terms of diagnostic accuracy and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition diagnosis of major depressive disorder using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview for Oncology as the criterion standard. The diagnostic accuracy of the PHQ-9 and HADS-D was fair for diagnosing major depressive disorder, with areas under the ROC curves of 0.78 (95% confidence interval, 0.76-0.79) and 0.75 (95% confidence interval, 0.74-0.77), respectively. The 2 questionnaires did not differ significantly in their areas under the ROC curves (P = .15). The PHQ-9 with a cutoff score ≥7 had the best screening performance, with a sensitivity of 83% (95% confidence interval, 78%-89%) and a specificity of 61% (95% confidence interval, 59%-63%). The American Society of Clinical Oncology guideline screening algorithm had a sensitivity of 44% (95% confidence interval, 36%-51%) and a specificity of 84% (95% confidence interval, 83%-85%). In patients with cancer, the screening performance of both the PHQ-9 and the HADS-D was limited compared with a standardized diagnostic interview. Costs and benefits of routinely screening all patients with cancer should be weighed carefully. Cancer 2017. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  10. Spacecraft COst REduction Team (SCORE): TQM/CI on a massive scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullard, Jerry D.

    The business of building satellites and space systems has matured. Few missions require, or can afford, excellent performance at any price. The new paradigm is doing more with less, providing quality systems at lower cost--in other words, doing our job 'Faster-Better-Cheaper.' The TRW Spacecraft COst REduction (SCORE) initiative was launched in 1990 by Daniel S. Goldin, then general manager of TRW's Space & Technology Group. The SCORE mission is to apply continuous improvement (CI) techniques to effect major reductions in the cost (our primary goal) and span time (as a corollary) required for the production of spacecraft. SCORE is a multi-year initiative that is having a profound effect on both the procedural and the cultural aspects of how we do business. The objectives of this initiative are being realized. The focus of this paper is not on the results of SCORE per se, but rather on the things we have leaned about how to do continuous improvement on a massive scale, with multilevel (hierarchical) CI teams. The following sections summarize the chronology of the SCORE initiative, from team formation to development of the year-end report for 1991. Lessons learned, the core of this presentation, are discussed--with particular focus on the unique aspects of SCORE. The SCORE initiative is continuing and, as a part of our evolving culture, will never end. It has resulted in profound insights into the way we do work and (the topic at hand) how to do CI for large and complex multidisciplinary development activities.

  11. The Factor Structure, Predictors, and Percentile Norms of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D Scale in the Dutch-speaking Adult Population of Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Center of Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D is a commonly used self-report scale to measure depressive symptoms in the general population. In the present study, the Dutch version of the CES-D was administered to a sample of 837 Dutch-speaking adults of Belgium to examine the factor structure of the scale. Using confirmatory factory analysis (CFA, four first-order models and two second-order models were tested, and the second-order factor model with three pairs of correlated error terms provided the best fit to the data. Second, five socio-demographic variables (age, gender, education level, relation status, and family history of depression were included as covariates to the second-order factor model to explore the associations between background characteristics and the latent factor depression using a multiple indicators and multiple causes (MIMIC approach. Age had a significantly negative effect on depression, but the effect was not substantial. Female gender, lower education level, being single or widowed, and having a family history of depression were found to be significant predictors of higher levels of depression symptomatology. Finally, percentile norms on the CES-D raw scores were provided for subgroups of gender by education level for the general Dutch-speaking adult population of Belgium.

  12. Dealing with missing data in a multi-question depression scale: a comparison of imputation methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Heather

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Missing data present a challenge to many research projects. The problem is often pronounced in studies utilizing self-report scales, and literature addressing different strategies for dealing with missing data in such circumstances is scarce. The objective of this study was to compare six different imputation techniques for dealing with missing data in the Zung Self-reported Depression scale (SDS. Methods 1580 participants from a surgical outcomes study completed the SDS. The SDS is a 20 question scale that respondents complete by circling a value of 1 to 4 for each question. The sum of the responses is calculated and respondents are classified as exhibiting depressive symptoms when their total score is over 40. Missing values were simulated by randomly selecting questions whose values were then deleted (a missing completely at random simulation. Additionally, a missing at random and missing not at random simulation were completed. Six imputation methods were then considered; 1 multiple imputation, 2 single regression, 3 individual mean, 4 overall mean, 5 participant's preceding response, and 6 random selection of a value from 1 to 4. For each method, the imputed mean SDS score and standard deviation were compared to the population statistics. The Spearman correlation coefficient, percent misclassified and the Kappa statistic were also calculated. Results When 10% of values are missing, all the imputation methods except random selection produce Kappa statistics greater than 0.80 indicating 'near perfect' agreement. MI produces the most valid imputed values with a high Kappa statistic (0.89, although both single regression and individual mean imputation also produced favorable results. As the percent of missing information increased to 30%, or when unbalanced missing data were introduced, MI maintained a high Kappa statistic. The individual mean and single regression method produced Kappas in the 'substantial agreement' range

  13. Assessing coral reefs on a Pacific-wide scale using the microbialization score.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracey McDole

    Full Text Available The majority of the world's coral reefs are in various stages of decline. While a suite of disturbances (overfishing, eutrophication, and global climate change have been identified, the mechanism(s of reef system decline remain elusive. Increased microbial and viral loading with higher percentages of opportunistic and specific microbial pathogens have been identified as potentially unifying features of coral reefs in decline. Due to their relative size and high per cell activity, a small change in microbial biomass may signal a large reallocation of available energy in an ecosystem; that is the microbialization of the coral reef. Our hypothesis was that human activities alter the energy budget of the reef system, specifically by altering the allocation of metabolic energy between microbes and macrobes. To determine if this is occurring on a regional scale, we calculated the basal metabolic rates for the fish and microbial communities at 99 sites on twenty-nine coral islands throughout the Pacific Ocean using previously established scaling relationships. From these metabolic rate predictions, we derived a new metric for assessing and comparing reef health called the microbialization score. The microbialization score represents the percentage of the combined fish and microbial predicted metabolic rate that is microbial. Our results demonstrate a strong positive correlation between reef microbialization scores and human impact. In contrast, microbialization scores did not significantly correlate with ocean net primary production, local chla concentrations, or the combined metabolic rate of the fish and microbial communities. These findings support the hypothesis that human activities are shifting energy to the microbes, at the expense of the macrobes. Regardless of oceanographic context, the microbialization score is a powerful metric for assessing the level of human impact a reef system is experiencing.

  14. Adaptation to Portuguese of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS)

    OpenAIRE

    Apóstolo,João Luís Alves; Mendes,Aida Cruz; Azeredo,Zaida Aguiar

    2006-01-01

    Objective: to adapt to Portuguese, of Portugal, the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales, a 21-item short scale (DASS 21), designed to measure depression, anxiety and stress. Method: After translation and back-translation with the help of experts, the DASS 21 was administered to patients in external psychiatry consults (N=101), and its internal consistency, construct validity and concurrent validity were measured. Results: The DASS 21 properties certify its quality to measure emotional state...

  15. A longitudinal evaluation of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (CES-D in a Rheumatoid Arthritis Population using Rasch Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tennant Alan

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to test the internal validity of the total Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D scale using Rasch analysis in a rheumatoid arthritis (RA population. Methods CES-D was administered to 157 patients with RA over three time points within a 12 month period. Rasch analysis was applied using RUMM2020 software to assess the overall fit of the model, the response scale used, individual item fit, differential item functioning (DIF and person separation. Results Pooled data across three time points was shown to fit the Rasch model with removal of seven items from the original 20-item CES-D scale. It was necessary to rescore the response format from four to three categories in order to improve the scale's fit. Two items demonstrated some DIF for age and gender but were retained within the 13-item CES-D scale. A new cut point for depression score of 9 was found to correspond to the original cut point score of 16 in the full CES-D scale. Conclusion This Rasch analysis of the CES-D in a longstanding RA cohort resulted in the construction of a modified 13-item scale with good internal validity. Further validation of the modified scale is recommended particularly in relation to the new cut point for depression.

  16. A large-scale study of anxiety and depression in people with Multiple Sclerosis: a survey via the web portal of the UK MS Register.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerina H Jones

    Full Text Available Studies have found that people with Multiple Sclerosis experience relatively high rates of anxiety and depression. Although methodologically robust, many of these studies had access to only modest sample sizes (N4000 to: describe the depression and anxiety profiles of people with MS; to determine if anxiety and depression are related to age or disease duration; and to assess whether the levels of anxiety and depression differ between genders and types of MS.From its launch in May 2011 to the end of December 2011, 7786 adults with MS enrolled to take part in the UK MS Register via the web portal. The responses to the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS were collated with basic demographic and descriptive MS data provided at registration and the resulting dataset was analysed in SPSS (v.16.The mean HADS score among the 4178 respondents was 15.7 (SE 0.117, SD 7.55 with a median of 15.0 (IQR 11. Anxiety and depression rates were notably high, with over half (54.1% scoring ≥ 8 for anxiety and 46.9% scoring ≥ 8 for depression. Women with relapsing-remitting MS were more anxious than men with this type (p<0.001, and than women with other types of MS (p = 0.017. Within each gender, men and women with secondary progressive MS were more depressed than men or women with other types of MS (p<0.001, p<0.001.This largest known study of its kind has shown that anxiety and depression are highly prevalent in people with MS, indicating that their mental health needs could be better addressed. These findings support service planning and further research to provide the best care for people with MS to help alleviate these debilitating conditions.

  17. Testing a German Adaption of the Entrapment Scale and Assessing the Relation to Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Trachsel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The construct of entrapment is used in evolutionary theory to explain the etiology of depression. The perception of entrapment can emerge when defeated individuals want to escape but are incapable. Studies have shown relationships of entrapment to depression, and suicidal tendencies. The aim of this study was a psychometric evaluation and validation of the Entrapment Scale in German (ES-D. 540 normal subjects completed the ES-D along with other measures of depressive symptoms, hopelessness, and distress. Good reliability and validity of the ES-D was demonstrated. Further, whereas entrapment originally has been regarded as a two-dimensional construct, our analyses supported a single-factor model. Entrapment explained variance in depressive symptoms beyond that explained by stress and hopelessness supporting the relevance of the construct for depression research. These findings are discussed with regard to their theoretical implications as well as to the future use of the entrapment scale in clinical research and practice.

  18. The Symptom Checklist-core depression (SCL-CD6) scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Westerlund, Hugo; Leineweber, Constanze

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: Major depressive disorders are common, with substantial impact on individuals/society. Brief scales for depression severity, based on a small number of characteristics all of which are necessary for diagnosis, have been recommended in self-reported versions for clinical work or research when...... aiming to quickly and accurately measure depression. We have examined psychometric properties of a brief 6-item version of the Symptom Checklist (SCL), the Symptom Checklist core depression scale (SCL-CD6) and aimed to identify a cut-point for epidemiological research. METHODS: The psychometric...... evaluation of the SCL-CD6 was mainly performed by a Mokken analysis of unidimensionality in a random sample of 1476 residents in the Stockholm County, aged 18-64 years. The standardization of SCL-CD6 was based on ROC analysis, using the Major Depression Inventory as index of validity. Predictive validity...

  19. A Retrospective Analysis of Pressure Ulcer Incidence and Modified Braden Scale Score Risk Classifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong-Lin; Cao, Ying-Juan; Wang, Jing; Huai, Bao-Sha

    2015-09-01

    The Braden Scale is the most widely used pressure ulcer risk assessment in the world, but the currently used 5 risk classification groups do not accurately discriminate among their risk categories. To optimize risk classification based on Braden Scale scores, a retrospective analysis of all consecutively admitted patients in an acute care facility who were at risk for pressure ulcer development was performed between January 2013 and December 2013. Predicted pressure ulcer incidence first was calculated by logistic regression model based on original Braden score. Risk classification then was modified based on the predicted pressure ulcer incidence and compared between different risk categories in the modified (3-group) classification and the traditional (5-group) classification using chi-square test. Two thousand, six hundred, twenty-five (2,625) patients (mean age 59.8 ± 16.5, range 1 month to 98 years, 1,601 of whom were men) were included in the study; 81 patients (3.1%) developed a pressure ulcer. The predicted pressure ulcer incidence ranged from 0.1% to 49.7%. When the predicted pressure ulcer incidence was greater than 10.0% (high risk), the corresponding Braden scores were less than 11; when the predicted incidence ranged from 1.0% to 10.0% (moderate risk), the corresponding Braden scores ranged from 12 to 16; and when the predicted incidence was less than 1.0% (mild risk), the corresponding Braden scores were greater than 17. In the modified classification, observed pressure ulcer incidence was significantly different between each of the 3 risk categories (P less than 0.05). However, in the traditional classification, the observed incidence was not significantly different between the high-risk category and moderate-risk category (P less than 0.05) and between the mild-risk category and no-risk category (P less than 0.05). If future studies confirm the validity of these findings, pressure ulcer prevention protocols of care based on Braden Scale scores can

  20. Empirical Correlates of Low Scores on MMPI-2/MMPI-2-RF Restructured Clinical Scales in a Sample of University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdeyeva, Tatyana V.; Tellegen, Auke; Ben-Porath, Yossef S.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the authors explored the meaning of low scores on the MMPI-2/MMPI-2-RF Restructured Clinical (RC) scales. Using responses of a sample of university students (N = 811), the authors examined whether low (T less than 39), within-normal-limits (T = 39-64), and high (T greater than 65) score levels on the RC scales are…

  1. Gait and Glasgow Coma Scale scores can predict functional recovery in patients with traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sevil Bilgin; Arzu Guclu-Gunduz; Hakan Oruckaptan; Nezire Kose; Bülent Celik

    2012-01-01

    Fifty-one patients with mild (n = 14), moderate (n = 10) and severe traumatic brain injury (n = 27)received early rehabilitation. Level of consciousness was evaluated using the Glasgow Coma Score. Functional level was determined using the Glasgow Outcome Score, whilst mobility was evaluated using the Mobility Scale for Acute Stroke. Activities of daily living were assessed using the Barthel Index. Following Bobath neurodevelopmental therapy, the level of consciousness was significantly improved in patients with moderate and severe traumatic brain injury, but was not greatly influenced in patients with mild traumatic brain injury. Mobility and functional level were significantly improved in patients with mild, moderate and severe traumatic brain injury. Gait recovery was more obvious in patients with mild traumatic brain injury than in patients with moderate and severe traumatic brain injury. Activities of daily living showed an improvement but this was insignificant except for patients with severe traumatic brain injury. Nevertheless, complete recovery was not acquired at discharge. Multiple regression analysis showed that gait and Glasgow Coma Scale scores can be considered predictors of functional outcomes following traumatic brain injury.

  2. Gait and Glasgow Coma Scale scores can predict functional recovery in patients with traumatic brain injury☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, Sevil; Guclu-Gunduz, Arzu; Oruckaptan, Hakan; Kose, Nezire; Celik, Bülent

    2012-01-01

    Fifty-one patients with mild (n = 14), moderate (n = 10) and severe traumatic brain injury (n = 27) received early rehabilitation. Level of consciousness was evaluated using the Glasgow Coma Score. Functional level was determined using the Glasgow Outcome Score, whilst mobility was evaluated using the Mobility Scale for Acute Stroke. Activities of daily living were assessed using the Barthel Index. Following Bobath neurodevelopmental therapy, the level of consciousness was significantly improved in patients with moderate and severe traumatic brain injury, but was not greatly influenced in patients with mild traumatic brain injury. Mobility and functional level were significantly improved in patients with mild, moderate and severe traumatic brain injury. Gait recovery was more obvious in patients with mild traumatic brain injury than in patients with moderate and severe traumatic brain injury. Activities of daily living showed an improvement but this was insignificant except for patients with severe traumatic brain injury. Nevertheless, complete recovery was not acquired at discharge. Multiple regression analysis showed that gait and Glasgow Coma Scale scores can be considered predictors of functional outcomes following traumatic brain injury. PMID:25624828

  3. Reliability and validity of the new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale scores: a group intelligence test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yota Uno

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study evaluated the reliability and concurrent validity of the new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale, which is an intelligence test that can be administered on groups within a short period of time. METHODS: The new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition were administered to 81 subjects (mean age ± SD 15.2 ± 0.7 years residing in a juvenile detention home; reliability was assessed using Cronbach's alpha coefficient, and concurrent validity was assessed using the one-way analysis of variance intraclass correlation coefficient. Moreover, receiver operating characteristic analysis for screening for individuals who have a deficit in intellectual function (an FIQ<70 was performed. In addition, stratum-specific likelihood ratios for detection of intellectual disability were calculated. RESULTS: The Cronbach's alpha for the new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale IQ (BIQ was 0.86, and the intraclass correlation coefficient with FIQ was 0.83. Receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated an area under the curve of 0.89 (95% CI: 0.85-0.96. In addition, the stratum-specific likelihood ratio for the BIQ≤65 stratum was 13.8 (95% CI: 3.9-48.9, and the stratum-specific likelihood ratio for the BIQ≥76 stratum was 0.1 (95% CI: 0.03-0.4. Thus, intellectual disability could be ruled out or determined. CONCLUSION: The present results demonstrated that the new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale score had high reliability and concurrent validity with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition score. Moreover, the post-test probability for the BIQ could be calculated when screening for individuals who have a deficit in intellectual function. The new Tanaka B Intelligence Test is convenient and can be administered within a variety of settings. This enables evaluation of intellectual development even in settings where performing intelligence tests have previously been difficult.

  4. Substantial improvements in large-scale redocking and screening using the novel HYDE scoring function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Nadine; Hindle, Sally; Lange, Gudrun; Klein, Robert; Albrecht, Jürgen; Briem, Hans; Beyer, Kristin; Claußen, Holger; Gastreich, Marcus; Lemmen, Christian; Rarey, Matthias

    2012-06-01

    The HYDE scoring function consistently describes hydrogen bonding, the hydrophobic effect and desolvation. It relies on HYdration and DEsolvation terms which are calibrated using octanol/water partition coefficients of small molecules. We do not use affinity data for calibration, therefore HYDE is generally applicable to all protein targets. HYDE reflects the Gibbs free energy of binding while only considering the essential interactions of protein-ligand complexes. The greatest benefit of HYDE is that it yields a very intuitive atom-based score, which can be mapped onto the ligand and protein atoms. This allows the direct visualization of the score and consequently facilitates analysis of protein-ligand complexes during the lead optimization process. In this study, we validated our new scoring function by applying it in large-scale docking experiments. We could successfully predict the correct binding mode in 93% of complexes in redocking calculations on the Astex diverse set, while our performance in virtual screening experiments using the DUD dataset showed significant enrichment values with a mean AUC of 0.77 across all protein targets with little or no structural defects. As part of these studies, we also carried out a very detailed analysis of the data that revealed interesting pitfalls, which we highlight here and which should be addressed in future benchmark datasets.

  5. Stroke Survivors Scoring Zero on the NIH Stroke Scale Score Still Exhibit Significant Motor Impairment and Functional Limitation

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    Brittany Hand

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale’s (NIHSS’s association with upper extremity (UE impairment and functional outcomes. Design. Secondary, retrospective analysis of randomized controlled trial data. Setting. Not applicable. Participants. 146 subjects with stable, chronic stroke-induced hemiparesis. Intervention. The NIHSS, the UE Fugl-Meyer (FM, and the Arm Motor Ability Test (AMAT were administered prior to their participation in a multicenter randomized controlled trial. Main Outcome Measures. The NIHSS, FM, and AMAT. Results. The association between the NIHSS and UE impairment was statistically significant (P=-0.204;p=0.014 but explained less than 4% of the variance among UE FM scores. The association between NIHSS total score and function as measured by the AMAT was not statistically significant (P=-0.141;p=0.089. Subjects scoring a “zero” on the NIHSS exhibited discernible UE motor deficits and varied scores on the UE FM and AMAT. Conclusion. While being used in stroke trials, the NIHSS may have limited ability to discriminate between treatment responses, even when only a relatively narrow array of impairment levels exists among patients. Given these findings, NIHSS use should be restricted to acute stroke studies and clinical settings with the goal of reporting stroke severity.

  6. Validity and test–retest reliability of the Persian version of the Montgomery–Asberg Depression Rating Scale

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    Ahmadpanah M

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad Ahmadpanah,1 Meisam Sheikhbabaei,1 Mohammad Haghighi,1 Fatemeh Roham,1 Leila Jahangard,1 Amineh Akhondi,2 Dena Sadeghi Bahmani,3 Hafez Bajoghli,4 Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,3 Serge Brand3,5 1Behavioral Disorders and Substances Abuse Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran; 2Hamadan Educational Organization, Ministry of Education, Hamadan, Iran; 3Center for Affective, Stress, and Sleep Disorders, Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 4Iranian National Center for Addiction Studies (INCAS, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 5Department of Sport, Exercise and Health Science, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland Background and aims: The Montgomery–Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS is an expert’s rating tool to assess the severity and symptoms of depression. The aim of the present two studies was to validate the Persian version of the MADRS and determine its test–retest reliability in patients diagnosed with major depressive disorders (MDD. Methods: In study 1, the translated MADRS and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS were applied to 210 patients diagnosed with MDD and 100 healthy adults. In study 2,200 patients diagnosed with MDD were assessed with the MADRS in face-to-face interviews. Thereafter, 100 patients were assessed 3–14 days later, again via face-to-face-interviews, while the other 100 patients were assessed 3–14 days later via a telephone interview. Results: Study 1: The MADRS and HDRS scores between patients with MDD and healthy controls differed significantly. Agreement between scoring of the MADRS and HDRS was high (r=0.95. Study 2: The intraclass correlation coefficient (test–retest reliability was r=0.944 for the face-to-face interviews, and r=0.959 for the telephone interviews. Conclusion: The present data suggest that the Persian MADRS has high validity and excellent test–retest reliability over

  7. Elaboração e validação da Escala de Depressão para Idosos Elaboration and validation of the Depression Scale for the Elderly

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    Adriana Giavoni

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver e validar a Escala de Depressão para Idosos (EDI. Foi elaborado um modelo teórico explicativo da depressão, composto por três categorias: cognitiva, afetiva e somático-motora. Os itens elaborados foram submetidos à análise semântica e de juizes. O instrumento piloto foi aplicado a 340 sujeitos, sendo 88% do sexo feminino, com ensino fundamental completo (67,9% e idade média de 63,74 (DP = 6,87 anos. A amostra respondeu também ao Inventário de Depressão de Beck (BDI. Para a validação da escala, foram realizadas análises fatoriais e análise da consistência interna dos itens (alfa de Cronbach. Regressões múltiplas avaliaram o poder de predição dos fatores da EDI sobre o escore final do BDI. A validação da escala demonstrou que a EDI é composta por dois fatores: cognitivo-afetivo e somático-motor, que explicam 53% do BDI (validade convergente. Pode-se afirmar, portanto, que a EDI é formada por fatores que avaliam diferentes aspectos do constructo depressão (validade fatorial, os quais apresentam índices de consistência interna dentro dos padrões psicométricos.The objective of this study was to develop and validate the Depression Scale for the Elderly. An explanatory theoretical model was developed for depression, consisting of three categories: cognitive, affective, and somato-motor. The items elaborated thusly were submitted to semantic analysis and judges. The pilot instrument was applied to 340 subjects, 88% of whom were females, mostly with complete primary education (67.9%, and a mean age of 63.74 (SD = 6.87 years. The sample also responded to the Beck Depression Index (BDI. Validation of the scale was based on factor analyses (Principal Axis Factoring and analysis of the items' internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha. Multiple regressions evaluated the predictive power of the factors in the depression scale for the elderly on the final BDI score. Scale validation

  8. Validation of the Behavioral Activation for Depression Scale (BADS)-Psychometric properties of the long and short form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhr, Kristina; Hautzinger, Martin; Krisch, Katharina; Berking, Matthias; Ebert, David Daniel

    2016-04-01

    With the development of the Behavioral Activation for Depression Scale (BADS) by Kanter, et al. [1], different behavioral aspects of depression like activation, rumination or avoidance, and functional impairment can be measured. The long and the short versions of the BADS, however, show differences in the quality of psychometric properties. We wanted to validate the short and long forms of the BADS. We therefore evaluated the factor structure, the psychometric properties, and the construct validity of the long version and the subscales in a clinically depressed German sample (n=258) in study 1. In study 2, we explored the factor structure and the psychometric properties of the short version of the BADS in a subsyndromal sample with elevated depressive symptoms (n=406). In study 1, our results replicated the four factor solution of the BADS-25 original version and showed good psychometric properties. However, with regard to the BADS-9 only the French factor solution of the short BADS-9 demonstrated acceptable fit with low internal consistency of the subscale Avoidance. Thus, only the total score of the short form can be recommended.

  9. Factor structure and dimensionality of the two depression scales in STAR*D using level 1 datasets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, P; Fava, M; Trivedi, M H

    2011-01-01

    ). METHODS: The first treatment step (Level 1) in the STAR*D study provided a dataset of 4041 outpatients with DSM-IV nonpsychotic major depression. The HAM-D(17) and IDS-C(30) were evaluated by principal component analysis (PCA) without rotation. Mokken analysis tested the unidimensionality of the IDS-C(6......), which corresponds to the unidimensional HAM-D(6.) RESULTS: For both the HAM-D(17) and IDS-C(30), PCA identified a bi-directional factor contrasting the depressive symptoms versus the neurovegetative symptoms. The HAM-D(6) and the corresponding IDS-C(6) symptoms all emerged in the depression factor. Both...... the HAM-D(6) and IDS-C(6) were found to be unidimensional scales, i.e., their total scores are each a sufficient statistic for the measurement of depressive states. LIMITATIONS: STAR*D used only one medication in Level 1. CONCLUSIONS: The unidimensional HAM-D(6) and IDS-C(6) should be used when evaluating...

  10. AN OBSERVATIONAL CLINICAL STUDY OF ASSESSING THE UTILITY OF PSS (POISON SEVERITY SCORE AND GCS (GLASGOW COMA SCALE SCORING SYSTEMS IN PREDICTING SEVERITY AND CLINICAL OUTCOMES IN OP POISONING

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    S. Chandrasekhar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Organophosphorus compound poisoning is the most common poisonings in India because of easy availability often requiring ICU care and ventilator support. Clinical research has indicated that respiratory failure is the most important cause of death due to organophosphorus poisoning. It results in respiratory muscle weakness, pulmonary oedema, respiratory depression, increased secretions and bronchospasm. These complications and death can be prevented with timely institution of ventilator support. MATERIALS AND METHODS Hundred consecutive patients admitted with a history of organophosphorus poisoning at Kurnool Medical College, Kurnool, were taken for study after considering the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Detailed history, confirmation of poisoning, examination and other than routine investigations, serum pseudocholinesterase and arterial blood gas analysis was done. The severity and clinical outcomes in OP poisoning is graded by PSS (poison severity score and GCS (Glasgow coma scale scoring systems. RESULTS This study was conducted in 100 patients with male preponderance. Majority of poisoning occurred in 21-30 age group (n=5. Most common compound consumed in our study was methyl parathion and least common was phosphoran. Slightly more than half of the patients consumed less than 50 mL of poison. 21 patients consumed between 50 to 100 mL. Distribution of poison severity score of patients studied showed 45 cases of grade 1 poisoning. 26 cases of grade 2 poisoning, 23 cases of grade 3 poisoning and 6 cases of grade 4 poisoning (death within first 24 hours. Distribution of GCS score of patients studied GCS scores were <10 in 25 patients at admission and 24 patients after 24 hours. GCS scores were ≥10 in 75 patients at admission and 76 patients after 24 hours. Poison severity score is not prognostic, but merely defines severity of OP poisoning at a given time. CONCLUSION Both Glasgow coma scale and poison severity scoring systems

  11. Bifactor models and rotations: exploring the extent to which multidimensional data yield univocal scale scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reise, Steven P; Moore, Tyler M; Haviland, Mark G

    2010-11-01

    The application of psychological measures often results in item response data that arguably are consistent with both unidimensional (a single common factor) and multidimensional latent structures (typically caused by parcels of items that tap similar content domains). As such, structural ambiguity leads to seemingly endless "confirmatory" factor analytic studies in which the research question is whether scale scores can be interpreted as reflecting variation on a single trait. An alternative to the more commonly observed unidimensional, correlated traits, or second-order representations of a measure's latent structure is a bifactor model. Bifactor structures, however, are not well understood in the personality assessment community and thus rarely are applied. To address this, herein we (a) describe issues that arise in conceptualizing and modeling multidimensionality, (b) describe exploratory (including Schmid-Leiman [Schmid & Leiman, 1957] and target bifactor rotations) and confirmatory bifactor modeling, (c) differentiate between bifactor and second-order models, and (d) suggest contexts where bifactor analysis is particularly valuable (e.g., for evaluating the plausibility of subscales, determining the extent to which scores reflect a single variable even when the data are multidimensional, and evaluating the feasibility of applying a unidimensional item response theory (IRT) measurement model). We emphasize that the determination of dimensionality is a related but distinct question from either determining the extent to which scores reflect a single individual difference variable or determining the effect of multidimensionality on IRT item parameter estimates. Indeed, we suggest that in many contexts, multidimensional data can yield interpretable scale scores and be appropriately fitted to unidimensional IRT models.

  12. The Major Depressive Disorder Hierarchy: Rasch Analysis of 6 items of the Hamilton Depression Scale Covering the Continuum of Depressive Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Melancholic features of depression (MFD) seem to be a unidimensional group of signs and symptoms. However, little importance has been given to the evaluation of what features are related to a more severe disorder. That is, what are the MFD that appear only in the most depressed patients. We aim to demonstrate how each MFD is related to the severity of the major depressive disorder. Methods We evaluated both the Hamilton depression rating scale (HDRS-17) and its 6-item melancholic subscale (HAM-D6) in 291 depressed inpatients using Rasch analysis, which computes the severity of each MFD. Overall measures of model fit were mean (±SD) of items and persons residual = 0 (±1); low χ2 value; p>0.01. Results For the HDRS-17 model fit, mean (±SD) of item residuals = 0.35 (±1.4); mean (±SD) of person residuals = -0.15 (±1.09); χ2 = 309.74; p<0.00001. For the HAM-D6 model fit, mean (±SD) of item residuals = 0.5 (±0.86); mean (±SD) of person residuals = 0.15 (±0.91); χ2 = 56.13; p = 0.196. MFD ordered by crescent severity were depressed mood, work and activities, somatic symptoms, psychic anxiety, guilt feelings, and psychomotor retardation. Conclusions Depressed mood is less severe, while guilt feelings and psychomotor retardation are more severe MFD in a psychiatric hospitalization. Understanding depression as a continuum of symptoms can improve the understanding of the disorder and may improve its perspective of treatment. PMID:28114341

  13. Association studies of genetic scores of serum vitamin B12 and folate levels with symptoms of depression and anxiety in two danish population studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllehave, L T; Skaaby, T; Simonsen, K S

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Observational studies have suggested low serum levels of vitamin B12 or folate to be risk factors of depression and anxiety. However, these results may be biased by confounding and reverse causation. Mendelian randomization studies are not subject to these limitations....... The aim was to examine the association of genetic scores of vitamin B12 and folate-associated alleles with depression and anxiety. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The study included 4126 participants from two Danish population-based studies. Serum vitamin B12 and folate were measured. Weighed allele scores were...... calculated as the sum of weights (genetic effect sizes) for 12 and two variants increasing circulating levels of vitamin B12 and folate, respectively. Symptoms of depression and anxiety were assessed by the Symptom Check List (SCL)-90-R, and self-reported doctor-diagnosed depression and anxiety. RESULTS...

  14. Using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) on patients with epilepsy: Confirmatory factor analysis and Rasch models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chung-Ying; Pakpour, Amir H

    2017-02-01

    The problems of mood disorders are critical in people with epilepsy. Therefore, there is a need to validate a useful tool for the population. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) has been used on the population, and showed that it is a satisfactory screening tool. However, more evidence on its construct validity is needed. A total of 1041 people with epilepsy were recruited in this study, and each completed the HADS. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and Rasch analysis were used to understand the construct validity of the HADS. In addition, internal consistency was tested using Cronbachs' α, person separation reliability, and item separation reliability. Ordering of the response descriptors and the differential item functioning (DIF) were examined using the Rasch models. The HADS showed that 55.3% of our participants had anxiety; 56.0% had depression based on its cutoffs. CFA and Rasch analyses both showed the satisfactory construct validity of the HADS; the internal consistency was also acceptable (α=0.82 in anxiety and 0.79 in depression; person separation reliability=0.82 in anxiety and 0.73 in depression; item separation reliability=0.98 in anxiety and 0.91 in depression). The difficulties of the four-point Likert scale used in the HADS were monotonically increased, which indicates no disordering response categories. No DIF items across male and female patients and across types of epilepsy were displayed in the HADS. The HADS has promising psychometric properties on construct validity in people with epilepsy. Moreover, the additive item score is supported for calculating the cutoff. Copyright © 2016 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Patient-Specific Resection Strategy of Glioblastoma Multiforme: Choice Based on a Preoperative Scoring Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Haihui; Cui, Yong; Liu, Xiang; Ren, Xiaohui; Lin, Song

    2017-07-01

    The real association between extent of resection and outcome in patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) remains unclear. The goal of this study was to disclose the effect of gross total resection on survival and establish a scale used for surgical decision making. A retrospective review was undertaken of 416 patients who received operation for GBM from 2008 to 2015 in Beijing Tiantan Hospital. To reduce bias in patient selection, propensity score analysis was conducted and 99 pairs of matched GBMs were generated. Survival between different groups was compared using the Kaplan-Meier method, and independent predictors of survival were identified using the Cox proportional hazards model. Overall, the survival of patients undergoing GTR was significantly longer than those not undergoing GTR (12.0 vs. 9.0 months [p propensity model, the survival benefit of GTR remained significant, which has been further validated in the multivariate analysis (hazard ratio [HR] 0.613, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.454-0.827 [p = 0.001] for PFS, and HR 0.475, 95% CI 0.343-0.659 [p scale based on age, epilepsy, location, tumor size, and Karnofsky performance score, patients were stratified into low-, moderate-, and high-risk cohorts. The survival benefit of GTR could be observed in the low- and moderate-risk cohorts but not the high-risk cohort. GTR was an independent predictor of increased survival for patients with GBM. The risk scoring scale quantified the clinical significance of operation and helped us to project more personalized surgical strategies for individual patients.

  16. Detecting depressive and anxiety disorders in distressed patients in primary care; comparative diagnostic accuracy of the Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS

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    Verhaak Peter FM

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depressive and anxiety disorders often go unrecognized in distressed primary care patients, despite the overtly psychosocial nature of their demand for help. This is especially problematic in more severe disorders needing specific treatment (e.g. antidepressant pharmacotherapy or specialized cognitive behavioural therapy. The use of a screening tool to detect (more severe depressive and anxiety disorders may be useful not to overlook such disorders. We examined the accuracy with which the Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS are able to detect (more severe depressive and anxiety disorders in distressed patients, and which cut-off points should be used. Methods Seventy general practitioners (GPs included 295 patients on sick leave due to psychological problems. They excluded patients with recognized depressive or anxiety disorders. Patients completed the 4DSQ and HADS. Standardized diagnoses of DSM-IV defined depressive and anxiety disorders were established with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC analyses were performed to obtain sensitivity and specificity values for a range of scores, and area under the curve (AUC values as a measure of diagnostic accuracy. Results With respect to the detection of any depressive or anxiety disorder (180 patients, 61%, the 4DSQ and HADS scales yielded comparable results with AUC values between 0.745 and 0.815. Also with respect to the detection of moderate or severe depressive disorder, the 4DSQ and HADS depression scales performed comparably (AUC 0.780 and 0.739, p 0.165. With respect to the detection of panic disorder, agoraphobia and social phobia, the 4DSQ anxiety scale performed significantly better than the HADS anxiety scale (AUC 0.852 versus 0.757, p 0.001. The recommended cut-off points of both HADS scales appeared to be too low while those of the 4DSQ anxiety

  17. Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... overview URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003213.htm Depression - overview To use the sharing features on this ... older adults Major depression Persistent depressive disorder Postpartum depression Premenstrual ... Review Date 1/4/2016 Updated by: Timothy Rogge, ...

  18. Automatic scoring of dicentric chromosomes as a tool in large scale radiation accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romm, H; Ainsbury, E; Barnard, S; Barrios, L; Barquinero, J F; Beinke, C; Deperas, M; Gregoire, E; Koivistoinen, A; Lindholm, C; Moquet, J; Oestreicher, U; Puig, R; Rothkamm, K; Sommer, S; Thierens, H; Vandersickel, V; Vral, A; Wojcik, A

    2013-08-30

    Mass casualty scenarios of radiation exposure require high throughput biological dosimetry techniques for population triage in order to rapidly identify individuals who require clinical treatment. The manual dicentric assay is a highly suitable technique, but it is also very time consuming and requires well trained scorers. In the framework of the MULTIBIODOSE EU FP7 project, semi-automated dicentric scoring has been established in six European biodosimetry laboratories. Whole blood was irradiated with a Co-60 gamma source resulting in 8 different doses between 0 and 4.5Gy and then shipped to the six participating laboratories. To investigate two different scoring strategies, cell cultures were set up with short term (2-3h) or long term (24h) colcemid treatment. Three classifiers for automatic dicentric detection were applied, two of which were developed specifically for these two different culture techniques. The automation procedure included metaphase finding, capture of cells at high resolution and detection of dicentric candidates. The automatically detected dicentric candidates were then evaluated by a trained human scorer, which led to the term 'semi-automated' being applied to the analysis. The six participating laboratories established at least one semi-automated calibration curve each, using the appropriate classifier for their colcemid treatment time. There was no significant difference between the calibration curves established, regardless of the classifier used. The ratio of false positive to true positive dicentric candidates was dose dependent. The total staff effort required for analysing 150 metaphases using the semi-automated approach was 2 min as opposed to 60 min for manual scoring of 50 metaphases. Semi-automated dicentric scoring is a useful tool in a large scale radiation accident as it enables high throughput screening of samples for fast triage of potentially exposed individuals. Furthermore, the results from the participating laboratories

  19. The Yale Observation Scale Score and the Risk of Serious Bacterial Infections in Febrile Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigrovic, Lise E; Mahajan, Prashant V; Blumberg, Stephen M; Browne, Lorin R; Linakis, James G; Ruddy, Richard M; Bennett, Jonathan E; Rogers, Alexander J; Tzimenatos, Leah; Powell, Elizabeth C; Alpern, Elizabeth R; Casper, T Charles; Ramilo, Octavio; Kuppermann, Nathan

    2017-07-01

    To assess the performance of the Yale Observation Scale (YOS) score and unstructured clinician suspicion to identify febrile infants ≤60 days of age with and without serious bacterial infections (SBIs). We performed a planned secondary analysis of a prospective cohort of non-critically ill, febrile, full-term infants ≤60 days of age presenting to 1 of 26 participating emergency departments in the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network. We defined SBIs as urinary tract infections, bacteremia, or bacterial meningitis, with the latter 2 considered invasive bacterial infections. Emergency department clinicians applied the YOS (range: 6-30; normal score: ≤10) and estimated the risk of SBI using unstructured clinician suspicion (50%). Of the 4591 eligible infants, 444 (9.7%) had SBIs and 97 (2.1%) had invasive bacterial infections. Of the 4058 infants with YOS scores of ≤10, 388 (9.6%) had SBIs (sensitivity: 51/439 [11.6%]; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.8%-15.0%; negative predictive value: 3670/4058 [90.4%]; 95% CI: 89.5%-91.3%) and 72 (1.8%) had invasive bacterial infections (sensitivity 23/95 [24.2%], 95% CI: 16.0%-34.1%; negative predictive value: 3983/4055 [98.2%], 95% CI: 97.8%-98.6%). Of the infants with clinician suspicion of <1%, 106 had SBIs (6.4%) and 16 (1.0%) had invasive bacterial infections. In this large prospective cohort of febrile infants ≤60 days of age, neither the YOS score nor unstructured clinician suspicion reliably identified those with invasive bacterial infections. More accurate clinical and laboratory predictors are needed to risk stratify febrile infants. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  20. Hematoma shape, hematoma size, Glasgow coma scale score and ICH score: which predicts the 30-day mortality better for intracerebral hematoma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Wei Wang

    Full Text Available To investigate the performance of hematoma shape, hematoma size, Glasgow coma scale (GCS score, and intracerebral hematoma (ICH score in predicting the 30-day mortality for ICH patients. To examine the influence of the estimation error of hematoma size on the prediction of 30-day mortality.This retrospective study, approved by a local institutional review board with written informed consent waived, recruited 106 patients diagnosed as ICH by non-enhanced computed tomography study. The hemorrhagic shape, hematoma size measured by computer-assisted volumetric analysis (CAVA and estimated by ABC/2 formula, ICH score and GCS score was examined. The predicting performance of 30-day mortality of the aforementioned variables was evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed using Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests, paired t test, nonparametric test, linear regression analysis, and binary logistic regression. The receiver operating characteristics curves were plotted and areas under curve (AUC were calculated for 30-day mortality. A P value less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.The overall 30-day mortality rate was 15.1% of ICH patients. The hematoma shape, hematoma size, ICH score, and GCS score all significantly predict the 30-day mortality for ICH patients, with an AUC of 0.692 (P = 0.0018, 0.715 (P = 0.0008 (by ABC/2 to 0.738 (P = 0.0002 (by CAVA, 0.877 (P<0.0001 (by ABC/2 to 0.882 (P<0.0001 (by CAVA, and 0.912 (P<0.0001, respectively.Our study shows that hematoma shape, hematoma size, ICH scores and GCS score all significantly predict the 30-day mortality in an increasing order of AUC. The effect of overestimation of hematoma size by ABC/2 formula in predicting the 30-day mortality could be remedied by using ICH score.

  1. Use of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, M J; Kim, K H

    1998-05-01

    We translated the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale into Korean, paying careful attention to culturally different modes of expression of depressive feelings and thoughts. The final translated version (CES-D-K) was administered to 164 psychiatric patients and 464 normal subjects residing in the community. Reliability, validity, and the optimal cutoff point of this scale were estimated, including ROC analysis. The CES-D-K was reliable and valid for the Korean population. Two optimal cutoff points were suggested: 24/25, the point which best corresponded to the clinical diagnosis of depression, and 20/21, which most effectively detects and covers depressive symptoms during screening. The higher cutoff points than those in Western countries may be due to different ways of expression affect, especially the suppression of positive affect, in cultures based on Confucian ethics.

  2. Factor analysis of the hospital anxiety and depression scale among a Huntington's disease population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dale, Maria; Maltby, John; Martucci, Rossana

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Depression and anxiety are common in Huntington's disease, a genetic neurodegenerative disorder. There is a need for measurement tools of mood to be validated within a Huntington's disease population. The current study aimed to analyze the factor structure of the Hospital Anxiety......, with two group factors, comprising four depression and four anxiety items, provided the best fit of the data. The salience of loadings on the bifactor model suggested that loadings were high on the general factor (accounting for 64% of the variance) and low on the group factors (21% for anxiety and 15......% for depression). CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that eight items from the scale perform well among the sample. Consistent with recent developments in modeling the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, a bifactor interpretation for an eight-item version outperformed other extant models. Our findings provide...

  3. Psychometric Properties of the Scores on the Behavioral Inhibition and Activation Scales in a Sample of Norwegian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornebekk, Gunnar

    2009-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the scores on a version for children of the Carver and White Behavioral Inhibition and Activation scales (the BIS-BAS scales). This involved administering the BIS-BAS scales, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, the Junior Eysenck Personality Questionnaire…

  4. Correlation between the selective control assessment of lower extremity and pediatric balance scale scores in children with spastic cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyoungwon

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between the Selective Control Assessment of Lower Extremity (SCALE) and Pediatric Balance Scales (PBS) in children with spastic cerebral palsy and further to test whether the SCALE is a valid tool to predict the PBS. [Subjects and Methods] A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the SCALE and PBS in 23 children (9 females, 14 males, GMFCS level I–III) with spastic cerebral palsy. [Results] Both the SCALE and PBS scores for children with spastic hemiplegia were significantly higher than those for children with spastic diplegia. The scores for SCALE items were low for distal parts. The PBS items that were difficult for the participants to perform were items 8, 9, 10, and 14 with the highest difficulty experienced for item 8 followed by items 9, 10, and 14. The correlation coefficient (0.797) between the SCALE and PBS scores was statistically significant. The correlations between each SCALE item and the PBS scores were also statistically significant. SCALE items were significantly correlated with two PBS dimensions (standing and postural change). [Conclusion] In SCALE assessment, more severe deficits were observed in the distal parts. Standing and postural changes in the PBS method were difficult for the participants to perform. The two tests, that is, the SCALE and PBS, were highly correlated. Therefore, the SCALE is useful to prediction of PBS outcomes and is also applicable as a prognostic indicator for treatment planning. PMID:26834323

  5. A study on construction, validation and determination of normalization of adolescents depression scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijeh Babakhani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to construct, to validate and to determine normalization factors associated with adolescents depression scale. The study is performed among 750 randomly selected guided and high school students, 364 male and 386 female, who live in city of Zanjan, Iran. Validity of Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, Validity of Simpson-Angus Scale (SAS and divergence validity of the Coopersmith self- esteem coefficients are 0.72, 0.37 and -0.71, respectively. Result suggests that adolescents’ depression test is a reliable and valid tool for assessing depression, with utility in both research and clinical settings, counseling centers. In addition, the results of correlation test indicate there are some meaningful differences between depression levels of female and male students. In fact, our survey indicates that female students have more depression than male students do (F-value = 33.06, Sig. = 0.000. In addition, there are some meaningful differences between depression levels in various educational levels (F-value = 8.59, Sig. = 0.000. However, the study does not find sufficient evidence to believe there is any meaningful correlation between educational backgrounds and gender.

  6. Predictors of Outcome in Patients Presenting with Acute Ischemic Stroke and Mild Stroke Scale Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenmuir, Cynthia L; Hammer, Maxim; Jovin, Tudor; Reddy, Vivek; Wechsler, Lawrence; Jadhav, Ashutosh

    2015-07-01

    Although National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) is a known predictor of outcome in acute ischemic stroke, there are other factors like age, ambulatory status, and ability to swallow that may be predictors of outcome but are not assessed by the traditional NIHSS. The aim of this retrospective review was to identify predictors of outcome in mild ischemic stroke. Discharge outcomes from patients who presented to our large academic stroke center with acute ischemic stroke from 2005 to 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Of 7189 patients reviewed, 2597 had initial NIHSS less than 5. Outcome measures were modified Rankin Scale (MRS) score 0-1 and discharge to home. In all, 65% of patients with NIHSS 0-4 were discharged directly home independent of treatment. Of those patients discharged to home, 74% were able to ambulate independently and 98% passed their dysphagia screen. Of patients not discharged directly home, 66% were unable to ambulate independently and 21% did not pass their dysphagia screen. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed a significant effect of dysphagia screen (P = .001), ability to ambulate independently (P = .002), age (P = .016), and NIHSS (P = .005) on discharge to home but not MRS of 0-1 (P = .564). In patients with mild stroke scale scores defined as NIHSS 0-4, several factors including age, NIHSS, ambulatory status, and ability to swallow may be independent predictors of functional outcome and discharge home. These data support the development of a modified grading system for assessing functional outcome in mild stroke that considers these factors. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Veddel; Bukh, Jens Otto Drachmann

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of depression is not clearly established, but estimated to 3-4% in a Danish questionnaire study. Lifetime's prevalences of 12-17% are reported in other community samples. In the current diagnostic system depression is defined categorically and operationally. It has been argued......, that these diagnostic criteria represent an oversimplification, which has blurred the concept of depression. We suggest a greater emphasis on the depressed mood as the core symptom of depression, which may increase the specificity of the diagnosis. Furthermore, basic principles for the treatment of depression...

  8. Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Veddel; Bukh, Jens Drachmann

    2014-01-01

    , that these diagnostic criteria represent an oversimplification, which has blurred the concept of depression. We suggest a greater emphasis on the depressed mood as the core symptom of depression, which may increase the specificity of the diagnosis. Furthermore, basic principles for the treatment of depression......The prevalence of depression is not clearly established, but estimated to 3-4% in a Danish questionnaire study. Lifetime's prevalences of 12-17% are reported in other community samples. In the current diagnostic system depression is defined categorically and operationally. It has been argued...

  9. Image subsampling and point scoring approaches for large-scale marine benthic monitoring programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Nicholas R.; Foster, Scott D.; Hill, Nicole A.; Barrett, Neville S.

    2016-07-01

    Benthic imagery is an effective tool for quantitative description of ecologically and economically important benthic habitats and biota. The recent development of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) allows surveying of spatial scales that were previously unfeasible. However, an AUV collects a large number of images, the scoring of which is time and labour intensive. There is a need to optimise the way that subsamples of imagery are chosen and scored to gain meaningful inferences for ecological monitoring studies. We examine the trade-off between the number of images selected within transects and the number of random points scored within images on the percent cover of target biota, the typical output of such monitoring programs. We also investigate the efficacy of various image selection approaches, such as systematic or random, on the bias and precision of cover estimates. We use simulated biotas that have varying size, abundance and distributional patterns. We find that a relatively small sampling effort is required to minimise bias. An increased precision for groups that are likely to be the focus of monitoring programs is best gained through increasing the number of images sampled rather than the number of points scored within images. For rare species, sampling using point count approaches is unlikely to provide sufficient precision, and alternative sampling approaches may need to be employed. The approach by which images are selected (simple random sampling, regularly spaced etc.) had no discernible effect on mean and variance estimates, regardless of the distributional pattern of biota. Field validation of our findings is provided through Monte Carlo resampling analysis of a previously scored benthic survey from temperate waters. We show that point count sampling approaches are capable of providing relatively precise cover estimates for candidate groups that are not overly rare. The amount of sampling required, in terms of both the number of images and

  10. Comparison of Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-Survey Form age equivalent and standard score with the Bayley Mental Development Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raggio, D J; Massingale, T W; Bass, J D

    1994-08-01

    The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-Survey Form standard score, Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-Survey Form age equivalent and Bayley scales' Mental Development Index were given to 44 high-risk infants age 12 mo. and suspected of developmental delay. The VABS-Survey Form, a revision of the Vineland Social Maturity Scale is frequently used in assessment of developmental delay; however, questions have arisen as to whether the standard score or age equivalent is the better measure. A developmental quotient based on VABS-SF age equivalent and VABS-SF standard score was compared with the Bayley Mental Development Index. The mean VABS-SF standard score was significantly higher than the age equivalent quotient and the Bayley Mental Development Index. Implications for the use of VABS-SF age equivalent in evaluating such infants are discussed.

  11. Measuring psychotic depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Søren Dinesen; Meyers, B S; Flint, A J

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Psychotic depression (PD) is a highly debilitating condition, which needs intensive monitoring. However, there is no established rating scale for evaluating the severity of PD. The aim of this analysis was to assess the psychometric properties of established depression rating scales...... and a number of new composite rating scales, covering both depressive and psychotic symptoms, in relation to PD. METHOD: The psychometric properties of the rating scales were evaluated based on data from the Study of Pharmacotherapy of Psychotic Depression. RESULTS: A rating scale consisting of the 6-item......'s correlation coefficient between change in HAMD-BPRS11 and Clinical Global Impression - Improvement (CGI-I) scores = -0.74--0.78) and unidimensionality (Loevinger's coefficient of homogeneity = 0.41) in the evaluation of PD. The HAM-D6 fulfilled the same criteria, whereas the full 17-item Hamilton Depression...

  12. Sequential Temporal Dependencies in Associations between Symptoms of Depression and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: An Application of Bivariate Latent Difference Score Structural Equation Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Daniel W.; King, Lynda A.; McArdle, John J.; Shalev, Arieh Y.; Doron-LaMarca, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are highly comorbid conditions that may arise following exposure to psychological trauma. This study examined their temporal sequencing and mutual influence using bivariate latent difference score structural equation modeling. Longitudinal data from 182 emergency room patients revealed level of…

  13. Depressants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... judgment and mental functioning nausea and vomiting memory loss (depressants can cause users to have no memory of events that happened while they were under the influence) Long-Term Effects When people misuse depressants over a long ...

  14. Multi-scale motility amplitude associated with suicidal thoughts in major depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Premananda Indic

    Full Text Available Major depression occurs at high prevalence in the general population, often starts in juvenile years, recurs over a lifetime, and is strongly associated with disability and suicide. Searches for biological markers in depression may have been hindered by assuming that depression is a unitary and relatively homogeneous disorder, mainly of mood, rather than addressing particular, clinically crucial features or diagnostic subtypes. Many studies have implicated quantitative alterations of motility rhythms in depressed human subjects. Since a candidate feature of great public-health significance is the unusually high risk of suicidal behavior in depressive disorders, we studied correlations between a measure (vulnerability index [VI] derived from multi-scale characteristics of daily-motility rhythms in depressed subjects (n = 36 monitored with noninvasive, wrist-worn, electronic actigraphs and their self-assessed level of suicidal thinking operationalized as a wish to die. Patient-subjects had a stable clinical diagnosis of bipolar-I, bipolar-II, or unipolar major depression (n = 12 of each type. VI was associated inversely with suicidal thinking (r = -0.61 with all subjects and r = -0.73 with bipolar disorder subjects; both p<0.0001 and distinguished patients with bipolar versus unipolar major depression with a sensitivity of 91.7% and a specificity of 79.2%. VI may be a useful biomarker of characteristic features of major depression, contribute to differentiating bipolar and unipolar depression, and help to detect risk of suicide. An objective biomarker of suicide-risk could be advantageous when patients are unwilling or unable to share suicidal thinking with clinicians.

  15. Glasgow Coma Scale scores, early opioids, and 4-year psychological outcomes among combat amputees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ted Melcer, PhD

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Morphine and fentanyl are frequently used for analgesia after trauma, but there is debate over the advantages and disadvantages of these opioids. Among combat amputees, intravenous (IV morphine (vs IV fentanyl after injury was associated with reduced likelihood of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. The previous results were based on military health diagnoses over 2 yr postinjury. The present study followed psychological diagnoses of patients with amputation for 4 yr using military and Department of Veterans Affairs health data. In-­theater combat casualty records (n = 145 documented Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS scores and/or morphine, fentanyl, or no opioid treatment within hours of injury. We found that (1 GCS scores were not significantly associated with PTSD; (2 longitudinal modeling using four (yearly time points showed significantly reduced odds of PTSD for patients treated with morphine (vs fentanyl across years (adjusted odds ratio = 0.40; 95% confidence interval = 0.17–0.94; (3 reduced PTSD prevalence for morphine (vs IV fentanyl; morphine = 25%, fentanyl = 59%, p < 0.05 was significant, specifically among patients with traumatic brain injury during the first 2 yr postinjury; and (4 PTSD prevalence, but not other disorders (e.g., mood, increased between year 1 (PTSD = 18% and years 2 through 4 postinjury (PTSD range = 30%–32%.

  16. Comparing Canadian and American normative scores on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Allyson G; Armstrong, Irene T; Harrison, Laura E; Lange, Rael T; Iverson, Grant L

    2014-12-01

    Psychologists practicing in Canada must decide which set of normative data to use for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV). The purpose of this study was to compare the interpretive effects of applying American versus Canadian normative systems in a sample of 432 Canadian postsecondary-level students who were administered the WAIS-IV as part of an evaluation for a learning disability, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, or other mental health problems. Employing the Canadian normative system yielded IQ, Index, and subtest scores that were systematically lower than those obtained using the American norms. Furthermore, the percentage agreement in normative classifications, defined as American and Canadian index scores within five points or within the same classification range, was between 49% and 76%. Substantial differences are present between the American and Canadian WAIS-IV norms. Clinicians should consider carefully the implications regarding which normative system is most appropriate for specific types of evaluations. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Serum ferritin correlates with Glasgow coma scale scores and fatal outcome after severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Daniel; Nicol, Josi Mara Botome; Sabino da Silva, Sabrina; Graziottin, Camila; Silveira, Patrícia Corso; Ikuta, Nilo; Regner, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with a 30-70% mortality rate. Nevertheless, in clinical practice there are no effective biomarkers for the prediction of fatal outcome following severe TBI. Therefore, the aim was to determine whether ferritin serum levels are associated with ICU mortality in patients with severe TBI. This prospective study enrolled 69 male patients who suffered severe TBI [Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) 3-8 at emergency room admission]. The serum ferritin protein level was determined at ICU admission (mean 5.6 ± 2.5 hours after emergency room admission). Severe TBI was associated with a 39% mortality rate. Higher serum ferritin concentrations were significantly associated with lower hospital admission GCS scores (p = 0.049). Further, there was a significant association between higher ferritin concentrations and fatal outcome (289.5 ± 27.1 µg L(-1) for survivors and 376.5 ± 31.5 µg L(-1) for non-survivors, respectively, mean ± SEM, p = 0.032). Increased serum ferritin levels were associated with lower hospital admission GCS scores and predicted short-term fatal outcome following severe TBI.

  18. Striatal dopaminergic activity (FDOPA-PET) associated with cognitive items of a depression scale (MADRS) in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koerts, Janneke; Leenders, Klaus L.; Koning, Marthe; Portman, Axel T.; van Beilen, Marije

    2007-01-01

    Motor symptoms form the hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD), although other features such as depression are often present. Currently-used depression rating scales measure affective and somatic symptoms. These somatic symptoms of depression can also be core PD symptoms, suggesting an overlap of symp

  19. Acute ischemic stroke prognostication, comparison between Glasgow Coma Score, NIHS Scale and Full Outline of UnResponsiveness Score in intensive care unit

    OpenAIRE

    Ossama Y. Mansour; Mohamed M. Megahed; Eman H.S. Abd Elghany

    2015-01-01

    Background: Stroke is the second most common cause of death worldwide and a frequent cause of adult disability in developed countries. No single outcome measure can describe or predict all dimensions of recovery and disability after acute stroke. Several scales have proven reliability and validity in stroke trials. Objectives: The aim of the work was to evaluate the FOUR score predictability for outcome of patients with acute ischemic stroke in comparison with the NIHSS and the GCS. Met...

  20. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS: validation in a Greek general hospital sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patapis Paulos

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS has been used in several languages to assess anxiety and depression in general hospital patients with good results. Methods The HADS was administered to 521 participants (275 controls and 246 inpatients and outpatients of the Internal Medicine and Surgical Departments in 'Attikon' General Hospital in Athens. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI were used as 'gold standards' for depression and anxiety respectively. Results The HADS presented high internal consistency; Cronbach's α cofficient was 0.884 (0.829 for anxiety and 0.840 for depression and stability (test-retest intraclass correlation coefficient 0.944. Factor analysis showed a two-factor structure. The HADS showed high concurrent validity; the correlations of the scale and its subscales with the BDI and the STAI were high (0.722 – 0.749. Conclusion The Greek version of HADS showed good psychometric properties and could serve as a useful tool for clinicians to assess anxiety and depression in general hospital patients.

  1. Confirmatory factor analysis of the portuguese Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 Análisis factorial confirmatoria de la versión portuguesa de la Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 Análise fatorial confirmatória da versão portuguesa da Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21

    OpenAIRE

    João Luís Alves Apóstolo; Barry Allen Tanner; Cynthia Lee Arfken

    2012-01-01

    To determine which of three published models best characterizes the factor structure of the Portuguese version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 and to assess its validity and reliability. Confirmatory factor analysis of Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 for 1,297 adult, primary care outpatients (66.7% female, Mage = 48.57 years) comparing 3 models. The relationship between the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule was analyzed. The co...

  2. Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cizza, G; Ravn, Pernille; Chrousos, G P

    2001-01-01

    Existing studies of the relationship between depression and osteoporosis have been heterogeneous in their design and use of diagnostic instruments for depression, which might have contributed to the different results on the comorbidity of these two conditions. Nevertheless, these studies reveal...... a strong association between depression and osteoporosis. Endocrine factors such as depression-induced hypersecretion of corticotropin-releasing hormone and hypercortisolism, hypogonadism, growth hormone deficiency and increased concentration of circulating interleukin 6, might play a crucial role...... in the bone loss observed in subjects suffering from major depression....

  3. Psychometric properties of the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 in older primary care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloster, Andrew T; Rhoades, Howard M; Novy, Diane; Klotsche, Jens; Senior, Ashley; Kunik, Mark; Wilson, Nancy; Stanley, Melinda A

    2008-10-01

    The Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS) was designed to efficiently measure the core symptoms of anxiety and depression and has demonstrated positive psychometric properties in adult samples of anxiety and depression patients and student samples. Despite these findings, the psychometric properties of the DASS remain untested in older adults, for whom the identification of efficient measures of these constructs is especially important. To determine the psychometric properties of the DASS 21-item version in older adults, we analyzed data from 222 medical patients seeking treatment to manage worry. Consistent with younger samples, a three-factor structure best fit the data. Results also indicated good internal consistency, excellent convergent validity, and good discriminative validity, especially for the Depression scale. Receiver operating curve analyses indicated that the DASS-21 predicted the diagnostic presence of generalized anxiety disorder and depression as well as other commonly used measures. These data suggest that the DASS may be used with older adults in lieu of multiple scales designed to measure similar constructs, thereby reducing participant burden and facilitating assessment in settings with limited assessment resources.

  4. Web-based scoring of the dicentric assay, a collaborative biodosimetric scoring strategy for population triage in large scale radiation accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romm, H; Ainsbury, E; Bajinskis, A; Barnard, S; Barquinero, J F; Barrios, L; Beinke, C; Puig-Casanovas, R; Deperas-Kaminska, M; Gregoire, E; Oestreicher, U; Lindholm, C; Moquet, J; Rothkamm, K; Sommer, S; Thierens, H; Vral, A; Vandersickel, V; Wojcik, A

    2014-05-01

    In the case of a large scale radiation accident high throughput methods of biological dosimetry for population triage are needed to identify individuals requiring clinical treatment. The dicentric assay performed in web-based scoring mode may be a very suitable technique. Within the MULTIBIODOSE EU FP7 project a network is being established of 8 laboratories with expertise in dose estimations based on the dicentric assay. Here, the manual dicentric assay was tested in a web-based scoring mode. More than 23,000 high resolution images of metaphase spreads (only first mitosis) were captured by four laboratories and established as image galleries on the internet (cloud). The galleries included images of a complete dose effect curve (0-5.0 Gy) and three types of irradiation scenarios simulating acute whole body, partial body and protracted exposure. The blood samples had been irradiated in vitro with gamma rays at the University of Ghent, Belgium. Two laboratories provided image galleries from Fluorescence plus Giemsa stained slides (3 h colcemid) and the image galleries from the other two laboratories contained images from Giemsa stained preparations (24 h colcemid). Each of the 8 participating laboratories analysed 3 dose points of the dose effect curve (scoring 100 cells for each point) and 3 unknown dose points (50 cells) for each of the 3 simulated irradiation scenarios. At first all analyses were performed in a QuickScan Mode without scoring individual chromosomes, followed by conventional scoring (only complete cells, 46 centromeres). The calibration curves obtained using these two scoring methods were very similar, with no significant difference in the linear-quadratic curve coefficients. Analysis of variance showed a significant effect of dose on the yield of dicentrics, but no significant effect of the laboratories, different methods of slide preparation or different incubation times used for colcemid. The results obtained to date within the MULTIBIODOSE

  5. Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale in patients with tinnitus and hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomaa, Mohammed Abdel Motaal; Elmagd, Manal Hassan Abo; Elbadry, Mohammed Mohammed; Kader, Rafeek Mohammed Abdel

    2014-08-01

    The study was proposed to evaluate co-morbid depression, anxiety and stress associated with tinnitus patients. The study was done on 196 subjects: 100 patients suffering from subjective tinnitus associated with hearing loss (tinnitus group), 45 patients suffering from hearing loss only (hearing loss group) and 50 healthy subjects not suffering from tinnitus or hearing loss (control group); the age ranges from 20 to 60 years old. The studied sample was subjected to full ear, nose and throat examinations and audiological evaluation. Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) was developed by Levibond H and Levibond F to assess three self-report scales designed to measure the negative emotional status of depression, anxiety and stress. All patients and control group were evaluated by DASS. (1) Depression: males were affected more than females. All patients over 60 years were affected by depression. The duration of tinnitus seems correlating with the severity of depression. Only 2 patients (4.3 %) of the hearing loss group suffer from depression. (2) Anxiety: 90 % of males suffer from anxiety as compared to 83.3 % females. The age group 20-29 years old suffers more than other age groups. Only 4 patients (8.7 %) of hearing loss group suffer from anxiety. (3) Stress: females seem to be affected by the stress (76.7 %) more than males (67.5). Patients in age group 30-39 suffer the most from the disease. There is a direct correlation between duration of tinnitus and severity of stress. No one of the hearing loss group suffers from stress. In conclusion, depression, anxiety and stress should be taken into consideration in the treatment of patients suffering from tinnitus.

  6. Validity of Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D scale in a sample of Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana R Quiñones

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Optimal depression screening necessitates measurement tools that are valid across varied populations and in the presence of comorbidities. Methods: This study assessed the test properties of two versions of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale against psychiatric diagnoses established by the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview among a clinical sample of US Veterans deployed during Operations Enduring Freedom, Iraqi Freedom, and New Dawn. Participants (N = 359 recruited from two Department of Veterans Affairs hospitals completed a clinical interview, structured diagnostic interview, and self-reported measures. Results: Based on diagnostic interview and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th Edition criteria, 29.5% of the sample met diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder and 26.5% met diagnostic criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder. Both Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression-20 and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression-10 scales performed well and almost identically against the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview-major depressive disorder in identifying Veterans with major depressive disorder (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression-20 area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve 91%; Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression-10 area under the ROC curve 90%. Overall, higher cut points for the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scales performed better in correctly identifying true positives and true negatives for major depressive disorder (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression-20 cut point 18+ sensitivity 92% specificity 72%; Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression-10 cut point 10+ sensitivity 92% specificity 69%. Conclusions: The specificity of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scales was poor among Veterans with co-occurring post-traumatic stress disorder (13% and 16%. Veterans with post

  7. Predictive accuracy of Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale assessment during pregnancy for the risk of developing postpartum depressive symptoms : a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, J. L.; Beijers, C.; van Pampus, M. G.; Verbeek, T.; Stolk, R. P.; Milgrom, J.; Bockting, C. L. H.; Burger, H.

    2014-01-01

    ObjectiveTo investigate whether the 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) administered antenatally is accurate in predicting postpartum depressive symptoms, and whether a two-item EPDS has similar predictive accuracy. DesignProspective cohort study. SettingObstetric care in the Netherl

  8. Method of administration of PROMIS scales did not significantly impact score level, reliability, or validity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjorner, Jakob B; Rose, Matthias; Gandek, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    each of three PROMIS item banks (Physical Function, Fatigue, and Depression) were completed by 923 adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, depression, or rheumatoid arthritis. In a randomized crossover design, subjects answered one form by interactive voice response (IVR) technology, paper...

  9. The center for epidemiologic studies depression scale: support for a bifactor model with a dominant general factor and a specific factor for positive affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Rapson; McLaren, Suzanne

    2015-06-01

    For the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) ratings, the study examined support for a bifactor model, and also the internal consistency reliability and external validity of the factors in this model. Participants (N = 1,178) were older adults from the general community who completed the CES-D. Confirmatory factor analysis of their ratings indicated support for the bifactor model. For this model, the general factor explained most of the covariance in the scores of the CES-D items for Depressed Affect, Somatic Symptoms and Retarded Activity, and Interpersonal Difficulties items. Most of the covariance in the scores of the Positive Affect (PA) scale was explained by its own specific factor. Additional analyses showed support for internal consistencies and external validities of general factors based on all the CES-D items, and when PA items were excluded, and also the PA-specific factor. The findings support the use of a total CES-D score without the PA items and also the concurrent use of the PA scale score. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Discriminant Validity of the Vineland Scales: Score Profiles of Individuals with Mental Retardation and a Specific Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balboni, Giulia; Pedrabissi, Luigi; Molteni, Massimo; Villa, Susanna

    2001-01-01

    Utility of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-Expanded Form to discriminate among areas of adaptive behavior was substantiated by comparing profiles of scores obtained by 113 individuals with mental retardation and either a communication, social behavior, or motor disorder. Results support the use of the Vineland Scales in ecological evaluation…

  11. Internal and External Validity of Scores on the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding and the Paulhus Deception Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanyon, Richard I.; Carle, Adam C.

    2007-01-01

    The internal and external validity of scores on the two-scale Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR) and its recent revision, the Paulhus Deception Scales (PDS), developed to measure two facets of social desirability, were studied with three groups of forensic clients and two groups of college undergraduates (total N = 519). The two…

  12. Validation of Scores on the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale and the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Walter L.; Beretvas, S. Natasha

    2005-01-01

    The Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MCSDS), the most commonly used social desirability bias (SDB) assessment, conceptualizes SDB as an individual's need for approval. The Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR) measures SDB as two separate constructs: impression management and self-deception. Scores on SDB scales are commonly…

  13. Psychometric properties of the French translation of the Behavioral Activation for Depression Scale-Short Form (BADS-SF) in non-clinical adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagener, Aurélie; Van der Linden, Martial; Blairy, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    A decrease in the level of engagement in activities ("behavioral activation") is usually observed in major depressive disorder. Because behavioral treatments of depression aim to counteract that mechanism, assessing changes in behavioral activation during treatment is of great interest. Therefore, Manos et al. (2011) developed a scale that assesses these changes, which was called the Behavioral Activation for Depression Scale-Short Form (BADS-SF). The aim of this study is to present a French version of this scale and to discuss its psychometric properties. The BADS-SF was translated into French, and 504 non-clinical adults completed an online survey that was composed of that scale and convergent measures. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed in two independent samples, and a two-factor solution was recommended, which references two functions of the engagement in activities (i.e., "activation" and "avoidance"). The results showed high levels of internal consistency and satisfying scores in terms of skewness and kurtosis. Moreover, relationships with measures of depression and behavioral systems indicated a good convergent validity. Therefore, the French BADS-SF can be seen as a reliable and valid instrument.

  14. Poisoning severity score, Glasgow coma scale, corrected QT interval in acute organophosphate poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdur, Okhan; Durukan, Polat; Ozkan, Seda; Avsarogullari, Levent; Vardar, Alper; Kavalci, Cemil; Ikizceli, Ibrahim

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate effectiveness of the poisoning severity score (PSS), Glasgow coma scale (GCS), and corrected QT (QTc) interval in predicting outcomes in acute organophosphates (OP) poisoning. Over a period of 2 years, 62 patients with OP poisoning were admitted to emergency department (ED) of Erciyes University Medical School Hospital. The age, sex, cause of contact, compound involved, time elapsed between exposure and admission to the ED, duration of hospital stay, and cardiac manifestations at the time of presentation were recorded. GCS and poisoning severity score (PSS) was calculated for each patient. Electrocardiogram (ECG) analysis included the rate, rhythm, ST-T abnormalities, conduction defects, and measurement of PR and QT intervals. Sixty-two patients with OP poisoning presented to our ED from January 2007 to December 2008 from which 54 patients were included in the study. The mean age was 34.1 +/- 14.8 years. Of the cases, 53.7% were female. Twenty-six patients had a prolonged QTc interval. Mean PSS of men and women was 1.8 +/- 1.0. No statistically significant correlation was found between the PSS and QTc intervals of the cases. A significant correlation was determined between the GCS and PSS of grade 3 and grade 4 cases. GCS is a parameter that helps clinician to identify advanced grade OP poisoning patients in the initial assessment in the ED. However, ECG findings, such as prolonged QTc interval, are not effective in determination of short-term prognosis and show no relationship with PSS.

  15. Factorial and Discriminant Validity of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orme, John G.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examined the factorial and discriminant validity of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) scale for 116 parents participating in family support programs. Factorial validity was adequate, and results indicated a moderate correlation between the CES-D and self-esteem and state anxiety. However, a high correlation was obtained…

  16. Psychometric Properties of an Arabic Version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Miriam Taouk; Lovibond, Peter; Laube, Roy; Megahead, Hamido A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To translate and evaluate the psychometric properties of an Arabic-language version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS). Method: The items were translated, back translated, refined, and tested in an Australian immigrant sample (N = 220). Results: Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the Arabic DASS discriminates between…

  17. Measurement Invariance of the Reynolds Depression Adolescent Scale across Gender and Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Wells, Craig; Paino, Mercedes; Lemos-Giraldez, Serafin; Villazon-Garcia, Ursula; Sierra, Susana; Garcia-Portilla Gonzalez, Ma Paz; Bobes, Julio; Muniz, Jose

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to examine measurement invariance of the Reynolds Depression Adolescent Scale (RADS) (Reynolds, 1987) across gender and age in a representative sample of nonclinical adolescents. The sample was composed of 1,659 participants, 801 males (48.3%), with a mean age of 15.9 years (SD = 1.2). Confirmatory…

  18. A Brief Version of the Geriatric Depression Scale for the Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Sheung-Tak; Chan, Alfred C. M.

    2004-01-01

    Elderly persons (N=310) attending outpatient psychiatric clinics were given an interview on the 30-item Geriatric Depression Scale (T. L. Brink et al., 1982; J. A. Yesavage et al., 1983) and received an independent psychiatric evaluation. A 3-step binary logistic regression showed that 2 items measuring positive affect and 2 others measuring…

  19. Contribution to the validation of the Kutcher Adolescent Depression Scale (KADS-6 in a Portuguese population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sónia Quintão

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The KADS-6 is a self-report assessment instrument known for its ease application in assessing depression in young people. This study aimed to contribute to the validation of the Portuguese version of this tool and analyze its psychometric characteristics in comparison with other self-report instruments for depression in adolescents, in Portugal. Two samples were collected, a non-clinical group of in school youth (n=773; 52.4% male and a clinical sample (n=134 youth; 44% male. Comparisons also used the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II and the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI. Results: The factor analysis revealed the unidimensionality of the measure. The KADS-6 demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha in both clinical (.74 and school (.80 samples. Its convergent validity with the BDI-II and CDI was r=.44; r=.61, respectively in the clinical sample and r=.60; r=.57 in the school sample. The KADS-6, a short and time efficient instrument, showed good psychometric characteristics in terms of internal consistency and convergent validity in comparison with the BDI-II and the CDI. Given its ease of use and scoring, the KADS-6 could be considered for use in both school and clinical settings when addressing adolescent depression.

  20. Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouwer, Frans

    2017-01-01

    There is ample evidence that depression is000  a common comorbid health issue in people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Reviews have also concluded that depression in diabetes is associated with higher HbA1c levels, less optimal self-care behaviours, lower quality of life, incident vascular...... complications and higher mortality rates. However, longitudinal studies into the course of depression in people with type 1 diabetes remain scarce. In this issue of Diabetologia, Kampling and colleagues (doi: 10.1007/s00125-016-4123-0 ) report the 5 year trajectories of depression in adults with newly diagnosed...... type 1 diabetes (mean age, 28 years). Their baseline results showed that shortly after the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes a major depressive episode was diagnosed in approximately 6% of participants, while 8% suffered from an anxiety disorder. The longitudinal depression data showed that, in a 5 year...

  1. Comparison of Nutech Functional Score with European Stroke Scale for Patients with Cerebrovascular Accident Treated with Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroff, Geeta

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Stem cell therapy is a promising modality for treatment of patients with chronic cerebrovascular accident (CVA) in whom treatment other than physiotherapy or occupational therapy does not address the repair or recovery of the lost function. In this study, the author aimed at evaluating CVA patients treated with human embryonic stem cell (hESC) therapy and comparing their study outcomes with globally accepted European Stroke Scale (ESS) to that with novel scoring system, Nutech functional score (NFS), a 21-point positional and directional scoring system for assessing patients with CVA. Materials and Methods Patients diagnosed with CVA were assessed with NFS and ESS before and after hESC therapy. NFS assessed the patients in the direction of 1–5 (bad to good), where 5 was considered as the highest possible grade (HPG). The findings were obtained for the patients who scored HPG, and had shown improvement by at least one grade. Results Overall, 66.7% of patients scored HPG level on the NFS scale and about 62.5% of the patients scored HPG according to the ESS scale. Approximately, 52.2% patients showed an improvement of 100% (by at least one grade) on NFS scale. None of the patients showed 100% improvement in the alteration of the score by at least one grade when scored with ESS. Conclusion NFS and ESS scores show that a large population of CVA patients was benefitted with hESC therapy. NFS was found to give more convincing results than ESS, and overcomes the shortcomings of ESS. PMID:28702118

  2. Depression and Related Problems in University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Pelaez, Martha; Deeds, Osvelia; Delgado, Jeannette

    2012-01-01

    Method: Depression and related problems were studied in a sample of 283 university students. Results: The students with high depression scores also had high scores on anxiety, intrusive thoughts, controlling intrusive thoughts and sleep disturbances scales. A stepwise regression suggested that those problems contributed to a significant proportion…

  3. Depression and Related Problems in University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Pelaez, Martha; Deeds, Osvelia; Delgado, Jeannette

    2012-01-01

    Method: Depression and related problems were studied in a sample of 283 university students. Results: The students with high depression scores also had high scores on anxiety, intrusive thoughts, controlling intrusive thoughts and sleep disturbances scales. A stepwise regression suggested that those problems contributed to a significant proportion…

  4. A Psychometric Analysis of the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scales--Parent Version in a School Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebesutani, Chad; Chorpita, Bruce F.; Higa-McMillan, Charmaine K.; Nakamura, Brad J.; Regan, Jennifer; Lynch, Roxanna E.

    2011-01-01

    The Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale--Parent Version (RCADS-P) is a parent-report questionnaire of youth anxiety and depression with scales corresponding to the "DSM" diagnoses of separation anxiety disorder, social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and major depressive…

  5. A Psychometric Analysis of the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scales--Parent Version in a School Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebesutani, Chad; Chorpita, Bruce F.; Higa-McMillan, Charmaine K.; Nakamura, Brad J.; Regan, Jennifer; Lynch, Roxanna E.

    2011-01-01

    The Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale--Parent Version (RCADS-P) is a parent-report questionnaire of youth anxiety and depression with scales corresponding to the "DSM" diagnoses of separation anxiety disorder, social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and major depressive…

  6. Inter-rater reliability of two depression rating scales, MADRS and DRRS, based on videotape records of structured interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corruble, E; Purper, D; Payan, C; Guelfi, J

    1998-08-01

    The inter-rater reliability of the French versions of the MADRS and the DRRS was studied on the basis of 58 videotape records of structured standardised interviews of depressed inpatients under antidepressant treatment. Each patient was assessed by two trained raters, from the same videotape recording. The inter-rater reliability of total scores was high with both scales (intra-class correlation coefficients: 0.86 for MADRS and 0.77 for DRRS). However, the inter-rater reliability for individual items was higher and more homogeneous for the MADRS than for the DRRS. Finally, the structured interview in French appears to be relevant for the MADRS, but it should be improved for the DRRS.

  7. Standardized clinical outcome rating scale for depression for use in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Mark; Posternak, Michael A; Chelminski, Iwona; Friedman, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The integration of research into clinical practice to conduct effectiveness studies faces multiple obstacles. One obstacle is the burden of completing research measures of outcome. A simple, reliable, and valid measure that could be rated at every visit, incorporated into a clinician's progress note, and reflect the DSM-IV definition of a major depressive episode (including partial and full remission from the episode) would enhance the ability to conduct effectiveness research. The goal of the present study was to examine the reliability and validity of such a measure. Three hundred and three psychiatric outpatients who were being treated for a DSM-IV major depressive episode were rated on the Standardized Clinical Outcome Rating for Depression (SCOR-D), 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, and the Global Assessment of Functioning. We examined the correlation between the SCOR-D and the other measures, and conducted an analyses of variance to compare mean values on these measures for each rating point on the SCOR-D. The inter-rater reliability of the SCOR-D dimensional ratings and categorical determination of remission were high. The SCOR-D was highly correlated with the other scales, and there were significant differences on the other measures of depression severity between each adjacent rating level of the SCOR-D. The SCOR-D is a brief standardized outcome measure linked to the DSM-IV approach toward defining remission that can be incorporated into routine clinical practice without adding undue burden to the treating clinician with some evidence of reliability and validity. This measure could make it more feasible to conduct effectiveness studies in clinical practice.

  8. Relationship between the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale score and the success rate of 64-slice computed tomography coronary angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Jin, Dan; Qiao, Fang; Chen, Jianchang; Gong, Jianping

    Computed tomography coronary angiography, a key method for obtaining coronary artery images, is widely used to screen for coronary artery diseases due to its noninvasive nature. In China, 64-slice computed tomography systems are now the most common models. As factors that directly affect computed tomography performance, heart rate and rhythm control are regulated by the autonomic nervous system and are highly related to the emotional state of the patient. The aim of this prospective study is to use a pre-computed tomography scan Self-Rating Anxiety Scale assessment to analyze the effects of tension and anxiety on computed tomography coronary angiography success. Subjects aged 18-85 years who were planned to undergo computed tomography coronary angiography were enrolled; 1 to 2 h before the computed tomography scan, basic patient data (gender, age, heart rate at rest, and family history) and Self-Rating Anxiety Scale score were obtained. The same group of imaging department doctors, technicians, and nurses performed computed tomography coronary angiography for all the enrolled subjects and observed whether those subjects could finish the computed tomography coronary angiography scan and provide clear, diagnostically valuable images. Participants were divided into successful (obtained diagnostically useful coronary images) and unsuccessful groups. Basic data and Self-Rating Anxiety Scale scores were compared between the groups. The Self-Rating Anxiety Scale standard score of the successful group was lower than that of the unsuccessful group (P = 0.001). As the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale standard score rose, the success rate of computed tomography coronary angiography decreased. The Self-Rating Anxiety Scale score has a negative relationship with computed tomography coronary angiography success. Anxiety can be a disadvantage in computed tomography coronary angiography examination. The pre-computed tomography coronary angiography scan Self-Rating Anxiety Scale

  9. Hopelessness, Depression, and Suicidal Intent among Psychiatrically Disturbed Inpatient Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazdin, Alan E.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Evaluated hopelessness, depression, and suicidal intent among preadolescent psychiatric patients (N=66), using the Hopelessness Scale for Children. Results showed children who scored high on the hopelessness scale showed significantly more severe depression. Suicidal intent was more consistently correlated with hopelessness than with depression.…

  10. The validity of self-rating depression scales in patients with chronic widespread pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amris, Kirstine; Omerovic, Emina; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Assessment of depression in chronic pain patients by self-rating questionnaires developed and validated for use in normal and/or psychiatric populations is common. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Major Depression Inventory (MDI) in a sample...... of females with chronic widespread pain (CWP). METHOD: A total of 263 females diagnosed with CWP and referred for rehabilitation completed the MDI as part of the baseline evaluation. Rasch analysis was applied to this dataset. Rasch measurement models allow detailed analyses of an instrument's rating scale...

  11. Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strock, Margaret

    Approximately ten percent of the population suffers from a depressive illness each year. Although the economic cost is high, the cost in human suffering is immeasurable. To help educate the population about this disorder, this paper presents a definition of depression and its common manifestations. The symptoms that people often experience are…

  12. Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jon O. J.

    2013-01-01

    Nyhederne er fulde af historier om depression. Overskrifter som: ’Danskerne propper sig med lykkepiller’ eller ‘depression er stadigvæk tabu’ går tit igen i dagspressen. Men hvor er nuancerne, og hvorfor gider vi læse de samme historier igen og igen? Måske er det fordi, vores egne forestillinger er...

  13. Dysfunctional attitudes in depressed patients before and after clinical treatment and in normal control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peselow, E D; Robins, C; Block, P; Barouche, F; Fieve, R R

    1990-04-01

    To evaluate the role of maladaptive thinking patterns in depression, the authors administered the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale to 112 depressed patients before and after 3-6 weeks of treatment with antidepressants or placebo. Twenty-two normal subjects were also assessed twice. Depressed patients had a significantly higher initial mean score than control subjects, but during treatment their score significantly decreased, and the posttreatment score of those with complete recoveries was nearly as low as the control subjects' final score. The higher the initial dysfunctional attitude score the poorer the response to treatment. Patients with endogenous depression had significantly lower scores than nonendogenously depressed patients.

  14. Nomothetic outcome assessment in counseling and psychotherapy: Development and preliminary psychometric analyses of the Depression/Anxiety Negative Affect Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott T. Meier

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Negative affect (NA plays a significant role in the initiation, persistence, and response to psychotherapy of many client problems (Moses & Barlow, 2006. This report describes the development of a brief NA measure, the Depression/Anxiety Negative Affect (DANA scale, and preliminary analyses of its psychometric properties. An initial pool of DANA items was selected on the basis of a review of relevant literature about emotion science and counseling outcomes, related tests, and feedback from psychotherapists as part of a pilot test. The DANA was evaluated in two representative clinical samples where psychotherapists produced a total of 363 session ratings with 81 clients. DANA scores evidenced adequate internal consistency, evidence of convergent and discriminant validity, and sensitivity to change over the course of psychotherapy. Effect sizes (ES of DANA scores consistently equaled or exceeded the average ES of .68 found for scales assessing the outcomes of counseling and psychotherapy in meta-analytic studies (Smith & Glass, 1977. ESs greater than 1 were found on DANA variables for clients whose therapists rated them as experiencing, rather than avoiding, NA.

  15. Predictive validity of the classroom strategies scale-observer form on statewide testing scores: an initial investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Linda A; Fabiano, Gregory A; Dudek, Christopher M; Hsu, Louis

    2013-12-01

    The present study examined the validity of a teacher observation measure, the Classroom Strategies Scale--Observer Form (CSS), as a predictor of student performance on statewide tests of mathematics and English language arts. The CSS is a teacher practice observational measure that assesses evidence-based instructional and behavioral management practices in elementary school. A series of two-level hierarchical generalized linear models were fitted to data of a sample of 662 third- through fifth-grade students to assess whether CSS Part 2 Instructional Strategy and Behavioral Management Strategy scale discrepancy scores (i.e., ∑ |recommended frequency--frequency ratings|) predicted statewide mathematics and English language arts proficiency scores when percentage of minority students in schools was controlled. Results indicated that the Instructional Strategy scale discrepancy scores significantly predicted mathematics and English language arts proficiency scores: Relatively larger discrepancies on observer ratings of what teachers did versus what should have been done were associated with lower proficiency scores. Results offer initial evidence of the predictive validity of the CSS Part 2 Instructional Strategy discrepancy scores on student academic outcomes.

  16. Class Average Score for Teacher Support and Relief of Depression in Adolescents: A Population Study in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuta, Akiko; Noda, Tatsuya; Nakamura, Mieko; Tatsumi, Asami; Ojima, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Background: Factors contributing to the relief of depression among adolescents have not been sufficiently revealed. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of teacher support on depression in adolescent students. Methods: We conducted a self-rating questionnaire survey among 2862 junior high school students and 93 homeroom teachers in…

  17. Apathy and depression in Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguru, Miyako; Tachibana, Hisao; Toda, Kazuo; Okuda, Bungo; Oka, Nobuyuki

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and clinical correlates of apathy and depression in Parkinson disease (PD), and to clarify whether apathy can be dissociated from depression. One hundred fifty patients with PD completed the Beck Depression Inventory Second Edition (BDI-II), Starkstein's Apathy Scale (AS), and a quality of life (QOL) battery. Hoehn and Yahr (HY) staging, the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) were performed on the same day. Apathy (AS score > or = 16) was diagnosed in 60% of patients and depression (BDI-II score > or = 14) in 56%. Apathy coexisted with depression in 43% of patients, compared with depression without apathy in 13% and apathy without depression in 17%. Apathy scale score was significantly correlated with UPDRS scores, HY stage, and age, whereas BDI-II score was correlated only with UPDRS scores. Both AS and BDI-II scores were negatively correlated with QOL. However, multiple regression analysis revealed that depression was strongly and negatively associated with emotional well-being and communication, whereas apathy was mainly associated with cognition and stigma. These findings suggest that apathy and depression may be separable in PD, although both are common in patients with PD and are associated with QOL.

  18. Evaluation of the Edinburgh Post Natal Depression Scale using Rasch analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tennant Alan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS is a 10 item self-rating post-natal depression scale which has seen widespread use in epidemiological and clinical studies. Concern has been raised over the validity of the EPDS as a single summed scale, with suggestions that it measures two separate aspects, one of depressive feelings, the other of anxiety. Methods As part of a larger cross-sectional study conducted in Melbourne, Australia, a community sample (324 women, ranging in age from 18 to 44 years: mean = 32 yrs, SD = 4.6, was obtained by inviting primiparous women to participate voluntarily in this study. Data from the EPDS were fitted to the Rasch measurement model and tested for appropriate category ordering, for item bias through Differential Item Functioning (DIF analysis, and for unidimensionality through tests of the assumption of local independence. Results Rasch analysis of the data from the ten item scale initially demonstrated a lack of fit to the model with a significant Item-Trait Interaction total chi-square (chi Square = 82.8, df = 40; p Conclusion The results of this study suggest that EPDS, in its original 10 item form, is not a viable scale for the unidimensional measurement of depression. Rasch analysis suggests that a revised eight item version (EPDS-8 would provide a more psychometrically robust scale. The revised cut points of 7/8 and 9/10 for the EPDS-8 show high levels of agreement with the original case identification for the EPDS-10.

  19. Factors of Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (17 items) at 2 weeks correlated with poor outcome at 1 year in patients with ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Huaiwu; Zhang, Ning; Wang, Chunxue; Luo, Ben Yan; Shi, Yuzhi; Li, Jingjing; Zhou, Yong; Wang, Yilong; Zhang, Tong; Zhou, Juan; Zhao, Xingquan; Wang, Yongjun

    2014-02-01

    There was fewer paper about the relation between the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (17 Items, HDRS-17) factors and stroke outcomes. Our aim was to investigate the influence of total score and factors of HDRS-17 on outcome of ischemic stroke at 1 year. A total of 1,953 patients with acute ischemic stroke were enrolled into a multicentered and prospective cohort study. The HDRS-17 was used to assess symptoms at 2 weeks after ischemic stroke. The Modified Ranking Scale (mRS) scores of 3-6 points and 0-2 points were regarded as poor outcome and benign outcome, respectively. At 1 year, 1,753 (89.8 %) patients had mRS score data. After adjusting for the confounders, patients with a total HDRS-17 score of ≥ 8 had a worse outcome at 1 year (OR = 1.62, 95 % CI 1.18-2.23). Symptoms of suicide (OR = 1.89, 95 % CI 1.27-2.83), decreased or loss of interest of work (OR = 1.89, 95 % CI 1.38-2.58), retardation (OR = 1.74, 95 % CI 1.27-2.38), psychic anxiety (OR = 1.72, 95 % CI 1.26-2.34), and agitation (OR = 1.61, 95 % CI 1.08-2.40) increased the risks for poor outcome by >60 %, respectively. Depressed mood, somatic anxiety, somatic symptoms-gastrointestinal, and early insomnia also increased the risk for poor outcome by nearly 50 %, respectively. A total HDRS-17 score of ≥ 8, and suicide, decreased or loss of interest of work, anxiety, agitation, retardation, depressed mood, somatic anxiety, somatic symptoms-gastrointestinal, and early insomnia of the HDRS-17 factors at 2 weeks after ischemic stroke increase the risk for poor outcome at 1 year.

  20. Validation of the turkish version of the centre for epidemiologic studies depression scale (ces-d in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karşıdağ Kubilay

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression is a common co-morbid health problem in patients with diabetes that is underrecognised. Current international guidelines recommend screening for depression in patients with diabetes. Yet, few depression screening instruments have been validated for use in this particular group of patients. Aim of the present study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Turkish version of the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods A sample of 151 Turkish outpatients with type 2 diabetes completed the CES-D, the World Health Organization-Five Well-Being Index (WHO-5, and the Problem Areas in Diabetes scale (PAID. Explanatory factor analyses, various correlations and Cronbach's alpha were investigated to test the validity and reliability of the CES-D in Turkish diabetes outpatients. Results The original four-factor structure proposed by Radloff was not confirmed. Explanatory factor analyses revealed a two-factor structure representing two subscales: (1 depressed mood combined with somatic symptoms of depression and (2 positive affect. However, one item showed insufficient factor loadings. Cronbach's alpha of the total score was high (0.88, as were split-half coefficients (0.77-0.90. The correlation of the CES-D with the WHO-5 was the strongest (r = -0.70, and supported concurrent validity. Conclusion The CES-D appears to be a valid measure for the assessment of depression in Turkish diabetes patients. Future studies should investigate its sensitivity and specificity as well as test-retest reliability.

  1. Comparison of pre-procedural anxiety and depression scores for patients undergoing chorion villus sampling and amniocentesis: An alternative perspective on prenatal invasive techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanhal, Cem Yasar; Mendilcioglu, Inanc; Ozekinci, Murat; Simsek, Mehmet; Bozkurt, Selen

    2015-01-01

    To compare the pre-procedural anxiety and depression levels of patients undergoing chorion villus sampling (CVS) and amniocentesis (AC). Patients referred to our department for fetal karyotype analysis with a positive first or second trimester screening test for aneuploidy between January 2013 to June 2015 were included. CVS and AC procedures were performed in patients with gestation periods of between 11-14 and 16-20 weeks, respectively. Anxiety was evaluated using the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and depression was assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II). A total of 1,400 patients were included. Compared to first trimester controls, patients undergoing CVS had significantly higher STAI-state and BDI-II results. Likewise, patients undergoing AC had higher STAI-state and BDI-II scores than controls in the second trimester. In terms of STAI-trait results, no difference was found between the groups. Our results also showed that, compared to AC group, patients undergoing CVS had similar STAI-state, STAI-trait and but higher BDI-II scores. We conclude that evaluating the stress and depression levels of these patients should be one of the routine procedures in pregnancy follow-up.

  2. Multiple tests for wind turbine fault detection and score fusion using two- level multidimensional scaling (MDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiang; Gao, Weihua; Yan, Yanjun; Osadciw, Lisa A.

    2010-04-01

    Wind is an important renewable energy source. The energy and economic return from building wind farms justify the expensive investments in doing so. However, without an effective monitoring system, underperforming or faulty turbines will cause a huge loss in revenue. Early detection of such failures help prevent these undesired working conditions. We develop three tests on power curve, rotor speed curve, pitch angle curve of individual turbine. In each test, multiple states are defined to distinguish different working conditions, including complete shut-downs, under-performing states, abnormally frequent default states, as well as normal working states. These three tests are combined to reach a final conclusion, which is more effective than any single test. Through extensive data mining of historical data and verification from farm operators, some state combinations are discovered to be strong indicators of spindle failures, lightning strikes, anemometer faults, etc, for fault detection. In each individual test, and in the score fusion of these tests, we apply multidimensional scaling (MDS) to reduce the high dimensional feature space into a 3-dimensional visualization, from which it is easier to discover turbine working information. This approach gains a qualitative understanding of turbine performance status to detect faults, and also provides explanations on what has happened for detailed diagnostics. The state-of-the-art SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) system in industry can only answer the question whether there are abnormal working states, and our evaluation of multiple states in multiple tests is also promising for diagnostics. In the future, these tests can be readily incorporated in a Bayesian network for intelligent analysis and decision support.

  3. Reliability and validity of Anxiety and Depression Hospital Scales (HADS: Iranian patients with anxiety and depression disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaviani H

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Iranian researchers and scientists in the fields of psychiatry and psychology undoubtedly need to spend more time and make considerable efforts to prepare and validate Persian versions of measurements. The present study was designed to validate HADS in Iranian clinically anxious and depressed patients compared to normal population."n"n Methods: 261 anxious and depressed patients referred to the inpatient clinic of Rouzbeh Psychiatric Hospital, Tehran, and 261 healthy volunteers (matched for their sex were tested using HADS, and two additional clinical tools, ie., BDI & BAI. Then the patients were interviewed by a psychiatrist or a psychologist (using DSM IV checklist and rated for their anxiety and depression severity levels based on a 10-point scale from 1 to 10. BDI and BAI were regarded as objective device providing other external criteria to examine validity further. Moreover, to assess reliability 10% of the patients (n= 27 were randomly selected and re-tested after three days."n"n Results: Findings showed that all measures and their subscales proved to be valid and reliable with good internal consistencies in Iranian depressed and anxious patients. This study provides clinicians and researchers with

  4. Using Raters from India to Score a Large-Scale Speaking Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Xiaoming; Mollaun, Pam

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the scoring of the Speaking section of the Test of English as a Foreign Language[TM] Internet-based (TOEFL iBT[R]) test by speakers of English and one or more Indian languages. We explored the extent to which raters from India, after being trained and certified, were able to score the TOEFL examinees with mixed first languages…

  5. Using Raters from India to Score a Large-Scale Speaking Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Xiaoming; Mollaun, Pam

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the scoring of the Speaking section of the Test of English as a Foreign Language[TM] Internet-based (TOEFL iBT[R]) test by speakers of English and one or more Indian languages. We explored the extent to which raters from India, after being trained and certified, were able to score the TOEFL examinees with mixed first languages…

  6. Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Different people have different symptoms. Some symptoms of depression include: Persistent sad, anxious, or “empty” mood Feelings of hopelessness or pessimism Feelings of guilt, worthlessness, or helplessness ...

  7. Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... caring for children and aging parents, abuse, and poverty may trigger depression in some people. Medical illness – ... federal government website managed by the Office on Women’s Health in the Office of the Assistant Secretary ...

  8. Agreement between the SCORE and D’Agostino Scales for the Classification of High Cardiovascular Risk in Sedentary Spanish Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis García-Ortiz

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: To evaluate agreement between cardiovascular risk in sedentary patients as estimated by the new Framingham-D’Agostino scale and by the SCORE chart, and to describe the patient characteristics associated with the observed disagreement between the scales. Design: A cross-sectional study was undertaken involving a systematic sample of 2,295 sedentary individuals between 40–65 years of age seen for any reason in 56 primary care offices. An estimation was made of the Pearson correlation coefficient and kappa statistic for the classification of high risk subjects (≥20% according to the Framingham-D’Agostino scale, and ≥5% according to SCORE. Polytomous logistic regression models were fitted to identify the variables associated with the discordance between the two scales. Results: The mean risk in males (35% was 19.5% ± 13% with D’Agostino scale, and 3.2% ± 3.3% with SCORE. Among females, they were 8.1% ± 6.8% and 1.2% ± 2.2%, respectively. The correlation between the two scales was 0.874 in males (95% CI: 0.857–0.889 and 0.818 in females (95% CI: 0.800–0.834, while the kappa index was 0.50 in males (95% CI: 0.44%–0.56% and 0.61 in females (95% CI: 0.52%–0.71%. The most frequent disagreement, characterized by high risk according to D’Agostino scale but not according to SCORE, was much more prevalent among males and proved more probable with increasing age and increased LDL-cholesterol, triglyceride and systolic blood pressure values, as well as among those who used antihypertensive drugs and smokers. Conclusions: The quantitative correlation between the two scales is very high. Patient categorization as corresponding to high risk generates disagreements, mainly among males, where agreement between the two classifications is only moderate.

  9. Measurement equivalence of the CES-D 8 depression-scale among the ageing population in eleven European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missinne, Sarah; Vandeviver, Christophe; Van de Velde, Sarah; Bracke, Piet

    2014-07-01

    Depression is one of the most prevalent mental disorders in later life. However, despite considerable research attention, great confusion remains regarding the association between ageing and depression. There is doubt as to whether a depression scale performs identically for different age groups and countries. Although measurement equivalence is a crucial prerequisite for valid comparisons across age groups and countries, it has not been established for the eight-item version of the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D8). Using multi-group confirmatory factor analysis, we assess configural, metric, and scalar measurement equivalence across two age groups (50-64 years of age and 65 or older) in eleven European countries, employing data from the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement (SHARE). Results indicate that the construct of depression is comparable across age and country groups, allowing the substantive interpretation of correlates and mean levels of depressive symptoms.

  10. Impact of terrorism on health and Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale screening in medical students, Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasim, Sara; Khan, Mahjabeen; Aziz, Sina

    2014-03-01

    To determine the association of terrorism with psychiatric morbidity by Hospital Anxiety Depression scale among medical students in Karachi, Pakistan. The questionnaire based cross-sectional survey was conducted from February to March 2011 and comprised students of the Institute of Physical and Medical Rehabilitation and the Dow Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi. The study tool was a validated Hospital Anxiety Depression scale questionnaire. The data was analysed on SPSS 16. Factor analysis was performed to check which factors had the most influence. Overall there were 1036 respondents. The impact of terrorism on physical, social and mental health was 40 (3.9%), 178 (17.2%) and 818 (79%) respectively. There was an association of terrorism in 980 (84.6%) respondents with psychiatric morbidity. There was an association of terrorism with psychiatric morbidity in majority of respondents. The significant risk factors were age, gender, physical, mental and social health and the desire to live in Pakistan.

  11. Depression Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS-21): psychometric analysis across four racial groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Peter J

    2007-09-01

    Growing cross-cultural awareness has led researchers to examine frequently used research instruments and assessment tools in racially diverse populations. The present study was conducted to assess the psychometric characteristics of the 21-item version of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales (DASS-21) among different racial groups. The DASS-21 was chosen because it appears to be a reliable and easy to administer measure, ideal for both clinical and research purposes. Results suggest that the internal consistency, and convergent and divergent validity of the DASS-21 are similar across racial groups. Multigroup CFA, however, indicated that item loadings were invariant, while scale covariances were not invariant. This suggests that, although the items may load similarly on the depression, anxiety and stress constructs, these constructs may be differentially inter-related across groups. Implications for application in clinical practice are discussed.

  12. Confirmatory factor analysis of the portuguese Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 Análisis factorial confirmatoria de la versión portuguesa de la Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 Análise fatorial confirmatória da versão portuguesa da Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Luís Alves Apóstolo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available To determine which of three published models best characterizes the factor structure of the Portuguese version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 and to assess its validity and reliability. Confirmatory factor analysis of Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 for 1,297 adult, primary care outpatients (66.7% female, Mage = 48.57 years comparing 3 models. The relationship between the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule was analyzed. The correlated 3-factor model fit the data best. The scale demonstrated good internal consistency, with alpha scores of the subscales ranging from 0.836 to 0.897. Correlation with the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule was positive and moderate with the negative affect scale; it was negative and limited with the positive affect. These findings support the correlated 3-factor structure. The test demonstrated adequate reliability and construct validity, which supports its use for screening in primary care settings with Portuguese speakers.El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar cual de los tres modelos publicados mejor caracteriza la estructura factorial de la versión portuguesa de la Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21 y evaluar su validez y confiabilidad. Se compararon los tres modelos a través de análisis factorial confirmatoria de la DASS-21, aplicada el 1.297 pacientes adultos, del servicio de atención básica (66,7% mujeres; edad Media=48,57 años. La relación entre la DASS-21 y la Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS también fue analizada. El modelo de tres factores correlacionados se ajusta mejor a los datos. La escala presentó buena consistencia interna con valores alfa observados en las subescalas, variando de 0,836 a 0,897. La correlación con la PANAS fue positiva y comedida con la escala de afecto negativa, y negativa y limitada con la escala de afecto positivo. Esos resultados corroboran la estructura de tres factores. La

  13. Decrease in "Hamilton rating scale for depression" following isotretinoin therapy in acne: An open-label prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpa Gnanaraj

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acne is a common disorder among adolescents and young adults causing a considerable psychological impact including anxiety and depression. Isotretinoin, a synthetic oral retinoid is very effective in the treatment of moderate to severe acne. But there have been many reports linking isotretinoin to depression and suicide though no clear proof of association has been established so far. Objective: To determine whether oral isotretinoin increases the risk of depression in patients with moderate to severe acne. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty patients with moderate to severe acne were treated with oral isotretinoin 0.5 mg/kg/day for a period of 3 months. Their acne and depression scoring was done at baseline and then every month for the first 3 months and then at 6 months. Results: We found that the acne scoring reduced from 3.11 ± 0.49 to 0.65 ± 0.62 (P = < 0.001 at the end of 3 months. Also, the depression scoring decreased significantly from 3.89 ± 4.9 at the beginning of study to 0.45 ± 1.12 (P < 0.001 at the end of 3 months. Both the acne and depression scores continued to remain low at the end of 6 months at 0.5 ± 0.52 (P = < 0.001 and 0.18 ± 0.51 (P = < 0.001, respectively. Conclusions: Our study proves that oral isotretinoin causes significant clearance of acne lesions. It causes significant reduction in depression scores and is not associated with an increased incidence of depression or suicidal tendencies.

  14. An image based system to automatically and objectivelly score the degreeof redness and scaling in psoriasi lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomez, David Delgado; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Carstensen, Jens Michael

    2004-01-01

    . The proposed method provides a solution to one of the present problems in dermatology: the lack of suitable methods to assess the lesion and to evaluate the changes during the treatment. An experiment over a collection of psoriasis images is conducted to test the performance of the method. Results show......In this work, a combined statistical and image analysis method to automatically evaluate the severity of scaling in psoriasis lesions is proposed. The method separates the different regions of the disease in the image and scores the degree of scaling based on the properties of these areas...... that the obtained scores are highly correlated with scores made by doctors. This and the fact that the obtained measures are continuous indicate the proposed method is a suitable tool to evaluate the lesion and to track the evolution of dermatological diseases....

  15. Comparability of scores on the MMPI-2-RF scales generated with the MMPI-2 and MMPI-2-RF booklets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, P.T. van der; Egger, J.I.M.; Derksen, J.J.L.

    2010-01-01

    In most validity studies on the recently released 338-item MMPI-2 (Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, Kaemmer, 1989) Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath Tellegen, 2008; Tellegen Ben-Porath, 2008), scale scores were derived from the 567-item MMPI-2 booklet. In this study, we evaluated the

  16. Concurrent Validity of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales-Third Edition Index Score Short Forms in the Canadian Standardization Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Rael T.; Iverson, Grant L.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the concurrent validity of estimated Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales-Third Edition (WAIS-III) index scores using various one- and two-subtest combinations. Participants were the Canadian WAIS-III standardization sample. Using all possible one- and two-subtest combinations, an estimated Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI), an…

  17. Validation of Scores on the Psychological Empowerment Scale: A Measure of Empowerment for Parents of Children with a Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akey, Theresa M.; Marquis, Janet G.; Ross, Margaret E.

    2000-01-01

    Studied the construct validity for scores on a measure of psychological empowerment, the Psychological Empowerment Scale, for parents of children with a disability. Results of correlational analyses and group discrimination analyses of responses of 293 parents in 3 family support programs provide evidence of the convergent and discriminant…

  18. Measurement Integrity of Scores from the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Attitudes Scales: The Attitudes of Public School Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Bruce; And Others

    The Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Attitudes Scales (E. Fennema and J. A. Sherman, 1976) are among the most popular measures used in studies of attitudes toward mathematics. However, the measurement integrity of the scores has not yet been established conclusively. Measurement integrity was explored by using data from 174 elementary school teachers…

  19. Rasch model analysis of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS)

    OpenAIRE

    Tennant Alan; Shea Tracey L; Pallant Julie F

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background There is a growing awareness of the need for easily administered, psychometrically sound screening tools to identify individuals with elevated levels of psychological distress. Although support has been found for the psychometric properties of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS) using classical test theory approaches it has not been subjected to Rasch analysis. The aim of this study was to use Rasch analysis to assess the psychometric properties of the DASS-21...

  20. The improved Clinical Global Impression Scale (iCGI: development and validation in depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadouri Alane

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Clinical Global Impression scale (CGI is frequently used in medical care and clinical research because of its face validity and practicability. This study proposes to improve the reliability of the Clinical Global Impression (CGI scale in depressive disorders by the use of a semi-standardized interview, a new response format, and a Delphi procedure. Methods Thirty patients hospitalised for a major depressive episode were filmed at T1 (first week in hospital and at T2 (2 weeks later during a 5' specific interview. The Hamilton Depressive Rating Scale and the Symptom Check List were also rated. Eleven psychiatrists rated these videos using either the usual CGI response format or an improved response format, with or without a Delphi procedure. Results The new response format slightly improved (but not significantly the interrater agreement, the Delphi procedure did not. The best results were obtained when ratings by 4 independent raters were averaged. In this situation, intraclass correlation coefficients were about 0.9. Conclusion The Clinical Global Impression is a useful approach in psychiatry since it apprehends patients in their entirety. This study shows that it is possible to quantify such impressions with a high level of interrater agreement.

  1. The Effects of Donepezil on 15-Item Geriatric Depression Scale Structure in Patients with Alzheimer Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngsoon Yang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: In Alzheimer disease (AD, depression is among the most common accompanying neuropsychiatric symptoms and has different clinical manifestations when compared with early-life depression. In patients with drug-naïve AD, we tried to explore the structure of the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS15 and the effect of donepezil on these substructures. Methods: GDS15, cognitive function, and activities of daily living function tests were administered to 412 patients with probable AD who had not been medicated before visiting the hospital. Using principal component analysis, three factors were identified. The patients with AD who received only donepezil were retrospectively analyzed and we compared the change of cognition and GDS15 subgroup after donepezil medication. Results: Our study identified three factors and revealed that the GDS15 may be comprised of a heterogeneous scale. The Barthel index was significantly correlated with factor 1 (positively and factor 2 (negatively. The Korean version of the MMSE (K-MMSE was significantly correlated with factor 2 and factor 3. Compared to the baseline state, K-MMSE and GDS15 showed significant improvement after taking donepezil. Among GDS15 subgroups, factor 2 and factor 3 showed significant improvement after donepezil treatment. Conclusions: These results suggest that the GDS15 may be comprised of a heterogeneous scale and donepezil differentially affects the GDS15 subgroup in AD.

  2. The Effects of Donepezil on 15-Item Geriatric Depression Scale Structure in Patients with Alzheimer Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Youngsoon; Kwak, Yong Tae

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims In Alzheimer disease (AD), depression is among the most common accompanying neuropsychiatric symptoms and has different clinical manifestations when compared with early-life depression. In patients with drug-naïve AD, we tried to explore the structure of the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS15) and the effect of donepezil on these substructures. Methods GDS15, cognitive function, and activities of daily living function tests were administered to 412 patients with probable AD who had not been medicated before visiting the hospital. Using principal component analysis, three factors were identified. The patients with AD who received only donepezil were retrospectively analyzed and we compared the change of cognition and GDS15 subgroup after donepezil medication. Results Our study identified three factors and revealed that the GDS15 may be comprised of a heterogeneous scale. The Barthel index was significantly correlated with factor 1 (positively) and factor 2 (negatively). The Korean version of the MMSE (K-MMSE) was significantly correlated with factor 2 and factor 3. Compared to the baseline state, K-MMSE and GDS15 showed significant improvement after taking donepezil. Among GDS15 subgroups, factor 2 and factor 3 showed significant improvement after donepezil treatment. Conclusions These results suggest that the GDS15 may be comprised of a heterogeneous scale and donepezil differentially affects the GDS15 subgroup in AD.

  3. Validation of the depression anxiety stress scales (DASS) 21 as a screening instrument for depression and anxiety in a rural community-based cohort of northern Vietnamese women

    OpenAIRE

    Tran Thach Duc; Tran Tuan; Fisher Jane

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Depression and anxiety are recognised increasingly as serious public health problems among women in low- and lower-middle income countries. The aim of this study was to validate the 21-item Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS21) for use in screening for these common mental disorders among rural women with young children in the North of Vietnam. Methods The DASS-21 was translated from English to Vietnamese, culturally verified, back-translated and administered to wome...

  4. The Validity of the Different Versions of the Hamilton Depression Scale in Separating Remission Rates of Placebo and Antidepressants in Clinical Trials of Major Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyle, Phillip Raphael; Lemming, Ole; Timmerby, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Our objectivewas to validate the different versions of the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D) both psychometrically (scalability) and clinically in discriminating antidepressants from placebo in terms of remission rates in an 8-week clinical trial in the acute treatment of major depression...... in the longer HAM-D versions indicated smaller discriminating validity over placebo. The HAM-D6 indicated a dose effect on remission for vortioxetine in both moderate and severe major depression. The brief HAM-D6 was thus found superior to HAM-D17, HAM-D21, and HAM-D24 both in terms of scalability...

  5. Factorial validity and invariance of the center for epidemiologic studies depression (CES-D) scale in a sample of black and white adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Derek P; Dishman, Rod K; Motl, Robert W; Addy, Cheryl L; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Pate, Russell R

    2006-01-01

    Meaningful comparison of depression symptoms requires that the measurement instrument has equivalent measurement properties among racial and ethnic groups. We tested the factorial validity and invariance of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) Scale among Black (n=610) and White (n=452) adolescent girls in the 12th grade. The invariance analyses were conducted by using LISREL 8.70 with maximum likelihood estimation and Satorra-Bentler scaled chi-square statistics and standard errors. The hypothesized second-order model (first-order factors: depressed affect, somatic and retarded activity, interpersonal, and positive affect; second-order factor: depression) demonstrated good overall fit in both groups. Comparison of nested models supported the between-group invariance of the overall factor structure, first- and second-order factor loadings, first-order factor variances, and the second-order factor variance. Item uniquenesses were not invariant. Our results support the hypothesis that a meaningful comparison of composite CES-D scores can be made between Black and White girls in the 12th grade.

  6. Dimensional approach to symptom factors of major depressive disorder in Koreans, using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale: the Clinical Research Center for Depression of South Korea study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seon-Cheol; Jang, Eun Young; Kim, Daeho; Jun, Tae-Youn; Lee, Min-Soo; Kim, Jae-Min; Kim, Jung-Bum; Jo, Sun-Jin; Park, Yong Chon

    2015-01-01

    Although major depressive disorder (MDD) has a variety of symptoms beyond the affective dimensions, the factor structure and contents of comprehensive psychiatric symptoms of this disorder have rarely been explored using the 18-item Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). We aimed to identify the factor structure of the 18-item BPRS in Korean MDD patients. A total of 258 MDD patients were recruited from a multicenter sample of the Clinical Research Center for Depression of South Korea study. Psychometric scales were used to assess overall psychiatric symptoms (BPRS), depression (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale), anxiety (Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale), global severity (Clinical Global Impression of Severity Scale), suicidal ideation (Scale for Suicide Ideation), functioning (Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale), and quality of life (World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment-abbreviated version). Common factor analysis with oblique rotation was used to yield factor structure. A four-factor structure was designed and interpreted by the symptom dimensions to reflect mood disturbance, positive symptoms/apathy, bipolarity, and thought distortion/mannerism. These individual factors were also significantly correlated with clinical variables. The findings of this study support the view that the BPRS may be a promising measuring tool for the initial assessment of MDD patients. In addition, the four-factor structure of the BPRS may be useful in understanding the mood and psychotic characteristics of these patients.

  7. Dimensional approach to symptom factors of major depressive disorder in Koreans, using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale: The Clinical Research Center for Depression of South Korea Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seon-Cheol Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although major depressive disorder (MDD has a variety of symptoms beyond the affective dimensions, the factor structure and contents of comprehensive psychiatric symptoms of this disorder have rarely been explored using the 18-item Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS. We aimed to identify the factor structure of the 18-item BPRS in Korean MDD patients. A total of 258 MDD patients were recruited from a multicenter sample of the Clinical Research Center for Depression of South Korea study. Psychometric scales were used to assess overall psychiatric symptoms (BPRS, depression (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, anxiety (Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, global severity (Clinical Global Impression of Severity Scale, suicidal ideation (Scale for Suicide Ideation, functioning (Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale, and quality of life (World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment-abbreviated version. Common factor analysis with oblique rotation was used to yield factor structure. A four-factor structure was designed and interpreted by the symptom dimensions to reflect mood disturbance, positive symptoms/apathy, bipolarity, and thought distortion/mannerism. These individual factors were also significantly correlated with clinical variables. The findings of this study support the view that the BPRS may be a promising measuring tool for the initial assessment of MDD patients. In addition, the four-factor structure of the BPRS may be useful in understanding the mood and psychotic characteristics of these patients.

  8. Attentional bias scores in patients with depression and effects of age: a controlled, eye-tracking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shengfu; Xu, Jiying; Li, Mi; Xue, Jia; Lu, Xiaofeng; Feng, Lei; Fu, Bingbing; Wang, Gang; Zhong, Ning; Hu, Bin

    2017-10-01

    Objective To compare the attentional bias of depressed patients and non-depressed control subjects and examine the effects of age using eye-tracking technology in a free-viewing set of tasks. Methods Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and non-depressed control subjects completed an eye-tracking task to assess attention of processing negative, positive and neutral facial expressions. In this cross-sectional study, the tasks were separated in two types (neutral versus happy faces and neutral versus sad faces) and assessed in two age groups ('young' [18-30 years] and 'middle-aged' [31-55 years]). Results Compared with non-depressed control subjects ( n = 75), patients with MDD ( n = 90) had a significant reduced positive attentional bias and enhanced negative attentional bias irrespective of age. The positive attentional bias in 'middle-aged' patients with MDD was significantly lower than in 'young' patients, although there was no difference between the two age groups in negative attentional bias. Conclusions These results confirm that there are emotional attentional biases in patients with MDD and that positive attentional biases are influenced by age.

  9. Problems in Cross-Cultural Use of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale: "No Butterflies in the Desert"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maters, G.A.; Sanderman, R.; Kim, A.Y.; Coyne, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) is widely used to screen for anxiety and depression. A large literature is citable in support of its validity, but difficulties are increasingly being identified, such as inexplicably discrepant optimal cutpoints and inconsistent factor-stru

  10. Problems in Cross-Cultural Use of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale : "No Butterflies in the Desert"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maters, Gemma A.; Sanderman, Robbert; Kim, Aimee Y.; Coyne, James C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) is widely used to screen for anxiety and depression. A large literature is citable in support of its validity, but difficulties are increasingly being identified, such as inexplicably discrepant optimal cutpoints and inconsistent factor-str

  11. Problems in Cross-Cultural Use of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale: "No Butterflies in the Desert"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maters, G.A.; Sanderman, Robbert; Kim, A.Y.; Coyne, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) is widely used to screen for anxiety and depression. A large literature is citable in support of its validity, but difficulties are increasingly being identified, such as inexplicably discrepant optimal cutpoints and inconsistent factor-stru

  12. A validation study of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) in different groups of Dutch subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spinhoven, P; Ormel, J; Sloekers, PPA; Kempen, GIJM; Speckens, AEM; VanHemert, AM; van Hemert, A.M.

    Background. Research on the dimensional structure and reliability of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and its relationship with age is scarce. Moreover, its efficacy in determining the presence of depression in different patient groups has been questioned. Methods. Psychometric

  13. Diagnostic accuracy of the original 30-item and shortened versions of the Geriatric Depression Scale in nursing home patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongenelis, K; Eisses, AMH; Gerritsen, DL; Beekman, ATF; Kluiter, H; Ribbe, MW

    2005-01-01

    Objective To determine the diagnostic accuracy of the 30-item and shortened versions of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) in diagnosing depression in older nursing home patients. Method Three hundred and thirty-three older nursing home patients participated in a prospective cross-sectional study

  14. Diagnostic accuracy of the original 30-item and shortened versions of the Geriatric Depression Scale in nursing home patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongenelis, K; Eisses, AMH; Gerritsen, DL; Beekman, ATF; Kluiter, H; Ribbe, MW

    2005-01-01

    Objective To determine the diagnostic accuracy of the 30-item and shortened versions of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) in diagnosing depression in older nursing home patients. Method Three hundred and thirty-three older nursing home patients participated in a prospective cross-sectional study

  15. The efficacy of paroxetine and placebo in treating anxiety and depression: a meta-analysis of change on the Hamilton Rating Scales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Sugarman

    Full Text Available Previous meta-analyses of published and unpublished trials indicate that antidepressants provide modest benefits compared to placebo in the treatment of depression; some have argued that these benefits are not clinically significant. However, these meta-analyses were based only on trials submitted for the initial FDA approval of the medication and were limited to those aimed at treating depression. Here, for the first time, we assess the efficacy of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI in the treatment of both anxiety and depression, using a complete data set of all published and unpublished trials sponsored by the manufacturer.GlaxoSmithKline has been required to post the results for all sponsored clinical trials online, providing an opportunity to assess the efficacy of an SSRI (paroxetine with a complete data set of all trials conducted. We examined the data from all placebo-controlled, double-blind trials of paroxetine that included change scores on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HRSA and/or the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD. For the treatment of anxiety (k = 12, the efficacy difference between paroxetine and placebo was modest (d = 0.27, and independent of baseline severity of anxiety. Overall change in placebo-treated individuals replicated 79% of the magnitude of paroxetine response. Efficacy was superior for the treatment of panic disorder (d = 0.36 than for generalized anxiety disorder (d = 0.20. Published trials showed significantly larger drug-placebo differences than unpublished trials (d's = 0.32 and 0.17, respectively. In depression trials (k = 27, the benefit of paroxetine over placebo was consistent with previous meta-analyses of antidepressant efficacy (d = 0.32.The available empirical evidence indicates that paroxetine provides only a modest advantage over placebo in treatment of anxiety and depression. Treatment implications are discussed.

  16. The Efficacy of Paroxetine and Placebo in Treating Anxiety and Depression: A Meta-Analysis of Change on the Hamilton Rating Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarman, Michael A.; Loree, Amy M.; Baltes, Boris B.; Grekin, Emily R.; Kirsch, Irving

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous meta-analyses of published and unpublished trials indicate that antidepressants provide modest benefits compared to placebo in the treatment of depression; some have argued that these benefits are not clinically significant. However, these meta-analyses were based only on trials submitted for the initial FDA approval of the medication and were limited to those aimed at treating depression. Here, for the first time, we assess the efficacy of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) in the treatment of both anxiety and depression, using a complete data set of all published and unpublished trials sponsored by the manufacturer. Methods and Findings GlaxoSmithKline has been required to post the results for all sponsored clinical trials online, providing an opportunity to assess the efficacy of an SSRI (paroxetine) with a complete data set of all trials conducted. We examined the data from all placebo-controlled, double-blind trials of paroxetine that included change scores on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HRSA) and/or the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD). For the treatment of anxiety (k = 12), the efficacy difference between paroxetine and placebo was modest (d = 0.27), and independent of baseline severity of anxiety. Overall change in placebo-treated individuals replicated 79% of the magnitude of paroxetine response. Efficacy was superior for the treatment of panic disorder (d = 0.36) than for generalized anxiety disorder (d = 0.20). Published trials showed significantly larger drug-placebo differences than unpublished trials (d’s = 0.32 and 0.17, respectively). In depression trials (k = 27), the benefit of paroxetine over placebo was consistent with previous meta-analyses of antidepressant efficacy (d = 0.32). Conclusions The available empirical evidence indicates that paroxetine provides only a modest advantage over placebo in treatment of anxiety and depression. Treatment implications are

  17. Measuring anxiety in depressed patients: A comparison of the Hamilton anxiety rating scale and the DSM-5 Anxious Distress Specifier Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Mark; Martin, Jacob; Clark, Heather; McGonigal, Patrick; Harris, Lauren; Holst, Carolina Guzman

    2017-10-01

    DSM-5 included criteria for an anxious distress specifier for major depressive disorder (MDD). In the present report from the Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services (MIDAS) project we examined whether a measure of the specifier, the DSM-5 Anxious Distress Specifier Interview (DADSI), was as valid as the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) as a measure of the severity of anxiety in depressed patients. Two hundred three psychiatric patients with MDD were interviewed by trained diagnostic raters who administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) supplemented with questions to rate the DADSI, HAMA, and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD). The patients completed self-report measures of depression, anxiety, and irritability. Sensitivity to change was examined in 30 patients. The DADSI and HAMA were significantly correlated (r = 0.60, p < 0.001). Both the DADSI and HAMA were more highly correlated with measures of anxiety than with measures of the other symptom domains. The HAMD was significantly more highly correlated with the HAMA than with the DADSI. For each anxiety disorder, patients with the disorder scored significantly higher on both the DADSI and HAMA than did patients with no current anxiety disorder. A large effect size of treatment was found for both measures (DADSI: d = 1.48; HAMA: d = 1.37). Both the DADSI and HAMA were valid measures of anxiety severity in depressed patients, though the HAMA was more highly confounded with measures of depression than the DADSI. The DADSI is briefer than the HAMA, and may be more feasible to use in clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of Adolescent Childbearing on Maternal Depression and Problem Behaviors: A Prospective, Population-Based Study Using Risk-Set Propensity Scores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison E Hipwell

    Full Text Available Adolescent mothers are reportedly at risk for depression and problem behaviors in the postpartum period, but studies have rarely considered developmental context and have yet to disentangle the effects of childbearing on adolescent functioning from selection effects that are associated with early pregnancy. The current study examined changes in adolescent depression, conduct problems and substance use (alcohol, tobacco and marijuana across the peripartum period using risk-set propensity scores derived from a population-based, prospective study that began in childhood (the Pittsburgh Girls Study, PGS. Each of 147 childbearing adolescents (ages 12-19 was matched with two same-age, non-childbearing adolescents (n = 294 on pregnancy propensity using 15 time-varying risk variables derived from sociodemographic, psychopathology, substance use, family, peer and neighborhood domains assessed in the PGS wave prior to each pregnancy (T1. Postpartum depression and problem behaviors were assessed within the first 6 months following delivery (T2; data gathered from the non-childbearing adolescent controls spanned the same interval. Within the childbearing group, conduct problems and marijuana use reduced from T1 to T2, but depression severity and frequency of alcohol or tobacco use showed no change. When change was compared across the matched groups, conduct problems showed a greater reduction among childbearing adolescents. Relative to non-childbearing adolescents who reported more frequent substance use with time, childbearing adolescents reported no change in alcohol use and less frequent use of marijuana across the peripartum period. There were no group differences in patterns of change for depression severity and tobacco use. The results do not support the notion that adolescent childbearing represents a period of heightened risk for depression or problem behaviors.

  19. Monitoring equine visceral pain with a composite pain scale score and correlation with survival after emergency gastrointestinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loon, Johannes P A M; Jonckheer-Sheehy, Valerie S M; Back, Willem; van Weeren, P René; Hellebrekers, Ludo J

    2014-04-01

    Recognition and management of equine pain have been studied extensively in recent decades and this has led to significant advances. However, there is still room for improvement in the ability to identify and treat pain in horses that have undergone emergency gastrointestinal surgery. This study assessed the validity and clinical application of the composite pain scale (CPS) in horses after emergency gastrointestinal surgery. Composite pain scores were determined every 4h over 3 days following emergency gastrointestinal surgery in 48 horses. Inter-observer reliability was determined and another composite visceral pain score (numerical rating scale, NRS) was determined simultaneously with CPS scores. CPS scores had higher inter-observer reliability (r=0.87, K=0.84, Pscores (r=0.68, K=0.72, Pscores compared to horses that were euthanased or had to undergo re-laparotomy (Pscores. In conclusion, the use of the CPS improved objectivity of pain scoring in horses following emergency gastrointestinal surgery. High inter-observer reliability allows for comparisons between different observers. This will be of great benefit in larger veterinary hospitals where several attending clinicians are often involved in the care of each case.

  20. The Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale: A systematic review and reliability generalization meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piqueras, Jose A; Martín-Vivar, María; Sandin, Bonifacio; San Luis, Concepción; Pineda, David

    2017-08-15

    Anxiety and depression are among the most common mental disorders during childhood and adolescence. Among the instruments for the brief screening assessment of symptoms of anxiety and depression, the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) is one of the more widely used. Previous studies have demonstrated the reliability of the RCADS for different assessment settings and different versions. The aims of this study were to examine the mean reliability of the RCADS and the influence of the moderators on the RCADS reliability. We searched in EBSCO, PsycINFO, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and NCBI databases and other articles manually from lists of references of extracted articles. A total of 146 studies were included in our meta-analysis. The RCADS showed robust internal consistency reliability in different assessment settings, countries, and languages. We only found that reliability of the RCADS was significantly moderated by the version of RCADS. However, these differences in reliability between different versions of the RCADS were slight and can be due to the number of items. We did not examine factor structure, factorial invariance across gender, age, or country, and test-retest reliability of the RCADS. The RCADS is a reliable instrument for cross-cultural use, with the advantage of providing more information with a low number of items in the assessment of both anxiety and depression symptoms in children and adolescents. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Impact of nausea/vomiting on quality of life as a visual analogue scale-derived utility score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunberg, S M; Boutin, N; Ireland, A; Miner, S; Silveira, J; Ashikaga, T

    1996-11-01

    Pharmacoeconomic analysis is often based upon incremental cost per increase in survival (cost-effectiveness). Using this definition supportive care measures, which increase quality but not quantity of life, generate a zero denominator and cannot be directly compared with other components of health care cost. Cost-utility analysis, which measures incremental cost per increase in quality-adjusted life-years (QALY), where QALY = utility score x time at risk, addresses this problem, since successful supportive intervention increases the utility score and thus provides a finite denominator in QALY even when absolute survival is unchanged. However, utility scores for various supportive care modalities have not been well defined. As a pilot study to generate a first approximation of a utility score for nausea/vomiting, we used a rating scale technique and administered two visual analogue scale questions to 30 patients completing a cycle of chemotherapy. Patients rated their global quality of life during their previous cycle of chemotherapy with hypothetical absence or presence of nausea/vomiting as the only variable. The study population included 8 male and 22 female patients, with a median age of 56 years. The most common malignancies were breast cancer (8 patients), lung cancer (7 patients), and hematologic malignancies (7 patients). On a 100 mm visual analogue scale, the mean score for overall quality of life during chemotherapy was 79 mm without nausea/vomiting and 27 mm with nausea/vomiting (P < 0.001, paired t-test). The implied marked increase in utility with relief of nausea/vomiting suggests a significant impact on cost-utility analysis. Similar methodology could be used to estimate utility scores in other areas of supportive care.

  2. Scores on Adjective Check List, Eysenck Personality Inventory, and Depression Adjective Chck List for a male prison pupulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubin, B; Horned, C M; Knapp, R R

    1977-10-01

    Normative data are presented for a male prison population on the Adjective Check List (Gough & Heilbrun, 1965), Form A of the Eysenck Personality Inventory (Eysenck & Eysenck, 1975) and Form C of Depression Adjective Check List (Lubin, 1967). The intercorrelations among the instruments also are presented. In the sample were 60 recently admitted male inmates of a maximum security correctional institution randomly drawn from a large sample of 205 consecutive admissions. Subjects described themselves as markedly depressed, high on neuroticism, low in personal adjustment, low in self-confidence, and low in self-control.

  3. Standardization of depression measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahl, Inka; Löwe, Bernd; Bjørner, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    comparisons among included measures. Large differences were found in their measurement precision and range, providing a rationale for instrument selection. Published scale-specific threshold scores of depression severity showed remarkable consistencies across different questionnaires. CONCLUSION: An IRT-based......OBJECTIVES: To provide a standardized metric for the assessment of depression severity to enable comparability among results of established depression measures. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: A common metric for 11 depression questionnaires was developed applying item response theory (IRT) methods. Data...... instrument-independent metric for depression severity enables direct comparisons among established measures. The "common ruler" simplifies the interpretation of depression assessment by identifying key thresholds for clinical and epidemiologic decision making and facilitates integrative psychometric research...

  4. Beside the Geriatric Depression Scale: the WHO-Five Well-being Index as a valid screening tool for depression in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgaier, Antje-Kathrin; Kramer, Dietmar; Saravo, Barbara; Mergl, Roland; Fejtkova, Sabina; Hegerl, Ulrich

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the study was to compare criterion validities of the WHO-Five Well-being Index (WHO-5) and the Geriatric Depression Scale 15-item version (GDS-15) and 4-item version (GDS-4) as screening instruments for depression in nursing home residents. Data from 92 residents aged 65-97 years without severe cognitive impairment (Mini Mental State Examination ≥15) were analysed. Criterion validities of the WHO-5, the GDS-15 and the GDS-4 were assessed against diagnoses of major and minor depression provided by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Subanalyses were performed for major and minor depression. Areas under the receiver operating curve (AUCs) as well as sensitivities and specificities at optimal cut-off points were computed. Prevalence of depressive disorder was 28.3%. The AUC value of the WHO-5 (0.90) was similar to that of the GDS-15 (0.82). Sensitivity of the WHO-5 (0.92) at its optimal cut-off of ≤12 was significantly higher than that of the GDS-15 (0.69) at its optimal cut-off of ≥7. The WHO-5 was equally sensitive for the subgroups of major and minor depression (0.92), whereas the GDS-15 was sensitive only for major depression (0.85), but not for minor depression (0.54). For specificity, there was no significant difference between WHO-5 (0.79) and GDS-15 (0.88), but both instruments outperformed the GDS-4 (0.53). The WHO-5 demonstrated high sensitivity for major and minor depression. Being shorter than the GDS-15 and superior to the GDS-4, the WHO-5 is a promising screening tool that could help physicians improve low recognition rates of depression in nursing home residents. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Continuous Auricular Electroacupuncture Can Significantly Improve Heart Rate Variability and Clinical Scores in Patients with Depression: First Results from a Transcontinental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Shi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to investigate the impact and acceptability of providing continuous auricular electroacupuncture as an adjunct to conventional medications for patients with depression. Ten patients with a mean age ± SD of 43.3 ± 10.4 years were able to provide informed consent. The quantitative and qualitative outcome measures were heart rate, heart rate variability (HRV, and different clinical scores. The study documented that a special kind of auricular electro acupuncture, applied over a period of three days, can improve various aspects of quality of life significantly but also highlighted the significant increase of HRV whilst having acupuncture treatment. In conclusion, our study shows stimulation-related and quantifiable clinical and physiological alterations in parameters after continuous auricular acupoint stimulation in patients with depression. Improved access to electro acupuncture treatment would be of major benefit for these patients. Further studies are necessary in order to verify the gained results.

  6. The time has come to stop rotations for the identification of structures in the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D17)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Per; Csillag, Claudio; Hellström, Lone;

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To use principal component analysis (PCA) to test the hypothesis that the items of the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D17) have been selected to reflect depression disability, whereas some of the items are specific for sub-typing depression into typical vs. atypical depression. Method:...

  7. Detecting Dissimulation in Personality Test Scores: A Comparison between Person-Fit Indices and Detection Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, Pere J.; Chico, Eliseo

    2001-01-01

    Examined whether a procedure based on item response theory (IRT) for assessing the scalability of response patterns could detect deliberate dissimulation (faking good) on scores from three tests of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised. Results for 489 and 140 undergraduates show that IRT measures were not powerful enough to detect…

  8. The impact of education, country, race and ethnicity on the self-report of postpartum depression using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Florio, A.; Putnam, K.; Altemus, M.; Apter, G.; Bergink, V.; Bilszta, J.; Brock, R.; Buist, A.; Deligiannidis, K. M.; Devouche, E.; Epperson, C. N.; Guille, C.; Kim, D.; Lichtenstein, P.; Magnusson, P. K. E.; Martinez, P.; Munk-Olsen, T.; Newport, J.; Payne, J.; Penninx, B. W.; O’Hara, M.; Robertson-Blackmore, E.; Roza, S. J.; Sharkey, K. M.; Stuart, S.; Tiemeier, H.; Viktorin, A.; Schmidt, P. J.; Sullivan, P. F.; Stowe, Z. N.; Wisner, K. L.; Jones, I.; Rubinow, D. R.; Meltzer-Brody, S.

    2017-01-01

    Background Universal screening for postpartum depression is recommended in many countries. Knowledge of whether the disclosure of depressive symptoms in the postpartum period differs across cultures could improve detection and provide new insights into the pathogenesis. Moreover, it is a necessary step to evaluate the universal use of screening instruments in research and clinical practice. In the current study we sought to assess whether the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), the most widely used screening tool for postpartum depression, measures the same underlying construct across cultural groups in a large international dataset. Method Ordinal regression and measurement invariance were used to explore the association between culture, operationalized as education, ethnicity/race and continent, and endorsement of depressive symptoms using the EPDS on 8209 new mothers from Europe and the USA. Results Education, but not ethnicity/race, influenced the reporting of postpartum depression [difference between robust comparative fit indexes (Δ*CFI) 0.01), but not between European countries (Δ*CFI depression that women of different educational backgrounds may manifest. The increasing cultural heterogeneity of societies together with the tendency towards globalization requires a culturally sensitive approach to patients, research and policies, that takes into account, beyond rhetoric, the context of a person’s experiences and the context in which the research is conducted. PMID:27866476

  9. Higher stress scores for female medical students measured by the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10 in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadija Qamar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the stress level of medical students and the relationship between stress and academic year. A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted at an undergraduate medical school with a five-year curriculum, in Pakistan, from January 2014 to April 2014. Medical students in the first four years were included in the study. The Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10, a self-administered questionnaire, was distributed to the students. A total of 445 medical students completed the questionnaire. The average stress score was 19.61 (SD = 6.76 with a range from 10 to 43. Stress was experienced by 169 students (41.7%. The scores of female students were higher than scores of males, indicating a higher stress level (P = 0.011. The relationship between stress and academic year was insignificant (P = 0.392.

  10. Large-Scale Hypoconnectivity Between Resting-State Functional Networks in Unmedicated Adolescent Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchet, Matthew D; Ho, Tiffany C; Connolly, Colm G; Tymofiyeva, Olga; Lewinn, Kaja Z; Han, Laura Km; Blom, Eva H; Tapert, Susan F; Max, Jeffrey E; Frank, Guido Kw; Paulus, Martin P; Simmons, Alan N; Gotlib, Ian H; Yang, Tony T

    2016-11-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) often emerges during adolescence, a critical period of brain development. Recent resting-state fMRI studies of adults suggest that MDD is associated with abnormalities within and between resting-state networks (RSNs). Here we tested whether adolescent MDD is characterized by abnormalities in interactions among RSNs. Participants were 55 unmedicated adolescents diagnosed with MDD and 56 matched healthy controls. Functional connectivity was mapped using resting-state fMRI. We used the network-based statistic (NBS) to compare large-scale connectivity between groups and also compared the groups on graph metrics. We further assessed whether group differences identified using nodes defined from functionally defined RSNs were also evident when using anatomically defined nodes. In addition, we examined relations between network abnormalities and depression severity and duration. Finally, we compared intranetwork connectivity between groups and assessed the replication of previously reported MDD-related abnormalities in connectivity. The NBS indicated that, compared with controls, depressed adolescents exhibited reduced connectivity (pdepression was significantly correlated with reduced connectivity in this set of network interactions (p=0.020, corrected), specifically with reduced connectivity between components of the dorsal attention network. The dorsal attention network was also characterized by reduced intranetwork connectivity in the MDD group. Finally, we replicated previously reported abnormal connectivity in individuals with MDD. In summary, adolescents with MDD show hypoconnectivity between large-scale brain networks compared with healthy controls. Given that connectivity among these networks typically increases during adolescent neurodevelopment, these results suggest that adolescent depression is associated with abnormalities in neural systems that are still developing during this critical period.

  11. Factorial Validity of Scores on the Aiken Attitude to Mathematics Scales for Adult Pretertiary Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Janet A.

    1997-01-01

    The Aiken Attitude to Mathematics Scale (L. Aiken, 1974, 1979) was administered to 430 adult students in a tertiary preparation program, and the factorial validity of the scale was investigated through exploratory factor analysis. Two factors were extracted with high reliabilities, as opposed to Aiken's four-factor structure. (SLD)

  12. Depression, anxiety and pain in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margetić, Branimir; Aukst-Margetić, Branka; Bilić, Ernest; Jelusić, Marija; Tambić Bukovac, Lana

    2005-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess relations among depression, anxiety and pain in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Pain was measured with the visual analogue scale (VAS), and depression and anxiety with depression and anxiety subscales from the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (TSC-C). Pain perception was significantly correlated with depression scores.

  13. Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarron, Robert M; Vanderlip, Erik R; Rado, Jeffrey

    2016-10-04

    This issue provides a clinical overview of depression, focusing on screening, diagnosis, treatment, and practice improvement. The content of In the Clinic is drawn from the clinical information and education resources of the American College of Physicians (ACP), including MKSAP (Medical Knowledge and Self-Assessment Program). Annals of Internal Medicine editors develop In the Clinic in collaboration with the ACP's Medical Education and Publishing divisions and with the assistance of additional science writers and physician writers.

  14. Adaptation to Portuguese of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS) Adaptación para la lengua portuguesa de la Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) Adaptação para a língua portuguesa da Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS)

    OpenAIRE

    João Luís Alves Apóstolo; Aida Cruz Mendes; Zaida Aguiar Azeredo

    2006-01-01

    Objective: to adapt to Portuguese, of Portugal, the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales, a 21-item short scale (DASS 21), designed to measure depression, anxiety and stress. Method: After translation and back-translation with the help of experts, the DASS 21 was administered to patients in external psychiatry consults (N=101), and its internal consistency, construct validity and concurrent validity were measured. Results: The DASS 21 properties certify its quality to measure emotional state...

  15. Correlation between Global Rating Scale and Specific Checklist Scores for Professional Behaviour of Physical Therapy Students in Practical Examinations

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    Kaitlin Turner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not the specific item checklist (checklist and global rating scale (GRS scores are correlated in practical skills examinations (PSEs. Professional behaviour was evaluated using both the checklist and GRS scores for 183 students in three PSEs. Mean, standard deviation, and correlation for checklist and GRS scores were calculated for each station, within each PSE. Pass rate for checklist and GRS was determined for each PSE, as well as for each individual checklist item within each PSE. Overall, pass rate was high for both checklist and GRS evaluations of professional behaviour in all PSEs. Generally, mean scores for the checklist and GRS were high, with low standard deviations, resulting in low data variability. Spearman correlation between total checklist and GRS scores was statistically significant for two out of five stations in PSE 1, five out of six stations in PSE 2, and three out of four stations in PSE 3. The GRS is comparable to the checklist for evaluation of professional behaviour in physical therapy (PT students. The correlation between the checklist and GRS appears to become stronger in the assessment of more advanced students.

  16. Relationships between scores of the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (JSPE) and the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojat, Mohammadreza; Mangione, Salvatore; Kane, Gregory C; Gonnella, Joseph S

    2005-11-01

    This study was designed to examine the relationships between scores of two measures of empathy. One was specifically developed for measuring empathy in patient care situations; the other was developed for the general population. It was hypothesized that the overlap between scores of the two measures would be greater for their constructs that are more relevant to patient care. Study participants were 93 first-year internal medicine residents at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital in Philadelphia. The Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (JSPE, specifically developed for administration to health professionals), and the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI, developed for the general population) were administered. A statistically significant correlation of a moderate magnitude between the total scores of the JSPE and IRI (r = 0.45, p < 0.01) was found. The research hypothesis was confirmed by observing higher correlations between those scales of the IRI that were relevant to patient care (e.g. empathic concern, perspective taking) and related factors of the JSPE (compassionate care, perspective taking) than other scales of the IRI that seemed less relevant to patient care (e.g. personal distress and fantasy). These findings provide further support for the validity of the JSPE. It is concluded that physician empathy as measured by the JSPE and its underlying factors are distinct personal attributes that have a limited overlap with fantasy and no overlap with personal distress defined as dimensions of an empathy measure that was developed for the general population.

  17. Self-Compassion Scale (SCS): Psychometric Properties of The French Translation and Its Relations with Psychological Well-Being, Affect and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsou, Ilios; Leys, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few years, the topic of self-compassion has attracted increasing attention from both scientific and clinical fields. The Self-Compassion Scale (SCS) was created to specifically capture this way of being kind and understanding towards oneself in moments of turmoil. In this article, we present a French adaptation of the SCS. We first explore the psychometric properties of this adaptation and then investigate its relation to psychological well-being. As in the original version of the SCS, the French adaptation has a strong 6-factor structure but a weaker hierarchical second order structure. However the bi-factor model yields a good omega index suggesting the relevance of a single score accounting for self-compassion. Moreover, there was a relation between the SCS and classical outcomes such as a positive relation with psychological well-being and negative relation with depressive symptoms. We then hypothesized that self-compassion would have a moderating role on the relation between affect and depression. This hypothesis was confirmed: expressing negative affect is correlated with depressive symptoms; however, being kind with oneself lowers depressive symptoms even when expressing negative affect. In conclusion, this research presents a valid self-compassion measure for French-speaking researchers and clinicians and outlines the need for further research on the concept of self-compassion.

  18. Validity and Acceptability of Kimberley Mum’s Mood Scale to Screen for Perinatal Anxiety and Depression in Remote Aboriginal Health Care Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotz, Jayne; Engelke, Catherine; Williams, Melissa; Stephen, Donna; Coutinho, Sudha; Trust, Stephanie K.

    2017-01-01

    Background The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is widely recommended for perinatal anxiety and depression screening. However, many Aboriginal women find EPDS language complex and confusing, and providers find using it with Aboriginal women challenging. The two part Kimberley Mum’s Mood Scale (KMMS) was developed to improve screening: Part 1 is a Kimberley version of EPDS; Part 2 is a psychosocial tool that enables contextualisation of Part 1 scores. We aimed to determine if KMMS is a valid and acceptable method of identifying Kimberley Aboriginal perinatal women at risk of anxiety or depressive disorders compared to a semi-structured clinical interview. Methods Across 15 sites in the Kimberley, Western Australia, 97 Aboriginal women aged 16 years and older who intended to continue with their pregnancy or had a baby within the previous 12 months were administered the KMMS by trained healthcare providers who provided an overall assessment of no, low, moderate or high risk; 91 participants were then independently assessed by a blinded clinical expert using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition criteria. A qualitative approach was used to determine KMMS’ acceptability. Results Part 1 had high internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha, 0.89), and overall KMMS risk equivalence for screening for anxiety or depressive disorders was moderate (sensitivity, 83%; specificity, 87%; positive predictive value, 68%). Participants found the process easy and useful, and healthcare providers found KMMS more useful than EPDS. Part 2 allowed healthcare providers to ask questions that gave participants an opportunity to express themselves, resulting in a deeper understanding between them. Conclusion KMMS is an effective tool for identifying Kimberley Aboriginal perinatal women at risk of anxiety and depressive disorders. Adoption of KMMS with culturally safe training and support is likely to improve screening processes, and with further

  19. Validity and Acceptability of Kimberley Mum's Mood Scale to Screen for Perinatal Anxiety and Depression in Remote Aboriginal Health Care Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Julia V; Kotz, Jayne; Engelke, Catherine; Williams, Melissa; Stephen, Donna; Coutinho, Sudha; Trust, Stephanie K

    2017-01-01

    The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is widely recommended for perinatal anxiety and depression screening. However, many Aboriginal women find EPDS language complex and confusing, and providers find using it with Aboriginal women challenging. The two part Kimberley Mum's Mood Scale (KMMS) was developed to improve screening: Part 1 is a Kimberley version of EPDS; Part 2 is a psychosocial tool that enables contextualisation of Part 1 scores. We aimed to determine if KMMS is a valid and acceptable method of identifying Kimberley Aboriginal perinatal women at risk of anxiety or depressive disorders compared to a semi-structured clinical interview. Across 15 sites in the Kimberley, Western Australia, 97 Aboriginal women aged 16 years and older who intended to continue with their pregnancy or had a baby within the previous 12 months were administered the KMMS by trained healthcare providers who provided an overall assessment of no, low, moderate or high risk; 91 participants were then independently assessed by a blinded clinical expert using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition criteria. A qualitative approach was used to determine KMMS' acceptability. Part 1 had high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha, 0.89), and overall KMMS risk equivalence for screening for anxiety or depressive disorders was moderate (sensitivity, 83%; specificity, 87%; positive predictive value, 68%). Participants found the process easy and useful, and healthcare providers found KMMS more useful than EPDS. Part 2 allowed healthcare providers to ask questions that gave participants an opportunity to express themselves, resulting in a deeper understanding between them. KMMS is an effective tool for identifying Kimberley Aboriginal perinatal women at risk of anxiety and depressive disorders. Adoption of KMMS with culturally safe training and support is likely to improve screening processes, and with further validation may have broader applicability across

  20. The evaluation of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale : Depressed and Positive Affect in cancer patients and healthy reference subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroevers, MJ; Sanderman, R; van Sonderen, E; Ranchor, AV

    2000-01-01

    This study examined the reliability and validity of a two-factor structure of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale. The study was conducted in a large group of cancer patients (n = 475) and a matched reference group (n = 255). Both groups filled in a questionnaire at two

  1. Psychometric Properties of the Beck Scale for Depression (Beck Depression Inventory BDI-II)--A Study on a Sample of Students in the State of Kuwait Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahem, Ahmed Mohammed Faleh

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to identify the psychometric properties of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) the Arabized version by Gharib (2000); the study sample consisted of 500 male and female students from the Kuwaiti universities by 250 males and 250 females on whom the BDI-II scale was applied twice; the psychometric characteristics such as the…

  2. The prevalence of suicidal ideation identified by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale in postpartum women in primary care: findings from the RESPOND trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharp Debbie

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available 1 Abstract 1.1 Background Suicide is a leading cause of perinatal maternal deaths in industrialised countries but there has been little research to investigate prevalence or correlates of postpartum suicidality. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale is widely used in primary and maternity services to screen for perinatal depressive disorders, and includes a question on suicidal ideation (question 10. We aimed to investigate the prevalence, persistence and correlates of suicidal thoughts in postpartum women in the context of a randomised controlled trial of treatments for postnatal depression. 1.2 Methods Women in primary care were sent postal questionnaires at 6 weeks postpartum to screen for postnatal depression before recruitment into an RCT. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS was used to screen for postnatal depression and in those with high levels of symptoms, a home visit with a standardised psychiatric interview was carried out using the Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised version (CIS-R. Other socio-demographic and clinical variables were measured, including functioning (SF12 and quality of the marital relationship (GRIMS. Women who entered the trial were followed up for 18 weeks. 1.3 Results 9% of 4,150 women who completed the EPDS question relating to suicidal ideation reported some suicidal ideation (including hardly ever; 4% reported that the thought of harming themselves had occurred to them sometimes or quite often. In women who entered the randomised trial and completed the EPDS question relating to suicidal ideation (n = 253, suicidal ideation was associated with younger age, higher parity and higher levels of depressive symptoms in the multivariate analysis. Endorsement of 'yes, quite often' to question 10 on the EPDS was associated with affirming at least two CIS-R items on suicidality. We found no association between suicidal ideation and SF-12 physical or mental health or the EPDS total score at 18 weeks. 1

  3. 断肢(指)患者焦虑抑郁相关因素分析%Analysis of the influential factor of anxiety and depression scores in patients with broken limb (finger)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方彩琼; 沈惠玲; 覃秋旺

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the influential factor of anxiety and depression scores in patients with broken limb(finger),and find the effective nursing interventions.Methods The international general hospital anxiety and depression scale research studies on the 100 patients with broken limb(finger) were conducted.Results The patients' age,education level,the nature and size of the company,pre-service training,the level of income and the patients' family economic conditions had a significant impact on scoring a high level of anxiety and depression in patients with broken limb (finger).The differences between the various influencing factors were statistically significant (F =2.926,2.722,t =5.701,4.117,3.311,2.837,3.021,2.947,4.106,3.199,5.286,4.310,5.129,4.152,all P <0.05 ).Then the patients' gender,marital status,work experience,the time of injury for overtime and the injured situations do not constitute the relevant factors affecting the patients' anxiety and depression scores.Conclusion Patients with broken limb(finger) have a high incidence of anxiety and depression.The patients' age,education level,the nature and size of the company,pre-service training,the level of income and the patients' family economic conditions have significant impact on scoring a high level of anxiety and depression in patients with broken limb (finger).Clinical care for such patients,should be thought their background,in order to take appropriate nursing intervention.%目的 分析影响断肢(指)患者焦虑抑郁程度的相关因素.方法 采用国际通用的医院焦虑抑郁量表对100例断肢(指)患者进行调查分析.结果 患者年龄、文化程度、所在企业性质、企业规模、岗前有无接受过培训、月收入高低及自觉家庭经济状况等因素对焦虑抑郁程度评分的高低有显著影响(F=2.926、2.722,t =5.701、4.117、3.311、2.837、3.021、2.947、4.106、3.199、5.286、4.310、5.129、4.152,均P<0.05).而患者性别、婚姻状态、

  4. 断肢(指)患者焦虑抑郁症状程度相关影响因素分析%Influential Factor of Anxiety and Depression Scores in Patients with Broken Limb(Finger)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方彩琼; 沈惠玲; 覃秋旺

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析影响断肢(指)患者焦虑抑郁程度评分的相关因素,为寻找有效的护理干预措施提供依据.方法 采用国际通用的医院焦虑抑郁量表对100例断肢(指)的患者进行调查研究.结果 患者的年龄、文化程度、所在企业的性质、企业的规模、岗前有无接受过培训、月收入的高低及患者自觉家庭经济状况等因素对患者焦虑抑郁程度评分的高低有明显的影响,各影响因素之间的差异均具有统计学意义.而患者的性别、婚姻状态、工作年限、受伤时是否加班、单指多指受伤等并不构成影响患者焦虑抑郁程度评分的相关因素.结论 断肢(指)患者的焦虑抑郁发生率高,焦虑抑郁情况的发生与患者的年龄、文化程度、所在企业的性质、企业的规模、岗前有无接受过培训、月收入的高低及患者自觉家庭经济状况等因素密切相关,临床护理对此类患者进行心理护理时,应充分评估其背景,以便采取合适的方法进行相关护理干预.%Objective To analyze the influential factor of anxiety and depression scores in patients with broken limb (finger) ,and find the effective nursing interventions. Methods Using the international general hospital anxiety and depression scale to research on the 100 cases of patients with broken limb(finger). Results The patients' age,education level,nature and size of the company,pre-service training,the level of income and the patients' family economic conditions had a significant impact on scoring a high level of anxiety and depression in patients with broken limb (finger). The differences among the various influencing factors were statistically significant. Then the patient' s gender,marital status,work experience,the time of injury for overtime and the injured situations did not constitute the relevant factors affecting the patient' s anxiety and depression scores. Conclusion Patients with broken limb( finger) have a high

  5. Performance on large-scale science tests: Item attributes that may impact achievement scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Janet Victoria

    Significant differences in achievement among ethnic groups persist on the eighth-grade science Washington Assessment of Student Learning (WASL). The WASL measures academic performance in science using both scenario and stand-alone question types. Previous research suggests that presenting target items connected to an authentic context, like scenario question types, can increase science achievement scores especially in underrepresented groups and thus help to close the achievement gap. The purpose of this study was to identify significant differences in performance between gender and ethnic subgroups by question type on the 2005 eighth-grade science WASL. MANOVA and ANOVA were used to examine relationships between gender and ethnic subgroups as independent variables with achievement scores on scenario and stand-alone question types as dependent variables. MANOVA revealed no significant effects for gender, suggesting that the 2005 eighth-grade science WASL was gender neutral. However, there were significant effects for ethnicity. ANOVA revealed significant effects for ethnicity and ethnicity by gender interaction in both question types. Effect sizes were negligible for the ethnicity by gender interaction. Large effect sizes between ethnicities on scenario question types became moderate to small effect sizes on stand-alone question types. This indicates the score advantage the higher performing subgroups had over the lower performing subgroups was not as large on stand-alone question types compared to scenario question types. A further comparison examined performance on multiple-choice items only within both question types. Similar achievement patterns between ethnicities emerged; however, achievement patterns between genders changed in boys' favor. Scenario question types appeared to register differences between ethnic groups to a greater degree than stand-alone question types. These differences may be attributable to individual differences in cognition

  6. The discrimination and diagnosis for the depressive symptoms in patients with Schizophrenia- Comparison of the four assessment scales for depression%精神分裂症抑郁症状的识别与诊断——四种抑郁量表的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘联琦; 周平; 郝军锋; 梁凤珍

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the diagnostic validity of 4 commonly used assessment scales for depression in schizophrenia. Methods The study population consisted of 100 schizophrenic patients who met CCMD-3 criteria for schizophrenia. Depression in the study subjects was defined by the CCMD - 3 criteria for a major depressive episode. The following 4 depression scales were assessed for their diagnostic validity as measures of depressive disorder in schizophrenia-, the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS-C),the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale ( MADRS) , the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD-24) ,and the depression subscale of the PANSS (PANSS-D). At the same time, we also undertook the negative subscale of the PANSS( PANSS-N) and the Rating Scale for Extrapyramidal Side Effects(RSESE). Results (1) There were 22 patients who met the CCMD-3 criteria for a major depressive episode among the 100 schizophrenia patients, so the incidence of depression was 22%. (2)The depression scales were found to be highly intercorrelated with each other. Of the 4 depression scales studied, only CDSS - C can discriminate between depression and a PANSS negative symptoms subscale score or negative item scores or a RSESE score. (3)The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves of the CDSS-CMARDS,HAMD-24,and PANSS-D were 0. 933,0. 826, 0. 883 and 0. 887 respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the CDSS-C was significantly greater than those of MARDS, HAMD-24, and PANSS-D. Conclusions Our study suggests that the CDSS-C may provide optimal assessment on depression in patients with schizophrenia and is feasible to attempt to use in the clinic.%目的 比较四种抑郁量表对精神分裂症抑郁症状的诊断效能.方法 100例符合CCMD-3精神分裂症诊断标准的患者进入研究,以CCMD-3抑郁发作标准判断是否存在有抑郁症状,同时进行CDSS-C、MADRS、HAMD-24、PANSS及RSESE测评.结果 (1

  7. The genetic association between personality and major depression or bipolar disorder. A polygenic score analysis using genome-wide association data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middeldorp, C M; de Moor, M H M; McGrath, L M; Gordon, S D; Blackwood, D H; Costa, P T; Terracciano, A; Krueger, R F; de Geus, E J C; Nyholt, D R; Tanaka, T; Esko, T; Madden, P A F; Derringer, J; Amin, N; Willemsen, G; Hottenga, J-J; Distel, M A; Uda, M; Sanna, S; Spinhoven, P; Hartman, C A; Ripke, S; Sullivan, P F; Realo, A; Allik, J; Heath, A C; Pergadia, M L; Agrawal, A; Lin, P; Grucza, R A; Widen, E; Cousminer, D L; Eriksson, J G; Palotie, A; Barnett, J H; Lee, P H; Luciano, M; Tenesa, A; Davies, G; Lopez, L M; Hansell, N K; Medland, S E; Ferrucci, L; Schlessinger, D; Montgomery, G W; Wright, M J; Aulchenko, Y S; Janssens, A C J W; Oostra, B A; Metspalu, A; Abecasis, G R; Deary, I J; Räikkönen, K; Bierut, L J; Martin, N G; Wray, N R; van Duijn, C M; Smoller, J W; Penninx, B W J H; Boomsma, D I

    2011-10-18

    The relationship between major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) remains controversial. Previous research has reported differences and similarities in risk factors for MDD and BD, such as predisposing personality traits. For example, high neuroticism is related to both disorders, whereas openness to experience is specific for BD. This study examined the genetic association between personality and MDD and BD by applying polygenic scores for neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness and conscientiousness to both disorders. Polygenic scores reflect the weighted sum of multiple single-nucleotide polymorphism alleles associated with the trait for an individual and were based on a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for personality traits including 13,835 subjects. Polygenic scores were tested for MDD in the combined Genetic Association Information Network (GAIN-MDD) and MDD2000+ samples (N=8921) and for BD in the combined Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder and Wellcome Trust Case-Control Consortium samples (N=6329) using logistic regression analyses. At the phenotypic level, personality dimensions were associated with MDD and BD. Polygenic neuroticism scores were significantly positively associated with MDD, whereas polygenic extraversion scores were significantly positively associated with BD. The explained variance of MDD and BD, ∼0.1%, was highly comparable to the variance explained by the polygenic personality scores in the corresponding personality traits themselves (between 0.1 and 0.4%). This indicates that the proportions of variance explained in mood disorders are at the upper limit of what could have been expected. This study suggests shared genetic risk factors for neuroticism and MDD on the one hand and for extraversion and BD on the other.

  8. [Three new observational scales for use in Dutch nursing homes: scales from the Resident Assessment Instrument for Activities of Daily Living, cognition and depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, D.; Ooms, M; Steverink, N.; Frijters, D.; Bezemer, D.; Ribbe, M

    2004-01-01

    The reliability and validity of three MDS scales for ADL, cognition and depression are described. The scales consist of items of the Minimum Data Set of the Resident Assessment Instrument and are available just after an MDS assessment. Data collection took place in nine Dutch nursing homes (N = 227)

  9. Longitudinal Invariance of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale among Girls and Boys in Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motl, Robert W.; Dishman, Rod K.; Birnbaum, Amanda S.; Lytle, Leslie A.

    2005-01-01

    This study tested the longitudinal factorial invariance of a theoretically consistent, higher-order model for Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) scores among adolescent girls and boys in middle school. Data were collected from 2,416 adolescents who completed a survey containing the CES-D in the fall of 1998, spring of 1999, and…

  10. Associations between MMPI-2-RF validity scale scores and extra-test measures of personality and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbey, Johnathan D; Lee, Tayla T C; Ben-Porath, Yossef S; Arbisi, Paul A; Gartland, Diane

    2013-08-01

    The current study explored associations between two potentially invalidating self-report styles detected by the Validity scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF), over-reporting and under-reporting, and scores on the MMPI-2-RF substantive, as well as eight collateral self-report measures administered either at the same time or within 1 to 10 days of MMPI-2-RF administration. Analyses were conducted with data provided by college students, male prisoners, and male psychiatric outpatients from a Veterans Administration facility. Results indicated that if either an over- or under-reporting response style was suggested by the MMPI-2-RF Validity scales, scores on the majority of the MMPI-2-RF substantive scales, as well as a number of collateral measures, were significantly affected in all three groups in the expected directions. Test takers who were identified as potentially engaging in an over- or under-reporting response style by the MMPI-2-RF Validity scales appeared to approach extra-test measures similarly regardless of when these measures were administered in relation to the MMPI-2-RF. Limitations and suggestions for future study are discussed.

  11. [Correlation between dental pulp demyelination degree and pain visual analogue scale scores data under acute and chronic pulpitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsantiia, N B; Davarashvili, X T; Gogiashvili, L E; Mamaladze, M T; Tsagareli, Z G; Melikadze, E B

    2013-05-01

    The aim of study is the analysis of pulp nerve fibers demyelination degree and its relationship with Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score that may be measured as objective criteria. Material and methods of study. Step I: electron micrografs of dental pulp simples with special interest of myelin structural changes detected in 3 scores system, obtained from 80 patients, displays in 4 groups: 1) acute and 2) chronic pulpitis without and with accompined systemic deseases, 20 patients in each group. Dental care was realized in Kutaisi N1 Dental clinic. Step II - self-reported VAS used for describing dental pain. All data were performed by SPSS 10,0 version statistics including Spearmen-rank and Mann-Whitny coefficients for examine the validity between pulp demyelination degree and pain intensity in verbal, numbered and box scales. Researched Data were shown that damaged myelin as focal decomposition of membranes and Schwann cells hyperthrophia correspond with acute dental pain intensity as Spearman index reported in VAS numbered Scales, myelin and axoplasm degeneration as part of chronic gangrenous pulpitis disorders are in direct correlation with VAS in verbal, numbered and behavioral Rating Scales. In fact, all morphological and subjective data, including psychomotoric assessment of dental painin pulpitis may be used in dental practice for evaluation of pain syndrome considered personal story.

  12. Screening for adolescents' internalizing symptoms in primary care: item response theory analysis of the behavior health screen depression, anxiety, and suicidal risk scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevans, Katherine B; Diamond, Guy; Levy, Suzanne

    2012-05-01

    To apply a modern psychometric approach to validate the Behavioral Health Screen (BHS) Depression, Anxiety, and Suicidal Risk Scales among adolescents in primary care. Psychometric analyses were conducted using data collected from 426 adolescents aged 12 to 21 years (mean = 15.8, SD = 2.2). Rasch-Masters partial credit models were fit to the data to determine whether items supported the comprehensive measurement of internalizing symptoms with minimal gaps and redundancies. Scales were reduced to ensure that they measured singular dimensions of generalized anxiety, depressed affect, and suicidal risk both comprehensively and efficiently. Although gender bias was observed for some depression and anxiety items, differential item functioning did not impact overall subscale scores. Future revisions to the BHS should include additional items that assess low-level internalizing symptoms. The BHS is an accurate and efficient tool for identifying adolescents with internalizing symptoms in primary care settings. Access to psychometrically sound and cost-effective behavioral health screening tools is essential for meeting the increasing demands for adolescent behavioral health screening in primary/ambulatory care.

  13. The center for epidemiologic studies depression scale: a review with a theoretical and empirical examination of item content and factor structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Nicholas Carleton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D; Radloff, 1977 is a commonly used freely available self-report measure of depressive symptoms. Despite its popularity, several recent investigations have called into question the robustness and suitability of the commonly used 4-factor 20-item CES-D model. The goal of the current study was to address these concerns by confirming the factorial validity of the CES-D. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Differential item functioning estimates were used to examine sex biases in item responses, and confirmatory factor analyses were used to assess prior CES-D factor structures and new models heeding current theoretical and empirical considerations. Data used for the analyses included undergraduate (n = 948; 74% women, community (n = 254; 71% women, rehabilitation (n = 522; 53% women, clinical (n =84; 77% women, and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; n = 2814; 56% women samples. Differential item functioning identified an item as inflating CES-D scores in women. Comprehensive comparison of the several models supported a novel, psychometrically robust, and unbiased 3-factor 14-item solution, with factors (i.e., negative affect, anhedonia, and somatic symptoms that are more in line with current diagnostic criteria for depression. CONCLUSIONS: Researchers and practitioners may benefit from using the novel factor structure of the CES-D and from being cautious in interpreting results from the originally proposed scale. Comprehensive results, implications, and future research directions are discussed.

  14. Comparative study of occurrence of depression in the third age in closed and open structures of elderly care according to the Hamilton depression scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Zintrou

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Depression is a serious mental disorder that is a leading cause of morbidity in the elderly and affects the daily lives of the elderly leading to the marginalization and stigmatization. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of depression in the elderly, both in the community and in closed structures and identify possible differences between these two groups. Material and Method: The studied population consisted of 200 elderly people. One hundred of them came from closed structure care (nursing home and the remaining 100 by Open Care Centres (KAPI. For data collection, a specially designed questionnaire that included demographic data, information about their health and their daily habits and Depression Scale Hamilton, were used. Results: The majority of the sample (50.5% was men. Depressive symptomatology was showed by 44% (31% mild and 13% moderate. The men of the nursing home had greater depression than men of KAPI and showed a greater percentage of women (27.3 % mild and 12.1 % moderate, with women of the nursing home outweighing the percentages of those in KAPI. Depressive symptomatology exhibited by widowers, people with multiple pathology and those who did not exercise, with rates of 61.5%, 34.6% and 73.1% respectively. Big difference appeared between closed and open structure, where the elderly in nursing home seemed to show greater depression by 53%, versus 35% of those in KAPI. Conclusions: Gender, marital status, presence of pathology, exercise and living in closed structures of care, seem to influence the occurrence of depression in the elderly.

  15. Presence and correlates of apathy in non-demented depressed and non-depressed older persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isis Groeneweg-Koolhoven

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Apathy is a behavioral syndrome that often co-occurs with depression. Nonetheless, the etiology of apathy and depression may be different. We hypothesized that apathy occurs more often in depressed compared to non-depressed older persons; and that independent correlates for apathy will be different in depressed and non-depressed older persons. Methods: In this cross-sectional study of Netherlands Study of Depression in Older Persons (NESDO, a total of 350 depressed older persons according to the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI and 126 non-depressed older persons, aged at least 60 years were recruited in several Medical Centres and general practices. In both depressed and non-depressed older persons, those with and without apathy as assessed with the Apathy Scale (score ≥ 14 were compared with regard to socio-demographic, clinical, and biological characteristics. Results: Apathy was present in 75% of the depressed and 25% of the non- depressed older persons. Independent correlates of apathy in both depressed and non-depressed older persons were male gender and less education. Furthermore, in depressed older persons, higher scores on the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS and, in non-depressed older persons, a higher C-reactive protein (CRP level correlated independently with apathy. Conclusions: Apathy occurred frequently among both depressed and non-depressed older persons. Among depressed older persons, apathy appeared to be a symptom of more serious depression, whereas among non-depressed persons apathy was associated with increased CRP being a marker for immune activation, suggesting a different aetiology for apathy in its own right.

  16. The Development and Validation of Scores on the Mathematics Information Processing Scale (MIPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessant, Kenneth C.

    1997-01-01

    This study reports on the development and psychometric properties of a new 87-item Mathematics Information Processing Scale that explores learning strategies, metacognitive problem-solving skills, and attentional deployment. Results with 340 college students support the use of the instrument, for which factor analysis identified five theoretically…

  17. Validity Evidence for the Interpretation and Use of Essential Elements of Communication Global Rating Scale Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Nancy Rhoda

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Clinical communication influences health outcomes, so medical schools are charged to prepare future physicians with the skills they need to interact effectively with patients. Communication leaders at The University of New Mexico School of Medicine (UNMSOM) developed The Essential Elements of Communication-Global Rating Scale (EEC-GRS) to…

  18. The Factor Structure of Preschool Learning Behaviors Scale Scores in Peruvian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Kathryn R.; Schaefer, Barbara A.; Merino, Cesar; Worrell, Frank C.

    2009-01-01

    The factor structure of the Escala de Conductas de Aprendizaje Preescolar (ECAP), a Spanish translation of the Preschool Learning Behaviors Scale (PLBS), was examined in this study. Children aged 2 to 6 years (N = 328) enrolled in public and private preschools in the Republic of Peru were rated by classroom teachers on the frequency of observable,…

  19. RSE-40: An Alternate Scoring System for the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Gaylen R.

    The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory (RSE) is a 10-item scale purporting to measure self-esteem using self-acceptance and self-worth statements. This analysis covers concerns about the degree to which the RSE items represent a particular content universe, the RSE's applicability, factor analytic methods used, and the RSE's reliability and validity.…

  20. Validity Evidence for the Interpretation and Use of Essential Elements of Communication Global Rating Scale Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Nancy Rhoda

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Clinical communication influences health outcomes, so medical schools are charged to prepare future physicians with the skills they need to interact effectively with patients. Communication leaders at The University of New Mexico School of Medicine (UNMSOM) developed The Essential Elements of Communication-Global Rating Scale (EEC-GRS) to…

  1. The Factor Structure of Preschool Learning Behaviors Scale Scores in Peruvian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Kathryn R.; Schaefer, Barbara A.; Merino, Cesar; Worrell, Frank C.

    2009-01-01

    The factor structure of the Escala de Conductas de Aprendizaje Preescolar (ECAP), a Spanish translation of the Preschool Learning Behaviors Scale (PLBS), was examined in this study. Children aged 2 to 6 years (N = 328) enrolled in public and private preschools in the Republic of Peru were rated by classroom teachers on the frequency of observable,…

  2. RSE-40: An Alternate Scoring System for the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Gaylen R.

    The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory (RSE) is a 10-item scale purporting to measure self-esteem using self-acceptance and self-worth statements. This analysis covers concerns about the degree to which the RSE items represent a particular content universe, the RSE's applicability, factor analytic methods used, and the RSE's reliability and validity.…

  3. The Diagnostic Apathia Scale predicts a dose-remission relationship of T-PEMF in treatment-resistant depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Per; Lunde, Marianne; Lauritzen, Lise

    2014-01-01

    of fatigue, concentration and memory problems, lack of interests, difficulties in making decisions, and sleep problems. We evaluated 65 patients with therapy-resistant depression. In total, 34 of these patients received placebo T-PEMF in the afternoon and active T-PEMF in the morning, that is, one daily dose....... The remaining 31 patients received active T-PEMF twice daily. Duration of treatment was 8 weeks in both groups. The Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D17) and the Bech-Rafaelsen Melancholia Scale (MES) were used to measure remission. We also focused on the Diagnostic Apathia Scale, which is based on a mixture...

  4. Validation of a Portuguese version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Carvalho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Depression is one of the most common mental disorders in children, and in adolescents, as in adults. Once its occurrence during childhood and adolescence leads to serious consequences in adulthood, its early detection is an important goal. Self-report instruments have a key role on accessing thoughts, feelings and behaviors in an easily, reliably and validly way. The aim of the current study is to assess psychometric properties (reliability and validity of the Portuguese translation of the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC. Methods: A school-based sample of 417 adolescents aged 12–18 years (M = 15,20, SD = 1,72 was involved in this study. Translation and Back Translation was made. To study convergent and divergent validity there were used the Portuguese versions of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS 21, of the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI, and of the Students' Life Satisfaction Scale (SLSS which measure, respectively, negative emotional states (depression, anxiety and stress, depressive symptoms and global life satisfaction. Results: Factor analysis revealed three factors (mood, interpersonal relationships and happiness that explain 54% of the variance. The results show that the scale has an excellent internal consistency (α = 0,90, good temporal stability (r = 0,72 as an adequate convergent and divergent validity. Results showed that depressive symptoms varied in function of age and gender. Conclusions: The results of the present study provide initial adequate validity and reliability of the CES-DC. Nevertheless some limitations to this study, the results suggest that CES-DC can be a useful questionnaire in the assessment of depressive symptoms in Portuguese adolescents.

  5. Factorial Validity and Internal Consistency of Malaysian Adapted Depression Anxiety Stress Scale - 21 in an Adolescent Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Hairul Anuar Hashim; Freddy Golok; Rosmatunisah Ali

    2011-01-01

    Background: Psychometrically sound measurement instrument is a fundamental requirement across broad range of research areas. In negative affect research, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS) has been identified as a psychometrically sound instrument to measure depression, anxiety and stress, especially the 21-item version. However, its psychometric properties in adolescents have been less consistent. Objectives: Thus, the present study sought to examine the factorial validity and internal c...

  6. Acute ischemic stroke prognostication, comparison between Glasgow Coma Score, NIHS Scale and Full Outline of UnResponsiveness Score in intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ossama Y. Mansour

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: The GCS and the FOUR score are accurate predictors of mortality after acute ischemic stroke, and are equal in prediction to the NIHSS. The NIHSS is more accurate than the GCS and the FOUR score in predicting poor neurologic outcome.

  7. Evaluating the psychometric properties of the attitudes towards depression and its treatments scale in an Australian sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Benedetto M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Fadia Isaac1, Kenneth Mark Greenwood2, Mirella Di Benedetto31Cairnmillar Institute School of Psychology Counselling and Psychotherapy, Camberwell, Victoria, Australia; 2School of Psychology and Social Science Faculty of Computing, Health and Science, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, Western Australia, Australia; 3School of Health Sciences, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology University, Bundoora, Victoria, AustraliaBackground: Individuals’ attitudes towards depression and its treatments may influence their likelihood of seeking professional help and adherence to treatment when depressed. Objective measures, such as the Attitudes Towards Depression and its Treatments scale (ATDT, have been developed to assess such attitudes. The aims of this research were to test the reliability and validity of ATDT on an Australian sample who were not depressed during the study or who had previously been depressed, to explore the attitudes of the Australian public towards depression, and to compare these attitudes to those of a Canadian sample of people with depression.Methods: A sample of 63 males and 140 females (mean age = 32.2 years, SD = 12.9 years from Melbourne, Australia took part in this study. Fourteen of the males and 52 of the female participants (mean age = 35.4 years, SD = 13.2 years stated that they had been previously diagnosed with depression.Results: The attitudes of the Australian sample and the subset of that sample who had previously experienced depression differed from those of the Canadian outpatient sample: they were less ashamed of depression, more likely to take antidepressants and consider psychotherapy, and more likely to seek help from professionals or significant others in their lives. However, those in the Australian sample were more likely to report that antidepressants made them lose control, and they were less willing to consider electric shock as a treatment option for their depression. The internal reliability as

  8. A fine-mapping study of 7 top scoring genes from a GWAS for major depressive disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva C Verbeek

    Full Text Available Major depressive disorder (MDD is a psychiatric disorder that is characterized--amongst others--by persistent depressed mood, loss of interest and pleasure and psychomotor retardation. Environmental circumstances have proven to influence the aetiology of the disease, but MDD also has an estimated 40% heritability, probably with a polygenic background. In 2009, a genome wide association study (GWAS was performed on the Dutch GAIN-MDD cohort. A non-synonymous coding single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs2522833 in the PCLO gene became only nominally significant after post-hoc analysis with an Australian cohort which used similar ascertainment. The absence of genome-wide significance may be caused by low SNP coverage of genes. To increase SNP coverage to 100% for common variants (m.a.f.>0.1, r(2>0.8, we selected seven genes from the GAIN-MDD GWAS: PCLO, GZMK, ANPEP, AFAP1L1, ST3GAL6, FGF14 and PTK2B. We genotyped 349 SNPs and obtained the lowest P-value for rs2715147 in PCLO at P = 6.8E-7. We imputed, filling in missing genotypes, after which rs2715147 and rs2715148 showed the lowest P-value at P = 1.2E-6. When we created a haplotype of these SNPs together with the non-synonymous coding SNP rs2522833, the P-value decreased to P = 9.9E-7 but was not genome wide significant. Although our study did not identify a more strongly associated variant, the results for PCLO suggest that the causal variant is in high LD with rs2715147, rs2715148 and rs2522833.

  9. Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale scores as a function of age and initial IQ in 210 autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, B J; Del'Homme, M; Guthrie, D; Zhang, F

    1999-10-01

    Human growth modeling statistics were utilized to examine how Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS) scores changed in individuals with autistic disorder as a function of both age and initial IQ. Results revealed that subjects improved with age in all domains. The rate of growth in Communication and Daily Living Skills was related to initial IQ while rate of growth in Social Skills was not. Results should provide hope for parents and further support for the importance of functional social-communication skills in the treatment of autism.

  10. Associations between Symptom Validity Test failure and scores on the MMPI-2-RF validity and substantive scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, Roger O; Wygant, Dustin B; Sellbom, Martin; Ben-Porath, Yossef S

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the association between Symptom Validity Test (SVT) failure and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008), in the Forensic Disability Claimant samples described in the MMPI-2-RF Technical Manual (Tellegen & Ben-Porath, 2008 a, 2008b). SVTs used included the Word Memory Test (Green, 2003), the Computerized Assessment of Response Bias (Allen, Conder, Green, & Cox, 1997), the Medical Symptom Validity Test (Green, 2004), and the Test of Memory Malingering (Tombaugh, 1996). SVT failure was associated with significant elevations throughout the MMPI-2-RF overreporting validity scales and substantive scales. Pairwise contrasts between groups failing 0 and 3 SVTs revealed predominantly large effect sizes for the overreporting validity scales (d = 0.78-1.11), and many of the substantive scales, including the Cognitive Complaints (COG) scale. Results of this study demonstrate an association between SVT performance and elevated scores on the MMPI-2-RF. These results suggest that exaggeration of cognitive symptoms as demonstrated by SVT failure is also associated with overreported emotional, somatic, and neurocognitive complaints on the MMPI-2-RF.

  11. Shared genetic factors in migraine and depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stam, A H.; de Vries, B; Janssens, A C.J.W.; Vanmolkot, K R.J.; Aulchenko, Y S.; Henneman, P; Oostra, B A.; Frants, R R.; van den Maagdenberg, A M.J.M.; Ferrari, M D.; van Duijn, C M.; Terwindt, G M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the co-occurrence of migraine and depression and assess whether shared genetic factors may underlie both diseases. Methods: Subjects were 2,652 participants of the Erasmus Rucphen Family genetic isolate study. Migraine was diagnosed using a validated 3-stage screening method that included a telephone interview. Symptoms of depression were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale and the depression subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D). The contribution of shared genetic factors in migraine and depression was investigated by comparing heritability estimates for migraine with and without adjustment for symptoms of depression, and by comparing the heritability scores of depression between migraineurs and controls. Results: We identified 360 migraine cases: 209 had migraine without aura (MO) and 151 had migraine with aura (MA). Odds ratios for depression in patients with migraine were 1.29 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.98–1.70) for MO and 1.70 (95% CI 1.28–2.24) for MA. Heritability estimates were significant for all migraine (0.56), MO (0.77), and MA (0.96), and decreased after adjustment for symptoms of depression or use of antidepressant medication, in particular for MA. Comparison of the heritability scores for depression between patients with migraine and controls showed a genetic correlation between HADS-D score and MA. Conclusions: There is a bidirectional association between depression and migraine, in particular migraine with aura, which can be explained, at least partly, by shared genetic factors. GLOSSARY CES-D = Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale; CI = confidence interval; ERF = Erasmus Rucphen Family; HADS-D = Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; IHS = International Headache Society; MA = migraine with aura; MO = migraine without aura; OR = odds ratio. PMID:20071666

  12. Avaliação da sintomatologia depressiva de mulheres no climatério com a escala de rastreamento populacional para depressão CES-D Depressive symptoms in climacteric women evaluated by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale

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    Rita de Cássia Leite Fernandes

    2008-12-01

    climacteric women using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D from the National Institute of Mental Health (USA. METHOD: This is a cross-sectional study carried out in a gynecological outpatient unit in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, including 151 climacteric women between 40 and 65 years of age. The CES-D was used to assess depressive symptoms and a structured interview obtained sociodemographic, clinical and gynecological data. A score above 15 points on the CES-D was considered as a cut-point for depressive state. RESULTS: Mean CES-D score was 9.2 points (standard deviation = 9.0. Insomnia, sadness and despondency had the highest scores. There was no significant association between CES-D scores and the climacteric period, sociodemographic, clinical or gynecological characteristics, except for women with psychiatric symptoms, history of depression or on antidepressants (p = 0.000. In 32 women (21% who scored > 15 on the CES-D, 72% had already suffered from a depressive state. Women with no history of depressive disorder scored more frequently above 15 when they were perimenopausal. CONCLUSION: This sample of climacteric women, from a non-specialized mental or menopausal health service, had low mean scores on the CES-D, with the item insomnia being the most highly scored. History of a previous depressive episode, but not the woman's climacteric period, was a risk factor for higher scores on the CES-D. In the group of women with no history of depression, the perimenopausal women had more scores above the cut-point. This fact may suggest that the perimenopause is a period of higher susceptibility to new onset of depressive episodes.

  13. Prevalence and psychopathological characteristics of depression in consecutive otorhinolaryngologic inpatients

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    Westhofen Martin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High prevalence of depression has been reported in otorhinolaryngologic patients (ORL. However, studies using a semi-structured interview to determine the prevalence of depression in ORL are lacking. Therefore the present study sought to determine the depression prevalence in ORL applying a semi-structured diagnostic interview and to further characterize the pathopsychological and demographic characteristics of depression in these patients. Methods One-hundred inpatients of the otorhinolaryngologic department of a German university hospital participated voluntarily (age M = 38.8 years, SD = 13.9; 38.0% female. Depression was assessed using a clinical interview in which the International Diagnostic Checklist for depression (IDCL was applied. Patients completed the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI which constitutes three composite scores and nine symptom scales and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. Multivariate analyses of variance, correlations and effect sizes were conducted. Results A prevalence of depression of 21.0% was determined, 38.0% of the depressed patients were female. Depressed patients showed higher scores on the BSI-scales "interpersonal sensitivity", "depression", "anxiety", "phobic anxiety" and "psychoticism" with medium effect sizes. Conclusions High prevalence of depression was found which is in accordance with results of prior studies. Depressed patients showed higher psychological distress as compared to non-depressed patients. The results call for carrying on in engaging in depression research and routine depression screening in ORL.

  14. Rasch model analysis of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS

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    Tennant Alan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a growing awareness of the need for easily administered, psychometrically sound screening tools to identify individuals with elevated levels of psychological distress. Although support has been found for the psychometric properties of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS using classical test theory approaches it has not been subjected to Rasch analysis. The aim of this study was to use Rasch analysis to assess the psychometric properties of the DASS-21 scales, using two different administration modes. Methods The DASS-21 was administered to 420 participants with half the sample responding to a web-based version and the other half completing a traditional pencil-and-paper version. Conformity of DASS-21 scales to a Rasch partial credit model was assessed using the RUMM2020 software. Results To achieve adequate model fit it was necessary to remove one item from each of the DASS-21 subscales. The reduced scales showed adequate internal consistency reliability, unidimensionality and freedom from differential item functioning for sex, age and mode of administration. Analysis of all DASS-21 items combined did not support its use as a measure of general psychological distress. A scale combining the anxiety and stress items showed satisfactory fit to the Rasch model after removal of three items. Conclusion The results provide support for the measurement properties, internal consistency reliability, and unidimensionality of three slightly modified DASS-21 scales, across two different administration methods. The further use of Rasch analysis on the DASS-21 in larger and broader samples is recommended to confirm the findings of the current study.

  15. Insight in bipolar disorder: a comparison between mania, depression and euthymia using the Insight Scale for Affective Disorders

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    Rafael de Assis da Silva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate whether having general insight into bipolar disorder and its symptoms is affected by the mood state of the patient, using the Insight Scale for Affective Disorders, a hetero-application scale for people with mood disorders.Methods: Ninety-five patients with bipolar disorder were evaluated and divided into different groups according to the mood state presented during assessment (i.e., euthymia, mania and depression. Sociodemographic and clinical data (Hamilton Depression Scale, Young Mania Rating Scale, and Clinical Global Impressions Scale were recorded. Insight was evaluated using the Insight Scale for Affective Disorders.Results: Patients with bipolar disorder in mania show less insight about their condition than patients in depression or euthymia, and less insight about their symptoms than patients with depression, with the exception of awareness of weight change.Conclusions: Loss of insight during mania may have important implications for treatment compliance and adherence and needs to be taken into account in the clinical management of people with bipolar disorder.

  16. DEPRESSIVE DISORDERS IN EPILEPSY

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    Koralia Todorova

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Depressive disorders are the most frequent psychiatric comorbidity in epilepsy but very often remain unrecognized and untreated. We examined 103 epileptic patients, aged 18-60 years, 40 males and 63 females, for the presence of interictal depressive disorder. All subjects underwent clinical psychiatric examination, including evaluation on Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D-17. A questionnaire for demographic and seizure-related variables was also completed. Concurrent depressive disorder (clinically presented according to ICD-10 diagnostic criteria affected 28.3% of all evaluated patients. Based on HAM-D-17 scores depression was defined as mild - 80% of all depressed patients, moderate - 17% and severe - 3%. Atypical presentation of interictal depressive disorder was frequent. Depression has a tremendous effect on one’s family, social and psychological functioning, even more than the actual seizure frequency and severity. Diagnostic difficulties come through the atypical mode of presentation of depressive disorders in epilepsy. Proper neuropsychiatric evaluation is essential for improving treatment and quality of life for patients with epilepsy.

  17. Relationship between depression anxiety stress scale (DASS) and urinary hydroxyproline and proline concentrations in hospital workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keou Won; Kim, Soo Jeong; Park, Jae Beom; Lee, Kyung Jong

    2011-01-01

    Although increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) is caused by stress accelerates collagen degradation, there was no data on the relationship between stress and urinary hydroxyproline (Hyp) and proline (Pro), a good marker of collagen degradation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between depression, anxiety, and stress (DAS) and concentrations of urinary Hyp and Pro. 97 hospital employees aged 20 to 58 were asked to fill out comprehensive self-administrated questionnaires containing information about their medical history, lifestyle, length of the work year, shift-work and DAS. depression anxiety stress scale (DASS) was applied to evaluate chronic mental disorders. Urine samples were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with double derivatization for the assay of hydroxyproline and proline. The mean value of Hyp and Pro concentration in all subjects was 194.1 ± 113.4 μmol/g and 568.2 ± 310.7 μmol/g. DASS values and urinary Pro concentrations were differentiated by sex (female > male, p others, p stress (Adjusted r2 = 0.051) and anxiety and job (Adjusted r2 = 0.199), respectively. We found that stress and anxiety were correlated with urinary Hyp and Pro concentrations. To identifying a definite correlation, further study in large populations will be needed.

  18. Measuring sun exposure habits and sun protection behaviour using a comprehensive scoring instrument--an illustration of a possible model based on Likert scale scorings and on estimation of readiness to increase sun protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, M; Anderson, C D

    2012-08-01

    Few attempts to present a comprehensive scoring instrument for sun exposure and protection have been made. The present paper aims to describe a possible set of questions suitable for such an instrument, comprising the most important aspects of sun exposure and protection. The material from a previously performed intervention study, using a questionnaire based on Likert scales and on the Transtheoretical Model of Behaviour Change (TTM), was utilised. 213 primary healthcare patients filled in the questionnaire and were randomised into two groups receiving sun protection advice, in Group 1 in letter-form, and in Group 2 orally during a doctor's consultation. In the original study, increased sun protection/readiness to increase sun protection was demonstrated for several items in Group 2, at six months. To compose a comprehensive scoring instrument, five questions concerning sun exposure/protection (intentional tanning, sunscreen use, choice of SPF, number of occasions with sunburn, and time spent in the sun at midday), were selected to give a 20 point behavioural score. Similarly, four TTM-based questions (giving up sunbathing, using clothes for sun protection, using sunscreens, and staying in the shade) gave a 16 point "propensity-to-change"-score. At follow-up, increased sun protection reflected in the behavioural score occurred only in Group 2 (p Likert scale behavioural score with a TTM-based propensity-to-change-score seems promising for the creation of a questionnaire-based, comprehensive scoring instrument for sun exposure and protection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Rumination, anxiety, depressive symptoms and subsequent depression in adolescents at risk for psychopathology: a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Paul O; Croudace, Tim J; Goodyer, Ian M

    2013-10-08

    A ruminative style of responding to low mood is associated with subsequent high depressive symptoms and depressive disorder in children, adolescents and adults. Scores on self-report rumination scales correlate strongly with scores on anxiety and depression symptom scales. This may confound any associations between rumination and subsequent depression. Our sample comprised 658 healthy adolescents at elevated risk for psychopathology. This study applied ordinal item (non-linear) factor analysis to pooled items from three self-report questionnaires to explore whether there were separate, but correlated, constructs of rumination, depression and anxiety. It then tested whether rumination independently predicted depressive disorder and depressive symptoms over the subsequent 12 months, after adjusting for confounding variables. We identified a single rumination factor, which was correlated with factors representing cognitive symptoms of depression, somatic symptoms of depression and anxiety symptoms; and one factor representing adaptive responses to low mood. Elevated rumination scores predicted onset of depressive disorders over the subsequent year (p = 0.035), and levels of depressive symptoms 12 months later (p depressive and anxiety symptoms. High rumination predicts onset of depressive disorder in healthy adolescents. Therapy that reduces rumination and increases distraction/problem-solving may reduce onset and relapse rates of depression.

  20. Validation of cross-cultural child mental health and psychosocial research instruments: adapting the Depression Self-Rating Scale and Child PTSD Symptom Scale in Nepal

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    Tol Wietse A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The lack of culturally adapted and validated instruments for child mental health and psychosocial support in low and middle-income countries is a barrier to assessing prevalence of mental health problems, evaluating interventions, and determining program cost-effectiveness. Alternative procedures are needed to validate instruments in these settings. Methods Six criteria are proposed to evaluate cross-cultural validity of child mental health instruments: (i purpose of instrument, (ii construct measured, (iii contents of construct, (iv local idioms employed, (v structure of response sets, and (vi comparison with other measurable phenomena. These criteria are applied to transcultural translation and alternative validation for the Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS and Child PTSD Symptom Scale (CPSS in Nepal, which recently suffered a decade of war including conscription of child soldiers and widespread displacement of youth. Transcultural translation was conducted with Nepali mental health professionals and six focus groups with children (n = 64 aged 11-15 years old. Because of the lack of child mental health professionals in Nepal, a psychosocial counselor performed an alternative validation procedure using psychosocial functioning as a criterion for intervention. The validation sample was 162 children (11-14 years old. The Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS and Global Assessment of Psychosocial Disability (GAPD were used to derive indication for treatment as the external criterion. Results The instruments displayed moderate to good psychometric properties: DSRS (area under the curve (AUC = 0.82, sensitivity = 0.71, specificity = 0.81, cutoff score ≥ 14; CPSS (AUC = 0.77, sensitivity = 0.68, specificity = 0.73, cutoff score ≥ 20. The DSRS items with significant discriminant validity were "having energy to complete daily activities" (DSRS.7, "feeling that life is not worth living" (DSRS.10, and

  1. Glasgow coma scale score in the prognosis of acute carbamate insecticide intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jeong Mi; Chun, Byeong Jo; Lee, Byung Kook

    2012-11-01

    Carbamate is a widely used insecticide, and fatality due to carbamate insecticide intoxication has been reported. However, no studies have addressed the factors associated with outcome of patients poisoned by carbamate insecticide. The present study sought to identify the independent factors that could help predict the development of medical complications as a result of carbamate intoxication. Fifty two patients presenting with acute carbamate insecticide ingestion at Chonnam National University Hospital were enrolled in this retrospective observational case series. The morbidities that needed intensive treatment such as hypotension, respiratory failure, and death were regarded as complications. To identify the associated factors to these complications, objective variables that are easily assessed at presentation, such as age, initial Glasgow coma scale (GSC) and corrected QT (QTc) prolongation, were analyzed by univariate and multivariate stepwise logistic regression analyses. Of the 52 patients, 35 (67.3%) had medical complications within 24 hours after carbamate insecticide intoxication and seven (13.5%) died. Respiratory failure was the most common medical complication. The significant factors determined by univariate analysis were initial GCS, elevated lactate, and QTc prolongation. However, initial GCS (≤13) was the only independent factor determined by multivariate analysis that was associated with serious complications requiring intensive medical treatment. Carbamate insecticide intoxication is not a mild disease, as previously thought, having a mortality rate of 13.8% and a morbidity rate of 67.3%. Initial GCS ≤ 13 can be used as a significant factor to identify carbamate insecticide-intoxicated patients who will experience complications.

  2. Association between depression and survival in Chinese amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qianqian; Zheng, Zhenzhen; Guo, Xiaoyan; Ou, Ruwei; Chen, Xueping; Huang, Rui; Yang, Jing; Shang, Huifang

    2016-04-01

    To determine the prevalence of depression, to identify correlated factors for depression, and to explore the impact on the progression or survival of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) by depression in a Chinese population. A total of 166 ALS patients were recruited. Diagnosis of depression disorders and the severity of depression were established by using the fourth diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-24 items (HDRS-24) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Major depression was found in 15 patients (9.6 %). The multiple regression analysis showed that a lower ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised (ALSFRS-R) score was correlated with increasing HDRS scores and BDI scores (P = 0.018 and P = 0.012). No significant difference in the median survival time between ALS patients with and without depression was revealed by Kaplan-Meier analysis (log-rank P = 0.282). Cox hazard model showed that the presence of depression in ALS was unrelated to the survival, while the severity of depression in ALS was correlated with the survival. The presence and severity of depression in ALS did not correlate with the progression of ALS. Major depression in ALS is uncommon. Depression evaluation should be given to ALS patients, especially those with lower ALSFRS-R score. The severity of depression may be associated with the survival; however, depression does not worse the progression of ALS.

  3. Application of Beck self-rating depression scale among patients with infertility%Beck抑郁自评问卷在不孕症患者中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭丽; 张婷婷; 王姿雅; 徐博文

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To research the reliability and validity of Beck self- rating depression scale among patients with infertility,provide a basis for choosing depression self - assessment tool for patients with infertility.Methods: Beck self - rating depression scale was used to investigate 176 patients with infertihty, factor analysis was used to research the reliability and validity of Beck self - rating depression scale.Results: Beck self- rating depression scale chose four factors including pessimism, depression, diminished capacity and low self- evaluation; the Cronbach α coefficients of four dimensions were 0.583, 0.554, 0.398 and 0.529, respectively; the total Cronbach α coefficient was 0.718; the correlation coefficient between dimensions and total score of the questionnaire was 0.43 ~ 0.809 ( P < 0.01 ).Conclusion: The reliability and validity of Beck self - rating depression scale are good, Beck self - rating depression scale can reflect the depression status of infertile cases effectively; the depression status of infertile cases is high, necessary preventive measures should be adopted to intervene the adverse psychological state early.%目的:研究Beck抑郁自评问卷在不孕症患者中使用的信度和效度,为不孕症患者抑郁状态自评工具的选择提供依据.方法:应用Beck抑郁白评问卷(BDI),对176例不孕症患者进行调查,采用因素分析方法研究BDI的信度和效度.结果:BDI提取了悲观情绪、抑郁情绪、能力减退、自我评价低4个因子;该问卷Cronbach α系数4个构面分别是0.583,0.554、0.398、0.529,总Cronbach α系数为0.718;各分维度与问卷总分的相关在0.43~0.809之间(P<0.01).结论:Beck抑郁自评问卷具有较好的信度和效度,可以有效反映不孕症患者的抑郁状态.不孕症患者抑郁状态较高,应采取必要的预防措施对其不良心理状态进行早期干预.

  4. A psychometric validation analysis of Eysenck’s Neuroticism and Extraversion Scales in a sample of first time depressed patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Stine Bjerrum; Bech, Per; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2015-01-01

    Eysenck and Eysenck identified the two-factor structure of personality, namely neuroticism and extraversion which has been widely used in clinical psychiatry, and generated much research on the psychometric properties of the scales. Using a classical psychometric approach the neuroticism...... and extraversion scales have shown robust psychometric properties. The present study used both classical psychometric and item response theory (IRT) analyses to evaluate the neuroticism and extraversion scales and improve scalability of the instrument neuroticism and extraversion. A first time depressed sample...... symptoms related to interpersonal sensitivity were identified. For the extraversion scale a shorter and psychometrically more robust version was identified together with a short introversion scale. Clinically discriminant validity was analysed using correlations. The correlation between depression (Ham...

  5. Chilean experimental version of the State-Trait Depression Questionnaire (ST-DEP: Trait sub-scale (T-DEP

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    Pablo Vera-Villarroel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This instrumental study presents the first validity and reliability data for the Trait subscale (T-DEP of the Chilean experimental version of the State and Trait Depression Inventory (ST-DEP: Euthymia and Dysthymia. The data were obtained from a sample of 300 university students. The internal consistency values for the TDEP were high (.90. The test-retest values from eight weeks time interval (fifty six days were elevated (.78. A factorial analysis of the principal components revealed a principal factor for all of the constructed items in this experimental version of the TDEP. The last, promax rotation showed two clear main factors similar in size: negative affectivity (Dysthymia and positive affectivity (Euthymia. The convergent validity indexes for the Beck Depression Inventory and the Zung Self Rating Depression Scale, were also high, with indexes ranging from .64 to .71. The correlation between State- Trait Anxiety Inventory and the depression scales used in this study was high (between .63 and .78, once again indicating the usual overlapping between anxiety and depression seen in most depression inventories.

  6. The impact of spirituality before and after treatment of major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peselow, Eric; Pi, Sarah; Lopez, Enrique; Besada, André; Ishak, Waguih William

    2014-03-01

    The authors sought to assess spirituality in depressed patients and evaluate whether the degree of initial depressive symptoms and response to pharmacotherapy treatment has a correlation with degree of spirituality and belief in God. Our participants included 84 patients who presented to a depression/anxiety clinic for naturalistic treatment of their depressive illness over the course of two years. All patients met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision criteria for major depression, as confirmed by structured interviews using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, and were treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for eight weeks. Patients were evaluated at baseline and after treatment using the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale, the Beck Hopelessness Scale, the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale, and the Spiritual Orientation to Life scale. At baseline, patients reporting greater spirituality had significantly lower measures of hopelessness, dysfunctional attitudes, and depressive symptoms. Those who believed in God had a greater mean change score than those who did not on the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale, the Beck Hopelessness Scale, and the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale, with the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale showing the greatest mean change score. Significant correlations were detected between the Spiritual Orientation to Life scale score and the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale, the Beck Hopelessness Scale, and the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale pre-scores, post-scores, and change scores. The findings suggest that greater spirituality is associated with less severe depression. Moreover, the degree to which the measures of depressive symptom severity, hopelessness, and cognitive distortions improved over the course of eight weeks was significantly greater for those patients who were more spiritual.

  7. Sense of identity and depression in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Başaran; Kaynak-Demir, Hadiye; Sönmez, Emel Irmak

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between sense of identity and depression in a group of adolescents. Thirty-one depressed adolescents and 31 control subjects were included in the study. They were evaluated using the Sense of Identity Assessment Form (SIAF), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Depressed adolescents were reevaluated during the eighth week of antidepressant treatment. Higher baseline SIAF scores were detected in depressed adolescents as compared with non-depressed subjects. After antidepressant treatment, there was a significant decrease in SIAF scores in the depression group. Correlation analysis indicated that there are significant, positive relationships between SIAF, depression, and anxiety scores. The regression analysis results suggested that the change in SIAF scores can accurately predict 91.6% of the remitters and 42.8% of the non-remitters. Collectively, these findings indicate that there is a close association between depression symptoms and identity confusion-related distress in adolescents.

  8. Brief version of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale: psychometric properties and relationship to depression, self esteem, recovery orientation, empowerment, and perceived devaluation and discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Jennifer E; Otilingam, Poorni G; Deforge, Bruce R

    2014-03-01

    The internalized stigma of mental illness impedes recovery and is associated with increased depression, reduced self-esteem, reduced recovery orientation, reduced empowerment, and increased perceived devaluation and discrimination. The Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale is a 29-item self-report questionnaire developed with consumer input that includes the following subscales: Alienation, Discrimination Experience, Social Withdrawal, Stereotype Endorsement, and Stigma Resistance. Here we present a 10-item version of the ISMI containing the two strongest items from each subscale. Participants were all outpatient veterans with serious mental illness. Following the rigorous scale-reduction methods set forth by Stanton and colleagues (2002), we selected the 10 items, tested the psychometrics of the shortened scale in the original validation sample (N = 127), and cross-checked the results in a second dataset (N = 760). As expected, the ISMI-10 retained the essential properties of the ISMI-29, including adequate internal consistency reliability and external validity in relation to depression, self-esteem, recovery orientation, perceived devaluation and discrimination, and empowerment. The ISMI-10 scores are normally distributed and have similar descriptive statistics to the ISMI-29. The reliability and depression findings were replicated in a cross-validation sample. We conclude that the ISMI-10 has strong psychometric properties and is a practical, reliable, and valid alternative to the original ISMI-29. Future work should test the ISMI-10 in more diverse samples. This shorter version should reduce respondent burden in program evaluation projects that seek to determine whether participation in psychosocial rehabilitation programming reduces internalized stigma.

  9. The Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale-Short Version: Scale Reduction via Exploratory Bifactor Modeling of the Broad Anxiety Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebesutani, Chad; Reise, Steven P.; Chorpita, Bruce F.; Ale, Chelsea; Regan, Jennifer; Young, John; Higa-McMillan, Charmaine; Weisz, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Using a school-based (N = 1,060) and clinic-referred (N = 303) youth sample, the authors developed a 25-item shortened version of the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) using Schmid-Leiman exploratory bifactor analysis to reduce client burden and administration time and thus improve the transportability characteristics of this…

  10. Cross-cultural adaptation into Punjabi of the English version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Rod S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We wanted to use a Punjabi version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS to enable non-English speaking patients to participate in a clinical trial. The aim of the study was to translate and validate the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale into Punjabi. Methods The HADS was translated into Punjabi by a multidisciplinary team, verified against the original version, and administered to 73 bilingual patients attending an outpatient clinic. Results One sample t-tests and the Bland-Altman plots demonstrated acceptable linguistic agreement between the two versions of the HADS. Spearman's rank-order correlation coefficients (p Conclusion The Punjabi HADS is an acceptable, reliable and valid measure of anxiety and depression among physically ill Punjabi speaking people in the United Kingdom.

  11. 2000-2010 Annual State-Scale Service and Domain Scores for Forecasting Well-Being from Service-Based Decisions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — 2000-2010 Annual State-Scale Service and Domain scores used to support the approach for forecasting EPA's Human Well-Being Index. A modeling approach was developed...

  12. The effect of rater training on scoring performance and scale-specific expertise amongst occupational therapists participating in a multicentre study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tina; Elholm Madsen, Esben; Sørensen, Annette

    2016-01-01

    pre- to post-training using percentage exact agreement (PA) of scored MISA items of a case-vignette and a Likert scale self-report of scale-specific expertise. RESULTS: PA increased significantly from pre- to post-training (Z = -4.404, p ... of the training on scoring performance and scale-specific expertise amongst raters. METHOD: During 2 days of rater training, 81 occupational therapists (OTs) were qualified to observe and score dysphagic clients' mealtime performance according to the criteria of 36 MISA-items. The training effects were evaluated...... deficient mealtime performance appeared most difficult to score. The OTs scale-specific expertise improved significantly (knowledge: Z = -7.857, p

  13. Examining the Potential for Gender Bias in the Prediction of Symptom Validity Test Failure by MMPI-2 Symptom Validity Scale Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tayla T. C.; Graham, John R.; Sellbom, Martin; Gervais, Roger O.

    2012-01-01

    Using a sample of individuals undergoing medico-legal evaluations (690 men, 519 women), the present study extended past research on potential gender biases for scores of the Symptom Validity (FBS) scale of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 by examining score- and item-level differences between men and women and determining the…

  14. Examining the Potential for Gender Bias in the Prediction of Symptom Validity Test Failure by MMPI-2 Symptom Validity Scale Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tayla T. C.; Graham, John R.; Sellbom, Martin; Gervais, Roger O.

    2012-01-01

    Using a sample of individuals undergoing medico-legal evaluations (690 men, 519 women), the present study extended past research on potential gender biases for scores of the Symptom Validity (FBS) scale of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 by examining score- and item-level differences between men and women and determining the…

  15. Seeing the Forest for the Trees: Prevalence of Low Scores on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fourth Edition (WISC-IV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Brian L.

    2010-01-01

    Low scores across a battery of tests are common in healthy people and vary by demographic characteristics. The purpose of the present article was to present the base rates of low scores for the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, fourth edition (WISC-IV; D. Wechsler, 2003). Participants included 2,200 children and adolescents between 6 and…

  16. Do Multidimensional Pain Inventory scale score changes indicate risk of receiving sick leave benefits 1 year after a pain rehabilitation programme?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Vanja E; Novo, Mehmed; Sjölund, Bengt H

    2011-01-01

    To study whether scale score changes in the Multidimensional Pain Inventory (MPI) can predict which persons disabled by pain will receive sick leave benefits 1 year after completing a pain rehabilitation programme.......To study whether scale score changes in the Multidimensional Pain Inventory (MPI) can predict which persons disabled by pain will receive sick leave benefits 1 year after completing a pain rehabilitation programme....

  17. Does the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) measure anxiety symptoms consistently across adolescence? The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathyssek, Christina M.; Olino, Thomas M.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Van Oort, Floor V. A.

    We assessed if the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) measures anxiety symptoms similarly across age groups within adolescence. This is crucial for valid comparison of anxiety levels between different age groups. Anxiety symptoms were assessed biennially in a representative

  18. Does the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) measure anxiety symptoms consistently across adolescence? The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathyssek, Christina M.; Olino, Thomas M.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Van Oort, Floor V. A.

    2013-01-01

    We assessed if the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) measures anxiety symptoms similarly across age groups within adolescence. This is crucial for valid comparison of anxiety levels between different age groups. Anxiety symptoms were assessed biennially in a representative populatio

  19. Does the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) measure anxiety symptoms consistently across adolescence? The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. Mathyssek (Christina); T.M. Olino (Thomas); C.A. Hartman; J. Ormel (Johan Hans); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); F.V.A. van Oort (Floor)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWe assessed if the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) measures anxiety symptoms similarly across age groups within adolescence. This is crucial for valid comparison of anxiety levels between different age groups. Anxiety symptoms were assessed biennially in a representati

  20. Can a one-item mood scale do the trick? Predicting relapse over 5.5-years in recurrent depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijsbergen, Gerard D.; Bockting, Claudi L. H.; Berking, Matthias; Koeter, Maarten W.J.; Schene, Aart H.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To examine whether a simple Visual Analogue Mood Scale (VAMS) is able to predict time to relapse over 5.5-years. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 187 remitted recurrently depressed out-patients were interviewed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) a

  1. The Short Version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21): Factor Structure in a Young Adolescent Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Marianna

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the factor structure of the short form of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995b) in a young adolescent sample. A group of 484 high school students ("Mean" age = 13.62 years, Min = 11.83, Max = 15.67 years, 52 % boys) completed the DASS-21. Several models were tested using Confirmatory Factor…

  2. The Consequences of Perfectionism Scale: Factorial Structure and Relationships with Perfectionism, Performance Perfectionism, Affect, and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeber, Joachim; Hoyle, Azina; Last, Freyja

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the Consequences of Perfectionism Scale (COPS) and its relationships with perfectionism, performance perfectionism, affect, and depressive symptoms in 202 university students using confirmatory factor analysis, correlations, and regression analyses. Results suggest that the COPS is a reliable and valid measure of positive…

  3. The Consequences of Perfectionism Scale: Factorial structure and relationships with perfectionism, performance perfectionism, affect, and depressive symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Stoeber, Joachim; Hoyle, Alison J.; Last, Freyja

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the Consequences of Perfectionism Scale (COPS) and its relationships with perfectionism, performance perfectionism, affect, and depressive symptoms in 202 university students using confirmatory factor analysis, correlations, and regression analyses. Results suggest that the COPS is a reliable and valid measure of positive and negative consequences of perfectionism.

  4. Construction and validation of a patient- and user-friendly nursing home version of the Geriatric Depression Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongenelis, K.; Gerritsen, D. L.; Beekman, A. T. F.; Eisses, A. M. H.; Kluiter, H.; Ribbe, M. W.

    Objective To construct a patient- and user-friendly shortened version of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) that is especially suitable for nursing home patients. Methods The study was carried out on two different data bases including 23 Dutch nursing homes. Data on the GDS (n = 410), the Mini

  5. Construction and validation of a patient- and user-friendly nursing home version of the Geriatric Depression Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongenelis, K.; Gerritsen, D. L.; Beekman, A. T. F.; Eisses, A. M. H.; Kluiter, H.; Ribbe, M. W.

    2007-01-01

    Objective To construct a patient- and user-friendly shortened version of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) that is especially suitable for nursing home patients. Methods The study was carried out on two different data bases including 23 Dutch nursing homes. Data on the GDS (n = 410), the Mini Men

  6. FragAnchor: A Large-Scale Predictor of Glycosylphosphatidylinositol Anchors in Eukaryote Protein Sequences by Qualitative Scoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor is a common but complex C-terminal post-translational modification of extracellular proteins in eukaryotes. Here we investigate the problem of correctly annotating GPI-anchored proteins for the growing number of sequences in public databases. We developed a computational system, called FragAnchor, based on the tandem use of a neural network (NN) and a hidden Markov model (HMM). Firstly, NN selects potential GPI-anchored proteins in a dataset, then HMM parses these potential GPI signals and refines the prediction by qualitative scoring. FragAnchor correctly predicted 91% of all the GPI-anchored proteins annotated in the Swiss-Prot database.In a large-scale analysis of 29 eukaryote proteomes, FragAnchor predicted that the percentage of highly probable GPI-anchored proteins is between 0.21% and 2.01%. The distinctive feature of FragAnchor, compared with other systems,is that it targets only the C-terminus of a protein, making it less sensitive to the background noise found in databases and possible incomplete protein sequences. Moreover, FragAnchor can be used to predict GPI-anchored proteins in all eukaryotes. Finally, by using qualitative scoring, the predictions combine both sensitivity and information content. The predictor is publicly available at http: // navet. ics. hawaii.edu/~fraganchor/NNHMM/NNHMM.html.

  7. 产后抑郁筛查量表中文版在产后抑郁筛查中的应用%Application of the Chinese version of the Postpartum Depression Screening Scale in the screening of postpartum depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高明; 王智慧; 傅晓红; 陆丽艳

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the value of the Postpartum Depression Screening Scale (PDSS)and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression scale (EPDS)in the screening of postpartum depression.Methods A total of 378women within 42 days postpartum completed PDSS,the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS)and Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders-Patient Edition (SCID-I/P).The SCID-I/P was regarded the standard for postpartum depression diagnosis.Results The cut-of score for PDSS and EPDS was 76 and 13,respectively.Sensitivity of PDSS was 92.00%,and specificity was 95.25%,with positive predictive value of 77.02% and negative predictive value of 99.01%.Sensitivity of EPDS was 82.30%,and specificity was 81.33%,with positive predictive value of 44.73% and negative predictive value of 97.30%.The sensitivity,specificity and positive predictive value showed significantly difference between PDSS and EPDS (P<0.05),and negative predictive value had no statistical significant differece.Conclusion PDSS scale is more suitable for screening postpartum depression than EPDS scale.%目的 比较产后抑郁筛查量表(PDSS)和爱丁堡产后抑郁量表(EPDS)在产后抑郁筛查中的应用价值.方法 分别采用PDSS、爱丁堡产后抑郁量表(EPDS)及美国精神障碍诊断与统计手册第4版轴Ⅰ障碍定式临床检查患者版(SCID-I/P)对378例产后42 d的妇女进行评定,以SCID-I/P作为产后抑郁诊断标准.结果 将两种量表的临界值分别界定为76分和13分.PDSS的敏感性为92.00%,特异性为95.25%,阳性预测值为77.02%,阴性预测值为99.01%;EPDS的敏感性为82.26%,特异性为81.33%,阳性预测值为44.73%,阴性预测值为97.30%.两种量表特异性和敏感性差异比较有统计学意义(P<0.05).PDSS与EPDS阳性预测值比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),阴性预测值比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 与EPDS比较,PDSS更适合产后抑郁的筛查.

  8. Comparison between the Rorschach Depression Index and depression-related measures in a nonpatient sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwald, D F

    1997-06-01

    The Rorschach Depression Index of Exner was correlated with eight self-report measures of affect and related personality constructs, including the Beck Depression Inventory, the Multiple Affect Adjective Checklist-Revised Depression and Positive Affect scales, and Kaplan Self-derogation in a sample of 41 undergraduates (M age 19 yr.). The only significant correlation was an unexpected inverse correlation (r = -.35) for scores on Kaplan Self-derogation, suggesting the need for caution in the use of the Depression Index as an indicator of depression in nonpatients.

  9. A Reexamination of the Factor Structure of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale: Is a One-Factor Model Plausible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Michael C.; Cheavens, Jennifer S.; Heiy, Jane E.; Cukrowicz, Kelly C.

    2010-01-01

    The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) is one of the most widely used measures of depressive symptoms in research today. The original psychometric work in support of the CES-D (Radloff, 1977) described a 4-factor model underlying the 20 items on the scale. Despite a long history of evidence supporting this structure,…

  10. Psychometric Properties and Diagnostic Accuracy of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale in a Sample of Iranian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Reza Kheirabadi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS has been used as a reliable screening tool for postpartum depression in many countries. This study aimed to assess the psychometric properties and diagnostic accuracy of the EPDS in a sample of Iranian women.Methods: Using stratified sampling 262 postpartum women (2 weeks-3 months after delivery were selected from urban and rural health center in the city of Isfahan. They were interviewed using EPDS and Hamilton depression rating scale (HDRS. Data were assessed using factor analysis, diagnosis analysis of receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve, Cronbach's alpha and Pearson correlation coefficient.Results: The age of then participants ranged 18-45 years (26.6±5.1. Based on a cut-off point of >13 for HDRS, 18.3% of the participants. The overall reliability (Cronbach's alpha of EPDS was 0.79. There was a significant correlation (r2=0.60, P value<0.01 between EPDS and HDRS. Two factor analysis showed that anhedonia and depression were two explanatory factors. At a cut-off point12 the sensitivity of the questionnaire was 78% (95% CI: 73%-83% and its specificity was 75% (95% CI: 72%-78%. Conclusion: The Persian version of the EPDS showed appropriate psychometric properties diagnostic accuracy index. It can be used by health system professionals for detection, assessment and treatment for mothers with post partum depression.

  11. Screening for depression and anxiety among older Chinese immigrants living in Western countries: The use of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaoping; Haralambous, Betty; Pachana, Nancy A; Bryant, Christina; LoGiudice, Dina; Goh, Anita; Dow, Briony

    2016-03-01

    Depression and anxiety are two common mental health problems among older people. There is evidence that using well-validated screening tools can improve detection of depression and anxiety among this group. The review explored the use of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI) for screening depression and anxiety among older Chinese immigrants, one of the largest and fastest growing groups of older immigrants in Western society. It focused on the GDS and GAI because both are designed specifically for older people. Online literature searches were conducted in MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO. A narrative approach was used to review included papers. A total of 21 articles were included. There were limited data on anxiety among older Chinese immigrants, with only one unpublished report identified. There were 13 studies (20 articles) using the GDS with this group. Results of these studies indicated that the GDS is a reliable tool in this population; however, there was limited validity data. Two versions of the GDS-15 have been used with older Chinese immigrants, including the standard GDS-15 and Mui's GDS-15. Prevalence of depression ranged between 20% and 30% in most reviewed studies. Results of this review have practical implications for clinicians in their use of these tools with older Chinese immigrants in Western countries, such as the different GDS versions. It also suggests a number of directions for future research, such as the inclusion of clinical samples and consideration of the diversity within this group. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. Evidências de validade entre a Escala de Depressão (EDEP, o BDI e o Inventário de Percepção de Suporte Familiar (IPSF Validity evidences between the Depression Scale (EDEP, the BDI and the Perception of Family Support Inventory (IPSF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makilim Nunes Baptista

    2008-12-01

    's family support, understood as manifestation of attention, care, dialog, freedom, affective proximity, autonomy and independence between family members. The present research aimed to search for validity evidences to Depression Scale (EDEP based on the relation to other variables assessing the same construct, depression, being also assessed by Beck Depression Inventory - BDI, and assessing related constructs, family support, measured by Perception of Family Support Inventory - IPSF. 157 undergraduates from a private university located in south state of Minas Gerais, 75,5% from female gender and 24,5% from male gender, aging from 18 to 51 years old (M=23,2; DP=6,4 took part in this study. At the results, high, significant and positive correlations were found between EDEP and BDI, as expected, indicating that the higher the scores on both scales, higher the depressive symptoms. As for the correlations between EDEP and IPSF dimensions, significant and negative correlations were found, suggesting that the higher depressive symptoms lower the perception of family support on individuals. Only marginally significant differences were found between genders, as to depressive symptoms (EDEP and BDI, indicating that women would score more at the depression scales.

  13. Validity of a Diagnostic Scale for Acupuncture: Application of the Item Response Theory to the Five Viscera Score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taro Tomura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In acupuncture therapy, diagnosis, acupoints, and stimulation for patients with the same illness are often inconsistent among between Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM practitioners. This is in part due to the paucity of evidence-based diagnostic methods in TCM. To solve this problem, establishment of validated diagnostic tool is inevitable. We first applied the Item Response Theory (IRT model to the Five Viscera Score (FVS to test its validity by evaluating the ability of the questionnaire items to identify an individual’s latent traits. Next, the health-related QOL scale (SF-36, a suitable instrument for evaluating acupuncture therapy, was administered to evaluate whether the FVS can be used to make a health-related diagnosis. All 20 items of the FVS had adequate item discrimination, and 13 items had high item discrimination power. Measurement accuracy was suited for application in a range of individuals, from healthy to symptomatic. When the FVS and SF-36 were administered to other subjects, a part of which overlap with the first subjects, we found an association between the two scales, and the same findings were obtained when symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects were compared regardless of age and sex. In conclusion, the FVS may be effective in clinical diagnosis.

  14. Anhedonia and Pessimism in Hospitalized Depressed Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinoviy Gutkovich

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This longitudinal study investigates whether anhedonia and pessimistic attributional style represent a clinical state or a trait in hospitalized depressed adolescents. 81 consecutive adolescent inpatients were screened with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI and the clinician-rated Major Depressive Disorder (MDD criteria sheet. 51 patients with BDI score ≥10 and/or ≥4 symptoms on MDD criteria sheet were assessed at Time 1 upon admission, with 39 patients (78% assessed at discharge (Time 2 with the Pleasure Scale for Children and Children's Attributional Style Questionnaire—Revised. Anhedonia and pessimism at admission were associated with BDI scores at admission and discharge as well as number of depressive symptoms and depression severity. MDD diagnosis was associated with anhedonia, but not with pessimism. Pessimism—but not anhedonia—improved significantly by discharge. Results suggest that while some adolescents exhibit enduring anhedonia, pessimistic attributional style appears to be a concomitant feature of an acute depressive state.

  15. The Use of Quality Control and Data Mining Techniques for Monitoring Scaled Scores: An Overview. Research Report. ETS RR-12-20

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Davier, Alina A.

    2012-01-01

    Maintaining comparability of test scores is a major challenge faced by testing programs that have almost continuous administrations. Among the potential problems are scale drift and rapid accumulation of errors. Many standard quality control techniques for testing programs, which can effectively detect and address scale drift for small numbers of…

  16. Comparison of the psychosocial quality of life in hemodialysis patients between the elderly and non-elderly using a visual analogue scale: the importance of appetite and depressive mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, Hiroshi; Nagai, Kojiro; Matsubara, Takeshi; Mima, Akira; Yanagita, Motoko; Iehara, Noriyuki; Takechi, Hajime; Fujimaki, Keiichi; Usami, Kazumasa; Fukatsu, Atsushi; Kita, Toru; Matsubayashi, Kozo; Arai, Hidenori

    2012-01-01

    The number of hemodialysis (HD) patients is increasing along with their mean age in Japan. The assessment of their psychosocial status and quality of life (QOL) is therefore becoming more and more important along with laboratory data or comorbidities. We examined the psychosocial status of 211 HD patients (72 elderly and 139 non-elderly) and compared the difference between elderly and non-elderly patients using a visual analogue scale (VAS). We then examined how QOL affected mortality rate in 3-year prospective follow up. We assessed 10 items of QOL: health condition, appetite, sleep, mood, memory, family relationships, friendship, economical status, life satisfaction in daily life, and happiness with qualified self-evaluating questionnaires along with laboratory data and comorbidities. Furthermore, we investigated the correlation between the scores of mood and geriatric depression scale (GDS)-15. There was no difference in VAS scores between elderly and non-elderly patients. Lower VAS scores for appetite and mood correlated with higher mortality in HD patients, especially in the non-elderly. VAS scores for mood correlated with GDS-15 in HD patients. More attention should be paid to appetite and the diagnosis and therapy of depressive mood to improve the prognosis of HD patients, especially for the non-elderly. © 2011 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  17. Measuring treatment response in psychotic depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Søren Dinesen; Meyers, Barnett S; Flint, Alastair J

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is no established psychometric instrument dedicated to the measurement of severity in psychotic depression (PD). The aim of this study was to investigate whether a new composite rating scale, the Psychotic Depression Assessment Scale (PDAS), covering both the psychotic...... and the depressive domains of PD, could detect differences in effect between two psychopharmacological treatment regimens. METHODS: We reanalyzed the data from the Study of Pharmacotherapy of Psychotic Depression (STOP-PD), which compared the effect of Olanzapine+Sertraline (n=129) versus Olanzapine+Placebo (n=130......). The response to the two regimens was compared using both a mixed effects model and effect size statistics on the total scores of three rating scales: the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D17), its 6-item melancholia subscale (HAM-D6), and the 11-item PDAS consisting of the HAM-D6 plus five items...

  18. Association between the sense of coherence 13-item version scale score of pregnant women in the second trimester of pregnancy and threatened premature birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekizuka-Kagami, Naomi; Shimada, Keiko; Tabuchi, Noriko; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether the score of the sense of coherence 13-item version (SOC-13) scale in the second trimester of pregnancy is associated with threatened premature birth. All the subjects gave their informed written consent before their participation in the study. A self-reported questionnaire survey was conducted on the pregnant women at approximately 18 weeks of pregnancy. The questionnaire consisted of items on demographic characteristics, perinatal abnormalities, stress perception scale (SPS), and SOC-13 scale. Approximately 30 weeks of pregnancy after the first survey, we surveyed whether any treatment had been provided for threatened premature birth during the course of the current pregnancy. The study period was from December 2007 to February 2010. One hundred and seventy-seven pregnant women participated in the study, but only the data from 151 pregnant women were analyzed. Forty-three (28.5%) pregnant women had threatened premature birth and received some treatment. Logistic regression analysis was carried out with threatened premature birth as the dependent variable and age, childbirth history, smoking habit, history of miscarriage or premature birth in previous pregnancies, SPS score, and SOC-13 scale score as the independent variables. It was shown that SOC-13 scale score affected threatened premature birth (p premature birth. This study suggests that the SOC-13 scale score in the second trimester of pregnancy could be of great value in clinical health care of pregnant women with a risk of threatened premature birth in the subsequent course of pregnancy.

  19. Stress, anxiety, depression and migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacogne, C; Lacoste, J P; Guillibert, E; Hugues, F C; Le Jeunne, C

    2003-07-01

    This study investigated the intensity of stress, anxiety and depression in a sample of 141 migraineurs compared with a control group of 109 non-migraine workers matched for age and sex. Stress was measured using the Perceived Stress Questionnaire, and anxiety and depression using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Results indicated that stress and anxiety were higher in the migraine group than in the control group and above the clinical level. Depression scores remained low in both groups, under clinical relevance. Stress is a primordial factor in the triggering and perpetuation of migraine attacks. The high score of the items 'morning fatigue', 'intrusive thoughts about work', 'feeling under pressure', 'impatience', and 'irritability' of the stress questionnaire in the migraineurs is particularly significant in the intensive stress response. It seems necessary to manage stress to improve the daily life of migraineurs and to study the link between stress, anxiety and migraine.

  20. The use of the SF-36 questionnaire in adult survivors of childhood cancer: evaluation of data quality, score reliability, and scaling assumptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winter David L

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The SF-36 has been used in a number of previous studies that have investigated the health status of childhood cancer survivors, but it never has been evaluated regarding data quality, scaling assumptions, and reliability in this population. As health status among childhood cancer survivors is being increasingly investigated, it is important that the measurement instruments are reliable, validated and appropriate for use in this population. The aim of this paper was to determine whether the SF-36 questionnaire is a valid and reliable instrument in assessing self-perceived health status of adult survivors of childhood cancer. Methods We examined the SF-36 to see how it performed with respect to (1 data completeness, (2 distribution of the scale scores, (3 item-internal consistency, (4 item-discriminant validity, (5 internal consistency, and (6 scaling assumptions. For this investigation we used SF-36 data from a population-based study of 10,189 adult survivors of childhood cancer. Results Overall, missing values ranged per item from 0.5 to 2.9 percent. Ceiling effects were found to be highest in the role limitation-physical (76.7% and role limitation-emotional (76.5% scales. All correlations between items and their hypothesised scales exceeded the suggested standard of 0.40 for satisfactory item-consistency. Across all scales, the Cronbach's alpha coefficient of reliability was found to be higher than the suggested value of 0.70. Consistent across all cancer groups, the physical health related scale scores correlated strongly with the Physical Component Summary (PCS scale scores and weakly with the Mental Component Summary (MCS scale scores. Also, the mental health and role limitation-emotional scales correlated strongly with the MCS scale score and weakly with the PCS scale score. Moderate to strong correlations with both summary scores were found for the general health perception, energy/vitality, and social functioning

  1. Factorial Validity and Internal Consistency of Malaysian Adapted Depression Anxiety Stress Scale - 21 in an Adolescent Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hairul Anuar Hashim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychometrically sound measurement instrument is a fundamental requirement across broad range of research areas. In negative affect research, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS has been identified as a psychometrically sound instrument to measure depression, anxiety and stress, especially the 21-item version. However, its psychometric properties in adolescents have been less consistent. Objectives: Thus, the present study sought to examine the factorial validity and internal consistency of the adapted 21-item version of DASS in Malaysian adolescents. Method: Using cross-sectional study design, DASS-21 was administered to 750 Malaysian adolescents (Mean age = 13.40 ± 0.49. The data were then analyzed using Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA, in which the original DASS-21 factor structure (depression-stress-anxiety was compared to 8 other alternative models.Results: CFA results revealed a weak support for DASS-21 as a differentiated measure of depression, anxiety and stress in Malaysian adolescents. Extremely high latent factors intercorrelations were observed in the model reflecting original DASS factor structure. On the other hand, despite the best overall fit of a 4-factor model consisting of depression, anxiety, and stress, as well as a general negative affect factor, individual factor loadings for the specific factors were uninterpretable. Although model fit of 1-factor model was inferior when compared the other competing models, this model (1-factor exhibit reasonable model fit. Conclusion: We concluded that the use of Malaysian adapted DASS-21 as a differentiated measure stress, anxiety, and depression in Malaysian adolescent should proceed with caution and further refinement of the scale is necessary before a concrete conclusion can be made.

  2. What score on the Vancouver Scar Scale constitutes a hypertrophic scar? Results from a survey of North American burn-care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Callie M; Sood, Ravi F; Honari, Shari; Carrougher, Gretchen J; Gibran, Nicole S

    2015-11-01

    Reliable characterization of a hypertrophic scar (HTS) is integral to epidemiologic studies designed to identify clinical and genetic risk factors for HTS. The Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS) has been widely used for this purpose; however, no publication has defined what score on this scale corresponds to a clinical diagnosis of HTS. In a survey of 1000 burn care providers, we asked respondents what VSS score indicates a HTS and asked them to score scar photos using the VSS. We used receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) curves to evaluate VSS sub-scores and their combinations in diagnosis of HTS. Of 130 responses (13.5%), most were physicians (43.9%) who had worked in burn care for over 10 years (63.1%) and did not use the VSS in clinical practice (58.5%). There was no consensus as to what VSS score indicates a diagnosis of HTS. VSS height score (0-3) performed best for diagnosis of HTS; using a cut-off of ≥1, height score was 99.5% sensitive and 85.9% specific for HTS. Burn clinicians do not routinely use the VSS and perceptions vary widely regarding what constitutes a HTS. When a dichotomous variable is needed, the VSS height score with a cut-off of ≥1 may be optimal. Our findings underscore the need for an objective tool to reproducibly characterize HTS across burn centers. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Hemodynamic changes in depressive patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Ying; LI Hui-chun; ZHENG Lei-lei; YU Hua-liang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study is aimed at exploring the relationship between hemodynamic changes and depressive and anxious symptom in depression patients. Methods: The cardiac function indices including the left stroke index (LSI), ejection fraction (EF), heart rate (HR), diastolic pressure mean (DPM), systolic pressure mean (SPM), left ventricle end-diastolic volume (LVDV), effective circulating volume (ECV), resistance total mean (RTM) and blood flow smooth degree (BFSD) were determined in 65 patients with major depressive disorders and 31 healthy normal controls. The clinical symptoms were assessed with Hamilton depression scale (HAMD) and Hamilton anxiety scale (HAMA). Results: In patients with depression without anxiety,LSI, EF, LVDV, DPM, SPM, ECV, BFSD were significantly lower than those in controls, while RTM was higher than that in controls. Patients with comorbidity of depression and anxiety showed decreased LVDV, ECV, BFSD, and increased HR in comparison with the controls. The anxiety/somatization factor score positively correlated with LSI, EF, LVDV, but negatively correlated with RTM. There was negative correlation between retardation factor score and DPM, SPM, LVDV. Conclusion: The study indicated that there are noticeable changes in left ventricle preload and afterload, blood pressure, peripheral resistance, and microcirculation in depressive patients, and that the accompanying anxiety makes the changes more complicated.

  4. The Italian version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21: Factor structure and psychometric properties on community and clinical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottesi, Gioia; Ghisi, Marta; Altoè, Gianmarco; Conforti, Erica; Melli, Gabriele; Sica, Claudio

    2015-07-01

    The Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 (DASS-21) is the short version of a self-report measure that was originally developed to provide maximum differentiation between depressive and anxious symptoms. Despite encouraging evidence, the factor structure and other features of the DASS-21 are yet to be firmly established. A community sample of 417 participants and two clinical groups (32 depressive patients and 25 anxious patients) completed the Italian version of the DASS-21 along with several measures of psychopathology. Confirmatory factor analyses suggested that the DASS-21 is a measure of general distress plus three additional orthogonal dimensions (anxiety, depression, and stress). The internal consistency and temporal stability of the measure were good; each DASS-21 scale correlated more strongly with a measure of a similar construct, demonstrating good convergent and divergent validity. Lastly, the DASS-21 demonstrated good criterion-oriented validity. The validity of the Italian DASS-21 and its utility, both for community and clinical individuals, are supported. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Anhedonia in schizophrenia and major depression: state or trait?

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    Ferrari Alberto

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In schizophrenia and major depressive disorder, anhedonia (a loss of capacity to feel pleasure had differently been considered as a premorbid personological trait or as a main symptom of their clinical picture. The aims of this study were to examine the pathological features of anhedonia in schizophrenic and depressed patients, and to investigate its clinical relations with general psychopathology (negative, positive, and depressive dimensions. Methods A total of 145 patients (80 schizophrenics and 65 depressed subjects were assessed using the Physical Anhedonia Scale and the Social Anhedonia Scale (PAS and SAS, respectively, the Scales for the Assessment of Positive and Negative Symptoms (SAPS and SANS, respectively, the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenics (CDSS, and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS. The statistical analysis was performed in two steps. First, the schizophrenic and depressed samples were dichotomised into 'anhedonic' and 'normal hedonic' subgroups (according to the 'double (PAS/SAS cut-off' and were compared on the general psychopathology scores using the Mann-Whitney Z test. Subsequently, for the total schizophrenic and depressed samples, Spearman correlations were calculated to examine the relation between anhedonia ratings and the other psychopathological parameters. Results In the schizophrenic sample, anhedonia reached high significant levels only in 45% of patients (n = 36. This 'anhedonic' subgroup was distinguished by high scores in the disorganisation and negative dimensions. Positive correlations of anhedonia with disorganised and negative symptoms were also been detected. In the depressed sample, anhedonia reached high significant levels in only 36.9% of subjects (n = 24. This 'anhedonic' subgroup as distinguished by high scores in the depression severity and negative dimensions. Positive correlations of anhedonia with depressive and negative symptoms were also been detected

  6. Scoring correction for MMPI-2 Hs scale with patients experiencing a traumatic brain injury: a test of measurement invariance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkemade, Nathan; Bowden, Stephen C; Salzman, Louis

    2015-02-01

    It has been suggested that MMPI-2 scoring requires removal of some items when assessing patients after a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Gass (1991. MMPI-2 interpretation and closed head injury: A correction factor. Psychological assessment, 3, 27-31) proposed a correction procedure in line with the hypothesis that MMPI-2 endorsement may be affected by symptoms of TBI. This study assessed the validity of the Gass correction procedure. A sample of patients with a TBI (n = 242), and a random subset of the MMPI-2 normative sample (n = 1,786). The correction procedure implies a failure of measurement invariance across populations. This study examined measurement invariance of one of the MMPI-2 scales (Hs) that includes TBI correction items. A four-factor model of the MMPI-2 Hs items was defined. The factor model was found to meet the criteria for partial measurement invariance. Analysis of the change in sensitivity and specificity values implied by partial measurement invariance failed to indicate significant practical impact of partial invariance. Overall, the results support continued use of all Hs items to assess psychological well-being in patients with TBI. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Knowledge discovery and data mining in psychology: Using decision trees to predict the Sensation Seeking Scale score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Kastrin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge discovery from data is an interdisciplinary research field combining technology and knowledge from domains of statistics, databases, machine learning and artificial intelligence. Data mining is the most important part of knowledge discovery process. The objective of this paper is twofold. The first objective is to point out the qualitative shift in research methodology due to evolving knowledge discovery technology. The second objective is to introduce the technique of decision trees to psychological domain experts. We illustrate the utility of the decision trees on the prediction model of sensation seeking. Prediction of the Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS-V score was based on the bundle of Eysenck's personality traits and Pavlovian temperament properties. Predictors were operationalized on the basis of Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ and Slovenian adaptation of the Pavlovian Temperament Survey (SVTP. The standard statistical technique of multiple regression was used as a baseline method to evaluate the decision trees methodology. The multiple regression model was the most accurate model in terms of predictive accuracy. However, the decision trees could serve as a powerful general method for initial exploratory data analysis, data visualization and knowledge discovery.

  8. Association study of obstetrical complication and depressive disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the correlation between obstetrical complications and depressive disorder.Methods:Depressive disorder probands and their adult sibling were diagnosed using CCMD-3 criteria.Obstetrical data from maternal reports were scored,applying published scales that take into account number and severity of complication.Results:The scores of obstetric complication and prenatal complications and low birth weight were significantly worse in probands than siblings without depressive disorders.Conclusion:Results suggest obstetric complications are etiologically significant in depressive disorder.

  9. Validating a shortened depression scale (10 item CES-D among HIV-positive people in British Columbia, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Zhang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To establish the reliability and validity of a shortened (10-item depression scale used among HIV-positive patients enrolled in the Drug Treatment Program in British Columbia, Canada. METHODS: The 10-item CES-D (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale was examined among 563 participants who initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART between August 1, 1996 and June 30, 2002. Internal consistency of the scale was measured by Cronbach's alpha. Using the original CES-D 20 as primary criteria, comparisons were made using the Kappa statistic. Predictive accuracy of CES-D 10 was assessed by calculating sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values and negative predictive values. Factor analysis was also performed to determine if the CES-D 10 contained the same factors of positive and negative affect found in the original development of the CES-D. RESULTS: The correlation between the original and the shortened scale is very high (Spearman correlation coefficient  =0.97 (P<0.001. Internal consistency reliability coefficients of the CES-D 10 were satisfactory (Cronbach α=0.88. The CES-D 10 showed comparable accuracy to the original CES-D 20 in classifying participants with depressive symptoms (Kappa=0.82, P<0.001. Sensitivity of CES-D 10 was 91%; specificity was 92%; and positive predictive value was 92%. Factor analysis demonstrates that CES-D 10 contains the same underlying factors of positive and negative affect found in the original development of the CES-D 20. CONCLUSION: The 10-item CES-D is a comparable tool to measure depressive symptoms among HIV-positive research participants.

  10. Cross-language measurement equivalence of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D scale in systemic sclerosis: a comparison of Canadian and Dutch patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Kwakkenbos

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Increasingly, medical research involves patients who complete outcomes in different languages. This occurs in countries with more than one common language, such as Canada (French/English or the United States (Spanish/English, as well as in international multi-centre collaborations, which are utilized frequently in rare diseases such as systemic sclerosis (SSc. In order to pool or compare outcomes, instruments should be measurement equivalent (invariant across cultural or linguistic groups. This study provides an example of how to assess cross-language measurement equivalence by comparing the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D scale between English-speaking Canadian and Dutch SSc patients. METHODS: The CES-D was completed by 922 English-speaking Canadian and 213 Dutch SSc patients. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA was used to assess the factor structure in both samples. The Multiple-Indicator Multiple-Cause (MIMIC model was utilized to assess the amount of differential item functioning (DIF. RESULTS: A two-factor model (positive and negative affect showed excellent fit in both samples. Statistically significant, but small-magnitude, DIF was found for 3 of 20 items on the CES-D. The English-speaking Canadian sample endorsed more feeling-related symptoms, whereas the Dutch sample endorsed more somatic/retarded activity symptoms. The overall estimate in depression scores between English and Dutch was not influenced substantively by DIF. CONCLUSIONS: CES-D scores from English-speaking Canadian and Dutch SSc patients can be compared and pooled without concern that measurement differences may substantively influence results. The importance of assessing cross-language measurement equivalence in rheumatology studies prior to pooling outcomes obtained in different languages should be emphasized.

  11. [Analysis of depression intensification in cancer patients before and during chemotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielińska-Wieczkowska, Halina; Betłakowski, Jacek

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was a comparative analysis of depression in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy and patients during diagnostic process. An attempt was made to solve a research problem whether chemotherapy causes depression intensification in patients with a diagnosis of cancer. Cancer patients before the chemotherapy treatment (n = 77, group A) were examined first. Then a group of patients undergoing standard chemotherapy in hospital was examined (n=105, group B). The tool used was Zung Self-rating Depression Scale. Mean of self-rating depression scale was 35.20 in group B and 32.34 in group A. 93.3% of patients in group B and 92.2% of patients in group A did not have psychopathological symptoms. Mild depression was observed by 6.7% of group B patients and 6.5% of group A patients. Only one person in group A scored 80 points, which indicated severe depression. In group B education level and physical activity highly correlated with the depression scale score. In group A it was gender that significantly differentiated the self-rating depression scores. Patients undergoing chemotherapy got higher scores on the self-rating depression scale which proves that they are more liable to depression. Depression was more often observed in women, people with vocational education and patients unable to continue working.

  12. Depression and hopelessness in Turkish patients with cancer undergoing chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Sevban; Celebioglu, Ayda; Tezel, Ayfer

    2009-12-01

    This study aimed to determine the levels of depression and hopelessness of patients receiving chemotherapy. Through knowledge of the levels of hopelessness and depression in such patients, this study could contribute to the planning of nursing interventions. The study involved 101 patients with cancer who presented to the outpatient unit of a medical oncology clinic to receive outpatient chemotherapy between January and March 2006. Data on the patients' sociodemographic features, as well as their scores on the Beck Hopelessness Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory, were obtained. The patients' mean total depression score was 16.0 +/- 8.3 and their mean hopelessness score was 6.9 +/- 3.4. There was a statistically significant positive relationship between depression and hopelessness. The results indicated that depression and hopelessness were strongly and positively correlated.

  13. [Influence between early maladaptive schemas and depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, A; Jourda, B; Laros, C; Walburg, V; Callahan, S

    2011-09-01

    Early maladaptive schemas developed during childhood are relatively stable. Once activated, these early maladaptive schemas could influence reality perceptions and create cognitive distortions. Previous studies showed that early maladaptive schemas are linked to depression: early maladaptive schemas could be a risk factor for depression (Young, 2001) and a vulnerability marker for depression (Dozoïs, 2007). The main objective of the present study was to explore the influence of early maladaptive schemas on depression severity among a French adult population. One hundred and sixty-two participants (mean age 29 years; SD=13.86) were enrolled, 66 men (mean age 29 years; SD=13.65) and 106 women (mean age 30; SD=14.07). Participants were invited to complete the Young Schema Questionnaire, short version (YSQ-S1-Young 1994) and the Beck depression Inventory, 2nd version (BDI-II-Beck 1994). Fifty-six participants were randomly selected to complete a paper version of the scales, and 95 participants completed an online electronic version. Fifty-two percent of the participants were not depressed, 15% slightly depressed, 17% moderately depressed and 16% met criteria of severe depression. All 15 schemas scores were positively correlated to depression scores. Comparing schema scores and depression severity it can be noted that for severely depressed participants all schema scores were significantly higher, and six of 15 schemas were significantly higher in the case of moderate depression. In addition, three schemas (imperfection, vulnerability, fusional relation) are significantly and positively linked to depression scores, whereas one schema (everything is owed to me) appears to be a significantly negative predictor of associated depression. This study confirms results of previous research concerning the link between early maladaptive schemas and depression. What is more, the results show that the importance of these schemas increases with depression severity. The most

  14. Eleven Years of Data on the Jefferson Scale of Empathy-Medical Student Version (JSE-S): Proxy Norm Data and Tentative Cutoff Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojat, Mohammadreza; Gonnella, Joseph S

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to provide typical descriptive statistics, score distributions and percentile ranks of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy-Medical Student version (JSE-S) of male and female medical school matriculants to serve as proxy norm data and tentative cutoff scores. The participants were 2,637 students (1,336 women and 1,301 men) who matriculated at Sidney Kimmel (formerly Jefferson) Medical College between 2002 and 2012, and completed the JSE at the beginning of medical school. Information extracted from descriptive statistics, score distributions and percentile ranks for male and female matriculants were used to develop proxy norm data and tentative cutoff scores. The score distributions of the JSE tended to be moderately skewed and platykurtic. Women obtained a significantly higher mean score (116.2 ± 9.7) than men (112.3 ± 10.8) on the JSE-S (t2,635 = 9.9, p < 0.01). It was suggested that percentile ranks can be used as proxy norm data. The tentative cutoff score to identify low scorers was ≤ 95 for men and ≤ 100 for women. Our findings provide norm data and cutoff scores for admission decisions under certain conditions and for identifying students in need of enhancing their empathy. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Impact of antenatal depression on perinatal outcomes and postpartum depression in Korean women

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    Sae Kyung Choi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal prenatal mental health has been shown to be associated with adverse consequences for the mother and the child. However, studies considering the effect of prenatal depressive symptoms are lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of antenatal depressive symptoms on obstetric outcomes and to determine associations between antenatal and postpartum depressions. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective cohort study. The Edinburgh postnatal depression scale (EPDS questionnaire was completed by pregnant women receiving obstetrical care at Seoul St. Mary′s hospital in the third trimester of gestation. The electronic medical records were reviewed after delivery and perinatal outcomes were evaluated. The association between antenatal and postpartum depression was analyzed using the EPDS questionnaire, which was completed by the same women within 2 months of delivery. Results: Of the 467 participants, 26.34% (n = 123 had antenatal depressive symptoms, with EPDS scores of ≥10. There were no significant perinatal outcomes associated with antenatal depressive symptoms. During the postpartum period, 192 of the women in the initial study cohort were given the EPDS again as a follow-up. Of the 192 participants, 56 (29.17% scored >10. Spearman correlation coefficient between the antenatal and postpartum EPDS scores was 0.604, which was statistically significant (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Antenatal depression does not lead to unfavorable perinatal outcomes. However, screening for antenatal depression may be helpful to identify women at risk of postpartum depression.

  16. Large-Scale Assessment, Locally-Developed Measures, and Automated Scoring of Essays: Fishing for Red Herrings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, William

    2013-01-01

    Automated Essay Scoring (AES) has garnered a great deal of attention from the rhetoric and composition/writing studies community since the Educational Testing Service began using e-rater[R] and the "Criterion"[R] Online Writing Evaluation Service as products in scoring writing tests, and most of the responses have been negative. While the…

  17. Validade da escala de depressão do Center for Epidemiological Studies entre idosos brasileiros Validity of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale among Brazilian elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samila Sather Tavares Batistoni

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Obter validade interna, de construto e de critério para a escala Center for Epidemiological Studies - Depression, em idosos. MÉTODOS: O instrumento foi aplicado a 903 idosos residentes em Juiz de Fora, Estado de Minas Gerais, entre os anos de 2002-2003. Os resultados foram comparados com a versão brasileira da Geriatric Depression Scale, aplicado a uma subamostra de 446 respondentes. A consistência interna das duas escalas foi aferida pelo coeficiente alfa de Cronbach, calculado para os itens em sua totalidade e para os itens de cada fator obtido para o instrumento avaliado. Para avaliar a validade de construto, seus 20 itens foram submetidos à análise fatorial exploratória a fim de conhecer o padrão de variação conjunta dos itens e a variância explicada por cada fator. RESULTADOS: O instrumento revelou índices satisfatórios de validade interna (alfa=0,860, sensibilidade (74,6% e especificidade (73,6%, para nota de corte >11. Entretanto, apontou freqüência relativamente alta de falsos positivos em comparação à Geriatric Depression Scale: de 33,8% vs. 15%. A análise fatorial exploratória do instrumento gerou estrutura fatorial com três fatores: afetos negativos, dificuldades de iniciar comportamentos e afetos positivos. CONCLUSÕES: O instrumento mostrou-se psicometricamente adequado para uso entre idosos. Entretanto, estudos adicionais de natureza longitudinal e transversal, desenvolvidos em diferentes contextos, poderão esclarecer os efeitos de variáveis somáticas e situacionais sobre os resultados desse instrumento em pessoas idosas.OBJECTIVE: To obtain internal construct and criteria validity for the Center of Epidemiological Studies - Depression scale in elderly people. METHODS: The instrument was applied to 903 elderly living in a city in southeastern Brazil, between 2002 and 2003. Results were compared with the Brazilian version of the CES-D applied to a sub-sample of 446 participants. Internal consistency

  18. Adaptation to Portuguese of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS Adaptación para la lengua portuguesa de la Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS Adaptação para a língua portuguesa da Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Luís Alves Apóstolo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to adapt to Portuguese, of Portugal, the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales, a 21-item short scale (DASS 21, designed to measure depression, anxiety and stress. Method: After translation and back-translation with the help of experts, the DASS 21 was administered to patients in external psychiatry consults (N=101, and its internal consistency, construct validity and concurrent validity were measured. Results: The DASS 21 properties certify its quality to measure emotional states. The instrument reveals good internal consistency. Factorial analysis shows that the two-factor structure is more adequate. The first factor groups most of the items that theoretically assess anxiety and stress, and the second groups most of the items that assess depression, explaining, on the whole, 58.54% of total variance. The strong positive correlation between the DASS 21 and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HAD confirms the hypothesis regarding the criterion validity, however, revealing fragilities as to the divergence between theoretically different constructs.Objetivo: adaptar a la lengua portuguesa, de Portugal, la Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale, versión corta de 21 ítems, (DASS-21, que permite evaluar depresión, ansiedad y estrés. Método: Después de haber sido traducida y retrovertida, con la ayuda de peritos, la DASS-21 fue administrada a enfermos en consulta externa de psiquiatría (N=101, y fue evaluada la consistencia interna, la validez de constructo y la validez concurrente. Resultados: Las propiedades de la DASS-21 atestiguan su calidad para evaluar estados emocionales. El instrumento reveló buena consistencia interna. El análisis factorial muestra que la estructura de dos factores es la más ajustada. El primer factor agrupa la mayoría de los ítems que teóricamente evalúan ansiedad y estrés, y el segundo agrupa la mayoría de los ítems que evalúan depresión, explicando en su conjunto el 58,54% de la variaci

  19. Norms and Screening Utility of the Dutch Version of the Children's Depression Inventory in Clinical and Nonclinical Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelofs, Jeffrey; Braet, Caroline; Rood, Lea; Timbremont, Benedikte; van Vlierberghe, Leen; Goossens, Lien; van Breukelen, Gerard

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to (a) assess relationships between the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) and "DSM"-oriented depression and anxiety scales of the Youth Self Report, (b) develop reliable norms for the CDI, and (c) determine CDI cutoff scores for selecting youngsters at risk for depression and anxiety. A total of 3,073 nonclinical and…

  20. Establishing score equivalence of the Functional Independence Measure motor scale and the Barthel Index, utilising the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health and Rasch measurement theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodinger, Birgit; O'Connor, Rory J; Stucki, Gerold; Tennant, Alan

    2017-05-16

    Two widely used outcome measures to assess functioning in neurological rehabilitation are the Functional Independence Measure (FIM™) and the Barthel Index. The current study aims to establish the equivalence of the total score of the FIM™ motor scale and the Barthel Index through the application of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, and Rasch measurement theory. Secondary analysis of a large sample of patients with stroke, spinal cord injury, and multiple sclerosis, undergoing rehabilitation was conducted. All patients were assessed at the same time on both the FIM™ and the Barthel Index. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Linking Rules were used to establish conceptual coherency between the 2 scales, and the Rasch measurement model to establish an exchange of the total scores. Using the FIM™ motor scale, items from both scales linked to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health d4 Mobility or d5 Self-care chapters. Their co-calibration satisfied the assumptions of the Rasch model for each of 3 diagnostic groups. A ceiling effect was observed for the Barthel Index when contrasted against the FIM™ motor scale. Having a Rasch interval metric to transform scores between the FIM™ motor scale and Barthel Index is valuable for monitoring functioning, meta-analysis, quality audits and hospital benchmarking.

  1. Examining the Impact of Unscorable Item Responses on the Validity and Interpretability of MMPI-2/MMPI-2-RF Restructured Clinical (RC) Scale Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragon, Wendy R.; Ben-Porath, Yossef S.; Handel, Richard W.

    2012-01-01

    This article examined the impact of unscorable item responses on the psychometric validity and practical interpretability of scores on the Restructured Clinical (RC) Scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2/Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2/MMPI-2-RF). In analyses conducted with five…

  2. Measuring Small-Group Environments: A Validity Study of Scores from the Salter Environmental Type Assessment and the Group Environment Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Daniel W.; Junco, Reynol

    2007-01-01

    This concurrent validity study of Salter Environmental Type Assessment scores was conducted with the Group Environment Scale. A principal components factor analysis with varimax rotation of 191 college students' responses suggested two factors that accounted for 51% of the variance. The factor-analytic results and concurrent validity coefficients…

  3. Measuring Small-Group Environments: A Validity Study of Scores from the Salter Environmental Type Assessment and the Group Environment Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Daniel W.; Junco, Reynol

    2007-01-01

    This concurrent validity study of Salter Environmental Type Assessment scores was conducted with the Group Environment Scale. A principal components factor analysis with varimax rotation of 191 college students' responses suggested two factors that accounted for 51% of the variance. The factor-analytic results and concurrent validity coefficients…

  4. Long-Term Stability of Scores on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition in Children with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation explored the stability of scores on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV (WISC-IV) over approximately a three-year period. Previous research has suggested that some children with Learning Disabilities (LD) do not demonstrate long-term stability of intelligence. Legally, school districts are no longer required…

  5. Insomnia in relation to depression and somatic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Anzi, Freih O

    2006-08-01

    A sample of 358 Kuwaiti volunteer college students responded to the Insomnia Scale, the Somatic Symptoms Inventory, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale. The only significant sex difference was in somatic symptoms on which women had a higher mean score than the men. Correlations between scores on the Insomnia Scale and both Depression scales were .51 and .54 and for Somatic Symptoms were .53 and .61 (p < .01) among men and women, respectively. The factor analysis of the intercorrelations yielded a highly loaded general factor for Psychological Disorder in both samples.

  6. Psychometric properties of responses by clinicians and older adults to a 6-item Hebrew version of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D6)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bachner, Yaacov G; O'Rourke, Norm; Goldfracht, Margalit

    2013-01-01

    The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) is commonly used as a screening instrument, as a continuous measure of change in depressive symptoms over time, and as a means to compare the relative efficacy of treatments. Among several abridged versions, the 6-item HAM-D6 is used most widely in lar...... degree because of its good psychometric properties. The current study compares both self-report and clinician-rated versions of the Hebrew version of this scale....

  7. Standardized Total Average Toxicity Score: A Scale- and Grade-Independent Measure of Late Radiotherapy Toxicity to Facilitate Pooling of Data From Different Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, Gillian C., E-mail: gillbarnett@doctors.org.uk [University of Cambridge Department of Oncology, Oncology Centre, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Cancer Research-UK Centre for Genetic Epidemiology and Department of Oncology, Strangeways Research Laboratories, Cambridge (United Kingdom); West, Catharine M.L. [School of Cancer and Enabling Sciences, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, University of Manchester, Christie Hospital, Manchester (United Kingdom); Coles, Charlotte E. [University of Cambridge Department of Oncology, Oncology Centre, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Pharoah, Paul D.P. [Cancer Research-UK Centre for Genetic Epidemiology and Department of Oncology, Strangeways Research Laboratories, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Talbot, Christopher J. [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Elliott, Rebecca M. [School of Cancer and Enabling Sciences, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, University of Manchester, Christie Hospital, Manchester (United Kingdom); Tanteles, George A. [Department of Clinical Genetics, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Symonds, R. Paul [Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Wilkinson, Jennifer S. [University of Cambridge Department of Oncology, Oncology Centre, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Dunning, Alison M. [Cancer Research-UK Centre for Genetic Epidemiology and Department of Oncology, Strangeways Research Laboratories, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Burnet, Neil G. [University of Cambridge Department of Oncology, Oncology Centre, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Bentzen, Soren M. [University of Wisconsin, School of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Human Oncology, Madison, WI (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: The search for clinical and biologic biomarkers associated with late radiotherapy toxicity is hindered by the use of multiple and different endpoints from a variety of scoring systems, hampering comparisons across studies and pooling of data. We propose a novel metric, the Standardized Total Average Toxicity (STAT) score, to try to overcome these difficulties. Methods and Materials: STAT scores were derived for 1010 patients from the Cambridge breast intensity-modulated radiotherapy trial and 493 women from University Hospitals of Leicester. The sensitivity of the STAT score to detect differences between patient groups, stratified by factors known to influence late toxicity, was compared with that of individual endpoints. Analysis of residuals was used to quantify the effect of these covariates. Results: In the Cambridge cohort, STAT scores detected differences (p < 0.00005) between patients attributable to breast volume, surgical specimen weight, dosimetry, acute toxicity, radiation boost to tumor bed, postoperative infection, and smoking (p < 0.0002), with no loss of sensitivity over individual toxicity endpoints. Diabetes (p = 0.017), poor postoperative surgical cosmesis (p = 0.0036), use of chemotherapy (p = 0.0054), and increasing age (p = 0.041) were also associated with increased STAT score. When the Cambridge and Leicester datasets were combined, STAT was associated with smoking status (p < 0.00005), diabetes (p = 0.041), chemotherapy (p = 0.0008), and radiotherapy boost (p = 0.0001). STAT was independent of the toxicity scale used and was able to deal with missing data. There were correlations between residuals of the STAT score obtained using different toxicity scales (r > 0.86, p < 0.00005 for both datasets). Conclusions: The STAT score may be used to facilitate the analysis of overall late radiation toxicity, from multiple trials or centers, in studies of possible genetic and nongenetic determinants of radiotherapy toxicity.

  8. Routine screening for postpartum depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiopoulos, A M; Bryan, T L; Wollan, P; Yawn, B P

    2001-02-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a common and often overlooked condition. Validated screening tools for PPD exist but are not commonly used. We present the 1-year outcome of a project to implement universal PPD screening at the 6-week postpartum visit. Universal screening with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was implemented in all community postnatal care sites. One-year outcome assessments (diagnosis and treatment of PPD) were completed for a sample of the women screened using medical record review of all care they received during the first year postpartum. Sixty-eight (20%) of the 342 women whose medical records were reviewed had been given a documented diagnosis of postpartum depression, resulting in an estimated population rate of 10.7%. Depression was diagnosed in 35% of the women with elevated EPDS scores (> or =10) compared with 5% of the women with low EPDS scores (<10) in the first year postpartum. Treatment was provided for all women diagnosed with depression, including drug therapy for 49% and counseling for 78%. Four women were hospitalized for depression. Some degree of suicidal ideation was noted on the EPDS by 48 women but acknowledged in the chart of only 10 women, including 1 with an immediate hospitalization. The rate of diagnosis of postpartum depression in this community increased from 3.7% before the routine use of EPDS screening to 10.7% following screening. A high EPDS score was predictive of a diagnosis of postpartum depression, and the implementation of routine EPDS screening at 6 weeks postpartum was associated with an increase in the rate of diagnosed postpartum depression in this community.

  9. Assessment of depression in medical patients: A systematic review of the utility of the Beck Depression Inventory-II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Pang Wang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To perform a systematic review of the utility of the Beck Depression Inventory for detecting depression in medical settings, this article focuses on the revised version of the scale (Beck Depression Inventory-II, which was reformulated according to the DSM-IV criteria for major depression. We examined relevant investigations with the Beck Depression Inventory-II for measuring depression in medical settings to provide guidelines for practicing clinicians. Considering the inclusion and exclusion criteria seventy articles were retained. Validation studies of the Beck Depression Inventory-II, in both primary care and hospital settings, were found for clinics of cardiology, neurology, obstetrics, brain injury, nephrology, chronic pain, chronic fatigue, oncology, and infectious disease. The Beck Depression Inventory-II showed high reliability and good correlation with measures of depression and anxiety. Its threshold for detecting depression varied according to the type of patients, suggesting the need for adjusted cut-off points. The somatic and cognitive-affective dimension described the latent structure of the instrument. The Beck Depression Inventory-II can be easily adapted in most clinical conditions for detecting major depression and recommending an appropriate intervention. Although this scale represents a sound path for detecting depression in patients with medical conditions, the clinician should seek evidence for how to interpret the score before using the Beck Depression Inventory-II to make clinical decisions.

  10. Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory-2 restructured form (MMPI-2-RF) scale score differences in bariatric surgery candidates diagnosed with binge eating disorder versus BMI-matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Ryan J; Ben-Porath, Yossef S; Ashton, Kathleen; Heinberg, Leslie J

    2014-04-01

    Binge Eating Disorder (BED) is among the most common psychiatric disorders in bariatric surgery candidates. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) is a broadband, psychological test that includes measures of emotional and behavioral dysfunction, which have been associated with BED behaviors in bariatric surgery candidates; however these studies have lacked appropriate controls. In the current study, we compared MMPI-2-RF scale scores of bariatric surgery patients diagnosed with BED (BED+) with BMI-matched controls without BED (BED-). Three-hundred and seven BED+ participants (72.64% female and 67.87% Caucasian; mean BMI of 51.36 kg/m(2) [SD = 11.94]) were drawn from a large, database (N = 1304). Three-hundred and seven BED- participants were matched on BMI and demographics (72.64% female, 68.63% Caucasian, and mean BMI of 51.30 kg/m(2) [SD = 11.70]). The BED+ group scored significantly higher on measures of Demoralization, Low Positive Emotions, and Dysfunctional Negative Emotions and scored lower on measures of Antisocial Behaviors, reflecting behavioral constraint. Optimal T-Score cutoffs were below the traditional 65 T score for several MMPI-2-RF scales. MMPI-2-RF externalizing measures also added incrementally to differentiating between the groups beyond the Binge Eating Scale (BES). BED+ individuals produced greater elevations on a number of MMPI-2-RF internalizing scales and externalizing scales. Use of the test in conjunction with a clinical interview and other self-report data can further aid the clinician in guiding patients to appropriate treatment to optimize outcome. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. An assessment of the measurement equivalence of English and French versions of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D Scale in systemic sclerosis.

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    Vanessa C Delisle

    Full Text Available Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D Scale scores in English- and French-speaking Canadian systemic sclerosis (SSc patients are commonly pooled in analyses, but no studies have evaluated the metric equivalence of the English and French CES-D. The study objective was to examine the metric equivalence of the CES-D in English- and French-speaking SSc patients.The CES-D was completed by 1007 English-speaking and 248 French-speaking patients from the Canadian Scleroderma Research Group Registry. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA was used to assess the factor structure in both samples. The Multiple-Indicator Multiple-Cause (MIMIC model was utilized to assess differential item functioning (DIF.A two-factor model (Positive and Negative affect showed excellent fit in both samples. Statistically significant, but small-magnitude, DIF was found for 3 of 20 CES-D items, including items 3 (Blues, 10 (Fearful, and 11 (Sleep. Prior to accounting for DIF, French-speaking patients had 0.08 of a standard deviation (SD lower latent scores for the Positive factor (95% confidence interval [CI]-0.25 to 0.08 and 0.09 SD higher scores (95% CI-0.07 to 0.24 for the Negative factor than English-speaking patients. After DIF correction, there was no change on the Positive factor and a non-significant increase of 0.04 SD on the Negative factor for French-speaking patients (difference = 0.13 SD, 95% CI-0.03 to 0.28.The English and French versions of the CES-D, despite minor DIF on several items, are substantively equivalent and can be used in studies that combine data from English- and French-speaking Canadian SSc patients.

  12. The Relationship between Locomotive Syndrome and Depression in Community-Dwelling Elderly People

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    Misa Nakamura

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Locomotive syndrome (LS is a concept that refers to the condition of people requiring healthcare services because of problems associated with locomotion. Depression is a major psychiatric disease among the elderly, in addition to dementia. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between LS and depression. The study participants were 224 healthy elderly volunteers living in a rural area in Japan. LS was defined as scores ≥ 16 on the 25-question Geriatric Locomotive Function Scale (GLFS-25. Depression was defined as scores ≥ 5 on the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15. Height and body weight were measured. The prevalence of LS and depression was 13.9% and 24.2%, respectively. Compared with the non-LS group, the LS group was older, was shorter, had a higher BMI, and had higher GDS-15 scores. Logistic regression analysis showed that participants with GDS-15 scores ≥ 6 had higher odds for LS than those with GDS-15 scores < 6 (odds ratio [OR] = 4.22. Conversely, the depression group had higher GLFS-25 scores than the nondepression group. Participants with GLFS-25 scores ≥ 5 had higher odds for depression than those with GLFS-25 scores < 5 (OR = 4.53. These findings suggest that there is a close relationship between LS and depression.

  13. Possibility to predict the development of secondary depression in primary alcoholics during abstinence

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    Mandić-Gajić Gordana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The relationship between alcoholism and depression is observed in clinical trials. The factors which could predict persistence of secondary depression after alcohol withdrawal are not enough explored on admission. The differences between depressed (DA and non-depressed (NDA alcoholics regarding the degrees of severity of withdrawal, severity of depression and the intensity of cognitive dysfunctions were explored on admission to investigate possibility of prediction of the development of secondary depression in alcoholics. Methods. A group of primary male alcoholics (n=86 was recruited during inpatient treatment. After 4 weeks alcoholics were divided in the DA group (n=43 and NDA (n=43 group according to the score on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D. Clinical assessment of withdrawal, scoring on the Alcohol Dependency Severity Scale- ASD, and scoring on the Mini Mental Scale-MMSE were performed in all the participants on admission. The differences between the groups were tested by the Student's t-test. Results. The DA group showed the significantly higher severity of depression, higher levels of alcohol withdrawal symptoms and cognitive dysfunctions than the NDA group on admission. Conclusion. The specific group of depressive alcoholics was shown to be characterized by the higher severity of alcoholism and depression on admission, which could predict prolonged, secondary depression. Early detection and concurrent therapy of secondary depression could improve the treatment, and reduce the relapse of alcoholism.

  14. Validation of phone interview for follow-up in clinical trials on dyspepsia: evaluation of the Glasgow Dyspepsia Severity Score and a Likert-scale symptoms test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvet, X; Bustamante, E; Montserrat, A; Roqué, M; Campo, R; Gené, E; Brullet, E

    2000-08-01

    To validate two widely used dyspepsia scores performed by phone interview. Spanish translations of the Glasgow Dyspepsia Severity Score and a Likert-scale symptomatic test were evaluated. Responsiveness to the treatment, validity of the tests, and reproducibility of tests performed by phone interview were assessed. Gastroenterology and endoscopy unit of a county hospital. Group I consisted of 16 ulcer patients undergoing Helicobacter pylori eradication; Group II consisted of 29 healthy volunteers; and Group III consisted of 95 patients undergoing upper endoscopy. Glasgow Severity Dyspepsia Score and Likert test. Both tests showed adequate improvement (responsiveness) after H. pylori eradication. With regard to validity, the Glasgow and Likert test were significantly higher in 95 patients undergoing endoscopy than in 29 healthy controls. Analysis of reproducibility showed that intraobserver variation was low on both the Glasgow and Likert scores. No differences were found between consecutive tests regardless of whether both were performed by phone (24 patients) or one by phone and the other by clinical interview (40 patients). Interobserver variation analysis showed that the Glasgow test remained highly reproducible even when performed by different observers using different methods (clinical interview 8.83, phone 8.44, P = 0.12). By contrast, Likert-scale tests showed significant differences between observers for all symptoms except abdominal pain. (1) The Glasgow score is highly reproducible even when performed by different observers and using different methods. (2) By contrast, Likert tests show greater variability. To be reproducible in different conditions, they need to be performed by the same observer.

  15. The geriatric depression scale and the timed up and go test predict fear of falling in community-dwelling elderly women with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Bruno de Souza; Dos Anjos, Daniela Maria da Cruz; Pereira, Daniele Sirineu; Sampaio, Rosana Ferreira; Pereira, Leani Souza Máximo; Dias, Rosângela Corrêa; Kirkwood, Renata Noce

    2016-03-03

    Fear of falling is a common and potentially disabling problem among older adults. However, little is known about this condition in older adults with diabetes mellitus. The aims of this study were to investigate the impact of the fear of falling on clinical, functional and gait variables in older women with type 2 diabetes and to identify which variables could predict the fear of falling in this population. Ninety-nine community-dwelling older women with type 2 diabetes (aged 65 to 89 years) were stratified in two groups based on their Falls Efficacy Scale-International score. Participants with a score Timed Up and Go test (TUG), the five times sit-to-stand test (5-STS) and handgrip strength. Gait parameters were obtained using the GAITRite® system. Participants with a fear of falling were frailer and presented more depressive symptoms and worse performance on the TUG and 5-STS tests compared with those without a fear of falling. The group with the fear of falling also walked with a lower velocity, cadence and step length and increased step time and swing time variability. The multivariate regression analysis showed that the likelihood of having a fear of falling increased 1.34 times (OR 1.34, 95 % CI 1.11-1.61) for a one-point increase in the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) score and 1.36 times (OR 1.36, 95 % CI 1.07-1.73) for each second of increase in the TUG performance. The fear of falling in community-dwelling older women with type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with frailty, depressive symptoms and dynamic balance, functional mobility and gait deficits. Furthermore, both the GDS-15 and the TUG test predict a fear of falling in this population. Therefore, these instruments should be considered during the assessment of diabetic older women with fear of falling.

  16. Emotional intelligence (EI) as a predictor of depression status in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Sandra J; Malek-Ahmadi, Michael; Barclay, Kathleen; Fernandez, Miguel R; Chartrand, Max Stanley

    2012-01-01

    Underdeveloped recognition systems or predictors for negative consequences related to depression in the older adult put this population at a significant risk for suicide, medical illness, and poor health status. Research concerning strategies for predicting depression in the older adult population has not until recently focused on the possibility of measuring one's EI as a potential predictive factor. To address an aspect of this neglect, the present quantitative correlational study explored to what extent the total Emotional Quotient (EQ) scale score of EI predicted depression. Two self-report measures were utilized: the Geriatric Depression Scale-Short (GDS-Short), and the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory:Short (EQ-i:S). A purposive sample of 128 men and women (ages 65 and older) were recruited from local recreation centers and independent living facilities. To determine the extent to which EQ-i:S scaled score predicted depression, multiple logistic regression analysis was carried out. After accounting for age, education, and anti-depressant use, EQ-i:S scaled score had a statistically significant effect OR=0.94 (0.91, 0.97), pEQ-i:S scaled score, the risk of having depression decreased by 6%. The results indicated that increased EI has a beneficial effect in terms of current depression status. Future longitudinal research in examining EI as a predictor for depression in the older adult population is needed to substantiate and expand upon these findings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Validity of the Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale for Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Lindsey; Renno, Patricia; Storch, Eric A.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Lewin, Adam B.; Arnold, Elysse; Lin, Enjey; Wood, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    High rates of anxiety and depression are reported among youth with autism spectrum disorders. These conditions are generally assessed using measures validated for typically developing youth. Few studies have investigated their validity for autism spectrum disorders, which is crucial for accurate assessment and the provision of proper treatment.…

  18. Validity of the Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale for Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Lindsey; Renno, Patricia; Storch, Eric A.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Lewin, Adam B.; Arnold, Elysse; Lin, Enjey; Wood, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    High rates of anxiety and depression are reported among youth with autism spectrum disorders. These conditions are generally assessed using measures validated for typically developing youth. Few studies have investigated their validity for autism spectrum disorders, which is crucial for accurate assessment and the provision of proper treatment.…

  19. Emotional recognition in depressed epilepsy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Jesse G; Burton, Leslie A; Schaffer, Sarah G; Alper, Kenneth R; Devinsky, Orrin; Barr, William B

    2009-07-01

    The current study examined the relationship between emotional recognition and depression using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, Second Edition (MMPI-2), in a population with epilepsy. Participants were a mixture of surgical candidates in addition to those receiving neuropsychological testing as part of a comprehensive evaluation. Results suggested that patients with epilepsy reporting increased levels of depression (Scale D) performed better than those patients reporting low levels of depression on an index of simple facial recognition, and depression was associated with poor prosody discrimination. Further, it is notable that more than half of the present sample had significantly elevated Scale D scores. The potential effects of a mood-congruent bias and implications for social functioning in depressed patients with epilepsy are discussed.

  20. Effects of music on major depression in psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wei-Chi; Lai, Hui-Ling

    2004-10-01

    The study was to assess the effectiveness of soft music for treatment of major depressive disorder inpatients in Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. A pretest-posttest with a two-group repeated measures design was used. Patients with major depressive disorder were recruited through referred by the psychiatric physicians. Subjects listened to their choice of music for 2 weeks. Depression was measured with the Zung's Depression Scale before the study and at two weekly posttests. Using repeated measures ANCOVA, music resulted in significantly better depressive scores, as well as significantly better subscores of depression compared with controls. Depression improved weekly, indicating a cumulative dose effect. The findings provide evidence for psychiatric nurses to use soft music as an empirically based intervention for depressed inpatients.

  1. Validation of the fatigue scale for motor and cognitive functions in a danish multiple sclerosis cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oervik, M. S.; Sejbaek, T.; Penner, I. K.

    2017-01-01

    ) and a healthy control cohort (n = 147). The Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MFIS) was used as reference scale and Becks Depression Inventory-Fast Screen (BDI-FS) and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) for confounding factors. We assessed internal consistencies; convergent, divergent, and predictive validity...... positive correlations between the two fatigue scales implied high convergent validity (total scores: r = 0.851, p EDSS score; age; gender). Correcting for depression did not result in any significant adjustments of the correlations...

  2. Optimization of MRI-based scoring scales of brain injury severity in children with unilateral cerebral palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagnozzi, Alex M. [Royal Brisbane and Women' s Hospital, CSIRO Digital Productivity and Services Flagship, The Australian e-Health Research Centre, Herston, QLD (Australia); The University of Queensland, School of Medicine, Brisbane (Australia); Fiori, Simona [Stella Maris Scientific Institute, Pisa (Italy); Boyd, Roslyn N. [The University of Queensland, Queensland Cerebral Palsy and Rehabilitation Research Centre, School of Medicine, Brisbane (Australia); Guzzetta, Andrea [Stella Maris Scientific Institute, Pisa (Italy); University of Pisa, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pisa (Italy); Doecke, James; Rose, Stephen; Dowson, Nicholas [Royal Brisbane and Women' s Hospital, CSIRO Digital Productivity and Services Flagship, The Australian e-Health Research Centre, Herston, QLD (Australia); Gal, Yaniv [The University of Queensland, Centre for Medical Diagnostic Technologies in Queensland, Brisbane (Australia)

    2016-02-15

    Several scoring systems for measuring brain injury severity have been developed to standardize the classification of MRI results, which allows for the prediction of functional outcomes to help plan effective interventions for children with cerebral palsy. The aim of this study is to use statistical techniques to optimize the clinical utility of a recently proposed template-based scoring method by weighting individual anatomical scores of injury, while maintaining its simplicity by retaining only a subset of scored anatomical regions. Seventy-six children with unilateral cerebral palsy were evaluated in terms of upper limb motor function using the Assisting Hand Assessment measure and injuries visible on MRI using a semiquantitative approach. This cohort included 52 children with periventricular white matter injury and 24 with cortical and deep gray matter injuries. A subset of the template-derived cerebral regions was selected using a data-driven region selection algorithm. Linear regression was performed using this subset, with interaction effects excluded. Linear regression improved multiple correlations between MRI-based and Assisting Hand Assessment scores for both periventricular white matter (R squared increased to 0.45 from 0, P < 0.0001) and cortical and deep gray matter (0.84 from 0.44, P < 0.0001) cohorts. In both cohorts, the data-driven approach retained fewer than 8 of the 40 template-derived anatomical regions. The equal or better prediction of the clinically meaningful Assisting Hand Assessment measure using fewer anatomical regions highlights the potential of these developments to enable enhanced quantification of injury and prediction of patient motor outcome, while maintaining the clinical expediency of the scoring approach. (orig.)

  3. Validation of a cutoff for the Depression Scale of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies, Brief Version (CESD-7.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarón Salinas-Rodríguez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the Depression Scale of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies, Brief Version (CESD-7 psychometric properties in Mexican adult population, and validate a cutoff for classifying subjects according to the presence / absence of clinically significant depressive symptoms (CSDS. Materials and methods. Screening cross-sectional study with a subsample of 301 adult residents of the Morelos state in Mexico, originally interviewed for the National Survey of Health and Nutrition 2012. Sensitivity and specificity of the selected cutoff were estimated using as reference the diagnostic criteria of ICD-10 and DSM-IV. Results. The cutoff point estimated was CESD-7=9. Using the ICD-10 the sensitivity and specificity were 90.2 and 86%, and ROC was 88%. Using DSM-IV, the values were 80.4, 89.6, and 85%, respectively. Conclusions. The short version of the CESD-7 has good psychometric properties and can be used as a screening test to identify probable cases of subjects with clinically significant depressive symptoms.

  4. [Accuracy and diagnostic utility of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD) in a sample of obese Mexican patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Alvarenga, Juan Carlos; Vázquez-Velázquez, Verónica; Arcila-Martínez, Denise; Sierra-Ovando, Angel Ernesto; González-Barranco, Jorge; Salín-Pascual, Rafael J

    2002-01-01

    The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD) have been used in Mexico in drug abusers, burned patients, older people, with renal insufficiency and high-risk pregnant women. The aim of this study was to determine reproducibility and accuracy of the questionnaire in a sample of obese subjects. A group of 75 obese patients (BMI > 27) without diabetes mellitus were invited to participated in the study. Diagnosis of anxiety or depression was made by an structured interview based on the DSM-IV criteria, and they were requested to complete the HAD. All subjects were randomized for the manoeuvre sequence. Sensibility specificity, positive predictive value and negative value, and unweighted kappa coefficient (for concordance) were calculated for the two procedures. The questionnaire reproducibility was assessed buy test-retest with other 25 independent subjects. Internal validity was estimated by alpha Cronbach, Guttman and intraclass correlation coefficients. Mean age was 39.7 +/- 11.5 years and BMI 39.1 +/- 9.6. The best cut off point for anxiety was 8 points (Kappa 0.68) and for depression 7 points (Kappa 0.73). Mean age for test-retest was 39.2 +/- 14.5 years and BMI 45.3 +/- 14.6. The alpha-Cronbach was 0.84 for the first tes. and 0.86 for the second. Intraclass coefficient correlation was 0.946. The HAD is applicable for obese subjects, it is reproducible and concordant with a structured interview.

  5. Garden walking and art therapy for depression in older adults: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffrey, Ruth; Liehr, Patricia; Gregersen, Thomas; Nishioka, Reiko

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to compare garden walking (either alone or guided) with art therapy in older adults with depression. Depression was measured using the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and stories of sadness/joy. Prior to the intervention, 47% of participants had depression scores in the severe range and 53% in the mild range. At the end of the intervention, none of the participants had scores in the severe range, 89% had scores in the mild range, and 11% had scores in the normal range. Results of the GDS data using repeated measures analysis of variance indicated significant decreases in depression for all three groups from pretest to posttest. All participants, regardless of group assignment, had a lower percentage of negative-emotion word use and a higher percentage of positive-emotion word use over time. This study provides evidence for nurses wishing to guide older adults in safe, easy, and inexpensive ways to reduce depression.

  6. Acculturation, discrimination and depressive symptoms among Korean immigrants in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Kunsook Song; Park, So-Youn; Shin, Jinah; Cho, Sunhee; Park, Yeddi

    2011-02-01

    Immigrant mental health issues, especially depression in relation to discrimination and acculturation, are reported to be serious problems in the United States. The current study examines the prevalence of depressive symptoms among Korean immigrants in New York City (NYC) and its relation to self-reported discrimination and acculturation. A sample of 304 Korean immigrants residing in NYC completed a survey utilizing the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale-Korean version, Discrimination Scale, and Acculturation Stress Scale. Results indicated that 13.2% of the sample population demonstrated some symptoms of depression and that variable such as living alone, marital status, education, years in US and income impact high depression scores. Results also indicate that higher self-reported exposure to discrimination and lower self-reported language proficiency were related to higher depressive symptoms. In a regression analysis, discrimination and English language proficiency were significant predictors of depression, but acculturation stress was not significantly related to depression.

  7. Depression symptom ratings in geriatric patients with bipolar mania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajatovic, Martha; Al Jurdi, Rayan; Gildengers, Ariel; Greenberg, Rebecca L; Tenhave, Thomas; Bruce, Martha L; Mulsant, Benoit; Young, Robert C

    2011-11-01

    Given the paucity of information available regarding standardized ratings of depression symptoms in bipolar manic states, and in particular those in older adults, we explored depression ratings in symptomatic participants in a multicenter study of treatment of bipolar I disorder in late life. Baseline data was obtained from the first 100 patients enrolled in an NIMH-funded, 9-week, randomized, double-blind RCT comparing treatment with lithium or valproate in patients of age 60 years and older with Type I Bipolar mania or hypomania. This multi-site study was conducted at six academic medical centers in the United States and enrolled inpatients and outpatients with a total Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) score of 18 or greater. Depressive symptoms were evaluated with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). The criterion for at least moderate bipolar depressive symptoms was the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology (ECNP) Consensus Meeting definition of HAM-D 17 total score >20. Eleven percent of patients had mixed symptoms defined by depression scale severity according to ECNP criterion. In the overall sample, total scores on the two depression scales were highly correlated. Total YMRS scores of this mixed symptom group were similar to the remainder of the sample. These preliminary findings suggest that moderate to severe depressive symptoms occur in about one in ten bipolar manic elders. Future studies are needed to further evaluate symptom profiles, clinical correlates, and treatments for bipolar older adults with combined manic and depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Personality, depressive symptoms during pregnancy and their influence on postnatal depression in Spanish pregnant Spanish women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Marín-Morales

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyse the influence of personality factors and antenatal depressive symptomatology in postnatal depression. A prospective ex post facto design was carried out. The sample consisted of 116 women, recruited in their first trimester of pregnancy and followed up until four months postpartum. The measurement instruments used were the Edinburg Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS to assess postpartum depression, the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI to analyse personality traits and the depression subscale of the Symptoms Check List 90 (SCL-90-R to assess depressive symptomatology in the first half of pregnancy. Socio-demographic variables (age, parity, educational level, employment status, and planned pregnancy and clinical variables (neonatal Apgar score and mode of delivery were also taken into account. A positive correlation was found between postpartum depression and depressive symptomatology in the first trimester; however after the regression analysis neuroticism was the only factor that predicted postpartum depressive symptoms, explaining 24.8% of the variance. Neuroticism significantly influences psychological health during life events such as motherhood. Due to its stable condition, personality could be assessed from the beginning of pregnancy, contributing to the care of pregnant women with high scores in neuroticism, to prevent, detect and treat early postnatal depression.

  9. Factor structure of the Athens Insomnia Scale and its associations with demographic characteristics and depression in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; King, Bryan H; Chang, Yu-Ping

    2010-03-01

    The eight-item Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS-8) is an instrument that has been used frequently to assess insomnia problems. Previous research on adults has found that the AIS-8 functioned as a sole component. This study aimed to examine the prevalence rates of insomnia problems on the AIS-8, the factor structure of the AIS-8 in adolescents and its associations with demographic characteristics and depression in adolescents. A total of 8319 adolescent students (4334 girls and 3985 boys, mean age = 14.7 years, standard deviation = 1.7 years) in southern Taiwan were recruited into this study and completed the AIS-8. We performed an exploratory factor analysis to examine the factor structure of the AIS-8, and used the parallel analysis for making decisions regarding factor retention. We also used multiple regression analysis models to determine the associations between insomnia and demographic characteristics and depression. The results found that a high proportion of adolescents had insomnia problems as measured by the AIS-8. The AIS-8 was composed of two different factors when used among a large adolescent population, including insomnia symptoms (factor 1) and subjective sleep and daytime distress (factor 2). While being male, being younger, and having depression were associated positively with the severity of insomnia symptoms (factor 1), being older, living in urban areas, and having depression were associated positively with the severity of subjective sleep and daytime distress (factor 2). Clinicians and researchers should consider the different meanings of the two factors of the AIS-8 when using this tool to assess insomnia problems in adolescents.

  10. Measuring treatment and scale bias effects by linear regression in the analysis of OHI-S scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, B J

    1977-05-01

    A linear regression model is presented for estimating unbiased treatment effects from OHI-S scores. An example is given to illustrate an analysis and to compare results of an unbiased regression estimator with those based on a biased simple difference estimator.

  11. Clinical study on HAT and SEDAN score scales and related risk factors for predicting hemorrhagic transformation following thrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng WEI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the value of HAT and SEDAN score scales in predicting hemorrhagic transformation (HT following the recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA intravenous thrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke patients and risk factors affecting HT.  Methods A total of 143 patients with acute ischemic stroke underwent rt-PA intravenous thrombolysis within 4.50 h of onset and their clinical data were collected. According to head CT after thrombolysis, patients were divided into HT group (18 cases and non-HT group (125 cases. Single factor analysis was used to assess differences in HAT and SEDAN score scales and related risk factors of ischemic stroke in 2 groups, and further Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate independent predictors of HT. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was used to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of HAT and SEDAN score scales in predicting HT.  Results Univariate Logistic regression analysis showed that history of atrial fibrillation (AF, admission systolic blood pressure (SBP, admission blood glucose level, early low density of head CT, thrombolytic time window, National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS, HAT and SEDAN scores were all risk factors for HT after thrombolysis (P < 0.05, for all. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that history of AF (OR = 1.677, 95% CI: 1.332-2.111; P = 0.000, admission SBP (OR = 1.102, 95% CI: 1.009-1.204; P = 0.031, admission blood glucose level (OR = 1.870, 95% CI: 1.119-3.125; P = 0.017, thrombolysis time window (OR = 1.030, 95%CI: 1.009-1.052; P = 0.005, NIHSS score (OR = 1.574, 95%CI: 1.186-2.090; P = 0.002, HAT score (OR = 2.515, 95%CI: 1.273-4.970;P = 0.008 and SEDAN score (OR = 2.413, 95%CI: 1.123-5.185; P = 0.024 were risk factors for HT after thrombolysis. ROC curve analysis showed that HAT score could predict HT with 94.40% sensitivity and 41.60% specificity, and area under curve (AUC was 0.70. SEDAN

  12. The Nottingham Expectation and Complication score following Surgery (NECS): an universal scale for surgical outcome audit and peer comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingale, Harshal; Muquit, Samiul; Al-Helli, Othman; White, Barrie; Basu, Surajit

    2017-04-01

    Consultant Outcomes Publication (COP) is an NHS England initiative for promoting improvements in quality of care. However, at present outcomes are commonly expressed as mortality rates which do not necessarily reflect the performance of surgeons. We developed the Nottingham Expectation and Complication score following Surgery (NECS) to determine the success of surgical treatment from both the clinical perspective and the practical expectations agreed between surgeons and patients during the consent process. This was a pilot study to trial the use of the NECS score. It is a simple expression of overall outcome comprising three clinical domains: S - surgical outcome, T - surgical/technical complications and M - medical complications recorded by the treating clinician, and practical outcome determined by a joint clinical/patient assessment. 107 elective neurosurgical patients were included in this prospective study. 95 completed questionnaires were included. 75% patients achieved the best possible treatment score (S3T3M4). Of the 25% of patients who did not achieve this ideal outcome, the most common cause was either medical deterioration 18%, or technical complications of surgery discussed during the consent process 17%, or both. Surgeons rated their outcomes as expectations exceeded in 2% of cases, met in 92%, partially met in 5% and failed in 1%. Patients rated their outcomes as expectations exceeded in 37%, met in 37%, partially met in 18%, and 5% reported that their expectations were not met or they were worse than before the operation. Bivariate correlation analysis (Pearson's r coefficient) between overall 'expectation score' of patients and surgeons showed moderate correlation with r = .25 (p = .014). NECS score can be used as an indicator to assess technical performance and patient satisfaction. It provides a more balanced quality indicator of the surgical service delivery than COP. It also offers additional advantages for auditing/planning improving

  13. Hopelessness and depression levels of parents of children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostak, Melahat Akgun; Avci, Gulcan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to determine the hopelessness and depression levels of parents of children diagnosed with cancer and undergoing cancer treatment and factors affecting these levels. The study was carried out with parents of 44 children receiving treatment in a paediatric haematology clinic of a university hospital. Data were collected using a survey form, the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) and the Beck Depression Scale (BDS). The mean BDS score of the mothers and fathers was 18.3 ± 11.30 and 15.2 ± 11.33, respectively. The mean BHS score of the mothers was 6.45 ± 4.40, whereas the mean BHS score of the fathers was 5.88 ± 4.27. The results showed that the levels of hopelessness and depression among the mothers were higher than among the fathers (phopelessness and depression scores of the mothers and the fathers (phopelessness and depression scores of the fathers increased as those of the mothers increased. A weak financial situation of the family increased the hopelessness and depression levels of the fathers. The hopelessness and depression levels of the mothers who were supported by their families and relatives were decreased compared to those without such support (pdepression and hopelessness of parents of children with cancer.

  14. The Diagnostic Apathia Scale predicts the ability to return to work following depression or anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellström, Lc; Eplov, Lf; Nordentoft, M

    2014-01-01

    , tiredness/fatigue, insomnia, and reduced ability to work and engage in personal interests. The scale was analysed for psychometric validity (scalability) and for its ability to predict RTW. Finally, the predictive validity of the Diagnostic Apathia Scale regarding RTW was compared with scales measuring...

  15. A controlled trial of amitriptyline and cianopramine in major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellsop, G W; Burgess, C D; Vijayasenan, M E

    1985-01-01

    The therapeutic efficacy and adverse effects of amitriptyline and cianopramine were compared in a double-blind, randomized, flexible-dose trial in 40 patients with major depressive episodes. The two drugs were equally effective in reducing scores on the Hamilton Psychiatric Rating Scale for Depression and on a global scale. Both drugs were associated with significant adverse effects. Fewer adverse effects were associated with cianopramine, however, which lacks antimuscarinic activity.

  16. A Reconsideration of the Self-Compassion Scale's Total Score : Self-Compassion versus Self-Criticism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez Angarita, Angélica; Sanderman, Robbert; Smink, Ans; Zhang, Ying; van Sonderen, Eric; Ranchor, Adelita; Schroevers, Maya J.

    2015-01-01

    The Self-Compassion Scale (SCS) is currently the only self-report instrument to measure self-compassion. The SCS is widely used despite the limited evidence for the scale's psychometric properties, with validation studies commonly performed in college students. The current study examined the factor

  17. Efficacy of vilazodone on anxiety symptoms in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thase, Michael E; Chen, Dalei; Edwards, John; Ruth, Adam

    2014-11-01

    Anxiety symptoms are prevalent in patients with major depressive disorder. A post-hoc analysis of two phase III trials was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of vilazodone on depression-related anxiety. Using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD17) Anxiety/Somatization subscale, patients were classified as anxious or nonanxious. Improvements in depressive symptoms were based on least squares mean changes in HAMD17 and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale total scores. Anxiety symptoms in the anxious subgroup were evaluated using Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA) total and subscale (Psychic Anxiety, Somatic Anxiety) scores, HAMD17 Anxiety/Somatization subscale and item (Psychic Anxiety, Somatic Anxiety) scores, and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale Inner Tension item score. Most of the pooled study population [82.0% (708/863)] was classified with anxious depression. After 8 weeks of treatment, least squares mean differences between vilazodone and placebo for changes in HAMA total and HAMD17 Anxiety/Somatization subscale scores were -1.82 (95% confidence interval -2.81 to -0.83; Pmajor depressive disorder who exhibit somatic and/or psychic symptoms of anxiety.

  18. Relationship between Fathers' Depression and Perceived Social Support and Stress in Postpartum Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahin Kamalifard

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The evidence suggests that some men experience depression after the childbirth of their wife, and this real and unknown phenomenon will adversely affect them as well as their families. Regarding the lack of understanding about the paternal depression and its complex and multifaceted etiology, the present study was done to assess the paternal postpartum depression and its relationship with perceived stress and social support components. Methods: In this descriptive study, 205 new fathers were assessed from 6th to 12th week postpartum in seven health centers, affiliated to Shahid Beheshti University. Collected data with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, Perceived Stress Scale, and the Perceived Social Support Scale were analyzed by descriptive statistics, correlation tests and linear regression analysis. Results: 11.7% of the fathers scored 12 or above in the Edinburgh scale, which indicated depression symptom. The postnatal depression scores had a significant positive correlation with the perceived stress scores and a significant negative correlation with the perceived social support components scores. Perceived stress was key predictor of paternal postpartum depression. Perceived social support components cannot significantly predict the paternal postpartum depression.Conclusion: Assessment of paternal postpartum depression and its risk factors is recommended. Healthcare providers should pay more attention to the increasing public awareness, stress management and communication skills training, and support of fathers during the postnatal period.

  19. Efficacy of Desvenlafaxine Compared With Placebo in Major Depressive Disorder Patients by Age Group and Severity of Depression at Baseline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosca, Daniel; Zhang, Min; Prieto, Rita; Boucher, Matthieu

    2017-04-01

    This post hoc meta-analysis evaluated the efficacy and safety of desvenlafaxine 50 and 100 mg versus placebo across age groups and severity of depression at baseline in patients with major depressive disorder. Data from placebo and desvenlafaxine 50-mg and 100-mg dose arms were pooled from 9 short-term, placebo-controlled, major depressive disorder studies (N = 4279). Effects of age (18-40 years, >40 to depression severity (mild, 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression total score [HAM-D17] ≤18; moderate, HAM-D17 >18 to depression and function compared with placebo for patients 18 to 40 years, older than 40 to younger than 55 years, and 55 to younger than 65 years, with no significant evidence of an effect of age. Desvenlafaxine significantly improved most measures of depression and function in moderately and severely depressed patients. There was a significant baseline severity by treatment interaction for HAM-D17 total score only (P = 0.027), with a larger treatment effect for the severely depressed group. Desvenlafaxine significantly improved depressive symptoms in patients younger than 65 years and in patients with moderate or severe baseline depression. Sample sizes were not adequate to assess desvenlafaxine efficacy in patients 65 years or older or with mild baseline depression.

  20. Computerized adaptive measurement of depression: A simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mammen Oommen

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efficient, accurate instruments for measuring depression are increasingly important in clinical practice. We developed a computerized adaptive version of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. We examined its efficiency and its usefulness in identifying Major Depressive Episodes (MDE and in measuring depression severity. Methods Subjects were 744 participants in research studies in which each subject completed both the BDI and the SCID. In addition, 285 patients completed the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Results The adaptive BDI had an AUC as an indicator of a SCID diagnosis of MDE of 88%, equivalent to the full BDI. The adaptive BDI asked fewer questions than the full BDI (5.6 versus 21 items. The adaptive latent depression score correlated r = .92 with the BDI total score and the latent depression score correlated more highly with the Hamilton (r = .74 than the BDI total score did (r = .70. Conclusions Adaptive testing for depression may provide greatly increased efficiency without loss of accuracy in identifying MDE or in measuring depression severity.