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Sample records for depression higher positive

  1. "Thinking Positive" as a Stress Buffer: The Role of Positive Automatic Cognitions in Depression and Happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightsey, Owen Richard, Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Tested whether positive automatic thoughts (PATs) and PATs x Negative Events interaction predicted unique variance in future depression and happiness. Findings from 152 college students revealed that PATs predicted happiness, and PATs about self-worth interacted with negative events to predict depression. For higher levels of such PATs, negative…

  2. Lifetime socio-economic position and depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Bruunsgaard, Helle; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2015-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the influence of lifetime socio-economic position (SEP) on adult depression. We examined the association of SEP during the life course with depressive mood in late midlife and explored whether cognitive function at age 20, health-related behaviour and inflammatory...... biomarkers explained any associations. Methods: A cohort of 2482 Danish men born in 1953 with information from birth, and conscript board examinations was followed-up with assessment of depressive mood and blood sampling in 2010. Simple and multiple linear regression were used to investigate associations...... among variables. Results: Social circumstances during the life course were associated with depressive mood. Further, low lifetime SEP was associated with lower cognitive score, smoking, alcohol use, high body mass index (BMI) and increased level of high sensitive ProReactive Protein and Interleukin-6...

  3. Positioning Theory and Higher Education Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh; Musaeus, Peter; Petersen, Eva Bendix

    will be structured so that both newcomers and more experienced users will be able to engage. It will commence with a brief overview of the theoretical assumptions of positioning theory and of how it has been taken up in higher education studies, and a handout with a list of key references and sources will be made...

  4. Depression and Hopelessness in Secondary and Higher Education Students

    OpenAIRE

    ŞAR, Ali Haydar

    2013-01-01

    Depression and hopelessness are emotional problems which should be taken intoconsideration for secondary and higher education students in terms of development andeducation. In the research, it was tried to determine if depression and hopelessness varyaccording to education grades, gender and different departments. Beck Depression Scaleand Beck Hopelessness Scale were applied to 1050 students in order to collect data in theresearch. According to obtained results, it was concluded that secondar...

  5. Depressive Mood Induction: The Reactivity of Positive Affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zevon, Michael A.; And Others

    Mood induction procedures have been widely used as laboratory analogues of depression. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the Velten depression mood induction (VMI) procedure and a personal recall depression induction (PRI) procedure. In contrast to prior research, mood was assessed in terms of two independent dimensions: positive affect…

  6. Emotional stress-reactivity and positive affect among college students: the role of depression history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Ross E; Armeli, Stephen; Boynton, Marcella H; Tennen, Howard

    2014-02-01

    Multiple theories posit that people with a history of depression are at higher risk for a depressive episode than people who have never experienced depression, which may be partly due to differences in stress-reactivity. In addition, both the dynamic model of affect and the broaden-and-build theory suggest that stress and positive affect interact to predict negative affect, but this moderation has never been tested in the context of depression history. The current study used multilevel modeling to examine these issues among 1,549 college students with or without a history of depression. Students completed a 30-day online diary study in which they reported daily their perceived stress, positive affect, and negative affect (including depression, anxiety, and hostility). On days characterized by higher than usual stress, students with a history of depression reported greater decreases in positive affect and greater increases in depressed affect than students with no history. Furthermore, the relations between daily stress and both depressed and anxious affect were moderated by daily positive affect among students with remitted depression. These results indicate that students with a history of depression show greater stress-reactivity even when in remission, which may place them at greater risk for recurrence. These individuals may also benefit more from positive affect on higher stress days despite being less likely to experience positive affect on such days. The current findings have various implications both clinically and for research on stress, mood, and depression. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Evidence of Higher Oxidative Status in Depression and Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Grases

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We use a simple method for evaluating antioxidative status, by measuring the redox potential of urine, and correlate the findings with measures of anxiety and depression. We include 63 individuals (28 males and 35 females aged between 20 and 65 years. The validated anxiety State-Trait Anxiety Inventory questionnaire and the validated BDI (Beck Depression Inventory questionnaire were used to evaluate anxiety and depression. Antioxidative status was determined by measuring the redox potential of urine collected in standard conditions. Correlation of the antioxidant capacity of urines evaluated using the ferric ion/specific dye method or through redox potential using the platinum electrode demonstrated the suitability of this last procedure. We found that normal anxiety state values corresponded to low urine redox potentials, whereas higher anxiety states were associated with high urinary redox potential. We also found that individuals with normal BDI values had significantly lower urine redox potentials than individuals with higher BDI values.

  8. Is positive affect in pregnancy protective of postpartum depression?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Carvalho Bos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the predictive/protective role of negative affect/positive affect in late pregnancy on the outcome of postpartum depression. METHODS: A total of 491 pregnant women participated in the study. The participants were asked to fill out a series of questionnaires, which included the Profile of Mood States, the Beck Depression Inventory-II, psychosocial variables and socio-demographic characteristics and were asked to participate in a psychiatric interview. After delivery, 272 mothers participated again in the study and filled out a similar series of questionnaires. RESULTS: Negative affect was associated with more intense depressive symptomatology, more self-perceived stress, lower self-reported social support, lower quality of life and perception of having a more difficult infant. By contrast, positive affect was negatively associated with these variables. Negative affect in late pregnancy increased the likelihood of experiencing postpartum depression (DSM-IV/OR = 2.1, 95%CI = 1.3-3.4, p = .003; ICD-10/OR = 2.1, 95%CI = 1.5-3.0, p < .001, while positive affect increased the odds of not having this condition (DSM-IV/OR = 2.0, 95%CI = 1.5-2.7, p = .042. CONCLUSION: In pregnancy, negative affect was a predictor of postpartum depression, whereas positive affect showed a protective role. Future studies are required to explore whether psychotherapeutic strategies focusing on decreasing negative affect and enhancing positive affect in the last trimester of pregnancy can reduce the risk of postpartum depression.

  9. Treating depression in HIV-positive patients affects adherence

    OpenAIRE

    M Y H Moosa; F Y Jeenah

    2012-01-01

    Aim. To determine changes in adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-positive patients with depression, following treatment with an antidepressant or psychotherapy. Methods. The study was prospective, randomised and controlled. Consenting volunteers aged ≥18 years and stable on ART for ≥6 months were included in the study. Sociodemographic data were obtained, and a clinical diagnostic evaluation and the Hamilton Depression rating scale (HAMD) were performed on all subjects at en...

  10. Positive Psychology Course and Its Relationship to Well-Being, Depression, and Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodmon, Leilani B.; Middleditch, Ashlea M.; Childs, Bethany; Pietrasiuk, Stacey E.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of a positive psychology course on student well-being, depressive symptoms, and stress in a repeated measure, nonequivalent control design. As hypothesized, the positive psychology students reported higher overall happiness, life satisfaction, routes to happiness, and lower depressive…

  11. The neuroscience of positive memory deficits in depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Gerard Dillon

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Adults with unipolar depression typically show poor episodic memory for positive material, but the neuroscientific mechanisms responsible for this deficit have not been characterized. I suggest a simple hypothesis: weak memory for positive material in depression reflects disrupted communication between the mesolimbic dopamine pathway and medial temporal lobe (MTL memory systems during encoding. This proposal draws on basic research showing that dopamine release in the hippocampus is critical for the transition from early- to late-phase long-term potentiation (LTP that marks the conversion of labile, short-term memories into stable, long-term memories. Neuroimaging and pharmacological data from healthy humans paint a similar picture: activation of the mesolimbic reward circuit enhances encoding and boosts retention. Unipolar depression is characterized by anhedonia--loss of pleasure--and reward circuit dysfunction, which is believed to reflect negative effects of stress on the mesolimbic dopamine pathway. Thus, I propose that the MTL is deprived of strengthening reward signals in depressed adults and memory for positive events suffers accordingly. Although other mechanisms are important, this hypothesis holds promise as an explanation for positive memory deficits in depression.

  12. Altered monoamine and acylcarnitine metabolites in HIV-positive and HIV-negative subjects with depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassol, Edana; Misra, Vikas; Morgello, Susan; Kirk, Gregory D.; Mehta, Shruti H.; Gabuzda, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Background Depression is a frequent comorbidity in HIV infection that has been associated with worse treatment outcomes and increased mortality. Recent studies suggest that increased innate immune activation and tryptophan catabolism are associated with higher risk of depression in HIV infection and other chronic inflammatory diseases, but the mechanisms leading to depression remain poorly understood. Methods The severity of depressive symptoms was assessed by Beck Depression Inventory or Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Untargeted metabolomic profiling of plasma from 104 subjects (68 HIV-positive and 36 HIV-negative) across three independent cohorts was performed using liquid or gas chromatography followed by mass spectrometry. Cytokine profiling was by Bioplex array. Bioinformatic analysis was performed in Metaboanalyst and R. Results Decreased monoamine metabolites (phenylacetate, 4-hydroxyphenylacetate) and acylcarnitines (propionylcarnitine, isobutyrylcarnitine, isovalerylcarnitine, 2-methylbutyrylcarnitine) in plasma distinguished depressed subjects from controls in HIV-positive and HIV-negative cohorts, and these alterations correlated with the severity of depressive symptoms. In HIV-positive subjects, acylcarnitines and other markers of mitochondrial function correlated inversely with tryptophan catabolism, a marker of IFN responses, suggesting inter-relationships between inflammatory pathways, tryptophan catabolism, and metabolic alterations associated with depression. Altered metabolites mapped to pathways involved in monoamine metabolism, mitochondrial function, and inflammation, suggesting a model in which complex relationships between monoamine metabolism and mitochondrial bioenergetics contribute to biological mechanisms involved in depression that may be augmented by inflammation during HIV infection. Conclusions Integrated approaches targeting inflammation, monoamine metabolism, and mitochondrial pathways may be important for

  13. The role of positive emotion and contributions of positive psychology in depression treatment: systematic review.

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    Santos, Veruska; Paes, Flavia; Pereira, Valeska; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Silva, Adriana Cardoso; Carta, Mauro Giovanni; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Machado, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    The present study aims to conduct a systematic review of the literature by checking the impact of positive emotion in the treatment of depression and on the use of strategies of positive psychology which involves positive emotion to treat and reduce symptoms of depression. For this purpose, we conducted searches in databases ISI Web of Knowledge, PsycINFO and PubMed and found a total of 3400 studies. After inclusion application and exclusion criteria, 28 articles remained, presented and discussed in this study. The studies have important relations between humor and positive emotion as well as a significant improvement in signs and symptoms of depression using differents strategies of positive psychology. Another relevant aspect is the preventative character of the proposed interventions by positive psychology by the fact that increase well-being and produce elements such as resilience and coping resources that reduce the recurrent relapses in the treatment of depression. The strategies of positive psychology, such as increasing positive emotions, develop personal strengths: seeking direction, meaning and engagement for the day-to-day life of the patients, appear as potentially tools for the prophylaxis and treatment of depression, helping to reduce signs and symptoms as well as for prevention of relapses.

  14. Prevalence and predictors of positive screening for postpartum depression in minority parturients in the South Bronx.

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    Doe, Samfee; LoBue, Stephen; Hamaoui, Abraham; Rezai, Shadi; Henderson, Cassandra E; Mercado, Ray

    2017-04-01

    It is reported that the rates of perinatal depressive disorders are high in ethnic minority groups from non-English speaking countries. However, very few studies have compared the prevalence of positive screening for postpartum depression (PPD) in minority communities living in an inner city. The goal of this study is to determine the prevalence and the predictors of positive screening for postpartum depression in minority parturients in the South Bronx. The study is a chart review of 314 minority parturients, Black or Hispanic, screened for postpartum depression using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) tool. The overall prevalence of a positive EPDS screen among Black and Hispanic women was similar, 24.04 and 18.75%, respectively. The Black immigrant cohort had comparable positive screens with 23.81 as African Americans. Hispanic women born in the USA had the least prevalence of positive screens, 7.14%, and those who moved from the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico had a prevalence of 17.24% of positive screens. The women who immigrated from Mexico, Central America, or South America had the highest prevalence of positive screens for PPD, 32.26%. As to the socioeconomic status (SES), there was a significant increase of 27.04 vs. 13.95% (P < 0.019) in positive screens for PPD for the unemployed mothers. Overall, Black and Hispanic parturients had similar rates of positive screens for PPD. Among the Hispanic women, immigrants had higher rates of positive screens, with those from Mexico, Central, and South America as the highest. The hospital experience did not affect the rates of positive screens. Neither did the SES with one exception; those unemployed had the higher rates of positive screens.

  15. Depressive symptoms accelerate cognitive decline in amyloid-positive MCI patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brendel, Matthias; Xiong, Guoming; Delker, Andreas [University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Pogarell, Oliver [University of Munich, Department of Psychiatry, Munich (Germany); Bartenstein, Peter; Rominger, Axel [University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Munich Cluster for Systems Neurology (SyNergy), Munich (Germany); Collaboration: for the Alzheimer' s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative

    2015-04-01

    Late-life depression even in subsyndromal stages is strongly associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Furthermore, brain amyloidosis is an early biomarker in subjects who subsequently suffer from AD and can be sensitively detected by amyloid PET. Therefore, we aimed to compare amyloid load and glucose metabolism in subsyndromally depressed subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). [{sup 18}F]AV45 PET, [{sup 18}F]FDG PET and MRI were performed in 371 MCI subjects from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative Subjects were judged β-amyloid-positive (Aβ+; 206 patients) or β-amyloid-negative (Aβ-; 165 patients) according to [{sup 18}F]AV45 PET. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire depression item 4. Subjects with depressive symptoms (65 Aβ+, 41 Aβ-) were compared with their nondepressed counterparts. Conversion rates to AD were analysed (mean follow-up time 21.5 ± 9.1 months) with regard to coexisting depressive symptoms and brain amyloid load. Aβ+ depressed subjects showed large clusters with a higher amyloid load in the frontotemporal and insular cortices (p < 0.001) with coincident hypermetabolism (p < 0.001) in the frontal cortices than nondepressed subjects. Faster progression to AD was observed in subjects with depressive symptoms (p < 0.005) and in Aβ+ subjects (p < 0.001). Coincident depressive symptoms additionally shortened the conversion time in all Aβ+ subjects (p < 0.005) and to a greater extent in those with a high amyloid load (p < 0.001). Our results clearly indicate that Aβ+ MCI subjects with depressive symptoms have an elevated amyloid load together with relative hypermetabolism of connected brain areas compared with cognitively matched nondepressed individuals. MCI subjects with high amyloid load and coexistent depressive symptoms are at high risk of faster conversion to AD. (orig.)

  16. Treating depression in HIV-positive patients affects adherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Y H Moosa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine changes in adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART in HIV-positive patients with depression, following treatment with an antidepressant or psychotherapy. Methods. The study was prospective, randomised and controlled. Consenting volunteers aged ≥18 years and stable on ART for ≥6 months were included in the study. Sociodemographic data were obtained, and a clinical diagnostic evaluation and the Hamilton Depression rating scale (HAMD were performed on all subjects at entry to and at the end of the study. Participants found to be depressed were randomly assigned antidepressant treatment (20 mg citalopram or interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT (5 sessions. Medication was dispensed at each visit and patients were asked to return all unused medication to determine ART adherence. The study was approved by the University of the Witwatersrand. Results. Sixty-two HIV-positive persons receiving ART participated; 30 were not depressed (control group and 32 were depressed (patient group. No significant differences in demographic characteristics existed between the control and patient groups. Mean ART adherence at the start of the study was 99.5% (standard error (SE ±0.46 and 92.1% (SE ±1.69 in the control and patients groups, respectively. Mean ART adherence at the end of the study changed marginally in the control group (99.7%; SE ±0.46 and increased significantly in the patient group (99.5%; SE± 0.13 (p>0.05. The mean ART adherence rate of patients who received pharmacotherapy increased from 92.8% to 99.5%, and of those who received psychotherapy increased from 91.1% to 99.6% (p>0.05. There was no significant association between the increased adherence in the patient group and baseline demographic and clinical characteristics, irrespective of antidepressant therapy or IPT (p>0.05. Conclusion. Successful treatment of depression with an antidepressant or psychotherapy was associated with improved ART adherence, independent of the type

  17. Socioeconomic position predicts long-term depression trajectory: a 13-year follow-up of the GAZEL cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchior, M; Chastang, J-F; Head, J; Goldberg, M; Zins, M; Nabi, H; Younès, N

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with low socioeconomic position have high rates of depression; however, it is not clear whether this reflects higher incidence or longer persistence of disorder. Past research focused on high-risk samples, and risk factors of long-term depression in the population are less well known. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that socioeconomic position predicts depression trajectory over 13 years of follow-up in a community sample. We studied 12 650 individuals participating in the French GAZEL study. Depression was assessed by the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale in 1996, 1999, 2002, 2005 and 2008. These five assessments served to estimate longitudinal depression trajectories (no depression, decreasing depression, intermediate/increasing depression, persistent depression). Socioeconomic position was measured by occupational grade. Covariates included year of birth, marital status, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, body mass index, negative life events and preexisting psychological and non-psychological health problems. Data were analyzed using multinomial regression, separately in men and women. Overall, participants in intermediate and low occupational grades were significantly more likely than those in high grades to have an unfavorable depression trajectory and to experience persistent depression (age-adjusted ORs: respectively 1.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.16-1.70 and 2.65, 95% CI 2.04-3.45 in men, 2.48, 95% CI 1.36-4.54 and 4.53, 95% CI 2.38-8.63 in women). In multivariate models, the socioeconomic gradient in long-term depression decreased by 21-59% in men and women. Long-term depression trajectories appear to follow a socioeconomic gradient; therefore, efforts aiming to reduce the burden of depression should address the needs of the whole population rather than exclusively focus on high-risk groups.

  18. Positive parenting for positive parents: HIV/AIDS, poverty, caregiver depression, child behavior, and parenting in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachman, Jamie M; Cluver, Lucie D; Boyes, Mark E; Kuo, Caroline; Casale, Marisa

    2014-01-01

    Families affected by HIV/AIDS in the developing world experience higher risks of psychosocial problems than nonaffected families. Positive parenting behavior may buffer against the negative impact of child AIDS-orphanhood and caregiver AIDS-sickness on child well-being. Although there is substantial literature regarding the predictors of parenting behavior in Western populations, there is insufficient evidence on HIV/AIDS as a risk factor for poor parenting in low- and middle-income countries. This paper examines the relationship between HIV/AIDS and positive parenting by comparing HIV/AIDS-affected and nonaffected caregiver-child dyads (n=2477) from a cross-sectional survey in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa (27.7% AIDS-ill caregivers; 7.4% child AIDS-orphanhood). Multiple mediation analyses tested an ecological model with poverty, caregiver depression, perceived social support, and child behavior problems as potential mediators of the association of HIV/AIDS with positive parenting. Results indicate that familial HIV/AIDS's association to reduced positive parenting was consistent with mediation by poverty, caregiver depression, and child behavior problems. Parenting interventions that situate positive parenting within a wider ecological framework by improving child behavior problems and caregiver depression may buffer against risks for poor child mental and physical health outcomes in families affected by HIV/AIDS and poverty.

  19. Depressed adolescents' positive and negative use of social media.

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    Radovic, Ana; Gmelin, Theresa; Stein, Bradley D; Miller, Elizabeth

    2017-02-01

    This qualitative study examined descriptions of social media use among 23 adolescents (18 female, 5 male) who were diagnosed with depression to explore how social media use may influence and be influenced by psychological distress. Adolescents described both positive and negative use of social media. Positive use included searching for positive content (i.e. for entertainment, humor, content creation) or for social connection. Negative use included sharing risky behaviors, cyberbullying, and for making self-denigrating comparisons with others. Adolescents described three types of use in further detail including "oversharing" (sharing updates at a high frequency or too much personal information), "stressed posting" (sharing negative updates with a social network), and encountering "triggering posts." In the context of treatment, these adolescents shifted their social media use patterns from what they perceived as negative to more positive use. Implications for clinicians counseling depressed adolescents on social media use are discussed. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Positive life events, attributional style, and hopefulness: testing a model of recovery from depression.

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    Needles, D J; Abramson, L Y

    1990-05-01

    A model of a recovery process from depression that is compatible with the hopelessness theory of depressive onset is proposed. This model predicts that depressives who have an enhancing attributional style for positive events (i.e., make global, stable attributions for such events) will be more likely to regain hopefulness and, thereby, recover from depression, when positive events occur. This prediction was tested by following a group of depressed college students longitudinally for 6 weeks. Although neither positive events alone nor attributional style alone predicted reduction in hopelessness, depressives who both showed the enhancing attributional style for positive events and experienced more positive events showed dramatic reductions in hopelessness which were accompanied by remission of depressive symptoms. Thus, attributional style for positive events may be a factor that enables some depressives to recover when positive events occur in their lives.

  1. Adolescent romance and depressive symptoms: the moderating effects of positive coping and perceived friendship competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwedo, David E; Chango, Joanna M; Allen, Joseph P

    2015-01-01

    Youths' ability to positively cope with negative emotions and their self-perceived friendship competence were examined as potential moderators of links between multiple aspects of romantic relationships and residualized increases in depressive symptoms from late adolescence into early adulthood. Participants included 184 teens (46% male; 42% non-White) assessed at ages 15 to 19 and 21, as well as a subsample of 62 romantic partners of participants assessed when teens were 18. Results of hierarchical linear regressions showed that positive coping served as a buffer against depressive symptoms for romantically involved adolescents and also for teens receiving more intense emotional support from their romantic partners, but not for youth whose relationship had ended and had not been replaced by a new relationship. Higher perceived friendship competence served as a buffer against depressive symptoms for youth enduring the dissolution and nonreplacement of their romantic relationship. Greater use of positive coping skills and higher perceived friendship competence may help protect adolescents from depressive symptoms in different types of romantic experiences.

  2. On Widening Participation in Higher Education through Positive Discrimination

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    Clayton, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Notwithstanding an ongoing concern about the low representation of certain groups in higher education, there is reluctance on the part of politicians and policy makers to adopt positive discrimination as an appropriate means of widening participation. This article offers an account of the different objections to positive discrimination and,…

  3. On Widening Participation in Higher Education through Positive Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Notwithstanding an ongoing concern about the low representation of certain groups in higher education, there is reluctance on the part of politicians and policy makers to adopt positive discrimination as an appropriate means of widening participation. This article offers an account of the different objections to positive discrimination and,…

  4. Don't worry, be happy: The role of positive emotionality and adaptive emotion regulation strategies for youth depressive symptoms.

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    Van Beveren, Marie-Lotte; Harding, Kaitlin; Beyers, Wim; Braet, Caroline

    2017-08-21

    Low positive emotionality (PE) represents a temperamental vulnerability to depression in youth. Until now, little research has examined the mechanisms linking PE to depressive symptoms. Starting from integrated cognitive-affective models of depression, we aimed to study adaptive emotion regulation (ER) as a key underlying mechanism in the temperament-depression relationship. This study investigated whether adaptive ER strategies mediate the association between PE and depressive symptoms in a large community-based sample of youth, using a cross-sectional design. Participants were 1,655 youth (54% girls; 7-16 years, M = 11.41, SD = 1.88) who filled out a set of questionnaires assessing temperament, adaptive ER strategies, and depressive symptoms. Results revealed that low PE was significantly related to higher depressive symptoms among youth and that a lack of total adaptive ER abilities mediated this relationship. More specifically, the infrequent use of problem-solving appeared to be of significant importance. Problems in positive refocusing and a deficient use of forgetting mediated the relationships between low PE and high negative emotionality (NE) in predicting depressive symptoms. Reappraisal and distraction were not significant mediators. Results highlight the need to account for temperamental PE and adaptive ER strategies when studying youth depression. The findings contribute to a more nuanced understanding on the differential role of temperamental risk factors for developing depressive symptoms at an early stage and advocate for greater attention to adaptive ER strategies. Clinical interventions for youth depression may be improved by incorporating adaptive emotion regulation (ER) strategies and enhancing positive emotions. Youth low in positive emotionality (PE) may especially benefit from learning adaptive ER skills. Clinical practitioners should focus on alleviating negative emotions and enhancing positive emotions, especially among youth low in PE

  5. Higher Education Sustainability Officer Position and Salary Survey

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    Matson, Laura

    2008-01-01

    More and more institutions of higher education are hiring sustainability officers to manage and coordinate their sustainability initiatives. To promote greater understanding of this emerging career field, AASHE conducted a survey of campus sustainability officers. The "Higher Education Sustainability Officer Position" and "Salary…

  6. Changes in depression in a cohort of Danish HIV-positive individuals: time for routine screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodkjaer, Lotte; Laursen, Tinne; Christensen, Nils B

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to follow a cohort of HIV-positive individuals for 3 years in order to assess changes in depression, adherence, unsafe sex and emotional strains from living with HIV. Methods: Participants were assessed for depression, adherence, emotional strain and unsafe sex...... via a questionnaire. The Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI) was used to assess the prevalence and severity of depressive symptoms. Patients with a BDI score of 20 or above (moderate to major depression) were offered a clinical evaluation by a consultant psychiatrist. Results: In 2005, 205 HIV......-positive individuals participated in the study. Symptoms of depression (BDI >14) were observed in 77 (38%) and major depression (BDI ≥20) in 53 (26%) individuals. In 2008, 148 participants were retested (72% of original sample). Depression (BDI >14) was observed in 38 (26%) and symptoms of major depression (BDI ≥20...

  7. Eating and Psychological Profiles of Women with Higher Depressive Symptoms Who Are Trying to Lose Weight

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    C. Bégin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine whether women with higher depressive symptoms differed from women with lower depressive symptoms on early weight-loss, eating behaviors and psychological profiles. Among a sample of 45 overweight/obese women who had undertaken a self-initiated weight-loss attempt, two groups were formed based on scores from the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II, one with lower depressive symptoms (BDI-II < 10; n=21 and one with higher depressive symptoms (BDI ≥ 10; n=24. Even if some women in the higher depressive symptom group did not reach the clinical cut-off for depression (BDI = 14, this group tended to lose less weight in the first two months of their weight-loss attempt and to show a more disturbed eating and psychological profile compared to the group with lower depressive symptoms. In addition, among women with higher depressive symptoms, eating and psychological variables were systematically related to one another whereas these variables were not related among the other group. Results highlight the relevance of considering the presence of depressive symptoms as a marker of clinical severity among the overweight/obese population, and suggest that the BDI-II could be an interesting screening instrument to identify this particular subgroup.

  8. Comparing the acceptability of a positive psychology intervention versus a cognitive behavioural therapy for clinical depression.

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    Lopez-Gomez, Irene; Chaves, Covadonga; Hervas, Gonzalo; Vazquez, Carmelo

    2017-09-01

    There is growing evidence on the efficacy of positive psychology interventions (PPI) to treat clinical disorders. However, very few studies have addressed their acceptability. The present study aimed to analyse 2 key components of acceptability (i.e., client satisfaction and adherence to treatment) of a new PPI programme, the Integrative Positive Psychological Intervention for Depression (IPPI-D), in comparison to a standard cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) programme in the treatment of clinical depression. One hundred twenty-eight women with a DSM-IV diagnosis of major depression or dysthymia were allocated to a 10-session IPPI-D or CBT group intervention condition. Results showed that both interventions were highly acceptable for participants. Attendance rates were high, and there were no significant differences between conditions. However, the IPPI-D condition showed significantly higher client satisfaction than the CBT condition. Moreover, acceptability did not differ based on participants' severity of symptoms, regardless of condition. These findings encourage further investigations of the applicability of PPI in clinical settings in order to broaden the range of acceptable and suitable therapies for depressed patients. Key Practitioner Message This study sheds light on the client satisfaction and adherence to a positive intervention. For participants, positive psychology interventions (PPI) may be more satisfactory than CBT as PPI are framed within a positive mental health model and, consequently, may reduce the risk of stigmatization Because acceptability of treatments and preferences may affect the efficacy of treatments, this study provides an excellent opportunity to offer professionals more therapeutic options to tailor treatments to clients' needs and expectations. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Diabetes Risk May Be Higher for HIV-Positive Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español You Are Here: Home → Latest Health News → Article URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163344.html Diabetes Risk May Be Higher for HIV-Positive Adults Longer survival with the virus might ...

  10. Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouwer, Frans

    2017-01-01

    There is ample evidence that depression is000  a common comorbid health issue in people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Reviews have also concluded that depression in diabetes is associated with higher HbA1c levels, less optimal self-care behaviours, lower quality of life, incident vascular...... complications and higher mortality rates. However, longitudinal studies into the course of depression in people with type 1 diabetes remain scarce. In this issue of Diabetologia, Kampling and colleagues (doi: 10.1007/s00125-016-4123-0 ) report the 5 year trajectories of depression in adults with newly diagnosed...... type 1 diabetes (mean age, 28 years). Their baseline results showed that shortly after the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes a major depressive episode was diagnosed in approximately 6% of participants, while 8% suffered from an anxiety disorder. The longitudinal depression data showed that, in a 5 year...

  11. Race, life course socioeconomic position, racial discrimination, depressive symptoms and self-rated health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Darrell L; Puterman, Eli; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Matthews, Karen A; Adler, Nancy E

    2013-11-01

    Greater levels of socioeconomic position (SEP) are generally associated with better health. However results from previous studies vary across race/ethnicity and health outcomes. Further, the majority of previous studies do not account for the effects of life course SEP on health nor the effects of racial discrimination, which could moderate the effects of SEP on health. Using data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, we examined the relationship between a life course SEP measure on depressive symptoms and self-rated health. A life course SEP was constructed for each participant, using a framework that included parental education and occupation along with respondents' highest level of education and occupation. Interaction terms were created between life course SEP and racial discrimination to determine whether the association between SEP and health was moderated by experiences of racial discrimination. Analyses revealed that higher levels of life course SEP were inversely related to depressive symptoms. Greater life course SEP was positively associated with favorable self-rated health. Racial discrimination was associated with more depressive symptoms and poorer self-rated health. Analyses indicated a significant interaction between life course SEP and racial discrimination on depressive symptoms in the full sample. This suggested that for respondents with greater levels of SEP, racial discrimination was associated with reports of more depressive symptoms. Future research efforts should be made to examine whether individuals' perceptions and experiences of racial discrimination at the interpersonal and structural levels limits their ability to acquire human capital as well as their advancement in education and occupational status. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Updating Positive and Negative Stimuli in Working Memory in Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levens, Sara M.; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2010-01-01

    Difficulties in the ability to update stimuli in working memory (WM) may underlie the problems with regulating emotions that lead to the development and perpetuation of mood disorders such as depression. To examine the ability to update affective material in WM, the authors had diagnosed depressed and never-disordered control participants perform…

  13. Factors Related to Depression among Higher Income Mothers with Young Children in Day Care Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Jay

    1994-01-01

    Examined the association between maternal depression, maternal separation anxiety, social support, and maternal involvement in the day-care center among 54 upper-income mothers and their infants. Found that higher levels of maternal involvement in day care were associated with lower levels of maternal depression. (MDM)

  14. Low socioeconomic position and depression persistence: longitudinal results from the GAZEL cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchior, Maria; Chastang, Jean-François; Leclerc, Annette; Ribet, Céline; Rouillon, Frédéric

    2010-05-15

    Research examining the association between socioeconomic position and depression course has yielded inconsistent results. We tested the association between low socioeconomic position and 7-year depression persistence among 298 community-based individuals with depression (subset of the GAZEL cohort study based in France). Data were analyzed using Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE models). Low socioeconomic position predicted depression persistence (men: low vs. intermediate/high income: OR: 2.52, 95% CI 1.28-4.95; women: low vs. intermediate/high occupational grade: OR: 2.25, 95% CI 1.06-4.80). These associations were reduced and became statistically nonsignificant after controlling for baseline sociodemographic characteristics and stressful life events (men and women), overall health (men), and the severity of mental health difficulties (men and women). Overall, depressed individuals with low socioeconomic position appear disproportionately likely to experience multiple risk factors of long-term depression.

  15. Depression, anxiety and stress among higher secondary school students of Imphal, Manipur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Sathish Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescence is a stressful period due to physical, psychological, sexual changes, and the presence of psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety, and stress at this stage of life is a matter of concern. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalences of depression, anxiety, and stress among higher secondary school students of Imphal and to determine the association between depression, anxiety, and stress and selected variables such as gender, standard, and religion. Materials and methods: From September 2014 to October 2014, a cross-sectional study was conducted among higher secondary school students of Imphal. The sample size was calculated to be 750. Seven schools were randomly selected, and all the students in that school were enrolled in the study. The study tool used was a questionnaire containing DASS (Depression Anxiety Stress Scale and sociodemographic characteristics. Results: The prevalences of depression, anxiety, and stress among 830 valid respondents were 19.5%, 24.4%, and 21.1%, respectively. In total, 81.6% of the respondents had at least one of the studied disorders and 34.7% of the respondents had all the three negative states. The prevalences of depression, anxiety, and stress were high among females and were significant for anxiety (P = 0.00 and stress (P = 0.04. The prevalences of depression and stress were significantly higher among 12th standard students with P-values of 0.00 and 0.02. Conclusion: The prevalences of depression, anxiety, and stress were high with anxiety and stress significantly higher among females, whereas prevalences of depression and stress were significantly higher among 12th standard students. More studies are recommended to determine the factors leading to these mental disorders.

  16. Factors associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms among international university students in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Romeo B; Maria, Madelene Sta; Estanislao, Susana; Rodriguez, Cristina

    2013-11-01

    Over the years, the number of international university students has been increasing in the Philippines. Depression tends to be common among this demographic sector, because of the varying challenges and expectations associated with studying abroad. Depression can be prevented if its symptoms, particularly those at higher levels, are identified and addressed early and effectively. This survey examined the social and demographic factors that are significantly associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms. One hundred twenty-six international university students were interviewed using the University Students Depression Inventory. Of the 13 factors analyzed, 3 were found with statistically significant associations with more intense levels of depressive symptoms. These factors were: level of satisfaction with one's financial condition, level of closeness with parents, and level of closeness with peers. In identifying international students with greater risk for depression, characteristics related to their financial condition and primary group relationships can be considered. There is a need to carry out more studies to confirm this initial evidence. The findings can help guide further discourse, research and program to benefit international students with higher levels of depressive symptoms.

  17. Positive and negative relationship between anxiety and depression of patients in pain: a bifactor model analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingdan Xie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The relationship between anxiety and depression in pain patients has not been clarified comprehensively. Previous research has identified a common factor in anxiety and depression, which may explain why depression and anxiety are strongly correlated. However, the specific clinical features of anxiety and depression seem to pull in opposite directions. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to develop a statistical model of depression and anxiety, based on data from pain patients using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. This model should account for the positive correlation between depression and anxiety in terms of a general factor and also demonstrate a latent negative correlation between the specific factors underlying depression and anxiety. METHODS: The anxiety and depression symptoms of pain patients were evaluated using the HADS and the severity of their pain was assessed with the visual analogue scale (VAS. We developed a hierarchical model of the data using an IRT method called bifactor analysis. In addition, we tested this hierarchical model with model fit comparisons with unidimensional, bidimensional, and tridimensional models. The correlations among anxiety, depression, and pain severity were compared, based on both the bidimensional model and our hierarchical model. RESULTS: The bidimensional model analysis found that there was a large positive correlation between anxiety and depression (r = 0.638, and both scores were significantly positively correlated with pain severity. After extracting general factor of distress using bifactor analysis, the specific factors underlying anxiety and depression were weakly but significantly negatively correlated (r = -0.245 and only the general factor was significantly correlated with pain severity. Compared with the three first-order models, the bifactor hierarchical model had the best model fit. CONCLUSION: Our results support the hypothesis that apart from distress

  18. Depressive symptoms mediate the association between fear of crime and higher body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodjebacheva, Gergana; Koleilat, Maria; Kruger, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    To investigate pathways in the association between fear of crime and obesity. A cross-sectional survey was administered among residents aged 18 years and older across all Census tracts. Genesee County, Michigan. A total of 3192 residents. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated by using the respondents' reported height and weight. Composite fear-of-crime and depressive symptoms scores were calculated by using several survey items. ANALYSIS . Path analysis examined the effects of fear of crime on BMI. RESULTS . Fear of crime was associated with higher BMI. Depressive symptoms mediated the relationship between fear of crime and BMI (p < .001). Moderate exercise mediated the association between depressive symptoms and BMI (p < .001). Fear of crime was associated with depressive symptoms, which in turn were associated with reduced exercise and subsequently higher BMI.

  19. Positive Psychology Intervention to Alleviate Child Depression and Increase Life Satisfaction: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Sylvia Y. C. L.; Gu, Minmin; Kit, Katrina Tong Kai

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The study aims to examine the effectiveness of a positive psychology group-based intervention program, incorporating elements of hope and gratitude, in decreasing depression and increasing life satisfaction among primary school students in Hong Kong. Method: A total of 68 children, with the Depression score of Chinese Hospital Anxiety and…

  20. Positive Psychology Intervention to Alleviate Child Depression and Increase Life Satisfaction: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Sylvia Y. C. L.; Gu, Minmin; Kit, Katrina Tong Kai

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The study aims to examine the effectiveness of a positive psychology group-based intervention program, incorporating elements of hope and gratitude, in decreasing depression and increasing life satisfaction among primary school students in Hong Kong. Method: A total of 68 children, with the Depression score of Chinese Hospital Anxiety and…

  1. Depression care and prevalence in HIV-positive individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Ownby, Raymond

    2010-01-01

    Raymond L Ownby1, Robin J Jacobs1, Drenna Waldrop-Valverde2, Felicia Gould21Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine, Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, USA; 2Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, USAAbstract: Depression is among the most common neuropsychiatric disturbances seen in ­individuals with HIV infection. Associated with sad mood, disturbed sleep and appetite, and low ener...

  2. Depression and Anxiety Following Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Are Associated With Higher Six-Month Unemployment Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Yassin, Altaib; Ouyang, Bichun; Temes, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Although survival has dramatically improved following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), the reasons for persistent high rates of unemployment in this population remain unknown. Retrospective review for medical records of patients with aSAH admitted to Rush University Medical Center was undertaken. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to test the association of either depression or anxiety with the 6-month employment status. Among the 29 patients who developed depression or anxiety, 86.2% were unemployed at 6 months following their aSAH. After controlling for confounding factors, anxiety and depression were significantly associated with higher 6-month unemployment rates (odds ratio [OR]=0.08, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.02-0.3, p=0.0002). Depression and anxiety are common following aSAH and are associated with increased unemployment rates 6 months post aSAH.

  3. Positive and negative family emotional climate differentially predict youth anxiety and depression via distinct affective pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebbe, Aaron M; Bell, Debora J

    2014-08-01

    A socioaffective specificity model was tested in which positive and negative affect differentially mediated relations of family emotional climate to youth internalizing symptoms. Participants were 134 7(th)-9(th) grade adolescents (65 girls; 86 % Caucasian) and mothers who completed measures of emotion-related family processes, experienced affect, anxiety, and depression. Results suggested that a family environment characterized by maternal psychological control and family negative emotion expressiveness predicted greater anxiety and depression, and was mediated by experienced negative affect. Conversely, a family emotional environment characterized by low maternal warmth and low positive emotion expressiveness predicted only depression, and was mediated through lowered experienced positive affect. This study synthesizes a theoretical model of typical family emotion socialization with an extant affect-based model of shared and unique aspects of anxiety and depression symptom expression.

  4. C’mon Get Happy: Reduced Magnitude and Duration of Response During a Positive Affect Induction in Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Michelle S.; Siegle, Greg J.; Schwartz, Robert M.; Price, Rebecca B.; Haggerty, Agnes E.; Collier, Amanda; Friedman, Edward S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Depression involves decreased positive affect. Whether this is due to a failure to achieve or maintain positive emotion in response to discrete stimuli is unclear. Understanding the nature of decreased positive affect could help to address how to intervene on the phenomenon, e.g., how to structure interventions using positive and rewarding stimuli in depression. Thus, we examined the time course of affect following exposure to positive stimuli in depressed and healthy individuals. Methods Seventy-one adults with major depressive disorder and 34 never-depressed controls read a self-generated highly positive script and continuously rated their affect for seven minutes. Results Both groups quickly achieved increased positive affect, however, compared to controls, depressed participants did not achieve the same level of positive affect, did not maintain their positive affect, spent less time rating their affect as happy, and demonstrated larger drops in mood. Conclusions These data indicate that depressed and non-depressed individuals can generate positive reactions to happy scripts, but depressed individuals cannot achieve or sustain equivalent levels of positive affect. Interventions for depression might fruitfully focus on increasing depressed individuals’ ability to maintain initial engagement with positive stimuli over a sustained period of time. PMID:24643964

  5. Overgeneral autobiographical memory predicts higher prospective levels of depressive symptoms and intrusions in borderline patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Broeck, Kris; Pieters, Guido; Claes, Laurence; Berens, Ann; Raes, Filip

    2016-11-01

    Overgeneral memory (OGM), the tendency to retrieve categories of events from autobiographical memory instead of single events, is found to be a reliable predictor for future mood disturbances and post-traumatic symptom severity. Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) often report co-morbid episodes of major depressive disorder (MDD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Therefore, we investigated whether OGM would predict depression severity and (post-traumatic) stress symptoms in BPD patients. At admission (N = 54) and at six-month follow-up (N ≥ 31), BPD patients completed the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders, the Assessment of DSM-IV Personality Disorders, the Autobiographical Memory Test, the Beck Depression Inventory-2nd edition (BDI-II), and the Impact of Event Scale. OGM at baseline predicted (a) higher levels of depressive symptoms at follow-up and (b) more intrusions related to a stressful event over and above baseline levels of borderline symptoms, depressive symptoms, and intrusions, respectively. No association was found between memory specificity and event-related avoidance at follow-up. Despite previous findings suggesting that OGM in BPD is less robust than in MDD and PTSD, our results suggest that memory specificity in BPD patients may have some relevance for the course of depressive and stress symptomatology in BPD.

  6. Higher cognitive ability buffers stress-related depressive symptoms in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riglin, Lucy; Collishaw, Stephan; Shelton, Katherine H; McManus, I C; Ng-Knight, Terry; Sellers, Ruth; Thapar, Ajay K; Frederickson, Norah; Rice, Frances

    2016-02-01

    Stress has been shown to have a causal effect on risk for depression. We investigated the role of cognitive ability as a moderator of the effect of stressful life events on depressive symptoms and whether this varied by gender. Data were analyzed in two adolescent data sets: one representative community sample aged 11-12 years (n = 460) and one at increased familial risk of depression aged 9-17 years (n = 335). In both data sets, a three-way interaction was found whereby for girls, but not boys, higher cognitive ability buffered the association between stress and greater depressive symptoms. The interaction was replicated when the outcome was a diagnosis of major depressive disorder. This buffering effect in girls was not attributable to coping efficacy. However, a small proportion of the variance was accounted for by sensitivity to environmental stressors. Results suggest that this moderating effect of cognitive ability in girls is largely attributable to greater available resources for cognitive operations that offer protection against stress-induced reductions in cognitive processing and cognitive control which in turn reduces the likelihood of depressive symptomatology.

  7. Depressants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Depressants KidsHealth > For Teens > Depressants A A A What's ... How Can Someone Quit? Avoiding Depressants What Are Depressants? Depressants are drugs that calm nerves and relax ...

  8. The Bad Old Days: How Higher Education Fared during the Great Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrecker, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    It is hard to predict exactly how academe should respond to the most serious economic crisis since the 1930s. In this article, the author suggests the possibility of assessing some possible options by looking at how higher education fared during the Great Depression. After all, despite its enormous growth since World War II, academe's…

  9. Delivering happiness: translating positive psychology intervention research for treating major and minor depressive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layous, Kristin; Chancellor, Joseph; Lyubomirsky, Sonja; Wang, Lihong; Doraiswamy, P Murali

    2011-08-01

    Despite the availability of many treatment options, depressive disorders remain a global public health problem. Even in affluent nations, 70% of reported cases either do not receive the recommended level of treatment or do not get treated at all, and this percentage does not reflect cases of depression that go unreported due to lack of access to health care, stigma, or other reasons. In developing countries, the World Health Organization estimates that <10% receive proper depression care due to poverty, stigma, and lack of governmental mental health resources and providers. Current treatments do not work for everyone, and even people who achieve remission face a high risk of recurrence and residual disability. The development of low-cost effective interventions that can serve either as initial therapy for mild symptoms or as adjunctive therapy for partial responders to medication is an immense unmet need. Positive activity interventions (PAIs) teach individuals ways to increase their positive thinking, positive affect, and positive behaviors. The majority of such interventions, which have obtained medium-size effect sizes, have been conducted with nondepressed individuals, but two randomized controlled studies in patients with mild clinical depression have reported promising initial findings. In this article, the authors review the relevant literature on the effectiveness of various types of PAIs, draw on social psychology, affective neuroscience and psychophamacology research to propose neural models for how PAIs might relieve depression, and discuss the steps needed to translate the potential promise of PAIs as clinical treatments for individuals with major and minor depressive disorders.

  10. Positive Solutions for Higher Order Singular -Laplacian Boundary Value Problems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Guoliang Shi; Junhong Zhang

    2008-05-01

    This paper investigates $2m-\\mathrm{th}(m≥ 2)$ order singular -Laplacian boundary value problems, and obtains the necessary and sufficient conditions for existence of positive solutions for sublinear 2-th order singular -Laplacian BVPs on closed interval.

  11. Adequacy of Mental Health Services for HIV-Positive Patients with Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Stephanie K Y; Boyle, Eleanor; Cairney, John;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Major depression can profoundly impact clinical and quality-of-life outcomes of people living with HIV, and this disease is underdiagnosed and undertreated in many HIV-positive individuals. Here, we describe the prevalence of publicly funded primary and secondary mental health service...... use and antidepressant use, as well as mental health care for depression in accordance with existing Canadian guidelines for HIV-positive patients with depression in Ontario, Canada. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study linking data from the Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study...... with depression, 493 (50%) patients used mental health services; 182 (18%) used primary services (general practitioners); 176 (18%) used secondary services (psychiatrists); and 135 (14%) used both. Antidepressants were used by 407 (39%) patients. Patients who identified as gay, lesbian, or bisexual, as having low...

  12. Positive Association Between Posterior Subgenual Cingulate and Pituitary Volumes in Psychotic Major Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantina Vassilopoulou

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Posterior subgenual cingulate cortex has been consistently linked with the pathophysiology of major depression in both structural and functional brain imaging studies. Likewise, the hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in major depression is well established, especially in its psychotic subtype. Moreover, posterior subgenual cingulate cortex exerts an inhibitory effect on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. While studies show pituitary volume to be a valid marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, none have investigated the volumetric relationships between posterior subgenual cingulate cortex and pituitary volume in subtypes of major depressive disorder, which was precisely the aim of our study. We hypothesized a differential volumetric relationship in psychotic depression. We assessed posterior subgenual cingulate and pituitary volume using Magnetic Resonance Imaging scanning and investigated their volumetric relationships in 39 patients with major depressive disorder (17 psychotic and 22 melancholic and 18 normal controls. We found strong positive correlations between both left and right posterior subgenual volumes and pituitary volume only in the psychotic depression group (left: rs=0.77, p<0.001, right: rs=0.67, p=0.003. These positive associations were confirmed by regression analyses controlling for patient’s age and type of medications. By contrast, no significant volumetric associations were detected in the groups of melancholic patients and normal controls. Our findings provide support to the hypothesis that posterior subgenual cingulate is differentially involved in the pathophysiology of psychotic symptoms in major depressive disorder.

  13. A systematic search for positive selection in higher plants (Embryophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roth Christian

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previously, a database characterizing examples of Embryophyte gene family lineages showing evidence of positive selection was reported. Of the gene family trees, 138 Embryophyte branches showed Ka/Ks>>1 and are candidates for functional adaptation. The database and these examples have now been studied in further detail to better understand the molecular basis for plant genome evolution. Results Neutral modeling showed an excess of positive and/or negative selection in the database over a neutral expectation centered on the mean Ka/Ks ratio. Out of 673 families with assigned structures, 490 have at least one branch with Ka/Ks >>1 in a region of the protein, enabling a picture of selective pressures delineated by protein structure. Most gene families allowed reconstruction back to the last common ancestor of flowering plants (Magnoliophytes without saturation of 4- fold degenerate codon position. Positive selection occurred in a wide variety of gene families with different functions, including in the self incompatibility locus, in defense against pathogens, in embryogenesis, in cold acclimation, and in electrontransport. Structurally, selective pressures were similar between alpha-helices and beta- sheets, but were less negative and more variant on the surface and away from the hydrophobic core. Conclusion Positive selection was detected statistically significantly in a small and nonrandom minority of gene families in a systematic analysis of embryophyte gene families. More sensitive methods increased the level of positive selection that was detected and presented a structural basis for the role of positive selection in plant genomes.

  14. Treating depression in HIV-positive patients affects adherence

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-09-02

    19,20-22 maintain CD4 cell counts; prevent clinical ... affecting ART adherence in HIV-positive patients,32-35 ... 99.5%, and of those who received psychotherapy increased .... children (chi2=5.022; p=0.285); past history.

  15. Postnatal Depression Symptoms are Associated with Increased Diarrhea among Infants of HIV-Positive Ghanaian Mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Okronipa, Harriet E.T.; Marquis, Grace S.; Lartey, Anna; Brakohiapa, Lucy; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Mazur, Robert E

    2012-01-01

    HIV infection is linked to increased prevalence of depression which may affect maternal caregiving practices and place young infants at increased risk of illness. We examined the incidence and days ill with diarrhea among infants of HIV positive (HIV-P), HIV negative (HIV-N), and unknown HIV status (HIV-U) women, and determined if symptoms of maternal postnatal depression (PND) modulated the risk of diarrhea. Pregnant women (n=492) were recruited from 3 antenatal clinics; mothers and infants ...

  16. Turning the pink cloud grey: Dampening of positive affect predicts postpartum depressive symptoms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raes, Filip; Smets, Jorien; Wessel, Ineke; Van Den Eede, Filip; Nelis, Sabine; Franck, Erik; Jacquemyn, Yves; Hanssens, Myriam

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Maladaptive response styles to negative affect have been shown to be associated with prospective (postpartum) depression. Whether maladaptive styles to positive affect are also critically involved is understudied, even though anhedonia (a correlate of low positive affectivity) is a cardin

  17. Engagement as a Brand Position in the Higher Education Marketplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, Jay

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine public engagement as a branding and public relations strategy at colleges and universities. Specifically, this paper posits the idea that engagement efforts require a focused and, if possible, centralized approach on the part of colleges and universities. Successful branding and marketing of engagement…

  18. Engagement as a Brand Position in the Higher Education Marketplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, Jay

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine public engagement as a branding and public relations strategy at colleges and universities. Specifically, this paper posits the idea that engagement efforts require a focused and, if possible, centralized approach on the part of colleges and universities. Successful branding and marketing of engagement…

  19. Depression in HIV-positive women is associated with changes in antiretroviral treatment regimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus Philippe Küpper-Tetzel

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Depression is a co-morbidity of clinical significance in HIV-positive patients with an estimated prevalence of more than 20%. Sex and gender-related differences in depression are well described in HIV-negative populations, demonstrating that more women are being affected. So far little is known about frequency and characteristics of depression in HIV-positive men and women. Materials and Methods: Primary objective of our prospective epidemiological study was the evaluation of the Beck score for depression in male and female patients of the Frankfurt HIV Cohort. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II is a self-report symptom inventory made up of 21 questions, each with 4 possible answers, correlating with a certain point value. Interpretation: score 14–19: mild depression; score 20–28: moderate depression; score ≥29: severe depression. Secondary objectives of the analysis were factors that might possibly influence the disposition for depression in HIV-positive patients, e.g. age, antiretroviral treatment history, co-morbidities and socioeconomic status. Results: Between January and October 2013, 348 patients were enrolled in the study, 161 women and 187 men of the Frankfurt HIV Cohort, who had a routine appointment at the HIV-Center of the University Clinic Frankfurt. The mean age of all study participants was 45 years (range 22–80. The majority of patients were on antiretroviral therapy (91% at study entrance. The median BDI-II score in all patients was 8 (0–49; in female patients 10 (0–42, in male patients 6 (0–49, respectively (Table 1. Significant more women than men showed a score for moderate depression (p=0.006. Factors associated with a BDI-II score ≥20 in women were older age (>45 years, living alone, unemployment and the number of prior changes in antiretroviral therapy. Conclusions: Depression in people living with HIV shows sex and gender-related differences that might also influence antiretroviral

  20. Prevalence of depression and validation of the Beck Depression Inventory-II and the Children's Depression Inventory-Short amongst HIV-positive adolescents in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria H Kim

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is a remarkable dearth of evidence on mental illness in adolescents living with HIV/AIDS, particularly in the African setting. Furthermore, there are few studies in sub-Saharan Africa validating the psychometric properties of diagnostic and screening tools for depression amongst adolescents. The primary aim of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the prevalence of depression amongst a sample of HIV-positive adolescents in Malawi. The secondary aim was to develop culturally adapted Chichewa versions of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II and Children's Depression Inventory-II-Short (CDI-II-S and conduct a psychometric evaluation of these measures by evaluating their performance against a structured depression assessment using the Children's Rating Scale, Revised (CDRS-R. Study design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: We enrolled 562 adolescents, 12–18 years of age from two large public HIV clinics in central and southern Malawi. Participants completed two self-reports, the BDI-II and CDI-II-S, followed by administration of the CDRS-R by trained clinicians. Sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values for various BDI-II and CDI-II-S cut-off scores were calculated with receiver operating characteristics analysis. The area under the curve (AUC was also calculated. Internal consistency was measured by standardized Cronbach's alpha coefficient, and correlation between self-reports and CDRS-R by Spearman's correlation. Results: Prevalence of depression as measured by the CDRS-R was 18.9%. Suicidal ideation was expressed by 7.1% (40 using the BDI-II. The AUC for the BDI-II was 0.82 (95% CI 0.78–0.89 and for the CDI-II-S was 0.75 (95% CI 0.70–0.80. A score of ≥13 in BDI-II achieved sensitivity of >80%, and a score of ≥17 had a specificity of >80%. The Cronbach's alpha was 0.80 (BDI-II and 0.66 (CDI-II-S. The correlation between the BDI-II and CDRS-R was 0.42 (p<0.001 and between the CDI

  1. Positive outcomes of office ergonomics in terms of higher productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terek Edit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the sciences which considers to human health, human performance and body activities is Ergonomics. Ergonomics is one of the modern sciences, drawing as much from the field as from the laboratory, and including elements of art and craft as well. Before designing the workplace it is necessary to determine its requirements, i.e., which it is intended for, what are the characteristics of the existing work equipment and the additional tools needed. However, there are some standards and with their application people will prevent the occurrence of modern office diseases. This paper is focused on the positive aspects of ergonomics in improvement of the working environment.

  2. MINORITY STRESS, POSITIVE IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT, AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS: IMPLICATIONS FOR RESILIENCE AMONG SEXUAL MINORITY MALE YOUTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Douglas; Harper, Gary W.; Bauermeister, Jose A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Minority stress processes have been shown to have significant associations with negative mental health outcomes among sexual minority populations. Given that adversity may be experienced growing up as a sexual minority in heteronormative, if not heterosexist, environments, our research on resilience among sexual minority male youth proposes that positive identity development may buffer the effects of a range of minority stress processes. Methods An ethnically diverse sample of 200 sexual minority males ages 16–24 (mean age, 20.9 years) was recruited using mixed recruitment methods. We developed and tested two new measures: concealment stress during adolescence and sexual minority-related positive identity development. We then tested a path model that assessed the effects of minority stressors, positive identity development, and social support on major depressive symptoms. Results Experience of stigma was associated with internalized homophobia (β=.138, phomophobia partially mediated experience’s effects on major depression (β=.773, OR=2.167, phomophobia (β=.418, phomophobia (β=−.527, p<.001). Concealment stress demonstrated a direct effect on major depression (β=1.400, OR=4.056, p<.001), and indirect paths to social support through positive identity development. Conclusions With these results, we offer an exploratory model that empirically identifies significant paths among minority stress dimensions, positive identity development, and major depressive symptoms. This study helps further our understanding of minority stress, identity development, and resources of resilience among sexual minority male youth. PMID:26478901

  3. Genomic ancestry and the social pathways leading to major depression in adulthood: the mediating effect of socioeconomic position and discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loret de Mola, Christian; Hartwig, Fernando Pires; Gonçalves, Helen; Quevedo, Luciana de Avila; Pinheiro, Ricardo; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Motta, Janaína Vieira Dos Santos; Pereira, Alexandre C; Barros, Fernando C; Horta, Bernardo Lessa

    2016-09-05

    Evidence suggests that there is an association between ethnicity/skin color and depression; however, many contextual and individual variables, like sense of discrimination and socioeconomic position (SEP), might influence the direction of this association. We assessed the association between African ancestry and major depression among young adults that have been followed-up since birth in a Southern Brazilian city, and the mediating effect of SEP and discrimination. In 1982, all hospital deliveries in Pelotas (Southern Brazil) were identified; liveborns were examined and their mothers interviewed (n = 5914). In 2012-13, at 30 years of age, we used the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) for major depression diagnosis. In addition, DNA samples were genotyped for approximately 2.5 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using Illumina (CA, USA) HumanOmni2.5-8v1 array. Genomic ancestry estimation was based on approximately 370 000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) mutually available for the Pelotas cohort and selected samples (used as reference panels) of the HapMap and Human Genome Diversity (HGDP). We estimated prevalence ratios (PR) using Poisson regression models and evaluated the association between percentage of African ancestry and major depression. We used G-computation for mediation analysis. At 30 years, 3576 individuals were evaluated for major depression (prevalence = 7.9 %). Only individuals in the highest SEP, who had a percentage of African ancestry between >5-30 % and >30 % had a prevalence of major depression 2.16 (PR = 2.16 95 % CI [1.05-4.45]) and 2.74 (PR = 2.74 95 % CI [1.06-7.06]) times higher, than those with 5 % or less, respectively. Among these subjects, sense of discrimination by skin color, captured 84 % of the association between African ancestry and major depression. SEP is an important effect modifier of the positive association between African ancestry and major depression. In addition

  4. Positive and negative religious coping, depressive symptoms, and quality of life in people with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minsun; Nezu, Arthur M; Nezu, Christine Maguth

    2014-10-01

    The present study examined the relationships of positive and negative types of religious coping with depression and quality of life, and the mediating role of benefit finding in the link between religious coping and psychological outcomes among 198 individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The results of multiple hierarchical analyses revealed that negative religious coping was significantly associated with a high level of depressive symptoms and a low level of quality of life, controlling for demographic and clinical variables. On the other hand, positive religious coping was significantly associated with positive domains of outcome measures such as positive affect and life satisfaction, but not with overall depressive symptoms or quality of life. Tests of mediation analyses showed that benefit finding fully mediated the relationship between positive religious coping and the positive sub-domains of psychological outcomes. The importance of investigating both positive and negative types of religious coping in their relationships with psychological adaptation in people with HIV was discussed, as well as the significance of benefit finding in understanding the link between religious coping and psychological outcomes.

  5. Behavioral Models of Depression: A Critique of the Emphasis on Positive Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Paulo Roberto; Santos, Carlos E.

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides a review of behavioral models of depression highlighting the problems associated with its historical emphasis on lowered frequencies of positive reinforcement. We analyzed the models of Ferster and Lewinsohn in their theoretical approach, methodology and application. We conducted a review of the suppressive characteristics…

  6. College Students' Hypothetical Responses to Suicidal Individuals Who Are HIV Positive, Substance Abusing, Depressed, or Anxious.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, Steven E.; Range, Lillian M.

    1993-01-01

    Undergraduates (n=141) read vignette about suicidal person with either Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, depression, drug abuse, anxiety, or adjustment problems. Found that suicidal person who was human immunodeficiency virus-positive engendered significantly less helpful responses from students than did suicidal person who had panic attacks.…

  7. Positive Psychology and Mexican American College Students' Subjective Well-Being and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Javier C.; Lu, Ming-Tsan P.; Lenz, A. Stephen; Savage, Miranda C.; Guardiola, Rebekah

    2016-01-01

    Positive psychology is a useful framework to understand Mexican American college students' complete mental health. In the current study, we examined how presence of meaning in life, search for meaning in life, hope, mindfulness, and grit influenced 130 Mexican American college students' life satisfaction and depression. Within the first regression…

  8. Positive mood on negative self-statements: paradoxical intervention in geriatric patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, Claudia; Müller, Christine; Riepe, Matthias W

    2017-03-30

    Mood regulation is said to be age-specific. Negative self-statements (NST) are used to induce negative mood. However, little is known about NST in older persons and geriatric patients with major depressive disorder. We investigated healthy young (YC) and older (OC) control subjects and older patients with major depressive disorder (OP). Subjects were exposed to NST subsequent to baseline assessment comprising psychological and psychometric tests. Preferences for emotionally salient stimuli were measured with an eye-tracking task. Mood in YC shifted towards depressive mood or remained stable on NST. In OC and more so in OP some subjects responded paradoxically subsequent to NST with mood being more positive than at baseline. Extent and direction of mood change correlated with prevailing mood at baseline and total score in the Hamilton Depression Anxiety Scale. At baseline, YC had a preference for 'happy' stimuli. Subsequent to NST view preference shifted towards 'sad.' In contrast, OC had no preference at baseline but shifted towards 'happy' on NST. Mood change on NST is age-specific. In geriatric patients with depressive disorder, however, NST may induce a shift towards more positive mood and thus may be used in future as a therapeutic intervention.

  9. Psychosocial safety climate buffers effects of job demands on depression and positive organizational behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Garry B; Dollard, Maureen F; Winefield, Anthony H; Dormann, Christian; Bakker, Arnold B

    2013-01-01

    In a general population sample of 2343 Australian workers from a wide ranging employment demographic, we extended research testing the buffering role of psychosocial safety climate (PSC) as a macro-level resource within the health impairment process of the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model. Moderated structural equation modeling was used to test PSC as a moderator between emotional and psychological job demands and worker depression compared with control and social support as alternative moderators. We also tested PSC as a moderator between depression and positive organizational behaviors (POB; engagement and job satisfaction) compared with control and social support as moderators. As expected we found PSC moderated the effects of job demands on depression and further moderated the effects of depression on POB with fit to the data that was as good as control and social support as moderators. This study has shown that PSC is a macro-level resource and safety signal for workers acting to reduce demand-induced depression. We conclude that organizations need to focus on the development of a robust PSC that will operate to buffer the effects of workplace psychosocial hazards and to build environments conducive to worker psychological health and positive organizational behaviors.

  10. Higher Body Iron Is Associated with Greater Depression Symptoms among Young Adult Men but not Women: Observational Data from the Daily Life Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimee C. Richardson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies investigating possible associations between iron status and mood or depressive symptoms have reported inconsistent results. However, they have neither used body iron to measure iron status nor measured mood using daily measures. We investigated whether body iron was associated with depressive symptoms, daily mood, daily tiredness, difficulty concentrating, and stress in young adult women and men. Young adult (17–25 years women (n = 562 and men (n = 323 completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, then reported negative and positive mood, and other states daily for 13 days. Non-fasting venous blood was collected to determine hemoglobin, serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor (to calculate body iron, C-reactive protein, and alpha-1-acid glycoprotein concentration. Regression models tested linear associations between body iron and the outcome variables, controlling for possible confounders. No associations were found between body iron and the outcome variables in women. However, higher body iron was associated with more depressive symptoms in men (3.4% more per body iron mg/kg; 95% confidence intervals (CI: 0.8%, 5.9%. In young adult women, body iron is unlikely to be associated with significant deficits in mood or depressive symptoms. However, higher body iron may be associated with more depressive symptoms in young adult men.

  11. Mediator Effects of Positive Emotions on Social Support and Depression among Adolescents Suffering from Mobile Phone Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Menglong; Jiang, Xia; Ren, Yujia

    2017-06-01

    Depression is a common mental disorder that is widely seen among adolescents suffering from mobile phone addiction. While it is well known that both positive emtions in adolescents wiotions and social support can have a positive impact by helping individuals to maintain a positive attitude, the correlation between positive emotions, social support, and depression among these adolescents remains to be investigated. This study examined the mediator effects of positive emotions on the relationship between social support and depression among adolescents suffering from mobile phone addiction. For this study, conducted in 2016, we selected 1,346 adolescent students from three middle schools (ranging from Junior Grade One to Senior Grade Three) in Hunan Province of China, to participate in the survey. Participants were selected using the stratified cluster random sampling method, and all participants remained anonymous throughout the study. Each participant completed the Self-made General Situation Questionnaire, the Social Support Rating Scale, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, and the Mobile Phone Addiction Tendency Scale. There was significant positive correlation between positive emotions and social support. Both positive emotions and social support demonstrated significant negative correlation with depression. Positive emotions had partial mediator effects on the relationship between social support and depression (Pmobile phone addiction. Social support contributes to positive emoth mobile phone addiction, thereby reducing their levels of depression. These findings suggest that more support and care should be given to this particular adolescent population.

  12. Changes in Depressive Symptoms among Older Adults with Multiple Chronic Conditions: Role of Positive and Negative Social Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SangNam Ahn

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Depression severely affects older adults in the United States. As part of the social environment, significant social support was suggested to ameliorate depression among older adults. We investigate how varying forms of social support moderate depressive symptomatology among older adults with multiple chronic conditions (MCC. Data were analyzed using a sample of 11,400 adults, aged 65 years or older, from the 2006–2012 Health and Retirement Study. The current study investigated the moderating effects of positive or negative social support from spouse, children, other family, and friends on the association between MCC and depression. A linear mixed model with repeated measures was used to estimate the effect of MCC on depression and its interactions with positive and negative social support in explaining depression among older adults. Varying forms of social support played different moderating roles in depressive symptomatology among older adults with MCC. Positive spousal support significantly weakened the deleterious effect of MCC on depression. Conversely, all negative social support from spouse, children, other family, and friends significantly strengthened the deleterious effect of MCC on depression. Minimizing negative social support and maximizing positive spousal support can reduce depression caused by MCC and lead to successful aging among older adults.

  13. Feasibility of the Positive Thoughts and Actions Prevention Program for Middle Schoolers at Risk for Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn A. McCarty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of adolescent depression, few school-based prevention programs have been developed and tested in the United States with middle school populations. This study examined the acceptability and changes in targeted outcomes for a new preventative program, Positive Thoughts and Actions (PTA. Sixty-seven 7th grade students with elevated depressive symptoms were recruited from public schools and randomized to the 12-week PTA program with a parent-component or to a school-as-usual control group. The PTA prevention program was well received by students and parents, yielding high rates of participation and satisfaction among those randomized to receive the intervention. However, analyses of the efficacy of the program in changing depressive symptoms were not significant. In terms of our proximal program targets, most differences were not statistically significant, though effect sizes suggested advantage of PTA over control group in coping, cognitive style, and parent-child communication. This preliminary research highlights a need for further testing of programs for school-based prevention of depression and promotion of positive emotional health.

  14. Seeing light at the end of the tunnel: Positive prospective mental imagery and optimism in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Julie L; Holmes, Emily A; Blackwell, Simon E

    2017-01-01

    Optimism is associated with positive outcomes across many health domains, from cardiovascular disease to depression. However, we know little about cognitive processes underlying optimism in psychopathology. The present study tested whether the ability to vividly imagine positive events in one's future was associated with dispositional optimism in a sample of depressed adults. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were conducted, using baseline (all participants, N=150) and follow-up data (participants in the control condition only, N=63) from a clinical trial (Blackwell et al., 2015). Vividness of positive prospective imagery, assessed on a laboratory-administered task at baseline, was significantly associated with both current optimism levels at baseline and future (seven months later) optimism levels, including when controlling for potential confounds. Even when depressed, those individuals able to envision a brighter future were more optimistic, and regained optimism more quickly over time, than those less able to do so at baseline. Strategies to increase the vividness of positive prospective imagery may aid development of mental health interventions to boost optimism. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. The neural correlates of regulating positive and negative emotions in medication-free major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greening, Steven G; Osuch, Elizabeth A; Williamson, Peter C; Mitchell, Derek G V

    2014-05-01

    Depressive cognitive schemas play an important role in the emergence and persistence of major depressive disorder (MDD). The current study adapted emotion regulation techniques to reflect elements of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and related psychotherapies to delineate neurocognitive abnormalities associated with modulating the negative cognitive style in MDD. Nineteen non-medicated patients with MDD and 19 matched controls reduced negative or enhanced positive feelings elicited by emotional scenes while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. Although both groups showed significant emotion regulation success as measured by subjective ratings of affect, the controls were significantly better at modulating both negative and positive emotion. Both groups recruited regions of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) when regulating negative emotions. Only in controls was this accompanied by reduced activity in sensory cortices and amygdala. Similarly, both groups showed enhanced activity in VLPFC and ventral striatum when enhancing positive affect; however, only in controls was ventral striatum activity correlated with regulation efficacy. The results suggest that depression is associated with both a reduced capacity to achieve relief from negative affect despite recruitment of ventral and dorsal prefrontal cortical regions implicated in emotion regulation, coupled with a disconnect between activity in reward-related regions and subjective positive affect.

  16. Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... overview URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003213.htm Depression - overview To use the sharing features on this ... older adults Major depression Persistent depressive disorder Postpartum depression Premenstrual ... Review Date 1/4/2016 Updated by: Timothy Rogge, ...

  17. Orthognathic surgery improves quality of life and depression, but not anxiety, and patients with higher preoperative depression scores improve less.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunault, P; Battini, J; Potard, C; Jonas, C; Zagala-Bouquillon, B; Chabut, A; Mercier, J-M; Bedhet, N; Réveillère, C; Goga, D; Courtois, R

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed quality of life (QoL), depression, and anxiety before and after orthognathic surgery and identified risk factors for poorer postoperative outcome. This multicentre prospective study included 140 patients from five French medical centres. We assessed patients before surgery (T1), 3 months after surgery (T2), and 12 months after surgery (T3). We assessed the severity of the orofacial deformity, physical, psychological, social, and environmental QoL (WHOQOL-BREF), and depression and anxiety (GHQ-28). Risk factors for poorer outcome were identified using linear mixed models. Between baseline and 12 months, there was significant improvement in psychological and social QoL and in depression (although below the norms reported in the general population), but not in anxiety. Physical QoL was poorer in patients who were younger, who had a mild orofacial deformity, and who were depressed. Psychological QoL was poorer in younger patients and in depressed patients. Social QoL was poorer in patients who were single, who had a mild orofacial deformity, and who were depressed. Although orthognathic surgery provides a moderate improvement in psychological and social QoL, the systematic screening and treatment of depression could further improve QoL after surgery because it is a major predictor of poor QoL in this population.

  18. Social networks of HIV-positive women and their association with social support and depression symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederbaum, Julie A; Rice, Eric; Craddock, Jaih; Pimentel, Veronica; Beaver, Patty

    2017-02-01

    Social support is important to the mental health and well-being of HIV-positive women. Limited information exists about the specific structure and composition of HIV-positive women's support networks or associations of these network properties with mental health outcomes. In this pilot study, the authors examine whether support network characteristics were associated with depressive symptoms. Survey and network data were collected from HIV-positive women (N = 46) via a web-based survey and an iPad application in August 2012. Data were analyzed using multivariate linear regression models in SAS. Depressive symptoms were positively associated with a greater number of doctors in a woman's network; having more HIV-positive network members was associated with less symptom reporting. Women who reported more individuals who could care for them had more family support. Those who reported feeling loved were less likely to report disclosure stigma. This work highlighted that detailed social network data can increase our understanding of social support so as to identify interventions to support the mental health of HIV-positive women. Most significant is the ongoing need for support from peers.

  19. Prevalence and associated positive psychological variables of anxiety and depression among patients with central nervous system tumors in China: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yijun; Li, Lizhuo; Guan, Yanlei; Wang, Wei; Liu, Yan; Wang, Pengfei; Huang, Xiaolong; Tao, Shanwei; Wang, Yunjie

    2017-02-01

    Anxiety and depression have been identified as common psychological distresses faced by the majority of patients with cancer. However, no studies have investigated the relationship between positive psychological variables (hope, optimism and general self-efficacy) and anxiety and depression among patients with central nervous system (CNS) tumors in China. Our hypothesis is that the patients with higher levels of hope, optimism or general self-efficacy have lower levels of anxiety and depression when encountered by stressful life events such as CNS tumors. Questionnaires, including the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Herth Hope Index, the Life Orientation Scale-Revised and the General Self-Efficacy Scale, and demographic and clinical records were used to collect information about patients with CNS tumors in Liaoning Province, China. The study included 222 patients (effective response rate: 66.1%). Hierarchical linear regression analyses were performed to explore the associations among hope, optimism, general self-efficacy and anxiety/depression. Prevalence of anxiety and depression were 42.8 and 32.4%, respectively, among patients with CNS tumors. Hope and optimism both were negatively associated with anxiety and together accounted for 21.4% of variance in anxiety. Similarly, hope and optimism both were negatively associated with depression and accounted for 32.4% of variance in depression. The high prevalence of anxiety and depression among patients with CNS tumors should receive more attention in Chinese medical settings. To help reduce anxiety and depression, health care professionals should develop interventions to promote hope and optimism based on patients' specific needs. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Can behavioral theory inform the understanding of depression and medication nonadherence among HIV-positive substance users?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magidson, Jessica F; Listhaus, Alyson; Seitz-Brown, C J; Safren, Steven A; Lejuez, C W; Daughters, Stacey B

    2015-04-01

    Medication adherence is highly predictive of health outcomes across chronic conditions, particularly HIV/AIDS. Depression is consistently associated with worse adherence, yet few studies have sought to understand how depression relates to adherence. This study tested three components of behavioral depression theory--goal-directed activation, positive reinforcement, and environmental punishment--as potential indirect effects in the relation between depressive symptoms and medication nonadherence among low-income, predominantly African American substance users (n = 83). Medication nonadherence was assessed as frequency of doses missed across common reasons for nonadherence. Non-parametric bootstrapping was used to evaluate the indirect effects. Of the three intermediary variables, there was only an indirect effect of environmental punishment; depressive symptoms were associated with greater nonadherence through greater environmental punishment. Goal-directed activation and positive reinforcement were unrelated to adherence. Findings suggest the importance of environmental punishment in the relation between depression and medication adherence and may inform future intervention efforts for this population.

  1. Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Veddel; Bukh, Jens Otto Drachmann

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of depression is not clearly established, but estimated to 3-4% in a Danish questionnaire study. Lifetime's prevalences of 12-17% are reported in other community samples. In the current diagnostic system depression is defined categorically and operationally. It has been argued......, that these diagnostic criteria represent an oversimplification, which has blurred the concept of depression. We suggest a greater emphasis on the depressed mood as the core symptom of depression, which may increase the specificity of the diagnosis. Furthermore, basic principles for the treatment of depression...

  2. Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Veddel; Bukh, Jens Drachmann

    2014-01-01

    , that these diagnostic criteria represent an oversimplification, which has blurred the concept of depression. We suggest a greater emphasis on the depressed mood as the core symptom of depression, which may increase the specificity of the diagnosis. Furthermore, basic principles for the treatment of depression......The prevalence of depression is not clearly established, but estimated to 3-4% in a Danish questionnaire study. Lifetime's prevalences of 12-17% are reported in other community samples. In the current diagnostic system depression is defined categorically and operationally. It has been argued...

  3. A reduction in positive self-judgment bias is uniquely related to the anhedonic symptoms of depression

    OpenAIRE

    Dunn, Barnaby D.; Stefanovitch, Iolanta; Buchan, Kate; Lawrence, Andrew D.; Dalgleish, Tim

    2009-01-01

    Identifying patterns of biased cognitive processing specific to depression has proved difficult. The tripartite model of mood disorders [Clark, L. A., & Watson, D. (1991). Tripartite model of anxiety and depression: psychometric evidence and taxonomic implications. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100, 316–336] suggests that a clearer processing ‘blueprint’ may emerge if depression is viewed dimensionally rather than categorically and by focusing on variations in the degree of positive, rather...

  4. Depressants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... judgment and mental functioning nausea and vomiting memory loss (depressants can cause users to have no memory of events that happened while they were under the influence) Long-Term Effects When people misuse depressants over a long ...

  5. Mindfulness Training Increases Momentary Positive Emotions and Reward Experience in Adults Vulnerable to Depression: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geschwind, Nicole; Peeters, Frenk; Drukker, Marjan; van Os, Jim; Wichers, Marieke

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) increases momentary positive emotions and the ability to make use of natural rewards in daily life. Method: Adults with a life-time history of depression and current residual depressive symptoms (mean age = 43.9 years, SD = 9.6; 75% female; all Caucasian) were randomized to…

  6. Experience sampling-based personalized feedback and positive affect: a randomized controlled trial in depressed patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica A Hartmann

    Full Text Available Positive affect (PA plays a crucial role in the development, course, and recovery of depression. Recently, we showed that a therapeutic application of the experience sampling method (ESM, consisting of feedback focusing on PA in daily life, was associated with a decrease in depressive symptoms. The present study investigated whether the experience of PA increased during the course of this intervention.Multicentre parallel randomized controlled trial. An electronic random sequence generator was used to allocate treatments.University, two local mental health care institutions, one local hospital.102 pharmacologically treated outpatients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of major depressive disorder, randomized over three treatment arms.Six weeks of ESM self-monitoring combined with weekly PA-focused feedback sessions (experimental group; six weeks of ESM self-monitoring combined with six weekly sessions without feedback (pseudo-experimental group; or treatment as usual (control group.The interaction between treatment allocation and time in predicting positive and negative affect (NA was investigated in multilevel regression models.102 patients were randomized (mean age 48.0, SD 10.2 of which 81 finished the entire study protocol. All 102 patients were included in the analyses. The experimental group did not show a significant larger increase in momentary PA during or shortly after the intervention compared to the pseudo-experimental or control groups (χ2(2 = 0.33, p = .846. The pseudo-experimental group showed a larger decrease in NA compared to the control group (χ2(1 = 6.29, p =.012.PA-focused feedback did not significantly impact daily life PA during or shortly after the intervention. As the previously reported reduction in depressive symptoms associated with the feedback unveiled itself only after weeks, it is conceivable that the effects on daily life PA also evolve slowly and therefore were not captured by the experience sampling procedure

  7. Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cizza, G; Ravn, Pernille; Chrousos, G P

    2001-01-01

    Existing studies of the relationship between depression and osteoporosis have been heterogeneous in their design and use of diagnostic instruments for depression, which might have contributed to the different results on the comorbidity of these two conditions. Nevertheless, these studies reveal...... a strong association between depression and osteoporosis. Endocrine factors such as depression-induced hypersecretion of corticotropin-releasing hormone and hypercortisolism, hypogonadism, growth hormone deficiency and increased concentration of circulating interleukin 6, might play a crucial role...... in the bone loss observed in subjects suffering from major depression....

  8. Replication and extension of a hierarchical model of social anxiety and depression: fear of positive evaluation as a key unique factor in social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Justin W

    2015-01-01

    Wang, Hsu, Chiu, and Liang (2012, Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 26, 215-224) recently proposed a hierarchical model of social interaction anxiety and depression to account for both the commonalities and distinctions between these conditions. In the present paper, this model was extended to more broadly encompass the symptoms of social anxiety disorder, and replicated in a large unselected, undergraduate sample (n = 585). Structural equation modeling (SEM) and hierarchical regression analyses were employed. Negative affect and positive affect were conceptualized as general factors shared by social anxiety and depression; fear of negative evaluation (FNE) and disqualification of positive social outcomes were operationalized as specific factors, and fear of positive evaluation (FPE) was operationalized as a factor unique to social anxiety. This extended hierarchical model explicates structural relationships among these factors, in which the higher-level, general factors (i.e., high negative affect and low positive affect) represent vulnerability markers of both social anxiety and depression, and the lower-level factors (i.e., FNE, disqualification of positive social outcomes, and FPE) are the dimensions of specific cognitive features. Results from SEM and hierarchical regression analyses converged in support of the extended model. FPE is further supported as a key symptom that differentiates social anxiety from depression.

  9. A reduction in positive self-judgment bias is uniquely related to the anhedonic symptoms of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Barnaby D; Stefanovitch, Iolanta; Buchan, Kate; Lawrence, Andrew D; Dalgleish, Tim

    2009-05-01

    Identifying patterns of biased cognitive processing specific to depression has proved difficult. The tripartite model of mood disorders [Clark, L. A., & Watson, D. (1991). Tripartite model of anxiety and depression: psychometric evidence and taxonomic implications. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100, 316-336] suggests that a clearer processing 'blueprint' may emerge if depression is viewed dimensionally rather than categorically and by focusing on variations in the degree of positive, rather than negative, processing bias. To investigate this possibility, the present study examined the extent to which a reduced positive self-judgment bias previously found in depressed individuals relates to depression-specific anhedonic symptoms. Sixty participants with varying levels of anxiety and depression symptoms evaluated their own performance on a working memory task in the absence of external feedback. Overall, participants showed a positive self-judgment bias, overestimating the number of trials they had performed correctly relative to objective criteria. Consistent with the tripartite framework, the extent of this positive self-judgment bias was significantly and uniquely related to depression-specific symptoms, with the positive bias reducing as anhedonia severity increased across three different symptom measures.

  10. A randomized trial of the Positive Thoughts and Action program for depression among early adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Carolyn A; Violette, Heather D; Duong, Mylien T; Cruz, Rick A; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the outcomes of a group-based cognitive-behavioral preventive intervention (Positive Thoughts and Actions [PTA]) tailored to youth in middle school with a brief, individually administered supportive intervention (Individual Support Program [ISP]). A randomized, controlled trial was conducted with 120 early adolescents (72 girls, 48 boys; age = 11-15 years) who had elevated depressive symptoms and were selected from a school-based population. Measures of internalizing problems, externalizing problems, personal adjustment, school problems, and interpersonal relations were obtained from parents, youth, and/or teachers at preintervention (Time 1) and postintervention (Time 2, 5-7 months after preintervention). General linear model repeated measures analyses yielded a significant Group × Time interaction on youth-reported, but not parent-reported, depressive symptoms and internalizing symptoms. Youth in the PTA group showed greater decreases following intervention compared to youth who received ISP, yielding effect sizes (Cohen's d) of 0.36 for depressive symptoms, 95% CI [-.02, .73], and 0.44, 95% CI [.05, .82], for internalizing symptoms. PTA youth also showed improvements in their personal adjustment (sense of inadequacy, self-esteem), and parent-reported social skills, but no differences emerged between groups for externalizing symptoms, school problems, or interpersonal relationships. Cognitive-behavioral preventive interventions in which youth engage in personal goal-setting and practice social-emotional skills, such as PTA, may be beneficial for the reduction of depressive symptoms over and above general support and empathy.

  11. Higher-order-mode damper as beam-position monitors; Higher-Order-Mode Daempfer als Stahllagemonitore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peschke, C.

    2006-03-15

    In the framework of this thesis a beam-position monitor was developed, which can only because of the signals from the HOM dampers of a linear-accelerator structure determine the beam position with high accuracy. For the unique determination of the beam position in the plane a procedure was developed, which uses the amplitudes and the start-phase difference between a dipole mode and a higher monopole mode. In order tocheck the suitability of the present SBLC-HOM damper as beam position monitor three-dimensional numerical field calculations in the frequency and time range and measurements on the damper cell were performed. For the measurements without beam a beam simulator was constructed, which allows computer-driven measurements with variable depositions of the simulated beam with a resolution of 1.23 {mu}m. Because the complete 6 m long, 180-cell accelerator structure was not available for measurements and could also with the available computers not be three-dimensionally simulated simulated, a one-dimensional equivalent-circuit based model of the multi-cell was studied. The equivalent circuits with 879 concentrated components regards the detuning from cell to cell, the cell losses, the damper losses, and the beam excitation in dependence on the deposition. the measurements and simulations let a resolution of the ready beam-position monitor on the 180-cell in the order of magnitude of 1-10 {mu}m and a relative accuracy smaller 6.2% be expected.

  12. Higher prevalence of major depressive symptoms in Brazilians aged 14 and older

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassiano L.S. Coelho

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Depression is a highly prevalent condition and is considered a major public health issue. The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of depressive symptoms in the Brazilian population and establish their sociodemographic correlates. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted between November 2005 and April 2006. Data were collected in face-to-face interviews using a standardized questionnaire. The sample consisted of 3,007 interviews with individuals aged 14 years and older and followed a probabilistic design covering the Brazilian national territory. Depressive symptoms were assessed according to the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Results: The observed prevalence of depressive symptoms was 28.3% (13% mild/moderate; 15.3% major/severe; p < 0.01. Increased depressive symptom rates were associated with being a female, being 45 years of age and older, having lower educational attainment, being single, having family income of up to 2.5 times minimum wage, and living in the northern region of Brazil (p < 0.05. Conclusions: The prevalence of depressive symptoms in Brazil is high, with major depressive symptoms being the most frequent form of this symptomatology. Considering the biopsychosocial model of mental disorders, this survey points to the involvement of psychosocial factors in the prevalence of depressive symptoms in Brazil.

  13. MULTIPLE POSITIVE SOLUTIONS TO BVPS FOR HIGHER ORDER NONLINEAR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS IN BANACH SPACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚仕硕

    2001-01-01

    In this article,the author employs the conical expansion and compression fixed point principle and the fixed point index theory to show that there exist at least two positive solutions for a higher order BVP.

  14. Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strock, Margaret

    Approximately ten percent of the population suffers from a depressive illness each year. Although the economic cost is high, the cost in human suffering is immeasurable. To help educate the population about this disorder, this paper presents a definition of depression and its common manifestations. The symptoms that people often experience are…

  15. Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jon O. J.

    2013-01-01

    Nyhederne er fulde af historier om depression. Overskrifter som: ’Danskerne propper sig med lykkepiller’ eller ‘depression er stadigvæk tabu’ går tit igen i dagspressen. Men hvor er nuancerne, og hvorfor gider vi læse de samme historier igen og igen? Måske er det fordi, vores egne forestillinger er...

  16. Anxiety- rather than depression-like behavior is associated with adult neurogenesis in a female mouse model of higher trait anxiety- and comorbid depression-like behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sah, A; Schmuckermair, C; Sartori, S B; Gaburro, S; Kandasamy, M; Irschick, R; Klimaschewski, L; Landgraf, R; Aigner, L; Singewald, N

    2012-10-16

    Adult neurogenesis has been implicated in affective disorders and the action of antidepressants (ADs) although the functional significance of this association is still unclear. The use of animal models closely mimicking human comorbid affective and anxiety disorders seen in the majority of patients should provide relevant novel information. Here, we used a unique genetic mouse model displaying higher trait anxiety (HAB) and comorbid depression-like behavior. We demonstrate that HABs have a lower rate of hippocampal neurogenesis and impaired functional integration of newly born neurons as compared with their normal anxiety/depression-like behavior (NAB) controls. In HABs, chronic treatment with the AD fluoxetine alleviated their higher depression-like behavior and protected them from relapse for 3 but not 7 weeks after discontinuation of the treatment without affecting neurogenesis. Similar to what has been observed in depressed patients, fluoxetine treatment induced anxiogenic-like effects during the early treatment phase in NABs along with a reduction in neurogenesis. On the other hand, treatment with AD drugs with a particularly strong anxiolytic component, namely the neurokinin-1-receptor-antagonist L-822 429 or tianeptine, increased the reduced rate of neurogenesis in HABs up to NAB levels. In addition, challenge-induced hypoactivation of dentate gyrus (DG) neurons in HABs was normalized by all three drugs. Overall, these data suggest that AD-like effects in a psychopathological mouse model are commonly associated with modulation of DG hypoactivity but not neurogenesis, suggesting normalization of hippocampal hypoactivity as a neurobiological marker indicating successful remission. Finally, rather than to higher depression-related behavior, neurogenesis seems to be linked to pathological anxiety.

  17. Experience Sampling-Based Personalized Feedback and Positive Affect: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Depressed Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Jessica A.; Wichers, Marieke; Menne-Lothmann, Claudia; Kramer, Ingrid; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang; Peeters, Frenk; Schruers, Koen R. J.; van Bemmel, Alex L.; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Delespaul, Philippe; van Os, Jim; Simons, Claudia J. P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Positive affect (PA) plays a crucial role in the development, course, and recovery of depression. Recently, we showed that a therapeutic application of the experience sampling method (ESM), consisting of feedback focusing on PA in daily life, was associated with a decrease in depressive symptoms. The present study investigated whether the experience of PA increased during the course of this intervention. Design Multicentre parallel randomized controlled trial. An electronic random sequence generator was used to allocate treatments. Settings University, two local mental health care institutions, one local hospital. Participants 102 pharmacologically treated outpatients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of major depressive disorder, randomized over three treatment arms. Intervention Six weeks of ESM self-monitoring combined with weekly PA-focused feedback sessions (experimental group); six weeks of ESM self-monitoring combined with six weekly sessions without feedback (pseudo-experimental group); or treatment as usual (control group). Main outcome The interaction between treatment allocation and time in predicting positive and negative affect (NA) was investigated in multilevel regression models. Results 102 patients were randomized (mean age 48.0, SD 10.2) of which 81 finished the entire study protocol. All 102 patients were included in the analyses. The experimental group did not show a significant larger increase in momentary PA during or shortly after the intervention compared to the pseudo-experimental or control groups (χ2 (2) =0.33, p=.846). The pseudo-experimental group showed a larger decrease in NA compared to the control group (χ2 (1) =6.29, p=.012). Conclusion PA-focused feedback did not significantly impact daily life PA during or shortly after the intervention. As the previously reported reduction in depressive symptoms associated with the feedback unveiled itself only after weeks, it is conceivable that the effects on daily life PA also evolve

  18. Sustainable Interventions in Enhancing Gender Parity in Senior Leadership Positions in Higher Education in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyoni, Watende Pius; He, Chen; Yusuph, Mashala Lameck

    2017-01-01

    Despite the international campaigns for gender equality and equity in Higher Education Institutions, studies conducted in several countries continue to show that women are underrepresented in senior leadership positions in universities. Women leaders in higher education subsector in Tanzania are very few. Of all the 60 and above universities and…

  19. Researcher Creations? The Positioning of Policy Texts in Higher Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwin, Paul; Smith, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In this article we explore the way in which policy texts are positioned in a selection of higher education journal articles. Previous research has suggested that policy implementation studies have taken an uncritical approach to researching policies. Based on an analysis of articles published in higher education and policy journals in 2011, we…

  20. Indirect Effects of Attributional Style for Positive Events on Depressive Symptoms Through Self-Esteem During Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueger, Sandra Yu; George, Rachel

    2017-04-01

    Research on adolescent depression has overwhelmingly focused on risk factors, such as stressful negative events and cognitive vulnerabilities, but much important information can be gained by focusing on protective factors. Thus, the current study aimed to broaden understanding on adolescent depression by considering the role of two positive elements as protective factors, attributional style for positive events and self-esteem, in a model of depression. The sample included 491 middle school students (52 % female; n = 249) with an age range from 12 to 15 years (M = 13.2, SD = .70). The sample was ethnically/racially diverse, with 55 % White, 22 % Hispanic, 10 % Asian American, 3 % African American, and 10 % Biracial/Other. Correlational analyses indicated significant cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between an enhancing attributional style (internal, stable, global attributions for positive events), self-esteem and depressive symptoms. Further, prospective analyses using bootstrapping methodology demonstrated significant indirect effects of an enhancing attributional style on decreases in depressive symptoms through its effects on self-esteem. These findings highlight the importance of considering attributional style for positive events as a protective factor in the developmental course of depressive symptoms during early adolescence.

  1. Double attention bias for positive and negative emotional faces in clinical depression: evidence from an eye-tracking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Almudena; Vázquez, Carmelo

    2015-03-01

    According to cognitive models, attentional biases in depression play key roles in the onset and subsequent maintenance of the disorder. The present study examines the processing of emotional facial expressions (happy, angry, and sad) in depressed and non-depressed adults. Sixteen unmedicated patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and 34 never-depressed controls (ND) completed an eye-tracking task to assess different components of visual attention (orienting attention and maintenance of attention) in the processing of emotional faces. Compared to ND, participants with MDD showed a negative attentional bias in attentional maintenance indices (i.e. first fixation duration and total fixation time) for sad faces. This attentional bias was positively associated with the severity of depressive symptoms. Furthermore, the MDD group spent a marginally less amount of time viewing happy faces compared with the ND group. No differences were found between the groups with respect to angry faces and orienting attention indices. The current study is limited by its cross-sectional design. These results support the notion that attentional biases in depression are specific to depression-related information and that they operate in later stages in the deployment of attention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Higher Reported Levels of Depression, Stress, and Anxiety Are Associated with Increased Endorsement of ADHD Symptoms by Postsecondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Allyson G.; Alexander, Sandra J.; Armstrong, Irene T.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which postsecondary students endorse symptoms of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and whether experienced level of stress, depression, or anxiety are associated with higher reporting of ADHD symptoms. Students attending a combined health and counseling service completed the Conners Adult ADHD Rating…

  3. Rehearsal of positive self-statements and restructured negative self-statements to increase self-esteem and decrease depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpot, V D; Bamburg, J W

    1996-08-01

    Rehearsal of self-statements was used to modify scores on self-esteem and depression of 60 undergraduates low in self-esteem. Subjects in the rehearsal group were instructed to read 15 self-statements to themselves three times a day for two weeks. These self-statements were derived from a combination of the most frequently occurring negative thoughts and least frequently occurring positive thoughts given by the subject on the Automatic Thought Questionnaire-Revised. Negative thoughts endorsed by subjects on the questionnaire were restructured into more adaptive self-statements, and endorsed positive thoughts were modified into self-statements which accentuated the positive aspect of the thought. This procedure significantly increased scores on self-esteem and decreased depression scores. The questionnaire was effective in identifying positive and negative self-statements which were significantly related to scores on self-esteem and depression after 2 weeks.

  4. Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Different people have different symptoms. Some symptoms of depression include: Persistent sad, anxious, or “empty” mood Feelings of hopelessness or pessimism Feelings of guilt, worthlessness, or helplessness ...

  5. Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... caring for children and aging parents, abuse, and poverty may trigger depression in some people. Medical illness – ... federal government website managed by the Office on Women’s Health in the Office of the Assistant Secretary ...

  6. Enhancing well-being and alleviating depressive symptoms with positive psychology interventions: a practice-friendly meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Nancy L; Lyubomirsky, Sonja

    2009-05-01

    Do positive psychology interventions-that is, treatment methods or intentional activities aimed at cultivating positive feelings, positive behaviors, or positive cognitions-enhance well-being and ameliorate depressive symptoms? A meta-analysis of 51 such interventions with 4,266 individuals was conducted to address this question and to provide practical guidance to clinicians. The results revealed that positive psychology interventions do indeed significantly enhance well-being (mean r=.29) and decrease depressive symptoms (mean r=.31). In addition, several factors were found to impact the effectiveness of positive psychology interventions, including the depression status, self-selection, and age of participants, as well as the format and duration of the interventions. Accordingly, clinicians should be encouraged to incorporate positive psychology techniques into their clinical work, particularly for treating clients who are depressed, relatively older, or highly motivated to improve. Our findings also suggest that clinicians would do well to deliver positive psychology interventions as individual (versus group) therapy and for relatively longer periods of time.

  7. Reward devaluation: Dot-probe meta-analytic evidence of avoidance of positive information in depressed persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winer, E Samuel; Salem, Taban

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive theories of depression and anxiety have traditionally emphasized the role of attentional biases in the processing of negative information. The dot-probe task has been widely used to study this phenomenon. Recent findings suggest that biased processing of positive information might also be an important aspect of developing psychopathological symptoms. However, despite some evidence suggesting persons with symptoms of depression and anxiety may avoid positive information, many dot-probe studies have produced null findings. The present review used conventional and novel meta-analytic methods to evaluate dot-probe attentional biases away from positive information and, for comparison, toward negative information, in depressed and anxious individuals. Results indicated that avoidance of positive information is a real effect exhibiting substantial evidential value among persons experiencing psychopathology, with individuals evidencing primary symptoms of depression clearly demonstrating this effect. Different theoretical explanations for these findings are evaluated, including those positing threat-processing structures, even-handedness, self-regulation, and reward devaluation, with the novel theory of reward devaluation emphasized and expanded. These novel findings and theory suggest that avoidance of prospective reward helps to explain the cause and sustainability of depressed states. Suggestions for future research and methodological advances are discussed.

  8. The risk of being depressed is significantly higher in cancer patients than in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartung, T J; Brähler, E; Faller, H

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression is a common co-morbidity of cancer that has a detrimental effect on quality of life, treatment adherence and potentially survival. We conducted an epidemiological multi-center study including a population-based random comparison sample and estimated the prevalence.......0), thyroid (M = 7.8, SD = 6.3) and brain tumours (M = 7.6, SD = 4.9) showed the highest prevalence, whereas patients with prostate cancer (M = 4.3, SD = 3.8) and malignant melanoma (M = 5.3, SD = 4.3) had the lowest levels of depressive symptoms. CONCLUSION: Our results help clinicians identify cancer...... of depressive symptoms by cancer site, thereby identifying cancer patients with the highest prevalence of depression. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We included 4020 adult cancer inpatients and outpatients from five distinct regions across Germany in a proportional stratified random sample based on the nationwide cancer...

  9. Socioeconomic position and depression in South African adults with long-term health conditions: a longitudinal study of causal pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwell-Sutton, T; Folb, N; Clark, A; Fairall, L R; Lund, C; Bachmann, M O

    2017-08-14

    There is convincing evidence that lower socioeconomic position is associated with increased risk of mental disorders. However, the mechanisms involved are not well understood. This study aims to elucidate the causal pathways between socioeconomic position and depression symptoms in South African adults. Two possible causal theories are examined: social causation, which suggests that poor socioeconomic conditions cause mental ill health; and social drift, which suggests that those with poor mental health are more likely to drift into poor socioeconomic circumstances. The study used longitudinal and cross-sectional observational data on 3904 adults, from a randomised trial carried out in 38 primary health care clinics between 2011 and 2012. Structural equation models and counterfactual mediation analyses were used to examine causal pathways in two directions. First, we examined social causation pathways, with language (a proxy for racial or ethnic category) being treated as an exposure, while education, unemployment, income and depression were treated as sequential mediators and outcomes. Second, social drift was explored with depression treated as a potential influence on health-related quality of life, job loss and, finally, income. The results suggest that the effects of language on depression at baseline, and on changes in depression during follow-up, were mediated through education and income but not through unemployment. Adverse effects of unemployment and job loss on depression appeared to be mostly mediated through income. The effect of depression on decreasing income appeared to be mediated by job loss. These results suggest that both social causation and social selection processes operate concurrently. This raises the possibility that people could get trapped in a vicious cycle in which poor socioeconomic conditions lead to depression, which, in turn, can cause further damage to their economic prospects. This study also suggests that modifiable factors such

  10. Maintenance of a positive outlook during acute stress protects against pro-inflammatory reactivity and future depressive symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschbacher, K.; Epel, E.; Wolkowitz, O.M.; Prather, A.A.; Puterman, E.; Dhabhar, F.S.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive and affective responses to acute stress influence pro-inflammatory cytokine reactivity, and peripheral cytokines (particularly lnterleukin-1 beta (IL-1β)), can act on the brain to promote depressive symptoms. It is unknown whether acute stress-induced changes in positive affect and cognitions (POS) and pro-inflammatory reactivity predict future depressive symptoms. We examined acute stress responses among women, to determine prospective predictors of depressive symptoms. Hypotheses: 1) Stress-induced decreases in POS will be associated with stress-related increases in circulating IL-1β. 2) Acute stress-induced decreases in POS and increases in IL-1β reactivity will predict increases in depressive symptoms one year later. Thirty-five post-menopausal women were exposed to acute stress with the Trier Social Stress Task (TSST) and provided blood samples under resting conditions and 30 minutes after the conclusion of the TSST, which were assayed for IL-1β. IL-1β reactivity was quantified as post minus pre-TSST. Failure to maintain POS was quantified as the decrease in POS during the TSST. Change in depressive symptoms from the study baseline to the following year was determined. Greater acute stress-induced declines in POS were significantly associated with increased IL-1β reactivity (p≤.02), which significantly predicted increases in depressive symptoms over the following year (p<.01), controlling for age, body mass index, chronic stress, antidepressant use and baseline depressive symptoms. IL-1β reactivity was a significant mediator of the relationship between POS decline and future increases in depressive symptoms (p=.04). Difficulty maintaining positivity under stress and heightened pro-inflammatory reactivity may be markers and/or mechanisms of risk for future increases in depressive symptoms. PMID:22119400

  11. Cognitive reappraisal and secondary control coping: associations with working memory, positive and negative affect, and symptoms of anxiety/depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreotti, Charissa; Thigpen, Jennifer E; Dunn, Madeleine J; Watson, Kelly; Potts, Jennifer; Reising, Michelle M; Robinson, Kristen E; Rodriguez, Erin M; Roubinov, Danielle; Luecken, Linda; Compas, Bruce E

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the relations of measures of cognitive reappraisal and secondary control coping with working memory abilities, positive and negative affect, and symptoms of anxiety and depression in young adults (N=124). Results indicate significant relations between working memory abilities and reports of secondary control coping and between reports of secondary control coping and cognitive reappraisal. Associations were also found between measures of secondary control coping and cognitive reappraisal and positive and negative affect and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Further, the findings suggest that reports of cognitive reappraisal may be more strongly predictive of positive affect whereas secondary control coping may be more strongly predictive of negative affect and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Overall, the results suggest that current measures of secondary control coping and cognitive reappraisal capture related but distinct constructs and suggest that the assessment of working memory may be more strongly related to secondary control coping in predicting individual differences in distress.

  12. Positioning strategies of higher education institutions in the Republic of Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Popović, Ana; Stanković, Ljiljana; Đukić, Suzana

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary higher education institutions act as agents on a highly competitive market. Therefore, they have been obliged to modify their management approaches to attract and retain students, in order to ensure survival and development on such a market. These new management approaches include more explicit use of marketing principles and activities. Research presented in this paper is focused on positioning strategies of higher education institutions in the Republic of Serbia. The paper anal...

  13. Spiraling through the Glass Ceiling: Seven Critical Lessons for Negotiating a Leadership Position in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutcher, Ronald A.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses seven critical lessons for navigating a leadership position in higher education. The author focuses on developing a personal means of remaining centered regardless of circumstances or situations as well as building an ethical foundation for one's work. He uses spiraling as a metaphor to describe his own…

  14. Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) Policy in Australian Higher Education: The Dynamics of Position-Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, Tim; Vidovich, Lesley

    2012-01-01

    The Bourdieuian concept of "position-taking" is applied in this analysis of recognition of prior learning (RPL) policy and practice in Australian higher education. Data from institutional documents and participant interviews indicate that, within RPL policy, the universities selectively employ prevailing discourses of "quality"…

  15. Association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA and depression and the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sherbini AM

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Amr Makram El-Sherbini1, Adel Salah Bediwy2, Ashraf El-Mitwalli31Department of Psychiatry, Elminia University Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Elminia, 2Chest Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, 3Department of Neurology, Mansoura School of Medicine, University of Mansoura, Mansoura, EgyptBackground: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is a relatively common disorder which has a negative impact on the psychological well-being of affected individuals.Objective: To assess the association between OSA and depression as well as the effect of treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP.Methods: A total of 37 newly diagnosed individuals with OSA underwent an overnight polysomnography and were assessed using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS, and the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Patients were assessed before and after 2 months of CPAP use.Results: Of the 37 patients included in the study, 21 (56.7% had clinically relevant depression as indicated by a score >10 on the HDRS and eleven patients (29.7% met the diagnostic criteria for a major depressive episode using the Structured Clinical Interview. Scores on the HDRS were correlated with the Apnea Hypoxia Index, ESS scores, and oxygen saturation. Patients showed a significant reduction in depressive symptoms and improvement in ESS scores after CPAP treatment.Conclusion: Patients with OSA should be screened carefully for depressive disorders. CPAP should be tried first before starting other treatment modalities for depression.Keywords: obstructive sleep apnea, depression in OSA, CPAP and depression

  16. ST-Segment Depression in Hyperventilation Indicates a False Positive Exercise Test in Patients with Mitral Valve Prolapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas P. Michaelides

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Mitral valve prolapse (MVP is a known cause for false positive exercise test (ET. The purpose of this study was to establish additional electrocardiographic criteria to distinguish the false positive exercise results in patients with MVP. Methods. We studied 218 consecutive patients ( years, 103 males with MVP (according to echocardiographic study, and positive treadmill ET was performed due to multiple cardiovascular risk factors or angina-like symptoms. A coronary angiography was performed to detect coronary artery disease (CAD. Results. From 218 patients, 90 (group A presented with normal coronary arteries according to the angiography (false positive ET while the rest 128 (group B presented with CAD. ST-segment depression in hyperventilation phase was present in 54 patients of group A (60% while only in 14 patients of group B (11%, . Conclusions. Presence of ST-segment depression in hyperventilation phase favors a false positive ET in patients with MVP.

  17. Have University Sport Students Higher Scores Depression, Anxiety and Psychological Stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, Havva

    2016-01-01

    Multiple studies have now shown that people who maintain appropriate body fitness, using judicious regimens of exercise and weight control, have the additional benefit of prolonged life. In fact, sport or exercise may be also expected to be helpful for psychological health. In the present study, depression, anxiety and psychological stress points…

  18. Higher levels of state depression in masculine than in feminine nations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arrindell, W.A.; Steptoe, A.; Wardle, J.

    Studies using identical measures have identified different levels of depression in different countries or cultures. Until now, however, explanations for such differences, other than methodological ones, have not been empirically addressed. It was hypothesized and found that soft or feminine nations

  19. Higher levels of state depression in masculine than in feminine nations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arrindell, W.A.; Steptoe, A.; Wardle, J.

    2003-01-01

    Studies using identical measures have identified different levels of depression in different countries or cultures. Until now, however, explanations for such differences, other than methodological ones, have not been empirically addressed. It was hypothesized and found that soft or feminine nations

  20. Allodynia is associated with a higher prevalence of depression in migraine patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louter, M. A.; Wardenaar, K. J.; Veen, G.; van Oosterhout, W. P. J.; Zitman, F. G.; Ferrari, M. D.; Terwindt, G. M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction There is a strong association between migraine and depression. The aim of this study is to identify migraine-specific factors involved in this association. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study in a large, well-defined cohort of migraine patients (n=2533). We assessed lifetime de

  1. Prevalence of postnatal depression and associated factors among HIV-positive women in primary care in Nkangala district, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Peltzer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The prevalence of postpartum depression in South Africa is high, but there is lack of prevalence data on postnatal depression among HIV-infected women. Aim. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of depressed mood and associated factors in postnatal HIV-positive women in primary care facilities in Nkangala district, Mpumalanga, South Africa. Methods. This cross-sectional study was carried out on 607 HIV-positive postnatal women in 48 primary health care clinics and community health centres in Nkangala district. Postnatal women were recruited by systematic sampling (every consecutive patient over a period of 2 months. Demographic and other data were obtained from all the women who responded to a questionnaire in the local language on male involvement, HIV test disclosure, delivery and infant profile, infant HIV diagnosis, stigma, discrimination, postnatal depression, attendance of support groups and social support. Results. Overall, 45.1% of women reported a depressed mood in the postnatal period. Depressed mood in a multivariable analysis was significantly associated with internalised stigma (odds ratio (OR 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.05 - 1.19; p=0.000, discrimination experiences (OR 1.22, CI 1.03 - 1.46; p=0.023, lack of social support (OR 0.86, CI 0.74 - 0.99; p=0.037 and having had an STI in the past 12 months (OR 2.22, CI 1.21 - 4.04; p=0.010. There were no statistically significant correlations between the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS scores of the women and age, marital status, level of education, employment status and number of own children. Conclusion. Depressed mood is common among HIV-positive postpartum women. This is significantly associated with lack of social support, stigma and discrimination. Routine screening to identify those currently depressed or at risk of depression should be integrated into postnatal care settings to target those most needing intervention.

  2. The Factor Structure and Presentation of Depression Among HIV-Positive Adults in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Psaros, Christina; Haberer, Jessica E.; Boum, Yap; Tsai, Alexander C.; Martin, Jeffrey N.; Peter W Hunt; David R Bangsberg; Safren, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Depression is one of the most prevalent psychiatric comorbidities of HIV and one of the greatest barriers to HIV self-care and adherence. Despite this, little consensus exists on how to best measure depression among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in African settings. Measurement of depression among PLWHA may be confounded by somatic symptoms. Some research recommends excluding these items to enhance measurement validity; sensitivity may be lost with this approach. We sought to characteri...

  3. Positive Affect Stimulation and Sustainment (PASS) Module for Depressed Mood: A preliminary investigation of treatment-related effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMakin, Dana L; Siegle, Greg J; Shirk, Stephen R

    2011-06-01

    Positive affective functioning (PAF) is critical to the development, course and treatment of depressive symptoms. Targeting key features of PAF during treatment may provide a new angle through which to improve affective functioning and reduce symptoms. The current study was a treatment development trial for the Positive Affect Stimulation and Sustainment (PASS) Module. PASS is conceptualized as a means of capitalizing on positive events (e.g. planned through behavioral activation) by enhancing and sustaining positive affective states through savoring, and establishing positive attributions and expectancies. Participants were 27 female college students with dysphoric symptoms. There was a moderate effect of PASS on depressive symptoms. There was also a significant within session increase in positive affect from pre to post session among the PASS group, relative to active control; and a significant decrease in positive affect from pre (baseline) to post (follow-up) treatment among the control group, relative to PASS. Results provide preliminary evidence for the efficacy of the treatment module among young adults with depressed mood, and lay the foundation for future research.

  4. Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarron, Robert M; Vanderlip, Erik R; Rado, Jeffrey

    2016-10-04

    This issue provides a clinical overview of depression, focusing on screening, diagnosis, treatment, and practice improvement. The content of In the Clinic is drawn from the clinical information and education resources of the American College of Physicians (ACP), including MKSAP (Medical Knowledge and Self-Assessment Program). Annals of Internal Medicine editors develop In the Clinic in collaboration with the ACP's Medical Education and Publishing divisions and with the assistance of additional science writers and physician writers.

  5. Positive Psychology Interventions Addressing Pleasure, Engagement, Meaning, Positive Relationships, and Accomplishment Increase Well-Being and Ameliorate Depressive Symptoms: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Online Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gander, Fabian; Proyer, René T; Ruch, Willibald

    2016-01-01

    Seligman (2002) suggested three paths to well-being, the pursuit of pleasure, the pursuit of meaning, and the pursuit of engagement, later adding two more, positive relationships and accomplishment, in his 2011 version. The contribution of these new components to well-being has yet to be addressed. In an online positive psychology intervention study, we randomly assigned 1624 adults aged 18-78 (M = 46.13; 79.2% women) to seven conditions. Participants wrote down three things they related to either one of the five components of Seligman's Well-Being theory (Conditions 1-5), all of the five components (Condition 6) or early childhood memories (placebo control condition). We assessed happiness (AHI) and depression (CES-D) before and after the intervention, and 1-, 3-, and 6 months afterwards. Additionally, we considered moderation effects of well-being levels at baseline. Results confirmed that all interventions were effective in increasing happiness and most ameliorated depressive symptoms. The interventions worked best for those in the middle-range of the well-being continuum. We conclude that interventions based on pleasure, engagement, meaning, positive relationships, and accomplishment are effective strategies for increasing well-being and ameliorating depressive symptoms and that positive psychology interventions are most effective for those people in the middle range of the well-being continuum.

  6. Positive psychology interventions addressing pleasure, engagement, meaning, positive relationships, and accomplishment increase well-being and ameliorate depressive symptoms: A randomized, placebo-controlled online study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian eGander

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Seligman (2002 suggested three paths to well-being, the pursuit of pleasure, the pursuit of meaning, and the pursuit of engagement, later adding two more, positive relationships and accomplishment, in his 2011 version. The contribution of these new components to well-being has yet to be addressed.Method: In an online positive psychology intervention study, we randomly assigned 1,624 adults aged 18 to 78 (M = 46.13; 79.2% women to seven conditions. Participants wrote down three things they related to either one of the five components of Seligman’s Well-Being theory (Conditions 1-5, all of the five components (Condition 6 or early childhood memories (placebo control condition. We assessed happiness (AHI and depression (CES-D before and after the intervention, and 1-, 3-, and 6 months afterwards. Additionally, we considered moderation effects of well-being levels at baseline.Results: Results confirmed that all interventions were effective in increasing happiness and most ameliorated depressive symptoms. The interventions worked best for those in the middle-range of the well-being continuum. Conclusion: We conclude that interventions based on pleasure, engagement, meaning, positive relationships, and accomplishment are effective strategies for increasing well-being and ameliorating depressive symptoms and that positive psychology interventions are most effective for those people in the middle range of the well-being continuum.

  7. Existence of Positive Solutions for Higher Order Boundary Value Problem on Time Scales

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE DA-PENG; LIU YANG; SUN MING-ZHE; Li Yong

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,we investigate the existence of positive solutions of a class higher order boundary value problems on time scales.The class of boundary value problems educes a four-point (or three-point or two-point) boundary value problems,for which some similar results are established.Our approach relies on the Krasnosel'skii fixed point theorem.The result of this paper is new and extends previously known results.

  8. Stability study of the higher order mode beam position monitors at the Accelerating cavities at FLASH

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, L; Jones., R M

    2014-01-01

    erating cavities at FLASH linac, DESY, are equipped with electronics for beam position monitoring, which are based on HOM signals from special couplers. These monitors provide the beam position without additional vacuum components and at low cost. Moreover, they can be used to align the beam in the cavities to reduce the HOM effects on the beam. However, the HOMBPM (Higher Order Mode based Beam Position Monitor) shows an instability problem over time. In this paper, we will present the status of studies on this issue. Several methods are utilized to calibrate the HOMBPMs. These methods include DLR (Direct Linear Regression), and SVD (Singular Value Decomposition). We found that SVD generally is more suitable for HOMBPM calibration. We focus on the HOMBPMs at 1.3 GHz cavities. Techniques developed here are applicable to 3.9 ...

  9. Exploring the Relationship between Absolute and Relative Position and Late-Life Depression: Evidence from 10 European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladin, Keren; Daniels, Norman; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Socioeconomic inequality has been associated with higher levels of morbidity and mortality. This study explores the role of absolute and relative deprivation in predicting late-life depression on both individual and country levels. Design and Methods: Country- and individual-level inequality indicators were used in multivariate logistic…

  10. Higher positive identification of malignant CSF cells using the cytocentrifuge than the Suta chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Monteiro de Almeida

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To define how to best handle cerebrospinal fluid (CSF specimens to obtain the highest positivity rate for the diagnosis of malignancy, comparing two different methods of cell concentration, sedimentation and cytocentrifugation. Methods A retrospective analysis of 411 CSF reports. Results This is a descriptive comparative study. The positive identification of malignant CSF cells was higher using the centrifuge than that using the Suta chamber (27.8% vs. 19.0%, respectively; p = 0.038. Centrifuge positively identified higher numbers of malignant cells in samples with a normal concentration of white blood cells (WBCs (< 5 cells/mm3 and with more than 200 cells/mm3, although this was not statistically significant. There was no lymphocyte loss using either method. Conclusions Cytocentrifugation positively identified a greater number of malignant cells in the CSF than cytosedimentation with the Suta chamber. However, there was no difference between the methods when the WBC counts were within the normal range.

  11. Poorer Wisconsin card-sorting test performance in healthy adults with higher positive and negative schizotypal traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ting Gang; Lee, I Hui; Chang, Cheng-Chen; Yang, Yen Kuang; Huang, Si Sheng; Chen, Kao Chin; Wang, Chieh Hui; Chang, Yun-Hsuan

    2011-10-01

    Non-clinical schizotypy was found to be related to poorer Wisconsin Card-Sorting Test (WCST) performance, but the results were inconsistent. Two subgroups, the higher negative-higher positive and the lower negative-lower positive (15 vs 16), were selected from the top and the bottom quartiles of negative and positive scale scores of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) completed by 177 healthy volunteers, respectively. The higher negative-higher positive SPQ score subgroup had significantly poorer performance regarding the completed categories of WCST than the lower negative-lower positive SPQ score subgroup. Subjects with higher non-clinical schizotypy trait showed relatively mild cognitive dysfunction.

  12. Significance of depression in obstructive sleep apnea patients and the relationship between the comorbidity and continuous positive airway pressure treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Jing; CHEN Bao-yuan; Ambrose An-Po Chiang

    2010-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), which is the most common sleep-related breathing disorder and characterized by recurrent collapse of the upper airway,causes repeated arousals from sleep, decreased oxygen saturation of the blood, and excessive daytime sleepiness.Patients with OSA are at increased risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cognitive impairment, and depression.1,2 Currently, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) had been identified as the standard treatment for patients with OSA. CPAP shows significant improvements in objective and subjective sleepiness and several quality3 of life assessments, cognitive function and depression.3 However,reports of non-adherence to CPAP therapy range from 29% to 83%, and one of the reasons of non-adherence is the comorbidity of depression.4

  13. Relations of positive and negative affectivity to anxiety and depression in children: evidence from a latent variable longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonigan, Christopher J; Phillips, Beth M; Hooe, Eric S

    2003-06-01

    The tripartite model of anxiety and depression has been studied with adults; however, support is still emerging with children concerning measurement and relations between positive (PA) and negative (NA) affect and psychopathology. In this longitudinal study of 270 4th- to 11th-grade children (mean age = 12.9 years, SD = 2.23). confirmatory factor analysis supported a 2-factor orthogonal model of children's self-reported affect and revealed that the concurrent relations of NA and PA to anxiety and depression symptoms were consistent with the tripartite model. Structural equation modeling demonstrated moderate cross-time stability of trait PA and NA, consistent with a temperament view of these factors, as well as partial support for the role of NA and PA in the development of anxiety and depression symptoms in children.

  14. Validating a shortened depression scale (10 item CES-D among HIV-positive people in British Columbia, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Zhang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To establish the reliability and validity of a shortened (10-item depression scale used among HIV-positive patients enrolled in the Drug Treatment Program in British Columbia, Canada. METHODS: The 10-item CES-D (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale was examined among 563 participants who initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART between August 1, 1996 and June 30, 2002. Internal consistency of the scale was measured by Cronbach's alpha. Using the original CES-D 20 as primary criteria, comparisons were made using the Kappa statistic. Predictive accuracy of CES-D 10 was assessed by calculating sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values and negative predictive values. Factor analysis was also performed to determine if the CES-D 10 contained the same factors of positive and negative affect found in the original development of the CES-D. RESULTS: The correlation between the original and the shortened scale is very high (Spearman correlation coefficient  =0.97 (P<0.001. Internal consistency reliability coefficients of the CES-D 10 were satisfactory (Cronbach α=0.88. The CES-D 10 showed comparable accuracy to the original CES-D 20 in classifying participants with depressive symptoms (Kappa=0.82, P<0.001. Sensitivity of CES-D 10 was 91%; specificity was 92%; and positive predictive value was 92%. Factor analysis demonstrates that CES-D 10 contains the same underlying factors of positive and negative affect found in the original development of the CES-D 20. CONCLUSION: The 10-item CES-D is a comparable tool to measure depressive symptoms among HIV-positive research participants.

  15. Oxytocin enhances attentional bias for neutral and positive expression faces in individuals with higher autistic traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Ma, Xiaole; Zhao, Weihua; Luo, Lizhu; Yao, Shuxia; Kendrick, Keith M

    2015-12-01

    There is considerable interest in the potential therapeutic role of the neuropeptide oxytocin in altering attentional bias towards emotional social stimuli in psychiatric disorders. However, it is still unclear whether oxytocin primarily influences attention towards positive or negative valence social stimuli. Here in a double-blind, placebo controlled, between subject design experiment in 60 healthy male subjects we have used the highly sensitive dual-target rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm to investigate whether intranasal oxytocin (40IU) treatment alters attentional bias for emotional faces. Results show that oxytocin improved recognition accuracy of neutral and happy expression faces presented in the second target position (T2) during the period of reduced attentional capacity following prior presentation of a first neutral face target (T1), but had no effect on recognition of negative expression faces (angry, fearful, sad). Oxytocin also had no effect on recognition of non-social stimuli (digits) in this task. Recognition accuracy for neutral faces at T2 was negatively associated with autism spectrum quotient (ASQ) scores in the placebo group, and oxytocin's facilitatory effects were restricted to a sub-group of subjects with higher ASQ scores. Our results therefore indicate that oxytocin primarily enhances the allocation of attentional resources towards faces expressing neutral or positive emotion and does not influence that towards negative emotion ones or non-social stimuli. This effect of oxytocin is strongest in healthy individuals with higher autistic trait scores, thereby providing further support for its potential therapeutic use in autism spectrum disorder.

  16. A comparison of the clinical features of depression in hiv-positive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A significant number of HIV infected people develop mental ... respond to antidepressant therapies; and similarities of the somatic ..... Depression itself can cause cognitive pseudo- dementia. However the rates for this should have been the.

  17. Anhedonia in prolonged schizophrenia spectrum patients with relatively lower vs. higher levels of depression disorders: associations with deficits in social cognition and metacognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Kelly D; McLeod, Hamish J; Gumley, Andrew; Dimaggio, Giancarlo; Buck, Benjamin E; Minor, Kyle S; James, Alison V; Lysaker, Paul H

    2014-10-01

    This study has sought to explore whether there are at least two subtypes of anhedonia in schizophrenia: one closely linked with depression and another that occurs in the absence of depression which is related to a general paucity of internal experience. Participants were 163 adults with schizophrenia who completed assessments of depression, anhedonia, executive functioning, positive and negative symptoms, social cognition and metacognition. A cluster analysis based on participants' depression and anhedonia symptom scores produced three groups: High Depression/High Anhedonia (n=52), Low Depression/Low Anhedonia (n=52), and Low Depression/High Anhedonia (n=59). An ANCOVA and post hoc comparisons controlling for positive and negative symptoms found that the Low Depression/High Anhedonia group had poorer metacognition and social cognition than other groups. These findings point to the possibility of a subtype of anhedonia in schizophrenia, one occurring in the relative lesser levels of depression, and tied to deficits in the ability to think about oneself and others.

  18. Neural activity to intense positive versus negative stimuli can help differentiate bipolar disorder from unipolar major depressive disorder in depressed adolescents: a pilot fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diler, Rasim Somer; de Almeida, Jorge Renner Cardoso; Ladouceur, Cecile; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David; Phillips, Mary

    2013-12-30

    Failure to distinguish bipolar depression (BDd) from the unipolar depression of major depressive disorder (UDd) in adolescents has significant clinical consequences. We aimed to identify differential patterns of functional neural activity in BDd versus UDd and employed two (fearful and happy) facial expression/ gender labeling functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments to study emotion processing in 10 BDd (8 females, mean age=15.1 ± 1.1) compared to age- and gender-matched 10 UDd and 10 healthy control (HC) adolescents who were age- and gender-matched to the BDd group. BDd adolescents, relative to UDd, showed significantly lower activity to both intense happy (e.g., insula and temporal cortex) and intense fearful faces (e.g., frontal precentral cortex). Although the neural regions recruited in each group were not the same, both BDd and UDd adolescents, relative to HC, showed significantly lower neural activity to intense happy and mild happy faces, but elevated neural activity to mild fearful faces. Our results indicated that patterns of neural activity to intense positive and negative emotional stimuli can help differentiate BDd from UDd in adolescents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Positive Attitude toward Healthy Eating Predicts Higher Diet Quality at All Cost Levels of Supermarkets☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Anju; Monsivais, Pablo; Cook, Andrea J.; Drewnowski, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Shopping at low-cost supermarkets has been associated with higher obesity rates. This study examined whether attitudes toward healthy eating are independently associated with diet quality among shoppers at low-cost, medium-cost, and high-cost supermarkets. Data on socioeconomic status (SES), attitudes toward healthy eating, and supermarket choice were collected using a telephone survey of a representative sample of adult residents of King County, WA. Dietary intake data were based on a food frequency questionnaire. Thirteen supermarket chains were stratified into three categories: low, medium, and high cost, based on a market basket of 100 commonly eaten foods. Diet-quality measures were energy density, mean adequacy ratio, and total servings of fruits and vegetables. The analytical sample consisted of 963 adults. Multivariable regressions with robust standard error examined relations between diet quality, supermarket type, attitudes, and SES. Shopping at higher-cost supermarkets was associated with higher-quality diets. These associations persisted after adjusting for SES, but were eliminated after taking attitudinal measures into account. Supermarket shoppers with positive attitudes toward healthy eating had equally higher-quality diets, even if they shopped at low-, medium-, or high-cost supermarkets, independent of SES and other covariates. These findings imply that shopping at low-cost supermarkets does not prevent consumers from having high-quality diets, as long as they attach importance to good nutrition. Promoting nutrition-education strategies among supermarkets, particularly those catering to low-income groups, can help to improve diet quality. PMID:23916974

  20. Higher order ionospheric effects in GNSS positioning in the European region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. G. Elmas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available After removal of the Selective Availability in 2000, the ionosphere became the dominant error source for Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS, especially for the high-accuracy (cm-mm demanding applications like the Precise Point Positioning (PPP and Real Time Kinematic (RTK positioning.

    The common practice of eliminating the ionospheric error, e.g. by the ionosphere free (IF observable, which is a linear combination of observables on two frequencies such as GPS L1 and L2, accounts for about 99 % of the total ionospheric effect, known as the first order ionospheric effect (Ion1. The remaining 1 % residual range errors (RREs in the IF observable are due to the higher – second and third, order ionospheric effects, Ion2 and Ion3, respectively. Both terms are related with the electron content along the signal path; moreover Ion2 term is associated with the influence of the geomagnetic field on the ionospheric refractive index and Ion3 with the ray bending effect of the ionosphere, which can cause significant deviation in the ray trajectory (due to strong electron density gradients in the ionosphere such that the error contribution of Ion3 can exceed that of Ion2 (Kim and Tinin, 2007.

    The higher order error terms do not cancel out in the (first order ionospherically corrected observable and as such, when not accounted for, they can degrade the accuracy of GNSS positioning, depending on the level of the solar activity and geomagnetic and ionospheric conditions (Hoque and Jakowski, 2007. Simulation results from early 1990s show that Ion2 and Ion3 would contribute to the ionospheric error budget by less than 1 % of the Ion1 term at GPS frequencies (Datta-Barua et al., 2008. Although the IF observable may provide sufficient accuracy for most GNSS applications, Ion2 and Ion3 need to be considered for higher accuracy demanding applications especially at times of higher solar activity.

    This paper investigates the higher

  1. The role of social position and depressive symptoms in adolescence for life-course trajectories of education and work: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landstedt, Evelina; Brydsten, Anna; Hammarström, Anne; Virtanen, Pekka; Almquist, Ylva B

    2016-11-18

    While a vast amount of studies confirm the social reproduction of class and status from one generation to the next, less is known about the role of health in the child generation for these processes. Research has shown that particularly mental distress in adolescence is important for future life chances. This study aimed to examine the importance of parental socioeconomic position and depressive symptoms in youth for life-course trajectories of education and labour market attachment among men and women. Based on four waves of questionnaire data from the Northern Swedish Cohort (n = 1,001), consisting of individuals born in 1965, three steps of gender-separate analyses were undertaken. First, the individual trajectories of education and labour market attachment from age 18 to 42 were mapped through sequence analysis. Second, cluster analysis was used to identify typical trajectories. Third, two indicators of parental socioeconomic position - occupational class and employment status - and depressive symptoms at age 16 were used in multinomial regression analyses to predict adult life-course trajectories. Four typical trajectories were identified for men, of which three were characterised by stable employment and various lengths of education, and the fourth reflected a more unstable situation. Among women, five trajectories emerged, characterised by more instability compared to men. Low parental occupational class and unemployment were significantly associated with a higher risk of ending up in less advantaged trajectories for men while, for women, this was only the case for occupational class. Youth levels of depressive symptoms did not significantly differ across the trajectories. This study found support for the intergenerational reproduction of social position, particularly when measured in terms of parental occupational class. Youth depressive symptoms did not show clear differences across types of trajectories, subsequently impeding such symptoms to trigger any

  2. Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Depressive Symptoms in HIV-Positive Individuals: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Saeedeh; Khalili, Hossein; Abbasian, Ladan; Arbabi, Mohammad; Ghaeli, Padideh

    2016-10-01

    The antidepressant effect of omega-3 fatty acids has been described in the non-HIV population. The effect of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on the mood status of HIV-positive patients has not been evaluated yet. In this study, the effect of omega-3 fatty acids on depressive symptoms was evaluated in HIV-positive individuals. A total of 100 HIV-positive patients with Beck Depression Score ≥16, were assigned to receive either omega-3 fatty acids or placebo twice daily for 8 weeks. Depressive symptoms of each participant were evaluated at baseline (month 0) and at the end of months 1 and 2 of the study. Beck Depression Inventory Second Edition, depression subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Patient Health Questionnaire were used for assessment of depressive symptoms. Reduction in mean ± SD of all depression scores during the study period was statistically significant within the omega-3 group and when compared with the placebo group (for both comparisons, P fatty acids improved depressive symptoms in HIV-positive individuals without any significant adverse reaction. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Bipolar Disorder and the TCI: Higher Self-Transcendence in Bipolar Disorder Compared to Major Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Harley

    2011-01-01

    With correction for mood state, total harm avoidance (HA was higher than unaffected in both MDD and BP groups, but the mood disorder groups did not differ from each other. However, BP1 individuals had higher self-transcendence (ST than those with MDD and unaffected relatives. HA may reflect a trait marker of mood disorders whereas high ST may be specific to BP. As ST is heritable, genes that affect ST may be of relevance for vulnerability to BP.

  4. A randomised controlled trial of positive memory training for the treatment of depression within schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steel, Craig; van der Gaag, Mark; Korrelboom, Kees; Simon, Judit; Phiri, Peter; Baksh, M. Fazil; Wykes, Til; Rose, Diana; Rose, Suzanna; Hardcastle, Mark; Enright, Simon; Evans, Gareth; Kingdon, David

    2015-01-01

    Background Depression is highly prevalent within individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia, and is associated with an increased risk of suicide. There are no current evidence based treatments for low mood within this group. The specific targeting of co-morbid conditions within complex mental health

  5. The Concept of Alliance as an Image and Positioning Instrument for Institutions of Higher Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Manuel Alcántar Enríquez

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The present work provides a foundation for the concept of alliance which includes the ability of this to foster the university’s societal position as based on public perception of the institution. Accordingly, the work briefly addresses the development of the university’s collaboration with the productive sector, and emphasizes the need for institutions of higher learning to consider as well, those social sectors (including the government outside the realm of industry or technological expansion. The study concludes by affirming that alliance can become an effective instrument for promoting the university. It is therefore necessary to research the social perception of the university as a means of bolstering its relevance.

  6. Beam position diagnostics with higher order modes in third harmonic superconducting accelerating cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, P; Baboi, Nicoleta

    2012-01-01

    Higher order modes (HOM) are electromagnetic resonant fields. They can be excited by an electron beam entering an accelerating cavity, and constitute a component of the wakefield. This wakefield has the potential to dilute the beam quality and, in the worst case, result in a beam-break-up instability. It is therefore important to ensure that these fields are well suppressed by extracting energy through special couplers. In addition, the effect of the transverse wakefield can be reduced by aligning the beam on the cavity axis. This is due to their strength depending on the transverse offset of the excitation beam. For suitably small offsets the dominant components of the transverse wakefield are dipole modes, with a linear dependence on the transverse offset of the excitation bunch. This fact enables the transverse beam position inside the cavity to be determined by measuring the dipole modes extracted from the couplers, similar to a cavity beam position monitor (BPM), but requires no additional vacuum instrum...

  7. Higher derivative gravity, causality and positivity of energy in a UV complete QFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofman, Diego M. [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)], E-mail: dhofman@Princeton.edu

    2009-12-11

    In this note we discuss the relation between the constraints imposed by causality in the bulk of AdS and the condition of positivity of the energy measured in ideal calorimeters in a collider experiment in the dual CFT. We first extend the analysis in the literature and recover all bounds imposed by causality of the boundary theory in the bulk dynamics for all polarizations of the graviton and the gauge boson field. These results translate to specific bounds for the ratio of central charges a/c in the dual CFT, already found by analyzing the energy one point function. Then, we generalize this discussion and we study shock wave backgrounds in which we make manifest the relation between causality in the bulk and the three point function in the dual field theory. We remark that particular care has to be given to the exponentiation procedure of the three point function when solving the classical equations of motion in the higher gravity theory, as it is not clear that every theory will present causality problems. Finally, we present a field theoretic argument explaining the positivity of energy condition in any UV complete QFT.

  8. Plasma insulin-like growth factor I levels are higher in depressive and anxiety disorders, but lower in antidepressant medication users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bot, Mariska; Milaneschi, Yuri; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Drent, Madeleine L

    2016-06-01

    It has been postulated that many peripheral and (neuro)biological systems are involved in psychiatric disorders such as depression. Some studies found associations of depression and antidepressant treatment with insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) - a pleiotropic hormone affecting neuronal growth, survival and plasticity - but evidence is mixed. We therefore studied whether depressive and anxiety disorders were associated with plasma IGF-I, and explored the role of antidepressant medication in this association in a large observational study. The sample consisted of 2714 participants enrolled in The Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety, classified as healthy controls (n=602), antidepressant users (76 remitted and 571 with current depressive and/or anxiety disorder(s), n=647), persons having remitted depressive and/or anxiety disorder(s) without antidepressant use (n=502), and persons having current depressive and/or anxiety disorder(s) without antidepressant use (n=963). Associations with IGF-I concentrations were studied and adjusted for socio-demographic, health, and lifestyle variables. Relative to healthy controls, antidepressant-free individuals with current disorders had significantly higher IGF-I levels (Cohen's d=0.08, p=0.006), whereas antidepressant-free individuals with remitted disorders had a trend towards higher IGF-I levels (d=0.06, p=0.09). Associations were evident for depressive and for anxiety disorders. In contrast, antidepressant users had significantly lower IGF-I levels compared to healthy controls (d=-0.08, p=0.028). Our findings suggests that antidepressant medication use modifies the association between depressive/anxiety disorders and plasma IGF-I. These results corroborate with findings of some previous small-scale case-control and intervention studies. The higher IGF-I levels related to depression and anxiety might point to a compensatory mechanism to counterbalance the impaired neurogenesis, although future studies are needed to

  9. Higher quality of life and lower depression for people on ART in Uganda as compared to a community control group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faith Martin

    Full Text Available Provision of antiretroviral treatment (ART to people living with HIV (PLWH has increased globally. Research measuring whether ART restores subjective well-being to "normal" levels is lacking, particularly in resource limited settings. The study objectives are to compare quality of life and depression symptoms for PLWH on ART to a general community population and to explore factors to explain these differences, including socio-economic status and the impact of urban or rural residence. PLWH on ART (n = 263 were recruited from ART delivery sites and participants not on ART (n = 160 were recruited from communities in Wakiso District, Uganda. Participants were interviewed using the translated World Health Organisation Quality of Life brief measure, the Hopkins Symptom Checklist depression section, and questions about socio-economic status, residence as urban or rural and, for PLWH on ART, self-reported adherence and use of HIV counselling. Compared to the community sample and controlling for location of residence, PLWH on ART had significantly higher quality of life (QOL for physical, psychological and environment domains, but not the social domain. These differences were not due to socio-economic status alone. Depression scores were significantly lower for PLWH on ART. Both comparisons controlled for the effect of location of residence. People on ART self-reported high adherence and the majority had used HIV counselling services. Our findings show better QOL amongst PLWH on ART compared to a general community sample, which cannot be explained solely by differences in socio-economic status nor location of residence. The general community sample results point towards the challenges of life in this setting. Access to health services may underpin this difference and further research should explore this finding, in addition to identification of psychological mechanisms that relate to better QOL. ART provision infrastructure has clear benefits

  10. Incremental decreases in quality-adjusted life years (QALY) associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms for U.S. Adults aged 65 years and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Haomiao; Lubetkin, Erica I

    2017-01-11

    Quality-adjusted life years (QALY) is a single value index that quantifies the overall burden of disease. It reflects all aspects of heath, including nonfatal illness and mortality outcomes by weighting life-years lived with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) scores. This study examine the burden of disease due to increasing levels of depressive symptoms by examining the association between the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) scores and QALY for U.S. adults aged 65 years and older. We ascertained respondents' HRQOL scores and mortality status from the 2005-2006, 2007-2008, and 2009-2010 cohorts of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) with mortality follow-up data through December 31, 2011. This analysis included respondents aged 65 years and older (n = 3,680). We estimated the mean QALY throughout the remaining lifetime according to participants' depression severity categories: none or minimal (PHQ-9 score 0-4), mild (5-9), moderate (10-14), and moderately severs and severe (15 or higher). We estimated QALY loss due to major depressive disorder (PHQ-9 score 10 or higher) and to mild depression (5-9). The QALY for persons with none/minimal, mild, moderate, and moderately severe/severe depression were 14.0, 7.8, 4.7, and 3.3 years, respectively. Compared to persons without major depressive disorder, persons with major depressive disorder had 8.3 fewer QALY (12.7 vs. 4.4), or a 65% loss. Compared to persons who reported "none" or minimal depressive symptoms, persons who reported mild depressive symptoms had 6.2 fewer QALY (14.0 vs. 7.8), or a 44% loss. The same patterns were noted in demographic and socioeconomic subgroups and according to number of comorbidities. This study not only confirmed the significant burden of disease for major depressive disorder among the U.S. elderly, but also showed an incremental decrease in QALY with an increasing severity of depressive symptoms as well as significant QALY loss due to mild

  11. Child Perfectionism and its Relationship with Personality, Excessive Parental Demands, Depressive Symptoms and Experience of Positive Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oros, Laura B; Iuorno, Ornella; Serppe, Mónica

    2017-02-13

    While adaptive perfectionism ensures good overall performance, maladaptive perfectionism is associated with emotional disorders for which psychological treatment is sought. There are many factors that can explain the development of this disorder throughout childhood. The present study analyzed to what extent the child's personality traits and excessive parental demands can predict maladaptive perfectionism, and, in turn, also analyzed how this relates to positive emotions and depressive symptoms in a sample of 404 Argentinian children (M age = 10.30; SD = 1.03). Stepwise multiple regression analyses and Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were performed. Results showed that excessive parental demands, together with high child neuroticism increased the likelihood of developing perfectionism (p perfectionism increased the symptoms of depression (p perfectionism are discussed, clarifying their effects on children's mental health.

  12. Predictors of time to remission from depression in primary case patients : Do some people benefit more from positive life change than others?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldehinkel, A.J.; Ormel, J.; Neeleman, Jan

    2000-01-01

    The authors examined the role of personality, social support, and coping strategies and their interaction with positive life change (PLC) in influencing time to remission from depression in 86 depressed primary care patients (69% women, mean age = 36.6 years), who were followed for 3.5 years. Diagno

  13. An Action-Oriented Perspective on Caring Leadership: A Qualitative Study of Higher Education Administrators' Positive Leadership Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uusiautti, Satu

    2013-01-01

    Interest in human experiences, especially positive experiences, has been increasing ever since positive psychology gained a foothold in public attention. In this research, higher education administrators from Finland and the USA ("N"?=?13) were asked to describe positive or successful situations or chains of events in which their…

  14. An Action-Oriented Perspective on Caring Leadership: A Qualitative Study of Higher Education Administrators' Positive Leadership Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uusiautti, Satu

    2013-01-01

    Interest in human experiences, especially positive experiences, has been increasing ever since positive psychology gained a foothold in public attention. In this research, higher education administrators from Finland and the USA ("N"?=?13) were asked to describe positive or successful situations or chains of events in which their…

  15. Beam position diagnostics with higher order modes in third harmonic superconducting accelerating cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Pei

    2013-02-15

    Higher order modes (HOM) are electromagnetic resonant fields. They can be excited by an electron beam entering an accelerating cavity, and constitute a component of the wakefield. This wakefield has the potential to dilute the beam quality and, in the worst case, result in a beam-break-up instability. It is therefore important to ensure that these fields are well suppressed by extracting energy through special couplers. In addition, the effect of the transverse wakefield can be reduced by aligning the beam on the cavity axis. This is due to their strength depending on the transverse offset of the excitation beam. For suitably small offsets the dominant components of the transverse wakefield are dipole modes, with a linear dependence on the transverse offset of the excitation bunch. This fact enables the transverse beam position inside the cavity to be determined by measuring the dipole modes extracted from the couplers, similar to a cavity beam position monitor (BPM), but requires no additional vacuum instrumentation. At the FLASH facility in DESY, 1.3 GHz (known as TESLA) and 3.9 GHz (third harmonic) cavities are installed. Wakefields in 3.9 GHz cavities are significantly larger than in the 1.3 GHz cavities. It is therefore important to mitigate the adverse effects of HOMs to the beam by aligning the beam on the electric axis of the cavities. This alignment requires an accurate beam position diagnostics inside the 3.9 GHz cavities. It is this aspect that is focused on in this thesis. Although the principle of beam diagnostics with HOM has been demonstrated on 1.3 GHz cavities, the realization in 3.9 GHz cavities is considerably more challenging. This is due to the dense HOM spectrum and the relatively strong coupling of most HOMs amongst the four cavities in the third harmonic cryo-module. A comprehensive series of simulations and HOM spectra measurements have been performed in order to study the modal band structure of the 3.9 GHz cavities. The dependencies of

  16. Treatment-Resistant Depressed Youth Show a Higher Response Rate If Treatment Ends during Summer School Break

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamseddeen, Wael; Clarke, Gregory; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Ryan, Neal D.; Birmaher, Boris; Emslie, Graham; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Porta, Giovanna; Mayes, Taryn; Keller, Martin B.; Brent, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: There is little work on the effect of school on response to treatment of depression, with available research suggesting that children and adolescents with school difficulties are less likely to respond to fluoxetine compared with those with no school difficulties. Method: Depressed adolescents in the Treatment of Resistant Depression in…

  17. Treatment-Resistant Depressed Youth Show a Higher Response Rate If Treatment Ends during Summer School Break

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamseddeen, Wael; Clarke, Gregory; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Ryan, Neal D.; Birmaher, Boris; Emslie, Graham; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Porta, Giovanna; Mayes, Taryn; Keller, Martin B.; Brent, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: There is little work on the effect of school on response to treatment of depression, with available research suggesting that children and adolescents with school difficulties are less likely to respond to fluoxetine compared with those with no school difficulties. Method: Depressed adolescents in the Treatment of Resistant Depression in…

  18. DHA serum levels were significantly higher in celiac disease patients compared to healthy controls and were unrelated to depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie J M van Hees

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Celiac disease (CD, a genetically predisposed intolerance for gluten, is associated with an increased risk of major depressive disorder (MDD. We investigated whether dietary intake and serum levels of the essential n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexanoic acid (DHA found in fatty fish play a role in this association. METHODS: Cross-sectional study in 71 adult CD patients and 31 healthy volunteers, matched on age, gender and level of education, who were not using n-3 PUFA supplements. Dietary intake, as assessed using a 203-item food frequency questionnaire, and serum levels of EPA and DHA were compared in analyses of covariance, adjusting for potential confounders. Serum PUFA were determined using gas chromatography. RESULTS: Mean serum DHA was significantly higher in CD patients (1.72 mass% than controls (1.28 mass% after multivariable adjustment (mean diff. 0.45 mass%; 95% CI: 0.22-0.68; p = 0.001. The mean intake of EPA plus DHA did not differ between CD patients and controls after multivariable adjustment (0.15 and 0.22 g/d, respectively; p = 0.10. There were no significant differences in intake or serum levels of EPA and DHA between any of the CD patient groups (never depressed, current MDD, minor/partially remitted MDD, remitted MDD and controls. CONCLUSIONS: Patients on a long term gluten-free diet had similar intakes of EPA plus DHA compared to controls. Contrary to expectations, DHA serum levels were significantly higher in CD patients compared to healthy controls and were unrelated to MDD status.

  19. Group Training of Stress Management vs. Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in Reducing Depression, Anxiety and Perceived Stress Among HIV-Positive Men

    OpenAIRE

    Hemmati Sabet, Akbar; Khalatbari, Javad; Abbas Ghorbani, Maryam; Haghighi, Mohammad; Ahmadpanah, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effectiveness of group training of stress management with cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in reducing depression, anxiety and stress perceived among HIV-positive men. Methods:Inthis semi-experimental study, three groups of HIV-positive men (CBT group, stress management group, and control group) including 15 patients in each group were compared regarding depression, anxiety, and stress using pre-test and post-test tools. Results: Both interventions (CBT and stress ...

  20. Two Positions in the International Debate about Higher Education: The World Bank and UNESCO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Rollin

    This paper analyzes and compares two 1994 reports on the state of higher education in developing nations, the World Bank's "Higher Education: The Lesson of Experience" and the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization's (UNESCO) "Policy Paper on Change and Development in Higher Education." It examines the assumptions,…

  1. Well-Being, Leadership, and Positive Organizational Scholarship: A Case Study of Project-Based Learning in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Nance; Goodman, Fallon R.

    2015-01-01

    The emerging fields of positive psychology and positive organizational scholarship (POS) contribute new perspectives and approaches for leadership education and leadership development in higher education. While there are emerging empirical studies in these new fields, little connection has been made to the intellectual and practical applications…

  2. Altered Striatal Activation Predicting Real-World Positive Affect in Adolescent Major Depressive Disorder

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moyles, Donna L; Birmaher, Boris; Brown, Sarah M; Fisher, Patrick M; Forbes, Erika E; Martin, Samantha L; Silk, Jennifer S; Ryan, Neal D; Axelson, David A; Dahl, Ronald E; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2009-01-01

    ..., completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging guessing task involving monetary reward. Participants also reported their subjective positive affect in natural environments during a 4-day cell-phone-based ecological momentary assessment...

  3. Assessing Europe's Initiatives to Boost the Competitive Position of Its Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlier, Jean-Emile

    2008-01-01

    This issue and the winter 2007-2008 issue (vol. 39, no. 4) of "European Education" address the implications of competition for the future of European higher education. Studies bear on the initiatives taken over the past few years in Europe to enhance the harmonization of European higher education systems and particularly the Bologna…

  4. Anxiety and depressive symptoms are associated with higher carotid intima-media thickness. Cross-sectional analysis from ELSA-Brasil baseline data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Itamar S; Goulart, Alessandra C; Brunoni, André R; Kemp, Andrew H; Lotufo, Paulo A; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2015-06-01

    Studies focusing on the association between anxiety/depressive symptoms and accelerated subclinical atherosclerosis have yielded mixed results. Our aim is to examine associations between anxiety/depressive symptoms, common mental disorder (CMD), major depression disorder (MDD) or generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) cohort baseline. The ELSA-Brasil baseline assessment included CIMT measurements and the Clinical Interview Schedule - Revised (CIS-R), a validated questionnaire for anxiety/depressive symptoms/diagnoses. We analyzed participants without previous coronary heart disease or stroke, and with high-quality CIMT images. We built regression models to determine whether the CIS-R score, CMD, MDD or GAD were associated with maximal CIMT levels. The study sample comprised 9744 participants. We found that individuals with higher CIS-R scores (Odds ratio for one standard deviation increase [OR]:1.12; 95% confidence interval [95%CI]:1.06-1.19), CMD (OR:1.22; 95%CI:1.07-1.38) and GAD (OR:1.19; 95%CI:1.01-1.41) had significantly higher odds of being classified in the highest age, sex and race-specific CIMT quartile. In the linear models, after adjustment for traditional cardiovascular risk factors, higher CIS-R scores (β:0.005; P = 0.010) and GAD (β:0.010; P = 0.049) were independently associated with CIMT values. Individuals with more symptoms of anxiety and/or depression, or diagnoses of CMD or GAD, had higher CIMT values, compared to peers of same age, sex and race. CIS-R scores and GAD were independently associated with higher CIMT values. These results suggest an association between anxiety/depressive symptoms (and, most notably, GAD) and accelerated subclinical atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Moment-to-moment transfer of positive emotions in daily life predicts future course of depression in both general population and patient samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Höhn

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Positive affect (PA is closely linked to prevention of, and recovery from, depression. Previous studies have investigated PA reactivity to pleasant situations with respect to its protective properties in relation to mood disorder. The purpose of this study was to examine, and replicate, whether moment-to-moment transfer of PA in daily life (PA persistence is relevant to the prediction of future course of depression. METHOD: Individuals from three different studies (one general population sample (n=540, and two patient samples (n=43 and n=50 with matching controls (n=39 and n=21, respectively participated in an Experience Sampling Method (ESM study. Time-lagged multilevel analyses were used to assess the degree of transfer (or persistence of momentary positive affective states over time, in relation to naturalistic outcome (study 1 or treatment outcome (studies 2 and 3. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90R in sample 1 and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS in samples 2 and 3. RESULTS: In study 1, participants with greater momentary PA persistence were less likely to show depressive symptoms at follow-up. In study 2, patients were more likely to respond to treatment if they displayed greater momentary PA persistence, particularly in those with recurrent depression. In study 3, patients with greater momentary PA persistence were similarly more likely to respond to treatment, especially when treated with imipramine rather than placebo. CONCLUSION: The ability to transfer PA from one moment to the next is an important factor in the prevention of and recovery from depressive symptoms. Patients with recurrent depression and those who receive antidepressants rather than placebo may benefit most from this effect. The results suggest that treatment-induced improvement in depression is mediated by increased levels of momentary transfer of PA in daily life, acquisition of which may be contingent on

  6. Induced abortion is not associated with a higher likelihood of depression in Curaçao women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boersma, Adriana A; van den Berg, Desirée; van Lunsen, Rik H W; Laan, Ellen T M

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the risk of developing a depression after induced abortion. A prospective cohort study conducted in Curaçao which involved 92 women having an induced abortion and 37 women delivering after an unplanned or unwanted pregnancy, who served as controls. All participants completed the Center of Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) scale before and two to three weeks after the abortion or delivery. Following the abortion, significantly fewer women were at risk of depression (30%) as compared to when still pregnant (60%). Mean depression scores were significantly lower after- than before the procedure. The likelihood of depression post-abortum (30%) was similar to that after delivery of an unplanned/unwanted child (22%). Even though women in the abortion group more often reported having suffered from depression in the past than controls, they were not at greater risk of depression after their pregnancy had ended. Curaçao women's risk of developing a depression following an (early) induced abortion is not greater than that after carrying to term an unplanned/unwanted pregnancy. We recommend that the results of this study be taken into account in case the Curaçao government should consider legalisation of induced abortion in the near future.

  7. Serial position effects scoring in the assessment of memory in Alzheimer's disease and major depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemelmans, Karel Jozef

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to validate serial position effects (SPE’S) scoring in the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). The RAVLT is a much used clinical method for assessing memory performance, but the method of scoring obfuscates that two memory processes underlie free recall. This

  8. Serial position effects scoring in the assessment of memory in Alzheimer's disease and major depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemelmans, Karel Jozef

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to validate serial position effects (SPE’S) scoring in the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). The RAVLT is a much used clinical method for assessing memory performance, but the method of scoring obfuscates that two memory processes underlie free recall. This

  9. Improving Quality of Life for Patients with Major Depressive Disorder by Increasing Hope and Positive Expectations with Future Directed Therapy (FDT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhauer, Jennice S; Cortes, Julissa; Moali, Nazanin; Chung, Sally; Mirocha, James; Ishak, Waguih William

    2013-03-01

    Impaired quality of life is a significant problem for people with major depressive disorder and is often not addressed through symptom remediation alone. This study examines a new therapy for the treatment for depression that focuses on reducing hopelessness and increasing positive future anticipation, which are factors posited to contribute to quality of life. The new treatment was compared to depressed patients in the same setting treated with group cognitive behavioral therapy. This study used a quasi-experimental design to examine the differences between future directed therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy on improving quality of life in patients with major depressive disorder. The main variables assessed at pre and post-treatment were quality of life, depressive symptoms, and hopelessness. Outpatient Department of Psychiatry Cedars-Sinai Medical Center Participants: Twenty-two patients completed the future directed therapy intervention and 20 patients completed the cognitive behavioral therapy intervention. Patient-reported outcomes were collected using the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptoms, the Beck Hopelessness Scale, and the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire-Short Form. Though both treatments were effective at improving depression, hopelessness and positive future anticipation, those patients treated with future directed therapy demonstrated significant improvements in quality of life (p=0.002) while those treated in the cognitive behavioral therapy group did not (p=0.463). The magnitude of change for the main variables was significantly larger in the future directed therapy group and change in hopelessness and change in positive anticipation predicted change in quality of life in the future directed therapy group but not the cognitive behavioral therapy group. Future directed therapy is a useful treatment for patients with major depressive disorder and quality of life impairment.

  10. Positive outcomes of participatory ergonomics in terms of greater comfort and higher productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, P.; Koningsveld, E.A.P.; Molenbroek, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    Ergonomics sometimes has a negative connotation, as it is seen to be connected to illness or guidelines that limit innovations. This paper is focused on the positive aspects of ergonomics in improvement of the working environment. It consists of a part that studies the literature on success factors

  11. Glocalization as an Alternative to Internationalization in Higher Education: Embedding Positive Glocal Learning Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Fay; Lynch, Hayley

    2013-01-01

    The notion of internationalization in higher education is understood as the recruitment of international students, marketing of academic programs and courses, and teaching English as a Second Language to student cohorts from Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Various models of internationalization (Knight, 2004, 2006; Leask, 2009; Pimpa, 2009;…

  12. African American Faculty Women Experiences of Underrepresentation in Computer Technology Positions in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Dolores

    2013-01-01

    African American women are underrepresented in computer technology disciplines in institutions of higher education throughout the United States. Although equitable gender representation is progressing in most fields, much less information is available on why institutions are still lagging in workforce diversity, a problem which can be lessened by…

  13. Pavlov's Position on Old Age within the Framework of the Theory of Higher Nervous Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windholz, George

    1995-01-01

    In later life, I. P. Pavlov incorporated his findings on aging into his theory of higher nervous activity. Some of the major findings showed that salivary conditioning and stimulus differentiation were difficult to establish in old dogs, but that conditioned reflexes established earlier in life persisted into old age. Pavlov hypothesized that…

  14. The Position of Geotechnical Engineering and Risk Management in Dutch Higher Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broere, W.; Van Dalen, J.; Van der Schrier, J.

    2015-01-01

    As part of the Dutch national research program GeoImpuls an inventory has been made of the state of the education at Dutch institutes of higher education and post-graduate education in so far as this education concerns geotechncial engineering and geotechnical risk management. Significant difference

  15. Purplebook Delta: For Improving Performance in an Established Position in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coole, Walter A.

    The "Purplebook" is an essential part of the "Greenbook System", which is an integrated sequence of five individualized programs (Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, Epsilon) designed for the professional development of college educators. The Delta program is aimed at professional staff in higher education who are just completing…

  16. The Application of Open Systems Theory and Organization Development to Higher Education: A Position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Vicki; Mink, Oscar G.

    This monograph sets forth a portion of the research and theory base underlying the organization development program, 1 of the 3 major components of the National Laboratory for Higher Education''s Administrative and Organizational Systems program. It depicts some of the linkages among organization development, institutional research, information…

  17. Pavlov's Position on Old Age within the Framework of the Theory of Higher Nervous Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windholz, George

    1995-01-01

    In later life, I. P. Pavlov incorporated his findings on aging into his theory of higher nervous activity. Some of the major findings showed that salivary conditioning and stimulus differentiation were difficult to establish in old dogs, but that conditioned reflexes established earlier in life persisted into old age. Pavlov hypothesized that…

  18. How to Reflect the Guiding position of Teachers in the English Self-Taught Higher Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佟丹丹

    2012-01-01

    The paperaims to generalize the underlying teaching methods tailed to the self-taught higher education in China.The interview cast a specific experiment on the sophomores in one of the university.Considering the existing disadvantages and shortcomings on hand, the writer reveals the unveilings on depth.

  19. The positional control of mitosis and cytokinesis in higher-plant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez-Abián, M I; Utrilla, L; Cánovas, J L; Giménez-Martín, G; Navarrete, M H; De la Torre, C

    1998-01-01

    The present work establishes a correlation between cell length and patterns of mitotic microtubular assemblies in Allium cepa L. root meristems. Binucleate cells were formed by a short caffeine treatment which aborted the formation of the phragmoplast during telophase. The largest binucleate cells (about 50 microns in length) behaved as two contiguous mononucleate cells in their next mitosis: they developed two preprophase bands (PPBs), one around each nucleus, where two spindles and two phragmoplasts were subsequently formed. On the other hand, the shortest binucleate cells (about 36 microns in length) formed a single PPB at the site of the aborted phragmoplast and, in the medium-sized cells (about 44 microns) in which the single PPB formed around the nucleus possessing the largest cytoplasmic environment, the two mitotic spindles and the new phragmoplasts moved to, or were assembled in the position of the phragmoplast that had been aborted one cycle earlier. Some rules derive from these observations. First of all, the aborted phragmoplast left a signal for microtubule positioning which was still operative one cycle later, in two-thirds of the bimitoses. Also, that formation of the PPB is dispensable. Moreover, its development does not always predict the future division plane, because of the presence of competing old signals which are stronger than those shed by the PPB in the same mitosis, but which fade away with distance. Finally, the positional signals were reinforced when the ratio of monomeric to fibrillar actin was increased by cytochalasin D during their shedding. When this drug was given simultaneously with caffeine, the frequency of bimitoses which, one cycle later, developed spindles and phragmoplasts in the positions of the old phragmoplast increased. On the other hand, those frequencies dropped in relation to control when the cytochalasin D treatment took place during bimitosis, indicating that at this time the treatment reinforced the signals

  20. Enriched environment induces higher CNPase positive cells in aged rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuan-Yu; Shi, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Lei; Wu, Hong; Chao, Feng-Lei; Huang, Chun-Xia; Gao, Yuan; Qiu, Xuan; Chen, Lin; Lu, Wei; Tang, Yong

    2013-10-25

    It had been reported that enriched environment was beneficial for the brain cognition and for the neurons and synapses in hippocampus. Previous study reported that the oligodendrocyte density in hippocampus was increased when the rats were reared in the enriched environment from weaning to adulthood. However, biological conclusions based on density were difficult to interpret because the changes in density could be due to an alteration of total quantity and/or an alteration in the reference volume. In the present study, we used unbiased stereological methods to investigate the effect of enriched environment on the total number of 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) positive cells in CA1 and dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus in aged rats. Our results indicated that there was significant difference in the total numbers of CNPase positive cells in both CA1 and DG between enriched environment group and standard environment group. The present study provided the first evidence for the protective effects of enriched environment on the CNPase positive cells in aged hippocampus.

  1. Spina bifida with higher position of sacral hiatus: a case report with clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srijit, D; Shipra, P

    2007-01-01

    Spina bifida is a developmental defect in the vertebral column, in which the laminae fail to fuse and thereby the spinal cord is relatively unprotected. We report a case of spina bifida, in a dried specimen of sacrum, characterized by a prominent S1 spine and a higher sacral hiatus. Conventional textbooks of anatomy provide less information about the clinical implications of such anomalies and research studies are the only source of information. The present study, discusses in detail, the structural and radiological aspects of spina bifida, with a higher sacral hiatus. Precise knowledge of normal and abnormal anatomy of the sacrum may be clinically important for anesthetists, neurologists, radiologists and orthopedic surgeons, in their clinical practice (Fig. 3, Ref. 16). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk

  2. Positive Attitude toward Healthy Eating Predicts Higher Diet Quality at All Cost Levels of Supermarkets ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Aggarwal, Anju; Monsivais, Pablo; Cook, Andrea J.; Drewnowski, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Shopping at low-cost supermarkets has been associated with higher obesity rates. This study examined whether attitudes toward healthy eating are independently associated with diet quality among shoppers at low-cost, medium-cost, and high-cost supermarkets. Data on socioeconomic status (SES), attitudes toward healthy eating, and supermarket choice were collected using a telephone survey of a representative sample of adult residents of King County, WA. Dietary intake data were based on a food f...

  3. Some remarks on position of humanities in the internationalized higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Barbarić

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Active participation in the internationalization of science and higher education would no longer be just a efficient tool to establish and promote a process of globalization with its strong unifying tendencies as quick as possibly, but could become free and equal dialogue between the independent nations and cultural circles in the equal and common pursuit of the listening each other in the pluralized world

  4. Penrose inequalities and a positive mass theorem for charged black holes in higher dimension

    CERN Document Server

    de Lima, Levi Lopes; Lozório, Weslley; Silva, Juscelino

    2014-01-01

    We use the inverse mean curvature flow to establish Penrose-type inequalities for time-symmetric Einstein-Maxwell initial data sets which can be suitably embedded as a hypersurface in Euclidean space $\\mathbb R^{n+1}$, $n\\geq 3$. In particular, we prove a positive mass theorem for this class of charged black holes. As an application we show that the conjectured upper bound for the area in terms of the mass and the charge, which in dimension $n=3$ is relevant in connection with the Cosmic Censorship Conjecture, always holds under the natural assumption that the horizon is stable as a minimal hypersurface.

  5. Positive Supercompilation for a Higher-Order Call-By-Value Language

    CERN Document Server

    Jonsson, Peter A

    2010-01-01

    Previous deforestation and supercompilation algorithms may introduce accidental termination when applied to call-by-value programs. This hides looping bugs from the programmer, and changes the behavior of a program depending on whether it is optimized or not. We present a supercompilation algorithm for a higher-order call-by-value language and prove that the algorithm both terminates and preserves termination properties. This algorithm utilizes strictness information to decide whether to substitute or not and compares favorably with previous call-by-name transformations.

  6. Mutual influence of higher diffusion and radiation modes on the contraction of the positive column discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubovskii, Yu B.; Siasko, A. V.; Nekuchaev, V. O.

    2017-01-01

    Fourier analysis of various plasma components in contracted discharge is made by an expansion over diffusion and radiation modes. Resonance atoms transport is traditionally described by an approximation of the effective lifetime by Holstein which considers only a fundamental radiation mode. Proposed method makes it possible to estimate the role of resonance radiation transport quantitatively by comparing the mode spectra. Behavior of resonance atoms successively considered on simple three-level energy models in a linear Shottky theory and in a semi-analytical non-linear diffusion-recombination theory, describing a discharge contraction. Suggested Fourier analysis method has been applied to a detailed model of the DC column contraction in Argon glow discharge. An expansion of different plasma components (electron density, metastable and resonance atoms densities) over the corresponding orthonormal set of diffusion or radiation modes is performed. The comparison of spectra obtained using the traditional Holstein approximation and in case of accurate treatment of resonance radiation transport shows an increase of fundamental diffusion and radiation modes and an effect of higher harmonics suppression in the modes spectra when the resonance radiation transport is described precisely. The role of higher radiation modes in formation of radial profiles of the electron density, metastable and resonance atoms densities as well as current-voltage characteristics is demonstrated by specific examples.

  7. A Single, One-Off Measure of Depression and Anxiety Predicts Future Symptoms, Higher Healthcare Costs, and Lower Quality of Life in Coronary Heart Disease Patients: Analysis from a Multi-Wave, Primary Care Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E Palacios

    Full Text Available To determine whether a one-off, baseline measure of depression and anxiety in a primary care, coronary heart disease (CHD population predicts ongoing symptoms, costs, and quality of life across a 3-year follow-up.Longitudinal cohort study.16 General Practice surgeries across South-East London.803 adults (70% male, mean age 71 years contributing up to 7 follow-up points.Ongoing reporting of symptoms, health care costs, and quality of life.At baseline, 27% of the sample screened positive for symptoms of depression and anxiety, as measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. The probability of scoring above the cut-off throughout the follow-up was 71.5% (p<0.001 for those screening positive at baseline, and for those screening negative, the probability of scoring below the cut-off throughout the follow-up was 97.6% (p<0.001. Total health care costs were 39% higher during follow-up for those screening positive (p<0.05. Quality of life as measured by the SF-12 was lower on the mental component during follow-up for those screening positive (-0.75, CI -1.53 to 0.03, p = 0.059, and significantly lower on the physical component (-4.99, CI -6.23 to -.376, p<0.001.A one-off measure for depression and anxiety symptoms in CHD predicts future symptoms, costs, and quality of life over the subsequent three-years. These findings suggest symptoms of depression and anxiety in CHD persist throughout long periods and are detrimental to a patient's quality of life, whilst incurring higher health care costs for primary and secondary care services. Screening for these symptoms at the primary care level is important to identify and manage patients at risk of the negative effects of this comorbidity. Implementation of screening, and possible collaborative care strategies and interventions that help mitigate this risk should be the ongoing focus of researchers and policy-makers.

  8. Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) does not depress left ventricular function in patients with pulmonary edema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvin, J.E.; Driedger, A.A.; Sibbald, W.J.

    1981-08-01

    Researchers evaluated the effects of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on left ventricular function in 15 patients with acute respiratory insufficiency secondary to pulmonary edema with invasive (pressure; flow) measurements and radionuclide angiography (RA). Using RNA allowed a definition of the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and then calculation of the left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV), both before and after PEEP. With a mean PEEP of 14.2 +/- 1.8 cm H2O (mean +/- SD) (range, 10 to 15), a fall in the cardiac index (4.34 +/- 1.5 to 3.84 +/- 1.4 L/min/M2; p less than 0.001) was accompanied by a significant decrease in the stroke volume index (42 +/- 13 to 39 +/- 12 ml/beat M2; p less than 0.01) and pulse rate (103.4 +/- 14.3 to 98 +/- 13.5 beats/min; p less than 0.01). The decrease in the stroke volume index was primarily due to a significant decrease in left ventricular preload (LVEDV) from 85.9 +/- 19 to 71.4 +/- 21.4 ml/m2 (p less than 0.01). Simultaneously, the mean LVEF increased from 0.47 +/- 0.10 to 0.53 +/- 0.08 (p less than 0.05), despite a significant increase in the systemic vascular resistance (1,619 +/- 575 to 1,864 +/- 617 dynes . s. cm-5/M2; p less than 0.01). Researchers concluded that the use of PEEP in patients with acute pulmonary edema, to the degree used in this study, may depress cardiac output by simply decreasing left ventricular preload. Researchers were unable to produce any evidence that would support a change in the contractile state of the left ventricle as a cause of depressed forward flow with the use of PEEP.

  9. The Role of Ethnic Culture in Work-Family Balance among Armenian Women in Leadership Positions in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Hasmig

    2012-01-01

    In contemporary society women leaders in education have struggled to balance work and family. While some women have succeeded in finding that balance, many others are still struggling. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the experiences of three Armenian women in senior-level leadership positions in higher education in the United…

  10. Workforce Diversity in Higher Education: Career Support Factors Influencing Ascendancy of African American Women to Senior-Level Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Tondelaya K.

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this study was how knowledge of the barriers to advancement for African American women (AAW) and key career support factors (KCSFs) influence the career advancement of African American women (AAW) to senior-level positions in higher education. The research method for this study consisted of the triangulation of evidence from multiple…

  11. Associations between HIV-related stigma, racial discrimination, gender discrimination, and depression among HIV-positive African, Caribbean, and Black women in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Carmen; James, Llana; Tharao, Wangari; Loutfy, Mona

    2013-02-01

    Abstract African, Caribbean, and Black (ACB) women are greatly overrepresented in new HIV infections in comparison with Canada's general population. Social and structural factors such as HIV-related stigma, gender discrimination, and racial discrimination converge to increase vulnerability to HIV infection among ACB women by reducing access to HIV prevention services. Stigma and discrimination also present barriers to treatment, care, and support and may contribute to mental health problems. We administered a cross-sectional survey to HIV-positive ACB women (n=173) across Ontario in order to examine the relationships between HIV-related stigma, gender discrimination, racial discrimination, and depression. One-third of participants reported moderate/severe depression scores using the Beck Depression Inventory Fast-Screen guidelines. Hierarchical block regression, moderation, and mediation analyses were conducted to measure associations between independent (HIV-related stigma, gender discrimination, racial discrimination), moderator/mediator (social support, resilient coping), and dependent (depression) variables. Findings included: (1) HIV-related stigma was associated with increased depression; (2) resilient coping was associated with reduced depression but did not moderate the influence of HIV-related stigma on depression; and (3) the effects of HIV-related stigma on depression were partially mediated through resilient coping. HIV-related stigma, gender discrimination, and racial discrimination were significantly correlated with one another and with depression, highlighting the salience of examining multiple intersecting forms of stigma. Generalizability of findings may be limited due to nonrandom sampling. Findings emphasize the importance of multi-component interventions, including building resilient coping skills, mental health promotion and assessment, and stigma reduction programs.

  12. Positive and negative affectivity in children: confirmatory factor analysis of a two-factor model and its relation to symptoms of anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonigan, C J; Hooe, E S; David, C F; Kistner, J A

    1999-06-01

    The positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) framework that is embodied in the tripartite model of anxiety and depression has proved useful with adult populations; however, there is as yet little investigation with children concerning either the measurement of PA and NA or the relation between PA and NA and levels of adjustment. A confirmatory factor analysis was used in this study to examine the structure of self-reported affect and its relation to depressive and anxious symptoms in school children (4th to 11th grade). Results supported a 2-factor orthogonal model that was invariant across age and sex. Support for the expected pattern of relations between NA and PA with symptoms of depression and anxiety was strong for the older sample (M = 14.2 years) but weaker for the younger sample (M = 10.3 years). Results also provide preliminary support for the reliability and validity of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule for children.

  13. Higher nutritional quality at no additional cost among low-income households: insights from food purchases of "positive deviants".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Lucile; Dubois, Christophe; Gaubard, Malu S; Maidon, Audrey; Lesturgeon, Audrey; Gaigi, Hind; Darmon, Nicole

    2015-07-01

    It is unknown whether diet quality is correlated with actual food expenditure. According to the positive deviance theory, the study of actual food expenditure by people with limited economic resources could help identify beneficial food-purchasing behavior. The aims were to investigate the relation between actual expenditure on food and nutritional quality and to identify "positive deviants" among low-income households. Individuals in deprived social situations (n = 91) were recruited as part of the "Opticourses" nutrition intervention conducted in 2012-2014 in poor districts of Marseille, France. Opticourses participants collected food-purchase receipts for their household over a 1-mo period. "Actual diet costs" and "estimated diet costs" were calculated per 2000 kcal of food purchases by using actual expenditures and a standard food price database of food consumed by a representative sample of French adults, respectively. Mean adequacy ratio (MAR), mean excess ratio (MER), and energy density (ED) were used as nutritional quality indicators. "Positive deviants" were defined as having a higher MAR and a lower MER than the respective median values. Opticourses participants selected less-expensive food options than the average French population, both within a food group and for a given food item. Higher diet costs were associated with higher nutritional quality (higher MAR, lower ED), regardless of whether costs were calculated from actual expenditure or on the basis of standard food prices. Twenty-one positive deviants were identified. They made significantly healthier purchases than did other participants (MAR: +13%; MER: -90%. ED: -22%) at higher estimated diet costs. Yet, they did not spend more on food (having the same actual diet costs), which showed that they purchased food with a higher nutritional quality for their price. In this low-income population, actual diet cost was positively correlated with nutritional quality, yet the results showed that higher

  14. Change in depressive symptoms over higher education and professional establishment - a longitudinal investigation in a national cohort of Swedish nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensson, Anna; Runeson, Bo; Dickman, Paul W; Vaez, Marjan

    2010-06-15

    There are indications of a high prevalence of psychological distress among students in higher education and also that distress increases over the course of study. However, not all studies on student distress controlled for sociodemographic differences and few followed development of distress over an extended period through professional establishment. We investigated if there is an independent effect of time in education and the first two years in the profession on depressive symptoms and mapped change over the period in a national cohort of students. Data came from LANE, a nation-wide longitudinal panel survey of Swedish nursing students (N = 1700) who responded to annual questionnaires over five years from 2002 to 2007. Depressive symptoms were measured by the Major Depression Inventory and change over time analysed in a linear mixed effects model for repeated measures. There was a significant change in level of depressive symptoms over time: an increase from the first to later years in education and a decrease to levels similar to baseline after graduation and a year in the profession. The change in symptoms remained significant after adjustment for sociodemographic factors (p education and professional establishment on depressive symptoms. We think heightened distress over education abates as the graduate accommodates to the profession. Nevertheless, within education, the differences in depressive symptoms associated to demographic factors can help identify student groups more vulnerable to distress. Also, as individual differences in distress seem to persist over time, perhaps students highly distressed in the beginning of education can be helped by awareness among educators of the elevated levels of distress in late education.

  15. DHA Serum Levels Were Significantly Higher in Celiac Disease Patients Compared to Healthy Controls and Were Unrelated to Depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hees, van N.J.M.; Giltay, E.J.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Janssen, N.; Does, van der A.J.W.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Celiac disease (CD), a genetically predisposed intolerance for gluten, is associated with an increased risk of major depressive disorder (MDD). We investigated whether dietary intake and serum levels of the essential n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and

  16. A Longitudinal Examination of Perceived Discrimination and Depressive Symptoms in Ethnic Minority Youth: The Roles of Attributional Style, Positive Ethnic/Racial Affect, and Emotional Reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Gabriela L.; Supple, Andrew J.; Huq, Nadia; Dunbar, Angel S.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2016-01-01

    Although perceived ethnic/racial discrimination is well established as a risk factor for depressive symptoms in ethnic minority youth, few studies have examined their longitudinal relationship over time. This study examined whether a negative attributional style, positive ethnic/racial affect, and emotional reactivity moderated the longitudinal…

  17. A Longitudinal Examination of Perceived Discrimination and Depressive Symptoms in Ethnic Minority Youth: The Roles of Attributional Style, Positive Ethnic/Racial Affect, and Emotional Reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Gabriela L.; Supple, Andrew J.; Huq, Nadia; Dunbar, Angel S.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2016-01-01

    Although perceived ethnic/racial discrimination is well established as a risk factor for depressive symptoms in ethnic minority youth, few studies have examined their longitudinal relationship over time. This study examined whether a negative attributional style, positive ethnic/racial affect, and emotional reactivity moderated the longitudinal…

  18. Maternal Depression, Parenting, and Youth Depressive Symptoms: Mediation and Moderation in a Short-Term Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olino, Thomas M; McMakin, Dana L; Nicely, Terri A; Forbes, Erika E; Dahl, Ronald E; Silk, Jennifer S

    2016-01-01

    Although multiple studies find that offspring of depressed mothers are at risk for depressive disorders, there is uncertainty about the specific mechanisms that are at work--particularly with respect to modifiable factors that might be targeted for early intervention. The present work examines that parenting behaviors may operate as mediators, moderators, or independent influences on the development of youth depressive symptoms. One hundred one mothers and their early adolescent children participated in positive and negative interaction tasks. Maternal and youth self-reports of youth depressive symptoms were collected at baseline, 9-month, and 18-month assessments. Maternal history of depression was significantly associated with maternal-reported, but not youth self-reported, depressive symptomatology. Maternal positive and negative interaction behaviors in positive contexts were associated with higher youth self-reported depressive symptoms. Maternal positive interaction behaviors in positive contexts and maternal negative interactive behaviors in conflict contexts were associated with higher youth self-reported depressive symptoms. We found no evidence for maternal interaction behaviors serving as a mediator and little evidence of maternal interaction behaviors serving as a moderator of the relationship between maternal and offspring depression. Low maternal positive engagement tended to be more consistently associated with maternal- and self-reported youth depressive symptoms. The present findings suggest that characteristics of mother-child interactions that are associated with youth depressive symptomatology are pertinent to youth with and without a mother with a history of depression.

  19. Extreme REM Rebound during Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Titration for Obstructive Sleep Apnea in a Depressed Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lo Bue

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 20% increase in REM sleep duration has been proposed as a threshold to identify REM rebound in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA who start continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP treatment. We describe the case of one patient with OSA who showed an unexpectedly high degree of REM rebound during titration of CPAP. A 34-year-old man was diagnosed with OSA. He remained untreated for many years, during which he developed systemic hypertension, depression, and severe daytime somnolence. When he was reevaluated sixteen years later, his Epworth sleepiness score was 18, and his OSA had greatly worsened (apnea/hypopnea index: 47, lowest nocturnal saturation: 57%. He underwent a successful CPAP titration during nocturnal polysomnography. Electroencephalographic analysis of the sleep recording revealed a huge amount of REM sleep, accounting for 72% of the total sleep time. When asked, the patient referred that he had suddenly interrupted paroxetine assumption three days before the polysomnography. The very large REM rebound observed in this patient could be due to additional effects of initiation of CPAP therapy and suspension of antidepressive treatment. This case does not report any dangerous consequence, but sudden antidepressive withdrawal could be dangerous for patients with OSA who develop hypoventilation during REM sleep with CPAP application.

  20. The evaluation of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale : Depressed and Positive Affect in cancer patients and healthy reference subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroevers, MJ; Sanderman, R; van Sonderen, E; Ranchor, AV

    2000-01-01

    This study examined the reliability and validity of a two-factor structure of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale. The study was conducted in a large group of cancer patients (n = 475) and a matched reference group (n = 255). Both groups filled in a questionnaire at two

  1. Social Support and Maternal Depression from Pregnancy to Postpartum: The Association with Positive Maternal Behaviours among Brazilian Adolescent Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Eva; Koller, Sílvia H.; Volling, Brenda L.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent motherhood is a risky situation related to poorer quality of infant caregiving. The lack of social support and increased odds for maternal depression are the main concerns. This study aimed to investigate whether maternal-foetal attachment, social support and maternal depression measured during pregnancy and after birth were associated…

  2. Sleep quality predicts positive and negative affect but not vice versa. An electronic diary study in depressed and healthy individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwmans, Mara E J; Bos, Elisabeth H; Hoenders, H J Rogier; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; de Jonge, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Background: The exact nature of the complex relationship between sleep and affect has remained unclear. This study investigated the temporal order of change in sleep and affect in participants with and without depression. Methods: 27 depressed patients and 27 pair-matched healthy controls assessed t

  3. A Higher Bandwidth Servo Design for Magnetic Disk Drives: A Head-positioning Control System with Strain Feedback Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Shinsuke; Yamaguchi, Takashi

    In magnetic disk drives, mechanical resonance modes prevent a higher bandwidth servo being used for head positioning control. To overcome this limitation and realize more precise head positioning, a strain feedback controller which is added to a conventional head-position feedback loop was developed. The controller of a strain-feedback control system was designed so that the gain and the phase delay of the sensitivity function of the strain-feedback control system were both reduced below the frequency of a primary mechanical resonance. The controller achieves gain suppression by about 10dB at a primary mechanical resonance and phase delay of about zero degrees. It was found that the head-position control system (i.e., the strain feedback plus the conventional head-position feedback loop) increases the servo bandwidth by 17% and improves the positioning accuracy by 18%. It was also confirmed that unlike conventional servo system, the new servo design does not suffer degradation of servo characteristics at high temperature.

  4. Stuttering Thoughts: Negative Self-Referent Thinking Is Less Sensitive to Aversive Outcomes in People with Higher Levels of Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Yudai; Takano, Keisuke; Boddez, Yannick; Raes, Filip; Tanno, Yoshihiko

    2017-01-01

    Learning theories of depression have proposed that depressive cognitions, such as negative thoughts with reference to oneself, can develop through a reinforcement learning mechanism. This negative self-reference is considered to be positively reinforced by rewarding experiences such as genuine support from others after negative self-disclosure, and negatively reinforced by avoidance of potential aversive situations. The learning account additionally predicts that negative self-reference would be maintained by an inability to adjust one’s behavior when negative self-reference no longer leads to such reward. To test this prediction, we designed an adapted version of the reversal-learning task. In this task, participants were reinforced to choose and engage in either negative or positive self-reference by probabilistic economic reward and punishment. Although participants were initially trained to choose negative self-reference, the stimulus-reward contingencies were reversed to prompt a shift toward positive self-reference (Study 1) and a further shift toward negative self-reference (Study 2). Model-based computational analyses showed that depressive symptoms were associated with a low learning rate of negative self-reference, indicating a high level of reward expectancy for negative self-reference even after the contingency reversal. Furthermore, the difficulty in updating outcome predictions of negative self-reference was significantly associated with the extent to which one possesses negative self-images. These results suggest that difficulty in adjusting action-outcome estimates for negative self-reference increases the chance to be faced with negative aspects of self, which may result in depressive symptoms. PMID:28824511

  5. Stuttering Thoughts: Negative Self-Referent Thinking Is Less Sensitive to Aversive Outcomes in People with Higher Levels of Depressive Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudai Iijima

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Learning theories of depression have proposed that depressive cognitions, such as negative thoughts with reference to oneself, can develop through a reinforcement learning mechanism. This negative self-reference is considered to be positively reinforced by rewarding experiences such as genuine support from others after negative self-disclosure, and negatively reinforced by avoidance of potential aversive situations. The learning account additionally predicts that negative self-reference would be maintained by an inability to adjust one’s behavior when negative self-reference no longer leads to such reward. To test this prediction, we designed an adapted version of the reversal-learning task. In this task, participants were reinforced to choose and engage in either negative or positive self-reference by probabilistic economic reward and punishment. Although participants were initially trained to choose negative self-reference, the stimulus-reward contingencies were reversed to prompt a shift toward positive self-reference (Study 1 and a further shift toward negative self-reference (Study 2. Model-based computational analyses showed that depressive symptoms were associated with a low learning rate of negative self-reference, indicating a high level of reward expectancy for negative self-reference even after the contingency reversal. Furthermore, the difficulty in updating outcome predictions of negative self-reference was significantly associated with the extent to which one possesses negative self-images. These results suggest that difficulty in adjusting action-outcome estimates for negative self-reference increases the chance to be faced with negative aspects of self, which may result in depressive symptoms.

  6. Stuttering Thoughts: Negative Self-Referent Thinking Is Less Sensitive to Aversive Outcomes in People with Higher Levels of Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Yudai; Takano, Keisuke; Boddez, Yannick; Raes, Filip; Tanno, Yoshihiko

    2017-01-01

    Learning theories of depression have proposed that depressive cognitions, such as negative thoughts with reference to oneself, can develop through a reinforcement learning mechanism. This negative self-reference is considered to be positively reinforced by rewarding experiences such as genuine support from others after negative self-disclosure, and negatively reinforced by avoidance of potential aversive situations. The learning account additionally predicts that negative self-reference would be maintained by an inability to adjust one's behavior when negative self-reference no longer leads to such reward. To test this prediction, we designed an adapted version of the reversal-learning task. In this task, participants were reinforced to choose and engage in either negative or positive self-reference by probabilistic economic reward and punishment. Although participants were initially trained to choose negative self-reference, the stimulus-reward contingencies were reversed to prompt a shift toward positive self-reference (Study 1) and a further shift toward negative self-reference (Study 2). Model-based computational analyses showed that depressive symptoms were associated with a low learning rate of negative self-reference, indicating a high level of reward expectancy for negative self-reference even after the contingency reversal. Furthermore, the difficulty in updating outcome predictions of negative self-reference was significantly associated with the extent to which one possesses negative self-images. These results suggest that difficulty in adjusting action-outcome estimates for negative self-reference increases the chance to be faced with negative aspects of self, which may result in depressive symptoms.

  7. Posture-cognitive dual-tasking: A relevant marker of depression-related psychomotor retardation. An illustration of the positive impact of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, Thibault; Sauvaget, Anne; Pichot, Anne; Valrivière, Pierre; Maroulidès, Maxime; Bois, Aurore; Bulteau, Samuel; Thomas-Ollivier, Véronique

    2016-12-01

    This study examined whether postural control variables, particularly the center-of-pressure (COP) velocity-based parameters, could be a relevant hallmark of depression-related psychomotor retardation (PMR). We first aimed at investigating the interplay between the PMR scores and the COP performance in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), as compared to age-matched healthy controls; secondly, we focused on the impact of a repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) treatment on depression, PMR scores and postural performance. 16 MDD patients, and a control group of 16 healthy adults, were asked to maintain quiet standing balance during two trials with or without vision, and while backward counting (dual task). All the position and velocity-based COP variables were computed. Before and after the rTMS session (n eligible MDD = 10), we assessed the depression level with the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), the PMR scores with the French Retardation Rating Scale for Depression (ERD), and postural performance. Before the treatment, significant positive partial correlations were found between the pre-ERD scores and the velocity-based COP variables, especially in the dual-task conditions (p < 0.05). In contrast, there was no significant correlation between the post-ERD scores and any postural parameter after the treatment. The MADRS and ERD scores showed a significant decrease between before and after the rTMS intervention. For the first time, the findings clearly validated the view that the assessment of postural performance - easy to envisage in clinical settings-constitutes a reliable and objective marker of PMR in MDD patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Depression and dysphoria effects on the interpersonal perception of negative and positive moods and caring relationships: effects of antidepressants, amphetamine, and methylphenidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowsky, David S

    2003-12-01

    An inverse relationship exists between an individual's degree of negative affect and the interpersonal perception of friendliness, sympathy and empathy, acceptance, warmth, regard, and genuineness, and the converse relationship persists for the perception of sadness and anger. Thus, a "negative interpersonal bias" exists in those with diagnoses of depression or dysphoria. There is evidence that psychostimulants (ie, amphetamine or methylphenidate) and antidepressants can reverse or improve these negative interpersonal perceptions in a positive way, especially in individuals with dysphoria, depression, and anxiety. The theoretic and therapeutic implications of these relationships are discussed herewith.

  9. A comparative study on the effectiveness of positive psychotherapy and group cognitive-behavioral therapy for the patients suffering from major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgharipoor, Negar; Asgharnejad Farid, Aliasghar; Arshadi, Hamidreza; Sahebi, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Aim of this experimental study is evaluating the effectiveness of two different approaches towards the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD): Positive-oriented psychotherapy and group cognitive-behavior therapy. Eighteen out-patients suffering from major depression were randomly divided into two groups to be treated according to either of these two approaches. Both groups undertook the treatments for 12 weeks. All the subjects were tested by Beck Depression Inventory, Subjective Wellbeing Scale, Oxford test of Happiness, and the scale of Subjective Units of Distress before and after the treatments. The results show significant differences between the two groups in terms of the variables of happiness and mental distress, suggesting that effectiveness of positive psychotherapy is more than cognitive-behavioral therapy in increasing happiness. These two approaches were significantly different in neither decreasing the acuteness of depression symptoms nor increasing subjective wellbeing. As a whole, the results of this comparative study indicate that positive psychotherapy is more effective in increasing happiness among MDD patients.

  10. Increase positive thinking intervention in the rehabilitation of patients with depression promote%增加正性思维在促进抑郁症患者康复中的干预作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜晓红; 郭晓玉; 邹丰彦

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of interventions to increase positive thinking in the process of promoting the rehabilitation of patients with depression. Methods 71 cases of patients with depression in our hospital were ran-domly divided into intervention group and control group,the intervention group were given with increased positive thinking,control group were received routine care.The efficacy of the two groups were compared,Hamilton depression scale (HAMD) was used before treatment and after 30,60 days treatment. Results The total effective rate of the inter-vention group was 89.19%,higher than 61.76%of the control group,the difference was significant (P0.05).After 60 days treatment,HAMD scores of two groups were lower than those before treatment,and the intervention group decreased more obvious (P0.05)。第60天两组HAMD评分均较治疗前显著降低,且干预组降低更明显(P<0.01);两组间比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论增加抑郁症患者的正性思维,可有效促进抑郁症患者康复。

  11. BDNF Depresses Excitability of Parvalbumin-Positive Interneurons through an M-Like Current in Rat Dentate Gyrus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Nieto-Gonzalez

    Full Text Available In addition to their classical roles in neuronal growth, survival and differentiation, neurotrophins are also rapid regulators of excitability, synaptic transmission and activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. We have recently shown that mature BDNF (Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor, but not proBDNF, modulates the excitability of interneurons in dentate gyrus within minutes. Here, we used brain slice patch-clamp recordings to study the mechanisms through which BDNF modulates the firing of interneurons in rat dentate gyrus by binding to TrkB receptors. Bath application of BDNF (15 ng/ml under current-clamp decreased the firing frequency (by 80% and input resistance, blocking the delayed firing observed at near-threshold voltage ranges, with no changes in resting membrane potential or action potential waveform. Using TEA (tetraethylammonium, or XE991(a Kv7/KCNQ channel antagonist, the effect of BDNF was abolished, whereas application of retigabine (a Kv7/KCNQ channel opener mimicked the effect of BDNF, suggesting that the M-current could be implicated in the modulation of the firing. In voltage-clamp experiments, BDNF increased the M-like current amplitude with no change in holding current. This effect was again blocked by XE991 and mimicked by retigabine, the latter accompanied with a change in holding current. In agreement with the electrophysiology, parvalbumin-positive interneurons co-expressed TrkB receptors and Kv7.2/KCNQ2 channels. In conclusion, BDNF depresses the excitability of interneurons by activating an M-like current and possibly blocking Kv1 channels, thereby controlling interneuron resting membrane potential and excitability.

  12. BDNF Depresses Excitability of Parvalbumin-Positive Interneurons through an M-Like Current in Rat Dentate Gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto-Gonzalez, Jose Luis; Jensen, Kimmo

    2013-01-01

    In addition to their classical roles in neuronal growth, survival and differentiation, neurotrophins are also rapid regulators of excitability, synaptic transmission and activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. We have recently shown that mature BDNF (Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor), but not proBDNF, modulates the excitability of interneurons in dentate gyrus within minutes. Here, we used brain slice patch-clamp recordings to study the mechanisms through which BDNF modulates the firing of interneurons in rat dentate gyrus by binding to TrkB receptors. Bath application of BDNF (15 ng/ml) under current-clamp decreased the firing frequency (by 80%) and input resistance, blocking the delayed firing observed at near-threshold voltage ranges, with no changes in resting membrane potential or action potential waveform. Using TEA (tetraethylammonium), or XE991(a Kv7/KCNQ channel antagonist), the effect of BDNF was abolished, whereas application of retigabine (a Kv7/KCNQ channel opener) mimicked the effect of BDNF, suggesting that the M-current could be implicated in the modulation of the firing. In voltage-clamp experiments, BDNF increased the M-like current amplitude with no change in holding current. This effect was again blocked by XE991 and mimicked by retigabine, the latter accompanied with a change in holding current. In agreement with the electrophysiology, parvalbumin-positive interneurons co-expressed TrkB receptors and Kv7.2/KCNQ2 channels. In conclusion, BDNF depresses the excitability of interneurons by activating an M-like current and possibly blocking Kv1 channels, thereby controlling interneuron resting membrane potential and excitability.

  13. Low vitamin D levels are not a contributing factor to higher prevalence of depressive symptoms in people with Type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westra, S; Simsek, S; Rutters, Femke

    2017-01-01

    AIM: To test whether a low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level explains the greater prevalence of depression among people with Type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 527 people, aged 60-87 years, who participated in a population-based cohort study. Type 2 diabetes......: Logistic regression analysis confirmed that women with impaired glucose tolerance/impaired fasting glucose and people with Type 2 diabetes did have a higher risk of depressive symptoms [unadjusted odds ratios 3.66 (95% CI 1.59 to 8.43) and 3.04 (95% CI 1.57 to 5.88), respectively], compared with people...... with normal glucose tolerance. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level was not a mediating factor in the association between impaired glucose tolerance/impaired fasting glucose or Type 2 diabetes and depressive symptoms [unstandardized indirect effect 0.001 (95% CI -0.063 to 0.079) and 0.004 (95% CI -0.025 to 0...

  14. Status of Higher Order Mode Beam Position Monitors in 3.9 GHz Superconducting Accelerating Cavities at FLASH

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, P; Flisgen, T; van Rienen, U; Jones, R M; Shinton, I R R

    2013-01-01

    Higher order mode (HOM) beam position monitors (BPM) are being developed for the 3.9 GHz third harmonic superconducting accelerating cavities at FLASH. The transverse beam position in a cavity can be determined utilizing beam-excited HOMs based on dipole components. The existing couplers used for HOM suppression provide necessary signals. The diagnostics principle is similar to a cavity BPM, but requires no additional vacuum instruments on the linac. The challenges of HOM-BPM for 3.9 GHz cavities lie in the dense HOM spectrum arising from the coupling of the majority HOMs amongst the four cavities in the cryo-module ACC39. HOMs with particularly promising diagnostics features were evaluated using a spectrum analyzer and custom-built test electronics with various data analysis techniques, data reduction was focused on. After careful theoretical and experimental assessment of the HOM spectrum, multi-cavity modes in the region of 5 GHz were chosen to provide a global position over the complete module with superi...

  15. Status of higher order mode beam position monitors in 3.9 GHz superconducting accelerating cavities at FLASH

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, P; Jones, R M; Flisgen, T; Van Rienen, U; Shinton, I R R

    2013-01-01

    Higher order mode (HOM) beam position monitors (BPM) are being developed for the 3.9 GHz third harmonic superconducting accelerating cavities at FLASH. The transverse beam position in a cavity can be determined utilizing beam-excited HOMs based on dipole components. The existing couplers used for HOM suppression provide necessary signals. The diagnostics principle is similar to a cavity BPM, but requires no additional vacuum instruments on the linac. The challenges of HOM-BPM for 3.9 GHz cavities lie in the dense HOM spectrum arising from the coupling of the majority HOMs amongst the four cavities in the cryo-module ACC39. HOMs with particularly promising diagnostics features were evaluated using a spectrum analyzer and custom-built test electronics with various data analysis techniques, data reduction was focused on. After careful theoretical and experimental assessment of the HOM spectrum, multi-cavity modes in the region of 5 GHz were chosen to provide a global position over the complete module with superi...

  16. Positive Group Counseling Intervention on College Students' Depression%积极团体辅导对大学生抑郁的干预研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽萍; 徐伟; 张婷婷

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨积极团体辅导对大学生抑郁的效果;方法:通过量表筛选自愿参加的大学生36名,组成实验组和控制组,对实验组实施积极团体辅导,控制组不做干预,用scl90和SDS量表进行前测、后测研究;结果:通过积极团体辅导干预后,实验组的成员在强迫因子、抑郁因子和焦虑因子方面都有了显著的改善,SDS显示,抑郁水平显著性下降。结论:积极团体辅导能够对大学生抑郁起到很好的干预作用。%Objective:To explore the effect of positive group counseling on college students' depression;Methods:36 vol-untary college students,divided into experimental group and control group, the experimental group implement positive group counseling, control group do not intervene, using scl90 and SDS scale test before and after intervention to collect data;Re-sults:Through positive group counseling, the members of the group in forcing factor, factor of depression and anxiety factor has a significant improvement, SDS shows the level of depression significantly decreased. Conclusion:Positive group coun-seling have good effect on college students' depression.

  17. The Temple-Wisconsin Cognitive Vulnerability to Depression Project: lifetime history of axis I psychopathology in individuals at high and low cognitive risk for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloy, L B; Abramson, L Y; Hogan, M E; Whitehouse, W G; Rose, D T; Robinson, M S; Kim, R S; Lapkin, J B

    2000-08-01

    The authors tested the cognitive vulnerability hypotheses of depression with a retrospective behavioral high-risk design. Individuals without current Axis I diagnoses who exhibited either negative or positive cognitive styles were compared on lifetime prevalence of depressive and other disorders and the clinical parameters of depressive episodes. Consistent with predictions, cognitively high-risk participants had higher lifetime prevalence than low-risk participants of major and hopelessness depression and marginally higher prevalence of minor depression. These group differences were specific to depressive disorders. The high-risk group also had more severe depressions than the low-risk group, but not longer duration or earlier onset depressions. The risk group differences in prevalence of depressive disorders were not mediated by current depressive symptoms.

  18. Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome, Depression, Depressive Illness, and Correlates in a Child and Adolescent Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Renata; Gulisano, Mariangela; Martino, Davide; Robertson, Mary May

    2017-04-01

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) and depression are both common disorders. It has been suggested that depression occurs in 13%-76% GTS patients. Despite this, there are few studies into the specific relationships and correlates between the two disorders. There is only some consensus as to the precise relationship between the two disorders. We undertook the study to investigate the relationship between depressive symptomatology and the core clinical features of GTS in a well-characterized clinical population of youth with this disorder. Our aim was to verify the association between depression and comorbid obsessive-compulsive disorder and explore further other potential associations highlighted in some, but not all, of the studies focused on this topic. Our results demonstrated that (1) the GTS patients were significantly older than the controls, (2) the GTS patients were significantly more depressed than controls, (3) depression was associated with tic severity, (4) the Diagnostic Confidence Index scores were higher in GTS patients without depression, (5) anxiety, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder (CD), and behavioral problems were significantly associated with depression, and (6) finally, patients with GTS and depression have a positive family history of depression. However, obsessionality (CY-BOCS) did not differentiate between depressed and not depressed GTS patients. Depression is common in patients with GTS and occurs significantly more in GTS than in controls. Depression is significantly associated with GTS factors such as tic severity, comorbidity with ADHD, and the presence of coexistent anxiety, CDs, and behavior problems. Depression is importantly significantly associated with a positive family history of depression. Intriguingly, depression in our sample was not related to obsessionality.

  19. Prevention of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms in Adolescents: 42 and 54 Months Follow-Up of the Aussie Optimism Program-Positive Thinking Skills.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie eJohnstone

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety and depression are the most commonly reported mental health problems amongst Australian children and adolescents. The Aussie Optimism Program: Positive Thinking Skills (AOP- PTS is a universal intervention program based on cognitive and behavioral strategies and aimed to prevent anxiety and depression in the middle primary school children aged 9-10 years old. 370 students randomly assigned to the intervention and control condition participated in the 42 and 54 months follow – up study. The intervention group received the AOP-PTS 10-week program and the control group received the regular Health Education curriculum. Students were assessed on anxiety, depression and attribution style at school whilst parents reported on their child’s externalizing and internalising problems at home. Results showed there were no significant reduction across groups in the depressive and anxiety symptoms, and attribution style at either 42 or 54 months follow-up. These findings suggest that AOP-PTS has short and medium term effects but were not sustained in longer term period. Future strategies to achieve the desirable outcomes in a longitudinal study are discussed.

  20. Are child and adolescent responses to placebo higher in major depression than in anxiety disorders? A systematic review of placebo-controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cohen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In a previous report, we hypothesized that responses to placebo were high in child and adolescent depression because of specific psychopathological factors associated with youth major depression. The purpose of this study was to compare the placebo response rates in pharmacological trials for major depressive disorder (MDD, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD and other anxiety disorders (AD-non-OCD. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We reviewed the literature relevant to the use of psychotropic medication in children and adolescents with internalized disorders, restricting our review to double-blind studies including a placebo arm. Placebo response rates were pooled and compared according to diagnosis (MDD vs. OCD vs. AD-non-OCD, age (adolescent vs. child, and date of publication. From 1972 to 2007, we found 23 trials that evaluated the efficacy of psychotropic medication (mainly non-tricyclic antidepressants involving youth with MDD, 7 pertaining to youth with OCD, and 10 pertaining to youth with other anxiety disorders (N = 2533 patients in placebo arms. As hypothesized, the placebo response rate was significantly higher in studies on MDD, than in those examining OCD and AD-non-OCD (49.6% [range: 17-90%] vs. 31% [range: 4-41%] vs. 39.6% [range: 9-53], respectively, ANOVA F = 7.1, p = 0.002. Children showed a higher stable placebo response within all three diagnoses than adolescents, though this difference was not significant. Finally, no significant effects were found with respect to the year of publication. CONCLUSION: MDD in children and adolescents appears to be more responsive to placebo than other internalized conditions, which highlights differential psychopathology.

  1. Regaining America's leading global position in the innovation of science and technology: Increasing engineering program enrollment in higher education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burklo, Daniel A.

    While the United States has always been a global leader in the innovation of science and technology, this leading global position is in jeopardy. As other developing countries produce intellectual capital in the form of engineers at increasing rates, the country will continue to lose ground. Today the need for the country to produce engineers is greater than ever before. Recognizing this need, attempts have been made to increase entrance into engineering fields in higher education by providing STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) activities during K-12 education. While STEM initiatives create awareness and interest, this study investigates what actually motivates individuals to choose engineering programs in higher education. A quantitative study utilizing survey results from 202 first year engineering students in the state of Ohio illustrates what has motivated them to choose engineering as a major. The study examines who, when, and what motivated the students to choose engineering by examining the relationship of influential people and STEM initiatives participated in during their K-12 education to enrollment in engineering programs at colleges and universities in the state of Ohio. The study proved the general hypothesis that there are influential people in an individual's college choice, such as the parent, and there are time periods during K-12 education when individuals are more motivated, such as the high school years. The study also showed a positive correlation between the motivation toward engineering programs and the number of STEM opportunities in which individuals participated yet there was little difference when comparing the different types of STEM initiatives.

  2. The Survey of Depression Frequency in Hypertensive Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Araghchian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Despite the high prevalence of depression and hypertension, the relationship between these disorders has received little attention. Some prospective studies indicate that depression poses a risk factor for hypertension. Depression has been found to be associated with an increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. The present study was conducted to examine the prevalence of depression in hypertensive patients' refering to medical and health centers in Hamadan city.Materials & Methods: In a descriptive cross-sectional study 525 hypertensive patients who referred to the medical and health centers of Hamadan city in 2008 were studied. Depression status was evaluated by Beck depression inventory. Obtaining a score higher than 18 indicated depression. The data were analyzed with SPSS software(version 10 , chi-square and parson regression coefficient tests Results: Depression prevalence in the hypertensive patients was 48.6%. Positive correlation was detected between age and score of depression(r=0.56 P.V=0.000. The rate of depression was significantly higher in the females than the males (2=34 P.V=<0.5. Depression prevalence in the lower socioeconomic classes and the widows were higher than in the married and high class patients (P.V<0.05.Conclusion: Hypertensive patients are prone to depression. The lifetime co- morbidity of two diseases is significantly higher in females than males. The presence of a positive correlation between hypertension and depression indicates that hypertension is a risk factor for developing depression .High prevalence of depression suggests the need for depression screening and neurological consultation in hypertensive patients.

  3. CASPER plus (CollAborative care in Screen-Positive EldeRs with major depressive disorder): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overend, Karen; Lewis, Helen; Bailey, Della; Bosanquet, Kate; Chew-Graham, Carolyn; Ekers, David; Gascoyne, Samantha; Hems, Deborah; Holmes, John; Keding, Ada; McMillan, Dean; Meer, Shaista; Meredith, Jodi; Mitchell, Natasha; Nutbrown, Sarah; Parrott, Steve; Richards, David; Traviss, Gemma; Trépel, Dominic; Woodhouse, Rebecca; Gilbody, Simon

    2014-11-19

    Depression accounts for the greatest disease burden of all mental health disorders, contributes heavily to healthcare costs, and by 2020 is set to become the second largest cause of global disability. Although 10% to 16% of people aged 65 years and over are likely to experience depressive symptoms, the condition is under-diagnosed and often inadequately treated in primary care. Later-life depression is associated with chronic illness and disability, cognitive impairment and social isolation. With a progressively ageing population it becomes increasingly important to refine strategies to identity and manage depression in older people. Currently, management may be limited to the prescription of antidepressants where there may be poor concordance; older people may lack awareness of psychosocial interventions and general practitioners may neglect to offer this treatment option. CASPER Plus is a multi-centre, randomised controlled trial of a collaborative care intervention for individuals aged 65 years and over experiencing moderate to severe depression. Selected practices in the North of England identify potentially eligible patients and invite them to participate in the study. A diagnostic interview is carried out and participants with major depressive disorder are randomised to either collaborative care or usual care. The recruitment target is 450 participants. The intervention, behavioural activation and medication management in a collaborative care framework, has been adapted to meet the complex needs of older people. It is delivered over eight to 10 weekly sessions by a case manager liaising with general practitioners. The trial aims to evaluate the clinical and cost effectiveness of collaborative care in addition to usual GP care versus usual GP care alone. The primary clinical outcome, depression severity, will be measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) at baseline, 4, 12 and 18 months. Cost effectiveness analysis will assess health

  4. Positive Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Martin E. P.; Rashid, Tayyab; Parks, Acacia C.

    2006-01-01

    Positive psychotherapy (PPT) contrasts with standard interventions for depression by increasing positive emotion, engagement, and meaning rather than directly targeting depressive symptoms. The authors have tested the effects of these interventions in a variety of settings. In informal student and clinical settings, people not uncommonly reported…

  5. Impaired cognition in depression and Alzheimer (AD: a gradient from depression to depression in AD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narahyana Bom de Araujo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To assess cognition in major depressed (MD, Alzheimer's disease (AD, and depression in AD elderly. Method Subjects were evaluated by Mini Mental, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Rey Complex Figure, Digit Span, Similarities, Trail Making A/B, Verbal Fluency and Stroop. One-way ANOVA and multivariate models were used to compare the performance of each group on neuropsychological tests. Results We evaluated 212 subjects. Compared to MD, attention, working memory, processing speed and recall showed significantly better in controls. Controls showed significantly higher performance in all cognitive measures, except in attention compared to AD. Verbal fluency, memory, processing speed and abstract reasoning in MD was significantly higher compared to AD. AD was significantly better in general cognitive state than depression in AD. All other cognitive domains were similar. Conclusion A decreasing gradient in cognition appeared from the control to depression in AD, with MD and AD in an intermediate position.

  6. Positive Psychology Interventions Addressing Pleasure, Engagement, Meaning, Positive Relationships, and Accomplishment Increase Well-Being and Ameliorate Depressive Symptoms: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Online Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gander, Fabian; Proyer, René T; Ruch, Willibald

    2016-01-01

    Seligman (2002) suggested three paths to well-being, the pursuit of pleasure, the pursuit of meaning, and the pursuit of engagement, later adding two more, positive relationships and accomplishment, in his 2011 version...

  7. Stability of self-referent encoding task performance and associations with change in depressive symptoms from early to middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Brandon L; Hayden, Elizabeth P; Klein, Daniel N

    2015-01-01

    Depressed individuals exhibit memory biases on the self-referent encoding task (SRET), such that those with depression exhibit poorer recall of positive, and enhanced recall of negative, trait adjectives (referred to as positive and negative processing biases). However, it is unclear when SRET biases emerge, whether they are stable, and if biases predict, or are predicted by, depressive symptoms. To address this, a community sample of 434 children completed the SRET and a depressive symptoms measure at ages 6 and 9. Negative and positive processing exhibited low, but significant, stability. At ages 6 and 9, depressive symptoms correlated with higher negative, and lower positive, SRET processing. Importantly, lower positive processing at age 6 predicted increased symptoms at age 9. However, negative processing at age 6 did not predict depressive symptoms at age 9, and depressive symptoms at age 6 did not predict SRET processing scores at age 9. This suggests that less positive processing may reflect vulnerability for future depressive symptoms.

  8. The effect of shoulder supporting banding and shoulder pulling banding using elastic bands on shoulder pain and scapular position of a scapular dyskinesis patient with shoulder depression and scapular downward rotation

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Won-gyu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study developed methods of shoulder supporting banding and shoulder pulling banding using elastic bands for scapular dyskinesis patients with shoulder depression and scapular downward rotation and investigated the effect on shoulder pain and scapular position. [Subject] The subject was a scapular dyskinesis patient with shoulder depression and scapular downward rotation and shoulder pain. [Methods] This study compared the scapular position and upper trapezius pressure pain betw...

  9. Positive Psychology Interventions Addressing Pleasure, Engagement, Meaning, Positive Relationships, and Accomplishment Increase Well-Being and Ameliorate Depressive Symptoms: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Online Study

    OpenAIRE

    Fabian eGander; René T. Proyer; Willibald eRuch

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Seligman (2002) suggested three paths to well-being, the pursuit of pleasure, the pursuit of meaning, and the pursuit of engagement, later adding two more, positive relationships and accomplishment, in his 2011 version. The contribution of these new components to well-being has yet to be addressed.Method: In an online positive psychology intervention study, we randomly assigned 1,624 adults aged 18 to 78 (M = 46.13; 79.2% women) to seven conditions. Participants wrote down three th...

  10. [Influence between early maladaptive schemas and depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, A; Jourda, B; Laros, C; Walburg, V; Callahan, S

    2011-09-01

    Early maladaptive schemas developed during childhood are relatively stable. Once activated, these early maladaptive schemas could influence reality perceptions and create cognitive distortions. Previous studies showed that early maladaptive schemas are linked to depression: early maladaptive schemas could be a risk factor for depression (Young, 2001) and a vulnerability marker for depression (Dozoïs, 2007). The main objective of the present study was to explore the influence of early maladaptive schemas on depression severity among a French adult population. One hundred and sixty-two participants (mean age 29 years; SD=13.86) were enrolled, 66 men (mean age 29 years; SD=13.65) and 106 women (mean age 30; SD=14.07). Participants were invited to complete the Young Schema Questionnaire, short version (YSQ-S1-Young 1994) and the Beck depression Inventory, 2nd version (BDI-II-Beck 1994). Fifty-six participants were randomly selected to complete a paper version of the scales, and 95 participants completed an online electronic version. Fifty-two percent of the participants were not depressed, 15% slightly depressed, 17% moderately depressed and 16% met criteria of severe depression. All 15 schemas scores were positively correlated to depression scores. Comparing schema scores and depression severity it can be noted that for severely depressed participants all schema scores were significantly higher, and six of 15 schemas were significantly higher in the case of moderate depression. In addition, three schemas (imperfection, vulnerability, fusional relation) are significantly and positively linked to depression scores, whereas one schema (everything is owed to me) appears to be a significantly negative predictor of associated depression. This study confirms results of previous research concerning the link between early maladaptive schemas and depression. What is more, the results show that the importance of these schemas increases with depression severity. The most

  11. Depression (Major Depressive Disorder)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... generally miserable or unhappy without really knowing why. Depression symptoms in children and teens Common signs and ... in normal activities, and avoidance of social interaction. Depression symptoms in older adults Depression is not a ...

  12. Using bibliotherapy to assist people to recover from depression in Thailand: Relationship between resilience, depression and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songprakun, Wallapa; McCann, Terence V

    2015-12-01

    Thailand is experiencing a marked increase in the prevalence of depression. Self-help has an important role in helping people with depression. The aim of this study was to assess if a favourable relationship existed between resilience, depression and psychological distress in participants with depression who receive bibliotherapy in comparison with a control group. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 56 participants with moderate depression. The intervention group received the self-help manual, whereas the control group received standard care. The findings showed a positive relationship between higher levels of resilience and lower levels of depression and psychological distress in the intervention group only, between baseline and posttest. The findings provide preliminary evidence supporting the use of bibliotherapy for individuals with depression in Thailand. Bibliotherapy can be incorporated easily into mental health nurses and other clinicians' work in promoting recovery in people with depression in the community.

  13. Toward a better understanding of what makes positive psychology interventions work: predicting happiness and depression from the person × intervention fit in a follow-up after 3.5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proyer, René T; Wellenzohn, Sara; Gander, Fabian; Ruch, Willibald

    2015-03-01

    Robust evidence exists that positive psychology interventions are effective in enhancing well-being and ameliorating depression. Comparatively little is known about the conditions under which they work best. Models describing characteristics that impact the effectiveness of positive interventions typically contain features of the person, of the activity, and the fit between the two. This study focuses on indicators of the person × intervention fit in predicting happiness and depressive symptoms 3.5 years after completion of the intervention. A sample of 165 women completed measures for happiness and depressive symptoms before and about 3.5 years after completion of a positive intervention (random assignment to one out of nine interventions, which were aggregated for the analyses). Four fit indicators were assessed: Preference; continued practice; effort; and early reactivity. Three out of four person × intervention fit indicators were positively related to happiness or negatively related to depression when controlled for the pretest scores. Together, they explained 6 per cent of the variance in happiness, and 10 per cent of the variance of depressive symptoms. Most tested indicators of a person × intervention fit are robust predictors of happiness and depressive symptoms-even after 3.5 years. They might serve for an early estimation of the effectiveness of a positive intervention. © 2014 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  14. Sense of identity and depression in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Başaran; Kaynak-Demir, Hadiye; Sönmez, Emel Irmak

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between sense of identity and depression in a group of adolescents. Thirty-one depressed adolescents and 31 control subjects were included in the study. They were evaluated using the Sense of Identity Assessment Form (SIAF), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Depressed adolescents were reevaluated during the eighth week of antidepressant treatment. Higher baseline SIAF scores were detected in depressed adolescents as compared with non-depressed subjects. After antidepressant treatment, there was a significant decrease in SIAF scores in the depression group. Correlation analysis indicated that there are significant, positive relationships between SIAF, depression, and anxiety scores. The regression analysis results suggested that the change in SIAF scores can accurately predict 91.6% of the remitters and 42.8% of the non-remitters. Collectively, these findings indicate that there is a close association between depression symptoms and identity confusion-related distress in adolescents.

  15. Hemodynamic changes in depressive patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Ying; LI Hui-chun; ZHENG Lei-lei; YU Hua-liang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study is aimed at exploring the relationship between hemodynamic changes and depressive and anxious symptom in depression patients. Methods: The cardiac function indices including the left stroke index (LSI), ejection fraction (EF), heart rate (HR), diastolic pressure mean (DPM), systolic pressure mean (SPM), left ventricle end-diastolic volume (LVDV), effective circulating volume (ECV), resistance total mean (RTM) and blood flow smooth degree (BFSD) were determined in 65 patients with major depressive disorders and 31 healthy normal controls. The clinical symptoms were assessed with Hamilton depression scale (HAMD) and Hamilton anxiety scale (HAMA). Results: In patients with depression without anxiety,LSI, EF, LVDV, DPM, SPM, ECV, BFSD were significantly lower than those in controls, while RTM was higher than that in controls. Patients with comorbidity of depression and anxiety showed decreased LVDV, ECV, BFSD, and increased HR in comparison with the controls. The anxiety/somatization factor score positively correlated with LSI, EF, LVDV, but negatively correlated with RTM. There was negative correlation between retardation factor score and DPM, SPM, LVDV. Conclusion: The study indicated that there are noticeable changes in left ventricle preload and afterload, blood pressure, peripheral resistance, and microcirculation in depressive patients, and that the accompanying anxiety makes the changes more complicated.

  16. Response to the DEEWR Discussion Paper: "An Indicator Framework for Higher Education Performance Funding". Go8 Position Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Higher Education Performance Funding to be introduced in 2011 is a key development in the policy and financing framework for Australian Higher Education. The performance funding framework, along with mission-based compacts, the new equity initiatives, the relaxing of caps on Commonwealth supported places and the establishment of the Tertiary…

  17. Fears of happiness and compassion in relationship with depression, alexithymia, and attachment security in a depressed sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Paul; McEwan, Kirsten; Catarino, Francisca; Baião, Rita; Palmeira, Lara

    2014-06-01

    In a non-clinical population, fears of compassion and fear of happiness have both been found to be highly correlated with alexithymia and depression. This study sought to explore these processes and their links with adult attachment and social safeness and pleasure in a depressed group. A total of 52 participants suffering from moderate to severe depression completed measures of fears of happiness, compassion from others and for self, in addition to measures of alexithymia, attachment, social safeness, and depression, anxiety, and stress. Fears of compassion and happiness were highly correlated with alexithymia, adult attachment, and depression, anxiety, and stress. Fear of happiness was found to be the best predictor of depression, anxiety, and stress, whereas fear of compassion from others was the best predictor of adult attachment. A path analysis showed that fears of positive emotion fully mediate the link between alexithymia and depression. This clinical sample had higher mean scores in fears of positive emotions, alexithymia, and depression, anxiety, and stress than a previously studied student sample. This study adds to the evidence that fears of positive emotions are important features of mental health difficulties. Unaddressed, these fears can block positive emotions and may lead to emotional avoidance of positive affect thus contributing as blocks to successful therapy. Therapies for depression may therefore profitably assess and desensitize the fear of positive emotions. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  18. The Impact of Family, Peer, and School Contexts on Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents with Spina Bifida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essner, Bonnie S.; Holmbeck, Grayson N.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Based on social ecological theory, this study examined the joint relations among adolescents’ family, peer, and school contexts and depressive symptoms in youth with spina bifida using cumulative, protective, and specific effects models. Method Sixty families of adolescents with spina bifida and 65 comparison families reported on adolescent’s positive experiences within these contexts and on depressive symptoms when youth were 14–15 and 16–17 years old. Results Adolescents with spina bifida had fewer total positive contexts and less positive experience within peer and school contexts, as compared to typically developing adolescents. Greater total number of positive contexts and higher levels of positive experiences within family and school contexts were associated with fewer depressive symptoms for both groups; peer positive experiences were related to lower depressive symptoms for typically developing adolescents only. Conclusion Adolescents with spina bifida have fewer positive contexts, which may place them at risk for higher levels of depressive symptoms. PMID:21171793

  19. Whole-brain functional connectivity during emotional word classification in medication-free Major Depressive Disorder: Abnormal salience circuitry and relations to positive emotionality☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tol, Marie-José; Veer, Ilya M.; van der Wee, Nic J.A.; Aleman, André; van Buchem, Mark A.; Rombouts, Serge A.R.B.; Zitman, Frans G.; Veltman, Dick J.; Johnstone, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) has been associated with biased processing and abnormal regulation of negative and positive information, which may result from compromised coordinated activity of prefrontal and subcortical brain regions involved in evaluating emotional information. We tested whether patients with MDD show distributed changes in functional connectivity with a set of independently derived brain networks that have shown high correspondence with different task demands, including stimulus salience and emotional processing. We further explored if connectivity during emotional word processing related to the tendency to engage in positive or negative emotional states. In this study, 25 medication-free MDD patients without current or past comorbidity and matched controls (n = 25) performed an emotional word-evaluation task during functional MRI. Using a dual regression approach, individual spatial connectivity maps representing each subject's connectivity with each standard network were used to evaluate between-group differences and effects of positive and negative emotionality (extraversion and neuroticism, respectively, as measured with the NEO-FFI). Results showed decreased functional connectivity of the medial prefrontal cortex, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, and ventral striatum with the fronto-opercular salience network in MDD patients compared to controls. In patients, abnormal connectivity was related to extraversion, but not neuroticism. These results confirm the hypothesis of a relative (para)limbic–cortical decoupling that may explain dysregulated affect in MDD. As connectivity of these regions with the salience network was related to extraversion, but not to general depression severity or negative emotionality, dysfunction of this network may be responsible for the failure to sustain engagement in rewarding behavior. PMID:24179829

  20. Perceived discrimination is associated with severity of positive and depression/anxiety symptoms in immigrants with psychosis: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romm Kristin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immigration status is a significant risk factor for psychotic disorders, and a number of studies have reported more severe positive and affective symptoms among immigrant and ethnic minority groups. We investigated if perceived discrimination was associated with the severity of these symptoms among immigrants in Norway with psychotic disorders. Methods Cross-sectional analyses of 90 immigrant patients (66% first-generation, 68% from Asia/Africa in treatment for psychotic disorders were assessed for DSM-IV diagnoses with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders (SCID-I, sections A-E and for present symptom severity by The Structured Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (SCI-PANSS. Perceived discrimination was assessed by a self-report questionnaire developed for the Immigrant Youth in Cultural Transition Study. Results Perceived discrimination correlated with positive psychotic (r = 0.264, p Conclusions Among immigrants with psychotic disorders, visible minority status was associated with perceived discrimination and with more severe positive and depression/anxiety symptoms. These results suggest that context-specific stressful environmental factors influence specific symptom patterns and severity. This has important implications for preventive strategies and treatment of this vulnerable patient group.

  1. Experiences in managing problematic crystal methamphetamine use and associated depression in gay men and HIV positive men: in-depth interviews with general practitioners in Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltman, Deborah C; Newman, Christy E; Mao, Limin; Kippax, Susan C; Kidd, Michael R

    2008-08-15

    This paper describes the experiences of Australian general practitioners (GPs) in managing problematic crystal methamphetamine (crystal meth) use among two groups of male patients: gay men and HIV positive men. Semi-structured qualitative interviews with GPs with HIV medication prescribing rights were conducted in Sydney, Adelaide and a rural-coastal town in New South Wales between August and October 2006. Participants were recruited from practices with high caseloads of gay and HIV positive men. Sixteen GPs were recruited from seven practices to take part in interviews. Participants included 14 male GPs and two female GPs, and the number of years each had been working in HIV medicine ranged from two to 24. Eleven of the GPs who were based in Sydney raised the issue of problematic crystal meth use in these two patient populations. Five key themes were identified: an increasing problem; associations with depression; treatment challenges; health services and health care; workforce issues. Despite study limitations, key implications can be identified. Health practitioners may benefit from broadening their understandings of how to anticipate and respond to problematic levels of crystal meth use in their patients. Early intervention can mitigate the impact of crystal meth use on co-morbid mental illness and other health issues. Management of the complex relationships between drug use, depression, sexuality and HIV can be addressed following a 'stepped care' approach. General practice guidelines for the management of crystal meth use problems should address specific issues associated with gay men and HIV positive men. GPs and other health practitioners must appreciate drug use as a social practice in order to build trust with gay men to encourage full disclosure of drug use. Education programs should train health practitioners in these issues, and increased resourcing provided to support the often difficult task of caring for people who use crystal meth. Greater

  2. The center for epidemiologic studies depression scale: support for a bifactor model with a dominant general factor and a specific factor for positive affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Rapson; McLaren, Suzanne

    2015-06-01

    For the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) ratings, the study examined support for a bifactor model, and also the internal consistency reliability and external validity of the factors in this model. Participants (N = 1,178) were older adults from the general community who completed the CES-D. Confirmatory factor analysis of their ratings indicated support for the bifactor model. For this model, the general factor explained most of the covariance in the scores of the CES-D items for Depressed Affect, Somatic Symptoms and Retarded Activity, and Interpersonal Difficulties items. Most of the covariance in the scores of the Positive Affect (PA) scale was explained by its own specific factor. Additional analyses showed support for internal consistencies and external validities of general factors based on all the CES-D items, and when PA items were excluded, and also the PA-specific factor. The findings support the use of a total CES-D score without the PA items and also the concurrent use of the PA scale score. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. A Study on Relationship among Depression Coping Styles and Personality in Major Depression%抑郁症患者抑郁症状、应付方式与人格关系的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭瑛; 郭文斌; 王国强

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relation among depression, coping styles and personality in major depression. Methods:87 major depression patients and 90 normal controls were assessed by Self- Rating Depression Scale (SDS), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and Coping Styles Questionnaire. Results: The patients were found with higher scores in Neuroticism and Psychoti-cism, and lower in Extrovision and positive coping styles than normal controls. Significant relationship was found among depres-sion, extrovision, psychoticism and positive coping styles. The last three accounted for 36.8 % of the variance of depression in major depression. Conclusion: The patients scored high in neuroticism and psychoticism, and low in extorvision and positive cop-ing styles. The application of little positive coping styles may be a part of extrovision and/or psychoticism in major depression.

  4. Navigating in the Field of University Positioning: On International Ranking Lists, Quality Indicators and Higher Education Governing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblad, Sverker

    2008-01-01

    The construction of transnational and national systems for comparing qualities of universities are presented and discussed. In focus are two important university ranking lists--those produced by the Shanghai Jiao Tong University and by the "Times Higher Education Supplement". A Swedish example concerning the making of a resource…

  5. Sister to Sister: Dynamics of Mentoring Relationships among African American Women in Leadership and Nonleadership Positions within Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiff, MaNesha M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the dynamics of mentoring relationships among African American women within the higher education profession. Utilizing a phenomenological research design, this researcher conducted in-depth interviews with 10 African American women who are mentors and/or mentees of an African American woman in the higher…

  6. Depression - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - depression ... Depression is a medical condition. If you think you may be depressed, see a health care provider. ... following organizations are good sources of information on depression : American Psychological Association -- www.apa.org/topics/depress/ ...

  7. Positive Fluid Balance Is Associated with Higher Mortality and Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation in Pediatric Patients with Acute Lung Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi R. Flori

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We analyzed a database of 320 pediatric patients with acute lung injury (ALI, to test the hypothesis that positive fluid balance is associated with worse clinical outcomes in children with ALI. Methods. This is a post-hoc analysis of previously collected data. Cumulative fluid balance was analyzed in ml per kilogram per day for the first 72 hours after ALI while in the PICU. The primary outcome was mortality; the secondary outcome was ventilator-free days. Results. Positive fluid balance (in increments of 10 mL/kg/24 h was associated with a significant increase in both mortality and prolonged duration of mechanical ventilation, independent of the presence of multiple organ system failure and the extent of oxygenation defect. These relationships remained unchanged when the subgroup of patients with septic shock (n=39 were excluded. Conclusions. Persistently positive fluid balance may be deleterious to pediatric patients with ALI. A confirmatory, prospective randomized controlled trial of fluid management in pediatric patients with ALI is warranted.

  8. Preventing Depressive Relapse and Recurrence in Higher Risk Cognitive Therapy Responders: A Randomized Trial of Continuation Phase Cognitive Therapy, Fluoxetine, or Matched Pill Placebo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Robin B.; Minhajuddin, Abu; Gershenfeld, Howard; Friedman, Edward S.; Thase, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Context Strategies to improve the course of recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD) have great public health relevance. To reduce the risk of relapse/recurrence after acute phase Cognitive Therapy (CT), a continuation phase model of therapy (C-CT) may improve outcomes. Objectives To test the efficacy of C-CT and fluoxetine (FLX) for relapse prevention in a placebo (PBO) controlled randomized trial and compare the durability of prophylaxis after discontinuation of treatments. Design A sequential, three stage design with: acute phase (all patients received 12 weeks of CT), 8 month experimental phase (responders at higher risk were randomized to C-CT, FLX, or PBO), and 24 months of longitudinal, post-treatment follow-up. Setting Two university-based specialty clinics. Patients 523 adults with recurrent MDD began acute phase CT, of which 241 “higher risk” responders were randomized and 181 subsequently entered the follow-up. Interventions CT responders at higher risk for relapse were randomized to receive 8 months of C-CT (n = 86), FLX (n = 86) or PBO (n = 69). Main Outcome Measures Survival analyses of relapse/recurrence rates, as determined by “blinded” evaluators using DSM-IV criteria and the LIFE interview. Results As predicted, the C-CT or FLX groups were significantly less likely to relapse than the PBO group across 8 months. Relapse/recurrence rates for C-CT and FLX were nearly identical during the 8 months of treatment, although C-CT patients were more likely to accept randomization, stayed in treatment longer, and attended more sessions than those in FLX/PBO. Contrary to prediction, relapse/recurrence rates following the discontinuation of C-CT and FLX did not differ. Conclusions Relapse risk was reduced by both C-CT and FLX in an “enriched” randomization sampling only CT responders. The preventive effects of C-CT were not significantly more ‘durable’ than those of FLX after treatment was stopped, suggesting that some higher risk patients may

  9. Interpersonal psychotherapy for depression and posttraumatic stress disorder among HIV-positive women in Kisumu, Kenya: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onu, Chinwe; Ongeri, Linnet; Bukusi, Elizabeth; Cohen, Craig R; Neylan, Thomas C; Oyaro, Patrick; Rota, Grace; Otewa, Faith; Delucchi, Kevin L; Meffert, Susan M

    2016-02-03

    Mental disorders are the leading global cause of years lived with disability; the majority of this burden exists in low and middle income countries (LMICs). Over half of mental illness is attributable to depression and anxiety disorders, both of which have known treatments. While the scarcity of mental health care providers is recognized as a major contributor to the magnitude of untreated disorders in LMICs, studies in LMICs find that evidence-based treatments for depression and anxiety disorders, such as brief, structured psychotherapies, are feasible, acceptable and have strong efficacy when delivered by local non-specialist personnel. However, most mental health treatment studies using non-specialist providers in LMICs deploy traditional efficacy designs (T1) without the benefit of integrated mental health treatment models shown to succeed over vertical interventions or methods derived from new implementation science to speed policy change. Here, we describe an effectiveness-implementation hybrid study that evaluates non-specialist delivery of mental health treatment within an HIV clinic for HIV-positive (HIV+) women affected by gender- based violence (GBV) (HIV+ GBV+) in the Nyanza region of Kenya. In this effectiveness-implementation hybrid type I design, 200 HIV+ women with major depressive disorder (MDD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) who are receiving care at a Family AIDS Care Education and Services (FACES)-supported clinic in Kisumu, Kenya will be randomized to: (1) interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) + treatment as usual (TAU) or (2) TAU, both delivered within the HIV clinic. IPT will consist of 12 weekly 60-minute individual IPT sessions, delivered by non-specialists trained to provide IPT. Primary effectiveness outcomes will include MDD and PTSD diagnosis on the Mini International Diagnostic Interview (MINI). Primary implementation outcomes will include treatment cost-benefit, acceptability, appropriateness, feasibility and fidelity of the

  10. MULTI-SENSORY BRANDING AS A TOOL FOR THE FORMATION OF A POSITIVE IMAGE OF THE HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya A. Spirina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to study the relevance of the use of sensory branding in higher education and the development of an algorithm for educational brand, based on the use of the senses of the consumer: hearing, sight, touch, smell and taste.Methods. As a methodological basis author uses methods of scientific abstraction, modeling, analysis and synthesis, as well as the method of system analysis. Results. This article discusses the main directions of methodology for higher educational brand formation through the involvement of educational services’ consumers by using different sensory organs. The author presents the main advantages of the sensory branding over conventional not focused on the senses of consumers.Scientific novelty. The author proves the need for innovative approaches to educational branding in economy of values. Market congestion with advertising messages and information noises makes it impossible to win the commitment of consumers of educational services on the basis of the functional characteristics (high-quality education, focusing only on the vision or hearing of consumers (video and print advertising. It is necessary to focus on other senses of the consumer, such as touch, smell, taste. This will enhance the emotional connection with the consumer, make it possible to expand the range of services using an existing brand, and also allow defending against competitors. Multi-sensory branding creates a strong link with the consumer, since emotional commitment is stronger than functional. In other words, a sense of interaction with the brand persists much longer than simple physical satisfaction of needs.Practical significance. The author proposes a system of sensory perception channels of educational brand and their influence on the formation of the image of the higher education institution in the minds of consumers. The author also offers the algorithm of creation the educational brand, based on the five senses of

  11. Coarse-coded higher-order neural networks for PSRI object recognition. [position, scale, and rotation invariant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirkovska, Lilly; Reid, Max B.

    1993-01-01

    A higher-order neural network (HONN) can be designed to be invariant to changes in scale, translation, and inplane rotation. Invariances are built directly into the architecture of a HONN and do not need to be learned. Consequently, fewer training passes and a smaller training set are required to learn to distinguish between objects. The size of the input field is limited, however, because of the memory required for the large number of interconnections in a fully connected HONN. By coarse coding the input image, the input field size can be increased to allow the larger input scenes required for practical object recognition problems. We describe a coarse coding technique and present simulation results illustrating its usefulness and its limitations. Our simulations show that a third-order neural network can be trained to distinguish between two objects in a 4096 x 4096 pixel input field independent of transformations in translation, in-plane rotation, and scale in less than ten passes through the training set. Furthermore, we empirically determine the limits of the coarse coding technique in the object recognition domain.

  12. Lgr5 positive stem cells sorted from small intestines of diabetic mice differentiate into higher proportion of absorptive cells and Paneth cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xian-Yang; Yu, Tao; Zhong, Wa; Li, Jie-Yao; Xia, Zhong-Sheng; Yuan, Yu-Hong; Yu, Zhong; Chen, Qi-Kui

    2015-08-01

    Intestinal epithelial stem cells (IESCs) can differentiate into all types of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and Leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5) is a marker for IESC. Previous studies reported enhanced proliferation of IECs in diabetic mice. In this study, the in vitro differentiation of Lgr5 positive IESCs sorted from diabetic mice was further investigated. The diabetic mouse model was induced by streptozotocin (STZ), and crypt IECs were isolated from small intestines. Subsequently, Lgr5 positive IESCs were detected by flow cytometry (FCM) and sorted by magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS). Differentiation of the sorted IESCs was investigated by detecting the IEC markers in the diabetic mice using immunostaining, quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and Western blot analysis, which was compared with normal mice. We found that the proportion of Lgr5 positive cells in the crypt IECs of diabetic mice was higher than that of control mice (P absorptive cell marker sucrase-isomaltase (SI) and the Paneth cell marker lysozyme 1 (Lyz1) were more highly expressed in the differentiated cells derived from Lgr5 positive IESCs of diabetic mice in vitro (P small intestines of STZ-induced diabetic mice. Lgr5 positive IESCs sorted from the diabetic mice can differentiate into a higher proportion of absorptive cells and Paneth cells in vitro. We characterized the expression of Lgr5 in the small intestine of diabetic mice, and sorted Lgr5 positive intestinal epithelial stem cells (IESCs) for investigating their differentiation in vitro. We proved that the quantity of Lgr5 positive IESCs was significantly increased in the small intestines of diabetic mice. IESCs sorted from the diabetic mice can differentiate into a higher proportion of absorptive cells and Paneth cells in vitro.

  13. Postpartum depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depression - postpartum; Postnatal depression; Postpartum psychological reactions ... behavioral therapy (CBT) and interpersonal therapy (IPT) are types of talk therapy that often help postpartum depression. ...

  14. Ethnic Variation in the Cross-sectional Association between Domains of Depressive Symptoms and Clinical Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin eAssari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe degree by which depressive symptoms and clinical depression reflect each other may vary across populations. The present study compared Blacks and Whites for the magnitude of the cross-sectional associations between various domains of depressive symptoms and endorsement of clinical disorders of depression. MethodsData came from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL, 2001–2003. We included 3,570 Black (African Americans, and 891 Non-Hispanic Whites. Predictors were positive affect, negative affect, and interpersonal problems measured using the 12-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D. Outcomes were lifetime MDD, lifetime MDE, 12 month MDE, 30 days MDE, and 30 days MDDH based on the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI. Logistic regression models were applied in the pooled sample, as well as Blacks and Whites.ResultsRegarding CES-D, Blacks had lower total scores, positive affect, negative affect, and interpersonal problems compared to Whites (p < 0.05 for all comparisons. Blacks also had lower odds of meeting criteria for lifetime MDD and MDE, 12 month MDE, and 30 days MDE and MDDH (p < 0.05 for all comparisons. For most depressive diagnoses, ethnicity showed a positive and significant interaction with the negative affect and interpersonal domains, suggesting stronger associations for Blacks compared to Whites. CES-D total and CES-D positive affect did not interact with ethnicity on CIDI based diagnoses.ConclusionStronger associations between multiple domains of depressive symptoms and clinical MDD may be due to higher severity of depression among Blacks, when they endorse the disorder. This finding may explain some of previously observed ethnic differences in social, psychological, and medical correlates of depressive symptoms and clinical depression in the general population as well as clinical settings.

  15. Higher urinary lignan concentrations in women but not men are positively associated with shorter time to pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumford, Sunni L; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Schisterman, Enrique F; Sweeney, Anne M; Barr, Dana Boyd; Rybak, Michael E; Maisog, Jose M; Parker, Daniel L; Pfeiffer, Christine M; Louis, Germaine M Buck

    2014-03-01

    Phytoestrogens have been associated with subtle hormonal changes, although effects on fecundity are unknown. Our objective was to evaluate the association between male and female urinary phytoestrogen (isoflavone and lignan) concentrations and time to pregnancy (TTP) in a population-based cohort of 501 couples desiring pregnancy and discontinuing contraception. Couples were followed for 12 mo or until pregnancy. Fecundability ORs (FORs) and 95% CIs were estimated after adjusting for age, body mass index, race, site, creatinine, supplement use, and physical activity in relation to female, male, and joint couple concentrations. Models included the phytoestrogen of interest and the sum of the remaining individual phytoestrogens. FORs 1 a shorter TTP. Urinary lignan concentrations were higher, on average, among female partners of couples who became pregnant during the study compared with women who did not become pregnant (median enterodiol: 118 vs. 80 nmol/L; P < 0.10; median enterolactone: 990 vs. 412 nmol/L; P < 0.05) and were associated with significantly shorter TTP in models based on both individual and couples' concentrations (couples' models: enterodiol FOR, 1.13; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.26; enterolactone FOR, 1.11; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.21). Male lignan concentrations were not associated with TTP, nor were isoflavone concentrations. Sensitivity analyses showed that associations observed are unlikely to be explained by potential unmeasured confounding by lifestyle or other nutrients. Our results suggest that female urinary lignan concentrations at levels characteristic of the U.S. population are associated with a shorter TTP among couples who are attempting to conceive, highlighting the importance of dietary influences on fecundity.

  16. Statistical methods for transverse beam position diagnostics with higher order modes in third harmonic 3.9 GHz superconducting accelerating cavities at FLASH

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, P; Jones, R M

    2014-01-01

    Beam-excited higher order modes (HOM) can be used to provide beam diagnostics. Here we focus on 3.9 GHz superconducting accelerating cavities. In particular we study dipole mode excitation and its application to beam position determinations. In order to extract beam position information, linear regression can be used. Due to a large number of sampling points in the waveforms, statistical methods are used to effectively reduce the dimension of the system, such as singular value decomposition (SVD) and k-means clustering. These are compared with the direct linear regression (DLR) on the entire waveforms. A cross-validation technique is used to study the sample independent precisions of the position predictions given by these three methods. A RMS prediction error in the beam position of approximately 50 micron can be achieved by DLR and SVD, while k-means clustering suggests 70 micron.

  17. Depression Reduces Accuracy While Parkinsonism Slows Response Time for Processing Positive Feedback in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease with Comorbid Major Depressive Disorder Tested on a Probabilistic Category-Learning Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad M. Herzallah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Major depressive disorder (MDD is the most common non-motor manifestation of Parkinson’s disease (PD affecting 50% of patients. However, little is known about the cognitive correlates of MDD in PD. Using a computer-based cognitive task that dissociates learning from positive and negative feedback, we tested four groups of subjects: (1 patients with PD with comorbid MDD, (2 patients with PD without comorbid MDD, (3 matched patients with MDD alone (without PD, and (4 matched healthy control subjects. Furthermore, we used a mathematical model of decision-making to fit both choice and response time data, allowing us to detect and characterize differences between the groups that are not revealed by cognitive results. The groups did not differ in learning accuracy from negative feedback, but the MDD groups (PD patients with MDD and patients with MDD alone exhibited a selective impairment in learning accuracy from positive feedback when compared to the non-MDD groups (PD patients without MDD and healthy subjects. However, response time in positive feedback trials in the PD groups (both with and without MDD was significantly slower than the non-PD groups (MDD and healthy groups. While faster response time usually correlates with poor learning accuracy, it was paradoxical in PD groups, with PD patients with MDD having impaired learning accuracy and PD patients without MDD having intact learning accuracy. Mathematical modeling showed that both MDD groups (PD with MDD and MDD alone were significantly slower than non-MDD groups in the rate of accumulation of information for stimuli trained by positive feedback, which can lead to lower response accuracy. Conversely, modeling revealed that both PD groups (PD with MDD and PD alone required more evidence than other groups to make responses, thus leading to slower response times. These results suggest that PD patients with MDD exhibit cognitive profiles with mixed traits characteristic of both MDD and PD

  18. Depression Reduces Accuracy While Parkinsonism Slows Response Time for Processing Positive Feedback in Patients with Parkinson's Disease with Comorbid Major Depressive Disorder Tested on a Probabilistic Category-Learning Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzallah, Mohammad M; Khdour, Hussain Y; Taha, Ahmad B; Elmashala, Amjad M; Mousa, Hamza N; Taha, Mohamad B; Ghanim, Zaid; Sehwail, Mahmud M; Misk, Adel J; Balsdon, Tarryn; Moustafa, Ahmed A; Myers, Catherine E; Gluck, Mark A

    2017-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the most common non-motor manifestation of Parkinson's disease (PD) affecting 50% of patients. However, little is known about the cognitive correlates of MDD in PD. Using a computer-based cognitive task that dissociates learning from positive and negative feedback, we tested four groups of subjects: (1) patients with PD with comorbid MDD, (2) patients with PD without comorbid MDD, (3) matched patients with MDD alone (without PD), and (4) matched healthy control subjects. Furthermore, we used a mathematical model of decision-making to fit both choice and response time data, allowing us to detect and characterize differences between the groups that are not revealed by cognitive results. The groups did not differ in learning accuracy from negative feedback, but the MDD groups (PD patients with MDD and patients with MDD alone) exhibited a selective impairment in learning accuracy from positive feedback when compared to the non-MDD groups (PD patients without MDD and healthy subjects). However, response time in positive feedback trials in the PD groups (both with and without MDD) was significantly slower than the non-PD groups (MDD and healthy groups). While faster response time usually correlates with poor learning accuracy, it was paradoxical in PD groups, with PD patients with MDD having impaired learning accuracy and PD patients without MDD having intact learning accuracy. Mathematical modeling showed that both MDD groups (PD with MDD and MDD alone) were significantly slower than non-MDD groups in the rate of accumulation of information for stimuli trained by positive feedback, which can lead to lower response accuracy. Conversely, modeling revealed that both PD groups (PD with MDD and PD alone) required more evidence than other groups to make responses, thus leading to slower response times. These results suggest that PD patients with MDD exhibit cognitive profiles with mixed traits characteristic of both MDD and PD, furthering

  19. Thyroid hormones association with depression severity and clinical outcome in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berent, Dominika; Zboralski, Krzysztof; Orzechowska, Agata; Gałecki, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    The clinical implications of thyroid hormones in depression have been studied extensively and still remains disputable. Supplementation of thyroid hormones is considered to augment and accelerate antidepressant treatment. Studies on the role of thyroid hormones in depression deliver contradictory results. Here we assess theirs impact on depression severity and final clinical outcome in patients with major depression. Thyrotropin, free thyroxine (FT4), and free triiodothyronine (FT3) concentrations were measured with automated quantitative enzyme immunoassay. Depression severity and final clinical outcome were rated with 17-itemic Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression [HDRS(17)] and Clinical Global Impression Scales for severity and for improvement (CGIs, CGIi). FT3 and FT4 concentrations were significantly positively correlated with clinical improvement evaluated with CGIi (R = 0.38, P = 0.012; R = 0.33, P = 0.034, respectively). There was a significant correlation between FT4 concentrations and depression severity assessed in HDRS(17) (R = 0.31, P = 0.047). Male patients presented significantly higher FT3 serum levels (Z = 2.34, P = 0.018) and significantly greater clinical improvement (Z = 2.36, P = 0.018) when compared to female patients. We conclude that free thyroid hormones concentrations are associated with depression severity and have an impact on final clinical outcome. It can be more efficient to augment and accelerate the treatment of major depressive disorder with triiodothyronine instead of levothyroxine because of individual differences in thyroid hormones metabolism.

  20. CollAborative care and active surveillance for Screen-Positive EldeRs with subthreshold depression (CASPER): a multicentred randomised controlled trial of clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Helen; Adamson, Joy; Atherton, Katie; Bailey, Della; Birtwistle, Jacqueline; Bosanquet, Katharine; Clare, Emily; Delgadillo, Jaime; Ekers, David; Foster, Deborah; Gabe, Rhian; Gascoyne, Samantha; Haley, Lesley; Hargate, Rebecca; Hewitt, Catherine; Holmes, John; Keding, Ada; Lilley-Kelly, Amanda; Maya, Jahnese; McMillan, Dean; Meer, Shaista; Meredith, Jodi; Mitchell, Natasha; Nutbrown, Sarah; Overend, Karen; Pasterfield, Madeline; Richards, David; Spilsbury, Karen; Torgerson, David; Traviss-Turner, Gemma; Trépel, Dominic; Woodhouse, Rebecca; Ziegler, Friederike; Gilbody, Simon

    2017-02-01

    Efforts to reduce the burden of illness and personal suffering associated with depression in older adults have focused on those with more severe depressive syndromes. Less attention has been paid to those with mild disorders/subthreshold depression, but these patients also suffer significant impairments in their quality of life and level of functioning. There is currently no clear evidence-based guidance regarding treatment for this patient group. To establish the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a low-intensity intervention of collaborative care for primary care older adults who screened positive for subthreshold depression. A pragmatic, multicentred, two-arm, parallel, individually randomised controlled trial with a qualitative study embedded within the pilot. Randomisation occurred after informed consent and baseline measures were collected. Thirty-two general practitioner (GP) practices in the north of England. A total of 705 participants aged ≥ 75 years during the pilot phase and ≥ 65 years during the main trial with subthreshold depression. Participants in the intervention group received a low-intensity intervention of collaborative care, which included behavioural activation delivered by a case manager for an average of six sessions over 7-8 weeks, alongside usual GP care. Control-arm participants received only usual GP care. The primary outcome measure was a self-reported measure of depression severity, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 items PHQ-9 score at 4 months post randomisation. Secondary outcome measures included the European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions, Short Form questionnaire-12 items, Patient Health Questionnaire-15 items, Generalised Anxiety Disorder seven-item scale, Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale two-item version, a medication questionnaire and objective data. Participants were followed up for 12 months. In total, 705 participants were randomised (collaborative care n = 344, usual care n = 361), with 586

  1. Depression and Coronary Heart Disease

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    There are exciting findings in the field of depression and coronary heart disease. Whether diagnosed or simply self-reported, depression continues to mark very high risk for a recurrent acute coronary syndrome or for death in patients with coronary heart disease. Many intriguing mechanisms have been posited to be implicated in the association between depression and heart disease, and randomized controlled trials of depression treatment are beginning to delineate the types of depression manage...

  2. Resolution study of higher-order-mode-based beam position diagnostics using custom-built electronics in strongly coupled 3.9-GHz multi-cavity accelerating module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, P.; Baboi, N.; Jones, R.M.; Eddy, N.

    2012-11-01

    Beam-excited higher order modes (HOMs) can provide remote diagnostics information of the beam position and cavity misalignment. In this paper we report on recent studies on the resolution with specially selected series of modes with custom-built electronics. This constitutes the first report of measurements of these cavities in which we obtained a resolution of 20 micron in beam offset. Details of the setup of the electronics and HOM measurements are provided.

  3. Men with negative results of guaiac-based fecal occult blood test have higher prevalences of colorectal neoplasms than women with positive results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Hermann; Hoffmeister, Michael; Birkner, Berndt; Stock, Christian

    2014-06-15

    Guaiac-based fecal occult blood tests (gFOBTs) are the most commonly applied tests for colorectal cancer screening globally but have relatively poor sensitivity to detect colorectal neoplasms. Men have higher prevalences of colorectal neoplasms than women. In case of a positive gFOBT result, participants are referred to colonoscopy, independent of sex. To assess performance of gFOBT in routine screening practice, we assessed age and sex specific prevalences (age groups: 55-59, 60-64, 65-69 and 70-74) of colorectal neoplasms in 182,956 women and men undergoing colonoscopy for primary screening and in 20,884 women and men undergoing colonoscopy to follow-up a positive gFOBT in Bavaria, Germany, in 2007-2009. We conducted model calculations to estimate prevalences among gFOBT negative individuals. Analogous model calculations were performed for women and men tested positive or negative with fecal immunochemical tests. In all age groups (55-59, 60-64, 65-69 and 70-74 years), men undergoing colonoscopy for primary screening had substantially higher prevalences of any colorectal neoplasms and essentially the same prevalences of advanced colorectal neoplasms compared to women undergoing colonoscopy to follow-up a positive gFOBT. Model calculations suggest that men with negative gFOBT likewise have substantially higher prevalences of colorectal neoplasms than gFOBT positive women in each age group. Model calculations further indicate that no such sex paradoxon occurs, and a much clearer risk stratification can be achieved with fecal immunochemical tests. Our findings underline need to move forward from and overcome shortcomings of gFOBT-based colorectal cancer screening. © 2013 UICC.

  4. Social Skills : A Resource for More Social Support, Lower Depression Levels, Higher Quality of Life, and Participation in Individuals With Spinal Cord Injury?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, Rachel; Peter, Claudio; Cieza, Alarcos; Post, Marcel. W.; Van Leeuwen, Christel M.; Werner, Christina S.; Geyh, Szilvia

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relevance of social skills and their different dimensions (ie, expressivity, sensitivity, control) in relation to social support, depression, participation, and quality of life (QOL) in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Design: Cross-sectional data collection withi

  5. Altered microglia morphology and higher resilience to stress-induced depression-like behavior in CX3CR1-deficient mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellwig, Sabine; Brioschi, Simone; Dieni, Sandra; Frings, Lars; Masuch, Annette; Blank, Thomas; Biber, Knut

    2016-01-01

    Microglia are suggested to be involved in several neuropsychiatric diseases. Indeed changes in microglia morphology have been reported in different mouse models of depression. A crucial regulatory system for microglia function is the well-defined CX3C axis. Thus, we aimed to clarify the role of micr

  6. Social Skills : A Resource for More Social Support, Lower Depression Levels, Higher Quality of Life, and Participation in Individuals With Spinal Cord Injury?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, Rachel; Peter, Claudio; Cieza, Alarcos; Post, Marcel. W.; Van Leeuwen, Christel M.; Werner, Christina S.; Geyh, Szilvia

    Objective: To examine the relevance of social skills and their different dimensions (ie, expressivity, sensitivity, control) in relation to social support, depression, participation, and quality of life (QOL) in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Design: Cross-sectional data collection

  7. Altered microglia morphology and higher resilience to stress-induced depression-like behavior in CX3CR1-deficient mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellwig, Sabine; Brioschi, Simone; Dieni, Sandra; Frings, Lars; Masuch, Annette; Blank, Thomas; Biber, Knut

    2016-01-01

    Microglia are suggested to be involved in several neuropsychiatric diseases. Indeed changes in microglia morphology have been reported in different mouse models of depression. A crucial regulatory system for microglia function is the well-defined CX3C axis. Thus, we aimed to clarify the role of micr

  8. Racial Discrimination, John Henryism, and Depression Among African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Darrell L; Neighbors, Harold W; Geronimus, Arline T; Jackson, James S

    2016-06-01

    Evidence from previous studies indicates that racial discrimination is significantly associated with depression and that African Americans with higher levels of socioeconomic status (SES) report greater exposure to racial discrimination compared to those with lower SES levels. Coping strategies could alter the relationship between racial discrimination and depression among African Americans. This study first examined whether greater levels of SES were associated with increased reports of racial discrimination and ratings of John Henryism, a measure of high-effort coping, among African Americans. Second, we examined whether high-effort coping moderated the relationship between racial discrimination and depression. Data were drawn from the National Survey of American Life Reinterview (n = 2,137). Analyses indicated that greater levels of education were positively associated with racial discrimination (p racial discrimination were positively related to depression (p discrimination and depression was altered by the effects of John Henryism.

  9. Tears in your beer: Gender differences in coping drinking motives, depressive symptoms and drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Dawn W.; Young, Chelsie M.; Steers, Mai-Ly; Quist, Michelle C.; Bryan, Jennifer L.; Neighbors, Clayton

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates associations between coping drinking motives (CDM; drinking to regulate negative affect), depressive symptoms, and drinking behavior and extends the literature by also taking into account gender differences. Two hundred forty-three college students (Mean age = 22.93, SD = 6.29, 82% female) participated. Based on previous research, we expected that CDM would be positively associated with drinking and problems, particularly among those higher in depressive symptoms, as individuals experiencing higher levels of negative affect (i.e. depressive symptoms) and who drink to cope are likely to drink more and experience more alcohol-related problems. Lastly, based on established gender differences, we expected that CDM would be positively associated with drinking and problems, especially among females higher in depressive symptoms. Unexpectedly, findings suggested that CDMs were positively related to peak drinking, especially among those lower in depressive symptoms. Results further revealed a significant three-way interaction between CDM, depressive symptoms, and gender when predicting alcohol-related problems and drinking frequency. Specifically, we found that CDM were more strongly associated with problems among women who were lower in depressive symptoms; whereas CDM were more strongly associated with problems among men who were higher in depressive symptoms. These findings offer a more comprehensive depiction of the relationship between depressive symptoms, CDM, and drinking behavior by taking into account the importance of gender differences. These results provide additional support for considering gender when designing and implementing alcohol intervention strategies. PMID:25525419

  10. Effect of positive psychotherapy on the treatment of psychological disorder among patients with depression%积极心理疗法对抑郁症患者心理障碍的效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆君

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the therapy effect of positive psychotherapy on the treatment of psychological disorder among patients with depression .Methods Totals of 60 patients with depression were divided into the study group (32 patients) and the control group (28 patients) by tossing a coin.The two groups were given sertraline hydrochloride treatment and psychiatric routine nursing , while the control group received regular health education and the general entertainment therapy activity .Besides that , the study group was given positive psychotherapy .The observation time was 6 weeks.Then curative effect and psychological rehabilitation effect of the two groups were evaluated by the Hamilton ’ s Depression Scale ( HAMD) , the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire ( ATQ) and the Happiness Enterprising Individual Questionnaire ( HEIQ) before the intervention and 1, 2, 4, 6 weeks after the intervention .Results Before therapy and 1, 2 weeks after therapy , the scores of HAMD ATQ and HEIQ in the two groups were not significantly different (P>0.05).After 4 and 6 weeks of treatment , the scores of HAMD ATQ and HEIQ in study group were significantly better than those in the control group (t=4.13,3.98,4.78,5.43,4.59,5.90, respectively;P<0.01).Comparing before and after the treatment between the two groups, the difference value of HAMD, ATQ and HEIQ in study group were significantly higher than those in control group (t=5.64,11.69,9.13, respectively;P<0.01).Conclusions Positive psychotherapy can be conducive to improve depression mood and remove negative thinking , build positive self-concept , improve the level of psychological health .It has a positive effect for reinforcing the curative effect of the patients with depression and promoting psychological rehabilitation .%目的:探讨积极心理疗法对抑郁症患者心理障碍的治疗效果。方法60例抑郁症患者随机分为研究组(32例)和对照组(28例)。两组均给予盐酸舍曲林治疗和精神

  11. [Depression and neurological diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piber, D; Hinkelmann, K; Gold, S M; Heesen, C; Spitzer, C; Endres, M; Otte, C

    2012-11-01

    In many neurological diseases a depressive syndrome is a characteristic sign of the primary disease or is an important comorbidity. Post-stroke depression, for example, is a common and relevant complication following ischemic brain infarction. Approximately 4 out of every 10 stroke patients develop depressive disorders in the course of the disease which have a disadvantageous effect on the course and the prognosis. On the other hand depression is also a risk factor for certain neurological diseases as was recently demonstrated in a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies which revealed a much higher stroke risk for depressive patients. Furthermore, depression plays an important role in other neurological diseases with respect to the course and quality of life, such as Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis and epilepsy. This article gives a review of the most important epidemiological, pathophysiological and therapeutic aspects of depressive disorders as a comorbidity of neurological diseases and as a risk factor for neurological diseases.

  12. Depressive realism: effects of depression severity and interpretation time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKendree-Smith, N; Scogin, F

    2000-12-01

    This study examined the theory of depressive realism, which posits that depressed people often are more accurate in perceptions and judgments than nondepressed people. Two possible qualifications to this theory were examined: (1) severity of depression moderates the effect, and (2) length of processing time will impact the presence of bias in depressed people, that is, negative bias will develop over time. College students were presented with a bogus personality profile that actually consisted of items previously rated as neutral in desirability. Participants rated these profiles for desirability initially and then again three days later. Results indicated a significant effect of depression severity on desirability rating. Nondepressed and mildly depressed students found their profiles to be more positive than the moderately/severely depressed students, with both groups having scores in the positive range. However, those participants who were moderately/severely depressed showed a negative bias in their ratings. No support was found for the effect of different times of interpretation.

  13. Managing workplace depression: an untapped opportunity for occupational health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Kelly; McKibbin, Laura

    2004-03-01

    Depression is one of the most prevalent and costly health issues affecting the American work force. Despite well established research demonstrating the association between employee depression and reduced on-the-job productivity, increased absenteeism, and higher health care use, most employers remain largely unresponsive to the need for company based depression initiatives. Organizational and individual barriers can prevent companies from effectively managing employee depression. Organizational barriers include information gaps, lack of data to justify increased investment in employee mental health programs, and employers' ambiguous roles in addressing depression. Individual barriers such as an inability to recognize signs and symptoms; stigma; confidentiality and privacy concerns; and unavailability of easily accessible, quality resources can keep employees who are depressed from seeking treatment. Many occupational health professionals may feel ill prepared or uncomfortable taking the lead in creating more aggressive worksite responses to depression, but they are, perhaps, in the best of all possible positions within an organization to succeed. Occupational health professionals have the credentials, credibility, training, and experience necessary to build a strong case for business leaders for why investing in workplace depression programs is so important. Occupational health professionals are the most qualified to design and deliver destigmatized, customer friendly programs and services for employees to access for help with depression, and to integrate their services with other departments such as benefits, health promotion, EAP, and human resources, to create an effective, organization-wide depression initiative.

  14. Effects of the behavioral inhibition system (BIS), behavioral activation system (BAS), and emotion regulation on depression: A one-year follow-up study in Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanzhang; Xu, Yun; Chen, Zi

    2015-12-15

    Depression is a worldwide mental health problem among adolescents. The current study aimed to examine the roles of the behavioral inhibition system (BIS), behavioral activation system (BAS), and emotion regulation on adolescent depression. A total of 330 Chinese adolescents were recruited to complete initial assessments of BIS/BAS, emotion regulation, and depression, with a follow-up after one year. Depression on these two occasions was positively correlated with gender, age, initial scores of BIS/BAS activity, and with Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire scores for self-blame, rumination, putting into perspective, catastrophizing, and blaming others, and negatively correlated with initial positive reappraisal scores. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that higher BIS activity, catastrophizing, rumination, and lower positive reappraisal predicted depression after one year. However, after controlling for initial depression, these variables were indirectly related to subsequent depression. Implications are discussed for assessments of depression and interventions targeted at the BIS, BAS, and emotion regulation.

  15. In Systemic Sclerosis, Anxiety and Depression Assessed by Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale Are Independently Associated with Disability and Psychological Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Del Rosso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Anxious and depressive symptoms are frequent in Systemic Sclerosis (SSc. Our objective is to assess their prevalence and association with district and global disability and psychological variables. Methods. 119 SSc patients were assessed by Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS. Clinical depression and anxiety were defined for HADS score cutoff ≥8. Patients were assessed for psychological symptoms (RSES, COPE-NIV, hand (HAMIS, CHFDS, fist closure, and hand opening and face disability (MHISS, mouth opening, global disability, and fatigue (HAQ, FACIT. Results. Both depression and anxiety in SSc are 36%. Depressive patients with comorbid anxiety have higher HADS-D score than patients with depression only (. HADS-A and -D are positively correlated with global disability, hands and mouth disability, fatigue, self-esteem and avoidance coping strategy, and, only HADS-A, also with social support (. By multiple regression, HADS-D is independently associated with FACIT-F (, RSES (, and MHISS total score (, together explaining 50% of variance. HADS-A is independently associated with RSES (, COPE-NIV SA (, COPE-NIV SS (, FACIT-F (, and MHISS mouth opening (, explaining 41% of variance. Conclusions. In SSc depression and anxiety correlate to local and global disabilities and psychological characteristics. Depressive patients with comorbid anxiety have higher level of depressive symptoms.

  16. Higher order structure in the 3'-minor domain of small subunit ribosomal RNAs from a gram negative bacterium, a gram positive bacterium and a eukaryote

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douthwaite, S; Christensen, A; Garrett, R A

    1983-01-01

    . Several unusual structural features were detected. Multiple G X A pairings in two of the putative helices, which are compatible with phylogenetic sequence comparisons, are strongly supported by the occurrence of cobra venom ribonuclease cuts adjacent to, and in one case between, these pairings. Evidence......An experimental approach was used to determine and compare the highest order structure within the 150 to 200 nucleotides at the 3'-ends of the RNAs from the small ribosomal subunits of Escherichia coli, Bacillus stearothermophilus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Chemical reagents were employed...... of additional higher order structure in the renatured free RNA. It can be concluded that a high level of conservation of higher order structure has occurred during the evolution of the gram negative and gram positive eubacteria and the eukaryote in both the double helical regions and the "unstructured" regions...

  17. Depression - older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... slowly than in younger adults. To better manage depression at home: Exercise regularly, if the provider says it is OK. Surround yourself with caring, positive people and do fun activities. ... signs of depression, and know how to react if these occur. ...

  18. 高职高专学生抑郁情绪的应激因素及应对和自我概念的影响%STRESS FACTORS IN HIGHER VOCATIONAL STUDENTS' DEPRESSION AND INFLUENCE OF COPING STYLE AND SELF-CONCEPT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑开梅

    2011-01-01

    family (β=0.089, P=0.012), low family income (β= 0.108, P = 0.003), pressures of entering the higher school (β=0.083, P= 0.026) and personalized stressors (β=0.072, P = 0.034).Problem solutions in coping-style (β=-0.140, P= 0.000) and positive self-concept in self-concept (β =-0.194, P = 0.000) were against factors of depressed emotion; self-accusation (β = 0.181, P = 0.000) and negative self-concept (β= 0.090, P = 0.005) were causing factors of depressed emotion.In addition, self-accusation (β= 0.180, P = 0.000), positive self - concept (β= - 0.154, P = 0.000) and negative self - concept (β= 0.149, P = 0.000) affected depression through stress evaluation.[Conclusion]Higher vocational students' stressors have its own characteristics.The psychological intervention methods, which lower self-accusation of coping styles and negative self-concept as well as improve positive self-concept, can reduce the influence of stress to higher vocational students in order to decrease depressive emotion.Meanwhile, the above methods and enhancing problem solutions in coping-style also avert the depression occurrence directly.

  19. Postpartum Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... starts about 1–3 weeks after childbirth. What causes postpartum depression? Postpartum depression probably is caused by a combination ... better. Can antidepressants cause side effects? Antidepressants can ... If your depression worsens soon after starting medication or if you ...

  20. Caregiver Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will not sell or share your name. Caregiver Depression Tweet Bookmark this page | Email | Print Many caregivers ... depression See your doctor Treatment Coping Symptoms of depression Caregiving is hard — and can lead to feelings ...

  1. Positive environmental modification of depressive phenotype and abnormal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in female C57BL/6J mice during abstinence from chronic ethanol consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terence Y Pang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Depression is a commonly reported co-morbidity during rehabilitation from alcohol use disorders and its presence is associated with an increased likelihood of relapse. Interventions which impede the development of depression could be of potential benefit if incorporated into treatment programs. We previously demonstrated an ameliorative effect of physical exercise on depressive behaviours in a mouse model of alcohol abstinence. Here, we show that environmental enrichment (cognitive and social stimulation has a similar beneficial effect. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis is a key physiological system regulating stress responses and its dysregulation has been separably implicated in the pathophysiology of depression and addiction disorders. We performed a series of dexamethasone challenges and found that mice undergoing 2 weeks of alcohol abstinence had significantly greater corticosterone and ACTH levels following a DEX-CRH challenge compared to water controls. Environmental enrichment during alcohol abstinence corrected the abnormal DEX-CRH corticosterone response despite a further elevation of ACTH levels. Examination of gene expression revealed abstinence-associated alterations in glucocorticoid receptor (Gr, corticotrophin releasing hormone (Crh and pro-opiomelanocortin (Pomc1 mRNA levels which were differentially modulated by environmental enrichment. Overall, our study demonstrates a benefit of environmental enrichment on alcohol abstinence-associated depressive behaviours and HPA axis dysregulation.

  2. When Aspirations Exceed Expectations: Quixotic Hope Increases Depression among Students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine H Greenaway

    Full Text Available A paradox exists in modern schooling: students are simultaneously more positive about the future and more depressed than ever. We suggest that these two phenomena may be linked. Two studies demonstrated that students are more likely to be depressed when educational aspirations exceed expectations. In Study 1 (N = 85 aspiring to a thesis grade higher than one expected predicted greater depression at the beginning and end of the academic year. In Study 2 (N = 2820 aspiring to a level of education (e.g., attending college higher than one expected to achieve predicted greater depression cross-sectionally and five years later. In both cases the negative effects of aspiring high while expecting low persisted even after controlling for whether or not students achieved their educational aspirations. These findings highlight the danger of teaching students to aspire higher without also investing time and money to ensure that students can reasonably expect to achieve their educational goals.

  3. When Aspirations Exceed Expectations: Quixotic Hope Increases Depression among Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenaway, Katharine H; Frye, Margaret; Cruwys, Tegan

    2015-01-01

    A paradox exists in modern schooling: students are simultaneously more positive about the future and more depressed than ever. We suggest that these two phenomena may be linked. Two studies demonstrated that students are more likely to be depressed when educational aspirations exceed expectations. In Study 1 (N = 85) aspiring to a thesis grade higher than one expected predicted greater depression at the beginning and end of the academic year. In Study 2 (N = 2820) aspiring to a level of education (e.g., attending college) higher than one expected to achieve predicted greater depression cross-sectionally and five years later. In both cases the negative effects of aspiring high while expecting low persisted even after controlling for whether or not students achieved their educational aspirations. These findings highlight the danger of teaching students to aspire higher without also investing time and money to ensure that students can reasonably expect to achieve their educational goals.

  4. Depressive Symptoms during an Acute Schizophrenic Episode: Frequency and Clinical Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Ravi Philip

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Depressive symptoms are common in schizophrenia and are associated with poorer functioning, lower quality of life, and an elevated risk of suicidal behaviour. There are few studies on the occurrence and correlates of these symptoms in acutely ill patients with schizophrenia. Method. 72 acutely ill patients with schizophrenia were assessed for depression using the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS). A cut-off score of ≥6 on the CDSS was used to identify clinically significant depressive symptoms. The relationship between depression and illness variables, including psychotic symptom dimensions as measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale for Schizophrenia (PANSS), was examined. Results. Eleven (15.3%) patients had clinically significant depressive symptoms. These patients scored higher on the positive and general psychopathology scales of the PANSS and had higher rates of suicidal behavior and poorer functioning. The severity of depressive symptoms was positively correlated with the PANSS positive subscale and negatively correlated with the PANSS negative subscale. Discussion. These findings confirm previous reports that depressive symptoms in active schizophrenia is related to the severity of positive psychotic symptoms and is a risk factor for suicidal behaviour in these patients.

  5. Depressive Symptoms during an Acute Schizophrenic Episode: Frequency and Clinical Correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Philip Rajkumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Depressive symptoms are common in schizophrenia and are associated with poorer functioning, lower quality of life, and an elevated risk of suicidal behaviour. There are few studies on the occurrence and correlates of these symptoms in acutely ill patients with schizophrenia. Method. 72 acutely ill patients with schizophrenia were assessed for depression using the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS. A cut-off score of ≥6 on the CDSS was used to identify clinically significant depressive symptoms. The relationship between depression and illness variables, including psychotic symptom dimensions as measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale for Schizophrenia (PANSS, was examined. Results. Eleven (15.3% patients had clinically significant depressive symptoms. These patients scored higher on the positive and general psychopathology scales of the PANSS and had higher rates of suicidal behavior and poorer functioning. The severity of depressive symptoms was positively correlated with the PANSS positive subscale and negatively correlated with the PANSS negative subscale. Discussion. These findings confirm previous reports that depressive symptoms in active schizophrenia is related to the severity of positive psychotic symptoms and is a risk factor for suicidal behaviour in these patients.

  6. Emotion regulation and depressive symptoms: examining the mediation effects of school connectedness in Chinese late adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanhua; Zhao, Guoxiang

    2015-04-01

    This study tested Gross's process model of emotion regulation in a Chinese adolescent sample. It hypothesized that emotion regulation strategies (cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression) would predict adolescents' perception of school connectedness and depressive symptoms. It also posited that school connectedness may be a possible mediator between emotion regulation and depressive symptoms. Participants were 504 adolescents aged 16-18 from two Chinese public upper secondary schools. Structural equation modeling analyses indicated that reappraisal and suppression significantly associated with school connectedness and depressive symptoms, and school connectedness mediated the link between emotion regulation and depressive symptoms, even when the general emotion experiences were controlled. Although boys unexpectedly reported higher level depressive symptoms, the hypothesized model was invariant across gender except for the link between suppression and depressive symptoms. These findings demonstrate that it is meaningful to involve both emotion regulation processes and school connectedness in explaining adolescent depressive symptoms.

  7. Resilience Moderates the Association between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Depressive Symptoms Among Women with and At-Risk for HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Sannisha K.; Weber, Kathleen M.; Cohen, Mardge H.; Kelso, Gwendolyn A.; Cruise, Ruth C.; Brody, Leslie R.

    2014-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) places women at risk for HIV infection and once infected, for poor mental health outcomes, including lower quality of life and depressive symptoms. Among HIV-positive and demographically matched HIV-negative women, we investigated whether resilience and HIV status moderated the relationships between CSA and health indices as well as the relationships among CSA, depressive symptoms, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Participants included 202 women (138 HIV+, 64 HIV−, 87% African American) from the Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) Chicago CORE Center site. Results indicated that in both HIV-positive and HIV-negative women, higher resilience significantly related to lower depressive symptoms and higher HRQOL. CSA related to higher depressive symptoms only for women scoring low in resilience. Interventions to promote resilience, especially in women with a CSA history, might minimize depressive symptoms and poor HRQOL among HIV-positive and HIV-negative women. PMID:25085079

  8. Relationship between personality. positive psychological resource and depression in elderly:a path model%老年人人格、积极心理资源与抑郁的路径模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张阔; 李萌; 张赛

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the relation between personality and depression in elderly,particularly to investigate mediating effect of positive psychological resource.Methods The eysenck personality questionaire-revised short scale for Chinese(EPQ-RSC),self-rating depression scale(SDS) and scales for positive psychological resource were performed by 270 elderly in community of Tianjin.Then correlation analysis,regression analysis and path analysis were accomplished to explore association between those variables.Results Neuroticism and Psychoticism personality correlate positively with depression ( r=0.45,0.48) and contribute about 30% variance of it (F=49.95 ).Positive psychological resource such as optimism,resilience and self-efficacy correlated negatively with depression ( r =- 0.41,- 0.39,- 0.20 ) and contributed 19% variance of it (F =30.02 ).The results of path analysis showed positive psychological resource mediated the relation between personality and depression also.Conclusion Neuroticism and Psychoticism are important risk factors of depression in elderly.Positive psychological resource such as optimism,resilience and self-efficacy are key protecting factors for depression and they mediate the relation between vulnerable personality and depression.%目的 考察老年人的人格和积极心理资源与其抑郁症状之间的关系,并探讨积极心理资源在易感人格和抑郁之间的中介作用.方法 应用艾森克人格问卷简式量表中文版( EPQ-RSC)、自评抑郁量表(SDS)和积极心理资源的相关量表,对天津市270名社区老年人进行了调查.结果 老年人的神经质与精神质人格与抑郁有显著的正相关(r分别为0.45和0.48),两种人格特质对老年人抑郁症状的方差贡献率为30%(F=49.95);乐观、韧性、自我效能感等积极心理资源与抑郁有显著的负相关(r分别为-0.41、-0.39和-0.20),3种积极心理资源对老年人抑郁症状的方差贡献率为19% (F=30.02);老

  9. Relation between exercise, depression and body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vasconcelos-Raposo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between physical exercise, depression, and body mass index (BMI. The sample of the study consisted of 175 participants (43 male and 132 female with ages between the 18 and 27 years. The used instruments were: an adapted and validated Portuguese version of the Beck Depressive Inventory (BDI and an adaptation of the physical exercise scale developed by Prochaska, Sallis and Long (2001. The results suggested a negative correlation between the physical exercise and depression, with statistical significance. The group that does not reach the recommended level of physical exercise presents higher scores of depression in comparison with the group that reaches. This study corroborates previous studies that suggested positive effects of physical exercise on depression.

  10. Relation between exercise, depression and body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vasconcelos-Raposo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between physical exercise, depression, and body mass index (BMI. The sample of the study consisted of 175 participants (43 male and 132 female with ages between the 18 and 27 years. The used instruments were: an adapted and validated Portuguese version of the Beck Depressive Inventory (BDI and an adaptation of the physical exercise scale developed by Prochaska, Sallis and Long (2001. The results suggested a negative correlation between the physical exercise and depression, with statistical significance. The group that does not reach the recommended level of physical exercise presents higher scores of depression in comparison with the group that reaches. This study corroborates previous studies that suggested positive effects of physical exercise on depression.

  11. Citation bias and selective focus on positive findings in the literature on the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR), life stress and depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de Ymkje Anna; Roest, A. M.; Franzen, M.; Munaf, M. R.; Bastiaansen, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Caspi et al.'s 2003 report that 5-HTTLPR genotype moderates the influence of life stress on depression has been highly influential but remains contentious. We examined whether the evidence base for the 5-HTTLPR-stress interaction has been distorted by citation bias and a selective focus o

  12. Facets of Mindfulness Mediate the Relationship between Depressive Symptoms and Smoking Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinci, Christine; Spears, Claire A; Peltier, MacKenzie R; Copeland, Amy L

    2016-12-01

    The relationship between cigarette smoking and depressive symptoms is well-established. Dispositional mindfulness has been associated with lower depressive symptoms, lower smoking dependence, and higher odds of smoking cessation. Given that mindfulness is multi-faceted, the current study examined which facets of mindfulness might mediate the relationship between depressive symptoms and smoking behavior. Participants (n = 72) completed the Smoking Consequences Questionnaire (SCQ), Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD), and Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills (KIMS; subscales-Observe, Describe, Acting with Awareness, Accepting without Judgment), and indicated number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD). Simple mediation models (followed by multiple mediation when more than one facet was significant) tested whether mindfulness facets mediated the relationship between CESD and smoking behavior (CPD and SCQ subscales). Results indicated that 1) lower depressive symptoms were associated with higher Accepting without Judgment, which was related to lower Negative Reinforcement expectancies, 2) lower depressive symptoms were associated with increased Describe, which was associated with greater perceived Negative Consequences, 3) lower depressive symptoms were associated with higher Accepting without Judgment, which was associated with lower Negative Consequences expectancies, and 4) higher depressive symptoms were associated with higher scores on Observe, which related to both greater Positive Reinforcement and Negative Consequences expectancies. Greater Accepting without Judgment and Describe aspects of mindfulness may serve as protective factors in the relationship of depressive symptoms and smoking.

  13. Higher order mode spectra and the dependence of localized dipole modes on the transverse beam position in third harmonic superconducting cavities at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Pei [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom); Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Baboi, Nicoleta [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Jones, Roger M. [The Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury (United Kingdom)

    2012-06-15

    An electron beam entering an accelerating cavity excites a wakefield. This wakefield can be decomposed into a series of multi-poles or modes. The dominant component of the transverse wakefield is dipole. This report summarizes the higher order mode (HOM) signals of the third harmonic cavities of FLASH measured at various stages: transmission measurements in the single cavity test stand at Fermilab, at CMTB (Cryo- Module Test Bench) and at FLASH, and beam-excited measurements at FLASH. Modes in the first two dipole bands and the fifth dipole band have been identified using a global Lorentzian fit technique. The beam-pipe modes at approximately 4 GHz and some modes in the fifth dipole band have been observed as localized modes, while the first two dipole bands, containing some strong coupling cavity modes, propagate. This report also presents the dependence of the localized dipole modes on the transverse beam position. Linear dependence for various modes has been observed. This makes them suitable for beam position diagnostics. These modes, together with some propagating, strong coupling modes, have been considered in the design of a dedicated electronics for beam diagnostics with HOMs for the third harmonic cavities.

  14. The interrelation between premenstrual syndrome and major depression: Results from a population-based sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiss Carine

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research about the relationship between premenstrual syndrome (PMS and major depression is limited. This study examined the relationship between moderate to severe PMS and major depression in a population-based sample of women of reproductive age. The objectives of the study were to assess the association between premenstrual syndrome and major depression, to analyse how PMS and major depression differ and to characterise the group of women who report both PMS and major depression. Methods Data were obtained from the Swiss Health Survey 2007. Included in the analysis was data from women under the age of 55 without hysterectomy and who answered the questions on PMS symptoms. The population-based sample consisted of 3518 women. Weighted prevalence rates were calculated and relative risk ratios for PMS, major depression and women who reported both PMS and major depression, were calculated with logistic multinominal logit regression. Results The prevalence of major depression was 11.3% in women screening positive for moderate PMS and 24.6% in women screening positive for severe PMS. Compared to women without any of these conditions, women who reported moderate to severe alcohol consumption had a lower risk for PMS. Women reporting use of antidepressants, and use of oral contraceptives had a higher risk for major depression compared to women without any of these conditions. Women reporting work dissatisfaction had a higher risk for PMS. A higher relative risk to report both PMS and major depression compared to women without PMS or major depression was related to factors such as high psychological distress, low mastery, psychotropic drug consumption, and low self-rated health. Conclusions The results suggested that women who suffer from both PMS and major depression are more impaired compared to women with only one disorder. The results further indicated that PMS and major depression are different disorders that can, however, co-occur.

  15. Collaborative care for depression symptoms in an outpatient cardiology setting: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Robert M; Freedland, Kenneth E; Steinmeyer, Brian C; Rubin, Eugene H; Ewald, Gregory

    2016-09-15

    Depression is a risk factor for morbidity and mortality in patients with coronary heart disease. Finding effective methods for identifying and treating depression in these patients is a high priority. The purpose of this study was to determine whether collaborative care (CC) for patients who screen positive for depression during an outpatient cardiology visit results in greater improvement in depression symptoms and better medical outcomes than seen in patients who screen positive for depression but receive only usual care (UC). Two hundred-one patients seen in an outpatient cardiology clinic who screened positive for depression during an outpatient visit were randomized to receive either CC or UC. Recommendations for depression treatment and ongoing support and monitoring of depression symptoms were provided to CC patients and their primary care physicians (PCPs) for up to 6months. There were no differences between the arms in mean Beck Depression Inventory-II scores(CC, 15.9; UC, 17.4; p=.45) or in depression remission rates(CC, 32.5%; UC, 26.2%; p=0.34) after 6months, or in the number of hospitalizations after 12months (p=0.73). There were fewer deaths among the CC (1/100) than UC patients (8/101) (p=0.03). This trial did not show that CC produces better depression outcomes than UC. Screening led to a higher rate of depression treatment than was expected in the UC group, and delays in obtaining depression treatment from PCPs may have reduced treatment effectiveness for the CC patients. A different strategy for depression treatment following screening in outpatient cardiology services is needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mediating effects of positive mental characters on the relationship between personality and depression in recruits%新兵积极心理品质在人格与抑郁症状间的中介作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海燕; 李红政; 雷美英; 赵立琼; 王周然; 王创

    2015-01-01

    目的 考察人格、积极心理品质和抑郁症状之间的关系,探讨积极心理品质在人格和抑郁症状之间的中介作用.方法 采用艾森克人格问卷(EPQ)、新兵积极心理品质评估问卷(PMCS-R)和抑郁自评量表(SDS)对部队的1 933名男性新兵进行问卷调查.结果 艾森克人格问卷的内外向得分为(55.26±10.59)分,精神质为(42.85±7.25)分,神经质为(42.35±11.67)分,积极心理品质总均分为(3.80±0.64)分,抑郁严重指数(0.45±0.11)分;新兵人格、积极心理品质和抑郁症状两两显著相关(P<0.05);内外向、精神质和神经质人格可以预测新兵抑郁症状,解释总变异的42.6% (F=476.28,P<0.05);层次回归分析结果显示,积极心理品质在人格(内外向、精神质、神经质)和抑郁症状之间起部分中介作用(中介效应分别为0.22、0.19、0.11,P<0.05).结论 新兵的人格特征与抑郁症状有直接关系,并通过积极心理品质间接作用于抑郁症状.%Objective To explore the relationship between personality and depression,especially to investigate mediating effect of positive mental characters.Methods A sample of 1 933 male recruits was assessed with eysenck personality questionnaire (EPQ),positive mental characters scale for recruits (PMCS-R) and self-rating depression scale (SDS).Results The scores of introversion-extroversion,psychoticism,neuroticism,positive mental characters and depression were 55.26±10.59,42.85±7.25,42.35± 11.67,3.80±0.64,0.45±0.11,respectively.There were correlations among personality,positive mental characters and depression in recruits (P<0.05).Regression analysis indicated that introversion-extroversion,psychoticism and neuroticism predicted depression directly,and it could explain 42.6% of the total variance (F=476.28,P<0.05).Hierarchy regression analysis showed that positive mental characters mediate the relationship between personality (introversion

  17. Metacognition in Pathological Gambling and Its Relationship with Anxious and Depressive Symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauregui, Paula; Urbiola, Irache; Estevez, Ana

    2016-06-01

    Gambling disorder is associated with elevated comorbidity with depressive and anxious disorders, and one variable that might help in the understanding of this association is metacognition. In the present study, the relationship between gambling and metacognition and the mediating role of metacognition in the relationship between gambling and depressive and anxious symptomatology were assessed. The sample comprised 124 pathological gamblers from centers that assist pathological gamblers and 204 participants from the general population. The results showed that pathological gamblers had higher levels of depressive and anxious symptomatology. Additionally, pathological gamblers had higher scores for positive beliefs about worry, negative beliefs of uncontrollability and danger, and beliefs about the need to control thoughts; these factors were also positively correlated with depressive and anxious symptomatology. Metacognition also fully mediated the association between gambling and depressive and anxious symptomatology. These results suggest that metacognition could contribute to explaining gambling disorder and the symptomatology associated with it.

  18. County level socioeconomic position, work organization and depression disorder: a repeated measures cross-classified multilevel analysis of low-income nursing home workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaner, Carles; Li, Yong; Xue, Xiaonan; Thompson, Theresa; O'Campo, Patricia; Chung, Haejoo; Eaton, William W

    2006-12-01

    This study simultaneously tests the effect of county, organizational, workplace, and individual level variables on depressive disorders among low-income nursing assistants employed in US nursing homes. A total of 482 observations are used from two waves of survey data collection, with an average two-year interval between initial and follow-up surveys. The overall response rate was 62 percent. The hierarchically structured data was analyzed using multilevel modeling to account for cross-classifications across levels of data. Nursing assistants working in nursing homes covered by a single union in three states were asked about aspects of their working conditions, job stress, physical and mental health status, individual and family health-care needs, household economics and household strain. The 241 nursing assistants who participated in this study were employed in 34 nursing homes and lived in 49 counties of West Virginia, Ohio and Kentucky. The study finds that emotional strain, related to providing direct care to elderly and disabled clients, is associated with depressive disorder, as is nursing home ownership type (for-profit versus not-for-profit). However, when controlling for county level socioeconomic variables (Gini index and proportion of African Americans living in the county), neither workplace nor organizational level variables were found to be statistically significant associated with depressive disorder. This study supports previous findings that emotional demand in health-care environments is an important correlate of mental health. It also adds empirical evidence to support a link between financial strain and depression in US women. While this study does not find that lack of a seniority wage benefits--a factor that can conceivably exacerbate financial strain over time--is associated with depressive disorder among low-income health-care workers, it does find county level measures of poverty to be statistically significant predictors of depressive

  19. Impacto de un programa de psicología positiva en sintomatologia depresiva y satisfaccion vital en adultos mayores Effects of a positive psychology program in depressive symptoms and life satisfaction in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Cuadra-Peralta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación estudia la efectividad de talleres basados en Psicología Positiva en adultos mayores, mediante el análisis de las variaciones pre-post del niveles de Satisfacción Vital y Sintomatología Depresiva. Se conformó tres grupos: el primero, un grupo cuasi experimental, basado en Psicología Positiva; el segundo, un grupo cuasi control activo, basado en actividades recreativas; y el tercero, un grupo cuasi control inactivo, sin intervención. Se utilizó la Escala de Depresión Geriátrica de Yesavage y Escala de Satisfacción Vital de Diener. Los resultados indican que sólo el grupo con taller basado en Psicología Positiva disminuye significativamente su Sintomatología Depresiva y aumenta significativamente sus niveles de Satisfacción Vital, luego de la intervención. Estos resultados se discuten a la luz de las investigaciones actuales en Psicología Positiva.This research examines the effectiveness of workshops based on positive psychology for the elderly by analyzing pre-post changes in levels of life satisfaction and depressive symptomatology. Three groups were formed: the first, a quasi-experimental group based on positive psychology; the second, a quasi-active control group based on recreational activities; and the third, a quasi-inactive control group without intervention. The instruments used were: Yesavage Geriatric Depression Scale and Life Satisfaction Scale of Diener. Results indicated that only the group that attended positive psychology-based workshops significantly decreased depressive symptoms and significantly increased their levels of life satisfaction after the intervention. These results are discussed in the light of current researches in positive psychology.

  20. Depression in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiske, Amy; Wetherell, Julie Loebach; Gatz, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Depression is less prevalent among older adults than among younger adults, but it can have serious consequences. More than half of cases represent a first onset in later life. Although suicide rates in the elderly are declining, they are still higher than in younger adults and are more closely associated with depression. Depressed older adults are less likely to endorse affective symptoms and more likely to display cognitive changes, somatic symptoms, and loss of interest than are depressed younger adults. Risk factors leading to the development of late-life depression likely comprise complex interactions among genetic vulnerabilities, cognitive diathesis, age-associated neurobiological changes, and stressful events. Insomnia is an often overlooked risk factor for late-life depression. We suggest that a common pathway to depression in older adults, regardless of which predisposing risks are most prominent, may be curtailment of daily activities. Accompanying self-critical thinking may exacerbate and maintain a depressed state. Offsetting the increasing prevalence of certain risk factors in late life are age-related increases in psychological resilience. Other protective factors include higher education and socioeconomic status, engagement in valued activities, and religious or spiritual involvement. Treatments including behavioral therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, cognitive bibliotherapy, problem-solving therapy, brief psychodynamic therapy, and life review/reminiscence therapy are effective but are too infrequently used with older adults. Preventive interventions including education for individuals with chronic illness, behavioral activation, cognitive restructuring, problem-solving skills training, group support, and life review have also received support.

  1. Higher Adolescent Body Mass Index is Associated with Lower Regional Gray and White Matter Volumes and Lower Levels of Positive Emotionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James T Kennedy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent obesity is associated with an increased chance of developing serious health risks later in life. Identifying the neurobiological and personality factors related to increases in adiposity is important to understanding what drives maladaptive consummatory and exercise behaviors that result in obesity. Previous research has largely focused on adults with few findings published on interactions among adiposity, brain structure, and personality. In this study, Voxel Based Morphometry (VBM was used to identify associations between gray and white matter volumes and increasing adiposity, as measured by Body Mass Index percentile (BMI%, in 137 adolescents (age range: 9-20 years, Body Mass Index percentile range: 5.16-99.56. Variations in gray and white matter volume and BMI% were then linked to individual differences in personality measures from the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ. After controlling for age and other covariates, BMI% correlated negatively with gray matter volume in the bilateral caudate (right: partial r = -0.338, left: r -0.404, medial prefrontal cortex (partial r = -0.339, anterior cingulate (partial r = -0.312, bilateral frontal pole (right: partial r = -0.368, left: r= -0.316, and uncus (partial r = -0.475 as well as white matter volume bilaterally in the anterior limb of the internal capsule (right: partial r = -0.34, left: r = -0.386, extending to the left middle frontal subgyral white matter. Agentic Positive Emotionality (PEM-AG was correlated negatively with BMI% (partial r = -0.384. PEM-AG was correlated positively with gray matter volume in the right uncus (partial r = 0.329. These results suggest that higher levels of adiposity in adolescents are associated with lower trait levels in reward-related personality domains, as well as structural variations in brain regions associated with reward processing, control, and sensory integration.

  2. Higher Adolescent Body Mass Index Is Associated with Lower Regional Gray and White Matter Volumes and Lower Levels of Positive Emotionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, James T; Collins, Paul F; Luciana, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent obesity is associated with an increased chance of developing serious health risks later in life. Identifying the neurobiological and personality factors related to increases in adiposity is important to understanding what drives maladaptive consummatory and exercise behaviors that result in obesity. Previous research has largely focused on adults with few findings published on interactions among adiposity, brain structure, and personality. In this study, Voxel Based Morphometry (VBM) was used to identify associations between gray and white matter volumes and increasing adiposity, as measured by Body Mass Index percentile (BMI%), in 137 adolescents (age range: 9-20 years, BMI% range: 5.16-99.56). Variations in gray and white matter volume and BMI% were then linked to individual differences in personality measures from the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ). After controlling for age and other covariates, BMI% correlated negatively with gray matter volume in the bilateral caudate (right: partial r = -0.338, left: r = -0.404), medial prefrontal cortex (partial r = -0.339), anterior cingulate (partial r = -0.312), bilateral frontal pole (right: partial r = -0.368, left: r = -0.316), and uncus (partial r = -0.475) as well as white matter volume bilaterally in the anterior limb of the internal capsule (right: partial r = -0.34, left: r = -0.386), extending to the left middle frontal subgyral white matter. Agentic Positive Emotionality (PEM-AG) was correlated negatively with BMI% (partial r = -0.384). PEM-AG was correlated positively with gray matter volume in the right uncus (partial r = 0.329). These results suggest that higher levels of adiposity in adolescents are associated with lower trait levels in reward-related personality domains, as well as structural variations in brain regions associated with reward processing, control, and sensory integration.

  3. Image-based gradient non-linearity characterization to determine higher-order spherical harmonic coefficients for improved spatial position accuracy in magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weavers, Paul T; Tao, Shengzhen; Trzasko, Joshua D; Shu, Yunhong; Tryggestad, Erik J; Gunter, Jeffrey L; McGee, Kiaran P; Litwiller, Daniel V; Hwang, Ken-Pin; Bernstein, Matt A

    2017-05-01

    Spatial position accuracy in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an important concern for a variety of applications, including radiation therapy planning, surgical planning, and longitudinal studies of morphologic changes to study neurodegenerative diseases. Spatial accuracy is strongly influenced by gradient linearity. This work presents a method for characterizing the gradient non-linearity fields on a per-system basis, and using this information to provide improved and higher-order (9th vs. 5th) spherical harmonic coefficients for better spatial accuracy in MRI. A large fiducial phantom containing 5229 water-filled spheres in a grid pattern is scanned with the MR system, and the positions all the fiducials are measured and compared to the corresponding ground truth fiducial positions as reported from a computed tomography (CT) scan of the object. Systematic errors from off-resonance (i.e., B0) effects are minimized with the use of increased receiver bandwidth (±125kHz) and two acquisitions with reversed readout gradient polarity. The spherical harmonic coefficients are estimated using an iterative process, and can be subsequently used to correct for gradient non-linearity. Test-retest stability was assessed with five repeated measurements on a single scanner, and cross-scanner variation on four different, identically-configured 3T wide-bore systems. A decrease in the root-mean-square error (RMSE) over a 50cm diameter spherical volume from 1.80mm to 0.77mm is reported here in the case of replacing the vendor's standard 5th order spherical harmonic coefficients with custom fitted 9th order coefficients, and from 1.5mm to 1mm by extending custom fitted 5th order correction to the 9th order. Minimum RMSE varied between scanners, but was stable with repeated measurements in the same scanner. The results suggest that the proposed methods may be used on a per-system basis to more accurately calibrate MR gradient non-linearity coefficients when compared to vendor

  4. White Matter Hyperintensities and the Course of Depressive Symptoms in Elderly People with Mild Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hogne Soennesyn

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To explore the relationship between white matter hyperintensities (WMH and the prevalence and course of depressive symptoms in mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD and Lewy body dementia. Design: This is a prospective cohort study conducted in secondary care outpatient clinics in western Norway. Subjects: The study population consisted of 77 elderly people with mild dementia diagnosed according to standardised criteria. Methods: Structured clinical interviews and physical, neurological, psychiatric, and neuropsychological examinations were performed and routine blood tests were taken. Depression was assessed using the depression subitem of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory and the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS. A standardised protocol for magnetic resonance imaging scan was used, and the volumes of WMH were quantified using an automated method, followed by manual editing. Results: The volumes of total and frontal deep WMH were significantly and positively correlated with baseline severity of depressive symptoms, and depressed patients had significantly higher volumes of total and frontal deep WMH than non-depressed patients. Higher volumes of WMH were also associated with having a high MADRS score and incident and persistent depression at follow-up. After adjustment for potential confounders, frontal deep WMH, in addition to prior depression and non-AD dementia, were still significantly associated with baseline depressive symptoms (p = 0.015, OR 3.703, 95% CI 1.294–10.593. Similar results emerged for total WMH. Conclusion: In elderly people with mild dementia, volumes of WMH, in particular frontal deep WMH, were positively correlated with baseline severity of depressive symptoms, and seemed to be associated with persistent and incident depression at follow-up. Further studies of the mechanisms that determine the course of depression in mild dementia are needed.

  5. [Recited depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barucci, M; Cossio, M

    1984-01-01

    Several subjects who tell their depression and play a part of it in front of the doctor without being really depressed are reported. Some of them try to hide the symptoms (irritability or erethism, ceremonials of obsessive neurosis, shunning of phobia) which, in their opinion, might be detrimental to their reputation. Others neglect to describe some of the symptoms of their polymorphous clinical picture only underlining the depressive signs. Some others play a part of depression because they have believed to recognize themselves in persons presented by mass media, because it seems to them a duty to show an adequate depression in case of mournful event, or because they "convert" their problem into a depression. Some others use depression as a blackmail, or to obtain an advantage from doctor's conviction about their illness. The reason for the high frequency of similar cases in the present time are examined: the scientific divulgation and the acceptance of depression by the modern society are among the most important ones. The peculiar semantic vicissitudes of the word depression are also reviewed. A widening of the boundaries of depression has contributed to an increase in the number of the cases. Finally, in addition to patients who are depressed without being aware of it, the authors focus the inverse possibility: patients who believed or try to make their doctor believe (playing the part of depression in front of them) that they are depressed.

  6. Influence of Depressive Symptoms on Dopaminergic Treatment of Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanganu, Alexandru; Degroot, Clotilde; Monchi, Oury; Bedetti, Christophe; Mejia-Constain, Béatriz; Lafontaine, Anne-Louise; Chouinard, Sylvain; Bruneau, Marie-Andrée

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Depressive symptoms are very common in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and have a significant impact on the quality of life. Dopaminergic medication has been shown to have an influence on the development of depressive symptoms. Materials and methods: The present study analyzed two groups of non-demented patients with PD, with and without depressive symptoms, and reported the correlations between antiparkinsonian medication [specifically levodopa (l-DOPA) and dopaminergic agonists] with depressive symptoms. Results: A strong statistically significant positive correlation between l-DOPA dosages and the level of depressive symptoms has been revealed, suggesting that higher l-DOPA dosages correlate with a worsening of depressive status. No significant correlation was found with dopamine agonists. Discussion: The results of this study show that in patients with PD, higher l-DOPA dosages correlate with worse depressive symptoms. From this point of view, PD patients need to be better diagnosed with respect to depressive symptoms and need additional treatment adjustment when clinical manifestations of depression are present. Clinicians must be aware that dopaminergic drugs are not sufficient to alleviate depressive symptoms. PMID:25309508

  7. Depression and suicide ideation among students accessing campus health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Sara; Wiegel, Jennifer R; Mundt, Marlon; Brown, David; Saewyc, Elizabeth; Heiligenstein, Eric; Harahan, Brian; Fleming, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Depression and suicide are of increasing concern on college campuses. This article presents data from the College Health Intervention Projects on the frequency of depression and suicide ideation among 1,622 college students who accessed primary care services in 4 university clinics in the Midwest, Northwest, and Canada. Students completed the Beck Depression Inventory and other measures related to exercise patterns, alcohol use, sensation seeking, and violence. The frequency of depression was similar for men (25%) and women (26%). Thought of suicide was higher for men (13%) than women (10%). Tobacco use, emotional abuse, and unwanted sexual encounters were all associated with screening positive for depression. "Days of exercise per week" was inversely associated with screening positive for depression. Because the majority of students access campus-based student health centers, medical providers can serve a key role in early identification and intervention. With every 4th student reporting symptoms of depression and every 10th student having suicidal thoughts, such interventions are needed.

  8. Depressive Symptoms and Psychosocial Functioning in Preadolescent Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marita McCabe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study was designed to determine the percentage of children “at-risk” of depression or evidencing clinical levels of depression. In addition, the study examined how the “at-risk” and the clinical groups differed from children who demonstrated no depressive symptoms on positive and negative affect, four aspects of self-concept, and peer ratings of popularity. Respondents were 510 children (270 boys 240 girls who ranged in age from 7 to 13 years (mean = 9.39. The results demonstrated that 23% of children were either in the “at-risk” or clinical range of depression. Children in both the clinical and the “at-risk” range demonstrated higher negative affect but lower positive affect and lower self-concepts than children in the normal range. However, children's peers only differentiated between the “clinical” and “normal” groups. It is harder for peers, and other informants such as teachers and parents, to detect the problems of children with elevated depressive symptoms but who do not meet the diagnostic criteria. It is important to implement intervention programs for children who evidence depression symptoms, as well as “at-risk” children. “At-risk” children with elevated levels of depressive symptoms may be more disadvantaged, as their problems are less likely to be detected and treated.

  9. [Lipids, depression and suicide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin, A; Reggers, J; Castronovo, V; Ansseau, M

    2003-01-01

    Polyunsatured fatty acids are made out of a hydrocarbonated chain of variable length with several double bonds. The position of the first double bond (omega) differentiates polyunsatured omega 3 fatty acids (for example: alpha-linolenic acid or alpha-LNA) and polyunsatured omega 6 fatty acids (for example: linoleic acid or LA). These two classes of fatty acids are said to be essential because they cannot be synthetised by the organism and have to be taken from alimentation. The omega 3 are present in linseed oil, nuts, soya beans, wheat and cold water fish whereas omega 6 are present in maize, sunflower and sesame oil. Fatty acids are part of phospholipids and, consequently, of all biological membranes. The membrane fluidity, of crucial importance for its functioning, depends on its lipidic components. Phospholipids composed of chains of polyunsatured fatty acids increase the membrane fluidity because, by bending some chains, double bonds prevent them from compacting themselves perfectly. Membrane fluidity is also determined by the phospholipids/free cholesterol ratio, as cholesterol increases membrane viscosity. A diet based on a high proportion of essential polyunsatured fatty acids (fluid) would allow a higher incorporation of cholesterol (rigid) in the membranes to balance their fluidity, which would contribute to lower blood cholesterol levels. Brain membranes have a very high content in essential polyunsatured fatty acids for which they depend on alimentation. Any dietary lack of essential polyunsatured fatty acids has consequences on cerebral development, modifying the activity of enzymes of the cerebral membranes and decreasing efficiency in learning tasks. The prevalence of depression seems to increase continuously since the beginning of the century. Though different factors most probably contribute to this evolution, it has been suggested that it could be related to an evolution of alimentary patterns in the Western world, in which polyunsatured omega 3

  10. Validity of Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D scale in a sample of Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana R Quiñones

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Optimal depression screening necessitates measurement tools that are valid across varied populations and in the presence of comorbidities. Methods: This study assessed the test properties of two versions of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale against psychiatric diagnoses established by the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview among a clinical sample of US Veterans deployed during Operations Enduring Freedom, Iraqi Freedom, and New Dawn. Participants (N = 359 recruited from two Department of Veterans Affairs hospitals completed a clinical interview, structured diagnostic interview, and self-reported measures. Results: Based on diagnostic interview and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th Edition criteria, 29.5% of the sample met diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder and 26.5% met diagnostic criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder. Both Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression-20 and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression-10 scales performed well and almost identically against the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview-major depressive disorder in identifying Veterans with major depressive disorder (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression-20 area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve 91%; Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression-10 area under the ROC curve 90%. Overall, higher cut points for the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scales performed better in correctly identifying true positives and true negatives for major depressive disorder (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression-20 cut point 18+ sensitivity 92% specificity 72%; Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression-10 cut point 10+ sensitivity 92% specificity 69%. Conclusions: The specificity of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scales was poor among Veterans with co-occurring post-traumatic stress disorder (13% and 16%. Veterans with post

  11. Atypical Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... satisfaction and control in your life Help ease depression symptoms such as hopelessness and anger As part of your treatment, it's important to also address other conditions that often accompany atypical depression, in particular anxiety and drug or alcohol use, ...

  12. Teen Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Depression is a real, treatable brain illness, or health problem. Depression can be caused by big transitions in life, stress, or changes in your body’s chemicals that affect your thoughts and moods. Even if you feel ...

  13. Postpartum Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do not need treatment. The symptoms of postpartum depression last longer and are more severe. You may ... treatment right away, often in the hospital. Postpartum depression can begin anytime within the first year after ...

  14. Depression Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 3286 After hours (404) 639-2888 Contact Media Depression Treatment Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... How Do I Know if I Am Experiencing Depression? The following questions may help you determine if ...

  15. Depression Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Centers Diseases + Condition Centers Mental Health Medical Library Depression Screening (PHQ-9) - Instructions The following questions are ... this tool, there is also text-only version . Depression Screening - Manual Instructions The following questions are a ...

  16. 正性注意训练缓解大学生抑郁情绪的实验研究%An Experimental Study of the Positive Attention Training Alleviating College Students, Depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐西良

    2015-01-01

    Objective:This study intended to orient depressed individuals, attention toward affective information by positive attention training, to explore the effects of positive attention training in treatment of depressive symptoms.Method: A total of 800 college students were surveyed by the Beck Depression Inventory ( BDI) .60 college students were chosen for further experiment:they were av-eragely divided into the training group, the placebo group, and the blank control group (only assess ),each group 20.All the previous test, measured after 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 8 weeks, 3 month follow-up completion of the above symptoms assessed.Results:In pretest assessment, the scores of BDI had no significant differences between the three groups, F =0.26, P=0.77.But in the training and track training group, the depression scores reported by the training group decreased significantly, while the depression level of the other two groups did not change, and the level of depression reported by the training group was lower significantly than the control group and the placebo group.Conclusion:Positive attention training is an effective method to alleviate college students, symptoms of depression.%目的:通过正性注意偏向实验室训练增加抑郁情绪个体对积极信息的关注,探讨该训练缓解抑郁情绪的有效性。方法:采用Beck抑郁问卷对某大学800名大学生进行测量,筛选出符合量表评定标准( BDI≥14分)的抑郁情绪被试60人,将被试分入空白对照组、安慰剂训练组和注意偏向训练组,每组20人。采用改版的点探测注意训练任务对注意偏向训练组和安慰剂训练组各20例进行注意偏向的训练,随后进行后测及4次抑郁症状追踪评估。结果:前测评估中三组被试的BDI分数差异无统计学意义,F=0.26, P=0.77。但是在后测以及追踪评估中,训练组被试的BDI分数显著下降,而其他两组没有明显改变;在训练后,训练

  17. Positive change following adversity and psychological adjustment over time in abused foster youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Christine E; Lim, Ban Hong Phylice; Parker, Christopher P

    2015-10-01

    Many foster youth experience maltreatment in their family-of-origin and additional maltreatment while in foster care. Not surprisingly, rates of depression are higher in foster youth than the general population, and peak during ages 17-19 during the stressful transition into adulthood. However, no known studies have reported on whether foster youth perceive positive changes following such adversity, and whether positive change facilitates psychological adjustment over time. The current study examined components of positive change (i.e., compassion for others and self-efficacy) with depression severity from age 17 to 18 as youth prepared to exit foster care. Participants were youth from the Mental Health Service Use of Youth Leaving Foster Care study who endorsed child maltreatment. Components of positive change and severity of abuse were measured initially. Depression was measured initially and every three months over the following year. Latent growth curve modeling was used to examine the course of depression as a function of initial levels of positive change and severity of abuse. Results revealed that decreases in depression followed an inverse quadratic function in which the steepest declines occurred in the first three months and leveled off after that. Severity of abuse was positively correlated with higher initial levels of depression and negatively correlated with decreases in depression. Greater self-efficacy was negatively associated with initial levels of depression and predicted decreases in depression over the year, whereas compassion for others was neither associated with initial depression nor changes in depression. Implications for intervention, theory, and research are discussed.

  18. Tele-Interpersonal Psychotherapy Acutely Reduces Depressive Symptoms in Depressed HIV-Infected Rural Persons: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, Timothy G; Heckman, Bernadette D; Anderson, Timothy; Lovejoy, Travis I; Markowitz, John C; Shen, Ye; Sutton, Mark

    2016-04-26

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive rural individuals carry a 1.3-times greater risk of a depressive diagnosis than their urban counterparts. This randomized clinical trial tested whether telephone-administered interpersonal psychotherapy (tele-IPT) acutely relieved depressive symptoms in 132 HIV-infected rural persons from 28 states diagnosed with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV major depressive disorder (MDD), partially remitted MDD, or dysthymic disorder. Patients were randomized to either 9 sessions of one-on-one tele-IPT (n = 70) or standard care (SC; n = 62). A series of intent-to-treat (ITT), therapy completer, and sensitivity analyses assessed changes in depressive symptoms, interpersonal problems, and social support from pre- to postintervention. Across all analyses, tele-IPT patients reported significantly lower depressive symptoms and interpersonal problems than SC controls; 22% of tele-IPT patients were categorized as a priori "responders" who reported 50% or higher reductions in depressive symptoms compared to only 4% of SC controls in ITT analyses. Brief tele-IPT acutely decreased depressive symptoms and interpersonal problems in depressed rural people living with HIV.

  19. Relationship between positive mental characters,parenting style and depression in recruits%新兵积极心理品质和父母教养方式与抑郁情绪的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓瑾; 李红政; 陈海燕; 雷美英; 王骞; 任晋文; 马娟娟

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between the positive mental characters ,paren‐ting style and depression in recruits .Methods Positive Mental Characters Scale for Recruits (PMCS -R) ,Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran memories of parental rearing practice in childhood (EMBU ) and Self -Rating Depression Scale(SDS) were administered on 6 830 recruits in the autumn of 2013 and 2014 .Results (1) Depression had significantly negative correlation with positive mental characters and parents'emotional warmth and understanding ,father's excessive interference and protection in EMBU (r =-0 .585‐-0 .057 ,P < 0 .05) ,and significantly positive correlation with other factors in EMBU (r =0.035‐0 .288 ,P < 0 .05);positive mental characters had significantly negative correlation with parents'severe punishment and denial (r = - 0 .179‐-0 .133 ,P < 0 .05) ,and significantly positive correlation with others factors in EMBU (r = 0 .015‐0 .917 ,P < 0 .05) .(2) Five dimensions in PMCS -R (except the justice one) and parents'warmth and understanding ,father's denial and excessive interference and mother'severe punishment ,excessive interference and protection in EMBU could explain 42 .3% of the total variance of depression (F = 293 .685 ,P < 0 .05) .Conclusions Positive mental characters and parents'emotional warmth and understanding are the valuable protective factors of depression in recruits .%目的:探讨新兵积极心理品质和父母教养方式与抑郁情绪的关系。方法采用新兵积极心理品质评估问卷(PMCS -R)、父母教养方式评价量表(EMBU)及抑郁自评量表(SDS)对某部2013年和2014年秋季入伍的6830名新兵进行测试。结果(1)抑郁情绪与积极心理品质以及EMBU中的父母情感温暖理解、父亲过分干涉和过分保护均呈负相关(r =-0.585~-0.057,P<0.05),与EMBU中的其他各因子均呈正相关( r=0.035~0.288,P<0.05);除父母偏爱被

  20. Do equivalent doses of escitalopram and citalopram have similar efficacy? A pooled analysis of two positive placebo-controlled studies in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepola, Ulla; Wade, Alan; Andersen, Henning Friis

    2004-05-01

    Escitalopram is the S-enantiomer of citalopram. In this study, we compared the efficacy of equivalent dosages of escitalopram and citalopram in the treatment of moderate to severe major depressive disorder (MDD), based on data from two, pooled, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of escitalopram in which citalopram was the active reference. The primary efficacy parameter was the mean change from baseline in the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) total score. Significant differences in favour of escitalopram were observed for the MADRS [PEscitalopram separated from placebo at week 1 on the primary efficacy parameter, whereas citalopram first separated from placebo at week 6. An analysis of time to response showed that escitalopram-treated patients responded significantly faster to treatment than citalopram-treated patients (Pescitalopram than to citalopram (Pescitalopram-treated patients had a significant reduction in HAMD-17 total score at week 8 compared to citalopram-treated patients (P or = 30), escitalopram-treated patients showed greater improvement than citalopram-treated patients (PEscitalopram showed consistently superior efficacy compared to citalopram in the treatment of moderate to severe MDD on all efficacy parameters, and was similarly well tolerated.

  1. Adolescents' and Best Friend's Depressive Symptoms and Conflict Management: Intraindividual and Interpersonal Processes Over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boersma-van Dam, Elise; Hale, Bill; Koot, Hans; Meeus, Wim; Branje, Susan

    2016-12-12

    This 6-year longitudinal study examined the relation between 3 conflict management styles (i.e., problem solving, conflict engagement, and compliance) and depressive symptoms in adolescent-best friend relationships. Participants were 479 Dutch adolescents and their best friend who reported annually on depressive symptoms and conflict management styles toward each other. Bidirectional effects between conflict management styles and depressive symptoms were studied both within adolescents (intraindividual) and between adolescent best friends (interpersonal). A positive interpersonal effect of depressive symptoms of one dyad member on depressive symptoms of the other member was found. Similarly, higher positive problem solving and conflict engagement of one dyad member predicted respectively higher problem solving and conflict engagement of the other dyad member. Adolescents who reported more depressive symptoms reported more conflict engagement and compliance over time. In addition, for boys, higher levels of depressive symptoms of one dyad member were related to more problem solving by the other member over time. The current study contributed to the literature by showing that depressive symptoms and conflict management are related constructs in adolescents and that both intrapersonal and interpersonal processes contribute to this relation.

  2. Early depression screening is feasible in hospitalized stroke patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul R Karamchandani

    Full Text Available Post-stroke depression (PSD is common but is not routinely assessed for in hospitalized patients. As a Comprehensive Stroke Center, we screen all stroke inpatients for depression, though the feasibility of early screening has not been established. We assessed the hypothesis that early depression screening in stroke patients is feasible. We also explored patient level factors associated with being screened for PSD and the presence of early PSD.The medical records of all patients admitted with ischemic stroke (IS or intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH between 01/02/13 and 15/04/13 were reviewed. A depression screen, modified from the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, was administered (maximum score 27, higher scores indicating worse depression. Patients were eligible if they did not have a medical condition precluding screening. Feasibility was defined as screening 75% of all eligible patients.Of 303 IS and ICH inpatients, 70% (211 were eligible for screening, and 75% (158 of all eligible patients were screened. More than one-third of all patients screened positive for depression (score > 4. Women (OR 2.06, 95% CI 1.06-4.01 and younger patients (OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.96-0.99 were more likely to screen positive. Screening positive was not associated with poor discharge/day 7 outcome (mRS > 3; OR 1.45, 95% CI 0.74-2.83.Screening stroke inpatients for depression is feasible and early depression after stroke is common. Women and younger patients are more likely to experience early PSD. Our results provide preliminary evidence supporting continued screening for depression in hospitalized stroke patients.

  3. Indirect effects of positive emotions on depressive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia%精神分裂症患者积极情绪对抑郁症状的间接作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘林林; 江源; 王川; 杨业兵; 陈清刚; 龙鲸

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨精神分裂症患者积极情绪和抑郁症状的关系以及应对方式和领悟社会支持的中介作用。方法采用贝克抑郁自评量表(BDI)、正性负性情绪量表(PANAS)、特质应对方式问卷(TCSQ)和领悟社会支持量表(PSSS)对110例符合《国际疾病分类(第10版)》(ICD-10)诊断标准的精神分裂症患者进行评估,使用中介检验程序检验积极情绪对抑郁症状的作用。结果精神分裂症患者的积极情绪、积极应对方式、领悟社会支持三者两两之间呈中等正相关(r=0.41~0.64,P﹤0.01),并且每项都与抑郁呈中等负相关(r=-0.37~-0.50,P﹤0.01),且均与消极应对方式没有相关关系。消极应对方式仅与抑郁呈低等正相关(r=-0.20,P﹤0.05)。中介效应检验显示积极应对方式和领悟社会支持对抑郁的回归效应检验显著(β=-0.29,-0.24,P﹤0.05),而积极情绪的回归效应检验不显著(β=-0.13,P﹥0.05)。结论精神分裂症患者中,积极应对方式和领悟社会支持在积极情绪与抑郁之间起完全中介作用,积极情绪可能通过积极应对方式和领悟社会支持对抑郁产生间接作用。%Objective To explore the relationship between positive emotions and depression in patients with schizophrenia,and validate that coping style and social support have mediated effects on them. Methods 110 inpatients with schizophrenia which were di-agnosed by ICD-10 were assessed by BDI,PANAS,TCSQ and PSSS,and validate effects of positive emotions on depressive symptoms by the mediation effect procedures. Results Positive emotions,positive coping styles,perceived social support between two of the three inpatients with schizophrenia existed medium positive correlation(r=0. 41~0. 64,P﹤0. 01),and each item was negatively cor-related with depression(r= -0. 37~ -0. 50,P﹤0. 01),and had no relationship with negative coping styles

  4. The cortisol awakening response and anterior cingulate cortex function in maltreated depressed versus non-maltreated depressed youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevedo, Karina; Doty, Jennifer; Roos, Leslie; Anker, Justin J

    2017-09-05

    Symptomatology of depression among children who have (vs. have not) experienced maltreatment is greater in severity, more resistant to conventional treatment, and associated with elevated risk for suicide. Recent evidence implicates perturbations in stress regulatory systems and heightened negative self-appraisals as factors that increase the severity of psychopathology experienced by depressed maltreated (vs. non-maltreated) youth. Likely explanatory mechanisms for these differences are disturbances in the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis (HPA) and persistent negative self-referential biases supported by prefrontal cortex function including the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). The cortisol awakening response (CAR) and dACC activity during a self-appraisal task were assessed in maltreated and non-maltreated depressed youth. Hierarchical linear models were employed to model the CAR. Maltreatment group, dACC activity during positive and negative self-appraisals as well as other key predictors, were included in the models. Post hoc analyses explored explanations for significant differences. Results indicated that maltreated depressed youth exhibited a higher CAR compared to non-maltreated youth. At low levels of dACC activity during processing of negative self-descriptors maltreated and non-maltreated depressed youth's CAR did not differ. However, at elevated levels of dACC activity during processing of negative self-descriptors maltreated depressed youth exhibited significantly higher CAR compared to non-maltreated depressed youth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Garden walking and art therapy for depression in older adults: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffrey, Ruth; Liehr, Patricia; Gregersen, Thomas; Nishioka, Reiko

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to compare garden walking (either alone or guided) with art therapy in older adults with depression. Depression was measured using the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and stories of sadness/joy. Prior to the intervention, 47% of participants had depression scores in the severe range and 53% in the mild range. At the end of the intervention, none of the participants had scores in the severe range, 89% had scores in the mild range, and 11% had scores in the normal range. Results of the GDS data using repeated measures analysis of variance indicated significant decreases in depression for all three groups from pretest to posttest. All participants, regardless of group assignment, had a lower percentage of negative-emotion word use and a higher percentage of positive-emotion word use over time. This study provides evidence for nurses wishing to guide older adults in safe, easy, and inexpensive ways to reduce depression.

  6. Impact of depression on health care utilization and costs among multimorbid patients--from the MultiCare Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens-Oliver Bock

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to describe and analyze the effects of depression on health care utilization and costs in a sample of multimorbid elderly patients. METHOD: This cross-sectional analysis used data of a prospective cohort study, consisting of 1,050 randomly selected multimorbid primary care patients aged 65 to 85 years. Depression was defined as a score of six points or more on the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15. Subjects passed a geriatric assessment, including a questionnaire for health care utilization. The impact of depression on health care costs was analyzed using multiple linear regression models. A societal perspective was adopted. RESULTS: Prevalence of depression was 10.7%. Mean total costs per six-month period were €8,144 (95% CI: €6,199-€10,090 in patients with depression as compared to €3,137 (95% CI: €2,735-€3,538; p<0.001 in patients without depression. The positive association between depression and total costs persisted after controlling for socio-economic variables, functional status and level of multimorbidity. In particular, multiple regression analyses showed a significant positive association between depression and pharmaceutical costs. CONCLUSION: Among multimorbid elderly patients, depression was associated with significantly higher health care utilization and costs. The effect of depression on costs was even greater than reported by previous studies conducted in less morbid patients.

  7. Ethnicity, music experience, and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Paul D; Swope, Alan J; Heide, Frederick J

    2009-01-01

    The researchers studied differences in self-reported music experience and depression across ethnic groups, as well as differences in the relationship between music experience and depression across groups. College participants (78 African Americans, 111 Asian Americans, 218 Whites, and 87 in other ethnic groups) completed the Music Experience Questionnaire (MEQ) and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale. Statistically significant differences across groups were found on depression as well as on the MEQ factor for Subjective/Physical Reactions to music and on MEQ scales for Commitment to Music, Affective Reactions, Positive Psychotropic Effects, and Reactive Musical Behavior. A distinctive pattern of relationship was found between music variables and depression in the Asian American group, relative to the White and Other group. In particular, among Asian Americans there were negative correlations between depression and the MEQ Subjective/ Physical Reactions factor as well as the Affective Reactions scale. Implications were discussed for the literature on ethnicity and depression, music experience, and music therapy.

  8. Phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) Tasting and Reported Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittemore, Paul B.

    1986-01-01

    The phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) taste test was investigated for its potential as a genetically based biological marker for depression. Results indicated PTC tasters reported significantly higher levels of depression on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) than nontasters and they scored higher on 5 of the 21 items. (Author/BL)

  9. Spectral asymmetry and Higuchi's fractal dimension measures of depression electroencephalogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Maie; Lass, Jaanus; Suhhova, Anna; Hinrikus, Hiie

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed to compare two electroencephalogram (EEG) analysis methods, spectral asymmetry index (SASI) and Higuchi's fractal dimension (HFD), for detection of depression. Linear SASI method is based on evaluation of the balance of powers in two EEG frequency bands in one channel selected higher and lower than the alpha band spectrum maximum. Nonlinear HFD method calculates fractal dimension directly in the time domain. The resting EEG signals of 17 depressive patients and 17 control subjects were used as a database for calculations. SASI values were positive for depressive and negative for control group (P 0.05). The results indicated that the linear EEG analysis method SASI and the nonlinear HFD method both demonstrated a good sensitivity for detection of characteristic features of depression in a single-channel EEG.

  10. [Depression and inflammation in rheumatic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buras, Aleksandra; Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Szulc, Agata

    2016-03-04

    It is known that the prevalence of depression in rheumatologic patients is higher than in the general population. Socioeconomic factors are not a sufficient explanation of mood disorder in these patients. Symptoms reported by patients with chronic inflammatory diseases resemble changes defined as "sickness behavior". Mood disorders among somatic patients could be explained by disturbances of the immune system according to the monoaminergic theory of depression. Inflammatory factors such as IL-1 (interleukin-1), IL-2 (interleukin-2), IL-6 (interleukin-6), TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor α), and IFN-γ (interferon-γ) act within the CNS (central nervous system). They get through from peripheral tissues as well as being synthesized de novo by neurons. This cytokine activity correlates positively with depression intensity as well as with genetic polymorphism of the serotonin (5-HT) transporter. The theory of glucocorticoid resistance-mediated depression (limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal [LHPA] axis) is also connected with gained proinflammatory cytokines activity. It might assume the form of a vicious circle. Depressed mood is probably linked with depression in immune-mediated diseases. An elevated level of proinflammatory cytokines is able to activate IDO (indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase)--an enzyme catabolizing tryptophan (5-HT precursor). Those reactions probably play the main role at the biochemical level. IDO metabolites extensively disturb neurotransmission. 3-Hydroxykynurenine (3OH-KYN), quinolinic acid (Quin) and kynurenic acid (KYNA) are neurotoxic by releasing oxidative stress mediators. Moreover, they activate MAO (monoamine oxidase), which degrades neurotransmitters responsible for stable mood. Bidirectional communication between the neuroendocrine and immune systems is significant for depression treatment, as well as CNS protection against incremental neurodegeneration among seemingly diverse diseases.

  11. Depression and inflammation in rheumatic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Buras

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available It is known that the prevalence of depression in rheumatologic patients is higher than in the general population. Socioeconomic factors are not a sufficient explanation of mood disorder in these patients. Symptoms reported by patients with chronic inflammatory diseases resemble changes defined as “sickness behavior”. Mood disorders among somatic patients could be explained by disturbances of the immune system according to the monoaminergic theory of depression. Inflammatory factors such as IL-1 (interleukin-1, IL-2 (interleukin-2, IL-6 (interleukin-6, TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor α, and IFN-γ (interferon-γ act within the CNS (central nervous system. They get through from peripheral tissues as well as being synthesized de novo by neurons. This cytokine activity correlates positively with depression intensity as well as with genetic polymorphism of the serotonin (5-HT transporter. The theory of glucocorticoid resistance-mediated depression (limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal [LHPA] axis is also connected with gained proinflammatory cytokines activity. It might assume the form of a vicious circle. Depressed mood is probably linked with depression in immune-mediated diseases. An elevated level of proinflammatory cytokines is able to activate IDO (indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase – an enzyme catabolizing tryptophan (5-HT precursor. Those reactions probably play the main role at the biochemical level. IDO metabolites extensively disturb neurotransmission. 3-Hydroxykynurenine (3OH-KYN, quinolinic acid (Quin and kynurenic acid (KYNA are neurotoxic by releasing oxidative stress mediators. Moreover, they activate MAO (monoamine oxidase, which degrades neurotransmitters responsible for stable mood. Bidirectional communication between the neuroendocrine and immune systems is significant for depression treatment, as well as CNS protection against incremental neurodegeneration among seemingly diverse diseases.

  12. Prevalence of Depression among Older Adults-Results from the Well-being of the Singapore Elderly Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Mythily; Abdin, Edimansyah; Sambasivam, Rajeswari; Vaingankar, Janhavi A; Picco, Louisa; Pang, Shirlene; Seow, Esmond; Chua, Boon Yiang; Magadi, Harish; Mahendran, Rathi; Chong, Siow Ann

    2016-04-01

    Depression is a significant public health issue across all sociodemographic groups and is identified as a common and serious mental health problem particularly among the older adult population. The aims of the current study were to determine the prevalence of depression and subsyndromal depression among older adults in Singapore. The Well-being of the Singapore Elderly (WiSE) study was a comprehensive single phase, cross-sectional survey. Stage 1 Geriatric Mental State-Automated Geriatric Examination for Computer Assisted Taxonomy (GMS-AGECAT) depression syndrome was used for this analysis. Association of depression and subsyndromal depression with sociodemographic characteristics, social support as well as comorbidity with chronic physical illnesses and quality of life was assessed. The prevalence of GMS-AGECAT depression and subsyndromal depression was 3.7% and 13.4%, respectively. The odds of depression were significantly higher among those aged 75 to 84 (2.1) as compared to those aged 60 to 74 years and in those who had a history of depression diagnosis by a doctor (4.1). The odds of depression were higher among those of Indian and Malay ethnicities (5.2 and 3.2 times, respectively) as compared to those of Chinese ethnicity. Those with depression and subsyndromal depression were associated with more disability, poorer life satisfaction, and medical comorbidities. Our study suggests that the prevalence of depression seems to have decreased as compared to a decade ago wherein the prevalence of depression was estimated to be 5.5%. This positive trend can be ascribed to concerted efforts across various disciplines and sectors, which need to be continually strengthened, monitored and evaluated.

  13. Perceived discrimination is associated with severity of positive and depression/anxiety symptoms in immigrants with psychosis: a cross-sectional study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berg, Akiah O; Melle, Ingrid; Rossberg, Jan Ivar; Romm, Kristin Lie; Larsson, Sara; Lagerberg, Trine V; Andreassen, Ole A; Hauff, Edvard

    2011-01-01

    Immigration status is a significant risk factor for psychotic disorders, and a number of studies have reported more severe positive and affective symptoms among immigrant and ethnic minority groups...

  14. Does cognitive behavior therapy alter emotion regulation in inpatients with a depressive disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forkmann, Thomas; Scherer, Anne; Pawelzik, Markus; Mainz, Verena; Drueke, Barbara; Boecker, Maren; Gauggel, Siegfried

    2014-01-01

    Emotion regulation plays an important role in the development and treatment of depression. The present study investigated whether the emotion regulation strategies, expressive suppression (ES) and cognitive reappraisal (CR) change in the course of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) of depressive inpatients. Furthermore, it also examined whether changes in CR and ES correlated with positive treatment outcomes. Forty-four inpatients from a psychotherapeutic hospital who suffered from a depressive disorder (mean age =36.4 years, standard deviation =13.4 years; 63.6% female) filled in the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire and the Beck Depression Inventory at admission and discharge. To detect changes in emotion regulation, and depression across treatment, data were analyzed using multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVA) for repeated measures, effect sizes, and Spearman correlations. A P-value of ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. Depression severity (F[1]=10.42, P=0.003; η(2) =0.22) and CR (F[1]=4.71, P=0.04; η(2) =0.11) changed significantly across CBT treatment. ES remained virtually stable. Post-treatment scores of CR were also positively correlated with reduction in depressive symptoms across treatment (ρ=0.30, P=0.05). The results suggest that CBT affects emotion regulation in depressive inpatients only for CR and that higher post-treatment scores in CR were related to greater reduction in depressive symptoms across treatment.

  15. Influence of depression on the quality of life in patients with chronic hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavić Slađana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Chronic hepatitis C reduces the quality of life in patients causing fatigue, loss of self-confidence, reduced working capacity, development of depression, emotional problems, and cognitive dysfunction. Objective. The aim of the study was to identify the presence of depression in patients with chronic hepatitis C, predicting factors for its expression, and the impact of depression on the quality of life in these patients. Methods. During the prospective study, we used the Hamilton depression scale to investigate the presence of depression, generic 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36 and Chronic Liver Diseases Questionnaire (CLDQ to examine the quality of life in 100 patients with chronic hepatitis C, 30 patients with chronic hepatitis B, 30 patients with chronic liver disease non- viral aetiology and 50 healthy persons. Results. A significantly higher presence of depression, and cognitive dysfunction in patients with chronic hepatitis C were noted as compared to the healthy individuals (p=0.00. In relation to non-viral patients with chronic liver disease, depression was significantly less present (p=0.004. Depression was rare in younger patients. The largest number of patients with chronic hepatitis C was without depression. The presence of depression caused deterioration of the physical and mental components of the quality of life. Multivariate analysis showed that the most significant positive predictive factor for the presence of depression was married life (B=0.278; SE=0.094; p=0.004. Conclusion. The presence of depression was more often in patients with chronic hepatitis C viral infection compared to healthy population and was correlated with decline in the quality of life. Depression is more pronounced in the elderly and intravenous drug addicts. The lowest depression is expected in patients who are not married.

  16. 'The Pill' May Raise Depression Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_161206.html 'The Pill' May Raise Depression Risk Study also ties hormonal patches, IUDs to ... may have a slightly higher risk of developing depression -- and teenagers may be most vulnerable, a large ...

  17. Depression Can Stalk Families Through Generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160354.html Depression Can Stalk Families Through Generations People whose parents, ... News) -- People whose parents and grandparents suffered from depression are at much higher risk of developing the ...

  18. Stroke Survivors Often Struggle with Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_160835.html Stroke Survivors Often Struggle With Depression Risk was 8 times higher for those who ... Stroke survivors face an increased risk of developing depression, a new study suggests. In the first three ...

  19. Inadequate Sleep and Exercise Associated with Burnout and Depression Among Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Megan R; Rosenstock, Jason B

    2017-04-01

    The authors studied whether low levels of exercise or inadequate sleep correlated with higher levels of burnout and depression in medical students. Medical students of all years at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA, were invited to participate in an anonymous online survey in Fall 2012 and Winter 2013. Validated measures were used to assess exercise, sleep, burnout, and depression. Response rates were 28.7 % at the beginning of the school year and 22.6 % at the middle of the school year. Burnout rates overall were 22.4 % at the beginning of the year and 19.2 % in the middle of the year. Eight percent of students screened positive for depression at the beginning of the year and 9.3 % in the middle of the year. Decreased exercise frequency was significantly correlated with lower professional efficacy. Pathological sleepiness was significantly associated with a higher prevalence of burnout. Inadequate sleep correlated with significantly lower professional efficacy and higher exhaustion scores. Burnout was associated with a positive depression screen. Positive depression screening, pathological sleepiness, and sleeping less than 7 h a night were independent predictors of burnout. Sleep habits, exercise, and a positive depression screen were associated with burnout risk within the medical student population.

  20. Discrimination hurts, but mindfulness may help: Trait mindfulness moderates the relationship between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Iannuzzi, Jazmin L; Adair, Kathryn C; Payne, B Keith; Richman, Laura Smart; Fredrickson, Barbara L

    2014-01-01

    Discriminatory experiences are not only momentarily distressing, but can also increase risk for lasting physical and psychological problems. Specifically, significantly higher rates of depression and depressive symptoms are reported among people who are frequently the target of prejudice. Given the gravity of this problem, this research focuses on an individual difference, trait mindfulness, as a protective factor in the association between discrimination and depressive symptoms. In a community sample of 605 individuals, trait mindfulness dampens the relationship between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms. Additionally, mindfulness provides benefits above and beyond those of positive emotions. Trait mindfulness may thus operate as a protective individual difference for targets of discrimination.

  1. Sensitivity and specificity of the Distress Thermometer for depression in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegel, Mark T; Collins, E Dale; Kearing, Stephen; Gillock, Karen L; Moore, Caroline P; Ahles, Tim A

    2008-06-01

    Receiving a new diagnosis of breast cancer is a distressing experience that may precipitate an episode of major depressive disorder. Efficient screening methods for detecting depression in the oncology setting are needed. This study evaluated the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) of the single-item Distress Thermometer (DT) for detecting depression in women newly diagnosed with Stage I-III breast cancer. We assessed 321 patients (of 345 consecutive patients) at the time of their pre-surgical consultation at a Comprehensive Breast Cancer Program. Patients were administered the DT along with the Patient Health Questionnaire 9-Item Depression Module (PHQ-9) as a gold standard diagnostic assessment of depression status. Mean DT scores (11-point scale, 0-10) were significantly higher for depressed versus non-depressed patients (8.1 versus 4.4). In ROC analyses the DT showed strong discriminatory power relative to the PHQ-9-derived diagnosis of depression, with an area under the curve of 0.87. Patient age, education, marital status and stage of disease resulted in similar operating characteristics. A score of 7 represented the optimal trade-off between sensitivity (0.81) and specificity (0.85) characteristics for detecting depression. The single-item DT performs satisfactorily relative to the PHQ-9 for detecting depression in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients. A cutoff score of 7 on the DT possesses the optimal sensitivity and specificity characteristics. The strength of these findings suggests that a careful psychosocial evaluation should follow a positive screen.

  2. Asian Americans and European Americans' stigma levels in response to biological and social explanations of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhen Hadassah

    2015-05-01

    Mental illness stigma is prevalent among Asian Americans, and it is a key barrier that prevents them from seeking psychological services. Limited studies have experimentally examined how Asian Americans respond to biological and social explanations of mental illness. Understanding how to educate and communicate about mental illness effectively is crucial in increasing service utilization among Asian Americans. To assess how genetic, neurobiological, and social explanations for the onset of depression affects Asian American and European American's mental illness stigma. 231 Asian Americans and 206 European Americans read about an individual with major depression and were randomly assigned to be informed that the cause was either genetic, neurobiological, social, or unknown. Various stigma outcomes, including social distance, fear, and depression duration were assessed. Consistent with prior research, Asian Americans had higher baseline levels of stigma compared to European Americans. Greater social essentialist beliefs predicted positive stigma outcomes for Asian Americans, such as a greater willingness to be near, help, and hire someone with depression, but genetic essentialist beliefs predicted negative stigma outcomes, such as fear. In addition, a social explanation for the etiology of depression led to lower stigma outcomes for Asian Americans; it decreased their fear of someone with depression and increased the perception that depression is treatable. For European Americans, both genetic and social essentialist beliefs predicted a greater perception of depression treatability. Although genetics do play a role in the development of depression, emphasizing a social explanation for the origin of depression may help reduce stigma for Asian Americans.

  3. Predictors of depression among patients with diabetes mellitus in Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhu, Mathew; Abish, Antony; Anu, Kuriakose; Jophin, R Isaiah; Kiran, A M; Vijayakumar, K

    2013-08-01

    Diabetes mellitus and depression are major public health problems and are significantly linked with each other. This research study intends to assess for undiagnosed depression and its predictors among adult diabetic patients. A cross-sectional study was done among 100 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus attending the diabetic clinic of a tertiary care hospital. Depression was assessed using Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Chi-square test was performed and odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were obtained. Mann Whitney U and Pearson correlation tests were done. Logistic regression was carried out to determine the predictors of depression and adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were obtained. The prevalence of depression was 49% (95% CI 39.1-58.9%). The predictors of depression were female gender, elevated fasting blood sugar (FBS) level, physical disability and lack of physician's advice about lifestyle modifications. FBS values were significantly higher in depressed individuals as compared to the non-depressed (p value 0.002). A positive correlation (r=0.38, p value 0.01) was obtained between PHQ-9 scores and the FBS values of the diabetic subjects. Subjects with diabetes are highly prone for comorbid depression. Physicians should be sensitive towards the need for assessing for possible depression and its risk factors in diabetic patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The association between spirituality and depression in parents caring for children with developmental disabilities: social support and/or last resort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Stephen; Phillips, Anna C; Lee, Helen; Carroll, Douglas

    2015-02-01

    Associations between spirituality and depression were examined in parents of children with developmental disabilities using both quantitative and qualitative methodology. Spirituality was positively associated with depression, whereas social support was negatively related; parents with higher spiritual beliefs and lower levels of support had higher depression scores. Themes emerging from interviews were spiritual/religious coping as a way of dealing with difficulty, as a last resort, and as a form of release from their situation. Associations between spirituality and depression in these parents are more complex than previously thought.

  5. Differences between bipolar and unipolar depression on Rorschach testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimura H

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Hiromi Kimura, Akemi Osaki, Rui Kawashima, Takeshi Inoue, Shin Nakagawa, Katsuji Suzuki, Satoshi Asakura, Teruaki Tanaka, Yuji Kitaichi, Takuya Masui, Nobuki Kitagawa, Yuki Kako, Tomohiro Abekawa, Ichiro Kusumi, Hiroyoshi Yamanaka, Kenzo Denda, Tsukasa KoyamaDepartment of Psychiatry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Kita-ku, Sapporo, JapanBackground: The bipolar-unipolar distinction in patients with a major depressive episode is the most important issue related to the diagnosis and treatment of mood disorders, but remains unresolved. This study was undertaken to compare bipolar and unipolar depression on Rorschach testing using the Comprehensive System with reference to healthy Japanese controls.Methods: Patients with bipolar or unipolar depression who had undergone the Rorschach test for routine clinical purposes were followed up naturalistically for a long period. Based on diagnostic confirmation after long-term follow-up, scores on this test for patients with bipolar and unipolar depression were compared with those published elsewhere for healthy Japanese controls.Results: The bipolar depression group showed significantly higher scores or positive findings in five variables of the Rorschach test, ie, WSum6, DR2 > 0, (CF + C > FC + 2, PureC > 1, and Populars > 7, as assessed using the Comprehensive System, than did the unipolar depression group and healthy controls. These scores did not differ between the unipolar depression and control groups.Conclusion: The results of this study show thought disorder or cognitive slippage and marked laxness in modulating emotion in bipolar depression, indicating the psychopathological characteristics of bipolar disorder.Keywords: bipolar depression, bipolar disorder, Rorschach test, thought disorder, unipolar depression

  6. Mechanical prosthetic valve disease is related with an increase in depression and anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turker, Yasemin; Ongel, Kurtulus; Ozaydin, Mehmet; Turker, Yasin; Yildirim Bas, Funda; Akkaya, Mehmet

    2015-02-01

    Patients with organic disease can present with psychiatric symptoms. We hypothesized that since patients with prosthetic heart valve require frequent hospital followup and are at higher risk for complications, the incidence of depression and anxiety is higher in these patients. This cross-sectional study prospectively studied 98 consecutive patients with mechanical prosthetic heart valve. All patients fulfilled prosthetic heart valve evaluation form, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAS). Complete blood count, basic metabolic panel and echocardiogram results were collected for all the patients. Using the BDI, there were 26 patients (27%) with no depression, 20 (20%) with mild depression, 38 (39%) with moderate, 4 (4%) with severe and 10 (10%) patients with very severe depression. Avarege score was 18.3±11.4 on BDI and 19.1±11.1 on HAS. The depression level was positively associated with prothrombin time (p les than 0.001) and international normalized ratio (INR) level (p les than 0.001). Hamilton Anxiety Scale was significantly correlated with comorbidities (r: 0.344; p=0.002), blood transfusion (r: 0.370; p les than 0.001), obesity (r: 0.319; p=0.007) and Beck Depression Scale was correlated with comorbidities (r: 0.328; p=0.002), in patients with prosthetic heart valve disease. Patients with prosthetic heart valve have higher prevalence of depression and higher scores of anxiety and depression. Early recognition and appropriate treatment of depression and anxiety may decrease the morbidity in prosthetic heart valve disease. Besides, use of new oral anticoagulant agents that do not need INR check, could decrease anxiety and depression in the future.

  7. Positive Education: Positive Psychology and Classroom Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Martin E. P.; Ernst, Randal M.; Gillham, Jane; Reivich, Karen; Linkins, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Positive education is defined as education for both traditional skills and for happiness. The high prevalence worldwide of depression among young people, the small rise in life satisfaction, and the synergy between learning and positive emotion all argue that the skills for happiness should be taught in school. There is substantial evidence from…

  8. Temporal self appraisal and continuous identity: Associations with depression and hopelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokol, Yosef; Serper, Mark

    2017-01-15

    While depression is associated with decreased self-worth, less is known about how depression relates to the degree of perceived unity of the self over time (CI; continuous identity) and appraisal of past and future selves (temporal self-appraisal). In Study 1, we examined the relationship between depression severity and temporal self-appraisal. In Study 2, we examined depression and hopelessness severity as it relates to temporal self-appraisal and continuous identity. It was hypothesized that individuals with significant levels of depressed mood would report lower self appraisals of current and future selves and that hopelessness about the future would be associated with disturbances in perception of self over time (CI; continuous identity) and temporal self-appraisal. Study 1 examined depressed mood (n=75) and non-depressed mood (n=144) individuals to determine their self-rated personal attributes for their past, present and future selves using a validated task of temporal self-appraisal. Study 2 examined an independent sample of subjects. Based on cutoff scores for clinically significant depression and hopelessness, Depressed/Hopeless (n=63) and Non-Depressed /Non-Hopeless (n=168) subjects were asked complete the validated task of temporal self-appraisal and also complete a validated task to assess their continuous identity. In Study 1, a significant difference was found between the depressed mood group and the non-depressed mood group in how they see themselves changing over time. The non-depressed group perceived themselves increasing in positive personal attributes from past, to present, to future self. The depressed mood group perceived themselves as deteriorating from the past to the present in terms of positive attributes about their self-identity. However, contrary to expectations, the depressed group perceived their future self as improved from their present self. Subjects' past and future selves were at a similar level and both were significantly higher

  9. Acculturation and Depressive Symptoms among Turkish Immigrants in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Morawa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study explores the impact of acculturation on depressive symptoms among Turkish immigrants in Germany, taking into account different dimensions of cultural orientation. A total of 471 patients from two selected samples (254 primary care patients and 217 outpatients of a psychosomatic department participated. Levels of acculturation were measured as orientation towards culture of origin (CO, and orientation towards the host culture (HC. Acculturation strategies (integration, assimilation, separation, and marginalization were also assessed as well as their association with depressive symptoms (BDI. Furthermore, gender- and migration-related differences in terms of acculturation and levels of depressive symptomatology were analyzed. Integration was the acculturation strategy associated with the lowest level of depressive symptoms (M = 14.6, SD = 11.9, while marginalization was associated with the highest (M = 23.5, SD = 14.7. Gender was not found to have a significant impact on acculturation but influenced depressive symptoms, with women (M = 21.8, SD = 13.3 reporting higher levels of depressive symptomatology than men (M = 15.1, SD = 14.0; p < 0.001. In first generation immigrants, significantly higher CO (M = 46.6, SD = 8.3; p < 0.001, lower HC (M = 31.0, SD = 9.6; p < 0.001, and higher levels of depressive symptoms (M = 20.2, SD = 14.1; p < 0.001 were found in comparison to second generation immigrants (CO: M = 41.3, SD = 7.4; HC: M = 36.2, SD = 8.8; depressive symptoms: M = 14.0, SD = 12.9. Our results suggest that orientation towards both the heritage and the host culture has a positive effect on the mental health status of immigrants. Future research needs to include representative samples of migrants from different cultures to further explore the association between acculturation and mental health.

  10. Presence and correlates of apathy in non-demented depressed and non-depressed older persons

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    Isis Groeneweg-Koolhoven

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Apathy is a behavioral syndrome that often co-occurs with depression. Nonetheless, the etiology of apathy and depression may be different. We hypothesized that apathy occurs more often in depressed compared to non-depressed older persons; and that independent correlates for apathy will be different in depressed and non-depressed older persons. Methods: In this cross-sectional study of Netherlands Study of Depression in Older Persons (NESDO, a total of 350 depressed older persons according to the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI and 126 non-depressed older persons, aged at least 60 years were recruited in several Medical Centres and general practices. In both depressed and non-depressed older persons, those with and without apathy as assessed with the Apathy Scale (score ≥ 14 were compared with regard to socio-demographic, clinical, and biological characteristics. Results: Apathy was present in 75% of the depressed and 25% of the non- depressed older persons. Independent correlates of apathy in both depressed and non-depressed older persons were male gender and less education. Furthermore, in depressed older persons, higher scores on the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS and, in non-depressed older persons, a higher C-reactive protein (CRP level correlated independently with apathy. Conclusions: Apathy occurred frequently among both depressed and non-depressed older persons. Among depressed older persons, apathy appeared to be a symptom of more serious depression, whereas among non-depressed persons apathy was associated with increased CRP being a marker for immune activation, suggesting a different aetiology for apathy in its own right.

  11. Perfectionism, Shame, and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Jeffrey S.; Rice, Kenneth G.; Martin, James L.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between depression, maladaptive perfectionism, and shame. Regression analyses were used to replicate a model in which maladaptive perfectionism was negatively associated with self-esteem and positively associated with symptoms of depression, with self-esteem mediating the effects of maladaptive perfectionism…

  12. Perfectionism, Shame, and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Jeffrey S.; Rice, Kenneth G.; Martin, James L.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between depression, maladaptive perfectionism, and shame. Regression analyses were used to replicate a model in which maladaptive perfectionism was negatively associated with self-esteem and positively associated with symptoms of depression, with self-esteem mediating the effects of maladaptive perfectionism…

  13. Depression and major depressive disorder in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Takeshi; Kitagawa, Mayumi; Tanaka, Teruaki; Nakagawa, Shin; Koyama, Tsukasa

    2010-01-15

    The prevalence of depression in Parkinson's disease (PD) varies greatly. In this study, we investigated major depressive disorder (MDD) and depressive symptoms without MDD in patients with PD. The psychopathological characteristics of depressive symptoms were assessed by a psychiatric interview. A total of 105 Japanese patients with PD without dementia were included. The Japanese version of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) with a cutoff score of 13/14 was used to screen for depression. Using a structured interview, a comprehensive psychiatric evaluation of patients with BDI-II scores >13 (high BDI patients) was completed using the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV-TR. Forty patients (38%) had a BDI-II >13, but 29 did not show any depressed mood. Five cases met the criteria for MDD (three current, two past) and one patient was diagnosed with minor depressive disorder. A slight depressed mood that was associated with worrying about PD was seen in 6 of 34 patients without any depressive disorder and fluctuated with aggravation of PD symptoms in two of these patients. For the diagnosis of MDD, the number of positive items from the DSM-IV-TR definition of MDD is most important and useful for differentiating MDD and non-MDD. The low-prevalence rate of MDD in our patient population suggests that PD may be a psychological stressor for MDD, but does not necessarily induce MDD.

  14. Subjective well-being as a mediator for curiosity and depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaczmarek Łukasz D.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Curiosity is a personality trait that is inversely related to depression and positively related to subjective wellbeing. However, the relationship between curiosity and these two outcomes is still unclear which hampers our general understanding of well-being. Based on research within positive psychology that showed character strengths such as curiosity can indirectly decrease depression, we hypothesized that the inverse relationship between curiosity and depression would be mediated by subjective well-being. Two hundred and fifty seven participants, between 18 and 64 years old (M = 24.50, SD = 8.33 completed a web-based survey comprising: The Curiosity and Exploration Inventory - II, Center for Epidemiological Studies - Depression and the Steen Happiness Index. We found that well-being mediated the relationship between curiosity and depression. The results indicate that curious individuals tend to report higher levels of subjective well-being which, in turn, is associated with lower levels of depression. Our findings contribute to the understanding of positive results obtained from clinical samples that underwent positive psychotherapy of depression.

  15. Relationships between perceptions of performance expectations and mood among distance runners: the moderating effect of depressed mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, A

    2001-03-01

    Recent research has proposed that depressed mood is the most important mood dimension due to its de-motivating nature. Lane and Terry (2000a) proposed that depressed mood influences the intensity of other mood dimensions, and moderates the nature of anger and tension. Distance runners (N = 188) completed the 24-item Profile of Mood States-A (POMS-A: Terry, Lane, Lane, & Keohane, 1999) and a 7-item Pre-race Questionnaire to assess Perceived Readiness and Course Suitability 1 hr. before competition. On the basis of scores on the POMS-A Depression subscale, participants were dichotomized into a No-depression group (n = 137) or a Depressed mood group (n = 51). MANOVA results indicated that the Depressed mood group reported significantly higher scores on Anger, Confusion, Fatigue, Tension with lower Vigor and Perceived Readiness. In the No-depression group, Vigor correlated with Perceived Readiness, whereas in the Depressed mood group, Vigor was associated more closely with Course Suitability than Perceived Readiness. Anger showed a positive relationship with Perceived Readiness in the No-depression group, and an inverse relationship with Perceived Readiness in the Depressed mood group. Collectively, findings lend support to the notion that mood and thoughts about performance are significantly associated. Further, findings show that depressed mood fosters a negative psychological state and moderates the nature of anger but not tension.

  16. Early intervention in pregnant women with elevated anxiety and depressive symptoms: efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral group program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, Antje; Peukert, Judith; Zimmermann, Cornelia; Junge-Hoffmeister, Juliane; Parker, Lisa S; Stöbel-Richter, Yve; Weidner, Kerstin

    2014-01-01

    To examine whether a cognitive-behavioral group program among pregnant women with elevated levels of anxiety or depression may reduce anxious and depressive symptoms and has a positive impact on risk factors for anxiety disorders and depression. A total of 753 participants were recruited. After completion of the clinical standardized interview, 160 participants were randomized to an intervention group or a control condition. Psychometric assessments took place at T1 (preintervention), T2 (antenatal follow-up), and T3 (3 months postpartum). Analyses included women who took part in all 3 assessments (intervention group, N = 21; control group, N = 53). The subjective program evaluation by the participants was highly positive, but with the exception of a short-term effect on the quality of an intimate partnership (F1/67 = 4.056; P anxiety or depressive symptoms were not found. However, there was an intervention effect 3 months postpartum for participants with high depressive symptoms at T1 (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score of ≥10) (F1/69 = 5.410; P women with rather low levels of anxiety and depression. For women with higher depressive symptoms during pregnancy, a cognitive-behavioral group program may have a positive impact on the course of depressive symptoms during the postpartum period.

  17. The Mediating Effect of Dis-positional Hope between Suicidal Ideation and Depression Emotion in Medical College Students%医学院学生自杀意念与希望特质、抑郁情绪的关系以及希望特质的调节作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕世欣; 田雪; 孙宏伟

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the relationship among suicidal ideation ,dis-positional hope and depression emo‐tion in medical college students ,especially ,the mediating effect of dis-positional hope .Methods:Surveying the medi‐cal students collected by cluster randomized sampling method and distributing questionnaire as Self -rating Idea of Suicide Scale(SIOSS) ,Dis -positional Hope Scale(DHS) ,and Self -rating Depression Scale(SDS) .at last ,there were 148 effective questionnaire .Results:8 1.% students had suicidal idea ,the score of SDS was higher in students with suicidal idea(t=8 6.99 ,P<0 0.01)and the score of DHS was higher in students without suicidal idea(t=‐6 0.77 , P<0 0.01) .We also found positive correlation between the score of depression and the score of suicidal ideation(r=0 6.81 ,P<0 0.1) ,and negative correlation between the score of dis-positional hope and suicidal ideation .(r=‐0 3.28 , P<0 0.1) .And hierarchical regression analysis showed that the score of SDS and SIOSS had significantly interactive effects I.t meant that the dis-positional hope acted as a significant moderator between depression emotion and sui‐cidal ideation .Conclusion:There are negative correlation between dis-positional hope and suicidal ideation ,but posi‐tive correlation between depression and suicidal ideation S.o we should pay attention to depressive emotion of college students ,and enhance theirs hope dis-positional as protective effect to mental healthy crisis .The survey aims to pro‐vide a scientific reference for college students suicide crisis intervention work .%目的:探讨医学院学生的自杀意念与希望特质和抑郁情绪的关系,以及在其中希望特质的调节作用。方法:选择某医学院各年级学生按比例进行分层整群随机抽样调查,发放自杀意念自评量表(SIOSS)、希望特质量表(DHS)和抑郁自评量表(SDS)。回收有效问卷148份。结果:样本中自杀意念检出率为81.

  18. Social Interaction and Depression in Elderly Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotenberg, Ken J.; Hamel, Jocelyn

    1988-01-01

    Examined social interaction and depression among 42 elderly persons. Found depression was negatively correlated with measure of quantity of social interaction entailing frequent conversations and positively correlated with having reciprocally intimate relationships. Findings suggest that depression in older adults is negatively related to having…

  19. Exploring the relation between visual mental imagery and affect in the daily life of previously depressed and never depressed individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slofstra, Christien; Nauta, Maaike H; Holmes, Emily A; Bos, Elisabeth H; Wichers, Marieke; Batalas, Nikolaos; Klein, Nicola S; Bockting, Claudi L H

    2017-08-17

    Previously depressed individuals experience disturbances in affect. Affective disturbances may be related to visual mental imagery, given that imagery-based processing of emotional stimuli causes stronger affective responses than verbal processing in experimental laboratory studies. However, the role of imagery-based processing in everyday life is unknown. This study assessed mental imagery in the daily life of previously and never depressed individuals. Higher levels of visual mental imagery was hypothesised to be associated with more affective reactivity to both negatively and positively valenced mental representations. This study was the first to explore mental imagery in daily life using experience sampling methodology. Previously depressed (n = 10) and matched never depressed (n = 11) individuals participated in this study. Momentary affect and imagery-based processing were assessed using the "Imagine your mood" smartphone application. Participants recorded on average 136 momentary reports over a period of 8 weeks. The expected association between visual mental imagery and affective reactivity was not found. Unexpectedly, in both previously and never depressed individuals, higher levels of imagery-based processing of mental representations in daily life were significantly associated with better momentary mood and more positive affect, regardless of valence. The causality of effects remains to be examined in future studies.

  20. Mental health professionals’ attitudes toward patients with PTSD and depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Maier

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: To date, mental health professionals’ attitudes toward posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, compared to other psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia or depression, have rarely been studied. Objective: We assessed mental health professionals’ attitudes toward patients with PTSD compared to patients suffering from depression. Method: Case vignettes of a patient with either PTSD or depression were presented to two samples of mental health professionals: attendees of a conference on posttraumatic stress (N=226 or of a lecture for psychiatry residents (N=112. Participants subsequently completed a questionnaire that assessed their attitude reactions to the presented case. Results: Participants showed similarly positive attitudes toward depression and PTSD. PTSD elicited a more favorable attitude with regard to prosocial reactions, estimated dependency, attributed responsibility, and interest in the case, particularly in mental health professionals specializing in psychotraumatology. Across diagnoses, higher age and longer professional experience were associated with more positive attitudes toward patients. Conclusions: Mental health professionals’ positive attitudes toward patients with depression and PTSD correlate with their specific knowledge about the disorder, their level of professional training, and their years of professional experience. Limitations: The instruments used, although based on established theoretical concepts in attitude research, were not validated in their present versions.

  1. Lack of experimental evidence to support mcr-1-positive escherichia coli strain selection during oral administration of colistin at recommended and higher dose given by gavage in weaned piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viel, Alexis; Henri, Jérôme; Perrin-Guyomard, Agnès; Laroche, Julian; Couet, William; Grégoire, Nicolas; Laurentie, Michel

    2017-06-28

    In this study, we assessed the selective effect of colistin orally administered to healthy weaned piglets harbouring an intestinal mcr-1-positive Escherichia coli strain. Maximum recommended dose and a higher dose often used in European pig farms were given by gavage. No selection of the mcr-1-positive strain was observed in our controlled conditions whatever the dose. Further investigations in real farming conditions seem necessary. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  2. Parenting Stress, Social Support, and Depression for Ethnic Minority Adolescent Mothers: Impact on Child Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cindy Y; Costeines, Jessica; Ayala, Carmen; Kaufman, Joy S

    2014-02-01

    Rates of teenage pregnancies are higher for African American and Latina adolescents compared to their White peers. African American and Latina adolescent mothers also experience more adversities than their White peers, such as higher rates of depression, school dropout, and economic disadvantage. Furthermore, children of adolescent mothers are at higher risk for adverse development. Parenting stress and social support can impact outcomes experienced by adolescent parents and their children. The present study examined the influence of adolescent mothers' parenting stress and perceived social support on maternal depression at baseline (six months after birth), and its impact on infant development one year later (18 months after birth). Participants were 180 adolescent mothers of African American or Latino/Hispanic descent. Results suggest that higher levels of parenting stress and less perceived social support were associated with higher levels of depression in the adolescent mothers at baseline. Higher levels of maternal depression were also associated with more developmental delays in infants one year post-baseline. Additionally, depression mediated the relationship between parenting stress and later child outcomes. These findings highlight the importance of examining parenting factors such as parenting stress, social support, and maternal depression in ethnic minority adolescent parents, and provide valuable information regarding unique risk and protective factors associated with positive maternal outcomes for ethnic minority adolescent parents and healthy development for their children.

  3. Depressive Symptoms Affect Working Memory in Healthy Older Adult Hispanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Villanea, Monica; Liebmann, Edward; Garnier-Villarreal, Mauricio; Montenegro-Montenegro, Esteban; Johnson, David K

    2015-10-01

    Low and middle income nations will experience an unprecedented growth of the elderly population and subsequent increase in age-related neurological disorders. Worldwide prevalence and incidence of all-types of neurological disorders with serious mental health complications will increase with life expectancy across the globe. One-in- ten individuals over 75 has at least moderate cognitive impairment. Prevalence of cognitive impairment doubles every 5 years thereafter. Latin America's population of older adult's 65 years and older is growing rapidly, yet little is known about cognitive aging among healthy older Latinos. Clinically significant depressive symptomatology is common among community-dwelling older adults and is associated with deficits across multiple cognitive domains, however much of the literature has not modeled the unique effects of depression distinct from negative and low positive affect. Our objective was to understand how mental health affects cognitive health in healthy aging Latinos. The present study used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM) to examine the relative effects of Negative Affect, Positive Affect and Geriatric Depression on Verbal Memory, Verbal Reasoning, Processing Speed, and Working Memory in healthy aging Latinos. Data was collected from a sample of healthy community dwelling older adults living in San Jose, Costa Rica. Modeling of latent variables attenuated error and improved measurement reliability of cognition, affect, and depression variables. Costa Ricans enjoy a notoriety for being much happier than US citizens and are renowned as one of the happiest nations in the world in global surveys. This was born out in these data. Costa Rican affective profiles differed substantively from US profiles. Levels of negative affect and depression were similar to US samples, but their levels of positive affect were much higher. Cognitive performance of these Costa Rican older adults was similar to US

  4. Nortriptyline mediates behavioral effects without affecting hippocampal cytogenesis in a genetic rat depression model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersén, Asa; Wörtwein, Gitta; Gruber, Susanne H M

    2009-01-01

    A prevailing hypothesis is that neurogenesis is reduced in depression and that the common mechanism for antidepressant treatments is to increase it in adult hippocampus. Reduced neurogenesis has been shown in healthy rats exposed to stress, but it has not yet been demonstrated in depressed patients....... Emerging studies now indicate that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors can, exert behavioral effects without affecting neurogenesis in mice. Here we extend our previous findings demonstrating that the number of BrdU positive cells in hippocampus was significantly higher in a rat model of depression....... These results strengthen the arguments against hypothesis of neurogenesis being necessary in etiology of depression and as requisite for effects of antidepressants, and illustrate the importance of using a disease model and not healthy animals to assess effects of potential therapies for major depressive...

  5. Relationship Between Intrinsic Motivation and Undergraduate Students' Depression and Stress: The Moderating Effect of Interpersonal Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yunhui; Lv, Wei; Wu, Jiang

    2016-10-01

    This study examined the effect of intrinsic academic motivation and interpersonal conflict on the perceived depression and stress. Participants were 537 Chinese undergraduate students (191 males and 346 females; M age = 20.4 years, SD age = 1.3). They completed four scales measuring intrinsic academic motivation, interpersonal conflict, stress, and depression. Linear regressions were conducted with intrinsic academic motivation, interpersonal conflict, and their interaction as independent variables to predict depression and stress. Results showed that intrinsic academic motivation was negatively, while interpersonal conflict was positively, associated with depression and stress. Moreover, the interaction was significant: negative association of "intrinsic academic motivation and depression" and that of "intrinsic academic motivation and stress" was weaker among participants who reported higher (vs. lower) levels of interpersonal conflict. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Depressive Symptoms and the Experience of Pleasure in Daily Life: An Exploration of Associations in Early and Late Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Roekel, Eeske; Bennik, Elise C; Bastiaansen, Jojanneke A; Verhagen, Maaike; Ormel, Johan; Engels, Rutger C M E; Oldehinkel, Albertine J

    2016-07-01

    Although loss of pleasure (i.e., anhedonia) is one of the two core symptoms of depression, very little research has examined the relation between depressive symptoms and the experience of pleasure in daily life. This exploratory study in two population-based adolescent samples aimed to examine how depressive symptoms and anhedonia specifically were related to (1) the proportion and intensity of positive events, (2) mean and variability of positive affect (PA), (3) reactivity to positive events, and (4) reactivity to PA (i.e., whether PA elicits positive events). We used Experience Sampling to measure positive events and PA several times a day during 6 to 14 days in early (N = 284) and late (N = 74) adolescents. Results showed that depressive symptoms were related to a lower proportion and intensity of positive events, lower mean PA, and higher variability in PA regardless of sex and stage of adolescence. No clear evidence was found for differential reactivity to positive events or to PA. Anhedonia was not associated with most daily life experiences of pleasure. Our findings, though preliminary, suggest that although adolescents with many depressive symptoms experience less positive events and lower PA, they are able to enjoy pleasurable events to the same extent as individuals with fewer depressive symptoms.

  7. Serum contents of endocannabinoids are correlated with blood pressure in depressed women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho WS Vanessa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression is known to be a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Since recent preclinical evidence suggests that endogenous agonists of cannabinoid receptors (endocannabinoids are involved in both cardiovascular function and depression, we asked whether endocannabinoids correlated with either in humans. Results Resting blood pressure and serum content of endocannabinoids in ambulatory, medication-free, female volunteers with depression (n = 28 and their age- and ethnicity-matched controls (n = 27 were measured. In females with depression, both diastolic and mean arterial blood pressures were positively correlated with serum contents of the endocannabinoids, N-arachidonylethanolamine (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol. There was no correlation between blood pressure and endocannabinoids in control subjects. Furthermore, depressed women had significantly higher systolic blood pressure than control subjects. A larger body mass index was also found in depressed women, however, it was not significantly correlated with serum endocannabinoid contents. Conclusions This preliminary study raises the possibility that endocannabinoids play a role in blood pressure regulation in depressives with higher blood pressure, and suggests an interrelationship among endocannabinoids, depression and cardiovascular risk factors in women.

  8. Depressed mood and speech in Chilean mothers of 5½-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Katy M; Su, Jing; Kaciroti, Niko; Castillo, Marcela; Millan, Rebeca; Rule, Heather; Lozoff, Besty

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on maternal speech and depression has focused almost exclusively on how depressed mothers talk to their infants and toddlers in the U.S. and U.K., two English-speaking countries. This study considered how depressed Spanish-speaking mothers from a Latin American country talk about their preschool-age children. Five-minute speech samples were provided by 178 Chilean mothers who were asked to talk about their 5½-year-old children to a project psychologist. Maternal depressive symptomatology was measured by the Spanish-language version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). In multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), higher maternal depressed mood showed statistically significant associations with the following maternal speech characteristics: more criticisms, less laughter, fewer medium pauses, less positive satisfaction with the child's behavior or characteristics, a rating of a negative overall relationship with the child, and more crying (suggestive trend). A structural equation model confirmed these findings and found an indirect effect between laughter and criticisms: mothers with higher depressed mood who laughed less criticized their children less. The findings illustrate that depressed mood adversely affects how a group of Chilean mothers speak about their children.

  9. Metacognition and depressive realism: evidence for the level-of-depression account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderstrom, Nicholas C; Davalos, Deana B; Vázquez, Susana M

    2011-09-01

    Introduction. The present study examined the relationship between metacognition (i.e., "thinking about thinking") and depression. More specifically, the depressive realism hypothesis (Alloy & Abramson, 1979), which posits that depressed people have a more accurate view of reality than nondepressed people, was tested. Methods. Nondepressed, mildly depressed, and moderately depressed individuals predicted their memory performance by making judgements of learning after each studied item. These predictions were then compared with actual performance on a free recall task to assess calibration, an index of metacognitive accuracy. Results and conclusions. Consistent with the depressive realism hypothesis, mild depression was associated with better calibration than nondepression. However, this "sadder but wiser" phenomenon appears to only exist to point, as moderate depression and nondepression showed no calibration differences. Thus, the level-of-depression account of depressive realism is supported.

  10. Frequent Canned Food Use is Positively Associated with Nutrient-Dense Food Group Consumption and Higher Nutrient Intakes in US Children and Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin B. Comerford

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In addition to fresh foods, many canned foods also provide nutrient-dense dietary options, often at a lower price, with longer storage potential. The aim of this study was to compare nutrient-dense food group intake and nutrient intake between different levels of canned food consumption in the US. Consumption data were collected for this cross-sectional study from 9761 American canned food consumers (aged two years and older from The NPD Group’s National Eating Trends® (NET® database during 2011–2013; and the data were assessed using The NPD Group’s Nutrient Intake Database. Canned food consumers were placed into three groups: Frequent Can Users (≥6 canned items/week; n = 2584, Average Can Users (3–5 canned items/week; n = 4445, and Infrequent Can Users (≤2 canned items/week; n = 2732. The results provide evidence that Frequent Can Users consume more nutrient-dense food groups such as fruits, vegetables, dairy products, and protein-rich foods, and also have higher intakes of 17 essential nutrients including the shortfall nutrients—potassium, calcium and fiber—when compared to Infrequent Can Users. Therefore, in addition to fresh foods, diets higher in nutrient-dense canned food consumption can also offer dietary options which improve nutrient intakes and the overall diet quality of Americans.

  11. Effects of exercise on anxiety and depression disorders: review of meta- analyses and neurobiological mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Mirko; Helmich, Ingo; Machado, Sergio; Nardi, Antonio E; Arias-Carrion, Oscar; Budde, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety and depression are the most frequently diagnosed psychological diseases showing a high co-morbidity. They have a severe impact on the lives of the persons concerned. Many meta-analytical studies suggested a positive anxiolytic and depression-reducing effect of exercise programs. The aim of the present article is to synthesize metaanalyses on the effects of exercise on anxiety and depression and to describe average effect sizes. For this purpose 37 meta-analyses were included reporting 50 effect sizes for anxiety scores of 42,264 participants and depression scores of 48,207 persons. The average documented anxiolytic effect of exercise in these reviews was small, 0.34. In contrast, the effect of exercise on depression was significantly higher and at a moderate level, 0.56. Data of randomized controlled trials suggest higher sizes for the effect of exercise on anxiety and depression leading to increases up to moderate and large effects, respectively. Additionally, exercise seems to be more beneficial for patients compared to participants within a non-clinical, normal range of psychological disease. Especially for the effect of exercise on anxiety, more high quality meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials are needed. Finally, possible neurobiological explanations are suggested for the positive effect of exercise on psychological disorders like anxiety and depression.

  12. The detection and treatment of depression in the physically ill

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Depression and chronic physical illness are in reciprocal relationship with one another: not only do many chronic illnesses cause higher rates of depression, but depression has been shown to antedate some chronic physical illnesses. Depression associated with physical illness is less well detected than depression occurring on its own, and various ways of improving both the detection and treatment of depression accompanying physical illness are described. This paper is in fou...

  13. Association of depressive symptoms and social support on blood pressure among urban African American women and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chun Yi; Prosser, Rachel A; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the associations between depressive symptoms and perceived social support on blood pressure in African American women. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 159 African American women from multiple sites in the Detroit Metro area. Results from this study found that both higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure were positively associated with higher depressive symptom scores (r= .20 and .18, p < .05). Higher depressive symptoms scores were, in turn, significantly associated with lower social support scores (r=-.44, p < .001). However, total social support scores were not significantly correlated with blood pressure readings. Higher depressive symptom scores were associated with increased systolic blood pressure independent of social support. Findings of the present study suggest the importance of appropriate social support to help alleviate depressive symptoms. However, to effectively control blood pressure in patients with depressive symptoms, other pathophysiologic mechanisms between depressive symptoms and elevated blood pressures independent of social support should be examined in future research. Future studies should consider a cohort design to examine the temporal relationship of depressive symptoms, social support, and blood pressure readings. ©2010 The Author(s) Journal compilation ©2010 American Academy of Nurse Practitioners.

  14. Psychological vulnerabilities in patients with major depression vs panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, B J; Enns, M W; Walker, J R; Kjernisted, K; Pidlubny, S R

    2001-05-01

    The tripartite model (Clark & Watson, 1991: Clark, L. A., & Watson, D. (1991). Tripartite model of anxiety and depression: Psychometric evidence and taxonomic implications. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100, 316-336) posits that anxiety and depression share nonspecific features of neuroticism but that somatic arousal appears unique to anxiety, and low positive affect appears unique to depression. The present study controlled for these higher-order effects and evaluated the relative contributions of four, specific lower-order vulnerabilities (anxiety sensitivity, rumination, self-criticism, self-oriented perfectionism). Participants were 38 depressed patients and 38 patients with panic disorder matched as closely as possible for age and gender, and all were diagnosed using the same structured interview by an experienced clinician. Results from hierarchical logistic regression analysis were consistent with predictions from the tripartite model in that only the unique features of arousal and positive affectivity differentiated the two diagnostic groups. At a lower-order level, only anxiety sensitivity (and its facet of fear of physical symptoms) and a ruminative response style demonstrated incremental predictive ability. The discussion focuses on the relationships among these higher-order and lower-order variables, and their potential importance for understanding specific manifestations of psychopathology.

  15. 高职财经类特色专业建设中专业定位的探讨%The discussion on specialty position in construction of financial specialty in higher vocational education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛国良; 程燕

    2016-01-01

    在高职财经类特色专业建设中,专业定位至关重要。通过分析目前高职财经类专业定位上存在的问题,提出了高职财经类专业定位的原则和途径。认为高职财经类特色专业适宜于“宽口径,窄定位”,关键是核心岗位要明确,并根据市场变化适时调整。%The paper analyzed current existing problems of financial specialty position in higher vocational colleges based on revealing significance on financial specialty position of characteristic specialty construction, pointed out the position principles and approaches of financial specialty in higher vocational colleges, considered it should be suitable for "wide aperture and narrow positioning" in the process of specialty construction in higher vocational colleges, and the key point of specialty positioning should be clearing core jobs, adjusting timely according to market changes as well.

  16. Adolescence depressions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matot, J P

    2009-01-01

    This article considers the depressive problematics emerging during adolescence in the frame of the transformations that characterize this period of life, with a focus on the interference of socio-cultural dimensions...

  17. Postpartum Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith-Nielsen, Johanne

    Background: In three academic articles, this PhD thesis investigates maternal postpartum depression (PPD) as a risk factor for the infant-mother attachment and infant development. Previous studies have been contradictory with respect to the question of whether PPD can have long term effects...... on offspring. This may be due to not differing between when PPD is only occurring in the postpartum period and when effects are also due to ongoing or recurrent depression. However, it may also be due to viewing maternal depression as a unitary construct, and not considering underlying maternal psychological...... difficulties which may moderate potential adverse effects. The present thesis investigates two potential maternal moderators of risk:. Comorbid personality disorder and adult attachment insecurity. Moreover, the question of early environmental effects of PPD versus effects of later or ongoing depression...

  18. Neurobehavioral markers of resilience to depression amongst adolescents exposed to child abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennison, Meg J; Sheridan, Margaret A; Busso, Daniel S; Jenness, Jessica L; Peverill, Matthew; Rosen, Maya L; McLaughlin, Katie A

    2016-11-01

    Childhood maltreatment is strongly associated with depression, which is characterized by reduced reactivity to reward. Identifying factors that mitigate risk for depression in maltreated children is important for understanding etiological links between maltreatment and depression as well as improving early intervention and prevention. We examine whether high reward reactivity at behavioral and neurobiological levels is a marker of resilience to depressive symptomology in adolescence following childhood maltreatment. A sample of 59 adolescents (21 with a history of maltreatment; Mean Age = 16.95 years, SD = 1.44) completed an fMRI task involving passive viewing of emotional stimuli. BOLD signal changes to positive relative to neutral images were extracted in basal ganglia regions of interest. Participants also completed a behavioral reward-processing task outside the scanner. Depression symptoms were assessed at the time of the MRI and again 2 years later. Greater reward reactivity across behavioral and neurobiological measures moderated the association of maltreatment with baseline depression. Specifically, faster reaction time (RT) to cues paired with monetary reward relative to those unpaired with reward and greater BOLD signal in the left pallidum was associated with lower depression symptoms in maltreated youth. Longitudinally, greater BOLD signal in the left putamen moderated change in depression scores over time, such that higher levels of reward response were associated with lower increases in depression over time among maltreated youths. Reactivity to monetary reward and positive social images, at both behavioral and neurobiological levels, is a potential marker of resilience to depression among adolescents exposed to maltreatment. These findings add to a growing body of work highlighting individual differences in reactivity to reward as a core neurodevelopmental mechanism in the etiology of depression. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights

  19. Psychological distress, anxiety and depression among nursing students in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapountzi-Krepia D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available It is usually observed that nursing students undergo tremendous stress during various stages oftheir course but the knowledge about the stress process and depressive symptoms in this population is limited. TheAim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of psychological distress, anxiety and depression amongnursing students in Greece. For that purpose 170 nursing students (34 males, 136 females of the Department of Nursingof the Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki completed 3 self-report questionnaires, the General HealthQuestionnaire (GHQ, the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI. The mean agewas 21.5 years. No difference in stress and depression on the basis of gender was observed. Our results showed that thescores on the GHQ, BDI and STAI tend to increase in the year 2 and 3. The majority of students reported relatively highscores on the GHQ suggesting increased psychiatric morbidity. 52.4% of students experienced depressive symptoms(34.7% mild, 12.9% moderate and 4.7% severe. The scores on the state scale were higher in the years 2 and 3, whilethe majority of students who had no or mild stress was observed in the first and the last year. Low stress personalitytraits were also observed in the first and the last year. However, no significant differences between the four years wereobserved. Our results suggest that nursing students experience different levels of stress and depression and that thesefactors are positively correlated.

  20. The role of Personality, Mood, Subjective Health, and Stress in Depressive Symptoms among High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Gunnar Götestam

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Traditionally, depression among adolescents has been considered uncommon, with around 5% estimated to suffer from depressive disorder. The purpose is to investigate occurrence and psychological correlates for depressive symptoms in male and female high school adolescents in urban and rural settings. Methods: Participants were 1,069 high school students (response rate 92.0% with a mean age of 17.6 years. The instruments used were the Zung Depression Self-Rating Scale (SDS, Life Regard Index (LRI, the Neuroticism scale by Eysenck (EPQ-N, the Tension and Effort Stress Inventory (TESI, the Subjective Health Complaints scale (SHC, and the Sense of Humour Questionnaire (SHQ-6. Results: Analyzes of Variance showed sex and urban/rural main effects, and/or interactions (boys and rural students showing highest positive ratings. Stepwise regression analyzes on depression showed all but the TESI variables to significantly explain 41% of the variance in depression. The Sense of Humour and Life Regard Index were strong contributors to depression (55% of variation when effects of bodily complaints and scores on stressors and efforts were eliminated. Conclusions: The present study showed an unexpectedly high prevalence of severe (12.7% as well as moderate depressive symptoms (total of 49.2%. Therefore, the results indicate an increase of adolescent depression in recent years. Negative and positive mood, as well as sense of humour, goals in life, and fulfilment of goals seemed to be protecting. Prevalence of depressive symptoms in adolescents was shown to be higher than expected. Positive resource variables appeared to be protecting.

  1. Temperament, Character, and Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms: Focusing on Affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Garcia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Positive (PA and negative affect (NA are two separate systems markers of subjective well-being and measures of the state depression (low PA combined with high NA. The present study investigated differences in temperament, character, locus of control, and depressive symptoms (sleep quality, stress, and lack of energy between affective profiles in an adolescent sample. Participants (=304 were categorized into four affective profiles: “self-fulfilling” (high PA, low NA, “high affective” (high PA, high NA, “low affective” (low PA, low NA, and “self-destructive” (low PA, high NA. Personality was measured by the Temperament and Character Inventory and affective profiles by the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule. The “self-fulfilling” profile was characterized by, compared to the other affective profiles, higher levels of sleep quality, less stress and more energy and also higher levels of persistence and a mature character (i.e., high scores in self-directedness and cooperativeness. “Self-destructive” adolescents reported higher levels of external locus of control, high scores in harm avoidance and reward dependence combined with less mature character. The results identify the importance of character maturity in well-being and suggest that depressive state can be positively influenced by promoting positive emotions which appears to be achieved by character development.

  2. Maladaptive Coping, Adaptive Coping, and Depressive Symptoms: Variations across Age and Depressive State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Renee J.; Mata, Jutta; Jaeggi, Susanne M.; Buschkuehl, Martin; Jonides, John; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2010-01-01

    Rumination has consistently been found to be associated with the onset and duration of major depressive episodes. Little research, however, has examined factors that may weaken the association between maladaptive coping, such as rumination, and depressive symptoms. In three samples of participants, including 149 never-depressed adolescent girls, 41 never-depressed women, and 39 depressed women, we examined whether generally adaptive forms of coping interacted with generally maladaptive coping to predict depressive symptoms. Age-appropriate measures of coping and depression were administered to participants in each sample. In never-depressed females, maladaptive coping / rumination were more strongly related to depressive symptoms in the presence of lower levels of adaptive coping. The relation between depression and maladaptive coping / rumination was weaker in the context of higher levels of adaptive coping. In contrast, for the depressed females, we found main effects for rumination and adaptive coping, with higher levels of rumination and lower levels of adaptive coping being associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms. The present findings highlight how adaptive coping and maladaptive coping, including rumination, differentially relate to each other and depressive symptoms depending on individuals’ current depressive state. PMID:20211463

  3. Positioning end-of-life care education within the pre-registration therapeutic radiography curriculum: A survey of current practices amongst UK higher education institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, N

    2017-09-01

    It is essential that all health professionals who come into contact with patients with terminal diagnoses are equipped to effectively and competently provide end of life care. This study aims to investigate the manner in which Higher Education Institutions address this requirement with their programmes of pre-registration therapeutic radiography education. A structured survey was administered electronically to all UK universities with responsibility for therapeutic radiography education. The scope of the survey addressed mode and duration of end of life care education, its location, curricular assessment, identifiable barriers and best practice. All respondents confirmed the presence of dedicated end of life care education within their curriculum. Variation in the duration and location of this education is reported as are approaches to assessment of associated skills and knowledge. Analysis of respondent commentary has identified three themes-preparedness for the clinical role, dissonance between technology and care, and holistic approaches to course design. Respondents have highlighted the importance of end of life care instruction with their programmes of study and identified aspects of the mode and duration of its delivery. Inclusion of this aspect of study may be problematic in the face of competing demands arising from the volume and complexity of the curriculum. Practical experience of end of life care predominantly occurs within the radiotherapy department, although there is scope to explore opportunities within the hospice and community care setting. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Antenatal depressive symptoms associated with specific life events and sources of social support among Italian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, Francesca; Neri, Erica; Salvatori, Paola; Dellabartola, Sara; Bozicevic, Laura; Monti, Fiorella

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to identify different kinds of stressful life events and social support associated with antenatal depressive symptoms in a sample of pregnant Italian women. We conducted the study at a primary health-care centre in an urban area (northeast Italy). Mainly recruited at antenatal classes, 404 eligible pregnant women completed a socio-demographic questionnaire that included questions about the present pregnancy, the Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS) to estimate the prevalence of depressive symptoms, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and List of Threatening Experiences Questionnaire to investigate the quality and nature of social support and recent negative life events. Of the 404 women, 60 (14.9 %) scored 13 or higher on the EDS. This group reported significantly lower social support from various sources-family, friends, and significant others; only in primiparous women were depressive symptoms significantly related to lower support from friends. Women with EDS scores equal or higher than 13 also reported a higher occurrence of recent stressful life events-specifically, death or a serious problem with a close friend or relative, unemployment, financial problems, and moving or housing difficulties. Regression analyses showed that women with high levels of social support or with a positive experience of pregnancy were less likely to experience antenatal depressive symptoms. Our results underscore the associations among antenatal depression, specific life stressors, and low social support from various sources. Clinical attention to these psychosocial correlates is recommended toward detecting vulnerability to antenatal depressive symptoms.

  5. Significantly Higher Peripheral Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Levels in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder or Bipolar Disorder Than in Healthy Controls: A Meta-Analysis and Review Under Guideline of PRISMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Kun-Yu; Wu, Ming-Kung; Chen, Yen-Wen; Lin, Pao-Yen; Wang, Hung-Yu; Wu, Ching-Kuan; Tseng, Ping-Tao

    2016-01-01

    An increasing amount of research has focused on insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) because of multiple neurotrophic effects, including neurogenesis, remyelination, and synaptogenesis. In addition, IGF-1 can mediate an antidepressant effect in patients with major affective disorder, and its levels in the cerebrospinal fluid have been found to vary with antidepressant treatment. Furthermore, it has been proven to crossover the blood-brain barrier, with a reciprocal feedback loop being the central effect. However, recent studies have reported inconclusive findings about the role of IGF-1 in major affective disorder. The aim of the current study was to conduct a thorough meta-analysis of changes in peripheral IGF-1 levels in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) or bipolar disorder (BD). We conducted a thorough literature search and compared peripheral IGF-1 levels in patients with MDD or BD and in healthy controls, and investigated clinical variables through meta-regression. Electronic research was conducted through platform of PubMed. We used inclusion criteria as clinical trials discussing comparisons of peripheral IGF-1 protein levels in patients with MDD or BD and those in healthy controls. We analyzed the cases from 9 studies with the random-effect model. The main finding was that peripheral IGF-1 levels in the patients were significantly higher than in the healthy controls (P data with growth hormone in current studies are the main limitations of this meta-analysis. Our results indicated that peripheral IGF-1 levels may not be an indicator of disease severity, but may be a disease trait marker or an indicator of cognition. However, further investigations on the correlation between cognitive function and peripheral IGF-1 levels are needed to explore the role of IGF-1 in the pathophysiology of MDD and BD.

  6. The different sources of variation in inbreeding depression, heterosis and outbreeding depression in a metapopulation of Physa acuta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Juan Sebastián; Nicot, Antoine; David, Patrice

    2008-11-01

    Understanding how parental distance affects offspring fitness, i.e., the effects of inbreeding and outbreeding in natural populations, is a major goal in evolutionary biology. While inbreeding is often associated with fitness reduction (inbreeding depression), interpopulation outcrossing may have either positive (heterosis) or negative (outbreeding depression) effects. Within a metapopulation, all phenomena may occur with various intensities depending on the focal population (especially its effective size) and the trait studied. However, little is known about interpopulation variation at this scale. We here examine variation in inbreeding depression, heterosis, and outbreeding depression on life-history traits across a full-life cycle, within a metapopulation of the hermaphroditic snail Physa acuta. We show that all three phenomena can co-occur at this scale, although they are not always expressed on the same traits. A large variation in inbreeding depression, heterosis, and outbreeding depression is observed among local populations. We provide evidence that, as expected from theory, small and isolated populations enjoy higher heterosis upon outcrossing than do large, open populations. These results emphasize the need for an integrated theory accounting for the effects of both deleterious mutations and genetic incompatibilities within metapopulations and to take into account the variability of the focal population to understand the genetic consequences of inbreeding and outbreeding at this scale.

  7. Analysis on Promoting Social Positioning and Value Orientation of Scientific Research in Higher Vocational Colleges%对提高高职院校科研定位和价值取向的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘淑琴

    2012-01-01

    The article focuses on the issue of social positioning and value orientation of the scientific research in higher vocational colleges, which discuss the higher vocational talents training target, the intrinsic motivation for self-development of higher vocational colleges, clear the present stage of scientific research in higher vocational positioning. It also talks over the promotion of the scientific research work of higher vocational colleges for the high quality development, strengthen the scientific research management and improve the scientific research level in higher vocational colleges.%文章针对高职院校科研的社会定位和价值取向这一问题,围绕高职人才培养目标,高职院校自我发展的内在动力,明确了现阶段高职科研工作的定位,对促进高职院校科研工作向高效优质方向发展,强化高职院校的科研管理,提高高职院校科研水平进行了探讨.

  8. Depressive symptoms are associated with mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia after acute myocardial infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingkai Wei

    Full Text Available Depression is an adverse prognostic factor after an acute myocardial infarction (MI, and an increased propensity toward emotionally-driven myocardial ischemia may play a role. We aimed to examine the association between depressive symptoms and mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia in young survivors of an MI.We studied 98 patients (49 women and 49 men age 38-60 years who were hospitalized for acute MI in the previous 6 months. Patients underwent myocardial perfusion imaging at rest, after mental stress (speech task, and after exercise or pharmacological stress. A summed difference score (SDS, obtained with observer-independent software, was used to quantify myocardial ischemia under both stress conditions. The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II was used to measure depressive symptoms, which were analyzed as overall score, and as separate somatic and cognitive depressive symptom scores.There was a significant positive association between depressive symptoms and SDS with mental stress, denoting more ischemia. After adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors, disease severity and medications, each incremental depressive symptom was associated with 0.14 points higher SDS. When somatic and cognitive depressive symptoms were examined separately, both somatic [β = 0.17, 95% CI: (0.04, 0.30, p = 0.01] and cognitive symptoms [β = 0.31, 95% CI: (0.07, 0.56, p = 0.01] were significantly associated with mental stress-induced ischemia. Depressive symptoms were not associated with ischemia induced by exercise or pharmacological stress.Among young post-MI patients, higher levels of both cognitive and somatic depressive symptoms are associated with a higher propensity to develop myocardial ischemia with mental stress, but not with physical (exercise or pharmacological stress.

  9. Relação entre depressão pós-parto e disponibilidade emocional materna The relationship between postpartum depression and maternal emotional availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Regina J. R. M. Fonseca

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A depressão pós-parto é um transtorno de alta prevalência que pode comprometer a qualidade da relação mãe-criança. Este estudo pretende determinar a prevalência do referido transtorno, comparar a interação mãe-bebê nos grupos com e sem depressão e verificar a relação entre depressão, apoio social e estilos de relacionamento e disponibilidade emocional maternos. As participantes eram gestantes que pretendiam dar à luz no Hospital Universitário da Universidade de São Paulo entre dezembro de 2006 e dezembro de 2008. A prevalência de depressão pós-parto em nossa amostra foi 28%. Não houve diferença significativa na relação mãe-criança no grupo com e sem depressão. Encontrou-se correlação positiva entre sensibilidade materna e escolaridade e entre sensibilidade e certas dimensões de apoio social e estilo de relacionamento. Conclui-se que a prevalência de depressão pós-parto em nossa amostra é mais alta que a média mundial, mas a sintomatologia depressiva não interfere significativamente na qualidade da interação mãe-bebê. A sensibilidade materna é influenciada por fatores sócio-cognitivos e afetivos.Postpartum depression is a highly prevalent disorder that can interfere in the mother-infant relationship. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence of postpartum depression in our sample to compare mother-infant interaction in depressed and non-depressed mothers and to assess the relationship between maternal depression, social support, attachment style, and emotional availability. Participants were pregnant women who planned to deliver at the University of São Paulo Hospital between December 2006 and December 2008. Postpartum depression prevalence in our sample was 28%. No difference was found in emotional availability between depressed and non-depressed mothers. There was a positive correlation between maternal sensitivity and education, and between sensitivity and some dimensions of social support and

  10. Guideline concordant detection and management of depression among Alaska Native and American Indian people in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Y. Hiratsuka

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: A tribal health organization in Alaska implemented a primary care depression screening, detection and management initiative amongst 55,000 Alaska Native/American Indian people (AN/AIs. Objectives: (a To describe the proportion of AN/AIs screening positive for depression with depression noted or diagnosed and proportion with guideline concordant management and (b to assess whether management varied by patient and provider factors. Research design: Secondary analysis of electronic and paper medical record information of 400 AN/AIs. Measures: Provider variables, patient demographics and patient clinical factors were electronically queried. Manual chart audits assessed depression notation, diagnoses and management within 12 weeks of positive screening. Multilevel ordinal logistic modelling assessed management by patient and provider factors. Results: A depression diagnosis was present in 141 (35% charts and 151 (38% had depressive symptoms noted. Detection was higher among AN/AIs with moderate and severe depression (p<0.001. In total, 258 patients (66% received guideline concordant management, 32 (8% had some management, and 110 (28% received no management. Younger patient age and increased provider tenure increased odds of management. Conclusions: Most AN/AIs screening positive for depression received initial guideline concordant management. Additional outreach to older patients and additional support for providers newer to practices appears warranted.

  11. Depression in patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Borges Gonçalves

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the comorbidity of depressive disorders in patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE. METHOD: We evaluated 25 consecutive patients with refractory TLE (16 women and 9 men, using semi-structured psychiatric interviews, according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10, and the Beck Depression Inventory. RESULTS: Seventeen of 25 patients (68% had depressive disorder: 6 with dysthymia, three with major depressive episodes and 8 with recurrent depressive disorders. Two (8% were diagnosed with mixed anxiety and depression. Only 5 of 17 patients (29.4% were previously diagnosed with depressive disorder and received prior antidepressant treatment. Duration of epilepsy was significantly higher in patients with depressive disorder (p=0.016, but there was no relationship between depression and seizure frequency. CONCLUSION: This study confirmed that depressive disorders are common and underdiagnosed in patients with TLE refractory to AEDs. Patients with longer duration of epilepsy are at higher risk of having depression.

  12. Position and Role of Non-diploma Continuing Education in Higher Vocational Colleges%非学历继续教育在高职院校中的地位和作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任建国

    2011-01-01

    目的:引起高职院校管理者对非学历教育工作的重视;方法:从高职院校非学历教育中存在的问题、定位及开展非学历教育的原则、效果等四个方面探讨了高职院校非学历教育的地位和作用;结果:提出了高职院校开展非学历教育的原则和意义:结论:确立非学历教育在高职院校中的重要地位是非常必要的.%Objective: Managers in higher vocational colleges pay attention to the work of non-diploma education. Method: Position and role of non-diploma education in higher vocational colleges from four aspects, namely, being problems, positioning, principle of developing non- diploma education and effect was discussed. Result: The principle and significance of developing non-diploma education in higher vocational colleges were put forward. Conclusion: It's very necessary for establishing the position of non-diploma education in higher vocational colleges.

  13. 试论积极心理学视域下的高职院校心理健康教育%On psychological health education in higher vocational colleges from the perspective of positive psychology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔岩

    2013-01-01

    At present, the influence of psychological health education in higher vocational colleges has been affected by the negative psychology, psychological problems, prevention and correction of students, ignoring the development of students' potential. As an important branch of psychology, positive psychology focuses on the positive social environment, positive emotions, positive personality traits, aims to explore people's happiness, pleasure, satisfaction. In order to further improve the work of mental health education in higher vocational colleges, the positive psychology in mental health education, to cultivate students' positive psychological quality in health education in higher vocational colleges, psychological distress in pointed out a correct road.%目前,高职院校的心理健康教育一直受消极心理学的影响,主要预防和矫正学生的心理问题,忽略了学生潜能的开发。作为心理学一个重要的分支,积极心理学重点研究积极社会环境、积极情绪体验、积极人格特质等,旨在发掘人们的快乐、愉悦、满意感。为了进一步做好高职院校的心理健康教育工作,将积极心理学运用在心理健康教育中,能够培养高职院校学生积极的心理品质,为处在困境中的高职院校心理健康教育指出一条正确的道路。

  14. Outcomes of Depression in Black Single Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Rahshida L

    2017-08-01

    Despite suggestions in the literature that depression has serious consequences, few studies have examined specific health and psychosocial outcomes of depression in Black single mothers. The purpose of this study was to estimate paths in a just-identified theoretical model of outcomes of depression for Black single mothers based on theoretical propositions and empirical findings. The model included the variables, depressive cognitions, depressive symptomatology, perceived social support, and positive health practices. Five direct and two indirect hypothesized relationships were estimated using structural equation modeling. A nonprobability sample of convenience of 159 Black single mothers aged 18 to 45 years was recruited for the study. This study used a cross-sectional correlational design. The participants responded in person or via the U.S. mail to the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale, the Depressive Cognition Scale, the Personal Resource Questionnaire 85-Part 2, and the Personal Lifestyle Questionnaire. Beta and Gamma path coefficients were statistically significant for four out of five hypothesized direct relationships within the model ( p .05). The two indirect paths were weak but statistically significant ( p < .01). Depressive symptoms and perceived social support were outcomes of depressive cognitions. Positive health practices was not a direct outcome of depressive cognitions. Perceived social support and positive health practices were outcomes of depressive symptoms.

  15. Childhood depression and conduct disorder: I. Behavioral, affective, and cognitive aspects of family problem-solving interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, M R; Dadds, M R; Johnston, B M; Cash, R

    1992-08-01

    We assessed the family interactions of depressed, conduct-disordered, mixed depressed-conduct-disordered, and nonclinic children, ages 7-14 years, during a standardized family problem-solving discussion in the clinic. The child's and the mother's problem-solving proficiency, aversive behavior, and associated affective behavior (depressed and angry-hostile) were observed. The child and mother also rated each other's affect during the interaction for the dimensions sad, angry, critical, and happy on Likert-type scales. The child's and mother's cognitive constructions about the interaction were assessed using video-mediated recall. Although all clinic groups had lower levels of effective problem solving than did nonclinic children, their deficiencies were somewhat different. Mixed and depressed children displayed high levels of depressed affect and low levels of angry affect, whereas conduct-disordered children displayed both angry and depressed affect. In addition, conduct-disordered children had lower levels of positive problem solving and higher levels of aversive content than did non-conduct-disordered children. Depressed and conduct-disordered children had higher levels of self-referent negative cognitions than did mixed and comparison children, and depressed children also had higher other-referent negative cognitions than did all other groups. The study provides support for theories and treatment that stress the importance of family problem-solving and conflict resolution skills in child psychopathology.

  16. Perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms among immigrant-origin adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummala-Narra, Pratyusha; Claudius, Milena

    2013-07-01

    Although discrimination has been found to contribute to psychological distress among immigrant populations, there are few studies that have examined the relationship between racial and ethnic discrimination in the school setting among foreign-born immigrant and U.S.-born immigrant-origin adolescents. This study examined the relationship between perceived discrimination by adults and peers in the school setting and depressive symptoms in a sample (N = 95) of racial minority immigrant-origin adolescents (13 to 19 years of age) attending an urban high school. We examined the relation between perceived discrimination and depressive symptomology across gender and nativity status (foreign born vs. U.S. born), and the potential moderating role of ethnic identity and social support. Consistent with previous research, girls reported higher levels of depressive symptomology than boys, although the relationship between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms was significant for both boys and girls. Perceived discrimination by adults and by peers at school was positively related to depressive symptoms for U.S.-born adolescents. For U.S.-born adolescents, ethnic identity mitigated the negative effects of perceived adult discrimination on depressive symptoms. However, ethnic identity did not moderate the relationship between perceived peer discrimination and depressive symptoms. Social support did not moderate the relationship between adult and peer discrimination and depressive symptoms for either foreign-born or U.S.-born adolescents. The findings support previous research concerning the immigrant paradox and highlight the importance of context in the relationship between perceived discrimination and mental health. Implications for future research and intervention are discussed.

  17. Depression among elderly Chinese-Canadian immigrants from Mainland China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniel W.L. Lai

    2004-01-01

    Background This study examined the prevalence of depressive symptoms among elderly immigrants from Mainland China to Canada and the impact of various psychosocial factors as predictors of the number of depressive symptoms reported by the elderly Chinese immigrants.Methods The participants were 444 elderly immigrants who migrated from Mainland China to Canada. They were a part of a random sample of 2272 elderly Chinese living in the communities and took part in a face-to-face interview to answer questions in an orally administrated questionnaire. The depressive symptoms of the participants were measured by a Chinese version of the Geriatric Depression Scale. Data obtained from the 444 elderly Chinese immigrants was analyzed to assess the impact of various psychosocial factors on the number of depressive symptoms that they reported.Results The findings indicated that 23.2% of the elderly immigrants were assessed to have some depressive symptoms. When other predicting variables were adjusted, elderly immigrants with more chronic illnesses, less positive attitude towards ageing, poorer physical health, less adequate financial situation, lower level of ethnic identification as Chinese, more service barriers, lower level of life satisfaction, shorter length of residency in Canada and those who lived alone tended to have more depressive symptoms.Conclusions The findings indicate that the prevalence rate of depressive symptoms among our elderly immigrant sample is higher than the one reported in a general elderly population. While further research is recommended to examine the reasons for such a difference, culturally appropriate health services, including health promotion programs, should be promoted to reduce mental health disparities.

  18. Psychosocial aspects of resistance in complex treatment of depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlackova, Zuzana; Prasko, Jan; Latalova, Klara; Kamaradova, Dana; Ociskova, Marie; Grambal, Ales; Sigmundova, Zuzana; Kasalova, Petra; Cakirpaloglu, Snezana

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of major depressive disorder can be affected by a broad range of factors. In our study, we focused on the relationships of demographic, psychological, clinical and social factors to the course of treatment of depression. The study included 151 patients (finally 140 patients were evaluated) hospitalized for major depressive disorder. They were assessed for demographic characteristics, the rates of depression and anxiety, quality of life, the rates of dissociation and insomnia, and subjective and objective disease severity at different times during treatment. Patients were treated with standard doses of antidepressants or other psychiatric medication. They also completed a 6-week long daily cognitive-behavioural therapy. Data were statistically analyzed. There were significant decreases in the overall severity of the disorder, anxiety level and depression rate during treatment. Improvement measured by objective Clinical Global Impression (oCGI-I) at the end of treatment was not significantly correlated with any of the measured parameters (age of patient, onset of illness, duration of disease, doses of medication etc.). It only significantly positively correlated with the initial evaluation of the patient by oCGI. However, the improvement in subjective assessment (using sCGI-I) correlated with many parameters (increased age, later onset of the disease, greater disease severity at baseline in both overall and subjective evaluation of the severity, anxiety and depressive symptomatology). Furthermore, it was negatively correlated with most quality of life parameters, such as H (Home), F (Feelings), L (Leisure), Sr (Social relations) and G (General). The results suggest that individual variables, such as the degree of psychopathology, particularly depression and anxiety, most quality of life parameters, higher patient age and age of disorder onset may be associated with poorer subjective response to complex treatment of patients with major depressive disorder.

  19. Screeningstest for depression i almen praksis. COOP/WONCA-kort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, J K; Damsbo, N; Kragstrup, J

    1999-01-01

    Depressed patients in general practice may be difficult to identify. Questionnaires may be used for screening but some of the existing instruments are difficult to use and have only to a limited degree been introduced in general practice. In this study 798 patients' answers to the COOP/WONCA chart...... "Feelings" were compared to GPs' diagnosis according to ICD-10 criteria for depressive single episode (F32). At cut-off2/3 (slight/moderate problems) the chart had a sensitivity of 89% (76-100%) and specificity of 75% (72-78%). The predictive value of a positive test was not higher than 33% for any cut......-off point and the predictive value of a negative test never less than 98%. A two-phased diagnostic strategy with the COOP/WONCA chart as step one is suggested as a possible and relatively simple way to optimize recognition of depressive patients in general practice....

  20. Time perspective, depression, and substance misuse among the homeless.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluck, Graham; Lee, Kwang-Hyuk; Lauder, Hannah E; Fox, James M; Spence, Sean A; Parks, Randolph W

    2008-03-01

    Using the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI; P. G. Zimbardo & J. N. Boyd, 1999), the authors found that homeless people, in comparison with a control group, had a significantly more negative outlook concerning their past and present as evinced by high Past-Negative and Present-Fatalistic scores and low Past-Positive scores on the ZTPI. However, the homeless individuals were almost indistinguishable from control participants on measures of Present-Hedonism and Future thinking. The homeless individuals had significantly higher levels of depression, with 31 out of 50 (62%) reaching criteria for probable depression. However, this finding was unrelated to their atypical time perspective. There was no significant relation between substance misuse and time perspective. Despite their current difficulties, including depression and drug abuse, the homeless individuals maintained a propensity toward future thinking characterized by striving to achieve their goals.

  1. Depression and life satisfaction among European and Confucian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankov, Lazar

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare adolescents from Europe and Confucian Asia on measures of psychological constructs that reflect either maladjustment or positive outlook on life. Empirical findings are reported based on N = 7,167 secondary school students (15 years old) from Confucian Asia (Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan) and from Europe (Denmark, Finland, Netherlands, Serbia, and Latvia with 2 nationalities-Latvian and Russian). Participants' responses were used to assess several aspects of personality and psychopathology, in addition to well-being, social attitudes, and parental styles. Exploratory factor analysis of these measures produced 4 factors: Depression, Life Satisfaction, Toughness and Modesty. Adolescents from Confucian countries show higher levels of Depression and lower levels of Life Satisfaction in comparison to their European counterparts. The most potent influences on Depression and Life Satisfaction were found to be Toughness and Parental Warmth variables, both of which are, in turn, linked to differences between regions/cultures.

  2. The increasing burden of depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lépine J-P

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Jean-Pierre Lépine1, Mike Briley21Hôpital Lariboisière Fernand Widal, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris Unité INSERM 705 CNRS UMR 8206, Université Paris Diderot, Paris, France; 2NeuroBiz Consulting and Communication, Castres, FranceAbstract: Recent epidemiological surveys conducted in general populations have found that the lifetime prevalence of depression is in the range of 10% to 15%. Mood disorders, as defined by the World Mental Health and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, have a 12-month prevalence which varies from 3% in Japan to over 9% in the US. A recent American survey found the prevalence of current depression to be 9% and the rate of current major depression to be 3.4%. All studies of depressive disorders have stressed the importance of the mortality and morbidity associated with depression. The mortality risk for suicide in depressed patients is more than 20-fold greater than in the general population. Recent studies have also shown the importance of depression as a risk factor for cardiovascular death. The risk of cardiac mortality after an initial myocardial infarction is greater in patients with depression and related to the severity of the depressive episode. Greater severity of depressive symptoms has been found to be associated with significantly higher risk of all-cause mortality including cardiovascular death and stroke. In addition to mortality, functional impairment and disability associated with depression have been consistently reported. Depression increases the risk of decreased workplace productivity and absenteeism resulting in lowered income or unemployment. Absenteeism and presenteeism (being physically present at work but functioning suboptimally have been estimated to result in a loss of $36.6 billion per year in the US. Worldwide projections by the World Health Organization for the year 2030 identify unipolar major depression as the leading cause of disease burden

  3. Anxious or Depressed and Still Happy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Spinhoven

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine cross-sectionally to what extent persons with higher symptom levels or a current or past emotional disorder report to be less happy than controls and to assess prospectively whether time-lagged measurements of extraversion and neuroticism predict future happiness independent of time-lagged measurements of emotional disorders or symptom severity. A sample of 2142 adults aged 18-65, consisting of healthy controls and persons with current or past emotional disorder according to DSM-IV criteria completed self-ratings for happiness and emotional well-being and symptom severity. Lagged measurements of personality, symptom severity and presence of anxiety and depressive disorder at T0 (year 0, T2 (year 2 and T4 (year 4 were used to predict happiness and emotional well-being at T6 (year 6 controlling for demographics. In particular persons with more depressive symptoms, major depressive disorder, social anxiety disorder and comorbid emotional disorders reported lower levels of happiness and emotional well-being. Depression symptom severity and to a lesser extent depressive disorder predicted future happiness and emotional well-being at T6. Extraversion and to a lesser extent neuroticism also consistently forecasted future happiness and emotional well-being independent of concurrent lagged measurements of emotional disorders and symptoms. A study limitation is that we only measured happiness and emotional well-being at T6 and our measures were confined to hedonistic well-being and did not include psychological and social well-being. In sum, consistent with the two continua model of emotional well-being and mental illness, a 'happy' personality characterized by high extraversion and to a lesser extent low neuroticism forecasts future happiness and emotional well-being independent of concurrently measured emotional disorders or symptom severity levels. Boosting positive emotionality may be an important treatment goal for persons

  4. Depressive disorder and incident diabetes mellitus: the effect of characteristics of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campayo, Antonio; de Jonge, Peter; Roy, Juan F; Saz, Pedro; de la Cámara, Concepción; Quintanilla, Miguel A; Marcos, Guillermo; Santabárbara, Javier; Lobo, Antonio

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that clinically significant depression detected in a population sample increases the risk of diabetes mellitus. The authors examined the effect of characteristics of depression frequently found in the community on the risk of incident diabetes mellitus. A large community sample of adults aged > or = 55 years (N=4,803) was assessed at baseline in a longitudinal three-wave epidemiological enquiry using a psychiatric interview and the Geriatric Mental State Schedule. Cases of depression were diagnosed according to standardized criteria, and diabetes was assessed using a risk factors questionnaire. Follow-up evaluations, conducted 2.5 and 5 years later, were completed to determine the incidence of diabetes. At baseline, 379 case subjects with depression were identified. The risk of incident diabetes mellitus was higher among subjects with depression when compared with nondepressed subjects, and the association remained significant after controlling for potential confounders, including diabetes risk factors. The estimated rate of diabetes mellitus attributable to depression was 6.87%. An increased risk of diabetes mellitus was also associated with the following characteristics of depression: nonsevere depression, persistent depression, and untreated depression. Treatment with antidepressants was not associated with an increased risk of diabetes mellitus. Clinically significant depression is associated with a 65% increased risk of diabetes mellitus. Characteristics of depression frequently found in the community, namely nonsevere depression, persistent depression, and untreated depression, may play a role in the development of diabetes in a predominantly elderly adult population.

  5. Quality of life and depression in multiple sclerosis patients: longitudinal results of the BetaPlus study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzilli, Carlo; Schweikert, Bernd; Ecari, Ugo; Oentrich, Wolfgang; Bugge, Jörg-Peter

    2012-11-01

    Enhancing quality of life (QoL) is an important objective of disease-modifying therapies in multiple sclerosis (MS). Strategies to substantiate the effect on QoL and depression have been suggested, including injection devices and nursing support. This study assesses QoL and depression in MS patients treated with interferon beta-1b (IFNB-1b) and evaluates the impact of different elements of a patient support programme and of coping strategies on QoL and depression. A prospective, observational, 2-year cohort study was conducted. MS patients were eligible if they had previously switched to IFNB-1b. Data were collected every 6 months. For the measurement of QoL the Functional Assessment of MS (FAMS) was used. Depression symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D); coping strategies were assessed using the 66-item version of Ways of Coping Questionnaire. A total of 1,077 patients were recruited into the study. Seven hundred (65 %) patients completed the study. Within the subgroup completing questionnaires on QoL (N = 472) and depression (N = 363), QoL increased (110.4 vs. 115.8, p QoL and depressions, the use of the autoinjector Betaject(®) over time showed a positive association with QoL (p = 0.049). The support from a nurse was positively associated with lower depressive symptoms (p = 0.039). The coping strategies 'planful problem-solving' and 'positive reappraisal' were associated with higher QoL and lower depressive symptoms. Patients on IFNB-1b treatment who were included in the patient support programme and completed the study showed an improvement in QoL. Moreover, compared to baseline the proportion of depressive patients decreased. Coping strategies as well as supportive elements such as autoinjectors and nurses had a significant impact on QoL and depression. However, the study had the general limitations of a non-controlled design.

  6. Depressive emotioning in adolescents with cochlear implant and normal hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahli, Sanem; Arslan, Umut; Belgin, Erol

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the levels of depressive emotioning of adolescents with cochlear implants and the ones who have normal hearing. For this purpose, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale is applied upon the study group which consists of 30 adolescents with cochlear implant between the ages of 12-19 and upon the control group which consists of 60 adolescents having the similar characteristics. The scale is used to evaluate the level of depressive emotioning of adolescents with cochlear implant and with normal hearing. At the end of the application, the scores of these two groups which they got according to their answers were compared statistically. When the results were examined, there seemed to be no significant difference statistically between the depressive emotioning values of the cochlear implant group and the control group. Apart from this, in this study, we examined changes in the level of depressive emotioning according to different variables. As a result, it was found out that in both groups level of depressive emotioning was lower for adolescents who had had preschool education, had brothers/sisters, high level of income, whose father and mother had higher levels of education. On the other hand, the birth sequence and the child's father's profession did not seem to have any effect on the child's level of depressive emotioning. As a result of these findings, it was thought that cochlear implantation had a positive effect on life quality and it was suggested that the adolescents and their families should get assistance from experts about the characteristics and principles of approaching the child in this period. The adolescent should be directed towards social activities and courses, their positive sides should be supported and further studies should be carried out with different case groups on this matter. In addition to, examining the interactions of hearing loss effects can help professionals determine the individuals who are at a higher risk

  7. The relationship between cognitive insight, clinical insight, and depression in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekinci, Okan; Ugurlu, Görkem Karakas; Albayrak, Yakup; Arslan, Murat; Caykoylu, Ali

    2012-02-01

    Despite comorbid depression being relatively common even in subjects with schizophrenia, to the best of our knowledge, there is, to date, no report in the literature specifically and detailed examining the cognitive and clinical insight in subjects with schizophrenia and a comorbid depressive syndrome. Hence, in this study, we sought to compare the cognitive and clinical insight in our subjects with schizophrenia with and without a comorbid depressive syndrome. We found that participants in the depressive group scored significantly higher on self-reflectiveness and the reflectiveness-certainty (R-C) index scores than those in the nondepressive group. There was no significant difference among groups on the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms, Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms, and clinical insight scores assessed by the Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder. In addition, self-reflectiveness scores significantly correlated with depression, observed depression, hopelessness, and suicidality subscores of the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia. A better understanding of the cognitive component of insight in schizophrenia with comorbid depression may contribute to develop more efficient cognitive strategies, thus improving patient outcome. However, clinicians should be aware of the possibility of exacerbating a sense of hopelessness and suicide risk during the interventions that improve cognitive insight. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Regular physical activity and mental health. The role of exercise in the prevention of, and intervention in depressive disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takács, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    In our review we examine the relationship between physical activity and mental health; especially we determine the effectiveness of exercise in the prevention and treatment of depression. Over the past two decades the literature in the area of physical activity and mental health has been growing. However it seems that the findings and evidences not being utilized by mental health agencies and health practitioners. Depression is the most common disorder in the world, generally has a higher prevalence among women. In our study we overview and demonstrate that the exercise is a powerful intervention for prevention and treatment not only in non-clinical but also in clinical levels of depression. In sub-clinical levels of depression the meta-analytic findings and population surveys suggest that the exercise is associated with a significant moderate reduction of depression in different groups by gender and age; as well as a physically active lifestyle associates with lower levels of depression. In clinical levels of depression the physical activity is an effective tool in the prevention, studies support an association between higher levels of physical activity and lower levels of depression. In the treatment of clinical depression the randomized-controlled trials suggest the clear positive effects of exercise. This effect is similar to psychotherapeutic interventions and it was appeared under relatively short time (4-8 weeks). The exercise is one of the most important preventive health-related behaviors. Our review suggests a protective effect from activity on the development of clinical levels of depression and depressive symptoms. In addition the randomized controlled trials support a causal connection between exercise and reduction of depression. In sum the reviewed studies clearly support the antidepressant effect of exercise.

  9. Freudenfreude and Schadenfreude Test (FAST) scores of depressed and non-depressed undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambliss, Catherine; Cattai, Ashley; Benton, Peter; Elghawy, Ahmed; Fan, Madde; Thompson, Kayleigh; Scavicchio, Daniel; Tanenbaum, Joshua

    2012-08-01

    The Freudenfreude and Schadenfreude Test (FAST) had moderate test-retest reliability in an undergraduate sample. Freudenfreude scores were lower and Schadenfreude scores were higher among mildly depressed than nondepressed students. Distinctive reactions to personal success and failure were associated with depression. Responses to others' success and failure may also be related to depression.

  10. Temperament and Risk for Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence: Mediation by Rumination and Moderation by Effortful Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraeten, Katrien; Vasey, Michael W.; Raes, Filip; Bijttebier, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the relations between temperament, ruminative response style and depressive symptoms both cross-sectionally and prospectively (1 year follow-up) in a community sample of 304 seventh- through tenth-graders. First, higher levels of negative affectivity (NA), lower levels of positive affectivity (PA) and lower levels of…

  11. The Dexamethasone Suppression Test as an Indication of Depression in Patients with Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattes, Jeffrey A.; Amsell, Loren

    1993-01-01

    Administration of the Dexamethasone Suppression Test (DST) for three groups of institutionalized patients with severe/profound mental retardation found that the 12 depressed patients more frequently (though not significantly) had positive DSTs and significantly higher cortisol levels compared with nondepressed patients with and without other…

  12. Ethnic Identity and Acculturative Stress as Mediators of Depression in Students of Asian Descent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantrip, Crystal; Mazzetti, Francesco; Grasso, Joseph; Gill, Sara; Miller, Janna; Haner, Morgynn; Rude, Stephanie; Awad, Germine

    2015-01-01

    This study underscored the importance of addressing the well-being of college students of Asian descent, because these students had higher rates of depression and lower positive feelings about their ethnic group compared with students of European descent, as measured by the Affirmation subscale of the Ethnic Identity Scale. Affirmation mediated…

  13. Investigation on depression in higher vocational college students and its intervention study%高职生抑郁情绪的调查及其团体干预的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温金梅

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨高职生抑郁情绪的影响因素及其有效的干预策略.方法 采用Beck抑郁量表与抑郁自评量表对81名高职生进行团体施测,并对筛选出的56名具有抑郁症状的高职生作为试验组进行团体心理辅导的干预,35名抑郁高职生作为对照组,不接受任何试验处理.结果 试验组干预后测抑郁得分在统计学上显著低于干预前测抑郁得分(自编抑郁量表:t=4.103,P=0.000;Beck抑郁量表:t=2.885,P=0.005);并显著低于对照组后测抑郁得分(t=21.029,P=0.019).结论 团体心理咨询对高职生抑郁情绪的改善有显著效果.因此,团体心理辅导值得在高校大学生的心理健康教育中推广.%Objective To explore the influential factors of vocational college students' depression and its effective intervention strategies. Methods A total of 81 vocational college students were enrolled and evaluated by Beck depression psychological scales and self-questionnaire. And 56 depressed students as experiment group were intervened by the group psychological counseling, and 35 depressed students as control group were not given any intervention. Results Significant difference was noted in depressed score between the beginning and the end of the treatment in experiment group ( self-questionnaire: t = 4. 103, P = 0. 000; Beck depression scales: t = 2. 885 ,P = 0. 005 ). The depressed score was significantly lower in experiment group after intervention than that in control group ( ( = 21.029 ,P = 0. 019 ). Conclusion Group psychological counseling may produce a significant effect on the improvement of the vocational college students' depressive mood,and should be widely applied in college students' psychology education.

  14. Can Lupus Cause Depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lupus Living well with lupus Can lupus cause depression? Life with lupus can be challenging. With symptoms ... treatable illness called clinical depression. Symptoms of Clinical Depression People are considered clinically depressed when they have ...

  15. Older Adults and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... find more information? Reprints Share Older Adults and Depression Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy ... depression need treatment to feel better. Types of Depression There are several types of depression. The most ...

  16. Depression and Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Symptoms Depression Share this page Facebook Twitter Email Depression Depression Fatigue Walking (Gait) Difficulties Numbness or Tingling ... away from addictive substances such as alcohol. Clinical depression It’s important to distinguish between mild, everyday “blues” — ...

  17. Relationship of smartphone use severity with sleep quality, depression, and anxiety in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Kadir; Akgönül, Mehmet; Akpinar, Abdullah

    2015-06-01

    The usage of smartphones has increased rapidly in recent years, and this has brought about addiction. The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between smartphone use severity and sleep quality, depression, and anxiety in university students. In total, 319 university students (203 females and 116 males; mean age = 20.5 ± 2.45) were included in the study. Participants were divided into the following three groups: a smartphone non-user group (n = 71, 22.3%), a low smartphone use group (n = 121, 37.9%), and a high smartphone use group (n = 127, 39.8%). All participants were evaluated using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory; moreover, participants other than those in the smartphone non-user group were also assessed with the Smartphone Addiction Scale. The findings revealed that the Smartphone Addiction Scale scores of females were significantly higher than those of males. Depression, anxiety, and daytime dysfunction scores were higher in the high smartphone use group than in the low smartphone use group. Positive correlations were found between the Smartphone Addiction Scale scores and depression levels, anxiety levels, and some sleep quality scores. The results indicate that depression, anxiety, and sleep quality may be associated with smartphone overuse. Such overuse may lead to depression and/or anxiety, which can in turn result in sleep problems. University students with high depression and anxiety scores should be carefully monitored for smartphone addiction.

  18. Association Between Self-Esteem and Depressive Symptoms Is Stronger Among Black than White Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin

    2017-08-01

    Although poor self-esteem is a core component of depression, we still do not know if racial and ethnic groups differ in the magnitude of this link. This study compared Black and White older adults on the association between self-esteem and depressive symptoms. With a cross-sectional design, this study enrolled 1493 older individuals (age 66 or more) from the 2001 Religion, Aging, and Health Survey, a nationally representative study in the United States. Participants were either Blacks (n = 734) or Whites (n = 759). Depressive symptoms and self-esteem were measured using brief measures of the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale (CES-D) and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, respectively. Demographics, socioeconomics, and self-rated health (SRH) were covariates and self-identified race was the moderator. Linear regression models were used for data analysis. Low self-esteem was associated with more depressive symptoms (B = 0.17, 95 % CI 0.15-0.28), above and beyond all covariates. We found a significant and positive interaction between race (Black) and poor self-esteem on depressive symptoms (B = 0.34, 95 % CI 0.17-0.36), suggesting a stronger association between self-esteem and depressive symptoms among Blacks compared to Whites. Although low self-esteem is associated with higher depressive symptoms in both Whites and Blacks (p self-esteem and high depressive symptoms are more closely associated among Blacks than Whites. It is not clear whether depression leaves a larger scar on self-esteem for Blacks, or Blacks are more vulnerable to the effect of low self-esteem on depression.

  19. Socioeconomic position and twins' health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; McGue, Matt; Christensen, Kaare

    2007-01-01

    of middle-aged Danish twins was conducted in 1998-99. The study population included 1266 like-sex twin pairs [52.5% monozygotic (MZ) and 47.6% dizygotic (DZ)]. Data were obtained on childhood and adult social class and on height, BMI, grip strength, depression symptoms, self-rated health, cognitive function......, prenatal and rearing environmental factors from environmental factor later in life, we compared the health status among male and female twin pairs who lived together during childhood and were discordant or concordant on adult socioeconomic position. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey among a random sample......, physical activity, smoking, alcohol and food intake. RESULTS: The expected associations between the individual twins' adult social class and health measures were observed. Among DZ male twins discordant on adult social class, the higher social class twin was on average significantly taller and had higher...

  20. Depression, Social Support, and Coping Styles among Pregnant Women after the Lushan Earthquake in Ya'an, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Ren

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess the depression of pregnant women in the aftermath of an earthquake, and to identify the social support that they obtained, their coping styles and socio-demographic factors associated with depression.A total of 128 pregnant women from three hospitals in the epicenter area were recruited immediately after the Ya'an earthquake. Their depression was investigated using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS with a cutoff score of 14; the social support that they obtained was measured using the Social Support Questionnaire; and their coping styles were assessed using the Coping Styles Questionnaire.Immediately after the earthquake, the incidence rate of depression in pregnant women was 35.2%, higher than that of the general pregnant population (7%-14%. The EPDS scores were significantly correlated with gestation age at the time of the earthquake, objective support, subjective support, use of support, negative coping style, and positive coping style. The regression analysis indicated that risk factors of prenatal depression include the number of children, relatives wounded, subjective support, and coping styles. A further analysis of the interaction between social support and two types of coping styles with depression showed that there was interaction effect between subjective social support and positive coping styles in relation to EPDS scores. There was an inverse relationship between low EPDS scores and positive coping styles and high social support, and vice versa.The timing of the occurrence of the earthquake may not necessarily affect the progress of the illness and recovery from depression, and psychological intervention could be conducted in the immediate aftermath after the earthquake. The impact of coping styles on prenatal depression appeared to be linked with social support. Helping pregnant women to adopt positive coping styles with good social support after a recent major earthquake, which is a

  1. Maternal and Peer Regulation of Adolescent Emotion: Associations with Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lougheed, Jessica P; Craig, Wendy M; Pepler, Debra; Connolly, Jennifer; O'Hara, Arland; Granic, Isabela; Hollenstein, Tom

    2016-07-01

    Emotion socialization by close relationship partners plays a role in adolescent depression. In the current study, a microsocial approach was used to examine how adolescents' emotions are socialized by their mothers and close friends in real time, and how these interpersonal emotion dynamics are related to adolescent depressive symptoms. Participants were 83 adolescents aged 16 to 17 years who participated in conflict discussions with their mothers and self-nominated close friends. Adolescents' positive and negative emotions, and mothers' and peers' supportive regulation of adolescent emotions, were coded in real time. Two multilevel survival analyses in a 2-level Cox hazard regression framework predicted the hazard rate of (1) mothers' supportive regulation of adolescents' emotions, and (2) peers' supportive regulation of adolescents' emotions. The likelihood of maternal supportiveness, regardless of adolescent emotions, was lower for adolescents with higher depressive symptoms. In addition, peers were less likely to up-regulate adolescent positive emotions at higher levels of adolescent depressive symptoms. The results of the current study support interpersonal models of depression and demonstrate the importance of real-time interpersonal emotion processes in adolescent depressive symptoms.

  2. Biomarkers of systemic inflammation and depression and fatigue in moderate clinically stable COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Dave

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction COPD is an inflammatory disease with major co-morbidities. It has recently been suggested that depression may be the result of systemic inflammation. We aimed to explore the association between systemic inflammation and symptoms of depression and fatigue in patients with mainly moderate and clinically stable COPD using a range of inflammatory biomarkers, 2 depression and 2 fatigue scales. Method We assessed 120 patients with moderate COPD (FEV1% 52, men 62%, age 66. Depression was assessed using the BASDEC and CES-D scales. Fatigue was assessed using the Manchester COPD-fatigue scale (MCFS and the Borg scale before and after 6MWT. We measured systemic TNF-α, CRP, TNF-α-R1, TNF-α-R2 and IL-6. Results A multivariate linear model of all biomarkers showed that TNF-α only had a positive correlation with BASDEC depression score (p = 0.007. TNF-α remained positively correlated with depression (p = 0.024 after further adjusting for TNF-α-R1, TNF-α-R2, 6MWD, FEV1%, and pack-years. Even after adding the MCFS score, body mass and body composition to the model TNF-α was still associated with the BASDEC score (p = 0.044. Furthermore, patients with higher TNF-α level (> 3 pg/ml, n = 7 had higher mean CES-D depression score than the rest of the sample (p = 0.03. Borg fatigue score at baseline were weakly correlated with TNF-α and CRP, and with TNF-α only after 6MWT. Patients with higher TNF-α had more fatigue after 6MWD (p = 0.054. Conclusion This study indicates a possible association between TNF-α and two frequent and major co-morbidities in COPD; i.e., depression and fatigue.

  3. Protective Factors for Depression among African American Children of Predominantly Low-Income Mothers with Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Rhonda C; Waanders, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Maternal depression has a deleterious impact on child psychological outcomes, including depression symptoms. However, there is limited research on the protective factors for these children and even less for African Americans. The purpose of the study is to examine the effects of positive parenting skills on child depression and the potential protective effects of social skills and kinship support among African American children whose mothers are depressed and low-income. African American mothers (n = 77) with a past year diagnosis of a depressive disorder and one of their children (ages 8-14) completed self-report measures of positive parenting skills, social skills, kinship support, and depression in a cross-sectional design. Regression analyses demonstrated that there was a significant interaction effect of positive parenting skills and child social skills on child depression symptoms. Specifically, parent report of child social skills was negatively associated with child depression symptoms for children exposed to poorer parenting skills; however, this association was not significant for children exposed to more positive and involved parenting. Kinship support did not show a moderating effect, although greater maternal depression severity was correlated with more child-reported kinship support. The study findings have implications for developing interventions for families with maternal depression. In particular, parenting and child social skills are potential areas for intervention to prevent depression among African American youth.

  4. A study of beam position diagnostics with beam-excited dipole higher order modes using a downconverter test electronics in third harmonic 3.9 GHz superconducting accelerating cavities at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, P. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom); Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Baboi, N.; Lorbeer, B.; Wamsat, T. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Eddy, N.; Fellenz, B.; Wendt, M. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States); Jones, R.M. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom); The Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-15

    Beam-excited higher order modes (HOM) in accelerating cavities contain transverse beam position information. Previous studies have narrowed down three modal options for beam position diagnostics in the third harmonic 3.9 GHz cavities at FLASH. Localized modes in the beam pipes at approximately 4.1 GHz and in the fifth cavity dipole band at approximately 9 GHz were found, that can provide a local measurement of the beam position. In contrast, propagating modes in the first and second dipole bands between 4.2 and 5.5 GHz can reach a better resolution. All the options were assessed with a specially designed test electronics built by Fermilab. The aim is to de ne a mode or spectral region suitable for the HOM electronics. Two data analysis techniques are used and compared in extracting beam position information from the dipole HOMs: direct linear regression and singular value decomposition. Current experiments suggest a resolution of 50 m accuracy in predicting local beam position using modes in the fifth dipole band, and a global resolution of 20 m over the complete module. Based on these results we decided to build a HOM electronics for the second dipole band and the fifth dipole band, so that we will have both high resolution measurements for the whole module, and localized measurements for individual cavity. The prototype electronics is being built by Fermilab and planned to be tested in FLASH by the end of 2012.

  5. Prenatal and Postpartum Evening Salivary Cortisol Levels in Association with Peripartum Depressive Symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavros I Iliadis

    Full Text Available The biology of peripartum depression remains unclear, with altered stress and the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal axis response having been implicated in its pathophysiology.The current study was undertaken as a part of the BASIC project (Biology, Affect, Stress, Imaging, Cognition, a population-based longitudinal study of psychological wellbeing during pregnancy and the postpartum period in Uppsala County, Sweden, in order to assess the association between evening salivary cortisol levels and depressive symptoms in the peripartum period. Three hundred and sixty-five pregnant women from the BASIC cohort were recruited at pregnancy week 18 and instructed to complete a Swedish validated version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at the 36th week of pregnancy as well as the sixth week after delivery. At both times, they were also asked to provide evening salivary samples for cortisol analysis. A comprehensive review of the relevant literature is also provided.Women with postpartum EPDS score ≥ 10 had higher salivary evening cortisol at six weeks postpartum compared to healthy controls (median cortisol 1.19 vs 0.89 nmol/L. A logistic regression model showed a positive association between cortisol levels and depressive symptoms postpartum (OR = 4.1; 95% CI 1.7-9.7. This association remained significant even after controlling for history of depression, use of tobacco, partner support, breastfeeding, stressful life events, and sleep problems, as possible confounders (aOR = 4.5; 95% CI 1.5-14.1. Additionally, women with postpartum depressive symptoms had higher postpartum cortisol levels compared to both women with depressive symptoms antenatally and controls (p = 0.019 and p = 0.004, respectively.Women with depressive symptoms postpartum had higher postpartum cortisol levels, indicating an altered response of the HPA-axis in postpartum depression.

  6. Outcomes of Depression in Black Single Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Rahshida L.

    2016-01-01

    Despite suggestions in the literature that depression has serious consequences, few studies have examined specific health and psychosocial outcomes of depression in Black single mothers. The purpose of this study was to estimate paths in a just-identified theoretical model of outcomes of depression for Black single mothers based on theoretical propositions and empirical findings. The model included the variables, depressive cognitions, depressive symptomatology, perceived social support, and positive health practices. Five direct and two indirect hypothesized relationships were estimated using structural equation modeling. A nonprobability sample of convenience of 159 Black single mothers aged 18 to 45 years was recruited for the study. This study used a cross-sectional correlational design. The participants responded in person or via the U.S. mail to the Center for Epidemiologic Studies–Depression scale, the Depressive Cognition Scale, the Personal Resource Questionnaire 85–Part 2, and the Personal Lifestyle Questionnaire. Beta and Gamma path coefficients were statistically significant for four out of five hypothesized direct relationships within the model (p supported (Gamma = −.11, p > .05). The two indirect paths were weak but statistically significant (p social support were outcomes of depressive cognitions. Positive health practices was not a direct outcome of depressive cognitions. Perceived social support and positive health practices were outcomes of depressive symptoms. PMID:26912710

  7. Institutional violence and quality of service in obstetrics are associated with postpartum depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Karina Junqueira; Rattner, Daphne; Gubert, Muriel Bauermann

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To investigate the association between institutional violence in obstetrics and postpartum depression (PP depression) and the potential effect of race, age, and educational level in this outcome. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study about the health care conditions for the maternal and child population of the Federal District, Brazil, carried out in 2011. The study has used a probabilistic sample of 432 women, whose children were aged up to three months, stratified by clusters. Indicators of institutional violence and demographic characteristics have been used in a logistic regression model to estimate the probability of occurrence of postpartum depression. RESULTS The model has identified a high prevalence of postpartum depression, being it higher among non-white women and adolescent females, besides having a strong positive association between the several indicators of obstetric violence and postpartum depression. Positive interactions on a multiplicative scale have also been observed between: violence by negligence by health care professionals and race and age; physical violence from health care professionals and age; and, verbal violence from health care professionals and race. CONCLUSIONS The indicators adopted to reflect institutional violence in obstetric care are positively associated with postpartum depression, which calls for a reflection on the need to make the health care protocols adequate to the precepts of the Brazilian humanization of childbirth care policies and changes in the obstetric care model. PMID:28746574

  8. Depression among Indian university students and its association with perceived university academic environment, living arrangements and personal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Sibnath; Banu, Parveen R; Thomas, Shinto; Vardhan, R Vishnu; Rao, P Tirupathi; Khawaja, Nigar

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the study is to ascertain the level of depression among university students across gender, academic stream, semesters, perception of family environment and relationship with parents, academic performance, and family income. In addition, the study examines the association between students' perceived university academic environment, living arrangements, personal issues, and depression. Seven hypotheses were formulated for verification. A total of 717 students were recruited following the multistage cluster sampling method, and data were collected by a specially designed structured questionnaire, academic achievement record and a standardized University Students Depression Inventory. Findings disclosed that 37.7%, 13.1%, and 2.4% of the students were suffering from moderate, severe, and extremely severe depression. A significant difference was found across semester, that is, semester II students reported a higher level of depression than semester III students. So far as academic stream is concerned, students from humanities and social science were found to be suffering from more depression compared to students from science and management streams. The study further disclosed that the students who reported positive views about the university academic environment and living arrangements had lower level of depression compared to their counterparts. Personal resilience's such as being able to sharing personal problems with others and doing regular exercise were found to be associated with positive mental health. The findings of the study emphasize the need for immediate mental health support services for about 15.6% of the students who were either suffering from severe or extremely severe depression at the University.

  9. A review of longitudinal studies on antenatal and postnatal depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Lisa; Waldie, Karen; D'Souza, Stephanie; Peterson, Elizabeth R; Morton, Susan

    2016-10-01

    Antenatal depression is a known risk factor for postnatal depression; both are common disorders associated with negative impacts on child development. Few studies have followed up women from pregnancy and through the postnatal period to explore how rates of depression change. This review evaluates recent evidence on depression during pregnancy and after childbirth. A search of Embase, PsychINFO, MEDLINE and Cochrane Reviews was carried out to identify longitudinal studies on antenatal and postnatal depression. Studies that measured depression during pregnancy and up to 1 year after childbirth were evaluated against a set of criteria (e.g. less than 50 % attrition). Of the initial 523 studies identified, 16 studies met the final inclusion criteria with a total of 35,419 women. The average rate of antenatal depression across these studies was 17 and 13 % postnatal depression. The longitudinal nature of the studies revealed that on average 39 % of those who experienced antenatal depression went on to have postnatal depression. Similarly, on average, 47 % of those with postnatal depression had also experienced antenatal depression. On average, almost 7 % of women reported significant depressive symptoms in pregnancy that persisted after childbirth. The review provided evidence that rates of depression tend to be higher during pregnancy than in the first year following childbirth. Furthermore, the longitudinal data show that there is much movement between the groups categorised as depressed or not depressed. There is evidence that postnatal depression is often a continuation of existing antenatal depression.

  10. Mood-congruent true and false memory: effects of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Mark L; Malone, Catherine

    2011-02-01

    The Deese/Roediger-McDermott paradigm was used to investigate the effect of depression on true and false recognition. In this experiment true and false recognition was examined across positive, neutral, negative, and depression-relevant lists for individuals with and without a diagnosis of major depressive disorder. Results showed that participants with major depressive disorder falsely recognised significantly more depression-relevant words than non-depressed controls. These findings also parallel recent research using recall instead of recognition and show that there are clear mood congruence effects for depression on false memory performance.

  11. Depression may reduce adherence during CPAP titration trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Law, Mandy; Naughton, Matthew; Ho, Sally; Roebuck, Teanau; Dabscheck, Eli

    2014-01-01

    Depression is a risk factor for medication non-compliance. We aimed to identify if depression is associated with poorer adherence during home-based autotitrating continuous positive airway pressure (autoPAP) titration...

  12. [The actor effect and the partner effect of self-esteem and mother-adolescent communication on depression in mothers and adolescents in Kirogi families according to adolescent' development stage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Eun Kyung; Shin, Sung Hee

    2010-10-01

    This study was conducted to compare the level of depression, self-esteem and mother-adolescent (M-A) communication perceived by both mothers and adolescents between the early adolescent (E-A) group and the late adolescent (L-A) group; and to examine the actor effect and the partner effect of self-esteem and M-A communication on depression in mothers and adolescents. Participants were 107 Kirogi families who resided in the Midwest region of the U. S. Data were collected from September, 2008 to March, 2009 using the scales of Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D), Self-esteem and Parent-Adolescent Communication Inventory. Mothers in E-A group reported higher scores on depression than mothers in L-A group. Adolescents in L-A group reported higher scores on depression and lower scores on self-esteem than adolescents in E-A group. In the E-A group, mothers' self-esteem had big actor effect on mothers' depression and partner effect on adolescents' depression. In the L-A group, self-esteem of mothers and adolescents had actor effect on their depression respectively without partner effect. M-A communication of mothers influences mothers' depression negatively and adolescents' depression positively. In both group, M-A communication influences their depression with mediating effect of self-esteem. To promote Kirogi families' mental health, programs for mothers and adolescents should be developed differently according to adolescents' development stage.

  13. Neurocognitive processing of emotion facial expressions in individuals with self-reported depressive symptoms: the role of personality and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardaga, S; Iakimova, G

    2014-11-01

    Neurocognition may constitute one of the numerous factors that mediate the reciprocal influences between personality and depression. The present study explored the influence of personality and anxiety traits on the neurocognitive processing of emotional faces and specifically focused on personal characteristics related to negative (harm avoidance - HA) and positive affectivity (self-directedness - SD) and to anxiety. Twenty participants with self-reported depressive symptoms and 18 control participants were selected based on their BDI-II scores. Personality (TCI-R), anxiety and attention were measured and event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during an implicit emotional face perception task (fear, sadness, happiness, neutrality). The participants who self-reported depressive symptoms had higher HA, lower SD and higher anxiety compared to controls. Controls showed enhanced P300 and LPP amplitudes for fear. Individuals with self-reported depression showed reduced ERPs amplitudes for happiness. HA did not account for the difference between the groups but high HA and high anxiety were positively correlated with enhanced P300 amplitude for fear in participants with depressive symptoms. In contrast, SD accounted for the difference between the groups but was not correlated to the ERP components' amplitudes recorded for facial expressions. Other personality dimensions (reward dependence, cooperativeness) influenced the ERPs recorded for facial emotions. Personality dimensions influence the neurocognitive processing of emotional faces in individuals with self-reported depressive symptoms, which may constitute a cognitive vulnerability to depression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Risk factors of anxiety and depressive symptoms in female patients experiencing intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakuła Juchnowicz, Hanna; Łukasik, Paulina; Morylowska-Topolska, Justyna; Krukow, Paweł

    2017-02-26

    The aim of the study was to find factors associated with higher severity of anxiety and depressive symptoms in female patients experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV). The study was conducted in six randomly selected primary healthcare centers in Lublin province. The HADS (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) and a structured questionnaire designed by the authors were administered to a total of 350 consecutive female patients visiting a GP. Fully completed questionnaire forms were obtained from 200 women. 102 (51%) participants who confirmed experiencing IPV ultimately made up the study cohort. Sequential models were created using backward stepwise multiple regression to investigate the potential risk and the protective factors associated with higher severity of anxiety and depressive symptoms in the study group. 68% and 56% of the participants respectively had positive scores on the HADS anxiety and depression subscales. Living in a small town or in the countryside was associated with higher scores on the anxiety subscale (b = -1.18, p = 0.003), but not on the depression subscale. Chronic physical illness (b = 2.42, p = 0.013; b = 2.86, p = 0.015), being unemployed (b = 0.58, p = 0.024; b = 0.69, p = 0.008), and exposure to economic violence (b = 3.97, p anxiety subscale. The type of violence and socioeconomic characteristics were more strongly associated with anxiety and depressive symptoms in women experiencing IPV than demographic variables.

  15. Depressive Symptoms and Cigarette Demand as a Function of Induced Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahne, Jennifer; Murphy, James G; MacPherson, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Depressed smokers may disproportionately value cigarettes as compared to other reinforcers in the context of increases in negative affect (NA). Thus, cigarette demand may be an important construct for understanding the relationship between depression, NA change, and tobacco use. The aim of the current study was to examine the interaction between depressive symptoms and change in NA as a function of induced mood as a predictor of cigarette demand. Participants included 73 young adult daily smokers (41.70% female, 73.60% White, age M (SD) = 19.70 (1.15)) who attended two experimental sessions: one stress and one neutral. During each session, participants completed ratings of depressive symptoms, NA, and cigarette demand. We examined the predictive utility of depressive symptoms, change in NA as a result of a stressor, and the interaction between depressive symptoms and NA change on demand indices. Separate models were constructed by session. Results indicated significant interactive effects between depressive symptoms and change in NA for predicting intensity, breakpoint, and P max during the stress session. Specifically, change in NA moderated the relationship between depression and demand indices such that among individuals high in NA change, depressive symptoms were positively related to P max and breakpoint, whereas among individuals low in NA change, depressive symptoms were positively related to intensity. When exposed to stress, cigarettes may become more valuable for individuals with depressive symptoms. This study contributes to the literature attempting to understand the complex relationships between depression, stress-related changes in NA, and tobacco use. This study suggests that one mechanism that may be important to the relationship between depression and tobacco use is cigarette demand. Specifically, for individuals with elevated depressive symptoms, certain aspects of cigarette demand may be higher (intensity, breakpoint, and P max) when exposed to

  16. Stigma and perception of psychological distress and depression in Australian-trained medical students: results from an inter-state medical school survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Daryl R; Poon, Flora; Nguyen, Tran T; Woodman, Richard J; Parker, Jun D

    2013-10-30

    Stigmatisation towards depression has previously been reported amongst medical students from a variety of backgrounds. This study explored personal and perceived stigmas associated with depression, and their relationship with demographics, knowledge of depression, levels of personal stress and history of medical illness amongst Australian-trained medical students. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken amongst students enroled June-to-August 2009 across four Australian medical schools. In total, 1010 students completed the survey, a response rate of 29.6%. Approximately 25% of students reported a past history of depression. Higher stress (K-10 scores) was reported by females and those with a past history of depression. On a scale of 0-to-5, the mean (±S.D.) personal and perceived stigma depression scores were 1.83±1.49 and 4.05±1.42 respectively. In multivariate analysis, higher perceived stigma and K-10 scores, a past history of anxiety and Year 3 of medical school indicated higher personal stigma scores. Perceived stigma was positively associated with K-10 scores, personal stigma scores, and a Caucasian background. Our findings suggest a high level of personal and particularly perceived stigma associated with depression amongst medical students, especially those displaying higher levels of stress. Adequate support and screening for psychological stress may de-stigmatise depression and improve mental health amongst future Australian doctors.

  17. Depression as a disease of modernity: explanations for increasing prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidaka, Brandon H

    2012-11-01

    There has been much speculation about modern environments causing an epidemic of depression. This review aims to (1) determine whether depression rates have increased and (2) review evidence for possible explanations. While available data indicate rising prevalence and an increased lifetime risk for younger cohorts, strong conclusions cannot be drawn due to conflicting results and methodological flaws. There are numerous potential explanations for changing rates of depression. Cross-cultural studies can be useful for identifying likely culprits. General and specific characteristics of modernization correlate with higher risk. A positive correlation between a country's GDP per capita, as a quantitative measure of modernization, and lifetime risk of a mood disorder trended toward significance (p=0.06). Mental and physical well-being are intimately related. The growing burden of chronic diseases, which arise from an evolutionary mismatch between past human environments and modern-day living, may be central to rising rates of depression. Declining social capital and greater inequality and loneliness are candidate mediators of a depressiogenic social milieu. Modern populations are increasingly overfed, malnourished, sedentary, sunlight-deficient, sleep-deprived, and socially-isolated. These changes in lifestyle each contribute to poor physical health and affect the incidence and treatment of depression. The review ends with a call for future research and policy interventions to address this public health crisis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [Association between chronic pain and depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso Fernández, Francisco

    2005-01-01

    The comorbidity integrated by chronic pain and depression is very common. The somatoform depressive symptoms appear often as diferent types of pain. Amon them premenstrual pain and fibromialgia are some of the most important clinical pictures. Chronic pain leads to depression as a consequence of these three kinds of factors: biomedical, psychosocial (passive attitude, disability) and pharmacological agents. Copping and acceptance of chronic pain is associated with lower pain intensity, less depression and less psychosocial disability. The appropriate use of analgesics in the management of chronic pain demands individualization. Several antidepressants have possitive effects on pain syndrom. Depression is underrecognized ad undertreated above all in patients with chronic pain. In order screening the depression seven ways are described here: personal and family history, type of the personality, clinic and evolutive aspects of somatoform symptom, search of other depressive symptoms and positive therapeutic effect determinated by an antidepressant.

  19. The relationship between the positive emotion and teachers' occupation identity in the higher vocational education%积极情绪与高职学院教师职业认同的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵秀华; 李云霞

    2015-01-01

    There is a complementary relationship between positive emotion and occupation identity. Negative thought patterns lead to occupational role of cognitive bias;negative emotions lead to the negative emotion of the occupation;negative patterns of behavior leads to retraction of professional behavior. Positive emotion enhance the teacher professional well-being sense;positive character to enhance the development of teachers' professional ability;positive emotions to promote teacher self-efficacy sense of development. Higher vocational college through positive psychology training,improve teachers' emotional management,promote the development of teacher's positive emotion,improve the efficiency of education management,create a belongs to all the teachers and students happy campus.%积极情绪与职业认同之间存在相辅相成的关系。消极思维模式导致职业角色认知偏差;消极情绪导致消极的职业情感;消极行为模式导致专业行为退缩。积极情绪增强教师职业幸福感;积极的性格品质增进教师职业能力的发展;积极情绪促进老师自我效能感的发展。高职学院可以通过积极心理学培训,提高教师的情绪管理,促进教师积极情绪的发展,提高教育管理效率,创建一个属于全体师生的幸福校园。

  20. Psychological and Familial Factors of Depression in Relation to Adolescent Smoking Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roohafza, Hamidreza; Omidi, Razieh; Alinia, Tahereh; Heidari, Kamal; Farshad, Marziyeh; Davari, Hossein; Abtin, Zahra; Shahriari, Ezat; Taslimi, Mahshid; Sadeghi, Masoumeh

    2017-01-01

    Background: Several common factors have been identified for smoking and depression. The The present study explores the relation of psychological and familial factors with depression, by student smoking behavior. Materials and Methods: A total of 5500 middle- and high-school students were selected in Isfahan province in 2010. A self-administered questionnaire collected data on background characteristics, smoking status, depression, and risk factors. Univariate analysis multiple logistic regressions were conducted to compare between depressed and nondepressed people by adolescent smoking status. Odds ratios and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were reported. Results: Fathers lower education attainment was accompanied adolescents higher depression prevalence. Parental smoking and sibling smoking increased the depression likelihood by 1.41 (95% CI: 1.18, 1.68) and 1.43 folds (95% CI: 1.04–1.94) for never-smokers. Positive attitude toward smoking increased the probability of depression by 1.18 among never-smokers. Never-smokers lacking refusal skill had 1.23 (1.03–1.47) higher chance of depression. A higher level of self-efficacy related to lower chance of depression. Taking risky behavior, increased the depression likelihood by 1.56 (95% CI: 1.29–1.89) in never-smokers, by 1.85 (95% CI: 1.37–2.44) in experimental smokers, and by 1.14 times (95% CI: 1.01–1.72) in current smokers. Family conflict increased depression chance by 2.25 times (95% CI: 1.89–2.66) in never-smokers, by 1.95 (95% CI: 1.46–2.61) in experimental smokers, and by 2.06 times (95% CI: 1.38–3.08) in current smokers. Conclusions: Targeting self-efficacy level, risky behavior, and family conflict can drop the comorbidity of smoking and depression simultaneously. This may help public health practitioners and policymakers to develop common strategies in reducing adolescents smoking and depression comorbidity. PMID:28217648

  1. Family mealtimes and eating psychopathology: the role of anxiety and depression among adolescent girls and boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Hannah J; Haycraft, Emma; Meyer, Caroline

    2014-04-01

    Characteristics of family mealtimes are associated with disordered eating behaviours. However, little is known about the relationships between characteristics of family mealtimes and disordered eating attitudes, or how symptoms of anxiety or depression may contribute to these relationships. This study therefore aimed to examine differences between adolescent girls and boys in the relationship between family mealtime characteristics and eating psychopathology, and to explore the influence of anxiety and depression on this relationship. Adolescents (N=535; 286 girls and 249 boys) aged 14-18years completed self-report measures of family mealtime characteristics, eating psychopathology, anxiety and depression. Reports of more frequent family mealtimes, a more positive mealtime atmosphere and a high level of priority placed on mealtimes were all associated with significantly lower levels of eating-disordered attitudes among girls only. For boys, all four mealtime measures (higher mealtime frequency, more positive mealtime atmosphere, greater priority of mealtimes and higher levels of mealtime structure) were associated with lower levels of depression. Among girls, several of the family mealtime and eating psychopathology relationships were partially or fully mediated by either anxiety or depression. While these findings require longitudinal replication, family mealtimes are likely to be important in promoting psychological well-being among both girls and boys. Families should be encouraged to think beyond the frequency of mealtimes and to foster a positive mealtime environment which may help to promote adolescent psychological wellbeing, and might even protect young females against the development of eating psychopathology.

  2. Spectral Asymmetry and Higuchi’s Fractal Dimension Measures of Depression Electroencephalogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maie Bachmann

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to compare two electroencephalogram (EEG analysis methods, spectral asymmetry index (SASI and Higuchi’s fractal dimension (HFD, for detection of depression. Linear SASI method is based on evaluation of the balance of powers in two EEG frequency bands in one channel selected higher and lower than the alpha band spectrum maximum. Nonlinear HFD method calculates fractal dimension directly in the time domain. The resting EEG signals of 17 depressive patients and 17 control subjects were used as a database for calculations. SASI values were positive for depressive and negative for control group (P0.05. The results indicated that the linear EEG analysis method SASI and the nonlinear HFD method both demonstrated a good sensitivity for detection of characteristic features of depression in a single-channel EEG.

  3. What predicts outcome, response, and drop-out in CBT of depressive adults? a naturalistic study.

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    Schindler, Amrei; Hiller, Wolfgang; Witthöft, Michael

    2013-05-01

    The efficacy of CBT for unipolar depressive disorders is well established, yet not all patients improve or tolerate treatment. To identify factors associated with symptomatic outcome, response, and drop-out in depressive patients under naturalistic CBT. 193 patients with major depression or dysthymia were tested. Sociodemographic and clinical variables were entered as predictors in hierarchical regression analyses. A higher degree of pretreatment depression, early improvement, and completion of therapy were identified as predictors for symptomatic change and response. Drop-out was predicted by concurrent personality disorder, less positive outcome expectancies, and by failure to improve early in treatment. Our results highlight the importance of early response to predict improvement in routine CBT. Attempts to refine the quality of treatment programs should focus on avoiding premature termination (drop-out) and consider motivational factors in more depth. Routinely administered standardized assessments would enhance symptom monitoring and help to identify persons at risk of not improving under therapy.

  4. Use of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, M J; Kim, K H

    1998-05-01

    We translated the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale into Korean, paying careful attention to culturally different modes of expression of depressive feelings and thoughts. The final translated version (CES-D-K) was administered to 164 psychiatric patients and 464 normal subjects residing in the community. Reliability, validity, and the optimal cutoff point of this scale were estimated, including ROC analysis. The CES-D-K was reliable and valid for the Korean population. Two optimal cutoff points were suggested: 24/25, the point which best corresponded to the clinical diagnosis of depression, and 20/21, which most effectively detects and covers depressive symptoms during screening. The higher cutoff points than those in Western countries may be due to different ways of expression affect, especially the suppression of positive affect, in cultures based on Confucian ethics.

  5. Prevalence and psychopathological characteristics of depression in consecutive otorhinolaryngologic inpatients

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    Westhofen Martin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High prevalence of depression has been reported in otorhinolaryngologic patients (ORL. However, studies using a semi-structured interview to determine the prevalence of depression in ORL are lacking. Therefore the present study sought to determine the depression prevalence in ORL applying a semi-structured diagnostic interview and to further characterize the pathopsychological and demographic characteristics of depression in these patients. Methods One-hundred inpatients of the otorhinolaryngologic department of a German university hospital participated voluntarily (age M = 38.8 years, SD = 13.9; 38.0% female. Depression was assessed using a clinical interview in which the International Diagnostic Checklist for depression (IDCL was applied. Patients completed the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI which constitutes three composite scores and nine symptom scales and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. Multivariate analyses of variance, correlations and effect sizes were conducted. Results A prevalence of depression of 21.0% was determined, 38.0% of the depressed patients were female. Depressed patients showed higher scores on the BSI-scales "interpersonal sensitivity", "depression", "anxiety", "phobic anxiety" and "psychoticism" with medium effect sizes. Conclusions High prevalence of depression was found which is in accordance with results of prior studies. Depressed patients showed higher psychological distress as compared to non-depressed patients. The results call for carrying on in engaging in depression research and routine depression screening in ORL.

  6. Social Networking Sites, Depression, and Anxiety: A Systematic Review

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    Kern, Margaret L; Rickard, Nikki S

    2016-01-01

    Background Social networking sites (SNSs) have become a pervasive part of modern culture, which may also affect mental health. Objective The aim of this systematic review was to identify and summarize research examining depression and anxiety in the context of SNSs. It also aimed to identify studies that complement the assessment of mental illness with measures of well-being and examine moderators and mediators that add to the complexity of this environment. Methods A multidatabase search was performed. Papers published between January 2005 and June 2016 relevant to mental illness (depression and anxiety only) were extracted and reviewed. Results Positive interactions, social support, and social connectedness on SNSs were consistently related to lower levels of depression and anxiety, whereas negative interaction and social comparisons on SNSs were related to higher levels of depression and anxiety. SNS use related to less loneliness and greater self-esteem and life satisfaction. Findings were mixed for frequency of SNS use and number of SNS friends. Different patterns in the way individuals with depression and individuals with social anxiety engage with SNSs are beginning to emerge. Conclusions The systematic review revealed many mixed findings between depression, anxiety, and SNS use. Methodology has predominantly focused on self-report cross-sectional approaches; future research will benefit from leveraging real-time SNS data over time. The evidence suggests that SNS use correlates with mental illness and well-being; however, whether this effect is beneficial or detrimental depends at least partly on the quality of social factors in the SNS environment. Understanding these relationships will lead to better utilization of SNSs in their potential to positively influence mental health. PMID:27881357

  7. Risk factors of depression occurrence in Adolescence

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    Miloseva, Lence

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of this lecture is focus on different aspects of occurerence of depression in Adolescence, especially with focus on risk factors. I introduced epidemiology of depression : causes, treatment, and prevention (Abela & Hankin,2008). The special part of the lecture was focus on etiology of depression. Adolescence is characterized by positive gains in cognitive maturity, better interpersonal skills, new experiences, increased autonomy, and hormonal changes (Feldman & Elliot, 1990). Alt...

  8. Depression history, depression vulnerability and the experience of everyday negative events

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Grady, Megan A.; Tennen, Howard; Armeli, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether deficits in dealing with daily problems emerge before a depressive episode (i.e., pre-existing vulnerability) or after a depressive episode (i.e., psychosocial scar). Participants completed a 30-day daily diary in which they reported their most negative event of the day, their appraisals of that event, and their mood. Three years later, they completed a structured depression interview. The sample consisted of 350 college students, 24 of whom had a past history of depression and 54 of whom experienced a depressive episode subsequent to dairy completion. Multilevel modeling revealed that students with past depression blamed others more than the never-depressed and those with subsequent depression, which supported the scar hypothesis. In support of the vulnerability hypothesis, as compared to the never-depressed group, participants with past depression demonstrated steeper declines in positive mood on more stressful days but did not significantly differ from the subsequent depression group. Overall, our findings do not provide clear support for either hypothesis; however, this study is the first to use a daily diary design to directly compare individuals with past depression to individuals who would subsequently experience depression. PMID:21170154

  9. Depression and HIV in Botswana: a population-based study on gender-specific socioeconomic and behavioral correlates.

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    Reshma Gupta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Depression is a leading contributor to the burden of disease worldwide, a critical barrier to HIV prevention and a common serious HIV co-morbidity. However, depression screening and treatment are limited in sub-Saharan Africa, and there are few population-level studies examining the prevalence and gender-specific factors associated with depression. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional population-based study of 18-49 year-old adults from five districts in Botswana with the highest prevalence of HIV-infection. We examined the prevalence of depressive symptoms, using a Hopkins Symptom Checklist for Depression (HSCL-D score of ≥ 1.75 to define depression, and correlates of depression using multivariate logistic regression stratified by sex. RESULTS: Of 1,268 participants surveyed, 25.3% of women and 31.4% of men had depression. Among women, lower education (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.07, 95% confidence interval [1.30-3.32], higher income (1.77 [1.09-2.86], and lack of control in sexual decision-making (2.35 [1.46-3.81] were positively associated with depression. Among men, being single (1.95 [1.02-3.74], living in a rural area (1.63 [1.02-2.65], having frequent visits to a health provider (3.29 [1.88-5.74], anticipated HIV stigma (fearing discrimination if HIV status was revealed (2.04 [1.27-3.29], and intergenerational sex (2.28 [1.17-4.41] were independently associated with depression. DISCUSSION: Depression is highly prevalent in Botswana, and its correlates are gender-specific. Our findings suggest multiple targets for screening and prevention of depression and highlight the need to integrate mental health counseling and treatment into primary health care to decrease morbidity and improve HIV management efforts.

  10. Self-Esteem Reactivity Among Mothers of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: The Moderating Role of Depression History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Stephanie A; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Roberts, John E; Ciesla, Jeffrey A; Pelham, William E

    2013-12-01

    This study examined self-esteem reactivity to a variety of contextual cues in a sample of women prone to depression. Participants were 49 mothers of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Across a 9-month time-period, participants completed weekly measures of self-esteem, perceived stress, positive and negative affect, and child disruptive behavior. Results indicated that mothers reported lower self-esteem during weeks they experienced greater stress, lower positive affect, higher negative affect, and more inattentive, overactive, and oppositional behavior in their children. Depression history moderated these relationships such that mothers with prior histories of depression reported greater self-esteem reactivity to these cues than never depressed mothers.

  11. Self-Esteem Reactivity Among Mothers of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: The Moderating Role of Depression History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Stephanie A.; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Roberts, John E.; Ciesla, Jeffrey A.; Pelham, William E.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined self-esteem reactivity to a variety of contextual cues in a sample of women prone to depression. Participants were 49 mothers of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Across a 9-month time-period, participants completed weekly measures of self-esteem, perceived stress, positive and negative affect, and child disruptive behavior. Results indicated that mothers reported lower self-esteem during weeks they experienced greater stress, lower positive affect, higher negative affect, and more inattentive, overactive, and oppositional behavior in their children. Depression history moderated these relationships such that mothers with prior histories of depression reported greater self-esteem reactivity to these cues than never depressed mothers. PMID:24443616

  12. Bibliotherapy for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, Tegan

    2013-04-01

    Bibliotherapy can be used to treat mild to moderate depression or subthreshold depressive symptoms, as a sole or supplementary therapy. Bibliotherapy is a form of guided self-help. The patient works through a structured book, independently from the doctor. The role of the doctor is to support and motivate the patient as they continue through the book and to help clarify any questions or concerns the patient may have. Relevant books can be purchased or often borrowed from a library, with limited cost and good accessibility from a patient perspective. Patients need to have a reading age above 12 years and have a positive attitude toward self-help. Bibliotherapy has NHMRC Level 1 evidence of efficacy and no serious adverse effects have been reported. This article forms part of a series on non-drug treatments, which summarise the indications, considerations and the evidence, and where clinicians and patients can find further information.

  13. Performance benefits of depression: sequential decision making in a healthy sample and a clinically depressed sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Helversen, Bettina; Wilke, Andreas; Johnson, Tim; Schmid, Gabriele; Klapp, Burghard

    2011-11-01

    Previous research reported conflicting results concerning the influence of depression on cognitive task performance. Whereas some studies reported that depression enhances performance, other studies reported negative or null effects. These discrepant findings appear to result from task variation, as well as the severity and treatment status of participant depression. To better understand these moderating factors, we study the performance of individuals-in a complex sequential decision task similar to the secretary problem-who are nondepressed, depressed, and recovering from a major depressive episode. We find that depressed individuals perform better than do nondepressed individuals. Formal modeling of participants' decision strategies suggested that acutely depressed participants had higher thresholds for accepting options and made better choices than either healthy participants or those recovering from depression.

  14. Spatial distribution of small-leaved forests in Kuznetskaya depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Gulyaeva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the spatial distribution of small-leaved forests in Kuznetskaya depression where they are forest component of zonal forest-steppe vegetation. Two levels of spatial organization were determined. According to mesorelief communities of different associations are organized into topo-ecological series. These series differ by length and set of communities. On higher level spatial distribution is controlled by climate and reflects zonal structure. Central part of the depression is occupied by Artemisio–Betuletum communities in combination with communities of Calamagrostio–Betuletum which occur in more humid habitats. Near the eastern edge of the depres­sion forest vegetation is represented by combination of Trollio–Populetum and Campanulo–Betuletum communities where the first one is more typical for the plain conditions and second one – for the mountainous environment. In south­ern part of the depression communities of Campanulo–Betuletum are widespread in combination with Saussureo–Populetum communities which localized on higher well-moisturized slopes. In north-western part syntaxonomical diversity drops down to one association – Primulo–Betuletum, and communities of Carici–Betuletum association occur across the whole depression in lowest relief positions. Climatically it is possible to distinguish two belts – forest-steppe and subtaiga. Forest-steppe is represented by two types – typical plain forest-steppe in north-western part and submountainous forest-steppe in the central part of depression. Subtaiga belt in the depression is developed on eastern edge, but in western part it exists only on mountain slopes.

  15. [Olfaction in depressive disorders: Issues and perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, G; Schaal, B

    2017-04-01

    Research on sensorial interactions with psychiatric diseases and particularly with the depressive syndrome has mainly focused on visual or auditory processes and much less on olfaction. The depressive illness is one of the most frequent psychiatric diagnoses in the community, with approximately one in five women and one in eight men experiencing a major depressive episode during their lifetime. Although genetic, epigenetic, neuroanatomical, neurochemical, neuroendocrinological and neuroimmunological changes can be detected during depression, the etiology of depression remains partly unclear. The current explanatory models are based on two main factors, i.e. pharmacological dysfunctions and stress effects. In this way and because of strong connections between olfactory pathways and cerebral areas implied in mood regulation and emotions (i.e. the limbic system and prefrontal areas), the interactions between olfaction and depression could constitute a relevant way of research at three different levels. First, olfactory dysfunction observed in depression could serve the diagnosis and contribute to a better understanding of mechanisms implied in thymic pathologies. Published papers show a decrease of olfactory sensitivity in major depression which does not occur in bipolar or saisonal depression. Second, it has been shown that olfactory deficits could induce depressive symptoms. In this context, an animal model (olfactory bulbectomized rat) reinforces the hypothesis of the important role of olfaction in depression based on neuroanatomical and neurochemical observations. Third, several publications have demonstrated that odors can positively impact the depressive mood. Thus, a remediation by odors in depression appears to be a promising way. From several decades, the olfaction/depression interactions have been covered by a broad literature. Thus, the present review will not propose an exhaustive examination but aims to point out the most recently published papers and

  16. An Exploratory Analysis of Work Engagement, Satisfaction, and Depression in Psychiatry Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Gaurava; Karpouzian, Tatiana

    2016-02-01

    This exploratory study aims to measure work engagement levels in psychiatry residents at three psychiatry residency programs using the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES). In addition, the study investigates the relationship between total engagement and its subscales, resident satisfaction, and a depression screen. Recruitment of 53/79 residents from three psychiatry residency programs in Illinois was completed. The residents were administered a questionnaire consisting of the UWES, the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (Prime-MD) depression screen, and a residency satisfaction scale. Statistical analysis using independent samples t test and a one-way analysis of variance was used to assess differences on engagement total score and subscales and satisfaction scale. A logistic regression was used with the engagement subscales and the satisfaction scale as predictors of belonging to the depressed or non-depressed group. Psychiatry residents scored in the high range for total engagement and all its subscales except for vigor which was in the moderate range. Residents who screened positive for depression reported lower total engagement than those who were negative on the depression screen. Vigor was the only significant predictor (p = .004) of being in the depressed group after logistic regression. Total engagement and the subscale of dedication significantly predicted overall residency satisfaction (β = .473, p = .016). Higher total UWES-15 and its subscales of vigor and dedication are correlated with a lower rate of screening positive for depression and higher residency satisfaction. This exploratory study lends support for further study of this psychological construct in medical training programs, but replication is needed.

  17. Comparison between the Rorschach Depression Index and depression-related measures in a nonpatient sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwald, D F

    1997-06-01

    The Rorschach Depression Index of Exner was correlated with eight self-report measures of affect and related personality constructs, including the Beck Depression Inventory, the Multiple Affect Adjective Checklist-Revised Depression and Positive Affect scales, and Kaplan Self-derogation in a sample of 41 undergraduates (M age 19 yr.). The only significant correlation was an unexpected inverse correlation (r = -.35) for scores on Kaplan Self-derogation, suggesting the need for caution in the use of the Depression Index as an indicator of depression in nonpatients.

  18. Temporomandibular disorders, otologic symptoms and depression levels in tinnitus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgenberg, P B; Saldanha, A D D; Cunha, C O; Rubo, J H; Conti, P C R

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and otologic symptoms in patients with and without tinnitus. The influence of the level of depression was also addressed. The tinnitus group was comprised of 100 patients with tinnitus, and control group was comprised of 100 individuals without tinnitus. All subjects were evaluated using the research diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders (RDC/TMD) to determine the presence of TMD and depression level. Chi-square, Spearman Correlation and Mann-Whitney tests were used in statistical analysis, with a 5% significance level. TMD signs and symptoms were detected in 85% of patients with tinnitus and in 55% of controls (P≤0·001). The severity of pain and higher depression levels were positively associated with tinnitus (P≤0·001). It was concluded that tinnitus is associated with TMD and with otalgia, dizziness/vertigo, stuffy sensations, hypoacusis sensation and hyperacusis, as well as with higher depression levels.

  19. Helping your teen with depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teen depression - helping; Teen depression - talk therapy; Teen depression - medicine ... teen the most. The most effective treatments for depression are: Talk therapy Antidepressant medicines If your teen ...

  20. Personality diatheses and Hurricane Sandy: effects on post-disaster depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopala-Sibley, D. C.; Kotov, R.; Bromet, E. J.; Carlson, G. A.; Danzig, A. P.; Black, S. R.; Klein, D. N.

    2015-01-01

    Background According to diathesis–stress models, personality traits, such as negative emotionality (NE) and positive emotionality (PE), may moderate the effects of stressors on the development of depression. However, relatively little empirical research has directly examined whether NE and PE act as diatheses in the presence of stressful life events, and no research has examined whether they moderate the effect of disaster exposure on depressive symptoms. Hurricane Sandy, the second costliest hurricane in US history, offers a unique opportunity to address these gaps. Method A total of 318 women completed measures of NE and PE 5 years prior to Hurricane Sandy. They were also assessed for lifetime depressive disorders on two occasions, the latter occurring an average of 1 year before the hurricane. Approximately 8 weeks after the disaster (mean = 8.40, s.d. = 1.48 weeks), participants completed a hurricane stress exposure questionnaire and a measure of current depressive symptoms. Results Adjusting for lifetime history of depressive disorders, higher levels of stress from Hurricane Sandy predicted elevated levels of depressive symptoms, but only in participants with high levels of NE or low levels of PE. Conclusions These findings support the role of personality in the development of depression and suggest that personality traits can be useful in identifying those most vulnerable to major stressors, including natural disasters. PMID:26619902

  1. Anxiety and depression among patients with different types of vestibular peripheral vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qing; Yu, Lisheng; Shi, Dongmei; Ke, Xingxing; Zhang, Hua

    2015-02-01

    Numerous studies have been published on comorbid anxiety and depression in patients with vertigo. However, very few studies have separately described and analyzed anxiety or depression in patients with different types of vestibular peripheral vertigo. The present study investigated anxiety and depression among patients with 4 different types of peripheral vertigo. A total of 129 patients with 4 types of peripheral vertigo, namely, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV, n = 49), migrainous vertigo (MV, n = 37), Menière disease (MD, n = 28), and vestibular neuritis (VN, n = 15), were included in the present study. Otological and neurootological examinations were carefully performed, and self-rating anxiety scale and self-rating depression scale were used to evaluate anxiety and depression. Patients were divided into 2 groups, according to the vestibular function: normal and abnormal vestibular function. There was no significant difference in the risk of anxiety/depression between these 2 groups. However, for patients with the 4 different vertigo types, the prevalence of anxiety (MV = 45.9%, MD = 50%) and depression (MV = 27%, MD = 28.6%) was significantly higher in the patients with MV or MD than those with BPPV or VN (P vertigo, as well as differences in the prevention and self-control of the patients against the vertigo.

  2. Elevation of the cortisol-dehydroepiandrosterone ratio in drug-free depressed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Allan H; Gallagher, Peter; Porter, Richard J

    2002-07-01

    Elevated basal cortisol levels are a feature of depressive illness and cause deficits in learning and memory. The adrenal steroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has antiglucocorticoid properties that may offer protection against the deleterious effects of cortisol. The authors examined the ratio of cortisol to DHEA in drug-free depressed patients and a matched comparison group. Cortisol and DHEA were measured in saliva samples from 39 patients with unipolar depression who had been medication free for at least 6 weeks and 41 healthy comparison subjects. The molar cortisol-DHEA ratio was significantly higher in the depressed patients than in the healthy comparison subjects. Cortisol-DHEA ratios from saliva samples taken at 8:00 p.m. correlated positively with length of current depressive episode. Elevated cortisol-DHEA ratios may be a state marker of depressive illness and may contribute to the associated deficits in learning and memory. Administration of DHEA or other antiglucocorticoid treatments may reduce neurocognitive deficits in major depression.

  3. Anxiety and Depression Among Patients With Different Types of Vestibular Peripheral Vertigo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qing; Yu, Lisheng; Shi, Dongmei; Ke, Xingxing; Zhang, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Numerous studies have been published on comorbid anxiety and depression in patients with vertigo. However, very few studies have separately described and analyzed anxiety or depression in patients with different types of vestibular peripheral vertigo. The present study investigated anxiety and depression among patients with 4 different types of peripheral vertigo. A total of 129 patients with 4 types of peripheral vertigo, namely, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV, n = 49), migrainous vertigo (MV, n = 37), Menière disease (MD, n = 28), and vestibular neuritis (VN, n = 15), were included in the present study. Otological and neurootological examinations were carefully performed, and self-rating anxiety scale and self-rating depression scale were used to evaluate anxiety and depression. Patients were divided into 2 groups, according to the vestibular function: normal and abnormal vestibular function. There was no significant difference in the risk of anxiety/depression between these 2 groups. However, for patients with the 4 different vertigo types, the prevalence of anxiety (MV = 45.9%, MD = 50%) and depression (MV = 27%, MD = 28.6%) was significantly higher in the patients with MV or MD than those with BPPV or VN (P BPPV or VN. This may be due to the different mechanisms involved in these 4 types of vertigo, as well as differences in the prevention and self-control of the patients against the vertigo. PMID:25654382

  4. Leucocyte Telomere Shortening in relation to Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhelong Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to investigate the association between oxidative stress and telomere length shortening in the comorbid depression and diabetes. Therefore, 71 patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2D and 52 subjects with normal glycemic level (control, Ctrl were enrolled. Depressive status was identified with the Depression Subscale of Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D. Leukocyte telomere length ratio (T/S ratio was determined with quantitative PCR. Oxidative stress status was evaluated with 8-hydroxy-desoxyguanosine (8-OHdG assay kit. Some other biochemical blood testing was also performed. The data showed that T2D patients had higher proportion of depression evaluated by the HADS-D (x2=4.196, P=0.041. T/S ratio was significantly negatively correlated with 8-OHdG, HADS-D, age, HbA1c, FPG, and HOMA-IR. In addition, HADS-D was significantly positively correlated with HbA1c, FPG, HOMA-IR, and 8-OHdG. Both HADS-D and 8-OHdG were the major independent predictors for T/S ratio. This study indicates that oxidative stress contributes to both telomere length shortening and depression development in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients, while in depression status, some other mechanisms besides oxidative stress may also affect the telomere length.

  5. Stress, anxiety, depression and migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacogne, C; Lacoste, J P; Guillibert, E; Hugues, F C; Le Jeunne, C

    2003-07-01

    This study investigated the intensity of stress, anxiety and depression in a sample of 141 migraineurs compared with a control group of 109 non-migraine workers matched for age and sex. Stress was measured using the Perceived Stress Questionnaire, and anxiety and depression using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Results indicated that stress and anxiety were higher in the migraine group than in the control group and above the clinical level. Depression scores remained low in both groups, under clinical relevance. Stress is a primordial factor in the triggering and perpetuation of migraine attacks. The high score of the items 'morning fatigue', 'intrusive thoughts about work', 'feeling under pressure', 'impatience', and 'irritability' of the stress questionnaire in the migraineurs is particularly significant in the intensive stress response. It seems necessary to manage stress to improve the daily life of migraineurs and to study the link between stress, anxiety and migraine.

  6. Web-based tools can be used reliably to detect patients with major depressive disorder and subsyndromal depressive symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai Shih-Jen

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although depression has been regarded as a major public health problem, many individuals with depression still remain undetected or untreated. Despite the potential for Internet-based tools to greatly improve the success rate of screening for depression, their reliability and validity has not been well studied. Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability and criterion validity of a Web-based system, the Internet-based Self-assessment Program for Depression (ISP-D. Methods The ISP-D to screen for major depressive disorder (MDD, minor depressive disorder (MinD, and subsyndromal depressive symptoms (SSD was developed in traditional Chinese. Volunteers, 18 years and older, were recruited via the Internet and then assessed twice on the online ISP-D system to investigate the test-retest reliability of the test. They were subsequently prompted to schedule face-to-face interviews. The interviews were performed by the research psychiatrists using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview and the diagnoses made according to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria were used for the statistics of criterion validity. Kappa (κ values were calculated to assess test-retest reliability. Results A total of 579 volunteer subjects were administered the test. Most of the subjects were young (mean age: 26.2 ± 6.6 years, female (77.7%, single (81.6%, and well educated (61.9% college or higher. The distributions of MDD, MinD, SSD and no depression specified were 30.9%, 7.4%, 15.2%, and 46.5%, respectively. The mean time to complete the ISP-D was 8.89 ± 6.77 min. One hundred and eighty-four of the respondents completed the retest (response rate: 31.8%. Our analysis revealed that the 2-week test-retest reliability for ISP-D was excellent (weighted κ = 0.801. Fifty-five participants completed the face-to-face interview for the validity study. The sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values for major

  7. Depression in multiple sclerosis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegert, R J; Abernethy, D A

    2005-04-01

    Several studies have reported high rates of depression in multiple sclerosis (MS) with a lifetime prevalence of approximately 50% and an annual prevalence of 20% not uncommon. Concern about the potential of new drug treatments to exacerbate or precipitate depression in MS has led to increased interest in the relation between MS and depression. This review on MS and depression identifies the following key issues: How common is depression in people with MS? Is depression in MS associated with lesions in specific regions of the central nervous system? Is there an increased risk of suicide in MS? Is there a higher than expected incidence of anxiety disorders in MS? Are fatigue and depressed mood related in MS? Is there a relation between depression and cognitive impairment in MS? Which psychosocial variables affect the development of depression in MS? Does treatment with interferon increase the risk of depression? How effective are treatments for MS patients with depression? Each of these issues is briefly reviewed with critical commentary, and some priorities for future research are suggested.

  8. Self-reported Discrimination and Depressive Symptoms Among Older Chinese Adults in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lydia W; Dong, XinQi

    2017-07-01

    Discrimination is part of life for many Americans, especially ethnic minorities. Focusing on older Chinese Americans, this study examines the association between self-reported discrimination and depressive symptoms and identifies subgroups that are more likely to report experiencing discrimination. We conducted cross-sectional analysis of data collected from adults (age 60+ years) of Chinese origin residing in the Greater Chicago area (N = 3,004). Self-reported discrimination was assessed by the Experiences of Discrimination instrument and was dichotomized (yes vs no). Depressive symptoms were measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Logistic regression of self-reported discrimination and negative binominal regression of depressive symptoms were conducted. About 21.5% of the sample reported having experienced discrimination. The odds of reporting discrimination are higher for those who are younger, have higher education and income, are more acculturated, have been in the United States longer, live outside Chinatown, and have higher levels of neuroticism and conscientiousness. Self-reported discrimination is significantly and positively associated with depressive symptoms, independent of sociodemographic characteristics, migration-related variables, and personality factors. Findings suggest a robust relationship between self-reported discrimination and depressive symptoms in older Chinese Americans. They further suggest that the relatively advantaged groups-younger, higher socioeconomic status, more acculturated, and living outside Chinatown-are more likely to report experiencing discrimination.

  9. Method effects: the problem with negatively versus positively keyed items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindwall, Magnus; Barkoukis, Vassilis; Grano, Caterina; Lucidi, Fabio; Raudsepp, Lennart; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie

    2012-01-01

    Using confirmatory factor analyses, we examined method effects on Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (RSES; Rosenberg, 1965) in a sample of older European adults. Nine hundred forty nine community-dwelling adults 60 years of age or older from 5 European countries completed the RSES as well as measures of depression and life satisfaction. The 2 models that had an acceptable fit with the data included method effects. The method effects were associated with both positively and negatively worded items. Method effects models were invariant across gender and age, but not across countries. Both depression and life satisfaction predicted method effects. Individuals with higher depression scores and lower life satisfaction scores were more likely to endorse negatively phrased items.

  10. Higher mental health curriculum and educational reform under positive psychology analysis%积极心理学下的高职心理健康教育课程及教学改革分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳君

    2016-01-01

    高职学生的教育环境相对一般的高层次学生较为复杂,其心理特点也相对独特,所以,在高职教育中,也需要注意高职学生的心理健康教学。由于近年来,高职学校的盲目扩大,造成了高职心理讲课教育教学课程化、理论化的模式,教师在教学中多是以说教、灌输等教学方式来实现课程教学,教学效果相对较差。对此,笔者认为需要进行高职心理健康课程教学改革,立足于高职院校心理健康教育,以积极心理学为指导,积极开展高校学生的心理辅导与建设,构建积极心理教学课程教学体系。%Higher vocational students' education environment relatively general high-level students is relatively complex, its unique psychological characteristics is also relatively, so, in the higher vocational education, also need to pay attention to the teaching of higher vocational student's psychological health. However, due to recent years, higher vocational school of blind expansion, caused psychological lecture education curriculum, the theoretical model, teachers in the teaching is more lectures, instilling teaching methods to implement teaching, the teaching effect is relatively poor. To this, the author thinks that the need for mental health course teaching reform, based on the psychological health education in higher vocational colleges, guided by the positive psychology, college students' psychological counseling and construction actively, build positive psychology teaching course teaching system.

  11. Parental social networks during childhood and offspring depression in early adulthood: a lifecourse approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allchin, Adelyn; Melchior, Maria; Fombonne, Eric; Surkan, Pamela J

    2016-07-04

    Little is known on how parental social relationships may affect their children's mental health. We sought to examine the relation between parental social relationship characteristics and subsequent offspring depression in young adulthood. We used 2009 Trajectoires Épidémiologiques en Population (TEMPO) study data from 1087 French young adults ages 22 to 35 and parental data from the corresponding Gaz et Eléctricité (GAZEL) study in 1991. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine parental social networks, quality of parental relationships, and reciprocity of parental social support measured in 1991 in relation to offspring depression in young adulthood measured using the Adult Self Report in 2009. Analyses were stratified by participant sex. In adjusted models, daughters of parents who reported giving more support to others than they received had 1.72 higher odds (95% CI, 1.09-2.70) of depression in young adulthood. Daughters of parents who were unsatisfied with their social relationships had 2.14 (95% CI, 1.22-3.76) higher odds of depression. Among male participants, there was no statistically significant association between parental relationship satisfaction, reciprocity of parental exchanges, and depression. Parental relationships during mid-childhood have long-term associations with offspring depression. Results suggest that enhancing social support for parents may have positive implications for their children's mental health. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Depressive rumination and past depression in Japanese university students: comparison of brooding and reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Akira; Koda, Munenaga; Hattori, Yosuke; Kondo, Tsuyoshi; Kawaguchi, Jun

    2014-06-01

    The Ruminative Responses Scale, a measure of depressive rumination, contains two subscales: Brooding and Reflection. Treynor, Gonzalez, and Nolen-Hoeksema (2003) proposed that Brooding is maladaptive and Reflection is adaptive. This article examined the relationships among Brooding, Reflection, and previous depression in two samples of Japanese undergraduates, who were non-depressed at the time of their participation. Based on answers to a self-report measure, participants were divided into a formerly depressed group, who had experienced an episode that met the criteria for major depression, and a never-depressed group. Logistic regression analyses were conducted with Brooding, Reflection, and current depression as the independent variables and past depression as the dependent variable. Brooding had consistent positive associations with past depression. The relationship between Reflection and past depression was not significant for one sample, but was statistically significant and positive in the second sample. In the second sample, Brooding and Reflection both were related with past depression after controlling for worry.

  13. Positive Psychology Group Counseling for New Students of Higher Vocational Schools%积极心理学团体辅导对高职新生的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶红萍; 陆伟

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨积极心理学团体辅导对高职新生主观幸福感的影响。方法:将50位高职新生随机分组,实验组接受为期10周、每周一次的积极心理学团体辅导,将其余学生列入等候名单,设为对照组,比较两组团体辅导前后主观幸福感有无差异,分析团体辅导中的疗效因素。结果:1)经过10周的积极心理学团体辅导后,实验组的主观幸福感各项指标均高于对照组,差异具有统计学意义。2)高职新生积极心理学团体辅导中,重要的疗效因子依次为:存在意识因子、团体凝聚力、情绪宣泄。结论:积极心理学团体辅导能有效提高高职学生的主观幸福感,存在意识、团体凝聚力和情感宣泄是积极心理学团体辅导发挥积极影响的重要因素。%Objective To investigate the effectiveness of positive psychology group counseling on the subjective well-being of new students of vocational institute.Methods:50 new students of vocational institute were randomized to Positive Psychology Group Counseling as experiment group or waiting list as control group for an 10-week observation.Index of well-being were administered to compare independently both at baseline and at the end of 10th week.The important therapeutic factor was also suryeyed.Result:1)Compared to control group,after 10-week positive psychology group counseling,index of well-being of the experiment group is significantly higher.2)The important therapeutic factors in positive psychology group counseling were existential factors,group cohesiveness,catharsis.Conclu sion:Positive psychology group counseling can heighten the subjective well-being of new students of vocational institute.Existential factors,group cohesiveness,catharsis play significant role in positive psychology group counseling.

  14. What is depression?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Annette Sofie; Fosgerau, Christina Fogtmann

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of depression is defined by psychiatrists, and guidelines for treatment of patients with depression are created in psychiatry. However, most patients with depression are treated exclusively in general practice. Psychiatrists point out that general practitioners' (GPs') treatment of ...

  15. Sadness and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Happens in the Operating Room? Sadness and Depression KidsHealth > For Kids > Sadness and Depression A A ... big difference in your life. When Sadness Is Depression When you're in a sad mood, it ...

  16. Depression Strikes…Anyone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Depression Depression Strikes… Anyone Winter 2017 Table of Contents Anyone can suffer from depression. And almost everyone has a friend or family ...

  17. Depression and College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... depression and other mental health issues? Reference Share Depression and College Students Download PDF Download ePub Order ... Answers to college students’ frequently asked questions about depression Feeling moody, sad, or grouchy? Who doesn’t ...

  18. Sadness and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Sadness and Depression KidsHealth > For Kids > Sadness and Depression Print A ... big difference in your life. When Sadness Is Depression When you're in a sad mood, it ...

  19. Postpartum Depression Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Where can I find more information? Share Postpartum Depression Facts Download PDF Download ePub Download Mobi Order ... for herself or her family. What is postpartum depression? Postpartum depression is a mood disorder that can ...

  20. Recognizing teen depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000648.htm Recognizing teen depression To use the sharing features on this page, ... life. Be Aware of the Risk for Teen Depression Your teen is more at risk for depression ...

  1. Men and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in crisis? For more information Share Men and Depression Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy ... If so, you may have depression. What is depression? Everyone feels sad or irritable sometimes, or has ...

  2. Influence of painful physical symptoms in the treatment of Japanese patients with melancholic major depressive disorder: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, Atsushi; Hozumi, Satoshi; Shimizu, Tetsuo

    2016-08-30

    The aim of this study was to clarify how painful physical symptoms affect treatment outcomes in patients with melancholic major depressive disorder. The subjects comprised 100 consecutive Japanese outpatients with melancholic major depressive disorder who visited our clinic from October 2011 to October 2014. All subjects were interviewed for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Axis 2, 3, and 4 and family history of major depressive disorder, and then grouped according to the presence of painful physical symptoms. We evaluated painful physical symptoms at baseline and after 12, 24, and 36 weeks of treatment and scores on the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, compared major depressive disorder remission between groups, and assessed responsiveness to antidepressants. The group with painful physical symptoms had a significantly more positive family history of major depressive disorder. The major depressive disorder remission rate was high in both groups, and no significant differences were observed. However, a significant relationship between major depressive disorder and painful physical symptoms remission was observed in the group with painful physical symptoms. A significantly higher number of remitted patients with painful physical symptoms (N=61) were administered serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors, with significantly more receiving duloxetine than milnacipran.

  3. The Protective Effects of Intimate Partner Relationships on Depressive Symptomatology Among Adult Parents Maltreated as Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Kimberly L; Thornberry, Terence P; Lee, Rosalyn D

    2015-08-01

    We examined whether intimate partner relationships in general, and satisfying and stable intimate partner relationships in particular, protect victims of child maltreatment from depressive symptoms during young adulthood. Prospective, longitudinal data on 485 parents, 99 maltreated during childhood, were used. Longitudinal multilevel models (12 annual interviews, conducted from 1999 to 2010, nested in individuals) were specified to estimate the effects of relationship characteristics on depressive symptomatology by maltreatment status. Relationship characteristics operated as direct protective factors for maltreated and not maltreated individuals. Higher relationship satisfaction and stability were prospectively predictive of less depressive symptomatology. Models of inter and intraindividual variability were also consistent with significant direct protective effects. Between persons, a more satisfying and stable relationship was associated with fewer depressive symptoms. Within person, periods when an individual moved into a relationship and periods of enhanced satisfaction and stability were associated with fewer depressive symptoms. Relationship satisfaction and stability operated as significant buffering protective factors for the effect of maltreatment on depressive symptoms in most models, suggesting that positive intimate partner relationships may reduce the risk that childhood maltreatment poses for adult depressive symptoms. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention identifies safe, stable, and nurturing relationships as key in preventing maltreatment and its consequences. This study adds to the evidence on the protective role of safe, stable, and nurturing relationships by identifying intimate partner relationship factors that may protect parents who were maltreated during childhood from depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Sweet taste threshold for sucrose inversely correlates with depression symptoms in female college students in the luteal phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Masanori; Matsumoto, Sayaka; Endo, Junko; Sakamoto, Reiko; Wada, Maki

    2015-03-15

    Influences of depression symptoms on the sweet taste threshold were investigated in healthy college students (30 males and 40 females). Depression symptoms were scored by SDS (Self-Rating Depression Scale), and anxiety levels by STAI (State- and Trait-Anxiety Inventory). Recognition thresholds for sucrose were determined. In female students, the menstrual phase on the day of the experiment was self-reported. Depression symptoms, anxiety levels, and the recognition threshold for sucrose were not different among the 3 groups, i.e. males, females in the follicular phase, and females in the luteal phase. Depression symptoms were positively correlated with state and trait anxiety in all groups. The sweet taste threshold was inversely correlated with depression symptoms (r=-0.472, p=0.031) and trait anxiety (r=-0.506, p=0.019) in females in the luteal phase. In males as well as females in the follicular phase, however, no correlation between sweet taste threshold and depression was found. The results show that the recognition threshold for sucrose reduces with increased depression in females with a higher anxiety trait, but only in the luteal phase. It is hypothesized that brain regions, which spatially overlap and are responsible for both aversive emotions and gustatory processing, are susceptible to periodic changes in gonadal hormones due to the menstrual cycle.

  5. Atypical Antipsychotics in the Treatment of Depressive and Psychotic Symptoms in Patients with Chronic Schizophrenia: A Naturalistic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Innamorati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of this naturalistic study was to investigate whether treatment with clozapine and other atypical antipsychotics for at least 2 years was associated with a reduction in psychotic and depressive symptoms and an improvement in chronic schizophrenia patients’ awareness of their illness. Methods. Twenty-three adult outpatients (15 men and 8 women treated with clozapine and 23 patients (16 men and 7 women treated with other atypical antipsychotics were included in the study. Psychotic symptoms were evaluated using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS, depressive symptoms were assessed with the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS, and insight was assessed with the Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder (SUMD. Results. The sample as a whole had a significant reduction in positive, negative, and general symptoms, whereas the reduction in depression was significant only for patients with CDSS scores of 5 and higher at the baseline. At the follow-up, patients treated with other atypical antipsychotics reported a greater reduction in depression than patients treated with clozapine, but not when limiting the analyses to those with clinically relevant depression. Conclusions. Atypical antipsychotics may be effective in reducing psychotic and depressive symptoms and in improving insight in patients with chronic schizophrenia, with no differences in the profiles of efficacy between compounds.

  6. Minority Stress and Mechanisms of Risk for Depression and Suicidal Ideation among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baams, Laura; Grossman, Arnold H.; Russell, Stephen T.

    2015-01-01

    The experience of minority stress is often named as a cause for mental health disparities among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youth, including higher levels of depression and suicidal ideation. The processes or mechanisms through which these disparities occur are understudied. The interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide posits 2 key…

  7. Depressive symptoms are not associated with inflammation in younger and older adults in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDade, Thomas W.; Borja, Judith B.; Adair, Linda S.; Kuzawa, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Depression is positively associated with chronic inflammation in industrialized settings with low burdens of infectious disease, but the pattern of association in environments with higher levels of microbial exposure is not known. We measured C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin 6 (IL6) in community-based samples of young adults (20–22 years) and older women (35–69 years) in the Philippines. Concentrations of CRP and IL6 were low, and bivariate and multivariate regression analyses indicated no associations between depressive symptoms and inflammation in either sample. Results are interpreted in light of prior research indicating that higher levels of microbial exposure in infancy have lasting effects on the regulation of inflammation, and may prevent the emergence of a relationship between depression and inflammation in adulthood. PMID:24481182

  8. [Depressive realism: happiness or objectivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birinci, Fatih; Dirik, Gülay

    2010-01-01

    Realism is described as objective evaluations and judgments about the world; however, some research indicates that judgments made by "normal" people include a self-favored, positive bias in the perception of reality. Additionally, some studies report that compared to normal people, such cognitive distortions are less likely among depressive people. These findings gave rise to the depressive realism hypothesis. While results of several studies verify the notion that depressive people evaluate reality more objectively, other studies fail to support this hypothesis. Several causes for these inconsistent findings have been proposed, which can be characterized under 3 headings. One proposed explanation suggests that what is accepted as "realistic" in these studies is not quite objective and is in fact ambiguous. According to another perspective, the term "depressive" used in these studies is inconsistent with the criteria of scientific diagnostic methods. Another suggests that the research results can only be obtained under the specific experimental conditions. General negativity and limited processing are popular approaches used for explaining the depressive realism hypothesis. Nowadays, the debate over this hypothesis continues. The present review focuses on frequently cited research related to depressive realism and discusses the findings.

  9. Stress and Depression in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kourmousi N.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Childhood depression is a matter of major concern because of its growing prevalence, the fact that it is not a transitional situation that most children seem to outgrow, and also because of the impairment of functioning that it causes. There have been many epidemiological and clinical investigations that have identified the children who are at risk of developing depression. Stress in particular, seems to be the dominant risk factor, so models of stress and developmental psychopathology response have begun to possess a significant position in the literature of childhood depression. Some researchers have accepted the mere accumulation of risk factors as a cause leading to depression, while others have proposed integrated multilevel models, which argue that children with a predisposition are at increased risk for depression when facing stressful life events. Additionally, this vulnerability increases their chances to encounter stress, while reducing their abilities to cope with it when it occurs. The purpose of this review is to study the way stress correlates to childhood depression in the existing literature, in order to highlight the help that can be provided by preventive mental health intervention programs which include ways of developing and strengthening protective factors and ways of coping with stress.

  10. Various forms of depression

    OpenAIRE

    BENAZZI, FRANCO

    2006-01-01

    The current subtyping of depression is based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) categorical division of bipolar and depressive disorders. Current evidence, however, supports a dimensional approach to depression, as a continuum/spectrum of overlapping disorders, ranging from bipolar I depression to major depressive disorder. Types of depression which have recently been the focus of most research will be reviewed ; bipolar II depressi...

  11. [Depressive symptoms and sexuality].