WorldWideScience

Sample records for depositions written interrogatories

  1. 49 CFR 1114.28 - Depositions, requests for admission, written interrogatories, and responses thereto: inclusion in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Depositions, requests for admission, written interrogatories, and responses thereto: inclusion in record. 1114.28 Section 1114.28 Transportation Other... interrogatories, and responses thereto: inclusion in record. At the oral hearing, or upon the submission of...

  2. 22 CFR 92.58 - Examination on basis of written interrogatories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... RELATED SERVICES Depositions and Letters Rogatory § 92.58 Examination on basis of written interrogatories... interrogatories must be put to the witness, even though at some point during the examination the witness...

  3. 29 CFR 18.18 - Written interrogatories to parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Written interrogatories to parties. 18.18 Section 18.18 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE FOR ADMINISTRATIVE HEARINGS BEFORE THE OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES General § 18.18 Written interrogatories to parties....

  4. 49 CFR 1114.26 - Written interrogatories to parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... (d) Limitation under simplified standards. In a case using the Three-Benchmark methodology, each.... (b) Option to produce business records. Where the answer to an interrogatory may be derived or ascertained from the business records of the party upon whom the interrogatory has been served or from an...

  5. The Caroline interrogatory process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degagne, D. [Alberta Energy and Utilities Board, Calgary, AB (Canada); Gibson, T. [Gecko Management, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1999-11-01

    Using the specific case study of the Caroline interrogatory process, an example is given of how an effective communications and public involvement program can re-establish trust and credibility levels within an community after an incident. The public is nervous about sour gas, especially about blowouts of gas from a pipeline. The post-approval period was marked by high expectations and a community consultation program which included a community advisory board, an emergency planning committee, socio-economic factors, and environmental monitoring and studies. Information and education involves newspaper articles, newsletters, tours, public consultation meetings, and weekly e-mail. Mercury was detected as a potential hazard at the site, and company actions are illustrated. Overall lessons learned included: starting early paid off, face to face resident contacts were the most effective, the willingness to make changes was the key to success, the community helped, knowing all the answers is not essential, and there is a need for empathy. The interrogatory process includes a hybrid technique that is comprised of four stages: 1) process review and public input, 2) identification and clarification of issues, 3) responses by industry and government, and 4) a public forum and follow-up action.

  6. The Caroline interrogatory process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degagne, D. (Alberta Energy and Utilities Board, Calgary, AB (Canada)); Gibson, T. (Gecko Management, Calgary, AB (Canada))

    1999-01-01

    Using the specific case study of the Caroline interrogatory process, an example is given of how an effective communications and public involvement program can re-establish trust and credibility levels within an community after an incident. The public is nervous about sour gas, especially about blowouts of gas from a pipeline. The post-approval period was marked by high expectations and a community consultation program which included a community advisory board, an emergency planning committee, socio-economic factors, and environmental monitoring and studies. Information and education involves newspaper articles, newsletters, tours, public consultation meetings, and weekly e-mail. Mercury was detected as a potential hazard at the site, and company actions are illustrated. Overall lessons learned included: starting early paid off, face to face resident contacts were the most effective, the willingness to make changes was the key to success, the community helped, knowing all the answers is not essential, and there is a need for empathy. The interrogatory process includes a hybrid technique that is comprised of four stages: 1) process review and public input, 2) identification and clarification of issues, 3) responses by industry and government, and 4) a public forum and follow-up action.

  7. 29 CFR 2200.55 - Interrogatories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Prehearing Procedures and Discovery § 2200.55 Interrogatories. (a) General. At any time after the filing of... obtainable information. An answering party may not give lack of information or knowledge as an answer or as...

  8. 39 CFR 3001.26 - Interrogatories for purpose of discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... because an answer would involve an opinion or contention that relates to fact or the application of law to... limiting or conditioning interrogatories, as justice requires to protect a participant or person from undue...

  9. 22 CFR 92.67 - Taking of depositions in United States pursuant to foreign letters rogatory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and interrogatories in a foreign language should be accompanied by English translations. (c... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taking of depositions in United States pursuant to foreign letters rogatory. 92.67 Section 92.67 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL...

  10. Model tracking system for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities: License application interrogatories and responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benbennick, M.E.; Broton, M.S.; Fuoto, J.S.; Novgrod, R.L.

    1994-08-01

    This report describes a model tracking system for a low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facility license application. In particular, the model tracks interrogatories (questions, requests for information, comments) and responses. A set of requirements and desired features for the model tracking system was developed, including required structure and computer screens. Nine tracking systems were then reviewed against the model system requirements and only two were found to meet all requirements. Using Kepner-Tregoe decision analysis, a model tracking system was selected.

  11. What makes a written text written

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵亦倩

    2008-01-01

    Text can be used for both written and spoken language, and different features of spoken and written texts provide us the possibility to have a general idea of the division of two main categories--spoken English and written English. In this article, an attempt will be given to a sample text in order to discuss the general features of written texts.

  12. 5 CFR 185.122 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... § 185.122 Discovery. (a) The following types of discovery are authorized: (1) Requests for production of... document or of the truth of any relevant fact; (3) Written interrogatories; and (4) Depositions. (b)...

  13. 6 CFR 13.21 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) In general. (1) The following types of discovery are authorized: (i) Requests for production of... Document or of the truth of any relevant fact; (iii) Written interrogatories; and (iv) Depositions....

  14. 22 CFR 35.21 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) The following types of discovery are authorized: (1) Requests for production of documents for... truth of any relevant fact; (3) Written interrogatories; and (4) Depositions. (b) For the purpose...

  15. 40 CFR 27.21 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Discovery. (a) The following types of discovery are authorized: (1) Requests for production of documents for... truth of any relevant fact; (3) Written interrogatories; and (4) Depositions. (b) For the purpose...

  16. 22 CFR 224.21 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....21 Discovery. (a) The following types of discovery are authorized: (1) Requests for production of... document or the truth of any relevant fact; (3) Written interrogatories; and (4) Depositions. (b) For...

  17. 45 CFR 79.21 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... (a) The following types of discovery are authorized: (1) Requests for production of documents for... or of the truth of any revelant fact; (3) Written interrogatories; and (4) Depositions. (b) For...

  18. 15 CFR 25.21 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Discovery. (a) The following types of discovery are authorized: (1) Requests for production of documents for... truth of any relevant fact; (3) Written interrogatories; and (4) Depositions. (b) For the purpose...

  19. CORRECTING WRITTEN WORK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Introduction During the teaching and learning process, teachers often check how much students have understood through written assignments. In this article I’d like to describe one method of correcting students’ written work by using a variety of symbols to indicate where students have gone wrong, then asking students to correct their work themselves.

  20. Reconsidering written language

    CERN Document Server

    Sarma, Gopal

    2013-01-01

    In a previous essay, I argued that European schools of thought on memory and memorization were critical in enabling widespread adoption of the scientific method. Here, as a way of understanding the peculiar relationship the memory arts had to 17th century philosophy and intellectual culture, I propose a historical thought experiment, and examine whether these developments might have occurred several thousand years earlier when the adoption of written language accelerated. I suggest that strong cultural norms discouraging the use of written language may have precipitated a scientific revolution at a much earlier stage in human history. I close by arguing for the value of counter-factual scientific histories in attempting to separate scientific principles from the particular historical circumstances in which they arose.

  1. Improving the quality of written feedback using written feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Maggie; Crossley, James; McKinley, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Educational feedback is amongst the most powerful of all learning interventions. (1) Can we measure the quality of written educational feedback with acceptable metrics? (2) Based on such a measure, does a quality improvement (QI) intervention improve the quality of feedback? We developed a QI instrument to measure the quality of written feedback and applied it to written feedback provided to medical students following workplace assessments. We evaluated the measurement characteristics of the QI score using generalisability theory. In an uncontrolled intervention, QI profiles were fed back to GP tutors and pre and post intervention scores compared. A single assessor scoring 6 feedback summaries can discriminate between practices with a reliability of 0.82.The quality of feedback rose for two years after the introduction of the QI instrument and stabilised in the third year. The estimated annual cost to provide this feedback is £12 per practice. Interpretation and recommendations: It is relatively straightforward and inexpensive to measure the quality of written feedback with good reliability. The QI process appears to improve the quality of written feedback. We recommend routine use of a QI process to improve the quality of educational feedback.

  2. Written Materials for the IYA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro Gossman, Julieta

    2008-05-01

    In the poster presentation I shall describe the written materials we have edited for the IYA. The first is a book written for general public about Galileo's life and research. The rest are a series of articles for teachers so that they include hands-on astronomy activities in their classroom including a star party. All these materials are written in Spanish, that is a language spoken is large areas of the world. I believe science is better understood in the mother tong so that many of these materials will be also useful for countries where Spanish is a second language. References Hector Dominguez y Julieta Fierro Galileo y el telescopio, 400 anios de ciencia Uribe y Ferrari Editores, 2007 ISBN 970 756 238-2 Hector Dominguez y Julieta Fierro Newton, la luz y el movimiento de los cuerpos Uribe y Ferrari Editores, 2007 ISBN 970 756 238 2 Hector Dominguez y Julieta Fierro, Galileo para Maestros I Correo del Maestro, Núm. 133, p. 15-26, Anio 12, Junio 2007. Hector Dominguez y Julieta Fierro, Galileo para Maestros II Correo del Maestro, Num. 134, p. 17-26, Anio 12, 2007. Hector Dominguez y Julieta Fierro, Galileo para Maestros III Correo del Maestro, Num. 135, p. 10-18, Anio 12, 2007. Hector Dominguez y Julieta Fierro Experimentos sobre la caida de los cuerpos El Correo del Maestro, anio 12 Numero 142, p. 5-18, 2008.

  3. Promoting Strong Written Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2015-12-01

    The reason that an improvement in the quality of technical writing is still needed in the classroom is due to the fact that universities are facing challenging problems not only on the technological front but also on the socio-economic front. The universities are actively responding to the changes that are taking place in the global consumer marketplace. Obviously, there are numerous benefits of promoting strong written communication skills. They can be summarized into the following six categories. First, and perhaps the most important: The University achieves learner satisfaction. The learner has documented verbally, that the necessary knowledge has been successfully acquired. This results in learner loyalty that in turn will attract more qualified learners.Second, quality communication lowers the cost per pupil, consequently resulting in increased productivity backed by a stronger economic structure and forecast. Third, quality communications help to improve the cash flow and cash reserves of the university. Fourth, having high quality communication enables the university to justify the need for high costs of tuition and fees. Fifth, better quality in written communication skills result in attracting top-quality learners. This will lead to happier and satisfied learners, not to mention greater prosperity for the university as a whole. Sixth, quality written communication skills result in reduced complaints, thus meaning fewer hours spent on answering or correcting the situation. The University faculty and staff are thus able to devote more time on scholarly activities, meaningful research and productive community service. References Boyer, Ernest L. (1990). Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities of the Professorate.Princeton, NJ: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Hawkins, P., & Winter, J. (1997). Mastering change: Learning the lessons of the enterprise.London: Department for Education and Employment. Buzzel, Robert D., and Bradley T. Gale. (1987

  4. 43 CFR 4.826 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the Interior-Effectuation of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 Procedures § 4.826 Discovery. (a) Methods. Parties may obtain discovery as provided in these rules by depositions, written interrogatories... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discovery. 4.826 Section 4.826...

  5. 47 CFR 76.936 - Written decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76.936 Written decision. (a) A franchising authority... of interested parties. A franchising authority is not required to issue a written decision...

  6. Measuring Written Language Ability in Narrative Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Nickola Wolf; Van Meter, Adelia M.

    2007-01-01

    A language-levels model was used to analyze written narratives. The results have implications for instruction and for documenting change in the story-writing performance of students with and without special needs in the area of written language development. This study was based on stories written at midyear by 277 students (224 typical learners…

  7. Written Language Shift among Norwegian Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özerk, Kamil; Todal, Jon

    2013-01-01

    In Norway there are two written Norwegian languages, Bokmâl and Nynorsk. Of these two written languages Bokmâl is being used by the majority of the people, and Bokmâl has the highest prestige in the society. This article is about the shift of written language from Nynorsk to Bokmâl among young people in a traditional Nynorsk district in the…

  8. Cognition and Written Language: A Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Alan, Ed.

    Originally presented at a symposium on cognition and written language, the 14 papers in this collection discuss research findings regarding reading and writing processes, ways that the development of effective reading and writing can be abetted by instruction, and research needs in the area of cognition and written language. The papers focus on…

  9. Cognition and Written Language: A Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Alan, Ed.

    Originally presented at a symposium on cognition and written language, the 14 papers in this collection discuss research findings regarding reading and writing processes, ways that the development of effective reading and writing can be abetted by instruction, and research needs in the area of cognition and written language. The papers focus on…

  10. 8. The graphemes of written English

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, Greg

    2016-01-01

    8.1 Choosing a written variety to analyse To match my decision to analyse the RP accent, I have chosen British rather than US spelling as the written variety of English to analyse. In practice, this makes very little difference, since there is far less variation in the spelling of English than in its pronunciation. The differences between British and US spelling make almost no difference to the analysis of the graphemes of written English – the same graphemes are used in both systems, just wi...

  11. Accurate modelling of UV written waveguide components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svalgaard, Mikael

    BPM simulation results of UV written waveguide components that are indistinguishable from measurements can be achieved on the basis of trajectory scan data and an equivalent step index profile that is very easy to measure.......BPM simulation results of UV written waveguide components that are indistinguishable from measurements can be achieved on the basis of trajectory scan data and an equivalent step index profile that is very easy to measure....

  12. Accurate modeling of UV written waveguide components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svalgaard, Mikael

    BPM simulation results of UV written waveguide components that are indistinguishable from measurements can be achieved on the basis of trajectory scan data and an equivalent step index profile that is very easy to measure.......BPM simulation results of UV written waveguide components that are indistinguishable from measurements can be achieved on the basis of trajectory scan data and an equivalent step index profile that is very easy to measure....

  13. Direct UV-written integrated optical components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svalgaard, Mikael

    2004-01-01

    Direct UV writing is an emerging method for flexible, low cost fabrication of integrated optical waveguides and components. The performance of UV written components can be similar to that achieved with more elaborate fabrication techniques.......Direct UV writing is an emerging method for flexible, low cost fabrication of integrated optical waveguides and components. The performance of UV written components can be similar to that achieved with more elaborate fabrication techniques....

  14. Lorentz microscopy on dynamically written domains in GdTbFe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greidanus, F.J.A.M.; Jacobs, B.A.J.; den Broeder, F.J.A.; Spruit, J.H.M.; Rosenkranz, M.

    1989-03-06

    In this letter a new method for the observation of thermomagnetically written domains using Lorentz electron microscopy is discussed. Domains are written in a GdTbFe layer deposited on a specially prepared silicon wafer disk, provided with Si/sub 3/N/sub 4/ windows. This allows direct observation by Lorentz microscopy of the magnetization patterns dynamically written under recording conditions. It is shown that by locally heating the GdTbFe layer with a continuous laser beam, combined with high-frequency switching of the magnetic field, very high storage densities can be achieved. Domains with a length of 0.25 ..mu..m in the direction of disk rotation could be written.

  15. Lorentz microscopy on dynamically written domains in GdTbFe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greidanus, F. J. A. M.; Jacobs, B. A. J.; den Broeder, F. J. A.; Spruit, J. H. M.; Rosenkranz, M.

    1989-03-01

    In this letter a new method for the observation of thermomagnetically written domains using Lorentz electron microscopy is discussed. Domains are written in a GdTbFe layer deposited on a specially prepared silicon wafer disk, provided with Si3N4 windows. This allows direct observation by Lorentz microscopy of the magnetization patterns dynamically written under recording conditions. It is shown that by locally heating the GdTbFe layer with a continuous laser beam, combined with high-frequency switching of the magnetic field, very high storage densities can be achieved. Domains with a length of 0.25 μm in the direction of disk rotation could be written.

  16. Written Language Shift among Norwegian Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil ÖZERK

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In Norway there are two written Norwegian languages, Bokmål and Nynorsk. Of these two written languages Bokmål is being used by the majority of the people, and Bokmål has the highest prestige in the society. This article is about the shift of written language from Nynorsk to Bokmål among young people in a traditional Nynorsk district in the country. Drawing on empirical data we conclude that many adolescents are experiencing written language shift. We discuss various reasons for this phenomenon in the linguistic landscape of Norway. In our discussions we emphasize the importance of the school with regard to language maintenance and language revitalization. We call for a new language policy in the educational system that can prevent language shift. Having several dialects and two officially written forms of Norwegian in the country, creates a special linguistic landscape in Norway. Despite the fact that the Norwegian language situation is in several ways unique, it’s done very little research on how the existing policy works in practice. Our research reveals that the existing language policy and practice in the school system is not powerful enough to prevent language shift and language decay among the youngsters. The school system functions like a fabric for language shift.

  17. Common Rhetorical Devices in Written English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵松

    2010-01-01

    Rhetorical devices are kinds of literal form of expressions.Their application is to make the idea more striking and effective,for they have the strength to express and illustrate.An appropriate rhetorical device appeals to the imagination,gives us vivid pictures and makes the written English impressive and interesting.For this reason,written English often uses various rhetorical devices to improve the readability and attract readers' attention and to arouse readers' interest of reading their materials.This ...

  18. Interpretation of Written Contracts in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Andrews

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the leading principles governing interpretation of written contracts under English law. This is a comprehensive and incisive analysis of the current law and of the relevant doctrines, including the equitable principles of rectification, as well as the powers of appeal courts or of the High Court when hearing an appeal from an arbitral award. The topic of interpretation of written contracts is fast-moving. It is of fundamental importance because this is the most significant commercial focus for dispute and because of the number of cross-border transactions to which English law is expressly applied by businesses.

  19. Development of Kindergartners' Ideas about What Is Written in a Written Sentence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Maryann; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined strategies used by 12 kindergarten nonreaders who tried to relate spoken words to segments of written sentences. Results suggest that children may first succeed in establishing correspondences between temporal order of spoken words and spatial order of written words when a sentence contains only one functor word. Results show the complex…

  20. Some Differences Between Written and Spoken English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雁凌

    2001-01-01

    @@ Some of the main differences that will be observed regarding written and spoken English will be how the origins of English relate to the formality of writing and informality of speech. This will include how English is taught which contributes to how it is later used in practice.

  1. Classifying Written Texts Through Rhythmic Features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balint, Mihaela; Dascalu, Mihai; Trausan-Matu, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Rhythm analysis of written texts focuses on literary analysis and it mainly considers poetry. In this paper we investigate the relevance of rhythmic features for categorizing texts in prosaic form pertaining to different genres. Our contribution is threefold. First, we define a set of rhythmic featu

  2. Approaches to Treating Student Written Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thu H.

    2013-01-01

    Second language writing teachers face numerous challenges when providing feedback on student writing. There may be so many problems in the writing that is almost impossible for them to focus on or they may constantly seek a better method of giving feedback on student written errors. This paper attempts to provide second language writing teachers…

  3. Do Written Asthma Action Plans Improve Outcomes?

    OpenAIRE

    Kelso, John M.

    2016-01-01

    With appropriate management, children with asthma should expect few symptoms, no limits on activity, rare exacerbations, and normal lung function. Appropriate education of parents and other caregivers of children with asthma has clearly been shown to help achieve these goals. Although recommended in asthma guidelines, providing written asthma action plans does not improve outcomes beyond asthma education alone.

  4. Evidence in Support of Written Corrective Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitchener, John

    2008-01-01

    The extent to which ESL learners benefit from written corrective feedback has been debated at length since Truscott (1996) mounted a case for its abolition. Ten years later, the debate continues, not only because little attention has been given to testing its efficacy over time but also because studies that have investigated the issue have not…

  5. Increasing advertising power via written scent references

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fenko, Anna; Breulmann, Svenja; Bialkova, Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    Olfactory cues in advertisements can evoke positive consumer emotions and product attitudes, yet including real scent in advertising is not always feasible. This study aimed at investigating whether written scent references could produce effects similar to real scents. Participants in online experim

  6. Written Case Analyses and Critical Reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Helen L.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    The study investigated the use of case-based pedagogy to develop critical reflection in prospective teachers. Analysis of students written analyses of dilemma-based cases found patterns showing evidence of students open-mindedness, sense of professional responsibility, and wholeheartedness in approach to teaching. (DB)

  7. Written mathematical traditions in Ancient Mesopotamia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Writing, as well as various mathematical techniques, were created in proto-literate Uruk in order to serve accounting, and Mesopotamian mathematics as we know it was always expressed in writing. In so far, mathematics generically regarded was always part of the generic written tradition....

  8. Do Written Asthma Action Plans Improve Outcomes?

    OpenAIRE

    Kelso, John M.

    2016-01-01

    With appropriate management, children with asthma should expect few symptoms, no limits on activity, rare exacerbations, and normal lung function. Appropriate education of parents and other caregivers of children with asthma has clearly been shown to help achieve these goals. Although recommended in asthma guidelines, providing written asthma action plans does not improve outcomes beyond asthma education alone.

  9. Written Reflection: Creating Better Thinkers, Better Writers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartzendruber-Putnam, Dawn

    2000-01-01

    Describes three types of reflective writing assignments the author uses in her high school writing classes to create better writers who are actively involved in their own learning. Draws distinctions among the three (a writer's log, a draft letter, and a portfolio letter) and discusses the methods she uses to promote quality written reflections.…

  10. Test Anxiety in Written and Oral Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparfeldt, Jorn R.; Rost, Detlef H.; Baumeister, Ulrike M.; Christ, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    The distinction of different test anxiety reactions (e.g., worry, emotionality) is well established. Recently, additional relevance has been given to school-subject-specific test anxiety factors. The present study explored a further aspect concerning the structure of test anxiety experiences, specifically oral versus written examination modes. A…

  11. A Typology of Written Corrective Feedback Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Rod

    2009-01-01

    As a basis for a systematic approach to investigating the effects of written corrective feedback, this article presents a typology of the different types available to teachers and researchers. The typology distinguishes two sets of options relating to (1) strategies for providing feedback (for example, direct, indirect, or metalinguistic feedback)…

  12. 28 CFR 55.19 - Written materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... RIGHTS ACT REGARDING LANGUAGE MINORITY GROUPS Minority Language Materials and Assistance § 55.19 Written... provided in a minority language. A jurisdiction required to provide minority language materials is only required to publish in the language of the applicable language minority group materials distributed to...

  13. 10 CFR 835.104 - Written procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Written procedures. 835.104 Section 835.104 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Management and Administrative Requirements § 835.104... with the education, training, and skills of the individuals exposed to those hazards. ...

  14. On written expression of primary school pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Jelena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Normative rules of standard Serbian language are acquired during primary and secondary education through curriculum demands of Serbian language instruction, which takes place in three fields: grammar, orthography and culture of expression. Topic of interest in this paper is the quality of written expression of 6th and 7th grade pupils, in the context of all three fields specified to be mastered by the curriculum of Serbian language. Research comprised 148 primary school pupils from Belgrade. Linguistic analysis of spontaneously created written text was performed, in the conditions where it was not explicitly demanded form the pupil to write correctly. The results indicate that the majority of pupils make spelling and grammatical errors, meeting the condition for the basic level of mastering the knowledge in Serbian language according to the standards specified for the end of compulsory education. In addition to this, a considerable majority of pupils has a satisfactory level of culture of written expression. Pupils more often make spelling than grammatical errors. Seventh grade pupils are better than sixth grade pupils with respect to adhering to grammar rules and according to culture of written expression, while the mark in Serbian language and general school achievement of pupils correlate only with the degree of adhering to the orthographic rules. It was concluded that not only individual programs of support for pupils who make more errors are necessary, but also launching national projects for the development of linguistic competence of the young in Serbia.

  15. Written Communication Skills for Scientists and Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2016-12-01

    Lord Chancellor, Francis Bacon of England said: Reading maketh a full man; conference a ready man; and writing an exact man. Even after his death, Francis Bacon remained extremely influential through his works, especially as philosophical advocate and practitioner of the scientific method during the scientific revolution. Written communication skills are extremely important for scientists and engineers because it helps them to achieve their goals effectively and meet stipulated deadlines according to a pre-established schedule. Richard Arum and Josipa Roksa claim that American students are learning very little during their first two years of college (Arum and Roksa, 2011). Written communication involves expressing yourself clearly, using language with precision; constructing a logical argument; taking notes; editing and summarizing; and writing reports. There are three main elements to written communication. First and foremost is the structure because this in principle outlines clearly the way the entire content is laid out. Second, the style which primarily indicates the way it is written and how communication is made effective and vibrant. Third, the content which should document in complete detail, what you are writing about. Some researchers indicate that colleges and universities are failing to prepare the students to meet the demanding challenges of the present day workforce and are struggling to maintain an international status (Johnson, K. 2013). In this presentation, the author provides some guidelines to help students improve their written communication skills. References: Johnson, Kristine (2013) "Why Students Don't Write: Educating in the Era of Credentialing: Academically Adrift: Limited Learning on College Campuses," Conversations on Jesuit Higher Education: Vol. 43, Article 9. Available at: http://epublications.marquette.edu/conversations/vol43/iss1/9 Arum, Richard and Roksa, Josipa (2011) Academically Adrift: Limited Learning on College Campuses

  16. Essential components of written behavior treatment plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Don E; Vollmer, Timothy R

    2014-11-12

    For the last 25 years, the only empirically determined system to evaluate the content of written behavior analysis plans was developed by Vollmer et al. (1992). For the current study, the content of that earlier system was revised by the first author and submitted to 48 members of the editorial board of the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis and seven (7) other acknowledged experts on the editorial boards of Behavioral Interventions and Research in Developmental Disabilities. Of 55 recipients, 36 responded. The thirty-six (36) respondents rated each of 28 items from essential to non-essential using a five-point Likert scale. After reviewing the expert panel members' evaluations, we reduced the 28 items to 20 essential components of written behavior treatment plans. The implications of the results were discussed.

  17. Written Composition: The Introductory and Concluding Paragraphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetka Sokolov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The introductory and concluding paragraphs deserve special attention in written composition classes since the effect of the whole essay depends greatly on the way in which the writer begins and ends it. Apart from stating the main idea of the composition, the introduction should attract the reader’s attention, persuading him or her that the text is worth reading. In a good conclusion the writer reminds the reader of the main idea again, and finishes in a vivid and memorable way. The article discusses problems that occur in introductions and conclusions written by secondary school pupils and students of English. They are classified into three categories: coherence breaks, inappropriate length and inappropriate style. Finally, various types of tasks designed to remedy the difficulties are suggested.

  18. The network of concepts in written texts

    CERN Document Server

    Caldeira, S M G; Andrade, R F S; Neme, A; Miranda, J G V; Caldeira, Silvia M. G.; Lobao, Thierry C. Petit; Neme, Alexis

    2005-01-01

    Complex network theory is used to investigate the structure of meaningful concepts in written texts of individual authors. Networks have been constructed after a two phase filtering, where words with less meaning contents are eliminated, and all remaining words are set to their canonical form, without any number, gender or time flexion. Each sentence in the text is added to the network as a clique. A large number of written texts have been scrutinized, and its found that texts have small-world as well as scale-free structures. The growth process of these networks has also been investigated, and a universal evolution of network quantifiers have been found among the set of texts written by distinct authors. Further analyzes, based on shufling procedures taken either on the texts or on the constructed networks, provide hints on the role played by the word frequency and sentence length distributions to the network structure. Since the meaningful words are related to concepts in the author's mind, results for text...

  19. METALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20070291 Gong Ping (Northern Fujian Geological Party, Shaozou 354000) Discussion on Geological Characteristics and Control Factors of the Shimen Au-polymetallic Deposit in Zhenghe County, Fujian Province (Geology of Fujian, ISSN1001-3970, CN38-1080/P, 25(1), 2006, p.18-24, 2 illus., 2 tables, 1 ref.) Key words: gold deposits, polymetallic deposits, Fujian Province

  20. Varied reasoning schema in students' written solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Weliweriya, Nandana; Sayre, Eleanor C; Zollman, Dean

    2016-01-01

    The Mathematization project investigates students' use of mathematical tools across the undergraduate physics curriculum. As a part of this project, we look at intermediate mechanics students' written homework solutions to understand how they use those tools in approaching traditional mechanics problems. We use a modified version of the ACER framework to analyze students' solutions and to identify patterns of mathematical skills used on traditional problems. We apply techniques borrowed from network analysis and the Resources Framework to build a "fingerprint" of students' mathematical tool use. In this paper, we present preliminary findings on patterns that we identified in students' problem solving.

  1. Written memory: authorship and cultural identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Seltzer Goldstein

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on a research work in progress which approaches the relationship between written from memory, discourse and cultural identity. This choice rests on the idea that memory, identity and sense of belonging are intrinsically related. The memory space is also the space of the “ressignification”: the space where we construct and reconstruct representations and identities. We build representations of the past according to the representations we make of the present, and both are contaminated by representations socially and historically constructed. Such concepts are associated with the concepts of autonomy (FREIRE, 2002, agency (BAZERMAN, 2011; KLEIMAN, 2006 and authorship (BAZERMAN, 2011.

  2. Written Composition: The Introductory and Concluding Paragraphs

    OpenAIRE

    Cvetka Sokolov

    2012-01-01

    The introductory and concluding paragraphs deserve special attention in written composition classes since the effect of the whole essay depends greatly on the way in which the writer begins and ends it. Apart from stating the main idea of the composition, the introduction should attract the reader’s attention, persuading him or her that the text is worth reading. In a good conclusion the writer reminds the reader of the main idea again, and finishes in a vivid and memorable way. The article d...

  3. Written debriefing: Evaluating the impact of the addition of a written component when debriefing simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Shelly J

    2015-11-01

    Debriefing, the reflective period following a simulation, is said to be where the bulk of simulation learning takes place. Many expert opinions regarding debriefing exist, but evidence-based best practices have yet to be identified. Written debriefing is one of these practices; experts state learning can be extended through the addition of a written component to the debriefing process, but no evidence exists to support this. This study compares three debriefing types: discussion alone, and discussion followed by journaling or blogging. Undergraduate nursing students participating in a simulation were randomized as a simulation group to one of these three debriefing types. Following completion of debriefing activities, students completed a Debriefing Experience Scale, a tool designed to evaluate the student experience during debriefing. Data obtained from completed scales were analyzed with ANOVA followed by Fisher LSD post hoc testing. The results showed the students preferred their experience with discussion debriefing over discussion debriefing with a written component added.

  4. Using Morphological Awareness Instruction to Improve Written Language Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Kenn; Werfel, Krystal

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Written English is a morphophonemic language. Researchers have documented that a conscious awareness of the morphological structure of English morphology is predictive of students' written language skills and that morphological awareness instruction leads to improvements in morphological awareness and in other written language…

  5. Using Morphological Awareness Instruction to Improve Written Language Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Kenn; Werfel, Krystal

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Written English is a morphophonemic language. Researchers have documented that a conscious awareness of the morphological structure of English morphology is predictive of students' written language skills and that morphological awareness instruction leads to improvements in morphological awareness and in other written language…

  6. 19 CFR 111.13 - Written examination for individual license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS BROKERS Procedure To Obtain License or Permit § 111.13 Written examination... broker. A special written examination for an individual may also be authorized by Customs if a brokerage... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Written examination for individual license....

  7. 28 CFR 55.12 - Language used for written material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... written form. Some languages, for example, Japanese, have more than one written form. A jurisdiction... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Language used for written material. 55.12... OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT REGARDING LANGUAGE MINORITY GROUPS Determining the Exact Language §...

  8. Progress in Written Language Bursts, Pauses, Transcription, and Written Composition across Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Rui A.; Limpo, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Research on adult writers has shown that writing proceeds through bursts of transcription activity interspersed by long pauses. Yet few studies have examined how these writing behaviors unfold during early and middle childhood. This study traces the progress of bursts, pauses, transcription, and written composition in Portuguese students from…

  9. The Efficacy of Written Corrective Feedback in Improving L2 Written Accuracy: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, EunYoung; Han, Zhaohong

    2015-01-01

    Written corrective feedback has been subject to increasing attention in recent years, in part because of the conceptual controversy surrounding it and in part because of its ubiquitous practice. This study takes a meta-analytic approach to synthesizing extant empirical research, including 21 primary studies. Guiding the analysis are two questions:…

  10. Norbert Elias. A sociology of written culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Borges Leão

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with Norbert Elias’ historical sociology. In the first place, it asserts the civilizing process theory is pretty much based on objects from the written culture produced by European Courts in the 17th and 18th centuries: the articles of the Encyclopédie, the memoirs of writers and manuals of civility. In this approach I consider that separating the construction of sociological models from the corpus of specific documents from the Ancien Regime results in a dichotomic appropriation of the knowledge process, which is far away from Elias’ perspective. Finally, this paper analyzes Norbert Elias’ contributions to contemporary historiographic thinking, as well as the concepts of mentality, private life and the notion of childhood in Philippe Ariès.

  11. Conversation Analysis and Orality in Written Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antônio da Silva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Marcuschi (1977 points out that orality is an important topic to be developed in the classroom. Lamentably, however, it has been left aside, because teachers and those responsible for education do not consider it as an important feature to be emphasized in the mother tongue teaching. The main reason is the focus given to the language teaching in Brazilian schools: the school is supposed to teach writing, and how to write well. Despite the advances of Linguistic studies on speaking and writing; despite the contributions of Sociolinguistics and Conversation Analysis; and despite the overcoming of prejudices, especially on the strict distinction between the two modes, there is still a long way to go. Thus, it is beneficial to bring up a discussion on speaking and writing. After several years of Marcuschi´s findings (1977, textbook authors, teachers, researchers and those responsible for the Portuguese language teaching have another theoretical approach. Nonetheless, in practice, there is still a lot to be accomplished since writing continues to be the focus of the Portuguese language teaching in Brazilian schools. It seems that most of the teachers know the theory, but they experience difficulties when it comes to the practices of everyday school life. This paper aims to analyze oral marks or effects of orality in written literary texts, more precisely in dialogues produced. These analyzes will aid us in giving subsidies to a Portuguese teacher, so that he/she can work consistently and productively. To illustrate our observations, we have chosen fragments of chronicles written by Brazilian writer Luís Fernando Verissimo, published in three of his works: Comédias para se ler na escola, Sexo na cabeça e Amor Veríssimo.

  12. NONMETALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20102406 Chen Gang(China University of Geosciences,Beijing 100083,China);Li Fengming Discussion on Geological Characteristics and Genesis of Yuquanshan Graphite Deposit of Xinjiang(Xinjiang Geology,ISSN1000-8845,CN65-1092/P,27(4),2009,p.325-329,4 illus.,4 tables,5 refs.)Key words:graphite deposit,XinjiangYuquanshan graphite deposit of Xinjiang occurs in mica-quartz schist of Xingeer Information which belongs to Xinditate Group of Lower Pt in Kuluketage Block of Tarim paleo-continent,and experiences two mineralizing periods of

  13. Recommendations for reducing ambiguity in written procedures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzen, Laura E.

    2009-11-01

    Previous studies in the nuclear weapons complex have shown that ambiguous work instructions (WIs) and operating procedures (OPs) can lead to human error, which is a major cause for concern. This report outlines some of the sources of ambiguity in written English and describes three recommendations for reducing ambiguity in WIs and OPs. The recommendations are based on commonly used research techniques in the fields of linguistics and cognitive psychology. The first recommendation is to gather empirical data that can be used to improve the recommended word lists that are provided to technical writers. The second recommendation is to have a review in which new WIs and OPs and checked for ambiguities and clarity. The third recommendation is to use self-paced reading time studies to identify any remaining ambiguities before the new WIs and OPs are put into use. If these three steps are followed for new WIs and OPs, the likelihood of human errors related to ambiguity could be greatly reduced.

  14. NONMETALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140876 Gao Junbo(College of Resources and Environmental Engineering,Guizhou University,Guiyang 550025,China);Yang Ruidong Study on the Strontium Isotopic Composition of Large Devonian Barite Deposits from Zhenning,Guizhou Province(Geochimica,

  15. NONMETALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>20122457 Cai Jianshe ( Fujian Institute of Geological Survey and Drawing,Fuzhou 350011,China ) On the Geologic Characteristics and Genesis of the Longtangsi Fluorite Deposit in Pucheng County,Fujian Province ( Geology of Fujian,ISSN1001-3970,CN35-1080 / P,30 ( 4 ), 2011,p.301-306,3illus.,1table,6 refs.,with English abstract ) Key words:fluorspar deposit,Fujian Province

  16. The challenge of giving written thesis feedback to nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuvesson, Hanna; Borglin, Gunilla

    2014-11-01

    Providing effective written feedback on nursing student's assignments can be a challenging task for any assessor. Additionally, as the student groups tend to become larger, written feedback is likely to gain an overall more prominent position than verbal feedback. Lack of formal training or regular discussion in the teaching faculty about the skill set needed to provide written feedback could negatively affect the students' learning abilities. In this brief paper, we discuss written feedback practices, whilst using the Bachelor of Science in Nursing thesis as an example. Our aim is to highlight the importance of an informed understanding of the impact written feedback can have on students. Creating awareness about this can facilitate the development of more strategic and successful written feedback strategies. We end by offering examples of some relatively simple strategies for improving this practice.

  17. NONMETALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110947 Chen Xinglong(Guizhou Bureau of Nonferrous Metal and Nuclear Geology,Guiyang 550005,China);Gong Heqiang Endowment Factors and Development & Utilization Strategy of Bauxite Resource in North Guizhou Province(Guizhou Geology,ISSN1000-5943,CN52-1059/P,27(2),2010,p.106-110,6 refs.,with English abstract)Key words:bauxite deposit,Guizhou Province20110948 Dang Yanxia(Mineral Resource & Reservoir Evaluation Center,Urumiq 830000,China);Fan Wenjun Geological Features and a Primary Study of Metallogenesis of the Wucaiwang Zeolite Deposit,Fuyun County(Xinjiang Geology,ISSN1000-8845,CN65-1092/P,28(2),2010,p.167-170,2 illus.,1 table,5 refs.)Key words:zeolite deposit,Xinjiang Nearly all zeolite deposits in the world result from low-temperature-alteration of glass-bearing volcanic rocks.The southern slope of the Kalamali Mountain is one of the regions where medium to acid volcanics are major lithological type,thus it is a preferred area to look for zeolite deposit.The Wucaiwang zeolite ore district consists of mainly acid volcanic-clastic rocks.

  18. [Guide for the publication of written materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Campos, M G

    1987-01-01

    Tips for writing and editing population education or other materials and descriptions of the process of printing a text and of available types of print media are provided. Written materials should be brief and concise, and should avoid bombarding the reader with too many figures or references. Ideas of others must always be acknowledged. Adjectives and metaphors should be used in moderation. The first person and obscure words should both be avoided. Acronyms and abbreviations should be defined at their 1st use. Ideas should be presented in a logical sequence. Illustrations and tables may facilitate comprehension, but only if they are clearly presented and printed. Materials should be adapted to their audiences. In a country with the cultural, racial, and social diversity of Peru, it is impossible to refer to a general audience. Population communication which wishes to influence people must be based on a clear knowledge of the level of information, habits, linguistic practices, and other traits of the intended audience. Once the audience has been characterized, the objectives of the publication should be clearly defined. The technical characteristics of the publication are then selected. The format should be a standard size so that all the available paper can be used. The number of pages is often determined by the funds available although ideally it should be decided in accordance with the information to be presented. The color, type of lettering and spacing, paper, number of copies to be printed, and frequency of appearance are influenced by budgetary considerations, but the letter size and spacing should be generous enough to allow easy reading. The layout, style, and sections of the work must then be determined. A bulletin for example could have an editorial, a central article, reportage, an in-depth interview, correspondence, book reviews, and other regular features. The contents should be carefully checked for accuracy and grammaticality, and each step of

  19. METALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091594 Bao Yafan(The Third Geologic Survey of Jilin Province,Siping 136000,China);Liu Yanjun Relations between Bashenerxi Granite,West Dongkunlun and Baiganhu Tungsten-Tin Deposit(Jilin Geology,ISSN1001-2427,CN22-1099/P,27(3),2008,p.56-59,67,5 illus.,2 tables,7 refs.,with English abstract)Key words:tungsten ores,tin ores,monzogranite,Kunlun Mountains20091595 Chen Fuwen(Yichang Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources,China Geological Survey,Yichang 443003,China);Dai Pingyun Metallogenetic and Isotopic Chronological Study on the Shenjiaya Gold Deposit in Xuefeng Mountains,Hunan Province(Acta Geologica Sinica,ISSN0001-5717,CN11-1951/P,82(7),2008,p.906-911,3 illus.,2 tables,30 refs.)Key words:gold ores,HunanThe Shenjiaya gold deposit is a representative one

  20. METALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111705 An Junbo(Team 603,Bureau of Nonferrous Metals Geological Exploration of Jilin Province,Hunchun 133300,China);Xu Renjie Geological Features and Ore Genesis of Baishilazi Scheelite Deposit in Yanbian Area(Jilin Geology,ISSN1001-2427,CN22-1099/P,29(3),2010,p.39-43,2 illus.,2 tables,7 refs.)Key words:tungsten ores,Jilin ProvinceThe Baishilazi scheelite deposit is located in contacting zone between the marble of the Late Palaeozoic Qinglongcun Group and the Hercynian biotite granite.The vein and lenticular major ore body is obviously controlled by NE-extending faults and con

  1. Appropriating Written French: Literacy Practices in a Parisian Elementary Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Elsie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I examine French language instruction in an elementary classroom serving primarily children of Afro-French immigrants in Paris. I show that a prevalent French language ideology privileges written over oral expression and associates full mastery of written French with rational thought and full inclusion in the French polity. This…

  2. Written Corrective Feedback in Second Language Acquisition and Writing Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Dana R.

    2012-01-01

    Written corrective feedback, referred to hereafter as "written CF" and also known as "grammar correction" or "error correction", has been a controversial topic in second language studies over the past fifteen years. Inspired by John Truscott's thought-provoking 1996 essay in "Language Learning", many different researchers have undertaken new…

  3. Written disclosure: a way of coping with traumatic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johal, S S; Bennett, P

    Verbal debriefing after a traumatic incident may interrupt the natural adaptive processes that help people to deal with such incidents. This article examines the effectiveness of written interventions to help people experiencing distress after trauma experienced at work. As an alternative to critical incident debriefing, the authors recommend a staff education programme in tandem with written disclosure.

  4. Visual-Motor Skills as a Predictor of Written Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello-Cloutier, Mary

    This study investigated the relationship between the Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration-Revised (VMI-R) and written expression skills of 54 students (grades 2 to 7) with learning disabilities. Data analysis compared cognitive ability; visual motor skills; achievement in reading, math, and written language; teacher rating of written…

  5. Neuropsychological Correlates of Written Expression in College Students with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Harder, Lana

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine written expression and the executive function skills (working memory, verbal fluency, and planning and organization) involved in written expression in college-aged students with ADHD. Method: Two groups of undergraduate students, aged 19 to 28 years, (ADHD, n = 31; control, n = 27) are evaluated on selected measures of…

  6. 49 CFR 1018.20 - Written demand for payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the circumstances of the particular case, the second and third demands may: (1) Offer or seek to... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Written demand for payment. 1018.20 Section 1018... Collection of Claims § 1018.20 Written demand for payment. (a) The Board shall make appropriate...

  7. Teaching Computation in Primary School without Traditional Written Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnett, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Concerns regarding the dominance of the traditional written algorithms in schools have been raised by many mathematics educators, yet the teaching of these procedures remains a dominant focus in in primary schools. This paper reports on a project in one school where the staff agreed to put the teaching of the traditional written algorithm aside,…

  8. The Written Communication Skills That Matter Most for Accountants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Tracey J.; Simons, Kathleen A.

    2016-01-01

    Given the importance of effective written communication skills to the discipline of accounting, faculty must emphasize these skills in their classroom in order to adequately prepare students for successful careers in the field. Since 2000, only two studies in the accounting literature have examined which written communication skills are needed by…

  9. Written Corrective Feedback in Second Language Acquisition and Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitchener, John; Ferris, Dana R.

    2011-01-01

    What should language and writing teachers do about giving students written corrective feedback? This book surveys theory, research, and practice on the important and sometimes controversial issue of written corrective feedback, also known as "error/grammar correction," and its impact on second language acquisition and second language writing…

  10. The Written Communication Skills That Matter Most for Accountants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Tracey J.; Simons, Kathleen A.

    2016-01-01

    Given the importance of effective written communication skills to the discipline of accounting, faculty must emphasize these skills in their classroom in order to adequately prepare students for successful careers in the field. Since 2000, only two studies in the accounting literature have examined which written communication skills are needed by…

  11. 19 CFR 148.111 - Written declaration for unaccompanied articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Written declaration for unaccompanied articles... of the United States § 148.111 Written declaration for unaccompanied articles. The baggage... covers articles which do not accompany him and: (a) The articles are entitled to free entry under the...

  12. Written Corrective Feedback in Second Language Acquisition and Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitchener, John; Ferris, Dana R.

    2011-01-01

    What should language and writing teachers do about giving students written corrective feedback? This book surveys theory, research, and practice on the important and sometimes controversial issue of written corrective feedback, also known as "error/grammar correction," and its impact on second language acquisition and second language writing…

  13. 5 CFR 179.306 - Written agreement for repayment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Written agreement for repayment. 179.306 Section 179.306 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS CLAIMS COLLECTION STANDARDS Administrative Offset § 179.306 Written agreement for repayment. A debtor who...

  14. The role of written provider communication in external client participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellande, Stephanie; Taylor, Gail Ayala

    2004-01-01

    In certain classes of services, the client's role in the service delivery process often extends beyond the face-to-face exchange. With compliance dependent services (CDS), the client is expected to continue to perform for him or herself once away from the service provider in order to ensure positive outcomes and customer satisfaction (Dellande and Gilly, 1998). This study examined the effectiveness of written provider communication in influencing client motivation and role clarity in CDS. Two exploratory investigations examining written provider communication were conducted. In study 1, written material of three different types of health care related CDS (dialysis, prenatal care and weight loss) were examined; in study 2, dialysis written material was further examined. The findings suggest that, in the majority of the materials examined, written provider communication does not seem to clearly communicate the consequences of noncompliance (a source of customer motivation). However, the materials examined were effective in clarifying the client's external service roles.

  15. METALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20090243 Chen Zhibin (Hebei Institute of Geological Survey, Shijiazhuang 050081, China) Ore-Controlling Factors of the Beichagoumen Ag-Polymetallic Deposits in Northern Hebei Province (Geological Survey and Research, ISSN1672-4135, CN12-1353/P, 31(1), 2008, p.1-5, 3 illus., 10 refs.)

  16. METALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131565 Cai Lianyou(No.332 Geological Team,Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources Exploration of Anhui Province,Huangshan 245000,China);Weng Wangfei Geological Characteristics and Genesis Analysis of Guocun Navajoite Deposit in South Anhui Province(Mineral Resources and Geology,

  17. METALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20102341 Bao Peisheng(Institute of Geology,Chinese Academy of Geological Science,Beijing 100037,China)Further Discussion on the Genesis of the Podiform Chromite Deposits in the Ophiolites-Questioning about the Rock:Melt Interaction Metallogeny(Geological Bulletin of China,ISSN1671-2552,CN11-4648/P,28(12),2009,p.1741-1761

  18. NONMETALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131601 Gao Junbo(College of Resources and Environmental Engineering,Guizhou University,Guiyang 550003,China);Yang Ruidong Hydrothermal Venting-Flowing Sedimentation Characteristics of Devonian Barite Deposits from Leji,Zhenning County,Guizhou Province(Acta Sedimentologica Sinica,ISSN1000-0550,CN62-1038/P,30(3),

  19. Written Corrective Feedback: The Practitioners’ Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman W. Evans

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Considerable attention has been given to written corrective feedback (WCF in second language writing (L2 over the past several decades. One of the central questions has focused on the appropriateness of its use in L2 writing. In these academic discussions, scholars frequently describe how WCF is utilized in the classroom. However, many of these claims of teacher practice have no research base, since few studies have actually asked teachers what place WCF has in their writing classroom (Ferris, et al., in press/2011a; Ferris, et al., in press/2011b; Hyland, 2003; Lee, 2004. This paucity of data from teachers about their WCF practices is problematic. Understanding teacher perspectives on corrective feedback is integral to our understanding the place of WCF in L2 writing pedagogy. Accordingly, this article reports on a study that asks two fundamental research questions: (a To what extent do current L2 writing teachers provide WCF? and (b What determines whether or not practitioners choose to provide WCF? These questions were answered by means of an international survey completed by 1,053 L2 writing practitioners in 69 different countries. Results suggest that WCF is commonly practiced in L2 pedagogy by experienced and well-educated L2 practitioners for sound pedagogical reasons.Durante las últimas décadas se ha prestado bastante atención a la pertinencia del empleo de feedback correctivo (FC sobre los textos producidos por los alumnos en una segunda lengua. Aunque hay bastantes descripciones sobre cómo se emplea el FC en el aula, muchas de las afirmaciones sobre la práctica docente no tienen una base científica ya que son pocos los estudios en los que se ha preguntado directamente a los profesores el lugar que el FC ocupa en sus clases (Ferris, et al., in press/2011a; Ferris, et al., in press/2011b; Hyland, 2003; Lee, 2004. Esta escasez de datos es problemática ya que las percepciones de los profesores sobre el del FC son fundamentales a la

  20. Focus of Teachers' Direct Written Feedback on English Majors' Writing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊

    2010-01-01

    This present study explored what English teachers focused on EFL students' writing with their direct written feedback. Eight hundred and sixty-four pieces of writing drafts were written by one hundred and fifty second year English major students. These drafts were provided with teachers' written feedback by five teaching assistants. Concerning the Direct Correction category, the findings showed that Word Choice, Word Appropriation, Sentence Appropriation and Spelling were most focused by the teachers. Several implications for English writing instruction in the similar context were emerged.

  1. 10 CFR 55.41 - Written examination: Operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) OPERATORS' LICENSES Written Examinations and Operating Tests... and contained in its training program and from information in the Final Safety Analysis Report, system... process, neutron multiplication, source effects, control rod effects, criticality indications,...

  2. The written language in the final stage of preschool education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Martins da Cruz Horta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this qualitative study, which adopted a multiple case study approach, is to learn about the process of methodology of the written language in the final stage of preschool education, in kindergartens located in Eastern Algarve and belonging to the public network of the Ministry of Education. The study shows that the way in which the approach to written language in preschool education takes place is the result of a set of variables of diverse nature: the management curriculum developed; the perspective that each protagonist has of the written language (a form of expression and communication; their attitude vis-à-vis early conceptions about the written language of children (an attitude of support and stimulation; the assurance offered to children so that they can feel confident about their knowledge and learning in the transition to the next educational level, making them believe that they are capable of achieving it.

  3. A Comparison of Oral and Written Code Elaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Millicent; Field, T. W.

    1976-01-01

    Indicates that, in relation to oral systems, written systems are more complex in structure, reveal more adjectival but less adverbial elaboration, show more complex verbal structures, and contain fewer indices of personal reference. (RL)

  4. Nonlinear light propagation in fs laser-written waveguide arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szameit A.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We report on recent achievements in the field of nonlinear light propagation in fs laser-written waveguide lattices. Particular emphasis is thereby given on discrete solitons in such systems.

  5. Alcohol advertising in written mass media in Spain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Montes-Santiago, J; Alvarez Muñiz, M L; Baz Lomba, A

    2007-01-01

    Alcohol advertising is a powerful factor of incitation to consumption. We analyzed the alcohol advertising, especially that youth-focused, in written mass media in Spain during the period 2002-2006...

  6. Developed Opinions and Inclinations of Teachers Regarding to Written Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacı Ömer BEYDOĞAN

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study was to determine teachers’ developed opinions and inclinations regarding to written expression skills. For this purpose, “Opinions and Inclinations Scale Regarding Written Expression Skills” was developed by the researcher. Work group of the study comprised 326 teachers from central Kırşehir and its district elementary schools. Internal reliability coefficient of the scale was 0,94. Data obtained were subjected to frequency, percentage, arithmetic mean, t-test, variance analyzes a significance level of 0,05 and findings were evaluated. Teachers’ developed opinions and inclinations regarding written expression skills were analyzed in accordance with their seniority, field of study and the class level they were teaching. There were some significant differentiations observed in opinions and inclinations developed by teachers regarding students’ written expression skills, in respect to certain variables. Some suggestions were brought forward in accordance with obtained findings.

  7. Developing an In-house Training Curriculum in Written Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, William J.

    1983-01-01

    Stresses the fact that on-the-job training in written communication is a continuous process. Presents a writing curriculum, developed by the Illinois Office of the Auditor General, that offers a planned sequence of learning activities. (PD)

  8. UV-written Integrated Optical 1xN Splitters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivero, Massimo; Svalgaard, Mikael

    2006-01-01

    The first demonstration of UV-written, silica-on-silicon integrated optical 1×N power splitters with up to 32 outputs ports is presented. The fabricated components exhibit 450 nm bandwidth, low excess loss and good channel uniformity.......The first demonstration of UV-written, silica-on-silicon integrated optical 1×N power splitters with up to 32 outputs ports is presented. The fabricated components exhibit 450 nm bandwidth, low excess loss and good channel uniformity....

  9. METALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>20122389 Cai Lianyou ( No.332 Geological Team,Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources Exploration of Anhui Province,Huangshan 245000,China );Weng Wangfei Geologic Characteristic and Ore-Control Factors of the Nanshan W-Mo Polymetallic Ore Deposit in South Anhui Province ( Geological Survey and Research,ISSN1672-4135,CN12-1353 / P,34 ( 4 ), 2011,p.290-298,3 illus.,1table,14refs. ) Key words:tungsten ores,molybdenum ores,ore guide of prospecting,Anhui Province

  10. METALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110165 Chen Jiawei(The 3rd Geological Team,Henan Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources,Xinyang 464000,China)Ore Control Conditions and Genetic Model for the Bodaoling Ag-Au Deposit in Guangshan,Henan Province(Acta Geologica Sichuan,ISSN1006-0995,CN51-1273/P,30(1),2010,p.28-30,5 illus.,1 ref.,with English abstract)Key words:gold ores,Henan Province20110166 Chen Mingquan(Geological Team 306,Yunnan Bureau of Nonferrous Geology,Kunming 650216,Ch

  11. Selective and invariant neural responses to spoken and written narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regev, Mor; Honey, Christopher J; Simony, Erez; Hasson, Uri

    2013-10-02

    Linguistic content can be conveyed both in speech and in writing. But how similar is the neural processing when the same real-life information is presented in spoken and written form? Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we recorded neural responses from human subjects who either listened to a 7 min spoken narrative or read a time-locked presentation of its transcript. Next, within each brain area, we directly compared the response time courses elicited by the written and spoken narrative. Early visual areas responded selectively to the written version, and early auditory areas to the spoken version of the narrative. In addition, many higher-order parietal and frontal areas demonstrated strong selectivity, responding far more reliably to either the spoken or written form of the narrative. By contrast, the response time courses along the superior temporal gyrus and inferior frontal gyrus were remarkably similar for spoken and written narratives, indicating strong modality-invariance of linguistic processing in these circuits. These results suggest that our ability to extract the same information from spoken and written forms arises from a mixture of selective neural processes in early (perceptual) and high-order (control) areas, and modality-invariant responses in linguistic and extra-linguistic areas.

  12. Written Cultural Heritage in the Context of Adopted Legal Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Kodrič-Dačić

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose: Libraries collect written cultural heritage which is not only the most valuable part of their collections but also a part of library materials which is, due to digitalization projects in the last decade, becoming more and more interesting to librarians and library users. The main goal of the study is a theoretical research of library materials acknowledged as Slovenian heritage. By defining the basic terms it highlights the attributes which are immanent to library materials, derived from the context of their origin or later destiny. Slovenian library legislation concerning protection of written cultural heritage is also critically analysed.Methodology/approach: Comparative analyses of European and Slovenian legislation concerning librarianship and written cultural heritage. Research limitation: Research was mainly limited to professional literature and resources dealing with written cultural heritage. Originality/practical implications: Results of the research serve as formal criteria for definition of library materials as written heritage and suggest how to improve legislation in the field of protection of written heritage in libraries. 

  13. NONMETALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111761 Chen Hua(115 Geological Party,Guizhou Bureau of Geology and Mineral Exploration & Development,Guiyang 551400,China);Deng Chao Analysis on the Metallogenic Environment of Maochang Bauxite in Guizhou Province(Guizhou Geology,ISSN1000-5943,CN52-1059/P,27(3),2010,p.198-201,2 illus.,1 table,8 refs.)Key words:bauxite deposit,Guizhou Province By long time physical and chemical process,the carbonate rock after Central Guizhou uplidft,becomes red clay,after further weathering,the red clay decomposed into the oxide,hydroxide of Al and Fe,in the dissolution hole and depression,it concentrates primary fragmentary tight and earthy karst bauxite ore.Because the variation of landform,it decomposes and cracks again,affords the material source

  14. Authentication based on feature of hand-written signature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Shu-ren

    2007-01-01

    The typical features of the coordinate and the curvature as well as the recorded time information were analyzed in the hand-written signatures. In the hand-written signature process 10 biometric features were summarized: the amount of zero speed in direction x and direction y, the amount of zero acceleration in direction x and direction y, the total time of the hand-written signatures,the total distance of the pen traveling in the hand-written process, the frequency for lifting the pen, the time for lifting the pen, the amount of the pressure higher or lower than the threshold values. The formulae of biometric features extraction were summarized.The Gauss function was used to draw the typical information from the above-mentioned biometric features, with which to establish the hidden Markov mode and to train it. The frame of double authentication was proposed by combing the signature with the digital signature. Web service technology was applied in the system to ensure the security of data transmission. The training practice indicates that the hand-written signature verification can satisfy the needs from the office automation systems.

  15. Analyzing graduate student trends in written paper evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giddens, Jean Foret; Lobo, Marie

    2008-10-01

    Writing is valued as an essential skill in nursing education. However, the evaluation of written scholarly work is challenging. Limited nursing literature addressing issues or strategies associated with evaluation exists. The purpose of this study was to describe and evaluate differences that exist in the evaluation of a standardized written paper. The study included a sample of 47 graduate nursing students enrolled in a nursing education course. Participants were asked to grade a mock paper as part of a course assignment; their work was retained for data analysis. Wide variability in scoring and comments on the paper were noted; significantly lower scores were assigned by participants who had experience teaching in academic settings. The majority of written comments made by participants were related to grammar and American Psychological Association formatting or citation problems. Further research is needed to better understand paper evaluation practices of nursing faculty.

  16. Creation of a graduate oral/written communication skills course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surratt, Christopher K

    2006-02-15

    To convert a traditional graduate seminar course into a class that emphasizes written as well as oral communication skills. Graduate pharmacology/toxicology students presented formal and informal seminars on their research progress and on recent peer-reviewed literature from the field. Students in the audience wrote critiques of the research project or article, as well as of the presentations themselves. Students were evaluated based on oral presentations, class participation, and a scientific writing component. All faculty members provided constructive written comments and a grade. The course master provided the presenter with a formal written review and returned a "red pen" revision of each student critique. This novel seminar/writing course introduces intensive focus on writing skills, which are especially essential today given the large number of graduate students for whom English is not a first language.

  17. Forensic physicians and written evidence: witness statements v. expert reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choong, Kartina A; Barrett, Martin

    2014-02-01

    When assisting the courts in criminal proceedings, the work of forensic physicians are leaning more towards the preparation of written evidence rather than the giving of oral evidence in person. For this, they may be asked to serve either as professional witnesses or expert witnesses. These 2 roles have nevertheless been a constant source of confusion among forensic physicians. In view of this, the article aims to highlight the similarities and differences between these 2 roles particularly in relation to the preparation of written evidence. It will take a close look at the forms of written evidence which forensic physicians are expected to produce in those distinct capacities and the attending duties, evidentiary rules and legal liabilities. Through this, the work aspires to assist forensic physicians undertake those responsibilities on a more informed footing.

  18. How Does Word Length Evolve in Written Chinese?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Heng; Liang, Junying; Liu, Haitao

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a substantial evidence that the word length can be an essential lexical structural feature for word evolution in written Chinese. The data used in this study are diachronic Chinese short narrative texts with a time span of over 2000-years. We show that the increase of word length is an essential regularity in word evolution. On the one hand, word frequency is found to depend on word length, and their relation is in line with the Power law function y = ax-b. On the other hand, our deeper analyses show that the increase of word length results in the simplification in characters for balance in written Chinese. Moreover, the correspondence between written and spoken Chinese is discussed. We conclude that the disyllabic trend may account for the increase of word length, and its impacts can be explained in "the principle of least effort". PMID:26384237

  19. Unusual suicide note written on the body: two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Serafettin; Dogan, Kamil Hakan; Erkol, Zerrin; Gunaydin, Gursel

    2009-09-01

    Suicide notes are commonly written on some materials, such as notebooks, papers, and mirrors. Additionally, suicide plans have been communicated in face-to-face conversations, by speaking on the telephone, recording on CDs or video cassettes, and sending messages through text messaging. In this article, 2 suicide death cases are presented in which suicide notes were written on the bodies of the victims. The first case, a 32-year-old man, was a university graduate and had been unemployed for years; he committed suicide in his house by hanging. On the external examination, it was seen that there were some words on the body written with a pen; specifically "DONKEY" was written on the forehead; coursing up-and-down along the chest, "HODJA" was on the right, "DO NOT" was on the sternal region, and "WASH" was on the left; and undecipherable handwritings were on both zygomatic regions. The second case, a 39-year-old woman, was a housewife who was being physically abused by her husband and committed suicide by ingesting an insecticide. It was observed that on the left leg, a note was written with a pen saying that she could not stand being beaten by her husband on account of the inheritance dispute between him and her elder brother; there was purple ecchymoses in the periphery of the right eye and in the right gluteal area. Since we have not found any reports of suicide notes written on the body in the literature, we present and discuss our cases herein.

  20. Types of Teacher Written Feedback on English Majors' Writing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊; SIRILUCK USAHA

    2010-01-01

    This present study focused on what major types of written feedback were often given by EFL writing teachers at Guizhou University. Eight hundred and sixty-four pieces of writing drafts by one hundred and fifty second year English major students provided with teacher written feedback by five teaching assistants, were analyzed and categorized in order to fred out the main types of feedback. It was found that Direct Correction was used most by the teachers, followed by Error Location, Verbal Cue, Marginal Commentary and End Commentary, respectively. The study raised several implications for English writing instruction in the similar context.

  1. Written Feedback in Intercultural Doctoral Supervision: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Linlin

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the feedback interactions in an intercultural supervision context between a white New Zealand supervisor and a Chinese international doctoral student, who is also the author (and researcher) of this study. Using mixed methods, it examines the supervisor's written feedback on a draft PhD proposal and the student's feedback…

  2. Written Formative Assessment and Silence in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee Hang, Desmond Mene; Bell, Beverley

    2015-01-01

    In this commentary, we build on Xinying Yin and Gayle Buck's discussion by exploring the cultural practices which are integral to formative assessment, when it is viewed as a sociocultural practice. First we discuss the role of assessment and in particular oral and written formative assessments in both western and Samoan cultures, building on the…

  3. Equitable Written Assessments for English Language Learners: How Scaffolding Helps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Marcelle A.; Menon, Deepika; Sinha, Somnath; Promyod, Nattida; Wissehr, Cathy; Halverson, Kristy L.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of the use of scaffolds in written classroom assessments through the voices of both native English speakers and English language learners from two middle schools. Students responded to assessment tasks in writing, by speaking aloud using think aloud protocols, and by reflecting in a post-assessment interview.…

  4. Language Characteristics and Written Requirements of the Maritime English Correspondence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jiang; Zhao, Zhenhua

    2011-01-01

    Aiming at the requirements of the maritime English correspondence, the language characteristics of the maritime English correspondence are analyzed in this article, and the factors influencing the written skills of the maritime English correspondence are discussed, and the principles of "7C" including the courtesy, the consideration, the…

  5. Written Languaging, Direct Correction, and Second Language Writing Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Wataru

    2012-01-01

    It has been argued that languaging plays a crucial role in learning a second language (L2). The effects of languaging, especially oral languaging (e.g., collaborative dialogue, private speech), have been tested on the learning of L2 knowledge domains. This study explored the effects of written languaging by asking 24 Japanese learners of English…

  6. Comparing Written Competency in Core French and French Immersion Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappin-Fortin, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have compared the written competency of French immersion students and their core French peers, and research on these learners at a postsecondary level is even scarcer. My corpus consists of writing samples from 255 students from both backgrounds beginning a university course in French language. The writing proficiency of core French…

  7. Timed written picture naming in 14 European languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrance, Mark; Nottbusch, Guido; Alves, Rui A; Arfé, Barbara; Chanquoy, Lucile; Chukharev-Hudilainen, Evgeny; Dimakos, Ioannis; Fidalgo, Raquel; Hyönä, Jukka; Jóhannesson, Ómar I; Madjarov, George; Pauly, Dennis N; Uppstad, Per Henning; van Waes, Luuk; Vernon, Michael; Wengelin, Åsa

    2017-05-24

    We describe the Multilanguage Written Picture Naming Dataset. This gives trial-level data and time and agreement norms for written naming of the 260 pictures of everyday objects that compose the colorized Snodgrass and Vanderwart picture set (Rossion & Pourtois in Perception, 33, 217-236, 2004). Adult participants gave keyboarded responses in their first language under controlled experimental conditions (N = 1,274, with subsamples responding in Bulgarian, Dutch, English, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Icelandic, Italian, Norwegian, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish, and Swedish). We measured the time to initiate a response (RT) and interkeypress intervals, and calculated measures of name and spelling agreement. There was a tendency across all languages for quicker RTs to pictures with higher familiarity, image agreement, and name frequency, and with higher name agreement. Effects of spelling agreement and effects on output rates after writing onset were present in some, but not all, languages. Written naming therefore shows name retrieval effects that are similar to those found in speech, but our findings suggest the need for cross-language comparisons as we seek to understand the orthographic retrieval and/or assembly processes that are specific to written output.

  8. Written informed consent in health research is outdated

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekstra, R.; Maeckelberghe, E. L. M.; Stolk, R. P.

    2017-01-01

    Reference to the Declaration of Helsinki as assurance for ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects has become a meaningless mantra. The participants’ relationship with researchers has been distrusted-based with Written Informed Consent (WIC) hereinafter referred to as WIC)

  9. Written Language Skills in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gareth J.; Larkin, Rebecca F.; Blaggan, Samarita

    2013-01-01

    Background: Young children are often required to carry out writing tasks in an educational context. However, little is known about the patterns of writing skills that children with specific language impairment (CwSLI) have relative to their typically developing peers. Aims: To assess the written language skills of CwSLI and compare these with…

  10. Characterization of UV written waveguides with luminescence microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svalgaard, Mikael; Harpøth, Anders; Rosbirk, Tue

    2005-01-01

    Luminescence microscopy is used to measure the refractive index profile and molecular defect distribution of UV written waveguides with a spatial resolution of ~0.4 mm and high signal-to-noise ratio. The measurements reveal comlex waveguide formation dynamics with significant topological changes...

  11. The Value of a Focused Approach to Written Corrective Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitchener, John; Knoch, Ute

    2009-01-01

    Investigations into the most effective ways to provide ESL learners with written corrective feedback have often been overly comprehensive in the range of error categories examined. As a result, clear conclusions about the efficacy of such feedback have not been possible. On the other hand, oral corrective feedback studies have produced clear,…

  12. A Reflection on "The Language Learning Potential" of Written CF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitchener, John

    2012-01-01

    For more than 30 years, different opinions about whether written corrective feedback (CF) is a worthwhile pedagogical practice for L2 learning and acquisition have been voiced. Despite the arguments for and against its potential to help L2 learners acquire the target language and the inconclusive findings across studies that have sought answers to…

  13. Psychological Type and Asynchronous Written Dialogue in Adult Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Cranton, Patricia; Bridglall, Beatrice

    2005-01-01

    This study explores how adults learn from asynchronous written dialogue through the lens of psychological type preferences. We asked participants to discover their dominant and auxiliary psychological preferences using the Personal Empowerment through Type inventory. Participants then completed an open-ended survey in which they described their…

  14. 31 CFR 10.37 - Requirements for other written advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... give written advice (including electronic communications) concerning one or more Federal tax issues if... or should know, or, in evaluating a Federal tax issue, takes into account the possibility that a tax return will not be audited, that an issue will not be raised on audit, or that an issue will be...

  15. Written Language Skills in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gareth J.; Larkin, Rebecca F.; Blaggan, Samarita

    2013-01-01

    Background: Young children are often required to carry out writing tasks in an educational context. However, little is known about the patterns of writing skills that children with specific language impairment (CwSLI) have relative to their typically developing peers. Aims: To assess the written language skills of CwSLI and compare these with…

  16. 19 CFR 210.4 - Written submissions; representations; sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Written submissions; representations; sanctions. 210.4 Section 210.4 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF... agreement; (3) A consent order agreement; or (4) An arbitration agreement. (iv) Monetary sanctions imposed...

  17. Students' Written Arguments in General Chemistry Laboratory Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Aeran; Hand, Brian; Greenbowe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the written arguments developed by college freshman students using the Science Writing Heuristic approach in inquiry-based general chemistry laboratory classrooms and its relationships with students' achievement in chemistry courses. Fourteen freshman students participated in the first year of the study while 19…

  18. Effect of Written Presentation on Performance in Introductory Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, John; Ballard, Shawn

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the written work of students in the introductory calculus-based electricity and magnetism course at the University of Arkansas. The students' solutions to hourly exams were divided into a small set of countable features organized into three major categories, mathematics, language, and graphics. Each category was further divided…

  19. RECOGNITION METHOD FOR CURSIVE JAPANESE WORD WRITTEN IN LATIN CHARACTERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maruyama, K.; Nakano, Y.

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a recognition method for cursive Japanese words written in Latin characters. The method integrates multiple classifiers using duplicated can­ didates in multiple classifiers and orders of classifiers to improve the word recog­ nition rate combining their results. In experiments u

  20. Assessment of Clinical Competence: Written and Computer-Based Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, David B.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Literature concerning the validity and reliability of both written and computer-based simulations in assessing clinical competence in the health professions is reviewed, and suggestions are given for the improvement of the psychometric qualities of simulation-based tests. (MSE)

  1. 5 CFR 575.308 - Approval criteria and written determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... retention incentive for an individual employee or group or category of employees using the approval criteria... REGULATIONS RECRUITMENT, RELOCATION, AND RETENTION INCENTIVES; SUPERVISORY DIFFERENTIALS; AND EXTENDED ASSIGNMENT INCENTIVES Retention Incentives § 575.308 Approval criteria and written determination. (a) An...

  2. Enhancing Presentation Narratives through Written and Visual Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentz, Brian S.

    2006-01-01

    Educators increasingly recognize that students need a more contemporary, multimodal literacy that requires them to examine how their written, oral, visual, and electronic modes of communication inform one another to generate meaning. Helping students hone their multimodal literacies will enable them to develop PowerPoint presentations in ways that…

  3. 42 CFR 456.380 - Individual written plan of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) The plan of care must include— (1) Diagnoses, symptoms, complaints, and complications indicating the... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual written plan of care. 456.380 Section... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Utilization Control: Intermediate...

  4. Perceptions of the Qualities of Written Arguments by Japanese Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shinobu

    2011-01-01

    This study examines how Japanese students perceive the qualities of written arguments that were constructed to have different forms. Based on the theoretical dimensions of verbal communication styles that Gudykunst and Ting-Toomey (1988) proposed, the research questions asked whether the respondents would perceive direct arguments to be of higher…

  5. Effect of Written Presentation on Performance in Introductory Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, John; Ballard, Shawn

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the written work of students in the introductory calculus-based electricity and magnetism course at the University of Arkansas. The students' solutions to hourly exams were divided into a small set of countable features organized into three major categories, mathematics, language, and graphics. Each category was further divided…

  6. Written Emotional Expression as an Intervention for Asthma: A Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Melissa A.; Kehle, Thomas J.; Peck, Heather L.; Margiano, Suzanne G.; Dobson, Robin; Peczynski, Kate; Gardner, Kate; Theodore, Lea A.; Alric, Jolie M.

    2006-01-01

    There is a great deal of research revealing how asthma is influenced by psychological variables such as symptom perception and negative emotions. Psychologically based treatments including biofeedback, yoga, hypnosis, stress management, relaxation and guided imagery, and written-emotional expression have all been effective in improving pulmonary…

  7. Written Formative Assessment and Silence in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee Hang, Desmond Mene; Bell, Beverley

    2015-01-01

    In this commentary, we build on Xinying Yin and Gayle Buck's discussion by exploring the cultural practices which are integral to formative assessment, when it is viewed as a sociocultural practice. First we discuss the role of assessment and in particular oral and written formative assessments in both western and Samoan cultures, building on the…

  8. Grading Written Work: An Integral Part of Writing Workshop Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Kristen

    2011-01-01

    This article chronicles how the process of reviewing and grading student written work became an integral part of a middle school teacher's writing workshop practice. In addition to discussing how reading student work can bring educators back to the heart of the profession (including the belief that spending time with drafts can reap more rewards…

  9. RECOGNITION METHOD FOR CURSIVE JAPANESE WORD WRITTEN IN LATIN CHARACTERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maruyama, K.; Nakano, Y.

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a recognition method for cursive Japanese words written in Latin characters. The method integrates multiple classifiers using duplicated can­ didates in multiple classifiers and orders of classifiers to improve the word recog­ nition rate combining their results. In experiments u

  10. Students' Written Arguments in General Chemistry Laboratory Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Aeran; Hand, Brian; Greenbowe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the written arguments developed by college freshman students using the Science Writing Heuristic approach in inquiry-based general chemistry laboratory classrooms and its relationships with students' achievement in chemistry courses. Fourteen freshman students participated in the first year of the study while 19…

  11. Grammatical Planning, Execution, and Control in Written Sentence Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottbusch, Guido

    2010-01-01

    In this study participants were asked to describe pictured events in one type-written sentence, containing one of two different syntactic structures (subordinated vs. coordinated subject noun phrases). According to the hypothesis, the larger subordinated structure (one noun phrase including a second, subordinated, one) should be cognitively more…

  12. Written Discourse Development in CLIL at Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Rachel; Llinares, Ana; McCabe, Anne

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a study of written development in English as a foreign language produced in a content and language integrated learning (CLIL) environment. The texts analysed, from history classes, were collected annually over the four-year obligatory junior secondary education program from the same students (aged 12 to 16), in two state…

  13. Validating a Written Instrument for Assessing Students' Fractions Schemes and

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Jesse L. M.; Norton, Anderson; Boyce, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has documented schemes and operations that undergird students' understanding of fractions. This prior research was based, in large part, on small-group teaching experiments. However, written assessments are needed in order for teachers and researchers to assess students' ways of operating on a whole-class scale. In this study,…

  14. Written Corrective Feedback: The Perception of Korean EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Bohyon

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the perception of Korean EFL learners toward feedback types on their written errors. The survey was administered using an adopted questionnaire from previous studies (Ishii 2011; Leki, 1991). This further allows a comparison of Korean EFL learners' attitudes with the responses to an identical questionnaire by Japanese EFL…

  15. Monitoring Cataract Surgical Outcomes: 'Hand Written' Registration Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Cook

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this hand written method of monitoring cataract surgery outcomes is to provide a practical method, assisting cataract surgeons and programme managers to monitor qualitatively the results of their cataract surgery. Such monitoring is the key to improving the quality and results of our cataract surgery.The hand registered method is quick, simple, and friendly to use!

  16. Distribution of Articles in Written Composition among Malaysian ESL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Mia Emily Abdul; Rahim, Emma Marini Abdul; Ning, Chia Han

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate the distribution patterns of the English grammar articles (a, an, and the) as well as the distributions of their colligation patterns in written compositions of English among Malaysian ESL learners. This paper reports the results of a corpus-based study on articles used by these learners. The method used in this…

  17. Pinning of written bits in perpendicular recording media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greaves, S.J.; Muraoka, H. E-mail: muraoka@riec.tohoku.ac.jp; Sonobe, Y.; Schabes, M.; Nakamura, Y

    2001-10-01

    A perpendicular medium comprising two distinct magnetic layers is described. One layer has a granular structure with isolated, exchange-decoupled grains and the other is a continuous, exchange-coupled layer. In the combined structure domain wall movement is restricted and reversed grains within written bits are eliminated. The S/N ratio is improved compared with single layers of either type alone.

  18. Deposit model for volcanogenic uranium deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breit, George N.; Hall, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    Volcanism is a major contributor to the formation of important uranium deposits both close to centers of eruption and more distal as a result of deposition of ash with leachable uranium. Hydrothermal fluids that are driven by magmatic heat proximal to some volcanic centers directly form some deposits. These fluids leach uranium from U-bearing silicic volcanic rocks and concentrate it at sites of deposition within veins, stockworks, breccias, volcaniclastic rocks, and lacustrine caldera sediments. The volcanogenic uranium deposit model presented here summarizes attributes of those deposits and follows the focus of the International Atomic Energy Agency caldera-hosted uranium deposit model. Although inferred by some to have a volcanic component to their origin, iron oxide-copper-gold deposits with economically recoverable uranium contents are not considered in this model.

  19. Toward a Taxonomy of Written Errors: Investigation into the Written Errors of Hong Kong Cantonese ESL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Alice Y. W.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines common lexicogrammatical problems found in Cantonese English as a second language (ESL) learners' written English output. A study was conducted with 387 student participants, who were asked to do two untutored and unaided free-writing tasks of about 200-300 words each. A range of lexicogrammatical error types commonly found…

  20. THE WRITTEN DISCOURSE OF INTERVIEWING STYLE FOR A MAGAZINE INTERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie Barrot

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper examines the written discourse of interviewing style for the purpose of print publication. Specifically, this paper sought to describe and explain the phases of interviewing procedures, the typology of the questions, and the transitional strategies executed by Oprah Winfrey during her interviews for O Magazine. One hundred and ten (110 response-soliciting statements were subjected to discourse analytic procedure to determine the features of such utterances. The results showed that her interview procedure follows a certain pattern that contributes to her ability to maintain the intimacy, familiarity, and dynamics of conversation. Further, results revealed that the interviewer employs a variety of response-soliciting strategies and transitional strategies that unconsciously put the control and authority in the conversation to the interviewees. Finally, some pedagogical implications were also presented for classroom use. Keywords: discourse analysis, interviewing style, interview questions, written discourse

  1. Oral and written instruction of oral hygiene: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnacke, Daniela; Beldoch, Magdalena; Bohn, Gertrude-Heidi; Seghaoui, Ouarda; Hegel, Nicole; Deinzer, Renate

    2012-10-01

    This randomized, evaluator-masked, controlled study evaluates the effectiveness of oral in contrast to written instruction of oral hygiene. Eighty-three students without clinical signs of periodontitis were randomly assigned to either a control group or one of three experimental conditions: 1) written instruction, 2) standardized oral instruction, or 3) individualized oral instruction. Plaque and bleeding indices were assessed to analyze intervention effects on oral health and oral hygiene skills. Measurements took place at baseline and 4 weeks after intervention. Groups differed significantly with respect to gingival bleeding and were tentatively significant with respect to oral hygiene skills. Participants who had received oral individualized instructions showed the best results. A gradient of effectiveness of the instruction methods was observed with most favorable results for the individualized instruction.

  2. Student Views of Technology-Mediated Written Corrective Feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Hanne Wacher

    2017-01-01

    and practices concerning the specific – and time-consuming – language-teacher activity of providing WCF and 2) potential changes in student attitudes when technology is used to mediate the feedback. At the core of the study is an eight-month intervention which was carried out with three teachers of English...... as a foreign language and their lower-secondary classes, requiring the teachers to make use of a specific program supportive of effective written corrective feedback in their provision of feedback to their students. The article will report on results pertaining to student attitudes to the changes brought about...... by the intervention, which changed both teacher and student practices. Data was collected through student questionnaires concerning their views of the roles of written corrective feedback for foreign language acquisition, and also their views of and attitudes to their teacher’s normal practice were addressed...

  3. Hidden scaling patterns and universality in written communication

    CERN Document Server

    Formentin, M; Zanzotto, G; Maritan, A

    2013-01-01

    The temporal statistics exhibited by written correspondence appear to be media dependent, with features which have so far proven difficult to characterize. We explain the origin of these difficulties by disentangling the role of spontaneous activity from decision-based prioritizing processes in human dynamics, clocking all waiting times through each agent's `proper time' measured by activity. This unveils the same fundamental patterns in written communication across all media (letters, email, sms), with response times displaying truncated power-law behavior and average exponents near -3/2. When standard time is used, the response time probabilities are theoretically predicted to exhibit a bi-modal character, which is empirically borne out by our new years-long data on email. These novel perspectives on the temporal dynamics of human correspondence should aid in the analysis of interaction phenomena in general, including resource management, optimal pricing and routing, information sharing, emergency handling.

  4. Hidden scaling patterns and universality in written communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formentin, M; Lovison, A; Maritan, A; Zanzotto, G

    2014-07-01

    The temporal statistics exhibited by written correspondence appear to be media dependent, with features which have so far proven difficult to characterize. We explain the origin of these difficulties by disentangling the role of spontaneous activity from decision-based prioritizing processes in human dynamics, clocking all waiting times through each agent's "proper time" measured by activity. This unveils the same fundamental patterns in written communication across all media (letters, email, sms), with response times displaying truncated power-law behavior and average exponents near -3/2. When standard time is used, the response time probabilities are theoretically predicted to exhibit a bimodal character, which is empirically borne out by our newly collected years-long data on email. These perspectives on the temporal dynamics of human correspondence should aid in the analysis of interaction phenomena in general, including resource management, optimal pricing and routing, information sharing, and emergency handling.

  5. Written expression in boys with attention deficit disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resta, S P; Eliot, J

    1994-12-01

    32 boys, between the ages of 8 and 13 years, were identified on four teachers' and parents' rating scales (including the diagnostic criteria of the DSM-III for ADD) as showing attention deficits and hyperactivity (ADD + H; n = 10), attention deficits without hyperactivity (ADD-H; n = 11), or without ADD (attention deficits controls; n = 11). All subjects were administered Bender's Visual-motor Gestalt test and the Written Language Assessment. The ADD + H children produced significantly more errors on the Bender-Gestalt test, and both groups with attention deficits had lower (poorer) scores on most of the written language subtests. Results were interpreted as providing evidence that these children possessed significant limitations in their writing, copying, and composition.

  6. Synergistic relationships between Analytical Chemistry and written standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valcárcel, Miguel, E-mail: qa1vacam@uco.es; Lucena, Rafael

    2013-07-25

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Analytical Chemistry is influenced by international written standards. •Different relationships can be established between them. •Synergies can be generated when these standards are conveniently managed. -- Abstract: This paper describes the mutual impact of Analytical Chemistry and several international written standards (norms and guides) related to knowledge management (CEN-CWA 14924:2004), social responsibility (ISO 26000:2010), management of occupational health and safety (OHSAS 18001/2), environmental management (ISO 14001:2004), quality management systems (ISO 9001:2008) and requirements of the competence of testing and calibration laboratories (ISO 17025:2004). The intensity of this impact, based on a two-way influence, is quite different depending on the standard considered. In any case, a new and fruitful approach to Analytical Chemistry based on these relationships can be derived.

  7. An Integrated Optical Memory based on Laser Written Waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Corrielli, Giacomo; Mazzera, Margherita; Osellame, Roberto; de Riedmatten, Hugues

    2016-01-01

    We report on the first realization of an integrated optical memory for light based on a laser written waveguide in a doped crystal. Using femto-second laser micromachining, we fabricate waveguides in Pr$^{3+}$:Y$_2$SiO$_5$ crystal. We demonstrate that the waveguide inscription does not affect the coherence properties of the material and that the light confinement in the waveguide increases the interaction with the active ions by a factor 6. We also demonstrate that, analogously to the bulk crystals, we can operate the optical pumping protocols necessary to prepare the population in atomic frequency combs, that we use to demonstrate light storage in excited and spin states of the Praseodymium ions. Our results represent the first realization of laser written waveguides in a Pr$^{3+}$:Y$_2$SiO$_5$ crystal and the first implementation of an integrated on-demand spin wave optical memory. They open new perspectives for integrated quantum memories.

  8. [Dissociated preservation of written expression in aphasia with recurrent utterances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambier, J; Masson, C; Robine, B

    1993-01-01

    In a female patient, aphasia with recurrent utterances resulted from a double lesion of the left hemisphere, located in the base of the third frontal gyrus and the upper temporal gyri. Predominant in the fluent oral expression was a repeated neologism of which the patient was unaware. The written expression, efficient for lexical entities, was devoid of syntax and had the features of phonological agraphia. Both orally and in written words comprehension was satisfactory but syntactic comprehension was deficient. The stereotyped verbal behaviour could be due to dysfunction of the phonemic programmer. Rupture of the audi-phonatory loop, confirmed by degradation of the verbal working, memory, made this dysfunction worse and accounted for the anosognosia. The participation of the right hemisphere and of the preserved left hemispheric structures in the persistence of various language activities are discussed.

  9. Usability of tablet computers to facilitate instant written feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Prigmore, Martyn; Gledhill, Duke

    2014-01-01

    We undertake a usability evaluation of tablet computers and handwriting capture and recognition software for use in the classroom. The aim is to assess whether the current crop of tablets and available software offer a viable platform for the immediate capture and dissemination of formative or summative written feedback. If so, then these devices could offer an effective and efficient approach to sharing feedback with our students. \\ud We examine a range of tablet devices, covering the major ...

  10. The Significance of Self-built Learners’ Written English Corpus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>Researchers have reached an agreement that corpus exerts an important role in the English teaching and learning,and several learners’ corpus have been established.This paper aims to discuss the necessity and significance of establishing self-built learners’ written English corpus in the hope that teachers and learners will get to know it and use it effectively in their practice.

  11. Sarcasm in written communication: emoticons are efficient markers of intention

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Dominic; Filik, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Here we present two studies that investigate the use of emoticons in clarifying message intent. We look at sarcasm in particular, which can be especially hard to interpret correctly in written communication. In both studies, participants were required to make the intentions of their messages clear. In the first, they clarified the meaning of existing sentences without altering the wording; in the second, they produced their own sentences. Results provided clear evidence that tongue and wink e...

  12. Moiré Fibre Bragg Grating Written on Strained Fibres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙磊; 冯新焕; 刘艳格; 张伟刚; 袁树忠; 开桂云; 董孝义

    2004-01-01

    Moiré fibre Bragg gratings are made in a single mode fibre and a polarization-maintaining fibre respectively, using an excimer KrF laser and a phase mask. Two gratings are written at the same location of the optical fibre. The wavelength spacing can be finely tuned from 0 to 1.86nm by straining the optical fibre during UV illumination.

  13. Polish Phoneme Statistics Obtained On Large Set Of Written Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Ziółko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The phonetical statistics were collected from several Polish corpora. The paper is a summaryof the data which are phoneme n-grams and some phenomena in the statistics. Triphonestatistics apply context-dependent speech units which have an important role in speech recognitionsystems and were never calculated for a large set of Polish written texts. The standardphonetic alphabet for Polish, SAMPA, and methods of providing phonetic transcriptions are described.

  14. Effect of written presentation on performance in introductory physics

    OpenAIRE

    Shawn Ballard; John Stewart

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the written work of students in the introductory calculus-based electricity and magnetism course at the University of Arkansas. The students’ solutions to hourly exams were divided into a small set of countable features organized into three major categories, mathematics, language, and graphics. Each category was further divided into subfeatures. The total number of features alone explained more than 30% of the variance in exam scores and from 9% to 15% of the variance in c...

  15. STRATEGIES OF EXPRESSING WRITTEN APOLOGIES IN THE ONLINE NEWSPAPERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cipto Wardoyo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Expressing apology is a universal activity although people have different strategies or ways to express the apology based on the culture, situation, and context. An apology has played a vital role in verbal politeness; it is certainly impolite when someone does not express an apology when he or she has commited an offence to the others. Apologies in the Pragmatic study is classified under speech act theory. An apology based on Searle (1969 is classified as expressive speech acts because it expresses speaker’s physiological attitude. An apology expresses speaker’s sorrow and regret because he/she has offended hearers or readers.  This paper tries to discuss strategies of editors in expressing written apologies in the online newspaper. The objective of this paper is to explain what the strategies of written apologies are in the online newspaper. This study uses qualitative method; the writer chooses descriptive interpretative technique for analyzing data. There are four written apologies in the online neswpapers as data sources in this paper, the data are taken from The Jakarta Post, The Daily Express, The Sun, and Brisbane Times. The writer tries to describe and analyzes utterances in the data sources based on Olshtain & Cohen theory (1986. There are five main strategies in expressing apologies according to Olshtain & Cohen (1986; they are Illocutionary Force Indicating Device (IFID, expression responsibility, explanation/justification, offer repairs, and promise forbearance. The writer found that all of the written apologies used combination strategies, they used IFID by using performative verb: apologize and be sorry then followed by expression resposbility, explanation, offer repairs, and promise forbearance. Keywords: apologies, speech acts, politeness, pragmatics

  16. Effect of written presentation on performance in introductory physics

    OpenAIRE

    Shawn Ballard; John Stewart

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the written work of students in the introductory calculus-based electricity and magnetism course at the University of Arkansas. The students’ solutions to hourly exams were divided into a small set of countable features organized into three major categories, mathematics, language, and graphics. Each category was further divided into subfeatures. The total number of features alone explained more than 30% of the variance in exam scores and from 9% to 15% of the variance in c...

  17. THE COMPETITION TER, HAVER AND EXISTIR IN THE SCHOLAR WRITTEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elyne Giselle de Santana Lima Aguiar VITÓRIO

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering that, in Brazilian Portuguese, “ter” is the existential verb selected by the speech, but in the written, “haver” is the canonical existential verb and “existir”, due its character of noun existential verb and hence trend to present a low and constant percentual use, we describe and analyze the existential constructions build with the verbs “ter”, “haver” and “existir” in the written of Elementary, High School and College students in the city of Maceió/AL. In order to do that, we follow the theoretical and methodological basis of the Theory of Variation and Change (WEINREICH; LABOV; HERZOG, 2006; LABOV 2008, joint with linguistic studies in the Brazilian Portuguese (AVELAR, 2006a; MARINS, 2013; VITÓRIO, 2014 and we use, for the statistical analysis of data, the software GOLDVARB X. According with the results, we verify that there is a tight competition between “ter” and “haver” and a low frequency of “existir”, and this variation is conditioned by the groups of factors semantic trace of the internal argument, scholarity and the textual production theme, with the verb “ter” being more often used when the internal argument presents the trace [+ concrete], in the written of less educated and when the textual production theme is related with the personal experience of the students.

  18. Prosodic Parallelism—Comparing Spoken and Written Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiese, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The Prosodic Parallelism hypothesis claims adjacent prosodic categories to prefer identical branching of internal adjacent constituents. According to Wiese and Speyer (2015), this preference implies feet contained in the same phonological phrase to display either binary or unary branching, but not different types of branching. The seemingly free schwa-zero alternations at the end of some words in German make it possible to test this hypothesis. The hypothesis was successfully tested by conducting a corpus study which used large-scale bodies of written German. As some open questions remain, and as it is unclear whether Prosodic Parallelism is valid for the spoken modality as well, the present study extends this inquiry to spoken German. As in the previous study, the results of a corpus analysis recruiting a variety of linguistic constructions are presented. The Prosodic Parallelism hypothesis can be demonstrated to be valid for spoken German as well as for written German. The paper thus contributes to the question whether prosodic preferences are similar between the spoken and written modes of a language. Some consequences of the results for the production of language are discussed.

  19. Prosodic Parallelism – comparing spoken and written language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Wiese

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Prosodic Parallelism hypothesis claims adjacent prosodic categories to prefer identical branching of internal adjacent constituents. According to Wiese and Speyer (2015, this preference implies feet contained in the same phonological phrase to display either binary or unary branching, but not different types of branching. The seemingly free schwa-zero alternations at the end of some words in German make it possible to test this hypothesis. The hypothesis was successfully tested by conducting a corpus study which used large-scale bodies of written German. As some open questions remain, and as it is unclear whether Prosodic Parallelism is valid for the spoken modality as well, the present study extends this inquiry to spoken German. As in the previous study, the results of a corpus analysis recruiting a variety of linguistic constructions are presented. The Prosodic Parallelism hypothesis can be demonstrated to be valid for spoken German as well as for written German. The paper thus contributes to the question whether prosodic preferences are similar between the spoken and written modes of a language. Some consequences of the results for the production of language are discussed.

  20. [Alcohol advertising in written mass media in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes-Santiago, J; Alvarez Muñiz, M L; Baz Lomba, A

    2007-03-01

    Alcohol advertising is a powerful factor of incitation to consumption. We analyzed the alcohol advertising, especially that youth-focused, in written mass media in Spain during the period 2002-2006. Annual cross-sectional study of advertisements in 41 widely difused written mass media (average readers: 10,1 millions). Media admitting alcohol publicity were 29% in the whole. (2,9 millions of readers on average, 29% of total readers). Alcohol advertising constituted the 3,8% of global publicity and the 8,6% of the publicity in media admitting alcohol publicity. In this period only 4% of the media (2,4% of total readers) inserted antidrug campaigns. In brief, three out of 10 total readers and one out of 12 people older than 15 years suffered the impact of tobacco advertising. Young people were included in 33% of alcohol advertisements and 3 out of 6 of youth-oriented magazines permitted a such publicity. Alcohol publicity remains high in written mass media in Spain. By contrast few people received informative antidrug campaigns. Advertising was preferentially directed to young people.

  1. Marginalia as the beginning of written culture: The Glosas Emilianensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Šabec

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Glosas emilianenses are notes in Latin and in a Romance language dating from the eleventh century, written by an anonymous monk between the lines and in the margins of a Latin manuscript known as Codex Aemilianensis 60 to explicate syntactic, morphological, and semantic difficulties in understanding the original. The document was named after its place of origin, a monastery in the village of San Millán de la Cogolla, known as “the cradle of Castilian.” The non-Latin Romance glosses are believed to be the first written accounts of the language that later evolved into present-day Castilian or Spanish; they are therefore invaluable historical, linguistic, literary, and cultural material. The place and time of the origin of the glosses are not a coincidence, but a consequence of particular historical circumstances in the Iberian Peninsula. The Moorish invasion in 711 AD destroyed the Visigothic Kingdom and constrained the development of Christian culture, confining it to two independent cores in the north. The ninth century therefore saw the establishment of the County of Castile emerging from the two cores as the predecessor of the Kingdom of Castile (1065. Due to turbulent historical events, the place was populated by people from various adjacent and rather distant countries, thus making the spoken language a mixture of several varieties of Vulgar Latin, Mozarabic, and Navarrian (Basque elements. All of these features are reflected in the glosses in the San Millán manuscript. Therefore, it is difficult for linguists to name the variant of the Romance language the glosses were written in: “the Riojan dialect,” “a vernacular Castilian-Riojan dialect of the second half of the eleventh century displaying tendencies towards learned Latin,” or “a Riojan dialect with elements more common to neighboring dialects (Aragon, Navarrian, Léon, and Mozarabic than to Castilian.” However, because the San Millán glosses also include elements

  2. CURRICULUM LEADERSIHP: STRATEGIES FOR LINKING THE WRITTEN AND DELIVERED CURRICULIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Damovska

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The focus will be put on teachers as curriculum leaders, being challenged on a daily basis by how to attend to the delivered curriculum(the practice without neglecting the written curriculum(the theory, and vice versa, all the while analyzing strategies that will link both curricula and implement these conclusions in their further teaching practice.Curricula present written guides identifying the content and material that should be covered, and are given to teachers (sometimes as a detailed guide to follow religiously. However, as opposed to theory, practice is a different and delicate matter, as the teachers tries not to overstep the boundaries of the curriculum already include as much of their own creative energy as possible.These points will be expanded through analysis of the results of a qualitative research on the understanding of the content of leadership, done on pre-school and primary school teachers, whose everyday contact with their pupils will illustrate the reality of leadership in schools in the local context of R. Macedonia.Furthermore, the “how” of overcoming the challenges on the path of successful school leadership, however tricky they might be will be analyzed from firsthand experiences and compared through the matrix of what is considered able to “correct”. As educators, we successfully bridge the gap between theory and practice, to apply the theoretical know-how in a realistic classroom setting, and to convert the written paradigms into practice, thus only through educational leadership can we overcome the pedagogical challenges and  effectively transfer the knowledge to the students, bringing about positive outcomes.

  3. Learning Written English: The Perspective of Chinese ESL Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wailan Ng; Grace Zhang

    2007-01-01

    This study intends to identify the perceived difficulties of Chinese ESL students writing in English and their possible solutions. In particular, it aims to study the similarities and differences between the perceptions of Chinese ESL students and their ESL teachers. A total of 20 informants,consisting of ten Chinese ESL students and ten ESL teachers, evaluated three compositions written by Chinese ESL students. Both Student Evaluators and Teacher Evaluators were interviewed in order to have an in-depth understanding of their perceptions.

  4. The beginnings of the written culture in Antiquity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Isabel Panosa

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an analysis of writing as a system for communication, since its origins, in terms of its uses and socio-cultural context. We shall also look to review and comment on the way in which it has evolved in time and space and its primordial domains for expression. Likewise, we shall look at the current state of affairs with respect to graphic communication, which includes the alphabet, logographic systems and symbols. From a more global point of view, the relationship between the concept of writing and the concept of civilisation is studied and two dimensions are set out: the oral culture and the written culture.

  5. Initial teaching of written language. From theory to practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María CLEMENTE LINUESA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available For decades the matter of teaching writing focused on a methodological issue, the assessment of the phonetic and global methods. Both approaches were based on the intuitions and practices of teachers and focused mainly on learning the writing system. Today we have available an important body of research-based theory that has contributed essential keys for positing a didactics of the written language with a sturdier foundation. Using contributions from different lines of theory, in this paper we present an integrated proposal for teaching writing.

  6. Three-dimensional imaging of direct-written photonic structures

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, Graham D; Thayil, Anisha; Withford, Michael J; Booth, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Third harmonic generation microscopy has been used to analyze the morphology of photonic structures created using the femtosecond laser direct-write technique. Three dimensional waveguide arrays and waveguide-Bragg gratings written in fused-silica and doped phosphate glass were investigated. A sensorless adaptive optical system was used to correct the optical aberrations occurring in the sample and microscope system, which had a lateral resolution of less than 500 nm. This non-destructive testing method creates volume reconstructions of photonic devices and reveals details invisible to other linear microscopy and index profilometry techniques.

  7. Machine Recognition of Hand Written Characters using Neural Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Perwej, Yusuf; 10.5120/1819-2380

    2012-01-01

    Even today in Twenty First Century Handwritten communication has its own stand and most of the times, in daily life it is globally using as means of communication and recording the information like to be shared with others. Challenges in handwritten characters recognition wholly lie in the variation and distortion of handwritten characters, since different people may use different style of handwriting, and direction to draw the same shape of the characters of their known script. This paper demonstrates the nature of handwritten characters, conversion of handwritten data into electronic data, and the neural network approach to make machine capable of recognizing hand written characters.

  8. Some Thoughts on a Report Written 70 Years Ago

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard; Frey

    2015-01-01

    This is a report my father,Dr.Richard Frey,wrote to the China Aid Council in the United States in March 1945 to seek international assistance for the military and civilians of the border area.It was written after he started to work in Yan’an after leaving the Shanxi-Chahar-Hebei antiJapanese front,a place he would never forget all his life.In this report,he gave a personal account of the conditions and

  9. Clarity Versus Accuracy and Objectivity in Written Legal English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Janulevičienė

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to analyse the most important grammatical and, specifically, syntactic features and to point out some prominent lexical ones, which aim at accuracy and objectivity of a written legal document, and to discuss how these features influence clarity and transparency of the legal documents. The study covers the analysis of some EU, UK, US legislative acts alongside with some extracts from contract samples. The analysis reveals that written legal English is distinguished by long compound sentences, often with inverted word order and numerous embeddings, passive constructions and nominalisations, specific use of personal pronouns and collocations of synonyms (doublets and triplets, etc. These means allow to achieve the most possible accuracy and objectivity in legal texts but make them complicated and difficult to comprehend at once. Formality, achieved by the mentioned means, makes legal English distant from everyday language and often becomes a reason for criticism. Plain English supporters encourage simplifying legal language; however, long traditions of legal English make changes slow and difficult. Therefore, comprehension and usage of legal English still requires special knowledge of its lexical and grammatical features.

  10. Uses of the word "macula" in written English, 1400-present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Stephen G; Leffler, Christopher T

    2014-01-01

    We compiled uses of the word "macula" in written English by searching multiple databases, including the Early English Books Online Text Creation Partnership, America's Historical Newspapers, the Gale Cengage Collections, and others. "Macula" has been used: as a non-medical "spot" or "stain", literal or figurative, including in astronomy and in Shakespeare; as a medical skin lesion, occasionally with a following descriptive adjective, such as a color (macula alba); as a corneal lesion, including the earliest identified use in English, circa 1400; and to describe the center of the retina. Francesco Buzzi described a yellow color in the posterior pole ("retina tinta di un color giallo") in 1782, but did not use the word "macula". "Macula lutea" was published by Samuel Thomas von Sömmering by 1799, and subsequently used in 1818 by James Wardrop, which appears to be the first known use in English. The Google n-gram database shows a marked increase in the frequencies of both "macula" and "macula lutea" following the introduction of the ophthalmoscope in 1850. "Macula" has been used in multiple contexts in written English. Modern databases provide powerful tools to explore historical uses of this word, which may be underappreciated by contemporary ophthalmologists.

  11. Oral and Written Expression in Children With Reading Comprehension Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretti, Barbara; Motta, Eleonora; Re, Anna Maria

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have highlighted that children with reading comprehension difficulties also have problems in tasks that involve telling a story, in writing or verbally. The main differences identified regard poor comprehenders' lower level of coherence in their productions by comparison with good comprehenders. Only one study has compared poor and good comprehenders' performance in both modalities (oral and written), however, to see whether these modalities differently influence poor comprehenders' performance. We qualitatively and quantitatively compared the performance of good and poor comprehenders in oral and written narrative tasks with the aim of shedding light on this issue. Regression analyses were also used to explore the role of working memory and vocabulary in explaining individual differences. Our results showed that the two groups produced narratives of comparable length, with similar percentages of spelling mistakes, whereas they differed in terms of the quality of their narratives, regardless of the modality. These differences were qualified by analyzing the children's use of connective devices, and poor comprehenders were found to use a higher proportion of additive devices than good comprehenders. Regression analyses showed that working memory (particularly the intrusion errors measure) explained a modest part of the qualitative differences in narrative production. Implications for our theoretical understanding of poor comprehenders' profiles and education are discussed. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2014.

  12. Interference microscopy of femtosecond laser written waveguides in phosphate glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, D.; Mahlmann, D.; Wortmann, D.; Gottmann, J.

    2009-08-01

    By focusing fs-laser radiation in the volume of a transparent material the refractive index can be changed locally, leading to 3-dimensional waveguiding structures. Waveguides are written in phosphate glass (IOG from Schott) at a depth of 100 μm below the surface. The pulse energy and the scan velocity are varied. For the first time the optical path difference caused by the waveguides and therefore the refractive index distribution of the waveguides and their cross sections are determined using interference microscopy. The optical path difference measured in the written structures and their cross sections is analyzed by a phase-shift algorithm. Thus, the refractive index distribution both along a line perpendicular to the waveguide and in the plane of a cross section is determined. The results are visualized as 2-dimensional graphics. Several regions of opposite sign of the refractive index change are observed in the cross sections of waveguides generated by femtosecond laser pulses. The number and the size of these regions are increasing with increasing pulse energy and decreasing scan velocity.

  13. Aphasia friendly written health information: content and design characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Tanya A; Worrall, Linda E; Hickson, Louise M; Hoffmann, Tammy C

    2011-08-01

    People with aphasia need communicatively accessible written health information. Healthcare providers require knowledge of how to develop printed education materials (PEMs) in formats that people with aphasia prefer and can read. This study aimed to explore formatting characteristics considered to be barriers and facilitators to reading PEMs. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 40 adults with aphasia who were selected using maximum variation sampling across aphasia severity, reading ability, and time post-stroke. Participants were shown stroke and aphasia PEMs obtained from the recruiting stroke services, asked to rank them from most liked to least liked, and comment on factors that made the PEMs easier and harder to read. The majority of participants ranked the aphasia friendly stroke (56.4%, n = 22) and aphasia (87.2%, n = 34) PEMs as most liked. Forty-five facilitator and 46 barrier codes were identified using qualitative content analysis and grouped into two categories; (1) content characteristics and (2) design characteristics. Findings support many of the recommendations found within the literature for developing best practice PEMs and accessible information for other patient groups. Routine consideration of the facilitators and barriers identified will contribute to making written information more accessible to people with aphasia.

  14. [A workshop to improve written communication skills of medical students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitran, Marcela; Zúñiga, Denisse; Flotts, Paulina; Padilla, Oslando; Moreno, Rodrigo

    2009-05-01

    Despite being among the best academically prepared of the country, many medical students have difficulties to communicate in writing. In 2005, the School of Medicine at the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile introduced a writing workshop in the undergraduate curriculum, to enhance the students' writing skills. To describe the workshop and its impact on the writing skills of 3 cohorts of students. This 30-h workshop used a participative methodology with emphasis on deliberate practice and feedback. Students worked in small groups with a faculty member specially trained in writing. The qualities of the essays written before and after the workshop were compared. Essays were rated by a professional team that used an analytic rubric to measure formal aspects of text writing as well as more complex thinking processes. There was a significant improvement in the quality of the texts written after the workshop; the main changes occurred in argumentation, and in paragraph and text structure. This improvement was inversely proportional to the initial level of performance, and independent of gender. A writing workshop based on deliberate practice and personalized feedback is effective to enhance the writing proficiency of medical students. Due to its design, this workshop could be useful for students of other careers and universities.

  15. Research on cognitive, social and cultural processes of written communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo González, Rosario; Salvador Mata, Francisco

    2009-08-01

    This article compiles the investigations carried out by a Research Group of the University of Granada, Spain. Its different projects on writing's cognitive social and cultural processes have been supported by the Spanish Government. This line of research joined together linguistic, psychological, social and cultural contributions to the development of writing from the 1970s. Currently, this line of research develops in collaboration with other European Universities: (a) Interuniversity Centre for Research On Cognitive Processing in Natural and Artificial Systems (ECONA), "La Sapienza" University of Rome (Italy); (b) Anadolu University, (Eskisehir, Turkey); (c) Coimbra University (Portugal); (d) University of Zaragoza (Spain); (e) the Institute of Education of the University of London (United Kingdom). The aforementioned collaboration is materializing into projects like the International Master on Multilingual Writing: Cognitive, Intercultural and Technological Processes of Written Communication ( http://www.multilingualwriting.com ) and the International Congress: Writing in the twenty-first Century: Cognition, Multilinguisim and Technologies, held in Granada ( http://www.asprogrades.org ). This research line is focussed on the development of strategies in writing development, basic to train twenty-first century societies' citizens. In these societies, participation in production media, social exchange and the development of multilingual written communication skills through new computer technologies spread multicultural values. In order to fulfil the social exigencies, it is needed to have the collaboration of research groups for designing and applying international research projects.

  16. Self-evaluation of rater bias in written composition assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetka Sokolov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available No assessment is entirely free of bias. This paper presents findings concerning the way raters in the research group evaluate the extent to which they are influenced by various types of rater bias when grading their students’ written compositions. The sources of bias covered in the article include the teacher’s knowing the student writer and his or her proficiency in English, the difficulty of the writing task, distressful content likely to trigger the rater’s emotional reaction, the test taker’s views clashing with those of the rater, students’ progress, and the like. The data were gathered by the participants in the study via a questionnaire. In addition, the researcher’s interpretation of the respondents’ answers was verified through interviews. Although the two research methods and self-evaluation have their drawbacks, the results reveal interesting, relevant and important information on aspects which make written composition assessment less reliable and valid. The findings confirm the need to raise raters’ awareness of the causes of bias to which they are most susceptible, bringing them closer to effectively addressing the problem of assessment bias. The research involving eleven lecturers teaching Language in Use at the Department of English and American Studies at the Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana, is a part of a much larger project based on the author’s PhD thesis.

  17. Sports metaphors in Polish written commentaries on politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Wiliński

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to investigate what sports metaphors are used in Polish written commentaries on politics and what special purpose they serve. In particular, the paper examines structural metaphors that come from the lexicon of popular sports, such as boxing, racing, track and field athletics, sailing, etc. The language data, derived from English Internet websites, has been grouped and discussed according to source domains. Applying George Lakoff and Mark Johnson’s approach to metaphor, the paper attempts to determine both the kind of source domains from which common metaphors are drawn and to what degree structural metaphors are used. The data suggests that many structural metaphors can be found in the language of politics. They are drawn from a wide variety of sports source domains, although the domains of boxing, racing, sailing, and soccer are of particular prominence. It seems that the primary function of structural metaphors in written commentaries is to facilitate the interpretation of facts in a way that is enormously appealing to the reader.

  18. Cascadia Tsunami Deposit Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Robert; Jaffe, Bruce; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Peterson, Curt

    2003-01-01

    The Cascadia Tsunami Deposit Database contains data on the location and sedimentological properties of tsunami deposits found along the Cascadia margin. Data have been compiled from 52 studies, documenting 59 sites from northern California to Vancouver Island, British Columbia that contain known or potential tsunami deposits. Bibliographical references are provided for all sites included in the database. Cascadia tsunami deposits are usually seen as anomalous sand layers in coastal marsh or lake sediments. The studies cited in the database use numerous criteria based on sedimentary characteristics to distinguish tsunami deposits from sand layers deposited by other processes, such as river flooding and storm surges. Several studies cited in the database contain evidence for more than one tsunami at a site. Data categories include age, thickness, layering, grainsize, and other sedimentological characteristics of Cascadia tsunami deposits. The database documents the variability observed in tsunami deposits found along the Cascadia margin.

  19. 14 CFR 11.43 - What information must I put in my written comments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What information must I put in my written comments? 11.43 Section 11.43 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... information must I put in my written comments? (a) Your written comments must be in English and must...

  20. Teaching Job Search Written and Oral Communication Skills through an Integrated Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addams, Lon; Woodbury, Denise

    2009-01-01

    Business educators understand the value of improving students' written and oral communication skills. However, too often assignments used to develop these important skills are taught in isolation. The purpose of this article is to enhance a student's written and oral skills by integrating all aspects of the job search written documents and…

  1. Mapping out the Details: Supporting Struggling Writers' Written Expression with Concept Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Sara M.; Bouck, Emily C.

    2015-01-01

    Written expression is a key component of the secondary curriculum, but many students struggle to produce effective written expression passages. However, written expression can be supported through prewriting strategies such as concept mapping. Using a counterbalanced group design, 19 secondary students alternated between using paper- or…

  2. A Study of Oral and Written Expression Abilities of Adolescents with Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaon, Felicia

    This study investigated the oral and written expression of 16 learning disabled students in a special education alternative high school. Students were offered two prompts: one written, one verbal. Written and oral responses were scored according to a rubric similar to that used for the New York State High School English Regents Examination.…

  3. The Reliability of the OWLS Written Expression Scale with ESL Kindergarten Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Gina L.; Ogle, Keira C.; Keilty, Megan

    2011-01-01

    A reliability analysis was conducted on the Written Expression Scale from the Oral and Written Language Scales, (OWLS, Carrow-Woolfolk, 1996), with 68 ESL and 56 non-ESL kindergarten students. Interrater and internal consistency estimates for the Written Expression Scale were examined separately for each language group. Despite lower oral English…

  4. Chinese Secondary EFL Learners' and Teachers' Preferences for Types of Written Corrective Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haishan; He, Qingshun

    2017-01-01

    How learners perceive written corrective feedback (CF) associates with its effectiveness in language learning. This research investigates students' preferences for three types of written CF, i.e., direct, indirect and metalinguistic written CF, and explores the factors that encourage the teachers to employ these CFs in teaching practice. The…

  5. Biomimetic thin film deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieke, P. C.; Campbell, A. A.; Tarasevich, B. J.; Fryxell, G. E.; Bentjen, S. B.

    1991-04-01

    Surfaces derivatized with organic functional groups were used to promote the deposition of thin films of inorganic minerals. These derivatized surfaces were designed to mimic the nucleation proteins that control mineral deposition during formation of bone, shell, and other hard tissues in living organisms. By the use of derivatized substrates control was obtained over the phase of mineral deposited, the orientation of the crystal lattice and the location of deposition. These features are of considerable importance in many technically important thin films, coatings, and composite materials. Methods of derivatizing surfaces are considered and examples of controlled mineral deposition are presented.

  6. Optical Music Recognition for Scores Written in White Mensural Notation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Oliver

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An Optical Music Recognition (OMR system especially adapted for handwritten musical scores of the XVII-th and the early XVIII-th centuries written in white mensural notation is presented. The system performs a complete sequence of analysis stages: the input is the RGB image of the score to be analyzed and, after a preprocessing that returns a black and white image with corrected rotation, the staves are processed to return a score without staff lines; then, a music symbol processing stage isolates the music symbols contained in the score and, finally, the classification process starts to obtain the transcription in a suitable electronic format so that it can be stored or played. This work will help to preserve our cultural heritage keeping the musical information of the scores in a digital format that also gives the possibility to perform and distribute the original music contained in those scores.

  7. Scienceography: the study of how science is written

    CERN Document Server

    Cormode, Graham; Yun, Jinyun

    2012-01-01

    Scientific literature has itself been the subject of much scientific study, for a variety of reasons: understanding how results are communicated, how ideas spread, and assessing the influence of areas or individuals. However, most prior work has focused on extracting and analyzing citation and stylistic patterns. In this work, we introduce the notion of 'scienceography', which focuses on the writing of science. We provide a first large scale study using data derived from the arXiv e-print repository. Crucially, our data includes the "source code" of scientific papers-the LTEX source-which enables us to study features not present in the "final product", such as the tools used and private comments between authors. Our study identifies broad patterns and trends in two example areas-computer science and mathematics-as well as highlighting key differences in the way that science is written in these fields. Finally, we outline future directions to extend the new topic of scienceography.

  8. Written culture: learning how to read and write in school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Pires Vargas Bolzan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the formal aspects of writing and reading within the classroom context, emphasizing the importance of the students’ role, favoring their authorship as writers and readers from written culture. We understand that it is indispensable that the school beholds a prospective view in relation to the students’ learning, taking their ideas and constructions into consideration; that is, bearing in mind the culture of which they are carriers. We highlight the literacy teacher’s role in the process of organizing the pedagogical work that is aimed at teaching and learning reading and writing for the students that are in the early years of elementary school. In this way, we point out that the organization of the teaching requires teaching investment towards the improvement of activities and knowledge that focus on the organization of the pedagogical work, marking a long path to go to allow the assumption of pedagogical protagonism.

  9. Optimizing the efficiency of femtosecond-laser-written holograms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wædegaard, Kristian Juncher; Hansen, Henrik Dueholm; Balling, Peter

    2013-01-01

    for different laser-structuring parameters. Theoretical diffraction grating efficiencies for a binary amplitude grating show good agreement with the experimental measurements for diameters of the laser-formed holes below the pitch. Modelling based on straightforward geometrical arguments is used to find......Computer-generated binary holograms are written on a polished copper surface using single 800-nm, 120-fs pulses from a 1-kHz-repetition-rate laser system. The hologram efficiency (i.e. the power in the holographic reconstructed image relative to the incoming laser power) is investigated...... the optimal hole size. For a coverage (i.e. relative laser-structured area) of ∼43 %, the efficiency reaches ∼10 %, which corresponds to a relative power transferred to one reconstructed image of ∼20 %. The efficiency as a function of pitch (for fixed coverage) is fairly constant from 2 to 6 μm....

  10. Preposition use in oral and written learner language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Nacey

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns preposition use in oral language produced by advanced Norwegian learners of English, using primary data from an oral learner corpus (LINDSEI-NO. We investigate the frequency of inappropriate preposition use in approximately 13 hours of transcribed informal interviews, as well as the possible extent to which L1 transfer may play a role in production. The contextually inappropriate prepositions were categorized in terms of factors that may influence preposition use, with particular focus on the congruence between L1 and L2 with respect to syntactic structure and basic meaning. These results about spoken preposition use are then contrasted with results from a corresponding investigation into preposition use in a written learner corpus (NICLE, allowing for comparison of preposition usage across modes.

  11. Effect of written presentation on performance in introductory physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn Ballard

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the written work of students in the introductory calculus-based electricity and magnetism course at the University of Arkansas. The students’ solutions to hourly exams were divided into a small set of countable features organized into three major categories, mathematics, language, and graphics. Each category was further divided into subfeatures. The total number of features alone explained more than 30% of the variance in exam scores and from 9% to 15% of the variance in conceptual posttest scores. If all features and subfeatures are used, between 44% and 49% of the variance in exam scores is explained and between 22% and 28% of the variance in conceptual posttest scores. The use of language is consistently positively correlated with both exam performance and conceptual understanding.

  12. Equitable Written Assessments for English Language Learners: How Scaffolding Helps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Marcelle A.; Menon, Deepika; Sinha, Somnath; Promyod, Nattida; Wissehr, Cathy; Halverson, Kristy L.

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of the use of scaffolds in written classroom assessments through the voices of both native English speakers and English language learners from two middle schools. Students responded to assessment tasks in writing, by speaking aloud using think aloud protocols, and by reflecting in a post-assessment interview. The classroom assessment tasks were designed to engage students in scientific sense making and multifaceted language use, as recommended by the Next Generation Science Standards. Data analyses showed that both groups benefitted from the use of scaffolds. The findings revealed specific ways that modifications were supportive in helping students to comprehend, visualize and organize thinking, and elicit responses. This study offers a model for both sensitizing teachers and strengthening their strategies for scaffolding assessments equitably.

  13. A written assessment is an invalid test of numeracy skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kerri

    Nurses need good clinical numeracy skills to aid them in their clinical practice. There is some concern, however, that the calculation skills learned during pre-registration nurse education have little practical application to nurses. This article discusses the Fitness for Practice initiatives from the Nursing and Midwifery Council which aim to ensure new registrants are numerate. The article argues that written numeracy assessment tools are not a valid test of the numeracy skills candidates will require for clinical practice and that nurse education needs to focus on researching and examining how best to support, assess and develop the numeracy skills of nursing students within their clinical practice placements to ensure that at the point of registration they are fit for practice.

  14. Optical Music Recognition for Scores Written in White Mensural Notation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tardón LorenzoJ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An Optical Music Recognition (OMR system especially adapted for handwritten musical scores of the XVII-th and the early XVIII-th centuries written in white mensural notation is presented. The system performs a complete sequence of analysis stages: the input is the RGB image of the score to be analyzed and, after a preprocessing that returns a black and white image with corrected rotation, the staves are processed to return a score without staff lines; then, a music symbol processing stage isolates the music symbols contained in the score and, finally, the classification process starts to obtain the transcription in a suitable electronic format so that it can be stored or played. This work will help to preserve our cultural heritage keeping the musical information of the scores in a digital format that also gives the possibility to perform and distribute the original music contained in those scores.

  15. German Alliance for the Protection of the Written Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann Leskien

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available In March 2001, the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek in collaboration with the Bayerische Versicherungsbank (a corporate subsidiary of the well-known insurance company „Allianz” organized a congress on „Strategies of Preservation and Conservation”. During the meeting it was proposed not to wait for comprehensive solutions offered by the governmental authorities responsible for the maintenance of libraries and archives, but to tackle the problem by initiatives started within the respective organizations. As early as in June, a steering committee of representatives from libraries and archives met to establish a study group called „Deutsche Allianz zum Schutz des schriftlichen Kulturguts” (German Alliance for the Protection of the Written Heritage. At present, the committee is about to define its status and functions, its main objectives and its organizational form, but there are some clear indications of future activities which will be analyzed below.

  16. Synergistic relationships between Analytical Chemistry and written standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcárcel, Miguel; Lucena, Rafael

    2013-07-25

    This paper describes the mutual impact of Analytical Chemistry and several international written standards (norms and guides) related to knowledge management (CEN-CWA 14924:2004), social responsibility (ISO 26000:2010), management of occupational health and safety (OHSAS 18001/2), environmental management (ISO 14001:2004), quality management systems (ISO 9001:2008) and requirements of the competence of testing and calibration laboratories (ISO 17025:2004). The intensity of this impact, based on a two-way influence, is quite different depending on the standard considered. In any case, a new and fruitful approach to Analytical Chemistry based on these relationships can be derived. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A New Look at the Classical Entropy of Written English

    CERN Document Server

    Guerrero, Fabio G

    2009-01-01

    A simple method for finding the entropy and redundancy of a reasonable long sample of English text is presented. In fact, this method can be extended to other Latin languages. Some implications for practical applications such as plagiarism-detection software, and the minimum number of words that should be used in social Internet network messaging, are discussed. Results on the entropy of the English language have been obtained by direct computer processing and from first principles according to Shannon theory. The analysis is based on a total of 20.3 million characters of written English, including symbols from one to five hundred characters in length. Besides a more realistic value of the entropy of English, a new perspective on some classic entropy-related concepts is presented.

  18. Bauxite Deposits in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨化洲

    1989-01-01

    Bauxite deposits in China,rangin in age from Late Paleozoic to Cenozoic ,are distributed mainly in Shanxi,Shandong Henan,Guizhou,Guangxi and Yunnan.Based on stratigraphic relations they can be clas-sified as 6 types:inter-system marine,inter-system continental,intra-system marine,intra-system continent-tal,weathering lateritic and weathering accumulation types.But in terms of depositional environments,only four types are distinguished,I.e.the marine deposits,continental deposits,lateritic deposits and weath-ering-accumulation deposits.These deposits have been formed in two steps:firstly,the depression of paraplatform or front basin margins in paleocontinents and secondly,the development of littoral-lagoons on the eroded surface of karstified carbonate bedrocks.The aluminum may have been derived from the carbonate rocks with which the ores are associated,or from adjacent aluminosilicate rocks.

  19. Effects of Written and Auditory Language-Processing Skills on Written Passage Comprehension in Middle and High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, David; Waters, Gloria; Bertram, Julia; Ostrowski, Adam; Michaud, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The authors assessed 4,865 middle and high school students for the ability to recognize and understand written and spoken morphologically simple words, morphologically complex words, and the syntactic structure of sentences and for the ability to answer questions about facts presented in a written passage and to make inferences based on those…

  20. Geology of the Šalek valley and the surrounding areas from written sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Brezigar

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper are presented the oldest written records on Natural History, and especially the Earth Sciences concerning the [alek valley and surroundings, and that are of exceptionalcultural heritage value. We translated from archaic German a text by Hacquet from 1784 that discusses the Dobrna hot springs, and supplied it with explanations and comments.Added is the copy of a part of Hacquet’s lithohydrographic map with Šalek valley in its centre, and with our geologic explanations. Among the first geologists(geognostswho studied the Šalek valley the German Keferstein should be mentioned, also author of the first geologic map of Germany,Studer,thewell-known Swiss geologist and founder of the Swiss Geologic Survey, and Ami Boué, one of founders of the French Geologic Society.The first modern geologic map of most of the [alek valley and Dobrna depression was elaborated between 1854 and 1856 by Marko Vincenc Lipold, the first geologist of Slovene origin and for many years the general manager of the Idrija mercury mine. The paper overs also the year 1875 when by drilling through the main lignite seam the rich Velenje coal deposit was recognized. This is considered the starting year of exploitation of the Velenje colliery.

  1. The Role of Written Corrective Feedback in Developing Writing in L2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrijela Petra Nagode

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Feedback plays an important role in developing L2 writing in young learners. The article provides a brief overview of the history of giving feedback and of some contemporary views within this field. Special attention is paid to cognitive perspectives, such as the influence of written corrective feedback on shortterm memory, the influence of focused and unfocused written corrective feedback on error correction, the influence of written corrective feedback on a particular category of error, the influence of direct and indirect written corrective feedback and combinations of various types of written corrective feedback, and the influence of educational background and L2 learning background on the effectiveness of written corrective feedback in terms of sociocultural perspectives. The main aim of the article is to present readers (especially teachers with the variety of aspects of giving written corrective feedback in developing L2 writing and thus in enabling young learners to develop their L2 writing skills more effectively.

  2. Shedding of ash deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zbogar, Ana; Frandsen, Flemming; Jensen, Peter Arendt;

    2009-01-01

    Ash deposits formed during fuel thermal conversion and located on furnace walls and on convective pass tubes, may seriously inhibit the transfer of heat to the working fluid and hence reduce the overall process efficiency. Combustion of biomass causes formation of large quantities of troublesome...... ash deposits which contain significant concentrations of alkali, and earth-alkali metals. The specific composition of biomass deposits give different characteristics as compared to coal ash deposits, i.e. different physical significance of the deposition mechanisms, lower melting temperatures, etc....... Low melting temperatures make straw ashes especially troublesome, since their stickiness is higher at lower temperatures, compared to coal ashes. Increased stickiness will eventually lead to a higher collection efficiency of incoming ash particles, meaning that the deposit may grow even faster...

  3. ElectroSpark Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-25

    ElectroSpark Deposition Hard Chrome Alternatives Team Joint Cadmium Alternatives Team Canadian Hard Chrome Alternatives Team Joint Group on Pollution...00-2007 to 00-00-2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ElectroSpark Deposition 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...Processes, Inc. ElectroSpark Deposition (ESD) Results of Materials Testing and Technology Insertion January 25, 2007 Advanced Surfaces And Processes, Inc. 3

  4. Opiate written behavioral agreements: a case for abandonment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helft, Paul R; Williams, Jessica R; Bandy, Robin J

    2014-01-01

    Written behavioral agreements (WBAs) are gaining popularity as part of the effort to manage the alarming increase in prescription drug abuse. The rationale for increased use of WBAs in managing patients with chronic pain is that they are believed to increase adherence to agreed-upon behaviors, reduce addiction to or diversion of prescription drugs, and satisfy informed consent requirements. However, there are no high-quality data to support their widespread use in any of these areas. The evidence used to support the use of WBAs is insufficient to justify their unfairness and the high risk of harm they pose to the doctor-patient relationship. Instead, we contend that WBAs are being used to provide leverage for severing relationships with some of our most challenging patients. We propose that physicians treating patients for chronic pain abandon the use of WBAs. Alternatives include open communication, detailed informed consent processes, carefully documented discussions, and most important, commitment to ongoing relationships even with difficult patients.

  5. Versatile fs laser-written glass chip lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, D. G.; Gross, S.; Fuerbach, A.; Ebendorff Heidepriem, H.; Monro, T. M.; Withford, M. J.

    2013-03-01

    We report laser-written chip lasers with potential to be a platform planar technology versatile enough to cover the visible through to the mid-infrared spectral region. By femtosecond laser direct-writing a thulium doped fluoride based glass host (ZBLAN), we have demonstrated a 151% quantum efficiency λ=1.9 μm laser with a close to diffraction limited beam quality (M2~ 1.12 +/- 0.08) with 225 nm of continuous tunability in a device that can be rapidly fabricated by singlestep optical processing. The 9 mm long planar chip developed for concept demonstration contains fifteen large modearea waveguides that can operate in semi-monolithic or external cavity laser configurations. This chip laser has achieved the highest quantum efficiency from a planar glass waveguide laser. The depressed cladding geometry supports the largest fundamental modes reported for a rare-earth doped waveguide laser thereby favouring high peak-power operation which is demonstrated by achieving 1.9 kW peak-power pulses when Q-switched.

  6. Dorothea and the Written Word: Feminism and Heroism in Middlemarch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marla Lee Weitzman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In her novel Middlemarch, George Eliot challenges assumptions about gender and genre by associating Dorothea Brooke with both masculine authority and feminine emotion. Eliot does so by connecting Dorothea both to the act of writing and to the artistic production itself. Unlike Rosamond Vincy, who is associated with the romance and with popular poetry in order to devalue her, Dorothea is connected to a number of more elevated genres, which are also associated with male authority. By driving the plot, Dorothea assumes the role of the writer in several ways: she ensures Celia’s marriage with Sir James by choosing Casaubon, she reunites Lydgate and Rosamond, and helps restore Lydgate’s good name. The letter she writes to accept Casaubon’s offer of marriage is written “three times, not because she wished to change the wording, but because her hand was unusually uncertain” (Eliot, 1968, p. 33. Her ardor gets in the way of her handwriting, but not of her “wording.” Eliot endows Dorothea’s writing with characteristics that are stereotypically feminine (motivated by love and intimacy and stereotypically masculine (growing out of ardor, and expressing vigor, force and energy. By infusing the intimate with the powerful, and associating both with the act of writing, Eliot conflates the typical province of woman with the typical province of men thus disrupting conventions of both gender and genre.

  7. A written test as an alternative to performance testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Vleuten, C P; Van Luyk, S J; Beckers, H J

    1989-01-01

    Performance tests are logistically complex and time consuming. To reach adequate reliability long tests are imperative. Additionally, they are very difficult to adapt to the individual learning paths of students, which is necessary in problem-based learning. This study investigates a written alternative to performance-based tests. A Knowledge Test of Skills (KTS) was developed and administered to 380 subjects of various educational levels, including both first-year students and recently graduated doctors. By comparing KTS scores with scores on performance tests strong convergent validity was demonstrated. The KTS failed discriminant validity when compared with a general medical knowledge test. Also the identification of sub-tests discriminating between behavioural and cognitive aspects was not successful. This was due to the interdependence of the constructs measured. The KTS was able to demonstrate differences in ability level and showed subtle changes in response patterns over items, indicating construct validity. It was concluded that the KTS is a valid instrument for predicting performance scores and could very well be applied as supplementary information to performance testing. The relative ease of construction and efficiency makes the KTS a suitable substitute instrument for research purposes. The study also showed that in higher ability levels the concepts which were meant to be measured were highly related, giving evidence to the general factor theory of competence. However, it appeared that this general factor was originally non-existent in first-year students and that these competencies integrate as the educational process develops.

  8. Stylistic Analysis on Oliver Twist Written by Charles Dickens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文风

    2015-01-01

    《雾都孤儿》是一部批判现实主义小说,是狄更斯主要代表作之一.研究它的作品有很多,但很少有人文体学角度研究它,然而这部作品用了大量的文体学手法.在论文中,作者以小说的第十章为例,从文体学角度评析这篇小说.%Oliver Twist belongs to realistic social critical novel.It is one of the very famous novels written by Dickens. Many books and works have been made to study it.However,few of them study it style,and in this novel,many stylistic means are used.Therefore,in this paper,the author chooses chapter ten as an example to analyses the style of the novel from stylistic view.

  9. Correlations of clinical assessment tools with written examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun Jeong; Sunwoo, Sung

    2009-03-01

    Despite the goal of medical education, which is 'training to be a primary care physician,' only written examinations (WEs) generally have been used to assess medical student ability. We assessed clinical competence using the CPX (clinical performance examination), PA (portfolio assessment), VMA (video-monitoring assessment), CGD (case group discussion), and PCP (primary clinical practice) during students' clerkships in family medicine and correlated these clinical assessment tools with WEs. Also, we correlated these tools with each other to determine the feasibility of each as a replacement of the other tools. Thirty-nine fourth year students at University of Ulsan College of Medicine took part in their clerkship in family medicine for 2 weeks during the first session of 2005. They took 1 CPX, 2 VMAs, 6 CGDs, and 2 PCPs and were required to submit their portfolios at the end of the clerkship. We evaluated the correlations of these tools and WEs by the overall scores of each class year and in each subject. The CPX, VMA, and PCP showed no significant correlation,while PA showed strong correlation with 4th year students' overall WEs. The CGD showed strong correlation with all overall scores and with almost all subjects. In addition, the PA correlated significantly with CGD. New clinical assessment tools, such as CPX, PA, and VMA, have no significant correlation with WE, even though these tools closely correspond with real clinical practice. Therefore, these tools should be considered as complementary instruments to better assess clinical competence.

  10. Long period gratings coated with hafnium oxide by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition for refractive index measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Luis; Burton, Geoff; Kubik, Philip; Wild, Peter

    2016-04-04

    Long period gratings (LPGs) are coated with hafnium oxide using plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) to increase the sensitivity of these devices to the refractive index of the surrounding medium. PEALD allows deposition at low temperatures which reduces thermal degradation of UV-written LPGs. Depositions targeting three different coating thicknesses are investigated: 30 nm, 50 nm and 70 nm. Coating thickness measurements taken by scanning electron microscopy of the optical fibers confirm deposition of uniform coatings. The performance of the coated LPGs shows that deposition of hafnium oxide on LPGs induces two-step transition behavior of the cladding modes.

  11. MAPLE deposition of nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caricato, A.P., E-mail: annapaola.caricato@le.infn.it [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Arima, V.; Catalano, M. [National Nanotechnology Laboratory (NNL), CNR Istituto Nanoscienze, c/o Distretto Tecnologico, Via Arnesano n. 16, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Cesaria, M. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Cozzoli, P.D. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); National Nanotechnology Laboratory (NNL), CNR Istituto Nanoscienze, c/o Distretto Tecnologico, Via Arnesano n. 16, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Martino, M. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Taurino, A.; Rella, R. [Institute for Microelectronics and Microsystems, IMM-CNR, Via Monteroni, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Scarfiello, R. [National Nanotechnology Laboratory (NNL), CNR Istituto Nanoscienze, c/o Distretto Tecnologico, Via Arnesano n. 16, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Tunno, T. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Zacheo, A. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); National Nanotechnology Laboratory (NNL), CNR Istituto Nanoscienze, c/o Distretto Tecnologico, Via Arnesano n. 16, I-73100 Lecce (Italy)

    2014-05-01

    The matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) has been recently exploited for depositing films of nanomaterials by combining the advantages of colloidal inorganic nanoparticles and laser-based techniques. MAPLE-deposition of nanomaterials meeting applicative purposes demands their peculiar properties to be taken into account while planning depositions to guarantee a congruent transfer (in terms of crystal structure and geometric features) and explain the deposition outcome. In particular, since nanofluids can enhance thermal conductivity with respect to conventional fluids, laser-induced heating can induce different ablation thermal regimes as compared to the MAPLE-treatment of soft materials. Moreover, nanoparticles exhibit lower melting temperatures and can experience pre-melting phenomena as compared to their bulk counterparts, which could easily induce shape and or crystal phase modification of the material to be deposited even at very low fluences. In this complex scenario, this review paper focuses on examples of MAPLE-depositions of size and shape controlled nanoparticles for different applications highlights advantages and challenges of the MAPLE-technique. The influence of the deposition parameters on the physical mechanisms which govern the deposition process is discussed.

  12. Solid on liquid deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charmet, J., E-mail: jerome.charmet@he-arc.c [Institut des Microtechnologies Appliquees ARC, HES-SO Arc, Eplatures-Grise 17, 2300 La Chaux-de-Fonds (Switzerland); Banakh, O.; Laux, E.; Graf, B.; Dias, F.; Dunand, A.; Keppner, H. [Institut des Microtechnologies Appliquees ARC, HES-SO Arc, Eplatures-Grise 17, 2300 La Chaux-de-Fonds (Switzerland); Gorodyska, G.; Textor, M. [BioInterface group, ETHZ, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 10, ETH Hoenggerberg HCI H 525 8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Noell, W.; Rooij, N.F. de [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Institute of Microengineering, Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems laboratory, Rue Jaquet Droz 1, 2000 Neuchatel (Switzerland); Neels, A.; Dadras, M.; Dommann, A.; Knapp, H. [Centre Suisse d' Electronique et de Microtechnique SA, Rue Jacquet-Droz 1, 2002 Neuchatel (Switzerland); Borter, Ch.; Benkhaira, M. [COMELEC SA, Rue de la Paix 129, 2300 La Chaux-de-Fonds (Switzerland)

    2010-07-01

    A process for the deposition of a solid layer onto a liquid is presented. The polymer poly-di-chloro-para-xylylene, also known as Parylene C, was grown on low vapour pressure liquids using the conventional low pressure chemical vapour deposition process. A reactor was built and a process developed to enable the deposition of Parylene C at atmospheric pressure over high vapour pressure liquids. It was used to deposit Parylene C over water among others. In all cases Parylene C encapsulated the liquid without influencing its initial shape. The results presented here show also that the Parylene C properties are not affected by its growth on liquid templates and the roughness of the Parylene C surface in contact with the liquid during the deposition is extremely low.

  13. Biomimetic thin film deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieke, P.R.; Graff, G.E.; Campbell, A.A.; Bunker, B.C.; Baskaran, S.; Song, L.; Tarasevich, B.J.; Fryxell, G.E.

    1995-09-01

    Biological mineral deposition for the formation of bone, mollusk shell and other hard tissues provides materials scientists with illustrative materials processing strategies. This presentation will review the key features of biomineralization and how these features can be of technical importance. We have adapted existing knowledge of biomineralization to develop a unique method of depositing inorganic thin films and coating. Our approach to thin film deposition is to modify substrate surfaces to imitate the proteins found in nature that are responsible for controlling mineral deposition. These biomimetic surfaces control the nucleation and growth of the mineral from a supersaturated aqueous solution. This has many processing advantages including simple processing equipment, environmentally benign reagents, uniform coating of highly complex shapes, and enhanced adherence of coating. Many different types of metal oxide, hydroxide, sulfide and phosphate materials with useful mechanical, optical, electronic and biomedical properties can be deposited.

  14. Future Directions in Studies on Student Perception of Teacher Written Feedback

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Rui

    2015-01-01

    Teacher feedback plays a key role in teaching second language writing. Though teachers have devoted a great deal of time to giving written feedback to L2 students, some students complained that they benefit little from written feedback. This study reviews research on the effectiveness of teacher written feedback in ESL context or EFL context in United States, and tries to sug⁃gest future direction in further research.

  15. Tsunami Deposit Data Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, B. H.; Wanink, M.

    2007-05-01

    A digital database has been established describing tsunami deposits around the world (3 phases; 15 months). The projects involved the review and tabulation of data derived from books, catalogs, journals, preprints, citations and abstracts (currently 1000 references), into a database designed to provide a comprehensive review of the types of tsunami deposits, their geographic distribution and location, sedimentary characteristics, fossil content, age, preservation, run-up, wave height and inundation observations, etc. (34 parameters). The tsunami occurrences can be divided into many subjects, e.g., Volcanogenic (N=375), Seismites (N=49), Co-seismic (N=258), K/T Boundary Impact-triggered debris flows (N=97), Landslides (N=43), etc. Numerous publications compare tsunami deposits to storm deposits (N=38), or analyze the origin of megaboulders (N=22). Tsunami deposits occur throughout geologic time (Pre-Cambrian to present day), and because of plate tectonics, they occur along plate margins (primarily subduction zones) as well as interior to plates. In addition, they occur in epi-continental seas, fjords, etc. Few publications describe depositional processes. Deposits generated by tsunamis occur in multiple environments such as the marine, fresh water, and subaerial. Common characteristics of tsunami deposits include: 1) Deposition of thin sand sheets (can be normal, massive, inversely graded, chaotic or bimodal). 2) Erosional: basal uncomformity, mud balls, rip-up clasts, reworked fossils produced by scouring. 3) Lithology: Stacks of couplets reflecting marine incursions (often sands) into fresh water or subaerial environments (mud, soil, peat). 4) Fossil: Couplets reflects marine fossils, fresh water fossils or a mixed assemblage. 5) Geomorphology: The sand sheets taper landward and can rise in elevation. 6) Deformation: syn-depositional (soft sediments) and intraformational (stiff sediments).

  16. Speech-language therapy for adolescents with written-language difficulties: the South African context

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D Erasmus; L Schutte; M van der Merwe; S Geertsema

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVETo investigate whether privately practising speech-language therapists in South Africa are fulfilling their role of identification, assessment and intervention for adolescents with written...

  17. Word frequencies in written and spoken English based on the British National Corpus

    CERN Document Server

    Leech, Geoffrey; Wilson, Andrew (All Of Lancaster University)

    2014-01-01

    Word Frequencies in Written and Spoken English is a landmark volume in the development of vocabulary frequency studies. Whereas previous books have in general given frequency information about the written language only, this book provides information on both speech and writing. It not only gives information about the language as a whole, but also about the differences between spoken and written English, and between different spoken and written varieties of the language. The frequencies are derived from a wide ranging and up-to-date corpus of English: the British Na

  18. BASIC Programming for the Integration of Money, Demand Deposits Creation, and the Hicksian-Keynesian Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom, C. F. Joseph

    Money, banking, and macroeconomic textbooks traditionally present the topics of money, the creation of demand deposits by depository institutions, and the Hicksian-Keynesian Theory of Income and Interest separately, as if they were unrelated. This paper presents an integrated approach to those subjects using computer programs written in BASIC, the…

  19. Charging effects during focused electron beam induced deposition of silicon oxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Sanne K.; van Dorp, Willem F.; De Hosson, Jeff Th. M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper concentrates on focused electron beam induced deposition of silicon oxide. Silicon oxide pillars are written using 2, 4, 6, 8, 10-pentamethyl-cyclopenta-siloxane (PMCPS) as precursor. It is observed that branching of the pillar occurs above a minimum pillar height. The branching is attrib

  20. Managing Written Directives: A Software Solution to Streamline Workflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Robert H; Savir-Baruch, Bital; Gabriel, Medhat Sam; Halama, James; Bova, Davide

    2017-03-09

    A written directive (WD) is a requirement of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) regulations and is required for all uses of I-131 above 1.11 MBq (30 microcuries) and for patients receiving therapy with radiopharmaceuticals. These regulations have also been adopted and are required to be enforced by the agreement states. A paper trail method of WD management is inefficient and prone to error, loss, and duplication. As the options for therapy in Nuclear Medicine increase with the introduction of new radiopharmaceuticals, the time spent on the regulatory burden and paperwork has also increased. The management of regulatory requirements has a significant impact on physician and technologist time utilization and these pressures may increase the potential for inaccurate or incomplete WD data and subsequent regulatory violations. A software tool for the management of WDs using a HIPAA compliant database has been created. This WD software allows for the secure sharing of data among physicians, technologists and managers while saving time, reducing errors and eliminating the possibility of loss and duplication. Methods: Software development was performed using Microsoft Visual Basic® (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, WA) which is part of the Microsoft Visual Studio® development environment for the Microsoft Windows® platform. The database repository for patient data is Microsoft Access® and stored locally on a HIPAA secure server or hard disk. Once a working version was developed, it was installed and used at our institution for the management of WDs. Updates and modifications were released regularly until no significant problems were found with the operation of the software. Results: The software has been in use at our institution for over two years and has reliably kept track of all directives during that time. All physicians and technologists use the software as part of their daily workflow and find it superior to paper directives. We are able to

  1. Comparing Written Competency in Core French and French Immersion Graduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry Lappin-Fortin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Few studies have compared the written competency of French immersion students and their core French peers, and research on these learners at a postsecondary level is even scarcer. My corpus consists of writing samples from 255 students from both backgrounds beginning a university course in French language. The writing proficiency of core French and French immersion graduates was compared based on total output and several measures of grammatical and syntactical accuracy. Few statistically significant differences emerge. However, a subgroup of core French learners who had benefitted from an authentic immersion experience appears to outperform both regular core French and French immersion groups. The purpose of this quantitative study is primarily diagnostic; the results should help universities better serve the needs of first-year students. Résumé Les études comparant la compétence écrite des étudiants de programmes d’immersion française et de français cadre sont peu nombreuses—particulièrement au niveau postsecondaire. Mon corpus consiste en des échantillons du français écrit de 255 étudiants issus de ces deux formations qui commencent un cours de français à l’université. J’ai comparé leur production globale et leur précision sur le plan morphosyntaxique. Peu de différences statistiquement significatives en émergent. Toutefois, un sous-groupe d’étudiants cadre ayant bénéficié d’une expérience d’immersion authentique se révèle comme le plus compétent selon plusieurs des mesures utilisées. Les résultats de cette étude quantitative devraient aider les universités à mieux répondre aux besoins des étudiants de première année.

  2. Podiform chromite deposits

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Location and characteristics of 1,124 individual mineral deposits of this type, with grade and tonnage models for chromium as well as several related elements.

  3. Speleothem (Cave Deposit) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past temperature, precipitation, and other aspects of climate derived from mineral deposits found in caves. Parameter keywords describe what was measured...

  4. Alluvial Deposits in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This coverage maps alluvial deposits throughout Iowa. This generally would include areas of alluvial soils associated with modern streams that are identified on...

  5. Modeled Wet Nitrate Deposition

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Modeled data on nitrate wet deposition was obtained from Dr. Jeff Grimm at Penn State Univ. Nitrate wet depostion causes acidification and eutrophication of surface...

  6. Chemically deposited tin sulphide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkari, A., E-mail: anis.akkari@ies.univ-montp2.f [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis El Manar, Tunisie 2092 (Tunisia); Institut d' Electronique du Sud, Unite Mixte de Recherche 5214 UM2-CNRS (ST2i), Universite Montpellier 2, Place Eugene Bataillon, CC 082, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Guasch, C. [Institut d' Electronique du Sud, Unite Mixte de Recherche 5214 UM2-CNRS (ST2i), Universite Montpellier 2, Place Eugene Bataillon, CC 082, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Kamoun-Turki, N. [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis El Manar, Tunisie 2092 (Tunisia)

    2010-02-04

    SnS thin films were deposited on glass substrates after multi-deposition runs by chemical bath deposition from aqueous solution containing 30 ml triethanolamine (TEA) (C{sub 6}H{sub 15}NO{sub 3}) (50%), 10 ml thioacetamide (CH{sub 3}CSNH{sub 2}), 8 ml ammonia (NH{sub 3}) solution and 10 ml of Sn{sup 2+}(0.1 M). These films were characterised with X-ray diffraction (XRD), with scanning electron microscopy, and with spectrophotometric measurements. The obtained thin films exhibit the zinc blend structure, the crystallinity seems to be improved as the film thickness increases and the band gap energy is found to be about 1.76 eV for film prepared after six depositions runs.

  7. Interdisciplinary Care Planning and the Written Care Plan in Nursing Homes: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellefield, Mary Ellen

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This article is a critical review of the history, research evidence, and state-of-the-art technology in interdisciplinary care planning and the written plan of care in American nursing homes. Design and Methods: We reviewed educational and empirical literature. Results: Interdisciplinary care planning and the written care plan are…

  8. A Structure Analysis of English Argumentative Writings Written by Chinese and Korean EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Cui

    2013-01-01

    This study employed Kamimura and Oi (1996)'s classification of the organizational patterns of the argumentative essay structure: Thesis Statement (TS), Background Information (BI), Reservation (R), Hesitation (H), Rational Appeals (RA), Affective Appeals (AA) and Conclusion (C). 178 essays, 84 written by Chinese EFL learners, 84 written by Korean…

  9. A Developmental Study of Prepositional Phrases in Hebrew Written Text Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandes, Gilad; Ravid, Dorit

    2017-01-01

    Prepositional phrases (PPs) are considered an important feature of mature written expression. However, little is known about the development of PPs during the school years. The study examined the use of PPs in 160 narrative and expository texts, written by Hebrew-users in grades 4, 7, and 11, and adults. PPs were identified, counted, and…

  10. Form and Meaning in the Written Language of Hearing-Impaired Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine; Snyder, Lynn

    1985-01-01

    Semantic discourse features of written narratives of 49 hearing impaired children (10-15 years old) were examined in an analysis of the relationship between form and meaning in the writing of both hearing and hearing impaired Ss. Syntactic and semantic written language growth appear to be qualitatively and quantitatively different in the groups.…

  11. Visual feedback in written imaginal exposure for posttraumatic stress: a preliminary study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truijens, F.L.; van Emmerik, A.A.P.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the visual feedback hypothesis, which states that visual feedback from written trauma narratives contributes to the efficacy of written imaginal exposure in reducing posttraumatic stress, as visual feedback allows for the reuptake of traumatic content during the production of

  12. Evidence for a Limited-Cascading Account of Written Word Naming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Patrick; Roux, Sebastien; Barry, Christopher; Canell, Laura

    2012-01-01

    We address the issue of how information flows within the written word production system by examining written object-naming latencies. We report 4 experiments in which we manipulate variables assumed to have their primary impact at the level of object recognition (e.g., quality of visual presentation of pictured objects), at the level of semantic…

  13. One Teacher's Dilemma in Mediating Translation from Written to Symbolic Form in a Multilingual Algebra Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essien, Anthony A.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how a teacher in a multilingual classroom attempted to support learners who are struggling to translate written/verbal mathematics into a symbolic form. Thirty-six Grade ten learners in one multilingual classroom in South Africa were given a written test involving one algebraic question and then a discussion on the solution…

  14. The Development of Complexity, Accuracy and Fluency in the Written Production of L2 French

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsson, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    The present longitudinal case study investigated the development of fluency, complexity and accuracy--and the possible relationships between them--in the written production of L2 French. We assessed fluency and complexity in five intermediate learners by means of conventional indicators for written L2 (cf. Wolfe-Quintero et al. 1998), while…

  15. Written Narratives as an Index of L2 Competence in Korean EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jennifer Yusun

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated how linguistically determined Korean discourse strategies for establishing textual cohesion and marking written register in the Korean language may help explain the differences between the native English speakers' and the Korean English learners' written narratives in English. It employed quantitative methods of analysis to…

  16. Written Language Disorders: Speech-Language Pathologists' Training, Knowledge, and Confidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood, Gordon W.; Mamett, Callie; Gordon, Rebecca; Blood, Ingrid M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined speech-language pathologists' (SLPs') perceptions of their (a) educational and clinical training in evaluating and treating written language disorders, (b) knowledge bases in this area, (c) sources of knowledge about written language disorders, (d) confidence levels, and (e) predictors of confidence in working with…

  17. Hearing Impaired Adolescents' Signed and Written Expression of Locative State Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempt, Donna; Maxwell, Madeline M.

    1989-01-01

    Analysis of hearing-impaired adolescents' signed and written sentences expressing simple locative state relations found noun reversal and pragmatic focus errors in 7 percent of signed and 15 percent of written responses. Most errors were produced by profoundly hearing-impaired signers attending public day school. (Author/CB)

  18. Language and Ageing--Exploring Propositional Density in Written Language--Stability over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Elizabeth; Craig, Hugh; Ferguson, Alison; Colyvas, Kim

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the stability of propositional density (PD) in written texts, as this aspect of language shows promise as an indicator and as a predictor of language decline with ageing. This descriptive longitudinal study analysed written texts obtained from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health in which participants were…

  19. Transforming Biology Assessment with Machine Learning: Automated Scoring of Written Evolutionary Explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehm, Ross H.; Ha, Minsu; Mayfield, Elijah

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the use of machine learning to automatically evaluate the accuracy of students' written explanations of evolutionary change. Performance of the Summarization Integrated Development Environment (SIDE) program was compared to human expert scoring using a corpus of 2,260 evolutionary explanations written by 565 undergraduate…

  20. The Relevance of Second Language Acquisition Theory to the Written Error Correction Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polio, Charlene

    2012-01-01

    The controversies surrounding written error correction can be traced to Truscott (1996) in his polemic against written error correction. He claimed that empirical studies showed that error correction was ineffective and that this was to be expected "given the nature of the correction process and "the nature of language learning" (p. 328, emphasis…

  1. Written Language Skills of Entry-Level Accountants as Assessed by Experienced CPAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Sandra J.; Moncada, Susan; Smith, Douglas C.

    1996-01-01

    Surveys experienced Certified Public Accountants to examine their perceptions of the written language skills of entry-level accountants. Finds that written language fundamentals in word selection and usage, sentence and paragraph construction, and grammar and mechanics remain a problem for entry-level accountants. Notes the value of these findings…

  2. Differences between Spoken Language and Written Language and Their Influence in English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫晓云

    2014-01-01

    Spoken language and written language serve different functions in communication. It ’s necessary for English teachers to know the differences between them in order to teach effectively. This thesis analyzes the differences between spoken language and written language in four respects and their influence in English teaching.

  3. Oral versus Written Assessments: A Test of Student Performance and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxham, Mark; Campbell, Fiona; Westwood, Jenny

    2012-01-01

    Student performance in and attitudes towards oral and written assessments were compared using quantitative and qualitative methods. Two separate cohorts of students were examined. The first larger cohort of students (n = 99) was randomly divided into "oral" and "written" groups, and the marks that they achieved in the same biology questions were…

  4. Teacher-Written Feedback: Student Perceptions, Teacher Self-Assessment, and Actual Teacher Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Julie L.; Baker, Wendy

    2007-01-01

    Most research in second language (L2) writing has focused on students' perceptions more than teachers' self-assessment of teacher-written feedback. This study's purpose was to investigate: (1) how much local and global written feedback teachers give, (2) how their self-assessments and students' perceptions of this feedback coordinate, and (3) how…

  5. 7 CFR 900.40 - Written testimony and USDA data request requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and Nut Marketing Agreements and Marketing Orders § 900.40 Written testimony and USDA data request... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Written testimony and USDA data request requirements...) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT...

  6. Transforming Biology Assessment with Machine Learning: Automated Scoring of Written Evolutionary Explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehm, Ross H.; Ha, Minsu; Mayfield, Elijah

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the use of machine learning to automatically evaluate the accuracy of students' written explanations of evolutionary change. Performance of the Summarization Integrated Development Environment (SIDE) program was compared to human expert scoring using a corpus of 2,260 evolutionary explanations written by 565 undergraduate…

  7. Relations between scripted online peer feedback processes and quality of written argumentative essay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noroozi, Omid; Biemans, Harm; Mulder, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Teachers often complain about the quality of students' written essays in higher education. This study explores the relations between scripted online peer feedback processes and quality of written argumentative essay as they occur in an authentic learning situation with direct practical relevance.

  8. The Effectiveness of Written Corrective Feedback and the Impact Lao Learners' Beliefs Have on Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummel, Stephanie; Bitchener, John

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study examining the effectiveness of written corrective feedback (CF) on the simple past tense and the impact beliefs may have on students' uptake of the feedback they receive. A seven-week study was carried out with 42 advanced EFL learners in Vientiane, Laos. Students' beliefs about written CF were first…

  9. The Effect of Teacher Attitudes to Individual Students on the Written Feedback Given

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuYinghong; LiuYingzhe; ZhangXiaoyan

    2004-01-01

    Providing written feedback to students is one of EFL writing teachers' most important tasks. As teachers, we know experientially that our students grapple not only with a writtencode but also with a linguistic code that is still being acquired,thus they place value on teacher written feedback; also we hope that our students could benefit from our feedback in their

  10. Electrospark deposition coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheely, W. F.

    1986-11-01

    Hard surfacing for wear resistant and low-friction coatings has been improved by means of advances in the computer controls in electronic circuitry of the electrospark deposition (ESD) process. coatings of nearly any electrically conductive metal alloy or cermet can be deposited on conductive materials. Thickness is usually two mils or less, but can be as high as 10 mils. ESD coatings can quadrupole cutting tool life.

  11. Gemstone deposits of Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miladinović, Zoran; Simić, Vladimir; Jelenković, Rade; Ilić, Miloje

    2016-06-01

    Gemstone minerals in Serbia have never been regarded as an interesting and significant resource. Nevertheless, more than 150 deposits and occurrences have been recorded and some of them preliminarily explored in the last 50 years. The majority of deposits and occurrences are located within the Serbo-Macedonian metallogenic province and the most significant metallogenic units at the existing level of knowledge are the Fruska Gora ore district, Cer ore district, Sumadija metallogenic zone, Kopaonik metallogenic zone and Lece-Halkidiki metallogenic zone. The most important genetic type of deposits is hydrothermal, particularly in case of serpentinite/peridotite as host/parent rock. Placer deposits are also economically important. The dominant gemstones are silica minerals: chalcedony (Chrysoprase, carnelian, bluish chalcedony etc.), jasper (picture, landscape, red etc.), common opal (dendritic, green, milky white etc.), silica masses (undivided), and quartz (rock crystal, amethyst etc.). Beside silica minerals significant gemstones in Serbia include also beryl (aquamarine), garnet (almandine and pyrope), tourmaline, fluorite, rhodochrosite, carbonate-silica breccia, carbonate-silica onyx, silicified wood, howlite, serpentinite, marble onyx, and kyanite. This paper aims to present an overview of Serbian gemstone deposits and occurrences and their position based on a simplified gemstone metallogenic map of Serbia, as well as genetic-industrial classification of gemstone deposits and gemstone varieties.

  12. Gemstone deposits of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladinović Zoran

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Gemstone minerals in Serbia have never been regarded as an interesting and significant resource. Nevertheless, more than 150 deposits and occurrences have been recorded and some of them preliminarily explored in the last 50 years. The majority of deposits and occurrences are located within the Serbo-Macedonian metallogenic province and the most significant metallogenic units at the existing level of knowledge are the Fruska Gora ore district, Cer ore district, Sumadija metallogenic zone, Kopaonik metallogenic zone and Lece-Halkidiki metallogenic zone. The most important genetic type of deposits is hydrothermal, particularly in case of serpentinite/peridotite as host/parent rock. Placer deposits are also economically important. The dominant gemstones are silica minerals: chalcedony (Chrysoprase, carnelian, bluish chalcedony etc., jasper (picture, landscape, red etc., common opal (dendritic, green, milky white etc., silica masses (undivided, and quartz (rock crystal, amethyst etc.. Beside silica minerals significant gemstones in Serbia include also beryl (aquamarine, garnet (almandine and pyrope, tourmaline, fluorite, rhodochrosite, carbonate-silica breccia, carbonate-silica onyx, silicified wood, howlite, serpentinite, marble onyx, and kyanite. This paper aims to present an overview of Serbian gemstone deposits and occurrences and their position based on a simplified gemstone metallogenic map of Serbia, as well as genetic-industrial classification of gemstone deposits and gemstone varieties.

  13. Dynamic Generation and Editing System for Wrongly Written Chinese Characters Font

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingsheng Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The uniqueness of Chinese makes Chinese language a hotspot in language learning. In view of the problem of wrongly written character teaching in Chinese language teaching, it provides a simple, convenient, and efficient input method of wrongly written characters and realizes a dynamic generation and editing system for wrongly written Chinese character font, which solves the problems of real-time edit, coding, and input of wrongly written character in editing process using dynamic editing technology, and provides a convenient input method of wrongly written character in editing, printing, typesetting, and the research of digital Chinese language teaching. This method can also be used in dynamic editing, generation and processing of ancient variants, Oracle bone inscriptions, Bronze inscription, folk combined characters, and other fonts.

  14. Exploring laser-guided metal deposition through a microbe metabolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hocheng

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to describe exploring laser-guided metal deposition through a microbe metabolite.Design/methodology/approach: A maskless micro-fabrication of laser-guided deposition process through the metabolite of Acidophilic bacteria Thiobacillus ferrooxidans (T.f. is explored.Findings: The authors have conducted an analysis of the metal deposition process using the point thermal-source of the Nd:YAG laser through the metabolite of Acidophilic bacteria Thiobacillus. An analytical model adopting the moving point heat source on the substrate and heat transfer conditions is presented. The thermal field generated by the laser input energy is investigated.Practical implications: Though the mechanism of the laser-assisted deposition process is not fully revealed by biologist yet, the current model provides a means of control of the line deposition of metals.Originality/value: Based on the fundamental knowledge of how the line width varies with laser power and scanning speed, more investigation of the mini-scale heat convection and the threshold temperature of chemical reaction is expected in the future for further understanding of this novel metal deposition method triggered and written by laser.

  15. 22 CFR 1422.12 - Duties and powers of the Hearing Officer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... stipulations of fact; (c) Take or cause depositions or interrogatories to be taken whenever the ends of justice... issue in the case or theory in support thereof; (k) Continue the hearing from day-to-day, or adjourn...

  16. Pulsed laser deposition: Prospects for commercial deposition of epitaxial films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muenchausen, R.E.

    1999-03-01

    Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) is a physical vapor deposition (PVD) technique for the deposition of thin films. The vapor source is induced by the flash evaporation that occurs when a laser pulse of sufficient intensity (about 100 MW/cm{sup 2}) is absorbed by a target. In this paper the author briefly defines pulsed laser deposition, current applications, research directed at gaining a better understanding of the pulsed laser deposition process, and suggests some future directions to enable commercial applications.

  17. [Language performance of deaf children and adolescents in verbal and written retelling of a picture story].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, R; Schildhammer, A; Ruoss, M

    1994-01-01

    Evaluation of the spoken and written language skills of prelingually deaf pupils is necessary to improve existing language curricula. Research on written language shows notable delays and substantial differences in the development of written language in comparison to hearing peers. It is difficult to investigate the spontaneous speech because of methodological problems (no control of speech parameters, language becomes a confounding variable). The written language is therefore a good indicator of language development. Nevertheless, oral communication ability can only be studied through spoken utterances. The present study deals with oral and writing performance of 23 prelingually deaf pupils from 9 to 15 years of age whose hearing losses range from 85 to 117 dB. Tape-recorded short picture sequences described by the children and adolescents were examined by experienced listeners. Furthermore, the written narratives of these picture sequences were also analyzed. Parameters included frequency of occurrence of content and function words, type-token ratio, mean length of sentence, and speech fluency. Speech intelligibility was rated by a panel of naive listeners. The results demonstrate the enormous retardation of oral and written language development and specific qualitative differences compared to hearing children. Language skills improve with age, especially in writing. However, oral and written narrative abilities are positively correlated. The loss of sound requires substitutional media for the acquisition of a formal language system. This should be taken into account in the teaching of language to the deaf in order to build up a language competence which is adequate for their age.

  18. Written pain neuroscience education in fibromyalgia: a multicenter randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ittersum, Miriam W; van Wilgen, C Paul; van der Schans, Cees P; Lambrecht, Luc; Groothoff, Johan W; Nijs, Jo

    2014-11-01

    Mounting evidence supports the use of face-to-face pain neuroscience education for the treatment of chronic pain patients. This study aimed at examining whether written education about pain neuroscience improves illness perceptions, catastrophizing, and health status in patients with fibromyalgia. A double-blind, multicenter randomized controlled clinical trial with 6-month follow-up was conducted. Patients with FM (n = 114) that consented to participate were randomly allocated to receive either written pain neuroscience education or written relaxation training. Written pain neuroscience education comprised of a booklet with pain neuroscience education plus a telephone call to clarify any difficulties; the relaxation group received a booklet with relaxation education and a telephone call. The revised illness perception questionnaire, Pain Catastrophizing Scale, and fibromyalgia impact questionnaire were used as outcome measures. Both patients and assessors were blinded. Repeated-measures analyses with last observation carried forward principle were performed. Cohen's d effect sizes (ES) were calculated for all within-group changes and between-group differences. The results reveal that written pain neuroscience education does not change the impact of FM on daily life, catastrophizing, or perceived symptoms of patients with FM. Compared with written relaxation training, written pain neuroscience education improved beliefs in a chronic timeline of FM (P = 0.03; ES = 0.50), but it does not impact upon other domains of illness perceptions. Compared with written relaxation training, written pain neuroscience education slightly improved illness perceptions of patients with FM, but it did not impart clinically meaningful effects on pain, catastrophizing, or the impact of FM on daily life. Face-to-face sessions of pain neuroscience education are required to change inappropriate cognitions and perceived health in patients with FM. © 2013 World Institute of Pain.

  19. Design and implementation of a novel portable atomic layer deposition/chemical vapor deposition hybrid reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraj, Sathees Kannan; Jursich, Gregory; Takoudis, Christos G

    2013-09-01

    We report the development of a novel portable atomic layer deposition chemical vapor deposition (ALD/CVD) hybrid reactor setup. Unique feature of this reactor is the use of ALD/CVD mode in a single portable deposition system to fabricate multi-layer thin films over a broad range from "bulk-like" multi-micrometer to nanometer atomic dimensions. The precursor delivery system and control-architecture are designed so that continuous reactant flows for CVD and cyclic pulsating flows for ALD mode are facilitated. A custom-written LabVIEW program controls the valve sequencing to allow synthesis of different kinds of film structures under either ALD or CVD mode or both. The entire reactor setup weighs less than 40 lb and has a relatively small footprint of 8 × 9 in., making it compact and easy for transportation. The reactor is tested in the ALD mode with titanium oxide (TiO2) ALD using tetrakis(diethylamino)titanium and water vapor. The resulting growth rate of 0.04 nm/cycle and purity of the films are in good agreement with literature values. The ALD/CVD hybrid mode is demonstrated with ALD of TiO2 and CVD of tin oxide (SnOx). Transmission electron microscopy images of the resulting films confirm the formation of successive distinct TiO2-ALD and SnO(x)-CVD layers.

  20. Design and implementation of a novel portable atomic layer deposition/chemical vapor deposition hybrid reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraj, Sathees Kannan; Jursich, Gregory; Takoudis, Christos G.

    2013-09-01

    We report the development of a novel portable atomic layer deposition chemical vapor deposition (ALD/CVD) hybrid reactor setup. Unique feature of this reactor is the use of ALD/CVD mode in a single portable deposition system to fabricate multi-layer thin films over a broad range from "bulk-like" multi-micrometer to nanometer atomic dimensions. The precursor delivery system and control-architecture are designed so that continuous reactant flows for CVD and cyclic pulsating flows for ALD mode are facilitated. A custom-written LabVIEW program controls the valve sequencing to allow synthesis of different kinds of film structures under either ALD or CVD mode or both. The entire reactor setup weighs less than 40 lb and has a relatively small footprint of 8 × 9 in., making it compact and easy for transportation. The reactor is tested in the ALD mode with titanium oxide (TiO2) ALD using tetrakis(diethylamino)titanium and water vapor. The resulting growth rate of 0.04 nm/cycle and purity of the films are in good agreement with literature values. The ALD/CVD hybrid mode is demonstrated with ALD of TiO2 and CVD of tin oxide (SnOx). Transmission electron microscopy images of the resulting films confirm the formation of successive distinct TiO2-ALD and SnOx-CVD layers.

  1. Vacuum deposition onto webs, films and foils

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Charles A

    2011-01-01

    Roll-to-roll vacuum deposition is the technology that applies an even coating to a flexible material that can be held on a roll and provides a much faster and cheaper method of bulk coating than deposition onto single pieces or non-flexible surfaces, such as glass. This technology has been used in industrial-scale applications for some time, including a wide range of metalized packaging (e.g. snack packets). Its potential as a high-speed, scalable process has seen an increasing range of new products emerging that employ this cost-effective technology: solar energy products are moving from rigid panels onto flexible substrates, which are cheaper and more versatile; in a similar way, electronic circuit 'boards' can be produced on a flexible polymer, creating a new range of 'flexible electronics' products; and, flexible displays are another area of new technology in vacuum coating, with flexible display panels and light sources emerging. Charles Bishop has written this book to meet the need he identified, as a t...

  2. Reactive polymer fused deposition manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunc, Vlastimil; Rios, Orlando; Love, Lonnie J.; Duty, Chad E.; Johs, Alexander

    2017-05-16

    Methods and compositions for additive manufacturing that include reactive or thermosetting polymers, such as urethanes and epoxies. The polymers are melted, partially cross-linked prior to the depositing, deposited to form a component object, solidified, and fully cross-linked. These polymers form networks of chemical bonds that span the deposited layers. Application of a directional electromagnetic field can be applied to aromatic polymers after deposition to align the polymers for improved bonding between the deposited layers.

  3. Geochemical signatures of tsunami deposits - what do they tell us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chague-Goff, Catherine; Goff, James R.

    2010-05-01

    In the last two and half decades, but even more since the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami (IOT), there has been a significant increase in the amount of literature dealing with recent, historical and palaeotsunamis. Much has been written and debated about the diagnostic criteria of historical and palaeotsunami deposits. Most of the diagnostic criteria or proxies used reflect the expertise of the researchers involved and thus tend to be biased towards sedimentology, stratigraphy and micropalaeontology, with some reference to geomorphology, archaeology, anthropology and palynology. It should however be noted that all criteria have never been reported from one site, and neither are they all found in one single deposit. Thus, the lack of one or more proxies should not be taken as unique evidence to refute the tsunamigenic origin of a specific deposit. Although geochemical signatures have long been used as indicators for palaeosalinity in sedimentary sequences, there appears to have been some reluctance to use them to help in the identification of historical and palaeotsunami deposits. Like other proxies, geochemistry alone may not provide a definite answer to the origin of a deposit. Furthermore, poor preservation due to environmental conditions or as a result of post-diagenetic processes, might complicate the interpretation of geochemical signatures left by tsunami inundation. Similar taphonomic problems are also faced for microfossil proxies. However, geochemistry provides another piece to the puzzle, and together with other proxies, it can help identify palaeotsunami deposits. Geochemical signatures can also provide clues about the landward limit of runup of a tsunami, beyond the area of sediment deposition. This was recently documented following the 2004 IOT and the 2009 South Pacific tsunami. A summary of examples of geochemical signatures recorded in interstitial water and sediment of recent, historical and palaeotsunami deposits is presented.

  4. Characteristic Oral and Written Business Communication Problems of Selected Managerial Trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, Barry E.

    1979-01-01

    Presents a study to determine characteristic oral and written business communication problems of selected managerial trainees and to assess whether the problems defined by these trainees were those recognized by their immediate supervisors and secretaries. (JMF)

  5. A Comparison of Written and Oral Methods of Testing in Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, G. M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Discussed in this study is whether there are differences in the assessment of student understanding as measured by written tests versus oral tests. Age and sex differences as well as the impact of different languages and cultures were investigated. (KR)

  6. Which characteristics of written feedback are perceived as stimulating students' reflective competence : an exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Hanke; Schonrock-Adema, Johanna; Snoek, Jos W.; van der Molen, Thys; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2013-01-01

    Background: Teacher feedback on student reflective writing is recommended to improve learners' reflective competence. To be able to improve teacher feedback on reflective writing, it is essential to gain insight into which characteristics of written feedback stimulate students' reflection processes.

  7. The emotional importance of key: do Beatles songs written in different keys convey different emotional tones?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whissel, R; Whissel, C

    2000-12-01

    Lyrics from 155 songs written by the Lennon-McCartney team were scored using the Dictionary of Affect in Language. Resultant scores (pleasantness, activation, and imagery of words) were compared across key signatures using one way analyses of variance. Words from songs written in minor keys were less pleasant and less active than those from songs written in major keys. Words from songs written in the key of F scored extremely low on all three measures. Lyrics from the keys of C, D, and G were relatively active in tone. Results from Dictionary scoring were compared with assignments of character to keys made more than one century ago and with current musicians' opinions.

  8. Which characteristics of written feedback are perceived as stimulating students' reflective competence : an exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Hanke; Schonrock-Adema, Johanna; Snoek, Jos W.; van der Molen, Thys; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2013-01-01

    Background: Teacher feedback on student reflective writing is recommended to improve learners' reflective competence. To be able to improve teacher feedback on reflective writing, it is essential to gain insight into which characteristics of written feedback stimulate students' reflection processes.

  9. How to Verify Plagiarism of the Paper Written in Macedonian and Translated in Foreign Language?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Spiroski

    2016-02-01

    CONCLUSION: Plagiarism of the original papers written in Macedonian and translated in other languages can be verified after computerised translation in other languages. Later on, original and translated documents can be compared with available software for plagiarism detection.

  10. Written Forms of Signed languages: A Route to Literacy for Deaf Learners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Connie

    2017-01-01

    While there have been attempts to develop written systems for signed languages, none have been widely used or adopted. In his article in an American Annals of the Deaf special issue that also includes the present article, Grushkin makes a case not only for why, but how efforts should be renewed to develop a written signed language, suggesting that increased written-English competence will be a consequence of increased competence in written and signed American Sign Language, with literacy-related skills transferring across languages. The present author responds in terms of what is known about linguistic interdependence in spoken-language contexts and in light of the evidence base from hearing bilinguals. She argues that, given the field's current context, no compelling rationale exists for pursuing this route to literacy for deaf learners, and that other routes are more workable from pragmatic, theoretical, and evidence-based perspectives.

  11. An initiative to improve oral and written skills of Engineering Students

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baeza-Romero, Maria Teresa; Andrés Abellán, Fuensanta

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we describe some activities that have been developed to written and oral skills in students of Degree in Electrical and Electronics Engineering in the School of Industrial Engineering in Toledo...

  12. Written object naming, spelling to dictation, and immediate copying: Different tasks, different pathways?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Patrick; Méot, Alain; Lagarrigue, Aurélie; Roux, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    We report an investigation of cross-task comparisons of handwritten latencies in written object naming, spelling to dictation, and immediate copying. In three separate sessions, adults had to write down a list of concrete nouns from their corresponding pictures (written naming), from their spoken (spelling to dictation) and from their visual presentation (immediate copying). Linear mixed models without random slopes were performed on the latencies in order to study and compare within-task fixed effects. By-participants random slopes were then included to investigate individual differences within and across tasks. Overall, the findings suggest that written naming, spelling to dictation, and copying all involve a lexical pathway, but that written naming relies on this pathway more than the other two tasks do. Only spelling to dictation strongly involves a nonlexical pathway. Finally, the analyses performed at the level of participants indicate that, depending on the type of task, the slower participants are more or less influenced by certain psycholinguistic variables.

  13. An initiative to improve oral and written skills of Engineering Students

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Teresa Baeza-Romero; Fuensanta Andrés Abellán

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we describe some activities that have been developed to written and oral skills in students of Degree in Electrical and Electronics Engineering in the School of Industrial Engineering in Toledo. Among these activities, we have designed a workshop, included in welcome activities of the school for first year students and two learning activities included in chemistry module. In the workshop, we explained the key points to consider when an oral or written presentation is prepared. ...

  14. Argumentative and narrative written task performance: Differential effects of critical thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Azizollah DABAGHI; Zabihi, Reza; Rezazadeh, Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    This study compares the differential role of critical thinking in learners’ performance on argumentative and narrative written tasks. The study involved the measurement of 70 upper-intermediate learners’ critical thinking using the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCTA) as well as the elicitation of their performance on the written narrative and argumentative tasks. While the argumentative task required that learners write an argumentative essay giving their opinions concerning the...

  15. Mushu, a free- and open source BCI signal acquisition, written in Python.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venthur, Bastian; Blankertz, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    The following paper describes Mushu, a signal acquisition software for retrieval and online streaming of Electroencephalography (EEG) data. It is written, but not limited, to the needs of Brain Computer Interfacing (BCI). It's main goal is to provide a unified interface to EEG data regardless of the amplifiers used. It runs under all major operating systems, like Windows, Mac OS and Linux, is written in Python and is free- and open source software licensed under the terms of the GNU General Public License.

  16. A Descriptive Study of Registers Found in Spoken and Written Communication (A Semantic Analysis)

    OpenAIRE

    Nurul Hidayah

    2016-01-01

    This research is descriptive study of registers found in spoken and written communication. The type of this research is Descriptive Qualitative Research. In this research, the data of the study is register in spoken and written communication that are found in a book entitled "Communicating! Theory and Practice" and from internet. The data can be in the forms of words, phrases and abbreviation. In relation with method of collection data, the writer uses the library method as her instrument. Th...

  17. DISCOURSE AND PARTICIPATION IN ESL FACE-TO-FACE AND WRITTEN ELECTRONIC CONFERENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Fitze

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was a comparative investigation of face-to-face and written electronic conferences. The participants were advanced English as a second language (hereafter: ESL students. The two types of conferences were compared in terms of textual features and participation. There was no statistically significant difference in the total number of words that students produced in an equivalent amount of time in the two types of conferences. The discourse in written electronic conferences displayed greater lexical range, and students in these conferences produced more discourse demonstrating interactive competence. The statistically significant finding of increased lexical range in written electronic conferences persisted even when the interactive discourse was eliminated from the conference transcripts and the transcripts were reanalyzed. This finding suggests that, during written electronic conferences, students were better able to use and practice a wider range of vocabulary related to the topics. For one of the groups, participation in written electronic conferences was more balanced among students, while for the other group participation was about equally balanced regardless of the conference setting. This last finding came as a surprise and points to a need for further research into variables that might mediate balanced participation in face-to-face and written electronic conferences.

  18. Compliance amongst contact lens wearers: comprehension skills and reinforcement with written instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Genís; Llovet, Ingrid

    2004-06-01

    Patient non-compliance is one of the key issues when considering contact lens failures and related ocular complications. Patient education is believed to be of paramount importance to improve compliance, especially when this education consists of written as well as oral instructions. Patients received oral or oral plus written information depending on their score from a previously validated oral and written comprehension test. A survey containing theoretical and practical questions was given to the patient at the end of the study in order to establish compliance with the given instructions. No statistically significant difference was encountered between the group of patients receiving oral instructions only and the group receiving oral plus written information. A correlation was discovered between non-compliance and ocular complications and between ocular complications and the physical appearance of contact lenses and cases. The oral and written comprehension test served to establish the comprehension skills typology of the patients, thus allowing for the appropriate type of instructions (oral or written) to be given to each patient in accordance with their particular abilities. This methodology could lead to a relevant increase in compliance.

  19. Granitoid intrusions and related deposits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟良义; 李绪俊

    1996-01-01

    Taking the Bainaimiao copper and gold deposits, Inner Mongolia and the Wushan copper deposits, Jiangxi Province as examples, a discussion is devoted to the relationship between the granitoid intrusions and related deposits from different lines of evidence: the spatial distribution, country rocks and alteration of the deposits, trace element contents and vertical zoning of elements in deposits, the metallogenic preference of granitoid intrusions, the metallogenic models and stable isotopic geology. It is concluded that the ore-bearing fluids mainly come from granitoid magmas and granitoid intrusions are closely associated with the related deposits in space.

  20. 16 CFR 303.40 - Use of terms in written advertisements that imply presence of a fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of terms in written advertisements that... IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.40 Use of terms in written advertisements that imply presence of a fiber. The use of terms in written advertisements, including advertisements disseminated through the Internet and...

  1. Plasma deposition of amorphous silicon-based materials

    CERN Document Server

    Bruno, Giovanni; Madan, Arun

    1995-01-01

    Semiconductors made from amorphous silicon have recently become important for their commercial applications in optical and electronic devices including FAX machines, solar cells, and liquid crystal displays. Plasma Deposition of Amorphous Silicon-Based Materials is a timely, comprehensive reference book written by leading authorities in the field. This volume links the fundamental growth kinetics involving complex plasma chemistry with the resulting semiconductor film properties and the subsequent effect on the performance of the electronic devices produced. Key Features * Focuses on the plasma chemistry of amorphous silicon-based materials * Links fundamental growth kinetics with the resulting semiconductor film properties and performance of electronic devices produced * Features an international group of contributors * Provides the first comprehensive coverage of the subject, from deposition technology to materials characterization to applications and implementation in state-of-the-art devices.

  2. 20 CFR 703.306 - Kinds of negotiable securities that may be deposited; conditions of deposit; acceptance of deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the Act in the amount fixed by the Office under the regulations in this part shall deposit any... deposited; conditions of deposit; acceptance of deposits. 703.306 Section 703.306 Employees' Benefits... negotiable securities that may be deposited; conditions of deposit; acceptance of deposits. A self-insurer or...

  3. Inkjet deposited circuit components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidoki, S. M.; Nouri, J.; Heidari, A. A.

    2010-05-01

    All-printed electronics as a means of achieving ultra-low-cost electronic circuits has attracted great interest in recent years. Inkjet printing is one of the most promising techniques by which the circuit components can be ultimately drawn (i.e. printed) onto the substrate in one step. Here, the inkjet printing technique was used to chemically deposit silver nanoparticles (10-200 nm) simply by ejection of silver nitrate and reducing solutions onto different substrates such as paper, PET plastic film and textile fabrics. The silver patterns were tested for their functionality to work as circuit components like conductor, resistor, capacitor and inductor. Different levels of conductivity were achieved simply by changing the printing sequence, inks ratio and concentration. The highest level of conductivity achieved by an office thermal inkjet printer (300 dpi) was 5.54 × 105 S m-1 on paper. Inkjet deposited capacitors could exhibit a capacitance of more than 1.5 nF (parallel plate 45 × 45 mm2) and induction coils displayed an inductance of around 400 µH (planar coil 10 cm in diameter). Comparison of electronic performance of inkjet deposited components to the performance of conventionally etched items makes the technique highly promising for fabricating different printed electronic devices.

  4. Written evaluation is not a predictor for skills performance in an Advanced Cardiovascular Life Support course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, David L; Bhanji, Farhan; McKee, Barbara R

    2010-04-01

    Both a written cognitive knowledge evaluation and a practical evaluation that tests psychomotor skills, cognitive knowledge, and affective behaviors such as leadership and team skills are required for successful completion of American Heart Association (AHA) Advanced Cardiovascular Life Support (ACLS) course. The 2005 International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) Consensus on Science and Treatment Recommendations noted that in Basic Life Support (BLS) there is little to no correlation between written and practical skills. The current study was conducted to determine if there is a correlation between written and practical evaluations in an ACLS course. 34 senior nursing students from four nursing programs participated in two separate ACLS classes, completing both the written and practical evaluations. Immediately following the courses, all participants served as team leader for a video recorded simulated cardiac arrest event. A panel of expert ACLS instructors who did not participate as instructors in the courses reviewed each video and independently scored team leaders' performances. Spearman's rho correlation coefficient between the written test scores and practical skills performance was 0.194 (2-tailed significance=0.272). The ACLS written evaluation was not a predictor of participant skills in managing a simulated cardiac arrest event immediately following an ACLS course. The single case simulations used in ACLS skills evaluation test a narrow portion of ACLS content while written evaluation tests can more practically test a broader spectrum of content. Both work in concert to define participant knowledge and neither should be used exclusively to determine participant competence. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Market Discipline and Deposit Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Peresetsky,Anatoly

    2008-01-01

    The paper examines Russian banks’ household deposit interest rates for the transition period of setting up the deposit insurance system. Monthly observations of Russian banks’ interest rates and balance sheets are used in a fixed effects panel data model. It is shown market discipline has been significantly diminished after switching to the deposit insurance.

  6. Applying the Verona coding definitions of emotional sequences (VR-CoDES) to code medical students' written responses to written case scenarios: Some methodological and practical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortwein, Heiderose; Benz, Alexander; Carl, Petra; Huwendiek, Sören; Pander, Tanja; Kiessling, Claudia

    2017-02-01

    To investigate whether the Verona Coding Definitions of Emotional Sequences to code health providers' responses (VR-CoDES-P) can be used for assessment of medical students' responses to patients' cues and concerns provided in written case vignettes. Student responses in direct speech to patient cues and concerns were analysed in 21 different case scenarios using VR-CoDES-P. A total of 977 student responses were available for coding, and 857 responses were codable with the VR-CoDES-P. In 74.6% of responses, the students used either a "reducing space" statement only or a "providing space" statement immediately followed by a "reducing space" statement. Overall, the most frequent response was explicit information advice (ERIa) followed by content exploring (EPCEx) and content acknowledgement (EPCAc). VR-CoDES-P were applicable to written responses of medical students when they were phrased in direct speech. The application of VR-CoDES-P is reliable and feasible when using the differentiation of "providing" and "reducing space" responses. Communication strategies described by students in non-direct speech were difficult to code and produced many missings. VR-CoDES-P are useful for analysis of medical students' written responses when focusing on emotional issues. Students need precise instructions for their response in the given test format. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. It Works Both Ways: Transfer Difficulties between Manipulatives and Written Subtraction Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H. Uttal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Three experiments compared performance and transfer among children aged 83–94 months after written or manipulatives instruction on two-digit subtraction. In Experiment 1a, children learned with manipulatives or with traditional written numerals. All children then completed a written posttest. Experiment 1b investigated whether salient or perceptually attractive manipulatives affected transfer. Experiment 2 investigated whether instruction with writing would transfer to a manipulatives-based posttest. Children demonstrated performance gains when the posttest format was identical to the instructed format but failed to demonstrate transfer from the instructed format to an incongruent posttest. The results indicate that the problem in transferring from manipulatives instruction to written assessments stems from a general difficulty in using knowledge gained in one format (e.g., manipulatives in another format (e.g., writing. Taken together, the results have important implications for research and teaching in early mathematics. Teachers should consider making specific links and alignments between written and manipulatives-based representations of the same problems.

  8. A Case Study of EFL Teachers’ Perceptions and Practices in Written Corrective Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussam Rajab

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on a mixed-method approach, this interpretive exploratory case study aimed to identify English as Foreign Language (EFL teachers’ perceptions and practices in Written Corrective Feedback (WCF in the Saudi context. The study analysed quantitative data gathered from an anonymous custom designed 15-question online survey and qualitative data from an open-ended question (at the end of the online survey and semi-structured interviews. Participants were one hundred and eighty-four English as a Foreign Language (EFL teachers (n =184 who responded to the online survey (113 females and 71 males and 7 participants who responded to the semi-structured interview (5 males and 2 females. The study findings indicated no significant differences between male and female teachers in considering “time” as the main factor in following a particular strategy for written corrective feedback (93%. The results from the semi-structured interviews highlighted the need for further research in written corrective feedback in the Saudi context to address serious issues related to the teachers’ work-load. Some recommendations were identified for further research in written corrective feedback. Keywords: Saudi, Mixed methods, Survey, Written corrective feedback

  9. Physical-chemical conditions of ore deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, P.B.

    1981-01-01

    Ore deposits form under a wide range of physical and chemical conditions, but those precipitating from hot, aqueous fluids-i.e. the hydrothermal deposits-form generally below 700??C and at pressures of only 1 or 2 kbar or less. Natural aqueous fluids in rocks may extract metal and sulfur from a variety of rock types or may acquire them as a residual heritage from a crystallizing silicate magma. Ore-forming hydrothermal fluids never appear as hot springs (except in deep, submarine situations) because they boil, mix with surface waters, and cool, thereby losing their ore-bearing ability before reaching the surface. Mineral systems function as chemical buffers and indicators just as buffers and indicators function in a chemical laboratory. By reading the record written in the buffer/indicator assemblages of minerals one can reconstruct many aspects of the former chemical environment. By studying the record of changing conditions one may deduce information regarding the processes functioning to create the succession of chemical environments and the ore deposits they represent. The example of the OH vein at Creede, Colorado, shows a pH buffered by the K-feldspar + muscovite + quartz assemblage and the covariation of S2 and O2 buffered by the assemblage chlorite + pyrite + quartz. Boiling of the ore fluid led to its oxidation to hematite-bearing assemblages and simultaneously produced an intensely altered, sericitic capping over the vein in response to the condensation of vapors bearing acidic components. The solubility of metals as calculated from experimental and theoretical studies of mineral solubility appears too low by at least one or two powers of ten to explain the mineralization at Creede. In contrast to Creede where the mineral stabilities all point to a relatively consistent chemistry, the Mississippi Valley type deposits present a puzzle of conflicting chemical clues that are impossible to reconcile with any single equilibrium situation. Thus we must

  10. Physical-chemical conditions of ore deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Paul B.

    Ore deposits form under a wide range of physical and chemical conditions, but those precipitating from hot, aqueous fluids-i.e. the hydrothermal deposits-form generally below 700°C and at pressures of only 1 or 2 kbar or less. Natural aqueous fluids in rocks may extract metal and sulfur from a variety of rock types or may acquire them as a residual heritage from a crystallizing silicate magma. Ore-forming hydrothermal fluids never appear as hot springs (except in deep, submarine situations) because they boil, mix with surface waters, and cool, thereby losing their ore-bearing ability before reaching the surface. Mineral systems function as chemical buffers and indicators just as buffers and indicators function in a chemical laboratory. By reading the record written in the buffer/indicator assemblages of minerals one can reconstruct many aspects of the former chemical environment. By studying the record of changing conditions one may deduce information regarding the processes functioning to create the succession of chemical environments and the ore deposits they represent. The example of the OH vein at Creede, Colorado, shows a pH buffered by the K-feldspar + muscovite + quartz assemblage and the covariation of S 2 and O 2 buffered by the assemblage chlorite + pyrite + quartz. Boiling of the ore fluid led to its oxidation to hematite-bearing assemblages and simultaneously produced an intensely altered, sericitic capping over the vein in response to the condensation of vapors bearing acidic components. The solubility of metals as calculated from experimental and theoretical studies of mineral solubility appears too low by at least one or two powers of ten to explain the mineralization at Creede. In contrast to Creede where the mineral stabilities all point to a relatively consistent chemistry, the Mississippi Valley type deposits present a puzzle of conflicting chemical clues that are impossible to reconcile with any single equilibrium situation. Thus we must

  11. Database of recent tsunami deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Robert; Jaffe, Bruce E.

    2010-01-01

    This report describes a database of sedimentary characteristics of tsunami deposits derived from published accounts of tsunami deposit investigations conducted shortly after the occurrence of a tsunami. The database contains 228 entries, each entry containing data from up to 71 categories. It includes data from 51 publications covering 15 tsunamis distributed between 16 countries. The database encompasses a wide range of depositional settings including tropical islands, beaches, coastal plains, river banks, agricultural fields, and urban environments. It includes data from both local tsunamis and teletsunamis. The data are valuable for interpreting prehistorical, historical, and modern tsunami deposits, and for the development of criteria to identify tsunami deposits in the geologic record.

  12. Acidic deposition ("acid rain")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, R. Kent; LaRoe, Edward T.; Farris, Gaye S.; Puckett, Catherine E.; Doran, Peter D.; Mac, Michael J.

    1995-01-01

    Acidic deposition, or "acid rain," describes any form of precipitation, including rain, snow, and fog, with a pH of 5.5 or below (Note: pH values below 7 are acidic; vinegar has a pH of 3). It often results when the acidity of normal precipitation is increased by sulfates and nitrates that are emitted into the atmosphere from burning fossil fuels. This form of airborne contamination is considered harmful, both directly and indirectly, to a host of plant and animal species.Although acid rain can fall virtually anywhere, ecological damages in environmentally sensitive areas downwind of industrial and urban emissions are a major concern. This includes areas that have a reduced capacity to neutralize acid inputs because of low alkalinity soils and areas that contain species with a low tolerance to acid conditions. To determine the distribution of acidic deposition and evaluate its biological effects, research and monitoring are being conducted by the federal government with support from states, universities, and private industry.            The national extent of the acid rain problem has been estimated by sampling water from 3,000 lakes and 500 streams (Irving 1991), representing more than 28,000 lakes and 56,000 stream reaches with a total of 200,000 km (125,000 mi). Some particularly sensitive areas, such as the Adirondack Mountain region, have been more intensively sampled and the biota examined in detail for effects from acidity.         To identify trends in aquatic ecosystems, present and historical survey data on water chemistry and associated biota are compared. In lakes, the chemical and biological history and pH trends may be inferred or reconstructed in some cases by examining assemblages of fossil diatoms and aquatic invertebrates in the sediment layers. In terrestrial ecosystems, vegetation damage is surveyed and effects of acidic deposition to plants and animals are determined from laboratory and field exposure experiments. Natural

  13. A gender-based analysis of Iranian EFL learners' types of written errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faezeh Boroomand

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Committing errors is inevitable in process of language acquisition and learning. Analysis of learners' errors from different perspectives, contributes to the improvement of language learning and teaching. Although the issue of gender differences has received considerable attention in the context of second or foreign language learning and teaching, few studies on the relationship between gender and EFL learners' written errors have been carried out. The present study conducted on 100 Iranian advanced EFL learners' written errors (50 male learners and 50 female learners, presents different classifications and subdivisions of errors, and carries out an analysis on these errors. Detecting the most committed errors in each classification, findings reveal significant differences between error frequencies of the two male and female groups (more error frequency in female written productions.

  14. THE EVENT OF SEPTEMBER 11TH IN AMERICAN AND SYRIAN WRITTEN MEDIA DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biook Benham

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Aiming at highlighting the important role of written media discourse in implicit transfer of  the dominant ideology of discourse context, the present data-driven paper demonstrates how the lexical features of repetition and synonymy as well as  the structural and thematic features of passivisation, nominalization and predicated theme were utilized by the discourse producers of the data to mediate between their own underlying ideology and the target readers' understanding of the event of September 11th 2001. Through a comparative statistical analysis of the written media discourse of the data for the study written in two ideologically opposing contexts of Syria and America, we have tried to explicate how the discourse producers utilized various lexical and thematic strategies to produce different impressions of the event and implicitly force the underlying ideology on the readers.   Keywords: September 11th 2001, thematization, passivisation, nominalization, synonymy, CDA

  15. Balance and predominant perspectives in the history of written culture: an approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Daniel Moncada Patiño

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects about the authors that are and will be paradigms in the historical studies about written culture. However, this article doesn't pretend to do an extensive analysis about them or their works. Therefore, the interest is to emphasize on the theorical and methodological perspectives of some of them, which are predominant in the new studies about written culture. Studies that show the complexity of the written culture as research matter are a mandatory and necessary homework to historians, literates, sociologists, anthropologists, librarians, among others, which initiated the study about this topic in Latin American context and whose monographic works have started a new historical stream in the region.

  16. An initiative to improve oral and written skills of Engineering Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Baeza-Romero

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe some activities that have been developed to written and oral skills in students of Degree in Electrical and Electronics Engineering in the School of Industrial Engineering in Toledo. Among these activities, we have designed a workshop, included in welcome activities of the school for first year students and two learning activities included in chemistry module. In the workshop, we explained the key points to consider when an oral or written presentation is prepared. Moreover, we tried to make conscious to our students of the importance of the development of written and oral skills. In addition, we have designed an assessment method for oral skills and other skills like critical thinking in the chemistry module, though an exercise that combines conventional evaluation with peer evaluation. As part of this work, an assessment rubric has been developed to mark oral presentations.

  17. Core vocabulary in written personal narratives of school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Carla; Appleget, Allyssa; Hart, Sara

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to describe core words of written personal narratives to inform the implementation of AAC supports for literacy instruction. Investigators analyzed lexical diversity, frequency of specific word use and types of words that made up 70% of the total words used in 211 written narrative samples from children in first grade (n = 94) and fourth grade (n = 117). Across grades, 191 different words made up 70% of the total words used in the 211 written narrative samples. The top 50 words were comprised of content words (64%) and function words (36%). Grade differences were noted in diversity and types of words, including differences in the number of words comprising the core (132 words for children in first grade and 207 for fourth grade) and a higher proportion of abstract nouns for children in fourth grade based on the 200 most frequently occurring words for each grade.

  18. A Descriptive Study of Registers Found in Spoken and Written Communication (A Semantic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Hidayah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This research is descriptive study of registers found in spoken and written communication. The type of this research is Descriptive Qualitative Research. In this research, the data of the study is register in spoken and written communication that are found in a book entitled "Communicating! Theory and Practice" and from internet. The data can be in the forms of words, phrases and abbreviation. In relation with method of collection data, the writer uses the library method as her instrument. The writer relates it to the study of register in spoken and written communication. The technique of analyzing the data using descriptive method. The types of register in this term will be separated into formal register and informal register, and identify the meaning of register.

  19. Propositional idea density in women's written language over the lifespan: computerized analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Alison; Spencer, Elizabeth; Craig, Hugh; Colyvas, Kim

    2014-06-01

    The informativeness of written language, as measured by Propositional Idea Density (PD), has been shown to be a sensitive predictive index of language decline with age and dementia in previous research. The present study investigated the influence of age and education on the written language of three large cohorts of women from the general community, born between 1973 and 1978, 1946-51 and 1921-26. Written texts were obtained from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health in which participants were invited to respond to an open-ended question about their health. The informativeness of written comments of 10 words or more (90% of the total number of comments) was analyzed using the Computerized Propositional Idea Density Rater 3 (CPIDR-3). Over 2.5 million words used in 37,705 written responses from 19,512 respondents were analyzed. Based on a linear mixed model approach to statistical analysis with adjustment for several factors including number of comments per respondent and number of words per comment, a small but statistically significant effect of age was identified for the older cohort with mean age 78 years. The mean PD per word for this cohort was lower than the younger and mid-aged cohorts with mean age 27 and 53 years respectively, with mean reduction in PD 95% confidence interval (CI) of .006 (.003, .008) and .009 (.008, .011) respectively. This suggests that PD for this population of women was relatively more stable over the adult lifespan than has been reported previously even in late old age. There was no statistically significant effect of education level. Computerized analyses were found to greatly facilitate the study of informativeness of this large corpus of written language. Directions for further research are discussed in relation to the need for extended investigation of the variability of the measure for potential application to the identification of acquired language pathologies.

  20. Consumer Preferences for Written and Oral Information about Allergens When Eating Out.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona M Begen

    Full Text Available Avoiding food allergens when eating outside the home presents particular difficulties for food allergic (FA and intolerant (FI consumers and a lack of allergen information in restaurants and takeaways causes unnecessary restrictions. Across Europe, legislation effective from December 2014, aims to improve allergen information by requiring providers of non-prepacked foods to supply information related to allergen content within their foods.Using in-depth interviews with 60 FA/FI adults and 15 parents/carers of FA/FI children, we aimed to identify FA/FI consumers' preferences for written and/or verbal allergen information when eating out or ordering takeaway food.A complex and dynamic set of preferences and practices for written and verbal allergen information was identified. Overwhelmingly, written information was favoured in the first instance, but credible personal/verbal communication was highly valued and essential to a good eating out experience. Adequate written information facilitated implicit trust in subsequent verbal information. Where written information was limited, FA/FIs depended on social cues to assess the reliability of verbal information resources, and defaulted to tried and tested allergen avoidance strategies when these were deemed unreliable.Understanding the subtle negotiations and difficulties encountered by FA/FIs when eating out can serve as a guide for legislators and food providers; by encouraging provision of clear written and verbal allergen information, and training of proactive, allergen-aware staff. This, in tandem with legal requirements for allergen information provision, paves the way for FA/FIs to feel more confident in eating out choices; and to experience improved eating out experiences.

  1. The "SignOn"-Model for Teaching Written Language to Deaf People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Hilzensauer

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows a method of teaching written language to deaf people using sign language as the language of instruction. Written texts in the target language are combined with sign language videos which provide the users with various modes of translation (words/phrases/sentences. As examples, two EU projects for English for the Deaf are presented which feature English texts and translations into the national sign languages of all the partner countries plus signed grammar explanations and interactive exercises. Both courses are web-based; the programs may be accessed free of charge via the respective homepages (without any download or log-in.

  2. Directly UV-written silica-on-silicon planar waveguides with low insertion loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zauner, Dan; Kulstad, K.; Rathje, Jacob;

    1998-01-01

    The coupling loss between directly W-written planar waveguides and standard telecom fibre has been reduced by index matching the three layer structure used for UV writing. Insertion losses down to 0.1 dB for 3 cm long waveguides have been achieved.......The coupling loss between directly W-written planar waveguides and standard telecom fibre has been reduced by index matching the three layer structure used for UV writing. Insertion losses down to 0.1 dB for 3 cm long waveguides have been achieved....

  3. A Form Evaluation System and Its Data Structure for Brosh—Written Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾建超; HidehikoSanada; 等

    1995-01-01

    A form evaluation system for brush-written Chinese characters is developed.Calligraphic knowledge used in the system is represented in the form of rules with the help of a data structure proposed in this paper.Reflecting the specific hierarchical relations among radicals and strokes of Chinese characters,the proposed data structure is based upon a character model that can generate brush-written Chinese characters on a computer.Through evaluation experiments using the developed system,it is shown that representation of calligraphic knowledge and form evaluation of Chinese characters can be smoothly realized if the data structure is utilized.

  4. Development of a written assessment for a national interprofessional cardiotocography education program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thellesen, Line; Bergholt, Thomas; Hedegaard, Morten

    2017-01-01

    development process and to introduce a feasible method for written test development in general. METHODS: The test development was based on the unitary approach to validity. The process involved national consensus on learning objectives, standardized item writing, pilot testing, sensitivity analyses, standard...... for development of a CTG written assessment. The process and findings supported our proposed interpretation of the assessment as measuring CTG knowledge and interpretive skills. However, for the test to function as a high-stake assessment a higher reliability is required....

  5. The Effect of a Written and Pictorial Home Exercise Prescription on Adherence for People with Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheetal Kara

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: The addition of a written and pictorial home exercise prescription does not lead to better adherence to a home exercise programme compared to having no written and pictorial instructions. Possible reasons may be that patients had caregivers as a support system, and the exercise logbook served as a reminder and motivational track record for patients. There also does not appear to be a relationship between functional ability and level of adherence, which may be due to most of the study participants being within the optimal time frame for spontaneous functional recovery. Further study at different time frames in stroke rehabilitation in different contexts is recommended.

  6. Education, Sociability and Written Culture : the case of the Society of Jesus in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Van Damme

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In a special Issue of the journal Annales, the historian Roger Chartier could draw up a review of the written culture history and underlined the role played by certain social groups in the diffusion of written culture in the cities. He distinguished two major elements in this evolution  : one hand “ The use of writing as an instrument of self-government and administration ” and on the other hand “ the link between religious experience and use of writting ”. In this tension, it has been intere...

  7. FDIC Summary of Deposits (SOD) Download File

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation — The FDIC's Summary of Deposits (SOD) download file contains deposit data for branches and offices of all FDIC-insured institutions. The Federal Deposit Insurance...

  8. Acid deposition in Asia: Emissions, deposition, and ecosystem effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Lei; Yu, Qian; Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Zifa; Pan, Yuepeng; Larssen, Thorjørn; Tang, Jie; Mulder, Jan

    2016-12-01

    We review and synthesize the current state of knowledge regarding acid deposition and its environmental effects across Asia. The extent and magnitude of acid deposition in Asia became apparent only about one decade after this issue was well described in Europe and North America. In addition to the temperate zone, much of eastern and southern Asia is situated in the tropics and subtropics, climate zones hitherto little studied with respect to the effects of high loads of acid deposition. Surface waters across Asia are generally not sensitive to the effects of acid deposition, whereas soils in some regions are sensitive to acidification due to low mineral weathering. However, soil acidification was largely neutralized by such processes as base cation deposition, nitrate (NO3-) denitrification, and sulfate (SO42-) adsorption. Accompanying the decrease in S deposition in recent years, N deposition is of increasing concern in Asia. The acidifying effect of N deposition may be more important than S deposition in well drained tropical/subtropical soils due to high SO42- adsorption. The risk of regional soil acidification is a major threat in Eastern Asia, indicated by critical load exceedance in large areas.

  9. Spelling in Written Stories by School-Age Children with Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straley, Sara G.; Werfel, Krystal L.; Hendricks, Alison Eisel

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the spelling of 3rd to 6th grade children with cochlear implants in written stories. Spelling was analysed using traditional correct/incorrect scoring as well as the Spelling Sensitivity Score, which provides linguistic information about spelling attempts. Children with cochlear implants spelled 86 per cent of words in stories…

  10. Feedback on Feedback: Eliciting Learners' Responses to Written Feedback through Student-Generated Screencasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Toro, María; Furnborough, Concha

    2014-01-01

    Despite the potential benefits of assignment feedback, learners often fail to use it effectively. This study examines the ways in which adult distance learners engage with written feedback on one of their assignments. Participants were 10 undergraduates studying Spanish at the Open University, UK. Their responses to feedback were elicited by means…

  11. STUDENTS’ RESPONSE TO TEACHER’S FEEDBACK ON THEIR WRITTEN COMPOSITION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between what teachers provide as feedback on students’ written compositions and what their students think of and do with this feedback. Teachers’ feedback patterns, students’ strategies for handling teacher’s feedback, and students’ preferences for teacher’s feedback are analyzed, and finally some suggestions for both the learning and teaching of writing are offered.

  12. Effects of a Summarizing Strategy on Written Summaries of Children with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saddler, Bruce; Asaro-Saddler, Kristie; Moeyaert, Mariola; Ellis-Robinson, Tammy

    2017-01-01

    In this single-subject study, we examined the effects of a summarizing strategy on the written summaries of children with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBDs). Six students with EBDs in fifth and sixth grades learned a mnemonic-based strategy for summarizing taught through the self-regulated strategy development (SRSD) approach. Visual…

  13. Using Self-Regulated Strategy Development for Written Expression with Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Robert; Hagaman, Jessica L.; Graham, Steve

    2014-01-01

    This review assessed the use of self-regulated strategy development (SRSD) for teaching written composition strategies to students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorders. We examined the participants and the settings in which SRSD has been used, the writing strategies tested, genres addressed, and the effects of SRSD on outcome measures.…

  14. The Investigation of Power in Written Texts through the Use of Multiple Textual Analytic Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickens, Corrine M.

    2011-01-01

    Although often used as secondary sources, written texts are powerful sources of data for qualitative researchers to explore power networks and broad ideological perspectives. As such, I present in this paper an analytic process that draws upon multiple analytic frameworks--constant comparative analysis, discursive textual analysis, and traditional…

  15. Effects of the Design of Written Music on the Readability for Children with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flach, Nanke; Timmermans, Anneke; Korpershoek, Hanke

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between the design of written music and the number of mistakes dyslexic and non-dyslexic children make in reading music is investigated in this study. Previous research shows that children with dyslexia experience difficulties with reading music, especially discerning pitch. Common mistakes of dyslexic…

  16. Clay Modeling versus Written Modules as Effective Interventions in Understanding Human Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bareither, Mary Lou; Arbel, Vered; Growe, Meghan; Muszczynski, Emily; Rudd, Adam; Marone, Jane R.

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of clay modeling to written modules is examined to determine the degree of improvement in learning and retention of anatomical 3D relationships among students with different learning preferences. Thirty-nine undergraduate students enrolled in a cadaver dissection course completed a pre-assessment examination and the VARK…

  17. Bilingual Children's Writing: Self-Correction and Revision of Written Narratives in Spanish and Nahuatl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Norbert

    2005-01-01

    The article reports on findings from a replication of a study of bilingual children's editing and correction strategies. The earlier study analyzed revisions that 2nd, 4th, and 6th graders made to their own compositions, written in Spanish. The present study applied the same procedure and assessment rubric to the first draft of compositions…

  18. On the Identification of Critical Variables in Written Composition Instruction. SCO Cahier No. 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesdorp, Hildo

    One objective of the International Study of Achievement in Written Composition was to develop an instrument that could explore the relationships between instructional variables and educational results. Three levels of specificity were aimed at: (1) broad and general characteristics of the instructional process; (2) specific dimensions of native…

  19. Corporate Culture and the Use of Written English Within British Subsidiaries in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Catherine

    1998-01-01

    A study investigated communication patterns in written English and the prevalent corporate culture, the relationship between a British corporate office and its subsidiary in the Netherlands. Survey respondents were senior-level employees at 107 companies. Results indicate corporate culture plays an important role in the level of English skills…

  20. Written Feedback, Student Writing, and Institutional Policies: Implications for Novice Teacher Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerherm, Emily

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes the methods that teachers employ in written feedback to student writing and how the policies of the program and the teachers' embodied histories influence the strategies used. Data were gathered from 2 novice teachers as they taught their first graduate-level ESL writing course and consist of the teachers' feedback in addition…

  1. Graduate Students' Perceptions of Written Feedback at a Private University in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazal, Lubna; Gul, Raisa; Hanzala, Mehnaz; Jessop, Tansy; Tharani, Ambreen

    2014-01-01

    Excellence in academic performance at the graduate level requires good command of writing skills. Teachers' written feedback can help students to develop their writing skills. However, several personal and contextual factors may influence feedback processes and its utilization by students. Therefore, understanding these factors is essential to…

  2. What about Metaphors in "The Snows of Kilimanjaro and Other Stories" Written by Ernest Hemingway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na'imah

    2015-01-01

    It is discovered plenty of various interesting metaphors in the book of "The Snows of Kilimanjaro and Other Stories" which were written by Ernest Hemingway. By the metaphorical expressions, one can describe everything much more expressively, imaginatively, effectively, and poetically. Each of the metaphors has always a specific style and…

  3. A Comparison of Written Chinese Achievement among Heritage Learners in Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Helen H.

    2003-01-01

    Examines effects of grouping practice on written Chinese achievement among heritage learners in college Chinese classes. Subjects were two groups of heritage students, a homogeneous group and a heterogeneous group. Results suggest in college level Chinese language classes, tracking based on linguistic background can improve heritage students'…

  4. Home Literacy Environment and Its Influence on Singaporean Children's Chinese Oral and Written Language Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Tan, Chee Lay

    2016-01-01

    In a bilingual environment such as Singaporean Chinese community, the challenge of maintaining Chinese language and sustaining Chinese culture lies in promoting the daily use of Chinese language in oral and written forms among children. Ample evidence showed the effect of the home language and literacy environment (HLE), on children's language and…

  5. The Efficacy of Dynamic Written Corrective Feedback for University-Matriculated ESL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Norman W.; Hartshorn, K. James; Strong-Krause, Diane

    2011-01-01

    Truscott's (1996) indictment on error correction in second-language (L2) writing has ignited much discussion and research on the appropriateness of written corrective feedback (WCF) in L2 contexts. Out of this has emerged a body of research that suggests that WCF can positively impact the linguistic accuracy of student writing. However, these…

  6. Studies on Written Corrective Feedback: Theoretical Perspectives, Empirical Evidence, and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Jiang, Lin

    2015-01-01

    The role of written corrective feedback (WCF) in the process of acquiring a second language (L2) has been an issue of considerable controversies over past decades. This article intends to provide a critical review of the increasing number of WCF studies thus far and to inspire new perspectives for future research. It starts by briefly tracing the…

  7. Effect of Explicit and Implicit Instruction on Free Written Response Task Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andringa, Sible; de Glopper, C.M.; Hacquebord, Hilde

    A classroom study was designed to test the hypothesis that explicit knowledge is used by second-language (L2) learners in a free written response task if that knowledge is present. Eighty-one 12-18-year-old learners of Dutch as an L2 took part in a computer-assisted language learning experiment

  8. Impact of the introduction of the modular written-theoretical examination in the training internship.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabel Rocha Vázquez

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The formative process of teachers has always been a challenge due transformations undergone by educative institution's functions. Objective: To compare the results of modular examinations of two editions of the Professional Course. Methods: A analytic study was carried out to compare theoretical modular examinations results of Professional Course during 2003-2004 and 2004-2005 in which two different kind of test were used: oral and written, in that order. Universe and sample coincided and were represented by the totality of examined students. Data was collected from examination records and results were presented in tables of frequency expressed in percentage. Results: In a general way, quality index of 100% were obtained in every module during 2003-2004, contrary to 2004-2005 were any of the modules achieved 100%. The percentage of excellent marks was considerably higher using oral rather that written examination. The results distribution's curve is closer to the expected results using written examination; the results in municipalities and health areas are similar. Conclusion: The modular written examination allows a better selection of students being more effective in present conditions, with a young staff needing to be prepared.

  9. The Focus of Supervisor Written Feedback to Thesis/Dissertation Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitchener, John; Basturkmen, Helen; East, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Written feedback on drafts of a thesis or dissertation is arguably the most important source of input on what is required or expected of thesis-writing students by the academic community. Despite its importance, relatively little is known about what type of information supervisors focus on when giving feedback. This article presents the findings…

  10. Graduate Students' Needs and Preferences for Written Feedback on Academic Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manjet Kaur Mehar

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to examine graduate students' needs and preferences for written feedback on academic writing from their lecturers and thesis supervisors. Quantitative method via survey questionnaire was used to collect data from 21 respondents. The data collection involved Master and Doctorate students at a tertiary level institution…

  11. Written plans: an overlooked mechanism to develop recovery-oriented primary care for depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Victoria J; Johnson, Caroline L; Furler, John S; Densley, Konstancja; Potiriadis, Maria; Gunn, Jane M

    2014-01-01

    There is a global shift to foster patient-centred and recovery-oriented mental health services. This has resulted from the expansion of how the concept of recovery is understood in mental health literature and practice. Recovery is now more than a return to function or reduction in symptoms; it is a subjective, individualised and multi-faceted experience. To date there has not been investigation of how recovery-oriented services can be translated and implemented into the primary mental health care system. This paper presents the results of a survey from a prospective cohort of primary care patients with probable depression about the importance of written plans to recover. The benefits of having a written plan to recover from depression, as outlined by the participants, were analysed using Leximancer software. The findings provide insights into how written plans may be an important mechanism for implementing a recovery-oriented primary mental health care system. We conclude that the benefits of a written plan provide insight into how patients conceptualise recovery.

  12. Structuring a written examination to assess ASBH health care ethics consultation core knowledge competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Bruce D; Jankowski, Jane B; Shelton, Wayne N

    2014-01-01

    As clinical ethics consultants move toward professionalization, the process of certifying individual consultants or accrediting programs will be discussed and debated. With certification, some entity must be established or ordained to oversee the standards and procedures. If the process evolves like other professions, it seems plausible that it will eventually include a written examination to evaluate the core knowledge competencies that individual practitioners should possess to meet peer practice standards. The American Society for Bioethics and Humanities (ASBH) has published core knowledge competencies for many years that are accepted by experts as the prevailing standard. Probably any written examination will be based upon the ASBH core knowledge competencies. However, much remains to be done before any examination may be offered. In particular, it seems likely that a recognized examining board must create and validate examination questions and structure the examination so as to establish meaningful, defensible parameters after dealing with such challenging questions as: Should the certifying examination be multiple choice or short-answer essay? How should the test be graded? What should the pass rate be? How may the examination be best administered? To advance the field of health care ethics consultation, thought leaders should start to focus on the written examination possibilities, to date unaddressed carefully in the literature. Examination models-both objective and written-must be explored as a viable strategy about how the field of health care ethics consultations can grow toward professionalization.

  13. Challenging students to formulate written questions: a randomized controlled trial to assess learning effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olde Bekkink, M.; Donders, A.R.T.; Kooloos, J.G.M.; Waal, R.M.W. de; Ruiter, D.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Underutilization of dialogue among students during small-group work is a threat to active meaningful learning. To encourage small-group learning, we challenged students to generate written questions during a small-group work session. As gender differences have been shown to affect

  14. A Comparison of Students' Explanations Derived from Spoken and Written Methods of Questioning and Answering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, G. M.; Pedrosa, M. A.

    1988-01-01

    Examined whether and how the quality of students' explanations of chemical phenomena was affected by changing the method of giving the question and answer between the spoken and written formats. Concluded that there was no difference between the performance of students using any of these combinations of formats. (Author/YP)

  15. The Contribution of Written Corrective Feedback to Language Development: A Ten Month Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitchener, John; Knoch, Ute

    2010-01-01

    The call for longitudinal evidence on the efficacy of written corrective feedback (WCF) for ESL (English as a second language) writers has been made repeatedly since Truscott (1996) claimed that it is ineffective, harmful, and should therefore be abandoned. This article discusses some of the theoretical issues raised against the practice, outlines…

  16. The Value of Written Corrective Feedback for Migrant and International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitchener, John; Knoch, Ute

    2008-01-01

    This article provides an overview of research that has investigated the effectiveness of written corrective feedback (WCF) on ESL student writing. In doing so, it highlights a number of shortcomings in the design of some studies and explains what needs to be done in future research so that answers to the issues that have been raised can be…

  17. Raising the Linguistic Accuracy Level of Advanced L2 Writers with Written Corrective Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitchener, John; Knoch, Ute

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a study that investigated (1) the extent to which written corrective feedback (CF) can help advanced L2 learners, who already demonstrate a high level of accuracy in two functional uses of the English article system (the use of "a" for first mention and "the" for subsequent or anaphoric mentions), further…

  18. The Relative Effectiveness of Different Types of Direct Written Corrective Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitchener, John; Knoch, Ute

    2009-01-01

    The effectiveness of different types of written corrective feedback has been investigated over the last twenty years but it is still not possible to make firm conclusions about which options are the most beneficial to ESL learners. This article first provides an overview of the currently available research findings and then presents the results of…

  19. Controlling the volatility of the written optical state in electrochromic DNA liquid crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Kai; Varghese, Justin; Gerasimov, Jennifer Y.; Polyakov, Alexey O.; Shuai, Min; Su, Juanjuan; Chen, Dong; Zajaczkowski, Wojciech; Marcozzi, Alessio; Pisula, Wojciech; Noheda, Beatriz; Palstra, Thomas T. M.; Clark, Noel A.; Herrmann, Andreas

    Liquid crystals are widely used in displays for portable electronic information display. To broaden their scope for other applications like smart windows and tags, new material properties such as polarizer-free operation and tunable memory of a written state become important. Here, we describe an

  20. An Investigation of Spelling in the Written Compositions of Students Who Read Braille

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark-Bischke, Christine; Stoner, Julia B.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the spelling skills in the written compositions of 20 students who read braille and offers further evidence that the skills of these students are similar to those of sighted students. The assessment of writing samples focused on the number of words spelled correctly and used an error analysis to describe patterns of spelling…

  1. La Lengua Escrita como Norma Fonetica (The Written Language as Phonetic Norm)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Plaja, Guillermo

    1977-01-01

    A collectivity can be defined by the verbal instrument which binds it together. By extension of this thought of Marshall MacLuhan, the importance of the written language as normative for the uniformity, universality and preservation of the phonetic system of the language is discussed. (Text is in Spanish.) (AMH)

  2. The Present in Flemish Secondary History Education through the Lens of Written History Exams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nieuwenhuyse, Karel; Wils, Kaat; Clarebout, Geraldine; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2015-01-01

    The present plays an important part in history education, in particular in efforts to make the study of the past relevant for today. This contribution examines how the relationship between past and present is dealt with in current Flemish secondary history education by analyzing 190 written history exams for the 11th and 12th grade. Ten percent of…

  3. How Do Finnish Children Express Care and Justice in Comic Strips and Written Narratives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Juha; Hannula, Markku S.

    2014-01-01

    This case study explored how children's moral expressions like love and violence differ according to the mode of narrative, comic strips or written narratives. Sixteen third-grade children from a primary school in Finland took part in the study. Children's moral expressions were divided into justice and care. Reading frequency of fairy tales and…

  4. Assessing and developing the written reflective practice skills of speech-language pathology students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Kate; Tillard, Gina; Wyles, Christine; Gerhard, Daniel; Ormond, Tika; McAuliffe, Megan

    2017-09-19

    Written reflective practice aims to support critical thinking and problem solving skills in speech-language pathology (SLP) clinical education programmes. Yet, there has been limited investigation of students' development of written reflective practice skills over time and during a real-time clinical experience. The purpose of this study was to investigate students' development of breadth and depth of written reflective practice across a six-week clinical experience. Participants were 59 undergraduate and 14 postgraduate SLP students. Participants wrote critical reflections describing an interaction with a client/s at the conclusion of weeks two, four and six of their clinical experience. Formative feedback was provided after each submission. Breadth and depth of reflection were coded using a modification of Plack et al.'s coding schema. There was a statistically significant association between time and likelihood of development of breadth of reflection for the elements process and content. Depth of reflection improved significantly across time. The majority of participants were classified as "reflectors" or critical reflector at the conclusion of the study. SLP students can make significant improvements in both breadth and depth of written reflective practice over a six-week period. Implications for clinical teaching are discussed.

  5. Video instruction is more effective than written instruction in improving inhaler technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Romil F; Gupta, Rakesh M

    2017-08-07

    Many patients with asthma use inhalers incorrectly. Better inhaler technique is associated with better asthma control. We tested the effectiveness of a computer-based video training solution versus traditional written instructions, both which may be used in a resource-limited setting, for teaching inhaler technique. We hypothesized that computer based training will provide a higher quality of instruction which will improve technique more effectively than written training. 50 asthma patients were recruited from pulmonary clinic at the Junta De Beneficencia Hospital, Ecuador (average age 48.2 years, 58% female). Inhaler technique was taught using written instructions in 20 and video in 30 patients. Inhaler technique was analyzed by video recording pre and post training inhaler use. Inhaler technique score was calculated for each video recording. Baseline performance was equivalent in each group, achieving an average of around 5 of 11 of the inhaler steps. Video training was significantly more effective than written instructions (change of 3.6 points vs. change of 0.4 points, p instruction appears to be inadequate to achieve safe and effective administration of inhaled medicine. In contrast, video-based education can effectively create adequate inhaler technique without additional provider time. REGISTRATION NUMBER (CLINICALTRIALS.GOV IDENTIFIER): NCT02660879. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Effects of Lexico-Syntactic Errors on Teaching Materials: A Study of Textbooks Written by Nigerians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Peace Chinwendu

    2014-01-01

    This study examined lexico-syntactic errors in selected textbooks written by Nigerians. Our focus was on the educated bilinguals (acrolect) who acquired their primary, secondary and tertiary education in Nigeria and the selected textbooks were textbooks published by Vanity Publishers/Press. The participants (authors) cut across the three major…

  7. Bilingual Children's Writing: Self-Correction and Revision of Written Narratives in Spanish and Nahuatl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Norbert

    2005-01-01

    The article reports on findings from a replication of a study of bilingual children's editing and correction strategies. The earlier study analyzed revisions that 2nd, 4th, and 6th graders made to their own compositions, written in Spanish. The present study applied the same procedure and assessment rubric to the first draft of compositions…

  8. Students' Engagement with a Collaborative Wiki Tool Predicts Enhanced Written Exam Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Tom; Elgueta, Herman; Cameron, Harriet

    2014-01-01

    We introduced voluntary wiki-based exercises to a long-running cognitive psychology course, part of the core curriculum for an undergraduate degree in psychology. Over 2 yearly cohorts, students who used the wiki more also scored higher on the final written exam. Using regression analysis, it is possible to account for students' tendency to score…

  9. Managing the Written Text: The Beginning of Punctuation in Children's Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreiro, Emilia; Pontecorvo, Clotilde

    1999-01-01

    Studied the use of punctuation in children's early writings in connection with organization of the text. Collected 134 stories of second graders written in Spanish, Portuguese, or Italian. Children tried to make sense of writing conventions, including the use of punctuation, and some tried to distinguish the functions of punctuation marks. (SLD)

  10. 28 CFR 68.3 - Service of complaint, notice of hearing, written orders, and decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... DOCUMENT FRAUD § 68.3 Service of complaint, notice of hearing, written orders, and decisions. (a) Service...: (1) By delivering a copy to the individual party, partner of a party, officer of a corporate party, registered agent for service of process of a corporate party, or attorney or representative of record of...

  11. 20 CFR 655.1015 - Written notice and service of Administrator's determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Process for Attestations Filed by Employers Utilizing F-1 Students in Off-Campus Work § 655.1015 Written... service or by certified mail at the address of the employer or the employer's agent shown on the... absence of a timely request for a hearing, received by the Chief Administrative Law Judge within 15...

  12. Mass Communications in Israel: A Bibliography of Articles, Pamphlets, and Books Written in English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotliffe, Harvey

    This bibliography on mass communications in Israel contains articles, pamphlets, and books written in English covering the areas of advertising, Arab mass communications, broadcast authority, censorship, culture and communication, film, press and propaganda, publishing writers, radio, commercial and educational television, and the theatre arts.…

  13. The Effect of Computer-Generated Spoken Feedback on Kindergarten Students' Written Narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ithel

    1998-01-01

    Examined the extent to which kindergartners used computer speech during narrative writing and the relationship between this use and the linguistic properties of their written products. Found that length of text, grammatical cohesion, and lexical density were strongly associated with use of computer-generated spoken feedback. Narrative types and…

  14. Cross-modal representation of spoken and written word meaning in left pars triangularis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liuzzi, Antonietta Gabriella; Bruffaerts, Rose; Peeters, Ronald; Adamczuk, Katarzyna; Keuleers, Emmanuel; De Deyne, Simon; Storms, Gerrit; Dupont, Patrick; Vandenberghe, Rik

    2017-01-01

    The correspondence in meaning extracted from written versus spoken input remains to be fully understood neurobiologically. Here, in a total of 38 subjects, the functional anatomy of cross-modal semantic similarity for concrete words was determined based on a dual criterion: First, a voxelwise

  15. A Compilation of Postgraduate Theses Written in Turkey on Computer Assisted Instruction in Chemistry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozdogan, Aykut Emre; Demirbas, Murat

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study conducted is to present in-depth information about the postgraduate theses written within the context of Computer Assisted Instruction in Chemistry Education in Turkey. The theses collected in National Thesis Centre of Turkish Council of Higher Education were examined. As a result of an examination, it was found that about…

  16. 47 CFR 76.939 - Truthful written statements and responses to requests of franchising authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... requests of franchising authority. 76.939 Section 76.939 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... Regulation § 76.939 Truthful written statements and responses to requests of franchising authority. Cable operators shall comply with franchising authorities' and the Commission's requests for information,...

  17. Bibliotherapy for Children with Anxiety Disorders Using Written Materials for Parents: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapee, Ronald M.; Abbott, Maree J.; Lyneham, Heidi J.

    2006-01-01

    The current trial examined the value of modifying empirically validated treatment for childhood anxiety for application via written materials for parents of anxious children. Two hundred sixty-seven clinically anxious children ages 6-12 years and their parents were randomly allocated to standard group treatment, wait list, or a bibliotherapy…

  18. How Do Finnish Children Express Care and Justice in Comic Strips and Written Narratives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Juha; Hannula, Markku S.

    2014-01-01

    This case study explored how children's moral expressions like love and violence differ according to the mode of narrative, comic strips or written narratives. Sixteen third-grade children from a primary school in Finland took part in the study. Children's moral expressions were divided into justice and care. Reading frequency of fairy tales and…

  19. Spoken and Written Language Features and Markers of 'Speaker' Identity in an Internet Discussion Board Text

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张珣

    2008-01-01

    This essay analyses the spoken and written language features in a text taken from an internet discussion board from two perspec- tives: the medium, and the mode, comments on language use in the text that may assign the 'speaker' to different speech communities, and discuss the implications of the analysis for English teaching.

  20. How Deaf and Normally Hearing Students Convey Meaning within and between Written Sentences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine; And Others

    1996-01-01

    The compositions of 49 students (ages 10-14) with deafness or hearing impairments and 49 typical students were compared to investigate the frequency and proportional distribution of written-language variables. Differences were found between the strategies chosen by the students with deafness or hearing impairments in both syntax and semantics and…

  1. Development of School-Aged Deaf, Hard-of-Hearing, and Normally Hearing Students' Written Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine; Downey, Doris M.

    1996-01-01

    Studies of the written language of students who are deaf or hard-of-hearing addressed, among other topics, level of reading skills, development of language skills after age 12, and evidence of a critical age for language learning. Data collection methods, research outcomes, and an overview of other articles in the theme issue are discussed. (CR)

  2. Error Analysis of Support Verb Constructions in Written Spanish Learner Corpora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salido, Marcos Garcia

    2016-01-01

    This article studies the use of support verb constructions (SVCs) in the written production of learners of Spanish. SVCs are lexical combinations whose content is similar to verbal predicates but is distributed between a verb and a noun, the noun being the carrier of the core lexical meaning of the predicate. Although there is considerable…

  3. Special Education in Saudi Arabia: A Synthesis of Literature Written in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamimi, Ahmed A.; Lee, Lay Wah; Sayed-Ahmed, Al-sayed A.; Kassem, Mostafa M.

    2015-01-01

    Special education in Saudi Arabia was formally established in 1962. The earliest cited literature on special education written in English was a 1970 government report. This article presents results from the first synthesis of internationally published Saudi special education literature over a 44-year period. This synthesis yielded information…

  4. A Quantitative Analysis of Uncertainty in the Grading of Written Exams in Mathematics and Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Hugo Lewi; Habib, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    The most common way to grade students in courses at university and university college level is to use final written exams. The aim of final exams is generally to provide a reliable and a valid measurement of the extent to which a student has achieved the learning outcomes for the course. A source of uncertainty in grading students based on an exam…

  5. Correcting students’ written grammatical errors: The effects of negotiated versus nonnegotiated feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Nassaji

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A substantial number of studies have examined the effects of grammar correction on second language (L2 written errors. However, most of the existing research has involved unidirectional written feedback. This classroom-based study examined the effects of oral negotiation in addressing L2 written errors. Data were collected in two intermediate adult English as a second language classes. Three types of feedback were compared: nonnegotiated direct reformulation, feedback with limited negotiation (i.e., prompt + reformulation and feedback with negotiation. The linguistic targets chosen were the two most common grammatical errors in English: articles and prepositions. The effects of feedback were measured by means of learner-specific error identification/correction tasks administered three days, and again ten days, after the treatment. The results showed an overall advantage for feedback that involved negotiation. However, a comparison of data per error types showed that the differential effects of feedback types were mainly apparent for article errors rather than preposition errors. These results suggest that while negotiated feedback may play an important role in addressing L2 written errors, the degree of its effects may differ for different linguistic targets.

  6. Prose Checklist: Strategies for Improving School-to-Home Written Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagro, Sarah A.

    2015-01-01

    Effective communication enhances school-family partnerships. Written communication is a common, efficient way of communicating with families, but potential barriers to effective communication include readability level, clarity of presentation, complexity of format, and structural components. The PROSE Checklist presented in this article can…

  7. Narrative Skills in Written Texts by Deaf and Hearing Bilingual Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teruggi, Lilia A.; Gutiérrez-Cáceres, Rafaela

    2015-01-01

    Most studies on narrative competence have focused on monolingual subjects, and there are very few studies which address this issue in bilingual subjects dealing with two language systems. In the present case study we analyzed and compared the textual and narrative written skills of three deaf and three hearing adolescents attending eighth grade at…

  8. A Model for Teaching Written Language to Hearing-Impaired Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacson, Stephen L.; Luckner, John L.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a model of written language that can guide the instruction of hearing-impaired students, and strategies and techniques for improving writing skills, using research and theory from such areas as fluency, syntax, vocabulary, content, conventions, student motivation, guided practice, student interaction, and selective feedback. (CB) (Adjunct…

  9. Using Self-Regulated Strategy Development for Written Expression with Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Robert; Hagaman, Jessica L.; Graham, Steve

    2014-01-01

    This review assessed the use of self-regulated strategy development (SRSD) for teaching written composition strategies to students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorders. We examined the participants and the settings in which SRSD has been used, the writing strategies tested, genres addressed, and the effects of SRSD on outcome measures.…

  10. The Role of Task Type in Foreign Language Written Production: Focusing on Fluency, Complexity, and Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezazadeh, Mohsen; Tavakoli, Mansoor; Rasekh, Abbas Eslami

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two task types on foreign language written production. Particularly it addressed the issue of how three aspects of language production (i.e. fluency, complexity, and accuracy) vary among two different task types (i.e. argumentative writing task and instruction writing task). One hundred sixty…

  11. Cognitive Levels and Approaches Taken by Students Failing Written Examinations in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roegner, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted at the Technical University Berlin involving students who twice failed the written examination in the first semester course Linear Algebra for Engineers in order to better understand the reasons behind their failure. The study considered student understanding in terms of Bloom's taxonomy and the ways in which students…

  12. Investigating Expectations and Experiences of Audio and Written Assignment Feedback in First-Year Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett, Hannah; Oldfield, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Previous research suggests that audio feedback may be an important mechanism for facilitating effective and timely assignment feedback. The present study examined expectations and experiences of audio and written feedback provided through "turnitin for iPad®" from students within the same cohort and assignment. The results showed that…

  13. Investigating Expectations and Experiences of Audio and Written Assignment Feedback in First-Year Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett, Hannah; Oldfield, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Previous research suggests that audio feedback may be an important mechanism for facilitating effective and timely assignment feedback. The present study examined expectations and experiences of audio and written feedback provided through "turnitin for iPad®" from students within the same cohort and assignment. The results showed that…

  14. Referencing in a Second Language: Korean EFL Learners' Cohesive Use of References in Written Narrative Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jennifer Yusun

    2009-01-01

    This study examined Korean English as a foreign language (EFL) learners' ability to establish textual cohesion in English through appropriate selection of reference forms and reference management strategies in their written narrative discourse. It employed both quantitative and qualitative analysis to explore how the language-specific reference…

  15. Pragmatic Features in Original Narratives Written by African American Students at Three Grade Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersting, Jessica M.; Anderson, Michele A.; Newkirk-Turner, Brandi L.; Nelson, Nickola W.

    2015-01-01

    African American English has a rich oral tradition, with identifiable features across all 5 systems of language--phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics. This is an investigation of the extent to which pragmatic features of African American oral storytelling traditions are apparent in the written stories of African American…

  16. Prose Checklist: Strategies for Improving School-to-Home Written Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagro, Sarah A.

    2015-01-01

    Effective communication enhances school-family partnerships. Written communication is a common, efficient way of communicating with families, but potential barriers to effective communication include readability level, clarity of presentation, complexity of format, and structural components. The PROSE Checklist presented in this article can…

  17. Computer-Assisted Learning for the Hearing Impaired: An Interactive Written Language Enviroment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, R. D.; Rostron, A. B.

    1983-01-01

    To help hearing-impaired children develop their linguistic competence, a computer system that can process sentences and give feedback about their acceptability was developed. Suggestions are made of ways to use the system as an environment for interactive written communication. (Author/CL)

  18. A Corpus-Based View of Lexical Gender in Written Business English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuertes-Olivera, Pedro A.

    2007-01-01

    This article investigates lexical gender in specialized communication. The key method of analysis is that of forms of address, professional titles, and "generic man" in a 10 million word corpus of written Business English. After a brief introduction and literature review on both gender in specialized communication and similar corpus-based views of…

  19. A Curriculum in Written Composition, K-3: A Guide for Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgia Univ., Athens. English Curriculum Study Center.

    This teaching guide for written composition in grades K-3 contains (1) a statement of objectives for a curriculum in composition, (2) sequence charts which relate subject content for each grade to basic understandings about composition, (3) illustrations of ways in which the ordinary experiences of children can become the bases for compositions,…

  20. A Curriculum in Written Composition, 4-6: A Guide for Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgia Univ., Athens. English Curriculum Study Center.

    This guide for teaching composition in grades 4-6 (1) objectives for a curriculum in written composition, (2) sequence charts which relate subject content for each grade to basic understandings about composition, (3) illustrative learning experiences, and (4) units for teaching specific skills. The units for each grade are "Structuring a…

  1. Batch processing images in Adobe Photoshop using a script written in JavaScript

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталья Сергеевна Дидык

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article seeks to consider the possibility of automating the processing of a series of photographs. Particular attention is paid to the use of scripts written in the programming language Java Script for Adobe Photoshop. Java Script scenarios are dynamic and have significant advantages over a simple-to-use Action.

  2. Effect of Explicit and Implicit Instruction on Free Written Response Task Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andringa, Sible; de Glopper, C.M.; Hacquebord, Hilde

    2011-01-01

    A classroom study was designed to test the hypothesis that explicit knowledge is used by second-language (L2) learners in a free written response task if that knowledge is present. Eighty-one 12-18-year-old learners of Dutch as an L2 took part in a computer-assisted language learning experiment rece

  3. 14 CFR 250.9 - Written explanation of denied boarding compensation and boarding priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS OVERSALES § 250.9 Written... of air carrier), you are probably entitled to monetary compensation. This notice explains the airline... boarding against his or her will until airline personnel first ask for volunteers who will give up their...

  4. Short Message Service (SMS) Language and Written Language Skills: Educators' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geertsema, Salomé; Hyman, Charene; van Deventer, Chantelle

    2011-01-01

    SMS language is English language slang, used as a means of mobile phone text messaging. This practice may impact on the written language skills of learners at school. The main aim of this study was to determine the perspectives of Grade 8 and 9 English (as Home Language) educators in Gauteng regarding the possible influence of SMS language on…

  5. Narrative Skills in Written Texts by Deaf and Hearing Bilingual Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teruggi, Lilia A.; Gutiérrez-Cáceres, Rafaela

    2015-01-01

    Most studies on narrative competence have focused on monolingual subjects, and there are very few studies which address this issue in bilingual subjects dealing with two language systems. In the present case study we analyzed and compared the textual and narrative written skills of three deaf and three hearing adolescents attending eighth grade at…

  6. Analysis of Written Expression Revision Skills of the Students in Faculty of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Remzi

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to analyze written expression revision skills of students in Turkish Education Department, Education Faculty. This study was done using qualitative research method. The study group of the research consisted of 3rd grade students. The research data were collected by means of document review, a qualitative research technique. The…

  7. Integrating Written Communication Skills: Working towards a Whole of Course Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Australian universities, through their graduate attributes, claim that graduates have the ability to communicate, an attribute encompassing, at the least, written and oral literacies. Despite this claim, Australian universities have been criticised over the past decade for their lack of rigour in assessing this attribute; a criticism generally…

  8. Meeting the Demands of the Workplace: Science Students and Written Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, F. Elizabeth; Emerson, Lisa; MacKay, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    Over the last 15 years, surveys in a range of English-speaking countries, from North America and the United Kingdom, to New Zealand and Australia, have consistently shown that employers rank oral and written communication skills as highly as or more highly than any technical or quantitative skills. However, in New Zealand there has been very…

  9. Applying Dynamic Assessment Principles to Online Peer Revisions in Written English for Specific Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thouësny, Sylvie; Bradley, Linda

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the extent of the applicability of dynamic assessment with respect to peer written student online revisions. More specifically, it observes how groups of Swedish computer engineering students learning English for Specific Purposes engage in cooperative interactions and negotiations with their peers as they work…

  10. Effects of Verbal and Written Performance Feedback on Treatment Adherence: Practical Application of Two Delivery Formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Dahlia; Codding, Robin S.; Markus, Keith A.; Tryon, Georgiana Shick; Kyse, Eden Nagler

    2013-01-01

    Verbal and written performance feedback for improving preschool and kindergarten teachers' treatment integrity of behavior plans was compared using a combined multiple-baseline and multiple-treatment design across teacher-student dyads with order counterbalanced as within-series conditions. Supplemental generalized least square regression analyses…

  11. Written and Oral Narratives of Children and Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay-Raining Bird, Elizabeth; Cleave, Patricia L.; White, Denise; Pike, Heather; Helmkay, April

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study describes written and spoken narrative skills of school-age individuals with Down syndrome (DS). Method: Twenty-one students with DS (age 6;6 [years;months]-19;10) and 17 reading-matched, typically developing (TD) controls (age 4;9-10;9) were matched using Word Identification subtest raw scores (Woodcock Reading Mastery…

  12. Mapping phonological information from auditory to written modality during foreign vocabulary learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Marian, Viorica

    2008-12-01

    Learning to read in a foreign language often entails recognizing the printed form of words learned by sound. In the current study, the ability to map novel phonological information from the auditory modality onto the written modality was examined at different levels of overlap between the native language and an artificially constructed foreign language. In this study, monolingual English-speaking adults learned novel foreign words in the auditory modality. Recognition testing was first conducted in the auditory modality and then in the written modality. Participants who learned foreign words that matched English phonology showed similar accuracy rates when tested in either modality. Participants who learned foreign words that mismatched English phonology showed decreased recognition accuracy when tested in the written modality. Results indicate that cross-linguistic matching in phonology facilitated mapping of phonological information to the written modality. In addition, at different levels of cross-linguistic overlap, specific cognitive skills were found to correlate with the ability to map phonological information across modalities. This finding suggests that the cognitive skills required for acquisition of a foreign language may vary depending upon degree of cross-linguistic similarity.

  13. Self-Assessment of Topic Development in Written Production among High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oi, Yoko Suganuma

    2014-01-01

    The present study mainly focuses on the topic development in student written production through the consistency between student self-assessment and teacher assessment. In the present study, topic development means "cohesion", "overall organization", and "coherence". It proposes the next hypotheses: (i) Students could…

  14. Early Perception of Written Syllables in French: An Event-Related Potential Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doignon-Camus, Nadege; Bonnefond, Anne; Touzalin-Chretien, Pascale; Dufour, Andre

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined whether written syllable units are perceived in first steps of letter string processing. An illusory conjunction experiment was conducted while event-related potentials were recorded. Colored pseudowords were presented such that there was a match or mismatch between the syllable boundaries and the color boundaries. The…

  15. But Is It Fair? Developing Students' Understanding of Grading Complex Written Work through Peer Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConlogue, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Peer assessment of long written tasks poses particular problems as these tasks typically involve complex learning and solving ill-structured problems which require divergent responses. Marking reliability of this kind of writing task is difficult to achieve. The author illustrates this through an evaluation of two implementations of peer…

  16. Pragmatic Features in Original Narratives Written by African American Students at Three Grade Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersting, Jessica M.; Anderson, Michele A.; Newkirk-Turner, Brandi L.; Nelson, Nickola W.

    2015-01-01

    African American English has a rich oral tradition, with identifiable features across all 5 systems of language--phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics. This is an investigation of the extent to which pragmatic features of African American oral storytelling traditions are apparent in the written stories of African American…

  17. Effects of the Design of Written Music on the Readability for Children with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flach, Nanke; Timmermans, Anneke; Korpershoek, Hanke

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between the design of written music and the number of mistakes dyslexic and non-dyslexic children make in reading music is investigated in this study. Previous research shows that children with dyslexia experience difficulties with reading music, especially discerning pitch. Common mistakes of dyslexic…

  18. Differences between oral and written calculation: evidence from cognitive neuropsychology from six brain-damaged patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María P. Salguero-Alcañiz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The study of patients with acquired brain injury shows the existence of several double dissociations in the calculation system. In this paper, we focus on the double dissociation observed between oral and written calculation. Method: Instrument: Battery of Evaluation and Numerical Processing and Calculation. Participants: Six patients with acquired brain injury who have different alterations in the processing of numbers and calculations. Data analysis: Difference of proportions. Results: MC and BET have impaired the written calculation but they preserve oral calculation (addition, subtraction and multiplication. The same is observed in MNL for addition and multiplication and in PP for subtraction. The reverse pattern is observed in IRS and ACH who have alterations in written calculation but preserve oral calculation (in multiplication and subtraction, respectively. Conclusions: The results demonstrate the functional independence of oral and written calculation. This could indicate that the calculation system is not unitary and responsible for any calculation task, but a multicomponential system involving different processes and of a different nature.

  19. Written Composition Performance of Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Ana Miranda; Ferrer, Manuel Soriano; Fortea, Inmaculada Baixauli

    2013-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is frequently associated with learning disabilities. The present study examined the written composition of children with ADHD, which depends to a large degree on continuous self-regulation and attentional control skills for organizing information and maintaining the level of effort. Fifty children…

  20. Learners' Uses of Two Types of Written Feedback on a L2 Writing Revision Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Rebecca; Polio, Charlene

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of written error corrections versus reformulations of second language learners' writing as two means of improving learners' grammatical accuracy on a three-stage composition-comparison-revision task. Concurrent verbal protocols were employed during the comparison stage in order to study the learners' reported…

  1. How EFL Students Can Use Google to Correct Their "Untreatable" Written Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiller, Luc

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of an experiment in which a group of 17 French post-secondary EFL learners used Google to self-correct several "untreatable" written errors. Whether or not error correction leads to improved writing has been much debated, some researchers dismissing it is as useless and others arguing that error feedback…

  2. Young Children's Metacognition in the Context of Telling a Written Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Wu-Ying; Ku, Yu-Min; Chen, Yi-Hsin

    2013-01-01

    This study examines young children's metacognition in the context of telling a written story. The participants were 36 children: 12 preschoolers, 12 kindergarteners, and 12 first graders in a kindergarten and a nearby elementary school in a northwestern city in Taiwan. Each child was asked to "read" a 13-page wordless picture book and…

  3. Acquisition of the Concept "Biodegradable" Through Written Instruction: Pretest and Age Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arganian, Mourad P.; And Others

    The primary purpose of this study/experiment was to determine whether children in the middle elementary grades would be able to learn the concepts "biodegradable agent,""biodegradable material," and "biodegradable process" from a short written lesson. Secondary purposes were to examine the degree to which a pretest, grade level, and sex of the…

  4. The Three Bears and Other Plays: Six Easy Plays Especially Written for Educationally Handicapped Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassie, Dhyan

    This booklet contains six easy plays written for educationally handicapped children. The plays are brief, use few characters and simple language and plots, and are based on fairy tales. Titles are: (1) "The Three Bears'" (2) "The Gingerbread Boy'" (3) "Little Red Riding Hood'" (4) "The Three Billy Goats Gruff'" (5) "Hansel and Gretel'" and (6)…

  5. Students' Engagement with a Collaborative Wiki Tool Predicts Enhanced Written Exam Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Tom; Elgueta, Herman; Cameron, Harriet

    2014-01-01

    We introduced voluntary wiki-based exercises to a long-running cognitive psychology course, part of the core curriculum for an undergraduate degree in psychology. Over 2 yearly cohorts, students who used the wiki more also scored higher on the final written exam. Using regression analysis, it is possible to account for students' tendency to…

  6. Integration of Partial Information within and across Modalities: Contributions to Spoken and Written Sentence Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kimberly G.; Fogerty, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated the extent to which partial spoken or written information facilitates sentence recognition under degraded unimodal and multimodal conditions. Method: Twenty young adults with typical hearing completed sentence recognition tasks in unimodal and multimodal conditions across 3 proportions of preservation. In the unimodal…

  7. Long period gratings written in large-mode area photonic crystal fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nodop, D.; Linke, S.; Jansen, F.

    2008-01-01

    We report for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, on the fabrication and characterization of CO2-laser written long-period gratings in a large-mode area photonic crystal fiber with a core diameter of 25 mu m. The gratings have low insertion losses ( 10 d...

  8. Metanotes (Written Languaging) in a Translation Task: Do L2 Proficiency and Task Outcome Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Masako

    2015-01-01

    Languaging has been identified as a contributor to language learning. Yet, compared to oral languaging, such as collaborative dialogs in contextualized settings, little seems to be known about written languaging. In order to fill this gap, this study investigates languaging in the form of "metanotes," that is, metatalk in a written…

  9. 30 CFR 250.1508 - What must I do when MMS administers written or oral tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I do when MMS administers written or oral tests? 250.1508 Section 250.1508 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Well Control...

  10. A Written, Reflective and Dialogic Strategy for Assessment Feedback That Can Enhance Student/Teacher Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crimmins, Gail; Nash, Gregory; Oprescu, Florin; Liebergreen, Marama; Turley, Janet; Bond, Richard; Dayton, Jeanne

    2016-01-01

    In response to the shortcomings of current assessment feedback practice, this paper presents the results of a study designed to examine students' and teachers' experience of engaging in a written, reflective and dialogic feedback (WRDF) strategy. The strategy was designed to enhance the learning experience of students undertaking a large…

  11. The Use of Orally Recorded Exam Feedback as a Supplement to Written Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Joy

    2004-01-01

    While written comments are a popular and potentially effective method of student exam feedback, these comments are often overshadowed by students' focus on their grades. In this paper I discuss the additional use of orally recorded exam feedback in introductory statistics classes of 40 or fewer students. While grading and writing comments on a…

  12. Hedging to save face: a linguistic analysis of written comments on in-training evaluation reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Shiphra; van der Vleuten, Cees; Eva, Kevin W; Lingard, Lorelei

    2016-03-01

    Written comments on residents' evaluations can be useful, yet the literature suggests that the language used by assessors is often vague and indirect. The branch of linguistics called pragmatics argues that much of our day to day language is not meant to be interpreted literally. Within pragmatics, the theory of 'politeness' suggests that non-literal language and other strategies are employed in order to 'save face'. We conducted a rigorous, in-depth analysis of a set of written in-training evaluation report (ITER) comments using Brown and Levinson's influential theory of 'politeness' to shed light on the phenomenon of vague language use in assessment. We coded text from 637 comment boxes from first year residents in internal medicine at one institution according to politeness theory. Non-literal language use was common and 'hedging', a key politeness strategy, was pervasive in comments about both high and low rated residents, suggesting that faculty may be working to 'save face' for themselves and their residents. Hedging and other politeness strategies are considered essential to smooth social functioning; their prevalence in our ITERs may reflect the difficult social context in which written assessments occur. This research raises questions regarding the 'optimal' construction of written comments by faculty.

  13. 24 CFR 92.504 - Participating jurisdiction responsibilities; written agreements; on-site inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and written agreements, and taking appropriate action when performance problems arise. The use of... process in § 92.357 does not apply to the State recipient. (vii) Affirmative marketing. The agreement must specify the State recipient's affirmative marketing responsibilities in accordance with § 92.351, if...

  14. 34 CFR 222.154 - How must written submissions under this subpart be filed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How must written submissions under this subpart be filed? 222.154 Section 222.154 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION IMPACT AID PROGRAMS Impact...

  15. Feedback on Feedback: Eliciting Learners' Responses to Written Feedback through Student-Generated Screencasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Toro, María; Furnborough, Concha

    2014-01-01

    Despite the potential benefits of assignment feedback, learners often fail to use it effectively. This study examines the ways in which adult distance learners engage with written feedback on one of their assignments. Participants were 10 undergraduates studying Spanish at the Open University, UK. Their responses to feedback were elicited by means…

  16. How Do Finnish Children Express Care and Justice in Comic Strips and Written Narratives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Juha; Hannula, Markku S.

    2014-01-01

    This case study explored how children's moral expressions like love and violence differ according to the mode of narrative, comic strips or written narratives. Sixteen third-grade children from a primary school in Finland took part in the study. Children's moral expressions were divided into justice and care. Reading frequency of fairy…

  17. Young Children's Metacognition in the Context of Telling a Written Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Wu-Ying; Ku, Yu-Min; Chen, Yi-Hsin

    2013-01-01

    This study examines young children's metacognition in the context of telling a written story. The participants were 36 children: 12 preschoolers, 12 kindergarteners, and 12 first graders in a kindergarten and a nearby elementary school in a northwestern city in Taiwan. Each child was asked to "read" a 13-page wordless picture book…

  18. Written Pain Neuroscience Education in Fibromyalgia : A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ittersum, Miriam W.; van Wilgen, C. Paul; van der Schans, Cees P.; Lambrecht, Luc; Groothoff, Johan W.; Nijs, Jo

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence supports the use of face-to-face pain neuroscience education for the treatment of chronic pain patients. This study aimed at examining whether written education about pain neuroscience improves illness perceptions, catastrophizing, and health status in patients with fibromyalgia. A

  19. Written pain neuroscience education in fibromyalgia: a multicenter randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ittersum, Miriam W. van; Wilgen, Paul van; Schans, Cees van der; Lambrecht, Luc; Groothoff, Johan W.; Nijs, Jo

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Mounting evidence supports the use of face-to-face pain neuroscience education for the treatment of chronic pain patients. This study aimed at examining whether written education about pain neuroscience improves illness perceptions, catastrophizing, and health status in patients with fibrom

  20. Speech-language therapy for adolescents with written-language difficulties: the South African context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasmus, D; Schutte, L; van der Merwe, M; Geertsema, S

    2013-12-01

    To investigate whether privately practising speech-language therapists in South Africa are fulfilling their role of identification, assessment and intervention for adolescents with written-language and reading difficulties. Further needs concerning training with regard to this population group were also determined. A survey study was conducted, using a self-administered questionnaire. Twenty-two currently practising speech-language therapists who are registered members of the South African Speech-Language-Hearing Association (SASLHA) participated in the study. The respondents indicated that they are aware of their role regarding adolescents with written-language difficulties. However, they feel that South-African speech-language therapists are not fulfilling this role. Existing assessment tools and interventions for written-language difficulties are described as inadequate, and culturally and age inappropriate. Yet, the majority of the respondents feel that they are adequately equipped to work with adolescents with written-language difficulties, based on their own experience, self-study and secondary training. The respondents feel that training regarding effective collaboration with teachers is necessary to establish specific roles, and to promote speech-language therapy for adolescents among teachers. Further research is needed in developing appropriate assessment and intervention tools as well as improvement of training at an undergraduate level.

  1. 26 CFR 301.6110-1 - Public inspection of written determinations and background file documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... section, relating to technical advice memoranda involving civil fraud and criminal investigations, and... determinations relating to accounting or funding periods and methods, the text of any written determination (as... section 6110(d)(3) and (f)(4). (2) Technical advice memoranda involving civil fraud and...

  2. Representations of the Moon in Children's Literature: An Analysis of Written and Visual Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Troland, Thomas H.; Pritchard, T. Gail

    2008-01-01

    This review focused on the written and visual representation of the moon in 80 children's books, including Caldecott Medal and Honor books over the past 20 years. Results revealed that many of these books misrepresent the moon and even reinforce misconceptions about lunar phases. Teachers who use children's literature that misrepresents the moon…

  3. Written and Computer-Mediated Accounting Communication Skills: An Employer Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher G.

    2011-01-01

    Communication skills are a fundamental personal competency for a successful career in accounting. What is not so obvious is the specific written communication skill set employers look for and the extent those skills are computer mediated. Using survey research, this article explores the particular skills employers desire and their satisfaction…

  4. Reflecting on Scientists' Activity Based on Science Fiction Stories Written by Secondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Pedro; Galvao, Cecilia

    2007-01-01

    In this article the authors resort to a qualitative analysis of the plot of science fiction stories about a group of scientists, written by two 11th-grade Earth and Life Science students (aged 17), and to semi-structured interviews, with the double purpose of diagnosing their conceptions of the nature of science (namely, as regards scientists'…

  5. Are Written Instructions Enough? Efficacy of Male Condom Packaging Leaflets among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann, Dana F.; Harbke, Colin R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate whether or not written condom use instructions successfully inform correct condom use skills. Design: Between-subjects, two-group design. Setting: Public university located in rural Midwestern region of the United States. Method: Participants were randomly assigned to either a control condition (read physical exercise…

  6. The Functions of the Nontarget "Be" in the Written Interlanguage of Chinese Learners of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Suying

    2014-01-01

    Through examining all instances of the nontarget "be" before verbs in the written interlanguage of Chinese learners at different proficiency levels, the present study reveals that nontarget "be" performs different functions, and there is a function shift from low to high proficiency levels. At the lowest levels, "be"…

  7. Interlanguage in Undergraduates' Academic English: Preliminary Results from Written Script Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Rosa Munoz

    2010-01-01

    The following article aims to revisit Selinker's theory of Interlanguage by analysing a group of undergraduates' written scripts in L2. The initial outcomes of the study establish a linguistic parallelism between students' Interlingua and English as a lingua franca in the academic world. In the light of this comparison, certain theoretical…

  8. Starting Small in Assessment Change: Short In-Class Written Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carless, David; Zhou, Jiming

    2016-01-01

    This paper is focused on an innovation which involved students being assessed on short written responses to an issue to be addressed in the following classroom session. The innovation was evaluated through a student survey, individual and focus-group interviews with participants, and the analysis of a critical friend. Positive findings included…

  9. Toward Audience Involvement: Extending Audiences of Written Physician Notes in a Hospital Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuch, Lee-Ann Kastman; Bakke, Abigail; Thomas-Pollei, Kimberly; Mackey, L. Elizabeth; Weinert, Craig

    2016-01-01

    This article explores rhetorical implications of extending the audience of written physician notes in hospital settings to include patients and/or family members (the OpenNotes program). Interviews of participating hospital patients and family members (n = 16) underscored the need for more complex understandings of audience beyond…

  10. First and Second Language Pragmatics in Third Language Oral and Written Modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Dale A.; Palmiere, Denise T. L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the transfer of first language (L1) and second language (L2) pragmatic expression--realized in the request speech act--in oral and written modalities by Spanish-speaking third language (L3) Portuguese learners (bilingual Spanish heritage speakers, native English speakers who are proficient in L2 Spanish, and native Spanish…

  11. Evolution of oral and written confrontation naming errors in aphasia. A retrospective study on vascular patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, A; Corno, M; Marangolo, P

    1996-02-01

    Impaired naming is a common finding in aphasia but while it is known that naming errors diminish over time, longitudinal studies are rare. In this retrospective study, naming errors of 84 vascular aphasic patients are studied. Errors in oral and written confrontation naming tasks in two successive evaluations are tabulated and coded into one of 10 error types. No Response, Word-Finding Difficulty, Semantic Paraphasia, Unrelated Paraphasia, Phonemic/Orthographic Paraphasia, Neologism, Paraphasic Jargon, Phonemic/Neologistic Jargon, Stereotypy, and Other. All analyses were carried out on the difference scores, that is, the score in the second examination minus the score in the first examination. Results indicate that there is a significant decrease of No Responses (in oral and written naming) and Neologisms (in oral naming), and a significant increase of Orthographic Paraphasias in written naming. Moreover, the difference score for Phonemic/Orthographic Paraphasias was higher in written than oral naming. The difference scores for the other types of error were not statistically significant.

  12. Written nutrition communication in midwifery practice: What purpose does it serve?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szwajcer, E.M.; Hiddink, G.J.; Koelen, M.A.; Woerkum, van C.M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective to obtain an in-depth understanding of verbal and written nutrition communication in Dutch midwifery practice. Design, setting and participants data were collected by recording 12 initial antenatal consultations (12 weeks into the pregnancy) with primiparous women from four Dutch midwifery

  13. Home Literacy Environment and Its Influence on Singaporean Children's Chinese Oral and Written Language Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Tan, Chee Lay

    2016-01-01

    In a bilingual environment such as Singaporean Chinese community, the challenge of maintaining Chinese language and sustaining Chinese culture lies in promoting the daily use of Chinese language in oral and written forms among children. Ample evidence showed the effect of the home language and literacy environment (HLE), on children's language and…

  14. Webster's word power better English grammar improve your written and spoken English

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkpatrick, Betty

    2014-01-01

    With questions and answer sections throughout, this book helps you to improve your written and spoken English through understanding the structure of the English language. This is a thorough and useful book with all parts of speech and grammar explained. Used by ELT self-study students.

  15. Written pain neuroscience education in fibromyalgia: a multicenter randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jo Nijs; Paul van Wilgen; Dr. M.W. van Ittersum; Johan W. Groothoff; Luc Lambrecht; Dr. C.P. van der Schans

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Mounting evidence supports the use of face-to-face pain neuroscience education for the treatment of chronic pain patients. This study aimed at examining whether written education about pain neuroscience improves illness perceptions, catastrophizing, and health status in patients with

  16. Written Pain Neuroscience Education in Fibromyalgia : A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ittersum, Miriam W.; van Wilgen, C. Paul; van der Schans, Cees P.; Lambrecht, Luc; Groothoff, Johan W.; Nijs, Jo

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence supports the use of face-to-face pain neuroscience education for the treatment of chronic pain patients. This study aimed at examining whether written education about pain neuroscience improves illness perceptions, catastrophizing, and health status in patients with fibromyalgia. A

  17. 21 CFR 1312.31 - Schedule I: Application for prior written approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... IMPORTATION AND EXPORTATION OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Transshipment and In-Transit Shipment of Controlled... documents or written statements of fact relevant to the application as he deems necessary to determine... applicant of an opportunity to present such documents or facts for consideration by the Administrator...

  18. From Monologue to Dialogue: Improving Written Feedback Processes in Mass Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, David

    2010-01-01

    Student surveys across the world have highlighted that students are dissatisfied with the feedback they receive on their assignments and many institutions have been putting plans in place to address this issue. Much of this work has focused on improving the quality of written comments. This paper takes a different perspective. It argues that the…

  19. 5 CFR 2638.706 - Agency's written plan for annual ethics training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agency's written plan for annual ethics training. 2638.706 Section 2638.706 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS AND EXECUTIVE AGENCY ETHICS PROGRAM RESPONSIBILITIES Executive Agency...

  20. An Exploration of Private Language Institute Teachers' Perceptions of Written Grammar Feedback in EFL Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodaie, Mina; Farrokhi, Farahman

    2012-01-01

    This study set out to explore private language institute EFL teachers' perceptions of written grammar feedback and also to specify their reasons for choosing comprehensive or selective feedback and some feedback strategies over some others. Data were collected from 30 EFL teachers by means of a questionnaire. The results indicated that the…

  1. The Effect of Teachers' Written Corrective Feedback (WCF) Types on Intermediate EFL Learners' Writing Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghajanloo, Khadijeh; Mobini, Fariba; Khosravi, Robab

    2016-01-01

    Written Corrective Feedback (WCF) is a controversial topic among theorists and researchers in L2 studies. Ellis, Sheen, Murakami, and Takashima (2008) identify two dominant dichotomies in this regard, that is focused vs. unfocused WCF and direct vs. indirect WCF. This study considered both dichotomies in a matrix format, resulted in the…

  2. The Impact of Oral and Written Feedback on EFL Writers with the Use of Screencasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvira, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    This article, based on an action research study performed at a Colombian middle-sized private university, proposes specific strategies to provide feedback to English as a foreign language learners and uses a Web 2.0 tool called "screencasting." The findings of the study suggest that the use of coded, written, and oral feedback is widely…

  3. Factors affecting written distance-learning feedback: the tutor’s perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Calfoglou

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Launching the distance-learning student-tutor interaction process, tutors of the first module of the M.Ed in English course at the HOU lay the foundations of academic student autonomy by means of providing – inter alia -- the appropriate written feedback on written assignments. In doing so, they need to gauge the content and form of their written comments systematically with regard to both output- and student-, that is human factor-related issues (cf. Goldstein, 2004, the latter being particularly relevant to the distance-learning context. In this article we discuss tutor policy as well as tutor perceptions (cf. Lee, 2004, 2009 among others regarding written feedback on students’ academic assignments in terms of aspects of deviance treated and the relative gravity of ‘global’ and ‘local’ errors (e.g. Ferris, 2002, the directness of the correction, the punitive or facilitative nature of the comments provided as well as the relative balance of student strengths and weaknesses on the tutor’s comment agenda (cf. Hyland & Hyland, 2006. The role of the tutor as an assessor and/or counsellor is explored and the importance of striking a delicate balance between the two, especially in a context where face-to-face feedback opportunities are severely restricted, is underscored. We suggest that distance-learning feedback practices may need to be at least partially individualized to maximize student response and meet the goal of ‘informed autonomy’.

  4. Written Teacher Feedback: Student Perceptions, Teacher Perceptions, and Actual Teacher Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Li

    2016-01-01

    This study sets out to investigate a teacher's and her students' perceptions of written teacher feedback in a college English as a foreign language (EFL) writing class in China. Essays, questionnaires, and interviews were employed to identify the types of feedback given by the teacher, the perceptions and preferences of students and the…

  5. Electronic Mail, a New Written-Language Register: A Study with French-Speaking Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volckaert-Legrier, Olga; Bernicot, Josie; Bert-Erboul, Alain

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which the linguistic forms used by adolescents in electronic mail (e-mail) differ from those used in standard written language. The study was conducted in French, a language with a deep orthography that has strict, addressee-dependent rules for using second person personal pronouns (unfamiliar…

  6. Studies of Verbal Behavior in Oral and in Written Language. Professional Paper 68-14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscovici, Serge; Humbert, Claudine

    The oral and written language of 10 students expressing themselves on the same subject was observed to determine (1) whether an "oral style" could be identified and (2) what relationship existed between cognitive processes and methods of expression. Six girls and four boys were placed in two situations: an "oral" situation in which the student…

  7. Written and Computer-Mediated Accounting Communication Skills: An Employer Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher G.

    2011-01-01

    Communication skills are a fundamental personal competency for a successful career in accounting. What is not so obvious is the specific written communication skill set employers look for and the extent those skills are computer mediated. Using survey research, this article explores the particular skills employers desire and their satisfaction…

  8. Speech-language therapy for adolescents with written-language difficulties: The South African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danel Erasmus

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate whether privately practising speech-language therapists in South Africa are fulfilling their role of identification, assessment and intervention for adolescents with written-language and reading difficulties. Further needs concerning training with regard to this population group were also determined.Method: A survey study was conducted, using a self-administered questionnaire. Twenty-two currently practising speech-language therapists who are registered members of the South African Speech-Language-Hearing Association (SASLHA participated in the study.Results: The respondents indicated that they are aware of their role regarding adolescents with written-language difficulties. However, they feel that South-African speech-language therapists are not fulfilling this role. Existing assessment tools and interventions for written-language difficulties are described as inadequate, and culturally and age inappropriate. Yet, the majority of the respondents feel that they are adequately equipped to work with adolescents with written-language difficulties, based on their own experience, self-study and secondary training. The respondents feel that training regarding effective collaboration with teachers is necessary to establish specific roles, and to promote speech-language therapy for adolescents among teachers.Conclusion: Further research is needed in developing appropriate assessment and intervention tools as well as improvement of training at an undergraduate level.

  9. Launching Ceremony of Chinese Edition of Our History Is Still Being Written Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Our Staff Reporter

    2009-01-01

    <正>On March 13, the CPAFFC held a launching ceremony of the Chinese edition of Our History Is Still Being Written-tthe Story of Three Chinese-Cuban Generals in the Cuban Revolution at the Friendship Museum. Li Xiaolin, vice president of the

  10. Spelling in Written Stories by School-Age Children with Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straley, Sara G.; Werfel, Krystal L.; Hendricks, Alison Eisel

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the spelling of 3rd to 6th grade children with cochlear implants in written stories. Spelling was analysed using traditional correct/incorrect scoring as well as the Spelling Sensitivity Score, which provides linguistic information about spelling attempts. Children with cochlear implants spelled 86 per cent of words in stories…

  11. Metanotes (Written Languaging) in a Translation Task: Do L2 Proficiency and Task Outcome Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Masako

    2015-01-01

    Languaging has been identified as a contributor to language learning. Yet, compared to oral languaging, such as collaborative dialogs in contextualized settings, little seems to be known about written languaging. In order to fill this gap, this study investigates languaging in the form of "metanotes," that is, metatalk in a written…

  12. Cognitive Levels and Approaches Taken by Students Failing Written Examinations in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roegner, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted at the Technical University Berlin involving students who twice failed the written examination in the first semester course Linear Algebra for Engineers in order to better understand the reasons behind their failure. The study considered student understanding in terms of Bloom's taxonomy and the ways in which students…

  13. Information Extraction to Generate Visual Simulations of Car Accidents from Written Descriptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nugues, P.; Dupuy, S.; Egges, A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a system to create animated 3D scenes of car accidents from written reports. The text-to-scene conversion process consists of two stages. An information extraction module creates a tabular description of the accident and a visual simulator generates and animates the scene. We

  14. Some characteristics of electrospark deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesnjak, A. [Q-Techna, Krsko (Sierra Leone); Tusek, J. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Ljubljana (Sierra Leone)

    2003-11-01

    The paper deals with some characteristics of electrospark deposition. A relevant device and the process are described, the material transfer is shown schematically, and the average droplet mass, the thickness of deposited layer, and the layer roughness are determined. Two types of substrate (tool steel, austenitic stainless steel), two types of shielding gas, (Ar, He), and three types of filler material, (WC, TiC, Stellite 6) were used. With some deposit, chemical analyses of deposit surfaces were performed and with some others through-thickness chemical analyses. Among the final conclusions the most important one is that the addition of a shielding gas results in a considerable increase in deposit quality. The device manufacturer, however, recommends deposition without the addition of a shielding gas. (orig.)

  15. Written language skills in children with benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papavasiliou, A; Mattheou, D; Bazigou, H; Kotsalis, C; Paraskevoulakos, E

    2005-02-01

    The goal of this work was to study written language skills in children with benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BCECTS) in the absence of atypical clinical or electroencephalographic (EEG) features (n = 32), as compared with controls (n = 36). BCECTS patients (7-16 years), attending regular school, without cognitive or behavioral regression, or atypical EEG patterns, completed four tests assessing written language skills and one nonverbal cognitive test. School performance information was recorded. Seizure types, duration, and frequency; awake and sleep interictal EEG findings; and medication status were documented. Epilepsy and educational outcome was recorded for a period of 1-5 years after diagnosis. As a group, BCECTS patients performed significantly worse than controls in spelling, reading aloud, and reading comprehension; presented dyslexic-type errors; and frequently had below-average school performance. Among 11 with poor written language performance, 4 had developmental dysfunctions before school and seizure onset and, as a group, demonstrated low performance on a nonverbal cognitive test. Even though 65.6% were on anticonvulsants due to frequent seizures and/or seizures while awake, none belonged to the atypical BCECTS spectrum with respect to clinical or EEG findings. Increased epilepsy duration and seizure frequency were less represented in patients with no or mild written language problems than in those with poor performance. Otherwise, clinical course and EEG findings in this group were no different than those for the 11 children with severe written language problems. Clinical follow-up indicated that learning problems appear persistent and several children require remedial classes and/or tutoring after the epilepsy has resolved. Children with severe but not atypical BCECTS performed, as a group, significantly worse than controls in written language skills, specifically in spelling, reading, aloud and reading comprehension; they also

  16. Correlation of a written test of skills and a performance based test: a study in two traditional medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmen, Roy; Scherpbier, Albert; Denekens, Joke; Derese, Anselm; Hermann, Ingeborg; Hoogenboom, Ron; van Der Vleuten, Cees; van Royen, Paul; Bossaert, Leo

    2001-01-01

    Studies in innovative curricula have shown that a written test of skills is potentially able to predict OSCE scores. In this study we verified the potential of a written test of skills as an alternative to an OSCE in two traditional medical schools. A 12 station OSCE was scored using detailed checklists and global rating scales. The written test of skills consisted of 132 true-false questions. Students were assessed immediately before graduation in 1997. The size of the reported correlations confirms that the written test of skills can be used to predict performance-based test scores in traditional medical schools to some extent. For research purposes, particularly for outcome research to compare curricula of medical schools, a written test of skills is a viable alternative to performance-based testing. A written test of skills is unable to replace the OSCE for assessment of individual students.

  17. The deposit size frequency method for estimating undiscovered uranium deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCammon, R.B.; Finch, W.I.

    1993-01-01

    The deposit size frequency (DSF) method has been developed as a generalization of the method that was used in the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program to estimate the uranium endowment of the United States. The DSF method overcomes difficulties encountered during the NURE program when geologists were asked to provide subjective estimates of (1) the endowed fraction of an area judged favorable (factor F) for the occurrence of undiscovered uranium deposits and (2) the tons of endowed rock per unit area (factor T) within the endowed fraction of the favorable area. Because the magnitudes of factors F and T were unfamiliar to nearly all of the geologists, most geologists responded by estimating the number of undiscovered deposits likely to occur within the favorable area and the average size of these deposits. The DSF method combines factors F and T into a single factor (F??T) that represents the tons of endowed rock per unit area of the undiscovered deposits within the favorable area. Factor F??T, provided by the geologist, is the estimated number of undiscovered deposits per unit area in each of a number of specified deposit-size classes. The number of deposit-size classes and the size interval of each class are based on the data collected from the deposits in known (control) areas. The DSF method affords greater latitude in making subjective estimates than the NURE method and emphasizes more of the everyday experience of exploration geologists. Using the DSF method, new assessments have been made for the "young, organic-rich" surficial uranium deposits in Washington and idaho and for the solution-collapse breccia pipe uranium deposits in the Grand Canyon region in Arizona and adjacent Utah. ?? 1993 Oxford University Press.

  18. Momentum Deposition in Curvilinear Coordinates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleveland, Mathew Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lowrie, Robert Byron [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rockefeller, Gabriel M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Thompson, Kelly Glen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wollaber, Allan Benton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-03

    The momentum imparted into a material by thermal radiation deposition is an important physical process in astrophysics and inertial confinement fusion (ICF) simulations. In recent work we presented a new method of evaluating momentum deposition that relies on the combination of a time-averaged approximation and a numerical integration scheme. This approach robustly and efficiently evaluates the momentum deposition in spherical geometry. Future work will look to extend this approach to 2D cylindrical geometries.

  19. Improving medical students' written communication skills: design and evaluation of an educational curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, L; Connolly, K; Pitre, L; Dore, K L; Wasi, P

    2015-06-01

    Written and verbal communication skills are important skills for all physicians. While verbal skills are taught and assessed in medical school, medical students report limited instruction in written communication skills. This study examined the impact of a curriculum delivered during a 6-week clinical rotation in Internal Medicine on the objective assessment of medical students' written communication skills. The curriculum consisted of two educational programmes: a medical student communication tutorial and a resident feedback workshop. The study was conducted from March 2012 to January 2013 at McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. The study featured three arms: (1) control, (2) medical student communication tutorial alone and (3) student tutorial and resident feedback workshop. Data were collected on 126 students during 6-week Internal Medicine clerkship rotations. Students' written consultation notes were collected prior to the educational programmes and at 6 weeks. Blinded faculty assessors used an independently validated Assessment Checklist to evaluate consultation notes. Consultation note scores improved from week 1 to week 6 across all study arms. However, the change was statistically significant only in arm 3, featuring both the medical student tutorial and the resident feedback workshop, with mean scores improving from 4.75 (SD=1.496) to 5.56 (SD=0.984) out of 7. The mean difference between week 1 and week 6 was significantly different (0.806, p=0.002, 95% CI 0.306 to 1.058). The combination of a resident feedback workshop with medical student written communication tutorial improves objective evaluations of consultation note scores over student tutorial alone. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Which characteristics of written feedback are perceived as stimulating students’ reflective competence: an exploratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Teacher feedback on student reflective writing is recommended to improve learners’ reflective competence. To be able to improve teacher feedback on reflective writing, it is essential to gain insight into which characteristics of written feedback stimulate students’ reflection processes. Therefore, we investigated (1) which characteristics can be distinguished in written feedback comments on reflective writing and (2) which of these characteristics are perceived to stimulate students’ reflection processes. Methods We investigated written feedback comments from forty-three teachers on their students’ reflective essays. In Study 1, twenty-three medical educators grouped the comments into distinct categories. We used Multiple Correspondence Analysis to determine dimensions in the set of comments. In Study 2, another group of twenty-one medical educators individually judged whether the comments stimulated reflection by rating them on a five-point scale. We used t-tests to investigate whether comments classified as stimulating and not stimulating reflection differed in their scores on the dimensions. Results Our results showed that characteristics of written feedback comments can be described in three dimensions: format of the feedback (phrased as statement versus question), focus of the feedback (related to the levels of students’ reflections) and tone of the feedback (positive versus negative). Furthermore, comments phrased as a question and in a positive tone were judged as stimulating reflection more than comments at the opposite side of those dimensions (t = (14.5) = 6.48; p = reflective essays should be formulated as a question, positive in tone and tailored to the individual student’s reflective level in order to stimulate students to reflect on a slightly higher level. Further research is needed to examine whether incorporating these characteristics into teacher training helps to improve the quality of written feedback comments

  1. Which characteristics of written feedback are perceived as stimulating students' reflective competence: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Hanke; Schönrock-Adema, Johanna; Snoek, Jos W; van der Molen, Thys; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2013-07-08

    Teacher feedback on student reflective writing is recommended to improve learners' reflective competence. To be able to improve teacher feedback on reflective writing, it is essential to gain insight into which characteristics of written feedback stimulate students' reflection processes. Therefore, we investigated (1) which characteristics can be distinguished in written feedback comments on reflective writing and (2) which of these characteristics are perceived to stimulate students' reflection processes. We investigated written feedback comments from forty-three teachers on their students' reflective essays. In Study 1, twenty-three medical educators grouped the comments into distinct categories. We used Multiple Correspondence Analysis to determine dimensions in the set of comments. In Study 2, another group of twenty-one medical educators individually judged whether the comments stimulated reflection by rating them on a five-point scale. We used t-tests to investigate whether comments classified as stimulating and not stimulating reflection differed in their scores on the dimensions. Our results showed that characteristics of written feedback comments can be described in three dimensions: format of the feedback (phrased as statement versus question), focus of the feedback (related to the levels of students' reflections) and tone of the feedback (positive versus negative). Furthermore, comments phrased as a question and in a positive tone were judged as stimulating reflection more than comments at the opposite side of those dimensions (t = (14.5) = 6.48; p = reflective essays should be formulated as a question, positive in tone and tailored to the individual student's reflective level in order to stimulate students to reflect on a slightly higher level. Further research is needed to examine whether incorporating these characteristics into teacher training helps to improve the quality of written feedback comments on reflective writing.

  2. Modality differences between written and spoken story retelling in healthy older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Ann Obermeyer

    2015-04-01

    Methods: Ten native English speaking healthy elderly participants between the ages of 50 and 80 were recruited. Exclusionary criteria included neurological disease/injury, history of learning disability, uncorrected hearing or vision impairment, history of drug/alcohol abuse and presence of cognitive decline (based on Cognitive Linguistic Quick Test. Spoken and written discourse was analyzed for micro linguistic measures including total words, percent correct information units (CIUs; Nicholas & Brookshire, 1993 and percent complete utterances (CUs; Edmonds, et al. 2009. CIUs measure relevant and informative words while CUs focus at the sentence level and measure whether a relevant subject and verb and object (if appropriate are present. Results: Analysis was completed using Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test due to small sample size. Preliminary results revealed that healthy elderly people produced significantly more words in spoken retellings than written retellings (p=.000; however, this measure contrasted with %CIUs and %CUs with participants producing significantly higher %CIUs (p=.000 and %CUs (p=.000 in written story retellings than in spoken story retellings. Conclusion: These findings indicate that written retellings, while shorter, contained higher accuracy at both a word (CIU and sentence (CU level. This observation could be related to the ability to revise written text and therefore make it more concise, whereas the nature of speech results in more embellishment and “thinking out loud,” such as comments about the task, associated observations about the story, etc. We plan to run more participants and conduct a main concepts analysis (before conference time to gain more insight into modality differences and implications.

  3. Examining Elementary Students' Development of Oral and Written Argumentation Practices Through Argument-Based Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Chih; Hand, Brian; Park, Soonhye

    2016-05-01

    Argumentation, and the production of scientific arguments are critical elements of inquiry that are necessary for helping students become scientifically literate through engaging them in constructing and critiquing ideas. This case study employed a mixed methods research design to examine the development in 5th grade students' practices of oral and written argumentation from one unit to another over 16 weeks utilizing the science writing heuristic approach. Data sources included five rounds of whole-class discussion focused on group presentations of arguments that occurred over eleven class periods; students' group writings; interviews with six target students and the teacher; and the researcher's field notes. The results revealed five salient trends in students' development of oral and written argumentative practices over time: (1) Students came to use more critique components as they participated in more rounds of whole-class discussion focused on group presentations of arguments; (2) by challenging each other's arguments, students came to focus on the coherence of the argument and the quality of evidence; (3) students came to use evidence to defend, support, and reject arguments; (4) the quality of students' writing continuously improved over time; and (5) students connected oral argument skills to written argument skills as they had opportunities to revise their writing after debating and developed awareness of the usefulness of critique from peers. Given the development in oral argumentative practices and the quality of written arguments over time, this study indicates that students' development of oral and written argumentative practices is positively related to each other. This study suggests that argumentative practices should be framed through both a social and epistemic understanding of argument-utilizing talk and writing as vehicles to create norms of these complex practices.

  4. The Effect of Strategic and Online Planning on Accuracy of L1 Learners' Written Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Salimi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the application of writing tasks has effectively shed lights on promoting learners' written production. Research on SLA stresses the importance of tasks in the case of complexity, fluency and accuracy (Foster, 1997, 2001; Givon, 1985; Robinson, 2001; Skehan, 1998, since they have had fluctuating impact on L2 learning. However, what is neglected in the literature is the impact of writing task on learners' first language written production that in most cases has paved the way for transmitting ideas in L2. Therefore, the essential aim in the present study is to investigate the effect of strategic planning time and on – line planning time on accuracy of first language learners' written production.  To attain the goal, two classes of 6th grade school students (n = 32, n = 24 were selected. The students did the writing task in the first session which was considered as a pretest in the study. Following a weekly "time out", in the class A (n = 32 strategic planning time was presented to the students and in the class B (n = 24, on – line planning time was conducted for ten minutes proceeding writing task. Time limit to complete the writing production was 30 minutes in both classes. The collected written data was quantified in terms of accuracy measure. Paired sample T-tests and independent sample T-test were conducted to statistically analyze data. The obtained results revealed that strategic planning led to much accuracy in post task in terms of L1 written production compared to pre task. However, the result of statistical analysis in on – line planning time was not significant, since it didn't result in students' L1 writing progress.

  5. Enhanced nitrogen deposition over China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xuejun; Zhang, Ying; Han, Wenxuan; Tang, Aohan; Shen, Jianlin; Cui, Zhenling; Christie, Peter; Zhang, Fusuo [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Vitousek, Peter [Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Erisman, Jan Willem [VU University Amsterdam, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Goulding, Keith [The Sustainable Soils and Grassland Systems Department, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom); Fangmeier, Andreas [Institute of Landscape and Plant Ecology, University of Hohenheim, 70593 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2013-02-28

    China is experiencing intense air pollution caused in large part by anthropogenic emissions of reactive nitrogen. These emissions result in the deposition of atmospheric nitrogen (N) in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, with implications for human and ecosystem health, greenhouse gas balances and biological diversity. However, information on the magnitude and environmental impact of N deposition in China is limited. Here we use nationwide data sets on bulk N deposition, plant foliar N and crop N uptake (from long-term unfertilized soils) to evaluate N deposition dynamics and their effect on ecosystems across China between 1980 and 2010. We find that the average annual bulk deposition of N increased by approximately 8 kilograms of nitrogen per hectare (P < 0.001) between the 1980s (13.2 kilograms of nitrogen per hectare) and the 2000s (21.1 kilograms of nitrogen per hectare). Nitrogen deposition rates in the industrialized and agriculturally intensified regions of China are as high as the peak levels of deposition in northwestern Europe in the 1980s, before the introduction of mitigation measures. Nitrogen from ammonium (NH4+) is the dominant form of N in bulk deposition, but the rate of increase is largest for deposition of N from nitrate (NO3-), in agreement with decreased ratios of NH3 to NOx emissions since 1980. We also find that the impact of N deposition on Chinese ecosystems includes significantly increased plant foliar N concentrations in natural and semi-natural (that is, non-agricultural) ecosystems and increased crop N uptake from long-term-unfertilized croplands. China and other economies are facing a continuing challenge to reduce emissions of reactive nitrogen, N deposition and their negative effects on human health and the environment.

  6. Preparation of a Waveguide Array in Flame Hydrolysis Deposited GeO2-SiO2 Glasses by Excimer Laser Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴远大; 邢华; 张乐天; 李爱武; 于永森; 张玉书

    2002-01-01

    SiO2 glass films doped with GeO2 were prepared by the flame hydrolysis deposition method, then annealed at 1200. C. After exposure to high pressure hydrogen, the as-deposited films were irradiated with excimer laser pulses operated at 248nm. The induced refractive index change (the growth of index change was 0.33%) was measured by a spectroscopic ellipsometer. A waveguide array has been written in the film by irradiation through a phase mask.

  7. Variable temperature semiconductor film deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaonan; Sheldon, Peter

    1998-01-01

    A method of depositing a semiconductor material on a substrate. The method sequentially comprises (a) providing the semiconductor material in a depositable state such as a vapor for deposition on the substrate; (b) depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while heating the substrate to a first temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a first film layer having a first grain size; (c) continually depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while cooling the substrate to a second temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a second film layer deposited on the first film layer and having a second grain size smaller than the first grain size; and (d) raising the substrate temperature, while either continuing or not continuing to deposit semiconductor material to form a third film layer, to thereby anneal the film layers into a single layer having favorable efficiency characteristics in photovoltaic applications. A preferred semiconductor material is cadmium telluride deposited on a glass/tin oxide substrate already having thereon a film layer of cadmium sulfide.

  8. A Micrometeorological Perspective on Deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Otto

    1981-01-01

    An expression for the dry deposition velocity is given in terms of constant flux layer scaling. Numerical values of upper bounds on the deposition velocity is given for a typical situation. Some remarks are then offered on the relative merits of various ways in which the combined diffusion...

  9. A remote coal deposit revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen-Kofoed, Jørgen A.; Kalkreuth, Wolfgang; Petersen, Henrik I.

    2012-01-01

    In 1908, members of the “Danmark Expedition” discovered a coal deposit in a very remote area in western Germania Land, close to the margin of the inland ice in northeast Greenland. The deposit was, however, neither sampled nor described, and was revisited in 2009 for the first time since its disc...

  10. Liquefier Dynamics in Fused Deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellini, Anna; Guceri, Selcuk; Bertoldi, Maurizio

    2004-01-01

    Layered manufacturing (LM) is an evolution of rapid prototyping (RP) technology whereby a part is built in layers. Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is a particular LM technique in which each section is fabricated through vector style deposition of building blocks, called roads, which...

  11. Deposition and Resuspension of Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lengweiler, P.; Nielsen, Peter V.; Moser, A.

    A new experimental set-up to investigate the physical process of dust deposition and resuspension on and from surfaces is introduced. Dust deposition can reduce the airBorne dust concentration considerably. As a basis for developing methods to eliminate dust related problems in rooms, there is a ...

  12. Geotechnical Description of Mineral Deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasvári Tibor

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Performing various mineral deposits extraction methods requires thorough knowledge of the rock masses` geomechanical parameters. In the geotechnical description of mineral deposits there is proposed a methodical approarch at the collection, registration, and evaluation of rock masses` geological properties for geotechnics being applied within the mining industry.

  13. 20 CFR 703.207 - Kinds of negotiable securities that may be deposited; conditions of deposit; acceptance of deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... amount fixed by the Office under the regulations in this part shall deposit any negotiable securities... deposited; conditions of deposit; acceptance of deposits. 703.207 Section 703.207 Employees' Benefits... AND RELATED STATUTES INSURANCE REGULATIONS Insurance Carrier Security Deposit Requirements § 703.207...

  14. [The evaluation of nursing graduates' scientific reasoning and oral and written communication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demandes, Ingrid; Latrach, Cecilia A; Febre, Naldy Pamela; Muñoz, Claudia; Torres, Pamela; Retamal, Jessica

    2012-08-01

    This descriptive, cross-sectional study was performed in Santiago de Chile, with the objective to evaluate the scientific reasoning and the oral and written communication of nursing graduates. The sample consisted of 37 nursing graduates who participated in the three stages of the study: I) creation and validation of the instrument; II) training the faculty participating in the study to apply the instrument uniformly; and III) application of the instrument and data analysis. The data show different percentages regarding this competency, with the predominance of scientific reasoning (83.16%), followed by oral and written communication (78.37%). In conclusion, this study demonstrates the value for nursing schools to implement a formal evaluation that allows for determining the profile of nursing graduates, guaranteeing the quality of their training and education.

  15. Font Size Matters—Emotion and Attention in Cortical Responses to Written Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Mareike; Sommer, Werner; Schacht, Annekathrin

    2012-01-01

    For emotional pictures with fear-, disgust-, or sex-related contents, stimulus size has been shown to increase emotion effects in attention-related event-related potentials (ERPs), presumably reflecting the enhanced biological impact of larger emotion-inducing pictures. If this is true, size should not enhance emotion effects for written words with symbolic and acquired meaning. Here, we investigated ERP effects of font size for emotional and neutral words. While P1 and N1 amplitudes were not affected by emotion, the early posterior negativity started earlier and lasted longer for large relative to small words. These results suggest that emotion-driven facilitation of attention is not necessarily based on biological relevance, but might generalize to stimuli with arbitrary perceptual features. This finding points to the high relevance of written language in today's society as an important source of emotional meaning. PMID:22590518

  16. Font size matters--emotion and attention in cortical responses to written words.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareike Bayer

    Full Text Available For emotional pictures with fear-, disgust-, or sex-related contents, stimulus size has been shown to increase emotion effects in attention-related event-related potentials (ERPs, presumably reflecting the enhanced biological impact of larger emotion-inducing pictures. If this is true, size should not enhance emotion effects for written words with symbolic and acquired meaning. Here, we investigated ERP effects of font size for emotional and neutral words. While P1 and N1 amplitudes were not affected by emotion, the early posterior negativity started earlier and lasted longer for large relative to small words. These results suggest that emotion-driven facilitation of attention is not necessarily based on biological relevance, but might generalize to stimuli with arbitrary perceptual features. This finding points to the high relevance of written language in today's society as an important source of emotional meaning.

  17. MAPPING OF TERMS ATTRIBUTED TO NURSING PHENOMENA IN THE WRITTEN DATA OF THE NURSING STAFF COMPONENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Josefa Fernandes Beserra

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available work aimed to identify the terms used by components of the nursing staff of the of the schoolhospital, in written patient clinical records, to designate phenomena of nursing; and to compare the terms identifiedwith those included in the Classification of Nursing Phenomena of the ICNP - Beta version. As the population ofstudy, it was considered all clinical records of the patients admitted in this service during the period of August/2001to January/2002; 167 clinical records that contained written data of components of the nursing staff constituted thesample. In the process, it was identification of 586 nursing phenomena. After the cross-mapping phase, it wasidentified 340 terms already included in the Classification of Nursing Phenomena of the ICNP - Beta version; and246 new possible terms to be included in the future.

  18. Spanish heritage language learners vs. L2 learners: What CAF reveals about written proficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Camus

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, great interest has emerged in identifying the learning needs of heritage language (HL learners. In comparing HL and second language (L2 learners, research suggests that L2 learners outperform HL learners when examining writing abilities (Montrul, 2010; Potowski, 2013. However, complexity, accuracy, and fluency (CAF have been overlooked when examining HL learners’ writing proficiency, and it could provide a better picture of their writing skills in a spontaneous untimed assignment. To address this issue, 28 L2 learners and 18 HL learners completed an untimed written production task on a non-academic subject and their written proficiency was assessed through CAF measures (Norris & Ortega, 2009. Results showed HL learners significantly outperformed L2 learners on two complexity measures: accuracy and fluency. A possible explanation for these findings could be the type of task used (more spontaneous, less-controlled, which taps into a more implicit type of knowledge, favoring HL learners (Bowles, 2011.

  19. From graphemes to abstract letter shapes: levels of representation in written spelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, B; Caramazza, A

    1997-08-01

    The letter substitution errors of 2 dysgraphic subjects who, despite relatively intact oral spelling, made well-formed letter substitution errors in written spelling, were studied. Many of these errors bear a general physical similarity to the intended target. Analyses revealed that this similarity apparently was based on the features of the component strokes of letters rather than on visuospatial characteristics. A comparison of these subjects' letter substitution errors with those of 2 other individuals with brain damage, whose damage was at a different level of processing, revealed that the latter subjects' errors are not explicable in terms of stroke-feature similarity. Strong support was found for the computation of multiple representational types in the course of written spelling. This system includes a relatively abstract, effector-independent representational level that specifies the features of the component strokes of letters.

  20. Centering Theory, transitions and referent marking in the corpus of the written Serbian language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trnavac Radoslava

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to map various types of anaphor to the centering transitions in the corpus of Serbian newspaper articles. Centering Theory (WALKER, JOSHI ET AL. 1998 is a theory of local coherence in which four types of transitions are used as parameters of coherence. As is hypothesized in the previous literature based on various languages, the CONTINUE transition is mostly characterized by a minimal form (a zero form of the topic, while the SMOOTH and ROUGH shifts are found with a full noun phrase topic. The analysis shows that the “Ordering Rule” of Centering Theory is not fully followed in the written corpus of the Serbian language since SMOOTH SHIFT has been identified as a prevalent type of transition in the corpus. The following two reasons were identified for that: (1 the genre of the newspaper articles, and (2 the way clauses are combined within a complex sentence in the Serbian written corpus.