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Sample records for depositados por spray

  1. Filmes de disseleneto de cobre e índio depositados por spray-pirólise

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    C. S. Manhanini

    Full Text Available Resumo Filmes de Cu1-xInxSe2 (0,45≤x≤0,80 foram depositados em substrato de vidro pela técnica de spray-pirólise para utilização como camada absorvedora de células fotovoltaicas. As propriedades estruturais, morfológicas, ópticas e elétricas dos filmes preparados foram analisadas em função da variação da estequiometria utilizada. A análise por difração de raios X mostrou que os picos mais intensos foram de orientação (204/220 e que os filmes possuíram as fases CuSe, CuSe2 e CuInSe2. Os filmes apresentaram superfície uniforme e sem trincas, independente da estequiometria utilizada. Na caracterização elétrica, os filmes depositados apresentaram energia de ativação do processo de condução elétrica com valor médio de 0,74 eV e comportamento típico para semicondutores. A caracterização óptica foi realizada no intervalo de comprimento de onda de 350 a 1100 nm e os filmes apresentaram coeficiente de absorção na ordem de 103 cm-1 no comprimento de onda de 550 nm e gap óptico de 1,4 eV. Os resultados indicaram que a condição de deposição mais adequada para filmes visando sua aplicação como camada absorvedora teve como temperatura de substrato de 400 °C, fluxo de solução de 1 mL/min, tempo de deposição de 10 min e estequiometria de Cu0,2In0,8Se2, obtendo assim filmes sem trincas, apresentando maior coeficiente de absorção de 6,8x103 cm-1 para o comprimento de onda de 550 nm, espessura de aproximadamente 2,5 mm e resistividade elétrica de 0,13 kΩ.m na temperatura ambiente.

  2. Copper indium diselenide films deposited by spray-pyrolysis; Filmes de disseleneto de cobre e indio depositados por spray-pirolise

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    Manhanini, C. S.; Paes Junior, H.R., E-mail: carlamanhanini@gmail.com, E-mail: hervalpaes@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, (CCT/UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Materiais Avancados

    2017-04-15

    Cu{sub 1-x}In{sub x} Se{sub 2} (0.45≤ x ≤0.80) films were deposited on glass substrate by spray pyrolysis technique, for use as absorbing layer of photovoltaic cells. The structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of the films were analyzed according to the variation of the stoichiometry used. The analysis by X-ray diffraction showed that the most intense peaks were of orientation (204/220) and the films have the phases CuSe, CuSe{sub 2} and CuInSe{sub 2}. The films showed uniform surface without cracks independently of the stoichiometry used. In the electrical characterization, the deposited films showed activation energy of the electrical conduction process with average value of 0.74 eV and typical behavior for semiconductors. The optical characterization was performed at the wavelength gap of 350 to 1100 nm, and the films showed absorption coefficient on the order of 10{sup 3} cm{sup -1} in the wavelength of 550 nm and optical band gap of 1.4 eV. The results indicated that the most suitable condition for deposition of films for their application as absorbing layer had as substrate temperature 400 °C, a solution flow rate of 1 mL/min, deposition time of 10 min and stoichiometry of Cu{sub 0.2}In{sub 0.8}Se{sub 2}, thus obtaining films without cracks, with large absorption coefficient of 6.8x10{sup 3} cm{sup -1} for the wavelength of 550 nm, thickness of approximately 2.5 μm and electrical resistivity of 0.13 kΩ.m at room temperature. (author)

  3. Efecto de la adición de caliza sobre el metal depositado por arco sumergido

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    Amado Cruz-Crespo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto del incremento de las adiciones de caliza en laobtención de un fundente al manganeso sobre la composición delmetal depositado por arco sumergido (proceso SAW. La adición decaliza se realizó manteniendo constante la relación porcentualMnO/SiO2 del sistema de óxidos del fundente. Con el aumento de labasicidad se logró intensificar la actividad termodinámica del MnO ydisminuir la del SiO2, favoreciéndose la transferencia del manganeso al metal depositado, a la vez que se atenúa la del silicio, el azufre, el fósforo y el carbono permanece prácticamente inalterable. Esto posibilita el empleo de un alambre de bajo manganeso durante lasoldadura de aceros de baja aleación con proceso SAW.

  4. Sea corrosion protection: comparison between aluminium covering deposited by thermal spray with compressed air, argon and nitrogen; Protecao contra a corrosao marinha: comparacao de revestimentos de aluminio depositados por aspersao termica com ar comprimido, argonio e nitrogenio

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    Rodriguez, Regina M.H. Pombo; Cortes Paredes, Ramon S. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Centro Politecnico]. E-mail: regina@demec.ufpr.br; ramon@demec.ufpr.br; ramon@lactec.org.br; Silva, Jose Maurilio da [Instituto de Tecnologia para o Desenvolvimento (LACTEC), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)]. E-mail: maur�lio@lactec.org.br

    2003-07-01

    In this work, aluminium coverings deposited by thermal spray through different projecting gases were studied. Our aim was to evaluate the passive effect of the aluminium oxide in presence of different gases in order to choose the best condition against sea corrosion of ships, offshore and industrial installations. The aluminium coverings were deposited through electric arc thermal spray process, with pre-heating of the substratum and use of argon, nitrogen or air compressed. The evolution against sea corrosion was made through electrochemical tests, where anodic potentiodynamic curves were plotted. A 3,5% NaCl aqueous solution simulated the marine medium. The must protective covering was the one deposited with compressed air followed by the nitrogen and argon gases. All studied coatings showed corrosion potential that allows the steel cathodic protection. It was concluded that because the covering using compressed air, which is also the cheapest process, generates more oxide, the protection was enhanced compared to argon or nitrogen. (author)

  5. Recobrimentos de poli (tereftalato de etileno depositados em aço por aspersão térmica a partir de pós obtidos em diferentes condições de moagem Thermally sprayed coated carbon steel produced using PET powder obtained in different grinding conditions

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    Luciana Tavares Duarte

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foram analisados recobrimentos de poli(tereftalato de etileno, PET, depositados em aço carbono através da técnica de aspersão térmica à combustão, e produzidos a partir de pós oriundos de processos de moagem, em moinho de bolas e de facas, de garrafas de PET pós-consumo. Algumas condições de moagem foram testadas, tendo-se obtido pós com diferentes características morfológicas. As características morfológicas dos pós e dos recobrimentos foram avaliadas por microscopia óptica e eletrônica, tendo-se observado que o recobrimento apresentava bolhas, provavelmente devido à degradação do polímero. Além disto, os recobrimentos produzidos, bem como as amostras de pó, foram caracterizados por espectroscopia na região do infravermelho, por calorimetria exploratória diferencial e através da determinação de viscosidade intrínseca em solução. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que é possível a produção de aço carbono recoberto com PET através da técnica de aspersão térmica, sendo que o grau de degradação, a morfologia e a distribuição granulométrica dos pós utilizados influenciaram significativamente as características e propriedades dos recobrimentos formados.The main purpose of this work was to study the production of a thermal spray coated poly(ethyleneterephthalate steel. Poly(ethylene terephthalate coatings were made of a thin grinding waste produced by a PET recycling company, and of a PET powder, which was obtained by grinding post-consumer beverage bottles. Some grinding conditions, using a ceramic ball mill, were studied. Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM and optical microscopy (OM were used in the study of powder and coating morphologies, and this analysis showed that PET coating presents bubbles due to polymer degradation. PET powder and coating characteristics were investigated using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC and measurements of intrinsic viscosity. It was observed that

  6. Dano cavitacional em revestimentos depositados por aspersão termica a chama

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    Paulo Villani Marques

    1996-01-01

    Resumo: Quantias elevadas são gastas anualmente na manutenção de turbinas hidráulicas usadas na geração de energia elétrica por causa do ataque cavitacional. Avaliou-se a aplicabilidade de revestimentos metálicos e cerâmicos depositados sobre aço carbono por aspersão térmica a chama na manutenção destes equipamentos em função de sua resistência à erosão por cavitação. Foram realizados ensaios de dureza, rugosidade, ensaio acelerado de cavitação induzida por vibração ultra-sônica, adesão (traç...

  7. Influência da refusão por plasma na microestrutura de um revestimento Fe-Mn-Cr-Si depositado por aspersão térmica arco elétrico sobre aço inoxidável ASTM A743-CA6NM Influence of plasma remelting on the microstructure of Fe-Mn-Cr-Si arc thermal spray coating deposited on ASTM A743-CA6NM stainless steel

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    Anderson Geraldo Marenda Pukasiewicz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available ASTM A743-CA6NM é um aço inoxidável martensítico muito utilizado na fabricação de turbinas hidráulicas devido a sua elevada tenacidade, entretanto apresenta restrições com relação à regiões recuperadas por soldagem. Diferentes técnicas de deposição tem sido aplicadas com o intuito de reduzir ou eliminar a tensão residual. A deposição de revestimentos resistentes a cavitação é outra forma importante de aumentar a vida útil destes componentes. O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar a influência do tipo e intensidade de corrente de refusão por plasma na microestrutura, composição química e microdureza de um revestimento Fe-Mn-Cr-Si resistente a cavitação depositado por aspersão térmica arco elétrico sobre aço ASTMA743-CA6NM. Observou-se que a adoção de menores valores de corrente média, assim como a utilização de corrente pulsada reduziram a formação de ferrita δ e a espessura final da ZTA, possibilitando a formação do revestimento com menores alterações na microestrutura do metal base. Verificou-se que a microestrutura e microdureza dos revestimentos refundidos não se mostraram muito sensível a variações na diluição do metal base. A utilização de corrente contínua promoveu um alinhamento da estrutura dendrítica no sentido da movimentação da tocha, entretanto este comportamento não foi observado em revestimentos refundidos com corrente pulsada.ASTM A743-CA6NM martensitic stainless steel have been used in hydraulic turbines manufacturing, but show some restrictions in welded recovered areas. Different techniques have been applied in order to reduce or eliminate residual stress, with life increase. The deposition of cavitation resistant coatings is another important way to increase the service life of these components. The objective of this study is evaluate the influence of type and intensity of plasma remelting current on the microstructure, chemical composition and microhardness of the Fe

  8. Characterization of Lanthanum Ferric Cobaltite doped with Strontium (LSCF) films deposited by spray-pyrolysis for application as cathode in PaCOS-TI; Caracterizacao de filmes de CFLE depositados por spray-pirolise para utilizacao como catodo em PaCOS-TI

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    Almeida, L.S.; Guimaraes, V.F.; Paes Junior, H.R. [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Materiais Avancados], Emails: laryssadsa@yahoo.com.br, valtencyguimaraes@yahoo.com.br, herval@uenf.br

    2010-07-01

    The lanthanum ferric cobaltite doped with strontium (LSCF) is a ceramic material with the perovskite structure that stands out in the field of research for its use as cathode in solid oxide fuel cells at intermediate temperatures (IT-SOFC). The films were synthesized by spray-pyrolysis technique on 8% mol Yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrates. It was studied the influence of heat treatment temperatures (600-1000 deg C) on the properties of the films under the conditions of treatment during four hours. Samples were tested electrically by measuring the variation of electrical conductivity with temperature, structurally by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and morphologically by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The films heat treated at 700 deg C for 4 hours showed better performance for application as cathode. (author)

  9. Modelización y monitorización de procesos de refusión láser de recubrimientos depositados por plasma

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    Amado, J. M.

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows a theoretical and experimental study of the CO2 laser remelting of plasma sprayed coatings. The aim of the process is the decrease of the porosity to improve the layer properties. In a first approach simulation helps in finding the right process parameters, those parameters allow the melting of the sprayed layer and a minimal amount of substrate material to minimize dilution. The presented modelling includes several features allowing the description of phase transition in the remelting process, the main point is the use of different absorption coefficient in the two phases. Monitoring results gave additional information about the process and another way of doing process validation. The main result are is the prediction size and shape of the remelted layers and due to that the simulation code can be used in the parameter finding and plays an important role in the complete understanding of the process.

    Este artículo describe un estudio teórico y experimental del proceso de refusión, por láser de CO2, de recubrimientos depositados por plasma. Se trata de lograr mediante el proceso de refusión una buena unión metalúrgica entre recubrimiento y sustrato, entre las diferentes partículas que componen el recubrimiento y de este modo evitar que el recubrimiento sea frágil y tenga una baja adherencia con el sustrato. En una primera aproximación la modelización sirvió de ayuda para lograr los parámetros adecuados que permitiesen fundir toda la capa proyectada junto con una mínima porción del sustrato para minimizar el grado de dilución. La modelización presentada incluye algunos aspectos que ayudan a describir el cambio de fase asociado a la refusión, estos son la utilización de las propiedades termofísicas adecuadas y la variación del coeficiente de absorción en el paso de la fase sólida a la fundida. Los resultados de la monitorización refuerzan el conocimiento del proceso y ayudan a la validación del

  10. Recubrimientos bioactivos sobre aleaciones de titanio depositados por la técnica sol-gel

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    Claudia García

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Entre los materiales de uso ortopédico, los metales son de amplio uso, principalmente por las exigencias mecánicas que cumplen durante el uso. A pesar de ello, los metales presentan limitaciones importantes como la degradación in situ y la necesidad de cementación o fijación externa. Estas restricciones afectan la integridad estructural de la prótesis y producen elementos resultantes de la corrosión ante los cuales el organismo produce respuestas adversas. Una opción para minimizar la liberación de productos de corrosión por parte de los implantes metálicos al organismo, es el desarrollo de recubrimientos cerámicos o vítreos. Si además, los recubrimientos poseen material bioactivo, no se hace necesario utilizar fijación externa o cemento para generar la unión con el hueso. En el presente trabajo se describe la metodología para depositar recubrimientos doble capa con partículas bioativas producidos por la técnica sol-gel sobre la aleación Ti6Al4V y se caracteriza el material recubierto en cuanto a su resistencia a la corrosión mediante ensayos electroquímicos en fluido fisiológico simulado (SBF y en cuanto a su bioactividad mediante ensayos in vitro.

  11. PTA hardfacing of Nb/Al coatings Revestimentos Nb/Al depositados por PTA

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    Karin Graf

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Hardfacing is widely applied to components yet the majority of the welding techniques available restrain the variety of hard alloys that can be deposited. Plasma Transferred Arc hardfacing offsets this drawback by using powdered feedstock offering the ability to tailor the chemical composition of the coating and as a consequence its properties. The high strength and chemical inertia of aluminide alloys makes them very suitable to protect components. However, the strong interaction with the substrate during hardfacing requires analysis of each alloy system to optimize its properties and weldability. This work analyzed coatings processed with a cast and ground Nb40wt%Al alloy and the effect of Fe and C on the coatings features. It confirmed that sound Nb aluminide coatings can be processed by plasma Transferred arc hardfacing and will have a strong interaction with the substrate, which determines the final microstructure and properties of coatings. Final remarks point out that during Nb-Al coating tailoring the interaction with the substrate has to be considered at the early stages of design process.Revestimentos soldados são amplamente usados para proteger componentes mecânicos entretanto a maioria das técnicas de soldagem disponíveis restringe a variedade de ligas de alta resistência que podem ser depositadas. O processo de plasma por arco transferido permite ultrapassar esta limitação ao utilizar material de adição na forma de pó, oferecendo a possibilidade de se customizar a composição dos revestimentos e em consequências as suas propriedades. A elevada resistência mecânica e inercia química das ligas de aluminetos tornam estas ligas atrativas para a proteção de componentes diversos. Entretanto a grande interação com o substrato que ocorre quando do processamento exige que para a otimização das propriedades e soldabilidade seja realizada uma a análise de cada sistema liga e substrato. Neste trabalho foram processados e

  12. EVALUACIÓN DE LA CAPACIDAD PROTECTORA DE RECUBRIMIENTOS Ni-SiC y Ni-Co-W DEPOSITADOS POR PROYECCIÓN TÉRMICA

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    JUAN E. MONTOYA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Recubrimientos de aleaciones de alto contenido de níquel, níquel-cobalto-tungsteno y carburo de silicio-níquel fueron depositados mediante rociado térmico y se estudió la capacidad de dichos recubrimientos para proteger un sustrato de acero de la corrosión en un medio agresivo. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que los recubrimientos realizados, a pesar de su porosidad, tienen la capacidad de aislar y proteger al sustrato de sustancias liquidas corrosivas, debido a que la porosidad de los depósitos es aislada y por lo tanto dificulta la difusión de dichas sustancias a través del recubrimiento. Los resultados permiten establecer que el recubrimiento monocapa de níqueltiene buena capacidad de proteger al sustrato y que los sistemas bicapa (níquel / níquel cobalto-tungsteno y tricapa (níquel, / níquel-cobalto-tungsteno / carburo de silicio-níquel, mejoran aún más la capacidad protectora del recubrimiento.

  13. EVALUACIÓN DEL COMPORTAMIENTO IN VITRO DE RECUBRIMIENTOS DE HIDROXIAPATITA DEPOSITADOS MEDIANTE PROYECCIÓN TÉRMICA POR COMBUSTIÓN OXIACETILÉNICA SOBRE UN SUSTRATO DE Ti6Al4V

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    HAMILTON COPETE

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recubrimientos de Hidroxiapatita sintética producida por precipitación y calcinación a 850 °C fueron depositados sobre sustratos de Ti6Al4V mediante proyección térmica por combustión. Las fases presentes en el material sintetizado y en los recubrimientos elaborados fueron determinadas mediante Difracción de Rayos X. Los recubrimientos fueron evaluados en condiciones in vitro con fluido fisiológico a 37 °C que simula el plasma humano, por periodos de 3, 7, 15 y 30 días. La superficie de los recubrimientos fue caracterizada antes y después de los ensayos in vitro mediante Microscopía Electrónica de Barrido y por Barrido de Energía Dispersiva. La concentración de iones de fosfato y de calcio en el fluido fisiológico fue determinada mediante espectrofotometría. Los resultados de las pruebas in vitro sugieren la acción de dos mecanismos: disolución del recubrimiento en el fluido fisiológico y posterior precipitación de cristales de calcio y fósforo sobre la superficie de la capa de Hidroxiapatita.

  14. Recubrimientos protectores para componentes de turbinas de aviación y de generación de energía depositados por proyección por plasma

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    Agüero Bruna, A.

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Coatings produced by aluminium diffusion, called aluminide are employed to increase the oxidation and corrosion resistance, increasing the life of Ni and Co base superalloys components at temperatures comprised between 900 and 1050ºC. Consequently these coatings are frequently employed in aeronautic and power generation turbines as well as in the chemical industry. Aluminides are industrially produced by pack cementation or CVD and recently it has been demonstrated that its resistance significantly increases when Cr is added (chrome-aluminides. During this work, a feasibility study has been carried out in order to determine if plasma spray can be employed for depositing this type of coatings on turbine blades. Therefore, aluminium and aluminium/chromium layers were deposited on Ni base IN100 superalloy specimens that were subsequently subjected to a diffusion heat treatment under Ar flow. Characterisation and analysis of the coatings were carried out by metallography , SEM and EDS. Cyclic oxidation tests were carried out at 1050º C while molten sulphate hot corrosion was performed at 900º C. The results of this preliminary study are promising and indicate that plasma spray can be developed as an industrial process for production of aluminide and chrome-aluminide coatings.

    Los recubrimientos producidos por difusión de aluminio, llamados aluminuros, se emplean para aumentar la resistencia a la oxidación y a la corrosión, incrementando la vida de componentes fabricados con superaleaciones de níquel y cobalto a temperaturas comprendidas entre 900 y 1050º C. Por ello se emplean muy frecuentemente en turbinas aeronaúticas y de producción de energía y en la industria química. Los aluminuros se obtienen industrialmente mediante cementación o CVD y recientemente se ha demostrado que su resistencia aumenta significativamente cuando se añade cromo (cromoaluminuros. Durante el presente trabajo, se ha realizado un estudio de viabilidad

  15. Efecto de los parámetros de soldadura sobre la microestructura de recargues nanoestructurados base hierro depositados por FCAW-S

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    Agustín Gualco

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recientemente se han fabricado modernos alambres tubulares utilizados con el proceso de soldadura semiautomática bajo protección gaseosa y sin ella, que depositan aleaciones base Fe nanoestructurados, con alta resistencia al desgaste abrasivo, para aplicaciones de recargue. La información respecto de estos nuevos consumibles es escasa, en especial sobre el efecto que los parámetros de soldadura utilizados (calor aportado, gas de protección, voltaje de trabajo, intensidad de corriente, etc. tienen sobre el depósito, su microestructura y por consiguiente su comportamiento frente al desgaste. Por tal motivo, en el presente trabajo se estudió el efecto del aporte térmico (tensión, corriente y velocidad de soldadura sobre el depósito nanoestructurado base hierro, obtenido por FCAW sin protección gaseosa; este trabajo es continuación de otro en el que se estudió el mismo consumible soldado bajo protección gaseosa. Se soldaron muestras con aportes térmicos de entre 0,5 y 3,5 kJ/mm. Se realizó el relevamiento dimensional de los cordones, se analizó la composición química y la microestructura usando microscopías óptica y electrónica de barrido y difracción de rayos X. También se midieron la microdureza del depósito, el tamaño de cristalita y el grado de dilución. Se observó una gran influencia de las condiciones de proceso sobre la geometría del cordón y la microestructura. La operatividad de este consumible, soldado sin protección gaseosa fue muy buena.

  16. Evaluación de las transformaciones estructurales en recubrimientos de WC10Ni depositados por laser cladding sobre acero para herramienta EN 12379

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    Candel, J. J.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Carbide metal matrix composite materials are known for a high resistance to all types of wear. It is due to a beneficial combination of properties given by hard phase particles included in a tough matrix. Different kinds of those materials have been employed in the development of new high properties cutting tools. Laser cladding (LC technique allows obtaining an accurate defect-free coating with a low thermal affectation of the component. But in the case of WC cermet coatings due to its high laser absorption and the different mechanical and thermal properties between substrate and coating can appear a wide range of different defects as cracks, pores, massive carbide dilution and lacks of adherence. The aim of the present work is to study the metallurgical transformations during LC process of WC cermet coating on cold work tool steel substrate (EN 12379. Also it has been related process parameters with defects generation. Microstructure and composition of the coating and the heat affected zone have been analysed. Microhardness evolution profile has been obtained. Results show that although process parameters control reduce the generation of defects, in the deposition of overlapped layers appear different metallurgical transformations related with massive WC decomposition and the diffusion of alloying elements from substrate to the coating.

    Los materiales compuestos de matriz metálica reforzados con carburos, son conocidos por su elevada resistencia a todos los tipos de desgaste, debido a la combinación de las partículas duras en una matriz metálica tenaz. Diferentes tipos de estos materiales, se han empleado en el desarrollo de nuevas herramientas de corte de altas prestaciones. La técnica de láser cladding (LC, permite obtener recubrimientos libres de defectos sobre zonas muy concretas, con un aporte de calor muy localizado. Pero en el caso de carburos de wolframio (WC, debido a la enorme absorción de energía y la

  17. Nitreto de silício depositado por sputtering reativo para aplicação em memória não-volátil

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    Matheus Coelho Adam

    2013-01-01

    No presente trabalho, foram desenvolvidos diferentes regimes de deposição de filmes de nitreto de silício, empregando a técnica de sputtering reativo, para a aplicação em memória não-volátil de aprisionamento de carga (charge trapping memory). Filmes finos de nitreto de silício com diferentes composições químicas e características físicas foram obtidos. As propriedades físicas dos mesmos foram analisadas utilizando-se medidas de elipsometria e caracterização elétrica por corrente-tensão. A co...

  18. Influencia de los esfuerzos residuales en la adherencia de recubrimientos de Al2O3-40% TiO2 depositados mediante proyección térmica por combustión

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    Edward Restrepo

    2016-11-01

    Los resultados obtenidos indican que, en todas las muestras, el esfuerzo residual fue de tipo compresivo y que su magnitud se incrementa con el aumento del espesor de la capa y con la disminución de la temperatura del sustrato, lo que hizo que los recubrimientos depositados sobre sustratos precalentados a 250 °C y con un bajo espesor de la capa fuesen los de mayor resistencia.

  19. Celulas solares e sensores de filme fino de silicio depositados sobre substratos flexiveis =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Emilio Sergio Marins Vieira

    Celulas solares flexiveis de filmes finos de silicio sao geralmente fabricadas a baixa temperatura sobre substratos de plastico ou a mais elevadas temperaturas sobre folhas de aco. Esta tese reporta o estudo da deposicao de filmes finos sobre diferentes substratos de plastico, transparentes e coloridos, para celulas solares do tipo sobrestrato e substrato, respectivamente. Como objetivo co-lateral, os filmes dopados depositados sobre plastico foram usados como sensores de deformacao, utilizando as suas propriedades piezo-resistivas. Elevadas taxas de deposicao dos filmes de silicio depositados sobre plastico foram obtidas a baixa temperatura do substrato (150ºC) por rf-PECVD. A influencia de diferentes parametros de deposicao sobre as propriedades e taxa de deposicao dos filmes resultantes foram estudados e correlacionados. Celulas solares de filmes finos de silicio amorfo e microcristalino foram desenvolvidas a baixas temperaturas sobre plasticos. Eficiencias de 5 – 6.5% foram alcancadas para as celulas amorfas e 7.5% para as celulas microcristalinas. Efeitos de aprisionamento da luz foram estudados atraves da texturizacao por ablacao laser de substratos de plastico e corrosao umida de TCO sobre plastico. Filmes finos de silicio microcristalino, depositados por HW-CVD, com fator piezoresistivo de -32.2, foram usados para fabricar sensores de deformacao em uma membrana plastica muito fina (15 μm). Estruturas de teste em textil e a miniaturizacao dos sensores piezoresistivos depositados sobre substratos flexiveis de poliimida foram abordados.

  20. Efeito do Pré-aquecimento e de Único e Múltiplos Passes no Grau de Porosidade, Oxidação e Microdureza de um Revestimento de Aço Inoxidável Duplex Depositado por Aspersão Térmica Chama Arame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir Celestino da Silva

    Full Text Available Resumo: Este trabalho tem como objetivo estudar o efeito do pré-aquecimento e de único e múltiplos passes no grau de porosidade, oxidação e microdureza no processo de revestimento obtido por aspersão térmica chama arame. A oxidação ao ar de partículas aspergidas após ancoragem afeta o desempenho para o aço inoxidável duplex AF2209 depositado por aspersão térmica chama arame em substrato de aço estrutural pré-aquecido com maçarico à diferentes temperaturas. O percentual de óxidos e poros foram medidos e quantificados por microscopia óptica com auxilio de software de análise de imagem. Imagens por MEV e a dureza Vickers dos óxidos e panquecas indicam que a oxidação aumenta com o pré-aquecimento e com a deposição de múltiplos passes. Os resultados indicam que maiores pré-aquecimentos e a deposição de múltiplos passes reduzem a fragmentação das partículas, mas aumenta a quantidade de óxidos. Observa-se também que o reaquecimento da camada reduz a microdureza Vickers média dos óxidos e panquecas da condição de único passe para a condição de múltiplos passes.

  1. Recubrimientos decorativos de Ti, TiN y TiO2 sobre vidrio, depositados en vacío mediante pulverización por arco eléctrico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Straumal, B.

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available In a vacuum arc discharge, highly ionised species are formed, which permits an effective control of the deposition process and, particularly, to deposit Ti, TiN and TiO2 coatings on non-conducting materials like glass. Moreover, this technique allows us to position a mask between the substrates and the sheets to be coated. Another advantage of the vacuum arc technology is the low substrate temperature during the deposition. Data on the roughness, composition and corrosion resistance in architectural glass mask-coated with titanium nitride and oxide are presented and analysed in this work. A comparative analysis is made with reactive direct current sputtering and plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition techniques.La técnica de pulverización por arco eléctrico en vacío permite un control eficaz del proceso de deposición, ya que la temperatura del sustrato permanece baja durante dicho proceso. Además, mediante esta técnica pueden llevarse a cabo recubrimientos sobre superficies no conductoras y resulta posible la utilización de máscaras de plástico, colocadas entre la fuente y el sustrato a recubrir. En este trabajo se han llevado a cabo recubrimientos de Ti, TiN y TiO2 sobre vidrio arquitectónico. Los recubrimientos se han realizado con y sin dibujos, aplicados a través de máscaras. Se han estudiado algunas características de estos recubrimientos, como son la rugosidad, composición y resistencia contra la corrosión. Los análisis se han llevado a cabo mediante técnicas de microscopía de fuerza atómica, espectroscopía Auger y ensayos electroquímicos. Finalmente, se ha realizado un análisis comparativo con resultados obtenidos mediante otras técnicas de deposición.

  2. EFECTO DEL CONTENIDO DE CARBONO SOBRE LA RESISTENCIA AL DESGASTE ABRASIVO DE RECUBRIMIENTOS DE CrC DEPOSITADOS POR PULVERIZACIÓN CATÓDICA MAGNETRÓN EFEITO DO CONTEÚDO DE CARBONO SOBRE A RESISTÊNCIA AO DESGASTE ABRASIVO DE RECOBRIMENTOS DE CrC DEPOSITADOS POR PULVERIZAÇÃO CATÓDICA MAGNETRÃO EFFECT OF THE CARBON CONTENT IN ABRASIVE WEAR RESISTANCE OF CrC COATINGS DEPOSITED BY MAGNETRON SPUTTERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryory Astrid Gómez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Los recubrimientos de carburo de cromo sobre acero son un buen candidato para aplicaciones de conformado y moldes de inyección. La alta resistencia mecánica, resistencia química y estabilidad a alta temperatura de la fase Cr3C2 pueden ser compatibles con el intenso desgaste abrasivo y la corrosión en tales operaciones de fabricación. En este trabajo se depositaron recubrimientos de CrC por pulverización catódica magnetrón RF, los cuales mostraron contenidos de carbono entre el 25 % y el 58 % por análisis EDS. Los valores de dureza de estos recubrimientos fueron entre 15 y 24 GPa; los más duros de las muestras tuvieron contenido de carbono en el rango de 39-53 %. El desgaste abrasivo de los recubrimientos se evaluó utilizando un equipo de disco abrasivo con polvo de diamante. El volumen de las huellas de abrasión se midió con las imágenes obtenidas en el microscopio interferométrico y además se corroboró con el cálculo del volumen geométrico basado en secciones medidas con el perfilómetro. El comportamiento al desgaste abrasivo mostró una marcada dependencia con el contenido de carbono. El desgaste abrasivo más bajo se obtuvo para los recubrimientos con el más alto contenido de carbono.Os recobrimentos de carburo de cromo sobre aço são um bom candidato para aplicações de conformado e moldes de injeção. A alta resistência mecânica, resistência química e estabilidade em alta temperatura da fase Cr3C2 podem ser compatíveis com o intenso desgaste abrasivo e a corrosão em tais operações de fabricação. Neste trabalho depositaram-se recobrimentos de CrC por pulverização catódica magnetrão RF, os quais mostraram conteúdos de carbono entre 25 % e 58 % por análise EDS. Os valores de dureza destes recobrimentos foram entre 15 e 24 GPa; os mais duros das mostras tiveram conteúdo de carbono na faixa de 39-53 %. O desgaste abrasivo dos recobrimentos avaliou-se utilizando uma equipe de disco abrasivo com pó de

  3. Processamento de achocolatado de cupuaçu por spray-dryer Cupuassu chocolate drink powder processed by spray-dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Caetano da Silva Lannes

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available O achocolatado de cupuaçu é uma mistura do pó de cupuaçu, açúcar, aroma e outros ingredientes constantes da formulação. Este produto formulado foi processado por spray-dryer, gerando um produto seco, pulverizado e instantaneizado. O achocolatado acrescido de água (concentrado passa pelo spray-dryer formando glóbulos de pequeno diâmetro que são arrastados por uma corrente de ar quente. A rápida evaporação de líquido permite manter baixa a temperatura do ar na secagem, não afetando o produto. O pó de cupuaçu não dispersa prontamente em água devido ao seu conteúdo de óleo. Conseqüentemente, necessita-se de uma forma desengordurada para se obter instantaneização. A secagem por spray-dryer reúne as melhores condições de rendimento técnico em comparação com outros processos. Obtiveram rendimentos de processo acima de 20% e a instantaneização completa do produto.Cupuassu chocolate drink powder is a mixture of cupuassu powder, sugar, flavour and other ingredients of formulation. The product was processed by spray-dryer, leading a dry, pulverized and instantised product. The chocolate drink powder with water (concentrated pass through spray-dryer forming small diameter globules that are arrested by a hot air stream. The rapid evaporation allows keeping low temperature at drying air, and no affecting the product. The process is a set of better conditions of technique and economical efficiency in comparison to other process. Cupuassu powder does not disperse readily in water owing to its oil content. Consequently, a form of cocoa with the oil removed is needed to produce an acceptably instant drink. The results obtained were satisfactory, due to the complete instantisation of the product after processing.

  4. Evaluation of the CR{sub 3}C{sub 2}(NICR) coating deposited on S4400 with the HVOF process for PEM fuel flow plates; Evaluacion del recubrimiento CR{sub 3}C{sub 2}(NICR) depositado sobre S4400 por el proceso HVOF para placas de flujo de celdas de combustible PEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rendon Belmonte, M.; Perez Quiroz, J.T. [Instituto Mexicano del Transporte, Queretaro, Queretaro (Mexico)]. E-mail: marielarb17@hotmail.com; Porcayo Calderon, J. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Orozco, G. [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica S. C., Queretaro, Queretaro (Mexico)

    2009-09-15

    This research studied the behavior of Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}(NiCr) coating deposited on S4400 with the HVOF (High Velocity Oxygen-Fuel) thermal projection process. Coating was applied after the surface of the plate was prepared with ceramic granulated metal burst according to norm NACE No. 1/ SSPC-SP 5 and cleaned with acetone. The electrolyte used was an H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} 0,5 M + 2 ppm F{sup -} solution at ambient temperature. Mercury sulfate (Hg{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) electrode was used as the reference electrode and the counter electrode used was a graphite bar. To study the electrochemical behavior, polarization curves were generated with a sweep speed of 0.15 mV/s, according to norms ASTM G5 and ASTM G59. Before testing, the Ecorr was measured with a high impedance multimeter (10{sup 6}). The morphological aspect of the coating evaluated was analyzed with SEM (sweep electron microscopy). Based on the obtained icorr values of 1.7*10{sup -4} mA/cm{sup 2} for a period of 576 hours, we can state that this coating meets the criteria for resistance to corrosion required by the DOE (U.S. Department of Energy) for consideration of its use in PEM fuel cell flow plates. [Spanish] En esta investigacion se estudio el comportamiento del recubrimiento Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}(NiCr), depositado sobre S4400 mediante el proceso de proyeccion termica HVOF (High Velocity Oxygen-Fuel). Previo a la aplicacion del recubrimiento, la placa fue preparada superficialmente mediante rafaga de granalla ceramica de acuerdo con la norma NACE No. 1/ SSPC-SP 5, limpiada con acetona y en esta condicion se procedio a la aplicacion del recubrimiento. El electrolito empleado fue una solucion de H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} 0,5 M + 2 ppm F{sup -} a temperatura ambiente, como electrodo de referencia se empleo un electrodo de sulfato mercuroso (Hg{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) y como contraelectrodo una barra de grafito. Para estudiar el comportamiento electroquimico se realizaron curvas de polarizacion con una velocidad de barrido de 0

  5. Efecto de la presión de C2H2 sobre las propiedades tribológicas y mecánicas de recubrimientos de CrC depositados por evaporación por arco catódico (EAC)

    OpenAIRE

    Maryory Astrid Gómez Botero; Arturo Lousa; Joan Esteve Pujo

    2010-01-01

    Se obtuvieron recubrimientos monocapa de CrC por evaporación por arco catódico (EAC). Se investigaron las propiedades tribológicas de los recubrimientos mediante pruebas de deslizamiento en seco usando un tribómetro de bola sobre disco. Las propiedades mecánicas se estudiaron por nanoindentación dinámica. Los valores de los coeficientes de fricción de los recubrimientos monocapa de CrC mostraron buena correlación con el contenido de carbono de estos recubrimientos, presentando el más bajo coe...

  6. Propiedades mécanicas y tribólogicas de recubrimientos alumina/titania proyectados por oxifuel (spray llama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saura, J. J.

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the porosity, phases, mechanical properties and abrasive wear resistance of ceramic layers of Al2O3/TiO2 deposited using the flame spray process are evaluated. The proportion of titania has a strong influence on the porosity of the coating, having observed an approximately linear plot decrease with the increasing of titania´s content. Crystalline phases of the deposited layers changed according to the characteristics of the powder and the thermal process employed. It has been observed that hardness depends only on the titania percentage, also toughness decreases with coatings hardness but resistance to abrasive wear traces an increasing lineal plot with this property.

    En este trabajo se ha estudiado, las fases, las propiedades mecánicas y la resistencia al desgaste abrasivo de recubrimientos cerámicos alumina/titania proyectados por el proceso de oxifuel (spray llama. La proporción de titania tiene una fuerte influencia sobre la porosidad de los recubrimientos, habiéndose observado una disminución casi-lineal de la porosidad con el incremento de titania. Las fases cristalinas que resultan después de la proyección han variado según la naturaleza del polvo y el proceso térmico experimentado. Mientras la dureza obtenida depende sólo del porcentaje en peso de titania, la tenacidad es una función inversa de la dureza, y, la resistencia al desgaste por abrasión es una función creciente con la dureza de los recubrimientos.

  7. Estudo das características de revestimentos poliméricos aplicados por aspersão térmica para proteção contra desgaste e corrosão de substratos metálicos Study of the characteristics of thermally sprayed polymer coatings for wear and corrosion protection of metallic substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Camello Lima

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Revestimentos poliméricos vêm sendo crescentemente considerados como solução na proteção de materiais metálicos contra corrosão e desgaste. A tecnologia de aspersão térmica permite a aplicação de polímeros sobre diversos materiais de substrato, em diversas espessuras, para várias condições ambientais. Polímeros depositados por este processo têm potencial, tanto para reduzir custos com materiais, como para melhorar o desempenho do revestimento em ambientes agressivos. Neste trabalho, foram aplicados revestimentos poliméricos poli-éter-éter-cetona (PEEK e Poliamida 12 sobre substratos de aço carbono, utilizando o processo de aspersão térmica a chama de baixa velocidade. Revestimentos de alta qualidade foram obtidos por esta técnica. Foram avaliadas as características dos materiais e dos revestimentos obtidos, especialmente quanto às propriedades mecânicas, de desgaste e corrosão. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, pode-se afirmar que os revestimentos estudados podem ser utilizados com sucesso em aplicações que envolvam desgaste e corrosão, com uma pequena vantagem para o polímero PEEK.Polymer coatings have been widely considered as a solution in the protection of metallic substrates against both wear and corrosion. Thermal spray technology allows the deposition of polymers onto several substrate materials for various thicknesses at several environmental conditions. Thermal sprayed polymers have high potential for material cost reduction as well as to improve coating performance in drastic environments. In this work, poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK and Polyamide 12 were flame sprayed on carbon steel substrates. High quality coatings were obtained. Several tests were carried out to evaluate the coatings mainly related to wear and corrosion performance. According to the obtained results, it can be stated that the studied coatings can be successfully used in applications involving wear and corrosion, with a slight edge

  8. Influência da refusão por plasma na microestrutura de um revestimento Fe-Mn-Cr-Si depositado por aspersão térmica arco elétrico sobre aço inoxidável ASTM A743-CA6NM

    OpenAIRE

    Pukasiewicz,Anderson Geraldo Marenda; Oliveira,Fernando Ratti de; Capra,André Ricardo; Paredes,Ramón Sigifredo Cortés

    2012-01-01

    ASTM A743-CA6NM é um aço inoxidável martensítico muito utilizado na fabricação de turbinas hidráulicas devido a sua elevada tenacidade, entretanto apresenta restrições com relação à regiões recuperadas por soldagem. Diferentes técnicas de deposição tem sido aplicadas com o intuito de reduzir ou eliminar a tensão residual. A deposição de revestimentos resistentes a cavitação é outra forma importante de aumentar a vida útil destes componentes. O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar a influência do...

  9. Preparación de microesferas mediante secado por aspersión Preparation of microspheres through spray drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orestes Darío López Hernández

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La industria farmacéutica moderna busca constantemente tecnologías para la obtención de transportadores de diferentes fármacos como citostáticos, antiinflamatorios, péptidos y hormonas, entre otros, que impliquen una reducción de su toxicidad y una liberación sostenida o controlada para lograr el efecto terapéutico con una sola dosis. Dentro de estas tecnologías se destaca el empleo de microesferas biodegradables de ácidos polilácticos como sistemas poliméricos matriciales de liberación controlada. En el presente trabajo se exponen aspectos relevantes relacionados con la tecnología de obtención de microesferas mediante secado por aspersión conocido también como Spray drying, el cual tiene como ventajas una alta eficiencia de encapsulación además de ser un método rápido, continuo, relativamente sencillo con respecto a otros existentes, y principalmente brinda la posibilidad de ser escalado hasta nivel de producción.The modern pharmaceutical Industry search constantly technologies for obtaining drugs targeting as antineoplasics, peptides and hormones, among other that imply a toxicity reduction, and sustained or controlled release to achieve the therapeutic effect with a single dose. These technologies employment of biodegradable microspheres of polylactic acids as matricial polymeric systems for controlled release. This work related aspects with the technology of microspheres obtaining by Spray drying which has as advantages, a high encapsulation efficiency, continuous method, relatively simple it offers the possibility of being scale up until production level.

  10. Obtain and characterization of chitosan / propranolol microparticles by spray drying; Obtencao e caracterizacao de microparticulas de quitosana / propranolol por spray drying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Ednaldo G. do; Silva Junior, Arnobio A. da, E-mail: ednaldogn@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Santos, Katia S.C.R. dos [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The study investigated the application of chitosan microparticles as carriers into hard gelatin capsule containing propranolol, evaluating the variability of the molecular weight and the chitosan particles by spray drying. The formulations were characterized by average weight, dosing unit dose uniformity and dissolution profile according to the pharmacopoeia. While the microparticles were characterized by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The results showed that chitosan microparticles obtained without the drug and then physically mixed with propranolol promoted a modified release 85% of the drug after 5 hours. While, chitosan microparticles sprayed with propranolol released only 55% at 5 hours is presented both as a modified release system. Samples of dried chitosan showed up amorphous and homogeneous and spherical morphology. (author)

  11. Machining tools in AISI M2 high-speed steel obtained by spray forming process; Ferramentas de usinagem em aco rapido AISI M2 obtido por conformacao por 'spray'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesus, Edilson Rosa Barbosa de. E-mail: erbjesus@usp.br

    2004-07-01

    The aim of the present work was the obtention of AISI M2 high-speed steel by spray forming technique and the material evaluation when used as machining tool. The obtained material was hot rolled at 50% and 72% reduction ratios, and from which it was manufactured inserts for machining tests. The performance of inserts made of the spray formed material was compared to inserts obtained from conventional and powder metallurgy (MP) processed materials. The spray formed material was chemical, physical, mechanical and microstructural characterised. For further characterisation, the materials were submitted to machining tests for performance evaluation under real work condition. The results of material characterisation highlight the potential of the spray forming technique, in the obtention of materials with good characteristics and properties. Under the current processing, hot rolling and heat treatments condition, the analysis of the results of the machining tests revealed a very similar behaviour among the tested materials. Proceeding a criterious analysis of the machining results tests, it was verified that the performance presented by the powder metallurgy material (MP) was slight superior, followed by conventional obtained material (MConv), which presented a insignificant advantage over the spray formed and hot rolled (72% reduction ratio) material. The worst result was encountered for the spray forming and hot rolled (50% reduction ratio) material that presented the highest wear values. (author)

  12. Los ejemplares tipo de Cicadellinae y Gyponinae (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae depositados en el Museo de La Plata, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana L. PARADELL

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En la presente contribución, se realizó un relevamiento de los ejemplares tipo de Cicadellidae, depositados en la colección de la División Entomología del Museo de La Plata (MLP. Fueron examinados y listados 86 ejemplares tipo pertenecientes a 32 especies: siete Cicadellinae y 25 Gyponinae, las que fueron descriptas por los siguientes autores: Berg, DeLong, DeLong & Freytag, DeLong & Martinson, Spångberg , Tesón y Young. Para cada ejemplar tipo se brinda información acerca del nombre específico, referencia bibliográfica, categoría de tipo y procedencia.

  13. Deposição efetiva do produto pulverizado sobre cobertura vegetal de aveia-preta por diferentes pontas de pulverização Effective deposition of product sprayed directly on oat cover using different spray nozzles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.L. Contiero

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A cobertura vegetal que permanece no solo após a colheita beneficia as características físicas e químicas do solo. No entanto, essa palha torna-se uma barreira para a aplicação de herbicidas pré-emergentes, pois impede que eles atinjam o alvo. Nesses casos, a escolha ideal da ponta de pulverização, bem como o tamanho da gota, são imprescindíveis para o sucesso da aplicação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de transposição do líquido pulverizado, dependente do tamanho de gotas, produzido por vários modelos de ponta de pulverização sobre diferentes densidades de palha de aveia-preta. O trabalho foi realizado em Maringá-PR. Foram utilizadas caixas tipo gerbox como unidades coletoras, cobertas por diferentes quantidades de palha de aveia. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 8 x 7, sendo oito pontas de pulverização (leque e cone e sete quantidades crescentes de palha de aveia-preta. O produto retido na superfície coletora foi colhido e mediu-se a absorbância. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância, e as médias, comparadas entre si por meio do teste de agrupamento Skott-Knott a 5% de probabilidade. Pode-se concluir que o tamanho das gotas é extremamente importante na transposição da palha de aveia. Gotas muito finas e muito grossas não conseguem transpor a barreira formada pela palha de maneira eficiente. Pontas de pulverização que produzem gotas de tamanho médio (CV-IA 02 e ST 02 apresentam volume de transposição maior do que o das demais, sendo recomendadas em aplicações de herbicidas pré-emergentes em plantio-direto até 4 t ha-1 de cobertura morta.The vegetation that remains in the soil after harvest benefits the physical and chemical properties of soil. However, the straw becomes a barrier to the application of pre-emergence herbicides, preventing it from reaching the target. In these cases, the choice of spray tip and droplet size is

  14. Dry sliding wear of Al-Fe-Cr-Mn quasicrystalline phase former alloy obtained by spray forming; Estudo do comportamento ao desgaste de liga Al-Fe-Cr-Mn obtida por conformacao por spray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamasaki, S.M.T.; Rios, C.T.; Botta Filho, W.J.; Bolfarini, C.; Kiminami, C.S. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (DEMa/UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais; Gargarella, P.; Mendes, M.A.B., E-mail: marcio.andreato@gmail.co [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (PPG-CEMUFSCar), SP (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    Samples from different regions of a spray formed billet of Al{sub 92}Fe{sub 3}Cr{sub 2}Mn{sub 3} quasicrystalline phase former alloy were analyzed and their wear behavior has been studied. The microstructures observed depend on the cooling rate imposed to the material. The border of the billet exhibits a very fine structure with presence of quasicrystalline phase and the base showed a fine structure but without presence of quasicrystalline phase. Dry sliding wear tests were made using three loads and samples of these two different regions. The wear surfaces were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Similar wear behavior was observed in the border and the base samples at the same load. The wear mechanism verified is the adhesive and the applied load increases the formation of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. These particles can take off the surface and act as abrasive, which can explain the large increase in the wear rate for the samples loaded at 30N.(author)

  15. Avaliação dos parâmetros de secagem da polpa de graviola em pó obtida por secagem em spray dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eliardo Barros Cavalcante

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Resumo A polpa de graviola é um produto amplamente consumido no Brasil e sua desidratação pelo processo spray dryer é alternativa relevante para aproveitamento do excedente de produção. Dentro deste contexto, este trabalho teve como objetivo estabelecer a melhor condição operacional de secagem em spray dryer, visando a obtenção de polpa de graviola em pó por meio do planejamento composto central rotacional, tendo a concentração de maltodextrina e a temperatura do ar de secagem como variáveis independentes. Verificaram-se os efeitos negativos lineares e quadráticos significativos (p < 0,05 da concentração de maltodextrina e da temperatura do ar de secagem sobre a umidade da polpa de graviola em pó. Apesar de o modelo não se ajustar aos parâmetros de higroscopicidade e rendimento, foi possível, através do teste de médias, estabelecer as condições de processo. Considerando-se o uso de baixas temperaturas e menores concentrações de maltodextrina, recomenda-se o emprego de 169 °C como temperatura de secagem e 17% (m/m de maltodextrina como adjuvante de secagem. O uso de tais condições acarreta um produto com baixos teores de umidade e atividade de água, classificado como ligeiramente higroscópico, suscetível ao caking, e que apresenta microestruturas com formato esférico de tamanhos variados e de superfície lisa e uniforme.

  16. Uso de plasma suíno desidratado por Spray-Dryer na dieta de leitões desmamados precocemente The use of Spray-Dried porcine plasma in early-weaned pig diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Afonso F. Butolo

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o uso do plasma suíno desidratado (PSD, na dieta de leitões desmamados aos 21 dias de idade. Cento e vinte leitões, com peso médio inicial de 5,75 kg, foram usados para testar os níveis de inclusão de 0; 2,5; 5,0; e 7,5% de plasma na fase 1 (0 a 14 dias e o seu efeito na fase 2 (14 a 28 dias. À exceção dos leitões mantidos em dieta controle, o restante foi alimentado com ração inicial com 2,5% PSD e 2,5% de hemácias desidratadas no período 15 a 28 dias pós-desmama. As dietas foram formuladas para conter nas fases 1 e 2, respectivamente, 1,40 e 1,20% de lisina, 0,54 e 0,41% de metionina e 15 e 8% de lactose. Foi usado delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, com cinco repetições por tratamento e seis animais por unidade experimental. O consumo médio diário de ração aumentou linearmente, nas fases 1 e 2, com o aumento de PSD na ração. No período de 0 a 28 dias, houve resposta linear para o consumo médio diário de ração para os níveis de PSD da fase 1. O plasma estimulou maior consumo de ração pré-inicial, nas duas semanas subseqüentes ao desmame. Este efeito foi mantido durante a segunda fase (15 a 28 dias pós-desmame, quando foi usada na ração inicial combinação de 2,5% de plasma e 2,5% de hemácias desidratada.The objective of this work was to evaluate the spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP in the diet of 21 day-weaned pig. One hundred and twenty piglets averaging 5.75 kg of initial weight were used to test the inclusion levels of 0, 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5% of porcine plasma on phase 1 (from 0 to 14 days and its effects on phase 2 (from 15 to 28 days. Except for the piglets in the control diet, all other animals were fed a starter diet with 2.5% of SDPP and 2.5% of spray-dried red blood cell (SDBC during 15 to 28-day-post weaning period. The diets were formulated to contain in the phases 1 and 2, respectively, 1.4 and 1.2% of lysine, .54 and .42% of methionine, and 15

  17. Influence of nature of the substrate in the deposition of yttria-stabilized zirconia by spray pyrolysis; Influencia da natureza do substrato na deposicao de filmes de zirconia estabilizada por itria pela tecnica de spray pirolise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halmenschlager, C.M.; Malfatti, C.F.; Bergmann, C.P., E-mail: cibelemh@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (PPGEM/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos Graduacao em Engenharia de Material, Metalurgia e Mina; Neagu, R. [National Research Council (NRC/IFCI) (Canada). Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation

    2012-07-01

    Spray pyrolysis technique consist in spraying a precursor solution on a heated substrate. In the last few decades this process has attracted much attention because of its versatility. Controlling the parameters is possible to produce dense or porous film. Spray pyrolysis has been applied to obtain several materials such as electrodes or electrolytes for SOFC, semiconductors, materials for solar cells and so on. However, some behaviors such as Leidenfrost effect have been poorly considered and it may affect the coating quality. This work aims to evaluate the influence of the substrate and how Leidenfrost effect affects the coating by spray pyrolysis. To achieve this goal yttria-stabilized zirconia solutions made with different solvents were deposited on different substrates at different temperatures. These coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results show that there is a limit temperature which is related to properties of the solvent and the surface of the substrates where films are continuous. (author)

  18. Comportamento da beta-ciclodextrina adicionada ao leite de cabra submetido ao processo de desidratação por "spray-dryer" Beta-ciclodextrin's behavior added goat's milk submitted to the "spray-dryer" dehydration process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana C. P. Diniz

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avaliou o comportamento do agente encapsulante beta -ciclodextrina ( beta-CD adicionado ao leite de cabra submetido ao processo de desidratação por "spray-dryer", através de análise termogravimétrica e de cromatografia gasosa. Após a desidratação, a amostra adicionada de beta-CD apresentou um rendimento real de 10,59% com taxa de perda de 0,04% (em relação ao valor teórico esperado 10,6% ; enquanto na amostra sem adição do agente encapsulante o rendimento real foi de 9,57%, com taxa de perda de 4,27% (valor teórico esperado 10% . Através da análise termogravimétrica (TGA, verificou-se que são volatilizados 44% e 21% dos ácidos comerciais C8 e C10 , respectivamente. Os resultados cromatográficos mostraram uma perda de aproximadamente 30% dos ácidos C8 e 20% dos ácidos C10 , nas amostras de leite de cabra sem beta -CD em relação às amostras com beta-CD. Tais porcentagens estão de acordo com os valores estimados para os ácidos comerciais. Com base nos parâmetros estudados, podemos inferir que há menor perda dos ácidos graxos C8 e C10 na amostra de leite de cabra com beta-CD, provavelmente devido ao efeito encapsulante, aumentando a estabilidade térmica dos ácidos.This work evaluated the effect of the encapsulant agent beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD added the goat milk submitted to the "spray-dryer" dehydration process, through thermogravimetric analysis and gas cromatography. After dehydration, the sample added of beta-CD presented a real yield of 10,59%, with a loss rate of 0,04% (in relation to the expected theoretical value 10,6%; while in the sample without addition of the encapsulant agent the real yield was 9,57%, with a loss rate of 4,27% (expected theoretical value 10% . It was verified that the volatilization of 44% and 21% of the commercial acids C8 and C10 , respectively, through the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The cromatographic results showed losses of approximately 30% of the C8 acids and

  19. Potencial do soro de leite líquido como agente encapsulante de Bifidobacterium Bb-12 por spray drying: comparação com goma arábica Potential of liquid whey as the encapsulating agent of Bifidobacterium Bb-12 by spray drying: comparison with arabic gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Picinin de Castro-Cislaghi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o potencial do soro de leite líquido como agente encapsulante de Bifidobacterium Bb-12 por spray drying, comparando-o com a goma arábica, a qual é tradicionalmente utilizada na tecnologia de microencapsulação. Foram determinados o rendimento da microencapsulação e a viabilidade das microcápsulas durante o armazenamento. Quando o soro de leite foi utilizado como agente encapsulante, o rendimento da microencapsulação foi maior e a viabilidade das células manteve-se elevada e constante durante doze semanas. O soro de leite apresentou-se como um eficiente agente encapsulante de Bifidobacterium por spray drying.The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of liquid whey as the encapsulating agent Bifidobacterium Bb-12 by spray drying, compared with arabic gum, which is typically used in microencapsulation technology. The microencapsulation yield and viability during storage were determined. When the whey was used as the encapsulating agent, the microencapsulation yield was higher, and cell viability remained high and steady for twelve weeks. The whey was shown to be an effective encapsulating agent of Bifidobacterium by spray drying.

  20. Efeito da desinfecção por aerossóis sobre a capacidade de umedecimento de moldes de poliéter por gesso tipo IV Wettability of a polyether impression material - adverse effects of spray disinfection

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    Maria Cristina Rosifini ALVES-REZENDE

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A desinfecção de todo e qualquer molde obtido é medida de biossegurança obrigatória na atividade clínica. Tão importante quanto a desinfecção é a seleção do método e da solução desinfetante a ser utilizada para cada material de moldagem. É imperativo que a capacidade de reprodução de detalhes, a estabilidade dimensional e o grau de umedecimento (ou "molhabilidade" não sejam criticamente afetados. O propósito deste trabalho foi avaliar o grau de umedecimento de uma marca comercial de poliéter (Impregum F por três diferentes marcas comerciais de gesso tipo IV (Herostone, Durone e Polirock, após sua desinfecção por aerossóis de hipoclorito de sódio 1% (líquido de Milton ou glutaraldeído 2% (Glutalabor II. Foram confeccionados 45 moldes de poliéter, os quais, em grupos de 15, receberam aerossóis de água (Grupo Controle, Líquido de Milton ou Glutalabor II. Em seguida, sobre a superfície dos moldes foram confeccionados modelos de gesso tipo IV, em número de 5 para cada marca de gesso. Após seu seccionamento mediano e preparo da superfície de corte, os modelos foram levados ao microscópio Carl Zeiss para leitura do ângulo de contato. Os resultados obtidos permitiram concluir que: a a capacidade de umedecimento do poliéter por diferentes marcas comerciais de gesso tipo IV variou para os gessos estudados; b o gesso Durone adaptou-se melhor aos moldes de poliéter do que os gessos Herostone e Polirock; c a desinfecção dos moldes com aerossóis de hipoclorito de sódio 1% (líquido de Milton ou glutaraldeído 2% (Glutalabor não afetou a adaptação entre os gessos e o poliéter.Impressions carried out in the dental office are potential contamination pathways. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the effects of spray disinfection on the wetting of polyether material (Impregum F by stones. Three kinds of stones (Herostone, Durone and Polirock and two disinfectant solutions (2% glutaraldehyde and 1% hypochlorite

  1. Utilização da levedura de recuperação (Saccharomyces sp., seca por rolo rotativo ou por spray-dry, na alimentação de leitões na fase inicial Use of rotative-roll-dried or spray dried sugar cane yeast in the feeding of piglets in the initial phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Claudio Furlan

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi conduzido utilizando, 144 leitões, mestiços, machos e fêmeas, na fase inicial dos 48 a 69 dias de idade, peso inicial de 15,9kg, com o objetivo de se avaliar nutricional e economicamente a levedura de recuperação (Saccharomyces sp., seca por spray-dry (LRSD e por rolo rotativo (LRRR. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso, com quatro tratamentos em esquema fatorial 2x2, com dois níveis de levedura em rações fareladas (7 e 14% e dois processos de secagem da levedura (LRSD ou LRRR, com quatro repetições e nove animais por unidade experimental. Não foram observados efeitos da inclusão da levedura às rações sobre o consumo diário de ração e ganho diário de peso; entretanto, o nível de 7% de inclusão proporcionou melhora na conversão alimentar e redução no custo em ração por quilograma de peso vivo ganho. O processo de secagem reduziu o custo em ração por quilograma de peso vivo ganho quando os leitões consumiam rações contendo LRRR. O nível de 7% de inclusão de levedura às rações proporcionou redução no consumo por quilograma de peso vivo ganho de energia digestível, lisina e metionina+cistina, independentemente do processo de secagem.A trial was undertaken using 144 male and female half-breed piglets (15.9 kg, with the objective to evaluate nutritionally and economically sugar cane yeast (Saccharomyces sp., dried by spray-dryer (SCYSD or by rotative roll dryer (SCYRD. The experimental design was of randomized blocks, with four treatments, in a 2x2 factorial scheme, using two inclusion levels of yeast in meal diets (7 and 14% and two yeast drying processes (SCYSD or SCYRD, with four replications and nine animals per experimental unit. There were no effects of yeast inclusion in diets on feed intake and daily weight gain, nevertheless the 7% inclusion level provided an improvement in feed conversion and reduction in diet cost per kilogram of live weight gain. The drying process

  2. Spray Drying Processing: granules production and drying kinetics of droplets; El proceso de secado por atomizacion: formacion de granulos y cinetica de secado de gotas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondragon, R.; Julia, J. E.; Barba, A.; Jarque, J. C.

    2013-09-01

    Spray drying is a unit operation very common in many industrial processes. For each particular application, the resulting granulated material must possess determined properties that depend on the conditions in which the spray drying processing has been carried out, and whose dependence must be known in order to optimize the quality of the material obtained. The large number of variables that influence on the processes of matter and energy transfer and on the formation of granular material has required a detailed analysis of the drying process. Over the years there have been many studies on the spray drying processing of all kind of materials and the influence of process variables on the drying kinetics of the granulated material properties obtained. This article lists the most important works published for both the spray drying processing and the drying of individual droplets, as well as studies aimed at modeling the drying kinetics of drops. (Author)

  3. ESTUDO PROSPECTIVO DA PRÓPOLIS E TECNOLOGIAS CORRELATAS SOB O ENFOQUE EM DOCUMENTOS DE PATENTES DEPOSITADOS NO BRASIL

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    Bruna Aparecida Souza Machado

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A própolis é um produto natural elaborado a partir de secreções de árvores, flores, folhas e pólen, recebendo ainda a adição de substâncias secretadas pelo metabolismo glandular das abelhas. Devido à importância farmacológica, terapêutica, científica e econômica deste produto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar as potencialidades, características e evolução das competências tecnológicas, traduzidas através de dados estatísticos de patentes depositados no Brasil, no que diz respeito aos processos de extração e obtenção de compostos ativos da própolis, bem como suas aplicações industriais a partir da elaboração de novos produtos. O termo documento de patente abrange pedidos de patente publicados ou patentes concedidas. A pesquisa foi realizada a partir de palavras-chave do tema na base de dados do Instituto Nacional de Propriedade Industrial. O primeiro documento de patente identificado foi de 1992, tendo como o país de origem o Japão. Do universo de patentes depositadas 94% são de residentes e 6% de não residentes. Em relação à tecnologia protegida os inventores independentes são os maiores depositantes, seguida das empresas e universidades. Apesar de o Brasil ser um dos maiores exportadores mundiais da própolis, este não é considerado como um mercado atraente e competitivo para a proteção desta tecnologia por outros países.

  4. Atrito e desgaste de recobrimentos de PET, politeraftalato de etileno, pós-consumo processados por aspersão térmica Friction and wear of a thermal sprayed PET - poly(ethylene teraphthalate coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério A. X. Nunes

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A aspersão térmica envolve processos de recobrimentos que podem utilizar materiais cerâmicos, poliméricos, metálicos ou misturas destes. O material a ser depositado é fundido total ou parcialmente. As partículas aquecidas são aceleradas e projetadas em direção a uma superfície devidamente preparada, onde se formam camadas com estrutura lamelar. Os efeitos das variáveis do processo de aspersão, pressão dos gases de combustão, taxa de alimentação e gás de arraste no transporte do material, sobre a resistência ao desgaste e atrito de filmes PET foram investigados. Os recobrimentos de PET foram caracterizados através do desgaste micro-abrasivo, utilizando o ensaio de caloteste, e da medida dos coeficientes de atrito, com o ensaio de pino-sobre-disco. Os valores do coeficiente de desgaste abrasivo e do coeficiente de atrito dos recobrimentos são comparados com os valores da garrafa PET utilizada como referência. Os coeficientes de desgaste encontrados foram similares aos valores de garrafas PET da ordem de 10-5. As análises estatísticas dos resultados deste trabalho indicam que os efeitos das interações das três variáveis, pressão dos gases de combustão, taxa de alimentação e gás de arraste foram significativos para o coeficiente de desgaste e não significativos para o coeficiente de atrito.The thermal spray technique involves coating processes that can use ceramic, polymers, metallic materials or a blend of these. The material to be deposited is melted totally or partially, where the heated particles are accelerated and projected toward a prepared surface forming layers with a lamellar structure. The effect of the spray process parameters such as, combustion pressure, feed rate and carrier gas, on the wear resistance and friction of PET films was evaluated. The PET coatings were characterized by measuring the wear coefficient through the calowear type testing and the friction coefficients using pin-on-disk testing

  5. Incremento de disolución de un derivado del furano mediante la técnica de secado por atomización Improvement of Furane derivate dissolution rate using spray drying technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Iraizoz Barrios

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: incrementar la solubilidad en agua del 2-bromo-5-(2-bromo-2-nitrovinyl-furano (G1, un ingrediente farmacéuticamente activo sintetizado por el Centro de Bioactivos Químicos de la Universidad Central de Las Villas, con potente acción bactericida y fungicida, mediante la elaboración de macropartículas de dispersiones sólidas utilizando un proceso de secado por atomización. Métodos: se realizó un ensayo preliminar de secado por atomización de la suspensión de G1, compuesta por: 10 g de G1, 1 g de Aerosil (Aerosil®, Degusa, Bélgica, 1 g de laurilsulfato de sodio y 100 mL de agua. La atomización se efectuó en un equipo de laboratorio (Buchi Mini Dryer spray a 90 ºC. La dispersión sólida obtenida fue caracterizada físico-químicamente mediante difracción de rayos X, granulometría láser por el método de difracción angular, calorimetría diferencial de barrido, microscopia electrónica de barrido y espectrofotometría de absorción infraroja. Resultados: las partículas obtenidas presentaron un pequeño tamaño, forma esférica y un incremento de la cristalinidad del G-1; no se encontraron interacciones entre los componentes de la dispersión ni presencia de productos de degradación, y la solubilidad del G-1 en agua resultó notablemente incrementada. Conclusiones: el producto obtenido por la técnica de secado por atomización incrementó apreciablemente la solubilidad del G1 sin afectar los grupos funcionales, responsables de la actividad terapéutica que se le reportan al ingrediente activo estudiado. Estos alentadores resultados sugieren la necesidad de continuar estudios para la optimización del proceso y realizar al producto obtenido ensayos de estabilidad con el objetivo de su futura inclusión en formas farmacéuticas de dosificación.Objective: to increase the solubility of 2-bromium-5(2-bromium-2-nitrovinyl-furane (G1, one pharmaceutically active ingredient with potent bactericidal and fungicidal action

  6. Spray cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rollin, Philippe.

    1975-01-01

    Spray cooling - using water spraying in air - is surveyed as a possible system for make-up (peak clipping in open circuit) or major cooling (in closed circuit) of the cooling water of the condensers in thermal power plants. Indications are given on the experiments made in France and the systems recently developed in USA, questions relating to performance, cost and environmental effects of spray devices are then dealt with [fr

  7. Secagem de extratos de erva-mate em secador por atomização Drying of maté extract in spray dryer

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    Alice Teresa Valduga

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Efetuou-se a extração de solúveis de erva-mate, progênie Cambona 4, utilizando extrator com percolação de solvente (água. O extrato obtido apresentou uma concentração de sólidos de aproximadamente 3%. Ao extrato foi adicionada goma arábica nas concentrações de 0; 0,2; 0,4; 0,6; 0,8; 1,0; 1,5 e 2,0%, em relação aos sólidos contidos no mesmo. As misturas foram efetuadas com o objetivo de estudar a influência da goma arábica na secagem e no sabor das bebidas. Os extratos foram processados em secador por atomização nas condições operacionais médias: temperatura e vazão do ar: 190ºC e 32,1m³/h; alimentação de extrato 340mL/h. Os conteúdos de umidade do pó obtido variaram de 1,8 a 6,6%(bu. Efetuou-se análise sensorial de três formulações com concentrações: 0; 0,2 e 1,0%. Aos resultados experimentais aplicou-se tratamento estatístico e verificou-se maior preferência pela formulação contendo 0,2% de erva-mate, o que mostrou a influência do agente encapsulante na retenção de aromas.It was effected extraction of soluble of mate, lineage Cambona 4, using extracting, with percolating of solvent (water. The gotten extract presented a 3% solid concentration. The extract was used for formularization of mixtures with arabica gum in the concentrations of 0; 0.2; 0.4; 0.6; 0.8; 1.0; 1.5 and 2.0%, in relation to solids contained in the extract. The formularizations had been effected with the objective to study the volatile and aromatics substance clamping. The extracts had been processed in spray dryer in the average operational conditions: temperature and tax of air: 190ºC and 32.1m³/h; extract feed of 340mL/h. The contents of humidity of the gotten dust had varied of 1.8 to 6.6%(db. Sensorial analysis of three formularizations with concentrations was carried out: 0; 0.2 and 1.0%. A statistical analysis were carried out to experimental results and was verified bigger preference for the formularization contends 0,2% of

  8. Resistencia al desgaste de recubrimientos Fe-Nb-Cr-W, Nb, AISI 1020 y AISI 420 producidos por proyección térmica por arco eléctrico

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    López-Covaleda, E. A.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The commercial materials 140MXC (with iron, tungsten, chrome, niobium, 530AS (AISI 1015 steel and 560AS (AISI 420 steel on AISI 4340 steel were deposited using thermal spray with arc. The aim of work was to evaluate the best strategy abrasive wear resistance of the system coating-substrate using the following combinations: (1 homogeneous coatings and (2 coatings depositing simultaneously 140MXC + 530AS and 140MXC + 560AS. The coatings microstructure was characterized using Optical microscopy, Scanning electron microscopy and Laser confocal microscopy. The wear resistance was evaluated through dry sand rubber wheel test (DSRW. We found that the wear resistance depends on the quantity of defects and the mechanical properties like hardness. For example, the softer coatings have the biggest wear rates and the failure mode was characterized by plastic deformation caused by particles indentation, and the other hand the failure mode at the harder materials was grooving. The details and wear mechanism of the coatings produced are described in this investigation.Mediante proyección térmica de arco eléctrico fueron depositados tres materiales comercialmente conocidos como: 140MXC (a base de hierro, wolframio, cromo y niobio, 530AS (acero AISI 1020 y 560AS (acero AISI 420, sobre acero AISI 4340. Con el objetivo de evaluar la mejor estrategia para incrementar la resistencia al desgaste abrasivo, los recubrimientos fueron depositados de dos formas: (1 monocapas homogéneas de cada material y (2 recubrimientos depositando con alambres disimiles de 140MXC + 530AS y 140MXC + 560AS. Los recubrimientos fueron caracterizados microestructuralmente mediante Difracción de rayos X, Microscopía óptica, Microscopía láser confocal y Microscopía electrónica de barrido. La evaluación de la resistencia al desgaste abrasivo se realizó mediante ensayo con arena seca y rueda de caucho (DSRW. Se encontró que la resistencia al desgaste depende entre otras de las

  9. Caracterização de solda de revestimento de AWS 317L depositados por GMAW duplo arame em aços ASTM a 516 gr 60 para uso na indústria do petróleo Characterization of the AWS 317L weld overlay applied by twin wire GMAW on ASTM a516 gr 60 steel used in oil and gas industry

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    Marcos Mesquita da Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar as características microestruturais de revestimentos aplicados por soldagem utilizando-se o processo GMAW com duplo arame e o metal de adição AWS E317L sobre metal de base ASTM A 516 Gr 60. Durante as soldagens empregou-se dois níveis de energia de soldagem (1170kJ/m e 1530kJ/m, um gás de proteção correspondendo a uma mistura de argônio e oxigênio (95% Ar e 5% O2 e uma temperatura interpasse de 150ºC. Em seguida, as amostras foram caracterizadas utilizando-se ensaios de microscopia ótica e microdureza. Os resultados obtidos indicaram um aumento na diluição e na extensão da zona termicamente afetada (ZTA com o aumento da energia de soldagem. Além disso, também houve a formação de zonas parcialmente diluídas (ZPD na interface revestimento/substrato, apresentando valores acima de 300HV. A quantidade de ZPD também foi maior para o nível de energia de soldagem mais elevado.The aim of this study was to evaluate the metallurgical characteristics of weld overlay applied by Twin Wire GMAW process and the AWS E317L filler metal on ASTM A 516 Gr 60 base metal. During welding it was employed two levels of heat input (H = 1170kJ/m and H = 1530kJ/m and a mixture of argon and oxygen (95% Ar and 5% O2 as shielding gas. Besides, all welds were carried out without preheat, however, an interpass temperature of 150ºC was used. Then, the specimens were characterized using optical microscopy and microhardness tests. The results showed an increase in dilution and heat affect zone extension when the heat input increases. Moreover, there was also the formation of partially diluted zones (PDZ along the fusion line, presenting values above 300HV. The formation of PDZ was larger for the highest heat input level.

  10. Distribuição da calda herbicida por pontas de pulverização agrícola utilizadas em áreas de reflorestamento com eucalipto Herbicide distribution by spraying nozzles used in eucalyptus reforestation areas

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    Marcelo da C. Ferreira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a distribuição de calda por pontas de pulverização hidráulicas para a aplicação de herbicidas em pré-emergência das plantas daninhas, em função do espaçamento na barra utilizada em áreas de reflorestamento com eucalipto. O experimento foi realizado no Laboratório de Ciência das Plantas Daninhas do Departamento de Fitossanidade da UNESP, Câmpus de Jaboticabal. Foram utilizados os modelos com indução de ar AIUB 025, AI 110025, TTI 110015 e DB 12002, considerando o espaçamento de 0,8; 1,0; 1,2 e 1,5 m entre eles. A avaliação da distribuição da calda pulverizada foi realizada em mesa de deposição. Pulverizou-se água com 0,1% do adjuvante não iônico alquilfenol. Os valores observados foram utilizados para a obtenção das curvas de deposição e do coeficiente de variação. Para a sobreposição de dois exemplares de pontas, conclui-se que o modelo AIUB 025 possui menores coeficientes de variação, resultando em melhores características operacionais em relação à AI 110025, TTI 110015 e DB 12002. Para a utilização de três exemplares de pontas, seguindo somente o critério da distribuição da calda, a melhor combinação foi entre AIUB 025 e DB 12002, como intercalar. A utilização da ponta intercalar aumentou significativamente o consumo de calda.This work aimed to evaluate spray distribution by spraying hydraulic nozzles for the application of herbicides in the pre-emergence of weeds, due to the spacing in spraying boom used in areas reforested with eucalyptus. The trial was carried out at the Weed Science Laboratory from the Phytosanitary Department, UNESP - Jaboticabal Campus - SP, Brazil. It was used air induction nozzles AIUB 025, AI 110025, TTI 110015 and DB 12002, on spacing 0.8; 1.0; 1.2; and 1.5 m, between them. The spraying liquid distribution evaluation was done in patternator table. It was sprayed water plus 0.1% of non-ionic adjuvant alkylphenol . The observed

  11. Los ejemplares tipo de Cicadellinae y Gyponinae (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae depositados en el Museo de La Plata, Argentina The type specimens of Cicadellinae and Gyponinae (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae housed at the Museo de La Plata, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana L. Paradell

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available En la presente contribución, se realizó un relevamiento de los ejemplares tipo de Cicadellidae, depositados en la colección de la División Entomología del Museo de La Plata (MLP. Fueron examinados y listados 86 ejemplares tipo pertenecientes a 32 especies: siete Cicadellinae y 25 Gyponinae, las que fueron descriptas por los siguientes autores: Berg, DeLong, DeLong & Freytag, DeLong & Martinson, Tesón, Spångberg y Young. Para cada ejemplar tipo se brinda información acerca del nombre específico, referencia bibliográfica, categoría de tipo y procedencia.

  12. Influence of spray drying operating conditions on microencapsulated rosemary essential oil properties Influência das condições operacionais da secagem por atomização nas propriedades de óleo de alecrim microencapsulado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regiane Victória de Barros Fernandes

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Spray drying is an important method used by the food industry in the production of microencapsulated flavors to improve handling and dispersion properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of the process conditions on the properties of rosemary essential oil microencapsulated by spray drying using gum Arabic as encapsulant. The effects of the wall material concentration (10-30%, inlet air temperature (135-195 ºC, and feed flow rate (0.5-1.0 L.h-1 on the moisture content, hygroscopicity, wettability, solubility, bulk and tapped densities, particle density, flowability, and cohesiveness were evaluated using a 2³ central composite rotational experimental design. Moisture content, hygroscopicity and wettability were significantly affected by the three factors analyzed. Bulk density was positively influenced by the wall material concentration and negatively by the inlet air temperature. Particle density was influenced by the wall material concentration and the inlet air temperature variables, both in a negative manner. As for the solubility, tapped density, flowability, and cohesiveness, the models did not fit the data well. The results indicated that moderate wall material concentration (24%, low inlet air temperature (135 ºC, and moderate feed flow rate (0.7 L.h-1 are the best spray drying conditions.A secagem por atomização é um importante método utilizado pela indústria de alimentos na produção de flavors microencapsulados, melhorando suas propriedades de manuseio e dispersão. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a influência das condições de processo nas propriedades de óleo essencial de alecrim microencapsulado por secagem por atomização, utilizando-se goma Arábica como agente encapsulante. Os efeitos da concentração de material de parede (10% a 30%, temperatura de entrada do ar (135-195 ºC e vazão de alimentação (0.5-1.0 L.h-1 na umidade, higroscopicidade, molhabilidade, solubilidade, densidades

  13. Anestesia do pirarucu por aspersão direta nas brânquias do eugenol em solução aquosa Anesthesia in pirarucu by eugenol sprays in the gills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Honczaryk

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O pirarucu (Arapaima gigas é um peixe que vem ganhando importância cada vez maior na piscicultura comercial na Amazônia. No entanto, por ser um animal de grande porte, no campo, é comum o relato de acidentes envolvendo pancadas violentas em técnicos durante o manejo. Desse modo, é imperativa a anestesia desses animais. Todavia, para a espécie em discussão, a realização de banhos anestésicos, muitas vezes, não é possível devido ao tamanho do animal e ao risco de afogamento do peixe pulmonado. O presente trabalho avaliou de maneira prática a viabilidade do eugenol como anestésico para o pirarucu por aspersão direta nas brânquias. Para tanto, três animais jovens foram submetidos à aspersão de eugenol nas brânquias em concentração de 30mg L-1 e dois na concentração de 60mg L-1. O eugenol borrifado nas brânquias mostrou-se viável como anestésico para o pirarucu, não sendo observada a mortalidade de animais mesmo um mês após os testes.Pirarucu (Arapaima gigas is an important species to commercial fish farming in Amazon. It achieves more than 2m and 100kg. However, fish handling may be risky to workers. Anesthesia is necessary, but usual anesthetic baths are not feasible due to the size of fish and the pulmonary respiration of Pirarucu. This fish may die drowned in anesthetic baths. This research evaluated the alternative anesthetic eugenol to pirarucu by sprays in the gills. Solution in concentration of 30mg L-1 was sprinkled in the gills of three fish, and 60mg L-1 was sprinkled in the gills of two other fish. Eugenol sprays provided safe anesthesia for pirarucu. No mortality was observed even one month after the experiment.

  14. α-MoO3 thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis Películas delgadas de α-MoO3 preparadas por atomización pirolítica

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    L D López-Carreño

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available MoO3 thin films have been deposited on clean glass slides using the spray pyrolysis technique. The samples were grown with different thicknesses by spraying on common glass substrates a solution of(ammoniummolybdatetetrahydrate ((NH36Mo7O244H2O. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and electrically through electrical resistivity measurements as a function of temperature. It was found that samples present crystalline structure associated with the alpha phase of MoO3 grown with preferential direction of growth along the planes (0k0. As result of increasing the volume of precursor solution sample surface becomes porous. The change in electrical resistance of MoO3 films by exposure to carbon monoxide (CO at room temperature, makes the films obtained by this technique could be promising in its use in gas sensing devices at room temperature.En este trabajo se prepararon películas delgadas de trióxido de molibdeno (MoO3 por la técnica de atomización pirolítica. Las películas fueron depositadas sobre sustratos de vidrio y obtenidas a partir de una solución precursora de Heptamolibdato de Amonio Tetrahidratado ((NH36Mo7O24.4H2O 0.1 M. La temperatura del sustrato se mantuvo constante en 400 oC y se varío el volumen de la solución precursora. Las muestras se caracterizaron por difracción de Rayos X (XRD, espectroscopía infrarroja, Microscopía Electrónica de Barrido (SEM y eléctricamente a través de medidas de resistividad eléctrica en función de la temperatura. Las muestras crecen con estructura cristalina correspondiente a la fase alfa del MoO3 con dirección preferencial de crecimiento a lo largo de los planos (0k0. Al aumentar el volumen de la solución precursora la superficie de las muestras se vuelve porosa. La resistividad en estas muestras cambia en un orden de magnitud cuando son expuestas a la atmosfera de CO.

  15. Anestesia do pirarucu por aspersão da benzocaína diretamente nas brânquias Anesthesia in pirarucu by benzocaine sprays in the gills

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    Alexandre Honczaryk

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O pirarucu (Arapaima gigas é um peixe que pode atingir mais de 2m e 100kg. No entanto, por ser um animal de grande porte, o risco de acidentes é bastante elevado durante o manejo. Logo, anestésicos são essenciais para segurança no trabalho. Nesse contexto, estudou-se a possibilidade do uso da benzocaína aspergida diretamente nas brânquias do pirarucu, para indução à anestesia do peixe pulmonado da Amazônia sem riscos de afogamento. Foram testadas as concentrações de 25, 50 e 75mg L-1 em indivíduos adultos (55,1±7,0kg e 1,80±0,1m e as concentrações de 50 e 100mg L-1 em juvenis (6,0±0,6kg e 87,2±5,6cm. Os resultados mostram viabilidade do uso da benzocaína aspergida diretamente nas brânquias do pirarucu em concentrações de 50 a 100mg L-1, proporcionando anestesia com ausência de movimentação por aproximadamente 2min, tempo suficiente para procedimentos rápidos, como biometria, injeções, marcação, coleta de raspados de muco na superfície do corpo e brânquias. Mortalidade de animais não foi observada mesmo um mês após os testes.Pirarucu (Arapaima gigas is a fish that may achieve more than 2m and 100kg. Thus handling of this fish may impose risks to workers. In this way, anesthetics are imperative for safety at work, but usual anesthetics baths are not feasible for pirarucu because of the fish size and the species pulmonary respiration. Pirarucu may die drowned if submersed as the other fishes in anesthetics baths. Therefore, this work tested the possible use of benzocaine directly sprinkled in the gills of pirarucu. In the first experiment, benzocaine solutions in concentrations of 25, 50 and 75mg L-1 were tested for adult fish (55.1±7.0kg e 1.80±0.1m. In the second one, the anesthetic in concentrations of 50 and 100mg L-1 were tested for juveniles (6.0±0.6kg e 87.2±5.6cm. Benzocaine sprinkled directly in the gills of pirarucu showed to be an efficient anesthetic both for juveniles and adult fish. It was

  16. Nicotine Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicotine nasal spray is used to help people stop smoking. Nicotine nasal spray should be used together with a ... support groups, counseling, or specific behavior change techniques. Nicotine nasal spray is in a class of medications ...

  17. Caracterização e processamento de leite bubalino em pó em secador por nebulização Characterization and processing of powdered buffalo milk by spray dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta B. Guerra

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o processo de secagem por nebulização em "spray dryer" para a obtenção de leite bubalino em pó. Foram realizadas análises físico-químicas no leite in natura e no leite desidratado, para averiguar perdas de macronutrientes ocorridas durante a secagem; análises microbiológicas para assegurar a qualidade higiênico-sanitária do processo e produto e análises sensoriais para estabelecer a aceitabilidade do produto. Foram obtidas isotermas de adsorção e dessorção de umidade a 25°C, para o produto em pó, visando observar o seu comportamento higroscópico. O leite bubalino em pó obtido apresentou como características físicoquímicas: 3,4% de umidade, 23,2% de proteínas, 46,1% de gordura, 4,2% de cinzas, 0,5% de lecitina de soja e 22,6% de carboidratos totais. De acordo com os exames microbiológicos está apto para o consumo humano. O produto foi caracterizado como integral por não ter sofrido qualquer padronização. As perdas ocorridas para a maioria dos macronutrientes durante o processamento, foram inferiores a 5% e apenas o teor de proteínas apresentou variação superior a 15%, devido à desnaturação da caseína em temperatura superior a 80°C. O produto apresentou isotermas de adsorção do tipo III, mesmo comportamento apresentado pelo leite bovino. Através da isoterma de dessorção determinou-se o valor de umidade equivalente à monocamada, obtendo-se o valor médio de 4,4g H2 O/100g b.s., o que validou o processo utilizado. O comportamento de histerese apresentado pelo produto foi similar ao do leite em pó integral, sendo a sua aceitabilidade de 74%, muito próxima a 80% obtido para um leite em pó integral comercial.This work aims to show the process development based on the spray dryer for the obtaining of powdered buffalo milk. For that, physiochemical analyses were made in the milk in natura and later in the powdered product, which was also submitted to microbiological analysis to be sure that it

  18. Extração, secagem por atomização e microencapsulamento de antocianinas do bagaço da uva "Isabel" (Vitis labrusca Extraction, spray drying and microencapsulating of 'Isabel' grape (Vitis labrusca bagasse anthocyanin

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    Eunice Valduga

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se obter neste trabalho um corante natural (antocianina, na forma de pó a partir do bagaço de uva da cultivar "Isabel" (Vitis labrusca, onde foram realizados estudos de extração e encapsulamento. Empregou-se o método de extração por imersão mediante técnica de planejamento experimental, onde as variáveis avaliadas foram pH da solução de extração (1-2, volume de etanol (100-250 mL, tempo de extração (3-7 h e temperatura de extração (15-35ºC. A concentração máxima de antocianinas totais obtidas foi de 300 mg/100 g de bagaço de uva (umidade 5% nos níveis inferiores de pH (1,0 e tempo (3 horas e superiores de temperatura (35ºC e volume de etanol (250 mL. Os extratos foram secos por atomização. A melhor condição para o encapsulamento e a secagem foi quando utilizaram-se proporções iguais de maltodextrina e goma arábica.This work had the aim of obtaining a natural pigment (anthocyanin at powder form from 'Isabel' grape bagasse (Vitis labrusca, studying the extraction and encapsulating steps one applied the method of extraction by immersion by experimental design technique, when the factors investigated were pH of the extraction solution (1-2, volume of ethanol (100-250 mL, extraction time (3-7 h and extraction temperature (15-35 °C. The maximum concentration of total anthocyanin was 300 mg/100g of grape bagasse (5% moisture at the lower levels of pH (1.0 and time (3 h, and at upper levels of temperature (35ºC and amount of ethanol (250 mL. The extracts were dried by a spray process. The best condition for encapsulating and drying was obtained when equal amounts of maltodextrin and Arabic gum were used.

  19. Comparison of microscopic method and computational program for pesticide deposition evaluation of spraying Comparação de método microscópico e programa computacional para a estimativa da deposição de agrotóxicos pela pulverização aérea

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    Aldemir Chaim

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work was to compare two methods to estimate the deposition of pesticide applied by aerial spraying. Hundred and fifty pieces of water sensitive paper were distributed over an area of 50 m length by 75 m width for sampling droplets sprayed by an aircraft calibrated to apply a spray volume of 32 L/ha. The samples were analysed by visual microscopic method using NG 2 Porton graticule and by an image analyser computer program. The results reached by visual microscopic method were the following: volume median diameter, 398±62 mum; number median diameter, 159±22 mum; droplet density, 22.5±7.0 droplets/cm² and estimated deposited volume, 22.2±9.4 L/ha. The respective ones reached with the computer program were: 402±58 mum, 161±32 mum, 21.9±7.5 droplets/cm² and 21.9±9.2 L/ha. Graphs of the spatial distribution of droplet density and deposited spray volume on the area were produced by the computer program.O principal objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar dois métodos para estimar a deposição de agrotóxicos aplicados por pulverização aérea. Foram distribuídos 150 cartões sensíveis à água numa área de 50 m de comprimento por 75 m de largura, para amostrar gotas pulverizadas por uma aeronave calibrada para aplicar um volume de calda de 32 L/ha. As amostras foram analisadas pelo método de visualização microscópica com a utilização de uma gratícula de Porton NG 2 e por um programa de computador analisador de imagens. Os resultados obtidos pelo método de visualização microscópica foram: diâmetro mediano volumétrico, 398±62 mim; diâmetro mediano numérico, 159±22 mim; densidade de gotas, 22,5±7,0 gotas/cm² e volume depositado estimado, 22,2±9,4 L/ha. Os respectivos resultados obtidos pelo programa de computador foram: 402±58 mim, 161±32 mm, 21,9±7,5 gotas/cm² e 21,9±9,2 L/ha. O programa de computador possibilitou a produção de gráficos com a distribuição espacial da densidade de

  20. Tribología de recubrimientos Cermet/NiCrBSi depositados mediante HVOF

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    Guilemany, J. M.

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available This work consists on a deep tribological study of the WX system composed by a mechanical blend in different compositions of NiCrBSi and WC-12Co powders: 20% NiCrBSi (W2, 40% NiCrBSi (W4 y 60% NiCrBSi (W6. The coatings have been obtained by high velocity oxy-fuel process (HVOF. The measurements made by Ball-On-Disk test are: the friction coefficient is lower than 0.5 and the exchanged energy between the counterparts is under 10 KJ. To quantify the friction wear rate, the volume loss and the track depth, Scanning White Light Interferometry and SEM have been used. The track depth is proportional to the amount of NiCrBSi. A higher percentage of WC-12Co increases the friction wear resistance and decreases the abrasion wear rate (Rubber Wheel test. In all the coatings studied, no diffusion processes are found between the mixed phases, the adhesion between the coatings and the substrate is excellent, the porosity level is below 2% and an increase of microhardness of the coating due to a strengthening of the matrix produced by impacts of solid particles, takes place.

    El trabajo consta de un completo estudio tribológico del sistema WX que consiste en la mezcla mecánica de WC-12Co y NiCrBSi en diferentes proporciones: 20% NiCrBSi (W2, 40% NiCrBSi (W4 y 60% NiCrBSi (W6. Los recubrimientos se han obtenido por proyección térmica de alta velocidad (HVOF. Para todos los sistemas, el coeficiente de fricción es menor que 0.5 y la energía intercambiada entre el par friccionante y el recubrimiento es inferior a 10 KJ. Para cuantificar el desgaste por fricción se han utilizado la profundidad de la huella y el volumen perdido durante el ensayo, obtenidos mediante Interferometría de Barrido de Luz Blanca (SLWI y SEM. La profundidad de la huella sigue una evolución directamente proporcional al contenido en NiCrBSi. Un mayor contenido en WC-12Co aumenta la resistencia al desgaste por fricción y disminuye la velocidad de desgaste por abrasión (ensayo

  1. Los ejemplares tipo de Typhlocybinae y Deltocephalinae (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae depositados en el Museo de La Plata, Argentina The type specimens of Typhlocybinae and Deltocephalinae (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae housed at the Museo de La Plata, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana L. Paradell

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available En la presente contribución, se realizó un relevamiento de los ejemplares tipo de la Familia Cicadellidae, depositados en la colección de la División Entomología del Museo de La Plata (MLP. Fueron examinados y listados 99 ejemplares tipo pertenecientes a 41 especies: siete Typhlocybinae y 34 Deltocephalinae, las cuales fueron descriptas por los siguientes autores: Torres, Berg y Linnavuori. Para cada ejemplar tipo se brinda información acerca del nombre específico, referencia bibliográfica, categoría de tipo y procedencia.This is a report of the type specimens of Cicadellidae housed in the collection of División Entomología, Museo de La Plata (MLP. 99 type specimens appertaining to 41 species of the family Cicadellidae were examined and listed: seven Typhlocybinae and 34 Deltocephalinae. They were described by the following authors: Torres, Berg and Linnavuori. For each type specimen information is given about the specific name, bibliographical reference and type category, and label data.

  2. Los ejemplares tipo de Dryopidae, Elmidae, Limnichidae y Psephenidae (Coleoptera: Byrrhoidea, depositados en la colección del Museo de La Plata The types of Dryopidae, Elmidae, Limnichidae and Psephenidae (Coleoptera: Byrrhoidea housed at the Museo de La Plata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana A. Fernández

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Se examinaron los ejemplares tipo depositados en la colección de la División Entomología del Museo de La Plata, pertenecientes a diversas especies nominales de Byrrhoidea: Dryopidae (1 especie, 1 ejemplar tipo, Elmidae (4, 9, Limnichidae (29, 47 y Psephenidae (1, 2. El material tipo fue estudiado por los siguientes autores: Pic, Spangler, Spangler & Brown, Spangler & Perkins, Spangler & Santiago, Spilman y Wooldridge. Para cada taxón se indica la publicación original, datos de colección y condición del material.The types of species of Byrrhoidea (Coleoptera housed in the collection of the División Entomología of Museo de La Plata were examined and listed. They belong to 35 species distributed in the families Dryopidae (1 species, 1 type, Elmidae (4, 9, Limnichidae (29, 47 and Psephenidae (1, 2. The types were described by Pic, Spangler, Spangler & Brown, Spangler & Perkins, Spangler & Santiago, Spilman, and Wooldridge. For each taxon, complete information about categories of types, reference original descriptions, collection data and specimen condition are given.

  3. Comportamiento a fatiga térmica de la capa de anclaje de nuevas barreras térmicas cerámicas obtenidas mediante proyección por plasma atmosférico

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    Pablo Carpio

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo de nuevos materiales cerámicos para aplicarlos en recubrimientos protectores frente a la temperatura, también conocidos como barreras térmicas (Thermal Barrier Coatings o TBC, es de gran interés para muchos sectores, entre los que destacan las industrias de generación de energía, aeronáutica y automovilística.  En este trabajo se realizó un estudio del comportamiento a fatiga térmica, centrado en la respuesta de uno de los componentes que constituyen una TBC: la capa de anclaje. Los distintos componentes de la TBC fueron depositados mediante la técnica de proyección térmica por plasma atmosférico (Atmospheric Plasma Spraying o APS. Se estudió la microestructura y la composición de la capa de anclaje a lo largo de los ciclos térmicos de estudio.

  4. Water adsorption isotherms and isosteric sorption heat of spray-dried and freeze-dried dehydrated passion fruit pulp with additives and skimmed milk Isotermas de adsorção e calor isostérico de sorção de polpa de maracujá desidratada por spray dryer e liofilizador com aditivos e leite desnatado

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    Kelly Tafari Catelam

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Moisture equilibrium data of passion fruit pulp powders with maltodextrin and gum arabic were obtained by two different drying methods (spray drying and freeze drying and determined at 20, 30, 40 and 50º C. Skimmed milk was used to substitute part of these additives in the samples. One formulation using passion fruit pulp/maltodextrin/skimmed milk (PMS was prepared, and another using passion fruit pulp/gum arabic/skimmed milk (PGS. The behavior of curves was type III, according to Brunauer's classification. GAB models were fitted to experimental equilibrium data. The parameters obtained from GAB models was affected by the presence of additives. The behavior of the sorption isotherms for different temperatures are similar, noting only a small effect of temperature. There were little differences between both drying methods and additives used in relation to equilibrium moisture content. The parameters obtained with the addition of the skimmed milk were considered satisfactory (Xm values ranged from 0,04084 to 0,06488 in dry basis, demonstrating that it is an effective and cheap alternative for regular additives. A progressive increase in the heat of sorption in relation to decreasing moisture content was observed and the heat of sorption values of different samples are all similar, comparing the relative equilibrium moisture content.Dados de umidade de equilíbrio da polpa de maracujá em pó com maltodextrina e goma arábica obtidas por dois diferentes processos de secagem (spray dryer e liofilizador foram determinados a 20, 30, 40 e 50° C. Leite desnatado foi utilizado nas amostras em substituição a uma parte desses dois aditivos. Prepararou-se uma formulação, usando polpa de maracujá/maltodextrina/leite desnatado (PMS e outra com polpa de maracujá/goma arábica/leite desnatado (PGS. Os comportamentos das isotermas obedeceram ao tipo III, de acordo com a classificação de Brunauer e utilizou-se o modelo de GAB para ajuste dos dados de

  5. Evaluation of natural and degradation by salt spray of red ceramics incorporated with ornamental rock waste; Avaliacao da degradacao natural e por nevoa salina de ceramica vermelha incorporadas com rejeito de rocha ornamental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altoe, Larissa Machado; Xavier, Gustavo de Castro; Albuquerque, Fernando Saboya; Maia, Paulo Cesar de Almeida; Alexandre, Jonas, E-mail: daniellavrodrigues@hotmail.com, E-mail: gxavier@uenf.br [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (LECIV/UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil)Laboratorio de Engenharia Civil

    2011-07-01

    To better study the mechanical behavior of red ceramic, the samples were degraded in salt spray equipment and exposed in environment. The salt spray equipment subjects the samples to conditions found by the sea, through the mix solutions of sodium chloride. The ceramic samples were prepared with up to 10% by mass of ornamental rock waste to dry and pressed into rectangular mold of steel. The materials were fired at temperatures of 650°C, 750° C and 850°C. After 90 days of degradation natural and 45 days in salt spray, ware analyzed the properties of ceramic material. The results of mechanical strength were compared using the Weibull distribution, before and after the degradation. Note that the material with ornamental rock waste raised the mechanical strength and did'nt significantly changes the material properties after degradation. (author)

  6. Fixed automated spray technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    This research project evaluated the construction and performance of Boschungs Fixed Automated : Spray Technology (FAST) system. The FAST system automatically sprays de-icing material on : the bridge when icing conditions are about to occur. The FA...

  7. Hair spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002705.htm Hair spray poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair spray poisoning occurs when someone breathes in (inhales) ...

  8. Oxymetazoline Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxymetazoline nasal spray is used to relieve nasal discomfort caused by colds, allergies, and hay fever. It ... also used to relieve sinus congestion and pressure. Oxymetazoline nasal spray should not be used to treat ...

  9. Revestimento de Níquel Depositado pela Soldagem MIG e MIG com Arame Frio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Mendes da Mota

    Full Text Available Resumo: Este artigo apresenta um estudo das características operacionais, geométricas e microestruturais de soldas MIG e MIGAF (MIG com arame frio aplicadas no revestimento de chapa de um aço AISI 1020, com uma superliga de níquel ER NiCrMo-4, tipo Hastelloy 276C. A soldagem foi automatizada, na posição plana, e realizada por uma fonte eletrônica em CC+ com aquisição instantânea dos oscilogramas de corrente e tensão de soldagem. As variáveis de entrada foram às velocidades do arame eletrodo e do arame frio, e a velocidade de soldagem. Foram avaliadas a operacionalidade dos processos e o efeito da energia de soldagem sobre as características geométricas (reforço e largura, diluição, microestrutura e microdureza do revestimento. Os resultados indicaram um bom desempenho operacional, a ausência de defeitos nos passes isolados e nos revestimentos para as soldagens com MIGAF. Além disso, constataram-se menores níveis de diluição.

  10. Desarrollo de cultivos probióticos deshidratados por secado spray para la aplicación en alimentos : Estudios microbiológicos y tecnológicos

    OpenAIRE

    Páez, Roxana Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Se estudió el proceso de secado spray como alternativa de menor costo para obtener bacterias probióticas deshidratadas. Se estudió el efecto del proceso sobre la viabilidad y funcionalidad de las mismas. Los resultados demostraron que es posible lograr y conservar bacterias probióticas deshidratadas en diferentes matrices alimentarias. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas

  11. RECUBRIMIENTOS DE NITRUROS METÁLICOS DEPOSITADOS CON UBM: TECNOLOGÍA EFICIENTE Y AMBIENTALMENTE LIMPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JHON OLAYA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación es estudiar la influencia de la configuración del campo magnético sobre los parámetros del plasma y algunas propiedades de recubrimientos de TaN, TiN, NbN, ZrN y CrN producidos con un sistema de sputtering con magnetrón desbalanceado (UBM. Este sistema permite modificar la densidad de corriente iónica y la energía de los iones que llegan al substrato por medio de la variación en la configuración del campo magnético sin modificar otras condiciones del depósito. Las diferentes configuraciones del campo magnético se cuantificaron a través del coeficiente de desbalance, KG, el cual es proporcional a la posición del punto de campo cero del magnetrón. El efecto más importante del aumento del bombardeo iónico al variar la configuración del campo magnético se observó en la microestructura de las películas, particularmente en la orientación preferencial. Usando la configuración KG = 1.3, se observó la orientación preferencial [200] en todos los recubrimientos. Sin embargo, cuando KG = 0.85 la respuesta fue diferente para cada material. Otra consecuencia del aumento del bombardeo iónico fue el aumento de los esfuerzos residuales de compresión que resultó mayor para las películas de TaN, mientras que en las películas de CrN se obtuvo la menor concentración de esfuerzos. Las durezas más altas se observaron en las películas de TaN, NbN y ZrN, la mejor resistencia a la corrosión en las películas de ZrN y la mejor resistencia al desgaste en las películas de NbN.

  12. Absorbing materials of thin film for photovoltaic structures prepared by the process of pyrolytic spraying; Materiales absorbedores en pelicula delgada para estructuras fotovoltaicas preparados por el proceso de rocio pirolitico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calixto Rodriguez, Manuela

    2006-11-15

    In this thesis work thin semiconducting films were grown with the following compounds: In{sub 2}S{sub 3}, Ag{sub 2}S, AgInS{sub 2}, SnS{sub 2} and SnS with the pyrolytic spray technique. The structural, optical and electrical proposals of these films were analyzed to determine the set of deposit parameters in which are obtained the physical properties for the applications of the same in photovoltaic structures. It was found that the molar relation in solution of the departing compounds and the deposit temperature are the same dominant parameters in the process of growing the films. For the deposit of thin films of Indio acetate were used and N, N-dimetil tiourea as precursory compounds of In and S, respectively. Polycrystalline films were obtained from the compound In{sub 2}S{sub 3} using underlying temperatures, Ts, between 400 and 450 degrees Celsius, and Indio acetate solutions and N, N-dimetil tiourea with molar relations (In:S) of 1:8 and 1:1. The energy breach, Eg, of these films varies from 2.04 to 2.67 eV, and the value of the conductivity in the darkness, D varies from 10-7 to 1(cm)-1 in function of the molar relation in solution. It was found that the deposited films using a molar relation of In:S=1:8 are of intrinsic nature independently of Ts, while the ones deposited using a molar relations of In:S=1:1 and Ts 400 degrees Celsius posses type-n conductivity. Using the molar relation of I:S=1:1 and Ts=500 degrees Celsius the compound polycrystalline of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} is obtained whose optical and electrical properties are Eg {approx} 3 eV and D=11 (cm)-1, with electrical conductivity type-n. The deposited films using a molar relation of In:S=1:1 and Ts=450 degrees Celsius are the ones that keep the appropriate characteristics for their use as type-n material in photovoltaic structures (Eg=2eV and D=1?-1 com-1). [Spanish] En este trabajo de tesis se crecieron peliculas delgadas semiconductoras de los compuestos: In{sub 2}S{sub 3}, Ag{sub 2}S, Ag

  13. Cold spray nozzle design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Jeffrey D [Stuart, FL; Sanders, Stuart A [Palm Beach Gardens, FL

    2009-06-09

    A nozzle for use in a cold spray technique is described. The nozzle has a passageway for spraying a powder material, the passageway having a converging section and a diverging section, and at least the diverging section being formed from polybenzimidazole. In one embodiment of the nozzle, the converging section is also formed from polybenzimidazole.

  14. Spray Rolling Aluminum Strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavernia, E.J.; Delplanque, J-P; McHugh, K.M.

    2006-05-10

    Spray forming is a competitive low-cost alternative to ingot metallurgy for manufacturing ferrous and non-ferrous alloy shapes. It produces materials with a reduced number of processing steps, while maintaining materials properties, with the possibility of near-net-shape manufacturing. However, there are several hurdles to large-scale commercial adoption of spray forming: 1) ensuring strip is consistently flat, 2) eliminating porosity, particularly at the deposit/substrate interface, and 3) improving material yield. Through this program, a new strip/sheet casting process, termed spray rolling, has been developed, which is an innovative manufacturing technique to produce aluminum net-shape products. Spray rolling combines the benefits of twin-roll casting and conventional spray forming, showing a promising potential to overcome the above hurdles associated with spray forming. Spray rolling requires less energy and generates less scrap than conventional processes and, consequently, enables the development of materials with lower environmental impacts in both processing and final products. Spray Rolling was developed as a collaborative project between the University of California-Davis, the Colorado School of Mines, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, and an industry team. The following objectives of this project were achieved: (1) Demonstration of the feasibility of the spray rolling process at the bench-scale level and evaluation of the materials properties of spray rolled aluminum strip alloys; and (2) Demonstration of 2X scalability of the process and documentation of technical hurdles to further scale up and initiate technology transfer to industry for eventual commercialization of the process.

  15. Resistencia al desgaste de recubrimientos de bronce al aluminio producidos con técnica de proyección térmica//Wear resistance of aluminum bronze coatings produced by thermal spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayan Carolina Cárdenas-Feria

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la resistencia al desgaste adhesivo de recubrimientos de bronce al aluminio depositados con la técnica de proyección térmica por llama sobre bronce fosforado SAE 62. Los recubrimientos fueron fabricados variando las presiones parciales de los gases de combustión, oxígeno y acetileno. El material utilizado fue caracterizado estructuralmente mediante difracción de rayosX (X-ray diffraction, XRD y el estudio morfológico mediante microscopía electrónica de barrido (Scanning electron microscopy, SEM. La resistencia al desgaste adhesivo de los recubrimientos se determinó por medio del ensayo de bola sobre disco, utilizando como bola una esférica de acero 100Cr6. Los resultados obtenidos permiten establecer que los recubrimientos proyectados con una presión de oxigeno de 78 psi y una presión de acetileno de 8 psi presentan la mejor resistencia al desgaste en comparación a los tratamientos producidos. El modo de falla de desgaste en los recubrimientos producidos es discutido en esta investigación.Palabras clave: desgaste abrasivo y adhesivo,  proyección térmica,  recubrimientos.______________________________________________________________________________AbstractWe studied the adhesive wear resistance of aluminum bronze coatings deposited by thermal spray on phosphor bronze SAE 62 substrates. The coatings were deposited by varying the partial pressures of the combustion gases: oxygen and acetylene. The structural characterization was made through X-ray diffraction (XRD and the morphological analysis was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The adhesive wear resistance of the coatings was determined by the bole on disc test using a spherical ball made of steel 100Cr6 and with a diameter of 6 mm. The results obtained show that the coating projected with an oxygen pressure of 78 psi and an acetylene pressure of 8 psi have the better wear resistance compared with the substrate and the others treatments deposited

  16. Deposition and characterization of TaAIN thin films by reactive magnetron sputtering; Deposicao e caracterizacao de filmes finos de TaAIN depositados por magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, G.B.; Fernandez, D.R.; Fontes Junior, A.S.; Felix, L.C.; Tentardini, E.K. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais; Hubler, R. [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUC-RS), RS (Brazil); Silva Junior, A.H. da, E-mail: brito-g@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), RS (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Phase stability, oxidation resistance and great mechanical properties are the main objectives when synthesizing protective coatings. The tantalum nitride (TaN) has aroused interest because of its high temperature stability, chemical inertness and thermal conductivity. However, it has a low hardness value when compared to other coatings. Researches has shown that one way to improvements in the properties of a thin film is by adding other elements in the deposition process. Therefore, the objective of this study was to deposit thin films of TaAlN by magnetron sputtering, changing the aluminum concentration of 2, 5, 7, to 14%. Then the coatings were characterized by EDS, RBS, GIXRD and nanohardness. In this study was found that the aluminum deposited did not change the oxidation resistance of the coating, and the highest value of hardness was 28 GPa for the sample with 14 at.%. (author)

  17. Thermal Arc Spray Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafiz Abd Malek, Muhamad; Hayati Saad, Nor; Kiyai Abas, Sunhaji; Mohd Shah, Noriyati

    2013-06-01

    Usage of protective coating for corrosion protection was on highly demand during the past decade; and thermal spray coating played a major part during that time. In recent years, the thermal arc spray coating becomes a popular coating. Many big players in oil and gas such as PETRONAS, EXXON MOBIL and SHELL in Malaysia tend to use the coating on steel structure as a corrosion protection. Further developments in coating processes, the devices, and raw materials have led to expansion of functional coatings and applications scope from conventional coating to specialized industries. It is widely used because of its ability to withstand high process temperature, offer advantages in efficiency, lower cost and acts as a corrosion protection. Previous research also indicated that the thermal arc spray offers better coating properties compared to other methods of spray. This paper reviews some critical area of thermal spray coating by discussing the process/parameter of thermal arc spray technology and quality control of coating. Coating performance against corrosion, wear and special characteristic of coating are also described. The field application of arc spray technology are demonstrated and reviewed.

  18. Fentanyl Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fentanyl nasal spray is used to treat breakthrough pain (sudden episodes of pain that occur despite round ... effects of the medication) to narcotic pain medications. Fentanyl is in a class of medications called narcotic ( ...

  19. Fentanyl Sublingual Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fentanyl sublingual spray is used to treat breakthrough pain (sudden episodes of pain that occur despite round ... effects of the medication) to narcotic pain medications. Fentanyl is in a class of medications called narcotic ( ...

  20. Dynamics of flare sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Hansen, R.T.

    1980-01-01

    During solar cycle No. 20 new insight into the flare-spray phenomenon has been attained due to several innovations in solar optical-observing techniques (higher spatial resolution cinema-photography, tunable pass-band filters, multi-slit spectroscopy and extended angular field coronographs). From combined analysis of 13 well-observed sprays which occured between 1969-1974 we conclude that (i) the spray material originates from a preexisting active region filament which undergoes increased absorption some tens of minutes prior to the abrupt chromospheric brightening at the 'flare-start', and (ii) the spray material is confined within a steadily expanding, loop-shaped (presumably magnetically controlled) envelope with part of the material draining back down along one or both legs of the loop. (orig.)

  1. Butorphanol Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Butorphanol is in a class of medications called opioid agonist-antagonists. It works by changing the way ... stop using butorphanol nasal spray, you may experience withdrawal symptoms such as nervousness, agitation, shakiness, diarrhea, chills, ...

  2. Distribuição da calda na cultura da Videira por turboatomizador com diferentes configurações de pontas Grapevine spray distribution by an air-assisted sprayer with different nozzles configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Gonçalves Balan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available As variedades de uva fina de mesa são susceptíveis a doenças. Em virtude disso o controle é responsável pela maior parte do custo de produção. Visando a diminuir os desperdícios, a contaminação e a criação de resistência, a tecnologia de aplicação de agrotóxicos é de suma importância neste processo. Este trabalho teve como objetivos avaliar a configuração de bicos e pontas de pulverização utilizada e propor outras mais adequadas à aplicação de agrotóxicos com turboatomizador em videira. Utilizou-se papel sensível à água para avaliar a cobertura em 16 pontos de amostragem da parreira. Foram observados pontos de acúmulo e de deficiência de cobertura da calda de pulverização. Com modificações na abertura e/ou fechamento dos bicos na barra de pulverização, com a utilização de pontas de pulverização do tipo jato plano ou com a mistura de pontas do tipo jato cônico vazio de diferentes vazões foi possível obter configurações mais adequadas para aplicação de agrotóxicos em videira com taxas de aplicação entre 250 a 400L ha-1.Fine grape varieties are susceptible to a large number of diseases and its control is responsible for the largest production expenses. The agrochemical technology application has great addition importance in this process, to reduce the waste, contamination and resistance. This research had as objectives to evaluate the commonly nozzles configuration used and to propose other more appropriate to the application of agrochemicals with air assisted sprayer. Water sensitive papers were used to evaluate the coverage on 16 vineyard sampling points. Accumulation points and deficiency of spray coverage can be observed. It was possible to get more appropriate configuration opening or closing the spray boom nozzles, using flat fan nozzles or the mixture of hollow cone with different flow rates, for grapevine pesticide application taxes among 250 to 400L ha-1.

  3. Imobilização da lacase em micropartículas de quitosana obtidas por spray drying e usadas na construção de biossensores Immobilization of laccase in microparticles of chitosan obtained by spray drying and used in the biosensors construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Rosane Welter Zwirtes de Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosensors based on laccase immobilized on microparticles of chitosan crosslinked with tripolyphosphate (biosensor I and glyoxal (biosensor II obtained by spray drying for the determinations of rutin in pharmaceutical formulations were developed. Under optimized operational conditions (pH 4.0, frequency of 30 Hz, pulse amplitude of 40 mV and scan increment of 2.0 mV two analytical curves were obtained for both biosensors showing a detection limit of 6.2x10-8 mol L-1 for biosensor (I and 2.0x10-8 mol L-1 for biosensor (II. The recovery of rutin from pharmaceutical sample ranged from 90.7 to 105.0% and the lifetime of these biosensors were 4 months (at least 400 determinations.

  4. Microencapsulação do agente quelante sulfoxina em microesferas de quitosana preparadas por spray drying como novo adsorvente para íons metálicos Microencapsulation of the chelating agent sulfoxine into microspheres of chitosan prepared by spray drying as a new adsorbent for metalic ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Vitali

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a new adsorbent was prepared by microencapsulation of sulfoxine into chitosan microspheres by the spray drying technique. The new adsorbent was characterized by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and microanalysis of energy dispersive X-rays. The Cu(II adsorption was studied as a function of pH, time and concentration. The optimum pH was found to be 6.0. The kinetic and equilibrium data showed that the adsorption process followed the pseudo second-order kinetic model and the Langmuir isotherm model over the entire concentration range. An increase of 8.0% in the maximum adsorption capacity of the adsorbent (53.8 mg g-1 was observed as compared to chitosan glutaraldehyde cross-linked microspheres.

  5. Amanteigamento por aspersão térmica na soldagem em operação de dutos de pequena espessura: estabilidade e penetração do arco voltaico Buttering by thermal spraying in welding in-service repair of pipes with small thickness: arc stability and penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilceu Novicki

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho reúne resultados promissores sobre uma via alternativa de reparo em dutos e tubulações em operação com pequena espessura remanescente, envolvendo a recuperação prévia da parede do tubo por amanteigamento por processos de aspersão térmica. Avaliou-se a instabilidade apresentada pelo arco voltaico e alteração do perfil da zona fundida quando da deposição de solda por eletrodos revestidos sobre chapas de aço carbono previamente amanteigadas, com camadas de composição similar, pelos processos de aspersão térmica a chama e a arco-elétrico. Os resultados permitiram correlacionar a estabilidade do arco com o nível de oxidação das camadas aspergidas.( Medidas de temperatura do revestimento aspergido mostraram que, desde que o processo de aspersão ocorra de forma ininterrupta até a espessura final do revestimento, a temperatura superficial é crescente com a espessura do depósito, o que resulta num maior teor de óxidos, associado tanto à uma instabilidade do cordão como à uma maior penetração da poça fundida. Difratogramas de raios-X nas camadas aspergidas e análises do teor de oxigênio na zona fundida dos cordões de solda comprovaram a influência desse elemento na alteração do perfil da zona fundida. Como alternativa ao uso de ar comprimido, foi avaliada sua substituição pelo argônio como gás de arraste, verificando-se efeitos muito benéficos - redução significativa da penetração e boa estabilidade do arco voltaico - admite-se que advindos da redução da oxidação da camada aspergida pelo efeito protetor do gás inerte. A avaliação dos resultados permitiu estabelecer critérios de soldagem com menor risco de perfuração se comparados a uma condição sem revestimento prévio por aspersão térmica.This work brings promising results about an alternative way of welding in-service repair of pipes with low reminiscent thickness, which involves a previous buttering coating of the pipe wall by

  6. Influence of Maltodextrin and Spray Drying Process Conditions on Sugarcane Juice Powder Quality / Influencia de la Maltodextrina y Condiciones del Proceso de Secado por Aspersión en la Calidad del Polvo de Jugo de Caña Panelera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Largo Ávila

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Food powder liquid extracts obtained from fruits andvegetables can be manufactured using spray drying technologieswhile maintaining the quality attributes that are required by theindustrial sector. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectof maltodextrin and spray drying process conditions on sugarcanejuice powder. A central composite design was used with a responsesurface analysis of four factors: (A maltodextrin (10-20%, (Binlet air temperature (130-150 °C, (C outlet air temperature (75-85 °C and (D atomization speed (22,000–26,000 rpm. Moisture,hygroscopicity, solubility, effective recovery and formation ofdeposits on the walls presented significant differences (P<0.05with respect to all factors, while, for water activity, no statisticaldifferences were observed. The optimization of the factors foundfor the drying operating conditions were: (A 20%, (B 130 °C, (C75 °C and (D 22,000 rpm, respectively. / Resumen. Polvos alimentarios de extractos líquidos obtenidos apartir de frutas y vegetales pueden ser manufacturados usandotecnologías de secado por aspersión y mantener los atributosde calidad requeridos en el sector industrial. El objetivo de esteestudio fue evaluar el efecto de la adición de maltodextrina y lascondiciones de procesamiento por secado por aspersión en laobtención de polvo de jugo de caña. Un diseño central compuestoy análisis mediante superficies de respuesta con cuatro factoresestadísticos fue establecido: (A maltodextrina (10-20%, (Btemperatura del aire de secado a la entrada (130-150 °C, (Ctemperatura del aire a la salida (75-85 °C y (D velocidad deldisco atomizador (22.000–26.000 rpm. Los resultados mostraronque las variables contenido de humedad del producto, solubilidad,recuperación efectiva y formación de depósitos de sólidos en lapared del secador son estadísticamente significativos (P<0,05 conrespecto a los factores estudiados, mientras que la actividad deagua del producto

  7. Análisis de sistemas poliméricos por fluorescencia de rayos X con geometría de reflexión total

    OpenAIRE

    Vazquez, Cristina

    2003-01-01

    El principio que emplea la reflexión total del haz primario de rayos X en los análisis por fluorescencia es conocido desde el año 1971 a partir del trabajo publicado por Yoneda y Horiuchi. En geometría por reflexión total, el haz primario incide sobre la muestra preparada como filme delgado y depositado sobre una superficie ópticamente reflectora, con un ángulo inferior al ángulo crítico de reflexión total. En estas condiciones, la radiación primaria no penetra virtualmente en el soporte refl...

  8. INFLUENCIA DE LA NITRURACIÓN POR PLASMA SOBRE EL COMPORTAMIENTO A LA CORROSIÓN Y LA ADHESIÓN DE RECUBRIMIENTOS DLC SOBRE ACERO INOXIDABLE AISI 420

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge N. Pecina; Luis M. Lover; Eugenia L. Dalibon; Sonia P. Brühl

    2016-01-01

    En este trabajo se estudió el comportamiento a la corrosió n y la adhesión de dos rec ubrimientos DLC (“Diamond Like Carbon ”) , “Soft” y “Hard”, depositados por PACVD (“Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapour Deposition”) sobre acero AISI 420, templado y revenido y /o nitrurado por plasma . Se analizaron por espectroscopía Raman y midió dureza en superficie. Se observó la microestructura por OM y SEM. Se realizaron pruebas de adhesión con indentación Rockwell C . S e practica...

  9. Sea Spray Aerosols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butcher, Andrew Charles

    entrainment may account for the large discrepancy in energy input for the two systems. In the third study, the temperature dependence of sea spray aerosol production is probed with the use of a highly stable temperature controlled plunging jet. Similar to previous studies, particle production increases...... of a cloud condensation nuclei ounter. Proxy solutions with high inorganic salt concentrations and some organics produce sea spray aerosol particles with little change in cloud condensation activity relative to pure salts. Comparison is made between a frit based method for bubble production and a plunging...... a relationship between plunging jet particle ux, oceanic particle ux, and energy dissipation rate in both systems. Previous sea spray aerosol studies dissipate an order of magnitude more energy for the same particle ux production as the open ocean. A scaling factor related to the energy expended in air...

  10. Droplets and sprays

    CERN Document Server

    Sazhin, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    Providing a clear and systematic description of droplets and spray dynamic models, this book maximises reader insight into the underlying physics of the processes involved, outlines the development of new physical and mathematical models, and broadens understanding of interactions between the complex physical processes which take place in sprays. Complementing approaches based on the direct application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD), Droplets and Sprays treats both theoretical and practical aspects of internal combustion engine process such as the direct injection of liquid fuel, subcritical heating and evaporation. Includes case studies that illustrate the approaches relevance to automotive applications,  it is also anticipated that the described models can find use in other areas such as in medicine and environmental science.

  11. Sprayed concrete linings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindle, D.

    1999-12-01

    Sprayed concrete, or shotcrete, was invented in the 1920s for preserving dinosaur skeletons and was used underground initially in coalmines for the preservation and fine proofing of timber supports. Its use as a support lining in rock tunnelling was developed in the 1950s and 60s. The article surveys equipment available from major manufacturers and suppliers of concrete spraying equipment (Aliva, Cifa, GIA, Industri, Ingersoll Rand, etc.), specialist cement and additive manufacturers (Castle, Cement, Moria Carbotech). manufacturers of lattice girders and fibre reinforcement, and manufacturers of instrumentation for tunnel linings. 5 tabs., 9 photos.

  12. Thermal spray for commercial shipbuilding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, F. S.

    1997-09-01

    Thermal spraying of steel with aluminum to protect it from corrosion is a technology that has been proven to work in the marine environment. The thermal spray coating system includes a paint sealer that is applied over the thermally sprayed aluminum. This extends the service life of the coating and provides color to the end product. The thermal spray system protects steel both through the principle of isolation (as in painting) and galvanizing. With this dual protection mechanism, steel is protected from corrosion even when the coating is damaged. The thermal- sprayed aluminum coating system has proved the most cost- effective corrosion protection system for the marine environment. Until recently, however, the initial cost of application has limited its use for general application. Arc spray technology has reduced the application cost of thermal spraying of aluminum to below that of painting. Commercial shipbuilders could use this technology to enhance their market position in the marine industry.

  13. Improved Orifice Plate for Spray Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, W.

    1986-01-01

    Erratic spray pattern of commercial spray gun changed to repeatable one by simple redesign of two parts. In modified spray gun orifice plate and polytetrafluoroethylene bushing redesigned to assure centering and alignment with nozzle. Such improvement useful in many industrial applications requiring repeatable spray patterns. Might include spraying of foam insulation, paint, other protective coatings, detergents, abrasives, adhesives, process chemicals, or fuels. Unmodified spray gun produces erratic spray because lateral misalignment between orifice plate and nozzle.

  14. Iron based coatings deposited by arc thermal spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Patiño-Infante

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se estudió la resistencia al desgaste y la dureza de recubrimientos a base de hierro, aplicados mediante el método de proyección térmica por arco sobre sustratos en acero AISI-SAE 4340 a temperatura ambiente. Los recubrimientos se realizan con tres tipos diferentes de alambres Castolin Eutectic: 530AS, 560AS y 140MXC; depositados en forma de capas de un solo elemento y bicapas de tipo 530AS/140MXC y 560AS/140MXC, las cuales fueron depositadas con diferentes espesores. Los recubrimientos se caracterizaron mediante difracción de rayos X (DRX, espectroscopia de rayos X de energía dispersiva (EDS, se determinó su nano dureza y se determinó su resistencia al desgaste mediante la técnica de Pin on Disk. Los recubrimientos obtenidos son altamente inhomogéneos, el mejor comportamiento frente al desgaste se encontró en las capas de material 140 MXC y en las bicapas 530AS/140MXC y 560AS/140MXC y fue independiente en general del número de capas aplicadas.

  15. Análisis de la degradación de recubrimientos de barrera térmica por espectroscopía de impedancia electroquímica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez-García, J.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This investigation correlates the microstructure of a thermal barrier coating, analysed through scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis, with the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy data which show the variation in electrical properties after isothermal oxidation. A thermal barrier coating comprising a ceramic top layer, ZrO2 8Y2O3 (weight %, and an overlay coating, Ni 22Cr 10Al 1Y (weight %, air plasma sprayed over a nickel base alloy In 600 substrate was studied. These materials were heat treated in air at 1050 ºC for 72, 144 y 336 h. A thermally grown oxide layer, mainly comprising Cr y Al oxides, was formed between the ceramic and the overlay coating. This layer modified the electrical response of the thermal barrier coating in the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy tests.

    Este trabajo correlaciona la microestructura de un recubrimiento de barrera térmica, estudiada mediante microscopía electrónica de barrido y microanálisis de rayos X, con los resultados obtenidos mediante espectroscopía de impedancia electroquímica que muestran la variación de sus propiedades eléctricas tras un proceso de oxidación isoterma. El sistema estudiado está formado por una capa cerámica, ZrO2 8Y2O3 (% en masa, y un anclaje metálico, Ni 22Cr 10Al 1Y (% en masa, depositados ambos por proyección térmica asistida por plasma sobre un sustrato de aleación base níquel In 600. Estos recubrimientos se oxidaron isotérmicamente en aire a 1050 ºC durante 72, 144 y 336 h. Se formó una capa intermedia de óxidos (“thermally grown oxides”, TGO entre el anclaje metálico y el recubrimiento cerámico formada por una mezcla de óxidos de Cr y Al que se tradujo en la variación de los parámetros característicos de la impedancia de la barrera térmica.

  16. Sea Spray Aerosols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butcher, Andrew Charles

    emissions produced directly from bubble bursting as the result of air entrainment from breaking waves and particles generated from secondary emissions of volatile organic compounds. In the first paper, we study the chemical properties of particles produced from several sea water proxies with the use...... of a cloud condensation nuclei ounter. Proxy solutions with high inorganic salt concentrations and some organics produce sea spray aerosol particles with little change in cloud condensation activity relative to pure salts. Comparison is made between a frit based method for bubble production and a plunging...... a relationship between plunging jet particle ux, oceanic particle ux, and energy dissipation rate in both systems. Previous sea spray aerosol studies dissipate an order of magnitude more energy for the same particle ux production as the open ocean. A scaling factor related to the energy expended in air...

  17. Flame spraying of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varacalle, D.J. Jr.; Zeek, D.P.; Couch, K.W.; Benson, D.M.; Kirk, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    Statistical design-of-experiment studies of the thermal spraying of polymer powders are presented. Studies of the subsonic combustion (i.e., Flame) process were conducted in order to determine the quality and economics of polyester and urethane coatings. Thermally sprayed polymer coatings are of interest to several industries for anticorrosion applications, including the chemical, automotive, and aircraft industries. In this study, the coating design has been optimized for a site-specific application using Taguchi-type fractional-factorial experiments. Optimized coating designs are presented for the two powder systems. A substantial range of thermal processing conditions and their effect on the resultant polymer coatings is presented. The coatings were characterized by optical metallography, hardness testing, tensile testing, and compositional analysis. Characterization of the coatings yielded the thickness, bond strength, Knoop microhardness, roughness, deposition efficiency, and porosity. Confirmation testing was accomplished to verify the coating designs

  18. Numerical modelling of fuel sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, C.

    1999-06-01

    The way the fuel is introduced into the combustion chamber is one of the most important parameters for the power output and the generation of emissions in the combustion of liquid fuels. The interaction between the turbulent gas flow field and the liquid fuel droplets, the vaporisation of them and the mixing of the gaseous fuel with the ambient air that are vital parameters in the combustion process. The use of numerical calculations is an important tool to better understand these complex interacting phenomena. This thesis reports on the numerical modelling of fuel sprays in non-reacting cases using an own developed spray module. The spray module uses the stochastic parcel method to represent the spray. The module was made in such manner that it could by coupled with different gas flow solver. Results obtained from four different gas flow solvers are presented in the thesis, including the use of two different kinds of turbulence models. In the first part the spray module is coupled with a k-{eta} based 2-D cylindrical gas flow solver. A thorough sensitivity analysis was performed on the spray and gas flow solver parameters, such as grid size dependence and sensitivity to initial values of k-{eta}. The results of the spray module were also compared to results from other spray codes, e.g. the well known KIVA code. In the second part of this thesis the spray was injected into a turbulent and fully developed crossflow studied. The spray module was attached to a LES (Large Eddy Simulation) based flow solvers enabling the study of the complex structures and time dependent phenomena involved in spray in crossflows. It was found that the spray performs an oscillatory motion and that the Strouhal number in the wake was about 0.1. Different spray breakup models were evaluated by comparing with experimental results 66 refs, 56 figs

  19. Kelvin spray ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Abdil; Lin, Jung-Lee; Gillig, Kent J; Chen, Chung-Hsuan

    2013-11-21

    A novel self-powered dual spray ionization source has been developed for applications in mass spectrometry. This new source does not use any power supply and produces both positive and negative ions simultaneously. The idea behind this ionization source comes from the Kelvin water dropper. The source employs one or two syringes, two pneumatic sprays operated over a range of flow rates (0.15-15 μL min(-1)) and gas pressures (0-150 psi), and two double layered metal screens for ion formation. A variable electrostatic potential from 0 to 4 kV can be produced depending on solvent and gas flow rates that allow gentle ionization of compounds. There are several parameters that affect the performance during ionization of molecules including the flow rate of solvent, gas pressure, solvent acidity, position of spray and metal screens with respect to each other and distance between metal screens and the counter electrode. This ionization method has been successfully applied to solutions of peptides, proteins and non-covalent complexes. In comparison with ESI, the charge number of the most populated state is lower than that from ESI. It indicates that this is a softer ionization technique and it produces more protein ions with folded structures. The unique features of Kelvin spray ionization (KeSI) are that the method is self-powered and ionization occurs at very low potentials by providing very low internal energy to the ions. This advantage can be used for the ionization of very fragile molecules and investigation of non-covalent interactions.

  20. Effect of microstructure and microhardness on the wear resistance of zirconia-alumina, zirconia-yttria and zirconia-ceria coatings manufactured by atmospheric plasma spraying; fecto de la microestructura y de la microdureza sobre la resistencia al desgaste de recubrimientos elaborados por proyeccion termica por plasma atmosferico a partir de circona-alumina, circona-itria y circona-ceria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovanni Gonzalez, A.; Ageorges, H.; Rojas, O.; Lopez, E.; Milena Hurtado, F.; Vargas, F.

    2015-10-01

    The effect of the structure and microhardness on the wear resistance of zirconia-alumina (ATZ), zirconia-yttria (YSZ) and zirconia-ceria (CSZ) coatings manufactured by atmospheric plasma spraying was studied. The microstructure and the fracture on the cross section of the coatings were analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscopy, the phases were identified using X-Ray Diffraction, the microhardness was measured by Vickers indentation and the wear resistance was evaluated by ball on disc test. The results showed that zirconia-alumina coating exhibits the best performance in the wear test. This behavior is closely related to their microstructure and higher microhardness, despite of its significant quantity of the monoclinic zirconia phase, which has lower mechanical properties than tetragonal zirconia phase. Tetragonal zirconia phase was predominant in the zirconia-yttria and zirconia-ceria coatings and despite this behavior; they did not have a good performance in the wear tests. This low wear resistance was mainly influenced by the columnar structure within their lamellae, which caused a greater detachment of particles in the contact surface during the ball-disc tests, increasing its wear. (Author)

  1. Wear resistance of Fe-Nb-Cr-W, Nb, AISI 1020 and AISI 420 coatings produced by thermal spray wire arc; Resistencia al desgaste de recubrimientos Fe-Nb-Cr-W, Nb, AISI 1020 y AISI 420 producidos por proyeccion termica por arco electrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Covaleda, E. A.; Mercado-Veladia, J. L.; Olaya-Florez, J. J.

    2013-07-01

    The commercial materials 140MXC (with iron, tungsten, chrome, niobium), 530AS (AISI 1015 steel) and 560AS (AISI 420 steel) on AISI 4340 steel were deposited using thermal spray with arc. The aim of work was to evaluate the best strategy abrasive wear resistance of the system coating-substrate using the following combinations: (1) homogeneous coatings and (2) coatings depositing simultaneously 140MXC + 530AS and 140MXC + 560AS. The coatings microstructure was characterized using Optical microscopy, Scanning electron microscopy and Laser con focal microscopy. The wear resistance was evaluated through dry sand rubber wheel test (DSRW). We found that the wear resistance depends on the quantity of defects and the mechanical properties like hardness. For example, the softer coatings have the biggest wear rates and the failure mode was characterized by plastic deformation caused by particles indentation, and the other hand the failure mode at the harder materials was grooving. The details and wear mechanism of the coatings produced are described in this investigation. (Author)

  2. Comportamiento de corrosión-erosión en recubrimientos de NbN depositados mediante sputtering magnetrón Erosion-corrosion behavior of magnetron sputtered NbN films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Cáceres

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available En la nueva generación de recubrimientos de uso industrial se incluye el nitruro de niobio (NbN debido a sus propiedades fisicoquímicas tales como: alta conductividad eléctrica, buenas propiedades mecánicas, alto punto de fusión e inercia química y además por ser un superconductor con temperatura crítica de 16 K. En este trabajo se reporta el efecto del sinergismo corrosión y erosión sobre recubrimientos de NbN depositados sobre acero inoxidable 304 y silicio usando los sistemas de sputtering con magnetrón balanceado y desbalanceado. Los experimentos de erosión-corrosión se estudiaron en un sistema que varió la velocidad y el ángulo de impacto de las partículas de erosión. Para ello se utilizó un lodo de partículas de SiO2 en una solución de 0,5M de H2SO4 + 3,5% NaCl y una concentración de 30% en peso de partículas de SiO2. La microestructura, morfología y composición química de las películas fueron analizadas con difracción de rayos X (DRX, microscopía electrónica de barrido (MEB y espectroscopia de fotoelectrones generados por rayos X (EFRX, respectivamente. Los resultados muestran que la resistencia a la erosión-corrosión de los recubiertos de NbN fue superior al sustrato y los mecanismos de desgaste sobre el recubrimiento dependen del ángulo de impacto y la velocidad de las partículas de erosión. Posibles razones de este comportamiento son discutidas en este trabajo.New generation PVD coatings for industrial applications include the niobium nitride (NbN due to its excellent properties such as high chemical inertness, excellent mechanical properties, high electrical conductivity, high melting point, and a superconducting transition temperature around 16 K. In this work we reported the results the study of corrosion and erosion effect on niobium nitride coatings deposited on AISI304 stainless steel using unbalanced and balanced magnetron sputtering and then it were compared to the uncoated tool steel substrate

  3. Degradación de barreras térmicas por sales fundidas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utrilla, M. V.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Thermal barrier coatings (TBC are frequently used to provide thermal insulation to metallic components. The material used in this investigation comprises a ceramic top layer, ZrO2 8Y2O3 (Y-PSZ, and an overlay coating, Ni22Cr10Al1Y, air plasma sprayed on to a nickel base alloy Inconel 600 substrate. Yttria stabilizes the cubic phase zirconia, but it can react with S, V and Na contaminants contained in many low-quality industrial fuels. A decrease in the yttria content promotes the transformation to monoclinic ZrO2. The materials were subjected to an isothermal air furnace test under 40% Na2SO4 - 60% V2O5 mixtures at 800 ºC for 48 and 144h. The degradation of the coating was analyzed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. The microstructure was characterized by enviromental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM, X-ray microanalysis (EDX and x ray diffracction (XRD.

    Las barreras térmicas son sistemas multicapa que se aplican a sustratos metálicos para mejorar su resistencia a la temperatura. El material utilizado en el trabajo es un sustrato base níquel (Inconel 600 con recubrimiento multicapa de NiCrAlY y ZrO2 parcialmente estabilizada con Y2O3 (Y-PSZ depositado por plasma atmosférico. La presencia de contaminantes, como S, V o Na presentes en combustibles de baja calidad, puede dar lugar a reacciones con este óxido estabilizador de la circona (Y2O3, originando una desestabilización estructural de la circona por disminución del contenido en itria. En esta comunicación se ha realizado un estudio sistemático de la degradación del material frente a determinados agentes corrosivos a elevada temperatura. Sobre la superficie de las muestras se añadieron mezclas de 40% Na2SO4-60% V2O5 y se trataron isotérmicamente a 800 ºC durante 48 y 144 horas. Finalmente, se evaluó la modificación de las propiedades por efecto de los agentes agresivos. Mediante la técnica de espectroscopía de impedancia electroquímica (EIS se estimó la

  4. Microplasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, Arjun

    2015-01-01

    ""This unique book on development of microplasma sprayed HAp coating has been organized in a very compact yet comprehensive manner. This book also highlights the horizons of future research that invites the attention of global community, particularly those in bio-medical materials and bio-medical engineering field. This book will surely act as a very useful reference material for both graduate/post-graduate students and researchers in the field of biomedical, orthopedic and manufacturing engineering and research. I truly believ that this is the first ever effort which covers almost all the

  5. Catálogo de tipos de algas depositados en el Herbario Nacional de Plantas Celulares (BA del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia”, Argentina Catalogue of algae types deposited in the National Cryptogamic Herbarium (BA of the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia”, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Coradeghini

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El Herbario Nacional de Plantas Celulares (BA alberga 50.000 especímenes, de los cuales 9.000 son ejemplares de algas marinas y continentales. El catálogo consta de 11 tipos argentinos y 20 tipos del exterior: Australia y Brasil. Cinco de los tipos argentinos fueron depositados por la Lic. Carmen Pujals quién se desempeñó como investigadora de este Museo. El trabajo incluye la lista de nombres ordenados alfabéticamente, sus autores, fecha y cita original seguido por la categoría del tipo, país, provincia, localidad, fecha y datos del colector. De existir una Exsiccata se señalan nombre y número de la misma, número de BA y las observaciones y notas consideradas relevantes. En el caso que corresponde se anota sinonimia y autores.The National Cryptogamic Herbarium (BA contains 50.000 specimens, of which 9.000 are continental and marine algae. The catalogue consists of 11 argentine types and 20 foreign types from Australia and Brazil. Five of the argentine types were deposited by Lic. Carmen Pujals, a former researcher at the Museum. The paper includes the alphabetically ordered list of names, their authors, date and original citation, followed by the type category, country, province, city, date and collector number and original citation. If there is an Exsiccata the name, number, number of BA, observations and relevant notes are reported. When necessary, synonymy and authors are given.

  6. Characteristics of intermittent fuel sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, B.; Gulari, E.; Henein, N. A.

    1992-03-01

    The spray-tip penetrations and the drop sizes of intermittent fuel sprays were measured by using a modified pulsed optical spray sizer. The average spray tip speeds were determined from simultaneously recorded needle lift signals and obscuration traces. The speeds of a sequence of fuel pulses injected at about 1000 Hz were analyzed to elucidate penetration mechanisms. A correlation that relates penetration distance to time, pressure drop across the nozzle, fuel density, and ambient gas density was obtained. The temporal variations of drop size in penetrating pulses of sprays were measured. The concentration of drops were calculated by combining drop size and obscuration data. The Sauter mean diameter of penetrating fuel drops increased with an increase of the chamber pressure and decreased with an increase of the injection pressure.

  7. Modificações superficiais de aço Ti-UBC por processos a plasma em configuração triodo: influência no comportamento ao desgaste e à corrosão

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Alberto Llanes Leyva

    2011-01-01

    Os aços Ultra Baixo Carbono (UBC) têm baixo limite de escoamento e excelente conformabilidade. A Deposição Física de Vapor Assistida por Plasma (PAPVD) pode ser um método de recobrimento para melhorar as propriedades superficiais de resistência mecânica, à corrosão e ao desgaste de ligas de baixa resistência (MATTHEWS, 1995). Porém, quando depositados sobre substratos de baixa resistência mecânica os recobrimentos duros PAPVD podem sofrer falha prematura se o substrato deformar sob carga. Um ...

  8. Developing a dispersant spraying capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, S.D.

    1979-01-01

    In developing a national dispersant spraying capability, the Canadian Coast Guard (CCG) has undertaken a modification program to enable the conventional offshore spraying gear to be mounted on almost any vessel of convenience. Smaller, more versatile inshore spraying vessels and pumps have been designed and built. With the popularization of concentrated dispersants, the inshore pumping equipment can be used aboard hovercraft for special application situations. A program of acquiring mobile dispersant storage tanks has been undertaken with auxiliary equipment that will facilitate the shipment of dispersants in bulk by air freight. Work also has commenced on extending the dispersant application program to include the CCG fleet of helicopters.

  9. Estudio del sinterizado de materiales compuestos de plástico reciclado y madera recuperada mediante moldeo por compresión

    OpenAIRE

    Brañez Haro, Luz Elena

    2016-01-01

    En las últimas décadas, la industria de los plásticos ha crecido considerablemente con el uso de materiales, tales como el polipropileno y polietileno en la innovación de diversos productos en sectores del envasado, construcción y automovilístico. No obstante, el manejo de los desechos plásticos aún sigue siendo una problemática mundial; ya que, existe un porcentaje de éstos que son depositados en vertederos. Por tanto, la disminución de la contaminación ambiental se ha convert...

  10. Absorption/desorption in sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naimpally, A.

    1987-01-01

    This survey paper shall seek to present the present state of knowledge concerning absorption and desorption in spray chambers. The first part of the paper presents the theories and formulas for the atomization and break-up of sprays in nozzles. Formulas for the average (sauter-mean) diameters are then presented. For the case of absorption processes, the formulas for the dimensionless mass transfer coefficients is in drops. The total; mass transfer is the total of the transfer in individual drops. For the case of desorption of sparingly soluble gases from liquids in a spray chamber, the mass transfer occurs in the spray just at the point of break-up of the jet. Formulas for the desorption of gases are presented

  11. SPRAY CALCINATION REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B.M.

    1963-08-20

    A spray calcination reactor for calcining reprocessin- g waste solutions is described. Coaxial within the outer shell of the reactor is a shorter inner shell having heated walls and with open regions above and below. When the solution is sprayed into the irner shell droplets are entrained by a current of gas that moves downwardly within the inner shell and upwardly between it and the outer shell, and while thus being circulated the droplets are calcined to solids, whlch drop to the bottom without being deposited on the walls. (AEC) H03 H0233412 The average molecular weights of four diallyl phthalate polymer samples extruded from the experimental rheometer were redetermined using the vapor phase osmometer. An amine curing agent is required for obtaining suitable silver- filled epoxy-bonded conductive adhesives. When the curing agent was modified with a 47% polyurethane resin, its effectiveness was hampered. Neither silver nor nickel filler impart a high electrical conductivity to Adiprenebased adhesives. Silver filler was found to perform well in Dow-Corning A-4000 adhesive. Two cascaded hot-wire columns are being used to remove heavy gaseous impurities from methane. This purified gas is being enriched in the concentric tube unit to approximately 20% carbon-13. Studies to count low-level krypton-85 in xenon are continuing. The parameters of the counting technique are being determined. The bismuth isotopes produced in bismuth irradiated for polonium production are being determined. Preliminary data indicate the presence of bismuth207 and bismuth-210m. The light bismuth isotopes are probably produced by (n,xn) reactions bismuth-209. The separation of uranium-234 from plutonium-238 solutions was demonstrated. The bulk of the plutonium is removed by anion exchange, and the remainder is extracted from the uranium by solvent extraction techniques. About 99% of the plutonium can be removed in each thenoyltrifluoroacetone extraction. The viscosity, liquid density, and

  12. Miniature paint-spray gun for recessed areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanasse, M. A.

    1968-01-01

    Miniature spray gun regulates paints and other liquids to spray at close range, facilitating spraying of remote or recessed areas. Individual valves for regulating air pressure and paint maximizes atomization for low pressure spraying.

  13. Spray coated nanosilver functional layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzemiński, J.; Szałapak, J.; Dybowska-Sarapuk, L.; Jakubowska, M.

    2016-09-01

    Silver coatings are highly conductive functional layers. There are many different ways to product the silver coating but most of them need vacuum or high temperature. Spray coating is a technique that is free of this disadvantages - it doesn't need a cleanroom or high temperature. What's more the layer thickness is about 10 μm. In this article the spray coating process of silver nanolayer is described. Four different inks were tested and measured. The layer resistance was measured and show as a graph. After the layer resistance was measured the adhesion test was performed. The pull-off test was performed on testing machine with special self made module. To conclude the article include the test and measurements of spray coated nanosilver functional layers. The layers was examined for the current conductivity and adhesion force.

  14. Nasal Sprays: How to Use Them Correctly

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sprays the correct way can take some practice. Path to improved health Prescription nasal sprays come in ... thumb at the bottom and your index and middle fingers on top. Insert the canister tip in ...

  15. Center for Cold Spray Research and Development

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This is the only DoD facility capable of cold spray research and development, production, and field-repair. It features three stationary cold spray systems used for...

  16. Spray casting project final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churnetski, S.R.; Thompson, J.E.

    1996-08-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), along with other participating organizations, has been exploring the feasibility of spray casting depleted uranium (DU) to near-net shape as a waste minimization effort. Although this technology would be useful in a variety of applications where DU was the material of choice, this effort was aimed primarily at gamma-shielding components for use in storage and transportation canisters for high-level radioactive waste, particularly in the Multipurpose Canister (MPC) application. In addition to the waste-minimization benefits, spray casting would simplify the manufacturing process by allowing the shielding components for MPC to be produced as a single component, as opposed to multiple components with many fabrication and assembly steps. In earlier experiments, surrogate materials were used to simulate the properties (specifically reactivity and density) of DU. Based on the positive results from those studies, the project participants decided that further evaluation of the issues and concerns that would accompany spraying DU was warranted. That evaluation occupied substantially all of Fiscal Year 1995, yielding conceptual designs for both an intermediate facility and a production facility and their associated engineering estimates. An intermediate facility was included in this study to allow further technology development in spraying DU. Although spraying DU to near-net shape seems to be feasible, a number of technical, engineering, and safety issues would need to be evaluated before proceeding with a production facility. This report is intended to document the results from the spray-casting project and to provide information needed by anyone interested in proceeding to the next step

  17. Diesel spray characterization; Dieselmoottorin polttoainesuihkujen ominaisuudet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitkaenen, J.; Turunen, R.; Paloposki, T.; Rantanen, P.; Virolainen, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Internal Combustion Engine Lab.

    1997-10-01

    Fuel injection of diesel engines will be studied using large-scale models of fuel injectors. The advantage of large-scale models is that the measurement of large-scale diesel sprays will be easier than the measurement of actual sprays. The objective is to study the break-up mechanism of diesel sprays and to measure drop size distributions in the inner part of the spray. The results will be used in the development of diesel engines and diesel fuels. (orig.)

  18. "Teaching" an Industrial Robot To Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, A. R.; Sweet, G. K.

    1982-01-01

    Teaching device, consisting of spacer rod or tube with three-pointed tip and line level, is used during pattern "teach-in" to make sure that robot manipulator holds spray gun perpendicular to surface to be sprayed and at right distance from it. For slanted surfaces angle adapter is added between spacer rod and line-level indicator. Angle is determined by slope of surface to be sprayed, thus allowing a perpendicular spray pattern against even slanted surfaces.

  19. Influence of the spray velocity on arc-sprayed coating structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, H.-D.; Nassenstein, K.

    1999-09-01

    Thermal spray processes such as plasma spraying and HVOF have gained markets due to a steady process of development of materials and equipment. One disadvantage of thermal spray processes is that costs must be competitive compared to techniques such as PTA and electroplating. In order to reduce costs, the more economical spray processes like conventional wire flame spraying, as well as arc spraying, are becoming more popular. There are modern arc spray gun designs on the market that meet the requirements of modern coating properties, for example aviation overhaul applications as well as the processing of cored wires. Nevertheless, the physical basis of arc spraying is well known. The aim of the present investigation is to show how the influence of spray velocity (not particle velocity) affects coating structure with respect to arc spray parameters.

  20. 14 CFR 23.239 - Spray characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spray characteristics. 23.239 Section 23.239 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Handling Characteristics § 23.239 Spray characteristics. Spray may not dangerously obscure the vision of...

  1. 14 CFR 29.239 - Spray characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spray characteristics. 29.239 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Ground and Water Handling Characteristics § 29.239 Spray characteristics. If certification for water operation is requested, no spray characteristics...

  2. 14 CFR 27.239 - Spray characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spray characteristics. 27.239 Section 27... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Ground and Water Handling Characteristics § 27.239 Spray characteristics. If certification for water operation is requested, no spray characteristics...

  3. Albendazole Microparticles Prepared by Spray Drying Technique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To enhance the dissolution of albendazole (ABZ) using spray-drying technique. Method: ABZ binary mixtures with Kollicoat IR® (KL) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) in various drug to polymer ratios (1: 1, 1: 2 and 1; 4) were prepared by spray-drying. The spray-dried particles were characterized for particle shape, ...

  4. Relación microestructura resistencia al desgaste de recubrimientos duros ricos en cromo y tungsteno aplicados por soldadura electrica (SMAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisys Margarita León Sevilla

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Se comparó la microestructura y resistencia a la abrasión de recubrimientos duros depositados por soldadura sobre placas de acero estructural ASTM A36. Se utilizaron cinco electrodos comerciales, dos de bajo cromo, dos de alto cromo aplicados en una y dos capas y uno rico en tungsteno depositado en una capa La resistencia al desgaste fue evaluada en una máquina de rueda de caucho y arena seca construida según la norma ASTM G65-80. Como material abrasivo se utilizaron partículas de sílice con índice de finura AFS 50- 70. La caracterización de las microestructuras se realizó utilizando microscopía óptica y electrónica de barrido. Los resultados mostraron que el parámetro de resistencia a la abrasión no está directamente relacionado con dureza del material pero sí con el tipo, tamaño, forma, composición química y distribución de los carburos presentes en la matriz del recubrimiento. La mejor resistencia a la abrasión se obtuvo en depósitos con microestructura compuesta por carburos primarios (del tipo M7C3 en recubrimientos ricos en Cr o del tipo MC, M6C en recubrimientos ricos en W en una matriz eutéctica.

  5. Spray solidification of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, W.F.; Blair, H.T.; Romero, L.S.

    1976-08-01

    The spray calciner is a relatively simple machine. Operation is simple and is easily automated. Startup and shutdown can be performed in less than an hour. A wide variety of waste compositions and concentrations can be calcined under easily maintainable conditions. Spray calcination of high-level and mixed high- and intermediate-level liquid wastes has been demonstrated. Waste concentrations of from near infinite dilution to less than 225 liters per tonne of fuel are calcinable. Wastes have been calcined containing over 2M sodium. Feed concentration, composition, and flowrate can vary rapidly by over a factor of two without requiring operator action. Wastes containing mainly sodium cations can be spray calcined by addition of finely divided silica to the feedstock. A remotely replaceable atomizing nozzle has been developed for use in plant-scale equipment. Calciner capacity of over 75 l/h has been demonstrated in pilot-scale equipment. Sintered stainless steel filters are effective in deentraining over 99.9 percent of the solids that result from calcining the feedstock. The volume of recycle required from the effluent treatment system is very small. Vibrator action maintains the calcine holdup in the calciner at less than 1 kg. Successful remote operation and maintenance of a heated-wall spray calciner have been demonstrated while processing high-level waste. Radionuclide volatilization was acceptably low

  6. Transdermal Spray in Hormone Delivery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and adverse effects and maximum efficacy as well as patients' compliance [1]. Transdermal dosage forms are .... learning and memory in healthy postmenopausal women stabilized on estrogen, over 26 weeks. When the ... forearm instead until the areolae were the same color again and then applied 1 spray to each forearm ...

  7. No Heat Spray Drying Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beetz, Charles [ZoomEssence, Inc., Hebron, KY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    No Heat Spray Drying Technology. ZoomEssence has developed our Zooming™ spray drying technology that atomizes liquids to powders at ambient temperature. The process of drying a liquid into a powder form has been traditionally achieved by mixing a heated gas with an atomized (sprayed) fluid within a vessel (drying chamber) causing the solvent to evaporate. The predominant spray drying process in use today employs air heated up to 400° Fahrenheit to dry an atomized liquid into a powder. Exposing sensitive, volatile liquid ingredients to high temperature causes molecular degradation that negatively impacts solubility, stability and profile of the powder. In short, heat is detrimental to many liquid ingredients. The completed award focused on several areas in order to advance the prototype dryer to a commercial scale integrated pilot system. Prior to the award, ZoomEssence had developed a prototype ‘no-heat’ dryer that firmly established the feasibility of the Zooming™ process. The award focused on three primary areas to improve the technology: (1) improved ability to formulate emulsions for specific flavor groups and improved understanding of the relationship of emulsion properties to final dry particle properties, (2) a new production atomizer, and (3) a dryer controls system.

  8. The nano spray dryer B-90.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Desmond; Lee, Sie Huey; Ng, Wai Kiong; Tan, Reginald B H

    2011-07-01

    Spray drying is an extremely well-established technology for the production of micro-particulate powders suited for a variety of drug delivery applications. In recent years, the rise in nanomedicine has placed increased pressure on the existing systems to produce nanoparticles in good yield and with a narrow size distribution. However, the separation and collection of nanoparticles with conventional spray dryer set ups is extremely challenging due to their typical low collection efficiency for fine particles spray drying technology is provided in this review with particular emphasis on the novel Buchi® Nano Spray Dryer B-90. Readers will appreciate the limitations of conventional spray drying technology, understand the mechanisms of the Buchi® Nano Spray Dryer B-90, and also learn about the strengths and shortcomings of the system. The Buchi® Nano Spray Dryer B-90 offers a new, simple and alternative approach for the production of nanoparticles suited for a variety of drug delivery applications.

  9. Microstructure and electrical properties of bismuth and bismuth oxide deposited by magnetron sputtering UBM; Microestructura y propiedades electricas de bismuto y oxido de bismuto depositados por magnetron sputtering UBM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otalora B, D. M.; Dussan, A. [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Departamento de Fisica, Grupo de Materiales Nanoestructurados y sus Aplicaciones, Carrera 30 No. 45-03, 111321 Bogota (Colombia); Olaya F, J. J., E-mail: jjolayaf@unal.edu.co [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica y Mecatronica, Carrera 30 No. 45-03, 111321 Bogota (Colombia)

    2015-07-01

    In this work, bismuth (Bi) and bismuth oxide (Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}) thin films were prepared, at room temperature, by Sputtering Unbalanced Magnetron (UBM - Unbalance Magnetron) technique under glass substrates. Microstructural and electrical properties of the samples were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and System for Measuring Physical Properties - PPMS (Physical Property Measurement System). Dark resistivity of the material was measured for a temperature range between 100 and 400 K. From the XRD measurements it was observed a polycrystalline character of the Bi associated to the presence of phases above the main peak, 2θ = 26.42 grades and a growth governed by a rhombohedral structure. Crystal parameters were obtained for both compounds, Bi and Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}. From the analysis of the spectra of the conductivity as a function of temperature, it was established that the transport mechanism that governs the region of high temperature (T>300 K) is thermally activated carriers. From conductivity measurements the activation energies were obtained of 0.0094 eV and 0.015 eV for Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Bi, respectively. (Author)

  10. Carbon thin films deposited by the magnetron sputtering technique using cobalt, copper and nickel as buffer-layers; Filmes finos de carbono depositados por meio da tecnica de magnetron sputtering usando cobalto, cobre e niquel como buffer-layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa e Silva, Danilo Lopes

    2015-11-01

    In this work, carbon thin films were produced by the magnetron sputtering technique using single crystal substrates of alumina c-plane (0001) and Si (111) and Si (100) substrates, employing Co, Ni and Cu as intermediate films (buffer-layers). The depositions were conducted in three stages, first with cobalt buffer-layers where only after the production of a large number of samples, the depositions using cooper buffer-layers were carried out on Si substrates. Then, depositions were performed with nickel buffer layers using single-crystal alumina substrates. The crystallinity of the carbon films was evaluated by using the technique of Raman spectroscopy and, then, by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The morphological characterization of the films was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and FEG-SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The XRD peaks related to the carbon films were observed only in the results of the samples with cobalt and nickel buffer-layers. The Raman spectroscopy showed that the carbon films with the best degree of crystallinity were the ones produced with Si (111) substrates, for the Cu buffers, and sapphire substrates for the Ni and Co buffers, where the latter resulted in a sample with the best crystallinity of all the ones produced in this work. It was observed that the cobalt has low recovering over the alumina substrates when compared to the nickel. Sorption tests of Ce ions by the carbon films were conducted in two samples and it was observed that the sorption did not occur probably because of the low crystallinity of the carbon films in both samples. (author)

  11. Study on Advanced Spray-Guided Gasoline Direct Injection Systems

    OpenAIRE

    VAQUERIZO SÁNCHEZ, DANIEL

    2018-01-01

    Resumen Los sistemas de inyección directa han sido uno de los principales puntos focales de la investigación en motores, particularmente en sistemas Diésel, donde la geometría interna, movimiento de aguja y comportamiento del flujo afectan el spray externo y por tanto determinan completamente el proceso de combustión dentro del motor. Debido a regulaciones medioambientales y al potencial de los (más ineficientes) motores "Otto", grandes esfuerzos se están aportando en inv...

  12. Development of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}|Cu composite as AISI 1020 steel thermal spray coating for protection against corrosion by soil in buried structures; Desenvolvimento e uso do composito de Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}|Cu como revestimento aplicado por aspersao termica sobre o aco AISI 1020 para protecao contra a corrosao pelo solo em estruturas enterradas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regis Junior, Oscar [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana, Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Mecanica; Silva, Jose Maurilio da; Portella, Kleber Franke [Instituto de Tecnologia para o Desenvolvimento, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Pesquisa em Engenharia Civil; Paredes, Ramon Sigifredo Cortes, E-mail: regis@utfpr.edu.br [Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Mecanica

    2012-07-01

    An Nb{sub 2}O|Cu corrosion-resistant coating was developed and applied onto AISI 1020 steel substrate by Powder Flame Spray. A galvanostatic electrochemical technique was employed, with and without ohmic drop, in four different soils (two corrosively aggressive and two less aggressive). Behavior of coatings in different soils was compared using a cathodic hydrogen reduction reaction (equilibrium potential, overvoltage and exchange current density) focusing on the effect of ohmic drop. Results allow recommendation of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}|Cu composite for use in buried structure protection. (author)

  13. Sprays and Cartan projective connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, D. J.

    2004-10-01

    Around 80 years ago, several authors (for instance H. Weyl, T.Y. Thomas, J. Douglas and J.H.C. Whitehead) studied the projective geometry of paths, using the methods of tensor calculus. The principal object of study was a spray, namely a homogeneous second-order differential equation, or more generally a projective equivalence class of sprays. At around the same time, E. Cartan studied the same topic from a different point of view, by imagining a projective space attached to a manifold, or, more generally, attached to a `manifold of elements'; the infinitesimal `glue' may be interpreted in modern language as a Cartan projective connection on a principal bundle. This paper describes the geometrical relationship between these two points of view.

  14. Visible emission from Er-doped SnO2 thin films deposited by sol-gel Emissão no visível de filmes finos, depositados via sol-gel, de SnO2 dopados com Er

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Ravaro

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Emission from Er-doped SnO2 thin film deposited via sol-gel by the dip coating technique is obtained in the range 500-700 nm with peak at 530 nm (green. Electron-hole generation in the tin dioxide matrix is used to promote the rare-earth ion excitation. Evaluation of crystallite dimensions through X-ray diffraction results leads to nanoscopic size, what could play a relevant role in the emission spectra. The electron-hole mechanism is also responsible for the excitation of the transition in the 1540 nm range in powders obtained from the same precursor solution of films. The thin film matrix presents a very useful shape for technological application, since it allows integration in optical devices and the application of electric fields to operate electroluminescent devices.Foi obtida emissão de filmes finos de SnO2 dopados com Er no intervalo 500-700 nm, com pico em 530 nm (verde. Esses filmes foram depositados pela técnica de molhamento via sol-gel. A geração de pares elétron-buraco na matriz de SnO2 é usada para promover a excitação do íon terra-rara. A avaliação do tamanho dos cristalitos por meio de resultados de difração de raios X indica dimensões nanoscópicas, o que pode ser relevante para a interpretação do espectro de emissão. O mecanismo de excitação elétron-buraco é também responsável pela excitação da transição no intervalo que inclui 1540 nm em pós obtidos da mesma solução precursora dos filmes. Filmes finos constituem um formato muito útil para aplicações tecnológicas, desde que permite integração em dispositivos ópticos e a aplicação de campos elétricos para operar dispositivos eletroluminescentes.

  15. Resistividade do filme depositado via sol-gel e estado de oxidação do dopante Ce na matriz SnO2 Resistivity of the film deposited via sol-gel and oxidation state of Ce doping in SnO2 matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. A. Scalvi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Incorporação de Ce3+ ou Ce4+ em filmes finos de SnO2 depositados via sol-gel-dip-coating aumenta drasticamente a resistividade elétrica. No primeiro caso, temos comportamento aceitador do dopante, levando a matriz à alta compensação de carga. Por outro lado, para Ce4+, verifica-se aumento na largura da região de depleção do contorno de grão, resultando em maior espalhamento de elétrons. Medidas de caracterização elétrica sob pressão ambiente levam à barreiras de potencial mais altas do que as medidas sob vácuo, devido a adsorção de oxigênio na superfície das partículas. A presença de Ce3+ aumenta a transmitância no infravermelho, o que significa menor quantidade de elétrons livres. Dados de XANES confirmam que o tratamento térmico a 550 ºC dos filmes, ainda que promova oxidação parcial para Ce4+, preserva uma quantidade significativa (em torno de 60% no estado Ce3+. Espectroscopia Raman mostra a evolução dos modos de vibração intra-grãos de SnO2 com o aumento da temperatura de tratamento térmico.Incorporation of Ce3+ or Ce4+ in sol-gel dip-coating SnO2 thin films increases drastically its electrical resistivity. In the first case, it is due the acceptor-like nature of the doping ion, leading the matrix to high charge compensation. On the other hand, for Ce+4 doped samples, it is verified a broadening of the grain boundary depletion layer. Measurements under room pressure leads to higher intergrain potential barriers when compared to measurements carried out under vacuum conditions, due to oxygen adsorption at particles surface. The presence of Ce3+ increases the infrared transmittance, which means a lower free electron concentration. XANES data confirms that the thermal annealing at 550 ºC of thin films, although promotes oxidation to Ce4+, still keeps a significantly amount (about 60% of ions in the oxidation state Ce3+. Raman spectroscopy data show the evolution of the SnO2 bulk vibration modes with

  16. Spray calcination of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, W.F.; Blair, H.T.; Romero, L.S.

    1976-01-01

    The spray calciner is a relatively simple machine; operation is simple and is easily automated. Startup and shutdown can be performed in less than an hour. A wide variety of waste compositions and concentrations can be calcined under easily maintainable conditions. Spray calcination of all commercial fuel reprocessor high-level liquid wastes and mixed high and intermediate-level wastes have been demonstrated. Wastes have been calcined containing over 2M sodium. Thus waste generated during plant startup and shutdown can be blended with normal waste and calcined. Spray calcination of ILLW has also been demonstrated. A remotely replaceable atomizing nozzle has been developed for use in plant scale equipment. The 6 mm (0.25 inch) orifice and ceramic tip offer freedom from plugging and erosion thus nozzle replacement should be required only after several months operation. Calciner capacity of over 75 l/h (20 gal/h) has been demonstrated in pilot scale equipment. Sintered stainless steel filters are effective in deentraining over 99.9 percent of the solids that result from calcining the feedstock. Since such a small amount of radionuclides escape the calciner the volume of recycle required from the effluent treatment system is very small. The noncondensable off-gas volume is also low, less than 0.5 m 3 /min (15 scfm) for a liquid feedrate of 75 l/hr (20 gal/hr). Calcine holdup in the calciner is less than 1 kg, thus the liquid feedrate is directly relatable to calcine flowrate. The calcine produced is very fine and reactive. Successful remote operation and maintenance of a heated wall spray calciner has been demonstrated while processing actual high-level waste. During these operations radionuclide volatilization from the calciner was acceptably low. 8 figures

  17. The 2016 Thermal Spray Roadmap

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vardelle, A.; Moreau, Ch.; Akedo, J.; Ashrafizadeh, H.; Berndt, C. C.; Berghaus-Oberste, J.; Boulos, M.; Brogan, J.; Bourtsalas, A.C.; Dolatabadi, A.; Dorfman, M.; Eden, T.J.; Fauchais, P.; Fisher, G.; Gaertner, F.; Gindrat, M.; Henne, R.; Hyland, M.; Irissou, E.; Jordan, E.H.; Khor, K.A.; Killinger, A.; Lau, Y.C.; Li, C.-J.; Li, L.; Longtin, J.; Markocsan, N.; Masset, P.J.; Matějíček, Jiří; Mauer, G.; McDonald, A.; Mostaghimi, J.; Sampath, S.; Schiller, G.; Shinoda, K.; Smith, M.F.; Syed, A.A.; Themelis, N.J.; Toma, F.-L.; Trelles, J.P.; Vassen, R.; Vuoristo, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 8 (2016), s. 1376-1440 ISSN 1059-9630 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : anti-wear and anti-corrosion coating s * biomedical * electronic s * energy generation * functional coating s * gas turbines * thermal spray processes Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 1.488, year: 2016 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11666-016-0473-x

  18. Spray granulation for drug formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Zhi Hui; Er, Dawn Z L; Chan, Lai Wah; Liew, Celine V; Heng, Paul W S

    2011-12-01

    Granulation is a key unit process in the production of pharmaceutical solid dosage forms and involves the agglomeration of fine particles with the aid of a binding agent. Fluidized bed granulation, a classic example of spray granulation, is a technique of particle agglomeration brought about by the spray addition of the binding liquid onto a stationary bed of powder particles that is transformed to a fluid-like state by the passage of air through it. The basic working principles, equipment set-up, advantages and challenges of fluidized bed granulation are introduced in this review. This is followed by an overview of the formulation and process-related variables affecting granulation performance. Technological advances, particularly in the application of process analytical tools, in the field of fluidized bed granulation research are also discussed. Fluidized bed granulation is a popular technique for pharmaceutical production, as it is a highly economical and efficient one-pot process. The research and development of process analytical technologies (PAT) has allowed greater process understanding and control to be achieved, even for the lesser known fluidized bed techniques, such as bottom spray and fluidized hot melt granulation. In view of its consistent mixing, as well as continuous and concurrent wetting and drying occurring throughout processing, fluidized bed granulation shows great potential for continuous production although more research is required to fully implement, validate and integrate the PAT tools in a production line.

  19. Análisis de la respuesta mecánica de recubrimientos elaborados mediante proyección térmica por plasma usando la medición de esfuerzos residuales y el método de elementos finitos a escala estructural: efecto de la red de poros Mechanical responses of plasma sprayed coatings from residual stress measurements and finite element analysis: effect of the pore network architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Constanza Palacio Espinosa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se estudia la respuesta mecánica de recubrimientos elaborados mediante proyección térmica por plasma ante la presencia de esfuerzos residuales y campos de esfuerzos generados por deformaciones. Para lograr este propósito, se midieron los esfuerzos residuales durante el proceso de elaboración de recubrimientos de TiO2-Cu y se evaluó el efecto de la red de poros en la estructura de la capa obtenida a partir de imágenes de alta resolución de Microscopía Electrónica de Barrido (MEB obtenidas de los recubrimientos de Al2O3-13TiO2, las cuales fueron posteriormente procesadas y discretizadas para su análisis mediante el Método de Elementos Finitos (MEF. Algunos parámetros operacionales empleados para elaborar los recubrimientos, tales como el flujo de gases y la corriente eléctrica, necesarios para formar el plasma, mostraron tener influencia en el contenido de poros, densidad de grietas y orientación de las mismas y en la magnitud de los esfuerzos residuales provocados. Los esfuerzos residuales determinados a partir de mediciones de deflexión durante la elaboración de los recubrimientos de TiO2-Cu, permitieron identificar su naturaleza, mientras que las simulaciones numéricas mostraron la gran influencia de la red de poros sobre el campo de esfuerzos de los recubrimientos de Al2O3-13TiO2. Del mismo modo, mediante MEF se evaluaron otras composiciones teóricas a través de la modificación de las propiedades mecánicas intrínsecas de las fases constituyentes. Para los casos considerados, las simulaciones mostraron la pobre influencia que tiene la presencia de los constituyentes secundarios en el campo de esfuerzos de los recubrimientos.This study aims a better understanding residual stress and stress field within composite plasma sprayed coatings submitted to strains. In order to reach out this objective, residual stress techniques can be implemented for measurements during elaboration of coatings and finite

  20. 1994 Thermal spray industrial applications: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berndt, C.C.; Sampath, S.

    1994-01-01

    The 7th National Thermal Spray Conference met on June 20--24, 1994, in Boston, Massachusetts. The conference was sponsored by the Thermal Spray Division of ASM International and co-sponsored by the American Welding Society, Deutscher Verband fur Schweisstechnik e.V., High Temperature Society of Japan, International Thermal Spray Association, and Japanese Thermal Spraying Society. The conference covered applications for automobiles, aerospace, petrochemicals, power generation, and biomedical needs. Materials included metals, ceramics, and composites with a broad range of process developments and diagnostics. Other sections included modeling and systems control; spray forming and reactive spraying; post treatment; process, structure and property relationships; mechanical properties; and testing, characterization and wear. One hundred and seventeen papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  1. Effectiveness of containment sprays in containment management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nourbakhsh, H.P.; Perez, S.E.; Lehner, J.R.

    1993-05-01

    A limited study has been performed assessing the effectiveness of containment sprays-to mitigate particular challenges which may occur during a severe accident. Certain aspects of three specific topics related to using sprays under severe accident conditions were investigated. The first was the effectiveness of sprays connected to an alternate water supple and pumping source because the actual containment spray pumps are inoperable. This situation could occur during a station blackout. The second topic concerned the adverse as well as beneficial effects of using containment sprays during severe accident scenario where the containment atmosphere contains substantial quantities of hydrogen along with steam. The third topic was the feasibility of using containment sprays to moderate the consequences of DCH

  2. High quality ceramic coatings sprayed by high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Sheng; Xu Binshi; Yao JiuKun

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduced the structure of the high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying gun and the effects of hypersonic plasma jet on the sprayed particles. The optimised spraying process parameters for several ceramic powders such as Al 2 O 3 , Cr 2 O 3 , ZrO 2 , Cr 3 C 2 and Co-WC were listed. The properties and microstructure of the sprayed ceramic coatings were investigated. Nano Al 2 O 3 -TiO 2 ceramic coating sprayed by using the high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying was also studied. Compared with the conventional air plasma spraying, high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying improves greatly the ceramic coatings quality but at low cost. (orig.)

  3. Comparison between freeze and spray drying to obtain powder Rubrivivax gelatinosus biomass Comparação entre a secagem por liofilização e atomização para produção de biomassa bacteriana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Francisco do Espírito Santo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of colorants in products of animal origin is justified by the improvement in the color of foods since this attribute is considered a quality criterion. These additives can be produced using industrial effluents as substrates and appropriate organisms, such as Rubrivivax gelatinosus. Oxycarotenoids represent a class of carotenes responsible for the pigmentation of animals and vegetables. R. gelatinosus grows in fish industry effluent with the resulting production of a bacterial biomass containing oxycarotenoids. The purpose of this study was to compare the use of two drying processes - spray and freeze drying - to obtain powder biomass in terms of the process parameters (yield, productivity, and product recovery and the product characteristics (color, proximate composition, and oxycarotenoids. No difference was detected in the yield between these techniques, while productivity was higher using spray drying. Higher product recovery and moisture were achieved with freeze drying, while ash was higher with spray drying. The freeze dried biomass was redder, darker and less saturated than the spray dried biomass. No difference in oxycarotenoids was detected between the biomasses. Although it results in lower recovery rate, spray drying was faster and more productive, and it provided the same yield as freeze drying, which makes it the method of choice for obtaining R. gelatinosus biomass.O uso de corantes em produtos de origem animal justifica-se pela melhora na cor dos alimentos, uma vez que este atributo é considerado um critério de qualidade. Estes aditivos podem ser produzidos utilizando efluentes industriais como substratos e organismos adequados, como Rubrivivax gelatinosus. Oxicarotenóides representam uma classe de carotenos, responsáveis pela coloração de animais e vegetais. R. gelatinosus cresce em efluente de indústria de pescado produzindo biomassa contendo oxicarotenóides. O objetivo deste experimento foi comparar duas

  4. A critical investigation into the spray-drying of hydroxyapatite powder for thermal spray applications

    OpenAIRE

    Murtaza, Qasim

    2006-01-01

    This work examines the investigation of the spray drying process of Hydroxyapatite powder (HA) used as a thermal spray deposit in the application of orthopaedic femoral implants. In this research, the Niro- Minor™ mixed spray dryer was used for both modelling and experimental studies. The process parameters investigated included HA slurry viscosity, temperature, and air flowrate. Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) modelling and validation of the spray drying of HA powder was performed. An anal...

  5. Choice of tracers for the evaluation of spray deposits Escolha de traçadores para avaliação de depósitos de pulverização

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio Palladini

    2005-10-01

    de ajustar a tensão superficial da calda. Foram testados os produtos Azul Brilhante a 0,15%, Saturn Yellow a 0,15% suspenso em lignosulfonato Vixilperse a 0,015% e a Fluoresceína Sódica a 0,005%, e as misturas de Azul Brilhante mais Saturn Yellow e Azul Brilhante mais Fluoresceína, nas mesmas concentrações. Para avaliar a degradação as soluções com os produtos foram depositados sobre folhas de citros e avaliados as quantidades através da leitura de unidade de fluorescência e densidade óptica, das soluções sem secar, secas no escuro, exposta ao sol por 2, 4 e 8 horas e comparadas com as leituras obtidas com os depósitos direto em água. A tensão superficial da solução traçadora foi determinada pela passagem de gotas formadas no período entre 20 e 40 segundos. A mistura do Azul Brilhante mais o Saturn Yellow a 0,15%, não apresentou degradação em todas as condições de avaliação, não foi absorvida pelas folhas e manteve a solução na mesma tensão superficial da água, possibilitando ajustá-la aos mesmos níveis das concentrações dos produtos fitossanitários. Isto proporcionou o estabelecimento de um método qualitativo pela avaliação visual sobre luz ultravioleta da distribuição do pigmento e quantitativo com a determinação da quantidade depositada do corante numa mesma solução, em diferentes tensões superficiais na calda de pulverização.

  6. Recubrimientos autolubricantes cuasicristalinos tipo composite depositados mediante proyección térmica para aplicaciones espaciales y de alta temperatura

    OpenAIRE

    García de Blas Villanueva, Francisco Javier

    2016-01-01

    Los recubrimientos lubricantes sólidos son requeridos para reducir la fricción y prevenir el desgaste en componentes que operan a altas temperaturas o en vacío (vehículos espaciales, industria química, motores diésel, turbinas aeronáuticas y de generación de energía…). Los lubricantes líquidos pierden sus características cuando las condiciones de presión, temperatura o ambientales son severas (oxidación, inestabilidad térmica, volatilidad,…), por ejemplo los aceites minerales convencionales s...

  7. ESTUDO PROSPECTIVO DA FERMENTAÇÃO DO CACAU (Theobroma cacao L. SOB O ENFOQUE EM PEDIDOS DE PATENTES DEPOSITADOS NO MUNDO ENTRE 1899 A 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrielle Souza Leão Macêdo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available O cacaueiro tem importância econômica no contexto internacional por ser um commodity de participação relevante no comércio mundial de produtos agrícolas tanto em importações quanto exportações. As etapas de beneficiamento do cacau, principalmente a fermentação, devem ser conduzidas com excelência para garantir a  uniformidade das amêndoas de cacau e chocolates de alta qualidade. Este estudo tem por objetivo identificar patentes depositadas que tratam de  fermentação  do cacau. A pesquisa foi realizada nas bases de Espacenet (EP, utilizando como palavras-chave cocoa*and fermentation*. Foram encontradas 75 patentes depositadas nessa base de dados e nenhuma no Brasil (INPI. Observou-se que nos anos de 1991 e 2012, foram depositadas 48 patentes de novas tecnologias, métodos e equipamentos aplicáveis ao processo de fermentação de cacau, provavelmente pelo incentivo recebido pelos pesquisadores das áreas. O Reino Unido, Rússia e Estados Unidos, apesar de não produzir cacau, apresentam-se como países com maior investimento em relação à esta tecnologia de processamento.

  8. Funcionalización electroquímica y tribológica de películas de quitosano en fosfato tricálcico depositados en acero 316L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Mina Escobar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Se depositaron recubrimientos de fosfato tricálcico-β/quitosano sobre sustratos de acero 316L vía electrodeposición, a una temperatura de 60 °C, aplicando una corriente de 260 mA. Con el fin de estudiar el efecto del contenido de quitosano en la velocidad de corrosión y la respuesta tribológica de los aceros recubiertos, se utilizaron seis concentraciones de quitosano en la mezcla acuosa. Los enlaces químicos presentes en las capas fueron estudiados mediante Espectroscopia de Infrarrojo con Transformada de Fourier (FTIR; la cristalinidad de los depósitos fue examinada mediante difracción de rayos-X (DRX; la resistencia a la corrosión del TCP-β/quitosano depositado sobre los aceros se estudió mediante Espectroscopia de Impedancia Electroquímica (EIS y curvas anódicas Tafel, encontrándose una disminución del 54% en la velocidad de corrosión para la relación 50-50, con respecto a 100% TCP. La respuesta tribológica se analizó mediante pin-on-disc, evidenciando una reducción del 73% en el coeficiente de fricción con mayor concentración de quitosano.

  9. Experimental Analysis of Spray Dryer Used in Hydroxyapatite Thermal Spray Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtaza, Q.; Stokes, J.; Ardhaoui, M.

    2012-09-01

    The spray drying process of hydroxyapatite (HA) powder used as a plasma spray powder on human hip implants was examined. The Niro-Minor mixed spray dryer was studied because it incorporates both co-current and counter-current air mixing systems. The process parameters of the spray drying were investigated: temperature, flow rate of the inlet hot air in the spray dryer, viscosity of feed/HA slurry, and responses (chamber and cyclone powder size, deposition of powder on the wall of spray dryer, and overall thermal efficiency). The statistical analysis (ANOVA test) showed that for the chamber particle size, viscosity was the most significant parameter, while for the cyclone particle size, the main effects were temperature, viscosity, and flow rate, but also their interaction effects were significant. The spray dried HA powder showed the two main shapes were a doughnut and solid sphere shape as a result of the different input.

  10. Spray Deflector For Water-Jet Machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawthon, Michael A.

    1989-01-01

    Disk on water-jet-machining nozzle protects nozzle and parts behind it from erosion by deflected spray. Consists of stainless-steel backing with neoprene facing deflecting spray so it does not reach nut or other vital parts of water-jet apparatus.

  11. Advanced Nanoscale Coatings with Plasma Spray

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Atteridge, David

    2000-01-01

    .... A secondary research charter developed as this program proceeded was the assessment of the feasibility of using cored wire filled with WE-Co powder as a feed-stock for both plasma spray and twin-wire-arc spray (TWAS...

  12. New tools to optimise spray dryers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschueren, M.; Straatsma, J.; Schutyser, M.A.I.; Akkerman, C.; Jong, de P.

    2007-01-01

    Spray drying is an essential unit operation for the manufacture of many products with specific powder properties. It is characterised by atomisation of a solution or suspension into droplets, followed by subsequent drying of these droplets by evaporation of water or other solvents. Spray drying is

  13. The erosive potential of candy sprays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambon, D L; Brand, H S; Nieuw Amerongen, A V

    2009-05-23

    To determine the erosive potential of seven different commercially available candy sprays in vitro and in vivo. The erosive potential was determined in vitro by measuring the pH and neutralisable acidity. The salivary pH and flow rate were measured in healthy volunteers after administration of a single dose of candy spray. Candy sprays have an extremely low pH (1.9-2.3) and a neutralisable acidity varying between 0.8-1.6 ml of 0.25M NaOH. In vivo, candy sprays induced a short-term 3.0 to 5.8-fold increase in salivary flow rate with a concomitant drop in salivary pH to values between 4.4 and 5.8. All candy sprays tested have an erosive potential. This information is of use for clinicians counselling juvenile patients with dental erosion.

  14. MAPEAMENTO TECNOLÓGICO DA GOMA XANTANA SOB O ENFOQUE EM PEDIDOS DE PATENTES DEPOSITADOS NO MUNDO ENTRE 1970 A 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Aparecida Souza Machado

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A goma xantana é um biopolímero comercial produzido por fermentação de glicose pelas bactérias do gênero Xanthomonas, com larga aplicação industrial, principalmente para a indústria de alimentos, farmacêutica e petroquímica. Devido à importância econômica deste polissacarídeo, o objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar as potencialidades, características e evolução das competências tecnológicas, traduzidas através de dados estatísticos de patentes, no que diz respeito à produção e utilização da goma xantana bem como suas aplicações industriais, no período de 1970 a 2009. O termo documento de patente abrange pedidos de patente publicados ou patentes concedidas. A pesquisa foi realizada a partir de palavras-chave do tema abordado e com os códigos da classificação internacional de patentes na base de dados do Escritório europeu, o Espacenet. O primeiro documento de patente identificado foi de 1973, tendo como o país de origem os Estados Unidos, que até 2009 apresentou o maior número de patentes depositadas relacionadas à produção e aplicação da goma xantana. O Brasil ainda possui poucas patentes na área, sendo necessários mais incentivos que visem aumentar o cenário inovativo do país.

  15. Sea Spray Generation at a Rocky Shoreline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 6/15/2012 – 9/15/2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE “Sea Spray Generation at a Rocky Shoreline ” 5a. CONTRACT...this project. The paper, “Sea Spray Generation at Rocky Shoreline ” by Ed Andreas was accepted for publication and as of July 2016 was being...13 Sea Spray Generation at a Rocky Shoreline 14 15 16 17 Edgar L Andreas 18 19 NorthWest Research Associates, Inc. 20 Lebanon, New

  16. Numerical simulation on multiphase spray cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Peiliang; Liu, Hong; Cai, Chang; Gao, Jiuliang; Yin, Hongchao

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this work is using distilled water as working fluid to study the spray cooling heat transfer characteristics from non-boiling zone to boiling zone by CFD method. Simulation is performed using a Euler-Lagrangian method based on the air and liquid droplet two phase flow dynamics. The results of this simulation are in accordance with the experimental results of the laboratory. The simulation results show that the spray height is an important factor influencing the cooling characteristics. With the decrease of spray height, the heat transfer effect is enhanced.

  17. Influence of Cold-Sprayed, Warm-Sprayed, and Plasma-Sprayed Layers Deposition on Fatigue Properties of Steel Specimens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čížek, J.; Matejková, M.; Dlouhý, I.; Šiška, Filip; Kay, C.M.; Karthikeyan, J.; Kuroda, S.; Kovařík, O.; Siegl, J.; Loke, K.; Khor, K.A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 5 (2015), s. 758-768 ISSN 1059-9630 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Cold spray * Fatigue * Grit-blast Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 1.568, year: 2015

  18. Large-scale sodium spray fire code validation (SOFICOV) test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeppson, D.W.; Muhlestein, L.D.

    1985-01-01

    A large-scale, sodium, spray fire code validation test was performed in the HEDL 850-m 3 Containment System Test Facility (CSTF) as part of the Sodium Spray Fire Code Validation (SOFICOV) program. Six hundred fifty eight kilograms of sodium spray was sprayed in an air atmosphere for a period of 2400 s. The sodium spray droplet sizes and spray pattern distribution were estimated. The containment atmosphere temperature and pressure response, containment wall temperature response and sodium reaction rate with oxygen were measured. These results are compared to post-test predictions using SPRAY and NACOM computer codes

  19. Layered growth with bottom-spray granulation for spray deposition of drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Dawn Z L; Liew, Celine V; Heng, Paul W S

    2009-07-30

    The gap in scientific knowledge on bottom-spray fluidized bed granulation has emphasized the need for more studies in this area. This paper comparatively studied the applicability of a modified bottom-spray process and the conventional top-spray process for the spray deposition of a micronized drug during granulation. The differences in circulation pattern, mode of growth and resultant granule properties between the two processes were highlighted. The more ordered and consistent circulation pattern of particles in a bottom-spray fluidized bed was observed to give rise to layered granule growth. This resulted in better drug content uniformity among the granule batches and within a granule batch. The processes' sensitivities to wetting and feed material characteristics were also compared and found to differ markedly. Less robustness to differing process conditions was observed for the top-spray process. The resultant bottom-spray granules formed were observed to be less porous, more spherical and had good flow properties. The bottom-spray technique can thus be potentially applied for the spray deposition of drug during granulation and was observed to be a good alternative to the conventional technique for preparing granules.

  20. Effect of Spray Parameters on the Corrosion Behavior of HVOF Sprayed WC-Co-Cr Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sheng; Wu, Yuping; Zheng, Yugui; Wang, Bo; Gao, Wenwen; Li, Gaiye; Ying, Guobing; Lin, Jinran

    2014-04-01

    WC-10Co-4Cr cermet coatings were deposited on the substrate of AISI 1045 steel by using high-velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF) thermal spraying process. The Taguchi method including the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and the analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed to optimize the porosity and, in turn, the corrosion resistance of the coatings. The spray parameters evaluated in this study were spray distance, oxygen flow, and kerosene flow. The results indicated that the important sequence of spray parameters on the porosity of the coatings was spray distance > oxygen flow > kerosene flow, and the spray distance was the only significant factor. The optimum spraying condition was 300 mm for the spray distance, 1900 scfh for the oxygen flow, and 6.0 gph for the kerosene flow. The results showed the significant influence of the microstructure on the corrosion resistance of the coatings. Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impendence spectroscopy (EIS) results showed that the WC-10Co-4Cr cermet coating obtained by the optimum spraying condition with the lowest porosity exhibits the best corrosion resistance and seems to be an alternative to hard chromium coating.

  1. Influence of spray parameters on the microstructure and mechanical properties of gas-tunnel plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morks, M.F.; Kobayashi, Akira

    2007-01-01

    For biomedical applications, hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings were deposited on 304 stainless steel substrate by using a gas tunnel type plasma spraying process. The influences of spraying distances and plasma arc currents on the microstructure, hardness and adhesion properties of HA coatings were investigated. Microstructure observation by SEM showed that HA coatings sprayed at low plasma power have a porous structure and poor hardness. HA coatings sprayed at high plasma power and short spraying distance are characterized by good adhesion and low porosity with dense structure. Hardness increased for HA coatings sprayed at shorter spraying distance and higher plasma power, mainly due to the formation of dense coatings

  2. Análise da qualidade superficial e dimensional em peças produzidas por modelagem por deposição de material fundido (FDM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Pereira Mello

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A prototipagem rápida vem crescendo cada vez mais como uma opção na busca de redução do tempo e dos riscos no processo de desenvolvimento de produtos. Contudo, as peças produzidas por modelagem por deposição de material fundido (FDM podem sofrer variações na rugosidade e precisão dimensional, dependendo de parâmetros como espessura do filete depositado, sentido da orientação da fabricação da peça, tipo de deposição de camada e geometria do corpo de prova. A literatura é rica em trabalhos dessa natureza a respeito de protótipos rápidos produzidos por outras tecnologias de prototipagem, mas o mesmo não acontece com o FDM. Portanto, a presente pesquisa busca analisar a qualidade superficial e dimensional de protótipos rápidos produzidos com a tecnologia de FDM, por meio de um projeto experimental. De acordo com os dados analisados, foi possível afirmar que algumas variáveis selecionadas como fator principal, ou a interação entre elas, tiveram efeito sobre a resposta rugosidade e nenhum efeito sobre a resposta precisão dimensional. Conclui-se que, na produção de protótipos onde o acabamento superficial for importante, cuidados devem ser tomados na especificação dos parâmetros da máquina, uma vez que a rugosidade da peça final prototipada vai depender fortemente da interação entre os mesmos.

  3. Plasma spray technology process parameters and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreekumar, K.P.; Karthikeyan, J.; Ananthapadmanabhan, P.V.; Venkatramani, N.; Chatterjee, U.K.

    1991-01-01

    The current trend in the structural design philosophy is based on the use of substrate with the necessary mechanical properties and a thin coating to exhibit surface properties. Plasma spray process is a versatile surface coating technique which finds extensive application in meeting advance technologies. This report describes the plasma spray technique and its use in developing coatings for various applications. The spray system is desribed in detail including the different variables such as power input to the torch, gas flow rate, powder properties, powder injection, etc. and their interrelation in deciding the quality of the coating. A brief write-up on the various plasma spray coatings developed for different applications is also included. (author). 15 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Water Reclamation using Spray Drying, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This purpose of this project is to develop a spray drying prototype to for the recovery and recycle of water from concentrated waste water recovery system brine....

  5. Water Reclamation using Spray Drying Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a new spray drying technology for the recovery and recycle of water while stabilizing the solid wastes or residues as found in advanced life support...

  6. Plasma-Sprayed Photocatalytic Zinc Oxide Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navidpour, A. H.; Kalantari, Y.; Salehi, M.; Salimijazi, H. R.; Amirnasr, M.; Rismanchian, M.; Azarpour Siahkali, M.

    2017-04-01

    Fabrication of semiconductor coatings with photocatalytic action for photodegradation of organic pollutants is highly desirable. In this research, pure zinc oxide, which is well known for its promising photocatalytic activity, was deposited on stainless-steel plates by plasma spraying. The phase composition and microstructure of the deposited films were studied by x-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Despite the low-energy conditions of the plasma spraying process, the zinc oxide coatings showed good mechanical integrity on the substrate. Their photocatalytic activity was evaluated using aqueous solution of methylene blue at concentration of 5 mg L-1. The results showed the potential of the plasma spraying technique to deposit zinc oxide coatings with photocatalytic action under ultraviolet illumination. Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy confirmed that the plasma spraying method could deposit zinc oxide films with higher photoabsorption ability relative to the initial powder.

  7. Properties of Plasma and HVOF Sprayed Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Żórawski

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The work compares the properties of plasma and HVOF thermally sprayed coatings obtained by blending the NiCrBSi and Fe2O3 powders. The deposition was performed by means of the Plancer PN-120 and the Diamond Jet guns for plasma spraying and HVOF spraying respectively. The SEM (EDS method was employed to study the microstructure of the produced coatings. Although the blended powders differ in particle size, shape, and distribution, it is possible to obtain composite coatings with an NiCrBSi matrix containing iron oxides. Except for a different microstructure, plasma and HVOF coatings have a different phase composition, which was examined using the Bruker D-8 Advance diffractometer. Studies of the coatings wear and scuffing resistance showed that an optimal content of Fe2O3 is about 26 % for plasma sprayed coatings and 22.5 % for HVOF deposited coatings.

  8. Ventilation Guidance for Spray Polyurethane Foam Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Properly designed ventilation can reduce airborne levels of aerosols, mists, and vapors generated during spray application and can help protect SPF applicators, helpers, and others who may be working in adjacent areas.

  9. Water Reclamation using Spray Drying, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a new spray drying technology for the recovery and recycle of water while stabilizing the solid wastes or residues as found in advanced life support...

  10. Situações que envolvem o compartilhamento de informações por sistema informatizado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Borelli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Analisa situações de compartilhamento de informações realizadas por um sistema de informações baseado em computador. O sistema em estudo, apesar de estar em funcionamento há alguns anos, não apresenta os níveis de utilização esperados. Assim, um dos focos da pesquisa concentrou-se na utilização do sistema enquanto ferramenta de compartilhamento de informações. O método utilizado foi o estudo de caso, e a coleta de dados foi realizada por questionários e entrevistas. Os resultados demonstram que o sistema é considerado uma importante ferramenta de compartilhamento de informações. No entanto, existem algumas dificuldades que comprometem o uso e a qualidade do conteúdo informacional nele depositado. Também se verificou incoerência na opinião dos pesquisados, pois apesar da grande maioria dos participantes considerarem que as informações estão seguras no sistema, ainda há a necessidade de materialização em papel das informações, o que demonstra uma cultura que preconiza o apego ao documento físico e atos presenciais e que carecem de um trabalho no sentido de fomentar a utilização de documentos eletrônicos e atos à distância.

  11. Development of granules from Phyllanthus niruri spray-dried extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Pereira de Souza

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop granules from Phyllanthus niruri spray-dried extract using dry and wet granulation and to assess techniques to enable the production of granules with improved technological characteristics and yields. Granules were characterized by granulometry, reological parameters, compression and hygroscopic behavior. Independent of the granulation technique, technologically developed granules presented particle diameter, bulk and tapped densities and compressibility indexes suitable for a solid dosage form. The compression behavior showed plastic and fragmentary deformation for granules produced by the dry granulation technique and predominantly plastic deformation for wet granulation. Concerning the humidity sorption, the study showed that granules absorb less humidity than the spray-dried extract. However, granules with Eudragit® E 100 were the least hygroscopic.O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver grânulos de extrato Phyllantus niruri seco por aspersão e por granulação úmida e avaliar técnicas que possibilitem a produção de grânulos com características tecnológicas e rendimentos aperfeiçoados. Os grânulos foram caracterizados por granulometria, parâmetros reológicos, compressão e comportamento higroscópico. Independentemente da técnica de granulação, os grânulos tecnologicamente desenvolvidos apresentaram diâmetro de partículas, densidades aparente e compactada e índices de compressibilidade adequados para a formulação sólida. O comportamento de compressão mostrou deformação plástica e elástica para os grânulos produzidos por técnicas de granulação seca e, predominantemente, deformação plástica para a granulação úmida. Com relação à absorção da umidade, o estudo mostrou que os grânulos absorvem menos umidade do que o extrato seco por aspersão. Entretanto, os grânulos com Eudragit E 100 foram os menos higroscópicos.

  12. Plasma sprayed coatings on crankshaft used steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahu, G.; Munteanu, C.; Istrate, B.; Benchea, M.

    2017-08-01

    Plasma spray coatings may be an alternative to conventional heat treatment of main journals and crankpins of the crankshaft. The applications of plasma coatings are various and present multiple advantages compared to electric arc wire spraying or flame spraying. The study examines the layers sprayed with the following powders: Cr3C2- 25(Ni 20Cr), Al2O3- 13TiO2, Cr2O3-SiO2- TiO2 on the surface of steels used in the construction of a crankshaft (C45). The plasma spray coatings were made with the Spray wizard 9MCE facility at atmospheric pressure. The samples were analyzed in terms of micro and morphological using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Wear tests on samples that have undergone simulates extreme working conditions of the crankshafts. In order to emphasize adherence to the base material sprayed layer, were carried out tests of microscratches and micro-indentation. Results have showed a relatively compact morphological aspect given by the successive coatings with splat-like specific structures. Following the microscratch analysis it can be concluded that Al2O3-13TiO2 coating has a higher purpose in terms of hardness compared to Cr3C2-(Ni 20Cr) and Cr2O3-SiO2- TiO2 powders. Thermal coatings of the deposited powders have increased the mechanical properties of the material. The results stand to confirm that plasma sprayed Al2O3-13TiO2 powder is in fact a efficient solution for preventing mechanical wear, even with a faulty lubrication system.

  13. Cannabis; adverse effects from an oromucosal spray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, C

    2007-09-22

    An oromucosal spray has been developed from the major components of marijuana (cannabis), including tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), in alcohol with a peppermint flavouring, designed to be administered as a spray under the tongue or on the buccal mucosa to relieve pain in multiple sclerosis. Although the available evidence indicates its efficacy in this respect, some patients develop oral burning sensation, stinging or white lesions, probably burns. To investigate the oral side-effects of oromucosal cannabis spray in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. A small open observational study. A series of nine patients with MS who had been using a marijuana oromucosal spray for at least four weeks, were asked to attend for oral examination. Patients were asked whether they had ever experienced symptoms (dryness; bad taste; stinging) associated with use of the spray. A standard oral examination was carried out using a dental light, and the presence of any mucosal lesions recorded. Where mucosal lesions were present, patients were advised to discontinue the spray and re-attend after four weeks for re-examination. For ethical reasons, biopsies were not undertaken at the first visit. Of nine patients invited to participate, eight attended. All admitted to a stinging sensation on using the oromucosal cannabis spray, and four had visible oral mucosal white lesions in the floor of the mouth. Although the white lesions observed were almost certainly burns, resolving or improving on discontinuation of use of the medication, the high alcohol concentration of the oromucosal cannabis spray raises concern in relation to chronic oral use.

  14. Hazard Analysis for In Tank Spray Leaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GRAMS, W.H.

    2000-01-01

    The River Protection Project (RPP) Authorization Basis (AB) contains controls that address spray leaks in tanks. However, there are no hazardous conditions in the Hazards Database that specifically identify in-tank spray leak scenarios. The purpose of this Hazards Evaluation is to develop hazardous conditions related to in-tank spray leaks for the Hazards Database and to provide more complete coverage of Tank Farm facilities. Currently, the in-tank spray leak is part of the ''Spray Leak in Structures or From Waste Transfer Lines'' accidents in Section 3.4.2.9 of the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) (CHG, 2000a). The accident analysis for the ''Spray Leak in Structure or From Waste Transfer Lines'' states the following regarding the location of a possible spray leak: Inside ventilated waste storage tanks (DSTs, DCRTs, and some SSTs). Aerosols could be generated inside a storage tank during a transfer because of a leak from the portion of the transfer pipe inside the tank. The tank ventilation system could help disperse the aerosols to the atmosphere should the vent system HEPA filters fail. This Hazards Evaluation also evaluates the controls currently assigned to the spray leak in structure accident and determines the applicability of the controls to the new hazardous conditions. This comparison reviews both the analysis in the FSAR and the controls found in the Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs) (CHG, 2000h). If the new hazardous conditions do not match the analyzed accident conditions and controls, then additional analysis may be required. This document is not intended to authorize the activity or determine the adequacy of controls; it is only intended to provide information about the hazardous conditions associated with this activity. The Control decision process as defined in the AB will be used to determine the adequacy of controls and whether the proposed activity is within the AB. This hazard evaluation does not constitute an accident analysis

  15. Automatic targeting of plasma spray gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbatiello, L.A.; Neal, R.E.

    1978-01-01

    A means for monitoring the material portion in the flame of a plasma spray gun during spraying operations is described. A collimated detector, sensitive to certain wavelengths of light emission, is used to locate the centroid of the material with each pass of the gun. The response from the detector is then relayed to the gun controller to be used to automatically realign the gun

  16. Fine Sprays for Disinfection within Healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Nasr

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Problems exist worldwide with Hospital Acquired Infections (HAI's. The Spray Research Group (SRG have been working with relevant industries in developing a product which can provide a delivery system for treatment chemicals for surfaces, including the design and testing of a novel Spill-Return Atomiser (SRA for this purpose. A comprehensive description of this atomiser has already been given. This paper reports on a new application of this atomiser and discusses the problem of spray coating for disinfection that has been considered very little in previous work. The related spray coating performance tests in developing the product are thus provided. The experimental work includes determining the required spray duration and the coverage area produced by different sprays, including the analysis of the effects of atomiser positions, configurations, and the required number of atomisers. Comparison is made with the efficacy of an ultrasonic gas atomiser that is currently used for this purpose. The investigation has found that the utilisation of fine sprays (10μm>D32>25μm at high liquid pressure (<12MPa and low flow rates (<0.3 l/min is suitable for surface disinfection in healthcare applications (i.e. MRSA, VRSA etc.

  17. Purificação de resíduos de oficina de artesanato em pedra-sabão por flotação e alvejamento químico

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues,Michael Leonardo Marques; Lima,Rosa Malena Fernandes

    2011-01-01

    Na região de Ouro Preto-MG, existem diversas oficinas de artesanato em pedra-sabão. Nessas oficinas, o processo de fabricação de panelas e objetos de adorno, produz uma grande quantidade de resíduos, que, normalmente, são depositados nas proximidades das oficinas, sem nenhuma forma de controle. Esse trabalho teve por objetivo recuperar o talco contido na fração granulométrica abaixo de 74μm desses resíduos através de purificação por flotação e alvejamento químico com HCl. Entre as variáv...

  18. Caracterización mecánica de recubrimientos de aluminio por CVD-FBR sobre aceros inoxidables y resistencia a la oxidación en vapor de agua

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Pérez-Muñoz; José Luddey Marulanda-Arévalo; Juan Manuel Meza-Meza

    2015-01-01

    Los recubrimientos de aluminio depositados sobre el acero inoxidable austenítico AISI 317 por Deposición Química de Vapor en Lecho Fluidizado (CVD-FBR) presentan a altas temperaturas una reducción de la velocidad de corrosión de más de 80 veces. Se realizó la caracterización mecánica de los recubrimientos por medio de microdureza, nanoindentación, para conocer cómo se vieron afectas las propiedades mecánicas (en especial la dureza y el módulo de Young) del recubrimiento y del sustrato luego d...

  19. Creep of plasma sprayed zirconia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firestone, R. F.; Logan, W. R.; Adams, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    Specimens of plasma-sprayed zirconia thermal barrier coatings with three different porosities and different initial particle sizes were deformed in compression at initial loads of 1000, 2000, and 3500 psi and temperatures of 1100 C, 1250 C, and 1400 C. The coatings were stabilized with lime, magnesia, and two different concentrations of yttria. Creep began as soon as the load was applied and continued at a constantly decreasing rate until the load was removed. Temperature and stabilization had a pronounced effect on creep rate. The creep rate for 20% Y2O3-80% ZrO2 was 1/3 to 1/2 that of 8% Y2O3-92% ZrO2. Both magnesia and calcia stabilized ZrO2 crept at a rate 5 to 10 times that of the 20% Y2O3 material. A near proportionality between creep rate and applied stress was observed. The rate controlling process appeared to be thermally activated, with an activation energy of approximately 100 cal/gm mole K. Creep deformation was due to cracking and particle sliding.

  20. Recubrimientos de aluminio-silicio realizados por deposición química de vapor en lecho fluidizado sobre el acero inoxidable AISI 316

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luddey Marulanda Arevalo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Los recubrimientos de aluminio-silicio fueron depositados sobre el acero inoxidable AISI 316 mediante deposición química de vapor en lecho fluidizado (CVD-FBR, en el rango de temperaturas de 540 a 560 ºC, utilizando un lecho formado por 2,5 g de silicio y 7,5 g de aluminio en polvo, y 90 g de lecho inerte (Alúmina, el cual se hizo fluidizar con Ar. Como gases activadores se usó una mezcla de HCl/H2, en relaciones de 1/10 a 1/16. Además, se varió el tiempo de deposición de los recubrimientos de 45 minutos a 1.5 horas, con una relación en volumen de 50% de gases activos y 50% de gases neutros. Se realizó una simulación termodinámica con la ayuda del programa informático Thermocalc, para obtener información de la posible composición y cantidad de material depositado, para las condiciones seleccionadas. En los recubrimientos se encuentran FeAl2Si, Fe2Al5 y FeAl2. Los recubrimientos aluminio-silicio fueron tratados térmicamente, para mejorar sus propiedades mecánicas y su comportamiento frente a la oxidación, por la interdifusión de los elementos de aleación, ya que el tratamiento térmico hace que el aluminio difunda hacia el substrato, y el hierro difunda hacia la superficie del recubrimiento, logrando la transformación de los compuestos anteriores en FeAl, Al2FeSi, Cr3Si, AlCrFe y AlFeNi.

  1. CHARACTERIZATION OF DIESEL SPRAY IMAGES USING A SHAPE PROCESSING METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecile Petit

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In Diesel engines, a key element in achieving a clean and efficient combustion process is a proper fuel-air mixing, which is a consequence of the fuel spray development and fuel-air interaction inside the engine combustion chamber. The spray structure and behavior are classically described by the length (penetration and width (angle of the spray plume but these parameters do not give any clue on the geometrical injection center and on the spray symmetry. The purpose of this paper is to find out original tools to characterize the Diesel spray: the virtual spray origin is the geometrical injection center, which may (or may not coincide with the injector axis. Another interesting point is the description of the Diesel spray in terms of symmetry: the spray plume internal and external symmetry characterize the spray and the injector performance. Our approach is first to find out the virtual spray origin: after the image segmentation, the spray is coded with the Freeman code and with an original shape coding from which the moments are derived. The symmetry axes are then computed and the spray plumes are discarded (or not for the virtual spray origin computation, which is derived from a Voronoi diagram. The last step is the internal and external spray plume symmetry characterization thanks to correlation and mathematical distances.

  2. Experimental characterization of gasoline sprays under highly evaporating conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Mahabat; Sheikh, Nadeem Ahmed; Khalid, Azfar; Lughmani, Waqas Akbar

    2018-05-01

    An experimental investigation of multistream gasoline sprays under highly evaporating conditions is carried out in this paper. Temperature increase of fuel and low engine pressure could lead to flash boiling. The spray shape is normally modified significantly under flash boiling conditions. The spray plumes expansion along with reduction in the axial momentum causes the jets to merge and creates a low-pressure area below the injector's nozzle. These effects initiate the collapse of spray cone and lead to the formation of a single jet plume or a big cluster like structure. The collapsing sprays reduces exposed surface and therefore they last longer and subsequently penetrate more. Spray plume momentum increase, jet plume reduction and spray target widening could delay or prevent the closure condition and limit the penetration (delayed formation of the cluster promotes evaporation). These spray characteristics are investigated experimentally using shadowgraphy, for five and six hole injectors, under various boundary conditions. Six hole injectors produce more collapsing sprays in comparison to five hole injector due to enhanced jet to jet interactions. The spray collapse tendency reduces with increase in injection pressure due high axial momentum of spray plumes. The spray evaporation rates of five hole injector are observed to be higher than six hole injectors. Larger spray cone angles of the six hole injectors promote less penetrating and less collapsing sprays.

  3. Experimental characterization of gasoline sprays under highly evaporating conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Mahabat; Sheikh, Nadeem Ahmed; Khalid, Azfar; Lughmani, Waqas Akbar

    2017-12-01

    An experimental investigation of multistream gasoline sprays under highly evaporating conditions is carried out in this paper. Temperature increase of fuel and low engine pressure could lead to flash boiling. The spray shape is normally modified significantly under flash boiling conditions. The spray plumes expansion along with reduction in the axial momentum causes the jets to merge and creates a low-pressure area below the injector's nozzle. These effects initiate the collapse of spray cone and lead to the formation of a single jet plume or a big cluster like structure. The collapsing sprays reduces exposed surface and therefore they last longer and subsequently penetrate more. Spray plume momentum increase, jet plume reduction and spray target widening could delay or prevent the closure condition and limit the penetration (delayed formation of the cluster promotes evaporation). These spray characteristics are investigated experimentally using shadowgraphy, for five and six hole injectors, under various boundary conditions. Six hole injectors produce more collapsing sprays in comparison to five hole injector due to enhanced jet to jet interactions. The spray collapse tendency reduces with increase in injection pressure due high axial momentum of spray plumes. The spray evaporation rates of five hole injector are observed to be higher than six hole injectors. Larger spray cone angles of the six hole injectors promote less penetrating and less collapsing sprays.

  4. COUPLED ATOMIZATION AND SPRAY MODELLING IN THE SPRAY FORMING PROCESS USING OPENFOAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjesing, Rasmus; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Fritsching, Udo

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents a numerical model capable of simulating the atomization, break-up and in-flight spray phenomena in the spray forming process. The model is developed and implemented in the freeware code openFOAM. The focus is on studying the coupling effect of the melt break-up phenomena...

  5. Containment atmosphere response to external sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, J.; Almenas, K. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The application of external sprays to a containment steel shell can be an effective energy removal method and has been proposed in the passive AP-600 design. Reduction of the steel shell temperature in contact with the containment atmosphere enhances both heat and mass transfer driving forces. Large scale experimental data in this area is scarce, therefore the measurements obtained from the E series tests conducted at the German HDR facility deserve special attention. These long term tests simulated various severe accident conditions, including external spraying of the hemispherical steel shell. This investigation focuses upon the integral response of the HDR containment atmosphere during spray periods and upon methods by which lumped parameter system codes, like CONTAIN, model the underlying condensation phenomena. Increases in spray water flowrates above a minimum value were ineffective at improving containment pressure reduction since the limiting resistance for energy transfer lies in the noncondensable-vapor boundary layer at the inner condensing surface. The spray created an unstable condition by cooling the upper layers of a heated atmosphere and thus inducing global natural circulation flows in the facility and subsequently, abrupt changes in lighter-than-air noncondensable (J{sub 2}/He) concentrations. Modeling results using the CONTAIN code are outlined and code limitations are delineated.

  6. Efeito de fungicidas cúpricos, aplicados isoladamente ou em combinação com mancozeb, na expressão de sintomas de fitotoxicidade e controle da ferrugem causada por Puccinia psidii em goiabeira Effect of copper fungicides, sprayed alone or in combination with mancozeb, in expression of phytotoxicity symptoms and rust control caused by Puccinia psidii in guava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio de Goes

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram conduzidos em pomares de goiabeira 'Paluma', nos municípios de Monte Alto e Vista Alegre do Alto-SP. No primeiro experimento, avaliou-se o efeito de formulações de fungicidas cúpricos, aplicados isoladamente e em mistura com mancozeb, quanto ao efeito fitotóxico em botões florais e em frutos de goiabeira, em três estádios de desenvolvimento. No segundo experimento, foram avaliados os mesmos fungicidas usados no primeiro experimento, sendo, porém, acrescido do tratamento constituído por tebuconazole, cujo alvo foi sua eficiência no controle da ferrugem. No primeiro experimento, verificou-se que nenhum dos fungicidas testados causou abortamento de flores ou outros tipos de sintomas de fitotoxicidade em frutos de tamanho inferior a 15 mm de diâmetro. Contrariamente, estes fungicidas, quando aplicados isoladamente, em frutos entre 25 a 35 mm de diâmetro, causaram sintomas severos de fitotoxicidade. Em frutos de tamanho superior a 40 mm de diâmetro, estes fungicidas causaram sintomas de fitotoxicidade de níveis leves a moderados. A combinação de fungicidas cúpricos com mancozeb causou sintomas de fitotoxicidade em níveis leves, enquanto com mancozeb isoladamente não foram verificados sintomas de fitotoxicidade. No segundo experimento, verificou-se que os fungicidas cúpricos, aplicados isoladamente, foram eficientes no controle da ferrugem da goiabeira, apresentando eficiência comparável ao tratamento-padrão representado por tebuconazole. Esta eficiência foi também observada mediante o emprego da combinação mancozeb e óxido cuproso ou hidróxido de cobre.Two experiments were carried out in guava orchards cv. 'Paluma' at Monte Alto and Vista Alegre do Alto/SP. In Experiment 1 it was used copper fungicides applied alone and in combination with mancozeb to evaluate the effect of phytotoxicity on floral buds and guava fruits in three developmental stages. In Experiment 2 it was used the same fungicides

  7. Investigation of spray characteristics in a spray-guided DISI engine using PLIF and LDV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Y; Gashi, S; Nouri, J M; Lockett, R D; Arcoumanis, C

    2007-01-01

    The spray characteristics of a prototype piezo pintle-type injector are investigated in a single-cylinder optical direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine based on the spray-guided concept where mixture preparation is dominated by the spray dynamics. The high-pressure piezo electric injector has an annular nozzle providing a hollow cone spray. Planar Laser-induced Fluorescence (PLIF) and 2-dimensional Mie scattering were used to study the spray structure and characteristics under different in-cylinder back pressures and to obtain cycle resolved measurements of the planar fuel distribution inside the cylinder. The obtained results give information about the extent of charge stratification, spray stability and fuel/air mixture formation process under operating conditions. PLIF results revealed that there is a rich mixture at the spark plug position for all these conditions, ensuring stable combustion over the entire engine operating range. In addition, LDV measurements were carried out in order to provide information on the in-cylinder flow field near the spark plug, and to assess its influence on the mixture formation process. LDV results showed that the influence of the flow field strength during the late compression injection on the liquid fuel spray structure is low. The tumble generated in the cylinder is transformed into turbulence at the end of the compression stroke, which aids fuel evaporation and vapour dispersion just before ignition

  8. Density of Spray-Formed Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin M. McHugh; Volker Uhlenwinkel; Nils Ellendr

    2008-06-01

    Spray Forming is an advanced materials processing technology that transforms molten metal into a near-net-shape solid by depositing atomized droplets onto a substrate. Depending on the application, the spray-formed material may be used in the as-deposited condition or it may undergo post-deposition processing. Regardless, the density of the as-deposited material is an important issue. Porosity is detrimental because it can significantly reduce strength, toughness, hardness and other properties. While it is not feasible to achieve fully-dense material in the as-deposited state, density greater than 99% of theoretical density is possible if the atomization and impact conditions are optimized. Thermal conditions at the deposit surface and droplet impact angle are key processing parameters that influence the density of the material. This paper examines the factors that contribute to porosity formation during spray forming and illustrates that very high as-deposited density is achieved by optimizing processing parameters.

  9. Examining properties of arc sprayed nanostructured coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Czupryński

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of examining properties of arc sprayed coating obtained with nano-alloy on the iron matrix with a high amount of fine carbide precipitates sprayed on non-alloyed steel plates intended for high temperature operation. Powder metal cored wire EnDOtec DO*390N 1,6 mm diameter, was used to produce, dense, very high abrasion and erosion resistant coatings approx. 1,0 mm thick. Nano-material coatings characterization was done to determine abrasion resistance, erosion resistance, adhesion strength, hardness as well as metallographic examinations. Results have proved high properties of arc sprayed nano-material coatings and have shown promising industrial applications.

  10. Analysis of polydisperse fuel spray flame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nave, Ophir; Lehavi, Yaron; Ajadi, Suraju; Gol'dshtein, Vladimir

    2017-02-01

    In this paper we analyzed the model of polydisperse fuel spray flame by using the sectional approach to describe the droplet-droplet interaction within the spray. The radii of the droplets are described by a probability density function. Our numerical simulations include a comparative analysis between three empirical droplet size distributions: the Rosin-Rammler distribution, the log-normal distribution and the Nakiyama-Tanasawa distribution. The log-normal distribution was found to produce a reasonable approximation to both the number and volume size distribution function. In addition our comparative analysis includes the application of the homotopy analysis method which yields convergent solutions for all values of the relevant parameters. We compared the above results to experimental fuel spray data such as {it{Tetralin}}, n-{it{Decane}}, and n-{it{Heptane}}.

  11. Silver nasal sprays: misleading Internet marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaslin, Michael T; Rubin, Cory; Pribitkin, Edmund A

    2008-04-01

    Long-term use of silver-containing products is associated with a permanent bluish-gray discoloration of the skin known as argyria, but they remain widely available despite several measures by the FDA to regulate them. Several recent case reports have described the occurrence of argyria as a result of using these "natural" products. We used the five most common Internet search engines to find Web sites providing information on silver-containing nasal sprays. Of 49 Web sites analyzed, only 2 (4%) mentioned argyria as a possible complication, although 30 (61%) did caution against long-term use. Eight sites (16%) made specific claims about the health benefits of the product. All 49 sites (100%) provided direct or indirect links to buy silver-containing nasal sprays. We conclude that information about silver-containing nasal sprays on the Internet is misleading and inaccurate. Therefore, otolaryngologists should be aware of the misinformation their patients may be receiving about these products.

  12. Water spray assisted ultrashort laser pulse ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvennoinen, M.; Kaakkunen, J.J.J.; Paivasaari, K.; Vahimaa, P.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We show the novel method to use multibeam processing with ultrashort pulses efficiently. ► Sprayed thin water layer on ablation zone enhances ablation rate and quality. ► In some cases this method also enables ablation of the deeper and straighter holes compared to ones made without the water layer. ► Method also makes possible to directly write features without the self-organizing structures. - Abstract: We have studied femtosecond ablation under sprayed thin water film and its influence and benefits compared with ablation in the air atmosphere. These have been studied in case of the hole and the groove ablation using IR femtosecond laser. Water enhances the ablation rate and in some situations it makes possible to ablate the holes with a higher aspect ratio. While ablating the grooves, the water spray allows using the high fluences without the generation of the self-organized structures.

  13. Micrometeorological measurements during the Blackmo 88 spray trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. E. Anderson; D. R. Miller; Y. S. Wang; W. E. Yendol; M. L. McManus

    1991-01-01

    Instrumentation was arrayed on a 120 foot tower to detail the local atmospheric conditions during the Blackmo 88 spray experiment. Measurements were continuous for 30 minute periods encompassing each spray pass.

  14. Numerical investigation on particle swelling in spray roasting reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiemann, M; de Haan, A.B.; Wirtz, S.

    2016-01-01

    Spray roasting of metal chloride solutions is frequently used in steel industries to recover pickling liquids. As spray roasting reactors are difficult to characterize experimentally, computational fluid dynamics simu- lations have been used to investigate reactor performance. These simulations

  15. Numerical Study on Fan Spray for Gasoline Direct Injection Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Shirabe, Naotaka; Sato, Takaaki; Murase, Eiichi

    2003-01-01

    In gasoline direct injection engines, it is important to optimize fuel spray characteristics, which strongly affect stratified combustion process. Spray simulation is expected as a tool for optimizing the nozzle design. Conventional simulation method, how

  16. Spray Rolling Aluminum Strip for Transportation Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin M. McHugh; Y. Lin; Y. Zhou; E. J. Lavernia; J.-P. Delplanque; S. B. Johnson

    2005-02-01

    Spray rolling is a novel strip casting technology in which molten aluminum alloy is atomized and deposited into the roll gap of mill rolls to produce aluminum strip. A combined experimental/modeling approach has been followed in developing this technology with active participation from industry. The feasibility of this technology has been demonstrated at the laboratory scale and it is currently being scaled-up. This paper provides an overview of the process and compares the microstructure and properties of spray-rolled 2124 aluminum alloy with commercial ingot-processed material

  17. SPIRT-NRC. Containment Spray Iodine Removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Postma, A.K. [Benton City Technology, Washington, DC (United States); Sherry, R.R.; Tam, P.S. [United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1988-01-01

    SPIRT predicts the washout of airborne contaminants in containment vessels under postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) conditions. SPIRT calculates iodine removal constants (lambdas) for post-LOCA containment spray systems. It evaluates the effect of the spectrum of drop sizes emitted by the spray nozzles,the effect of drop coalescence, and the precise solution of the time-dependent diffusion equation. STEAM-67 routines are included for calculating the properties of steam and water according to the 1967 ASME Steam Tables.

  18. Study on plasma sprayed boron carbide coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yi; Lee, Soo W.; Ding, Chuanxian

    2002-03-01

    The microstructure, phase composition, and mechanical properties of boron carbide coatings formed by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) are studied in the present work. The boron carbide coating with high microhardness and low porosity could be produced by APS. The decomposition of boron carbide powder during the plasma spray process would result in the formation of the BxC phase and an increase of the carbon phase, which is confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction results.

  19. Aerial, ground and chemigation spray deposition on corn for the control of spodoptera frugiperda (lepidoptera: noctuidae Deposição de calda por aplicação aérea, terrestre e via água de irrigação na cultura do milho para o controle de Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Arantes Rodrigues da Cunha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides can be applied by aircraft, ground-sprayers or sprinkler irrigation. However, selecting the best option is complicated by the limited number of studies comparing these techniques. Thus, the objective of this work was to study the chlorpyrifos insecticide deposition applied by aircraft (30 L ha-1, tractor-mounted sprayer (200 L ha-1 and chemigation (70,000 L ha-1 for the control of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith in two corn (Zea mays L. populations (70,000 and 100,000 plants ha-1. Active ingredient residue on the corn plant leaves was evaluated by gas chromatography, immediately and ten days after the treatments. Armyworm numbers in each plot and control were also evaluated. The experiment was set up in randomized blocks with four replications. Aerial and ground applications of chlorpyrifos led to greater active ingredient deposition in the leaves than chemigation. Neither plant population (70,000 and 100,000 plants ha-1 affected the insecticide deposition in the corn leaves. S. frugiperda control was similar for all three application methods. Chemigation, however, resulted in less deposition on the plants and consequently in a greater insecticide loss to the soil, which should be considered in environmental impact.A aplicação de produtos fitossanitários pode ser feita, utilizando-se avião agrícola, pulverizadores terrestres ou via água de irrigação. Contudo, a seleção da melhor técnica é difícil, dada à pequena quantidade de estudos comparativos entre elas. Assim, neste trabalho, objetivou-se estudar a deposição do inseticida clorpirifós na cultura do milho, empregando aplicação aérea (30 L ha-1, tratorizada (200 L ha-1 e via água de irrigação (70.000 L ha-1, para o controle de Spodoptera frugiperda em duas populações de plantas (70.000 e 100.000 plantas ha-1. O resíduo do ingrediente ativo nas folhas, imediatamente e dez dias após as aplicações, foi avaliado por cromatografia gasosa. O número de

  20. Deodorant spray: a newly identified cause of cold burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Ulrich; Stirner, Karl-Heinz; Lauener, Roger; Ring, Johannes; Möhrenschlager, Matthias

    2010-09-01

    Two patients encountered a first-degree cold burn after use of a deodorant spray. The spray-nozzle to skin-surface distance was approximately 5 cm, and the spraying lasted approximately 15 seconds. Under laboratory conditions, the deodorant in use was able to induce a decline in temperature of >60 degrees C. These 2 cases highlight a little-known potential for skin damage by deodorant sprays if used improperly.

  1. Structural, electrical and optical studies on spray-deposited ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Structural, electrical and optical studies on spray-deposited ZnO. Table 1. Spray parameters for film deposition. Spray parameter. Value. Concentration of zinc acetate solution. 0.1 M. Nozzle–substrate ..... [13] F Paraguay, D M Miki-Yoshida, J Morales, J Solis and W Estrada, Thin Solid Films 373, 137. (2000). [14] B Baruwati ...

  2. A Grey-Box Model for Spray Drying Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Norbert; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Multi-stage spray drying is an important and widely used unit operation in the production of food powders. In this paper we develop and present a dynamic model of the complete drying process in a multi-stage spray dryer. The dryer is divided into three stages: The spray stage and two fluid bed...

  3. Encapsulation of lycopene using spray-drying and molecular inclusion processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itaciara Larroza Nunes

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to obtain encapsulated lycopene in a powder form, using either spray-drying or molecular inclusion with beta -cyclodextrin ( beta -CD followed by freeze-drying. The encapsulation efficiency using spray-drying ranged from 94 to 96%, with an average yield of 51%, with microcapsules showing superficial indentations and lack of cracks and breakages. Lycopene- beta -CD complexes were only formed at a molar ratio of 1:4, and irregular structures of different sizes that eventually formed aggregates, similar to those of beta -CD, were observed after freeze-drying. About 50% of the initial lycopene did not form complexes with beta -CD. Lycopene purity increased from 96.4 to 98.1% after spray-drying, whereas lycopene purity decreased from 97.7 to 91.3% after complex formation and freeze-drying. Both the drying processes yielded pale-pink, dry, free-flowing powders.Técnicas de encapsulamento, como "spray-drying" e formação de complexos por inclusão com ciclodextrinas, vêm sendo avaliadas para viabilizar a adição de carotenóides em sistemas hidrofílicos e aumentar a sua estabilidade durante o processamento e estocagem. Portanto, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi obter licopeno encapsulado na forma de pó, utilizando processos de "spray-drying" ou de inclusão molecular com beta -ciclodextrina (CD seguido de liofilização. A eficiência do encapsulamento utilizando "spray-drying" variou de 94 a 96% e o rendimento médio foi de 51%, com as microcápsulas apresentando indentações superficiais, porém sem falhas ou aberturas na superfície. A formação de complexo licopeno- beta -CD ocorreu apenas quando utilizada razão molar de 1:4, e estruturas irregulares de diferentes tamanhos que eventualmente formaram agregados, similares às da beta -CD, foram observadas após liofilização. O licopeno não complexado neste processo ficou em torno de 50%. A pureza do licopeno (% área do all-trans-licopeno aumentou de 96,4 para 98,1% ap

  4. Copper-Tungsten Composites Sprayed by HVOF

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějíček, Jiří; Zahálka, F.; Bensch, Jan; Chi, W.; Sedláček, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 2 (2008), s. 177-180 ISSN 1059-9630 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Thermally sprayed coatings * tungsten * copper * HVOF Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 1.200, year: 2008 http://www.springerlink.com/content/120439/

  5. Commissioning of laser assisted cold spraying technology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tlotleng, Monnamme

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates the potential of a newly designed, assembled and commissioned laser assisted cold spraying (LACS) technology at the National Laser Centre, Pretoria, South Africa, to deposit Al-12wt%Si coatings on stainless steel substrate...

  6. The erosive potential of candy sprays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gambon, D.L.; Brand, H.S.; Nieuw Amerongen, A.V.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine the erosive potential of seven different commercially available candy sprays in vitro and in vivo. Material and methods The erosive potential was determined in vitro by measuring the pH and neutralisable acidity. The salivary pH and flow rate were measured in healthy

  7. Plasma sprayed basalt/chromium oxide coatings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ageorges, H.; Medarhri, Z.; Ctibor, Pavel; Fauchais, P.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2007), s. 71-82 ISSN 1093-3611 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Chromia, basalt * plasma spraying * microstructure * phase analysis Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 0.268, year: 2007

  8. Dielectric properties of plasma sprayed silicates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ctibor, Pavel; Sedláček, J.; Neufuss, Karel; Dubský, Jiří; Chráska, Pavel

    -, č. 31 (2005), s. 315-321 ISSN 0272-8842 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/03/0708 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Optical microscopy * electrical properties * silicates * insulators * plasma spraying Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 0.702, year: 2005

  9. Plasma Sprayed Coatings for RF Wave Absorption

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nanobashvili, S.; Matějíček, Jiří; Žáček, František; Stöckel, Jan; Chráska, Pavel; Brožek, Vlastimil

    307-311, - (2002), s. 1334-1338 ISSN 0022-3115 Grant - others:COST(XE) Euratom DV4/04(TWO) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : boron carbide, thermal spray coatings, fusion materials, RF wave absorption Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 1.730, year: 2002

  10. PAINT SPRAY BOOTH MODIFICATIONS FOR RECIRCULATION VENTILATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The control of emissions from spray painting operations has historically been cost prohibitive, due to the high exhaust flow rates coupled with low volatile organic compound (VOC) and hazardous air pollutant (HAP) Concentrations. Past studies, conducted by the U.S. EPA and U.S. ...

  11. Remarks on the 'Spray-Paint' Issue

    OpenAIRE

    Okuno, Tadanori

    1991-01-01

    It is generally believed that the locative variant of the 'spray-paint' construction makesthe object NP partitive in a certain sense while the transposed one makes it holistic.Arguing that there are in fact many more factors operative, this paper attempts to get aclearer perspective on the issue.

  12. Aerodynamic characteristics of swirling spray flames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presser, C.; Gupta, A.K.; Semerjian, H.G.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper the effect of swirl on droplet transport processes is examined in a pressure-atomized, hollow-cone kerosene spray, introduced into coflowing nonswirling and swirling air flow fields. An ensemble light scattering technique, based on measurement of the polarization ratio, provided spatially resolved measurements on the local values of droplet mean size and number density in dense regions of the nonburning spray. Laser velocimetry was employed to measure the axial, radial, and tangential velocity components of the droplets and combustion air stream. Droplet velocity distributions and time histories provided information on the transport of individual droplets under nonburning and burning conditions. high-speed cinemathography, short-exposure photography, and video movies were also employed to observe the global features of the spray flame. The results reveal that the spray flame has a complex three-dimensional structure. The introduction of swirl to the combustion air modifies the droplet/air velocity field in addition to the spatial distribution of droplet size and number density

  13. Consolidation of tungsten disilicide by plasma spraying

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brožek, Vlastimil; Ctibor, Pavel; Matějíček, Jiří; Rohan, Pavel; Janča, J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 3 (2007), s. 311-320 ISSN 0001-7043 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA104/05/0540 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Water stabilized plasma * tungsten disilicide * plasma deposition * thermal spray coatings Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials

  14. Metallization of Various Polymers by Cold Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Hanqing; Chu, Xin; Vo, Phuong; Yue, Stephen

    2018-01-01

    Previous results have shown that metallic coatings can be successfully cold sprayed onto polymeric substrates. This paper studies the cold sprayability of various metal powders on different polymeric substrates. Five different substrates were used, including carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), polyether ether ketone (PEEK), polyethylenimine (PEI); mild steel was also used as a benchmark substrate. The CFRP used in this work has a thermosetting matrix, and the ABS, PEEK and PEI are all thermoplastic polymers, with different glass transition temperatures as well as a number of distinct mechanical properties. Three metal powders, tin, copper and iron, were cold sprayed with both a low-pressure system and a high-pressure system at various conditions. In general, cold spray on the thermoplastic polymers rendered more positive results than the thermosetting polymers, due to the local thermal softening mechanism in the thermoplastics. Thick copper coatings were successfully deposited on PEEK and PEI. Based on the results, a method is proposed to determine the feasibility and deposition window of cold spraying specific metal powder/polymeric substrate combinations.

  15. X-ray vision of fuel sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.

    2005-01-01

    With brilliant synchrotron X-ray sources, microsecond time-resolved synchrotron X-ray radiography and tomography have been used to elucidate the detailed three-dimensional structure and dynamics of high-pressure high-speed fuel sprays in the near-nozzle region. The measurement allows quantitative determination of the fuel distribution in the optically impenetrable region owing to the multiple scattering of visible light by small atomized fuel droplets surrounding the jet. X-radiographs of the jet-induced shock waves prove that the fuel jets become supersonic under appropriate injection conditions and that the quantitative analysis of the thermodynamic properties of the shock waves can also be derived from the most direct measurement. In other situations where extremely axial-asymmetric sprays are encountered, mass deconvolution and cross-sectional fuel distribution models can be computed based on the monochromatic and time-resolved X-radiographic images collected from various rotational orientations of the sprays. Such quantitative analysis reveals the never-before-reported characteristics and most detailed near-nozzle mass distribution of highly transient fuel sprays

  16. Spray Forming Aluminum - Final Report (Phase II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. D. Leon

    1999-07-08

    The U.S. Department of Energy - Office of Industrial Technology (DOE) has an objective to increase energy efficient and enhance competitiveness of American metals industries. To support this objective, ALCOA Inc. entered into a cooperative program to develop spray forming technology for aluminum. This Phase II of the DOE Spray Forming Program would translate bench scale spray forming technology into a cost effective world class process for commercialization. Developments under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC07-94ID13238 occurred during two time periods due to budgetary constraints; April 1994 through September 1996 and October 1997 and December 1998. During these periods, ALCOA Inc developed a linear spray forming nozzle and specific support processes capable of scale-up for commercial production of aluminum sheet alloy products. Emphasis was given to alloys 3003 and 6111, both being commercially significant alloys used in the automotive industry. The report reviews research performed in the following areas: Nozzel Development, Fabrication, Deposition, Metal Characterization, Computer Simulation and Economics. With the formation of a Holding Company, all intellectual property developed in Phases I and II of the Project have been documented under separate cover for licensing to domestic producers.

  17. HVOF Combustion spraying of inconel powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varacalle, D. J.; Ortiz, M. G.; Miller, C. S.; Steeper, T. J.; Rotolico, A. J.; Nerz, J.; Rlggs, W. L.

    1993-06-01

    A major trend in the thermal spray industry has been to increase the gas jet velocity to obtain better coating attributes. One emerging technology now used in industry is the high-velocity oxygen fuel process (HVOF). High-velocity spray guns combine oxygen and a fuel gas to generate heat and extremely high particle velocities. In this study, Inconel 718 powder was deposited on steel substrates. The primary coating function was electrical resistivity for a heater application. Experiments were conducted using a Taguchi L8 statistical fractional/factorial design parametric study. The Taguchi experiment evaluated the effect of six HVOF processing variables on the measured responses. The parameters were oxygen flow, fuel flow, air envelope gas flow, powder feed rate, spray distance, and nozzle configuration. The coatings were characterized by hardness tests, surface profilometry, optical metallography, and image analysis. This article investigates coating hardness, porosity, surface roughness, deposition efficiency, and microstructure with respect to the influence of the processing parameters. Analytical studies were conducted to investigate gas, particle, and coating dynamics for two of the HVOF thermal spray experiments.

  18. Computational Modeling of Turbulent Spray Combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, L.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the research presented in this thesis is development and validation of predictive models or modeling approaches of liquid fuel combustion (spray combustion) in hot-diluted environments, known as flameless combustion or MILD combustion. The goal is to combine good physical insight,

  19. Fullerene monolayer formation by spray coating

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Červenka, Jiří; Flipse, C.F.J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 6 (2010), 065302/1-065302/7 ISSN 0957-4484 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : monolayer * spray coating * fullerene * atomic force microscopy * scanning tunnelling microscopy * electronic structure * graphite * gold Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.644, year: 2010

  20. Laser treatment of plasma sprayed HA coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khor, KA; Vreeling, A; Dong, ZL; Cheang, P

    1999-01-01

    Laser treatment was conducted on plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings using a Nd-YAG pulse laser. Various laser parameters were investigated. The results showed that the HA surface melted when an energy level of greater than or equal to 2 J and a spot size of 2 mm was employed during

  1. Comportamento do herbicida metribuzin, aplicado isolado e em mistura com outros herbicidas, no controle de plantas daninhas em cafeeiros novos por dois anos consecutivos Effect of metribuzin, sprayed alone or in mixture with another herbicides, for weed control on young coffee trees, during two years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S.P. Cruz

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available Para se conhecer o comportamento do herbicida metribuzin, aplicado isolaso ou em mistura com outros herbicidas residuais (napropamide, pendimethalin, alchlor, oryzalin e diuron no controle de plantas daninhas que comumente infestam cafeeiros em formação, foi conduzido um experimento de campo onde esse herbicida a 0,28; 0,42; 0,56 e 0,70 kg/ha em mistura com napropamide a 4,00 kg/ha pendimethalin a 1,00 kg/ha, alachlor a 2,40kg/ha, oryzalin a 1,50 kg/ha ou com diuron a 1,20 kg/ha, comparado com duas testemunhas , onde, em uma, o mato foi mantido a níveis não competitivos com a cultura, por meios mecânicos, e outra onde o mato foi deixado desenvolver-se naturalmente, sem nenhuma interferência. Foi incluído também um tratamento com diuron a 1,20 kg/ha. A infestação natural de plantas daninhas da área do experimento era formada pelas gramínas, capim-de-colçhão (Digitaria sanguinalis (L. Scop, capim - marmelada (Brachiaria plantaginea (Link. Hitch capim-pé-de-galinha (Elcusine indica (L. Gaertn., Capim-favorito (Rhynchelitrum roseum (Nees Stapf eet Hubb, e pelas dicotiledôneas beldroega (Portulaca oleracea L., picão-branco (Galinsoga parviflora Cav., caruru-de-mancha (Amarantus virides L., amendoim bravo (Euphorbia heterophylla L., picão-preto (Bidens pilosa L., mentruz (Lepidium virginicum L., quebra-pedra (Phyllantus cordovadensis, Muell Arg. e falsa-serralha (Emilia sachifolia DC. Os resultados dos dois anos foram semelhantes para cada tratamento. Metribuzin a 0,28 kg/ha em mistura com napropamide a 4,00 kg/ha, apresentam períodos de ação maior, seguidos da mistura de metribuzin, naquela mesma dose, com oryzalin a 1,50 kg/ha. Não foi contatado a presença de qualquer sintoma de intoxicação nos cafeeiros, em todos os tratamentos, até a última observação, realizada 210 dias após a segunda aplicação dos herbicidas.This paper reports on two years field trials carried out in Araras, SP, Brazil, on coffee tress with twenty

  2. Research of Plasma Spraying Process on Aluminum-Magnesium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricija Kavaliauskaitė

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article examines plasma sprayed 95Ni-5Al coatings on alu-minum-magnesium (Mg ≈ 2,6‒3,6 % alloy substrate. Alumi-num-magnesium samples prior spraying were prepared with mechanical treatment (blasting with Al2O3. 95Ni-5Al coatings on aluminum-magnesium alloys were sprayed with different parameters of process and coating‘s thickness, porosity, micro-hardness and microstructure were evaluated. Also numerical simulations in electric and magnetic phenomena of plasma spray-ing were carried out.

  3. Water spray ventilator system for continuous mining machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Steven J.; Mal, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    The invention relates to a water spray ventilator system mounted on a continuous mining machine to streamline airflow and provide effective face ventilation of both respirable dust and methane in underground coal mines. This system has two side spray nozzles mounted one on each side of the mining machine and six spray nozzles disposed on a manifold mounted to the underside of the machine boom. The six spray nozzles are angularly and laterally oriented on the manifold so as to provide non-overlapping spray patterns along the length of the cutter drum.

  4. Celulitis por citomegalovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ruiz Lascano

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Las lesiones cutáneas por citomegalovirus (CMV son infrecuentes y a menudo una manifestación tardía de una enfermedad sistémica, que generalmente anuncia un curso fatal. Comunicamos un caso de celulitis por CMV: una mujer de 70 años con trasplante renal efectuado 1 mes antes de la consulta, terapia inmunosupresora con ciclosporina A y metilprednisona. La paciente ingresó por fiebre, dolor e impotencia funcional en pierna derecha. Comprobamos la existencia de una placa de 8 por 4 cm eritematoedematosa. La tratamos con antibióticos sin mejoría, por lo que realizamos un estudio histopatológico de piel que mostró cambios citopáticos compatibles con infección por CMV. Los cultivos bacteriológicos y micológicos fueron negativos. La inmunohistoquímica específica para CMV y el estudio de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR de la biopsia de piel fueron positivas, al igual que la antigenemia. El tratamiento con ganciclovir produjo la mejoría del cuadro clínico. En la literatura revisada no hemos encontrado la celulitis como manifestación de enfermedad cutánea por CMV.

  5. Comparison on Piston Bowl Shape Effect to Diesel Spray Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapit, Azwan; Azahari Razali, Mohd; Nizam Mohammed, Akmal; Faisal Hushim, Mohd; Sadikin, Azmahani Binti; Norrizam Mohmad Ja'at, Md; Khalid, Amir

    2017-08-01

    Piston bowl geometry plays an important role on the combustion characteristics of diesel engine. There are various design of piston bowl in which each utilize the shape geometry to obtaining the specific required combustion characteristics. This objective of this study is to compare the effect of certain piston bowl shapes, namely Toroidal and Flat Bottom to diesel spray development. Simulation were done using ANSYS FLUENT 16.1 software Computing Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The simulation was performed on different injection pressure of 40 MPa and 100 MPa, with the ambient temperature in the combustion chamber that holding the piston is at 500K and 900K. Results showed that if the pressure and ambient temperature increases, the spray body expand outward from the spray center axis with wider spray cone angle. In addition, the geometry shape of the piston bowl influences the spray velocity distribution and the spray propagation path, indirectly effect the spray area and mass fraction distribution.

  6. An experimental methodology to quantify the spray cooling event at intermittent spray impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Antonio L.N. [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Mechanical Engineering Department, Center for Innovation, Technology and Policy Research, IN Av. Rovisco Pais 1049-001, Lisbon Codex (Portugal)]. E-mail: moreira@dem.ist.utl.pt; Carvalho, Joao [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Mechanical Engineering Department, Center for Innovation, Technology and Policy Research, IN Av. Rovisco Pais 1049-001, Lisbon Codex (Portugal); Panao, Miguel R.O. [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Mechanical Engineering Department, Center for Innovation, Technology and Policy Research, IN Av. Rovisco Pais 1049-001, Lisbon Codex (Portugal)

    2007-04-15

    The present paper describes an experimental methodology devised to study spray cooling with multiple-intermittent sprays as those found in fuel injection systems of spark-ignition and diesel engines, or in dermatologic surgery applications. The spray characteristics and the surface thermal behaviour are measured by combining a two-component phase-Doppler anemometer with fast response surface thermocouples. The hardware allows simultaneous acquisition of Doppler and thermocouple signals which are processed in Matlab to estimate the time-varying heat flux and fluid-dynamic characteristics of the spray during impact. The time resolution of the acquisition system is limited by the data rate of validation of the phase-Doppler anemometer, but it has been shown to be accurate for the characterization of spray-cooling processes with short spurt durations for which the transient period of spray injection plays an important role. The measurements are processed in terms of the instantaneous heat fluxes, from which phase-average values of the boiling curves are obtained. Two of the characteristic parameters used in the thermal analysis of stationary spray cooling events, the critical heat flux (CHF) and Leidenfrost phenomenon, are then inferred in terms of operating conditions of the multiple-intermittent injections, such as the frequency, duration and pressure of injection. An integral method is suggested to describe the overall process of heat transfer, which accounts for the fluid-dynamic heterogeneities induced by multiple and successive droplet interactions within the area of spray impact. The method considers overall boiling curves dependant on the injection conditions and provides an empirical tool to characterize the heat transfer processes on the impact of multiple-intermittent sprays. The methodology is tested in a preliminary study of the effect of injection conditions on the heat removed by a fuel spray striking the back surface of the intake valve as in spark

  7. Embolia pulmonar por polimetilmetacrilato

    OpenAIRE

    Héctor Gómez Santa María; Mauro García Aurelio; Yanina Castillo Costa; Víctor Mauro; Carlos Barrero

    2009-01-01

    Los primeros registros de embolia pulmonar por polimetilmetacrilato se publicaron recientemente (2003) y desde entonces se describieron no más de 15 casos. Se presenta el caso de un paciente joven a quien dos meses antes de la consulta se le había efectuado una vertebroplastia percutánea con polimetilmetacrilato. Por síntomas pleuríticos se le realizó una radiografía de tórax, que evidenció múltiples imágenes radioopacas en ambos campos pulmonares. La embolia pulmonar por polimetilmetacrilato...

  8. A simplified model of aerosol removal by containment sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, D.A. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Burson, S.B. (Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Safety Issue Resolution)

    1993-06-01

    Spray systems in nuclear reactor containments are described. The scrubbing of aerosols from containment atmospheres by spray droplets is discussed. Uncertainties are identified in the prediction of spray performance when the sprays are used as a means for decontaminating containment atmospheres. A mechanistic model based on current knowledge of the physical phenomena involved in spray performance is developed. With this model, a quantitative uncertainty analysis of spray performance is conducted using a Monte Carlo method to sample 20 uncertain quantities related to phenomena of spray droplet behavior as well as the initial and boundary conditions expected to be associated with severe reactor accidents. Results of the uncertainty analysis are used to construct simplified expressions for spray decontamination coefficients. Two variables that affect aerosol capture by water droplets are not treated as uncertain; they are (1) [open quote]Q[close quote], spray water flux into the containment, and (2) [open quote]H[close quote], the total fall distance of spray droplets. The choice of values of these variables is left to the user since they are plant and accident specific. Also, they can usually be ascertained with some degree of certainty. The spray decontamination coefficients are found to be sufficiently dependent on the extent of decontamination that the fraction of the initial aerosol remaining in the atmosphere, m[sub f], is explicitly treated in the simplified expressions. The simplified expressions for the spray decontamination coefficient are given. Parametric values for these expressions are found for median, 10 percentile, and 90 percentile values in the uncertainty distribution for the spray decontamination coefficient. Examples are given to illustrate the utility of the simplified expressions to predict spray decontamination of an aerosol-laden atmosphere.

  9. Emprego de Spray Dryer na indústria de alimentos: uma breve revisão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Engel

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A secagem é um processo importante e amplamente empregado para a conservação de diversos tipos de alimentos. Quando realizado com o auxílio de elevadas temperaturas e tempos de secagem, pode ocasionar danos nos constituintes dos alimentos, como a degradação de componentes bioativos. O spray dryer é uma das técnicas de secagem que se destacam na indústria alimentícia, por ser um processo rápido, contínuo, econômico e por não expor o produto a elevadas temperaturas, diminuindo desta forma a sua degradação e perdas nutricionais. As propriedades do produto formado no processo dependem de uma série de variáveis que devem ser controladas, como a propriedades do líquido de alimentação, o design do equipamento e os parâmetros do processo. Neste sentido, este presente trabalho objetivou-se na revisão bibliográfica de aspectos importantes presentes no uso do processo de secagem por spray dryer na indústria alimentícia.

  10. Embolia pulmonar por polimetilmetacrilato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Gómez Santa María

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Los primeros registros de embolia pulmonar por polimetilmetacrilato se publicaron recientemente (2003 y desde entonces se describieron no más de 15 casos. Se presenta el caso de un paciente joven a quien dos meses antes de la consulta se le había efectuado una vertebroplastia percutánea con polimetilmetacrilato. Por síntomas pleuríticos se le realizó una radiografía de tórax, que evidenció múltiples imágenes radioopacas en ambos campos pulmonares. La embolia pulmonar por polimetilmetacrilato es una complicación muy poco frecuente de ese procedimiento y un diagnóstico diferencial para tener en cuenta en pacientes con el antecedente y que consulten por dolor precordial o disnea.REV ARGENT CARDIOL 2009;77:129-130.

  11. Evaluation of isotropy in wet-mix sprayed concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yubero, E.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that there are differences between the fresh mix concrete and the placed concrete sprayed using dry or wet-mix process. Because of that, the characterization of such material is carried out in cores extracted parallel to the spray direction from sample panels. However, in many applications (e.g. tunnel lining, considerable compressive stresses appear along the transversal direction. In this paper different spayed concretes are evaluated. It was observed that the values of compressive strength and modulus of elasticity were different depending on the direction of measurement. These differences are related to a preferential orientation of the coarse aggregate due to the characteristics of the casting process. Rather than applying classic empirical methods, the concrete mixes used in this study were designed according to a new proportioning method based on the difference between the composition of the fresh mix concrete and the placed concrete.Dadas las diferencias entre el hormigón de partida y el colocado, la evaluación de las propiedades de un hormigón proyectado, por vía húmeda o seca, se realiza mediante la extracción de testigos, evaluándose las propiedades mecánicas o deformacionales de forma uniaxial, según la dirección de la proyección. No obstante, son muchas las aplicaciones, como es el caso del sostenimiento en túneles, en las que esta disposición no representa la forma de trabajo principal del hormigón en la estructura. En el presente artículo se ha verificado que pueden existir diferencias en la resistencia a compresión y módulo de elasticidad del hormigón proyectado por vía húmeda, según la dirección de evaluación. Éstas van ligadas a la orientación que sufre el árido grueso como consecuencia de la puesta en obra del hormigón. Asimismo, el hormigón proyectado del estudio se ha dosificado utilizando como procedimiento de dosificación una propuesta metodológica, basada en las diferencias

  12. Sobre os tipos de lepidoptera depositados em museus brasileiros: XXIII. Papilionidae, Pieridae e Nymphalidae (Morphinae, Nymphalinae descritos por J.F. Zikán (suplemento e apatelodidae descritos por M. Draudt About the types of Lepidoptera depositated in Brazilian museums: XXIII. Papilionidae, Pieridae and Nympiialidae (Morphinae, Nymphalinae described by J.F. Zikán (supplement and apatelodidae described by M. Draud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf H.H. Mielke

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available A supplementary list of lhe Papilionidae, Pieridae, Nymphalinae (Morphinae, Nymphalinae dcscribed by J.F. Zikán, with the repositories of their types, and informes about the Apatelodidae described by M. Draudt, from the Zikán collection, are presented. Lectotypes are designated for Papilio agalhosilaus Zikán, 1938; Phoebis trile race chryseida Zikán, 1940; Phoebis trile race chyseida form ismene Zikán, 1940; and Morpho hércules form irideus Zikán, 1935.

  13. Study of Multi-Function Micro-Plasma Spraying Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Liuying; Wang Hangong; Hua Shaochun; Cao Xiaoping

    2007-01-01

    A multi-functional micro-arc plasma spraying system was developed according to aerodynamics and plasma spray theory. The soft switch IGBT (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor) invert technique, micro-computer control technique, convergent-divergent nozzle structure and axial powder feeding techniques have been adopted in the design of the micro-arc plasma spraying system. It is not only characterized by a small volume, a light weight, highly accurate control, high deposition efficiency and high reliability, but also has multi-functions in plasma spraying, welding and quenching. The experimental results showed that the system can produce a supersonic flame at a low power, spray Al 2 O 3 particles at an average speed up to 430 m/s, and make nanostructured AT13 coatings with an average bonding strength of 42.7 MPa. Compared to conventional 9M plasma spraying with a higher power, the coatings with almost the same properties as those by conventional plasma spray can be deposited by multi-functional micro-arc plasma spraying with a lower power plasma arc due to an improved power supply design, spray gun structure and powder feeding method. Moreover, this system is suitable for working with thin parts and undertaking on site repairs, and as a result, the application of plasma spraying will be greatly extended

  14. Measuring Spray Droplet Size from Agricultural Nozzles Using Laser Diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Bradley K.; Hoffmann, W. Clint

    2016-01-01

    When making an application of any crop protection material such as an herbicide or pesticide, the applicator uses a variety of skills and information to make an application so that the material reaches the target site (i.e., plant). Information critical in this process is the droplet size that a particular spray nozzle, spray pressure, and spray solution combination generates, as droplet size greatly influences product efficacy and how the spray moves through the environment. Researchers and product manufacturers commonly use laser diffraction equipment to measure the spray droplet size in laboratory wind tunnels. The work presented here describes methods used in making spray droplet size measurements with laser diffraction equipment for both ground and aerial application scenarios that can be used to ensure inter- and intra-laboratory precision while minimizing sampling bias associated with laser diffraction systems. Maintaining critical measurement distances and concurrent airflow throughout the testing process is key to this precision. Real time data quality analysis is also critical to preventing excess variation in the data or extraneous inclusion of erroneous data. Some limitations of this method include atypical spray nozzles, spray solutions or application conditions that result in spray streams that do not fully atomize within the measurement distances discussed. Successful adaption of this method can provide a highly efficient method for evaluation of the performance of agrochemical spray application nozzles under a variety of operational settings. Also discussed are potential experimental design considerations that can be included to enhance functionality of the data collected. PMID:27684589

  15. Hair casts due to a deodorant spray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ena, Pasquale; Mazzarello, Vittorio; Chiarolini, Fausto

    2005-11-01

    A 7-year-old girl presented with itching and greyish-white sleeve-like structures in her hair. After ruling out other possible causes for the symptoms, such as nits and dandruff, it was determined that the patient was affected by hair casts. These are small cylindrical structures resembling louse eggs that encircle individual scalp hairs and are easily movable along the hair shafts. It was concluded that she had induced the condition through misuse of a deodorant body spray. Scanning electron microscopy combined with electron dispersive X-ray analysis (X-ray microanalysis) of the hair casts showed the chemical nature of the structures. Some elements present in the composition of the ingredients of the deodorant spray, such as aluminium, chlorine, silicon, magnesium and carbon, were also present in this uncommon type of hair casts.

  16. Development of process data capturing, analysis and controlling for thermal spray techniques - SprayTracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelber, C.; Marke, S.; Trommler, U.; Rupprecht, C.; Weis, S.

    2017-03-01

    Thermal spraying processes are becoming increasingly important in high-technology areas, such as automotive engineering and medical technology. The method offers the advantage of a local layer application with different materials and high deposition rates. Challenges in the application of thermal spraying result from the complex interaction of different influencing variables, which can be attributed to the properties of different materials, operating equipment supply, electrical parameters, flow mechanics, plasma physics and automation. In addition, spraying systems are subject to constant wear. Due to the process specification and the high demands on the produced coatings, innovative quality assurance tools are necessary. A central aspect, which has not yet been considered, is the data management in relation to the present measured variables, in particular the spraying system, the handling system, working safety devices and additional measuring sensors. Both the recording of all process-characterizing variables, their linking and evaluation as well as the use of the data for the active process control presuppose a novel, innovative control system (hardware and software) that was to be developed within the scope of the research project. In addition, new measurement methods and sensors are to be developed and qualified in order to improve the process reliability of thermal spraying.

  17. Gas entrainment by one single French PWR spray, SARNET-2 spray benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.; Mimouni, S.; Manzini, G.; Xiao, J.; Vyskocil, L.; Siccama, N.B.; Huhtanen, R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper presents a benchmark performed in the frame of the SARNET-2 EU project. • It concerns momentum transfer between a PWR spray and the surrounding gas. • The entrained gas velocities can vary up to 100% from one code to another. • Simplified boundary conditions for sprays are generally used by the code users. • It is shown how these simplified conditions impact the gas entrainment. - Abstract: This paper presents a benchmark performed in the frame of the SARNET-2 EU project, dealing with momentum transfer between a real-scale PWR spray and the surrounding gas. It presents a description of the IRSN tests on the CALIST facility, the participating codes (8 contributions), code-experiment and code-to-code comparisons. It is found that droplet velocities are almost well calculated one meter below the spray nozzle, even if the spread of the spray is not recovered and the values of the entrained gas velocity vary up to 100% from one code to another. Concerning sensitivity analysis, several ‘simplifications’ have been made by the contributors, especially based on the boundary conditions applied at the location where droplets are injected. It is shown here that such simplifications influence droplet and entrained gas characteristics. The next step will be to translate these conclusions in terms of variables representative of interesting parameters for nuclear safety

  18. Advanced Diagnostics for High Pressure Spray Combustion.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skeen, Scott A.; Manin, Julien Luc; Pickett, Lyle M.

    2014-06-01

    The development of accurate predictive engine simulations requires experimental data to both inform and validate the models, but very limited information is presently available about the chemical structure of high pressure spray flames under engine- relevant conditions. Probing such flames for chemical information using non- intrusive optical methods or intrusive sampling techniques, however, is challenging because of the physical and optical harshness of the environment. This work details two new diagnostics that have been developed and deployed to obtain quantitative species concentrations and soot volume fractions from a high-pressure combusting spray. A high-speed, high-pressure sampling system was developed to extract gaseous species (including soot precursor species) from within the flame for offline analysis by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A high-speed multi-wavelength optical extinction diagnostic was also developed to quantify transient and quasi-steady soot processes. High-pressure sampling and offline characterization of gas-phase species formed following the pre-burn event was accomplished as well as characterization of gas-phase species present in the lift-off region of a high-pressure n-dodecane spray flame. For the initial samples discussed in this work several species were identified, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH); however, quantitative mole fractions were not determined. Nevertheless, the diagnostic developed here does have this capability. Quantitative, time-resolved measurements of soot extinction were also accomplished and the novel use of multiple incident wavelengths proved valuable toward characterizing changes in soot optical properties within different regions of the spray flame.

  19. Plasma spraying of cerium-doped YAG

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ctibor, Pavel; Kubát, J.; Pala, Zdeněk; Nevrlá, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 19 (2014), s. 2344-2351 ISSN 0884-2914 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/12/1872 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : plasma spraying * water-stabilized plasma Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 1.647, year: 2014 http://dx.doi.org/10.1557/jmr.2014.251

  20. Characteristics of wetting temperature during spray cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsutake, Yuichi; Monde, Masanori; Hidaka, Shinichirou

    2006-01-01

    An experimental study has been done to elucidate the effects of mass flux and subcooling of liquid and thermal properties of solid on the wetting temperature during cooling of a hot block with spray. A water spray was impinged at one of the end surfaces of a cylindrical block initially heated at 400 or 500degC. The experimental condition was mass fluxes G=1-9 kg/m 2 s and degrees of subcooling ΔT sub =20, 50, 80 K. Three blocks of copper, brass and carbon steel were prepared. During spray cooling internal block temperature distribution and sputtering sound pressure level were recorded and the surface temperature and heat flux were evaluated with 2D inverse heat conducting analysis. Cooling process on cooling curves is divided into four regimes categorized by change in a flow situation and the sound level. The wetting temperature defined as the wall temperature at a minimum heat flux point was measured over an extensive experimental range. The wetting wall temperature was correlated well with the parameter of GΔT sub . The wetting wall temperature increases as GΔT sub increases and reaches a constant value depending on the material of the surface at higher region of GΔT sub . (author)

  1. Estudo preliminar do uso de plantas medicinais por benzedores e outros informantes de Santa Teresa, Espírito Santo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F.T Medeiros

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado na área urbana e rural da cidade de Santa Teresa, localizada no município de Santa Teresa, Estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil, com o objetivo de identificar as espécies vegetais medicinais utilizadas por benzedores e outros informantes. Um levantamento qualitativo, por meio de conversas informais e do método de observação participante foi desenvolvido junto à 14 moradores locais, escolhidos de forma aleatória ou pelo método "bola de neve". Considerou-se cinco destes moradores como colaboradores-chave por serem usuários de plantas medicinais, aos quais foram conduzidas entrevistas estruturadas e semi-estruturadas. O material botânico coletado foi depositado no Herbário do Departamento de Botânica do Museu Nacional (R. Registrou-se o uso de 62 etnoespécies, sendo todas Angiospermas e, em sua maioria, de porte herbáceo. Para a cura de enfermidades os benzedores fazem orações e indicam espécies vegetais, cuja forma de preparo mais comum foi a decocção e a parte da planta mais utilizada foram as folhas.

  2. Automated Plasma Spray (APS) process feasibility study: Plasma spray process development and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetheroff, C. W.; Derkacs, T.; Matay, I. M.

    1979-01-01

    An automated plasma spray (APS) process was developed to apply two layer (NiCrAlY and ZrO2-12Y2O3) thermal-barrier coatings to aircraft gas turbine engine blade airfoils. The APS process hardware consists of four subsystems: a mechanical blade positioner incorporating two interlaced six-degree-of-freedom assemblies; a noncoherent optical metrology subsystem; a microprocessor-based adaptive system controller; and commercial plasma spray equipment. Over fifty JT9D first stage turbine blades specimens were coated with the APS process in preliminary checkout and evaluation studies. The best of the preliminary specimens achieved an overall coating thickness uniformity of + or - 53 micrometers, much better than is achievable manually. Factors limiting this performance were identified and process modifications were initiated accordingly. Comparative evaluations of coating thickness uniformity for manually sprayed and APS coated specimens were initiated. One of the preliminary evaluation specimens was subjected to a torch test and metallographic evaluation.

  3. Ternary ceramic thermal spraying powder and method of manufacturing thermal sprayed coating using said powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogli, Evelina; Sherman, Andrew J.; Glasgow, Curtis P.

    2018-02-06

    The invention describes a method for producing ternary and binary ceramic powders and their thermal spraying capable of manufacturing thermal sprayed coatings with superior properties. Powder contain at least 30% by weight ternary ceramic, at least 20% by weight binary molybdenum borides, at least one of the binary borides of Cr, Fe, Ni, W and Co and a maximum of 10% by weight of nano and submicro-sized boron nitride. The primary crystal phase of the manufactured thermal sprayed coatings from these powders is a ternary ceramic, while the secondary phases are binary ceramics. The coatings have extremely high resistance against corrosion of molten metal, extremely thermal shock resistance and superior tribological properties at low and at high temperatures.

  4. Large volume water sprays for dispersing warm fogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, V. W.; Anderson, B. J.; Burns, R. A.; Lala, G. G.; Meyer, M. B.

    1986-01-01

    A new method for dispersing of warm fogs which impede visibility and alter schedules is described. The method uses large volume recycled water sprays to create curtains of falling drops through which the fog is processed by the ambient wind and spray-induced air flow; the fog droplets are removed by coalescence/rainout. The efficiency of this fog droplet removal process depends on the size spectra of the spray drops and optimum spray drop size is calculated as between 0.3-1.0 mm in diameter. Water spray tests were conducted in order to determine the drop size spectra and temperature response of sprays produced by commercially available fire-fighting nozzles, and nozzle array tests were utilized to study air flow patterns and the thermal properties of the overall system. The initial test data reveal that the fog-dispersal procedure is effective.

  5. Development of cold sprayed Cu coating for canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Jun; Kang, Yoon Ha

    2010-01-01

    Cold sprayed Cu deposition was studied for the application of outer part of canister for high level nuclear waste. Five commercially available pure Cu powders were analyzed and sprayed by high pressure cold spray system. Electrochemical corrosion test using potentiostat in 3.5% NaCl solution was conducted as well as microstructural analysis including hardness and oxygen content measurements. Overall evaluation of corrosion performance of cold sprayed Cu deposition is inferior to forged and extruded Cu plates, but some of Cu depositions are comparable to Cu plates. The simulated corrosion test in 200m underground cave is still in progress. The effect of cold spray process parameters was also studied and the results show that the type of nozzle is the most important other than powder feed rate, spray distance, and scan speed. 1/10 scale miniature of canister was manufactured confirming that the production of full scale canister is possible

  6. Material design of ceramic coating by plasma spray method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamichi, M.; Kawamura, H.; Takabatake, T.

    1998-01-01

    In the ceramic coating on substrate, cracking and peeling occur due to the difference of thermal expansion between substrate material and coating material. For evaluation of peeling property of plasma sprayed coating, it is demanded that thermal properties of plasma sprayed coating are estimated in detail. In this study, the results of comparison of thermal properties between bulk material and plasma sprayed material are investigated to design the ceramic coating quantitatively. Thermal conductivity of plasma sprayed MgO.Al 2 O 3 is decreased by approximately 50% to that of sintered MgO.Al 2 O 3 . Thermal conductivity of plasma sprayed 410SS agreed well with the calculation results of relation between porosity and thermal conductivity of iron sintered material. Thermal expansions of atmospheric plasma sprayed MgO.Al 2 O 3 and bulk 410SS, respectively. Therefore, as to material design on ceramic coating, it was made clear that thermal conductivity is more important than thermal expansion. (orig.)

  7. Comparative efficacy of steroid nasal spray versus antihistamine nasal spray in allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Anand; Das, Balabhadra Prasad; Mishra, Subhash Chandra

    2007-03-01

    This prospective randomized case controlled study was conducted to determine the efficacy of antihistamine (azelastine) nasal spray and compare it to steroid (beclomethasone) nasal spray on the symptoms of allergic rhinitis. Seventy five symptomatic patients of allergic rhinitis were included in this study. Diagnosis was made on the basis of history and physical examination. The patients were divided into three groups randomly. Group A was treated with Azelastine nasal spray, Group B was treated with Beclomethasone nasal spray and Group C was control group and only treated with steam inhalation. Efficacy of the treatment was assessed in the terms of Total Rhinitis Symptom Complex (TSC) scores and individual symptom score which was calculated on the basis of Okuda's grading system. Base line total symptom complex (TSC) scores were reduced in group A and group B by 84.0% after 4 week treatment whereas in group C it was reduced by only 38.0%. Decrease in mean score for sneezing was 95.0% in group A and group B whereas it was only 28.3% in group C. Similarly decrease in mean score for rhinorrhoea in azelastine group was 94.4% and in beclomethasone group was 95.3% in comparison to steam inhalation group where it was 25.0%. Only the beclomethasone reduced nasal stuffiness score significantly by 95.0%. No significant adverse effects of the drugs were observed. The present study establishes the relative efficacy and tolerability ofazelastine nasal spray as compared to beclomethasone nasal spray in symptomatic patients of allergic rhinitis.

  8. User friendliness, efficiency & spray quality of stirrup pumps versus hand compression pumps for indoor residual spraying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vijay; Kesari, Shreekant; Chowdhury, Rajib; Kumar, Sanjiv; Sinha, Gunjan; Hussain, Saddam; Huda, M Mamun; Kroeger, Axel; Das, Pradeep

    2013-01-01

    Indoor residual spraying (IRS) is a proven tool to reduce visceral leishmaniasis vectors in endemic villages. In India IRS is being done with stirrup pumps, whereas Nepal, Bangladesh, and other countries use compression pumps. The present study was conducted with the objectives to compare the efficiency, cost and user friendliness of stirrup and compression pumps. The study was carried out in Gorigawan village of the Vaishali district in north Bihar and included a total population of 3259 inhabitants in 605 households. Spraying with 50 per cent DDT was done by two teams with 6 persons per team under the supervision of investigators over 5 days with each type of pump (10 days in total using 2 stirrup pumps and 3 compression pumps) by the same sprayers in an alternate way. The spraying technique was observed using an observation check list, the number of houses and room surfaces sprayed was recorded and an interview with sprayers on their satisfaction with the two types of pumps was conducted. On average, 65 houses were covered per day with the compression pump and 56 houses were covered with the stirrup pump. The surface area sprayed per squad per day was higher for the compression pump (4636 m²) than for the stirrup pump (4102 m²). Observation showed that it was easy to maintain the spray swath with the compression pump but very difficult with the stirrup pump. The wastage of insecticide suspension was negligible for the compression pump but high for the stirrup pump. The compression pump was found to be more user friendly due to its lower weight, easier to operate, lower operation cost, higher safety and better efficiency in terms of discharge rate and higher area coverage than the stirrup pump.

  9. Spray-dried tomato powder: reconstitution properties and colour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Santos de Sousa

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Powdered tomato was produced by spray drying the tomato pulp. A full 2³ factorial design with the central point was used, varying the feed flow rate (127-276 g/min, air inlet temperature (200-220ºC and the atomisation speed (25,000-35,000 rpm. The responses analysed were: moisture content, solubility, wettability consistency and colour, but the factors only significantly affected the colour parameter. All the samples became significantly darker and less red with an increase of the variables under study. A low atomisation speed (25,000 rpm and lower inlet air temperature (220ºC produced the powders with a higher colour index (a/b and less darkening.Tomate em pó foi produzido por secagem por atomização da polpa de tomate. Um planejamento 2³fatorial completo com ponto central foi conduzido variando a taxa de alimentação (127276 g/min, temperatura de entrada do ar (200-220ºC e a velocidade de atomização (25000-35000 rpm. As respostas analisadas foram: conteúdo de umidade, solubilidade, molhabilidade, consistência e cor, ma os fatores somente afetaram significativamente a cor. Todas as amostras tornaram significantemente mais escuras e menos vermelhas com o aumento das variáveis sob estudo. Baixa velocidade de atomização (25000 rpm e menor temperatura do ar de secagem (220ºC produziram pós de maior índice de cor (a/b e menor escurecimento.

  10. COUPLED ATOMIZATION AND SPRAY MODELLING IN THE SPRAY FORMING PROCESS USING OPENFOAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjesing, Rasmus; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Fritsching, Udo

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents a numerical model capable of simulating the atomization, break-up and in-flight spray phenomena in the spray forming process. The model is developed and implemented in the freeware code openFOAM. The focus is on studying the coupling effect of the melt break-up phenomena...... with the local gas and droplets flow fields. The work is based on an Eulerian-Lagrangian description, which is implemented in a full 3D representation. The gas is described by the incompressible RANS equations, whereas the movement of the droplets is modeled by a tracking approach, together with a full thermal...

  11. High mass throughput particle generation using multiple nozzle spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pui, David Y.H.; Chen, Da-Ren

    2004-07-20

    Spraying apparatus and methods that employ multiple nozzle structures for producing multiple sprays of particles, e.g., nanoparticles, for various applications, e.g., pharmaceuticals, are provided. For example, an electrospray dispensing device may include a plurality of nozzle structures, wherein each nozzle structure is separated from adjacent nozzle structures by an internozzle distance. Sprays of particles are established from the nozzle structures by creating a nonuniform electrical field between the nozzle structures and an electrode electrically isolated therefrom.

  12. Efficient spray-coated colloidal quantum dot solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Kramer, Illan J.

    2014-11-10

    (Figure Presented). A colloidal quantum dot solar cell is fabricated by spray-coating under ambient conditions. By developing a room-temperature spray-coating technique and implementing a fully automated process with near monolayer control - an approach termed as sprayLD - an electronic defect is eliminated resulting in solar cell performance and statistical distribution superior to prior batch-processed methods along with a hero performance of 8.1%.

  13. Microencapsulación de tomate de árbol rojo (solanum betaceum cav.), mediante spray drying para aplicación en productos lácteos

    OpenAIRE

    Revelo Vargas, Danilo Andrés

    2014-01-01

    El proceso de microencapsulación por spray drying de extractos acuosos de tomate de árbol rojo (Solanum betaceum Cav.) se evaluó utilizando como material de partida el endocarpio (SE) de la fruta y la combinación de mesocarpio y endocarpio (ME) como una alternativa de generación de productos con valor agregado a partir de esta fruta para su utilización en la industria de alimentos. La encapsulación se realizó en un spray-dryer Lab Plant a condiciones optimizadas y con variación...

  14. Injector spray characterization of methanol in reciprocating engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, L.; Naegeli, D.

    1994-06-01

    This report covers a study that addressed cold-starting problems in alcohol-fueled, spark-ignition engines by using fine-spray port-fuel injectors to inject fuel directly into the cylinder. This task included development and characterization of some very fine-spray, port-fuel injectors for a methanol-fueled spark-ignition engine. After determining the spray characteristics, a computational study was performed to estimate the evaporation rate of the methanol fuel spray under cold-starting and steady-state conditions.

  15. Motion planning for robotic spray cleaning with environmentally safe solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Yong K.; Meirans, L.; Drotning, W.D.

    1993-09-01

    Automatic motion planning of a spray cleaning robot with collision avoidance is presented in this paper. In manufacturing environments, electronic and mechanical components are traditionally cleaned by spraying or dipping them using chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) solvents. As new scientific data show that such solvents are major causes for stratospheric ozone depletion, an alternate cleaning method is needed. Part cleaning with aqueous solvents is environmentally safe, but can require precision spraying at high pressures for extended time periods. Operator fatigue during manual spraying can decrease the quality of the cleaning process. By spraying with a robotic manipulator, the necessary spray accuracy and consistency to manufacture highreliability components can be obtained. Our motion planner was developed to automatically generate motions for spraying robots based on the part geometry and cleaning process parameters. For spraying paint and other coatings a geometric description of the parts and robot may be sufficient for motion planning, since coatings are usually done over the visible surfaces. For spray cleaning, the requirement to reach hidden surfaces necessitates the addition of a rule-based method to the geometric motion planning.

  16. Dermal exposure due to airless spray painting : a semi-experimental study during spray painting of a container

    OpenAIRE

    Lansink, C.J.M.; Hengstum, C. van; Brouwer, D.H.

    1998-01-01

    In this study dermal exposure by spray painting has been investigated. After a pilot-study it was decided to start a study in the offshore industry, where the airless spray painting technique was used. The main purpose of the present study was to determine the range of potential dermal exposure to paint during airless spray painting. It was also investigated whether the observed exposure corresponds with the estimates made by the exposure model EASE. Skin exposure was measured in three offsho...

  17. Catálogo de los tipos de Mycetophilidae (Insecta, Diptera depositados en el Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales, Buenos Aires A catalog of the types of Mycetophilidae (Insecta, Diptera deposited in the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales, Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel O Bachmann

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se catalogan los ejemplares tipo (solo paratipos de 102 especies de Mycetophilidae descritas y depositadas en este Museo por el Dr. José Pedro Duret. Una selección de su rica colección también fue depositada por él aquí; la mayor parte fue adquirida por el Dr. Loic Matile, Paris, Francia. El Museo no alberga otros tipos de esta familia.The types (only paratypes of 102 species of Mycetophilidae described and deposited in this Museum by Dr. José Pedro Duret are recorded. A selection from his rich collection was also here deposited by him. Most of his collection was acquired by Dr. Loic Matile, Paris, France. The Museum houses no other types of species of this family.

  18. Optimization of Chitosan Microspheres Spray Drying via 32 Full Factorial Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsarov Plamen D.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Generally, the preparation of spray-dried microspheres is strongly affected by the process parameters. Particle size and production yield are mainly influenced by the spraying solution concentration and the pump rate of the spray dryer.

  19. PLASMA SPRAYING OF REFRACTORY CERMETS BY THE WATER-STABILIZED SPRAY (WSP®) SYSTEM

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ctibor, Pavel; Brožek, V.; Cheong, D.-I.; Chráska, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 3 (2009), s. 241-253 ISSN 0001-7043 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Plasma spraying * cermet coatings * microhardness * zirconium carbide * tungsten Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass

  20. Production flux of sea spray aerosol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Leeuw, G.; Lewis, E.; Andreas, E. L.; Anguelova, M. D.; Fairall, C. W.; O’Dowd, C.; Schulz, M.; Schwartz, S. E.

    2011-05-07

    Knowledge of the size- and composition-dependent production flux of primary sea spray aerosol (SSA) particles and its dependence on environmental variables is required for modeling cloud microphysical properties and aerosol radiative influences, interpreting measurements of particulate matter in coastal areas and its relation to air quality, and evaluating rates of uptake and reactions of gases in sea spray drops. This review examines recent research pertinent to SSA production flux, which deals mainly with production of particles with r{sub 80} (equilibrium radius at 80% relative humidity) less than 1 {micro}m and as small as 0.01 {micro}m. Production of sea spray particles and its dependence on controlling factors has been investigated in laboratory studies that have examined the dependences on water temperature, salinity, and the presence of organics and in field measurements with micrometeorological techniques that use newly developed fast optical particle sizers. Extensive measurements show that water-insoluble organic matter contributes substantially to the composition of SSA particles with r{sub 80} < 0.25 {micro}m and, in locations with high biological activity, can be the dominant constituent. Order-of-magnitude variation remains in estimates of the size-dependent production flux per white area, the quantity central to formulations of the production flux based on the whitecap method. This variation indicates that the production flux may depend on quantities such as the volume flux of air bubbles to the surface that are not accounted for in current models. Variation in estimates of the whitecap fraction as a function of wind speed contributes additional, comparable uncertainty to production flux estimates.

  1. An experimental study on atomizing formation process of diesel spray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Bong

    2000-02-01

    In this study, the experiment has, been conducted to investigate the spray characteristics under the parameter of an ambient pressure with a single hole nozzle having aspect ratio(L/D) of 5 and diameter of 0.45mm. Under the condition of the injection pressure of 14Mpa, the initial disintegrating process of a diesel spray is investigated and analysized according to change of the ambient pressures, 0.1, 1, 2 and 3Mpa. The double flash method has been employed to visualize the process of the diesel sprays. The results obtained in this study are as follows: 1) After spray starts, the spray is shown as non-disturbance liquid column within about 1∼2mm from the nozzle tip, whose diameter is similar to that of a nozzle. For the same injection pressure, the increase of the ambient pressure makes the length of the non-disturbance liquid column become short. 2) Due to the surface wave, ligaments of the shape thread appear at the boundary of liquid column right after spray. The more developed wave together the progress of spray transforms ligaments into droplets that have generally the uniformed size. 3) In case spraying into chambers having different ambient pressures, 1, 2, and 3Mpa, the spray tip velocities reach up to 1.5, 1.2, and 0.6ms, respectively, and decrease with lapse of time. The spray angle keeps increasing for 0.6, 1.2, and 1.4ms after spray under the various ambient pressures, 3, 2, and 1Mpa, respectively, and begins to decrease and maintains the constant value. Therefore, the transition points appear near the point where the velocity decreases and the spray angle increases, simultaneously. The higher ambient pressure leads to fast appearance of transition under the same spray pressure. 4) The disintegrating mechanism of the liquid spray is two combined effects: a) friction forces between the surface waves generated at the surface of the liquid column and the ambient gas, b) the collisions of liquid droplets and ligaments by spray were overtaking

  2. Moisture Transport Through Sprayed Concrete Tunnel Linings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holter, Karl Gunnar; Geving, Stig

    2016-01-01

    Waterproofing of permanent sprayed concrete tunnel linings with sprayed membranes in a continuous sandwich structure has been attempted since 2000 and has seen increased use in some countries. The main function of a sprayed membrane from a waterproofing perspective is to provide crack bridging and hence prevent flow of liquid water into the tunnel through cracks and imperfections in the concrete material. However, moisture can migrate through the concrete and EVA-based membrane materials by capillary and vapor diffusion mechanisms. These moisture transport mechanisms can have an influence on the degree of saturation, and may influence the pore pressures in the concrete material as well as risk of freeze-thaw damage of the concrete and membrane. The paper describes a detailed study of moisture transport material parameters, moisture condition in tunnel linings and climatic conditions tunnels in hard rock in Norway. These data have been included in a hygrothermal simulation model in the software WUFI for moisture transport to substantiate moisture transport and long-term effects on saturation of the concrete and membrane material. The findings suggest that EVA-based membranes exhibit significant water absorption and vapor transport properties although they are impermeable to liquid water flow. State-of-the-art sprayed concrete material applied with the wet mix method exhibits very low hydraulic conductivities, lower than 10-14 m/s, thus saturated conductive water flow is a very unlikely dominant transport mechanism. Moisture transport through the lining structure by capillary flow and vapor diffusion are calculated to approximately 3 cm3/m2 per day for lining thicknesses in the range of 25-35 cm and seasonal Nordic climate variations. The calculated moisture contents in the tunnel linings from the hygrothermal simulations are largely in agreement with the measured moisture contents in the tunnel linings. The findings also indicate that the concrete material exhibits

  3. Osteomielitis por salmonella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Velázquez Pérez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de una paciente femenina de color blanco y dos años de edad, con diagnóstico prenatal de sicklemia, que desde edades tempranas tiene problemas de la enfermedad. Ingresó en esta ocasión por una de las complicaciones infecciosas que ocasiona este padecimiento, una osteomielitis del húmero izquierdo, aislándose el germen en el hemocultivo realizado, una salmonella. Necesitó de tratamiento enérgico y prolongado; se obtuvo un resultado satisfactorio en la evolución de la enfermedad y se sigue sistemáticamente por consulta externa en la actualidad

  4. Apendicitis por Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Beatriz MUÑOZ URRIBARRI

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La paracoccidioidomicosis es la micosis más prevalente en Sudamérica. La forma aguda afecta el sistema fagocítico mononuclear de niños y personas inmunocomprometidas. El compromiso gastrointestinal es frecuente y su patogenia implica diseminación hematógena y linfática. La linfadenomegalia abdominal causa obstrucción intestinal y abdomen agudo. En este artículo damos a conocer el caso de un niño con compromiso gastrointestinal por apendicitis. Este es el primer caso reportado de apendicitis por esta patología. (Rev Med Hered 2006;17:58-60.

  5. Comparación de la aceptabilidad de dos propelentes del salbutamol spray: Ciudad de La Habana, enero-marzo, 2009 Comparison of the acceptability of two propellants from Salbutamol spray: Ciudad de La Habana during January-March, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuba Alonso Carbonell

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available El cambio de propelente en la formulación del salbutamol spray por uno protector de la capa de ozono requiere de evidencias que justifiquen su aceptabilidad en la población expuesta a este. En tal sentido se realizó un estudio en Ciudad de La Habana con el propósito de evaluar y comparar la aceptabilidad del producto ventolin con propelente ecológico y el salbutamol spray de producción nacional, posterior a una intervención educativa. Los 841 pacientes incluidos fueron distribuidos entre los municipios de forma proporcional al número de inscriptos para salbutamol spray en cada uno (ponderación municipal de acuerdo con el número de inscriptos. La selección de los pacientes se realizó por conveniencia del total de inscritos en cada farmacia principal municipal. La mayor parte de los encuestados coincide en que el tamaño, la forma del envase y la boquilla son adecuados. El sabor del producto fue considerado agradable discretamente superior en los que emplearon el salbutamol, mientras que la presentación en general fue más aceptada en el caso del ventolin. El control de los síntomas fue similar para ambos grupos. No existieron diferencias marcadas en la aceptabilidad de ambos productos farmacéuticos, a pesar de esto se encontró una aceptabilidad discretamente superior en el caso del ventolin. Estos resultados respaldan la introducción del propelente tetrafluoretano, específicamente el HFC 134, en la fabricación del salbutamol spray dado que el nivel de aceptabilidad del producto ventolin con este propelente ecológico es similar al encontrado para el salbutamol spray producido y comercializado actualmente en Cuba.The change of propellant in spray Salbutamol formula by other of the ozone layer requires of evidences justifying its acceptability in population exposed to it. The aim of present study in Ciudad de La Habana was to assess and to compare the acceptability of Ventolin as an ecological propellant and the Cuban spray

  6. Caracterización mecánica de recubrimientos de aluminio por CVD-FBR sobre aceros inoxidables y resistencia a la oxidación en vapor de agua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Pérez-Muñoz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Los recubrimientos de aluminio depositados sobre el acero inoxidable austenítico AISI 317 por Deposición Química de Vapor en Lecho Fluidizado (CVD-FBR presentan a altas temperaturas una reducción de la velocidad de corrosión de más de 80 veces. Se realizó la caracterización mecánica de los recubrimientos por medio de microdureza, nanoindentación, para conocer cómo se vieron afectas las propiedades mecánicas (en especial la dureza y el módulo de Young del recubrimiento y del sustrato luego de ser sometidos a la oxidación a alta temperatura. También se hicieron análisis por medio de Microscopia Electrónica de Barrido (MEB, para observar los cambios microestructurales, y de Microscopia de Fuerza Atómica (MFA, para observar cómo varía la topografía y el gradiente de rugosidad en función de la distancia recorrida por la punta del cantiléver durante los barridos.

  7. INFLUENCIA DE LA NITRURACIÓN POR PLASMA SOBRE EL COMPORTAMIENTO A LA CORROSIÓN Y LA ADHESIÓN DE RECUBRIMIENTOS DLC SOBRE ACERO INOXIDABLE AISI 420

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge N. Pecina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se estudió el comportamiento a la corrosió n y la adhesión de dos rec ubrimientos DLC (“Diamond Like Carbon ” , “Soft” y “Hard”, depositados por PACVD (“Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapour Deposition” sobre acero AISI 420, templado y revenido y /o nitrurado por plasma . Se analizaron por espectroscopía Raman y midió dureza en superficie. Se observó la microestructura por OM y SEM. Se realizaron pruebas de adhesión con indentación Rockwell C . S e practicaron ensayos de Niebla Salina e inmersión en HCl . Los DLC “ Soft ” presentaron una dureza de 5 00 HV y un espesor de 2 0 μm , mientras que los “ Hard ” tuvieron 1400 HV y 2 ,5 μm. Ambos recubrimientos presentaron bajo coeficiente de fricción y buena adhesión sobre el sustrato nitrurado . También presentaron buena resistencia a la corrosión atmosférica. En HCl el DLC retardó la degradación que se presentó rápidamente en las muestras sin recubrir.

  8. Digital Image Processing application to spray and flammability studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernan, M. A.; Parikh, P.; Sarohia, V.

    1985-01-01

    Digital Image Processing has been integrated into a new technique for measurements of fuel spray characteristics. The advantages of this technique are: a wide dynamic range of droplet sizes, accounting for nonspherical droplet shapes not possible with other spray assessment techniques. Finally, the technique has been applied to the study of turbojet engine fuel nozzle atomization performance with Jet A and antimisting fuel.

  9. Tableting properties of an improved spray-dried lactose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rassu, G.; Eissens, A. C.; Bolhuis, G. K.

    2006-01-01

    Spray-dried lactose is one of the most widely used filler-binders for direct compaction. The compactibility is a function of both primary particle size and the presence of amorphous lactose. Commercially available spray-dried lactose contains 15-20% amorphous lactose and 80-85% alpha-lactose

  10. Comparison of three fungicide spray advisories for lettuce downy mildew

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, B.M.; Subbarao, K.V.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.; Koike, S.T.

    2001-01-01

    Lettuce growers in coastal California have relied mainly on protective fungicide sprays to control downy mildew. Thus, timing of sprays before infection is critical for optimal results. A leaf-wetness-driven, infection-based advisory system, previously developed, did not always perform

  11. Agricultural sprays in cross-flow and drift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, M.; Balachandar, R.; Wulfsohn, Dvoralai

    2001-01-01

    The droplet size and velocity characteristics of an agricultural spray were studied in a wind tunnel in the presence of a non-uniform cross-flow. The spray was generated at three nozzle-operating pressures. The droplet size and velocity was measured in both the cross-flow direction and the vertical...

  12. A numerical study on dynamics of spray jets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The study of flow characteristics of spray jets in an injector nozzle, solgel process is very critical for scientific studies. In this communication, we report results from a numerical modeling of spray jet dynamics and its breakup. The nature of instability depends on the density of the jet fluid and the ambient fluid and also on the ...

  13. Single droplet analysis for spray drying of foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdana, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Many food ingredients, such as enzymes and probiotics, are spray dried to provide shelf-life. Major hurdle to apply spray drying is the lack of scientific insight on the inactivation mechanisms of components and the extensive optimization required for formulation and drying conditions to obtain

  14. Production of amorphous starch powders by solution spray drying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niazi, Muhammad B. K.; Broekhuis, Antonius A.

    2012-01-01

    The spray drying of starch/maltodextrin formulations was evaluated as a potential technology for the manufacturing of amorphous thermoplastic starches. Mixtures of starches with high to low amylose (Am)amylopectin (Ap) ratios were spray-dried from water-based solutions and granular dispersions. The

  15. Screening and spray drying of enzymes and probiotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutyser, M.A.I.; Perdana, J.A.; Fox, M.B.

    2013-01-01

    Many food ingredients, such as enzymes and probiotics, are spray dried to provide a longer shelf life. A major hurdle when applying spray drying is the extensive optimisa tion required for formulation and drying conditions to obtain powders of acceptable quality. Therefore, a high-throughput

  16. PAINT SPRAY BOOTH DESIGN USING RECIRCULATION/PARTITIONING VENTILATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many spray painting facility operators have been attempting to reduce the discharge of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from paint spray booths to the atmosphere. Some have been able to convert to lower VOC containing paints and coatings such as powder coating, waterborne coatin...

  17. Application of laser assisted cold spraying process for metal deposition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tlotleng, Monnamme

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Laser assisted cold spraying (LACS) process is a hybrid technique that uses laser and cold spray to deposit solid powders on metal substrates. For bonding to occur, the particle velocities must be supersonic which are achieved by entraining...

  18. Developments in the formulation and delivery of spray dried vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanojia, Gaurav; Have, Rimko Ten; Soema, Peter C; Frijlink, Henderik; Amorij, Jean-Pierre; Kersten, Gideon

    2017-01-01

    Spray drying is a promising method for the stabilization of vaccines, which are usually formulated as liquids. Usually, vaccine stability is improved by spray drying in the presence of a range of excipients. Unlike freeze drying, there is no freezing step involved, thus the damage related to this

  19. Efficacy of combined traditional Chinese medicine spray with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: We recommend a new kind of spray made from eight kinds of traditional Chinese medicine, we aimed to investigate the safety and clinical efficacy of combined traditional Chinese medicine spray (TCMS) with premature ejaculation desensitization therapy (PEDT) for the treatment of primary premature ejaculation ...

  20. Pesticide spray application, behavior, and assessment: workshop proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard B. Roberts

    1976-01-01

    Experts from relevant disciplines exchanged information on three important problems of pesticide spray technology. The four papers presented are Physical Parameters Relating to Pesticide Applications by N. B. Akesson and W. E. Yates; The Micrometeorology and Physics of Spray Particle Behavior by H. E. Cramer and D. G. Boyle;

  1. Efficacy of preharvest spraying with Pichia guilliermondii on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effects of preharvest spraying with Pichia guilliermondii on postharvest natural decay of cherry tomato fruit, and evaluated the quality attributes during storage. Preharvest spraying with P. guilliermondii significantly decreased the decay index. Moreover, the efficacy of this biological control was ...

  2. Two intelligent spraying systems developed for tree crop production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precision pesticide application technologies are needed to achieve efficient and effective spray deposition on target areas and minimize off-target losses. Two variable-rate intelligent sprayers were developed as an introduction of new generation sprayers for tree crop applications. The first spraye...

  3. Single droplet analysis for spray drying of foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdana, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Many food ingredients, such as enzymes and probiotics, are spray dried to provide shelf-life. Major hurdle to apply spray drying is the lack of scientific insight on the inactivation mechanisms of components and the extensive optimization required for formulation and drying conditions to obtain

  4. Microencapsulation of Lactobacillus casei by spray drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Rebeka Cristiane Silva; Finkler, Leandro; Finkler, Christine Lamenha Luna

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the use of spray drying to produce microparticles of Lactobacillus casei. Microorganism was cultivated in shaken flasks and the microencapsulation process was performed using a laboratory-scale spray dryer. A rotational central composite design was employed to optimise the drying conditions. High cell viability (1.1 × 10(10) CFU/g) was achieved using an inlet air temperature of 70 °C and 25% (w/v) of maltodextrin. Microparticles presented values of solubility, wettability, water activity, hygroscopicity and humidity corresponding to 97.03 ± 0.04%, 100% (in 1.16 min), 0.14 ± 0.0, 35.20 g H2O/100 g and 4.80 ± 0.43%, respectively. The microparticles were spherical with a smooth surface and thermally stable. Encapsulation improved the survival of L. casei during storage. After 60 days, the samples stored at -8 °C showed viable cell concentrations of 1.0 × 10(9) CFU/g.

  5. Fractal analysis of agricultural nozzles spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Agüera

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Fractal scaling of the exponential type is used to establish the cumulative volume (V distribution applied through agricultural spray nozzles in size x droplets, smaller than the characteristic size X. From exponent d, we deduced the fractal dimension (Df which measures the degree of irregularity of the medium. This property is known as 'self-similarity'. Assuming that the droplet set from a spray nozzle is self-similar, the objectives of this study were to develop a methodology for calculating a Df factor associated with a given nozzle and to determine regression coefficients in order to predict droplet spectra factors from a nozzle, taking into account its own Df and pressure operating. Based on the iterated function system, we developed an algorithm to relate nozzle types to a particular value of Df. Four nozzles and five operating pressure droplet size characteristics were measured using a Phase Doppler Particle Analyser (PDPA. The data input consisted of droplet size spectra factors derived from these measurements. Estimated Df values showed dependence on nozzle type and independence of operating pressure. We developed an exponential model based on the Df to enable us to predict droplet size spectra factors. Significant coefficients of determination were found for the fitted model. This model could prove useful as a means of comparing the behavior of nozzles which only differ in not measurable geometric parameters and it can predict droplet spectra factors of a nozzle operating under different pressures from data measured only in extreme work pressures.

  6. Impact Response of Thermally Sprayed Metal Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, J. L.; Hall, A. C.; Moore, N. W.; Pautz, S. D.; Franke, B. C.; Scherzinger, W. M.; Brown, D. W.

    2017-06-01

    Gas-gun experiments have probed the impact response of tantalum specimens that were additively manufactured using a controlled thermal spray deposition process. Velocity interferometer (VISAR) diagnostics provided time-resolved measurements of sample response under one-dimensional (i . e . , uniaxial strain) shock compression to peak stresses ranging between 1 and 4 GPa. The acquired wave-profile data have been analyzed to determine the Hugoniot Elastic Limit (HEL), Hugoniot equation of state, and high-pressure yield strength of the thermally deposited samples for comparison to published baseline results for conventionally wrought tantalum. The effects of composition, porosity, and microstructure (e . g . , grain/splat size and morphology) are assessed to explain differences in the dynamic mechanical behavior of spray-deposited versus conventional material. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  7. UVC emitting phosphors obtained by spray pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caiut, J.M.A., E-mail: jmacaiut@iq.unesp.b [Centre d' Elaboration de Materiaux et d' Etudes Structurales, CEMES/CNRS-BP 94347, 31055 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Institute of Chemistry, UNESP-Universidade Estadual Paulista, CP 355, Araraquara-SP 14801-970 (Brazil); Lechevallier, S.; Dexpert-Ghys, J. [Centre d' Elaboration de Materiaux et d' Etudes Structurales, CEMES/CNRS-BP 94347, 31055 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Caillier, B.; Guillot, Ph. [Diagnostic des Plasmas Hors Equilibre, Universite Jean Francois Champollion, place de Verdun, 81012 Albi Cedex 9 (France)

    2011-04-15

    The broadband inter-configurational (4f{sup 1}5d{sup 1{yields}}4f{sup 2}) emission of Pr{sup 3+} doped in lanthanum orthophosphate (LaPO{sub 4}) and in calcium pyrophosphate (Ca{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}) has been investigated under plasma excitation. The synthesis by spray pyrolysis at moderate temperature followed by a controlled annealing proves to be a very efficient way to produce good quality UVC emitting phosphor Ca{sub 1.92}Pr{sub 0.04}Na{sub 0.04}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} ({alpha} phase). The emission of this phosphor in the wavelength range 200-350 nm has been measured with a prototype device, which can be employed for anti-microbial testing. - Research Highlights: {yields} The Pr{sup 3+} doped orthophosphate and pyrophosphate were synthesized by spray pyrolysis. {yields} The dense particles present good quality UVC emitting (200-350 nm). {yields} The prototype device can be employed for anti-microbial testing.

  8. Effects of the addition of H{sub 2}O and NH{sub 4}OH in the electrical properties of thin films of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} deposited by pyrolytic spray; Efectos de la adicion de H{sub 2}O y NH{sub 4}OH en las propiedades electricas de peliculas delgadas de Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} depositadas por rocio pirolitico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera S, H.J.; Alarcon F, G.; Aguilar F, M. [CICATA-IPN, Legaria 694, Col. Irrigacion, 11500 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Falcony, C. [CINVESTAV-IPN, 07000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Garcia H, M.; Guzman M, J. [IIM-UNAM, A.P. 70-360, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Araiza I, J.J. [UAZ, 98060 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    In this work we studied the electrical properties of yttrium oxide thin films obtained by spray pyrolysis from Y(acac){sub 3} and N,N-DMF. The films were deposited on Si(100) substrates at temperatures of 400, 450, 500 and 550 C. The electrical characteristic of the films was improved when a mist of H{sub 2}O and/or NH{sub 4}0H was simultaneously added to the deposition system. Current and capacitance versus voltage measurements were obtained when the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} films were integrated in MOS (Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor) structures. Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} films with a dielectric constant up to 15 were obtained. The films can stand electric fields up to 2 MV/cm. An interface state density in the range of 10{sup 10}-10{sup 11} cm{sup -2} eV{sup -1} was measured at midgap from the high and low frequency capacitance measurements. (Author)

  9. Effects of the addition of H{sub 2}O and NH{sub 4}OH in the optical and structural properties of the thin films of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} deposited by pyrolytic spray; Efectos de la adicion de H{sub 2}O y NH{sub 4}OH en las propiedades opticas y estructurales de las peliculas delgadas de Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} depositadas por rocio pirolitico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alarcon F, G.; Carvajal V, R.; Aguilar F, M. [CICATA-IPN, Legaria 694, Col. Irrigacion, 11500 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Falcony, C. [CINVESTAV, A.P. 14-740, 07000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)] [and others

    2005-07-01

    In this work we studied the optical and structural properties of yttrium oxide thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis. Yttrium acetylacetonate was used as raw material and N, N-DMF was used as solvent. The films were deposited on Si (100) and Si (111) substrates at temperatures of 400, 450, 500 and 550 C. The optical and structural characteristics of the films were dramatically improved when a mist of H{sub 2}O and/or NH{sub 4}0H was simultaneously added during deposition of the films. A refraction index up to 1.88, and deposition rates lower than 10 A/sec were obtained in the films. Infrared spectroscopy measurements indicate that the films resulted free from -OH bonds. X-ray diffraction patterns reveal that the films were polycrystalline. In addition, the relative chemical composition of the films was determined by Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy and the surface morphology was analyzed in the Atomic Force Microscope. (Author)

  10. Spray drying of fenofibrate loaded nanostructured lipid carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Dengning; Shrestha, Neha; van de Streek, Jacco

    2016-01-01

    The conversion of aqueous dispersion of nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) into dry powder by spray drying could be a useful approach to render NLCs with better physical chemical stability than the aqueous dispersion. In this study, aqueous NLC dispersion containing fenofibrate was converted...... into dry, easily reconstitutable powder using spray drying. A central composite face centered design (CCFD) was used to investigate the influence of the ratio of lipid to protectant (mannitol and trehalose) and crystallinity of spray-dried powder on the particle size, yield and residual moisture content...... of the dried powder. A linear relationship (R2 = 0.9915) was established between the crystalline content of the spray-dried powders against the ratio of mannitol to trehalose from 3:7 to 10:0 (w/w). Spray drying of NLC aqueous dispersion using a mannitol and trehalose mixture resulted in an increase...

  11. Laser diagnostics for urea-water solution spray characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapusta Łukasz Jan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we summarize the laser techniques used for urea-water solution (UWS spray characterization at the Institute of Heat Engineering (ITC, Faculty of Power and Aeronautical Engineering at Warsaw University of Technology. In presented studies several techniques for both, global and local spray characterization were used. Shadowgraphy-based long distance microscopy was used to visualize individual droplets and primary breakup. High speed imaging of Mie scattering (scattering on the gas-liquid interface signal was used for global spray characterization. Combination of LIF (Laser Induced Fluorescence and Mie scattering allowed to determine qualitative droplet size distribution across the whole spray cloud. The structured illumination technique used to modulate laser light sheet allowed to minimize the effects of multiple scattering in detection of Mie signal, what indicated huge potential of this technique in characterization of UWS sprays. The results presented here prove the importance of laser diagnostics in SCR systems development.

  12. The Influence of Shaping Air Pressure of Pneumatic Spray Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenzhuo; Chen, Yan; Pan, Haiwei; Zhang, Weiming; Li, Bo

    2018-02-01

    The shaping air pressure is a very important parameter in the application of pneumatic spray gun, and studying its influence on spray flow field and film thickness distribution has practical values. In this paper, Euler-Lagrangian method is adopted to describe the two-phase spray flow of pneumatic painting process, and the air flow fields, spray patterns and dynamic film thickness distributions were obtained with the help of the computational fluid dynamics code—ANSYS Fluent. Results show that with the increase of the shaping air pressure, the air phase flow field spreads in the plane perpendicular to the shaping air hole plane, the spray pattern becomes narrower and flatter, and the width of the dynamic film increases with the reduced maximum value of the film thickness. But the film thickness distribution seems to change little with the shaping air pressure decreasing from 0.6bar to 0.9bar.

  13. Thermal Spraying of Bioactive Polymer Coatings for Orthopaedic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebbi, A.; Stokes, J.

    2012-06-01

    Flame sprayed biocompatible polymer coatings, made of biodegradable and non-biodegradable polymers, were investigated as single coatings on titanium and as top coatings on plasma sprayed Hydroxyapatite. Biocompatible polymers can act as drug carriers for localized drug release following implantation. The polymer matrix consisted of a biodegradable polymer, polyhydroxybutyrate 98%/ polyhydroxyvalerate 2% (PHBV) and a non-biodegradable polymer, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). Screening tests were performed to determine the suitable range of spraying parameters, followed by a Design of Experiments study to determine the effects of spraying parameters on coating characteristics (thickness, roughness, adhesion, wettability), and to optimize the coating properties accordingly. Coatings characterization showed that optimized flame sprayed biocompatible polymers underwent little chemical degradation, did not produce acidic by-products in vitro, and that cells proliferated well on their surface.

  14. Experimental measurements of air cleaning with water sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyder, M.L.

    1989-01-01

    The effectiveness of water sprays for removal of gaseous and particulate fission products from air was studied experimentally, to determine the value of existing and proposed spray systems at the Savannah River reactors for cleaning the reactor room air following a hypothetical severe accident. The interaction of spray droplets with iodine and with cesium aerosols formed by combustion were measured separately. In the case of iodine, the results were compared to the theoretical treatment of Albert, Wichner, and Baumgarten. Good agreement was found for the smaller drop sizes, and the effect of spray pH predicted by the theoretical model was confirmed. The aerosol studies demonstrated the effectiveness of sprays in removing aerosol particles larger than 1 micrometer

  15. Experimental Analysis of Tensile Mechanical Properties of Sprayed FRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the tensile mechanical properties of sprayed FRP, 13 groups of specimens were tested through uniaxial tensile experiments, being analyzed about stress-strain curve, tensile strength, elastic modulus, breaking elongation, and other mechanical properties. Influencing factors on tensile mechanical properties of sprayed FRP such as fiber type, resin type, fiber volume ratio, fiber length, and composite thickness were studied in the paper too. The results show that both fiber type and resin type have an obvious influence on tensile mechanical properties of sprayed FRP. There will be a specific fiber volume ratio for sprayed FRP to obtain the best tensile mechanical property. The increase of fiber length can lead to better tensile performance, while that of composite thickness results in property degradation. The study can provide reference to popularization and application of sprayed FRP material used in structure reinforcement.

  16. Unit thermal performance of atmospheric spray cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, R.W.; Jain, M.; Chaturvedi, S.K.

    1980-01-01

    Thermal performance of an open atmospheric spray pond or canal depends on the direct-contact evaporative cooling of an individual spray unit (spray nozzle or module) and the interference caused by local heating and humidification. Droplet parameters may be combined into a dimensionless group, number of transfer units (NTU) or equivalent, whereas large-scale air-vapor dynamics determine interference through the local wet-bulb temperature. Quantity NTU were implied from field experiments for a floating module used in steam-condenser spray canals. Previous data were available for a fixed-pipe nozzle assembly used in spray ponds. Quantity NTU were also predicted using the Ranz-Marshall correlations with the Sauter-mean diameter used as the characteristic length. Good agreement with experiments was shown for diameters of 1--1.1 cm (module) and 1.9 mm

  17. Spray drying of fruit and vegetable juices--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Anjali; Singh, Satya Vir

    2015-01-01

    The main cause of spray drying is to increase the shelf life and easy handling of juices. In the present paper, the studies carried out so far on spray drying of various fruits and vegetables are reported. The major fruit juices dried are mango, banana, orange, guava, bayberry, watermelon, pineapple, etc. However, study on vegetable juices is limited. In spray drying, the major optimized parameters are inlet air temperature, relative humidity of air, outlet air temperature, and atomizer speed that are given for a particular study. The juices in spray drying require addition of drying agents that include matlodextrin, liquid glucose, etc. The drying agents are added to increase the glass transition temperature. Different approaches for spray dryer design have also been discussed in the present work.

  18. Dermal exposure due to airless spray painting : a semi-experimental study during spray painting of a container

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lansink, C.J.M.; Hengstum, C. van; Brouwer, D.H.

    1998-01-01

    In this study dermal exposure by spray painting has been investigated. After a pilot-study it was decided to start a study in the offshore industry, where the airless spray painting technique was used. The main purpose of the present study was to determine the range of potential dermal exposure to

  19. A comparison between spray drying and spray freeze drying to produce an influenza subunit vaccine powder for inhalation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saluja, V.; Amorij, J-P.; Kapteyn, J. C.; de Boer, A. H.; Frijlink, H. W.; Hinrichs, W. L. J.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate two different processes to produce a stable influenza subunit vaccine powder for pulmonary immunization i.e. spray drying (SD) and spray freeze drying (SFD). The formulations were analyzed by proteolytic assay, single radial immunodiffusion assay (SRID),

  20. Miotoxicidade por organofosforados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavaliere Maria J.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Os organofosforados são um grupo de compostos químicos amplamente utilizados em agropecuária como inseticidas, ocasionando intoxicações acidentais em animais e humanos, e mesmo sendo utilizados em tentativas de suicídio. A toxicidade desses produtos decorre sobretudo de insuficiência cárdio-respiratória por compromentimento do sistema nervoso autônomo. Sabe-se que alguns destes compostos induzem em animais de experimentação e em humanos, uma miopatia caracterizada por degeneração de células musculares, comprometendo sobretudo a musculatura respiratória. Baseado no fato de que este comprometimento contribui para a piora da função respiratória, propõe-se um protocolo de avaliação rotineira de miotoxicidade por compostos organofosforados, através de uma bateria mínima e suficiente de colorações e reações histoquímicas para quantificação da necrose muscular. Utilizaram-se como modelo experimental, grupos de ratos albinos (Wistar intoxicados com o organofosforado paraoxon, com e sem antídotos (atropina ou pralidoxima. Verificou-se nos grupos tratados com paraoxon e paraoxon mais atropina, necrose de fibras musculares no diafragma, que atingia em determinadas áreas até 15% das fibras. No grupo tratado com paraoxon mais pralidoxima, a necrose foi mínima, evidenciando o papel mioprotetor deste último antídoto.

  1. Preparation and characterization of hydroxyapatite-coated iron oxide particles by spray-drying technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    karina Donadel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic particles of iron oxide have been increasingly used in medical diagnosis by magnetic resonance imaging and in cancer therapies involving targeted drug delivery and magnetic hyperthermia. In this study we report the preparation and characterization of iron oxide particles coated with bioceramic hydroxyapatite by spray-drying. The iron oxide magnetic particles (IOMP were coated with hydroxyapatite (HAp by spray-drying using two IOMP/HAp ratios (0.7 and 3.2. The magnetic particles were characterized by way of scanning electronic microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, flame atomic absorption spectrometry,vibrating sample magnetometry and particle size distribution (laser diffraction. The surface morphology of the coated samples is different from that of the iron oxide due to formation of hydroxyapatite coating. From an EDX analysis, it was verified that the surface of the coated magnetic particles is composed only of HAp, while the interior containsiron oxide and a few layers of HAp as expected. The results showed that spray-drying technique is an efficient and relatively inexpensive method for forming spherical particles with a core/shell structure.As partículas de óxido de ferro têm sido extensivamente usadas em diagnósticos médicos como agente de contraste para imagem por ressonância magnética e na terapia do câncer, dentre estas, liberação de fármacos em sitos alvos e hipertermia magnética. Neste estudo nós reportamos a preparação e caracterização de partículas magnéticas de óxido de ferro revestidas com a biocerâmica hidroxiapatita. As partículas magnéticasde óxido de ferro (PMOF foram revestidas com hidroxiapatita por spray-drying usando duas razões PMOF/HAp (0,7 e 3,2. As partículas magnéticas foram caracterizadas por microscopia eletrônica de varredura, energia dispersiva de raios X, difração de raios X, espectroscopia de absorção no infra

  2. Por mil devaluados pesos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Rodríguez Collázos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de lo popular y lo urbano hasta ahora se ha centrado en el comportamiento y en algunas relaciones de los habitantes con su entorno. “Por mil devaluados pesos. Publicidad popular y urbana”, pretende explorar las formas de publicidad, dispersas en diferentes espacios populares y urbanos en Bogotá, identificando esquemas y formas características de sus propios códigos comunicativos; se centran en un objeto de estudio consistente en las estrategias publicitarias y los códigos comunicativos en los mensajes publicitarios populares en las subculturas de San Victorino, 7 de Agosto y Sanandresito de San José.

  3. Infecciones por citomegalovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gloria Díaz Martínez

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Se ofrece una revisión actualizada sobre la infección por citomegalovirus a partir de la consulta de artículos referidos de 1990 a 1996 en las bases de datos MEDLINE, LILACS, Literatura Cubana de Medicina y Noticias de Salud. Se revisaron 37 artículos. Se abordan los aspectos más importantes de las manifestaciones clínicas, el diagnóstico, el tratamiento, así como la prevención y los métodos de control para evitar las enfermedades citomegálicas

  4. Influence of handpiece maintenance sprays on resin bonding to dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toyotarou Sugawara

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Toyotarou Sugawara1, Atsushi Kameyama2, Akiko Haruyama3, Takumi Oishi4, Nobuyuki Kukidome2, Yasuaki Takase2, Masatake Tsunoda21Undergraduate Student, Tokyo Dental College, Chiba, Japan; 2Division of General Dentistry, Tokyo Dental College Chiba Hospital, Chiba, Japan; 3Department of Dental Materials Science, Tokyo Dental College, Chiba, Japan; 4Department of Dentistry and Oral Surgery, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanObjective: To investigate the influence of maintenance spray on resin bonding to dentin.Materials and methods: The crown of extracted, caries-free human molars was transversally sectioned with a model trimmer to prepare the dentin surfaces from mid-coronal sound dentin, and then uniformly abraded with #600 silicon carbide paper. The dentin surfaces were randomly divided into three groups: oil-free spray group where maintenance cleaner for air bearing handpieces was sprayed onto the dentin surface for 1 s and rinsed with water spray for 30 s; oil-containing spray group where maintenance cleaner for micro motor handpieces was sprayed onto the dentin surface for 1 s and rinsed with water spray for 30 s; and control group where the surface was rinsed with water spray for 30 s and then air-dried. These surfaces were then bonded with Clearfil SE Bond (Kuraray Medical, and resin composite (Clearfil AP-X, Kuraray Medical build-up crowns were incrementally constructed on the bonded surfaces. After storage for 24 h in 37°C water, the bonded teeth were sectioned into hour-glass shaped slices (0.7-mm thick perpendicular to the bonded surfaces. The specimens were then subjected to microtensile bond strength (μTBS testing at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min. Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and the Tukey-Kramer test.Results: Maintenance spray-contaminated specimens (oil-free and oil-containing spray groups showed significantly lower μTBS than control specimens (P < 0.05. However, there was no significant difference between

  5. Cold spray NDE for porosity and other process anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, S. W.; Larche, M. R.; Prowant, M. S.; Suter, J. D.; Lareau, J. P.; Jiang, X.; Ross, K. A.

    2018-04-01

    This paper describes a technology review of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods that can be applied to cold spray coatings. Cold spray is a process for depositing metal powder at high velocity so that it bonds to the substrate metal without significant heating that would be likely to cause additional residual tensile stresses. Coatings in the range from millimeters to centimeters are possible at relatively high deposition rates. Cold spray coatings that may be used for hydroelectric components that are subject to erosion, corrosion, wear, and cavitation damage are of interest. The topic of cold spray NDE is treated generally, however, but may be considered applicable to virtually any cold spray application except where there are constraints of the hydroelectric component application that bear special consideration. Optical profilometry, eddy current, ultrasound, and hardness tests are shown for one set of good, fair, and poor nickel-chrome (NiCr) on 304 stainless steel (304SS) cold spray samples to demonstrate inspection possibilities. The primary indicator of cold spray quality is the cold spray porosity that is most directly measured with witness-sample destructive examinations (DE)—mostly photo-micrographs. These DE-generated porosity values are correlated with optical profilometry, eddy current, ultrasound, and hardness test NDE methods to infer the porosity and other information of interest. These parameters of interest primarily include: • Porosity primarily caused by improper process conditions (temperature, gas velocity, spray standoff, spray angle, powder size, condition, surface cleanliness, surface oxide, etc.) • Presence/absence of the cold spray coating including possible over-sprayed voids • Coating thicknessOptical profilometry measurements of surface roughness trended with porosity plus, if compared with a reference measurement or reference drawing, would provide information on the coating thickness. Ultrasound could provide similar

  6. Dilation Behavior of Thermal Spray Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejarano Lopez, Miryan Lorena

    Thermal Spray (TS) is a very versatile manufacturing process to deposit thick coatings on a variety of substrates. Coatings are used in protective (i.e. wear, chemical attack, high temperature, etc.) and functional (i.e. sensors) applications. TS coatings have a unique lamellar microstructure as a result of the overlapping of millions of molten and partially-molten particles. During processing, high deformation by impact, high temperature, and rapid solidification lead to a complex hierarchical material system that contains a high amount of microstructural defects. The presence of defects in the microstructure contribute to differences in property values in comparison to bulk materials. Thermal stresses and residual strains arise from processing, thermal gradients and thermal exposure. Evaluation of thermal properties, in this case, the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) is of vital importance to enhance coating performance. In this dissertation, expansion measurements of various metals, alloys, ceramics, and cermet coatings; were carried out using various techniques (push rod dilatometry, x-ray diffraction XRD, digital image correlation DIC, and curvature method) to determine the dilation behavior at the atomic, micro- and macro-scale levels. The main results were. 1) Mathematical models (Turner and Kerner) used for composite materials, successfully predicted the CTE property of a TS coating where the primary phase is the coating material and the secondary phases can be oxides, precipitates, etc. (formed as a byproduct of the spraying process). CTE was found not to be affected by porosity. 2) Despite the anisotropic behavior characteristic of TS coatings, the experimental results shown that CTE results to be reasonable isotropic within the scope of this study. 3) The curvature method was found to be an alternative technique to obtain the CTE, as well as the Young's modulus of coating in a bi-material strip, with good approximation. 4) An anomalous expansion

  7. Autonomous Precision Spraying Trials Using a Novel Cell Spray Implement Mounted on an Armadillo Tool Carrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kjeld; Laursen, Morten Stigaard; Midtiby, Henrik

    of weed detection algorithms and spraying strategies is developed. The front part of the cell sprayer implement is a camera module mounted in a shock absorbing frame. The camera module is followed by a spraying module containing nozzles with individual valve control. The implement is designed for use......Precision weeding is one of the most promising applications for autonomous service robots in biological production. Herbicides have been the default weeding solution during the past decades, but there is a growing concern about the environmental impact on drinking water reservoirs etc. The use...... with an Armadillo robotic tool carrier consisting of two battery powered track modules mounted on each side of the implement. This paper focus on the cell sprayer implement design including camera system, sprayer module and integration with the service robot and the robot software. The FroboMind software platform...

  8. Characterization and Analysis of Paper Spray Ionization of Organic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliaga-Aguilar, Hugo

    2018-01-01

    Paper spray ionization has arisen relatively recently as a complement and alternative to electro- and nanospray ionization with silica capillaries. A majority of the work in the present literature focuses on the chemical aspect of paper spray. In order to study the physical and phenomenological facet of its implementation, we measured current and voltage distributions of Taylor cones. To study transport phenomena on filter paper, we addressed the behavior of large, sparingly soluble tetraalkylammonium ions, which are usually used as mobility standards, in paper spray. The variation of intensity with time of monomers and dimers of these ions was measured with a differential mobility analyzer and compared with that produced by contamination in the paper. At the same time, we evaluated the proficiency of different paper spray techniques for protein analysis using nano spray as a reference. Experiments suggest that Taylor cones in paper spray are subject to hysteresis, whereas transport phenomena in the porous substrate notably affects the ionization of the sample. Additionally, we observed that paper spray tends to favor lower charge states in proteins. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  9. Quantitative and economical assessment of effectiveness of electrostatic pesticide spraying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Ryo; Fujita, Satoko; Michihara, Shota; Masuoka, Takashi; Kimura, Toshihiro; Yatsuzuka, Shinji; Anaguchi, Shinobu

    2013-01-01

    Electrostatic pesticide spraying (EPS) improves the adhesion characteristics of the pesticide solution to agricultural crops. If the adhesion characteristics are improved, the requisite amount of the pesticide to be sprayed can be reduced in comparison with the conventional spraying method that uses non-charged pesticide. In this research, disease (rust) control experiments were carried out to substantiate the effectiveness of the EPS from a statistical point of view. We sprayed pesticide to potted Japanese pear trees under calm condition. The numbers of the rust lesions on the pear leaves were counted at fixed intervals after spraying to investigate the difference of the results of the disease control. The t-tests were carried out for the populations of the various spraying times and applied voltages. It was statistically-derived that EPS can reduce the amounts of pesticide to be sprayed by 50 % in comparison with the non-EPS method. It is also estimated from the results that about 55,000 kL year −1 of pesticides can be reduced for the Japanese pear cultivation in Tottori prefecture. Also, this means that the expense of the pear cultivation can be reduced by about 240 million yen (3 million USD) every year in Tottori prefecture by introducing EPS.

  10. A dermal model for spray painters. Part I: subjective exposure modelling of spray paint deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, D H; Semple, S; Marquart, J; Cherrie, J W

    2001-01-01

    The discriminative power of existing dermal exposure models is limited. Most models only allow occupational hygienists to rank workers between and within workplaces according to broad bands of dermal exposure. No allowance is made for the work practices of different individuals. In this study a process-based, structured approach has been used to estimate dermal exposure from overspray generated by a spray painting process. Factors for spray technique, object shape and workers' individual work practices involved in the processes of droplet formation and deposition were incorporated into the model. The model was applied to predict dermal exposure of airless spray painters and the results were compared with exposure data. The predicted levels of exposure showed reasonable rank correlation with the measured exposure, although the model tended to over-predict the actual level of exposure. It was concluded that a structured, process-based approach has the potential to produce reliable estimates of dermal exposure. The reliability of exposure models of this type should be explored further and the relationship between the determinants of exposure should be validated by additional field studies.

  11. To Spray or Not to Spray: A Decision Analysis of Coffee Berry Borer in Hawaii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. John Woodill

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Integrated pest management strategies were adopted to combat the coffee berry borer (CBB after its arrival in Hawaii in 2010. A decision tree framework is used to model the CBB integrated pest management recommendations, for potential use by growers and to assist in developing and evaluating management strategies and policies. The model focuses on pesticide spraying (spray/no spray as the most significant pest management decision within each period over the entire crop season. The main result from the analysis suggests the most important parameter to maximize net benefit is to ensure a low initial infestation level. A second result looks at the impact of a subsidy for the cost of pesticides and shows a typical farmer receives a positive net benefit of $947.17. Sensitivity analysis of parameters checks the robustness of the model and further confirms the importance of a low initial infestation level vis-a-vis any level of subsidy. The use of a decision tree is shown to be an effective method for understanding integrated pest management strategies and solutions.

  12. Influence of Bondcoat Spray Process on Lifetime of Suspension Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, M.; Markocsan, N.; Li, X.-H.; Östergren, L.

    2018-01-01

    Development of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) manufactured by suspension plasma spraying (SPS) is of high commercial interest as SPS has been shown capable of producing highly porous columnar microstructures similar to the conventionally used electron beam-physical vapor deposition. However, lifetime of SPS coatings needs to be improved further to be used in commercial applications. The bondcoat microstructure as well as topcoat-bondcoat interface topography affects the TBC lifetime significantly. The objective of this work was to investigate the influence of different bondcoat deposition processes for SPS topcoats. In this work, a NiCoCrAlY bondcoat deposited by high velocity air fuel (HVAF) was compared to commercial vacuum plasma-sprayed NiCoCrAlY and PtAl diffusion bondcoats. All bondcoat variations were prepared with and without grit blasting the bondcoat surface. SPS was used to deposit the topcoats on all samples using the same spray parameters. Lifetime of these samples was examined by thermal cyclic fatigue testing. Isothermal heat treatment was performed to study bondcoat oxidation over time. The effect of bondcoat deposition process and interface topography on lifetime in each case has been discussed. The results show that HVAF could be a suitable process for bondcoat deposition in SPS TBCs.

  13. Thermal Expansion of Vacuum Plasma Sprayed Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, S V.; Palczer, A. R.

    2010-01-01

    Metallic Cu-8%Cr, Cu-26%Cr, Cu-8%Cr-1%Al, NiAl and NiCrAlY monolithic coatings were fabricated by vacuum plasma spray deposition processes for thermal expansion property measurements between 293 and 1223 K. The corrected thermal expansion, (DL/L(sub 0) varies with the absolute temperature, T, as (DL/L(sub 0) = A(T - 293)(sup 3) + BIT - 293)(sup 2) + C(T - 293) + D, where, A, B, C and D are thermal, regression constants. Excellent reproducibility was observed for all of the coatings except for data obtained on the Cu-8%Cr and Cu-26%Cr coatings in the first heat-up cycle, which deviated from those determined in the subsequent cycles. This deviation is attributed to the presence of residual stresses developed during the spraying of the coatings, which are relieved after the first heat-up cycle. In the cases of Cu-8%Cr and NiAl, the thermal expansion data were observed to be reproducible for three specimens. The linear expansion data for Cu-8% Cr and Cu-26%Cr agree extremely well with rule of mixture (ROM) predictions. Comparison of the data for the Cu-8%Cr coating with literature data for Cr and Cu revealed that the thermal expansion behavior of this alloy is determined by the Cu-rich matrix. The data for NiAl and NiCrAlY are in excellent agreement with published results irrespective of composition and the methods used for processing the materials. The implications of these results on coating GRCop-84 copper alloy combustor liners for reusable launch vehicles are discussed.

  14. Spray Modeling for Outwardly-Opening Hollow-Cone Injector

    KAUST Repository

    Sim, Jaeheon

    2016-04-05

    The outwardly-opening piezoelectric injector is gaining popularity as a high efficient spray injector due to its precise control of the spray. However, few modeling studies have been reported on these promising injectors. Furthermore, traditional linear instability sheet atomization (LISA) model was originally developed for pressure swirl hollow-cone injectors with moderate spray angle and toroidal ligament breakups. Therefore, it is not appropriate for the outwardly-opening injectors having wide spray angles and string-like film structures. In this study, a new spray injection modeling was proposed for outwardly-opening hollow-cone injector. The injection velocities are computed from the given mass flow rate and injection pressure instead of ambiguous annular nozzle geometry. The modified Kelvin-Helmholtz and Rayleigh-Taylor (KH-RT) breakup model is used with adjusted initial Sauter mean diameter (SMD) for modeling breakup of string-like structure. Spray injection was modeled using a Lagrangian discrete parcel method within the framework of commercial CFD software CONVERGE, and the new model was implemented through the user-defined functions. A Siemens outwardly-opening hollow-cone spray injector was characterized and validated with existing experimental data at the injection pressure of 100 bar. It was found that the collision modeling becomes important in the current injector because of dense spray near nozzle. The injection distribution model showed insignificant effects on spray due to small initial droplets. It was demonstrated that the new model can predict the liquid penetration length and local SMD with improved accuracy for the injector under study.

  15. Plasma sprayed Fe(76)Nd(16)B(8) permanent magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overfelt, R. A.; Anderson, C. D.; Flanagan, W. F.

    1986-01-01

    Thin coatings (0.16 mm) and thick coatings (0.50 mm) of Fe(76)Nd(16)B(8) were deposited on stainless-steel substrates by low pressure plasma spraying. Microscopic examination of the coatings in a light microscope revealed excessive porosity, but good bonding to the substrate. Fracture cross sections examined in a scanning electron microscope showed the grains to be equiaxed and approximately 1 micron or less in diameter in the as-sprayed condition. The intrinsic coercivities of the as-sprayed coatings varied from 5.8 to 10.9 kOe. The effects of postspray heat treatments on the intrinsic coercivity are also given.

  16. PRODUCING STRAWBERRY (Fragaria chiloensis) DEHYDRATED Spray and lyophilization

    OpenAIRE

    Guevara Pérez, A.; Universidad Nacional Agraria La Melina - Lima-Perú. Facultad de Industrias Alimentarias, Departamento de Tecnología de Alimentos.; Rojas Ayerve, T.; Universidad Nacional Agraria La Melina - Lima-Perú. Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Química.; Araujo Vargas, J. M.; Universidad Nacional Agraria La Melina - Lima-Perú. Facultad de Industrias Alimentarias, Departamento de Ingeniería de Alimentos.; Araujo Vargas, J. M.; Facultad de Industrias Alimentarias, Departamento de Ingeniería de Alimentos.

    2014-01-01

    Two methods of dehydration of strawberries (Fragaria chiloensis 1 .) ha ve been studied: spray-drying and freezedrying. It has been found that the optimum sequence for the drying operation is as follows: selection/classification , washing, steaming, pulp-extraction, conditioning and freeze-drying. The efficiency over the total solids obtained with this method is 86.48% compared to 66.02% when using spray-drying. The strawberry pulp was conditioned by water dilution of 1:1. For spray-drying, t...

  17. Performances and reliability of WC based thermal spray coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scrivani, A.; Rosso, M.; Salvarani, L.

    2001-01-01

    Thermal spray processes are used for a lot of traditional and innovative applications and their importance is becoming higher and higher. WC/CoCr based thermal spray coatings represent one of the most important class of coatings that find application in a wide range of industrial sectors. This paper will address a review of current applications and characteristics of this kind of coating. The most important spraying processes, namely HVOF (high velocity oxygen fuel) are examined, the characterization of the coatings from the point of view of corrosion and wear resistance is considered. (author)

  18. Experimental Study on Diesel Spray Characteristics and Autoignition Process

    OpenAIRE

    Taşkiran, Özgür Oğuz; Ergeneman, Metin

    2011-01-01

    The main goal of this study is to get the temporal and spatial spray evolution under diesel-like conditions and to investigate autoignition process of sprays which are injected from different nozzle geometries. A constant volume combustion chamber was manufactured and heated internally up to 825 K at 3.5 MPa for experiments. Macroscopic properties of diesel spray were recorded via a high-speed CCD camera by using shadowgraphy technique, and the images were analyzed by using a digital image pr...

  19. Exergy analysis of encapsulation of photochromic dye by spray drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çay, A.; Akçakoca Kumbasar, E. P.; Morsunbul, S.

    2017-10-01

    Application of exergy analysis methodology for encapsulation of photochromic dyes by spray drying was presented. Spray drying system was investigated considering two subsystems, the heater and the dryer sections. Exergy models for each subsystem were proposed and exergy destruction rate and exergy efficiency of each subsystem and the whole system were computed. Energy and exergy efficiency of the system were calculated to be 5.28% and 3.40%, respectively. It was found that 90% of the total exergy inlet was destroyed during encapsulation by spray drying and the exergy destruction of the heater was found to be higher.

  20. Pasos por la salud

    OpenAIRE

    Fierro Rojas, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Pasos por la Salud surge como un proyecto (mismo que derivara una estrategia de atención) que establece el Departamento de Educación Física Valle de México, para fortalecer la aplicación del programa de Educación Física en Educación Básica, fomentará la práctica del ejercicio físico hacia la promoción de la salud, brindará a los alumnos elementos teóricos y bases metodológicas que le ayuden a comprender los beneficios de salud que producen la práctica del ejercicio, concientizar al alumno de ...

  1. Sepsis por shigella flexneri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Cabrera C

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso raro de sepsis por Shigella flexneri en una paciente de 45 años de edad quien estando hospitalizada para el estudio de un tumor cerebral, requirió el uso de manitol y dosis altas de corticoides; luego de ello presenta deposiciones líquidas con moco y sangre, desarrolla síndrome de respuesta inflamatoria sistémica, luego se aísla Shigella flexneri en el hemocultivo; recibió tratamiento antibiótico con ciprofloxacina. Se describen las características del caso y se comenta de acuerdo con la revisión de literatura.

  2. Por uma arquitetura engajada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Encarnação Beltrão Spósito

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A Arquitetura é vista, neste texto, como uma possibilidade de se compreender o mundo contemporâneo e, sobretudo, de repensá-lo, se queremos contribuir para a construção de um futuro com maior equidade, nele incluído o respeito às diferenças. Nessa perspectiva, uma Arquitetura engajada teria que considerar sempre o Urbanismo, no sentido de compreender a cidade, como nível de determinação do movimento da Sociedade e não apenas como um cenário em que múltiplas linguagens se expressem. Por seu caráter de ensaio, o texto tem mais o papel de levantar questões e estimular o debate, do que apresentar resultados ou respostas.

  3. Portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, POR-006 SKID D storage plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, O.D.; Keller, G.M.

    1997-01-01

    This document provides a storage plan for portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, AND POR-006 SKID D. The exhausters will be stored until they are needed by the TWRS (Tank Waste Remediation Systems) Saltwell Pumping Program. The storage plan provides criteria for portable exhauster storage, periodic inspections during storage, and retrieval from storage

  4. Determinação de diagramas de bandas de energia e da borda de absorção em SnO2, depositado via sol-gel, sobre quartzo Determination of the band energy diagram and absorption fundamental edge in SnO2, deposited via sol-gel, on quartz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Floriano

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Propriedades ópticas e estruturais de filmes finos de SnO2, depositados sobre substratos de quartzo, são apresentadas. Os filmes são preparados pela técnica de molhamento via sol-gel. Uma avaliação das propriedades eletrônicas do cristal (bulk e das superfícies (110 e (101 do material é também efetuada, através de cálculos baseados em um método mecânico-quântico que utiliza a Teoria do Funcional da Densidade (DFT em conjunto com o funcional hibrido B3LYP. A borda fundamental de absorção, obtida experimentalmente, é então comparada com os diagramas de bandas de energia do bulk e superfícies (110 e (101, calculadas.Optical and structural properties of SnO2 thin films, deposited on quartz substrates, are presented. Films are prepared by the sol-gel-dip-coating technique. An evaluation of the electronic properties of bulk and surfaces (110 and (101 of the material is also carried out, through calculation based on a quantum-mechanical method using the Density Functional Theory (DFT in conjunction with the hybrid functional B3LYP. The absorption fundamental edge, experimentally obtained, is compared to the calculated band energy diagram of bulk and surfaces (110 and (101.

  5. Fundo de garantia por tempo de serviço (FGTS - em busca da correção “justa”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Antonio Rangel Rosso Nelson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available O direito social fundamental referente ao fundo de garantia por tempo de serviço (FGTS adentra as pautas de discussões atuais do direito, sendo reforçado pela exposição midiática, tendo em vista o pleito de que os saldos do FGTS sejam corrigidos em face de um índice oficial que refletisse a inflação, como o INPC (índice nacional de preços ao consumidor, referente a depósitos entre 1999 até os dias atuais, ao invés da correção feita baseada na Taxa referencial (TR. A presente demanda abarrotou a justiça brasileira, ganando a contenda esteira no STJ e STF. A importância da matéria é palmar, tendo em vista que a posição a ser tomada afetaria 45 milhões de trabalhadores. A pesquisa em tela, fazendo uso de uma metodologia de análise qualitativa, usando-se os métodos de abordagem hipotético-dedutivos de caráter descritivo e analítico, tem por escopo analisar a questão sobre a correção atuarial dos valores depositados a título de fundo de garantia por tempo de serviço. Com fulcro no direito da propriedade, tendo em vista que os saldos fundiários constituírem salário, na modalidade diferida, deve prosperar a tese da correção desses saldos por um índice que reflita a inflação.

  6. Plasma Spray Synthesis of High Purity Boron Nitride Nanotubes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this project is the efficient synthesis of high quality boron nitride nanotubes (BNNT’s) using the LaRC radio frequency plasma spray (RFPS)...

  7. Nutritional Composition of Liquid and Spray-dried Juices of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tamarindus indica) juices were extracted from the calyces and tamarind pulp respectively. Parts of the extracted juices were spray dried while the remaining parts were preserved as whole juices. The juices and powders were then analyzed for the ...

  8. A Combined Foam-Spray Model for Ocean Microwave Radiometry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raizer, Victor

    2005-01-01

    Passive microwave emissions from oceanic dispersed media are considered. The spray is modeled by the aggregates of spherical water droplets, and the foam is represented by a macroscopic system of hollow spherical water shells...

  9. Method and apparatus for heat extraction by controlled spray cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-30

    Two solutions to the problem of cooling a high temperature, high heat flux surface using controlled spray cooling are presented for use on a mandrel. In the first embodiment, spray cooling is used to provide a varying isothermal boundary layer on the side portions of a mandrel by providing that the spray can be moved axially along the mandrel. In the second embodiment, a spray of coolant is directed to the lower temperature surface of the mandrel. By taking advantage of super-Leidenfrost cooling, the temperature of the high temperature surface of the mandrel can be controlled by varying the mass flux rate of coolant droplets. The invention has particular applicability to the field of diamond synthesis using chemical vapor deposition techniques.

  10. Fabrication of Hybrid Organic Photovoltaic Devices Using Electrostatic Spray Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe-Wei Chiu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid organic photovoltaic devices (OPVDs are fabricated using the electrostatic spray (e-spray method and their optical and electrical properties are investigated. E-spray is used to deposit a hybrid film (P3HT: PCBM/nanodiamond with morphology and optical characteristics onto OPVDs. The root-mean-square roughness and optical absorption increase with increasing nanodiamond content. The performance of e-spray is comparable to that of the spin-coating method under uniform conditions. The device takes advantage of the high current density, power conversion efficiency, and low cost. Nanodiamond improves the short-circuit current density and power conversion efficiency. The best performance was obtained with 1.5 wt% nanodiamond content, with a current density of 7.28 mA/cm2 and a power conversion efficiency of 2.25%.

  11. Application of Constrained Linear MPC to a Spray Dryer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Norbert; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2014-01-01

    . The main challenge of spray drying is to meet the residual moisture specification and prevent powder from sticking to the chamber walls. By simulation we compare the performance of the MPC against the conventional PID control strategy. During an industrially recorded disturbance scenario, the MPC increases......In this paper we develop a linear model predictive control (MPC) algorithm for control of a two stage spray dryer. The states are estimated by a stationary Kalman filter. A non-linear first-principle engineering model is developed to simulate the spray drying process. The model is validated against...... experimental data and able to precisely predict the temperatures, the air humidity and the residual moisture in the dryer. The MPC controls these variables to the target and reject disturbances. Spray drying is a cost-effective method to evaporate water from liquid foods and produces a free flowing powder...

  12. Modular Spray-Cooled Assemblies for High Heat Fluxes Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This NASA SBIR Phase II project will produce a flight suitable test bench based on a modular spray-cooled assembly that considers NASA power and mass budgets and can...

  13. Spray Drying Processing: granules production and drying kinetics of droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondragon, R.; Julia, J. E.; Barba, A.; Jarque, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    Spray drying is a unit operation very common in many industrial processes. For each particular application, the resulting granulated material must possess determined properties that depend on the conditions in which the spray drying processing has been carried out, and whose dependence must be known in order to optimize the quality of the material obtained. The large number of variables that influence on the processes of matter and energy transfer and on the formation of granular material has required a detailed analysis of the drying process. Over the years there have been many studies on the spray drying processing of all kind of materials and the influence of process variables on the drying kinetics of the granulated material properties obtained. This article lists the most important works published for both the spray drying processing and the drying of individual droplets, as well as studies aimed at modeling the drying kinetics of drops. (Author)

  14. Approximate computation of hydrothermal conditions of nuclear reactor spray ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarkho, A.A.; Borshchev, V.A.

    1990-01-01

    An algorithm is presented for determining the evaporation numbers of nuclear reactor spray ponds which provide necessary reactor cooling during its normal operation under given meteorological conditions with account of restrictions on the cooled water temperature at the reactor entrance

  15. Powder consolidation using cold spray process modeling and emerging applications

    CERN Document Server

    Moridi, Atieh

    2017-01-01

    This book first presents different approaches to modeling of the cold spray process with the aim of extending current understanding of its fundamental principles and then describes emerging applications of cold spray. In the coverage of modeling, careful attention is devoted to the assessment of critical and erosion velocities. In order to reveal the phenomenological characteristics of interface bonding, severe, localized plastic deformation and material jet formation are studied. Detailed consideration is also given to the effect of macroscopic defects such as interparticle boundaries and subsequent splat boundary cracking on the mechanical behavior of cold spray coatings. The discussion of applications focuses in particular on the repair of damaged parts and additive manufacturing in various disciplines from aerospace to biomedical engineering. Key aspects include a systematic study of defect shape and the ability of cold spray to fill the defect, examination of the fatigue behavior of coatings for structur...

  16. Control Multivariable por Desacoplo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Morilla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: La interacción entre variables es una característica inherente de los procesos multivariables, que dificulta su operación y el diseño de sus sistemas de control. Bajo el paradigma de Control por desacoplo se agrupan un conjunto de metodologías, que tradicionalmente han estado orientadas a eliminar o reducir la interacción, y que recientemente algunos investigadores han reorientado con objetivos de solucionar un problema tan complejo como es el control multivariable. Parte del material descrito en este artículo es bien conocido en el campo del control de procesos, pero la mayor parte de él son resultados de varios años de investigación de los autores en los que han primado la generalización del problema, la búsqueda de soluciones de fácil implementación y la combinación de bloques elementales de control PID. Esta conjunción de intereses provoca que no siempre se pueda conseguir un desacoplo perfecto, pero que sí se pueda conseguir una considerable reducción de la interacción en el nivel básico de la pirámide de control, en beneficio de otros sistemas de control que ocupan niveles jerárquicos superiores. El artículo resume todos los aspectos básicos del Control por desacoplo y su aplicación a dos procesos representativos: una planta experimental de cuatro tanques acoplados y un modelo 4×4 de un sistema experimental de calefacción, ventilación y aire acondicionado. Abstract: The interaction between variables is inherent in multivariable processes and this fact may complicate their operation and control system design. Under the paradigm of decoupling control, several methodologies that traditionally have been addressed to cancel or reduce the interactions are gathered. Recently, this approach has been reoriented by several researchers with the aim to solve such a complex problem as the multivariable control. Parts of the material in this work are well known in the process control field; however, most of them are

  17. Experiments on aerosol removal by high-pressure water spray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corno, Ada del; Morandi, Sonia; Parozzi, Flavio; Araneo, Lucio; Casella, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental research to measure the efficiency of high-pressure sprays in capturing aerosols if applied to a filtered containment venting system in case of severe accident. • Cloud of monodispersed SiO 2 particles with sizes 0.5 or 1.0 μm and initial concentration in the range 2–90 mg/m 3 . • Carried out in a chamber 0.5 × 1.0 m and 1.5 m high, with transparent walls equipped with a high pressure water spray with single nozzle. • Respect to low-pressure sprays, removal efficiency turned out significant: the half-life for 1 μm particles with a removal high-pressure spray system is orders of magnitude shorter than that with a low-pressure sprays system. - Abstract: An experimental research was managed in the framework of the PASSAM European Project to measure the efficiency of high-pressure sprays in capturing aerosols when applied to a filtered containment venting system in case of severe accident. The campaign was carried out in a purposely built facility composed by a scrubbing chamber 0.5 × 1.0 m and 1.5 m high, with transparent walls to permit the complete view of the aerosol removal process, where the aerosol was injected to form a cloud of specific particle concentration. The chamber was equipped with a high pressure water spray system with a single nozzle placed on its top. The test matrix consisted in the combination of water pressure injections, in the range 50–130 bar, on a cloud of monodispersed SiO 2 particles with sizes 0.5 or 1.0 μm and initial concentration ranging between 2 and 99 mg/m 3 . The spray was kept running for 2 min and the efficiency of the removal was evaluated, along the test time, using an optical particle sizer. With respect to low-pressure sprays, the removal efficiency turned out much more significant: the half-life for 1 μm particles with a removal high-pressure spray system is orders of magnitude shorter than that with a low-pressure spray system. The highest removal rate was detected with 1

  18. Influence of biodiesel on injection, fuel spray, and engine characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Kegl, Breda; Pehan, Stanislav

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the influence of biodiesel on the injection, spray, and engine characteristics with the aim to reduce harmful emissions. The considered engine is a bus diesel engine with injection M system. The injection, fuel spray, and engine characteristics, obtained with biodiesel, are compared to those obtained with mineral diesel under peak torque and rated conditions. The considered fuel is neat biodiesel from rapeseed oil. Its density, viscosity, surface tension, and sound veloci...

  19. GO evaluation of a PWR spray system. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, W.T.

    1975-08-01

    GO is a reliability analysis methodology developed over the years from 1960 to the present by Kaman Sciences Corporation, Colorado Springs, Colorado. In this report the GO methodology is presented and its application demonstrated by performing a reliability analysis of a conceptual PWR Containment Spray System. Certain numerical results obtained are compared with those of a prior fault tree analysis of the same system as documented in the 11 January 1973 draft report, A Fault Tree Evaluation of a PWR Spray System

  20. Steel fibre corrosion in cracks:durability of sprayed concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Nordström, Erik

    2000-01-01

    Steel fibre reinforced sprayed concrete is common practice for permanent linings in underground construction. Today there is a demand on "expected technical service life" of 120 years. Thin steel fibres could be expected to discontinue carrying load fast with a decrease of fibre diameter caused by corrosion, especially in cracks. The thesis contains results from inspections on existing sprayed concrete structures and a literature review on corrosion of steel fibres in cracked concrete. To stu...

  1. Single-dose fentanyl sublingual spray for breakthrough cancer pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor DR

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Donald R Taylor Comprehensive Pain Care PC, Marietta, GA, USA Abstract: Breakthrough cancer pain (BTCP is defined as a transient exacerbation of pain that arises in patients with otherwise controlled persistent pain. BTCP typically has a rapid onset and relatively short duration, but it causes a significant amount of physical and psychological distress for patients. Several rapid-onset fentanyl formulations have been introduced in the USA to replace traditional oral opioids for the treatment of BTCP: a transmucosal lozenge, a sublingual orally disintegrating tablet, a buccal tablet, a buccal soluble film, a pectin nasal spray and, the newest formulation to enter the market, a sublingual spray. This article reviews the six rapid-onset formulations of fentanyl approved in the USA for the management of BTCP with emphasis on describing the published literature on fentanyl sublingual spray. The different fentanyl formulations vary in pharmacokinetic properties and ease of use, but all have a rapid onset and a relatively short duration of analgesia. Fentanyl sublingual spray has demonstrated absorption within 5 minutes of administration, with fentanyl plasma concentrations increasing over the first 30 minutes and remaining elevated for 60–90 minutes in pharmacokinetic studies in healthy subjects. Fentanyl sublingual spray shows linear dose proportionality, and changes in the temperature or acidity of the oral cavity do not alter its pharmacokinetic properties. In patients with BTCP, statistically significant pain relief is measurable at 5 minutes after administration of fentanyl sublingual spray, when compared with placebo, with significant pain relief lasting at least 60 minutes after administration. Adverse events are typical of opioid treatment and are considered mild to moderate in intensity. In summary, fentanyl sublingual spray provides rapid onset of analgesia and is a tolerable and effective treatment for BTCP. Keywords: breakthrough pain

  2. Sound Spray - can-shaped sound effect device

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Gibeom; Lee, Kyogu

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we designed a sound effect device, which was applicable forspray paint art process. For the applicability research of the device, wedesigned a prototype which had a form not far off the traditional spray cans,using Arduino and various sensors. Through the test process of the prototype,we verified the elements that would be necessary to apply our newly designeddevice to real spray paint art activities. Thus we checked the possibility ofvarious musical expressions by expanding th...

  3. Application of Constrained Linear MPC to a Spray Dryer

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Lars Norbert; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Niemann, Hans Henrik; Utzen, Christer; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we develop a linear model predictive control (MPC) algorithm for control of a two stage spray dryer. The states are estimated by a stationary Kalman filter. A non-linear first-principle engineering model is developed to simulate the spray drying process. The model is validated against experimental data and able to precisely predict the temperatures, the air humidity and the residual moisture in the dryer. The MPC controls these variables to the target and reject disturbances. Sp...

  4. Plasma Spraying of Magnetite Coatings for M.W. Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Enikov, R.; Nedkov, I.; Oliver, D.

    1997-01-01

    The possibilities of arc - plasma spray deposition of polycrystalline ferromagnetic coating are investigated. Powder sintered microwave absorbing ferrite materials were deposited by arc-plasma jet on polycrystalline substrates. By varying the distance between plasma torch and substrates and the spray duration, coatings with different thickness and porosity were obtained. The coatings characteristics were studied by optical, SEM and XRD methods. The mechanism of the magnetic structure formatio...

  5. Production of Energetic Nanomaterials by Spray Flash Evaporation

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Klaumünzer; Jakob Hübner; Denis Spitzer

    2016-01-01

    Within this paper, latest results on processing of energetic nanomaterials by means of the Spray Flash Evaporation technique are presented. This technology constitutes a highly effective and continuous way to prepare fascinating materials on the nano- and micro-scale. Within the process, a solution is set under high pressure and sprayed into an evacuated atomization chamber. Subsequent ultrafast evaporation of the solvent leads to an aerosol stream, which is separated by cyclones or filters. ...

  6. Production of ceramic formed parts by means of plasma spraying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirner, K.

    1989-01-01

    Open and closed pipes and tubes, nozzles and crucibles, conical parts and other molded articles of ceramic materials such as aluminium oxide, magnesium-aluminium spinel, zirconium oxide, zirconium silicate and special ceramics can be fabricated by spray application to a core which is afterwards removed. Because at the same time these are mainly high temperature materials and high temperature application areas, plasma spraying is preferred. The process and examples of application are described, the advantages and disadvantages are pointed out. (orig.) [de

  7. Modelling of spray evaporation and penetration for alternative fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Azami, M. H.; Savill, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this work is on the modelling of evaporation and spray penetration for alternative fuels. The extension model approach is presented and validated for alternative fuels, namely, Kerosene (KE), Ethanol (ETH), Methanol (MTH), Microalgae biofuel (MA), Jatropha biofuel (JA), and Camelina biofuel (CA). The results for atomization and spray penetration are shown in a time variant condition. Comparisons have been made to visualize the transient behaviour of these fuels. The vapour pressu...

  8. Pemanfaatan Zeolit Alam Untuk Pengeringan Karaginan Dengan Spray Dryer

    OpenAIRE

    M.H, Babar Priyadi; Afifi, Thufail Khoirul; Sasongko, Setia Budi

    2012-01-01

    The problem that will be faced in drying is quite high relative humidity, therefore carrageenan drying process using spray dryer with zeolite as humidity absorber becomes alternative option to achieve heat effectiveness of air dryer. The research is purposed to examine the effect of temperature and level of zeolite to relative humidity and product quality on carrageenan drying process. Spray dryer is a dryer used to produce powder material from feeds which have liquid and pasta form. The Resu...

  9. Release mitigation spray safety systems for chemical demilitarization applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, Jonathan; Tezak, Matthew Stephen; Brockmann, John E.; Servantes, Brandon; Sanchez, Andres L.; Tucker, Mark David; Allen, Ashley N.; Wilson, Mollye C.; Lucero, Daniel A.; Betty, Rita G.

    2010-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has conducted proof-of-concept experiments demonstrating effective knockdown and neutralization of aerosolized CBW simulants using charged DF-200 decontaminant sprays. DF-200 is an aqueous decontaminant, developed by Sandia National Laboratories, and procured and fielded by the US Military. Of significance is the potential application of this fundamental technology to numerous applications including mitigation and neutralization of releases arising during chemical demilitarization operations. A release mitigation spray safety system will remove airborne contaminants from an accidental release during operations, to protect personnel and limit contamination. Sandia National Laboratories recently (November, 2008) secured funding from the US Army's Program Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materials Agency (PMNSCMA) to investigate use of mitigation spray systems for chemical demilitarization applications. For non-stockpile processes, mitigation spray systems co-located with the current Explosive Destruction System (EDS) will provide security both as an operational protective measure and in the event of an accidental release. Additionally, 'tented' mitigation spray systems for native or foreign remediation and recovery operations will contain accidental releases arising from removal of underground, unstable CBW munitions. A mitigation spray system for highly controlled stockpile operations will provide defense from accidental spills or leaks during routine procedures.

  10. Bullous cryothermic dermatitis artefacta induced by deodorant spray abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, A; Bender, A; Hertl, M; König, A

    2011-08-01

    Dermatitis artefacta belongs to a broad spectrum of factitious diseases of lesions usually self-induced by patients. Here we report a surprisingly effective induction of blisters and thermic dermatitis by excessive abuse of common deodorant sprays. We evaluated the clinical course and outcome in three patients with dermatitis artefacta induced by deodorant spray. A 12-year-old boy only admitted the abuse of deodorant spray after psychiatric intervention. Two adults (21-year-old and 37-year-old women) had borderline personality disorder and frankly reported the urge to induce pain by spraying for at least 100 s at a short distance. Bullous dermatitis was the acute presenting sign in all patients. The bullae were found on the extensor surfaces of the extremities, with a distribution of older lesions showing erosions and scarring and fresh lesions with intact bullae with a diameter of 3-15 cm. After searching for the causative agent and removal of the deodorant spray, clinical outcome showed a healing without and with scars. Cryo-damage by abuse of common deodorant sprays seems to become a popular mechanism by which an impressive bullous dermatitis can be artificially induced. Dermatologists and psychiatrist should be aware of this method of injury. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2010 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  11. Characterization of fully functional spray-on antibody thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, Jhon [Department of Chemistry, University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Ave., Tampa, FL 33620-5250 (United States); Magaña, Sonia; Lim, Daniel V. [Department of Cell Biology, Microbiology and Molecular Biology, University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Ave., Tampa, FL 33620-7115 (United States); Schlaf, Rudy, E-mail: schlaf@eng.usf.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Ave., Tampa, FL 33620-5101 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    The authors recently demonstrated that fully functional Escherichia coli O157:H7 antibody thin films can be prepared using a simple pneumatic nebulizer on glass surface [1]. This paper focuses on the investigation of the morphology and physical properties of these films with the aim to better understand their performance. A series of E. coli O157:H7 antibody spray-on thin films were investigated by ellipsometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), immunoassays, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), fluorescence microscopy, atomic force microscope (AFM) and contact angle analysis. These data were compared to measurements on films prepared with the biotin–avidin covalent bonding scheme. The investigation showed that films created by a 2 min pneumatic spray deposition time can capture antigens similar as the avidin–biotin wet-chemical method. The results also suggests that an influential factor for the comparable capture cell ability between sprayed and covalent films is an increased antibody surface coverage for the sprayed films (non-equilibrium technique), which compensates for the lack of its antibody orientation. There was no significant antibody denaturation detected on any of the sprayed films. Both techniques led to the formation of cluster-aggregates, a factor that seems unavoidable due to the natural tendency of protein to cluster. The avidin–biotin bridge films generally had a higher roughness, which manifested itself in a higher wettability compared to the sprayed films.

  12. Status of emergency spray modelling in the integral code ASTEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plumecocq, W.; Passalacqua, R.

    2001-01-01

    Containment spray systems are emergency systems that would be used in very low probability events which may lead to severe accidents in Light Water Reactors. In most cases, the primary function of the spray would be to remove heat and condense steam in order to reduce pressure and temperature in the containment building. Spray would also wash out fission products (aerosols and gaseous species) from the containment atmosphere. The efficiency of the spray system in the containment depressurization as well as in the removal of aerosols, during a severe accident, depends on the evolution of the spray droplet size distribution with the height in the containment, due to kinetic and thermal relaxation, gravitational agglomeration and mass transfer with the gas. A model has been developed taking into account all of these phenomena. This model has been implemented in the ASTEC code with a validation of the droplets relaxation against the CARAIDAS experiment (IPSN). Applications of this modelling to a PWR 900, during a severe accident, with special emphasis on the effect of spray on containment hydrogen distribution have been performed in multi-compartment configuration with the ASTEC V0.3 code. (author)

  13. Production of press moulds by plasma spray forming process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisov, Y.; Myakota, I.; Polyakov, S.

    2001-01-01

    Plasma spray forming process for production of press moulds which are used for manufacture of articles from plastics was developed. The press moulds were produced by plasma spraying of Cu-Al-Fe-alloy powder on surface of a master model. The master models were made from non-metallic materials with heat resistance below 70 C (wood, gypsum etc). Double cooling system which provides for a control of surface model temperature and quenching conditions of sprayed material was designed. It made possible on the one hand to support model surface temperature below 70 C and on the other hand to provide for temperature conditions of martensite transformation in Cu-Al-system with a fixation of metastable ductile α + β 1 -phase. This allowed to decrease residual stresses in sprayed layer (up to 0,5-2,5 MPa), to increase microhardness of the coating material (up to 1200-1800 MPa) and its ductility (σ B = 70-105 MPa, δ = 6-12 %). This plasma spray forming process makes possible to spray thick layers (5-20 mm and more) without their cracking and deformation. The process is used for a production of press moulds which are applied in shoes industry, for fabrication of toys, souvenirs etc. (author)

  14. Characterization of fully functional spray-on antibody thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Jhon; Magaña, Sonia; Lim, Daniel V.; Schlaf, Rudy

    2014-02-01

    The authors recently demonstrated that fully functional Escherichia coli O157:H7 antibody thin films can be prepared using a simple pneumatic nebulizer on glass surface [1]. This paper focuses on the investigation of the morphology and physical properties of these films with the aim to better understand their performance. A series of E. coli O157:H7 antibody spray-on thin films were investigated by ellipsometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), immunoassays, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), fluorescence microscopy, atomic force microscope (AFM) and contact angle analysis. These data were compared to measurements on films prepared with the biotin-avidin covalent bonding scheme. The investigation showed that films created by a 2 min pneumatic spray deposition time can capture antigens similar as the avidin-biotin wet-chemical method. The results also suggests that an influential factor for the comparable capture cell ability between sprayed and covalent films is an increased antibody surface coverage for the sprayed films (non-equilibrium technique), which compensates for the lack of its antibody orientation. There was no significant antibody denaturation detected on any of the sprayed films. Both techniques led to the formation of cluster-aggregates, a factor that seems unavoidable due to the natural tendency of protein to cluster. The avidin-biotin bridge films generally had a higher roughness, which manifested itself in a higher wettability compared to the sprayed films.

  15. Thermo- and fluid dynamics characterization of spray cooling with pulsed sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panao, M.R.O.; Moreira, A.L.N. [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Mechanical Engineering Department, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2005-11-01

    A fundamental study is reported here on the spray impingement of pulsed sprays on heated surfaces. The experiments consider simultaneous measurements of surface heat flux and droplet characteristics performed with a Phase Doppler Anemometer (velocity, size and flux) prior to impact, to provide a better insight into the interaction between thermal and fluid dynamic effects during the period of injection. The experimental conditions are relevant for engines at steady rotational speeds between 1800rpm and 3600rpm, which are of interest for hybrid configurations, where the IC engine is set to operate at maximum efficiency. The analysis addresses the effects of injection conditions (e.g., duration, frequency and pressure) on the thermodynamic behaviour of the surface. It is observed that the heat flux decreases when the pressure of injection increases, due to dynamic variations of the film induced by interaction with impacting droplets in the film evaporation regime. Results further suggest that, for the range of injection conditions found in real engines, the time variation of the heat transfer during injection depends more on the liquid mass flux than on droplet size and axial velocity. However, when the engine load increases, the mechanism by which heat is removed from the surface varies from thermally controlled to mass diffusion controlled, due to saturation of the atmosphere with gasoline vapour. The time resolved measurements are processed to quantify the critical points of the boiling curves, e.g., the critical heat flux (CHF) at the Nukiyama temperature and the minimum heat flux (MHF) at the Leidenfrost temperature. The dynamic characteristics of those curves are used as an approach to describe the heat transfer mechanisms in pulsed spray systems. It is suggested that multiple droplet interaction alters the thermal behaviour of the target in the sense that both, CHF and MHF, increase in regions of large droplet concentration and when the frequency of injection

  16. Design of the containment spray system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-12-01

    RFS or Regles Fondamentales de Surete (Basic Safety Rules) applicable to certain types of nuclear facilities lay down requirements with which compliance, for the type of facilities and within the scope of application covered by the RFS, is considered to be equivalent to compliance with technical French regulatory practice. The object of the RFS is to take advantage of standardization in the field of safety, while allowing for technical progress in that field. They are designed to enable the operating utility and contractors to know the rules pertaining to various subjects which are considered to be acceptable by the Service Central de Surete des Installations Nucleaires, or the SCSIN (Central Department for the Safety of Nuclear Facilities). These RFS should make safety analysis easier and lead to better understanding between experts and individuals concerned with the problems of nuclear safety. The SCSIN reserves the right to modify, when considered necessary, any RFS and specify, if need be, the terms under which a modification is deemed retroactive. The present RFS defines the functional requirements of the containment spray system and proposes certain complementary criteria or methods to be used in its equipment design

  17. Waste volume reduction by spray drying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toscano, Rodrigo A.; Tello, Clédola C. O. de, E-mail: Rodrigotoscano1@gmail.com, E-mail: tellocc@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The operation of nuclear facilities generates liquid wastes which require treatment to control the chemical compounds and removal of radioactive contaminants. These wastes can come from the cooling of the primary reactor system, from the reactor pool decontamination, washing of contaminated clothing, among others. The ion exchange resin constitutes the largest fraction of this waste, classified as low and intermediate level of radiation. According to CNEN Standard 8.01, the minimization of the volume and activity of the radioactive waste generated in the operation of a nuclear installation, radiative installation, industrial mining installation or radioactive waste deposit should be ensured. In addition, one of the acceptance criteria for wastes in repositories required by CNEN NN 6.09 is that it be solid or solidified. Thus, these wastes must be reduced in volume and solidified to meet the standards and the safety of the population and the environment. The objective of this work is to find a solution that associates the least generation of packaged waste and the acceptance criteria of waste for the deposition in the national repository. This work presents a proposal of reduction of the volume of the liquid wastes generated by nuclear facilities by drying by for reduction of volume for a greater incorporation of wastes in cement. Using spray dryer, an 18% reduction in the production of cemented waste products was observed in relation to the method currently used with compressive strength measurement above the standard, and it is believed that this value may increase in future tests. (author)

  18. Agricultural Spray Drift Concentrations in Rainwater, Stemflow ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to study spray drift contribution to non-targeted habitats, pesticide concentrations were measured in stemflow (water flowing down the trunk of a tree during a rain event), rainfall, and amphibians in an agriculturally impacted wetland area near Tifton, Georgia, USA. Agricultural fields and sampling locations were located on the University of Georgia's Gibbs research farm. Samples were analyzed for >150 pesticides and over 20 different pesticides were detected in these matrices. Data indicated that herbicides (metolachlor and atrazine) and fungicides (tebuconazole) were present with the highest concentrations in stemflow, followed by those in rainfall and amphibian tissue samples. Metolachlor had the highest frequency of detection and highest concentration in rainfall and stemflow samples. Higher concentrations of pesticides were observed in stemflow for a longer period than rainfall. Furthermore, rainfall and stemflow concentrations were compared against aquatic life benchmarks and environmental water screening values to determine if adverse effects would potentially occur for non-targeted organisms. Of the pesticides detected, several had concentrations that exceeded the aquatic life benchmark value. The majority of the time mixtures were present in the different matrices, making it difficult to determine the potential adverse effects that these compounds will have on non-target species, due to unknown potentiating effects. These data help assess the

  19. Reliability of plasma-sprayed coatings: monitoring the plasma spray process and improving the quality of coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauchais, P; Vardelle, M; Vardelle, A

    2013-01-01

    As for every coating technology, the reliability and reproducibility of coatings are essential for the development of the plasma spraying technology in industrial manufacturing. They mainly depend on the process reliability, equipment and spray booth maintenance, operator training and certification, implementation and use of consistent production practices and standardization of coating testing. This paper deals with the first issue, that is the monitoring and control of the plasma spray process; it does not tackle the coating characterization and testing methods. It begins with a short history of coating quality improvement under plasma spray conditions over the last few decades, details the plasma spray torches used in the industry, the development of the measurements of in-flight and impacting particle parameters and then of sensors. It concludes with the process maps that describe the interrelations between the operating parameters of the spray process, in-flight particle characteristics and coating properties and with the potential of in situ monitoring of the process by artificial neural networks and fuzzy logic methods. (paper)

  20. Reliability of plasma-sprayed coatings: monitoring the plasma spray process and improving the quality of coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauchais, P.; Vardelle, M.; Vardelle, A.

    2013-06-01

    As for every coating technology, the reliability and reproducibility of coatings are essential for the development of the plasma spraying technology in industrial manufacturing. They mainly depend on the process reliability, equipment and spray booth maintenance, operator training and certification, implementation and use of consistent production practices and standardization of coating testing. This paper deals with the first issue, that is the monitoring and control of the plasma spray process; it does not tackle the coating characterization and testing methods. It begins with a short history of coating quality improvement under plasma spray conditions over the last few decades, details the plasma spray torches used in the industry, the development of the measurements of in-flight and impacting particle parameters and then of sensors. It concludes with the process maps that describe the interrelations between the operating parameters of the spray process, in-flight particle characteristics and coating properties and with the potential of in situ monitoring of the process by artificial neural networks and fuzzy logic methods.

  1. An integrated study of thermal spray process-structure-property correlations: A case study for plasma sprayed molybdenum coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaidya, A.; Streibl, T.; Li, L.; Sampath, S.; Kovarik, O.; Greenlaw, R.

    2005-01-01

    Thermal spray coatings exhibit a wide variety of hierarchial and multiscale microstructural characteristics that lead to variation in their functional properties and performance. The array of defect structures, orthotropic behaviour and process-induced attributes (e.g. quenching stresses) all add to complexity in understanding and predicting their performance. A complete understanding of the plasma spray process includes examination of the particle-jet interaction, particle impact (to form the splats) and the particle-substrate interaction during coating deposition. This link has been established by using diagnostic tools in conjunction with a splat collection shutter and an 'in situ' curvature measurement instrument. In this study, commercial grade spherical molybdenum (Mo) powder was plasma sprayed and the spray stream was characterized for resulting particle state. A 'splat map' was deposited through a 'spray stream guillotine' to capture the fingerprint of the plume cross-section. Subsequently, coatings were deposited at these spray conditions on a newly developed 'in situ' curvature measurement instrument to measure coating residual stresses and to estimate the coating modulus. Splats and coatings were subsequently characterized by microdiffraction (for splat residual stresses), nano and microindentation for elastic and elastic-plastic properties and by electron microscopy. This complete history of the process followed by splat and coating characterization provides insight into the correlation between processing parameters, resultant particle states and final coating properties. The role of particle temperature and velocity on the splat (and coating) morphology and residual stress is explained in the results

  2. Laser-Based Spatio-Temporal Characterisation of Port Fuel Injection (PFI Sprays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. T. N. Anand

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, detailed laser-based diagnostic experiments were conducted to characterise the spray from low pressure 2-hole and 4-hole Port Fuel Injection (PFI injectors. The main objective of the work included obtaining quantitative information of the spatio-temporal spray structure of such low-pressure gasoline sprays. A novel approach involving a combination of techniques such as Mie scattering, Granulometry, and Laser Sheet Dropsizing (LSD was used to study the spray structure. The droplet sizes, distributions with time, Sauter Mean Diameters (SMD, droplet velocities, cone angles and spray tip penetrations of the sprays from the injectors were determined. The spray from these injectors is found to be ‘pencil like’ and not dispersed as in high pressure sprays. The application of the above mentioned techniques provides two-dimensional SMD contours of the entire spray at different instants of time, with reasonable accuracy.

  3. Water spray interaction with air-steam mixtures under containment spray conditions: experimental study in the TOSQAN facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porcheron, E.; Lemaitre, P.; Malet, J.; Nuboer, A.; Brun, P.; Bouilloux, L.; Vendel, J. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Direction de la Surete des Usines, des laboratoires, des transports et des dechets, Saclay, BP 68 - 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: During the course of an hypothetical severe accident in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR), hydrogen can be produced by the reactor core oxidation and distributed into the reactor containment according to convection flows and steam wall condensation. In order to assess the risk of detonation generated by a high local hydrogen concentration, hydrogen distribution in the containment has to be known. The TOSQAN experimental program has been created to simulate typical accidental thermal hydraulic flow conditions in the reactor containment. The present work is devoted to study the interaction of a water spray injection used as a mitigation mean in order to reduce containment pressure and to produce a mixing of air, steam and hydrogen induced by spray entrainment and condensation on droplet. In order to have a better understanding of physical phenomena, we need to make a detailed characterization of the spray and the gas. The TOSQAN facility that is highly instrumented with non-intrusive diagnostics consists in a closed cylindrical vessel (7 m{sup 3} volume, 4 m high, 1.5 m i.d.) into which steam is injected. Water droplets size is measured in the vessel by the Interferometric Laser Imaging for Droplet Sizing technique. Droplet velocity is obtained by Particle Image Velocimetry and Laser Doppler Velocimetry, and droplet temperature is measured by global rainbow refractometry. Gas concentration measurements are performed by Spontaneous Raman Scattering. The walls of the vessel are thermostatically controlled by heated oil circulation. Inner spray system that is located on the top of the enclosure on the vertical axis, is composed of a single nozzle producing a full cone water spray. Spray test scenario consists of water spray injection in TOSQAN that is first pressurized with a steam injection (steam injection is stopped before spray injection). Water spray falling into the sump is removed to avoid accumulation and evaporation

  4. Review of clinical trials: update on oral insulin spray formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzilli, Paolo; Raskin, Philip; Parkin, Christopher G

    2010-02-01

    Large clinical trials have shown that improving glycaemic control significantly reduces the risk of long-term microvascular complications in type 1 (T1DM) and type 2 (T2DM) diabetes. Achieving optimal glycaemic control often requires the use of multiple daily insulin injections. Current approaches to insulin administration are less than optimal; many T2DM patients view insulin therapy as inconvenient and uncomfortable and may delay starting insulin therapy because of this. A new oral insulin spray formulation and delivery system provides an alternative to injectable and inhaled insulin. The system allows a liquid oral spray insulin formulation to be delivered into the mouth via an aerosolized spray. The oral insulin spray is a tasteless liquid aerosol mist formulation that is administered to the buccal mucosa using a proprietary delivery system. The active pharmaceutical ingredient is recombinant human insulin; however, the formulation behaves in a fashion more similar to the synthetic fast-acting insulin analogues. In clinical studies of healthy subjects and subjects with T1DM and T2DM, investigators have shown that the oral insulin spray was absorbed in direct relation to the amount given and had a faster onset and a shorter duration of action when compared with regular insulin given subcutaneously. In all of the studies conducted, the oral insulin spray was generally well tolerated. Some healthy individuals and subjects with T1DM experienced transient (1-2 min) mild dizziness during dosing; these symptoms were mild and self-limited. No changes in vital signs, laboratory values or physical examination results were noted. The ease of use of the insulin spray formulation may increase patient acceptance and treatment compliance, thereby potentially reducing complications and improving quality of life for patients with insulin-dependent diabetes. This article provides an overview of the safety profile and proposed mechanism of action of this insulin formulation and

  5. Development & characterization of alumina coating by atmospheric plasma spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Jobin; Scaria, Abyson; Kurian, Don George

    2018-03-01

    Ceramic coatings are applied on metals to prevent them from oxidation and corrosion at room as well as elevated temperatures. The service environment, mechanisms of protection, chemical and mechanical compatibility, application method, control of coating quality and ability of the coating to be repaired are the factors that need to be considered while selecting the required coating. The coatings based on oxide materials provides high degree of thermal insulation and protection against oxidation at high temperatures for the underlying substrate materials. These coatings are usually applied by the flame or plasma spraying methods. The surface cleanliness needs to be ensured before spraying. Abrasive blasting can be used to provide the required surface roughness for good adhesion between the substrate and the coating. A pre bond coat like Nickel Chromium can be applied on to the substrate material before spraying the oxide coating to avoid chances of poor adhesion between the oxide coating and the metallic substrate. Plasma spraying produces oxide coatings of greater density, higher hardness, and smooth surface finish than that of the flame spraying process Inert gas is often used for generation of plasma gas so as to avoid the oxidation of the substrate material. The work focuses to develop, characterize and optimize the parameters used in Al2O3 coating on transition stainless steel substrate material for minimizing the wear rate and maximizing the leak tightness using plasma spray process. The experiment is designed using Taguchi’s L9 orthogonal array. The parameters that are to be optimized are plasma voltage, spraying distance and the cooling jet pressure. The characterization techniques includes micro-hardness and porosity tests followed by Grey relational analysis of the results.

  6. Removal of carbon dioxide by a spray dryer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jyh-Cherng; Fang, Guor-Cheng; Tang, Jun-Tian; Liu, Li-Ping

    2005-03-01

    With the global warming due to greenhouse effects becoming serious, many efforts are carried out to decrease the emissions of CO2 from the combustion of carbonaceous materials. In Taiwan, there are 19 large-scale municipal solid waste incinerators running and their total emission of CO2 is about 16,950 kton y-1. Spray dryer is the most prevailing air pollution control devise for removing acid gas in waste incineration; however, the performance of spray dryer on the removal of CO2 is seldom studied. This study employs a laboratory-scale spray dryer to investigate the removal efficiency of CO2 under different operating conditions. The evaluated parameters include different absorbents mixed with CaOH2, operating temperature, the concentration of absorbent, and the inlet concentration of CO2. Experimental results show that the best removal efficiency of CO2 by a spray dryer is 48% as the absorbent is 10%NaOH+5%CaOH2 and the operating temperature is 150 degrees C. Comparing this result with previous study shows that the performance of spray dryer is better than traditional NaOH wet scrubber. For NaOH+CaOH2 spray dryer, the removal efficiency of CO2 is decreased with the inlet concentration of CO2 increased and the optimum operating temperature is 150 degrees C. Except NaOH+CaOH2, absorbents DEA+CaOH2, TEA+CaOH2, and single CaOH2 are not effective in removing CO2 by a spray dryer.

  7. Evaluation of the Nano Spray Dryer B-90 for pharmaceutical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Katja; Arpagaus, Cordin; Friess, Wolfgang

    2011-08-01

    The vibrating mesh spray technology implemented in the Nano Spray Dryer B-90 was evaluated for pharmaceutical applications by spray drying common pharmaceutical excipients (e.g. trehalose, mannitol) and model drugs (e.g. griseofulvin). Aerosol droplet size measurements investigated the influence of spray solution factors (e.g. viscosity, surface tension) and of vibrating mesh aperture sizes on particle characteristics. Particle deposition on the spray nozzle was addressed by analyzing the influence of spray solute concentration and solvent on the process outcome. Submicron particles with 0.5 ?m and 0.8 ?m mean particle size were obtained at high yields for 50?mg powder amounts.

  8. Risk evaluation on internal corrosion of a gas pipeline cut section based on metal mechanic tests and physiochemical analysis of the solids deposited in the pipes; Determinacion del riesgo por corrosion interna de un tramo cortado de una linea de transporte de gas natural a partir de ensayos metalmecanicos y del analisis fisicoquimico de los solidos depositados en la tuberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ditta Sarmiento, Johanna Milena [PETROBRAS International (BRASPETRO) (Colombia). Ingenieria de Corrosion DPSU

    2003-07-01

    After inspecting a one of the most important pipelines in Colombia, using intelligent tool, the pipe sections were selected that presented losses of thickness which probably they would be risking integrity of the same one and after, these sections were cut and replaced. To one of the cut sections a study with the objective was made him establish the present forms of corrosion and to determine the phenomena that influenced the presence of the damages. For this study were moderate thicknesses of the wall of the tube and was determined the criticality comparing it with its nominal thickness, according to Standard ASME B - 31G. Taking advantage of the presence solids in the surface, one became both, physical and chemical analysis, DRX and elementary analysis, with the objective to determine its origin and to correlate it with the types of corrosion that were in the line. The morphology that determined were Microbiological Influenced Corrosion, Erosion - Corrosion, Pitting and CO2 corrosion. Then, from all this information the analysis becomes of risks by internal corrosion in pipeline, the plan of mitigation and the plans of monitoring and inspection of the line to avoid the presence of anyone of these forms of corrosion in the future immediate. (author)

  9. Characterization of sediments laid on Solimoes/Amazonas river flood plains, using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique; Caracterizacao dos sedimentos depositados nas planicies de inundacao do Rio Solimoes/Amazonas, utilizando a tecnica de fluorescencia de raios-X por dispersao de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Ana E.V. [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F. do [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz]|[Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    1997-10-01

    This paper proposes sediment analysis with high light elements fraction using dispersive energy X-ray fluorescence technique with radioisotopic excitation, The proposed procedure is based on the Fundamental Parameters for analytical elements (Z {>=} 13) evaluation, and coherent and incoherent scattered radiation for quantification of the light fraction of the matrix (Z < 13). Laid sediments samples on Solimoes/Amazonas river flood plains were analyzed, determining simultaneously the Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, Sc, V, Mn, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr and Zr element concentrations, thus allowing chemical characterization and spatial variability, and some mineralogical and weathering sediments aspects. (author). 15 refs., 11 tabs.

  10. Study of the oxidation resistance of ZrxNand ZrxSi1-xN thin films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering; Estudo da resistencia a oxidacao de filmes finos de ZrxN e ZrxSi1-xN depositados por magnetron sputtering reativo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, D.R.; Freitas, F.G.R.; Felix, L.C.; Carvalho, R.G.; Fontes Junior, A.S.; Tentardini, E.K., E-mail: daniel.angel0275@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais; Silva Junior, H. da [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the oxidation resistance on pure zirconium nitride thin films and with silicon addition (ZrN and ZrSiN respectively). The thin films deposition were performed using reactive magnetron sputtering. The coatings were characterized by Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS), grazing angle X ray diffraction (GAXRD), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM-FEG) and oxidation tests starting from 500°C to 700°C. This study evaluated thin films with silicon content up to 14,9 at.%. GAXRD results showed only ZrN characteristics peaks, which allow the inference that Si3N4 has an amorphous structure. Oxidation tests demonstrate that the film with highest silicon content shows an increase of 200°C in oxidation temperature when compared with ZrN pure thin film. (author)

  11. El recuerdo viaja por Italia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Madrid Malo

    1965-09-01

    Full Text Available Espero que mis lectores puedan acompañarme en este viaje del recuerdo por Italia, en esta travesía restrospectiva por el cuerpo duradero, por el dorso sustantivo - vertebrado dulcemente, ásperamente, por el vasto cinturón apenínico- de un país donde la vida tiene una manera tan suya de ser grata, de transcurrir en todo momento significativamente. Y donde cada instante, cada sitio, está signado de plenitudes inefables, de expresivos modos de mostrársenos e insinuársenos, hasta hacerse todos ellos, por siempre, memorables e insistentes habitantes de nuestros mejores sueños y vigilias.

  12. Antioxidant activity and physical-chemical properties of spray and spouted bed dried extracts of Bauhinia forficata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Regina Fernandes Souza

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Two distinct drying methods (spouted bed and spray drying were used for production of dried extracts of Bauhinia forficata Link (Leguminosae, Caesalpinoideae. High-quality powder products in terms of physical and chemical properties were obtained. HPLC fingerprints revealed that the chromatographic profiles of flavonoid compounds present in the dried extract did not change significantly, due to drying. In general, the spouted bed drying caused a degradation of total flavonoids than was lower than that of the spray drying. Antioxidant properties of the dried extract, examined by their radical scavenging activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH• and inhibition of lipid peroxidation induced by Fe+2 assays (LPO, confirmed their antioxidant potential. The slight reduction in scavenging activity of the dried extracts may be associated with the occurrence of oxidative reactions, decomposition or losses of thermolabile compounds, induced by the heat.Neste trabalho foram utilizados dois distintos secadores (leito de jorro e spray dryer para a produção de extratos secos de Bauhinia forficata Link (Leguminosae, Caesalpinoideae obtendo-se um produto seco com elevada qualidade em termos de suas propriedades físicas e químicas. Análises qualitativas obtidas por CLAE revelam que os perfis cromatográficos dos compostos flavonóides presentes nos extratos secos não apresentaram significativas mudanças durante a secagem quando comparados aos perfis obtidos para os extratos concentrados. Em geral, a secagem por leito de jorro acarreta menores perdas dos flavonóides totais do que a secagem em spray drying. A atividade antioxidante dos extratos secos foi examinada pelos métodos de (DPPH• e peroxidação lipídica induzida por Fe+2 (LPO. Uma pequena redução na atividade sequestradora de radicais livres observada para os extratos secos pode ser associada com a ocorrência de reações oxidativas, decomposição e/ou perdas de

  13. Electrostatic spray deposition of doped ceria films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, J.B.; Chang, C.L.; Hwang, B.H. [Department of Materials Science and Optoelectronics Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 80424 (China); Hsu, C.S. [Kaohsiung Municipal Chung-Cheng Industrial High School, Kaohsiung 80656 (China)

    2010-12-15

    Dense and thin electrolyte films are desirable for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) because of their low gas leakage and low ohmic resistances. This work aims at the preparation of thin dense Gd-doped ceria (CGO) electrolyte films using a cost-effective deposition method in ambient atmosphere-electrostatic spray deposition (ESD). The deposition parameters such as deposition temperature, concentration and flow rate of precursor solution were changed systematically to examine their effects on film morphology and hence electrochemical performance. While the film morphology was examined by a scanning electron microscope, the electrochemical performance was revealed by measuring open circuit voltages (OCVs) of NiO-CGO/CGO/Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Co{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-{delta}} (BSCF) cells in 500-700 C with humidified hydrogen as fuel and air as oxidant. The results show that a CGO film of 25 {mu}m thick obtained at a deposition temperature of 400 C, a precursor solution flow rate of 6 ml h{sup -1} and a precursor concentration of 0.3 M was dense with very few isolated pores and the OCV of the associated cell was 0.915 V at 500 C. This implies that the CGO film has negligible gas leakage and ESD is a promising method for preparing thin dense electrolyte films for SOFCs. (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Experimental Study on Diesel Spray Characteristics and Autoignition Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Oğuz Taşkiran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study is to get the temporal and spatial spray evolution under diesel-like conditions and to investigate autoignition process of sprays which are injected from different nozzle geometries. A constant volume combustion chamber was manufactured and heated internally up to 825 K at 3.5 MPa for experiments. Macroscopic properties of diesel spray were recorded via a high-speed CCD camera by using shadowgraphy technique, and the images were analyzed by using a digital image processing program. To investigate the influence of nozzle geometry, 4 different types of divergent, straight, straight-rounded, convergent-rounded nozzles, were manufactured and used in both spray evolution and autoignition experiments. The internal geometry of the injector nozzles were obtained by using silicone mold method. The macroscopic properties of the nozzles are presented in the study. Ignition behaviour of different nozzle types was observed in terms of ignition delay time and ignition location. A commercial Diesel fuel, n-heptane, and a mixture of hexadecane-heptamethylnonane (CN65—cetane number 65 were used as fuels at ignition experiments. The similar macroscopic properties of different nozzles were searched for observing ignition time and ignition location differences. Though spray and ignition characteristics revealed very similar results, the dissimilarities are presented in the study.

  15. Hollow-Cone Spray Modeling for Outwardly Opening Piezoelectric Injector

    KAUST Repository

    Sim, Jaeheon

    2016-01-04

    Linear instability sheet atomization (LISA) breakup model has been widely used for modeling hollow-cone spray. However, the model was originally developed for inwardlyopening pressure-swirl injectors by assuming toroidal ligament breakups. Therefore, LISA model is not suitable for simulating outwardly opening injectors having string-like structures at wide spray angles. Furthermore, the varying area and shape of the annular nozzle exit makes the modeling difficult. In this study, a new spray modeling was proposed for outwardly opening hollow-cone injector. The injection velocities are computed from the given mas flow rate and injection pressure regardless of ambiguous nozzle exit geometries. The modified Kelvin-Helmholtz and Rayleigh-Taylor (KH-RT) breakup model is used with adjusted initial Sauter mean diameter (SMD) for modeling breakup of string-like liquid film spray. Liquid spray injection was modeled using Lagrangian discrete parcel method within the framework of commercial CFD software CONVERGE, and the detailed model was implemented by user defined functions. It was found that the new model predicted the liquid penetration length and local SMD accurately for various fuels and chamber conditions.

  16. Treatment of Rhinitis Sicca Anterior with Ectoine Containing Nasal Spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Sonnemann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The safety and efficacy of ectoine nasal spray and ectoine nasal spray with dexpanthenol in the treatment of rhinitis sicca were evaluated in two studies. Design and Methods. Two noninterventional observational studies were performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a nasal spray containing ectoine (study 1 and ectoine/dexpanthenol (study 2 over a period of two weeks including comparable numbers of patients suffering from rhinitis sicca anterior. Patients and physicians were asked to rate the efficacy in reducing symptoms and the tolerability over the treatment phase. Results. The treatment in both studies resulted in a clinical and statistical significant reduction of the main diagnosis parameters, nasal airway obstruction, and crust formation. There was also a significant reduction in the secondary diagnosis parameters in both studies. Importantly, the tolerability was very good. During the whole observational study, neither patients nor doctors stopped the medication due to unwanted effects. Conclusion. Rhinitis sicca could be successfully treated with a nasal spray containing ectoine and a nasal spray combining ectoine with dexpanthenol. The combination of both substances led to slight advantages.

  17. MELCOR 1.8.3 assessment: CSE containment spray experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kmetyk, L.N.

    1994-12-01

    MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code, being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the USNRC, that models the entire spectrum of severe accident phenomena in a unified framework for both BWRs and PWRS. As part, of an ongoing assessment program, the MELCOR computer code has been used to analyze a series of containment spray tests performed in the Containment Systems Experiment (CSE) vessel to evaluate the performance of aqueous sprays as a means of decontaminating containment atmospheres. Basecase MELCOR results are compared with test data, and a number of sensitivity studies on input modelling parameters and options in both the spray package and the associated aerosol washout and atmosphere decontamination by sprays modelled in the radionuclide package have been done. Time-step and machine-dependency calculations were done to identify whether any numeric effects exist in these CSE assessment analyses. A significant time-step dependency due to an error in the spray package coding was identified and eliminated. A number of other code deficiencies and inconveniences also are noted.

  18. Modelling of fuel spray and combustion in diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huttunen, M.T.; Kaario, O.T. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Fuel spray and air motion characteristics and combustion in direct injection (DI) diesel engines was studied using computational models of the commercial CFD-code FIRE. Physical subprocesses modelled included Lagrangian spray droplet movement and behaviour (atomisation, evaporation and interaction of spray droplets) and combustion of evaporated liquid spray in the gas phase. Fuel vapour combustion rate was described by the model of Magnussen and Hjertager. The standard k,{epsilon}-model was used for turbulence. In order to be able to predict combustion accurately, the fuel spray penetration should be predicted with reasonable accuracy. In this study, the standard drag coefficient had to be reduced in order to match the computed penetration to the measured one. In addition, the constants in the submodel describing droplet breakup also needed to be adjusted for closer agreement with the measurements. The characteristic time scale of fuel consumption rate k/C{sub R} {epsilon} strongly influenced the heat release and in-cylinder pressure. With a value around 2.0 to 5.0 for C{sub R}, the computed in-cylinder pressure during the compression stroke agreed quite well with the measurements. On the other hand, the in-cylinder pressure was underpredicted during the expansion stroke. This is partly due to the fact that hydrocarbon fuel combustion was modelled as a one-step reaction reading to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O and inadequate description of the mixing of reactants and combustion products. (author) 16 refs.

  19. A sea spray aerosol flux parameterization encapsulating wave state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovadnevaite, J.; Manders, A.; de Leeuw, G.; Ceburnis, D.; Monahan, C.; Partanen, A.-I.; Korhonen, H.; O'Dowd, C. D.

    2014-02-01

    A new sea spray source function (SSSF), termed Oceanflux Sea Spray Aerosol or OSSA, was derived based on in-situ sea spray aerosol measurements along with meteorological/physical parameters. Submicron sea spray aerosol fluxes derived from particle number concentration measurements at the Mace Head coastal station, on the west coast of Ireland, were used together with open-ocean eddy correlation flux measurements from the Eastern Atlantic Sea Spray, Gas Flux, and Whitecap (SEASAW) project cruise. In the overlapping size range, the data for Mace Head and SEASAW were found to be in a good agreement, which allowed deriving the new SSSF from the combined dataset spanning the dry diameter range from 15 nm to 6 μm. The OSSA source function has been parameterized in terms of five lognormal modes and the Reynolds number instead of the more commonly used wind speed, thereby encapsulating important influences of wave height, wind history, friction velocity, and viscosity. This formulation accounts for the different flux relationships associated with rising and waning wind speeds since these are included in the Reynolds number. Furthermore, the Reynolds number incorporates the kinematic viscosity of water, thus the SSSF inherently includes dependences on sea surface temperature and salinity. The temperature dependence of the resulting SSSF is similar to that of other in-situ derived source functions and results in lower production fluxes for cold waters and enhanced fluxes from warm waters as compared with SSSF formulations that do not include temperature effects.

  20. Measurement of Spray Drift with a Specifically Designed Lidar System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Gregorio

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Field measurements of spray drift are usually carried out by passive collectors and tracers. However, these methods are labour- and time-intensive and only provide point- and time-integrated measurements. Unlike these methods, the light detection and ranging (lidar technique allows real-time measurements, obtaining information with temporal and spatial resolution. Recently, the authors have developed the first eye-safe lidar system specifically designed for spray drift monitoring. This prototype is based on a 1534 nm erbium-doped glass laser and an 80 mm diameter telescope, has scanning capability, and is easily transportable. This paper presents the results of the first experimental campaign carried out with this instrument. High coefficients of determination (R2 > 0.85 were observed by comparing lidar measurements of the spray drift with those obtained by horizontal collectors. Furthermore, the lidar system allowed an assessment of the drift reduction potential (DRP when comparing low-drift nozzles with standard ones, resulting in a DRP of 57% (preliminary result for the tested nozzles. The lidar system was also used for monitoring the evolution of the spray flux over the canopy and to generate 2-D images of these plumes. The developed instrument is an advantageous alternative to passive collectors and opens the possibility of new methods for field measurement of spray drift.

  1. Technological Challenges for Spray Chilling Encapsulation of Functional Food Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Sílvia Favaro-Trindade

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spray chilling technology (also known as spray cooling and spray congealing technology has been widely studied and used in the pharmaceutical field. In the food industry, this technique is gaining interest and can become useful because functional food formulations can be developed. Spray chilling is a fat-based system, which involves the addition of the component of interest to a molten lipid carrier, and the resulting mixture is fed through an atomiser nozzle. When the nebulised material is put into contact with the environment, which is cooled below the melting point of the matrix material, the vehicle solidifies (due to heat exchange between the molten material and cold air, and solid lipid microparticles are formed at the same time. This technology is fat based, and lipid carriers, such as wax and oil (e.g. palm oil, beeswax, cocoa butter, and kernel oil can be used. This encapsulation technique can potentially change the functionality, reduce the hygroscopicity, mask taste or odour, change solubility, and provide physical protection in addition to allowing the controlled release of these ingredients. This low-cost technology is relatively simple to apply and scale up, and it does not require the use of organic solvents and the application of high temperatures in the process. Therefore, spray chilling encapsulation may facilitate the development and production of functional and enriched foods as it may solve some technological problems associated with the use of certain ingredients, such as those that have high reactivity and low stability.

  2. MELCOR 1.8.3 assessment: CSE containment spray experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kmetyk, L.N.

    1994-12-01

    MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code, being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the USNRC, that models the entire spectrum of severe accident phenomena in a unified framework for both BWRs and PWRS. As part, of an ongoing assessment program, the MELCOR computer code has been used to analyze a series of containment spray tests performed in the Containment Systems Experiment (CSE) vessel to evaluate the performance of aqueous sprays as a means of decontaminating containment atmospheres. Basecase MELCOR results are compared with test data, and a number of sensitivity studies on input modelling parameters and options in both the spray package and the associated aerosol washout and atmosphere decontamination by sprays modelled in the radionuclide package have been done. Time-step and machine-dependency calculations were done to identify whether any numeric effects exist in these CSE assessment analyses. A significant time-step dependency due to an error in the spray package coding was identified and eliminated. A number of other code deficiencies and inconveniences also are noted

  3. Experimental testing of spray dryer for control of incineration emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wey, M Y; Wu, H Y; Tseng, H H; Chen, J C

    2003-05-01

    The research investigated the absorption/adsorption efficiency of sulfur dioxide (SO2), heavy metals, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with different Ca-based sorbents in a spray dryer during incineration process. For further improving the adsorption capacity of Ca-based sorbents, different spraying pressure and additives were carried out in this study. Experimental results showed that CaO could be used as an alternative sorbent in the spray dryer at an optimal initial particle size distribution of spraying droplet. In the spray dryer, Ca-based sorbents provided a lot of sites for heavy metals and PAHs condensing and calcium and alkalinity to react with metals to form merged species. As a result, heavy metals and PAHs could be removed from the flue gas simultaneously by condensation and adsorption. The additions of additives NaHCO3, SiO2, and KMnO4 were also found to be effective in improving the removal efficiency of these air pollutants.

  4. Programmable Ultrasonic Sensing System for Targeted Spraying in Orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Hočevar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This research demonstrates the basic elements of a prototype automated orchard sprayer which delivers pesticide spray selectively with respect to the characteristics of the targets. The density of an apple tree canopy was detected by PROWAVE 400EP250 ultrasound sensors controlled by a Cypress PSOC CY8C29466 microcontroller. The ultrasound signal was processed with an embedded computer built around a LPC1343 microcontroller and fed in real time to electro-magnetic valves which open/close spraying nozzles in relation to the canopy structure. The analysis focuses on the detection of appropriate thresholds on 15 cm ultrasound bands, which correspond to maximal response to tree density, and this was selected for accurate spraying guidance. Evaluation of the system was performed in an apple orchard by detecting deposits of tartrazine dye (TD on apple leaves. The employment of programmable microcontrollers and electro-magnetic valves decreased the amount of spray delivered by up to 48.15%. In contrast, the reduction of TD was only up to 37.7% at some positions within the tree crown and 65.1% in the gaps between trees. For all these reasons, this concept of precise orchard spraying can contribute to a reduction of costs and environmental pollution, while obtaining similar or even better leaf deposits.

  5. Programmable Ultrasonic Sensing System for Targeted Spraying in Orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stajnko, Denis; Berk, Peter; Lešnik, Mario; Jejčič, Viktor; Lakota, Miran; Štrancar, Andrej; Hočevar, Marko; Rakun, Jurij

    2012-01-01

    This research demonstrates the basic elements of a prototype automated orchard sprayer which delivers pesticide spray selectively with respect to the characteristics of the targets. The density of an apple tree canopy was detected by PROWAVE 400EP250 ultrasound sensors controlled by a Cypress PSOC CY8C29466 microcontroller. The ultrasound signal was processed with an embedded computer built around a LPC1343 microcontroller and fed in real time to electro-magnetic valves which open/close spraying nozzles in relation to the canopy structure. The analysis focuses on the detection of appropriate thresholds on 15 cm ultrasound bands, which correspond to maximal response to tree density, and this was selected for accurate spraying guidance. Evaluation of the system was performed in an apple orchard by detecting deposits of tartrazine dye (TD) on apple leaves. The employment of programmable microcontrollers and electro-magnetic valves decreased the amount of spray delivered by up to 48.15%. In contrast, the reduction of TD was only up to 37.7% at some positions within the tree crown and 65.1% in the gaps between trees. For all these reasons, this concept of precise orchard spraying can contribute to a reduction of costs and environmental pollution, while obtaining similar or even better leaf deposits. PMID:23202220

  6. Optimization of spray deposition and Tetranychus urticae control with air assisted and electrostatic sprayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Tourino Rezende de Cerqueira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Improved spray deposition can be attained by electrostatically charging spray droplets, which increases the attraction of droplets to plants and decreases operator exposure to pesticide and losses to the environment. However, this technique alone is not sufficient to achieve desirable penetration of the spray solution into the crop canopy; thus, air assistance can be added to the electrostatic spraying to further improve spray deposition. This study was conducted to compare different spraying technologies on spray deposition and two-spotted spider mite control in cut chrysanthemum. Treatments included in the study were: conventional TJ 8003 double flat fan nozzles, conventional TXVK-3 hollow cone nozzles, semi-stationary motorized jet launched spray with electrostatic spray system (ESS and air assistance (AA, and semi-stationary motorized jet launched spray with AA only (no ESS. To evaluate the effect of these spraying technologies on the control of two-spotted spider mite, a control treatment was included that did not receive an acaricide application. The AA spraying technology, with or without ESS, optimized spray deposition and provided satisfactory two-spotted spider mite control up to 4 days after application.

  7. Responsabilidade civil por abandono afetivo

    OpenAIRE

    Fidélis, Maria de Lourdes

    2013-01-01

    Este estudo tem por objetivo a análise da responsabilidade civil por abandono afetivo na relação paterno-filial a partir de recentes decisões dos tribunais brasileiros. Inicialmente discorre sobre a evolução da família contemporânea. Examina os elementos da responsabilidade civil objetivando uma interseção entre o novo Direito de Família e as transformações no dever de indenizar. A partir de dois casos paradigmáticos escolhidos busca-se encontrar os fundamentos e finalidades das demandas por ...

  8. Relationships between spray parameters, microstructures and ultrasonic cavitation erosion behavior of HVOF sprayed Fe-based amorphous/nanocrystalline coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Lei; Wu, Yuping; Hong, Sheng; Zhang, Jianfeng; Shi, Wei; Zheng, Yugui

    2017-11-01

    Fe-based amorphous/nanocrystalline coatings were prepared on the AISI 321 steel substrate by the high-velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF) thermal spraying technology. The effect of selected parameters (oxygen flow, kerosene flow and spray distance) on the cavitation erosion resistance (denoted as Rc) of the coating were investigated by using the Taguchi method. Statistical tools such as design of experiments (DOE), signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to meet the expected objective. It was concluded that the kerosene flow had greater influence on the Rc of the coating and followed by the spray distance and the oxygen flow, respectively. The optimum spray parameters (OSP) were 963L/min for the oxygen flow, 28L/h for the kerosene flow, and 330mm for the spray distance. The Rc of the coating increased with the increase of hardness or the decrease of porosity, and the hardness had a greater influence on Rc than the porosity. The Fe-based coating deposited under the OSP exhibited the best cavitation erosion resistance in distilled water. The cracks initiated at the edge of the pores and the interfaces between the un-melted or half-melted particles, and finally leaded to the delamination of the coating. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Research Into Ni-Cr-Si-B Coating Sprayed Onto Aluminium Substrate Using the Method of Plasma Spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimonda Lukauskaitė

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with Ni base coatings deposited on aluminium substrate applying the method of plasma spray. The purpose of the conducted research is to improve the physical and mechanical properties of coatings on the surface of aluminium alloy work pieces. Spraying on aluminium alloys encounters serious problems, and therefore this work analyses the ways to make the situation more favourable. Before spraying, the surfaces of substrates were modified employing chemical and mechanical pre-treatment methods. The aim of pre-treating aluminium alloys was to remove oxide layers from the aluminium surface. Coating microstructures and porosity were characterised applying optical microscopy. Differences in the roughness of pre-treated surfaces have been determined referring to profilometry. The paper investigates the influence of the adhesion of plasma spray coatings on aluminium surface pretreatment. Microhardness technique was applied for measuring the hardness of coatings. The study also describes and compares the mechanical properties of Ni base coatings deposited on different pre-treated aluminium substrates using plasma spray.Article in Lithuanian

  10. Research Into Ni-Cr-Si-B Coating Sprayed Onto Aluminium Substrate Using the Method of Plasma Spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimonda Lukauskaitė

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with Ni base coatings deposited on aluminium substrate applying the method of plasma spray. The purpose of the conducted research is to improve the physical and mechanical properties of coatings on the surface of aluminium alloy work pieces. Spraying on aluminium alloys encounters serious problems, and therefore this work analyses the ways to make the situation more favourable. Before spraying, the surfaces of substrates were modified employing chemical and mechanical pre-treatment methods. The aim of pre-treating aluminium alloys was to remove oxide layers from the aluminium surface. Coating microstructures and porosity were characterised applying optical microscopy. Differences in the roughness of pre-treated surfaces have been determined referring to profilometry. The paper investigates the influence of the adhesion of plasma spray coatings on aluminium surface pretreatment. Microhardness technique was applied for measuring the hardness of coatings. The study also describes and compares the mechanical properties of Ni base coatings deposited on different pre-treated aluminium substrates using plasma spray.Article in Lithuanian

  11. 3rd International Workshop on Turbulent Spray Combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Gutheil, Eva

    2014-01-01

    This book reflects the results of the 2nd and 3rd International Workshops on Turbulent Spray Combustion. The focus is on progress in experiments and numerical simulations for two-phase flows, with emphasis on spray combustion. Knowledge of the dominant phenomena and their interactions allows development of predictive models and their use in combustor and gas turbine design. Experts and young researchers present the state-of-the-art results, report on the latest developments and exchange ideas in the areas of experiments, modelling and simulation of reactive multiphase flows. The first chapter reflects on flame structure, auto-ignition and atomization with reference to well-characterized burners, to be implemented by modellers with relative ease. The second chapter presents an overview of first simulation results on target test cases, developed at the occasion of the 1st International Workshop on Turbulent Spray Combustion. In the third chapter, evaporation rate modelling aspects are covered, while the fourth ...

  12. Characterization of spray dried bioadhesive metformin microparticles for oromucosal administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Camilla; Madsen, Katrine Dragsbæk; Hyrup, Birgitte

    2013-01-01

    delivery systems are considered a promising approach as they facilitate a close contact between the drug and the oral mucosa. In this study, bioadhesive chitosan-based microparticles of metformin hydrochloride were prepared by spray drying aqueous dispersions with different chitosan:metformin ratios...... be prepared and analyzed using the ex vivo retention model. We observed an increase in metformin retention on porcine mucosa with increasing chitosan:metformin ratios, while no effect of increasing the chitosan molecular weight was found. Rheological characterization of feeds for spray drying was performed...... and chitosan grades with increasing molecular weights. A recently developed ex vivo flow retention model with porcine buccal mucosa was used to evaluate the bioadhesive properties of spray dried microparticles. An important outcome of this study was that microparticles with the desired metformin content could...

  13. USO DE FIPRONIL SPRAY NO TRATAMENTO DA ESCABIOSE CANINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Franco Andrade

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to prove the effectiveness of the fipronil spray (FRONTLINE, a new synthetic molecule, as a safe acaricide in dogs. Were analyzed 10 dogs from the attendance of the service of Dermatology of the Veterinary Hospital and of the kennel of UNOESTE, Presidente Prudente, SP, with symptomatic and tested positive for scabies by scrapings, and used the fipronil spray in the whole body of the animal, besides external ear conduct, weekly until the disappearance of the symptoms and scrapings from the skin tested negative for scabies. The remission of the symptoms jointly with scraped of skin negative it happened on average from 4 to 6 weeks, demonstrating to be the fipronil spray effective and practical could be a safe alternative in the treatment of the canine scabies.

  14. Plasma spraying of bioactive glass-ceramics containing bovine bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamária Dobrádi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural bone derived glass-ceramics are promising biomaterials for implants. However, due to their price and weak mechanical properties they are preferably applied as coatings on load bearing implants. This paper describes result obtained by plasma spraying of bioactive glass-ceramics containing natural bone onto selected implant materials, such as stainless steel, alumina, and titanium alloy. Adhesion of plasma sprayed coating was tested by computed X-ray tomography and SEM of cross sections. The results showed defect free interface between the coating and substrate, without cracks or gaps. Dissolution rate of the coating in simulated body fluid (SBF was readily controlled by the bone additives (phase composition, as well as microstructure. The SBF treatment of the plasma sprayed coating did not influence the boundary between the coating and substrate.

  15. Fine structure of the vapor field in evaporating dense sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villermaux, Emmanuel; Moutte, Alexandre; Amielh, Muriel; Meunier, Patrice

    2017-11-01

    Making use of an original technique which permits the simultaneous measurement of both the displacement field of evaporating droplets in a spray, and of their vapor, we investigate the relevance of a scenario introduced earlier to describe the evaporation dynamics of dense sprays. A plume of dense acetone droplets evaporating in air is studied, for which the stirring field is measured by particle image velocimetry of the droplets, and the vapor field is imaged quantitatively by laser-induced fluorescence. We show, thanks to these unique in situ measurements, that the spray boundary with the diluting environment is slaved to the dynamics of its saturating vapor concentration field, whose structure is analyzed for different well defined local flow topologies.

  16. Economic Model Predictive Control for Spray Drying Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Norbert

    and MPC strategies to optimize the operation of four-stage spray dryers. The models are first-principle dynamic models with parameters identified from dryer specific experiments and powder properties identified from laboratory tests. A simulation model is used for detailed closed-loop simulations...... and a complexity reduced control model is used for state estimation and prediction in the controllers. These models facilitate development and comparison of control strategies. We develop two MPC strategies; a linear tracking MPC with a Real-Time Optimization layer (MPC with RTO) and an Economic Nonlinear MPC (E...... and sticky powder is avoided from building up on the dryer walls; 3) Demonstrate the industrial application of an MPC strategy to a full-scale industrial four-stage spray dryer. The main scientific contributions can be summarized to: - Modeling of a four-stage spray dryer. We develop new first-principles...

  17. Influence of biodiesel on injection, fuel spray, and engine characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kegl Breda

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the influence of biodiesel on the injection, spray, and engine characteristics with the aim to reduce harmful emissions. The considered engine is a bus diesel engine with injection M system. The injection, fuel spray, and engine characteristics, obtained with biodiesel, are compared to those obtained with mineral diesel under peak torque and rated conditions. The considered fuel is neat biodiesel from rapeseed oil. Its density, viscosity, surface tension, and sound velocity are determined experimentally and compared to those of mineral diesel. The experimentally obtained results are used to analyze the most important injection, fuel spray, and engine characteristics. Furthermore, the influence of biodiesel usage on lubrication is presented briefly. The results indicate that, by using biodiesel, harmful emissions (NOx, CO, HC, smoke, and PM can be reduced to some extent by adjusting the injection pump timing properly while keeping other engine characteristics within acceptable limits. Furthermore, the results indicate better lubrication conditions when biodiesel is used.

  18. The Evaluation of Momentum Flux to Estimate Exposure From Spray Painting Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blazicko, Brian

    1998-01-01

    .... The model was tested with an anthropometric, 73 inch mechanical mannequin spraying nonvolatile oil on a flat plate in a paint booth while using a high volume, low pressure (HVLP) spray paint gun...

  19. Mimicking spray drying by drying of single droplets deposited on a flat surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdana, J.A.; Fox, M.B.; Schutyser, M.A.I.; Boom, R.M.

    2013-01-01

    The inactivation of bioactive ingredients during spray drying is often matrix specific. Therefore, the design of new processes or the optimisation of existing spray drying processes is usually highly product specific and requires numerous experiments. Rapid experimentation methods that facilitate

  20. Gas Dynamic Spray Technology Demonstration Project Management. Joint Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Pattie

    2011-01-01

    The standard practice for protecting metallic substrates in atmospheric environments is the use of an applied coating system. Current coating systems used across AFSPC and NASA contain volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). These coatings are sUbject to environmental regulations at the Federal and State levels that limit their usage. In addition, these coatings often cannot withstand the high temperatures and exhaust that may be experienced by Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) and NASA structures. In response to these concerns, AFSPC and NASA have approved the use of thermal spray coatings (TSCs). Thermal spray coatings are extremely durable and environmentally friendly coating alternatives, but utilize large cumbersome equipment for application that make the coatings difficult and time consuming to repair. Other concerns include difficulties coating complex geometries and the cost of equipment, training, and materials. Gas Dynamic Spray (GOS) technology (also known as Cold Spray) was evaluated as a smaller, more maneuverable repair method as well as for areas where thermal spray techniques are not as effective. The technology can result in reduced maintenance and thus reduced hazardous materials/wastes associated with current processes. Thermal spray and GOS coatings also have no VOCs and are environmentally preferable coatings. The primary objective of this effort was to demonstrate GDS technology as a repair method for TSCs. The aim was that successful completion of this project would result in approval of GDS technology as a repair method for TSCs at AFSPC and NASA installations to improve corrosion protection at critical systems, facilitate easier maintenance activity, extend maintenance cycles, eliminate flight hardware contamination, and reduce the amount of hazardous waste generated.

  1. Lanthanide-based laser-induced phosphorescence for spray diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voort, D. D. van der, E-mail: d.d.v.d.voort@tue.nl; Water, W. van de; Kunnen, R. P. J.; Clercx, H. J. H.; Heijst, G. J. F. van [Applied Physics Department, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5612 AZ Eindhoven (Netherlands); Maes, N. C. J.; Sweep, A. M.; Dam, N. J. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5612 AZ Eindhoven (Netherlands); Lamberts, T. [Institute of Theoretical Chemistry, University of Stuttgart, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    Laser-induced phosphorescence (LIP) is a relatively recent and versatile development for studying flow dynamics. This work investigates certain lanthanide-based molecular complexes for their use in LIP for high-speed sprays. Lanthanide complexes in solutions have been shown to possess long phosphorescence lifetimes (∼1-2 ms) and to emit light in the visible wavelength range. In particular, europium and terbium complexes are investigated using fluorescence/phosphorescence spectrometry, showing that europium-thenoyltrifluoracetone-trioctylphosphineoxide (Eu-TTA-TOPO) can be easily and efficiently excited using a standard frequency-tripled Nd:YAG laser. The emitted spectrum, with maximum intensity at a wavelength of 614 nm, is shown not to vary strongly with temperature (293-383 K). The decay constant of the phosphorescence, while independent of ambient pressure, decreases by approximately 12 μs/K between 323 and 373 K, with the base level of the decay constant dependent on the used solvent. The complex does not luminesce in the gas or solid state, meaning only the liquid phase is visualized, even in an evaporating spray. By using an internally excited spray containing the phosphorescent complex, the effect of vaporization is shown through the decrease in measured intensity over the length of the spray, together with droplet size measurements using interferometric particle imaging. This study shows that LIP, using the Eu-TTA-TOPO complex, can be used with different solvents, including diesel surrogates. Furthermore, it can be easily handled and used in sprays to investigate spray breakup and evaporation.

  2. Lanthanide-based laser-induced phosphorescence for spray diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Voort, D. D.; Maes, N. C. J.; Lamberts, T.; Sweep, A. M.; van de Water, W.; Kunnen, R. P. J.; Clercx, H. J. H.; van Heijst, G. J. F.; Dam, N. J.

    2016-03-01

    Laser-induced phosphorescence (LIP) is a relatively recent and versatile development for studying flow dynamics. This work investigates certain lanthanide-based molecular complexes for their use in LIP for high-speed sprays. Lanthanide complexes in solutions have been shown to possess long phosphorescence lifetimes (˜1-2 ms) and to emit light in the visible wavelength range. In particular, europium and terbium complexes are investigated using fluorescence/phosphorescence spectrometry, showing that europium-thenoyltrifluoracetone-trioctylphosphineoxide (Eu-TTA-TOPO) can be easily and efficiently excited using a standard frequency-tripled Nd:YAG laser. The emitted spectrum, with maximum intensity at a wavelength of 614 nm, is shown not to vary strongly with temperature (293-383 K). The decay constant of the phosphorescence, while independent of ambient pressure, decreases by approximately 12 μs/K between 323 and 373 K, with the base level of the decay constant dependent on the used solvent. The complex does not luminesce in the gas or solid state, meaning only the liquid phase is visualized, even in an evaporating spray. By using an internally excited spray containing the phosphorescent complex, the effect of vaporization is shown through the decrease in measured intensity over the length of the spray, together with droplet size measurements using interferometric particle imaging. This study shows that LIP, using the Eu-TTA-TOPO complex, can be used with different solvents, including diesel surrogates. Furthermore, it can be easily handled and used in sprays to investigate spray breakup and evaporation.

  3. Desalination using spray tower and vapour compression refrigeration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathish Kumar, S.; Mani, A.

    2006-01-01

    A desalination system using a spray tower and Vapour Compression Refrigeration (VCR) system is proposed for obtaining fresh water from brackish water. In the spray tower, simultaneous heat and mass transfer take place between the brackish water and air, which results in the evaporation of the brackish water and humidification of the air. Fresh water is obtained from the humidified air by condensing the water vapour using a VCR system. Parametric studies were carried out to study the effect of various operational parameters on the fresh water production rate. (author)

  4. Spraying food sources with pyrethroid to control peridomestic triatomines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Hismenia Maximo Garcia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction We attempted to supplement traditional insecticide spraying by treating peridomiciliar food sources with a powder formulation. Methods Two groups of houses were treated with deltamethrin suspension concentrate (SC, one of which had its primary peridomestic food sources treated with deltamethrin 2P. Results Triatoma brasiliensis was the most commonly captured triatomine. Birds, dogs and rodents were the major food sources identified by the precipitin reaction; 554 domestic animals received powder treatment. A sharp reduction in infestation rates was observed in the two groups up to 360 days after spraying. Conclusion The combination SC + 2P did not improve the control of triatomines.

  5. Sprayed films of europium complexes toward light conversion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho, Sabrina A.; Aoki, Pedro H.B.; Constantino, Carlos J.L.; Pires, Ana Maria, E-mail: anapires@fct.unesp.br

    2014-09-15

    Rare-earth complexes have become subject of intensive research due to the high quantum efficiency of their emission, very narrow bands, and excellent fluorescence monochromaticity. The chemical design and characterization of Eu complexes based on β-diketone ligands hexafluoroacetylacetate (hfac) and dibenzoylmetanate (dbm) is reported here. K[Eu(dbm){sub 4}] and K[Eu(hfac){sub 4}] complexes were immobilized as thin films by using the spray technique, a promising methodology for practical applications. The latter provides not only a faster layer deposition but also larger coated areas compared to conventional methods, such as layer-by-layer (LbL) and Langmuir–Blodgett (LB). The growth of the sprayed films was monitored through microbalance (QCM) and ultraviolet–visible (UV–Vis) absorption spectroscopy, which reveal a higher mass and absorbance per deposited layer of K[Eu(dbm){sub 4}] film. Micro-Raman images display a more homogeneous spatial distribution of the K[Eu(dbm){sub 4}] complex throughout the film, when compared to K[Eu(hfac){sub 4}] film. At nanometer scale, atomic force microscopy (AFM) images indicate that the roughness of the K[Eu(hfac){sub 4}] film is approximately one order of magnitude higher than that for the K[Eu(dbm){sub 4}] film, which pattern is kept at micrometer scale according to micro-Raman measurements. The photoluminescence data show that the complexes remain as pure red emitters upon spray immobilization. Besides, the quantum efficiency for the sprayed films are found equivalent to the values achieved for the powders, highlighting the potential of the films for application in light conversion devices. - Highlights: • Rare earth complexes thin films based on β-diketone ligands. • Spraying procedures to fabricate layer-by-layer (LbL) luminescent thin films. • Chemical design of Eu complexes based on hfac and dbm β-diketones ligands immobilized as sprayed films. • Pure red emitters upon spray immobilization. • Sprayed

  6. Production of Composite Ceramic Material for Thermal Spraying

    OpenAIRE

    Оковитый, В. А.; Пантелеенко, Ф. И.; Оковитый, В. В.; Асташинский, В. М.

    2017-01-01

    A composite ceramic material has been developed for thermal spraying that permits to increase wear resistance due to introduction of high-chromium steel and molybdenum in its structure, to obtain optimum porosity in the starting charge material while synthesizing  FeCrMo – MoS2/CaF2/С – TiC compositions,  to improve technological parameters of powders and thereby increase coefficient of powder usage in spraying, to reduce cost of wear-resistant coating technology. The paper presents character...

  7. Resource-saving method of electric arc spraying

    OpenAIRE

    Roianov, Viacheslav O.; Bobikov, Volodymyr I.

    2015-01-01

    On the modern stage of development of resource-saving technologies the basic support is given to the economy of materials consumption without the change of the amount of their use. The special attention is given to the universal methods of renewal of details, and electric arc spraying which has a wide application did not become an exception. The review of the literary data shows that the applied electric arc spraying guns have a large expense of the compressed air. It results in the intensive...

  8. Phase analysis of plasma-sprayed zirconia-yttria coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, N. R.; Berndt, C. C.; Herman, H.

    1983-01-01

    Phase analysis of plasma-sprayed 8 wt pct-yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thermal barrier coatings and powders was carried out by X-ray diffraction. Step scanning was used for increased peak resolution. Plasma spraying of the YSZ powder into water or onto a steel substrate to form a coating reduced the cubic and monoclinic phases with a simultaneous increase in the tetragonal phase. Heat treatment of the coating at 1150 C for 10 h in an Ar atmosphere increased the amount of cubic and monoclinic phases. The implications of these transformations on coating performance and integrity are discussed.

  9. Some Material Characteristics of Cold-Sprayed Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor K. Champagne

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The deposition and consolidation of metal powders by means of cold spray are methods whereby powder particles are accelerated to high velocity through entrainment in a gas undergoing expansion in a rocket nozzle and are subsequently impacted upon a surface. The impacted powder particles form a consolidated structure which can be several centimeters thick. The characteristics of this structure depend on the initial characteristics of the metal powder and upon impact velocity. The influence of impact velocity on strain hardening and porosity are examined. A materials model is proposed for these phenomena, and model calculation is compared with experiment for the cold spraying of aluminum.

  10. Low-Loss-Spray-Application - The Scientific Basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbst, E.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Limited time frames caused by infection threat and weather demand for efficient pesticide application techniques in modern integrated and organic fruit farming. This demand is best complied by low volume spraying, since it minimizes traveling time and number of fillings per spray treatment, but also minimizes the probability of a contamination of the operator with concentrated pesticides. To obtain good spray deposition, low volume spray application demands small droplets which offer numerous benefits, but also carry a high drift potential. This feature threatened the technique, because no method for spray drift reduction has been available in order to make use of reduced buffer zones to water courses and non-target areas. A new method based on cross flow characteristics of the sprayer fan, canopy adapted forward speed and fan speed and a mixed set of hollow cone nozzles and air induction nozzles resulted in an approx. 85% reduction of particle drift deposits, so that the method has been registered in the official German list of drift reducing devices in the 75% drift reduction class. Besides drift reduction a canopy adapted fan speed also results in an enormous reduction of fuel consumption and noise emission as further environmental benefits of small droplets. An assessment of the influence of a canopy adapted forward speed and fan speed on spray deposit, relative spray coverage and droplet deposit density revealed a significant increase of the application efficiency, rising with decreasing canopy width and compensating a reduction of water volume and dose rate from canopy related dosing models. Testing a tower sprayer in orchards for use with reduced fan speed unexpectedly showed an unusable vertical air distribution. Alarmed by this finding, a subsequent testing of various fan types on a test bench disclosed a very unsatisfying vertical air distribution of many fan types and even within a production series the air distribution differed

  11. Process optimization of ultrasonic spray coating of polymer films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bose, Sanjukta; Keller, Stephan Sylvest; Boisen, Anja

    2013-01-01

    In this work we have performed a detailed study of the influence of various parameters on spray coating of polymer films. Our aim is to produce polymer films of uniform thickness (500 nm to 1 μm) and low roughness compared to the film thickness. The coatings are characterized with respect...... these two regimes, where we obtain a film of desired quality. Both with increasing nozzle-substrate distance and temperature, the deposition moves from a wet state to a dry regime. Similar results are also achieved for solvents with low boiling points. Finally, we study film formation during spray coating...

  12. Functionally Graded Materials using Plasma Spray with Nano Structured Ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sioh, E L; Tok, A I Y

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, nano structured FGM was fabricated using DC plasma spray technique. Nano structured and micro structured powder were used as the feeding powder with steel substrate. The spray parameters was optimized and characterisation of nano-ceramic FGM and micro-ceramic FGM were done using bending test and micro-hardness test. Experimental results have shown that the nano-structured FGM exhibit 20% improvement flexure strength and 10% in hardness. A comparison was made between sintered micro ceramic tile and nano ceramic FGM using simple drop test method.

  13. Metallurgy and properties of plasma spray formed materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckechnie, T. N.; Liaw, Y. K.; Zimmerman, F. R.; Poorman, R. M.

    1992-01-01

    Understanding the fundamental metallurgy of vacuum plasma spray formed materials is the key to enhancing and developing full material properties. Investigations have shown that the microstructure of plasma sprayed materials must evolve from a powder splat morphology to a recrystallized grain structure to assure high strength and ductility. A fully, or near fully, dense material that exhibits a powder splat morphology will perform as a brittle material compared to a recrystallized grain structure for the same amount of porosity. Metallurgy and material properties of nickel, iron, and copper base alloys will be presented and correlated to microstructure.

  14. Steroid nanocrystals prepared using the nano spray dryer B-90.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Koichi; Nishida, Kohji

    2013-01-25

    The Nano Spray Dryer B-90 offers a new, simple, and alternative approach for the production of drug nanocrystals. In this study, the preparation of steroid nanocrystals using the Nano Spray Dryer B-90 was demonstrated. The particle size was controlled by selecting the mesh aperture size. Submicrometer steroid particles in powder form were successfully obtained. These nanoparticles were confirmed to have a crystal structure using powder X-ray diffraction pattern analysis. Since drug nanocrystals have recently been considered as a novel type of drug formulation for drug delivery systems, this study will be useful for nano-medical applications.

  15. Calpain inhibitor nanocrystals prepared using Nano Spray Dryer B-90.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Koichi; Nishida, Kohji

    2012-08-04

    The Nano Spray Dryer B-90 offers a new, simple, and alternative approach for the production of drug nanocrystals. Among attractive drugs, calpain inhibitor that inhibits programmed cell death 'apoptosis' is a candidate for curing apoptosis-mediated intractable diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. In this study, the preparation of calpain inhibitor nanocrystals using Nano Spray Dryer B-90 was demonstrated. The particle sizes were controlled by means of selecting mesh aperture sizes. The obtained average particle sizes were in the range of around 300 nm to submicron meter.

  16. PIV measurements of flow structures in a spray dryer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Knud Erik; Velte, Clara Marika; Ullum, Thorvald

    2011-01-01

    Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements are made in horizontal planes in a simplified scale model of a spray dryer using water as fluid. The sample rate was sufficient to resolve phenomena at lower frequencies. Data reveal asymmetric velocity fields in both mean fields and dyna......Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements are made in horizontal planes in a simplified scale model of a spray dryer using water as fluid. The sample rate was sufficient to resolve phenomena at lower frequencies. Data reveal asymmetric velocity fields in both mean fields...

  17. Purple Phototrophic Bacterium Enhances Stevioside Yield by Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni via Foliar Spray and Rhizosphere Irrigation

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Jing; Wang, Yiming; Lin, Xiangui

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the effects of foliar spray and rhizosphere irrigation with purple phototrophic bacteria (PPB) on growth and stevioside (ST) yield of Stevia. rebaudiana. The S. rebaudiana plants were treated by foliar spray, rhizosphere irrigation, and spray plus irrigation with PPB for 10 days, respectively. All treatments enhanced growth of S. rebaudiana, and the foliar method was more efficient than irrigation. Spraying combined with irrigation increased the ST yield pl...

  18. Porøse materialer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place

    2000-01-01

    Dette undervisningsnotat er en samling af noter, der refererer til den indledende del af kurset Materialmekanik og Porøse materailer på Insitut for Bærende Konstruktiner og Materialer (BKM).......Dette undervisningsnotat er en samling af noter, der refererer til den indledende del af kurset Materialmekanik og Porøse materailer på Insitut for Bærende Konstruktiner og Materialer (BKM)....

  19. Fundamental Study on the Effect of Spray Parameters on Characteristics of P3HT:PCBM Active Layers Made by Spray Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Xie

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to elucidate the effects of the important spray characteristics on the surface morphology and light absorbance of spray-on P3HT:PCBM thin-films, used as an active layer in polymer solar cells (PSCs. Spray coating or deposition is a viable scalable technique for the large-scale, fast, and low-cost fabrication of solution-processed solar cells, and has been widely used for device fabrication, although the fundamental understanding of the underlying and controlling parameters, such as spray characteristics, droplet dynamics, and surface wettability, is still limited, making the results on device fabrication not reproducible and unreliable. In this paper, following the conventional PSC architecture, a PEDOT:PSS layer is first spin-coated on glass substrates, followed by the deposition of P3HT:PCBM using an automatic ultrasonic spray coating system, with a movable nozzle tip, to mimic an industrial manufacturing process. To gain insight, the effects of the spray carrier air pressure, the number of spray passes, the precursor flow rate, and precursor concentration are studied on the surface topography and light absorbance spectra of the spray-on films. Among the results, it is found that despite the high roughness of spray-on films, the light absorbance of the film is satisfactory. It is also found that the absorbance of spray-on films is a linear function of the number of spray passes or deposition layers, based on which an effective film thickness is defined for rough spray-on films. The effective thickness of a rough spray-on P3HT:PCBM film was found to be one-quarter of that of a flat film predicted by a simple mass balance.

  20. Effect of mulch and different fungicide spray regimes on yield of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Treatment factors comprised two varieties (main plot factor), mulching/number of mulching (subplot factor) and three fungicide spray regimes (sub subplot factor). Results showed that the spray regimes: farmers' practice (FP), Integrated Pests Management (IPM) based on pests scouting, sprays based on manufacturers' ...

  1. 30 CFR 75.1107-7 - Water spray devices; capacity; water supply; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water spray devices; capacity; water supply... Water spray devices; capacity; water supply; minimum requirements. (a) Where water spray devices are... square foot over the top surface area of the equipment and the supply of water shall be adequate to...

  2. Nanosized aerosols from consumer sprays: experimental analysis and exposure modeling for four commercial products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Christiane; Hagendorfer, Harald; von Goetz, Natalie; Kaegi, Ralf; Gehrig, Robert; Ulrich, Andrea; Scheringer, Martin; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2011-08-01

    Consumer spray products are already on the market in the cosmetics and household sector, which suggest by their label that they contain engineered nanoparticles (ENP). Sprays are considered critical for human health, because the lungs represent a major route for the uptake of ENP into the human body. To contribute to the exposure assessment of ENP in consumer spray products, we analyzed ENP in four commercially available sprays: one antiperspirant, two shoe impregnation sprays, and one plant-strengthening agent. The spray dispersions were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) and (scanning-) transmission electron microscopy ((S)TEM). Aerosols were generated by using the original vessels, and analyzed by scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and (S)TEM. On the basis of SMPS results, the nanosized aerosol depositing in the respiratory tract was modeled for female and male consumers. The derived exposure levels reflect a single spray application. We identified ENP in the dispersions of two products (shoe impregnation and plant spray). Nanosized aerosols were observed in three products that contained propellant gas. The aerosol number concentration increased linearly with the sprayed amount, with the highest concentration resulting from the antiperspirant. Modeled aerosol exposure levels were in the range of 1010 nanosized aerosol components per person and application event for the antiperspirant and the impregnation sprays, with the largest fraction of nanosized aerosol depositing in the alveolar region. Negligible exposure from the application of the plant spray (pump spray) was observed.

  3. SPRAYTRAN USER'S GUIDE: A GIS-BASED ATMOSPHERIC SPRAY DROPLET DISPERSION MODELING SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The offsite drift of pesticide from spray operations is an ongoing source of concern. The SPRAY TRANsport (SPRAYTRAN) system, documented in this report, incorporates the near-field spray application model, AGDISP, into a meso-scale atmospheric transport model. The AGDISP model ...

  4. Attenuation of pressor response following intubation: Efficacy of nitro-glycerine lingual spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indira Kumari

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: We concluded that the NTG lingual spray in dose of 0.4 mg (1 spray or 0.8 mg (2 sprays was effective in attenuation of intubation induced hemodynamic response, in terms of preventing significant rise in SBP, DBP and MAP compared to control group.

  5. An Experimental Study on the Macroscopic Spray Characteristics of Biodiesel and Diesel in a Constant Volume Chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhan Xie

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the macroscopic spray characteristics of different 0%–100% blends of biodiesel derived from drainage oil and diesel (BD0, BD20, BD50, BD80, BD100, such as spray tip penetration, average tip velocity at penetration, spray angle, average spray angle, spray evolution process, spray area and spray volume under different injection pressures (60, 70, 80, 90, 100 MPa and ambient pressures (0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9 MPa using a common rail system equipped with a constant volume chamber. The characteristic data was extracted from spray images grabbed by a high speed visualization system. The results showed that the ambient pressure and injection pressure had significant effects on the spray characteristics. As the ambient pressure increased, the spray angle increased, while the spray tip penetration and the peak of average tip velocity decreased. As the injection pressure increased, the spray tip penetration, spray angle, spray area and spray volume increased. The increasing blend ratio of biodiesel brought about a shorter spray tip penetration and a smaller spray angle compared with those of diesel. This is due to the comparatively higher viscosity and surface tension of biodiesel, which enhanced the friction effect between fuel and the injector nozzle surface and inhibited the breakup of the liquid jet.

  6. Marking tree seeds with spray paint for germination studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Kasten Dumroese

    2003-01-01

    I evaluated the potential use of spray paint for marking conifer seeds for germination studies in forest nurseries. For bulk seedlots of large-seeded species like western white pine (Pinus monticola), ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), paint had little or no effect on six...

  7. Dielectric Strontium Zirconate Sprayed by a Plasma Torch.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ctibor, Pavel; Sedláček, J.; Janata, Marek

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 4 (2017), s. 225-230 ISSN 2008-2134 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Plasma spraying * Electrical properties * Strontium Zirconate * Insulators Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass OBOR OECD: Ceramics www.pccc.icrc.ac.ir/ Articles /18/1/18/1010/

  8. Current implications of past DDT indoor spraying in Oman

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Booji, P.; Holoubek, I.; Klánová, J.; Kohoutek, J.; Dvorská, Alice; Magulová, K.; Al-Zadjali, S.; Čupr, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 550, apr (2016), s. 231-240 ISSN 0048-9697 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : DDT * Residual indoor spraying * Human risk assessment * Cancer risk * Region-specific half-life Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 4.900, year: 2016

  9. Applications and properties of thermally sprayed oxide ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawlowski, L.

    1991-01-01

    After a brief discussion of the general properties of thermally sprayed oxide ceramics, some of the more important materials are discussed in detail. The electric properties of Al 2 O 3 , such as electric resistivity, dielectric constant and dielectric strength, are shown together with the applications of thermally sprayed alumina coatings in 'corona rolls' and substrates in hybrid microelectronics. The thermal conductivity of ZrO 2 stabilized with a different Y 2 O 3 content is discussed together with the coatings' microstructure. The research on the development of zirconia coatings for application in the advanced turbines is briefly described. The mechanical properties of thermally sprayed Cr 2 O 3 coatings as well as their microstructure are shown. As chromia coatings often contain suboxides or even metallic chromium, a special powder giving metal free deposits has been developed and the coatings sprayed therefrom are applied in the printing industry as 'anilox rolls'. Finally, microstructure and some electrical properties of a high temperature superconductor YBa 2 CU 3 O 7-x are presented. (orig.) [de

  10. Electro spraying of titania for nitrogen oxide abatement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ursem, W.N.J.; Marijnissen, J.C.; Roos, R.A.; Kelder, E.M.

    2010-01-01

    The invention provides a method for the production of a titania coating (80) on a surface (101) of an object (100) comprising electro spraying a titanium comprising liquid (15) to the surface (101) of the object (100) to provide a titanium comprising layer (85); and heating thetitanium comprising

  11. Aluminium dissolution for spray pulverization with nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigo Otero, A.; Rodrigo Vilaseca, F.; Morales Calvo, G.

    1977-01-01

    A comparative study of the nitric acid dissolution of aluminium, by immersion and spray pulverization has been carried out in laboratory scale. As a result, the optimum operation conditions to control reaction in the plant are fixed. Operation costs are also evaluated. (author) [es

  12. Experimental investigation of spray characteristics of kerosene and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amlan Garai

    superior emission characteristics compared with conven- tional fuels without any adverse effect on human safety ... tics like input mean droplet diameters and spray cone angles are essential parameters to determine the ..... Technical Education Quality Improvement Programme. (TEQIP-II) of Government of India. References.

  13. Abrasion resistance of alloy coatings deposited by plasma spraying

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ctibor, Pavel; Lescoffit, A.-E.; Teboul, B.; Neufuss, Karel; Voleník, Karel

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 2 (2009), s. 113-126 ISSN 0001-7043 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS200430560 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Plasma spraying * alloy coatings * slurry abrasion * hardness and microhardness Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass

  14. Bow wave and spray dynamics by a wedge

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhaoyuan; Yang, Jianming; Stern, Frederick

    2010-01-01

    Flows around a wedge-shaped bow are simulated with the aim of investigating the wave breaking mechanism and small scale features of ship bow waves. This fluid dynamics video shows the plunging wave breaking process around the wedge including the thin water sheet formation, overturning sheet with surface disturbance, fingering and breaking up into spray, plunging and splashing, and air entrainment.

  15. Powder compression mechanics of spray-dried lactose nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellrup, Joel; Nordström, Josefina; Mahlin, Denny

    2017-02-25

    The aim of this study was to investigate the structural impact of the nanofiller incorporation on the powder compression mechanics of spray-dried lactose. The lactose was co-spray-dried with three different nanofillers, that is, cellulose nanocrystals, sodium montmorillonite and fumed silica, which led to lower micron-sized nanocomposite particles with varying structure and morphology. The powder compression mechanics of the nanocomposites and physical mixtures of the neat spray-dried components were evaluated by a rational evaluation method with compression analysis as a tool, using the Kawakita equation and the Shapiro-Konopicky-Heckel equation. Particle rearrangement dominated the initial compression profiles due to the small particle size of the materials. The strong contribution of particle rearrangement in the materials with fumed silica continued throughout the whole compression profile, which prohibited an in-depth material characterization. However, the lactose/cellulose nanocrystals and the lactose/sodium montmorillonite nanocomposites demonstrated high yield pressure compared with the physical mixtures indicating increased particle hardness upon composite formation. This increase has likely to do with a reinforcement of the nanocomposite particles by skeleton formation of the nanoparticles. In summary, the rational evaluation of mechanical properties done by applying powder compression analysis proved to be a valuable tool for mechanical evaluation for this type of spray-dried composite materials, unless they demonstrate particle rearrangement throughout the whole compression profile. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Application of the FIRST Combustion model to Spray Combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jager, B.; Kok, Jacobus B.W.

    2004-01-01

    Liquid fuel is of interest to apply to gas turbines. The large advantage is that liquids are easily storable as compared to gaseous fuels. Disadvantage is that liquid fuel has to be sprayed, vaporized and mixed with air. Combustion occurs at some stage of mixing and ignition. Depending on the

  17. Reactivity of fly ashes in a spray dryer FGD process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, W.T.; Reed, G.D.

    1983-05-01

    During the period 1981-1982, a study was performed to determine the ability of various fly ashes to retain sulfur dioxide in a pilot plant spray dryer/fabric filter flue gas desulfurization system. This knowledge would provide design engineers with the necessary data to determine whether the fly ash from a particular utility could be used as an effective supplement or substitute for slaked lime in a spray dryer system. The study commenced with the collection of 22 fly ashes from lignite, subbituminous, and bituminous eastern and western coals. The ashes were contacted with the flue gas entering the pilot plant by two different techniques. In the first, the ashes were slurried in water and injected into the spray dryer through a spinning disk atomizer. In the second, the ashes were injected as a dry additive into the flue gas upstream of the spray dryer. Analyses were conducted to determine the ability of each ash to retain sulfur dioxide in the system followed by statistical correlations of the sulfur retention with the physical/chemical properties of each ash. 17 references, 32 figures, 19 tables.

  18. Freeze-Spray Processing of Layered Ceramic Composites (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    used to spray thin layers of slurries on a cryogenically cooled metallic plate . The slurries freeze almost instantly, forming solid structures. The...34Optimization of FGM TBC and Their Thermal Cycling Stability," Mater. Sci Forum, 492,9-14 (2005). K . An, K. Ravichandran, R. Dutton, and S. Semiatin

  19. Effects of insecticide spray application on insect pest infestation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-03-15

    Mar 15, 2010 ... This study provides information on the incidence of major insect pests of cowpea as well as the minimum insecticide control intervention necessary for effectively reducing cowpea yield losses on the field. Two insecticide spray regimes (once at flowering and podding) significantly reduced insect population ...

  20. Comparative studies of spray pyrolysis deposited copper sulfide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. CuxS thin films with different Cu to S molar ratios (0·33 and 0·43) have been deposited by spray pyro- lysis method on glass and FTO coated glass substrates using an aqueous solution of copper (II) acetate and thiourea at a substrate temperature of 285◦C. The structural, surface morphological, optical and ...

  1. Spray/wall interaction models for multidimensional engine simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Z.; Trigui, N. [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States); Xu, Z. [ICEM CFD Engineering, Livonia, MI (United States)

    2000-02-01

    Models were developed to describe the spray wall impingement processes that take place in internal combustion engines. In this report focus is placed on the model formulation and experiment assessment of the spray/wall interaction submodels. It is identified that the Leidenfrost phenomenon is very unlikely to occur in a spark ignition (SI) engine including stratified-charge operation in a direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine. A more comprehensive splashing/deposition threshold function is proposed to include the effects of surface roughness and pre-existing liquid film. Based on the wave phenomena observed on the surface of the liquid crown formed during drop impingement, a new splash breakup model is developed using linear instability analysis. The predicted drop size agrees well with available single-drop impingement experimental data. A new formulation for the post-impingement droplet velocity is also given which uses statistical sampling and jet impingement theory. The proposed models were assessed by comparing computations with two sets of experimental sprays impinging on a flat plate with the use of a pintle nozzle injector for port fuel injection (PFI) engines. The computed spray shape, normal and tangential penetration and droplet size show good agreement with experimental data. (Author)

  2. An evaluation of the respiratory health status of automotive spray ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    )f exposure to HDls in the spray-painting industry and. ,ighlight the need for more stringent industrial hygiene ... Four general patterns of respiratory response to HOls have been described. These are chemical bronchitis, .... (N = 27). Age (yTs). Height (cm). Length of service (yrs). Spirometric lung function pre-test results.

  3. Flash radiographic technique applied to fuel injector sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vantine, H.C.

    1977-01-01

    A flash radiographic technique, using 50 ns exposure times, was used to study the pattern and density distribution of a fuel injector spray. The experimental apparatus and method are described. An 85 kVp flash x-ray generator, designed and fabricated at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, is utilized. Radiographic images, recorded on standard x-ray films, are digitized and computer processed

  4. Preparation of YBCO superconducting films by spray pyrolysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora Alonso, M.; Leyva Fabelo, A.; Rubio Frias, E.; Pupo Gonzalez, I.; Lopez Sanchez, D.

    1994-01-01

    The methodology for the preparation of YBCO superconducting films on Zr 2O (Y) substrates by spray pyrolysis method is reported. The transition temperature of these films is superior than the boiling temperature of liquid 2N . Other critical parameters are similar to those reported by other authors using the same technique

  5. Simulation of heat and mass transfer in spray drying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lijn, van der J.

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given of heat and mass transfer around droplets in spray dryers and the diffusional transport inside them. A calculational model is developed which includes variable diffusion coefficients in the drying liquid and swelling or shrinking of droplets. Calculations for droplets

  6. Dielectric and mechanical properties of plasma-sprayed olivine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ctibor, Pavel; Neufuss, Karel; Pala, Zdeněk; Kotlan, Jiří; Soumar, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 2 (2015), s. 600-616 ISSN 1221-1451. [International Conference on Plasma Physics and Applications/16./. Magurele, Bucharest, 20.06.2013-25.06.2013] Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : olivine * plasma spraying * dielectric properties Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 1.367, year: 2015 www.infim.ro/rrp

  7. Spray Formation of Herschel-Bulkley Fluids using Impinging Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Neil; Gao, Jian; Chen, Jun; Sojka, Paul E.

    2015-11-01

    The impinging jet spray formation of two non-Newtonian, shear-thinning, Herschel-Bulkley fluids was investigated in this work. The water-based gelled solutions used were 1.0 wt.-% agar and 1.0 wt.-% kappa carrageenan. A rotational rheometer and a capillary viscometer were used to measure the strain-rate dependency of viscosity and the Herschel-Bulkley Extended (HBE) rheological model was used to characterize the shear-thinning behavior. A generalized HBE jet Reynolds number Rej , gen - HBE was used as the primary parameter to characterize the spray formation. A like-on-like impinging jet doublet was used to produce atomization. Shadowgraphs were captured in the plane of the sheet formed by the two jets using a CCD camera with an Nd:YAG laser beam providing the back-illumination. Typical behavior for impinging jet atomization using Newtonian liquids was not generally observed due to the non-Newtonian, viscous properties of the agar and kappa carrageenan gels. Instead various spray patterns were observed depending on Rej , gen - HBE. Spray characteristics of maximum instability wavelength and sheet breakup length were extracted from the shadowgraphs. Multi-University Research Initiative Grant Number W911NF-08-1-0171.

  8. Structural, electrical and optical studies on spray-deposited ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    76, No. 1. — journal of. January 2011 physics pp. 153–163. Structural, electrical and optical studies on spray-deposited aluminium-doped ZnO thin films. S TEWARI1 and A BHATTACHARJEE2,∗ ... It is a versatile material with good electrical and optical ... applications for detecting hazardous gases, including LPG [13,14]. 2.

  9. Application of an antibacterial dressing spray in the prevention of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-05

    Nov 5, 2008 ... The average wound healing time in JUC group was ... Key words:Antibacterial dressing spray, oral squamous cell cancinoma, wound healing, infection. .... Table 1. Characteristics of subjects. Parameters. Patients Number and references values (n=60). Age. 46.5 (range: 32-63). Sex. 48 Male12 Female.

  10. PLASMA SPRAYING AND DIELECTRIC CHARACTERIZATION OF ZIRCONIUM SILICATE

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ctibor, Pavel; Sedláček, J.; Neufuss, Karel

    online, č. 2 (2007), s. 4-9 ISSN 1335-9053 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS200430560 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Plasma spraying * Electrical properties * Zircon * Silicates * Insulators Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass http://web.mtf.stuba.sk/sk/casopis/index.htm

  11. Nanomaterial Case Study: Nanoscale Silver in Disinfectant Spray (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the release of the final report, Nanomaterial Case Study: Nanoscale Silver in Disinfectant Spray. This report represents a case study of engineered nanoscale silver (nano-Ag), focusing on the specific example of nano-Ag as possibly used in disinfectant spr...

  12. Optimization of nanocrystalline γ-alumina coating for direct spray ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hoffman and Leibowitz 1971) and sput- tering (Jin et al 2003). On the other hand, aluminum oxide layer could be useful for coating the spray water-cooled optical and electrical devices, due to its interesting proper- ties such as optical transparency, ...

  13. Evaluation of VOC emission measurement methods for paint spray booths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, B M; Nelson, T P

    1995-03-01

    Interest in regulations to control solvent emissions from automotive painting systems is increasing, especially in ozone nonattainment areas. Therefore, an accurate measurement method for VOC emissions from paint spray booths used in the automotive industry is needed to ascertain the efficiency of the spray booth capture and the total emissions. This paper presents the results of a laboratory study evaluating potential VOC sampling and analytical methods used in estimating paint spray booth emissions, and discusses these results relative to other published data. Eight test methods were selected for evaluation. The accuracy of each sampling and analytical method was determined using test atmospheres of known concentration and composition that closely matched the actual exhaust air from paint spray booths. The solvent mixture to generate the test atmospheres contained a large proportion of polar, oxygenated hydrocarbons such as ketones and alcohols. A series of identical tests was performed for each sampling/analytical method with each test atmosphere to assess the precision of the methods. The study identified significant differences among the test methods in terms of accuracy, precision, cost, and complexity.

  14. Mechanical and physical properties of plasma-sprayed stabilized zirconia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemers, P. A.; Mehan, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    Physical and mechanical properties were determined for plasma-sprayed MgO- or Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 thermal barrier coatings. Properties were determined for the ceramic coating in both the freestanding condition and as-bonded to a metal substrate. The properties of the NiCrAlY bond coating were also investigated.

  15. Discrete element modelling of fluidised bed spray granulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldschmidt, M.J.V.; Weijers, G.G.C.; Boerefijn, R.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    A novel discrete element spray granulation model capturing the key features of fluidised bed hydrodynamics, liquid¿solid contacting and agglomeration is presented. The model computes the motion of every individual particle and droplet in the system, considering the gas phase as a continuum.

  16. 21 CFR 740.12 - Feminine deodorant sprays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... whose labeling represents or suggests that the product is for use in the female genital area or for use all over the body. (b) The label of a feminine deodorant spray shall bear the following statement...

  17. Dielectric properties of plasma sprayed silicates subjected to additional annealing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ctibor, Pavel; Sedláček, J.; Nevrlá, Barbara; Neufuss, Karel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 2 (2017), s. 105-114 ISSN 2008-2134 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Annealing * Dielectric properties * Plasma spraying * Silicates * Electrical properties * Insulators Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials OBOR OECD: Coating and films http://pccc.icrc.ac.ir/Articles/1/18/990/

  18. Effect Of Time Of Commencement And Interval Of Spraying Calixin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Calixin-M(11%2,6-dimethyl-4tridemorpholine+36% manganese ethylene-bis- dithiocarbamate) was applied to two varieties of groundnut (F452.4 and Samaru 38) to control Cercospora leafspots and rust (Puccinia arachidis). Two different times of commencement of spray (that is, 36 days after sowing at first appearance of ...

  19. Plasma Processes: Plasma sprayed alumina coatings for radiation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Conventional design of radiation detectors uses sintered ceramic insulating modules. The major drawback of these ceramic components is their inherent brittleness. Ion chambers, in which these ceramic spacers are replaced by metallic components with plasma spray coated alumina, have been developed in our Research ...

  20. High Fidelity Simulation of Atomization in Diesel Engine Sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Physics with Uncertainty Quantification (http://www.nsf.gov/ awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardNumber=0960306). This award is funded under the American...of a spray measured by x-ray computed tomography. Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power 136 (5), 051508. Cummins, S. J., Francois , M. M

  1. Immobilized aptamer paper spray ionization source for ion mobility spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargar, Tahereh; Khayamian, Taghi; Jafari, Mohammad T

    2017-01-05

    A selective thin-film microextraction based on aptamer immobilized on cellulose paper was used as a paper spray ionization source for ion mobility spectrometry (PSI-IMS), for the first time. In this method, the paper is not only used as an ionization source but also it is utilized for the selective extraction of analyte, based on immobilized aptamer. This combination integrates both sample preparation and analyte ionization in a Whatman paper. To that end, an appropriate sample introduction system with a novel design was constructed for the paper spray ionization source. Using this system, a continuous solvent flow works as an elution and spray solvent simultaneously. In this method, analyte is adsorbed on a triangular paper with immobilized aptamer and then it is desorbed and ionized by elution solvent and applied high voltage on paper, respectively. The effects of different experimental parameters such as applied voltage, angle of paper tip, distance between paper tip and counter electrode, elution solvent type, and solvent flow rate were optimized. The proposed method was exhaustively validated in terms of sensitivity and reproducibility by analyzing the standard solutions of codeine and acetamiprid. The analytical results obtained are promising enough to ensure the use of immobilized aptamer paper-spray as both the extraction and ionization techniques in IMS for direct analysis of biomedicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A numerical study on dynamics of spray jets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    results from a numerical modeling of spray jet dynamics and its breakup. The nature of instability depends on the density of the jet fluid and the ambient fluid and also on the velocity of the jet. The present work is motivated by the lack of quantitative measurement to explain the nature of instability of a vertically descending jet ...

  3. Efficacy of preharvest spraying with Pichia guilliermondii on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-24

    Aug 24, 2011 ... This study investigated the effects of preharvest spraying with Pichia guilliermondii on postharvest natural decay of cherry .... All assays were performed at ambient temperature (approximately. 20ºC). Hardness was ... POD, 1 g of fruit tissue was ground with 3 ml of 100 mM sodium phosphate buffer (pH 6.4) ...

  4. Knowledge and perceptions about indoor residual spray for malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr.Munga

    strategies using IRS to be more effective, meaningful and sustainable, aspects such as community knowledge, attitudes and practices has to be taken into consideration (Okumu et al.,. 2011). Thus this study investigated community knowledge, attitudes and practices on indoor residual spraying as a control tool for malaria ...

  5. Effects of insecticide spray application on insect pest infestation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field studies were conducted during the 2008 - 2009 cropping season to determine the minimal insecticide application which can reduce cowpea yield losses on the field due to insect pest infestations in the Transkei region of South Africa. Treatments consisted of five cowpea varieties and four regimes of insecticide spray ...

  6. Chemical Synthesis Accelerated by Paper Spray: The Haloform Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Ryan M.; Pulliam, Christopher J.; Raab, Shannon A.; Cooks, R. Graham

    2016-01-01

    In this laboratory, students perform a synthetic reaction in two ways: (i) by traditional bulk-phase reaction and (ii) in the course of reactive paper spray ionization. Mass spectrometry (MS) is used both as an analytical method and a means of accelerating organic syntheses. The main focus of this laboratory exercise is that the same ionization…

  7. Understanding the role of plasticisers in spray-dried starch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niazi, Muhammad Bilal Khan; Zijlstra, Mark; Broekhuis, Antonius A.

    2013-01-01

    Amorphous thermoplastic starch (TPS) films were produced by compression moulding of solution spray-dried TPS powder and by direct solution casting. Oxidised potato starch was used as a feedstock for production of plasticised formulations containing glycerol or urea, or their combinations with

  8. Modeling of droplet dynamic and thermal behaviour during spray ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mathematical modeling of supersonic gas atomization for spray forming has been investigated. Influence of the droplet dynamic and thermal behaviour on the resultant microstructure has been studied. Analytical models have been constructed taking into account the higher Reynolds number owing to supersonic gas flow.

  9. Cold Spraying of Armstrong Process Titanium Powder for Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, D.; Fernández, R.; Delloro, F.; Jodoin, B.

    2017-04-01

    Titanium parts are ideally suited for aerospace applications due to their unique combination of high specific strength and excellent corrosion resistance. However, titanium as bulk material is expensive and challenging/costly to machine. Production of complex titanium parts through additive manufacturing looks promising, but there are still many barriers to overcome before reaching mainstream commercialization. The cold gas dynamic spraying process offers the potential for additive manufacturing of large titanium parts due to its reduced reactive environment, its simplicity to operate, and the high deposition rates it offers. A few challenges are to be addressed before the additive manufacturing potential of titanium by cold gas dynamic spraying can be reached. In particular, it is known that titanium is easy to deposit by cold gas dynamic spraying, but the deposits produced are usually porous when nitrogen is used as the carrier gas. In this work, a method to manufacture low-porosity titanium components at high deposition efficiencies is revealed. The components are produced by combining low-pressure cold spray using nitrogen as the carrier gas with low-cost titanium powder produced using the Armstrong process. The microstructure and mechanical properties of additive manufactured titanium components are investigated.

  10. Bond strength of plasma sprayed ceramic coatings on phosphate steels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorný, P.; Mastný, L.; Sýkora, V.; Pala, Zdeněk; Brožek, Vlastimil

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 2 (2015), s. 411-414 ISSN 0543-5846 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/12/1872 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : phosphating * plasma spraying * ceramic coatings * corrosion * bond strength Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.959, year: 2014

  11. Knowledge and perceptions about indoor residual spray for malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Malaria control and intervention tools usage and coverage in community depend on community acceptability and compliance. Indoor residual spray (IRS) and long lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs) are the preferred and recommended intervention tools. This study assessed the knowledge and perceptions ...

  12. Plasma sprayed alumina coatings for radiation detector development

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Conventional design of radiation detectors uses sintered ceramic insulating modules. The major drawback of these ceramic components is their inherent brittleness. Ion chambers, in which these ceramic spacers are replaced by metallic components with plasma spray coated alumina, have been developed in our ...

  13. Optimization of nanocrystalline γ-alumina coating for direct spray ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    7, December 2014, pp. 1583–1588. c Indian Academy of Sciences. Optimization of nanocrystalline γ-alumina coating for direct spray water-cooling of optical devices. S N ALAM1,2,∗. , M ANARAKY3, Z SHAFEIZADEH3 and P J PARBROOK1. 1Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Lee Maltings, Dyke Parade, ...

  14. Performance Analysis and Modeling of Thermally Sprayed Resistive Heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarre, Jean-Michel; Marcoux, Pierre; Perrault, Michel; Abbott, Richard C.; Legoux, Jean-Gabriel

    2013-08-01

    Many processes and systems require hot surfaces. These are usually heated using electrical elements located in their vicinity. However, this solution is subject to intrinsic limitations associated with heating element geometry and physical location. Thermally spraying electrical elements directly on surfaces can overcome these limitations by tailoring the geometry of the heating element to the application. Moreover, the element heat transfer is maximized by minimizing the distance between the heater and the surface to be heated. This article is aimed at modeling and characterizing resistive heaters sprayed on metallic substrates. Heaters were fabricated by using a plasma-sprayed alumina dielectric insulator and a wire flame-sprayed iron-based alloy resistive element. Samples were energized and kept at a constant temperature of 425 °C for up to 4 months. SEM cross-sectional observations revealed the formation of cracks at very specific locations in the alumina layer after thermal use. Finite-element modeling shows that these cracks originate from high local thermal stresses and can be predicted according to the considered geometry. The simulation model was refined using experimental parameters obtained by several techniques such as emissivity and time-dependent temperature profile (infra-red camera), resistivity (four-probe technique), thermal diffusivity (laser flash method), and mechanical properties (micro and nanoindentation). The influence of the alumina thickness and the substrate material on crack formation was evaluated.

  15. Drop formation of black liquor spraying; Mustalipeaen pisaroituminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogelholm, C.J.; Kankkunen, A.; Nieminen, K.; Laine, J.; Miikkulainen, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland): Lab. of Energy Technology and Environmental Protection

    1997-10-01

    Black liquor is a spent liquor of the pulp and paper industry. It is burned in kraft recovery boilers for chemical and energy recovery. The high dry solids content and viscosity of black liquor require a high spraying temperature. This affects the performance of the boiler. Kraft recovery boiler deposit formation, emissions and chemical recovery are strongly affected by the drop size and the velocity of the black liquor spray formed by a splashplate nozzle. The sheet breakup mechanism is studied with a system based on a video and image-analysis. The drop size of mill-scale nozzles was measured also with an image-analysis-system. Measurements were carried out in a spray test chamber. The sheet breakup mechanism and drop size tests were carried out both below and over the boiling point of black liquor. Special attention was paid to the effect of flashing on drop formation. Temperature increase normally decreases drop size. In the temperature where the wavy-sheet disintegration changes to perforated-sheet disintegration the drop size increases. Spray velocity rises when the temperature is increased above the boiling point. (orig.)

  16. Analysis of ultimate-heat-sink spray ponds. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Codell, R.

    1981-08-01

    This report develops models which can be utilized in the design of certain types of spray ponds used in ultimate heat sinks at nuclear power plants, and ways in which the models may be employed to determine the design basis required by U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guide 1.27

  17. Modeling of droplet dynamic and thermal behaviour during spray ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    flowing atomizing gas to a substrate/platform where they collect and coalesce to .... is a critical factor in the spray forming process, there is no available .... Equations (3) to (6) help in calculating the axial droplet velocities as a function of flight distance. It is obvious that there is no analytical solution to (4) (Mathur et al. 1989).

  18. Comparative studies of spray pyrolysis deposited copper sulfide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CuS thin films with different Cu to S molar ratios (0.33 and 0.43) have been deposited by spray pyrolysis method on glass and FTO coated glass substrates using an aqueous solution of copper (II) acetate and thiourea at a substrate temperature of 285°C. The structural, surface morphological, optical and electrical ...

  19. Establishing Guidelines to Retain Viability of Probiotics during Spray Drying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdana, J.A.; Fox, M.B.; Boom, R.M.; Schutyser, M.A.I.

    2015-01-01

    We present the application of a model-based approach to map processing conditions suitable to spray dry probiotics with minimal viability loss. The approach combines the drying history and bacterial inactivation kinetics to predict the retention of viability after drying. The approach was used to

  20. Boosting spray dryer performance without compromising powder quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutyser, M.A.I.; Straatsma, M.; Jong, de P.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The role of NIZO food research in the design of the optimal spray drying processes is discussed. NIZO offers various analysis and modeling techniques that are successfully applied for the optimization and design of drying installations. Heat processing and drying of food is beneficial to

  1. Establishing guidelines to retain viability of probiotics during spray drying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdana, J.A.; Fox, M.B.; Boom, R.M.; Schutyser, M.A.I.

    2014-01-01

    We present a model-based approach to map processing conditions suitable to spray dry probiotics with minimal viability loss. The approach combines the drying history and bacterial inactivation kinetics to predict the retention of viability after drying. The approach was used to systematically assess

  2. Energy efficient powder production by closed-loop spray drying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moejes, S.N.; Visser, Quirien; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2016-01-01

    Closed-loop dryers are able to reduce the energy consumption in milk powder production up to 60% compared to current practice. Application of monodisperse droplet atomizers eliminates the presence of fines in the exhaust air of spray dryers. It allows the recirculation of the exhaust air over the

  3. A LIF-PIV investigation of turbulence induced by sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Voort, Dennis; Dam, Nico; van de Water, Willem; Clercx, Herman

    2017-11-01

    During the breakup of a high-speed liquid jet, it drags along and mixes the air surrounding it, creating turbulence. This turbulence can, in turn, influence the dispersion of the droplets in the resulting spray. Very little is known about the small-scale characteristics of the ambient turbulent flow. This work investigated spray-induced turbulence using (gas-phase) laser-induced fluorescent tracer particle image velocimetry (LIF-PIV), which suppresses the strong light scattering of jet and droplets on the images. The results for both a heptane (h) and water (w) spray (135 m/s and 125 m/s respectively) show that the heptane spray generates stronger turbulence due to the difference in breakup between the two fluids. Using a large-eddy estimation, carefully compensating for the finite size of the PIV windows, the dissipation rate ɛ and the small-scale turbulence characteristics are estimated as ɛh = 190 +/-25 m2s-3, ɛw = 120 +/-30 m2s-3, Reλ,h = 380 +/-40, Reλ,w = 290 +/-40, ηh = 65 +/-3 μm, and ηw = 75 +/-5 μm. We will discuss the influence of the turbulent fluctuations in the surrounding air on the dispersion of droplets. This work is part of the research programme of the Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter (FOM), which is part of the Dutch Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO).

  4. Standard practice for modified salt spray (fog) testing

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers and sets forth conditions for five modifications in salt spray (fog) testing for specification purposes. These are in chronological order of their development: 1.1.1 Annex A1, acetic acid-salt spray test, continuous. 1.1.2 Annex A2, cyclic acidified salt spray test. 1.1.3 Annex A3, seawater acidified test, cyclic (SWAAT). 1.1.4 Annex A4, SO2 salt spray test, cyclic. 1.1.5 Annex A5, dilute electrolyte cyclic fog dry test. 1.2 This practice does not prescribe the type of modification, test specimen or exposure periods to be used for a specific product, nor the interpretation to be given to the results. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to consult and establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicabilit...

  5. Coal fly ash-containing sprayed mortar for passive fire protection of steel sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilches, L. F.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The present article addresses the possible use of coal fly ash as the chief component of sprayed mortars to fireproof steel structures. A pilot wet-mix gunning rig was specifically designed and built to spray different pastes on to sheet steel and sections with different surface/volume ratios. After gunning, the specimens were placed in a furnace and subjected to standard fire resistance testing. Product fire resistance was calculated from the test results. The mortar used in this study, with a high fly ash content, was found to have acceptable mechanical properties as well as afire resistance potential comparable to those of commercial passive fire protection products.

    En este artículo se estudia el posible uso de las cenizas volantes procedentes de la combustión del carbón como constituyente principal de morteros que pueden ser proyectados sobre estructuras metálicas, para protegerlas contra el fuego. Con objeto de estudiar el proceso de proyección, se ha construido una planta piloto de gunitado por vía húmeda. La pasta se ha proyectado sobre placas metálicas y perfiles metálicos con diferentes relaciones superficie/volumen. Tras el gunitado, las probetas proyectadas se colocan en un horno y se someten a un programa de calentamiento según la norma de resistencia al fuego. A partir de los datos obtenidos se ha podido realizar una estimación de la resistencia al fuego del producto. Los resultados muestran que el material proyectado usado en este estudio, que contiene una alta proporción de cenizas volantes, tiene unas propiedades mecánicas aceptables y unas características potenciales de resistencia al fuego comparables a las de otros productos comerciales utilizados en la protección pasiva contra el fuego.

  6. Detailed assessment of diesel spray atomization models using visible and X-ray extinction measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnotti, G.M.; Genzale, C.L. (GIT)

    2017-12-01

    The physical mechanisms characterizing the breakup of a diesel spray into droplets are still unknown. This gap in knowledge has largely been due to the challenges of directly imaging this process or quantitatively measuring the outcomes of spray breakup, such as droplet size. Recent x-ray measurements by Argonne National Laboratory, utilized in this work, provide needed information about the spatial evolution of droplet sizes in selected regions of the spray under a range of injection pressures (50–150 MPa) and ambient densities (7.6–22.8 kg/m3) relevant for diesel operating conditions. Ultra-small angle x-ray scattering (USAXS) measurements performed at the Advanced Photon Source are presented, which quantify Sauter mean diameters (SMD) within optically thick regions of the spray that are inaccessible by conventional droplet sizing measurement techniques, namely in the near-nozzle region, along the spray centerline, and within the core of the spray. To quantify droplet sizes along the periphery of the spray, a complementary technique is proposed and introduced, which leverages the ratio of path-integrated x-ray and visible laser extinction (SAMR) measurements to quantify SMD. The SAMR and USAXS measurements are then utilized to evaluate current spray models used for engine computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations. We explore the ability of a carefully calibrated spray model, premised on aerodynamic wave growth theory, to capture the experimentally observed trends of SMD throughout the spray. The spray structure is best predicted with an aerodynamic primary and secondary breakup process that is represented with a slower time constant and larger formed droplet size than conventionally recommended for diesel spray models. Additionally, spray model predictions suggest that droplet collisions may not influence the resultant droplet size distribution along the spray centerline in downstream regions of the spray.

  7. Aportaciones sólidas a la atmósfera originadas por un incendio forestal en el ámbito mediterráneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Hemández, J. L.

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash projected from the Sierra de la Almijara forest fire (Granada, August 1999 into adjacent soils were 252 Tm (0,168 gr/m2; this occurred mainly during the days of the fire. The mechanisms implied in the evolution of the gas clouds accelerate the deposition of the mineral particles suspended in the air. These mineral particles are agglutinated into microspherules by the water vapor released. The global rate of deposition obtained for the week of the forest fire underwent an increase of 50 % in comparison to the rate of atmospheric dust deposited under normal conditions.El incendio forestal ocurrido en el verano de 1999 en la Sierra de la Almijara (Granada, de magnitud media pero severo, permitió determinar en condiciones de observación adecuadas las emisiones sólidas producidas por vía aérea fuera del sistema. Las partículas sólidas depositadas en su mayor parte durante los días del incendio son, fundamentalmente, cenizas y esférulas minerales rosáceas (EMR: el volumen de cenizas proyectadas al suelo del entorno se estima en 252 Tm (0,168 gr/m2; las EMR, microscópicas, originadas por el vapor de agua desprendido en el incendio, aglutinan las partículas minerales (PM suspendidas en el aire y aceleran su depósito. La tasa global obtenida para la semana del incendio experimentó un incremento del 50 % de la tasa de polvo atmosférico depositado en condiciones normales.

  8. Spray-coated ligand-free Cu2ZnSnS4 nanoparticle thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Sara Lena Josefin; Murthy, Swathi; Kofod, Guggi

    We have fabricated Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films from spray-coating ligand-free nanoparticle inks. The as-synthesized CZTS nanoparticles were inherently ligand-free [1], which allows the use of polar solvents, such as water and ethanol. Another advantage of these particles is that user...... as an unquantifiable amount of ZnS. A Sono-tek spray-coating system is used which utilizes ultrasonic atomization. We investigate the effect of different binders, ink concentration, and spray-coating conditions, i.e. spray power, flow rate from syringe pump, distance between spray nozzle and the substrate, and time...

  9. Plasma spraying of ceramic powders produced by the sol-gel technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, S.V.; Ganguli, D.

    1992-01-01

    The development of plasma-sprayed protective layers to enhance the surface properties of critical engineering components represents one of the most promising achievements of materials technology in recent times. The important aspects associated with plasma spraying of ceramic powders are discussed and the influence of the powder characteristics on the quality of sprayed coatings is highlighted. The advantages of the sol-gel technique for preparing spray grade powders are briefly outlined. The sol-gel synthesis of a Yttria-stabilized-zirconia powder is discussed as a case study. Results of powder characterization studies and evaluation of its plasma sprayed coating are also presented. (author). 28 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  10. The decrease in aqueous tear production associated with pepper spray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasier, Rifat; Kukner, Amber Senel; Sengul, Elvan Alper; Yalcin, Nazli Gul; Temizsoylu, Onur; Bahcecioglu, Halil Onder

    2015-04-01

    Pepper spray is used both by civilians and by law enforcement. Burning sensation occurs when exposed to skin, pain and temporary blindness occurs when exposed to the eyes. This study focused on the effect of pepper spray on lacrimal tear production and subsequently on corneal sensitivity in a large group after an intense exposure. Ninety-six people who were exposed to pepper spray during the Gezi park protests volunteered. Subjects were asked if they wore any protective goggles and if they irrigated their eyes after exposure. They were asked to record their symptoms regarding dry eye in a standardized questionnaire. Schirmer I and II tests were performed. Eighty-two people wore protective goggles during exposure, whereas 14 people did not have any protection. Both Schirmer results in unprotected subjects were significantly lower than that in protected subjects. Schirmer I and II results of unprotected subjects were not statistically different, whereas they were statistically different in protected subjects. Thirty-five percent of unprotected subjects and 24% of protected subjects expressed symptoms of dry eye. The active ingredient of pepper spray is oleoresin capsicum. It is randomly diffused to polymodal nerve terminals, leading to opening of non-selective cationic channels and block neuronal transmission. The lower results of both Schirmer in unprotected group emphasize the importance of a protective Google glass around the eyes during exposal, serving as a barrier minimalizing the contact of the spray with the eyes. The combination of the low results and lack of symptoms could suggest that corneal reflex lacrimation in our subjects was not abundant enough. The findings of this study could not fully represent long term findings but it could be assumed that our findings could be indicative of the sensory denervation and alterations demonstrated in studies investigating the long term effects of oleoresin capsicum.

  11. Electroform/Plasma-Spray Laminates for X-Ray Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, Melville P.; Graham, Michael; Vaynman, Semyon

    2007-01-01

    Electroform/plasma-spray laminates have shown promise as lightweight, strong, low-thermal-expansion components for xray optics. The basic idea is to exploit both (1) the well-established art of fabrication of optical components by replication and (2) plasma spraying as a means of reinforcing a thin replica optic with one or more backing layer(s) having tailorable thermomechanical properties. In x-ray optics as in other applications, replication reduces the time and cost of fabrication because grinding and polishing can be limited to a few thick masters, from which many lightweight replicas can thereafter be made. The first step in the fabrication of a component of the type in question is to make a replica optic by electroforming a thin layer of nickel on a master. Through proper control of the electroforming process conditions, it is possible to minimize residual stress and, hence, to minimize distortion in the replica. Next, a powder comprising ceramic particles coated with a metal compatible with the electroformed nickel is plasma-sprayed onto the backside of the nickel replica. Then through several repetitions and variations of the preceding steps or perhaps a small compressive stress, alternating layers of electroformed nickel and plasma-sprayed metal-coated ceramic powder are deposited. The thicknesses of the layers and the composition of the metal-coated ceramic powder are chosen to optimize the strength, areal mass density, and toughness of the finished component. An important benefit of using both electroforming and plasma spraying is the possibility of balancing stresses to a minimum level, which could be zero or perhaps a small net compressive stress designed to enhance the function of the component in its intended application.

  12. Improved Small-Particle Powders for Plasma Spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, QuynhGiao, N.; Miller, Robert A.; Leissler, George W.

    2005-01-01

    Improved small-particle powders and powder-processing conditions have been developed for use in plasma spray deposition of thermal-barrier and environmental barrier coatings. Heretofore, plasma-sprayed coatings have typically ranged in thickness from 125 to 1,800 micrometers. As explained below, the improved powders make it possible to ensure complete coverage of substrates at unprecedently small thicknesses of the order of 25 micrometers. Plasma spraying involves feeding a powder into a hot, high-velocity plasma jet. The individual powder particles melt in the plasma jet as they are propelled towards a substrate, upon which they splat to build up a coating. In some cases, multiple coating layers are required. The size range of the powder particles necessarily dictates the minimum thickness of a coating layer needed to obtain uniform or complete coverage. Heretofore, powder particle sizes have typically ranged from 40 to 70 micrometers; as a result, the minimum thickness of a coating layer for complete coverage has been about 75 micrometers. In some applications, thinner coatings or thinner coating layers are desirable. In principle, one can reduce the minimum complete-coverage thickness of a layer by using smaller powder particles. However, until now, when powder particle sizes have been reduced, the powders have exhibited a tendency to cake, clogging powder feeder mechanisms and feed lines. Hence, the main problem is one of synthesizing smaller-particle powders having desirable flow properties. The problem is solved by use of a process that begins with a spray-drying subprocess to produce spherical powder particles having diameters of less than 30 micrometers. (Spherical-particle powders have the best flow properties.) The powder is then passed several times through a commercial sifter with a mesh to separate particles having diameters less than 15 micrometers. The resulting fine, flowable powder is passed through a commercial fluidized bed powder feeder into a

  13. Factors affecting viability of Bifidobacterium bifidum during spray drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokri, Zahra; Fazeli, Mohammad Reza; Ardjmand, Mehdi; Mousavi, Seyyed Mohammad; Gilani, Kambiz

    2015-01-25

    There is substantial clinical data supporting the role of Bifidobacterium bifidum in human health particularly in benefiting the immune system and suppressing intestinal infections. Compared to the traditional lyophilization, spray-drying is an economical process for preparing large quantities of viable microorganisms. The technique offers high production rates and low operating costs but is not usually used for drying of substances prone to high temperature. The aim of this study was to establish the optimized environmental factors in spray drying of cultured bifidobacteria to obtain a viable and stable powder. The experiments were designed to test variables such as inlet air temperature, air pressure and also maltodextrin content. The combined effect of these variables on survival rateand moisture content of bacterial powder was studied using a central composite design (CCD). Sub-lethal heat-adaptation of a B. bifidum strain which was previously adapted to acid-bile-NaCl led to much more resistance to high outlet temperature during spray drying. The resistant B. bifidum was supplemented with cost friendly permeate, sucrose, yeast extract and different amount of maltodextrin before it was fed into a Buchi B-191 mini spray-dryer. Second-order polynomials were established to identify the relationship between the responses andthe three variables. Results of verification experiments and predicted values from fitted correlations were in close agreement at 95% confidence interval. The optimal values of the variables for maximum survival and minimum moisture content of B. bifidum powder were as follows: inlet air temperature of 111.15°C, air pressure of 4.5 bar and maltodextrin concentration of 6%. Under optimum conditions, the maximum survival of 28.38% was achieved while moisture was maintained at 4.05%. Viable and cost effective spray drying of Bifidobacterium bifidum could be achieved by cultivating heat and acid adapted strain into the culture media containing

  14. Impact of sophisticated fog spray models on accident analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roblyer, S.P.; Owzarski, P.C.

    1978-01-01

    The N-Reactor confinement system release dose to the public in a postulated accident is reduced by washing the confinement atmosphere with fog sprays. This allows a low pressure release of confinement atmosphere containing fission products through filters and out an elevated stack. The current accident analysis required revision of the CORRAL code and other codes such as CONTEMPT to properly model the N Reactor confinement into a system of multiple fog-sprayed compartments. In revising these codes, more sophisticated models for the fog sprays and iodine plateout were incorporated to remove some of the conservatism of steam condensing rate, fission product washout and iodine plateout than used in previous studies. The CORRAL code, which was used to describe the transport and deposition of airborne fission products in LWR containment systems for the Rasmussen Study, was revised to describe fog spray removal of molecular iodine (I 2 ) and particulates in multiple compartments for sprays having individual characteristics of on-off times, flow rates, fall heights, and drop sizes in changing containment atmospheres. During postulated accidents, the code determined the fission product removal rates internally rather than from input decontamination factors. A discussion is given of how the calculated plateout and washout rates vary with time throughout the analysis. The results of the accident analyses indicated that more credit could be given to fission product washout and plateout. An important finding was that the release of fission products to the atmosphere and adsorption of fission products on the filters were significantly lower than previous studies had indicated

  15. Systematic Investigation on the Influence of Spray Parameters on the Mechanical Properties of Atmospheric Plasma-Sprayed YSZ Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutter, Markus; Mauer, Georg; Mücke, Robert; Guillon, Olivier; Vaßen, Robert

    2018-02-01

    In the atmospheric plasma spray (APS) process, micro-sized ceramic powder is injected into a thermal plasma where it is rapidly heated and propelled toward the substrate. The coating formation is characterized by the subsequent impingement of a large number of more or less molten particles forming the so-called splats and eventually the coating. In this study, a systematic investigation on the influence of selected spray parameters on the coating microstructure and the coating properties was conducted. The investigation thereby comprised the coating porosity, the elastic modulus, and the residual stress evolution within the coating. The melting status of the particles at the impingement on the substrate in combination with the substrate surface condition is crucial for the coating formation. Single splats were collected on mirror-polished substrates for selected spray conditions and evaluated by identifying different types of splats (ideal, distorted, weakly bonded, and partially molten) and their relative fractions. In a previous study, these splat types were evaluated in terms of their effect on the above-mentioned coating properties. The particle melting status, which serves as a measure for the particle spreading behavior, was determined by in-flight particle temperature measurements and correlated to the coating properties. It was found that the gun power and the spray distance have a strong effect on the investigated coating properties, whereas the feed rate and the cooling show minor influence.

  16. Nanoparticles by spray drying using innovative new technology: the Büchi nano spray dryer B-90.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Anton, Nicolas; Arpagaus, Cordin; Belleteix, Fabrice; Vandamme, Thierry F

    2010-10-15

    Spray drying technology is widely known and used to transform liquids (solutions, emulsions, suspension, slurries, pastes or even melts) into solid powders. Its main applications are found in the food, chemical and materials industries to enhance ingredient conservation, particle properties, powder handling and storage etc. However, spray drying can also be used for specific applications in the formulation of pharmaceuticals for drug delivery (e.g. particles for pulmonary delivery). Büchi is a reference in the development of spray drying technology, notably for laboratory scale devices. This study presents the Nano Spray Dryer B-90, a revolutionary new sprayer developed by Büchi, use of which can lower the size of the produced dried particles by an order of magnitude attaining submicron sizes. In this paper, results are presented with a panel of five representative polymeric wall materials (arabic gum, whey protein, polyvinyl alcohol, modified starch, and maltodextrin) and the potentials to encapsulate nano-emulsions, or to formulate nano-crystals (e.g. from furosemide) are also shown. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Atmospheric loss of pesticides above an artificial vineyard during air-assisted spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Yvan; Sinfort, Carole; Brunet, Yves; Polveche, Vincent; Bonicelli, Bernard

    A procedure to assess pesticide emission to the air and characterise possible air pollution sources was carried out using a tracer dye and 2 mm PVC lines during air-assisted spraying of an artificial vineyard. Three experiments were performed to evaluate the method feasibility, quantify upward movements of sprayed droplets and investigate the influence of microclimatic variables on pesticide emission. During each experiment two test series were carried out with two droplet size distributions (very fine and fine spray, according to the BCPC classification). The amount of sprayed liquid collected at 2.5 m above ground varied between 9.0% and 10.7% of the total dose applied for very fine spray and between 5.6% and 7.3% for fine spray. In stable atmospheric conditions the spray drifted along the mean wind direction over the crop whereas in unstable conditions the sprayed liquid plume was larger, with a greater amount of material sent to higher levels. A statistical model based on a simple multiple regression featuring droplet characteristics and microclimatic variables (wind speed, temperature, stability parameter and relative humidity) provided a robust estimate of spray loss just above the crop, with an acceptable determination coefficient ( R2=0.84). This method is therefore suitable for quantifying spray drift and provides a way to study the influence of several variables on the amount of pesticide released into the atmosphere by air-assisted spraying, with suitable accuracy.

  18. A user-friendly model for spray drying to aid pharmaceutical product development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Grasmeijer

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a user-friendly model for spray drying that can aid in the development of a pharmaceutical product, by shifting from a trial-and-error towards a quality-by-design approach. To achieve this, a spray dryer model was developed in commercial and open source spreadsheet software. The output of the model was first fitted to the experimental output of a Büchi B-290 spray dryer and subsequently validated. The predicted outlet temperatures of the spray dryer model matched the experimental values very well over the entire range of spray dryer settings that were tested. Finally, the model was applied to produce glassy sugars by spray drying, an often used excipient in formulations of biopharmaceuticals. For the production of glassy sugars, the model was extended to predict the relative humidity at the outlet, which is not measured in the spray dryer by default. This extended model was then successfully used to predict whether specific settings were suitable for producing glassy trehalose and inulin by spray drying. In conclusion, a spray dryer model was developed that is able to predict the output parameters of the spray drying process. The model can aid the development of spray dried pharmaceutical products by shifting from a trial-and-error towards a quality-by-design approach.

  19. A user-friendly model for spray drying to aid pharmaceutical product development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasmeijer, Niels; de Waard, Hans; Hinrichs, Wouter L J; Frijlink, Henderik W

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a user-friendly model for spray drying that can aid in the development of a pharmaceutical product, by shifting from a trial-and-error towards a quality-by-design approach. To achieve this, a spray dryer model was developed in commercial and open source spreadsheet software. The output of the model was first fitted to the experimental output of a Büchi B-290 spray dryer and subsequently validated. The predicted outlet temperatures of the spray dryer model matched the experimental values very well over the entire range of spray dryer settings that were tested. Finally, the model was applied to produce glassy sugars by spray drying, an often used excipient in formulations of biopharmaceuticals. For the production of glassy sugars, the model was extended to predict the relative humidity at the outlet, which is not measured in the spray dryer by default. This extended model was then successfully used to predict whether specific settings were suitable for producing glassy trehalose and inulin by spray drying. In conclusion, a spray dryer model was developed that is able to predict the output parameters of the spray drying process. The model can aid the development of spray dried pharmaceutical products by shifting from a trial-and-error towards a quality-by-design approach.

  20. Ptose palpebral causada por Paquidermoperiostose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Regina de Pinho Tavares

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A paquidermoperiostose é uma síndrome caracterizada por acometimento cutâneo e ósseo, e em alguns casos ocorre comprometimento palpebral leve. É uma síndrome rara, idiopática ou hereditária, com provável herança autossômica dominante de penetrância variável. Descreve-se o caso de um paciente com ptose grave por paquidermoperiostose elucidando sua fisiopatologia e conduta cirúrgica aplicada.