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Sample records for deposit detection system

  1. SYSTEM FOR DETECTION AND CONTROL OF DEPOSITION IN KRAFT CHEMICAL RECOVERY BOILERS AND MONITORING GLASS FURNACES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Peter Ariessohn

    2003-04-15

    Combustion Specialists, Inc. has just completed a project designed to develop the capability to monitor and control the formation of deposits on the outside of boiler tubes inside an operating kraft recovery furnace. This project, which was carried out in the period from April 1, 2001 to January 31, 2003, was funded by the Department of Energy's Inventions and Innovations program. The primary objectives of the project included the development and demonstration of the ability to produce clear images of deposits throughout the convective sections of operating recovery boilers using newly developed infrared imaging technology, to demonstrate the automated detection and quantification of these deposits using custom designed image processing software developed as part of the project, and to demonstrate the feasibility of all technical elements required for a commercial ''smart'' sootblowing control system based on direct feedback from automated imaging of deposits in real-time. All of the individual tasks have been completed and all objectives have been substantially achieved. Imaging of deposits throughout the convective sections of several recovery boilers has been demonstrated, a design for a combined sootblower/deposit inspection probe has been developed and a detailed heat transfer analysis carried out to demonstrate the feasibility of this design, an improved infrared imager which can be sufficiently miniaturized for this application has been identified, automated deposit detection software has been developed and demonstrated, a detailed design for all the necessary communications and control interfaces has been developed, and a test has been carried out in a glass furnace to demonstrate the applicability of the infrared imaging sensor in that environment. The project was completed on time and within the initial budget. A commercial partner has been identified and further federal funding will be sought to support a project to develop a

  2. Sensing system for detection and control of deposition on pendant tubes in recovery and power boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kychakoff, George [Maple Valley, WA; Afromowitz, Martin A [Mercer Island, WA; Hogle, Richard E [Olympia, WA

    2008-10-14

    A system for detection and control of deposition on pendant tubes in recovery and power boilers includes one or more deposit monitoring sensors operating in infrared regions of about 4 or 8.7 microns and directly producing images of the interior of the boiler, or producing feeding signals to a data processing system for information to enable a distributed control system by which the boilers are operated to operate said boilers more efficiently. The data processing system includes an image pre-processing circuit in which a 2-D image formed by the video data input is captured, and includes a low pass filter for performing noise filtering of said video input. It also includes an image compensation system for array compensation to correct for pixel variation and dead cells, etc., and for correcting geometric distortion. An image segmentation module receives a cleaned image from the image pre-processing circuit for separating the image of the recovery boiler interior into background, pendant tubes, and deposition. It also accomplishes thresholding/clustering on gray scale/texture and makes morphological transforms to smooth regions, and identifies regions by connected components. An image-understanding unit receives a segmented image sent from the image segmentation module and matches derived regions to a 3-D model of said boiler. It derives a 3-D structure the deposition on pendant tubes in the boiler and provides the information about deposits to the plant distributed control system for more efficient operation of the plant pendant tube cleaning and operating systems.

  3. A Visual Detection System for Determining Tritium Surface Deposition Employing Phosphor Coated Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentile, C.A.; Skinner, C.H.; Young, K.M.; Zweben, S.J.

    1999-01-01

    A method for visually observing tritium deposition on the surface of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) deuterium-tritium (D-T) tiles is being investigated at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. A green phosphor (P31, zinc sulfide: copper) similar to that used in oscilloscope screens with a wavelength peak of 530 nm was positioned on the surface of a TFTR D-T tile. The approximately 600 gram tile, which contains approximately 1.5 Ci of tritium located on the top approximately 1-50 microns of the surface, was placed in a two liter lexan chamber at Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP). The phosphor plates and phosphor powder were placed on the surface of the tile which resulted in visible light being observed, the consequence of tritium betas interacting with the phosphor. This technique provides a method of visually observing varying concentrations of tritium on the surface of D-T carbon tiles, and may be employed (in a calibrated system) to obtain quantitative data

  4. Deposition and detection of particles during integrated circuit manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wali, F.; Knotter, D. Martin; Kelly, John J.; Kuper, F.G.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract—Deposition mechanism of silica particles on silicon wafers was investigated by depositing specially prepared mono-dispersed particles (mean diameter = 330 nm). To measure particles of the size below the detection limit of our particle measurement tools, silica particles with luminance core

  5. Programming system for rapid evaluation of coal deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanìk František

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Programming system for rapid evaluation of coal deposits (calculation of coal reserves based on data stored in coal deposit database including processing of textual and graphic outputs was elaborated. The nature of such outputs is based on conventional coal reserve calculations so that connection with coal reserve calculations made in the past is secured. Differences in particular coal deposits as well as in individual coal seams are respected in the system. Coal seams differ one from another in their development by variability of seam thickness and seam quality within coal deposit etc. In addition to this, coal deposits are disturbed by tectonic failures and deformations. The system of evaluation of coal deposits is based on development of planar models of particular seams where calculation blocks are created and coal reserves contained in them are determined. Subsequently coal reserves of particular seams and of the whole deposit are determined. Natural limitation of seam model is given by determined minimum seam thickness and maximum ash content (i.e. content of inorganic component in coal. Basic model is structured according to detected main tectonic lines into tectonic blocks. According to further geological factors (e.g. erosion and contractual boundaries (e.g. demarcations, the deposit is structured into smaller units - calculation blocks. The whole system operates in a maximum automated regime with minimum manual interventions into solving procedure. The system enables rapid alternative calculations of coal reserves according to varying limit values of basic calculation parameters.

  6. High throughput semiconductor deposition system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, David L.; Ptak, Aaron Joseph; Kuech, Thomas F.; Schulte, Kevin; Simon, John D.

    2017-11-21

    A reactor for growing or depositing semiconductor films or devices. The reactor may be designed for inline production of III-V materials grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). The operating principles of the HVPE reactor can be used to provide a completely or partially inline reactor for many different materials. An exemplary design of the reactor is shown in the attached drawings. In some instances, all or many of the pieces of the reactor formed of quartz, such as welded quartz tubing, while other reactors are made from metal with appropriate corrosion resistant coatings such as quartz or other materials, e.g., corrosion resistant material, or stainless steel tubing or pipes may be used with a corrosion resistant material useful with HVPE-type reactants and gases. Using HVPE in the reactor allows use of lower-cost precursors at higher deposition rates such as in the range of 1 to 5 .mu.m/minute.

  7. SQL injection detection system

    OpenAIRE

    Vargonas, Vytautas

    2017-01-01

    SQL injection detection system Programmers do not always ensure security of developed systems. That is why it is important to look for solutions outside being reliant on developers. In this work SQL injection detection system is proposed. The system analyzes HTTP request parameters and detects intrusions. It is based on unsupervised machine learning. Trained by regular request data system detects outlier user parameters. Since training is not reliant on previous knowledge of SQL injections, t...

  8. Portable modular detection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, James S [Rodeo, CA; Singh, Anup [Danville, CA; Throckmorton, Daniel J [Tracy, CA; Stamps, James F [Livermore, CA

    2009-10-13

    Disclosed herein are portable and modular detection devices and systems for detecting electromagnetic radiation, such as fluorescence, from an analyte which comprises at least one optical element removably attached to at least one alignment rail. Also disclosed are modular detection devices and systems having an integrated lock-in amplifier and spatial filter and assay methods using the portable and modular detection devices.

  9. Characterizing Enzymatic Deposition for Microelectrode Neurotransmitter Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosein, W. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Yorita, A. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Tolosa, V. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-08-12

    The enzyme immobilization process, one step in creating an enzymatic biosensor, was characterized and analyzed as a function of its physical properties. The neural glutamic biosensor is a flexible device, effectively minimizing trauma to the area of implantation. The Multielectrode Array (MEA) is composed primarily of a proprietary polymer which has been successfully implanted into human subjects in recent years. This polymer allows the device the pliability that other devices normally lack, though this poses some challenges to implantation. The electrodes are made of Platinum (Pt), and can range in number from eight to thirty two electrodes per device. These electrodes are electroplated with a semipermeable polymer layer to improve selectivity of the electrode to the neurotransmitter of interest, in this case glutamate. A signal is created from the interaction of glutamate in the brain with the glutamate oxidase (GluOx) which is immobilized on the surface of the electrode by using crosslinking chemistry in conjunction with glutaraldehyde and Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA). The glutamate is oxidized by glutamate oxidase, producing α-ketoglutarate and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as a by-product. The production of H2O2 is crucial for detection of the presence of the glutamate within the enzymatic coating, as it diffuses through the enzyme layer and oxidizes at the surface of the electrode. This oxidation is detectable by measurable change in the current using amperometry. Hence, the MEA allows for in vivo monitoring of neurotransmitter activity in real time. The sensitivity of the sensor to these neurotransmitters is dependent on the thickness of the layer, which is investigated in these experiments in order to optimize the efficacy of the device to detecting the substrate, once implanted.

  10. Method and means for detecting magnetic deposits in tubular plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lord, W.

    1981-01-01

    Deposits of magnetite on tubes in a heat exchanger, e.g. a steam generator, are detected by measuring the magnetic reluctance within the tubes. A probe for measuring the reluctance includes a permanent magnet (or a magnetic core and an excitation coil wound on the core) and a magnetic flux detector such as a Hall generator mounted for example on one of the non-magnetic rings. Changes in flux density as the probe is pushed through the tubes are detected by the Hall generator, thus indicating the presence of magnetite deposits. The probe includes a non-magnetic tube for pushing it through the heat exchanger tubes. (author)

  11. Intrusion detection system elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, M.J.; Mangan, D.L.

    1980-09-01

    This report highlights elements required for an intrusion detection system and discusses problems which can be encountered in attempting to make the elements effective. Topics discussed include: sensors, both for exterior detection and interior detection; alarm assessment systems, with the discussion focused on video assessment; and alarm reporting systems, including alarm communication systems and dislay/console considerations. Guidance on careful planning and design of a new or to-be-improved system is presented

  12. Interior intrusion detection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, J.R.; Matter, J.C. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Dry, B. (BE, Inc., Barnwell, SC (United States))

    1991-10-01

    The purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees in designing interior intrusion detection systems. Interior intrusion sensors are discussed according to their primary application: boundary-penetration detection, volumetric detection, and point protection. Information necessary for implementation of an effective interior intrusion detection system is presented, including principles of operation, performance characteristics and guidelines for design, procurement, installation, testing, and maintenance. A glossary of sensor data terms is included. 36 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Interior intrusion detection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, J.R.; Matter, J.C.; Dry, B.

    1991-10-01

    The purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees in designing interior intrusion detection systems. Interior intrusion sensors are discussed according to their primary application: boundary-penetration detection, volumetric detection, and point protection. Information necessary for implementation of an effective interior intrusion detection system is presented, including principles of operation, performance characteristics and guidelines for design, procurement, installation, testing, and maintenance. A glossary of sensor data terms is included. 36 figs., 6 tabs

  14. Research on Application of Wax Deposition Detection in the Nonmetallic Pipeline Based on Electrical Capacitance Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wax deposition detection in nonmetallic pipelines is an important requirement in the oil industry. In this paper, an ECT (electrical capacitance tomography sensor is developed for wax deposition detection in nonmetallic pipelines. Four wax models with different concentrations were established for detection. These models were analyzed through simulations and practical experiments simultaneously and data were compared. A linear back projection algorithm is applied to reconstruct the image with both simulated and experimental data. A comparison of binary images with different concentration of stratified flow was demonstrated; this illustrates that the difference in concentration between the experimental results and profile distribution is less than 1.2%. The experimental results indicate that the ECT system is valid and feasible for detecting the degree of wax deposition in the nonmetallic pipelines.

  15. Information system of mineral deposits in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hribernik, K.; Rokavec, D.; Šinigioj, J.; Šolar, S.

    2010-03-01

    At the Geologic Survey of Slovenia the need for complex overview and control of the deposits of available non-metallic mineral raw materials and of their exploitations became urgent. In the framework of the Geologic Information System we established the Database of non-metallic mineral deposits comprising all important data of deposits and concessionars. Relational database is built with program package MS Access, but in year 2008 we plan to transfer it on SQL server. In the evidence there is 272 deposits and 200 concessionars. The mineral resources information system of Slovenia, which was started back in 2002, consists of two integrated parts, mentioned relational database of mineral deposits, which relates information in tabular way so that rules of relational algebra can be applied, and geographic information system (GIS), which relates spatial information of deposits. . The complex relationships between objects and the concepts of normalized data structures, lead to the practical informative and useful data model, transparent to the user and to better decision-making by allowing future scenarios to be developed and inspected. Computerized storage, and display system is as already said, developed and managed under the support of Geological Survey of Slovenia, which conducts research on the occurrence, quality, quantity, and availability of mineral resources in order to help the Nation make informed decisions using earth-science information. Information about deposit is stored in records in approximately hundred data fields. A numeric record number uniquely identifies each site. The data fields are grouped under principal categories. Each record comprise elementary data of deposit (name, type, location, prospect, rock), administrative data (concessionar, number of decree in official paper, object of decree, number of contract and its duration) and data of mineral resource produced amount and size of exploration area). The data can also be searched, sorted and

  16. Deposit control in process cooling water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkataramani, B.

    1981-01-01

    In order to achieve efficient heat transfer in cooling water systems, it is essential to control the fouling of heat exchanger surfaces. Solubilities of scale forming salts, their growth into crystals, and the nature of the surfaces play important roles in the deposition phenomenon. Condensed phosphates, organic polymers and compounds like phosphates are effective in controlling deposition of scale forming salts. The surface active agents inhibit crystal growth and modify the crystals of the scale forming salts, and thus prevent deposition of dense, uniformly structured crystalline mass on the heat transfer surface. Understanding the mechanism of biofouling is essential to control it by surface active agents. Certain measures taken in the plant, such as back flushing, to control scaling, sometimes may not be effective and can be detrimental to the system itself. (author)

  17. Lightning Protection and Detection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Kenneth L. (Inventor); Szatkowski, George N. (Inventor); Woodard, Marie (Inventor); Nguyen, Truong X. (Inventor); Ely, Jay J. (Inventor); Wang, Chuantong (Inventor); Mielnik, John J. (Inventor); Koppen, Sandra V. (Inventor); Smith, Laura J. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A lightning protection and detection system includes a non-conductive substrate material of an apparatus; a sensor formed of a conductive material and deposited on the non-conductive substrate material of the apparatus. The sensor includes a conductive trace formed in a continuous spiral winding starting at a first end at a center region of the sensor and ending at a second end at an outer corner region of the sensor, the first and second ends being open and unconnected. An electrical measurement system is in communication with the sensor and receives a resonant response from the sensor, to perform detection, in real-time, of lightning strike occurrences and damage therefrom to the sensor and the non-conductive substrate material.

  18. Semiconductor radiation detection systems

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    Covers research in semiconductor detector and integrated circuit design in the context of medical imaging using ionizing radiation. This book explores other applications of semiconductor radiation detection systems in security applications such as luggage scanning, dirty bomb detection and border control.

  19. Manganese deposition in drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerke, Tammie L; Little, Brenda J; Barry Maynard, J

    2016-01-15

    This study provides a physicochemical assessment of manganese deposits on brass and lead components from two fully operational drinking water distributions systems. One of the systems was maintained with chlorine; the other, with secondary chloramine disinfection. Synchrotron-based in-situ micro X-ray adsorption near edge structure was used to assess the mineralogy. In-situ micro X-ray fluorescence mapping was used to demonstrate the spatial relationships between manganese and potentially toxic adsorbed metal ions. The Mn deposits ranged in thickness from 0.01 to 400 μm. They were composed primarily of Mn oxides/oxhydroxides, birnessite (Mn(3+) and Mn(4+)) and hollandite (Mn(2+) and Mn(4+)), and a Mn silicate, braunite (Mn(2+) and Mn(4+)), in varying proportions. Iron, chromium, and strontium, in addition to the alloying elements lead and copper, were co-located within manganese deposits. With the exception of iron, all are related to specific health issues and are of concern to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA). The specific properties of Mn deposits, i.e., adsorption of metals ions, oxidation of metal ions and resuspension are discussed with respect to their influence on drinking water quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Underwater laser detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomaa, Walid; El-Sherif, Ashraf F.; El-Sharkawy, Yasser H.

    2015-02-01

    The conventional method used to detect an underwater target is by sending and receiving some form of acoustic energy. But the acoustic systems have limitations in the range resolution and accuracy; while, the potential benefits of a laserbased underwater target detection include high directionality, high response, and high range accuracy. Lasers operating in the blue-green region of the light spectrum(420 : 570nm)have a several applications in the area of detection and ranging of submersible targets due to minimum attenuation through water ( less than 0.1 m-1) and maximum laser reflection from estimated target (like mines or submarines) to provide a long range of detection. In this paper laser attenuation in water was measured experimentally by new simple method by using high resolution spectrometer. The laser echoes from different targets (metal, plastic, wood, and rubber) were detected using high resolution CCD camera; the position of detection camera was optimized to provide a high reflection laser from target and low backscattering noise from the water medium, digital image processing techniques were applied to detect and discriminate the echoes from the metal target and subtract the echoes from other objects. Extraction the image of target from the scattering noise is done by background subtraction and edge detection techniques. As a conclusion, we present a high response laser imaging system to detect and discriminate small size, like-mine underwater targets.

  1. Flowslide Early Warning System in pyroclastic deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Lucio; Damiano, Emila; De Cristofaro, Martina; Roberto, Greco; Mollo, Luigi; Netti, Nadia; Capparelli, Giovanna

    2015-04-01

    Most of the mountains of Campania are covered by airfall pyroclastic deposits in primary deposition generally in unsaturated conditions. These deposits are periodically subjected to rainfall induced landslides that may evolve into catastrophic flowslides. To protect towns EWS can be implemented in order to correctly and promptly predict the trigger. In the paper we detect some 'essential ingredients' for effective EWSs which are new with respect to those already employed and essentially based on pluviometric thresholds (Greco et. Al., 2013) and extremely simplified models not able to correctly follow the physical phenomena which are responsible of flowslides generation (Olivares et Al. 2009). Complex models, able to correctly simulate those physical phenomena such as infiltration processes and the effects of partial saturated conditions on shear strength contain the 'essential ingredients' that we discuss in the paper. A particular attention is devoted to define the relation between suction and shear strength and the water retention curve obtained from different techniques to assess a reliable hydro-geotechnical model to analyze the slope response of loose unsaturated pyroclastic deposits. An EWS that contains these elements can provide many advantages. In fact, catastrophic flowslides but even false alarms about such events, produce negative technological and productive shocks that strongly reduce the actual and prospective value added of investment in the areas at risk suggesting the opportunity of their shrinking and postponement. Of course this severely compromises the economic development of those areas. In the paper we propose to examine this subject in the Dixit e Pindyck framework of the Real Option Valuation Approach in order to explain the socio-economic value of effective EWS. In fact, such EWSs will embed valuable new real options in the investment opportunities in the areas at risk increasing their actual and prospective values. Keywords: slope

  2. Solar system fault detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrington, R.B.; Pruett, J.C. Jr.

    1984-05-14

    A fault detecting apparatus and method are provided for use with an active solar system. The apparatus provides an indication as to whether one or more predetermined faults have occurred in the solar system. The apparatus includes a plurality of sensors, each sensor being used in determining whether a predetermined condition is present. The outputs of the sensors are combined in a pre-established manner in accordance with the kind of predetermined faults to be detected. Indicators communicate with the outputs generated by combining the sensor outputs to give the user of the solar system and the apparatus an indication as to whether a predetermined fault has occurred. Upon detection and indication of any predetermined fault, the user can take appropriate corrective action so that the overall reliability and efficiency of the active solar system are increased.

  3. Pressure detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawford, V.N.; Long, C.E.

    1975-01-01

    The pressure detection system described comprises a first bellows assembly that can be connected to a source of fluid under pressure, a pressure detection apparatus, a second bellows assembly connected to the first assembly and pipes with a coupling device connecting the second bellows assembly to the apparatus. The first and second assemblies can only be disconnected with difficulty from the source or not at all [fr

  4. Detection of defects in laser powder deposition (LPD) components by pulsed laser transient thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santospirito, S. P.; Słyk, Kamil; Luo, Bin; Łopatka, Rafał; Gilmour, Oliver; Rudlin, John

    2013-05-01

    Detection of defects in Laser Powder Deposition (LPD) produced components has been achieved by laser thermography. An automatic in-process NDT defect detection software system has been developed for the analysis of laser thermography to automatically detect, reliably measure and then sentence defects in individual beads of LPD components. A deposition path profile definition has been introduced so all laser powder deposition beads can be modeled, and the inspection system has been developed to automatically generate an optimized inspection plan in which sampling images follow the deposition track, and automatically control and communicate with robot-arms, the source laser and cameras to implement image acquisition. Algorithms were developed so that the defect sizes can be correctly evaluated and these have been confirmed using test samples. Individual inspection images can also be stitched together for a single bead, a layer of beads or multiple layers of beads so that defects can be mapped through the additive process. A mathematical model was built up to analyze and evaluate the movement of heat throughout the inspection bead. Inspection processes were developed and positional and temporal gradient algorithms have been used to measure the flaw sizes. Defect analysis is then performed to determine if the defect(s) can be further classified (crack, lack of fusion, porosity) and the sentencing engine then compares the most significant defect or group of defects against the acceptance criteria - independent of human decisions. Testing on manufactured defects from the EC funded INTRAPID project has successful detected and correctly sentenced all samples.

  5. Proximity detection system underground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denis Kent [Mine Site Technologies (Australia)

    2008-04-15

    Mine Site Technologies (MST) with the support ACARP and Xstrata Coal NSW, as well as assistance from Centennial Coal, has developed a Proximity Detection System to proof of concept stage as per plan. The basic aim of the project was to develop a system to reduce the risk of the people coming into contact with vehicles in an uncontrolled manner (i.e. being 'run over'). The potential to extend the developed technology into other areas, such as controls for vehicle-vehicle collisions and restricting access of vehicle or people into certain zones (e.g. non FLP vehicles into Hazardous Zones/ERZ) was also assessed. The project leveraged off MST's existing Intellectual Property and experience gained with our ImPact TRACKER tagging technology, allowing the development to be fast tracked. The basic concept developed uses active RFID Tags worn by miners underground to be detected by vehicle mounted Readers. These Readers in turn provide outputs that can be used to alert a driver (e.g. by light and/or audible alarm) that a person (Tag) approaching within their vicinity. The prototype/test kit developed proved the concept and technology, the four main components being: Active RFID Tags to send out signals for detection by vehicle mounted receivers; Receiver electronics to detect RFID Tags approaching within the vicinity of the unit to create a long range detection system (60 m to 120 m); A transmitting/exciter device to enable inner detection zone (within 5 m to 20 m); and A software/hardware device to process & log incoming Tags reads and create certain outputs. Tests undertaken in the laboratory and at a number of mine sites, confirmed the technology path taken could form the basis of a reliable Proximity Detection/Alert System.

  6. Water system virus detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, A. S.; Wells, A. F.; Tenoso, H. J.

    1975-01-01

    A monitoring system developed to test the capability of a water recovery system to reject the passage of viruses into the recovered water is described. A nonpathogenic marker virus, bacteriophage F2, is fed into the process stream before the recovery unit and the reclaimed water is assayed for its presence. Detection of the marker virus consists of two major components, concentration and isolation of the marker virus, and detection of the marker virus. The concentration system involves adsorption of virus to cellulose acetate filters in the presence of trivalent cations and low pH with subsequent desorption of the virus using volumes of high pH buffer. The detection of the virus is performed by a passive immune agglutination test utilizing specially prepared polystyrene particles. An engineering preliminary design was performed as a parallel effort to the laboratory development of the marker virus test system. Engineering schematics and drawings of a fully functional laboratory prototype capable of zero-G operation are presented. The instrument consists of reagent pump/metering system, reagent storage containers, a filter concentrator, an incubation/detector system, and an electronic readout and control system.

  7. Gas detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, C.J.; Bayly, J.G.

    1975-01-01

    The gas detection system provides for the effective detection of gas leaks over a large area. It includes a laser which has a laser line corresponding to an absorption line of the gas to be detected. A He-Xe laser scans a number of retroreflectors which are strategically located around a D 2 O plant to detect H 2 S leaks. The reflected beam is focused by a telescope, filtered, and passed into an infrared detector. The laser may be made to emit two frequencies, one of which corresponds with an H 2 S absorption line; or it may be modulated on and off the H 2 S absorption line. The relative amplitude of the absorbed light will be a measure of the H 2 S present

  8. Remote detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nixon, K.V.; France, S.W.; Garcia, C.; Hastings, R.D.

    1981-05-01

    A newly designed remote detection system has been developed at Los Alamos that allows the collection of high-resolution gamma-ray spectra and neutron data from a remote location. The system consists of the remote unit and a command unit. The remote unit collects data in a potentially hostile environment while the operator controls the unit by either radio or wire link from a safe position. Both units are battery powered and are housed in metal carrying cases

  9. Moving Sources Detection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulon, Romain; Kondrasovs, Vladimir; Boudergui, Karim; Normand, Stephane

    2013-06-01

    To monitor radioactivity passing through a pipe or in a given container such as a train or a truck, radiation detection systems are commonly employed. These detectors could be used in a network set along the source track to increase the overall detection efficiency. However detection methods are based on counting statistics analysis. The method usually implemented consists in trigging an alarm when an individual signal rises over a threshold initially estimated in regards to the natural background signal. The detection efficiency is then proportional to the number of detectors in use, due to the fact that each sensor is taken as a standalone sensor. A new approach is presented in this paper taking into account the temporal periodicity of the signals taken by all distributed sensors as a whole. This detection method is not based only on counting statistics but also on the temporal series analysis aspect. Therefore, a specific algorithm is then developed in our lab for this kind of applications and shows a significant improvement, especially in terms of detection efficiency and false alarms reduction. We also plan on extracting information from the source vector. This paper presents the theoretical approach and some preliminary results obtain in our laboratory. (authors)

  10. Radon progeny deposition in track-detection diffusion chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Pressyanov, D; Simeonov, G

    1999-01-01

    The sensitivity dependence for cylindrical diffusion chambers that are used for radon track-detection measurements on the deposition fraction of radon progeny atoms has been theoretically studied (sensitivity is the ratio: area track density/integrated sup 2 sup 2 sup 2 Rn activity concentration). Experimentally, the sensitivity values of both the metal- and plastic-made chambers were determined. Results indicate that the experimental sensitivity for metal chambers is in accordance with the theoretical model while a deviation of 15% is observed for plastic chambers. The uncertainty in the sensitivity values that is related to possible variations of the diffusion coefficient for sup 2 sup 1 sup 8 Po atoms was estimated to be less than 10%. (author)

  11. SIP threats detection system

    OpenAIRE

    Vozňák, Miroslav; Řezáč, Filip

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with detection of threats in IP telephony, the authors developed a penetration testing system that is able to check up the level of protection from security threats in IP telephony. The SIP server is a key komponent of VoIP infrastructure and often becomes the aim of attacks and providers have to ensure the appropriate level of security. We have developed web-based penetration system which is able to check the SIP server if can face to the most common attacks.The d...

  12. Ultrasonic Leak Detection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngquist, Robert C. (Inventor); Moerk, J. Steven (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A system for detecting ultrasonic vibrations. such as those generated by a small leak in a pressurized container. vessel. pipe. or the like. comprises an ultrasonic transducer assembly and a processing circuit for converting transducer signals into an audio frequency range signal. The audio frequency range signal can be used to drive a pair of headphones worn by an operator. A diode rectifier based mixing circuit provides a simple, inexpensive way to mix the transducer signal with a square wave signal generated by an oscillator, and thereby generate the audio frequency signal. The sensitivity of the system is greatly increased through proper selection and matching of the system components. and the use of noise rejection filters and elements. In addition, a parabolic collecting horn is preferably employed which is mounted on the transducer assembly housing. The collecting horn increases sensitivity of the system by amplifying the received signals. and provides directionality which facilitates easier location of an ultrasonic vibration source.

  13. Uranium deposits: Main types and concepts for detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashkovtsev, G.A.; Kislyakov, Ya.M.; Miguta, A.K.; Modnikov, I.S.; Shchetochkin, V.N.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a classification of uranium deposits as a basis for developing an optimal exploration strategy for discovering deposits with favorable characteristics for low production cost. The classification is based on endogenic and exogenic sub-classes both of which are subdivided to synegenetic and epigenetic groups. The tectonic setting is also taken into consideration. Following description of the economic and geological types of deposits, the factors governing the formation of the deposits is given. (author). 2 figs, 2 tabs

  14. Arc fault detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, K.N.

    1999-05-18

    An arc fault detection system for use on ungrounded or high-resistance-grounded power distribution systems is provided which can be retrofitted outside electrical switchboard circuits having limited space constraints. The system includes a differential current relay that senses a current differential between current flowing from secondary windings located in a current transformer coupled to a power supply side of a switchboard, and a total current induced in secondary windings coupled to a load side of the switchboard. When such a current differential is experienced, a current travels through a operating coil of the differential current relay, which in turn opens an upstream circuit breaker located between the switchboard and a power supply to remove the supply of power to the switchboard. 1 fig.

  15. Radiation detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeuszer, F.A.

    1976-01-01

    A circuit is disclosed that detects radiation transients and provides a clamping signal in response to each transient. The clamping signal is present from the time the transient rises above a given threshold level and for a known duration thereafter. The system includes radiation sensors, a blocking oscillator that generates a pulse in response to each sensor signal, and an output pulse duration control circuit. The oscillator pulses are fed simultaneously to the output pulse duration control circuit and to an OR gate, the output of which comprises the system output. The output pulse duration is controlled by the time required to magnetize a magnetic core to saturation in first one direction and then the other

  16. Passive intrusion detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laue, E. G. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An intrusion detection system is described in which crystal oscillators are used to provide a frequency which varies as a function of fluctuations of a particular environmental property of the atmosphere, e.g., humidity, in the protected volume. The system is based on the discovery that the frequency of an oscillator whose crystal is humidity sensitive, varies at a frequency or rate which is within a known frequency band, due to the entry of an intruder into the protected volume. The variable frequency is converted into a voltage which is then filtered by a filtering arrangement which permits only voltage variations at frequencies within the known frequency band to activate an alarm, while inhibiting the alarm activation when the voltage frequency is below or above the known frequency band.

  17. Ferret Workflow Anomaly Detection System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Timothy J; Bryant, Stephany

    2005-01-01

    The Ferret workflow anomaly detection system project 2003-2004 has provided validation and anomaly detection in accredited workflows in secure knowledge management systems through the use of continuous, automated audits...

  18. Peat-accumulating depositional systems of Sarawak, East Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staub, James R.; Esterle, Joan S.

    1994-02-01

    Many coal deposits originate in deltaic, estuarine, and coastal plain settings and a knowledge of interrelationships between the tectonic and depositional elements active at the time of sediment deposition is necessary to formulate basin scale models. The prograding coastal depositional systems of Sarawak all contain domed peat-accumulating environments in which low-ash, low-sulfur peats are being deposited in areas of active clastic siliciclastic sedimentation. These depositional systems are as large as 11,400 km 2 and individual peat deposits within systems are in excess of 20 m thick and 1000 km 2 in area. The geographic positions and drainage basin areas of each depositional system are controlled by fault and fold systems. Although prograding into the same receiving basin, individual system geomorphology is variable and ranges from a wave-dominated microtidal delta, to a wave-dominated meso- to macro-tidal delta/coastal plain system, to a tide-dominated macrotidal estuarine embayment along a 450 km stretch of coastline. System variation is a function of sediment supply, shelf and embayment geometry, wave climate, and tidal range. These factors, which control depositional system geomorphology, also control the resulting long axis orientation of the thick, domed peat deposits. The surface vegetation and internal characteristics of most domed peat deposits, however, are similar. Internal characteristics consist of basal high-ash, high-sulfur, degraded peats overlain by low-ash, low-sulfur, well preserved peats in vertical profile. These systems demonstrate variable responses to late Pleistocene/Holocene sea-level rise and, in these instances, the variation is most attributable to local differences in siliciclastic sediment supply, which is a function of the drainage basin area.

  19. Detection of Soot Using a Resistivity Sensor Device Employing Thermophoretic Particle Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doina Lutic

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Results are reported for thermophoretic deposition of soot particles on resistivity sensors as a monitoring technique for diesel exhaust particles with the potential of improved detection limit and sensitivity. Soot with similar characteristics as from diesel exhausts was generated by a propane flame and diluted in stages. The soot in a gas flow at 240–270C∘ was collected on an interdigitated electrode structure held at a considerably lower temperature, 105–125C∘. The time delay for reaching measurable resistance values, the subsequent rate, and magnitude of resistance decrease were a function of the distance between the fingers in the electrodes and the degree of dilution of the soot containing flow. Soot deposition and subsequent removal by heating the sensor support was also performed in a real diesel exhaust. Good similarities between the behavior in our laboratory system and the real diesel exhaust were noticed.

  20. Intrusion detection: systems and models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherif, J. S.; Dearmond, T. G.

    2002-01-01

    This paper puts forward a review of state of the art and state of the applicability of intrusion detection systems, and models. The paper also presents a classfication of literature pertaining to intrusion detection.

  1. Introduction to detection systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan

    Presentation of the information processing pipleline for detection including discussing of various issues and the use of mathematical modeling. A simple example of detection a signal in noise illustrated that simple modeling outperforms human visual and auditory perception. Particiants are going ...

  2. Detection and counting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abreu, M.A.N. de

    1976-01-01

    Detection devices based on gaseous ionization are analysed, such as: electroscopes ionization chambers, proportional counters and Geiger-Mueller counters. Scintillation methods are also commented. A revision of the basic concepts in electronics is done and the main equipment for counting is detailed. In the study of gama spectrometry, scintillation and semiconductor detectors are analysed [pt

  3. Laser-deposited thin films for butane detection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jelínek, Miroslav; Kocourek, Tomáš; Flory, F.; Escoubas, L.; Mazingue, T.; Myslík, V.; Vrňata, M.; Fryček, R.; Vysloužil, F.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 2 (2006), s. 217-222 ISSN 1054-660X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA1010110; GA ČR(CZ) GA104/03/0406 Grant - others:NANOPHOS(XE) IST-2001-39112 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : laser deposition * gas sensor * mode spectroscopy Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.516, year: 2006

  4. Protein detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruetel, Julie A [Livermore, CA; Fiechtner, Gregory J [Bethesda, MD; Kliner, Dahv A. V. [San Ramon, CA; McIlroy, Andrew [Livermore, CA

    2009-05-05

    The present embodiment describes a miniature, microfluidic, absorption-based sensor to detect proteins at sensitivities comparable to LIF but without the need for tagging. This instrument utilizes fiber-based evanescent-field cavity-ringdown spectroscopy, in combination with faceted prism microchannels. The combination of these techniques will increase the effective absorption path length by a factor of 10.sup.3 to 10.sup.4 (to .about.1-m), thereby providing unprecedented sensitivity using direct absorption. The coupling of high-sensitivity absorption with high-performance microfluidic separation will enable real-time sensing of biological agents in aqueous samples (including aerosol collector fluids) and will provide a general method with spectral fingerprint capability for detecting specific bio-agents.

  5. Development of a portable radon detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, J.W.

    1976-09-01

    The presence of radon-222 in soil gas and ground water can indicate the existence of nearby uranium deposits even when heavy overburdens completely absorb the associated gamma radiation. Techniques to detect and measure radon have evolved during the past several years to the point where radon prospecting is routinely employed in a number of countries. A program to develop and field test a prototype system for measuring radon from soil gas and water is described. A prototype system employing a flow through scintillation detector was designed and constructed, utilizing standard commercial components, to provide a fieldworthy unit for testing the system concepts. Laboratory and preliminary field tests of this unit indicate that it can detect anomalous radon levels of less than 10 picoCuries per liter (pCi/l) in soil gas and ground water

  6. Deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Monitoring of radionuclide contents in rainwater is a useful way to keep a check on any change in the external radiation dose caused by the deposited material. Thus analuses of 3 H, 89 Sr and 90 Sr as well as 137 Cs and other gamma radionuclide contents in deposition were continued both nationwide and in the vicinities of the nuclear power stations at Loviisa and Olkiluoto. The deposition of 90 Sr and 137 Cs was lower than in previous years, being only a small fraction of the highest deposition values measured in 1983. The tritium concentrations were also lower than in 1982. The total annual deposition of tritium at different sampling stations varied from 1.7 kBq/m 2 to 2.9 kBq/m 2

  7. Intrusion Detection Systems with Live Knowledge System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-31

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2016-0058 Intrusion Detection Systems with Live Knowledge System Byeong Ho Kang UNIVERSITY OF TASMANIA Final Report 05/31/2016...COVERED (From - To) 20 May 2015 to 19 May 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Intrusion Detection Systems with Live Knowledge System 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...298 10/26/2016https://livelink.ebs.afrl.af.mil/livelink/llisapi.dll Final Report for AOARD Grant FA2386-15-1-4061 “ Intrusion Detection Systems with

  8. In-plane anisotropy and stress detection of films deposited by RC technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meydan, T.; Kockar, H.

    2001-12-01

    A Novel Rotating Cryostat (RC) vacuum system originally designed to fabricate organic layers has been developed in order to prepare magnetic materials for specific applications such as sensors. The RC sputtering system has a rotating drum (substrate holder) and the possibility of using multi-port deposition sources. The source material sputtered by a dc magnetron, which was positioned one of the ports around the RC, was an iron disk (25 mm diameter, 0.8 mm thick, 99.8% pure). Results show that films have exhibited isotropic and anisotropic magnetisation at various running conditions of the RC using a Magneto-Optic Loop Plotter (MOKE) and a Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM). Estimation of magnetic anisotropy confirms in-plane anisotropy in the films. Moreover, when these films are subjected to a bending stress within the VSM, they show chances in their hysteresis loops. These findings indicate a possible future for this technique to produce sensing devices for stress detection.

  9. Radiation detecting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    In spectrophotometry systems, a usual arrangement for modulating the radiation is a rotating disc having one or more sectors removed. A beam of radiation may be blocked by the disc except when a cut-away sector is in the path of the beam. With a double-beam system, a cut-away sector of 180 0 may be used so that when the first path is blocked, the second is allowed through, and vice versa. One or both sides of the disc may be formed as mirrors to facilitate beam switching and to allow use of more than two beams for background compensation purposes or for analysis of more than one substance within a sample. (G.T.H.)

  10. Fault Detection for Nonlinear Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, H.H.

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes a general method for designing fault detection and isolation (FDI) systems for nonlinear processes. For a rich class of nonlinear systems, a nonlinear FDI system can be designed using convex optimization procedures. The proposed method is a natural extension of methods based o...

  11. An environmental monitoring detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leli Yuniarsari; Istofa; Sukandar

    2015-01-01

    Is part of radiation detection of the nuclear facilities engineering activities within nuclear facilities. The system comprised of gamma-ray radiation detector and weather detection which includes anemometer to detect the wind direction and speed, as well as rain gauge to measure the rainfall in a period of time. Data acquisition of the output is processed by Arduino Uno system which transformed the data into a particular standard and then displayed online in the website. The radiation detection system uses gamma-ray detector of NaI(Tl) and GM which convert the radiation detected into electric pulse to be fed into a pre-amp and amplifier and modified into square pulse. The weather detection system on the other hand works based on switch principle. For example, the wind with a certain speed could turn on a switch in the system and produce a voltage or pulse which can be measured. This value will then be interpreted as the wind direction and speed. Likewise for the rainfall gauge, the volume of water entering the bucket will turn the switch on, at the same time producing 1 pulse. The result of the experiment shows that for radiation detection system the output is a square pulse 4 volts by using detector NaI(Tl) and 4.4 volts by using detector GM. For weather detection system, basically was able to detect the wind direction, wind speed and rainfall just to find out further research is needed accuracy and the results compared with the standard tools available in BMKG. (author)

  12. Indium-111 platelet imaging for detection of platelet deposition in abdominal aneurysms and prosthetic arterial grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, J.L.; Stratton, J.R.; Thiele, B.; Haminton, G.W.; Warrick, L.N.; Huang, T.W.; Harker, L.A.

    1981-01-01

    Thirty-four platelet imaging studies were performed in 23 patients to determine whether platelet deposition could be detected in patients with vascular aneurysms (18 patients) or in patients in whom Dacron prosthetic grafts had been placed (5 patients). In patients in whom abnormal platelet deposition was detected, the effect of administration of platelet-active drugs on platelet deposition was examined. Of the 18 patients with an aneurysm, 12 had equivocally positive studies on initial imaging and 2 had equivocally positive images. Of five patients with Dacron arterial grafts in place, four had diffuse platelet deposition in the grafts; the fifth patient had a platelet deposition only in a pseudoaneurysm. Eight patients with an abdominal aneurysm and positive or equivocally positive baseline images were restudied during platelet-active drug therapy either with aspirin plus dipyridamole (seven patients) or with sulfinpyrazone (four patients). No patient studied during treatment with aspirin plus dipyridamole had detectably decreased platelet deposition compared with baseline determinations. In contrast, two of four patients studied while receiving sulfinpyrazone showed decreased platelet deposition. Thus, platelet imaging may be of value for studying platelet physiology in vivo and for assessing platelet-active drugs and the thrombogenicity of prosthetic graft materials in human beings

  13. Ferromagnetic Objects Magnetovision Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Nowicki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of a weak magnetic fields magnetovision scanning system for detection of dangerous ferromagnetic objects. A measurement system was developed and built to study the magnetic field vector distributions. The measurements of the Earth’s field distortions caused by various ferromagnetic objects were carried out. The ability for passive detection of hidden or buried dangerous objects and the determination of their location was demonstrated.

  14. Detection of hemosiderin deposition by T2*-weighted MRI after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaizumi, Toshio; Chiba, Masahiko; Honma, Toshimi; Niwa, Jun

    2003-07-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is very difficult to diagnose several months after its onset. We thus investigated subarachnoid hemosiderin deposition well after SAH by T2*-weighted MRI, a sensitive method for hemosiderin detection. To investigate how hemosiderin deposition as confirmed by T2*-weighted MRI contributes to the determination of prior SAH and how the extent of hemosiderin deposition is associated with a number of clinical factors, we retrospectively analyzed 58 patients >3 months after SAH associated with ruptured aneurysms. We also investigated 209 healthy volunteers as controls. T2*-weighted MRI demonstrated subarachnoid hemosiderin deposition in 72.4% of the SAH patients, whereas no deposition was seen in the healthy volunteer group. The hemosiderin was preferentially deposited in the subarachnoid space near a ruptured aneurysm. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated from logistic regression analyses correlating hemosiderin deposition with other factors. Age (>or=54 years) (OR, 5.1; 95% CI, 1.03 to 25.0; P=0.046), Fisher grade 3 on initial CT (OR, 8.0; 95% CI, 1.26 to 50.4; P=0.027), and Karnofsky Scale score hemosiderin deposition levels. T2*-weighted MRI is an effective means of diagnosing prior SAH and may also reveal the location of a ruptured aneurysm. The extent of hemosiderin deposition was significantly associated with several factors, including age, CT findings, and poor prognosis.

  15. Method for detecting clusters of possible uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conover, W.J.; Bement, T.R.; Iman, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    When a two-dimensional map contains points that appear to be scattered somewhat at random, a question that often arises is whether groups of points that appear to cluster are merely exhibiting ordinary behavior, which one can expect with any random distribution of points, or whether the clusters are too pronounced to be attributable to chance alone. A method for detecting clusters along a straight line is applied to the two-dimensional map of 214 Bi anomalies observed as part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program in the Lubbock, Texas, region. Some exact probabilities associated with this method are computed and compared with two approximate methods. The two methods for approximating probabilities work well in the cases examined and can be used when it is not feasible to obtain the exact probabilities

  16. Systems to accelerate in situ stabilization of waste deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amdurer, M.; Fellman, R.T.; Roetzer, J.; Russ, C.

    1986-09-01

    In-situ systems to accelerate the stabilization of waste deposits involve three essential elements: selection of a chemical or biological agent (reactant) that can react with and stabilize the waste, a method for delivery of the reactant to the deposit, and a method for recovery of the reaction products or mobilized waste. Four reactant categories were examined: biodegradation, surfactant-assistant flushing, hydrolysis, and oxidation. Of these, biodegradation and surfactant-assisted flushing appear most promising as in-situ treatment techniques. Methods of delivery of reactants based upon gravity include surface flooding, ponding, surface spraying, ditching, and subsurface infiltration beds and galleries. Forced injection (pumping) may also be used. Permeability is an important consideration in selecting the delivery system. Recovery systems using gravity include open ditching and buried drains, and pumped methods include wellpoint and deep well systems. Basically, the same limitations that apply to delivery systems are also true for recovery systems.

  17. The NSLS-II Multilayer Laue Lens Deposition System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conley, R.; Bouet, N.; Biancarosa, J.; Shen, Q.; Boas, L.; Feraca, J.; Rosenbaum, L.

    2009-01-01

    The NSLS-II(1) program has a requirement for an unprecedented level of x-ray nanofocusing and has selected the wedged multilayer Laue lens(2,3) (MLL) as the optic of choice to meet this goal. In order to fabricate the MLL a deposition system is required that is capable of depositing depth-graded and laterally-graded multilayers with precise thickness control over many thousands of layers, with total film growth in one run up to 100 m thick or greater. This machine design expounds on the positive features of a rotary deposition system(4) constructed previously for MLLs and will contain multiple stationary, horizontally-oriented magnetron sources where a transport will move a substrate back and forth in a linear fashion over shaped apertures at well-defined velocities to affect a multilayer coating.

  18. Canister positioning. Influence of fracture system on deposition hole stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoekmark, Harald

    2003-11-01

    The study concerns the mechanical behaviour of rock surrounding tunnels and deposition holes in a nuclear waste repository. The mechanical effects of tunnel excavation and deposition hole excavation are investigated by use of a tunnel scale numerical model representing a part of a KBS-3 type repository. The excavation geometry, the initial pre-mining state of stress, and the geometrical features of the fracture system are defined according to conditions that prevail in the TBM tunnel rock mass in Aespoe HRL. Comparisons are made between results obtained without consideration of fractures and results obtained with inclusion of the fracture system. The focus is on the region around the intersection of a tunnel and a deposition hole. A general conclusion is that a fracture system of the type found in the TBM rock mass does not have a decisive influence on the stability of the deposition holes. To estimate the expected extent of spalling, information about other conditions, e.g. the orientation of the initial stresses and the strength properties of the intact rock, is more important than detailed information about the fracture system

  19. Substrate Effect on Plasma Clean Efficiency in Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiu-Ko JangJian

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The plasma clean in a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD system plays an important role to ensure the same chamber condition after numerous film depositions. The periodic and applicable plasma clean in deposition chamber also increases wafer yield due to less defect produced during the deposition process. In this study, the plasma clean rate (PCR of silicon oxide is investigated after the silicon nitride deposited on Cu and silicon oxide substrates by remote plasma system (RPS, respectively. The experimental results show that the PCR drastically decreases with Cu substrate compared to that with silicon oxide substrate after numerous silicon nitride depositions. To understand the substrate effect on PCR, the surface element analysis and bonding configuration are executed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (HR-ICP-MS is used to analyze microelement of metal ions on the surface of shower head in the PECVD chamber. According to Cu substrate, the results show that micro Cu ion and the CuOx bonding can be detected on the surface of shower head. The Cu ion contamination might grab the fluorine radicals produced by NF3 ddissociation in the RPS and that induces the drastic decrease on PCR.

  20. Basis UST leak detection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveria, V.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that gasoline and other petroleum products are leaking from underground storage tanks (USTs) at an alarming rate, seeping into soil and groundwater. Buried pipes are an even greater culprit, accounting for most suspected and detected leaks according to Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates. In response to this problem, the EPA issued regulations setting standards for preventing, detecting, reporting, and cleaning up leaks, as well as fiscal responsibility. However, federal regulations are only a minimum; some states have cracked down even harder Plant managers and engineers have a big job ahead of them. The EPA estimates that there are more than 75,000 fuel USTs at US industrial facilities. When considering leak detection systems, the person responsible for making the decision has five primary choices: inventory reconciliation combined with regular precision tightness tests; automatic tank gauging; groundwater monitoring; interstitial monitoring of double containment systems; and vapor monitoring

  1. Optical detection in microfluidic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    2009-01-01

    Optical detection schemes continue to be favoured for measurements in microfluidic systems. A selection of the latest progress mainly within the last two years is critically reviewed. Emphasis is on integrated solutions, such as planar waveguides, coupling schemes to the outside world, evanescent...

  2. Combustion chemical vapor deposited coatings for thermal barrier coating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampikian, J.M.; Carter, W.B. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Materials Science and Engineering

    1995-12-31

    The new deposition process, combustion chemical vapor deposition, shows a great deal of promise in the area of thermal barrier coating systems. This technique produces dense, adherent coatings, and does not require a reaction chamber. Coatings can therefore be applied in the open atmosphere. The process is potentially suitable for producing high quality CVD coatings for use as interlayers between the bond coat and thermal barrier coating, and/or as overlayers, on top of thermal barrier coatings. In this report, the evaluation of alumina and ceria coatings on a nickel-chromium alloy is described.

  3. Semi autonomous mine detection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas Few; Roelof Versteeg; Herman Herman

    2010-04-01

    CMMAD is a risk reduction effort for the AMDS program. As part of CMMAD, multiple instances of semi autonomous robotic mine detection systems were created. Each instance consists of a robotic vehicle equipped with sensors required for navigation and marking, a countermine sensors and a number of integrated software packages which provide for real time processing of the countermine sensor data as well as integrated control of the robotic vehicle, the sensor actuator and the sensor. These systems were used to investigate critical interest functions (CIF) related to countermine robotic systems. To address the autonomy CIF, the INL developed RIK was extended to allow for interaction with a mine sensor processing code (MSPC). In limited field testing this system performed well in detecting, marking and avoiding both AT and AP mines. Based on the results of the CMMAD investigation we conclude that autonomous robotic mine detection is feasible. In addition, CMMAD contributed critical technical advances with regard to sensing, data processing and sensor manipulation, which will advance the performance of future fieldable systems. As a result, no substantial technical barriers exist which preclude – from an autonomous robotic perspective – the rapid development and deployment of fieldable systems.

  4. X-ray fluorescence system for thin film composition analysis during deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formica, Sarah P.; Lee, Susanne M.

    2005-01-01

    A fast-response-time X-ray fluorescence (XRF) system was designed with a monolithic polycapillary focusing optic for in situ composition profiling during materials deposition. The polycapillary optic produced 10 5 times more intensity at the sample than a pinhole, allowing the detector placement to be outside most deposition chambers. The resultant XRF signals were so strong that measurement times were comparable to monolayer growth times. XRF line scans from Ge 1-x Sn x thin films were used to map Sn concentration versus surface position with a 10 μm resolution. The extrapolated instrumental detection limit using a 20 W Cu source was 10 12 atoms (ng). XRF from a 100-nm ion-implanted Ge 0.72 Sn 0.28 sample demonstrated the system's ability to monitor initial growth stages during deposition

  5. Selective tungsten deposition in a batch cold wall CVD system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, R.; Kang, S.; Harshbarger, W.R.; Susoeff, M.

    1987-01-01

    Selective deposition of tungsten offers many advantages for VLSI technology. The process can be used as a planarization technique for multilevel interconnect technology, it can be used to fill contacts and to provide a barrier layer between Al and Si materials, and the selective W process might be used as a self-aligned technology to provide low resistance layers on source/drain and gate conductors. Recent publications have indicate that cold wall CVD systems provide advantages for development of selective W process. Genus has investigated selective W deposition processing, and we have developed a selective W deposition process for the Genus 8402 multifilm deposition system. This paper describes the Genus 8402 system and the selective W process developed in this reactor. To further develop selective W technology, Genus has signed an agreement with General Electric establishing a joint development program. As a part of this program, the authors characterized the selective W process for encroachment, Si consumption and degrees of selectivity on various dielectrics. The status of this development activity and process characterization is reviewed in this paper

  6. Tape Cassette Bacteria Detection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and testing of an automatic bacteria detection system with a zero-g capability and based on the filter-capsule approach is described. This system is intended for monitoring the sterility of regenerated water in a spacecraft. The principle of detection is based on measuring the increase in chemiluminescence produced by the action of bacterial porphyrins (i.e., catalase, cytochromes, etc.) on a luminol-hydrogen peroxide mixture. Since viable as well as nonviable organisms initiate this luminescence, viable organisms are detected by comparing the signal of an incubated water sample with an unincubated control. Higher signals for the former indicate the presence of viable organisms. System features include disposable sealed sterile capsules, each containing a filter membrane, for processing discrete water samples and a tape transport for moving these capsules through a processing sequence which involves sample concentration, nutrient addition, incubation, a 4 Molar Urea wash and reaction with luminol-hydrogen peroxide in front of a photomultiplier tube. Liquids are introduced by means of a syringe needle which pierces a rubber septum contained in the wall of the capsule. Detection thresholds obtained with this unit towards E. coli and S. marcescens assuming a 400 ml water sample are indicated.

  7. Automatic Measuring System for Oil Stream Paraffin Deposits Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopteva, A. V.; Koptev, V. Yu

    2018-03-01

    This paper describes a new method for monitoring oil pipelines, as well as a highly efficient and automated paraffin deposit monitoring method. When operating oil pipelines, there is an issue of paraffin, resin and salt deposits on the pipeline walls that come with the oil stream. It ultimately results in frequent transportation suspension to clean or even replace pipes and other equipment, thus shortening operation periods between repairs, creating emergency situations and increasing production expenses, badly affecting environment, damaging ecology and spoil underground water, killing animals, birds etc. Oil spills contaminate rivers, lakes, and ground waters. Oil transportation monitoring issues are still subject for further studying. Thus, there is the need to invent a radically new automated process control and management system, together with measurement means intellectualization. The measurement principle is based on the Lambert-Beer law that describes the dependence between the gamma-radiation frequency and the density together with the linear attenuation coefficient for a substance. Using the measuring system with high accuracy (± 0,2%), one can measure the thickness of paraffin deposits with an absolute accuracy of ± 5 mm, which is sufficient to ensure reliable operation of the pipeline system. Safety is a key advantage, when using the proposed control system.

  8. The Autonomous Pathogen Detection System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzenitis, J M; Makarewicz, A J

    2009-01-13

    We developed, tested, and now operate a civilian biological defense capability that continuously monitors the air for biological threat agents. The Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS) collects, prepares, reads, analyzes, and reports results of multiplexed immunoassays and multiplexed PCR assays using Luminex{copyright} xMAP technology and flow cytometer. The mission we conduct is particularly demanding: continuous monitoring, multiple threat agents, high sensitivity, challenging environments, and ultimately extremely low false positive rates. Here, we introduce the mission requirements and metrics, show the system engineering and analysis framework, and describe the progress to date including early development and current status.

  9. Nucleic acid detection system and method for detecting influenza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Hong; Song, Jian

    2015-03-17

    The invention provides a rapid, sensitive and specific nucleic acid detection system which utilizes isothermal nucleic acid amplification in combination with a lateral flow chromatographic device, or DNA dipstick, for DNA-hybridization detection. The system of the invention requires no complex instrumentation or electronic hardware, and provides a low cost nucleic acid detection system suitable for highly sensitive pathogen detection. Hybridization to single-stranded DNA amplification products using the system of the invention provides a sensitive and specific means by which assays can be multiplexed for the detection of multiple target sequences.

  10. Ultrasonic System Approach to Obstacle Detection and Edge Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Thu Win

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, ultrasonic system approach to obstacle detection and edge detection for industrial and rescue operations has been presented. The developed system consists of tough sonic sensor configure with personal computer for monitoring. First, the mathematical model has been presented for the object detection system. Then the numerical simulation has been performed using Matlab platform. The experiments have been conducted using ultrasonic frequency. The curtain, paper and bamboo sheet have been considered as a media during experiments. The presented system is highly accurate for object detection and edge detection behind the obstacle.

  11. Ionization detection system for aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, M.E.

    1977-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved smoke-detection system of the ionization-chamber type. In the preferred embodiment, the system utilizes a conventional detector head comprising a measuring ionization chamber, a reference ionization chamber, and a normally non-conductive gas triode for discharging when a threshold concentration of airborne particulates is present in the measuring chamber. The improved system utilizes a measuring ionization chamber which is modified to minimize false alarms and reductions in sensitivity resulting from changes in ambient temperature. In the preferred form of the modification, an annular radiation shield is mounted about the usual radiation source provided to effect ionization in the measuring chamber. The shield is supported by a bimetallic strip which flexes in response to changes in ambient temperature, moving the shield relative to the source so as to vary the radiative area of the source in a manner offsetting temperature-induced variations in the sensitivity of the chamber. 8 claims, 7 figures

  12. Pulsed helium ionization detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, R.S.; Todd, R.A.

    1985-04-09

    A helium ionization detection system is provided which produces stable operation of a conventional helium ionization detector while providing improved sensitivity and linearity. Stability is improved by applying pulsed dc supply voltage across the ionization detector, thereby modifying the sampling of the detectors output current. A unique pulse generator is used to supply pulsed dc to the detector which has variable width and interval adjust features that allows up to 500 V to be applied in pulse widths ranging from about 150 nsec to about dc conditions.

  13. Nanostructured Electrodes Via Electrostatic Spray Deposition for Energy Storage System

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, C.

    2014-10-02

    Energy storage systems such as Li-ion batteries and supercapacitors are extremely important in today’s society, and have been widely used as the energy and power sources for portable electronics, electrical vehicles and hybrid electrical vehicles. A lot of research has focused on improving their performance; however, many crucial challenges need to be addressed to obtain high performance electrode materials for further applications. Recently, the electrostatic spray deposition (ESD) technique has attracted great interest to satisfy the goals. Due to its many advantages, the ESD technique shows promising prospects compared to other conventional deposition techniques. In this paper, our recent research outcomes related to the ESD derived anodes for Li-ion batteries and other applications is summarized and discussed.

  14. Models for financial crisis detection in Indonesia based on bank deposits, real exchange rate and terms of trade indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyanto; Zukhronah, Etik; Nur Aini, Anis

    2017-12-01

    Several times Indonesia has experienced to face a financial crisis, but the crisis occurred in 1997 had a tremendous impact on the economy and national stability. The impact of the crisis fall the exchange rate of rupiah against the dollar so it is needed the financial crisis detection system. Some data of bank deposits, real exchange rate and terms of trade indicators are used in this paper. Data taken from January 1990 until December 2016 are used to form the models with three state. Combination of volatility and Markov switching models are used to model the data. The result suggests that the appropriate model for bank deposit and terms of trade is SWARCH (3,1), and for real exchange rates is SWARCH (3,2).

  15. Complicated systems for neutron detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, I.M.; Nikotin, O.P.; Chekrenev, A.S.

    1982-01-01

    The design of the system for detecting delayed neutrons due to heavy nuclei photofission is described. The system comprises a large number of 3 He proportional counters of thermal neutrons. Each counter is equipped with an individual amplifier, discriminator and pUlse shaper. The tuning of a detector comprising several counters has been realized by changing the discrimination voltage in such a manner that the point of the ν radiation initial counting for all counters is under the same voltage of the high voltage source. Such method permits not only to reduce the tuning time but to obtain also an optimum value of perfect separation of signals from neutrons and ν radiation. Data processing has been performed by the commutator which permits to add signals in different versions. The choice of the version has been determined by output control potentials. The commutator functions have been recorded in the symbols of algebra logics. The described detector with the commutator has been employed in kinetic measurements of photofission delayed neutrons, for detecting fission neutrons with neutron background, from (α, n) for measuring the distribution of a number of instantaneous neutrons per fission act. The above principles of the detectors structure and data processing and recording facilities permit to unite according power supplies any number of thermal neutron counters and apply more complicated circuats of counter signal commutators

  16. Basement and climate controls on proximal depositional systems in continental settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ventra, D.

    2011-01-01

    This doctoral dissertation discusses the sedimentology and dynamics of selected, modern and ancient clastic depositional systems (alluvial fans and colluvial aprons) at continental basin margins. The focus on single depositional systems gave the opportunity to devote particular attention to

  17. Traffic aerosol lobar doses deposited in the human respiratory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manigrasso, Maurizio; Vernale, Claudio; Avino, Pasquale

    2017-06-01

    Aerosol pollution in urban environments has been recognized to be responsible for important pathologies of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. In this perspective, great attention has been addressed to Ultra Fine Particles (UFPs respiratory system and are capable of translocating from the airways into the blood circulation. This paper describes the aerosol regional doses deposited in the human respiratory system in a high-traffic urban area. The aerosol measurements were carried out on a curbside in downtown Rome, on a street characterized by a high density of autovehicular traffic. Aerosol number-size distributions were measured by means of a Fast Mobility Particle Sizer in the range from 5.6 to 560 nm with a 1 s time resolution. Dosimetry estimates were performed with the Multiple-Path Particle Dosimetry model by means of the stochastic lung model. The exposure scenario close to traffic is represented by a sequence of short-term peak exposures: about 6.6 × 10 10 particles are deposited hourly into the respiratory system. After 1 h of exposure in proximity of traffic, 1.29 × 10 10 , 1.88 × 10 10 , and 3.45 × 10 10 particles are deposited in the head, tracheobronchial, and alveolar regions. More than 95 % of such doses are represented by UFPs. Finally, according to the greater dose estimated, the right lung lobes are expected to be more susceptible to respiratory pathologies than the left lobes.

  18. Evolution of Coral Rubble Deposits on a Reef Platform as Detected by Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Vila-Concejo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An investigation into the evolution of coral rubble deposits on a coral reef platform is assessed using high-resolution remote sensing data and geospatial analysis. Digital change detection analysis techniques are applied to One Tree Reef in the southern Great Barrier Reef by analysing aerial photographs and satellite images captured between 1964 and 2009. Two main types of rubble deposits were identified: (1 rubble flats that are featureless mass accumulations of coral rubble; and, (2 rubble spits that are shore-normal linear features. While both deposits prograde in a lagoon-ward direction, rubble spits move faster (~2 m/yr than rubble flats (~0.5 m/yr. The volume of rubble, the underlying substrate, the energy regime, and storm frequency control the rate of progradation. Rubble flat occurrence is restricted to the high-energy (windward margin of the coral reef platform, while rubble spits are distributed reef wide, both in modal high energy and modal low energy regions of the reef. Rubble spit deposition is considered to be a result of enlarged spur and groove morphology of the forereef, whereby wave energy is focused through the enlarged groove formations causing the preferential deposition of coral rubble in particular zones of the adjacent reef flat. One last control is thought to be the elevation of the reef crest whereby lower areas are more prone to rubble flat development. A vertical and ocean-ward accumulation of rubble is occurring on the windward margin of the reef leading to a build-up and build-out of the reef, governing the expansion of the reef footprint. This study shows for the first time the evolution of a coral reef rubble flat and rubble spits over decadal time scales as detected through remotely sensed images spanning 45 years.

  19. FLEXible Damage Detection and Verification System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project expands on the previously demonstrated Flat Surface Damage Detection System (FSDDS) capabilities.  The Flexible Damage Detection and Verification System...

  20. Thermal animal detection system (TADS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desholm, M.

    2003-03-01

    This report presents data from equipment tests and software development for the Thermal Animal Detection System (TADS) development project: 'Development of a method for estimating collision frequency between migrating birds and offshore wind turbines'. The technical tests were performed to investigate the performance of remote controlling, video file compression tool and physical stress of the thermal camera when operating outdoors and under the real time vibration conditions at a 2 MW turbine. Furthermore, experimental tests on birds were performed to describe the decreasing detectability with distance on free flying birds, the performance of the thermal camera during poor visibility, and finally, the performance of the thermal sensor software developed for securing high -quality data. In general, it can be concluded that the thermal camera and its related hardware and software, the TADS, are capable of recording migrating birds approaching the rotating blades of a turbine, even under conditions with poor visibility. If the TADS is used in a vertical viewing scenario it would comply with the requirements for a setup used for estimating the avian collision frequency at offshore wind turbines. (au)

  1. A Portable Infrasonic Detection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Qamar A.; Burkett, Cecil G.; Zuckerwar, Allan J.; Lawrenson, Christopher C.; Masterman, Michael

    2008-01-01

    During last couple of years, NASA Langley has designed and developed a portable infrasonic detection system which can be used to make useful infrasound measurements at a location where it was not possible previously. The system comprises an electret condenser microphone, having a 3-inch membrane diameter, and a small, compact windscreen. Electret-based technology offers the lowest possible background noise, because Johnson noise generated in the supporting electronics (preamplifier) is minimized. The microphone features a high membrane compliance with a large backchamber volume, a prepolarized backplane and a high impedance preamplifier located inside the backchamber. The windscreen, based on the high transmission coefficient of infrasound through matter, is made of a material having a low acoustic impedance and sufficiently thick wall to insure structural stability. Close-cell polyurethane foam has been found to serve the purpose well. In the proposed test, test parameters will be sensitivity, background noise, signal fidelity (harmonic distortion), and temporal stability. The design and results of the compact system, based upon laboratory and field experiments, will be presented.

  2. Particle deposition due to turbulent diffusion in the upper respiratory system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamill, P.

    1979-01-01

    Aerosol deposition in the upper respiratory system (trachea to segmental bronchi) is considered and the importance of turbulent diffusion as a deposition mechanism is evaluated. It is demonstrated that for large particles (diameter greater than about 5 microns), turbulent diffusion is the dominant deposition mechanism in the trachea. Conditions under which turbulent diffusion may be important in successive generations of the pulmonary system are determined. The probability of particle deposition is compared with probabilities of deposition, as determined by the equations generally used in regional deposition models. The analysis is theoretical; no new experimental data is presented.

  3. Amperometric Immunosensor Based on a Protein A/Deposited Gold Nanocrystals Modified Electrode for Carbofuran Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Sun

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an amperometric immunosensor modified with protein A/deposited gold nanocrystals (DpAu was developed for the ultrasensitive detection of carbofuran residues. First, DpAu were electrodeposited onto the Au electrode surface to absorb protein A (PA and improve the electrode conductivity. Then PA was dropped onto the surface of DpAu film, used for binding antibody Fc fragments. Next, anti-carbofuran monoclonal antibody was immobilized on the PA modified electrode. Finally, bovine serum albumin (BSA was employed to block the possible remaining active sites avoiding any nonspecific adsorption. The fabrication procedure of the immunosensor was characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and cyclic voltammetry (CV, respectively. With the excellent electroconductivity of DpAu and the PA’s oriented immobilization of antibodies, a highly efficient immuno-reaction and detection sensitivity could be achieved. The influences of the electrodeposition time of DpAu, pH of the detection solution and incubation time on the current response of the fabricated immunosensor were investigated. Under optimized conditions, the current response was proportional to the concentration of carbofuran which ranged from 1 to 100 ng/mL and 100 ng/mL to 100 μg/mL. The detection limit was 0.1924 ng/mL. The proposed carbofuran immnuosensor exhibited high specificity, reproducibility, stability and regeneration performance, which may open a new door for ultrasensitive detection of carbofuran residues in vegetables and fruits.

  4. NIST Special Publication on Intrusion Detection Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bace, Rebecca Gurley

    2001-01-01

    Intrusion detection systems (IDSs) are software or hardware systems that automate the process of monitoring the events occurring in a computer system or network, analyzing them for signs of security problems...

  5. Fusion of Heterogeneous Intrusion Detection Systems for Network Attack Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayakumar Kaliappan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An intrusion detection system (IDS helps to identify different types of attacks in general, and the detection rate will be higher for some specific category of attacks. This paper is designed on the idea that each IDS is efficient in detecting a specific type of attack. In proposed Multiple IDS Unit (MIU, there are five IDS units, and each IDS follows a unique algorithm to detect attacks. The feature selection is done with the help of genetic algorithm. The selected features of the input traffic are passed on to the MIU for processing. The decision from each IDS is termed as local decision. The fusion unit inside the MIU processes all the local decisions with the help of majority voting rule and makes the final decision. The proposed system shows a very good improvement in detection rate and reduces the false alarm rate.

  6. Fusion of Heterogeneous Intrusion Detection Systems for Network Attack Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliappan, Jayakumar; Thiagarajan, Revathi; Sundararajan, Karpagam

    2015-01-01

    An intrusion detection system (IDS) helps to identify different types of attacks in general, and the detection rate will be higher for some specific category of attacks. This paper is designed on the idea that each IDS is efficient in detecting a specific type of attack. In proposed Multiple IDS Unit (MIU), there are five IDS units, and each IDS follows a unique algorithm to detect attacks. The feature selection is done with the help of genetic algorithm. The selected features of the input traffic are passed on to the MIU for processing. The decision from each IDS is termed as local decision. The fusion unit inside the MIU processes all the local decisions with the help of majority voting rule and makes the final decision. The proposed system shows a very good improvement in detection rate and reduces the false alarm rate.

  7. System for detecting nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawls, L.E.

    1978-01-01

    Apparatus for detecting underground nuclear explosions is described that is comprised of an antenna located in the dielectric substance of a deep waveguide in the earth and adapted to detect low frequency electromagnetic waves generated by a nuclear explosion, the deep waveguide comprising the high conductivity upper sedimentary layers of the earth, the dielectric basement rock, and a high conductivity layer of basement rock due to the increased temperature thereof at great depths, and means for receiving the electromagnetic waves detected by said antenna means

  8. ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION THROUGH DETECTION OF HOT SPOTS USING THERMOGRAPHY IN COAL DEPOSITS BEFORE SELF IGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina DINCĂ

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is presented a way to contribute to the environmental protection when it comes to coal which waits in big deposits to be burned for energy production. Because of certain parameters, in some places, the deposited coal could overheat and self ignite, thus loosing its caloric properties and even lead to fire. In this case the losses could be even higher, and the effect on the environment even worse. In order to prevent this self ignition to happen, an infrared camera can be mounted on a system, and the camera together with software which interprets the thermographic images, can alarm the personnel who is in charge with coal surveillance that the coal will ignite unless they take immediate measures. Also, there will be presented the limits we have found by now in the way of finalizing the application.

  9. Homodyne detection of holographic memory systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urness, Adam C.; Wilson, William L.; Ayres, Mark R.

    2014-09-01

    We present a homodyne detection system implemented for a page-wise holographic memory architecture. Homodyne detection by holographic memory systems enables phase quadrature multiplexing (doubling address space), and lower exposure times (increasing read transfer rates). It also enables phase modulation, which improves signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) to further increase data capacity. We believe this is the first experimental demonstration of homodyne detection for a page-wise holographic memory system suitable for a commercial design.

  10. Decoding depositional sequences in carbonate systems: Concepts vs experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomar, Luis; Haq, Bilal U.

    2016-11-01

    Efficacy of sequence stratigraphic concepts in siliciclastic systems has been proven by successful applications in both academia and the industry over the past four decades. However, experience has demonstrated repeatedly that the relatively simple advective transportational approach of these models is less than successful when applied to the more complex carbonate systems and can lead to erroneous interpretations. Instead, an approach that includes the use of the changes in the biotic components of carbonate deposits to infer the sea-level trajectory and thereby placing it in the proper sequence framework is deemed to be more meaningful. This is exemplified with several well-studied examples that illustrate the variety of ways in which the biotic components can build carbonate platforms, and how these have changed through the ages prompted by biological evolution. This extended review discusses carbonate production, source to sink transportation influenced by sea-level changes, surface waves, as well as the less understood and under-appreciated internal waves, and the resulting variety of platforms that can be built by the interaction of these factors, as well as the changing patterns of biotic components with time. Their effect on the carbonate reservoir is considerable, understanding of which is the ultimate objective of carbonate research for applications in the industry. Key elements in the carbonate environments that differ from the siliciclastic systems are: 1) intrabasinal conditions (nutrients, salinity, temperature, water energy, transparency) are important controls on carbonate production and therefore also control in-situ accommodation and how it may be filled; 2) depositional accommodation can be both physical (controlled by hydrodynamics) and ecological (in the building-up above the base level mode); 3) because carbonates are products of biological activity, their production modes have been changing with time as their biotic components have evolved; 4

  11. Discriminating ultrasonic proximity detection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annala, W C

    1986-12-04

    This invention uses an ultrasonic transmitter and receiver and a microprocessor to detect the presence of an object. In the reset mode the invention uses a plurality of echoes from each ultrasonic burst to create a reference table of the echo-burst-signature of the empty monitored environment. The invention then processes the reference table so that it only uses the most reliable data. In the detection mode the invention compares the echo-burst-signature of the present environment with the reference table, detecting an object if there is a consistent difference between the echo-burst-signature of the empty monitored environment recorded in the reference table and the echo-burst-signature of the present environment.

  12. Discriminating ultrasonic proximity detection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annala, W.C.

    1989-01-24

    This invention uses an ultrasonic transmitter and receiver and a microprocessor to detect the presence of an object. In the reset mode the invention uses a plurality of echoes from each ultrasonic burst to create a reference table of the echo-burst-signature of the empty monitored environment. The invention then processes the reference table so that it only uses the most reliable data. In the detection mode the invention compares the echo-burst-signature of the present environment with the reference table, detecting an object if there is a consistent difference between the echo-burst-signature of the empty monitored environment recorded in the reference table and the echo-burst-signature of the present environment.

  13. Discriminating ultrasonic proximity detection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annala, Wayne C. (Durango, CO)

    1989-01-01

    This invention uses an ultrasonic transmitter and receiver and a microprocessor to detect the presence of an object. In the reset mode the invention uses a plurality of echoes from each ultrasonic burst to create a reference table of the echo-burst-signature of the empty monitored environment. The invention then processes the reference table so that it only uses the most reliable data. In the detection mode the invention compares the echo-burst-signature of the present environment with the reference table, detecting an object if there is a consistent difference between the echo-burst-signature of the empty monitored environment recorded in the reference table and the echo-burst-signature of the present environment.

  14. Damage Detection and Deteriorating Structural Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Lijia; Thöns, Sebastian; Döhler, Michael

    2017-01-01

    detection information is determined utilizing Bayesian updating. The damage detection performance is described with the probability of indication for different component and system damage states taking into account type 1 and type 2 errors. The value of damage detection information is then calculated...

  15. Automated system for crack detection using infrared thermograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starman, Stanislav

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was the development of the automated system for crack detection on square steel bars used in the automotive industry for axle and shaft construction. The automated system for thermographic crack detection uses brief pulsed eddy currents to heat steel components under inspection. Cracks, if present, will disturb the current flow and so generate changes in the temperature profile in the crack area. These changes of temperature are visualized using an infrared camera. The image acquired by the infrared camera is evaluated through an image processing system. The advantages afforded by the system are its inspection time, its excellent flaw detection sensitivity and its ability to detect hidden, subsurface cracks. The automated system consists of four IR cameras (each side of steel bar is evaluated at a time), coil, high frequency generator and control place with computers. The system is a part of the inspection line where the subsurface and surface cracks are searched. If the crack is present, the cracked place is automatically marked. The components without cracks are then deposited apart from defective blocks. The system is fully automated and its ability is to evaluate four meter blocks within 20 seconds. This is the real reason for using this system in real industrial applications. (author)

  16. Expandable coating cocoon leak detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, R. L.; Kochansky, M. C.

    1972-01-01

    Development of system and materials for detecting leaks in cocoon protective coatings are discussed. Method of applying materials for leak determination is presented. Pressurization of system following application of materials will cause formation of bubble if leak exists.

  17. Apriori-based network intrusion detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wenjin; Liu Junrong; Liu Baoxu

    2012-01-01

    With the development of network communication technology, more and more social activities run by Internet. In the meantime, the network information security is getting increasingly serious. Intrusion Detection System (IDS) has greatly improved the general security level of whole network. But there are still many problem exists in current IDS, e.g. high leak rate detection/false alarm rates and feature library need frequently upgrade. This paper presents an association-rule based IDS. This system can detect unknown attack by generate rules from training data. Experiment in last chapter proved the system has great accuracy on unknown attack detection. (authors)

  18. An automatically tuning intrusion detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhenwei; Tsai, Jeffrey J P; Weigert, Thomas

    2007-04-01

    An intrusion detection system (IDS) is a security layer used to detect ongoing intrusive activities in information systems. Traditionally, intrusion detection relies on extensive knowledge of security experts, in particular, on their familiarity with the computer system to be protected. To reduce this dependence, various data-mining and machine learning techniques have been deployed for intrusion detection. An IDS is usually working in a dynamically changing environment, which forces continuous tuning of the intrusion detection model, in order to maintain sufficient performance. The manual tuning process required by current systems depends on the system operators in working out the tuning solution and in integrating it into the detection model. In this paper, an automatically tuning IDS (ATIDS) is presented. The proposed system will automatically tune the detection model on-the-fly according to the feedback provided by the system operator when false predictions are encountered. The system is evaluated using the KDDCup'99 intrusion detection dataset. Experimental results show that the system achieves up to 35% improvement in terms of misclassification cost when compared with a system lacking the tuning feature. If only 10% false predictions are used to tune the model, the system still achieves about 30% improvement. Moreover, when tuning is not delayed too long, the system can achieve about 20% improvement, with only 1.3% of the false predictions used to tune the model. The results of the experiments show that a practical system can be built based on ATIDS: system operators can focus on verification of predictions with low confidence, as only those predictions determined to be false will be used to tune the detection model.

  19. Fold and thrust systems in Mass Transport Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsop, G. I.; Marco, S.; Levi, T.; Weinberger, R.

    2017-01-01

    Improvements in seismic reflection data from gravity-driven fold and thrust systems developed in offshore Mass Transport Deposits (MTDs) reveal a number of significant features relating to displacement along thrusts. However, the data are still limited by the resolution of the seismic method, and are unable to provide detail of local fold and thrust processes. Investigation of exceptional gravity-driven contractional structures forming part of MTDs in lacustrine deposits of the Dead Sea Basin, enables us to present the first detailed outcrop analysis of fold and thrust systems cutting unlithified 'soft' sediments. We employ a range of established geometric techniques to our case study, including dip isogons, fault-propagation fold charts and displacement-distance diagrams previously developed for investigation of thrusts and folds in lithified rocks. Fault-propagation folds in unlithified sediments display tighter interlimb angles compared to models developed for lithified sequences. Values of stretch, which compares the relative thickness of equivalent hangingwall and footwall sequences measured along the fault plane, may be as low as only 0.3, which is significantly less than the minimum 0.5 values reported from thrusts cutting lithified rocks, and reflects the extreme variation in stratigraphic thickness around thrust-related folds. We suggest that the simple shear component of deformation in unlithified sediments may modify the forelimb thickness and interlimb angles to a greater extent than in lithified rocks. The average spacing of thrust ramps and the thickness of the thrust sequence display an approximate 5:1 ratio across a range of scales in MTDs. In general, thicker hangingwall and footwall sequences occur with larger thrust displacements, although displacement patterns on thrusts cutting unlithified (yet cohesive) sediments are more variable than those in lithified rocks. Line-length restoration of thrust systems in MTDs reveals 42% shortening, which

  20. Real-time petroleum spill detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dakin, D.T.

    2001-01-01

    A real-time autonomous oil and fuel spill detection system has been developed to rapidly detect of a wide range of petroleum products floating on, or suspended in water. The system consists of an array of spill detection buoys distributed within the area to be monitored. The buoys are composed of a float and a multispectral fluorometer, which looks up through the top 5 cm of water to detect floating and suspended petroleum products. The buoys communicate to a base station computer that controls the sampling of the buoys and analyses the data from each buoy to determine if a spill has occurred. If statistically significant background petroleum levels are detected, the system raises an oil spill alarm. The system is useful because early detection of a marine oil spill allows for faster containment, thereby minimizing the contaminated area and reducing cleanup costs. This paper also provided test results for biofouling, various petroleum product detection, water turbidity and wave tolerance. The technology has been successfully demonstrated. The UV light source keeps the optic window free from biofouling, and the electronics are fully submerged so there is no risk that the unit could ignite the vapours of a potential oil spill. The system can also tolerate moderately turbid waters and can therefore be used in many rivers, harbours, water intakes and sumps. The system can detect petroleum products with an average thickness of less than 3 micrometers floating on the water surface. 3 refs., 15 figs

  1. Anomaly Detection for Complex Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In performance maintenance in large, complex systems, sensor information from sub-components tends to be readily available, and can be used to make predictions about...

  2. Experiment and equipment of depositing diamond films with CVD system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Erqing; Song Chang'an

    2002-01-01

    CVD (chemical vapor deposition) emerged in recent years is a new technique for thin film deposition, which play a key role in development of modern physics. It is important to predominate the principle and technology of CVD for studying modern physics. In this paper, a suit of CVD experimental equipment for teaching in college physics is presented, which has simple design and low cost. The good result was gained in past teaching practices

  3. INTERBANK DEPOSIT MARKET RELEVANCE FOR CROATIAN BANKING SYSTEM SUSTAINABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Ercegovac, Roberto; Kundid, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Existence, functionality and sustainability of the interbank deposit market signifi cantly determinate bank’s asset and liability management (ALM) potentials and thus an overall banking sector performance. Among other numerous factors in the banking business, key roles of the interbank deposit market like availability of short-term liquidity sources, ensuring investment and lending opportunities as well as allowing hedging potentials, considerably contribute to commercial bank’s risk – return...

  4. Deposition of titanium coating on SiC fiber by chemical vapor deposition with Ti-I{sub 2} system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Xian, E-mail: luo_shenfan@hotmail.com; Wu, Shuai; Yang, Yan-qing; Jin, Na; Liu, Shuai; Huang, Bin

    2017-06-01

    Highlights: • The transformation paths of (Ti + I{sub 2}) powder to Ti coating is: Ti + I{sub 2} → (TiI{sub 2}, TiI{sub 3}) → Ti. • Uniform coating was obtained on SiC fiber, but it contained Si and C elements. • Deposition rate of the coating increased with the increase of temperature. • Deposition thickness increased with time and achieved the maximum at 90 min. - Abstract: Titanium coating was prepared on SiC fiber using titanium-iodine (Ti-I{sub 2}) mixture by hot-wall chemical vapor deposition. Thermodynamic analysis and experimental observation were carried out in this work. The thermodynamic analysis of the reactions in the Ti-I{sub 2} system indicates that Ti and I{sub 2} raw powder materials transform to titanium coating as follows: Ti + I{sub 2} → (TiI{sub 2}, TiI{sub 3}), and (TiI{sub 2}, TiI{sub 3}) → Ti. In theory, the conversions of TiI{sub 3} and TiI{sub 2} reach the maximum when Ti:I{sub 2} is 1:1.5, while in actual experiment that reached the maximum when Ti:I{sub 2} was 1:2, as there existed the waste of I{sub 2} due to sublimation. Typical deposited coating is relatively flat and uniform. However, as SiC is prone to react with Ti at high temperatures, the obtained coating contained some Si and C elements except for Ti. So the coating was not a pure Ti coating but contained some carbides and silicides. Deposition rate of the coating increased with the increase of temperature. The deposited thickness increased with the increase of heat preservation time, and achieved the maximum thickness at 90 min.

  5. Deposition behavior of residual aluminum in drinking water distribution system: Effect of aluminum speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Shi, Baoyou; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Yan, Mingquan; Lytle, Darren A; Wang, Dongsheng

    2016-04-01

    Finished drinking water usually contains some residual aluminum. The deposition of residual aluminum in distribution systems and potential release back to the drinking water could significantly influence the water quality at consumer taps. A preliminary analysis of aluminum content in cast iron pipe corrosion scales and loose deposits demonstrated that aluminum deposition on distribution pipe surfaces could be excessive for water treated by aluminum coagulants including polyaluminum chloride (PACl). In this work, the deposition features of different aluminum species in PACl were investigated by simulated coil-pipe test, batch reactor test and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring. The deposition amount of non-polymeric aluminum species was the least, and its deposition layer was soft and hydrated, which indicated the possible formation of amorphous Al(OH)3. Al13 had the highest deposition tendency, and the deposition layer was rigid and much less hydrated, which indicated that the deposited aluminum might possess regular structure and self-aggregation of Al13 could be the main deposition mechanism. While for Al30, its deposition was relatively slower and deposited aluminum amount was relatively less compared with Al13. However, the total deposited mass of Al30 was much higher than that of Al13, which was attributed to the deposition of particulate aluminum matters with much higher hydration state. Compared with stationary condition, stirring could significantly enhance the deposition process, while the effect of pH on deposition was relatively weak in the near neutral range of 6.7 to 8.7. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Chemical vapor deposition diamond based multilayered radiation detector: Physical analysis of detection properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almaviva, S.; Marinelli, Marco; Milani, E.; Prestopino, G.; Tucciarone, A.; Verona, C.; Verona-Rinati, G.; Angelone, M.; Pillon, M.; Dolbnya, I.; Sawhney, K.; Tartoni, N.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, solid state photovoltaic Schottky diodes, able to detect ionizing radiation, in particular, x-ray and ultraviolet radiation, have been developed at the University of Rome 'Tor Vergata'. We report on a physical and electrical properties analysis of the device and a detailed study of its detection capabilities as determined by its electrical properties. The design of the device is based on a metal/nominally intrinsic/p-type diamond layered structure obtained by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition of homoepitaxial single crystal diamond followed by thermal evaporation of a metallic contact. The device can operate in an unbiased mode by using the built-in potential arising from the electrode-diamond junction. We compare the expected response of the device to photons of various energies calculated through Monte Carlo simulation with experimental data collected in a well controlled experimental setup i.e., monochromatic high flux x-ray beams from 6 to 20 keV, available at the Diamond Light Source synchrotron in Harwell (U.K.).

  7. Enhanced detection of gametocytes by magnetic deposition microscopy predicts higher potential for Plasmodium falciparum transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zborowski Maciej

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aggregated haemozoin crystals within malaria-infected erythrocytes confer susceptibility of parasitized cells to a magnetic field. Here the utility of this method for diagnosis of human malaria is evaluated in a malaria-endemic region of Papua New Guinea (PNG. Methods and findings Individuals with Plasmodium falciparum malaria symptoms (n = 55 provided samples for conventional blood smear (CBS and magnetic deposition microscopy (MDM diagnosis. Standard Giemsa staining and light microscopy was performed to evaluate all preparations. Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia observed on MDM slides was consistently higher than parasitaemia observed by (CBS for ring (CBS = 2.6 vs. MDM = 3.4%; t-test P-value = 0.13, trophozoite (CBS = 0.5 vs. MDM = 1.6%; t-test P-value = 0.01, schizont (CBS = 0.003 vs. MDM = 0.1%; t-test P-value = 0.08 and gametocyte (CBS = 0.001 vs. MDM = 0.4%; t-test P-value = 0.0002 parasitaemias. Gametocyte prevalence determined by CBS compared to MDM increased from 7.3% to 45%, respectively. Conclusion MDM increased detection sensitivity of P. falciparum-infected, haemozoin-containing erythrocytes from infected humans while maintaining detection of ring-stage parasites. Gametocyte prevalence five-fold higher than observed by CBS suggests higher malaria transmission potential in PNG endemic sites compared to previous estimates.

  8. Fingermark detection based on the in situ growth of luminescent nanoparticles--towards a new generation of multimetal deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becue, Andy; Scoundrianos, Aurèle; Champod, Christophe; Margot, Pierre

    2008-07-18

    The in situ deposition of zinc oxide on gold nanoparticles in aqueous solution has been here successfully applied in the field of fingermark detection on various non-porous surfaces. In this article, we present the improvement of the multimetal deposition, an existing technique limited up to now to non-luminescent results, by obtaining luminescent fingermarks with very good contrast and details. This is seen as a major improvement in the field in terms of selectivity and sensitivity of detection, especially on black surfaces.

  9. Damage Detection and Deteriorating Structural Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Lijia; Thöns, Sebastian; Döhler, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the quantification of the value of damage detection system and algorithm information on the basis of Value of Information (VoI) analysis to enhance the benefit of damage detection information by providing the basis for its optimization before it is performed and implemented....... The approach of the quantification the value of damage detection information builds upon the Bayesian decision theory facilitating the utilization of damage detection performance models, which describe the information and its precision on structural system level, facilitating actions to ensure the structural...... integrity and facilitating to describe the structural system performance and its functionality throughout the service life. The structural system performance is described with its functionality, its deterioration and its behavior under extreme loading. The structural system reliability given the damage...

  10. Systems and methods for detecting x-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bross, Alan D.; Mellott, Kerry L.; Pla-Dalmau, Anna

    2006-05-02

    Systems and methods for detecting x-rays are disclosed herein. One or more x-ray-sensitive scintillators can be configured from a plurality of heavy element nano-sized particles and a plastic material, such as polystyrene. As will be explained in greater detail herein, the heavy element nano-sized particles (e.g., PbWO4) can be compounded into the plastic material with at least one dopant that permits the plastic material to scintillate. X-rays interact with the heavy element nano-sized particles to produce electrons that can deposit energy in the x-ray sensitive scintillator, which in turn can produce light.

  11. Methods of mineral potential assessment of uranium deposits: A mineral systems approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaireth, S.

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: • Choice of methods depends on the objective; • Basics: – Know your mineral system (deposit-type): SCIENCE; – Create useful datasets: A MUST; • Mineral system approach can be rewarding. For successful examples visit GA’s website; • Don’t overdo or oversell it (only detailed exploration such as drilling can find a deposit)

  12. Voice activity detection for speaker verification systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Filip

    2008-01-01

    Complex algorithm for speech activity detection was presented in this article. It is based on speech enhancement, features extraction and final detection algorithm. The first one was published in ETSI standard as a module of "Advanced front-end feature extraction algorithm" in distributed speech recognition system. It consists of two main parts, noise estimatiom and Wiener filtering. For the final detection modified linear prediction coefficients and spectral entropy features are extracted form denoised signal.

  13. Embedded Systems - Missile Detection/Interception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Cintron

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Missile defense systems are often related to major military resources aimed at shielding a specific region from incoming attacks. They are intended to detect, track, intercept, and destruct incoming enemy missiles. These systems vary in cost, efficiency, dependability, and technology. In present times, the possession of these types of systems is associated with large capacity military countries. Demonstrated here are the mathematical techniques behind missile systems which calculate trajectories of incoming missiles and potential intercept positions after initial missile detection. This procedure involved the use of vector-valued functions, systems of equations, and knowledge of projectile motion concepts.

  14. A failure detection and isolation system simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assumpcao Filho, E.O.; Nakata, H.

    1990-04-01

    A failure detection and isolation system (FDI) simulation program has been developed for IBM-PC microcomputers. The program, based on the sequential likelihood ratio testing method developed by A. Wald, was implemented with the Monte-Carlo technique. The calculated failure detection rate was favorably compared against the wind-tunnel experimental redundant temperature sensors. (author) [pt

  15. Statistical fault detection in photovoltaic systems

    KAUST Repository

    Garoudja, Elyes

    2017-05-08

    Faults in photovoltaic (PV) systems, which can result in energy loss, system shutdown or even serious safety breaches, are often difficult to avoid. Fault detection in such systems is imperative to improve their reliability, productivity, safety and efficiency. Here, an innovative model-based fault-detection approach for early detection of shading of PV modules and faults on the direct current (DC) side of PV systems is proposed. This approach combines the flexibility, and simplicity of a one-diode model with the extended capacity of an exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) control chart to detect incipient changes in a PV system. The one-diode model, which is easily calibrated due to its limited calibration parameters, is used to predict the healthy PV array\\'s maximum power coordinates of current, voltage and power using measured temperatures and irradiances. Residuals, which capture the difference between the measurements and the predictions of the one-diode model, are generated and used as fault indicators. Then, the EWMA monitoring chart is applied on the uncorrelated residuals obtained from the one-diode model to detect and identify the type of fault. Actual data from the grid-connected PV system installed at the Renewable Energy Development Center, Algeria, are used to assess the performance of the proposed approach. Results show that the proposed approach successfully monitors the DC side of PV systems and detects temporary shading.

  16. Lava cave microbial communities within mats and secondary mineral deposits: implications for life detection on other planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northup, D E; Melim, L A; Spilde, M N; Hathaway, J J M; Garcia, M G; Moya, M; Stone, F D; Boston, P J; Dapkevicius, M L N E; Riquelme, C

    2011-09-01

    Lava caves contain a wealth of yellow, white, pink, tan, and gold-colored microbial mats; but in addition to these clearly biological mats, there are many secondary mineral deposits that are nonbiological in appearance. Secondary mineral deposits examined include an amorphous copper-silicate deposit (Hawai'i) that is blue-green in color and contains reticulated and fuzzy filament morphologies. In the Azores, lava tubes contain iron-oxide formations, a soft ooze-like coating, and pink hexagons on basaltic glass, while gold-colored deposits are found in lava caves in New Mexico and Hawai'i. A combination of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and molecular techniques was used to analyze these communities. Molecular analyses of the microbial mats and secondary mineral deposits revealed a community that contains 14 phyla of bacteria across three locations: the Azores, New Mexico, and Hawai'i. Similarities exist between bacterial phyla found in microbial mats and secondary minerals, but marked differences also occur, such as the lack of Actinobacteria in two-thirds of the secondary mineral deposits. The discovery that such deposits contain abundant life can help guide our detection of life on extraterrestrial bodies.

  17. IMPROVING CAUSE DETECTION SYSTEMS WITH ACTIVE LEARNING

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — IMPROVING CAUSE DETECTION SYSTEMS WITH ACTIVE LEARNING ISAAC PERSING AND VINCENT NG Abstract. Active learning has been successfully applied to many natural language...

  18. Detection of iron-depositing Pedomicrobium species in native biofilms from the Odertal National Park by a new, specific FISH probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Burga; Richert, Inga; Szewzyk, Ulrich

    2009-10-01

    Iron-depositing bacteria play an important role in technical water systems (water wells, distribution systems) due to their intense deposition of iron oxides and resulting clogging effects. Pedomicrobium is known as iron- and manganese-oxidizing and accumulating bacterium. The ability to detect and quantify members of this species in biofilm communities is therefore desirable. In this study the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method was used to detect Pedomicrobium in iron and manganese incrusted biofilms. Based on comparative sequence analysis, we designed and evaluated a specific oligonucleotide probe (Pedo 1250) complementary to the hypervariable region 8 of the 16S rRNA gene for Pedomicrobium. Probe specificities were tested against 3 different strains of Pedomicrobium and Sphingobium yanoikuyae as non-target organism. Using optimized conditions the probe hybridized with all tested strains of Pedomicrobium with an efficiency of 80%. The non-target organism showed no hybridization signals. The new FISH probe was applied successfully for the in situ detection of Pedomicrobium in different native, iron-depositing biofilms. The hybridization results of native bioflims using probe Pedo_1250 agreed with the results of the morphological structure of Pedomicrobium bioflims based on scanning electron microscopy.

  19. Detection and intelligent systems for homeland security

    CERN Document Server

    Voeller, John G

    2014-01-01

    Detection and Intelligent Systems for Homeland Security features articles from the Wiley Handbook of Science and Technology for Homeland Security covering advanced technology for image and video interpretation systems used for surveillance, which help in solving such problems as identifying faces from live streaming or stored videos. Biometrics for human identification, including eye retinas and irises, and facial patterns are also presented. The book then provides information on sensors for detection of explosive and radioactive materials and methods for sensing chemical

  20. Detecting data anomalies methods in distributed systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosiej, Lukasz

    2009-06-01

    Distributed systems became most popular systems in big companies. Nowadays many telecommunications companies want to hold large volumes of data about all customers. Obviously, those data cannot be stored in single database because of many technical difficulties, such as data access efficiency, security reasons, etc. On the other hand there is no need to hold all data in one place, because companies already have dedicated systems to perform specific tasks. In the distributed systems there is a redundancy of data and each system holds only interesting data in appropriate form. Data updated in one system should be also updated in the rest of systems, which hold that data. There are technical problems to update those data in all systems in transactional way. This article is about data anomalies in distributed systems. Avail data anomalies detection methods are shown. Furthermore, a new initial concept of new data anomalies detection methods is described on the last section.

  1. Multispectral imaging system for contaminant detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Gavin H. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An automated inspection system for detecting digestive contaminants on food items as they are being processed for consumption includes a conveyor for transporting the food items, a light sealed enclosure which surrounds a portion of the conveyor, with a light source and a multispectral or hyperspectral digital imaging camera disposed within the enclosure. Operation of the conveyor, light source and camera are controlled by a central computer unit. Light reflected by the food items within the enclosure is detected in predetermined wavelength bands, and detected intensity values are analyzed to detect the presence of digestive contamination.

  2. Trace detection of herbicides by SERS technique, using SERS-active substrates fabricated from different silver nanostructures deposited on silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dao, Tran Cao; Luong, Truc Quynh Ngan; Nguyen, Ngoc Hai; Kieu, Ngoc Minh; Luong, Thi Thuy; Cao, Tuan Anh; Le, Van Vu

    2015-01-01

    In this report we present the initial results of the use of different silver nanostructures deposited on silicon for trace detection of paraquat (a commonly used herbicide) using the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effect. More specifically, the SERS-active substrates were fabricated from silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) deposited onto the flat surface of a silicon wafer (AgNPs@Si substrate), as well as on the surface of an obliquely aligned silicon nanowire (SiNW) array (AgNPs@SiNWs substrate), and from silver nanodendrites (AgNDs) deposited onto the flat surface of a silicon wafer (AgNDs@Si substrate). Results showed that with the change of the structure of the SERS-active substrate, higher levels of SERS enhancement have been achieved. Specifically, with the fabricated AgNDs@Si substrate, paraquat concentration as low as 1 ppm can be detected. (paper)

  3. Portable reconfigurable detection and assessment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blattman, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    Rapidly changing geopolitical issues throughout the world have made the ability to effectively respond to political, military, terrorist and peace-keeping requirements increasingly important. Recent Middle East events indicate a continuing escalation in these activities. These activities are defining the requirements for a rapidly deployable, portable, real-time detection and assessment operational security system that is reconfigurable to site specific threats. This paper describes such a system Mobile Operational Detection and Assessment system (MODAS); a commercially-off-the shelf (COTS) integrated and reconfigurable hardware/software system solution for the ever-changing geopolitical security issues of the Nineties

  4. Chemically deposited TiO2/CdS bilayer system for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chemical bath deposition (CBD)method was employed to deposit CdS thin film on pre-deposited TiO2 film. A further study has beenmade for structural, surface morphological, optical and photoelectrochemical (PEC) properties of FTO/TiO2, FTO/CdS and FTO/TiO2/CdS bilayers system. PEC behaviour of FTO/TiO2/CdS ...

  5. Intrusion Detection amp Prevention Systems - Sourcefire Snort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Vuppala

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Information security is a challenging issue for all business organizations today amidst increasing cyber threats. While there are many alternative intrusion detection amp prevention systems available to choose from selecting the best solution to implement to detect amp prevent cyber-attacks is a difficult task. The best solution is of the one that gets the best reviews and suits the organizations needs amp budget. In this review paper we summarize various classes of intrusion detection and prevention systems compare features of alternative solutions and make recommendation for implementation of one as the best solution for business organization in Fiji.

  6. Active fault detection in MIMO systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2014-01-01

    The focus in this paper is on active fault detection (AFD) for MIMO systems with parametric faults. The problem of design of auxiliary inputs with respect to detection of parametric faults is investigated. An analysis of the design of auxiliary inputs is given based on analytic transfer functions...... from auxiliary input to residual outputs. The analysis is based on a singular value decomposition of these transfer functions Based on this analysis, it is possible to design auxiliary input as well as design of the associated residual vector with respect to every single parametric fault in the system...... such that it is possible to detect these faults....

  7. Application of EH4 conductivity image system to sandstone type uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yue; Liu Hanbin; Dong Xiukong

    1998-01-01

    EH4 conductivity image system is a combined system of MT and CSAMT which can automatically acquire and process electromagnetic data. The author introduces its mechanism of measurement, data processing, and geological problems in prospecting sandstone type uranium deposits that the system can solve. The author also introduces some application achievements of the system in several known sandstone type uranium deposits in Yunnan province and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region

  8. Flat Surface Damage Detection System (FSDDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha; Lewis, Mark; Gibson, Tracy; Lane, John; Medelius, Pedro; Snyder, Sarah; Ciarlariello, Dan; Parks, Steve; Carrejo, Danny; Rojdev, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    The Flat Surface Damage Detection system (FSDDS} is a sensory system that is capable of detecting impact damages to surfaces utilizing a novel sensor system. This system will provide the ability to monitor the integrity of an inflatable habitat during in situ system health monitoring. The system consists of three main custom designed subsystems: the multi-layer sensing panel, the embedded monitoring system, and the graphical user interface (GUI). The GUI LABVIEW software uses a custom developed damage detection algorithm to determine the damage location based on the sequence of broken sensing lines. It estimates the damage size, the maximum depth, and plots the damage location on a graph. Successfully demonstrated as a stand alone technology during 2011 D-RATS. Software modification also allowed for communication with HDU avionics crew display which was demonstrated remotely (KSC to JSC} during 2012 integration testing. Integrated FSDDS system and stand alone multi-panel systems were demonstrated remotely and at JSC, Mission Operations Test using Space Network Research Federation (SNRF} network in 2012. FY13, FSDDS multi-panel integration with JSC and SNRF network Technology can allow for integration with other complementary damage detection systems.

  9. Automated Hydrogen Gas Leak Detection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The Gencorp Aerojet Automated Hydrogen Gas Leak Detection System was developed through the cooperation of industry, academia, and the Government. Although the original purpose of the system was to detect leaks in the main engine of the space shuttle while on the launch pad, it also has significant commercial potential in applications for which there are no existing commercial systems. With high sensitivity, the system can detect hydrogen leaks at low concentrations in inert environments. The sensors are integrated with hardware and software to form a complete system. Several of these systems have already been purchased for use on the Ford Motor Company assembly line for natural gas vehicles. This system to detect trace hydrogen gas leaks from pressurized systems consists of a microprocessor-based control unit that operates a network of sensors. The sensors can be deployed around pipes, connectors, flanges, and tanks of pressurized systems where leaks may occur. The control unit monitors the sensors and provides the operator with a visual representation of the magnitude and locations of the leak as a function of time. The system can be customized to fit the user's needs; for example, it can monitor and display the condition of the flanges and fittings associated with the tank of a natural gas vehicle.

  10. A quantitative method for detecting deposits of amyloid A protein in aspirated fat tissue of patients with arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazenberg, BPC; Limburg, PC; Bijzet, J.; van Rijswijk, M.H.

    Objective-To describe a new, quantitative, and reproducible method for detecting deposits of amyloid A protein in aspirated fat tissue and to compare it with smears stained with Congo red. Methods-After extraction of at least 30 mg of abdominal fat tissue in guanidine, the amyloid A protein

  11. Monitoring Approach to Evaluate the Performances of a New Deposition Nozzle Solution for DED Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Mazzucato

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In order to improve the process efficiency of a direct energy deposition (DED system, closed loop control systems can be considered for monitoring the deposition and melting processes and adjusting the process parameters in real-time. In this paper, the monitoring of a new deposition nozzle solution for DED systems is approached through a simulation-experimental comparison. The shape of the powder flow at the exit of the nozzle outlet and the spread of the powder particles on the deposition plane are analyzed through 2D images of the powder flow obtained by monitoring the powder depositions with a high-speed camera. These experimental results are then compared with data obtained through a Computational Fluid Dynamics model. Preliminary tests are carried out by varying powder, carrier, and shielding mass flow, demonstrating that the last parameter has a significant influence on the powder distribution and powder flow geometry.

  12. IMPY, a potential {beta}-amyloid imaging probe for detection of prion deposits in scrapie-infected mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, P.-J. [INSERM, U619, F-37000 Tours (France); Universite Francois-Rabelais, F-37000 Tours (France); IFR135, F-37000 Tours (France); Bernard, Serge [IFR135, F-37000 Tours (France); INRA, UR1282, IASP, 37380 Nouzilly (France)], E-mail: bernard@tours.inra.fr; Sarradin, Pierre [INRA, UR1282, IASP, 37380 Nouzilly (France); Vergote, Jackie [INSERM, U619, F-37000 Tours (France); Universite Francois-Rabelais, F-37000 Tours (France); IFR135, F-37000 Tours (France); Barc, Celine [INRA, UR1282, IASP, 37380 Nouzilly (France); Chalon, Sylvie [INSERM, U619, F-37000 Tours (France); Universite Francois-Rabelais, F-37000 Tours (France); IFR135, F-37000 Tours (France); Kung, M.-P.; Kung, Hank F. [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Department of Pharmacology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Guilloteau, Denis [INSERM, U619, F-37000 Tours (France); Universite Francois-Rabelais, F-37000 Tours (France); IFR135, F-37000 Tours (France)

    2008-02-15

    Introduction: A potential single-photon emission computed tomography imaging agent for labeling of A{beta} plaques of Alzheimer's disease, IMPY (2-(4'-dimethylaminophenyl)-6-iodo-imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine), would be effective in detection of prion amyloid deposits in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). Methods: In vitro autoradiographic studies were carried out with [{sup 125}I]IMPY on brain sections from scrapie-infected mice and age-matched controls. Competition study was performed to evaluate the prion deposit binding specificity with nonradioactive IMPY. Results: Binding of [{sup 125}I]IMPY was observed in infected brain sections, while on age-matched control brain sections, there was no or very low labeling. Prion deposit binding was confirmed by histoblots with prion protein-specific monoclonal antibody 2D6. In the presence of nonradioactive IMPY, the binding of [{sup 125}I]IMPY was significantly inhibited in all regions studied. Conclusions: These findings indicate that IMPY can detect the prion deposits in vitro in scrapie-infected mice. Labeled with {sup 123}I, this ligand may be useful to quantitate prion deposit burdens in TSEs by in vivo imaging.

  13. Capacitive system detects and locates fluid leaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-01-01

    Electronic monitoring system automatically detects and locates minute leaks in seams of large fluid storage tanks and pipelines covered with thermal insulation. The system uses a capacitive tape-sensing element that is adhesively bonded over seams where fluid leaks are likely to occur.

  14. Expert System Detects Power-Distribution Faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Jerry L.; Quinn, Todd M.

    1994-01-01

    Autonomous Power Expert (APEX) computer program is prototype expert-system program detecting faults in electrical-power-distribution system. Assists human operators in diagnosing faults and deciding what adjustments or repairs needed for immediate recovery from faults or for maintenance to correct initially nonthreatening conditions that could develop into faults. Written in Lisp.

  15. Hydrogen detection systems leak response codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desmas, T.; Kong, N.; Maupre, J.P.; Schindler, P.; Blanc, D.

    1990-01-01

    A loss in tightness of a water tube inside a Steam Generator Unit of a Fast Reactor is usually monitored by hydrogen detection systems. Such systems have demonstrated in the past their ability to detect a leak in a SGU. However, the increase in size of the SGU or the choice of ferritic material entails improvement of these systems in order to avoid secondary leak or to limit damages to the tube bundle. The R and D undertaken in France on this subject is presented. (author). 11 refs, 10 figs

  16. Improved biosensor-based detection system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Described is a new biosensor-based detection system for effector compounds, useful for in vivo applications in e.g. screening and selecting of cells which produce a small molecule effector compound or which take up a small molecule effector compound from its environment. The detection system...... comprises a protein or RNA-based biosensor for the effector compound which indirectly regulates the expression of a reporter gene via two hybrid proteins, providing for fewer false signals or less 'noise', tuning of sensitivity or other advantages over conventional systems where the biosensor directly...

  17. A cable detection lidar system for helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmann, Benoist; Capbern, Alain; Defour, Martin; Fertala, Remi

    1992-01-01

    Helicopters in low-level flight are endangered by power lines or telephone wires, especially when flying at night and under poor visibility conditions. In order to prevent 'wire strike', Thomson has developed a lidar system consisting of a pulsed diode laser emitting in the near infrared region (lambda = 0.9 microns). The HOWARD (Helicopter Obstacle Warning and Detection) System utilizes a high repetition rate diode laser (PRE = 20 KHz) along with counter-rotating prisms for laser beam deflection with a total field of view of 30 degrees. This system was successfully field tested in 1991. HOWARD can detect one inch wires at ranges up to 200 meters. We are presently in the process of developing a flyable compact lidar system capable of detection ranges in the order of 400 meters.

  18. Evidence for Perchlorates and the Origin of Chlorinated Hydrocarbons Detected by SAM at the Rocknest Aeolian Deposit in Gale Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Freissinet, Caroline; Miller, Kristen E.; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Brunner, Anna E.; Buch, Arnaud; Sutter, Brad; Archer, P. Douglas, Jr.; Atreya, Sushil K.; Brinckerhoff, William B.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Four individual sample portions from a single scoop of the Rocknest aeolian deposit were sieved ( 150 m) and delivered to the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument by the Mars Science Laboratory rover's sample acquisition system. The samples were analyzed separately by the SAM pyrolysis evolved gas and gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis modes. Several chlorinated hydrocarbons including chloromethane, dichloromethane, trichloromethane, a chloromethylpropene, and chlorobenzene were identified by SAM above background levels with abundances of 0.01 to 2.3 nanomole.The evolution of the chloromethanes observed during pyrolysis is coincident with the increase in O2 released from the Rocknest sample and the decomposition of a product of N-methyl-N- (tert-butyldimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA), a chemical that leaked from a derivatization cup inside SAM.The best candidate for the oxychloride phase in Rocknest is a hydrated calcium perchlorate (Ca(ClO4)2nH2O), based on the temperature release of O2 that correlates with the release of the chlorinated species measured by SAM, although other chlorine bearing phases are being considered. Laboratory pyrolysis experiments suggest that reaction of martian chlorine with organic carbon from MTBSTFA can explain the presence of the chloromethanes and a chloromethylpropene also detected by SAM.However, we cannot exclude the possibility that traces of organic carbon of either martian or exogenous origin contributed to some of the chloromethanes measured by SAM. Although the alteration history and exposure age of the Rocknest deposit is unknown, it is possible that oxidative degradation of complex organic matter by ionizing radiation or other chemical processes in Rocknest has occurred.

  19. Network Intrusion Detection System using Apache Storm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Asif Manzoor

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Network security implements various strategies for the identification and prevention of security breaches. Network intrusion detection is a critical component of network management for security, quality of service and other purposes. These systems allow early detection of network intrusion and malicious activities; so that the Network Security infrastructure can react to mitigate these threats. Various systems are proposed to enhance the network security. We are proposing to use anomaly based network intrusion detection system in this work. Anomaly based intrusion detection system can identify the new network threats. We also propose to use Real-time Big Data Stream Processing Framework, Apache Storm, for the implementation of network intrusion detection system. Apache Storm can help to manage the network traffic which is generated at enormous speed and size and the network traffic speed and size is constantly increasing. We have used Support Vector Machine in this work. We use Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining 1999 (KDD’99 dataset to test and evaluate our proposed solution.

  20. Fault detection and isolation for complex system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Chan Shi; Bayuaji, Luhur; Samad, R.; Mustafa, M.; Abdullah, N. R. H.; Zain, Z. M.; Pebrianti, Dwi

    2017-07-01

    Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) is a method to monitor, identify, and pinpoint the type and location of system fault in a complex multiple input multiple output (MIMO) non-linear system. A two wheel robot is used as a complex system in this study. The aim of the research is to construct and design a Fault Detection and Isolation algorithm. The proposed method for the fault identification is using hybrid technique that combines Kalman filter and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The Kalman filter is able to recognize the data from the sensors of the system and indicate the fault of the system in the sensor reading. Error prediction is based on the fault magnitude and the time occurrence of fault. Additionally, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is another algorithm used to determine the type of fault and isolate the fault in the system.

  1. Investigation of Amourphous Deposits and Potential Corrosion Mechanisms in Offshore Water Injection Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eroini, Violette; Oehler, Mike Christian; Graver, Britt Kathrine

    2017-01-01

    Increasing incidence of amorphous deposits in both production and water injection systems has caused considerable problems for offshore oil fields. Amorphous deposits, which are a widely recognized, but often poorly explained phenomenon, are typically comprised of both organic (biological...... or hydrocarbons) and inorganic material, but with compositions that vary considerably. One recurrent form of deposits, found in offshore water injection flowlines and wells, consisting mainly of magnetite as the corrosion product, was further investigated with the objectives of explaining its formation...... and assisting in prevention or remediation. It is proposed that the deposit formation, observed in offshore water injection systems treated with nitrate, is initiated by formation of a nitrate reducing biofilm promoting under deposit corrosion by activity of sulphate reducing and methanogenic prokaryotes...

  2. Multilayer optical disc system using homodyne detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Takahiro; Ide, Tatsuro; Tanaka, Yukinobu; Watanabe, Koichi

    2014-09-01

    A write/read system using high-productivity multilayer optical discs was developed. The recording medium used in the system consists of planar recording layers and a separated guide layer, and is fabricated by web coating and lamination process. The recording layers in the medium are made of one-photon-absorption material, on which data can be recorded with a normal laser diode. The developed system is capable of focusing and tracking on the medium and amplifying readout signals by using phase-diversity homodyne detection. A highly layer-selective focusing method using homodyne detection was also proposed. This method obtains stable focus-error signals with clearly separated S-shaped curves even when layer spacing is quite narrow, causing large interlayer crosstalk. Writing on the medium and reading with the signal amplification effect of homodyne detection was demonstrated. In addition, the effectiveness of the method was experimentally evaluated.

  3. Expert system structures for fault detection in spaceborne power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Karan; Russell, B. Don; Hackler, Irene

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents an architecture for an expert system structure suitable for use with power system fault detection algorithms. The system described is not for the purpose of reacting to faults which have occurred, but rather for the purpose of performing on-line diagnostics and parameter evaluation to determine potential or incipient fault conditions. The system is also designed to detect high impedance or arcing faults which cannot be detected by conventional protection devices. This system is part of an overall monitoring computer hierarchy which would provide a full evaluation of the status of the power system and react to both incipient and catastrophic faults. An approximate hardware structure is suggested and software requirements are discussed. Modifications to CLIPS software, to capitalize on features offered by expert systems, are presented. It is suggested that such a system would have significant advantages over existing protection philosophy.

  4. Improvements in energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence detection limits with thin specimens deposited on thin transparent adhesive tape supports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanrar, Buddhadev; Sanyal, Kaushik; Misra, N.L., E-mail: nlmisra@barc.gov.in; Aggarwal, S.K.

    2014-11-01

    The elemental detection limits observed in total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (TXRF) are better compared to that of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) by approximately three orders of magnitude (in pg level) mainly due to efficient excitation geometry and special features of total reflection of X-rays. Also, the matrix effects are negligible and the thin film approximation is valid for all types of specimens. The detection limits in EDXRF can be improved using thin specimens deposited on thin sample supports so that scattering and thereby background are reduced. In the present study, the detection limits in EDXRF could be improved to ng–pg level for different elements using thin specimens of the samples deposited on thin transparent adhesive tape supports. The EDXRF analytical results were in very good agreement with those of TXRF. The EDXRF detection limit achieved using this approach for Cr was found to be 1050 pg compared to 320 pg obtained in TXRF. For Y these values were found to be 320 and 168 pg respectively. The EDXRF detection limits achieved in the present work have given a new EDXRF analysis methodology for sample analysis with detection limits comparable to TXRF using a simple instrumentation. - Highlights: • Thin specimens were used for improvement in detection limits in EDXRF. • Aliquots of 10–100 μL were deposited on thin transparent adhesive tapes. • Rh target tube with Rh as radiation filter was used for sample excitation. • The detection limits could be improved to ng/mL level with simple instrumentation. • The spectra could be processed like TXRF spectra due to negligible matrix effect.

  5. System for particle concentration and detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Alfredo M.; Whaley, Josh A.; Zimmerman, Mark D.; Renzi, Ronald F.; Tran, Huu M.; Maurer, Scott M.; Munslow, William D.

    2013-03-19

    A new microfluidic system comprising an automated prototype insulator-based dielectrophoresis (iDEP) triggering microfluidic device for pathogen monitoring that can eventually be run outside the laboratory in a real world environment has been used to demonstrate the feasibility of automated trapping and detection of particles. The system broadly comprised an aerosol collector for collecting air-borne particles, an iDEP chip within which to temporarily trap the collected particles and a laser and fluorescence detector with which to induce a fluorescence signal and detect a change in that signal as particles are trapped within the iDEP chip.

  6. Automatic Emergence Detection in Complex Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Santos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex systems consist of multiple interacting subsystems, whose nonlinear interactions can result in unanticipated (emergent system events. Extant systems analysis approaches fail to detect such emergent properties, since they analyze each subsystem separately and arrive at decisions typically through linear aggregations of individual analysis results. In this paper, we propose a quantitative definition of emergence for complex systems. We also propose a framework to detect emergent properties given observations of its subsystems. This framework, based on a probabilistic graphical model called Bayesian Knowledge Bases (BKBs, learns individual subsystem dynamics from data, probabilistically and structurally fuses said dynamics into a single complex system dynamics, and detects emergent properties. Fusion is the central element of our approach to account for situations when a common variable may have different probabilistic distributions in different subsystems. We evaluate our detection performance against a baseline approach (Bayesian Network ensemble on synthetic testbeds from UCI datasets. To do so, we also introduce a method to simulate and a metric to measure discrepancies that occur with shared/common variables. Experiments demonstrate that our framework outperforms the baseline. In addition, we demonstrate that this framework has uniform polynomial time complexity across all three learning, fusion, and reasoning procedures.

  7. Microcomputer-based video motion detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howington, L.C.

    1979-01-01

    This system was developed to enhance the volumetric intrusion detection capability of the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant's security program. Not only does the system exhibit an extended range of detection over present infrared, microwave, and ultrasonic devices, it also provides an instantaneous assessment capability by providing the operator with a closed-circuit television (CCTV) image of the alarm scene as soon as motion is detected. The system consists of a custom-built, microcomputer-based, video processor which analyzes the signals received from a network of video cameras. The operator can view the camera images as they are displayed on a CCTV monitor while alarm scenes are displayed on a second monitor. Motion is detected by digitizing and comparing successive video frames and making an alarm decision based on the degree of mismatch. The software-based nature of the microcomputer lends a great deal of flexibility and adaptability in making the alarm decision. Alarm decision variables which are easily adjusted through software are the percent change in gray level required to label a pixel (picture element) as suspect, the number of suspect pixels required to generate an alarm, the pixel pattern to be sampled from the image, and the rate at which a new reference frame is taken. The system is currently being evaluated in a warehouse for potential application in several areas of the Plant. This paper discusses the hardware and software design of the system as well as problems encountered in its implementation and results obtained

  8. Egg weight detection on machine vision system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cen, Yike; Ying, Yibin; Rao, Xiuqin

    2006-10-01

    A machine vision system for egg weight detection was developed. Egg image was grabbed by a CCD camera and a frame grabber. An indicator composed of R, G, B intensity was used for image segmentation. A series of algorithms were developed to evaluate egg's vertical diameter, maximal horizontal diameter, upper horizontal diameter and nether horizontal diameter. Based on extracted four size features of vertical and maximal/upper/nether horizontal diameter, a regression model between egg's weight and its size was established using SAS, which was used to detect egg's weight. The experiment results indicated that, for egg weight detection on the machine vision system, the correlative coefficient of the regression model was 0.9781 and the absolute error was no more than +/-3 g, which would be lower work load on human graders and an increased flexibility in the egg quality control process in egg's industrialization.

  9. Improvements in energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence detection limits with thin specimens deposited on thin transparent adhesive tape supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanrar, Buddhadev; Sanyal, Kaushik; Misra, N. L.; Aggarwal, S. K.

    2014-11-01

    The elemental detection limits observed in total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (TXRF) are better compared to that of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) by approximately three orders of magnitude (in pg level) mainly due to efficient excitation geometry and special features of total reflection of X-rays. Also, the matrix effects are negligible and the thin film approximation is valid for all types of specimens. The detection limits in EDXRF can be improved using thin specimens deposited on thin sample supports so that scattering and thereby background are reduced. In the present study, the detection limits in EDXRF could be improved to ng-pg level for different elements using thin specimens of the samples deposited on thin transparent adhesive tape supports. The EDXRF analytical results were in very good agreement with those of TXRF. The EDXRF detection limit achieved using this approach for Cr was found to be 1050 pg compared to 320 pg obtained in TXRF. For Y these values were found to be 320 and 168 pg respectively. The EDXRF detection limits achieved in the present work have given a new EDXRF analysis methodology for sample analysis with detection limits comparable to TXRF using a simple instrumentation.

  10. Statistics of multi-tube detecting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau Carles, P.; Grau Malonda, A.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper three new statistical theorems are demonstrated and applied. These theorems simplify very much the obtention of the formulae to compute the counting efficiency when the detection system is formed by several photomultipliers associated in coincidence and sume. These theorems are applied to several photomultiplier arrangements in order to show their potential and the application. way

  11. An FPGA-Based People Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J. Clark

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an FPGA-based system for detecting people from video. The system is designed to use JPEG-compressed frames from a network camera. Unlike previous approaches that use techniques such as background subtraction and motion detection, we use a machine-learning-based approach to train an accurate detector. We address the hardware design challenges involved in implementing such a detector, along with JPEG decompression, on an FPGA. We also present an algorithm that efficiently combines JPEG decompression with the detection process. This algorithm carries out the inverse DCT step of JPEG decompression only partially. Therefore, it is computationally more efficient and simpler to implement, and it takes up less space on the chip than the full inverse DCT algorithm. The system is demonstrated on an automated video surveillance application and the performance of both hardware and software implementations is analyzed. The results show that the system can detect people accurately at a rate of about 2.5 frames per second on a Virtex-II 2V1000 using a MicroBlaze processor running at 75 MHz, communicating with dedicated hardware over FSL links.

  12. The deep sea Acoustic Detection system AMADEUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naumann, Christopher Lindsay

    2008-01-01

    As a part of the ANTARES neutrino telescope, the AMADEUS (ANTARES Modules for Acoustic Detection Under the Sea) system is an array of acoustical sensors designed to investigate the possibilities of acoustic detection of ultra-high energy neutrinos in the deep sea. The complete system will comprise a total of 36 acoustic sensors in six clusters on two of the ANTARES detector lines. With an inter-sensor spacing of about one metre inside the clusters and between 15 and 340 metres between the different clusters, it will cover a wide range of distances as will as provide a considerable lever arm for point source triangulation. Three of these clusters have already been deployed in 2007 and have been in operation since, currently yielding around 2GB of acoustic data per day. The remaining three clusters are scheduled to be deployed in May 2008 together with the final ANTARES detector line. Apart from proving the feasibility of operating an acoustic detection system in the deep sea, the main aim of this project is an in-depth survey of both the acoustic properties of the sea water and the acoustic background present at the detector site. It will also serve as a platform for the development and refinement of triggering, filtering and reconstruction algorithms for acoustic particle detection. In this presentation, a description of the acoustic sensor and read-out system is given, together with examples for the reconstruction and evaluation of the acoustic data.

  13. Detection of cardiovascular anomalies: Hybrid systems approach

    KAUST Repository

    Ledezma, Fernando

    2012-06-06

    In this paper, we propose a hybrid interpretation of the cardiovascular system. Based on a model proposed by Simaan et al. (2009), we study the problem of detecting cardiovascular anomalies that can be caused by variations in some physiological parameters, using an observerbased approach. We present the first numerical results obtained. © 2012 IFAC.

  14. Statistics of multi-tube detecting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau Carles, P.; Grau Malonda, A.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper three new statistical theorems are demonstrated and applied. These theorems simplify very much the obtention of the formulae to compute the counting efficiency when the detection system is formed by several photomultipliers associated in coincidence and sum. These theorems are applied to several photomultiplier arrangements in order to show their potential and the application way. (Author) 6 refs

  15. An exploration systems approach to the Copper Mountain uranium deposits, Wyoming, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babcock, L.L.; Sayala, D.

    1982-01-01

    This study of Copper Mountain uranium deposits entailed the examination, interpretation, and synthesis of geological, geochemical, geophysical, and emanometric results. Regional, structural, and metallogenic syntheses yielded criteria concerning the occurrence of anomalously radioactive granites and associated uranium deposits. Geochemical surveys indicated various pathfinder elements for uranium deposits and defined the extent of the anomalous granites. Subsurface spectral radiometrics outlined high K-Th zones which contain secondary uranium deposits. Aerial spectral radiometric and magnetic surveys delineated the Copper Mountain uranium district. Ground water helium and U-234/U-238 activity ratios are the most effective emanometric and isotopic techniques. Based on the systems approach employed and logistical considerations, a five-phase exploration strategy is suggested for Copper Mountain-type deposits

  16. Multi-sensor explosive detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gozani, T.; Shea, P.M.; Sawa, Z.P.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes an explosive detection system. It comprises a source of neutrons; a detector array comprising a plurality of gamma ray detectors, each of the gamma ray detectors providing a detection signal in the event a gamma ray is captured by the detector, and at least one neutron detector, the neutron detector providing a neutron detection signal in the event a neutron is captured by the neutron detector; means for irradiating an object being examined with neutrons from the neutron source and for positioning the detector array relative to the object so that gamma rays emitted from the elements within the object as a result of the neutron irradiation are detected by the gamma ray detectors of the detector array; and parallel distributed processing means responsive to the detection signals of the detector array for discriminating between objects carrying explosives and objects not carrying explosives, the parallel distributed processing means including an artificial neural system (ANS), the ANS having a parallel network of processors, each processor of the parallel network of processors, each processor of the parallel network of processors including means for receiving at least one input signal, and means for generating an output signal as a function of the at least one input signal

  17. Erosion and deposition in a field/forest system estimated using cesium-137 activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowrance, R.; McIntyre, S.; Lance, C.

    1988-01-01

    Soil erosion and deposition were estimated using Cs-137 activity within a 7.25-ha field/forest system in the southeastern coastal plain. Sol eroded from the field was deposited both in the riparian forest ecosystem and in downslope areas of the field. Total activity, depth to peak activity, and depth to zero activity increased downslope from field to stream. Erosion and deposition rates, estimated by changes in activity per unit area from a reference undisturbed forest site, showed that about twice as much total deposition had taken place as total erosion. Excess deposition was attributed to deposition from the upstream portions of the watershed. Erosion and deposition rates estimated with this method were about 63 and 256 Mg/ha/yr, respectively. Erosion and deposition rates estimated by two different calculation techniques were nearly identical. These rates were considerably higher than rates estimated in an earlier study. The rates may be overestimated because the differential rates of Cs-137 movement on clay particles were not considered. The riparian ecosystem acted as a very efficient sediment trap. 19 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  18. 46 CFR 108.405 - Fire detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Each fire detection system must be divided into zones to limit the area covered by any particular alarm... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire detection system. 108.405 Section 108.405 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.405 Fire detection system. (a) Each fire detection system and...

  19. Chemical detection system and related methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caffrey, Augustine J.; Chichester, David L.; Egger, Ann E.; Krebs, Kenneth M.; Seabury, Edward H.; Van Siclen, Clinton D.; Wharton, C. Jayson; Zabriskie, John M.

    2017-06-27

    A chemical detection system includes a frame, an emitter coupled to the frame, and a detector coupled to the frame proximate the emitter. The system also includes a shielding system coupled to the frame and positioned at least partially between the emitter and the detector, wherein the frame positions a sensing surface of the detector in a direction substantially parallel to a plane extending along a front portion of the frame. A method of analyzing composition of a suspect object includes directing neutrons at the object, detecting gamma rays emitted from the object, and communicating spectrometer information regarding the gamma rays. The method also includes presenting a GUI to a user with a dynamic status of an ongoing neutron spectroscopy process. The dynamic status includes a present confidence for a plurality of compounds being present in the suspect object responsive to changes in the spectrometer information during the ongoing process.

  20. Leak rate measurements and detection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupperman, D.; Shack, W.J.; Claytor, T.

    1984-01-01

    A research program is under way at the Argonne National Laboratory under the sponsorship of the USNRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research to evaluate and develop improved leak detection systems. The primary focus of the work has been on acoustic emission detection of leaks. Leaks from artificial flaws, laboratory-generated IGSCCs and thermal fatigue cracks, and field-induced intergranular stress corrosion cracks (IGSCCs) from reactor piping have been examined. The effects of pressure, temperature, and leak rate and geometry on the acoustic signature are under study. The use of cross-correlation techniques for leak location and pattern recognition and autocorrelation for source discrimination is also being considered

  1. Tools for Detecting Causality in Space Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J.; Wing, S.

    2017-12-01

    Complex systems such as the solar and magnetospheric envivonment often exhibit patterns of behavior that suggest underlying organizing principles. Causality is a key organizing principle that is particularly difficult to establish in strongly coupled nonlinear systems, but essential for understanding and modeling the behavior of systems. While traditional methods of time-series analysis can identify linear correlations, they do not adequately quantify the distinction between causal and coincidental dependence. We discuss tools for detecting causality including: granger causality, transfer entropy, conditional redundancy, and convergent cross maps. The tools are illustrated by applications to magnetospheric and solar physics including radiation belt, Dst (a magnetospheric state variable), substorm, and solar cycle dynamics.

  2. Operational Efficiency of Bank Loans and Deposits: A Case Study of Vietnamese Banking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tram Nguyen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines whether there is a causal relationship between bank loans and deposits in the Vietnamese banking system and the efficiency of the use of loans and deposits by the Vietnamese banks. In a country such as Vietnam, where inter-bank money markets are relatively underdeveloped, one would expect a reasonably strong relationship between deposits and loans. A pooled cross-sectional sample of financial ratios is collected from annual reports of 44 Vietnamese banks covering the period 2008–2015. The explanatory power of instrumental variables in relation to the endogenous variables is tested. A deterministic frontier model based on corrected ordinary least squares, estimated by three-stage least squares on a simultaneous equations model, is employed to derive the frontiers for the sampled banks as well as to estimate the causality between bank loans and deposits. Our findings suggest that, in an underdeveloped banking system such as Vietnam, bank deposits have a positive and significant impact on bank loans, but the reverse relationship is not significant. It is further suggested that in deposit-taking and loan-creating activities, Vietnamese banks performed moderately well over the period examined; however, in the near future, they should start to focus more on deposit-taking activities.

  3. Gold deposits in the western sector of the Central Spanish System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrios, S.; Florido, P.; Reguilon, R.

    2010-01-01

    The gold deposits in the western sector of the Central Spanish System can be grouped in: (1) gold quartz veins type (El Chivote, La Pedrera), (2) paleoplacers: gold nuggets in tertiary alluvial deposits (Las Cavenes, Sierro de Coria), (3) quaternary placers (Rio Erjas), (4) gold nuggets in a regolith developed on the Schist and Graywacke Complex (CEG) (Casillas de Coria). The morphological study of gold nuggets will provide physical, chemical, bacteriological and climatic characteristics. Mining works are located on these deposits from roman time to the present day. (Author)

  4. Fault Detection for Quantized Networked Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Wei Che

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The fault detection problem in the finite frequency domain for networked control systems with signal quantization is considered. With the logarithmic quantizer consideration, a quantized fault detection observer is designed by employing a performance index which is used to increase the fault sensitivity in finite frequency domain. The quantized measurement signals are dealt with by utilizing the sector bound method, in which the quantization error is treated as sector-bounded uncertainty. By using the Kalman-Yakubovich-Popov (GKYP Lemma, an iterative LMI-based optimization algorithm is developed for designing the quantized fault detection observer. And a numerical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  5. Investigation of Amourphous Deposits and Potential Corrosion Mechanisms in Offshore Water Injection Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eroini, Violette; Oehler, Mike Christian; Graver, Britt Kathrine

    2017-01-01

    Increasing incidence of amorphous deposits in both production and water injection systems has caused considerable problems for offshore oil fields. Amorphous deposits, which are a widely recognized, but often poorly explained phenomenon, are typically comprised of both organic (biological...... and assisting in prevention or remediation. It is proposed that the deposit formation, observed in offshore water injection systems treated with nitrate, is initiated by formation of a nitrate reducing biofilm promoting under deposit corrosion by activity of sulphate reducing and methanogenic prokaryotes...... and sometimes inappropriate treatment. Initial work, undertaken to classify the different substances encountered, has been previously reported.1 Systematic analysis allowed the development of a classification matrix intending to describe similar material in terms of their major components. The objective...

  6. A economic evaluation system software on in-situ leaching mining sandstone uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Yixuan; Su Xuebin; Xie Weixing; Que Weimin

    2001-01-01

    The author presents the study results of applying computer technology to evaluate quantitatively the technical-economic feasibility of in-situ leaching mining sandstone uranium deposits. A computer system software have been developed. Under specifying deposit conditions and given production size per year, the application of the software will generate total capital and mine life operating costs as well as solve for the movable and static financial assessment targets through discounted cash flow analysis. According to the characters of two kinds of sandstone uranium deposits, a data bases of economic and technique parameters of in-situ leaching have been designed. Also the system software can be used to study the economic value of deposits and to optimize the key project parameters. Its features, data input method and demand, main functions, structure and operating environments are described

  7. Gas sensors based on deposited single-walled carbon nanotube networks for DMMP detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yanyan; Zhou Zhihua; Yang Zhi; Chen Xiaohang; Xu Dong; Zhang Yafei

    2009-01-01

    Sensors based on single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) networks were fabricated and their sensitive properties for the nerve agent stimulant dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) vapor were investigated at room temperature. The SWNT networks were deposited on oxidized silicon surface functionalized with 3-aminopropyltrimethysilane (APS). Combining with a traditional silicon process, SWNT-based gas sensors were made at a wafer scale. The effects of the density of deposited SWNTs on the sensor response were studied. The excellent response is obtained under a density of 30-40 tubes μm -2 . The sensors exhibit high resistance response, fast response time, rapid recovery and good reproducibility for DMMP vapor. The deposited SWNT sensors will be potentially extended to large-scale fabrication.

  8. Handheld microwave bomb-detecting imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorwara, Ashok; Molchanov, Pavlo

    2017-05-01

    Proposed novel imaging technique will provide all weather high-resolution imaging and recognition capability for RF/Microwave signals with good penetration through highly scattered media: fog, snow, dust, smoke, even foliage, camouflage, walls and ground. Image resolution in proposed imaging system is not limited by diffraction and will be determined by processor and sampling frequency. Proposed imaging system can simultaneously cover wide field of view, detect multiple targets and can be multi-frequency, multi-function. Directional antennas in imaging system can be close positioned and installed in cell phone size handheld device, on small aircraft or distributed around protected border or object. Non-scanning monopulse system allows dramatically decrease in transmitting power and at the same time provides increased imaging range by integrating 2-3 orders more signals than regular scanning imaging systems.

  9. Intrusion detection systems: complement to firewall security system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intrusion detection systems: complement to firewall security system. ... Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge Management. Journal Home ... If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, Highwire Press provides a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs.

  10. Clone tag detection in distributed RFID systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaludin, Hazalila; Mahdin, Hairulnizam; Abawajy, Jemal H

    2018-01-01

    Although Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is poised to displace barcodes, security vulnerabilities pose serious challenges for global adoption of the RFID technology. Specifically, RFID tags are prone to basic cloning and counterfeiting security attacks. A successful cloning of the RFID tags in many commercial applications can lead to many serious problems such as financial losses, brand damage, safety and health of the public. With many industries such as pharmaceutical and businesses deploying RFID technology with a variety of products, it is important to tackle RFID tag cloning problem and improve the resistance of the RFID systems. To this end, we propose an approach for detecting cloned RFID tags in RFID systems with high detection accuracy and minimal overhead thus overcoming practical challenges in existing approaches. The proposed approach is based on consistency of dual hash collisions and modified count-min sketch vector. We evaluated the proposed approach through extensive experiments and compared it with existing baseline approaches in terms of execution time and detection accuracy under varying RFID tag cloning ratio. The results of the experiments show that the proposed approach outperforms the baseline approaches in cloned RFID tag detection accuracy.

  11. Clone tag detection in distributed RFID systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaludin, Hazalila; Mahdin, Hairulnizam

    2018-01-01

    Although Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is poised to displace barcodes, security vulnerabilities pose serious challenges for global adoption of the RFID technology. Specifically, RFID tags are prone to basic cloning and counterfeiting security attacks. A successful cloning of the RFID tags in many commercial applications can lead to many serious problems such as financial losses, brand damage, safety and health of the public. With many industries such as pharmaceutical and businesses deploying RFID technology with a variety of products, it is important to tackle RFID tag cloning problem and improve the resistance of the RFID systems. To this end, we propose an approach for detecting cloned RFID tags in RFID systems with high detection accuracy and minimal overhead thus overcoming practical challenges in existing approaches. The proposed approach is based on consistency of dual hash collisions and modified count-min sketch vector. We evaluated the proposed approach through extensive experiments and compared it with existing baseline approaches in terms of execution time and detection accuracy under varying RFID tag cloning ratio. The results of the experiments show that the proposed approach outperforms the baseline approaches in cloned RFID tag detection accuracy. PMID:29565982

  12. The synchronous active neutron detection assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickrell, M.M.; Kendall, P.K.

    1994-01-01

    We have begun to develop a novel technique for active neutron assay of fissile material in spent nuclear fuel. This approach will exploit a 14-MeV neutron generator developed by Schlumberger. The technique, termed synchronous active neutron detection (SAND), follows a method used routinely in other branches of physics to detect very small signals in presence of large backgrounds. Synchronous detection instruments are widely available commercially and are termed ''lock-in'' amplifiers. We have implemented a digital lock-in amplifier in conjunction with the Schlumberger neutron generator to explore the possibility of synchronous detection with active neutrons. The Schlumberger system can operate at up to a 50% duty factor, in effect, a square wave of neutron yield. Results are preliminary but promising. The system is capable of resolving the fissile material contained in a small fraction of the fuel rods in a cold fuel assembly; it also appears resilient to background neutron interference. The interrogating neutrons appear to be non-thermal and penetrating. Work remains to fully explore relevant physics and optimize instrument design

  13. A System for Traffic Violation Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nourdine Aliane

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the framework and components of an experimental platform for an advanced driver assistance system (ADAS aimed at providing drivers with a feedback about traffic violations they have committed during their driving. The system is able to detect some specific traffic violations, record data associated to these faults in a local data-base, and also allow visualization of the spatial and temporal information of these traffic violations in a geographical map using the standard Google Earth tool. The test-bed is mainly composed of two parts: a computer vision subsystem for traffic sign detection and recognition which operates during both day and nighttime, and an event data recorder (EDR for recording data related to some specific traffic violations. The paper covers firstly the description of the hardware architecture and then presents the policies used for handling traffic violations.

  14. Perimeter intrusion detection and assessment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eaton, M.J.; Jacobs, J.; McGovern, D.E.

    1977-11-01

    To obtain an effective perimeter intrusion detection system requires careful sensor selection, procurement, and installation. The selection process involves a thorough understanding of the unique site features and how these features affect the performance of each type of sensor. It is necessary to develop procurement specifications to establish acceptable sensor performance limits. Careful explanation and inspection of critical installation dimensions is required during on-site construction. The implementation of these activities at a particular site is discussed.

  15. Multichannel Digital Emulator of Radiation Detection Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abba, A.; Caponio, F.; Geraci, A.

    2013-06-01

    A digital system for emulating in real time signals from generic setups for radiation detection is presented. The instrument is not a pulse generator of recorded shapes but a synthesizer of random pulses compliant to programmable statistics for energy and occurrence time. Completely programmable procedures for emulation of noise, disturbances and reference level variation can be implemented. The instrument has been realized and fully tested. (authors)

  16. Perimeter intrusion detection and assessment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, M.J.; Jacobs, J.; McGovern, D.E.

    1977-11-01

    To obtain an effective perimeter intrusion detection system requires careful sensor selection, procurement, and installation. The selection process involves a thorough understanding of the unique site features and how these features affect the performance of each type of sensor. It is necessary to develop procurement specifications to establish acceptable sensor performance limits. Careful explanation and inspection of critical installation dimensions is required during on-site construction. The implementation of these activities at a particular site is discussed

  17. Detecting New Planets in Transiting Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Steffen, Jason H.

    2006-01-01

    I present an initial investigation into a new planet detection technique that uses the transit timing of a known, transiting planet. The transits of a solitary planet orbiting a star occur at equally spaced intervals in time. If a second planet is present, dynamical interactions within the system will cause the time interval between transits to vary. These transit time variations can be used to infer the orbital elements of the unseen, perturbing planet. I show analytic expressions for the am...

  18. An Automated Flying-Insect Detection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vann, Timi; Andrews, Jane C.; Howell, Dane; Ryan, Robert

    2007-01-01

    An automated flying-insect detection system (AFIDS) was developed as a proof-of-concept instrument for real-time detection and identification of flying insects. This type of system has use in public health and homeland-security decision support, agriculture and military pest management, and/or entomological research. Insects are first lured into the AFIDS integrated sphere by insect attractants. Once inside the sphere, the insect s wing beats cause alterations in light intensity that is detected by a photoelectric sensor. Following detection, the insects are encouraged (with the use of a small fan) to move out of the sphere and into a designated insect trap where they are held for taxonomic identification or serological testing. The acquired electronic wing-beat signatures are preprocessed (Fourier transformed) in real time to display a periodic signal. These signals are sent to the end user where they are graphically. All AFIDS data are preprocessed in the field with the use of a laptop computer equipped with LabVIEW. The AFIDS software can be programmed to run continuously or at specific time intervals when insects are prevalent. A special DC-restored transimpedance amplifier reduces the contributions of low-frequency background light signals, and affords approximately two orders of magnitude greater AC gain than conventional amplifiers. This greatly increases the signal-to-noise ratio and enables the detection of small changes in light intensity. The AFIDS light source consists of high-intensity Al-GaInP light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The AFIDS circuitry minimizes brightness fluctuations in the LEDs and when integrated with an integrating sphere, creates a diffuse uniform light field. The insect wing beats isotropically scatter the diffuse light in the sphere and create wing-beat signatures that are detected by the sensor. This configuration minimizes variations in signal associated with insect flight orientation. Preliminary data indicate that AFIDS has

  19. In-Situ Wire Damage Detection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha K. (Inventor); Roberson, Luke B. (Inventor); Tate, Lanetra C. (Inventor); Smith, Trent M. (Inventor); Gibson, Tracy L. (Inventor); Jolley, Scott T. (Inventor); Medelius, Pedro J. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An in-situ system for detecting damage in an electrically conductive wire. The system includes a substrate at least partially covered by a layer of electrically conductive material forming a continuous or non-continuous electrically conductive layer connected to an electrical signal generator adapted to delivering electrical signals to the electrically conductive layer. Data is received and processed to identify damage to the substrate or electrically conductive layer. The electrically conductive material may include metalized carbon fibers, a thin metal coating, a conductive polymer, carbon nanotubes, metal nanoparticles or a combination thereof.

  20. Optimum electromagnetic weapons detection system. [Airport security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capots, L.H.; Gregory, W.D.; George, J.P.

    1973-09-01

    An optimized weapons detection system based on the ''active'' or ''a.c. susceptibility'' principle is described. For such uses as airport security the method should be capable of screening both passengers and hand baggage simultaneously. This detector uses the latest basic research results obtained on studies of a.c. susceptibility of metals, and identifies weapons characteristics using those results obtained from identifying chemical spectra with search routines, employing minicomputers. The detector is capable of characterizing both magnetic and non-magnetic weapons with a precision otherwise presently unavailable. System design and test data are presented.

  1. System and method for detecting gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Oscar Ken; Moulthrop, Lawrence Clinton; Dreier, Ken Wayne; Miller, Jacob Andrew

    2010-03-16

    A system to detect a presence of a specific gas in a mixture of gaseous byproducts comprising moisture vapor is disclosed. The system includes an electrochemical cell, a transport to deliver the mixture of gaseous byproducts from the electrochemical cell, a gas sensor in fluid communication with the transport, the sensor responsive to a presence of the specific gas to generate a signal corresponding to a concentration of the specific gas, and a membrane to prevent transmission of liquid moisture, the membrane disposed between the transport and the gas sensor.

  2. Automatic detection of buried channel deposits from dense laser altimetry data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Possel, B.M.J.; Lindenbergh, R.C.; Storms, J.E.A.

    2010-01-01

    The formation of the current Rhine-Meuse delta mainly took place during the last 12 000 years. Consecutive avulsions, i.e. sudden changes in the course of river channels, resulted in a complicated pattern of sandy channel deposits, surrounded by peat and clay. Knowledge of this pattern is not only

  3. Detection of effect of deposits on optical windows of pyrometer measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolone, P.

    1968-01-01

    Temperatures measurements in an enclosed test chamber are more accurate when the reflectivity of the inner coated surface is compared to the outer clean surface of an optical window. Temperature readings are corrected by correlating the reflectivity of the deposits with their effect on the temperature measurement.

  4. Low-energy ion-beam deposition apparatus equipped with surface analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Hideki; Aoki, Yasushi; Nagai, Siro.

    1994-10-01

    A sophisticated apparatus for low energy ion beam deposition (IBD) was installed at Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment of JAERI in March 1991. The apparatus is composed of an IBD system and a real time/in-situ surface analysis system for diagnosing deposited thin films. The IBD system provides various kinds of low energy ion down to 10 eV with current density of 10 μA/cm 2 and irradiation area of 15x15 mm 2 . The surface analysis system consists of RHEED, AES, ISS and SIMS. This report describes the characteristics and the operation procedure of the apparatus together with some experimental results on depositing thin carbon films. (author)

  5. Investigations of the origins of deposited carbon species in gaps between divertor tiles using a kinetic code system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Shuyu; Sang Chaofeng; Liu Shengguang; Sun Jizhong; Wang Dezhen

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We model deposition of eroded carbon species in gaps using a kinetic code system. ► The deposited carbon species are mainly from top surface at low plasma temperature. ► At high plasma temperature the deposited carbon species are mainly from side surface. ► The deposition features for physical sputtering and chemical erosion are different. - Abstract: In order to investigate the origins of deposited carbon species in gaps, the simulations have been performed using a kinetic code system. At low plasma temperatures, the deposited carbon species mainly originate from top surfaces of the tile, while at high plasma temperatures the deposited carbon species are basically derived from side surfaces of the tile. A substantial variation of the deposition rate of carbon species originating from side surfaces is obtained due to physical sputtering and topography advantage. The deposited carbon species derived from top surfaces and side surfaces demonstrate different deposition characteristics for physical sputtering and chemical erosion: (i) for deposited carbon species from top surfaces, the deposition ratio for physical sputtering increases evidently and deposition rate virtually increases by one order of magnitude with increasing plasma temperature; and the deposition ratio for chemical erosion reduces correspondingly and deposition rate decreases gradually; (ii) for deposited carbon species from side surfaces, the deposited carbon species principally arise from physical sputtering; the deposition rates for chemical erosion are of the order of magnitude of 10 15 m −2 s −1 for all studied plasma temperatures, and the deposition rates for physical sputtering can be two to three orders of magnitude greater than that for chemical erosion.

  6. Incipient fault detection and power system protection for spaceborne systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, B. Don; Hackler, Irene M.

    1987-01-01

    A program was initiated to study the feasibility of using advanced terrestrial power system protection techniques for spacecraft power systems. It was designed to enhance and automate spacecraft power distribution systems in the areas of safety, reliability and maintenance. The proposed power management/distribution system is described as well as security assessment and control, incipient and low current fault detection, and the proposed spaceborne protection system. It is noted that the intelligent remote power controller permits the implementation of digital relaying algorithms with both adaptive and programmable characteristics.

  7. Automating Vendor Fraud Detection in Enterprise Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishore Singh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Fraud is a multi-billion dollar industry that continues to grow annually. Many organisations are poorly prepared to prevent and detect fraud. Fraud detection strategies are intended to quickly and efficiently identify fraudulent activities that circumvent preventative measures. In this paper we adopt a Design-Science methodological framework to develop a model for detection of vendor fraud based on analysis of patterns or signatures identified in enterprise system audit trails. The concept is demonstrated be developing prototype software. Verification of the prototype is achieved by performing a series of experiments. Validation is achieved by independent reviews from auditing practitioners. Key findings of this study are: i automating routine data analytics improves auditor productivity and reduces time taken to identify potential fraud, and ii visualisations assist in promptly identifying potentially fraudulent user activities. The study makes the following contributions: i a model for proactive fraud detection, ii methods for visualising user activities in transaction data, iii a stand-alone MCL-based prototype.

  8. Evolution of depositional system and uraniferous characteristics of Damoguaihe formation in Kelulun sag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhijie; Yu Xinghe; Zhang Chuanheng; Chen Zhankun

    2005-01-01

    Damoguaihe Formation, which is mainly of alluvial fan, fan delta and lacustrine depositional systems, is the target horizon for the prospecting of sandstone-type uranium deposit in Kelulun sag, Hailaer basin. According to the depositional environment and sediment characteristics, alluvial fan facies is subdivided into upper fan, middle fan and lower fan subfacies; the fan delta facies is subadivided into upper fan delta plain, lower fan delta plain, fan delta front and fan prodelta subfacies. At the northern edge of the sag occurred one fan delta and one alluvial fan, which can mutually transform one into another. The terrigenous coarse-grained clastic deposits in the study area provide favorable condition for the concentration of uranium and especially the main channels and distributary channels on the fan delta and alluvial fan are the most favorable sites for uranium concentration. (authors)

  9. Contamination due to memory effects in filtered vacuum arc plasma deposition systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, D.R.; Salvadori, M.C.; Verdonck, P.; Brown, I.G.

    2002-01-01

    Thin film synthesis by filtered vacuum arc plasma deposition is a widely used technique with a number of important emerging technological applications. A characteristic feature of the method is that during the deposition process not only is the substrate coated by the plasma, but the plasma gun itself and the magnetic field coil and/or vacuum vessel section constituting the macroparticle filter are also coated to some extent. If then the plasma gun cathode is changed to a new element, there can be a contamination of the subsequent film deposition by sputtering from various parts of the system of the previous coating species. We have experimentally explored this effect and compared our results with theoretical estimates of sputtering from the stopping and range of ions in matter code. We find film contamination of the order of 10 -4 -10 -3 , and the memory of the prior history of the deposition hardware can be relatively long lasting

  10. Contamination due to memory effects in filtered vacuum arc plasma deposition systems

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, D R; Verdonck, P; Brown, I G

    2002-01-01

    Thin film synthesis by filtered vacuum arc plasma deposition is a widely used technique with a number of important emerging technological applications. A characteristic feature of the method is that during the deposition process not only is the substrate coated by the plasma, but the plasma gun itself and the magnetic field coil and/or vacuum vessel section constituting the macroparticle filter are also coated to some extent. If then the plasma gun cathode is changed to a new element, there can be a contamination of the subsequent film deposition by sputtering from various parts of the system of the previous coating species. We have experimentally explored this effect and compared our results with theoretical estimates of sputtering from the SRIM (Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter) code. We find film contamination of order 10-4 - 10-3, and the memory of the prior history of the deposition hardware can be relatively long-lasting.

  11. Automatic gas-levitation system for vacuum deposition of laser-fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, C.W.; Cameron, G.R.; Krenik, R.M.; Crane, J.K.

    1981-01-01

    An improved simple system has been developed to gas-levitate microspheres during vacuum-deposition processes. The automatic operation relies on two effects: a lateral stabilizing force provided by a centering-ring; and an automatically incremented gas metering system to offset weight increases during coating

  12. A complete low cost radon detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayrak, A.; Barlas, E.; Emirhan, E.; Kutlu, Ç.; Ozben, C.S.

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring the 222 Rn activity through the 1200 km long Northern Anatolian fault line, for the purpose of earthquake precursory, requires large number of cost effective radon detectors. We have designed, produced and successfully tested a low cost radon detection system (a radon monitor). In the detector circuit of this monitor, First Sensor PS100-7-CER-2 windowless PIN photodiode and a custom made transempedence/shaping amplifier were used. In order to collect the naturally ionized radon progeny to the surface of the PIN photodiode, a potential of 3500 V was applied between the conductive hemi-spherical shell and the PIN photodiode. In addition to the count rate of the radon progeny, absolute pressure, humidity and temperature were logged during the measurements. A GSM modem was integrated to the system for transferring the measurements from the remote locations to the data process center. - Author-Highlights: • Low cost radon detection. • Integrated GSM modem for early warning of radon anomalies. • Radon detection in environment

  13. Vacuum fused deposition modelling system to improve tensile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a possible solution to this problem by incorporating vacuum technology in FDM system to improve tensile strength of 3D printed specimens. In this study, a desktop FDM machine was placed and operated inside a low pressure vacuum chamber. The results obtained show an improvement of 12.83 % of ...

  14. Multifocal hemosiderin depositions on T2*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in a patient with pathology-proven systemic diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xun-zhe; Ni, Jun; Cui, Li-ying

    2014-09-25

    Intracranial hemorrhage in central nervous system lymphoma is extremely rare. T2*-weighted gradient-echo magnetic resonance imaging is of particularly use in detecting silent hemorrhage as hypointense signals due to the deposition of paramagnetic hemosiderin or mineralization. Multifocal hemosiderin depositions caused by chronic silent hemorrhage have not yet been identified in patients with central nervous system involvement of systemic lymphoma. We present an unexpected radiographic feature on T2*-weighted gradient-echo magnetic resonance imaging in a patient with central nervous system involvement of pathologically confirmed systemic diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. A 56-year-old woman presented with lower extremities weakness and progressive cognitive decline for four months. Conventional brain magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated multiple lesions with hypointensities on T1-weighted images and hyperintensities on T2-weighted images and fluid attenuated inversion recovery in both hemispheres. She was then transferred to our hospital. This is the first report of pathologically confirmed case of CNS involvement of systemic diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with multifocal silent hemosiderin depositions detected by T2*-weighted gradient-echo magnetic resonance imaging. Even though uncommon, our report offers an insight that CNS lymphoma could present with multifocal silent hemosiderin depositions on T2*-weighted gradient-echo magnetic resonance imaging. Further studies were expected for exploring the association between this radiologic feature and systemic lymphoma and their underlying mechanisms.

  15. Collision Detection for Underwater ROV Manipulator Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivčev, Satja; Rossi, Matija; Coleman, Joseph; Omerdić, Edin; Dooly, Gerard; Toal, Daniel

    2018-04-06

    Work-class ROVs equipped with robotic manipulators are extensively used for subsea intervention operations. Manipulators are teleoperated by human pilots relying on visual feedback from the worksite. Operating in a remote environment, with limited pilot perception and poor visibility, manipulator collisions which may cause significant damage are likely to happen. This paper presents a real-time collision detection algorithm for marine robotic manipulation. The proposed collision detection mechanism is developed, integrated into a commercial ROV manipulator control system, and successfully evaluated in simulations and experimental setup using a real industry standard underwater manipulator. The presented collision sensing solution has a potential to be a useful pilot assisting tool that can reduce the task load, operational time, and costs of subsea inspection, repair, and maintenance operations.

  16. Simulation of Deposition the Corrosion Waste in a Water Distribution System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peráčková Jana

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In water distribution systems can be found particles of rust and other mechanical contaminants. The particles are deposited in locations where the low velocity of water flow. Where a can cause the pitting corrosion. Is a concern in the systems made of galvanized steel pipes. The contribution deals with CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations of water flow and particles deposition in water distribution system. CFD Simulations were compared with the corrosive deposits in real pipeline. Corrosion is a spontaneous process of destruction of metal material due to electrochemical reactions of metal with the aggressive surrounding. Electrochemical corrosion is caused by the thermodynamic instability of metal and therefore can not be completely suppress, it can only influence the speed of corrosion. The requirement is to keep metal properties during the whole its lifetime. Requested service lifetime the water pipe according to EN 806-2 is 50 years.

  17. 46 CFR 108.413 - Fusible element fire detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fusible element fire detection system. 108.413 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.413 Fusible element fire detection system. (a) A fusible element fire detection system may be installed. (b) The arrangements for the system...

  18. Early Detection of Aβ Deposition in the 5xFAD Mouse by Amyloid PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se Jong Oh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. 18F-FC119S is a positron emission tomography (PET tracer for imaging β-amyloid (Aβ plaques in Alzheimer’s disease (AD. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of 18F-FC119S in quantitating Aβ deposition in a mouse model of early amyloid deposition (5xFAD by PET. Method. Dynamic 18F-FC119S PET images were obtained in 5xFAD (n=5 and wild-type (WT mice (n=7. The brain PET images were spatially normalized to the M. Mirrione T2-weighted mouse brain MR template, and the volumes of interest were then automatically drawn on the cortex, hippocampus, thalamus, and cerebellum. The specific binding of 18F-FC119S to Aβ was quantified as the distribution volume ratio using Logan graphical analysis with the cerebellum as a reference tissue. The Aβ levels in the brain were also confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis. Result. For the 5xFAD group, radioactivity levels in the cortex, the hippocampus, and the thalamus were higher than those for the WT group. In these regions, specific binding was approximately 1.2-fold higher in 5xFAD mice than in WT. Immunohistochemistry supported these findings; the 5xFAD showed severe Aβ deposition in the cortex and hippocampus in contrast to the WT group. Conclusion. These results demonstrated that 18F-FC119S PET can successfully distinguish Aβ depositions in 5xFAD mice from WT.

  19. Intelligent Flamefinder Detection and Alert System (IFDAS), Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Current hydrogen flame detection systems exhibit shortcomings ranging from limited detection range, to localization inaccuracy, limited sensitivity, false alarms,...

  20. Using SOTEM Method to Detect BIF Bodies Buried Under Very Thick and Conductive Quaternary Sediments, Huoqiu Deposit, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiying; Xue, Guoqiang; Khan, Muhammad Younis; Li, Hai

    2017-03-01

    Huoqiu iron deposit is a typical Precambrian banded iron-formation (BIF) field which is located in the North China Craton (NCC). To detect the deep ore bodies around Dawangzhuang Village in Yingshang County, north of the Huoqiu deposit field, electromagnetic methods were tested. As the ore bodies are buried under very thick conductive Quaternary sediments, the use of EM methods is a great challenge. Short-offset transient electromagnetic method (SOTEM) was applied in the area as we wanted to test due to its detection depth and resolution. A 2D model was first built according to the geology information and magnetic measurement results. Then, 2D forward and 1D inversion were carried out using FDTD and Occam's algorithm, respectively. The synthetic modeling results helped us with the survey design and interpretation. Two 1400-m-long survey lines with offset of 500 and 1000 m were laid perpendicular to the BIF's strike, and the transmitting parameters were selected by a test measurement at the vicinity of a local village. Finally, the structure of survey area and BIF bodies were determined based on the 1D inversion results of real data, and showed a consistency with the subsequent drill results. Our application of SOTEM in detecting hidden BIF buried under very thick conductive layer has shown that the method is capable of penetrating great depth more than 1000 m even in a very conductive environment and will be an effective tool for deep resources investigation.

  1. Fault detection and diagnosis of photovoltaic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xing

    The rapid growth of the solar industry over the past several years has expanded the significance of photovoltaic (PV) systems. One of the primary aims of research in building-integrated PV systems is to improve the performance of the system's efficiency, availability, and reliability. Although much work has been done on technological design to increase a photovoltaic module's efficiency, there is little research so far on fault diagnosis for PV systems. Faults in a PV system, if not detected, may not only reduce power generation, but also threaten the availability and reliability, effectively the "security" of the whole system. In this paper, first a circuit-based simulation baseline model of a PV system with maximum power point tracking (MPPT) is developed using MATLAB software. MATLAB is one of the most popular tools for integrating computation, visualization and programming in an easy-to-use modeling environment. Second, data collection of a PV system at variable surface temperatures and insolation levels under normal operation is acquired. The developed simulation model of PV system is then calibrated and improved by comparing modeled I-V and P-V characteristics with measured I--V and P--V characteristics to make sure the simulated curves are close to those measured values from the experiments. Finally, based on the circuit-based simulation model, a PV model of various types of faults will be developed by changing conditions or inputs in the MATLAB model, and the I--V and P--V characteristic curves, and the time-dependent voltage and current characteristics of the fault modalities will be characterized for each type of fault. These will be developed as benchmark I-V or P-V, or prototype transient curves. If a fault occurs in a PV system, polling and comparing actual measured I--V and P--V characteristic curves with both normal operational curves and these baseline fault curves will aid in fault diagnosis.

  2. DETECTION OF ODSCC IN SG TUBES DEPENDING ON THE SIZE OF THE CRACK AND ON THE PRESENCE OF SLUDGE DEPOSITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HANSUB CHUNG

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It was discovered in a Korean PWR that an extensive number of very short and shallow cracks in the SG tubes were undetectable by eddy current in-service-inspection because of the masking effect of sludge deposits. Axial stress corrosion cracks at the outside diameter of the steam generator tubes near the line contacts with the tube support plates are the major concern among the six identical Korean nuclear power plants having CE-type steam generators with Alloy 600 high temperature mill annealed tubes, HU3&4 and HB3∼6. The tubes in HB3&4 have a less susceptible microstructure so that the onset of ODSCC was substantially delayed compared to HU3&4 whose tubes are most susceptible to ODSCC among the six units. The numbers of cracks detected by the eddy current inspection jumped drastically after the steam generators of HB4 were chemically cleaned. The purpose of the chemical cleaning was to mitigate stress corrosion cracking by removing the heavy sludge deposit, since a corrosive environment is formed in the occluded region under the sludge deposit. SGCC also enhances the detection capability of the eddy current inspection at the same time. Measurement of the size of each crack using the motorized rotating pancake coil probe indicated that the cracks in HB4 were shorter and substantially shallower than the cracks in HU3&4. It is believed that the cracks were shorter and shallower because the microstructure of the tubes in HB4 is less susceptible to ODSCC. It was readily understood from the size distribution of the cracks and the quantitative information available on the probability of detection that most cracks in HB4 had been undetected until the steam generators were chemically cleaned.

  3. Targeted deposition of antibodies on a multiplex CMOS microarray and optimization of a sensitive immunoassay using electrochemical detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cooper

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The CombiMatrix ElectraSense microarray is a highly multiplex, complementary metal oxide semiconductor with 12,544 electrodes that are individually addressable. This platform is commercially available as a custom DNA microarray; and, in this configuration, it has also been used to tether antibodies (Abs specifically on electrodes using complementary DNA sequences conjugated to the Abs.An empirical method is described for developing and optimizing immunoassays on the CombiMatrix ElectraSense microarray based upon targeted deposition of polypyrrole (Ppy and capture Ab. This process was automated using instrumentation that can selectively apply a potential or current to individual electrodes and also measure current generated at the electrodes by an enzyme-enhanced electrochemical (ECD reaction. By designating groups of electrodes on the array for different Ppy deposition conditions, we determined that the sensitivity and specificity of a sandwich immunoassay for staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB is influenced by the application of different voltages or currents and the application time. The sandwich immunoassay used a capture Ab adsorbed to the Ppy and a reporter Ab labeled for fluorescence detection or ECD, and results from these methods of detection were different.Using Ppy deposition conditions for optimum results, the lower limit of detection for SEB using the ECD assay was between 0.003 and 0.01 pg/ml, which represents an order of magnitude improvement over a conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. In the absence of understanding the variables and complexities that affect assay performance, this highly multiplexed electrode array provided a rapid, high throughput, and empirical approach for developing a sensitive immunoassay.

  4. Fast fault detection for power distribution systems

    OpenAIRE

    Öhrström, Magnus

    2003-01-01

    The main topic of this licentiate thesis is fast faultdetection. The thesis summaries the work performed in theproject“Fast fault detection for distributionsystems”. In the first chapters of the thesis the term“fast”is used in a general manner. The term is laterdefined based upon considerations and conclusions made in thefirst chapters and then related to a specific time. To be able to understand and appreciate why fast faultdetection is necessary, power system faults and theirconsequences ar...

  5. A Simple, Cost-Effective Sensor for Detecting Lead Ions in Water Using Under-Potential Deposited Bismuth Sub-Layer with Differential Pulse Voltammetry (DPV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifan Dai

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This research has developed a simple to use, cost effective sensor system for the detection of lead ions in tap water. An under-potential deposited bismuth sub-layer on a thin gold film based electrochemical sensor was designed, manufactured, and evaluated. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV measurement technique was employed in this detection. Tap water from the Cleveland, OH, USA regional water district was the test medium. Concentrations of lead ion in the range of 8 × 10−7 M to 5 × 10−4 M were evaluated, showing a good sensitivity over this concentration range. The calibration curve for the DPV measurements of lead ions in tap water showed excellent reproducibility with R2 value of 0.970. This DPV detection system required 3–6 min to complete the detection measurement. A longer measurement time of 6 min was used for the lower lead ion concentration. The selectivity of this lead ion sensor was very good, and Fe III, Cu II, Ni II, and Mg II at a concentration level of 5 × 10−4 M did not interfere with the lead ion measurement.

  6. Acoustic leak detection in piping systems, 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitajima, Akira; Naohara, Nobuyuki; Aihara, Akihiko

    1983-01-01

    To monitor a high-pressure piping of nuclear power plants, a possibility of acoustic leak detection method has been experimentally studied in practical field tests and laboratory tests. Characteristics of background noise in field test and the results of experiment are summarized as follows: (1) The level of background noise in primary loop (PWR) was almost constant under actual plant operation. But it is possible that it rises at the condition of the pressure in primary loop. (2) Based on many experience of laboratory tests and practical field tests. The leak monitoring system for practical field was designed and developed. To improve the reliability, a judgment of leak on this system is used three factors of noise level, duration time of phenomena and frequency spectrum of noise signal emitted from the leak point. (author)

  7. Method and system for detecting explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reber, Edward L [Idaho Falls, ID; Jewell, James K [Idaho Falls, ID; Rohde, Kenneth W [Idaho Falls, ID; Seabury, Edward H [Idaho Falls, ID; Blackwood, Larry G [Idaho Falls, ID; Edwards, Andrew J [Idaho Falls, ID; Derr, Kurt W [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-03-10

    A method of detecting explosives in a vehicle includes providing a first rack on one side of the vehicle, the rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a second rack on another side of the vehicle, the second rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a control system, remote from the first and second racks, coupled to the neutron generators and gamma ray detectors; using the control system, causing the neutron generators to generate neutrons; and performing gamma ray spectroscopy on spectra read by the gamma ray detectors to look for a signature indicative of presence of an explosive. Various apparatus and other methods are also provided.

  8. The Environics Mobile CBRN Detection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaakkola, T.

    2007-01-01

    Environics Oy has developed a novel monitoring system for detection of Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear compounds. The system is portable and rapidly installed into a monitoring location. It will allow real time monitoring and alarming of: Chemical Warfare agents (Nerve, Blister, Blood), Toxic industrial chemicals (General toxic-alarm), Biological warfare agents (Bacteria, viruses, toxins), Radiological agents such as alpha and gamma radiation. Monitoring Station makes continuously measurements. Sensor data is processed and stored to local database by the Master Module (MM) that is located within the station. The MM sends the data to the Control Centers by using communication network. The Control Center receives and logs the data and shows it in real time on a map interface. The status of each sensor and detector can be seen in real time. (author)

  9. Simulation Model of Mobile Detection Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edmunds, T.; Faissol, D.; Yao, Y.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a mobile source that we attempt to detect with man-portable, vehicle-mounted or boat-mounted radiation detectors. The source is assumed to transit an area populated with these mobile detectors, and the objective is to detect the source before it reaches a perimeter. We describe a simulation model developed to estimate the probability that one of the mobile detectors will come in to close proximity of the moving source and detect it. We illustrate with a maritime simulation example. Our simulation takes place in a 10 km by 5 km rectangular bay patrolled by boats equipped with 2-inch x 4-inch x 16-inch NaI detectors. Boats to be inspected enter the bay and randomly proceed to one of seven harbors on the shore. A source-bearing boat enters the mouth of the bay and proceeds to a pier on the opposite side. We wish to determine the probability that the source is detected and its range from target when detected. Patrol boats select the nearest in-bound boat for inspection and initiate an intercept course. Once within an operational range for the detection system, a detection algorithm is started. If the patrol boat confirms the source is not present, it selects the next nearest boat for inspection. Each run of the simulation ends either when a patrol successfully detects a source or when the source reaches its target. Several statistical detection algorithms have been implemented in the simulation model. First, a simple k-sigma algorithm, which alarms with the counts in a time window exceeds the mean background plus k times the standard deviation of background, is available to the user. The time window used is optimized with respect to the signal-to-background ratio for that range and relative speed. Second, a sequential probability ratio test [Wald 1947] is available, and configured in this simulation with a target false positive probability of 0.001 and false negative probability of 0.1. This test is utilized when the mobile detector maintains

  10. Subaqueous ice-contact fans: Depositional systems characterised by highly aggradational supercritical flow conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Joerg; Winsemann, Jutta

    2015-04-01

    Subaqueous ice-contact fans are deposited by high-energy plane-wall jets from subglacial conduits into standing water bodies. Highly aggradational conditions during flow expansion and deceleration allow for the preservation of bedforms related to supercritical flows, which are commonly considered rare in the depositional record. We present field examples from gravelly and sandy subaqueous ice-contact fan successions, which indicate that deposition by supercritical flows might be considered as a characteristic feature of these depositional systems. The studied successions were deposited in deep ice-dammed lakes, which formed along the margins of the Middle Pleistocene Scandinavian ice sheets across Northern Germany. The gravel-rich subaqueous fan deposits are dominated by large scour-fills (up to 25 m wide and 3 m) deep and deposits of turbulent hyperconcentrated flows, which are partly attributed to supercritical flow conditions (Winsemann et al., 2009). Scours (up to 4.5 m wide and 0.9 m deep) infilled by gravelly backsets are observed above laterally extensive erosional surfaces and are interpreted as deposits of cyclic steps. Laterally discontinuous beds of low-angle cross-stratified gravel are interpreted as antidune deposits. Downflow and up-section the gravel-rich deposits pass into sand-rich successions, which include deposits of chutes-and-pools, breaking antidunes, stationary antidunes and humpback dunes (Lang and Winsemann, 2013). Deposits of chutes-and-pools and breaking antidunes are characterised by scour-fills (up to 4 m wide and 1.2 m deep) comprising backsets or gently dipping sigmoidal foresets. Stationary antidune deposits consist of laterally extensive sinusoidal waveforms with long wavelengths (1-12 m) and low amplitudes (0.1-0.5 m), which formed under quasi-steady flows at the lower limit of the supercritical flow stage and high rates of sedimentation. Humpback dunes are characterised by divergent sigmoidal foresets and are interpreted as

  11. Laboratory Deposition Apparatus to Study the Effects of Wax Deposition on Pipe Magnetic Field Leakage Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Mohd Fauzi Abd

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Accurate technique for wax deposition detection and severity measurement on cold pipe wall is important for pipeline cleaning program. Usually these techniques are validated by conventional techniques on laboratory scale wax deposition flow loop. However conventional techniques inherent limitations and it is difficult to reproduce a predetermine wax deposit profile and hardness at designated location in flow loop. An alternative wax deposition system which integrates modified pour casting method and cold finger method is presented. This system is suitable to reproduce high volume of medium hard wax deposit in pipe with better control of wax deposit profile and hardness.

  12. 46 CFR 108.404 - Selection of fire detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... space. (b) The fire detection system must be designed to minimize false alarms. ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Selection of fire detection system. 108.404 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.404 Selection of fire detection system. (a) If a...

  13. The distribution of heavy metals content in the bottom deposits of the trans-border Uzh river system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Bilkey

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics and peculiarities of the heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, As, V, Cr, Ni migration were established in the system of the river Uzh bottom deposits. An excess in maximum permissible concentration among such elements as Zn, V, As, and Cu was detected in surface waters. We may connect the elevated level of Cu and Zn with natural (metals appearing in ground water run-off, ablation from iron ore, the reaction of interstitial water, anthropogenic (sewage disposals from communal households and manufacturing plants, agricultural run-offs, and hydrochemical (pH of water medium, methylation of non-organic metal compounds, metals release from the organic compounds composition, ingress from bottom deposits factors. The high concentrations of vanadium in water as well as in bottom deposits are most probably induced by the leaching of elements from the regional volcanic rocks. The plumbum content did not exceed the higher-than-normal rates; however, significant element accumulation was detected in bottom deposits outside the city of Uzhgorod which may be the result of ecotoxicant ingress along with land runoff from the riverside highways laid parallel to the water course. In comparison with background measures, the highest chromium and nickel concentrations were detected near the streamlet Domoradzh and, therefore, it is assumed that the industrial wastewaters serve here as a source of heavy metals. The reservoir in the lowland is above all enriched by arsenic. Areas under agricultural use are significantly concentrated in lowlands. Runoffs from these areas are the main source of the ore supply. However, the impact of municipal domestic waste water which contains arsenic-containing detergents should not be excluded. Moreover, we found a relationship between the relief heterogeneity of the study area and distribution of heavy metals in the hydro-ecosystem. The accomplished comparative analysis of the territories under study indicates the significant

  14. Two depositional models for Pliocene coastal plain fluvial systems, Goliad Formation, south Texas Gulf Coastal plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoel, H.D.; Galloway, W.E.

    1983-01-01

    The Goliad Formation consists of four depositional systems-the Realitos and Mathis bed-load fluvial systems in the southwest and the Cuero and Eagle Lake mixed-load fluvial systems in the northeast. Five facies are recognized in the Realitos and Mathis bed-load fluvial systems: (1) primary channel-fill facies, (2) chaotic flood channel-fill facies, (3) complex splay facies, (4) flood plain facies, and (5) playa facies. A model for Realitos-Mathis depositional environments shows arid-climate braided stream complexes with extremely coarse sediment load, highly variable discharge, and marked channel instability. Broad, shallow, straight to slightly sinuous primary channels were flanked by wide flood channels. Flood channels passed laterally into broad, low-relief flood plains. Small playas occupied topographic lows near large channel axes. Three facies are recognized in the Cuero and Eagle Lake mixed-load fluvial systems: (1) channel-fill facies, (2) crevasse splay facies, and (3) flood plain facies. A model for Cuero-Eagle Lake depositional environments shows coarse-grained meander belts in a semi-arid climate. Slightly to moderately sinuous meandering streams were flanked by low, poorly developed natural levees. Crevasse splays were common, but tended to be broad and ill-defined. Extensive, low-relief flood plains occupied interaxial areas. The model proposed for the Realitos and Mathis fluvial systems may aid in recognition of analogous ancient depositional systems. In addition, since facies characteristics exercise broad controls on Goliad uranium mineralization, the proposed depositional models aid in defining target zones for Goliad uranium exploration

  15. Smart sensor systems for outdoor intrusion detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynn, J.K.

    1988-01-01

    A major improvement in outdoor perimeter security system probability of detection (PD) and reduction in false alarm rate (FAR) and nuisance alarm rate (NAR) may be obtained by analyzing the indications immediately preceding an event which might be interpreted as an intrusion. Existing systems go into alarm after crossing a threshold. Very slow changes, which accumulate until the threshold is reached, may be assessed falsely as an intrusion. A hierarchial program has begun at Stellar to develop a modular, expandable Smart Sensor system which may be interfaced to most types of sensor and alarm reporting systems. A major upgrade to the SSI Test Site is in progress so that intrusions may be simulated in a controlled and repeatable manner. A test platform is being constructed which will operate in conduction with a mobile instrumentation center with CCTVB, lighting control, weather and data monitoring and remote control of the test platform and intrusion simulators. Additional testing was contracted with an independent test facility to assess the effects of severe winter weather conditions

  16. Carbonate Channel-Levee Systems Influenced by Mass-Transport Deposition, Browse Basin, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, D.; Janson, X.; Sanchez-Phelps, C.; Covault, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    Submarine channels are primary conduits for clastic sediment transport to deep-water basins, thereby controlling the location of marine depocenters and sediment bypass. The evolution and depositional character of submarine channels have broad implications to sediment dispersal, sediment quality, and hydrocarbon exploration potential. Siliciclastic channel systems have been extensively studied in modern environments, seismic and outcrop; however, carbonate channel-levee deposits have only recently been explored. Here we utilize newly released high-resolution (90 Hz) seismic-reflection data from the Australian Browse Basin to document the influence of mass-transport complex (MTC) deposition on the stratigraphic architecture of carbonate channel-levee systems. The 2014 vintage seismic survey is 2500 km2 and hosts numerous large Miocene-age carbonate channel-levee complexes basinward of the shelf edge. Regional horizons and individual channel forms were mapped. Channels range from 200-300 m wide and are bounded by high-relief levee-overbank wedges (>100 ms TWTT). These channels extend across the survey area >70 km. The leveed-channels were sourced from middle and late Miocene slope gullies linked to platform carbonates. Slope-attached and locally derived MTC's are evident throughout the Miocene section likely related to periods of basin inversion and shelf-edge gully incision. We interpret that regionally extensive (>1000 km2) slope-attached MTC's can shut down a channel-levee system and trigger the initiation of a new system, whereas more locally derived (interactions with MTC's are similar to siliciclastic analogs. The similarity in stratigraphic patterns between siliciclastic and carbonate depositional systems suggests similar formative processes related to submarine mass wasting and turbidity currents, which informs depositional models of carbonate slope systems and calls for re-evaluation of the controls on stratigraphic patterns in mixed siliciclastic

  17. Increasing Trust in Banking and Developing Insurance System for Bank Deposits in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Dmitriev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the topical issues connected with changes are considered, occurring in the banking sector of Russia, the number of the operating credit organizations caused by essential reduction, intensive revocation of licenses on bank activity at the credit organizations Bank of Russia. According to the author, in this regard there is a number of the problems connected with sufficiency of a network of the operating credit organizations of requirement of ensuring economic growth, formation of the healthy competitive environment, sufficiency of Fund of insurance of deposits for providing guarantees to investors in case of bankruptcy of banks. In article, recent trends of insurance of deposits in the countries of EEC and the USA are considered. Taking into account the revealed tendencies problems of functioning of system of insurance of deposits of citizens in the Russian commercial banks are analyzed. To number of such problems are carried: insufficient volume of an insurance covering; concentration of deposits mainly in the large banks which are on the one hand, carriers of system risk, with another, - in which capitals participates the state, having thus subsidiary responsibility; limited set of functions of Agency and some other. Taking into account the carried-out analysis and an assessment of operating system of insurance of deposits it is offered: to develop the mechanism of overcoming of "moral" risk; increase of financial literacy of the population, in view of activity of some banks on advance in a segment of private investors of the products which aren't covered by system of guaranteeing; to define introduction of the mechanism of differentiation of contributions to the ASV insurance Fund depending on degree of riskiness of activity of participating bank of system, system modernization risk - the focused supervision as bases of stable functioning of the banking sector and its hotel institutes.

  18. Prospects of damaged calcareous spring systems in temperate Europe : Can we restore travertine-marl deposition?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootjans, Ab; Bulte, Marc; Wolejko, Leslaw; Pakalne, Mara; Dullo, Bikila; Eck, Nelly; Fritz, Christian

    Calcareous mires are peat forming systems fed by calcareous groundwater that regularly deposit travertine (CaCO3) on the soil surface or in small pools that are present in such mires. At present almost all calcareous mires in Poland are degraded, most often by land use, which has led to disturbances

  19. Multi-electron beam system for high resolution electron beam induced deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Bruggen, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    The development of a multi-electron beam system is described which is dedicated for electron beam induced deposition (EBID) with sub-10 nm resolution. EBID is a promising mask-less nanolithography technique which has the potential to become a viable technique for the fabrication of 20-2 nm

  20. Low affinity of heterotrophic bacteria to loose deposits in drinking water distribution systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poças, A.; Napier, V.; Neto, C.; Ferreira, E.; Benoliel, M.J.; Rietveld, L.C.; Vreeburg, J.; Menaia, J.

    2015-01-01

    Loose deposits (LD) accumulate in drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) and may lead to tap water discoloration incidents upon resuspension. While inconvenient for the consumers and the water companies, discoloration may be accompanied by degradation of the microbiological quality of the

  1. A Magnetron Sputter Deposition System for the Development of X-Ray Multilayer Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadway, David

    2015-01-01

    The project objective is to establish the capability to deposit multilayer structures for x-ray, neutron, and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) optic applications through the development of a magnetron sputtering deposition system. A specific goal of this endeavor is to combine multilayer deposition technology with the replication process in order to enhance NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) position as a world leader in the design of innovative x-ray instrumentation through the development of full shell replicated multilayer optics. The development of multilayer structures are absolutely necessary in order to advance the field of x-ray astronomy by pushing the limit for observing the universe to ever-increasing photon energies (i.e., up to 200 keV or higher), well beyond Chandra's (approx.10 keV) and NuStar's (approx.75 keV) capability. The addition of multilayer technology would significantly enhance the x-ray optics capability at MSFC and allow NASA to maintain its world leadership position in the development, fabrication, and design of innovative x-ray instrumentation, which would be the first of its kind by combining multilayer technology with the mirror replication process. This marriage of these technologies would allow astronomers to see the universe in a new light by pushing to higher energies that are out of reach with today's instruments. To this aim, a magnetron vacuum sputter deposition system for the deposition of novel multilayer thin film x-ray optics is proposed. A significant secondary use of the vacuum deposition system includes the capability to fabricate multilayers for applications in the field of EUV optics for solar physics, neutron optics, and x-ray optics for a broad range of applications including medical imaging.

  2. A Magnetron Sputter Deposition System for the Development of Multilayer X-Ray Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadway, David; Ramsey, Brian; Gubarev, Mikhail

    2014-01-01

    The proposal objective is to establish the capability to deposit multilayer structures for x-ray, neutron, and EUV optic applications through the development of a magnetron sputtering deposition system. A specific goal of this endeavor is to combine multilayer deposition technology with the replication process in order to enhance the MSFC's position as a world leader in the design of innovative X-ray instrumentation through the development of full shell replicated multilayer optics. The development of multilayer structures is absolutely necessary in order to advance the field of X-ray astronomy by pushing the limit for observing the universe to ever increasing photon energies (i. e. up to 200 keV or higher); well beyond Chandra (approx. 10 keV) and NuStar's (approx. 75 keV) capability. The addition of multilayer technology would significantly enhance the X-ray optics capability at MSFC and allow NASA to maintain its world leadership position in the development, fabrication and design of innovative X-ray instrumentation which would be the first of its kind by combining multilayer technology with the mirror replication process. This marriage of these technologies would allow astronomers to see the universe in a new light by pushing to higher energies that are out of reach with today's instruments.To this aim, a magnetron vacum sputter deposition system for the deposition of novel multilayer thin film X-ray optics is proposed. A significant secondary use of the vacuum deposition system includes the capability to fabricate multilayers for applications in the field of EUV optics for solar physics, neutron optics, and X-ray optics for a broad range of applications including medical imaging.

  3. Reimagining Carbon Sequestration in Fluviodeltaic Systems: Contributions from Clastic Overbank Deposits versus Peat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, K. L.; Shen, Z.; Tornqvist, T. E.; Steponaitis, E.; Rosenheim, B. E.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding how natural systems sequester carbon, and at what rates, is critical for planning future climate change mitigation strategies. For the decade from 2006-2015, average annual CO2 emissions to the atmosphere ( 11 Pg C) are not completely offset by atmospheric retention and oceanic uptake ( 5 Pg C and 2.5 Pg C, respectively) (LeQuéré et al., 2016) implying residual terrestrial C sinks that are not fully understood. Rivers are increasingly recognized as playing a complex role in the global C cycle which, beyond acting as a source of CO2to the atmosphere, may act as a C sink. Here, we find that the mechanisms of C transfer through fluviodeltaic systems include various means of C storage and contribute significantly to the global unidentified terrestrial C sink. C sequestration by coastal wetlands - at a globally averaged rate of 200 g C/m2/yr - has been widely recognized as an important mechanism for terrestrial C sequestration, with less attention paid to the role of inland fluvial to deltaic deposition. We sampled three cores in the central Mississippi Delta for C content (using elemental analysis) and bulk density in fluviodeltaic overbank deposits as well as intercalated peat. We also established a flexible, Bayesian age-depth model using Bacon (Blaauw and Christen 2011) in order to calculate sediment accumulation rates from 14C and OSL ages. Peat deposits sequester C at an average rate of 40 g C/m2/yr. The relatively organic-poor overbank sediments sequester C at an average rate of 200 g C/m2/yr including what are likely punctuated periods of very fast deposition. While the episodic nature of overbank deposits make quantifying an annual impact difficult, it is clear that overbank deposition is an important and efficient mechanism for C sequestration in fluviodeltaic systems that deserves continued investigation.

  4. A Palaeoproterozoic multi-stage hydrothermal alteration system at Nalunaq gold deposit, South Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bell, Robin-Marie; Kolb, Jochen; Waight, Tod Earle

    2017-01-01

    Nalunaq is an orogenic, high gold grade deposit situated on the Nanortalik Peninsula, South Greenland. Mineralisation is hosted in shear zone-controlled quartz veins, located in fine- and medium-grained amphibolite. The deposit was the site of Greenland’s only operating metalliferous mine until its...... closure in 2014, having produced 10.67 t of gold. This study uses a combination of field investigation, petrography and U/Pb zircon and titanite geochronology to define a multistage hydrothermal alteration system at Nalunaq. A clinopyroxene-plagioclase-garnet(-sulphide) alteration zone (CPGZ) developed...

  5. Deposition of hybrid organic-inorganic composite coatings using an atmospheric plasma jet system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembele, Amidou; Rahman, Mahfujur; Reid, Ian; Twomey, Barry; MacElroy, J M Don; Dowling, Denis P

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of alcohol addition on the incorporation of metal oxide nanoparticles into nm thick siloxane coatings. Titanium oxide (TiO2) nanoparticles with diameters of 30-80 nm were incorporated into an atmospheric plasma deposited tetramethylorthosilicate (TMOS) siloxane coating. The TMOS/TiO2 coating was deposited using the atmospheric plasma jet system known as PlasmaStream. In this system the liquid precursor/nanoparticle mixture is nebulised into the plasma. It was observed that prior to being nebulised the TiO2 particles agglomerated and settled over time in the TMOS/TiO2 mixture. In order to obtain a more stable nanoparticle/TMOS suspension the addition of the alcohols methanol, octanol and pentanol to this mixture was investigated. The addition of each of these alcohols was found to stabilise the nanoparticle suspension. The effect of the alcohol was therefore assessed with respect to the properties of the deposited coatings. It was observed that coatings deposited from TMOS/TiO2, with and without the addition of methanol were broadly similar. In contrast the coatings deposited with octanol and pentanol addition to the TMOS/TiO2 mixture were significantly thicker, for a given set of deposition parameters and were also more homogeneous. This would indicate that the alcohol precursor was incorporated into the plasma polymerised siloxane. The incorporation of the organic functionality from the alcohols was confirmed from FTIR spectra of the coatings. The difference in behaviour with alcohol type is likely to be due to the lower boiling point of methanol (65 degrees C), which is lower than the maximum plasma temperature measured at the jet orifice (77 degrees C). This temperature is significantly lower than the 196 degrees C and 136 degrees C boiling points of octanol and pentanol respectively. The friction of the coatings was determined using the Pin-on-disc technique. The more organic coatings deposited with

  6. On-chip microlasers for biomolecular detection via highly localized deposition of a multifunctional phospholipid ink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bog, Uwe; Laue, Thomas; Grossmann, Tobias; Beck, Torsten; Wienhold, Tobias; Richter, Benjamin; Hirtz, Michael; Fuchs, Harald; Kalt, Heinz; Mappes, Timo

    2013-07-21

    We report on a novel approach to realize on-chip microlasers, by applying highly localized and material-saving surface functionalization of passive photonic whispering gallery mode microresonators. We apply dip-pen nanolithography on a true three-dimensional structure. We coat solely the light-guiding circumference of pre-fabricated poly(methyl methacrylate) resonators with a multifunctional molecular ink. The functionalization is performed in one single fabrication step and simultaneously provides optical gain as well as molecular binding selectivity. This allows for a direct and flexible realization of on-chip microlasers, which can be utilized as biosensors in optofluidic lab-on-a-chip applications. In a proof-of-concept we show how this highly localized molecule deposition suffices for low-threshold lasing in air and water, and demonstrate the capability of the ink-lasers as biosensors in a biotin-streptavidin binding experiment.

  7. The design method and research status of vehicle detection system based on geomagnetic detection principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y. H.; Bai, R.; Qian, Z. H.

    2018-03-01

    Vehicle detection systems are applied to obtain real-time information of vehicles, realize traffic control and reduce traffic pressure. This paper reviews geomagnetic sensors as well as the research status of the vehicle detection system. Presented in the paper are also our work on the vehicle detection system, including detection algorithms and experimental results. It is found that the GMR based vehicle detection system has a detection accuracy up to 98% with a high potential for application in the road traffic control area.

  8. Optical fiber-applied radiation detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiura, Ryuichi; Uranaka, Yasuo; Izumi, Nobuyuki

    2001-01-01

    A technique to measure radiation by using plastic scintillation fibers doped radiation fluorescent (scintillator) to plastic optical fiber for a radiation sensor, was developed. The technique contains some superiority such as high flexibility due to using fibers, relatively easy large area due to detecting portion of whole of fibers, and no electromagnetic noise effect due to optical radiation detection and signal transmission. Measurable to wide range of and continuous radiation distribution along optical fiber cable at a testing portion using scintillation fiber and flight time method, the optical fiber-applied radiation sensing system can effectively monitor space radiation dose or apparatus operation condition monitoring. And, a portable type scintillation optical fiber body surface pollution monitor can measure pollution concentration of radioactive materials attached onto body surface by arranging scintillation fiber processed to a plate with small size and flexibility around a man to be tested. Here were described on outline and fundamental properties of various application products using these plastic scintillation fiber. (G.K.)

  9. Automatic system for detecting pornographic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kevin I. C.; Chen, Tung-Shou; Ho, Jun-Der

    2002-09-01

    Due to the dramatic growth of network and multimedia technology, people can more easily get variant information by using Internet. Unfortunately, it also makes the diffusion of illegal and harmful content much easier. So, it becomes an important topic for the Internet society to protect and safeguard Internet users from these content that may be encountered while surfing on the Net, especially children. Among these content, porno graphs cause more serious harm. Therefore, in this study, we propose an automatic system to detect still colour porno graphs. Starting from this result, we plan to develop an automatic system to search porno graphs or to filter porno graphs. Almost all the porno graphs possess one common characteristic that is the ratio of the size of skin region and non-skin region is high. Based on this characteristic, our system first converts the colour space from RGB colour space to HSV colour space so as to segment all the possible skin-colour regions from scene background. We also apply the texture analysis on the selected skin-colour regions to separate the skin regions from non-skin regions. Then, we try to group the adjacent pixels located in skin regions. If the ratio is over a given threshold, we can tell if the given image is a possible porno graph. Based on our experiment, less than 10% of non-porno graphs are classified as pornography, and over 80% of the most harmful porno graphs are classified correctly.

  10. Method and system for near-field spectroscopy using targeted deposition of nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark S. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    There is provided in one embodiment of the invention a method for analyzing a sample material using surface enhanced spectroscopy. The method comprises the steps of imaging the sample material with an atomic force microscope (AFM) to select an area of interest for analysis, depositing nanoparticles onto the area of interest with an AFM tip, illuminating the deposited nanoparticles with a spectrometer excitation beam, and disengaging the AFM tip and acquiring a localized surface enhanced spectrum. The method may further comprise the step of using the AFM tip to modulate the spectrometer excitation beam above the deposited nanoparticles to obtain improved sensitivity data and higher spatial resolution data from the sample material. The invention further comprises in one embodiment a system for analyzing a sample material using surface enhanced spectroscopy.

  11. Distributed gas detection system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challener, William Albert; Palit, Sabarni; Karp, Jason Harris; Kasten, Ansas Matthias; Choudhury, Niloy

    2017-11-21

    A distributed gas detection system includes one or more hollow core fibers disposed in different locations, one or more solid core fibers optically coupled with the one or more hollow core fibers and configured to receive light of one or more wavelengths from a light source, and an interrogator device configured to receive at least some of the light propagating through the one or more solid core fibers and the one or more hollow core fibers. The interrogator device is configured to identify a location of a presence of a gas-of-interest by examining absorption of at least one of the wavelengths of the light at least one of the hollow core fibers.

  12. Introduction To Intrusion Detection System Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajni Tewatia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Security of a network is always an important issue. With the continuously growing network the basic security such as firewall virus scanner is easily deceived by modern attackers who are experts in using software vulnerabilities to achieve their goals. For preventing such attacks we need even smarter security mechanism which act proactively and intelligently. Intrusion Detection System is the solution of such requirement. Many techniques have been used to implement IDS. These technique basically used in the detector part of IDS such as Neural Network Clustering Pattern Matching Rule Based Fuzzy Logic Genetic Algorithms and many more. To improve the performance of an IDS these approaches may be used in combination to build a hybrid IDS so that benefits of two o more approaches may be combined.

  13. Systems and methods for detecting neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bross, Alan D.; Mellott, Kerry L.; Pla-Dalmau, Anna

    2005-08-09

    Systems and methods for detecting neutrons. One or more neutron-sensitive scintillators can be configured from a plurality of nano-sized particles, dopants and an extruded plastic material, such as polystyrene. The nano-sized particles can be compounded into the extruded plastic material with at least one dopant that permits the plastic material to scintillate. One or more plastic light collectors can be associated with a neutron-sensitive scintillator, such that the plastic light collector includes a central hole thereof. A wavelength-shifting fiber can then be located within the hole. The wavelength shifting (WLS) fiber absorbs scintillation light having a wavelength thereof and re-emits the light at a longer wavelength.

  14. Decision algorithms in fire detection systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Jovan D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Analogue (and addressable fire detection systems enables a new quality in improving sensitivity to real fires and reducing susceptibility to nuisance alarm sources. Different decision algorithms types were developed with intention to improve sensitivity and reduce false alarm occurrence. At the beginning, it was free alarm level adjustment based on preset level. Majority of multi-criteria decision work was based on multi-sensor (multi-signature decision algorithms - using different type of sensors on the same location or, rather, using different aspects (level and rise of one sensor measured value. Our idea is to improve sensitivity and reduce false alarm occurrence by forming groups of sensors that work in similar conditions (same world side in the building, same or similar technology or working time. Original multi-criteria decision algorithms based on level, rise and difference of level and rise from group average are discussed in this paper.

  15. Liquid chromatography detection unit, system, and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derenzo, Stephen E.; Moses, William W.

    2015-10-27

    An embodiment of a liquid chromatography detection unit includes a fluid channel and a radiation detector. The radiation detector is operable to image a distribution of a radiolabeled compound as the distribution travels along the fluid channel. An embodiment of a liquid chromatography system includes an injector, a separation column, and a radiation detector. The injector is operable to inject a sample that includes a radiolabeled compound into a solvent stream. The position sensitive radiation detector is operable to image a distribution of the radiolabeled compound as the distribution travels along a fluid channel. An embodiment of a method of liquid chromatography includes injecting a sample that comprises radiolabeled compounds into a solvent. The radiolabeled compounds are then separated. A position sensitive radiation detector is employed to image distributions of the radiolabeled compounds as the radiolabeled compounds travel along a fluid channel.

  16. Comparison of chemical solution deposition systems for the fabrication of lead zirconate titanate thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecarpentier, F.; Daglish, M.; Kemmitt, T.

    2001-01-01

    Ferroelectric thin films of lead zirconate titanate Pb(Zr x Ti 1-x )O 3 (PZT) were prepared from five chemical solution deposition (CSD) systems, namely methoxyethanol, citrate, diol, acetic acid and triethanolamine. Physical characteristics of the solutions, processing parameters and physical and electrical properties of the films were used to assess the relative advantages and disadvantages of the different chemical systems. All the CSD systems decomposed to produce single phase perovskite PZT at temperatures above 650 deg C. Thin film deposition was influenced by the specific characteristics of each system such as wetting on the substrate and viscosity. Distinct precursor effects on the thin film crystallinity and electrical performance were revealed. The diol route yielded films with the highest crystallite size, highest permittivity and lowest loss tangent. The relative permittivity exhibited by films made by the other routes were 25% to 35% lower at equivalent thicknesses. Copyright (2001) The Australian Ceramic Society

  17. The ichthyofauna of limnic systems in Quaternary deposits of extreme southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy Marques

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Quaternary in the state of Rio Grande do Sul (RS, southern Brazil, is geologically represented by the coastal plain and was originated by successive events of Pleistocene-Holocene marine transgressions and the occurrence of alluvial deposits. This paper aimed to characterize the fish assemblage occurring in a swampy Quaternary area adjacent to Lagoa Pequena, a lacustrine system connected to the west margin of the Laguna dos Patos estuary. A checklist is also provided of the ichthyofauna so far recorded in limnic systems of Quaternary deposits in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. A total of 42 species was recorded, distributed in nine orders, 18 families and 31 genera. Characidae and Cichlidae were the most representative families, comprising 15 and 4 species respectively. A bibliographic revision associated to our sample data revealed the occurrence of 156 species in limnic systems inserted in RS Quaternary deposits (114 limnic, 15 marine/estuarine/limnic, ten marine/estuarine, nine estuarine/limnic and eight marine. Characiformes and Siluriformes are the most diverse orders, corroborating the Neotropical pattern. Seven species can be considered endemic to RS Quaternary deposits.

  18. Remediation on off-gas system deposits in a radioactive waste glass melter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C.M.; Choi, A.S.; Randall, C.T.

    1991-12-31

    Since the early 1980`s, research glass melters have been used at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) to develop the reference vitrification process for immobilization of high level radioactive waste. One of the operating concerns for these melters has been the pluggage of the off-gas system with solid deposits. Samples of these deposits were analyzed to be mixture of alkali-rich chlorides, sulfates, borates, and fluorides with entrained Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} spinel, and frit particles. The spatial distribution of these deposits throughout the off-gas system indicates that they form by vapor-phase transport and subsequently condensation. Condensation of the alkali-rich phases cements entrained particulates causing the off-gas line to plug. It is concluded that off-gas system pluggage can be effectively controlled by maintaining the off-gas velocity above 16 m/s, while maintaining the off-gas temperature as high as practical below the glass softening point. This paper summarizes the results of chemical and physical analyses of off-gas deposit samples from various melters at SRL. Recent design changes made to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to alleviate the pluggage problem are also discussed.

  19. Remediation on off-gas system deposits in a radioactive waste glass melter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C.M.; Choi, A.S.; Randall, C.T.

    1991-01-01

    Since the early 1980's, research glass melters have been used at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) to develop the reference vitrification process for immobilization of high level radioactive waste. One of the operating concerns for these melters has been the pluggage of the off-gas system with solid deposits. Samples of these deposits were analyzed to be mixture of alkali-rich chlorides, sulfates, borates, and fluorides with entrained Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} spinel, and frit particles. The spatial distribution of these deposits throughout the off-gas system indicates that they form by vapor-phase transport and subsequently condensation. Condensation of the alkali-rich phases cements entrained particulates causing the off-gas line to plug. It is concluded that off-gas system pluggage can be effectively controlled by maintaining the off-gas velocity above 16 m/s, while maintaining the off-gas temperature as high as practical below the glass softening point. This paper summarizes the results of chemical and physical analyses of off-gas deposit samples from various melters at SRL. Recent design changes made to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to alleviate the pluggage problem are also discussed.

  20. The Muruntau gold deposit (Uzbekistan – A unique ancient hydrothermal system in the southern Tien Shan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf Kempe

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Muruntau gold deposit in the Central Kyzylkum, Uzbekistan is one of the largest single gold deposits worldwide. Data available from the literature are reviewed with the aim to (1 integrate the present knowledge on this unique deposit from Russian and English literature; (2 show the considerable progress made in the understanding of the genesis of the Muruntau deposit during the last decades; and (3 point to problems still open for future research. Deposit formation occurred through a multi-stage process involving sedimentation, regional metamorphism including thrusting, magmatism with formation of hornfels aureoles and several stages of hydrothermal activity. According to recent knowledge, synsedimentary or pure metamorphic formation of gold mineralization seems unlikely. The role of granite magmatism occurring roughly within the same time interval as the main hydrothermal gold precipitation remains uncertain. There are no signs of interaction of matter between the magma(s and the hydrothermal system(s. On the other hand, there was an intense, high-temperature (above 400 °C fluid – wall rock interaction resulting in the formation of gold-bearing, cone-like stockworks with veins, veinlets and gold-bearing metasomatites. Several chemical and isotope indicators hint at an involvement of lower-crustal or mantle-related sources as well as of surface waters in ore formation. Deposit formation through brecciation involving explosion, hydrothermal or tectonic breccias might explain these data. Further investigations on breccia formation as well as on the exact timing of relevant sedimentary, metamorphic, magmatic and hydrothermal events are recommended.

  1. Mud deposit formation on the open coast of the larger Patos Lagoon-Cassino Beach system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinzon, S. B.; Winterwerp, J. C.; Nogueira, R.; de Boer, G. J.

    2009-03-01

    This paper proposes an explanation of the mud deposits on the inner Shelf of Cassino Beach, South Brazil, by using computational modeling. These mud deposits are mainly formed by sediments delivered from Patos Lagoon, a coastal lagoon connected to the Shelf, next to Cassino Beach. The deposits are characterized by (soft) mud layers of about 1 m thick and are found between the -5 and -20 isobaths. Two hydrodynamic models of the larger Patos Lagoon-Cassino Beach system were calibrated against water elevation measured for a 5 months period, and against currents and salinity measured for a week period. The circulation patterns and water exchange through the mouth were analyzed as a function of local and remote wind effects, and river discharges. The remote wind effect mainly governs the quantity of water exchange with the Lagoon through its effect on mean sea level as a result of Ekman dynamics, while river discharges are important for the salinity of the exchanged water masses. Local winds augment the export-import rates by set-up and set-down within the Lagoon, but their effects are much smaller than those of the remote wind. Currents patterns on the inner Shelf during water outflow revealed a recirculation zone south of the Lagoon, induced by the local geometry and bathymetry of the system. This recirculation zone coincides with observed locations of mud deposition. Water, hence suspended sediment export occurs when remote and local winds are from the N-E, which explains why fine sediment deposits are mainly found south of the Lagoon's breakwater. A sensitivity analysis with the numerical model quantified the contribution of the various mechanisms driving the transport and fate of the fine suspended sediments, i.e. the effects of remote and local wind, of the astronomical tide, of river discharge and fresh-salt water-induced density currents, and of earth rotation. It is concluded that gravitational circulation and earth rotation affects the further dispersion of

  2. 75 FR 5009 - Proximity Detection Systems for Underground Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ... Proximity Detection Systems for Underground Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor... information regarding whether the use of proximity detection systems would reduce the risk of accidents where... . Information on MSHA-approved proximity detection systems is available on the Internet at http://www.msha.gov...

  3. Information Capacity of Direct Detection Optical Transmission Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecozzi, Antonio; Shtaif, Mark

    2018-02-01

    We show that the spectral efficiency of a direct detection transmission system is at most 1 bit/s/Hz less than the spectral efficiency of a system employing coherent detection with the same modulation format. Correspondingly, the capacity per complex degree of freedom in systems using direct detection is lower by at most 1 bit.

  4. Methods of mineral potential assessment of uranium deposits: A mineral systems approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaireth, S.

    2014-01-01

    Mineral potential represents the likelihood (probability) that an economic mineral deposit could have formed in an area. Mineral potential assessment and prospectivity analysis use a probabilistic concepts to mineral deposits, where the probability of an event (formation of a mineral deposit) is conditional on two factors : i) geological processes occurring in the area, and ii) the presence of geological features indicative of those process. For instance, one of the geological processes critical for the formation of sandstone-hosted uranium deposits in an area is transport of uranium in groundwaters. Geological features indicative of this process in an area comprise, i) presence of leachable source rocks of uranium; ii) presence of highly permeable sandstone; and iii) suitable hydrogeological gradient driving flow groundwaters. Mineral deposits can also be conceptualised as mineral systems with more emphasis on mineralising processes. This concept has some clear parallels with the petroleum systems approach which has proven to be a useful in oil and gas exploration. Mineral systems are defined as ‘all geological factors that control the generation and preservation of mineral deposits’. Seven important geological factors are outlined to define the characteristics of a hydrothermal mineral system. These factors include: i) source of the mineralising fluids and transporting legends; ii) source of metals and other ore components; iii) migration pathways which may include inflow as well as outflow zones; iv) thermal gradients; v) source of energy to mobilised fluids; vi) mechanical and structural focusing mechanism at the trap site; and vii) chemical and/or physical cause for precipitation of ore minerals at the trap site. This approach, commonly known as the ‘source’, ‘transport’ and ‘trap’ paradigm has been redefined to introduce five questions as a basis to understand spatial and temporal evolution of a mineral system at all scales (regional to

  5. Detection and correction of underassigned rotational symmetry prior to structure deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poon, Billy K.; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W.; Zwart, Peter H.; Sauter, Nicholas K.

    2010-01-01

    An X-ray structural model can be reassigned to a higher symmetry space group using the presented framework if its noncrystallographic symmetry operators are close to being exact crystallographic relationships. About 2% of structures in the Protein Data Bank can be reclassified in this way. Up to 2% of X-ray structures in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) potentially fit into a higher symmetry space group. Redundant protein chains in these structures can be made compatible with exact crystallographic symmetry with minimal atomic movements that are smaller than the expected range of coordinate uncertainty. The incidence of problem cases is somewhat difficult to define precisely, as there is no clear line between underassigned symmetry, in which the subunit differences are unsupported by the data, and pseudosymmetry, in which the subunit differences rest on small but significant intensity differences in the diffraction pattern. To help catch symmetry-assignment problems in the future, it is useful to add a validation step that operates on the refined coordinates just prior to structure deposition. If redundant symmetry-related chains can be removed at this stage, the resulting model (in a higher symmetry space group) can readily serve as an isomorphous replacement starting point for re-refinement using re-indexed and re-integrated raw data. These ideas are implemented in new software tools available at http://cci.lbl.gov/labelit

  6. Reliability of leak detection systems in LWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupperman, D.S.

    1986-10-01

    In this paper, NRC guidelines for leak detection will be reviewed, current practices described, potential safety-related problems discussed, and potential improvements in leak detection technology (with emphasis on acoustic methods) evaluated

  7. Distributed Impact Detection System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Automated impact detection and characterization on manned spacecraft has been an elusive goal due to the transitory nature of the detectable high-frequency signals....

  8. Distributed Impact Detection System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Automated impact detection and characterization on manned spacecraft has been an elusive goal due to the transitory nature of the detectable high-frequency signals....

  9. Sedimentary architecture and depositional controls of a Holocene wave-dominated barrier-island system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fruergaard, Mikkel; Johannessen, Peter N.; Nielsen, Lars Henrik

    2018-01-01

    control. This study investigates the relative role of forcing conditions, such as antecedent topography, sea-level rise, sediment supply, storms and climate changes, on the evolution of a Holocene wave-dominated barrier-island system. This article presents temporal reconstruction of the depositional...... history of the barrier-island system of Rømø in the Wadden Sea in unprecedented detail, based on ground-penetration radar profiles, sediment cores, high-resolution dating and palynological investigations, and shows that ca 8000 years ago the barrier island formed on a Pleistocene topographic high. During...... the initial phase of barrier evolution the long-term sea-level rise was relatively rapid (ca 9 mm/yr) and the barrier was narrow and frequently overwashed. Sediment supply kept pace with sea-level rise and the barrier-island system mainly aggraded through the deposition of a ca 7 m thick stack of overwash...

  10. Hybrid Intrusion Detection System for DDoS Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özge Cepheli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Distributed denial-of-service (DDoS attacks are one of the major threats and possibly the hardest security problem for today’s Internet. In this paper we propose a hybrid detection system, referred to as hybrid intrusion detection system (H-IDS, for detection of DDoS attacks. Our proposed detection system makes use of both anomaly-based and signature-based detection methods separately but in an integrated fashion and combines the outcomes of both detectors to enhance the overall detection accuracy. We apply two distinct datasets to our proposed system in order to test the detection performance of H-IDS and conclude that the proposed hybrid system gives better results than the systems based on nonhybrid detection.

  11. Safe Detection System for Hydrogen Leaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lieberman, Robert A. [Intelligent Optical Systems, Inc., Torrance, CA (United States); Beshay, Manal [Intelligent Optical Systems, Inc., Torrance, CA (United States)

    2012-02-29

    Hydrogen is an "environmentally friendly" fuel for future transportation and other applications, since it produces only pure ("distilled") water when it is consumed. Thus, hydrogen-powered vehicles are beginning to proliferate, with the total number of such vehicles expected to rise to nearly 100,000 within the next few years. However, hydrogen is also an odorless, colorless, highly flammable gas. Because of this, there is an important need for hydrogen safety monitors that can warn of hazardous conditions in vehicles, storage facilities, and hydrogen production plants. To address this need, IOS has developed a unique intrinsically safe optical hydrogen sensing technology, and has embodied it in detector systems specifically developed for safety applications. The challenge of using light to detect a colorless substance was met by creating chemically-sensitized optical materials whose color changes in the presence of hydrogen. This reversible reaction provides a sensitive, reliable, way of detecting hydrogen and measuring its concentration using light from low-cost LEDs. Hydrogen sensors based on this material were developed in three completely different optical formats: point sensors ("optrodes"), integrated optic sensors ("optical chips"), and optical fibers ("distributed sensors") whose entire length responds to hydrogen. After comparing performance, cost, time-to-market, and relative market need for these sensor types, the project focused on designing a compact optrode-based single-point hydrogen safety monitor. The project ended with the fabrication of fifteen prototype units, and the selection of two specific markets: fuel cell enclosure monitoring, and refueling/storage safety. Final testing and development of control software for these markets await future support.

  12. Planet Detectability in the Alpha Centauri System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lily; Fischer, Debra A.; Brewer, John; Giguere, Matt; Rojas-Ayala, Bárbara

    2018-01-01

    We use more than a decade of radial-velocity measurements for α {Cen} A, B, and Proxima Centauri from the High Accuracy Radial Velocity Planet Searcher, CTIO High Resolution Spectrograph, and the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph to identify the M\\sin i and orbital periods of planets that could have been detected if they existed. At each point in a mass–period grid, we sample a simulated, Keplerian signal with the precision and cadence of existing data and assess the probability that the signal could have been produced by noise alone. Existing data places detection thresholds in the classically defined habitable zones at about M\\sin i of 53 {M}\\oplus for α {Cen} A, 8.4 {M}\\oplus for α {Cen} B, and 0.47 {M}\\oplus for Proxima Centauri. Additionally, we examine the impact of systematic errors, or “red noise” in the data. A comparison of white- and red-noise simulations highlights quasi-periodic variability in the radial velocities that may be caused by systematic errors, photospheric velocity signals, or planetary signals. For example, the red-noise simulations show a peak above white-noise simulations at the period of Proxima Centauri b. We also carry out a spectroscopic analysis of the chemical composition of the α {Centauri} stars. The stars have super-solar metallicity with ratios of C/O and Mg/Si that are similar to the Sun, suggesting that any small planets in the α {Cen} system may be compositionally similar to our terrestrial planets. Although the small projected separation of α {Cen} A and B currently hampers extreme-precision radial-velocity measurements, the angular separation is now increasing. By 2019, α {Cen} A and B will be ideal targets for renewed Doppler planet surveys.

  13. Detection of contamination of municipal water distribution systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F [Oakland, CA

    2012-01-17

    A system for the detection of contaminates of a fluid in a conduit. The conduit is part of a fluid distribution system. A chemical or biological sensor array is connected to the conduit. The sensor array produces an acoustic signal burst in the fluid upon detection of contaminates in the fluid. A supervisory control system connected to the fluid and operatively connected to the fluid distribution system signals the fluid distribution system upon detection of contaminates in the fluid.

  14. Complement deposition in autoimmune hemolytic anemia is a footprint for difficult-to-detect IgM autoantibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulenbroek, Elisabeth M.; de Haas, Masja; Brouwer, Conny; Folman, Claudia; Zeerleder, Sacha S.; Wouters, Diana

    2015-01-01

    In autoimmune hemolytic anemia autoantibodies against erythrocytes lead to increased clearance of the erythrocytes, which in turn results in a potentially fatal hemolytic anemia. Depending on whether IgG or IgM antibodies are involved, response to therapy is different. Proper identification of the isotype of the anti-erythrocyte autoantibodies is, therefore, crucial. However, detection of IgM autoantibodies can be challenging. We, therefore, set out to improve the detection of anti-erythrocyte IgM. Direct detection using a flow cytometry-based approach did not yield satisfactory improvements. Next, we analyzed whether the presence of complement C3 on a patient’s erythrocytes could be used for indirect detection of anti-erythrocyte IgM. To this end, we fractionated patients’ sera by size exclusion chromatography and tested which fractions yielded complement deposition on erythrocytes. Strikingly, we found that all patients with C3 on their erythrocytes according to standard diagnostic tests had an IgM anti-erythrocyte component that could activate complement, even if no such autoantibody had been detected with any other test. This also included all tested patients with only IgG and C3 on their erythrocytes, who would previously have been classified as having an IgG-only mediated autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Depleting patients’ sera of either IgG or IgM and testing the remaining complement activation confirmed this result. In conclusion, complement activation in autoimmune hemolytic anemia is mostly IgM-mediated and the presence of covalent C3 on patients’ erythrocytes can be taken as a footprint of the presence of anti-erythrocyte IgM. Based on this finding, we propose a diagnostic workflow that will aid in choosing the optimal treatment strategy. PMID:26354757

  15. Research on IPv6 intrusion detection system Snort-based

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zihao; Wang, Hui

    2010-07-01

    This paper introduces the common intrusion detection technologies, discusses the work flow of Snort intrusion detection system, and analyzes IPv6 data packet encapsulation and protocol decoding technology. We propose the expanding Snort architecture to support IPv6 intrusion detection in accordance with CIDF standard combined with protocol analysis technology and pattern matching technology, and present its composition. The research indicates that the expanding Snort system can effectively detect various intrusion attacks; it is high in detection efficiency and detection accuracy and reduces false alarm and omission report, which effectively solves the problem of IPv6 intrusion detection.

  16. A predictive model for the chemical vapor deposition of polysilicon in a cold wall, rapid thermal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toprac, A.J.; Trachtenberg, I.; Edgar, T.F. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-06-01

    The chemical vapor deposition of polysilicon from thermally activated silane in a cold wall, single-wafer rapid thermal system was studied by experimentation at a variety of low pressure conditions, including very high temperatures. The effect of diluent gas on polysilicon deposition rates was examined using hydrogen, helium, and krypton. A mass-transfer model for the chemical vapor deposition of polysilicon in a cold wall, rapid thermal system was developed. This model was used to produce an empirical rate expression for silicon deposition from silane by regressing kinetic parameters to fit experimental data. The resulting model provided accurate predictions over widely varying conditions in the experimental data.

  17. Study and characterization of an integrated circuit-deposited hydrogenated amorphous silicon sensor for the detection of particles and radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despeisse, M.

    2006-03-01

    Next generation experiments at the European laboratory of particle physics (CERN) require particle detector alternatives to actual silicon detectors. This thesis presents a novel detector technology, which is based on the deposition of a hydrogenated amorphous silicon sensor on top of an integrated circuit. Performance and limitations of this technology have been assessed for the first time in this thesis in the context of particle detectors. Specific integrated circuits have been designed and the detector segmentation, the interface sensor-chip and the sensor leakage current have been studied in details. The signal induced by the track of an ionizing particle in the sensor has been characterized and results on the signal speed, amplitude and on the sensor resistance to radiation are presented. The results are promising regarding the use of this novel technology for radiation detection, though limitations have been shown for particle physics application. (author)

  18. Nanocrystalline Tin Oxide Nanofibers Deposited by a Novel Focused Electrospinning Method. Application to the Detection of TATP Precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pedro Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new method of depositing tin dioxide nanofibers in order to develop chemical sensors is presented. It involves an electrospinning process with in-plane electrostatic focusing over micromechanized substrates. It is a fast and reproducible method. After an annealing process, which can be performed by the substrate heaters, it is observed that the fibers are intertwined forming porous networks that are randomly distributed on the substrate. The fiber diameters oscillate from 100 nm to 200 nm and fiber lengths reach several tens of microns. Each fiber has a polycrystalline structure with multiple nano-grains. The sensors have been tested for the detection of acetone and hydrogen peroxide (precursors of the explosive triacetone triperoxide, TATP in air in the ppm range. High and fast responses to these gases have been obtained.

  19. Nanocrystalline tin oxide nanofibers deposited by a novel focused electrospinning method. Application to the detection of TATP precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, José Pedro; Fernández, Maria Jesús; Fontecha, José Luis; Matatagui, Daniel; Sayago, Isabel; Horrillo, Maria Carmen; Gracia, Isabel

    2014-12-16

    A new method of depositing tin dioxide nanofibers in order to develop chemical sensors is presented. It involves an electrospinning process with in-plane electrostatic focusing over micromechanized substrates. It is a fast and reproducible method. After an annealing process, which can be performed by the substrate heaters, it is observed that the fibers are intertwined forming porous networks that are randomly distributed on the substrate. The fiber diameters oscillate from 100 nm to 200 nm and fiber lengths reach several tens of microns. Each fiber has a polycrystalline structure with multiple nano-grains. The sensors have been tested for the detection of acetone and hydrogen peroxide (precursors of the explosive triacetone triperoxide, TATP) in air in the ppm range. High and fast responses to these gases have been obtained.

  20. Nanocrystalline Tin Oxide Nanofibers Deposited by a Novel Focused Electrospinning Method. Application to the Detection of TATP Precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, José Pedro; Fernández, Maria Jesús; Fontecha, José Luis; Matatagui, Daniel; Sayago, Isabel; Horrillo, Maria Carmen; Gracia, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    A new method of depositing tin dioxide nanofibers in order to develop chemical sensors is presented. It involves an electrospinning process with in-plane electrostatic focusing over micromechanized substrates. It is a fast and reproducible method. After an annealing process, which can be performed by the substrate heaters, it is observed that the fibers are intertwined forming porous networks that are randomly distributed on the substrate. The fiber diameters oscillate from 100 nm to 200 nm and fiber lengths reach several tens of microns. Each fiber has a polycrystalline structure with multiple nano-grains. The sensors have been tested for the detection of acetone and hydrogen peroxide (precursors of the explosive triacetone triperoxide, TATP) in air in the ppm range. High and fast responses to these gases have been obtained. PMID:25521384

  1. Application of fused deposition modeling rapid prototyping system to the development of microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hengzi; Masood, Syed; Iovenitti, Pio; Harvey, Erol C.

    2001-11-01

    Conventional methods of producing micro-scale components for BioMEMS applications such as microfluidic devices are limited to relatively simple geometries and are inefficient for prototype production. Rapid prototyping techniques may be applied to overcome these limitations. Fused Deposition Modelling is one such rapid prototyping process, which can build parts using layer by layer deposition technique with layers as low as 0.178 mm thick and using a select group of thermoplastic building materials. This paper presents the potential of Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) system, available at IRIS, in building prototypes of scaled microchannels for experimental study and verification of fluid flow in microfluidic devices. The scope and application of FDM system as a powerful and flexible rapid prototyping device is described. Microchannels of different geometries are produced in ABS material on the FDM3000 rapid prototyping system and a methodology is presented for experimental study of the mixing of fluids in microchannels in conjunction with the theoretical analysis using FlumeCAD system.

  2. Evaluation of DUSTRAN Software System for Modeling Chloride Deposition on Steel Canisters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Tracy T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jensen, Philip J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fritz, Brad G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rutz, Frederick C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Devanathan, Ram [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-07-29

    The degradation of steel by stress corrosion cracking (SCC) when exposed to atmospheric conditions for decades is a significant challenge in the fossil fuel and nuclear industries. SCC can occur when corrosive contaminants such as chlorides are deposited on a susceptible material in a tensile stress state. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has identified chloride-induced SCC as a potential cause for concern in stainless steel used nuclear fuel (UNF) canisters in dry storage. The modeling of contaminant deposition is the first step in predictive multiscale modeling of SCC that is essential to develop mitigation strategies, prioritize inspection, and ensure the integrity and performance of canisters, pipelines, and structural materials. A multiscale simulation approach can be developed to determine the likelihood that a canister would undergo SCC in a certain period of time. This study investigates the potential of DUSTRAN, a dust dispersion modeling system developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, to model the deposition of chloride contaminants from sea salt aerosols on a steel canister. Results from DUSTRAN simulations run with historical meteorological data were compared against measured chloride data at a coastal site in Maine. DUSTRAN’s CALPUFF model tended to simulate concentrations higher than those measured; however, the closest estimations were within the same order of magnitude as the measured values. The decrease in discrepancies between measured and simulated values as the level of abstraction in wind speed decreased suggest that the model is very sensitive to wind speed. However, the influence of other parameters such as the distinction between open-ocean and surf-zone sources needs to be explored further. Deposition values predicted by the DUSTRAN system were not in agreement with concentration values and suggest that the deposition calculations may not fully represent physical processes. Overall, results indicate that with parameter

  3. Thermal History Devices, Systems For Thermal History Detection, And Methods For Thermal History Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Caraveo Frescas, Jesus Alfonso

    2015-05-28

    Embodiments of the present disclosure include nanowire field-effect transistors, systems for temperature history detection, methods for thermal history detection, a matrix of field effect transistors, and the like.

  4. Fast-neutron detecting system with n, γ discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang Xiaoping; Huang Bao; Cao Jinyun

    1997-11-01

    In the present work, a new type neutron detecting system is reported, which can absolutely measure neutron parameters in n + γ mixed fields and has a long continuance of static high vacuum of 10 -4 Pa. The detecting system, with middle neutron-detecting sensitivity, short time response and big linear current output, has applied successfully in pulsed neutron beam measurement

  5. An Immunity-Based Anomaly Detection System with Sensor Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiteru Ishida

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an immunity-based anomaly detection system with sensor agents based on the specificity and diversity of the immune system. Each agent is specialized to react to the behavior of a specific user. Multiple diverse agents decide whether the behavior is normal or abnormal. Conventional systems have used only a single sensor to detect anomalies, while the immunity-based system makes use of multiple sensors, which leads to improvements in detection accuracy. In addition, we propose an evaluation framework for the anomaly detection system, which is capable of evaluating the differences in detection accuracy between internal and external anomalies. This paper focuses on anomaly detection in user’s command sequences on UNIX-like systems. In experiments, the immunity-based system outperformed some of the best conventional systems.

  6. An immunity-based anomaly detection system with sensor agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Takeshi; Ishida, Yoshiteru

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes an immunity-based anomaly detection system with sensor agents based on the specificity and diversity of the immune system. Each agent is specialized to react to the behavior of a specific user. Multiple diverse agents decide whether the behavior is normal or abnormal. Conventional systems have used only a single sensor to detect anomalies, while the immunity-based system makes use of multiple sensors, which leads to improvements in detection accuracy. In addition, we propose an evaluation framework for the anomaly detection system, which is capable of evaluating the differences in detection accuracy between internal and external anomalies. This paper focuses on anomaly detection in user's command sequences on UNIX-like systems. In experiments, the immunity-based system outperformed some of the best conventional systems.

  7. Systems and Methods for Automated Water Detection Using Visible Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Arturo L. (Inventor); Matthies, Larry H. (Inventor); Bellutta, Paolo (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Systems and methods are disclosed that include automated machine vision that can utilize images of scenes captured by a 3D imaging system configured to image light within the visible light spectrum to detect water. One embodiment includes autonomously detecting water bodies within a scene including capturing at least one 3D image of a scene using a sensor system configured to detect visible light and to measure distance from points within the scene to the sensor system, and detecting water within the scene using a processor configured to detect regions within each of the at least one 3D images that possess at least one characteristic indicative of the presence of water.

  8. Chemically evolving systems for oil recovery enhancement in heavy oil deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunina, L. K.; Kuvshinov, I. V.; Kuvshinov, V. A.; Stasyeva, L. A.

    2017-12-01

    This work presents the results of laboratory studies and field tests of new physicochemical technologies for enhanced oil recovery of heavy oil fields under natural development conditions and with thermal-steam stimulation using oil-displacing "smart" systems. The systems are based on surfactants and buffer systems. Their rheological and acid-base properties can be regulated by their chemical evolution directly in the formation. Field tests of the technologies carried out on high-viscosity oil deposit in the Usinskoye oilfield have shown that the EOR technologies are environmentally friendly and technologically effective.

  9. A Deposit-Refund System Applied to Nitrogen Emissions from Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Lars Gårn

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a nitrogen based deposit-refund system for regulating non-point nitrogen emissions from agriculture. We develop a formal model of a polluting production sector with substance content of inputs and outputs as an explicit quality dimension. Within this framework two input-output based tax schemes for regulation of agricultural nitrogen emissions are compared while taking regulator monitoring costs into account. Incentive regulation of nitrogen emissions...

  10. Deltaic Depositional Systems, Evolution Characteristics, and Petroleum Potential, Palaeogene Sub-Basin, South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Wang, Hua; Zhang, Guotao

    2015-04-01

    Deltaic depositional systems are detailed characterized by morphology and facies in a Palaeogene continental sub-basin of Beibuwan Basin, South China Sea. Based on examination of 435 m of conventional cores from 30 wells, three major types of deltaic facies have been recognized: delta, beach and shoreface. Morphology and facies asymmetry between the down-drift and the up-drift sides present a typical asymmetric delta system:1) the down-rift, sourced primarily by the feeding river, are influenced by mixed river and wave processes. Deposits on this side are muddy and consist of barrier, bar, bay-fill, and bayhead delta facies with variable bioturbation intensity; 2)the up-rift, in contrast, is sourced by a second sediment source and typically consists of laterally continuous sandy beach and shoreface facies. Finally, two fundamentally different depositional models are established and reflect a different style of sequence stratigraphic patterns: 1) Multiple-stage faults slopes developed in the down-rift side feed fine grained sediment into two stages channelized front deltaic system; 2) Flexure slope break of the up-rift side, combining with deeper gradual slopes, conversely, feed coarser grained sediment from larger drainages into sandy beach and shoreface systems. Such a distinction has well explained the differentiation of the proven hydrocarbon reserves because the up-rift consists of well-sorted, mature, and laterally continuous homogeneous beach-shoreface reservoirs, whereas the down-rift, in contrast, is muddier and consists of less continuous, less mature, heterolithic reservoirs. The Delta asymmetry concepts and models don't only challenge the traditional definition of deltas in Fushan sub-basin, but also provides strong theoretical support for the future exploration. This process-based model may be applicable to many deep-water settings and provides a framework within which to interpret the stratigraphic and spatial distribution of these complex deposits.

  11. Structural and electrical properties of an Au film system deposited on silicone oil surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Yang Bo; Jin Jin Sheng; Ye Quan Lin; Lao Yan Feng; Jiao Zheng Kuan; Ye Gao Xiang

    2002-01-01

    An Au thin film system, deposited on silicone oil surfaces by the thermal deposition method, has been fabricated and its structure as well as electrical properties has been studied. A web-shaped characteristic surface morphology of the films is observed. The dc sheet resistance R of the metal films on the liquid surfaces is measured during and after deposition in situ by the four-probe method. The time dependence of the sheet resistance can be explained in terms of the film growth mechanism on the oil surface. The anomalous I-V characteristics of the film system can be interpreted as a competition among the local Joule heating, hopping and tunnelling effects. It is found that the dc third-harmonic coefficient B sub 0 and the zero-power resistance R sub 0 satisfy the power-law relation B sub 0 propor to R sub 0 sup 2 sup + sup w and the exponent w is close to zero. This result indicates that the hopping and tunnelling effects in the samples are much stronger than those of the other film systems. We also find I...

  12. Detection of Alzheimer’s disease amyloid-beta plaque deposition by deep brain impedance profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béduer, Amélie; Joris, Pierre; Mosser, Sébastien; Fraering, Patrick C.; Renaud, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    Objective. Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common form of neurodegenerative disease in elderly people. Toxic brain amyloid-beta (Aß) aggregates and ensuing cell death are believed to play a central role in the pathogenesis of the disease. In this study, we investigated if we could monitor the presence of these aggregates by performing in situ electrical impedance spectroscopy measurements in AD model mice brains. Approach. In this study, electrical impedance spectroscopy measurements were performed post-mortem in APPPS1 transgenic mice brains. This transgenic model is commonly used to study amyloidogenesis, a pathological hallmark of AD. We used flexible probes with embedded micrometric electrodes array to demonstrate the feasibility of detecting senile plaques composed of Aß peptides by localized impedance measurements. Main results. We particularly focused on deep brain structures, such as the hippocampus. Ex vivo experiments using brains from young and old APPPS1 mice lead us to show that impedance measurements clearly correlate with the percentage of Aβ plaque load in the brain tissues. We could monitor the effects of aging in the AD APPPS1 mice model. Significance. We demonstrated that a localized electrical impedance measurement constitutes a valuable technique to monitor the presence of Aβ-plaques, which is complementary with existing imaging techniques. This method does not require prior Aβ staining, precluding the risk of variations in tissue uptake of dyes or tracers, and consequently ensuring reproducible data collection.

  13. System and method for detecting cells or components thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Marc D [Ames, IA; Lipert, Robert J [Ames, IA; Doyle, Robert T [Ames, IA; Grubisha, Desiree S [Corona, CA; Rahman, Salma [Ames, IA

    2009-01-06

    A system and method for detecting a detectably labeled cell or component thereof in a sample comprising one or more cells or components thereof, at least one cell or component thereof of which is detectably labeled with at least two detectable labels. In one embodiment, the method comprises: (i) introducing the sample into one or more flow cells of a flow cytometer, (ii) irradiating the sample with one or more light sources that are absorbed by the at least two detectable labels, the absorption of which is to be detected, and (iii) detecting simultaneously the absorption of light by the at least two detectable labels on the detectably labeled cell or component thereof with an array of photomultiplier tubes, which are operably linked to two or more filters that selectively transmit detectable emissions from the at least two detectable labels.

  14. Blind Leak Detection for Closed Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelgoetz, Peter; Johnson, Ricky; Todd, Douglas; Russell, Samuel; Walker, James

    2003-01-01

    The current inspection technique for locating interstitial leaking in the Space Shuttle Main Engine nozzles is the application of a liquid leak check solution in the openings where the interstitials space between the tubing and the structural jacket vent out the aft end of the nozzle, while its cooling tubes are pressurized to 25 psig with Helium. When a leak is found, it is classified, and if the leak is severe enough the suspect tube is cut open so that a boroscope can be inserted to find the leak point. Since the boroscope can only cover a finite tube length and since it is impossible to identify which tube (to the right or left of the identified interstitial) is leaking, many extra and undesired repairs have been made to fix just one leak. In certain instances when the interstitials are interlinked by poor braze bonding, many interstitials will show indications of leaking from a single source. What is desired is a technique that can identify the leak source so that a single repair can be performed. Dr, Samuel Russell and James Walker, both with NASA/MSFC have developed a thermographic inspection system that addresses a single repair approach. They have teamed with Boeing/Rocketdyne to repackage the inspection processes to be suitable to address full scale Shuttle development and flight hardware and implement the process at NASA centers. The methods and results presented address the thermographic identification of interstitial leaks in the Space Shuttle Main Engine nozzles. A highly sensitive digital infrared camera (capable of detecting a delta temperature difference of 0.025 C) is used to record the cooling effects associated with a leak source, such as a crack or pinhole, hidden within the nozzle wall by observing the inner hot wall surface as the nozzle is pressurized, These images are enhanced by digitally subtracting a thermal reference image taken before pressurization. The method provides a non-intrusive way of locating the tube that is leaking and the

  15. Modeling of gas-phase chemistry in the chemical vapor deposition of polysilicon in a cold wall system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toprac, A.J.; Edgar, T.F.; Trachtenberg, I. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-06-01

    The relative contribution of gas-phase chemistry to deposition processes is an important issue both from the standpoint of operation and modeling of these processes. In polysilicon deposition from thermally activated silane in a cold wall rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition (RTCVD) system, the relative contribution of gas-phase chemistry to the overall deposition rate was examined by a mass-balance model. Evaluating the process at conditions examined experimentally, the model indicated that gas-phase reactions may be neglected to good accuracy in predicting polysilicon deposition rate. The model also provided estimates of the level of gas-phase generated SiH[sub 2] associated with deposition on the cold-process chamber walls.

  16. Development and Preliminary Evaluation of a Spray Deposition Sensing System for Improving Pesticide Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesterson, Melissa A; Luck, Joe D; Sama, Michael P

    2015-12-17

    An electronic, resistance-based sensor array and data acquisition system was developed to measure spray deposition from hydraulic nozzles. The sensor surface consisted of several parallel tin plated copper traces of varying widths with varying gap widths. The system contained an embedded microprocessor to monitor output voltage corresponding to spray deposition every second. In addition, a wireless module was used to transmit the voltage values to a remote laptop. Tests were conducted in two stages to evaluate the performance of the sensor array in an attempt to quantify the spray deposition. Initial tests utilized manual droplet placement on the sensor surface to determine the effects of temperature and droplet size on voltage output. Secondary testing utilized a spray chamber to pass nozzles at different speeds above the sensor surface to determine if output varied based on different application rates or spray droplet classification. Results from this preliminary analysis indicated that manual droplets of 5 and 10 μL resulted in significantly different values from the sensors while temperature did not consistently affect output. Spray chamber test results indicated that different application rates and droplet sizes could be determined using the sensor array.

  17. MONETARY POLICY SHOCKS AND ISLAMIC BANKS DEPOSITS IN INDONESIAN DUAL BANKING SYSTEM AFTER THE FINANCIAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Affandi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Use of riba (usury in the economic system remained a key factor that led to financial crisis since theinception of modern economy in the late of 17th century. Implementation of interest based monetary policystipulated rampant speculation as common practices in the global financial sector. Although Islamic bankingwas governed by syariah (Divine Law, which was assumed to be resilient from distress, the volatility ofinterest movement would generally affect Islamic banks operations in a dual banking system. This paperwould look at this issue and would empirically explore the dynamic inter-relationships between deposits ofIslamic banks with monetary policy variables in Indonesia. In terms of market share, as of 2009, Islamicbanking asset in Indonesia was a meager 2%. The industry had been affected by few monetary policy shockson its deposits and financing. The study would employ vector auto regression model (VAR to explore thedynamics between the variables. The study would focus on data from 2004 to 2008 or performance after theAsian financial crisis. The results from these tests determined that shariah based deposits played significantrole in transmitting monetary policy effects to the economy. This study found that Islamic banking depositsin Indonesia were not sensitive to monetary policy changes. This study also concluded that IndonesianIslamic banks were resilient to financial crisis.

  18. Development and Preliminary Evaluation of a Spray Deposition Sensing System for Improving Pesticide Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A. Kesterson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An electronic, resistance-based sensor array and data acquisition system was developed to measure spray deposition from hydraulic nozzles. The sensor surface consisted of several parallel tin plated copper traces of varying widths with varying gap widths. The system contained an embedded microprocessor to monitor output voltage corresponding to spray deposition every second. In addition, a wireless module was used to transmit the voltage values to a remote laptop. Tests were conducted in two stages to evaluate the performance of the sensor array in an attempt to quantify the spray deposition. Initial tests utilized manual droplet placement on the sensor surface to determine the effects of temperature and droplet size on voltage output. Secondary testing utilized a spray chamber to pass nozzles at different speeds above the sensor surface to determine if output varied based on different application rates or spray droplet classification. Results from this preliminary analysis indicated that manual droplets of 5 and 10 μL resulted in significantly different values from the sensors while temperature did not consistently affect output. Spray chamber test results indicated that different application rates and droplet sizes could be determined using the sensor array.

  19. Balancing Aggradation and Progradation on a Vegetated Delta: The Importance of Fluctuating Discharge in Depositional Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piliouras, Anastasia; Kim, Wonsuck; Carlson, Brandee

    2017-10-01

    Vegetation is an important component of constructional landscapes, as plants enhance deposition and provide organic sediment that can increase aggradation rates to combat land loss. We conducted two sets of laboratory experiments using alfalfa (Medicago sativa) to determine the effects of plants on channel organization and large-scale delta dynamics. In the first set, we found that rapid vegetation colonization enhanced deposition but inhibited channelization via increased form drag that reduced the shear stress available for sediment entrainment and transport. A second set of experiments used discharge fluctuations between flood and base flow (or interflood). Interfloods were critical for reworking the topset via channel incision and lateral migration to create channel relief and prevent rapid plant colonization. These low-flow periods also greatly reduced the topset slope in the absence of vegetation by removing topset sediment and delivering it to the shoreline. Floods decreased relief by filling channels with sediment, resulting in periods of rapid progradation and enhanced aggradation over the topset surface, which was amplified by vegetation. The combination of discharge fluctuations and vegetation thus provided a balance of vertical aggradation and lateral progradation. We conclude that plants can inhibit channelization in depositional systems and that discharge fluctuations encourage channel network organization to naturally balance against aggradation. Thus, variations in discharge are an important aspect of understanding the ecomorphodynamics of aggrading surfaces and modeling vegetated deltaic systems, and the combined influences of plants and discharge variations can act to balance vertical and lateral delta growth.

  20. Characterization and release profile of (Mn, Al)-bearing deposits in drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guiwei; Ding, Yuanxun; Xu, Hongfu; Jin, Junwei; Shi, Baoyou

    2018-04-01

    Inorganic contaminants accumulation in drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) is a great threat to water quality and safety. This work assessed the main risk factors for different water pipes and discovered the release profile of accumulated materials in a full scale distribution system frequently suffered from water discoloration problem. Physicochemical characterization of pipe deposits were performed using X-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The metal release profile was obtained through continuous monitoring of a full-scale DWDS area. The results showed that aluminum and manganese were the main metals of deposits in nonmetallic pipes, while iron was dominant in iron-based pipe corrosion scales. Manganese primarily existed as MnO 2 without well crystalline form. The relative abundance of Mn and Fe in deposits changed with their distance from the water treatment plant. Compared with iron in corrosion scales, Mn and Al were more labile to be released back into bulk water during unidirectional flushing process. A main finding of this work is the co-release behavior of Mn and Al in particulate form and significant correlation exists between these two metals. Dual control of manganese and aluminum in treated water is proposed to be essential to cope with discoloration and trace metal contamination in DWDS. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Intrusion Detection in Control Systems using Sequence Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuchi, Mai; Onoda, Takashi

    Intrusion detection is considered effective in control systems. Sequences of the control application behavior observed in the communication, such as the order of the control device to be controlled, are important in control systems. However, most intrusion detection systems do not effectively reflect sequences in the application layer into the detection rules. In our previous work, we considered utilizing sequences for intrusion detection in control systems, and demonstrated the usefulness of sequences for intrusion detection. However, manually writing the detection rules for a large system can be difficult, so using machine learning methods becomes feasible. Also, in the case of control systems, there have been very few observed cyber attacks, so we have very little knowledge of the attack data that should be used to train the intrusion detection system. In this paper, we use an approach that combines CRF (Conditional Random Field) considering the sequence of the system, thus able to reflect the characteristics of control system sequences into the intrusion detection system, and also does not need the knowledge of attack data to construct the detection rules.

  2. Laser Obstacle Detection System Flight Testing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davis, Timothy

    2003-01-01

    ...). The Aviation Applied Technology Directorate (AATD) was contracted to mount the HELLAS sensor on the nose of a UH-60L Blackhawk helicopter and to conduct flight tests to evaluate the HELLAS obstacle detection sensor...

  3. Optimizing Systems of Threshold Detection Sensors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Banschbach, David C

    2008-01-01

    .... Below the threshold all signals are ignored. We develop a mathematical model for setting individual sensor thresholds to obtain optimal probability of detecting a significant event, given a limit on the total number of false positives allowed...

  4. Development of Mine Detection Robot System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Satsumi

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The Mine Detection Robot supports the mine removal work in countries where mines are buried, such as Afghanistan. The development started from September, 2003. Considering running on rough terrains, the robot has four crawlers, and hydraulic motors in front and rear were serially connected by piping so that they could rotate synchronously. Two work arms were mounted on the robot, one was a horizontal multi-joint SCARA type with motorized 2-link arm, while the other was a vertical multi-joint manipulator with 6 degrees of freedom. Also, domestic evaluation tests were carried out from February to March, 2005, followed by overseas validation tests in Croatia from February to March, 2006. These tests were conducted with a mine detecting senor mounted on the Robot, and the detection performance was evaluated by its mine detection rate.

  5. Development of Mine Detection Robot System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajime Aoyama

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The Mine Detection Robot supports the mine removal work in countries where mines are buried, such as Afghanistan. The development started from September, 2003. Considering running on rough terrains, the robot has four crawlers, and hydraulic motors in front and rear were serially connected by piping so that they could rotate synchronously. Two work arms were mounted on the robot, one was a horizontal multi-joint SCARA type with motorized 2-link arm, while the other was a vertical multi-joint manipulator with 6 degrees of freedom. Also, domestic evaluation tests were carried out from February to March, 2005, followed by overseas validation tests in Croatia from February to March, 2006. These tests were conducted with a mine detecting senor mounted on the Robot, and the detection performance was evaluated by its mine detection rate.

  6. A Magnetic Sensor System for Biological Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Fuquan

    2015-05-01

    Magnetic biosensors detect biological targets through sensing the stray field of magnetic beads which label the targets. Commonly, magnetic biosensors employ the “sandwich” method to immobilize biological targets, i.e., the targets are sandwiched between a bio-functionalized sensor surface and bio-functionalized magnetic beads. This method has been used very successfully in different application, but its execution requires a rather elaborate procedure including several washing and incubation steps. This dissertation investigates a new magnetic biosensor concept, which enables a simple and effective detection of biological targets. The biosensor takes advantage of the size difference between bare magnetic beads and compounds of magnetic beads and biological targets. First, the detection of super-paramagnetic beads via magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) sensors is implemented. Frequency modulation is used to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio, enabling the detection of a single magnetic bead. Second, the concept of the magnetic biosensor is investigated theoretically. The biosensor consists of an MTJ sensor, which detects the stray field of magnetic beads inside of a trap on top of the MTJ. A microwire between the trap and the MTJ is used to attract magnetic beads to the trapping well by applying a current to it. The MTJ sensor’s output depends on the number of beads inside the trap. If biological targets are in the sample solution, the beads will form bead compounds consisting of beads linked to the biological targets. Since bead compounds are larger than bare beads, the number of beads inside the trapping well will depend on the presence of biological targets. Hence, the output of the MTJ sensor will depend on the biological targets. The dependences of sensor signals on the sizes of the MTJ sensor, magnetic beads and biological targets are studied to find the optimum constellations for the detection of specific biological targets. The optimization is demonstrated

  7. Controlled density of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes in a triode plasma chemical vapor deposition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Sung Hoon; Park, Kyu Chang; Moon, Jong Hyun; Yoon, Hyun Sik; Pribat, Didier; Bonnassieux, Yvan; Jang, Jin

    2006-01-01

    We report on the growth mechanism and density control of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes using a triode plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition system. The deposition reactor was designed in order to allow the intermediate mesh electrode to be biased independently from the ground and power electrodes. The CNTs grown with a mesh bias of + 300 V show a density of ∼ 1.5 μm -2 and a height of ∼ 5 μm. However, CNTs do not grow when the mesh electrode is biased to - 300 V. The growth of CNTs can be controlled by the mesh electrode bias which in turn controls the plasma density and ion flux on the sample

  8. Effect of Palagonite Dust Deposition on the Automated Detection of Carbonate Vis/NIR Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Martha S.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Castano, Rebecca; Bornstein, Benjamin; Greenwood, James

    2004-01-01

    Currently Mars missions can collect more data than can be returned. Future rovers of increased mission lifetime will benefit from onboard autonomous data processing systems to guide the selection, measurement and return of scientifically important data. One approach is to train a neural net to recognize spectral reflectance characteristics of minerals of interest. We have developed a carbonate detector using a neural net algorithm trained on 10,000 synthetic Vis/NIR (350-2500 nm) spectra. The detector was able to correctly identify carbonates in the spectra of 30 carbonate and noncarbonate field samples with 100% success. However, Martian dust coatings strongly affect the spectral characteristics of surface rocks potentially masking the underlying substrate rock. In this experiment, we measure Vis/NIR spectra of calcite coated with different thicknesses of palagonite dust and evaluate the performance of the carbonate detector.

  9. Fault Detection for Shipboard Monitoring and Decision Support Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lajic, Zoran; Nielsen, Ulrik Dam

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a basic idea of a fault-tolerant monitoring and decision support system will be explained. Fault detection is an important part of the fault-tolerant design for in-service monitoring and decision support systems for ships. In the paper, a virtual example of fault detection...... will be presented for a containership with a real decision support system onboard. All possible faults can be simulated and detected using residuals and the generalized likelihood ratio (GLR) algorithm....

  10. Security Enrichment in Intrusion Detection System Using Classifier Ensemble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma R. Salunkhe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the era of Internet and with increasing number of people as its end users, a large number of attack categories are introduced daily. Hence, effective detection of various attacks with the help of Intrusion Detection Systems is an emerging trend in research these days. Existing studies show effectiveness of machine learning approaches in handling Intrusion Detection Systems. In this work, we aim to enhance detection rate of Intrusion Detection System by using machine learning technique. We propose a novel classifier ensemble based IDS that is constructed using hybrid approach which combines data level and feature level approach. Classifier ensembles combine the opinions of different experts and improve the intrusion detection rate. Experimental results show the improved detection rates of our system compared to reference technique.

  11. Early forest fire detection using radio-acoustic sounding system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Yasar Guneri; Ince, Turker

    2009-01-01

    Automated early fire detection systems have recently received a significant amount of attention due to their importance in protecting the global environment. Some emergent technologies such as ground-based, satellite-based remote sensing and distributed sensor networks systems have been used to detect forest fires in the early stages. In this study, a radio-acoustic sounding system with fine space and time resolution capabilities for continuous monitoring and early detection of forest fires is proposed. Simulations show that remote thermal mapping of a particular forest region by the proposed system could be a potential solution to the problem of early detection of forest fires.

  12. Model Based Aircraft Upset Detection and Recovery System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal describes a system for detecting upset conditions and providing the corresponding control recovery actions to maintain flight integrity for general...

  13. Fault Detection and Isolation for Wind Turbine Electric Pitch System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jiangsheng; Ma, Kuichao; Hajizadeh, Amin

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a model-based fault detection and isolation scheme applied on electric pitch system of wind turbines. Pitch system is one of the most critical components due to its effect on the operational safety and the dynamics of wind turbines. Faults in this system should be precisely...... detected to prevent failures and decrease downtime. To detect faults of electric pitch actuators and sensors, an extended kalman filter (EKF) based multiple model adaptive estimation (MMAE) designed to estimate the states of the system. The proposed method is demonstrated in case studies. The simulation...... results show that the proposed method detects different fault scenarios of wind turbines under the stochastic external condition....

  14. Radar-Based Intruder Detection for a Robotic Security System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cory, Phil

    1998-01-01

    .... The system includes multiple supervised-autonomous platforms equipped with intrusion detection, barrier assessment, and inventory assessment subsystems commanded from an integrated control station...

  15. The use of Mid-IR spectroscopy in the detection of biomarkers in hydrothermal deposits on Earth and the implications for Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Louisa; Benedix, Gretchen; Genge, Matthew; Sephton, Mark

    Hydrothermal systems can occur as a result of magmatic activity or impacts, causing hot aqueous fluids to circulate within the crust and rise along faults and fractures to erupt at the surface in the form of hot springs, geysers and fumaroles. Hydrothermal systems have been suggested as suitable environments for the appearance of life on the Early Earth [1]. The deposits found in these systems preserve evidence for some of the earliest terrestrial organisms since these can be rapidly mineralised and are preserved in the geological record [2]. Finding and recognising this organic component in ancient rocks however is a challenge. Samples of active and sub-fossil hydrothermal silica sinter from Iceland and New Zealand have been analysed using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. FTIR reflectance spectroscopy can identify a variety of rocks and minerals, and detect a wide range of organic compounds. Molecular groups vibrate at particular frequencies and mid-IR can detect lipids, proteins, carbohydrates and water. Fatty acids, OH, carboxylic acids and amides have been identified within the siliceous samples and are corroborated via Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) [3]. This technique has now been applied to the study of older hydrothermal deposits, such as the Rhynie Chert in Aberdeenshire. This area is of world importance as it is one of the earliest preserved terrestrial ecosystems formed around one of the earliest known (396 Ma) subaerial hot springs [4]. The hot spring activity formed silica sinters, as seen in modern day hot springs, which have now formed chert and contain, for example, remains of vascular land plants [5,6,7], lichens [8,9], fungi [10] and algae [11]. FTIR has been used to analyse the mineralogy and organic content of the cherts, having so far identified fatty acids, carboxylic acids and OH. On Mars, a likely cause of hydrothermal activity would have been related to impacts. Impact breccia from CSDP core Yaxcopoil-1

  16. Detecting impossible changes in infancy: a three-system account

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Su-hua; Baillargeon, Renée

    2012-01-01

    Can infants detect that an object has magically disappeared, broken apart or changed color while briefly hidden? Recent research suggests that infants detect some but not other ‘impossible’ changes; and that various contextual manipulations can induce infants to detect changes they would not otherwise detect. We present an account that includes three systems: a physical-reasoning, an object-tracking, and an object-representation system. What impossible changes infants detect depends on what object information is included in the physical-reasoning system; this information becomes subject to a principle of persistence, which states that objects can undergo no spontaneous or uncaused change. What contextual manipulations induce infants to detect impossible changes depends on complex interplays between the physical-reasoning system and the object-tracking and object-representation systems. PMID:18078778

  17. Sediment deposition and associated organic carbon dynamics in a tropical River system; the Tana River (Kenya)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omengo, Fred; Alleman, Tine; Geeraert, Naomi; Bouillon, Steven; Govers, Gerard

    2014-05-01

    Floodplains are known to play a potentially important role in regulating the downstream transport of sediments, carbon, and nutrients in river systems. We investigated sediment and carbon transport, retention and deposition in the floodplains of the lower Tana River (Kenya), between the two main downstream gauging stations Garissa and Garsen. The Tana River is the largest river in Kenya and runs for more than 1,000 km from Kenya's highlands (Mt Kenya and the Aberdare mountains). The catchment covers around 100,000km² and the hydrology is controlled by the shifting of intertropical convergence Zone (ITCZ), leading to a bimodal precipitation cycle. Sediment cores were taken at various sites within the floodplains, and analysed for bulk density, organic carbon (OC) and nitrogen content, stable isotope signatures (δ13C) of organic C, and grain size distribution. We determined 137Cs and 210Pbxs activities in order to estimate historical sedimentation rates and to quantify the post-depositional losses of organic carbon. In addition, we measured fresh sediment deposition rates immediately after an extended period of flooding, along with associated flood heights and the distance relative to the main River . Fresh sediment deposition rates ranged between 1mm and 15mm for the period of study at an average rate of 1.13 gcm-3 (dry weight). This varied with distance of the floodplain from the main river and its elevation relative to the full bank. The fresh deposited sediment had an average organic carbon content of 1.55 ± 0.42%. Sediment cores showed a strong downcore gradient in OC content, from 3 - 12%C in the top layers to typically less than 0.5 % below 50 cm. The C:N ratios varied from 8 to 16 with majority averaging 9-11. Stable isotope signatures (δ13C) of organic C varied between -28‰ to -16‰ for the deeper core samples. 137Cs and 210Pbxs profiles indicate a vertical accretion at an average rate of 0.6 cm per year in the sites measured so far. The Tana river

  18. Coaxial direct-detection lidar-system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    . Finally, the system comprises a detector system arranged to receive the return signal from the optical delivery system, the detector system comprising a narrowband optical filter and a detector, the narrowband optical filter having a filter center frequency of a pass-band, wherein the center lasing...... frequency and/or the center filter frequency may be scanned. The invention further relates to an aircraft airspeed measurement device, and a wind turbine airspeed measurement device comprising the LIDAR system....

  19. Fault detection and isolation in systems with parametric faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    1999-01-01

    The problem of fault detection and isolation of parametric faults is considered in this paper. A fault detection problem based on parametric faults are associated with internal parameter variations in the dynamical system. A fault detection and isolation method for parametric faults is formulated...

  20. Report on Boeing pipeline leak detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aichele, W.T.

    1978-08-01

    Testing was performed on both simulated (test) and existing (water) pipelines to evaluate the Boeing leak detection technique. This technique uses a transformer mounted around the pipe to induce a voltage level onto the pipeline. The induced ground potential is measured from a distant ground probe, inserted into the surrounding soil, with respect to the excited pipeline. The induced voltage level will depend on the soil characteristics, the distance from the excited pipeline, and the probe types. If liquid should leak from the excited pipeline, the escaping liquid will modify the induced potential of the soil surrounding the excited pipeline. This will change the response of the quiescent soil characteristics and cause the voltage level on the detecting probes in the area of the leak to increase. This voltage increase will indicate a soil anomaly. However, the liquid does not have to reach the detection probe to reveal an anomalous soil condition. Several different detection probes were used and evaluated for sensitivity and response time. Although not evaluated during this test, results indicate that a wire laid parallel to the pipe axis may be the best probe configuration. A general sensitivity figure for any of the probes cannot be made from these tests; however, the technique used will reliably detect a pipeline leak of ten gallons. An additional test was performed using the Boeing pipeline leak detection technique to locate the position and depth of an underground pipeline. This test showed that the location and depth of an excited pipeline could be determined from above the ground where other methods for pipeline location had previously failed

  1. Roll-to-roll light directed electrophoretic deposition system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascall, Andrew J.; Kuntz, Joshua

    2017-06-06

    A roll-to-roll light directed electrophoretic deposition system and method advances a roll of a flexible electrode web substrate along a roll-to-roll process path, where a material source is positioned to provide on the flexible electrode web substrate a thin film colloidal dispersion of electrically charged colloidal material dispersed in a fluid. A counter electrode is also positioned to come in contact with the thin film colloidal dispersion opposite the flexible electrode web substrate, where one of the counter electrode and the flexible electrode web substrate is a photoconductive electrode. A voltage source is connected to produce an electric potential between the counter electrode and the flexible electrode web substrate to induce electrophoretic deposition on the flexible electrode web substrate when the photoconductive electrode is rendered conductive, and a patterned light source is arranged to illuminate the photoconductive electrode with a light pattern and render conductive illuminated areas of the photoconductive electrode so that a patterned deposit of the electrically charged colloidal material is formed on the flexible electrode web substrate.

  2. A study of U-Pb isotopic evolutionary system in Chanziping uranium deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Weichang; Huang Shijie; Xia Yuliang.

    1988-01-01

    Chanziping uranium deposit occurred in the black siliceous slate of Lower cambrian. The uranium mineralization was controlled by both interstratified fault belt and the ore-bearing beds. Based on the study of the U-Pb isotopic system of the various rocks, ores and minerals in the ore-bearing beds, the authors find out the obvious disequilibrium of U-Pb isotopic composition in most rock samples which indicates the loss of uranium form the ore-bearing beds and surrounding granite. Its counting loss ranges from 30 to 80%. The age of rich ores of the U-Pb concordance diagram and the U-Pb three stage model are t 1 = 523 ± 19M. Y. , t 2 = 22 ± 2 M.Y.. The isochronal ages for pitchblend are 75 ± 4 M.Y., 43 ± 7 M.Y., and for rock is 416 M.y.. These data shows that the uranium in ore-bearing beds was mainly derived from the ore-bearing beds itself and partly from the surrounding granite. The ore deposit can be considered to be of stratabound uranium deposit of sedimentation and late transformation type

  3. The Influence of Cultivation System on Distribution Profile Of 137cs and Erosion / Deposition Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nita Suhartini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available 137Cs radiogenic content in the soil can be used to estimate the rate of erosion and deposition in an area occurring since 1950’s, by comparing the content of the 137Cs in observed site with those in a stable reference site. This experiment aimed to investigate the influence of cultivation type on distribution profile of 137Cs and distribution of erosion and deposition rate in cultivated area. A study site was small cultivated area with slope steepness <10o and length 2 km located in Bojong – Ciawi. For this purpose, the top of a slope was chosen for reference site and three plot sites were selected namely Land Use I that using simple cultivation, Land Use II that using simple cultivation with ridge and furrow, and Land Use III using machine cultivation. The results showed that cultivation could make a movement of 137Cs to the deeper layer and ridges and furrows cultivation system could minimized an erosion process. The net erosion and deposition for land Use I, II and III were -25 t/ha/yr , 24 t/ha/yr and -58 t/ha/yr, respectively.

  4. Modeling and designing a new gas injection diffusion system for metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, C. C.; Hsiau, S. S.; Chuang, T. C.

    2018-01-01

    Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) is a critical process and is widely used for the epitaxial growth of light-emitting diode (LED) wafers. The key component, a gas injection system, delivers the gas into the reactor by using a nozzle or showerhead. In this paper, the numerical simulation method was applied to investigate the thermal fluid field and to design a new gas injection system for MOCVD. In this study, we developed a new gas injection system with inlet barriers. The inlet barriers can separate the various reactive gases, reduce the prereaction, and prevent adducted particles from forming and blocking the inlet gas system. The barrier geometry, including the barrier length, the barrier inclination angle, and the V/III precursor ratio was systematically studied to determine the optimal design conditions. Higher growth rate and improved uniformity were demonstrated using the new optimal gas inlet barrier design.

  5. Corrosion and deposition of metal oxides in the primary coolant system of PWR's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, Jonathan; Hewett, John; Cooper, Chris; Ponton, Clive; Connolly, Brian; Banks, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Regardless of how well processed and preconditioned reactor construction materials have been prior to operation, they will inevitably corrode. The products of corrosion, metal oxides with low thermodynamic solubility levels, can be found deposited throughout the reactor coolant circuit if they have not been removed by the plant's water treatment systems. Deposition of these corrosion products in the primary coolant circuit of a PWR represent a concern in terms of operational safety, efficiency, financial cost and longevity of the plant. The on-going work at the University of Birmingham seeks to study three main areas; fundamental corrosion behaviour of stainless steel, with specific focus on in the effect of surface pre-treatment, the solubility of the main metal oxides produced by stainless steels corroding, and the deposition of metal oxides within flow restrictions at high flow velocities. Several pieces of bespoke test equipment have been designed and built to address each area of interest individually. These include a rig for studying the corrosion of a particular material as a function of time, which consists of a series of cells into which samples are mounted and removed after a period of time and another rig for studying the solubility of a given metal oxide. Both of these pieces of equipment operate at up to 300°C and can maintain a pressure of up to 120 bar. A water loop for the study of deposition of corrosion products within flow restrictions has also been built and is in operation; this loop is capable of producing flow rates in excess of 12 ms -1 through a test section 6 mm in diameter, while maintaining temperatures up to 300°C and pressures of up to 120 bar. (author)

  6. Tamper Detection for Active Surveillance Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theodore, Tsesmelis; Christensen, Lars; Fihl, Preben

    2013-01-01

    If surveillance data are corrupted they are of no use to neither manually post-investigation nor automatic video analysis. It is therefore critical to automatically be able to detect tampering events such as defocusing, occlusion and displacement. In this work we for the first time ad- dress...

  7. An Adaptive Database Intrusion Detection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Rita M.

    2011-01-01

    Intrusion detection is difficult to accomplish when attempting to employ current methodologies when considering the database and the authorized entity. It is a common understanding that current methodologies focus on the network architecture rather than the database, which is not an adequate solution when considering the insider threat. Recent…

  8. All row, planar fault detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles Jens; Pinnow, Kurt Walter; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian Edward

    2013-07-23

    An apparatus, program product and method for detecting nodal faults may simultaneously cause designated nodes of a cell to communicate with all nodes adjacent to each of the designated nodes. Furthermore, all nodes along the axes of the designated nodes are made to communicate with their adjacent nodes, and the communications are analyzed to determine if a node or connection is faulty.

  9. Fault detection and isolation in systems with parametric faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    1999-01-01

    The problem of fault detection and isolation of parametric faults is considered in this paper. A fault detection problem based on parametric faults are associated with internal parameter variations in the dynamical system. A fault detection and isolation method for parametric faults is formulated...... in a standard setup and a synthesis method for fault detectors is given. Further, fault detection problems with both parametric faults and faults described by external input signals are also shortly considered....

  10. Perimeter intrusion detection and assessment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eaton, M.J.; Jacobs, J.; McGovern, D.E.

    1977-01-01

    The key elements of the system considered at a materials storage site are intrusion sensors, alarm assessment, and system control and display. Three papers discussing each of these topics are compiled. They are abstracted individually. (JSR)

  11. Advanced Ground Systems Maintenance Anomaly Detection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Inductive Monitoring System (IMS) software utilizes techniques from the fields of model-based reasoning, machine learning, and data mining to build system...

  12. Optimization of Cs deposition in the 1/3 scale hydrogen negative ion source for LHD-NBI system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Y.; Takeiri, Y.; Belchenko, Yu.I.

    1999-12-01

    A compact cesium deposition system was used for direct deposition of cesium atoms and ions onto the inner surface of the 1/3 scale Hydrogen Negative Ion Source for the LHD-NBI system. A small, well defined amount of cesium deposition in the range of 3-200 mg was tested. Negative ion extraction and acceleration were carried out both in the pure hydrogen operation mode and in the cesium mode. Single Cs deposition of 3-30 mg to the plasma chamber have produced temporary 2-5 times increases of H-yield, but the yield was decreased within several discharge pulses to the previous steady-state value. Two consecutive 30 mg depositions done within a 3-5 hours/60 shot interval, produced a similar temporary increase of H-beam, but reached a larger H-yield steady-state value. Deposition of larger 0.1-0.2 g Cs portions with a 20-120 hours/150-270 shot interval improved the H-yield for a long (2-5 days) period of operation. Directed depositions of Cs to the various walls of the plasma chamber showed approximately the same H-increase. Deposition of 0.13 g Cs to a surface polluted by a water leak, produced a temporary increase, and an H-steady-state level similar to that from a single 30 mg cesium deposition. Deposition of 0.1 g with a cesium plasma produced one half the H-yield obtained by deposition of the same amount of cesium atoms. A higher steady-state H-current value and a smaller rate of H-yield decrease was recorded during the 8 filaments discharge operation, as compared to the 12 filaments operation at the same discharge power. (author)

  13. Online Real-Time Tribology Failure Detection System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Under NASA Phase I funding, we have developed a system for the ball bearing fault detection and identification. Our system can effectively identify multiple fault...

  14. Development of Vertical Cable Seismic System for Hydrothermal Deposit Survey (2) - Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Sekino, Y.; Okamoto, T.; Mikada, H.; Takekawa, J.; Shimura, T.

    2010-12-01

    In 2009, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology(MEXT) started the survey system development for Hydrothermal deposit. We proposed the Vertical Cable Seismic (VCS), the reflection seismic survey with vertical cable above seabottom. VCS has the following advantages for hydrothermal deposit survey. . (1) VCS is an effective high-resolution 3D seismic survey within limited area. (2) It achieves high-resolution image because the sensors are closely located to the target. (3) It avoids the coupling problems between sensor and seabottom that cause serious damage of seismic data quality. (4) Various types of marine source are applicable with VCS such as sea-surface source (air gun, water gun etc.) , deep-towed or ocean bottom sources. (5) Autonomous recording system. Our first experiment of 2D/3D VCS surveys has been carried out in Lake Biwa, JAPAN. in November 2009. The 2D VCS data processing follows the walk-away VSP, including wave field separation and depth migration. The result gives clearer image than the conventional surface seismic. Prestack depth migration is applied to 3D data to obtain good quality 3D depth volume. Uncertainty of the source/receiver poisons in water causes the serious problem of the imaging. We used several transducer/transponder to estimate these positions. The VCS seismic records themselves can also provide sensor position using the first break of each trace and we calibrate the positions. We are currently developing the autonomous recording VCS system and planning the trial experiment in actual ocean to establish the way of deployment/recovery and the examine the position through the current flow in November, 2010. The second VCS survey will planned over the actual hydrothermal deposit with deep-towed source in February, 2011.

  15. A Fusion of Multiagent Functionalities for Effective Intrusion Detection System

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnan Sadhasivan, Dhanalakshmi; Balasubramanian, Kannapiran

    2017-01-01

    Provision of high security is one of the active research areas in the network applications. The failure in the centralized system based on the attacks provides less protection. Besides, the lack of update of new attacks arrival leads to the minimum accuracy of detection. The major focus of this paper is to improve the detection performance through the adaptive update of attacking information to the database. We propose an Adaptive Rule-Based Multiagent Intrusion Detection System (ARMA-IDS) to...

  16. Localized surface plasmon resonance mercury detection system and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jay; Lucas, Donald; Crosby, Jeffrey Scott; Koshland, Catherine P.

    2016-03-22

    A mercury detection system that includes a flow cell having a mercury sensor, a light source and a light detector is provided. The mercury sensor includes a transparent substrate and a submonolayer of mercury absorbing nanoparticles, e.g., gold nanoparticles, on a surface of the substrate. Methods of determining whether mercury is present in a sample using the mercury sensors are also provided. The subject mercury detection systems and methods find use in a variety of different applications, including mercury detecting applications.

  17. Intrusion Detection System for Applications using Linux Containers

    OpenAIRE

    Abed, Amr S.; Clancy, Charles; Levy, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Linux containers are gaining increasing traction in both individual and industrial use, and as these containers get integrated into mission-critical systems, real-time detection of malicious cyber attacks becomes a critical operational requirement. This paper introduces a real-time host-based intrusion detection system that can be used to passively detect malfeasance against applications within Linux containers running in a standalone or in a cloud multi-tenancy environment. The demonstrated ...

  18. Automatic hearing loss detection system based on auditory brainstem response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldonate, J; Mercuri, C; Reta, J; Biurrun, J; Bonell, C; Gentiletti, G; Escobar, S; Acevedo, R

    2007-01-01

    Hearing loss is one of the pathologies with the highest prevalence in newborns. If it is not detected in time, it can affect the nervous system and cause problems in speech, language and cognitive development. The recommended methods for early detection are based on otoacoustic emissions (OAE) and/or auditory brainstem response (ABR). In this work, the design and implementation of an automated system based on ABR to detect hearing loss in newborns is presented. Preliminary evaluation in adults was satisfactory

  19. Revisiting Anomaly-based Network Intrusion Detection Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolzoni, D.

    2009-01-01

    Intrusion detection systems (IDSs) are well-known and widely-deployed security tools to detect cyber-attacks and malicious activities in computer systems and networks. A signature-based IDS works similar to anti-virus software. It employs a signature database of known attacks, and a successful match

  20. Specification Mining for Intrusion Detection in Networked Control Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caselli, M.; Zambon, Emmanuele; Amann, Johanna; Sommer, Robin; Kargl, Frank

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses a novel approach to specification-based intrusion detection in the field of networked control systems. Our approach reduces the substantial human effort required to deploy a specification-based intrusion detection system by automating the development of its specification rules.

  1. Poseidon: A 2-tier Anomaly-based Intrusion Detection System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolzoni, D.; Zambon, Emmanuele; Etalle, Sandro; Hartel, Pieter H.

    2005-01-01

    We present Poseidon, a new anomaly based intrusion detection system. Poseidon is payload-based, and presents a two-tier architecture: the first stage consists of a Self-Organizing Map, while the second one is a modified PAYL system. Our benchmarks on the 1999 DARPA data set show a higher detection

  2. Evaluation of the RACON 15000 microwave motion detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    A series of tests was performed on the RACON 15000 motion detection system. The primary objectives of these tests were to determine sensor detection patterns and to quantitate the effects of intruder velocity. System susceptibility to fluorescent lights, oscillatory motion, and environmental factors was also examined

  3. Upconverting nanoparticles for optimizing scintillator based detection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kross, Brian; McKisson, John E; McKisson, John; Weisenberger, Andrew; Xi, Wenze; Zom, Carl

    2013-09-17

    An upconverting device for a scintillation detection system is provided. The detection system comprises a scintillator material, a sensor, a light transmission path between the scintillator material and the sensor, and a plurality of upconverting nanoparticles particles positioned in the light transmission path.

  4. Profilographic detection system for single-track scanning device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silar, J.; Kula, J.

    1988-01-01

    A profilographic detection system is claimed for diagnosing the renal function by isotope nephrography, and the bladder filling in small children and infants. The configuration described guarantees good position resolution and sensitivity of the detection system. (E.J.). 2 figs

  5. Sulfur Cycling in an Iron Oxide-Dominated, Dynamic Marine Depositional System: The Argentine Continental Margin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natascha Riedinger

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The interplay between sediment deposition patterns, organic matter type and the quantity and quality of reactive mineral phases determines the accumulation, speciation, and isotope composition of pore water and solid phase sulfur constituents in marine sediments. Here, we present the sulfur geochemistry of siliciclastic sediments from two sites along the Argentine continental slope—a system characterized by dynamic deposition and reworking, which result in non-steady state conditions. The two investigated sites have different depositional histories but have in common that reactive iron phases are abundant and that organic matter is refractory—conditions that result in low organoclastic sulfate reduction rates (SRR. Deposition of reworked, isotopically light pyrite and sulfurized organic matter appear to be important contributors to the sulfur inventory, with only minor addition of pyrite from organoclastic sulfate reduction above the sulfate-methane transition (SMT. Pore-water sulfide is limited to a narrow zone at the SMT. The core of that zone is dominated by pyrite accumulation. Iron monosulfide and elemental sulfur accumulate above and below this zone. Iron monosulfide precipitation is driven by the reaction of low amounts of hydrogen sulfide with ferrous iron and is in competition with the oxidation of sulfide by iron (oxyhydroxides to form elemental sulfur. The intervals marked by precipitation of intermediate sulfur phases at the margin of the zone with free sulfide are bordered by two distinct peaks in total organic sulfur (TOS. Organic matter sulfurization appears to precede pyrite formation in the iron-dominated margins of the sulfide zone, potentially linked to the presence of polysulfides formed by reaction between dissolved sulfide and elemental sulfur. Thus, SMTs can be hotspots for organic matter sulfurization in sulfide-limited, reactive iron-rich marine sedimentary systems. Furthermore, existence of elemental sulfur and iron

  6. In-situ trainable intrusion detection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Symons, Christopher T.; Beaver, Justin M.; Gillen, Rob; Potok, Thomas E.

    2016-11-15

    A computer implemented method detects intrusions using a computer by analyzing network traffic. The method includes a semi-supervised learning module connected to a network node. The learning module uses labeled and unlabeled data to train a semi-supervised machine learning sensor. The method records events that include a feature set made up of unauthorized intrusions and benign computer requests. The method identifies at least some of the benign computer requests that occur during the recording of the events while treating the remainder of the data as unlabeled. The method trains the semi-supervised learning module at the network node in-situ, such that the semi-supervised learning modules may identify malicious traffic without relying on specific rules, signatures, or anomaly detection.

  7. Magnetic biosensor system to detect biological targets

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Fuquan

    2012-09-01

    Magneto-resistive sensors in combination with magnetic beads provide sensing platforms, which are small in size and highly sensitive. These platforms can be fully integrated with microchannels and electronics to enable devices capable of performing complex tasks. Commonly, a sandwich method is used that requires a specific coating of the sensor\\'s surface to immobilize magnetic beads and biological targets on top of the sensor. This paper concerns a micro device to detect biological targets using magnetic concentration, magnetic as well as mechanical trapping and magnetic sensing. Target detection is based on the size difference between bare magnetic beads and magnetic beads with targets attached. This method remedies the need for a coating layer and reduces the number of steps required to run an experiment. © 2012 IEEE.

  8. Environmentally Adaptive UXO Detection and Classification Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    in this experiment was designed to collect acoustical sonar data from underwater objects in a relatively controlled and clutter-free environment...public release; distribution is unlimited. N/A This Final Report addresses the problem of detecting and classifying underwater munitions using data...Applied Physics Laboratory ATR Automatic Target Recognition BOSS Buried Object Scanning Sonar CGF Cumulant Generating Function CPA Closest Point of

  9. Detection and quantification system for monitoring instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzenitis, John M [Danville, CA; Hertzog, Claudia K [Houston, TX; Makarewicz, Anthony J [Livermore, CA; Henderer, Bruce D [Livermore, CA; Riot, Vincent J [Oakland, CA

    2008-08-12

    A method of detecting real events by obtaining a set of recent signal results, calculating measures of the noise or variation based on the set of recent signal results, calculating an expected baseline value based on the set of recent signal results, determining sample deviation, calculating an allowable deviation by multiplying the sample deviation by a threshold factor, setting an alarm threshold from the baseline value plus or minus the allowable deviation, and determining whether the signal results exceed the alarm threshold.

  10. Assessment of leak detection systems for LWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupperman, D.S.

    1987-01-01

    This topical report summarizes work performed by the Argonne National Laboratory as subcontractor on on-line leak monitoring of LWRs during the 12 months from October 1985 to September 1986. The use of at least three different methods is recommended for leakage detection in reactors. Monitoring of sump-flow and airborne particulate radioactivity are suggested. A third method could involve monitoring condensate flow rate from air coolers or monitoring of airborne gaseous radioactivity

  11. Sequence stratigraphy in a mixed carbonate-silicilastic depositional system (Middle Miocene; Styrian Basin, Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friebe, J. Georg

    1993-07-01

    The mixed carbonate-siliciclastic Weißenegg (Allo-) Formation records three depositional sequences corresponding approximately to the TB 2.3, TB 2.4 and TB 2.5 global cycles. Sea-level fluctuations were of the order of at least 30 m. Siliciclastic lowstand systems tracts comprise lignite deposits, reworked basement and tidal siltstones (above a tectonically enhanced sequence boundary) as well as coastal sand bars. Coastal sands of the transgressive systems tract contain distinct layers of well cemented nodules. They are interpreted as the first stage in hardground formation and record superimposed minor sea-level fluctuations. Coral patch reefs and rhodolith platforms developed during transgressive phases and were subsequently drowned and/or suffocated by siliciclastics during early highstand. Shallowing upwards siliciclastic parasequences, each terminated by a bank of rhodolith limestone, form the (late) highstand systems tract. The limestone beds record superimposed fourth-order transgressive pulses. Occasionally a carbonate highstand wedge developed. Lowstand carbonate shedding occurred where the top of a platform which suffered incipient drowning during highstand was near sealevel again during the following lowstand. Late highstand delta progradation is common.

  12. Pothole Detection System Using a Black-box Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngtae Jo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aging roads and poor road-maintenance systems result a large number of potholes, whose numbers increase over time. Potholes jeopardize road safety and transportation efficiency. Moreover, they are often a contributing factor to car accidents. To address the problems associated with potholes, the locations and size of potholes must be determined quickly. Sophisticated road-maintenance strategies can be developed using a pothole database, which requires a specific pothole-detection system that can collect pothole information at low cost and over a wide area. However, pothole repair has long relied on manual detection efforts. Recent automatic detection systems, such as those based on vibrations or laser scanning, are insufficient to detect potholes correctly and inexpensively owing to the unstable detection of vibration-based methods and high costs of laser scanning-based methods. Thus, in this paper, we introduce a new pothole-detection system using a commercial black-box camera. The proposed system detects potholes over a wide area and at low cost. We have developed a novel pothole-detection algorithm specifically designed to work with the embedded computing environments of black-box cameras. Experimental results are presented with our proposed system, showing that potholes can be detected accurately in real-time.

  13. An intelligent detecting system for permeability prediction of MBR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Honggui; Zhang, Shuo; Qiao, Junfei; Wang, Xiaoshuang

    2018-01-01

    The membrane bioreactor (MBR) has been widely used to purify wastewater in wastewater treatment plants. However, a critical difficulty of the MBR is membrane fouling. To reduce membrane fouling, in this work, an intelligent detecting system is developed to evaluate the performance of MBR by predicting the membrane permeability. This intelligent detecting system consists of two main parts. First, a soft computing method, based on the partial least squares method and the recurrent fuzzy neural network, is designed to find the nonlinear relations between the membrane permeability and the other variables. Second, a complete new platform connecting the sensors and the software is built, in order to enable the intelligent detecting system to handle complex algorithms. Finally, the simulation and experimental results demonstrate the reliability and effectiveness of the proposed intelligent detecting system, underlying the potential of this system for the online membrane permeability for detecting membrane fouling of MBR.

  14. Do Not Hallow until You Are out of the Wood! Ultrasonographic Detection of CPP Crystal Deposits in Menisci: Facts and Pitfalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Filippou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Ultrasonography (US has been demonstrated to be an important tool in the diagnosis of calcium pyrophosphate (CPP crystal deposition disease. The aim of our study was to individuate and describe possible pitfalls in US detection of such deposits in menisci. Patients and Methods. We enrolled all patients waiting to undergo knee replacement surgery due to osteoarthritis, for one-month period. Each patient underwent US examination of the knee, focusing on the menisci. After surgery, the menisci were examined by US, macroscopically and microscopically, using the microscopic analysis as the gold standard for CPP deposition. Results. 11 menisci of 6 patients have been studied. Ex vivo examination of menisci performed better in CPP identification than in vivo examination. The possible reasons of misinterpretation or misdiagnosis of the in vivo exam were identified and are extensively described in the paper. Also a new sign of CPP crystal deposits was found. Conclusions. This study permitted to highlight some difficulties in CPP crystal detection by US in menisci. Further studies are needed to define completely US CPP crystal aspect and to improve the sensibility and specificity of US in CPP deposition diagnosis.

  15. Exterior field evaluation of new generation video motion detection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malone, T.P.

    1988-01-01

    Recent advancements in video motion detection (VMD) system design and technology have resulted in several new commercial VMD systems. Considerable interest in the new VMD systems has been generated because the systems are advertised to work effectively in exterior applications. Previous VMD systems, when used in an exterior environment, tended to have very high nuisance alarm rates due to weather conditions, wildlife activity and lighting variations. The new VMD systems advertise more advanced processing of the incoming video signal which is aimed at rejecting exterior environmental nuisance alarm sources while maintaining a high detection capability. This paper discusses the results of field testing, in an exterior environment, of two new VMD systems

  16. Research on metallogenetic system and palaeo-hydrodynamic analysis on exogenic uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Liang; Wang Ping

    2008-01-01

    The research and current development trends of sandstone-type uranium deposit at home and abroad are analyzed. A new study idea is put forward in the view of evolution of metallogenetic system i.e. taking the dynamics of matter transportation as main clue to restore the regional palaeo- topography at pre-ore stage, ore forming stage and post-ore stage under the principle of system theory in the way of background evolution of regional geology, especially tectonic dynamic evolution and lithofacies and palaeogeography. Palaeo-flowing field at different geological periods in the processing of regional evolution is reestablished by the usage of palaeohydrogeological analysis combined with the theory of groundwater flowing system. Dynamical process of source-transportation-accumulation- reservation of metallogenetic matter is focused on region scale. (authors)

  17. Fuzzy Based Advanced Hybrid Intrusion Detection System to Detect Malicious Nodes in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupinder Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an Advanced Hybrid Intrusion Detection System (AHIDS that automatically detects the WSNs attacks is proposed. AHIDS makes use of cluster-based architecture with enhanced LEACH protocol that intends to reduce the level of energy consumption by the sensor nodes. AHIDS uses anomaly detection and misuse detection based on fuzzy rule sets along with the Multilayer Perceptron Neural Network. The Feed Forward Neural Network along with the Backpropagation Neural Network are utilized to integrate the detection results and indicate the different types of attackers (i.e., Sybil attack, wormhole attack, and hello flood attack. For detection of Sybil attack, Advanced Sybil Attack Detection Algorithm is developed while the detection of wormhole attack is done by Wormhole Resistant Hybrid Technique. The detection of hello flood attack is done by using signal strength and distance. An experimental analysis is carried out in a set of nodes; 13.33% of the nodes are determined as misbehaving nodes, which classified attackers along with a detection rate of the true positive rate and false positive rate. Sybil attack is detected at a rate of 99,40%; hello flood attack has a detection rate of 98, 20%; and wormhole attack has a detection rate of 99, 20%.

  18. Identification and Damage Detection on Structural Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Andersen, Palle

    1994-01-01

    A short introduction is given to system identification and damage assessment in civil engineering structures. The most commonly used FFT-based techniques for system identification are mentioned, and the Random decrement technique and parametric methods based on ARMA models are introduced. Speed...

  19. Protective coatings of hafnium dioxide by atomic layer deposition for microelectromechanical systems applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berdova, Maria, E-mail: maria.berdova@aalto.fi [Aalto University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, 02150, Espoo (Finland); Wiemer, Claudia; Lamperti, Alessio; Tallarida, Grazia; Cianci, Elena [Laboratorio MDM, IMM CNR, Via C. Olivetti 2, 20864, Agrate Brianza, MB (Italy); Lamagna, Luca; Losa, Stefano; Rossini, Silvia; Somaschini, Roberto; Gioveni, Salvatore [STMicroelectronics, Via C. Olivetti 2, 20864, Agrate Brianza, MB (Italy); Fanciulli, Marco [Laboratorio MDM, IMM CNR, Via C. Olivetti 2, 20864, Agrate Brianza, MB (Italy); Università degli studi di Milano Bicocca, Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, 20126, Milano (Italy); Franssila, Sami, E-mail: sami.franssila@aalto.fi [Aalto University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, 02150, Espoo (Finland)

    2016-04-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Atomic layer deposition of HfO{sub 2} from (CpMe){sub 2}Hf(OMe)Me or Hf(NMeEt){sub 4} and ozone for potential applications in microelectromechanical systems. • ALD HfO{sub 2} protects aluminum substrates from degradation in moist environment and at the same time retains good reflectance properties of the underlying material. • The resistance of hafnium dioxide to moist environment is independent of chosen precursors. - Abstract: This work presents the investigation of HfO{sub 2} deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) from either HfD-CO4 or TEMAHf and ozone for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) applications, in particular, for environmental protection of aluminum micromirrors. This work shows that HfO{sub 2} films successfully protect aluminum in moist environment and at the same time retain good reflectance properties of underlying material. In our experimental work, the chemical composition, crystal structure, electronic density and roughness of HfO{sub 2} films remained the same after one week of humidity treatment (relative humidity of 85%, 85 °C). The reflectance properties underwent only minor changes. The observed shift in reflectance was only from 80–90% to 76–85% in 400–800 nm spectral range when coated with ALD HfO{sub 2} films grown with Hf(NMeEt){sub 4} and no shift (remained in the range of 68–83%) for films grown from (CpMe){sub 2}Hf(OMe)Me.

  20. Development of humidity leak detection system for pipelines of WWER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonor, V.K.; Morozov, S.A.; Polionov, V.P.; Portyanoj, A.G.; Shvetsov, D.M.; Konoplev, N.I.; Molyavkin, A.N.

    2007-01-01

    With allowance made for the basic requirements for the NPP pipeline leak detection system and for the accumulated experience one analyzed the basic engineering approaches to design a humidity leak detection system for the WWER primary pipelines. Paper presents the results of the feasibility study of the diagnostic algorithm service ability and the leak detection humidity system characteristics. Making use of the Kupol-M code and of the thermal bench simulating the Kalinin NPP 3-rd power unit dull basalt heat insulation pipeline leak the system is shown to meet the basic requirements stipulated in the present-day leak-before-break concept [ru

  1. CHARACTERIZATION OF DEPOSITS FORMED IN A WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CARACTERIZACIÓN DE DEPÓSITOS FORMADOS EN UN SISTEMA DE DISTRIBUCIÓN DE AGUA POTABLE

    OpenAIRE

    Félix Echeverría; Juan G Castaño; Carlos Arroyave; Gustavo Peñuela; Auxilio Ramírez; Jordi Morató

    2009-01-01

    The development of unwanted deposits in any water distribution system is unavoidable under standard conditions. Knowing the composition of such deposits will help to establish the causes of deposit formation and consequently to be able to keep water quality as high as possible. This paper presents the results of an extensive study of deposits found in a water distribution system of a tropical city. Characterization of materials collected across the system was made by infrared spectroscopy (IR...

  2. Hybrid radio-frequency/direct-current plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition system for deposition on inner surfaces of polyethylene terephthalate bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Tian, Xiubo; Gong, Chunzhi; Yang, Shiqin; Fu, Ricky K. Y.; Chu, Paul K.

    2009-12-01

    A hybrid radio-frequency (rf)/direct-current (dc) system has been developed to control the biasing effects during deposition of diamondlike carbon (DLC) films onto the inner wall of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles. An additional dc bias is coupled to the rf electrode to produce the effect of equivalent rf self-biasing. This allows more flexible control of the deposition of the DLC films which are intended to improve the gas barrier characteristics. The experimental results demonstrate that the additional dc bias improves the adhesion strength between the DLC film and PET, although the enhancement in the gas barrier properties is not significantly larger compared to the one without dc bias. The apparatus and methodology have practical importance in the food and beverage industry.

  3. A stereo vision-based obstacle detection system in vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Kunsoo; Park, Jaehak; Hwang, Junyeon; Hong, Daegun

    2008-02-01

    Obstacle detection is a crucial issue for driver assistance systems as well as for autonomous vehicle guidance function and it has to be performed with high reliability to avoid any potential collision with the front vehicle. The vision-based obstacle detection systems are regarded promising for this purpose because they require little infrastructure on a highway. However, the feasibility of these systems in passenger car requires accurate and robust sensing performance. In this paper, an obstacle detection system using stereo vision sensors is developed. This system utilizes feature matching, epipoplar constraint and feature aggregation in order to robustly detect the initial corresponding pairs. After the initial detection, the system executes the tracking algorithm for the obstacles. The proposed system can detect a front obstacle, a leading vehicle and a vehicle cutting into the lane. Then, the position parameters of the obstacles and leading vehicles can be obtained. The proposed obstacle detection system is implemented on a passenger car and its performance is verified experimentally.

  4. How to detect trap cluster systems?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandowski, Arkadiusz

    2008-01-01

    Spatially correlated traps and recombination centres (trap-recombination centre pairs and larger clusters) are responsible for many anomalous phenomena that are difficult to explain in the framework of both classical models, i.e. model of localized transitions (LT) and the simple trap model (STM), even with a number of discrete energy levels. However, these 'anomalous' effects may provide a good platform for identifying trap cluster systems. This paper considers selected cluster-type effects, mainly relating to an anomalous dependence of TL on absorbed dose in the system of isolated clusters (ICs). Some consequences for interacting cluster (IAC) systems, involving both localized and delocalized transitions occurring simultaneously, are also discussed

  5. Leak detection system for RBMK coolant circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherkashov, Ju.M.; Strelkov, B.P.; Korolev, Yu.V.; Eperin, A.P.; Kozlov, E.P.; Belyanin, L.A.; Vanukov, V.N.

    1996-01-01

    In report the description of an object of the control is submitted, requests to control of leak-tightness and functioning of system are formulated, analysis of a current status on NPP with RBMK is submitted, review of methods of the leak-tightness monitoring, their advantage and defects with reference to conditions and features of a design RBMK is indicated, some results of tests and operation of various monitoring methods are submitted, requests on interaction of operative staff, leak-tightness monitoring system and protection system of reactor are submitted. (author). 11 figs, 1 tab

  6. A Novel Vision Sensing System for Tomato Quality Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Satyam; Boyat, Sachin; Sadistap, Shashikant

    2014-01-01

    Producing tomato is a daunting task as the crop of tomato is exposed to attacks from various microorganisms. The symptoms of the attacks are usually changed in color, bacterial spots, special kind of specks, and sunken areas with concentric rings having different colors on the tomato outer surface. This paper addresses a vision sensing based system for tomato quality inspection. A novel approach has been developed for tomato fruit detection and disease detection. Developed system consists of USB based camera module having 12.0 megapixel interfaced with ARM-9 processor. Zigbee module has been interfaced with developed system for wireless transmission from host system to PC based server for further processing. Algorithm development consists of three major steps, preprocessing steps like noise rejection, segmentation and scaling, classification and recognition, and automatic disease detection and classification. Tomato samples have been collected from local market and data acquisition has been performed for data base preparation and various processing steps. Developed system can detect as well as classify the various diseases in tomato samples. Various pattern recognition and soft computing techniques have been implemented for data analysis as well as different parameters prediction like shelf life of the tomato, quality index based on disease detection and classification, freshness detection, maturity index detection, and different suggestions for detected diseases. Results are validated with aroma sensing technique using commercial Alpha Mos 3000 system. Accuracy has been calculated from extracted results, which is around 92%.

  7. Detection and Prognostics on Low Dimensional Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper describes the application of known and novel prognostic algorithms on systems that can be described by low dimensional, potentially nonlinear dynamics....

  8. Anomaly Detection in a Fleet of Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A fleet is a group of systems (e.g., cars, aircraft) that are designed and manufactured the same way and are intended to be used the same way. For example, a fleet...

  9. Distributed emergency response system to model dispersion and deposition of atmospheric releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, S.S.

    1985-04-01

    Aging hardware and software and increasing commitments by the Departments of Energy and Defense have led us to develop a new, expanded system to replace the existing Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) system. This distributed, computer-based, emergency response system is used by state and federal agencies to assess the environmental health hazards resulting from an accidental release of radioactive material into the atmosphere. Like its predecessor, the expanded system uses local meteorology (e.g., wind speed and wind direction), as well as terrain information, to simulate the transport and dispersion of the airborne material. The system also calculates deposition and dose and displays them graphically over base maps of the local geography for use by on-site authorities. This paper discusses the limitations of the existing ARAC system. It also discusses the components and functionality of the new system, the technical difficulties encountered and resolved in its design and implementation, and the software methodologies and tools employed in its development

  10. A Universal High-Performance Correlation Analysis Detection Model and Algorithm for Network Intrusion Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongliang Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In big data era, the single detection techniques have already not met the demand of complex network attacks and advanced persistent threats, but there is no uniform standard to make different correlation analysis detection be performed efficiently and accurately. In this paper, we put forward a universal correlation analysis detection model and algorithm by introducing state transition diagram. Based on analyzing and comparing the current correlation detection modes, we formalize the correlation patterns and propose a framework according to data packet timing and behavior qualities and then design a new universal algorithm to implement the method. Finally, experiment, which sets up a lightweight intrusion detection system using KDD1999 dataset, shows that the correlation detection model and algorithm can improve the performance and guarantee high detection rates.

  11. A New Anomaly Detection System for School Electricity Consumption Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqiang Cui

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Anomaly detection has been widely used in a variety of research and application domains, such as network intrusion detection, insurance/credit card fraud detection, health-care informatics, industrial damage detection, image processing and novel topic detection in text mining. In this paper, we focus on remote facilities management that identifies anomalous events in buildings by detecting anomalies in building electricity consumption data. We investigated five models within electricity consumption data from different schools to detect anomalies in the data. Furthermore, we proposed a hybrid model that combines polynomial regression and Gaussian distribution, which detects anomalies in the data with 0 false negative and an average precision higher than 91%. Based on the proposed model, we developed a data detection and visualization system for a facilities management company to detect and visualize anomalies in school electricity consumption data. The system is tested and evaluated by facilities managers. According to the evaluation, our system has improved the efficiency of facilities managers to identify anomalies in the data.

  12. Efficacy of computer-aided detection system for screening mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Mioko; Ohnuki, Koji; Yamada, Takayuki; Saito, Haruo; Ishibashi, Tadashi; Ohuchi, Noriaki; Takahashi, Shoki

    2002-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a computer-aided detection (CAD) system for screening mammography (MMG). Screening mammograms of 2,231 women aged over 50 yr were examined. Medio-lateral oblique (MLO) images were obtained, and two expert observers interpreted the mammograms by consensus. First, each mammogram was interpreted without the assistance of CAD, followed immediately by a re-evaluation of areas marked by the CAD system. Data were recorded to measure the effect of CAD on the recall rate, cancer detection rate and detection rate of masses, microcalcifications and other findings. The CAD system increased the recall rate from 2.3% to 2.6%. Six recalled cases were diagnosed as breast cancer pathologically, and CAD detected all of these lesions. Seven additional cases in which CAD detected abnormal findings had no malignancy. The detection rate of CAD for microcalcifications was high (95.0%). However, the detection rate for mass lesions and other findings was low (29.2% and 25.0% respectively). The false positivity rate was 0.13/film for microcalcifications, and 0.25/film for mass lesions. The efficacy of the CAD system for detecting microcalcifications on screening mammograms was confirmed. However, the low detection rate of mass lesions and relatively high rate of false positivity need to be further improved. (author)

  13. Low temperature deposition: Properties of SiO{sub 2} films from TEOS and ozone by APCVD system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez, H; Diaz, T; Rosendo, E; Garcia, G; Mora, F; Escalante, G [Centro de Investigacion en Dispositivos Semiconductores, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, 14 Sur and Av. San Claudio, San Manuel 72000, Puebla (Mexico); Pacio, M; GarcIa, A, E-mail: hjuarez@cs.buap.m [Ingenieria Electrica, Secciaan Electranica del Estado Salido, Centro de Investigacian y de Estudios Avanzados del I. P. N., Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2508, San Pedro Zacatenco, 07360 Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    2009-05-01

    An Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition (APCVD) system was implemented for SiO{sub 2} nanometric films deposition on silicon substrates. Tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and ozone (O{sub 3}) were used and they were mixed into the APCVD system. The deposition temperatures were very low, from 125 to 250 {sup 0}C and the deposition time ranged from 1 to 15 minutes. The measured thicknesses from the deposited SiO{sub 2} films were between 5 and 300 nm. From the by Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectra the typical absorption bands of the Si-O bond were observed and it was also observed a dependence on the vibrational modes corresponding to hydroxyl groups with the deposition temperature where the intensity of these vibrations can be related with the grade porosity grade of the films. Furthermore an analytical model has been evoked to determine the activation energy of the reactions in the surface and the gas phase in the deposit films process.

  14. Development of radiation detection and measurement systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, B. S.; Ham, C. S.; Chung, C. E. and others

    2000-03-01

    This report contains descriptions on the following six items. The first item is the result of a study on CsI(TI) crystals with their light emitting characteristics and the result of a study on plastic scintillators. The second item is the result of a study on advanced radiation detectors and includes experiments for the effect of using a Compton suppressor with an HPGe detector. For the third item, we describe the results of a design work done using EGS4 for a thickness gauge, a density gauge, and a level gauge. The fourth item contains descriptions on the prototype circuit systems developed for a level gauge, a thickness gauge, and for a survey meter. The fifth part contains the computed tomography algorithm and a prototype scanning system developed for a CT system. As the sixth and the last item, we describe the prototype high precision heat source and the prototype heat-voltage converter which we have designed and fabricated.

  15. Short-term changes in the northwest African Upwelling System induced by Saharan dust deposition events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, A G; Coca, J; Redondo, A [SeaSnet Canarias. Dpto. de Biologia (University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria), Canary Islands (Spain); Cuevas, E; Alonso-Perez, S; Bustos, J J [Izana Atmospheric Research Center, Agencia Estatal de Meteorologia, Tenerife (Spain); Perez, C; Baldasano, J M [Earth Sciences Department. Barcelona Supercomputing Center, Barcelona (Spain); Nickovic, S [Atmospheric Research and Environment Branch, World Meteorological Organization, Geneva (Switzerland)], E-mail: aramos@pesca.gi.ulpgc.es

    2009-03-01

    During the last 7-year period (2000-2006) atmosphere circulation changes show strong influences on the dust storm deposition dynamics and, as a result, on the primary production dynamics of the northwest African Upwelling System. From 2000 to 2006, the annual mean sea level pressure became higher ranging from 1014 to 1015 mb. Mean annual zonal wind intensity became higher (from 1.1 to 1.8 m s{sup -1}), while the mean annual meridional was reduced from 6.2 to 5.3 m s{sup -1} at the north of the Canary Islands. Mean annual satellite-derived AVHRR/NOAA SST recorded in the northwest African Upwelling became warmer in both locations, from 18.3 deg. C to 18.8 deg. C in Cape Ghir and from 19.5 deg. C to 20.3 deg. C north Canary Islands waters. CHL records from the SeaWiFS/OV-2 showed a different pattern trend. Mean annual CHL levels increased at Cape Ghir from 0.65 mg m-3 to 0.9 mg m-3 and significantly reduced from 0.59 mg m{sup -3} to 0.31 mg m{sup -3} at the north of the Canary Islands. Changes observed in the role of CHL during the last 7-years period could be associated to intensive dust deposition and exceptional weather warming observed in this area since 2000. However, this study focused on a 7-year period and conclusions on possible links between dust deposition and marine biochemistry activity cannot be generalized.

  16. A physiology-based seizure detection system for multichannel EEG.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Ping Shen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a common chronic neurological disorder characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures. Electroencephalogram (EEG signals play a critical role in the diagnosis of epilepsy. Multichannel EEGs contain more information than do single-channel EEGs. Automatic detection algorithms for spikes or seizures have traditionally been implemented on single-channel EEG, and algorithms for multichannel EEG are unavailable. METHODOLOGY: This study proposes a physiology-based detection system for epileptic seizures that uses multichannel EEG signals. The proposed technique was tested on two EEG data sets acquired from 18 patients. Both unipolar and bipolar EEG signals were analyzed. We employed sample entropy (SampEn, statistical values, and concepts used in clinical neurophysiology (e.g., phase reversals and potential fields of a bipolar EEG to extract the features. We further tested the performance of a genetic algorithm cascaded with a support vector machine and post-classification spike matching. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We obtained 86.69% spike detection and 99.77% seizure detection for Data Set I. The detection system was further validated using the model trained by Data Set I on Data Set II. The system again showed high performance, with 91.18% detection of spikes and 99.22% seizure detection. CONCLUSION: We report a de novo EEG classification system for seizure and spike detection on multichannel EEG that includes physiology-based knowledge to enhance the performance of this type of system.

  17. S/Se ratio of pyrite from eastern Australian VHMS deposits: implication of magmatic input into volcanogenic hydrothermal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huston, D.L. [Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Sie, S.H.; Suter, G.F. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience; Cooke, D.R. [Tasmania Univ., Sandy Bay, TAS (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    The proton microprobe was used to determine the concentrations of over twenty trace elements in pyrite grains from four volcanic-hosted massive sulphide (VHMS) deposits in eastern Australia. Of the elements determined, Se has the most potential in resolving important problems in the genesis of this class of ore deposits. This paper summarises analytical conditions, describes the distribution of Se in pyrite in VHMS deposits as determined in this and other studies, discusses the speciation of Se in hydrothermal fluids, and presents a genetic model on the relative contribution of magmatic versus sea water Se (and S) in VHMS systems. 2 refs., 1 fig.

  18. Traffic Congestion Detection System through Connected Vehicles and Big Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas-Benítez, Néstor; Aquino-Santos, Raúl; Magaña-Espinoza, Pedro; Aguilar-Velazco, José; Edwards-Block, Arthur; Medina Cass, Aldo

    2016-04-28

    This article discusses the simulation and evaluation of a traffic congestion detection system which combines inter-vehicular communications, fixed roadside infrastructure and infrastructure-to-infrastructure connectivity and big data. The system discussed in this article permits drivers to identify traffic congestion and change their routes accordingly, thus reducing the total emissions of CO₂ and decreasing travel time. This system monitors, processes and stores large amounts of data, which can detect traffic congestion in a precise way by means of a series of algorithms that reduces localized vehicular emission by rerouting vehicles. To simulate and evaluate the proposed system, a big data cluster was developed based on Cassandra, which was used in tandem with the OMNeT++ discreet event network simulator, coupled with the SUMO (Simulation of Urban MObility) traffic simulator and the Veins vehicular network framework. The results validate the efficiency of the traffic detection system and its positive impact in detecting, reporting and rerouting traffic when traffic events occur.

  19. The leak detection and location system design of petroleum pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Lixia

    2011-01-01

    In order to improve the sensibility and location precision of petroleum pipeline leak with traditional negative pressure wave detection, a multi-point distributed detection and location monitoring system composed of detection nodes along pipeline, monitoring sub-stations and pressure monitoring center was designed using C/S structure. The detection node gets the pressure signal in pipeline, and sends it to monitoring center through CPRS network that achieves online monitoring for the whole pipeline in real time. The received data was analyzed and processed with multi-point distributed negative pressure wave detection and correlation analysis method. The system can rapidly detect the leak point in pipeline timely and locate accurately to avoid enormous economic loss and environment pollutions accidents. (author)

  20. A magnetic biosensor system for detection of E. coli

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Fuquan

    2013-07-01

    This work describes a device for detecting E. coli bacteria by manipulating superparamagnetic beads to a sensing area and immobilizing them in a trapping well. The trapping well replaces the biochemical immobilization layer, which is commonly used in magnetic biosensor systems. A concept exploiting the volume difference between bare magnetic beads and magnetic bead-bioanalyte compounds is utilized to detect E. coli bacteria. Trapped beads are detected by the help of a tunnel magneto-resistive sensor. Frequency modulation is employed, in order to increase the signal-to-noise ratio, enabling the detection of individual superparamagnetic beads of 2.8 μm in diameter. Replacing the biochemical immobilization layer by the trapping well greatly simplifies the detection process. After applying the mixture of E. coli and magnetic beads to the biosensor system, bacteria detection is achieved in a single step, within a few minutes. © 2013 IEEE.

  1. Fluorescence microscopy is superior to polarized microscopy for detecting amyloid deposits in Congo red-stained trephine bone marrow biopsy specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Alan; Sadimin, Evita; Richardson, Maurice; Goodell, Lauri; Fyfe, Billie

    2012-10-01

    The classic gold standard for detecting amyloid deposits is Congo red-stained bright field and polarized microscopy (CRPM). A prior study showed that Congo red fluorescence (CRF) microscopy had increased sensitivity compared with traditional CRPM when analyzing fat pad specimens. The purpose of the current study was to determine the sensitivity of CRF for evaluating Congo red-stained bone marrow biopsy specimens, and to compare these results with those of CRPM. We compared the CRPM and the CRF analyses of 33 trephine bone marrow biopsy specimens with clinical or morphologic suspicion of amyloid deposits. These results were verified against immunohistochemical staining with anti-amyloid P antibody. CRF achieved 100% sensitivity, and CRPM achieved 75% sensitivity. Both groups showed 100% specificity compared with amyloid P immunohistochemical staining. The results show that CRF is a sensitive method to analyze trephine bone marrow biopsy specimens for amyloid deposits.

  2. Fiber-Optic Based Compact Gas Leak Detection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    deGroot, Wim A.

    1995-01-01

    A propellant leak detection system based on Raman scattering principles is introduced. The proposed system is flexible and versatile as the result of the use of optical fibers. It is shown that multiple species can be monitored simultaneously. In this paper oxygen, nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen are detected and monitored. The current detection sensitivity for both hydrogen and carbon monoxide is 1% partial pressure at ambient conditions. The sensitivity for oxygen and nitrogen is 0.5% partial pressure. The response time to changes in species concentration is three minutes. This system can be used to monitor multiple species at several locations.

  3. Lung nodule detection on chest CT: evaluation of a computer-aided detection (CAD) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, In Jae; Gamsu, Gordon; Czum, Julianna; Johnson, Rebecca; Chakrapani, Sanjay; Wu, Ning

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the capacity of a computer-aided detection (CAD) system to detect lung nodules in clinical chest CT. A total of 210 consecutive clinical chest CT scans and their reports were reviewed by two chest radiologists and 70 were selected (33 without nodules and 37 with 1-6 nodules, 4-15.4 mm in diameter). The CAD system (ImageChecker CT LN-1000) developed by R2 Technology, Inc. (Sunnyvale, CA) was used. Its algorithm was designed to detect nodules with a diameter of 4-20 mm. The two chest radiologists working with the CAD system detected a total of 78 nodules. These 78 nodules form the database for this study. Four independent observers interpreted the studies with and without the CAD system. The detection rates of the four independent observers without CAD were 81% (63/78), 85% (66/78), 83% (65/78), and 83% (65/78), respectively. With CAD their rates were 87% (68/78), 85% (66/78), 86% (67/78), and 85% (66/78), respectively. The differences between these two sets of detection rates did not reach statistical significance. In addition, CAD detected eight nodules that were not mentioned in the original clinical radiology reports. The CAD system produced 1.56 false-positive nodules per CT study. The four test observers had 0, 0.1, 0.17, and 0.26 false-positive results per study without CAD and 0.07, 0.2, 0.23, and 0.39 with CAD, respectively. The CAD system can assist radiologists in detecting pulmonary nodules in chest CT, but with a potential increase in their false positive rates. Technological improvements to the system could increase the sensitivity and specificity for the detection of pulmonary nodules and reduce these false-positive results

  4. Biological Detection System Technologies Technology and Industrial Base Study. A Primer on Biological Detection Technologies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    .... and Canadian military personnel. In light of these concerns both defense departments have increased efforts to develop and field biological agent detection systems to help protect their military forces and fixed assets...

  5. Development of failed fuel detection system for PWR (III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Churl Kew; Kang, Hee Dong; Jeong, Seung Ho; Cho, Byung Sub; Yoon, Byeong Joo; Yoon, Jae Seong

    1987-12-01

    Ultrasonic transducers satisfying the conditions for failed fuel rod detection for failed fuel rod detection have been designed and built. And performance tests for them have been carried out. Ultrasonic signal processing units, a manipulator guiding the ultrasonic probe through the fuel assembly lanes and its control units have been constructed. The performance of the system has been verified experimentally to be successful in failed fuel rod detection. (Author)

  6. A model for anomaly classification in intrusion detection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, V. O.; Galhardi, V. V.; Gonçalves, L. B. L.; Silva, R. C.; Cansian, A. M.

    2015-09-01

    Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) are traditionally divided into two types according to the detection methods they employ, namely (i) misuse detection and (ii) anomaly detection. Anomaly detection has been widely used and its main advantage is the ability to detect new attacks. However, the analysis of anomalies generated can become expensive, since they often have no clear information about the malicious events they represent. In this context, this paper presents a model for automated classification of alerts generated by an anomaly based IDS. The main goal is either the classification of the detected anomalies in well-defined taxonomies of attacks or to identify whether it is a false positive misclassified by the IDS. Some common attacks to computer networks were considered and we achieved important results that can equip security analysts with best resources for their analyses.

  7. Robust filtering and fault detection of switched delay systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Dong; Wang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Switched delay systems appear in a wide field of applications including networked control systems, power systems, memristive systems. Though the large amount of ideas with respect to such systems have generated, until now, it still lacks a framework to focus on filter design and fault detection issues which are relevant to life safety and property loss. Beginning with the comprehensive coverage of the new developments in the analysis and control synthesis for switched delay systems, the monograph not only provides a systematic approach to designing the filter and detecting the fault of switched delay systems, but it also covers the model reduction issues. Specific topics covered include: (1) Arbitrary switching signal where delay-independent and delay-dependent conditions are presented by proposing a linearization technique. (2) Average dwell time where a weighted Lyapunov function is come up with dealing with filter design and fault detection issues beside taking model reduction problems. The monograph is in...

  8. Transistor-based particle detection systems and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ankit; Nair, Pradeep R.; Alam, Muhammad Ashraful

    2015-06-09

    Transistor-based particle detection systems and methods may be configured to detect charged and non-charged particles. Such systems may include a supporting structure contacting a gate of a transistor and separating the gate from a dielectric of the transistor, and the transistor may have a near pull-in bias and a sub-threshold region bias to facilitate particle detection. The transistor may be configured to change current flow through the transistor in response to a change in stiffness of the gate caused by securing of a particle to the gate, and the transistor-based particle detection system may configured to detect the non-charged particle at least from the change in current flow.

  9. Fall Down Detection Under Smart Home System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Li-Hong; Wu, Ming-Ni

    2015-10-01

    Medical technology makes an inevitable trend for the elderly population, therefore the intelligent home care is an important direction for science and technology development, in particular, elderly in-home safety management issues become more and more important. In this research, a low of operation algorithm and using the triangular pattern rule are proposed, then can quickly detect fall-down movements of humanoid by the installation of a robot with camera vision at home that will be able to judge the fall-down movements of in-home elderly people in real time. In this paper, it will present a preliminary design and experimental results of fall-down movements from body posture that utilizes image pre-processing and three triangular-mass-central points to extract the characteristics. The result shows that the proposed method would adopt some characteristic value and the accuracy can reach up to 90 % for a single character posture. Furthermore the accuracy can be up to 100 % when a continuous-time sampling criterion and support vector machine (SVM) classifier are used.

  10. Occupancy change detection system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruemmer, David J [Idaho Falls, ID; Few, Douglas A [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-09-01

    A robot platform includes perceptors, locomotors, and a system controller. The system controller executes instructions for producing an occupancy grid map of an environment around the robot, scanning the environment to generate a current obstacle map relative to a current robot position, and converting the current obstacle map to a current occupancy grid map. The instructions also include processing each grid cell in the occupancy grid map. Within the processing of each grid cell, the instructions include comparing each grid cell in the occupancy grid map to a corresponding grid cell in the current occupancy grid map. For grid cells with a difference, the instructions include defining a change vector for each changed grid cell, wherein the change vector includes a direction from the robot to the changed grid cell and a range from the robot to the changed grid cell.

  11. Development of vapor deposited silica sol-gel particles for use as a bioactive materials system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Katherine L; Holmes, Hallie R; VanWagner, Michael J; Hartman, Natalie J; Rajachar, Rupak M

    2013-06-01

    Silica-based sol-gel and bioglass materials are used in a variety of biomedical applications including the surface modification of orthopedic implants and tissue engineering scaffolds. In this work, a simple system for vapor depositing silica sol-gel nano- and micro-particles onto substrates using nebulizer technology has been developed and characterized. Particle morphology, size distribution, and degradation can easily be controlled through key formulation and manufacturing parameters including water:alkoxide molar ratio, pH, deposition time, and substrate character. These particles can be used as a means to rapidly modify substrate surface properties, including surface hydrophobicity (contact angle changes >15°) and roughness (RMS roughness changes of up to 300 nm), creating unique surface topography. Ions (calcium and phosphate) were successfully incorporated into particles, and induced apatitie-like mineral formation upon exposure to simulated body fluid Preosteoblasts (MC3T3) cultured with these particles showed up to twice the adhesivity within 48 h when compared to controls, potentially indicating an increase in cell proliferation, with the effect likely due to both the modified substrate properties as well as the release of silica ions. This novel method has the potential to be used with implants and tissue engineering materials to influence cell behavior including attachment, proliferation, and differentiation via cell-material interactions to promote osteogenesis. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Corrosion Behavior of Pipeline Carbon Steel under Different Iron Oxide Deposits in the District Heating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Sang Kim

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion behavior of pipeline steel covered by iron oxides (α-FeOOH; Fe3O4 and Fe2O3 was investigated in simulated district heating water. In potentiodynamic polarization tests; the corrosion rate of pipeline steel is increased under the iron oxide but the increaseing rate is different due to the differnet chemical reactions of the covered iron oxides. Pitting corrosion was only observed on the α-FeOOH-covered specimen; which is caused by the crevice corrosion under the α-FeOOH. From Mott-Schottky and X-ray diffraction results; the surface reaction and oxide layer were dependent on the kind of iron oxides. The iron oxides deposit increases the failure risk of the pipeline and localized corrosion can be occurred under the α-FeOOH-covered region of the pipeline. Thus, prevention methods for the iron oxide deposit in the district pipeline system such as filtering or periodic chemical cleaning are needed.

  13. Synthesis of CuInS2 thin films by spray pyrolysis deposition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, K. M. A.; Podder, J.; Saha, D. K.

    2013-02-01

    Copper indium disulfide (CuInS2) thin films were deposited on the glass substrate by the locally made spray pyrolysis deposition system. The films were characterized by using energy dispersive analytical X-ray (EDAX) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometry. The XRD pattern indicated that the prepared CuInS2 thin films are chalcopyrite structure. Lattice parameters and FWHM values were verified by the standard values of JCPDS 270159 file. The EDAX analysis indicated the stoichiometric ratio of 1.14:1:1.88 (CIS-2) thin films. The SEM analysis showed that the average grain size of the film was 100-800 nm and that of XRD data indicate the values of 30-50 nm. The high absorption co-efficient and 1.48 eV band gap of the films indicate that the films are useful as an absorber for photovoltaic application in the solar cell.

  14. Detecting System of Nested Hardware Virtual Machine Monitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artem Vladimirovich Iuzbashev

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Method of nested hardware virtual machine monitor detection was proposed in this work. The method is based on HVM timing attack. In case of HVM presence in system, the number of different instruction sequences execution time values will increase. We used this property as indicator in our detection.

  15. Active Detection for Exposing Intelligent Attacks in Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weerakkody, Sean [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Ozel, Omur [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Griffioen, Paul [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Sinopoli, Bruno [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we consider approaches for detecting integrity attacks carried out by intelligent and resourceful adversaries in control systems. Passive detection techniques are often incorporated to identify malicious behavior. Here, the defender utilizes finely-tuned algorithms to process information and make a binary decision, whether the system is healthy or under attack. We demonstrate that passive detection can be ineffective against adversaries with model knowledge and access to a set of input/output channels. We then propose active detection as a tool to detect attacks. In active detection, the defender leverages degrees of freedom he has in the system to detect the adversary. Specifically, the defender will introduce a physical secret kept hidden from the adversary, which can be utilized to authenticate the dynamics. In this regard, we carefully review two approaches for active detection: physical watermarking at the control input, and a moving target approach for generating system dynamics. We examine practical considerations for implementing these technologies and discuss future research directions.

  16. Probabilistic Anomaly Detection Based On System Calls Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Maciołek

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an application of probabilistic approach to the anomaly detection (PAD. Byanalyzing selected system calls (and their arguments, the chosen applications are monitoredin the Linux environment. This allows us to estimate “(abnormality” of their behavior (bycomparison to previously collected profiles. We’ve attached results of threat detection ina typical computer environment.

  17. SSHCure: A Flow-Based SSH Intrusion Detection System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellemons, Laurens; Hendriks, Luuk; Hendriks, Luuk; Hofstede, R.J.; Sperotto, Anna; Sadre, R.; Pras, Aiko

    SSH attacks are a main area of concern for network managers, due to the danger associated with a successful compromise. Detecting these attacks, and possibly compromised victims, is therefore a crucial activity. Most existing network intrusion detection systems designed for this purpose rely on the

  18. Investigation of Fault Systems Controlling Breakup and Deposition in the Galicia Rift Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexanian, A.; Sawyer, D. S.; Gray, G. G.; Shillington, D. J.; Davy, R. G.; Minshull, T. A.; Reston, T. J.; Morgan, J.

    2016-12-01

    The Galicia Margin offshore of Spain represents a magma-poor end member of rifting systems. The development of these systems can be understood by imaging the subsurface distribution of crust and upper mantle. The Galicia Margin has been studied extensively with seismic data, and the research cruise R/V Marcus Langseth 1307 collected 3D seismic data along this margin. The dataset includes a 68 by 20 kilometer box in the Deep Galicia Basin and a 110 kilometer x 600 meter 3D swath to the west. Through selective Prestack Depth Migration (PSDM), seismic interpretation, and structural restoration of one of the swaths, one can gain insight into the different fault regimes and depositional history of the margin. PSDM is an important tool to image the subsurface and model the velocities present. Ray based tomography is used to create a migration velocity model that will allow depth migration to faithfully focus the seismic data and send reflection events to their correct location in space. We chose to process Western Extension 1 (WE1), which partially overlaps the 3D box and extends it to the west. This line captures the transition from a crustal necking region to hyperextended crust to exhumed mantle. The eastern 150 kilometers of the line was processed using a 3D Kirchoff algorithm. Its velocity model utilizes reflection tomography in the sediments, and we used forward modeling to minimize residual move out on strong events in the basement. The western 20 kilometer long segment was previously undiscovered due to a lack of geometric control while shots were being recorded. These data were processed using a 2D Kirchoff algorithm using the vessel's navigation systems to estimate source and receiver locations. In this study we found a velocity inversion in the sediment, evidence suggesting a large deposition of synrift sediment in the crustal blocks, and the locations of continental crust and mantle.

  19. Fault detection for nonlinear systems - A standard problem approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes a general method for designing (nonlinear) fault detection and isolation (FDI) systems for nonlinear processes. For a rich class of nonlinear systems, a nonlinear FDI system can be designed using convex optimization procedures. The proposed method is a natural extension of met...

  20. A proposed data base system for detection, classification and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A proposed data base system for detection, classification and location of fault on electricity company of Ghana electrical distribution system. Isaac Owusu-Nyarko, Mensah-Ananoo Eugine. Abstract. No Abstract. Keywords: database, classification of fault, power, distribution system, SCADA, ECG. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT ...

  1. A TNA explosives-detection system in airline baggage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shea, P.; Gozani, T. (Science Applications International Corp., Santa Clara, CA (USA)); Bozorgmanesh, H. (Science Applications International Corp., San Diego, CA (USA))

    1990-12-20

    Existing technologies that are applied to explosives-detection in passenger baggage are briefly discussed. A system based on thermal-neutron analysis (TNA) is described. The actual performance of the system in the field on passenger bags is given. The application of the TNA in an integrated airport security system is discussed in view of the intense public debate on this issue. (orig.).

  2. A System View on Iterative MIMO Detection: Dynamic Sphere Detection versus Fixed Effort List Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Gimmler-Dumont

    2012-01-01

    reliability information is fed back from the channel decoder to the MIMO detector. In this paper, we derive a basic framework to compare different soft-input soft-output MIMO detectors in open- and closed-loop systems. Within this framework, we analyze a depth-first sphere detector and a breadth-first fixed effort detector for different application scenarios and their effects on area and energy efficiency on the whole system. We present all system components under open- and closed-loop system aspects and determine the overall implementation cost for changing an open-loop system in a closed-loop system.

  3. Malicious Hubs: Detecting Abnormally Malicious Autonomous Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalafut, Andrew J. [Indiana University; Shue, Craig A [ORNL; Gupta, Prof. Minaxi [Indiana University

    2010-01-01

    While many attacks are distributed across botnets, investigators and network operators have recently targeted malicious networks through high profile autonomous system (AS) de-peerings and network shut-downs. In this paper, we explore whether some ASes indeed are safe havens for malicious activity. We look for ISPs and ASes that exhibit disproportionately high malicious behavior using 12 popular blacklists. We find that some ASes have over 80% of their routable IP address space blacklisted and others account for large fractions of blacklisted IPs. Overall, we conclude that examining malicious activity at the AS granularity can unearth networks with lax security or those that harbor cybercrime.

  4. Detecting Fraud in Internet Auction Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yanlin; Zhang, Linfeng; Guan, Yong

    Fraud compromises the thriving Internet auction market. Studies have shown that fraudsters often manipulate their reputations through sophisticated collusions with accomplices, enabling them to defeat the reputation-based feedback systems that are used to combat fraud. This paper presents an algorithm that can identify colluding fraudsters in real time. Experiments with eBay transaction data show that the algorithm has low false negative and false positive rates. Furthermore, the algorithm can identify fraudsters who are innocent at the time of the data collection, but engage in fraudulent transactions soon after they accumulate good feedback ratings.

  5. Ensemble of classifiers based network intrusion detection system performance bound

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mkuzangwe, Nenekazi NP

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a performance bound of a network intrusion detection system (NIDS) that uses an ensemble of classifiers. Currently researchers rely on implementing the ensemble of classifiers based NIDS before they can determine the performance...

  6. Implementing an Intrusion Detection System in the Mysea Architecture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tenhunen, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    .... The objective of this thesis is to design an intrusion detection system (IDS) architecture that permits administrators operating on MYSEA client machines to conveniently view and analyze IDS alerts from the single level networks...

  7. Tool for Insider Threat Detection in Corporative Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Sergeevich Vedeneev

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Systems and tools for insider threat detection are described. Different meanings of the term “insider”, types of insiders, examples of motivation of insiders, typical insider actions are set.

  8. Alternative vehicle detection technologies for traffic signal systems : technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    Due to the well-documented problems associated with inductive loops, most jurisdictions have : replaced many intersection loops with video image vehicle detection systems (VIVDS). While VIVDS : have overcome some of the problems with loops such as tr...

  9. A Driver Face Monitoring System for Fatigue and Distraction Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad-Hoseyn Sigari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Driver face monitoring system is a real-time system that can detect driver fatigue and distraction using machine vision approaches. In this paper, a new approach is introduced for driver hypovigilance (fatigue and distraction detection based on the symptoms related to face and eye regions. In this method, face template matching and horizontal projection of top-half segment of face image are used to extract hypovigilance symptoms from face and eye, respectively. Head rotation is a symptom to detect distraction that is extracted from face region. The extracted symptoms from eye region are (1 percentage of eye closure, (2 eyelid distance changes with respect to the normal eyelid distance, and (3 eye closure rate. The first and second symptoms related to eye region are used for fatigue detection; the last one is used for distraction detection. In the proposed system, a fuzzy expert system combines the symptoms to estimate level of driver hypo-vigilance. There are three main contributions in the introduced method: (1 simple and efficient head rotation detection based on face template matching, (2 adaptive symptom extraction from eye region without explicit eye detection, and (3 normalizing and personalizing the extracted symptoms using a short training phase. These three contributions lead to develop an adaptive driver eye/face monitoring. Experiments show that the proposed system is relatively efficient for estimating the driver fatigue and distraction.

  10. Anomaly-based intrusion detection for SCADA systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, D.; Usynin, A.; Hines, J. W.

    2006-01-01

    Most critical infrastructure such as chemical processing plants, electrical generation and distribution networks, and gas distribution is monitored and controlled by Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition Systems (SCADA. These systems have been the focus of increased security and there are concerns that they could be the target of international terrorists. With the constantly growing number of internet related computer attacks, there is evidence that our critical infrastructure may also be vulnerable. Researchers estimate that malicious online actions may cause $75 billion at 2007. One of the interesting countermeasures for enhancing information system security is called intrusion detection. This paper will briefly discuss the history of research in intrusion detection techniques and introduce the two basic detection approaches: signature detection and anomaly detection. Finally, it presents the application of techniques developed for monitoring critical process systems, such as nuclear power plants, to anomaly intrusion detection. The method uses an auto-associative kernel regression (AAKR) model coupled with the statistical probability ratio test (SPRT) and applied to a simulated SCADA system. The results show that these methods can be generally used to detect a variety of common attacks. (authors)

  11. Dynamic scaling in a ballistic deposition model for a binary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Nashar, H.F.; Cerdeira, H.A.

    2000-04-01

    A ballistic deposition model for the kinetic of surface growth for two species is introduced as a description of the evolution of a surface under vapor deposition. We used a tunable parameter P to control the deposition of the particles such that one type is deposited with probability P while the other is deposited with 1 - P. Simulations in 2 + 1 dimensions using local surface diffusion lead to the formation of a rough surface whose dynamical evolution is not that of the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang universality class. Also, when surface diffusion becomes dominant, the model moves away from the Edwards-Wilkinson universality. (author)

  12. Developing nucleic acid-based electrical detection systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabig-Ciminska Magdalena

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Development of nucleic acid-based detection systems is the main focus of many research groups and high technology companies. The enormous work done in this field is particularly due to the broad versatility and variety of these sensing devices. From optical to electrical systems, from label-dependent to label-free approaches, from single to multi-analyte and array formats, this wide range of possibilities makes the research field very diversified and competitive. New challenges and requirements for an ideal detector suitable for nucleic acid analysis include high sensitivity and high specificity protocol that can be completed in a relatively short time offering at the same time low detection limit. Moreover, systems that can be miniaturized and automated present a significant advantage over conventional technology, especially if detection is needed in the field. Electrical system technology for nucleic acid-based detection is an enabling mode for making miniaturized to micro- and nanometer scale bio-monitoring devices via the fusion of modern micro- and nanofabrication technology and molecular biotechnology. The electrical biosensors that rely on the conversion of the Watson-Crick base-pair recognition event into a useful electrical signal are advancing rapidly, and recently are receiving much attention as a valuable tool for microbial pathogen detection. Pathogens may pose a serious threat to humans, animal and plants, thus their detection and analysis is a significant element of public health. Although different conventional methods for detection of pathogenic microorganisms and their toxins exist and are currently being applied, improvements of molecular-based detection methodologies have changed these traditional detection techniques and introduced a new era of rapid, miniaturized and automated electrical chip detection technologies into pathogen identification sector. In this review some developments and current directions in

  13. An automatic system using mobile-agent software to model the calculation process of a chemical vapor deposition film deposition simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Takahiro; Fukui, Noriyuki; Arakawa, Masamoto; Funatsu, Kimito; Ema, Yoshinori

    2011-09-01

    We have developed an automatic modeling system for calculation processes of the simulator to reproduce experimental results of chemical vapor deposition (CVD), in order to decrease the calculation cost of the simulator. Replacing the simulator by the mathematical models proposed by the system will contribute towards decreasing the calculation costs for predicting the experimental results. The system consists of a mobile agent and two software resources in computer networks, that is, generalized modeling software and a simulator reproducing cross-sections of the deposited films on the substrates with the micrometer- or nanometer-sized trenches. The mobile agent autonomously creates appropriate models by moving to and then operating the software resources. The models are calculated by partial least squares regression (PLS), quadratic PLS (QPLS) and error back propagation (BP) methods using artificial neural networks (ANN) and expresses by mathematical formulas to reproduce the calculated results of the simulator. The models show good reproducibility and predictability both for uniformity and filling properties of the films calculated by the simulator. The models using the BP method yield the best performance. The filling property data are more suitable to modeling than film uniformity.

  14. Detection systems for radioactive ion beams; Systeme de detection en ions radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savajols, H

    2002-07-01

    Two main methods are used to produce radioactive ion beams: -) the ISOL method (isotope separation on-line) in which the stable beam interacts with a thick target, the reaction products diffuse outside the target and are transferred to a source where they are ionized, a mass separator and a post-accelerator drive the selected radioactive ions to the right energy; -) the in-flight fragmentation method in which the stable beam interacts with a thin target, the reaction products are emitted from the target with a restricted angular distribution and a velocity close to that of the incident beam, the experimenter has to take advantage from the reaction kinetics to get the right particle beam. Characteristic time is far longer with the ISOL method but the beam intensity is much better because of the use of a post-accelerator. In both cases, the beam intensity is lower by several orders of magnitude than in the case of a stable beam. This article presents all the constraints imposed by radioactive beams to the detection systems of the reaction products and gives new technical solutions according to the type of nuclear reaction studied. (A.C.)

  15. Design and implementation of network attack analysis and detect system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Zhigang; Wu Huan; Liu Baoxu

    2007-01-01

    This paper first analyzes the present research state of IDS (intrusion detection system), classifies and compares existing methods. According to the problems existing in IDS, such as false-positives, false-negatives and low information visualization, this paper suggests a system named NAADS which supports multi data sources. Through a series of methods such as clustering analysis, association analysis and visualization, rate of detection and usability of NAADS are increased. (authors)

  16. Detecting new objects and building models with active robot system

    OpenAIRE

    Stergaršek Kuzmič, Eva

    2010-01-01

    An important element of a cognitive robotic system is the ability to detect novel objects and learn their representations, which are suitable for later recognition and manipulation. The basic assumption of our work is that the detection and segmentation of new objects can be facilitated by an active robotic system, which can not only observe the objects but can also manipulate them. Manipulation supports object segmentation and the accumulation of object features, which provides the basis for...

  17. Fault Detection and Performance Monitoring in PV Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Vasco Brogueira Andrade

    2017-01-01

    Given the exponential growth of the PV sector in recent years and the market?s overall need for new PV monitoring solutions, this dissertation aims at creating an automatic fault detection tool for PV systems, more specifically for shading and soiling situations. By detecting deviations in the measured PV systems? data patterns, this tool aims at providing essential information for the deployment of the right maintenance strategy for each situation.

  18. A System for Detecting Miscues in Dyslexic Read Speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten Højfeldt; Tan, Zheng-Hua; Lindberg, Børge

    2009-01-01

    While miscue detection in general is a well explored research field little attention has so far been paid to miscue detection in dyslexic read speech. This domain differs substantially from the domains that are commonly researched, as for example dyslexic read speech includes frequent regressions...... that the system detects miscues at a false alarm rate of 5.3% and a miscue detection rate of 40.1%. These results are worse than current state of the art reading tutors perhaps indicating that dyslexic read speech is a challenge to handle....

  19. Attack Pattern Analysis Framework for a Multiagent Intrusion Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Juszczyszyn

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes the use of attack pattern ontology and formal framework for network traffic anomalies detection within a distributed multi-agent Intrusion Detection System architecture. Our framework assumes ontology-based attack definition and distributed processing scheme with exchange of communicates between agents. The role of traffic anomalies detection was presented then it has been discussed how some specific values characterizing network communication can be used to detect network anomalies caused by security incidents (worm attack, virus spreading. Finally, it has been defined how to use the proposed techniques in distributed IDS using attack pattern ontology.

  20. Deep Recurrent Neural Networks for seizure detection and early seizure detection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talathi, S. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-06-05

    Epilepsy is common neurological diseases, affecting about 0.6-0.8 % of world population. Epileptic patients suffer from chronic unprovoked seizures, which can result in broad spectrum of debilitating medical and social consequences. Since seizures, in general, occur infrequently and are unpredictable, automated seizure detection systems are recommended to screen for seizures during long-term electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings. In addition, systems for early seizure detection can lead to the development of new types of intervention systems that are designed to control or shorten the duration of seizure events. In this article, we investigate the utility of recurrent neural networks (RNNs) in designing seizure detection and early seizure detection systems. We propose a deep learning framework via the use of Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU) RNNs for seizure detection. We use publicly available data in order to evaluate our method and demonstrate very promising evaluation results with overall accuracy close to 100 %. We also systematically investigate the application of our method for early seizure warning systems. Our method can detect about 98% of seizure events within the first 5 seconds of the overall epileptic seizure duration.

  1. A subtractive approach to interior intrusion detection system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sons, R.J.; Graham, R.H. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses the subtractive approach to interior intrusion detection system design which assumes that all sensors are viable candidates until they are subjected to the constraints imposed by a particular facility. The constraints are determined by a sequence of questions concerning parameters such as threat definition, facility description and operation, environment, assets to be protected, security system capabilities, and cost. As a result of the questioning, some sensors will be eliminated from the candidate list, and the ''best'' set of sensors for the facility will remain. This form of questioning could be incorporated into an expert system aiding future intrusion detection system designs

  2. Wide area surveillance real-time motion detection systems

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The book describes a system for visual surveillance using intelligent cameras. The camera uses robust techniques for detecting and tracking moving objects. The real time capture of the objects is then stored int he database. The tracking data stored in the database is analysed to study the camera view, detect and track objects, and study object behavior. These set of models provide a robust framework for coordinating the tracking of objects between overlapping and non-overlapping cameras, and recording the activity of objects detected by the system.

  3. A neuromorphic system for object detection and classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, Deepak; Chen, Yang; Kim, Kyungnam; Cheng, Shinko Y.; Honda, Alexander L.; Zhang, Lei

    2013-05-01

    Unattended object detection, recognition and tracking on unmanned reconnaissance platforms in battlefields and urban spaces are topics of emerging importance. In this paper, we present an unattended object recognition system that automatically detects objects of interest in videos and classifies them into various categories (e.g., person, car, truck, etc.). Our system is inspired by recent findings in visual neuroscience on feed-forward object detection and recognition pipeline and mirrors that via two main neuromorphic modules (1) A front-end detection module that combines form and motion based visual attention to search for and detect "integrated" object percepts as is hypothesized to occur in the human visual pathways; (2) A back-end recognition module that processes only the detected object percepts through a neuromorphic object classification algorithm based on multi-scale convolutional neural networks, which can be efficiently implemented in COTS hardware. Our neuromorphic system was evaluated using a variety of urban area video data collected from both stationary and moving platforms. The data are quite challenging as it includes targets at long ranges, occurring under variable conditions of illuminations and occlusion with high clutter. The experimental results of our system showed excellent detection and classification performance. In addition, the proposed bio-inspired approach is good for hardware implementation due to its low complexity and mapping to off-the-shelf conventional hardware.

  4. Indium-tin-oxide thin film deposited by a dual ion beam assisted e-beam evaporation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, J.W.; Kim, J.S.; Yeom, G.Y.

    2001-01-01

    Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin films were deposited on polycarbonate (PC) substrates at low temperatures (<90 deg. C) by a dual ion beam assisted e-beam evaporation system, where one gun (gun 1) is facing ITO flux and the other gun (gun 2) is facing the substrate. In this experiment, effects of rf power and oxygen flow rate of ion gun 2 on the electrical and optical properties of depositing ITO thin films were investigated. At optimal deposition conditions, ITO thin films deposited on the PC substrates larger than 20 cmx20 cm showed the sheet resistance of less than 40 Ω/sq., the optical transmittance of above 90%, and the uniformity of about 5%

  5. Limits of detection of a total reflection X-ray fluorescence system with double reflection module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento Filho, V F; Poblete, V H; Parreira, P S; Matsumoto, E; Simabuco, S M; Espinoza, E P; Navarro, A A

    1999-01-01

    An X-ray tube with a Mo target and Zr filter, operated at 45 kV/20 mA, was used to excite samples (5 microL deposited on a quartz support) and the total reflection angle condition was obtained with a double reflector module built with two 10-cm-long 7-mm-thick quartz crystals placed 50 microns apart. A high-resolution spectrometer based on a Si(Li) detector coupled to a multichannel analyzer was used for X-ray detection and the spectra were interpreted with the AXIL software. The system was calibrated with standard chemical solutions containing Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Pb, and Y was used as an internal standard to correct eventual geometric errors and high-voltage instabilities of the X-ray generator. The limits of detection were 19, 9, 5, and 4 ng/mL for Cr, Fe, Cu, and Zn, respectively, analyzed through characteristic K alpha X-rays, and 7 ng/mL for Pb, through L alpha X-rays, considering 50 microL samples deposited and dried on a quartz support, to be excited/detected for 1000 s.

  6. Detection device for off-gas system accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Ryuji; Tsuruoka, Ryozo; Yamanari, Shozo.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To rapidly isolate the off-gas system by detecting the off-gas system failure accident in a short time. Constitution: Radiation monitors are disposed to ducts connecting an exhaust gas area and an air conditioning system as a portion of a turbine building. The ducts are disposed independently such that they ventilate only the atmosphere in the exhaust gas area and do not mix the atmosphere in the turbine building. Since radioactivity issued upon off-gas accidents to the exhaust gas area is sucked to the duct, it can be detected by radiation detection monitors in a short time after the accident. Further, since the operator judges it as the off-gas system accident, the off-gas system can be isolated in a short time after the accident. (Moriyama, K.)

  7. Evaluation of video detection systems, volume 3 : effects of windy conditions in the performance of video detection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    The performance of three Video Detection Systems (VDS), namely Autoscope, Iteris, and Peek, was evaluated : at stop bar and advance locations, at an instrumented signalized intersection located in Rantoul, Illinois, utilizing : a side-by-side install...

  8. Evaluation of video detection systems, volume 4 : effects of adverse weather conditions in the performance of video detection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    The performance of three video detection systems (VDS): Iteris, Autoscope, and Peek, was evaluated : using a side-by-side installation at a signalized intersection under various adverse weather conditions including : rain and snow in both day and nig...

  9. Evaluation of video detection systems, volume 1 : effects of configuration changes in the performance of video detection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    The effects of modifying the configuration of three video detection (VD) systems (Iteris, Autoscope, and Peek) : are evaluated in daytime and nighttime conditions. Four types of errors were used: false, missed, stuck-on, and : dropped calls. The thre...

  10. Design criteria and principles for criticality detection and alarm systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delafield, H.J.; Clifton, J.J.

    1984-10-01

    The report gives design principles and criteria for criticality detection and alarm systems based on earlier work and revised in the light of more recent experience. In particular, account is taken of the developments which have taken place in the field of radiation detection and in the understanding of the different types of criticality excursion. General guidance is given on the principles to apply in deciding upon the need for a criticality system. The characteristics of a criticality incident are described in terms of the minimum incident of concern, and the radiation field. Criteria for the threshold of detection of a criticality incident are then derived and the methods of detection considered. The selection and siting of criticality detectors is discussed, and design principles are given for alarm systems. Finally, testing and post-alarm procedures are outlined, followed by a summary of the principal recommendations. The supporting Appendices include a discussion of reliability and a summary of radiation detector characteristics. (author)

  11. A UAV-BASED ROE DEER FAWN DETECTION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Israel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a UAV based remote sensing system for the detection of fawns in the meadows. There is a high demand because during pasture mowing many wild animals, especially roe deer fawns are killed by mowing machines. The system was tested in several real situations especially with differing weather and iluminating conditions. Its primary sensor is a lightweight thermal infrared camera. The images are captured onboard of the flight system and also transmitted as analog video stream to the ground station, where the user can follow the camera live stream on a monitor for manual animal detection. Beside a high detection rate a fast workflow is another very important objective for this application. Therefore a waypoint planning software was developed that accelerates the workflow. At adequate illuminating and weather conditions the presented UAV-based fawn detection via thermal imaging is a comfortable, fast and reliable method.

  12. a Uav-Based ROE Deer Fawn Detection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, M.

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents a UAV based remote sensing system for the detection of fawns in the meadows. There is a high demand because during pasture mowing many wild animals, especially roe deer fawns are killed by mowing machines. The system was tested in several real situations especially with differing weather and iluminating conditions. Its primary sensor is a lightweight thermal infrared camera. The images are captured onboard of the flight system and also transmitted as analog video stream to the ground station, where the user can follow the camera live stream on a monitor for manual animal detection. Beside a high detection rate a fast workflow is another very important objective for this application. Therefore a waypoint planning software was developed that accelerates the workflow. At adequate illuminating and weather conditions the presented UAV-based fawn detection via thermal imaging is a comfortable, fast and reliable method.

  13. Detection of forced oscillations in power systems with multichannel methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follum, James D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    The increasing availability of high fidelity, geographically dispersed measurements in power systems improves the ability of researchers and engineers to study dynamic behaviors in the grid. One such behavior that is garnering increased attention is the presence of forced oscillations. Power system engineers are interested in forced oscillations because they are often symptomatic of the malfunction or misoperation of equipment. Though the resulting oscillation is not always large in amplitude, the root cause may be serious. In this report, multi-channel forced oscillation detection methods are developed. These methods leverage previously developed detection approaches based on the periodogram and spectral-coherence. Making use of geographically distributed channels of data is shown to improved detection performance and shorten the delay before an oscillation can be detected in the online environment. Results from simulated and measured power system data are presented.

  14. Detection and Location of Structural Degradation in Mechanical Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blakeman, E.D.; Damiano, B.; Phillips, L.D.

    1999-01-01

    The investigation of a diagnostic method for detecting and locating the source of structural degradation in a mechanical system is described in this paper. The diagnostic method uses a mathematical model of the mechanical system to determine relationships between system parameters and measurable spectral features. These relationships are incorporated into a neural network, which associates measured spectral features with system parameters. Condition diagnosis is performed by presenting the neural network with measured spectral features and comparing the system parameters estimated by the neural network to previously estimated values. Changes in the estimated system parameters indicate the location and severity of degradation in the mechanical system

  15. Mask-less deposition of Au-SnO2 nanocomposites on CMOS MEMS platform for ethanol detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santra, S.; Sinha, A. K.; De Luca, A.; Ali, S. Z.; Udrea, F.; Guha, P. K.; Ray, S. K.; Gardner, J. W.

    2016-03-01

    Here we report on the mask-less deposition of Au-SnO2 nanocomposites with a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) micro electro mechanical system (MEMS) platform through the use of dip pen nanolithography (DPN) to create a low-cost ethanol sensor. MEMS technology is used in order to achieve low power consumption, by the employment of a membrane structure formed using deep reactive ion etching technique. The device consists of an embedded tungsten micro-heater with gold interdigitated electrodes on top of the SOI membrane. The tungsten micro-heater is used to raise the membrane temperature up to its operating temperature and the electrodes are used to measure the resistance of the nanocomposite sensing layer. The CMOS MEMS devices have high electro-thermal efficiency, with 8.2 °C temperature increase per mW power of consumption. The sensing material (Au-SnO2 nanocomposite) was synthesised starting from SnO nanoplates, then Au nanoparticles were attached chemically to the surface of SnO nanoplates, finally the mixture was heated at 700 °C in an oven in air for 4 h. This composite material was sonicated for 2 h in terpineol to make a viscous homogeneous slurry and then ‘written’ directly across the electrode area using the DPN technique without any mask. The devices were characterised by exposure to ethanol vapour in humid air in the concentration range of 100-1000 ppm. The sensitivity varied from 1.2 to 0.27 ppm-1 for 100-1000 ppm of ethanol at 10% relative humid air. Selectivity measurements showed that the sensors were selective towards ethanol when they were exposed to acetone and toluene.

  16. Perancangan dan Implementasi Instrusion Detection System di Jaringan Universitas Diponegoro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyakso Anindito Nugroho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of information technology gives the advantage of open access for its users, but a new problem arises that there is a threat from unauthorized users. Intrusion Detection System (IDS is applied to assist administrator to monitoring network security. IDS displays illegal access information in a raw form which is require more time to read the detected threats. This final project aims to design an IDS with web application which is made for pulling information on IDS sensor database, then processing and representing them in tables and graphs that are easy to understand. The web application also has IpTables firewall module to block attacker's IP address. The hardware used is Cisco IPS 4240, two computers Compaq Presario 4010F as client and gateway, and Cisco Catalyst 2960 switch. The software used is Ubuntu 12.0 LTS Precise operating system, BackTrack 5 R1 operating system, PHP 5.4 programming language, MySQL 5 database, and web-based system configuration tool Webmin. Testing is done using several BackTrack applications with the aim of Cisco IPS 4240 is capable of detecting accordance with the applicable rules. Each events of any attack attempt or threat was obtained from IDS sensor database in XML form. XML file is sent using Security Device Event Exchange (SDEE protocol. The web application is tested by looking at the output tables and graphs that displays the appropriate results of sensor detection. This study generated an intrusion detection system that is easier to monitor. Network packets copied by the Cisco 2960 switch and then forwarded to the sensor. Intruder detection is done by Cisco IPS 4240 sensor. Log detection processed by the web application into tables and graphs. Intrusion detection systems are intended to improve network security.

  17. Detection performance of laser range-gated imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Li, Xiaofeng; Luo, Jijun; Zhang, Shengxiu; Xu, Yibin

    2010-10-01

    Laser radar is rapidly developing towards very capable sensors for number of applications such as military sensing and guidance, auto collision avoidance, robotic vision and atmospheric sensing. In this paper, the detection performance of non-scanned Laser Rang-gated (LRG) imaging system is studied. In order to compute the detection range of laser active imaging system, the range equation is derived by using laser illuminating model and considering factors which affect system imaging quality. According to the principle of laser radar and the characters of objects and the detectors in special applied setting, it mainly deduced the non-scanned laser radar range equation of the range-gated system, meanwhile, the SNR model of non-scanned LRG imaging system is set up. Then, relationship of the detection probability, the false alarm probability and the signal-to-noise ratio in the non-scanned LRG imaging system are analyzed, the influence factors of system's performance are pointed out, and the solution is proposed. The detection performance simulation software of non-scanned LRG imaging system is designed with MATLAB and the performance of the imaging system is simulated.

  18. Translocation of particles deposited in the respiratory system: a systematic review and statistical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakane, Hideo

    2012-07-01

    Many epidemiological studies have demonstrated that ambient particulate matter poses consistent risks for respiratory and cardiovascular disorders. The translocation of inhaled particles is one hypothesis that could explain such systemic effects. The objectives of this study were to conduct a systematic review of previous reports on particle translocation from the respiratory system and to discuss factors important for translocation. A PubMed search was conducted in August 2011 for the period from 1967 with four main keyword domains (particle, translocation, detection site, and exposure route). The systematic review identified 61 original articles written in English that met the specified criteria (i.e., information on experiment and particle detection). Categorical regression analysis was performed with the site of particle detection as the objective variable, and particle size, particle material, animal species, and exposure route as the explanatory variables. All explanatory variables showed statistically significant effects. The effects for particle size and particle material were large, while the effects for animal species and exposure route were relatively small. There was a broad relationship between particle size and detection site: ≤50 nm for brain and remote organs; ≤1 μm for blood; and ≤10 μm for lung tissues. However, these results should be considered within the context of several limitations, such as deficiency of information.

  19. Depth Profiling Analysis of Aluminum Oxidation During Film Deposition in a Conventional High Vacuum System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongmin; Weimer, Jeffrey J.; Zukic, Muamer; Torr, Douglas G.

    1994-01-01

    The oxidation of aluminum thin films deposited in a conventional high vacuum chamber has been investigated using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and depth profiling. The state of the Al layer was preserved by coating it with a protective MgF2 layer in the deposition chamber. Oxygen concentrations in the film layers were determined as a function of sputter time (depth into the film). The results show that an oxidized layer is formed at the start of Al deposition and that a less extensively oxidized Al layer is deposited if the deposition rate is fast. The top surface of the Al layer oxidizes very quickly. This top oxidized layer may be thicker than has been previously reported by optical methods. Maximum oxygen concentrations measured by XPS at each Al interface are related to pressure to rate ratios determined during the Al layer deposition.

  20. A prototype detection system for atmospheric monitoring of xenon radioisotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czyz, Steven A.; Farsoni, Abi T.; Ranjbar, Lily

    2018-03-01

    The design of a radioxenon detection system utilizing a CdZeTe crystal and a plastic scintillator coupled to an array of SiPMs to conduct beta-gamma coincidence detection for atmospheric radioxenon monitoring, as well as the measurement of 135Xe and 133/133mXe, have been detailed previously. This paper presents recent measurements of 133/133mXe and 131mXe and the observation of conversion electrons in their coincidence spectra, as well as a 48-hour background measurement to calculate the Minimum Detectable Concentration (MDC) of radioxenon isotopes in the system. The identification of Regions of Interest (ROIs) in the coincidence spectra yielded from the radioxenon measurements, and the subsequent calculation of the MDCs of the system for 135Xe, 133/133mXe, and 131mXe, are also discussed. Calculated MDCs show that the detection system preforms respectably when compared to other state of the art radioxenon detection systems and achieved an MDC of less than 1 mBq/m3 for 131mXe, 133Xe, and 133mXe, in accordance with limits set by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBTO). The system also provides the advantage of room temperature operation, compactness, low noise operation and having simple readout electronics.

  1. Informed Design to Robotic Production Systems; Developing Robotic 3D Printing System for Informed Material Deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostafavi, S.; Bier, H.; Bodea, S.; Anton, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of an informed Design-to-Robotic-Production (D2RP) system for additive manufacturing to achieve performative porosity in architecture at various scales. An extended series of experiments on materiality, fabrication and robotics were designed and carried out

  2. Impacts of Dry Atmospheric Deposition on Aquatic Systems - Nutrients, Trace Metals and Lead Isotopes

    OpenAIRE

    Chien, Chia-Te

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric deposition is a source of new N, P and trace metals to the ocean and water bodies on land. Nutrient and trace metal inputs from atmospheric deposition have been shown to induce phytoplankton growth and impact water chemistry. The three chapters presented in this thesis examine dry atmospheric deposition impacts on phytoplankton and water chemistry including: (1) How African dust impact phytoplankton growth at the low nutrient low chlorophyll (LNLC) ocean off Barbados; (2) Evaluate...

  3. Distribution and composition of gold in porphyry gold systems: example from the Biely Vrch deposit, Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koděra, Peter; Kozák, Jaroslav; Brčeková, Jana; Chovan, Martin; Lexa, Jaroslav; Jánošík, Michal; Biroň, Adrián; Uhlík, Peter; Bakos, František

    2018-03-01

    The Biely Vrch deposit in the Western Carpathians is assigned to the shallow, sulfide-poor porphyry gold deposit type and has an exceptionally low Cu/Au ratio. According to 3-D geochemical models, there is a limited spatial correlation between Au and Cu due to the primary introduction of gold by a salt melt and Cu by low-density vapor. Despite a rough spatial correlation of gold grades with quartz stockwork intensity, gold is hosted mostly by altered rock, exclusively in native form. Three main gold mineral assemblages were recognized here. In the deepest parts of the system, the K- and Ca-Na silicate gold assemblage is associated with minerals of high-temperature alteration (plagioclase, K-feldspar, actinolite), with gold grades and fineness depending on depth and potassium content of the host rock: K-silicate alteration hosts the lowest fineness gold ( 914), whereas Ca-Na silicate alteration has the highest ( 983). The intermediate argillic gold assemblage is the most widespread, with gold hosted mainly by chlorite, illite, smectite, and interstratified illite-chlorite-smectite minerals. The gold fineness is mostly variable (875-990) and inherited from the former gold mineral assemblages. The latest advanced argillic gold assemblage has its gold mostly in kaolinite. The extremely high fineness ( 994) results from gold remobilization by late-stage aqueous magmatic-hydrothermal fluids. Uncommon bonanza-grade appears where the earlier gold mineral assemblages were further enriched by this remobilized gold. Primary precipitation of gold occurred during ascent and cooling of salt melts at 450 to 309 °C, mostly during retrograde quartz solubility.

  4. On proximity detection systems for pico-projectors

    OpenAIRE

    Buckley, Edward

    2012-01-01

    It has been suggested that proximity detection systems could potentially be beneficial in increasing the eye-safe luminous flux of laser-based picoprojectors. In this letter it is shown that, whilst the benefit for LCOS-based systems could be significant, the impact upon scanned-beam projectors is far smaller.

  5. Configuration of electro-optic fire source detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Ram Z.; Steiner, Zeev; Hofman, Nir

    2007-04-01

    The recent fighting activities in various parts of the world have highlighted the need for accurate fire source detection on one hand and fast "sensor to shooter cycle" capabilities on the other. Both needs can be met by the SPOTLITE system which dramatically enhances the capability to rapidly engage hostile fire source with a minimum of casualties to friendly force and to innocent bystanders. Modular system design enable to meet each customer specific requirements and enable excellent future growth and upgrade potential. The design and built of a fire source detection system is governed by sets of requirements issued by the operators. This can be translated into the following design criteria: I) Long range, fast and accurate fire source detection capability. II) Different threat detection and classification capability. III) Threat investigation capability. IV) Fire source data distribution capability (Location, direction, video image, voice). V) Men portability. ) In order to meet these design criteria, an optimized concept was presented and exercised for the SPOTLITE system. Three major modular components were defined: I) Electro Optical Unit -Including FLIR camera, CCD camera, Laser Range Finder and Marker II) Electronic Unit -including system computer and electronic. III) Controller Station Unit - Including the HMI of the system. This article discusses the system's components definition and optimization processes, and also show how SPOTLITE designers successfully managed to introduce excellent solutions for other system parameters.

  6. Sensor Failure Detection of FASSIP System using Principal Component Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarno; Juarsa, Mulya; Santosa, Kussigit; Deswandri; Sunaryo, Geni Rina

    2018-02-01

    In the nuclear reactor accident of Fukushima Daiichi in Japan, the damages of core and pressure vessel were caused by the failure of its active cooling system (diesel generator was inundated by tsunami). Thus researches on passive cooling system for Nuclear Power Plant are performed to improve the safety aspects of nuclear reactors. The FASSIP system (Passive System Simulation Facility) is an installation used to study the characteristics of passive cooling systems at nuclear power plants. The accuracy of sensor measurement of FASSIP system is essential, because as the basis for determining the characteristics of a passive cooling system. In this research, a sensor failure detection method for FASSIP system is developed, so the indication of sensor failures can be detected early. The method used is Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to reduce the dimension of the sensor, with the Squarred Prediction Error (SPE) and statistic Hotteling criteria for detecting sensor failure indication. The results shows that PCA method is capable to detect the occurrence of a failure at any sensor.

  7. Real-time thermal neutron radiographic detection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, H.; Bracher, D.A.

    1976-01-01

    Systems for real-time detection of thermal neutron images are reviewed. Characteristics of one system are presented; the data include contrast, resolution and speed of response over the thermal neutron intensity range 2.5 10 3 n/cm 2 -sec to 10 7 n/cm 2 -sec

  8. Start up of the whole body detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes P, A.; Angeles C, A.; Cuapio O, A.; Tejera R, A.

    1991-12-01

    The management of Radiological Safety of the Nuclear Center of Mexico has a whole body detection system Trade mark Canberra, manufactured by Bio-nuclear Measurements Inc. Ipswich Massachusetts. These systems are used to detect contamination of I-131 in thyroid and other nuclides (Cs-137, Cs-134, Co-60, etc.) in thorax. In this work the procedure that was continued for the setting in march of the thyroid detector is presented. A description of this system and an analysis of the uncertainties involved in the measures of activity of I-131 in thyroid of people occupationally exposed is made. (Author)

  9. Image Pre-processing in Vertical Traffic Signs Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dávid Solus

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the first steps of the systems design that will be able to detect vertical traffic signs and to provide descriptions of the applied data processing methods. This system includes various functional blocks that are described in this paper. The basis of Vertical Traffic Signs Detection System is a pre-processing of a captured traffic scene ahead of vehicle. Main part of this paper contains a description of user friendly software interface for an image pre-processing.

  10. Detection Algorithms of the Seismic Alert System of Mexico (SASMEX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar Martinez, A.; Espinosa Aranda, J.; Ramos Perez, S.; Ibarrola Alvarez, G.; Zavala Guerrero, M.; Sasmex

    2013-05-01

    The importance of a rapid and reliable detection of an earthquake, allows taking advantage with more opportunity time of any possible opportunity warnings to the population. Thus detection algorithms in the sensing field station (FS) of an earthquake early earning system, must have a high rate of correct detection; this condition lets perform numerical processes to obtain appropriate parameters for the alert activation. During the evolution and continuous service of the Mexican Seismic Alert System (SASMEX) in more than 23 operation years, it has used various methodologies in the detection process to get the largest opportunity time when an earthquake occurs and it is alerted. In addition to the characteristics of the acceleration signal observed in sensing field stations, it is necessary the site conditions reducing urban noise, but sometimes it is not present through of the first operation years, however, urban growth near to FS cause urban noise, which should be tolerated while carrying out the relocation process of the station, and in the algorithm design should be contemplating the robustness to reduce possible errors and false detections. This work presents some results on detection algorithms used in Mexico for early warning systems for earthquakes considering recent events and different opportunity times obtained depending of the detections on P and S phases of the earthquake detected in the station. Some methodologies are reviewed and described in detail in this work and the main features implemented in The Seismic Alert System of Mexico City (SAS), in continuous operation since 1991, and the Seismic Alert System of Oaxaca City (SASO), today both comprise the SASMEX.

  11. Vision-Based People Detection System for Heavy Machine Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Fremont

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a vision-based people detection system for improving safety in heavy machines. We propose a perception system composed of a monocular fisheye camera and a LiDAR. Fisheye cameras have the advantage of a wide field-of-view, but the strong distortions that they create must be handled at the detection stage. Since people detection in fisheye images has not been well studied, we focus on investigating and quantifying the impact that strong radial distortions have on the appearance of people, and we propose approaches for handling this specificity, adapted from state-of-the-art people detection approaches. These adaptive approaches nevertheless have the drawback of high computational cost and complexity. Consequently, we also present a framework for harnessing the LiDAR modality in order to enhance the detection algorithm for different camera positions. A sequential LiDAR-based fusion architecture is used, which addresses directly the problem of reducing false detections and computational cost in an exclusively vision-based system. A heavy machine dataset was built, and different experiments were carried out to evaluate the performance of the system. The results are promising, in terms of both processing speed and performance.

  12. Vision-Based People Detection System for Heavy Machine Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fremont, Vincent; Bui, Manh Tuan; Boukerroui, Djamal; Letort, Pierrick

    2016-01-20

    This paper presents a vision-based people detection system for improving safety in heavy machines. We propose a perception system composed of a monocular fisheye camera and a LiDAR. Fisheye cameras have the advantage of a wide field-of-view, but the strong distortions that they create must be handled at the detection stage. Since people detection in fisheye images has not been well studied, we focus on investigating and quantifying the impact that strong radial distortions have on the appearance of people, and we propose approaches for handling this specificity, adapted from state-of-the-art people detection approaches. These adaptive approaches nevertheless have the drawback of high computational cost and complexity. Consequently, we also present a framework for harnessing the LiDAR modality in order to enhance the detection algorithm for different camera positions. A sequential LiDAR-based fusion architecture is used, which addresses directly the problem of reducing false detections and computational cost in an exclusively vision-based system. A heavy machine dataset was built, and different experiments were carried out to evaluate the performance of the system. The results are promising, in terms of both processing speed and performance.

  13. Active IR System for Projectile Detection and Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STANCIC, I.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Reliable detection and tracking of high-speed projectiles is crucial in providing modern battlefield protection or to be used as a forensic tool. Subsonic projectiles fired from silenced weapons are difficult to detect, whereas reliable tracking of the projectile trajectory is hard to accomplish. Contemporary radar based counter-battery systems showed to be valuable in detection of incoming artillery fire, but are unable to provide detection at close ranges. In this paper, an active IR system is proposed that aims to detect and track incoming projectiles at close ranges. Proposed system is able to reconstruct projectile’s trajectory in space, predict impact location and estimate direction of projectile origin. Active detector system is based on a pair of high-speed cameras in stereo-configuration synced with computer and IR illuminator that emits coded IR light bursts. Innovative IR light coding enables automated detection and tracking of a nearby projectile and elimination of false positive alarms caused by distant objects.

  14. A Partially Distributed Intrusion Detection System for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Eung Jun; Hong, Choong Seon; Lee, Sungwon; Jeon, Seokhee

    2013-01-01

    The increasing use of wireless sensor networks, which normally comprise several very small sensor nodes, makes their security an increasingly important issue. They can be practically and efficiently secured using intrusion detection systems. Conventional security mechanisms are not usually applicable due to the sensor nodes having limitations of computational power, memory capacity, and battery power. Therefore, specific security systems should be designed to function under constraints of energy or memory. A partially distributed intrusion detection system with low memory and power demands is proposed here. It employs a Bloom filter, which allows reduced signature code size. Multiple Bloom filters can be combined to reduce the signature code for each Bloom filter array. The mechanism could then cope with potential denial of service attacks, unlike many previous detection systems with Bloom filters. The mechanism was evaluated and validated through analysis and simulation.

  15. A Partially Distributed Intrusion Detection System for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eung Jun Cho

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The increasing use of wireless sensor networks, which normally comprise several very small sensor nodes, makes their security an increasingly important issue. They can be practically and efficiently secured using intrusion detection systems. Conventional security mechanisms are not usually applicable due to the sensor nodes having limitations of computational power, memory capacity, and battery power. Therefore, specific security systems should be designed to function under constraints of energy or memory. A partially distributed intrusion detection system with low memory and power demands is proposed here. It employs a Bloom filter, which allows reduced signature code size. Multiple Bloom filters can be combined to reduce the signature code for each Bloom filter array. The mechanism could then cope with potential denial of service attacks, unlike many previous detection systems with Bloom filters. The mechanism was evaluated and validated through analysis and simulation.

  16. Damage Detection Sensor System for Aerospace and Multiple Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha; Lewis, Mark; Gibson, Tracy L.; Lane, John; Medelius, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    NASA has identified structural health monitoring and damage detection and verification as critical needs in multiple technology roadmaps. The sensor systems can be customized for detecting location, damage size, and depth, with velocity options and can be designed for particular environments for monitoring of impact or physical damage to a structure. The damage detection system has been successfully demonstrated in a harsh environment and remote integration tested over 1000 miles apart. Multiple applications includes: Spacecraft and Aircraft; Inflatable, Deployable and Expandable Structures; Space Debris Monitoring; Space Habitats; Military Shelters; Solar Arrays, Smart Garments and Wearables, Extravehicular activity (EVA) suits; Critical Hardware Enclosures; Embedded Composite Structures; and Flexible Hybrid Printed Electronics and Systems. For better implementation and infusion into more flexible architectures, important and improved designs in advancing embedded software and GUI interface, and increasing flexibility, modularity, and configurable capabilities of the system are currently being carried out.

  17. Redox buffer capacity of sedimentary rocks around uranium deposit. Study of water-mineral-microbe system at the Tono uranium deposit, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwatsuki, Teruki; Murakami, Yuki; Hama, Katsuhiro [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Toki, Gifu (Japan). Tono Geoscience Center; Naganuma, Takeshi [Hiroshima Univ., Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima (Japan). School of Biosphere Sciences

    2003-06-01

    The redox buffer capacity of the water-mineral-microbe system in and around the Tono uranium deposit, Japan, was studied to evaluate the long-term stability of the redox system. The uranium deposit occurs in the lower part of a Miocene sedimentary rock sequence that unconformably overlies granite. In the groundwater, profiles of redox sensitive solutes such as sulphate and sulphide ions, abundance and viability of microbes, and sulphur isotope ratios of sulphate ions suggest that microbial sulphate reduction involving organic matter and subsequent pyrite precipitation are dominant redox reactions at the depths of the uranium ore bodies. Concentrations of both the sulphate and chloride increase with increasing depth. The dissolved sulphate is surmised to have originated from dissolution of sulphate and sulphide minerals in a geologic marine formation precipitated in marine environments, in the upper part of the sedimentary rocks. Such a redox process in the water-mineral-microbe system is inferred to have continued from the time when the marine formation underwent uplift above sea-level, because sulphate-reducing bacteria can use sulphate ions dissolved in fresh water that infiltrates from the marine formation and organic matter located in the deeper sedimentary rocks. The chloride ion also has a linear relationship with groundwater residence time. from the relationship between sulphate and chloride ion concentrations, the sulphate ion dissolution rates from the marine formation are estimated at about 5.9 x 10{sup -5} mM/yr. Calculations by using the sulphate-S contents of the rocks and the sulphate dissolution rate suggest that microbial sulphate reduction alone could maintain sufficiently reducing conditions to preserve the uranium ore for several hundred thousand years, in the case where a hydrogeological system continues to exist without much change. (author)

  18. Redox buffer capacity of sedimentary rocks around uranium deposit. Study of water-mineral-microbe system at the Tono uranium deposit, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwatsuki, Teruki; Murakami, Yuki; Hama, Katsuhiro; Naganuma, Takeshi

    2003-01-01

    The redox buffer capacity of the water-mineral-microbe system in and around the Tono uranium deposit, Japan, was studied to evaluate the long-term stability of the redox system. The uranium deposit occurs in the lower part of a Miocene sedimentary rock sequence that unconformably overlies granite. In the groundwater, profiles of redox sensitive solutes such as sulphate and sulphide ions, abundance and viability of microbes, and sulphur isotope ratios of sulphate ions suggest that microbial sulphate reduction involving organic matter and subsequent pyrite precipitation are dominant redox reactions at the depths of the uranium ore bodies. Concentrations of both the sulphate and chloride increase with increasing depth. The dissolved sulphate is surmised to have originated from dissolution of sulphate and sulphide minerals in a geologic marine formation precipitated in marine environments, in the upper part of the sedimentary rocks. Such a redox process in the water-mineral-microbe system is inferred to have continued from the time when the marine formation underwent uplift above sea-level, because sulphate-reducing bacteria can use sulphate ions dissolved in fresh water that infiltrates from the marine formation and organic matter located in the deeper sedimentary rocks. The chloride ion also has a linear relationship with groundwater residence time. from the relationship between sulphate and chloride ion concentrations, the sulphate ion dissolution rates from the marine formation are estimated at about 5.9 x 10 -5 mM/yr. Calculations by using the sulphate-S contents of the rocks and the sulphate dissolution rate suggest that microbial sulphate reduction alone could maintain sufficiently reducing conditions to preserve the uranium ore for several hundred thousand years, in the case where a hydrogeological system continues to exist without much change. (author)

  19. Efficient Mining and Detection of Sequential Intrusion Patterns for Network Intrusion Detection Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyu, Mei-Ling; Huang, Zifang; Luo, Hongli

    In recent years, pervasive computing infrastructures have greatly improved the interaction between human and system. As we put more reliance on these computing infrastructures, we also face threats of network intrusion and/or any new forms of undesirable IT-based activities. Hence, network security has become an extremely important issue, which is closely connected with homeland security, business transactions, and people's daily life. Accurate and efficient intrusion detection technologies are required to safeguard the network systems and the critical information transmitted in the network systems. In this chapter, a novel network intrusion detection framework for mining and detecting sequential intrusion patterns is proposed. The proposed framework consists of a Collateral Representative Subspace Projection Modeling (C-RSPM) component for supervised classification, and an inter-transactional association rule mining method based on Layer Divided Modeling (LDM) for temporal pattern analysis. Experiments on the KDD99 data set and the traffic data set generated by a private LAN testbed show promising results with high detection rates, low processing time, and low false alarm rates in mining and detecting sequential intrusion detections.

  20. Data analysis of inertial sensor for train positioning detection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong Jin; Park, Sung Soo; Lee, Jae Ho; Kang, Dong Hoon [Korea Railroad Research Institute, Uiwang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Train positioning detection information is fundamental for high-speed railroad inspection, making it possible to simultaneously determine the status and evaluate the integrity of railroad equipment. This paper presents the results of measurements and an analysis of an inertial measurement unit (IMU) used as a positioning detection sensors. Acceleration and angular rate measurements from the IMU were analyzed in the amplitude and frequency domains, with a discussion on vibration and train motions. Using these results and GPS information, the positioning detection of a Korean tilting train express was performed from Naju station to Illo station on the Honam-line. The results of a synchronized analysis of sensor measurements and train motion can help in the design of a train location detection system and improve the positioning detection performance.

  1. Enhancing Tumor Detection in IR-UWB Breast Cancer System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Sara; Ghoname, Reda; Elmahdy, Abd Elmonem; Zekry, Abd Elhalim

    2017-01-01

    An ultra-wideband (UWB) microwave system for breast cancer detection is presented. The proposed system includes monocycle pulse generator, antipodal Vivaldi antenna, breast model, and calibration algorithm for tumor detection. Firstly, our pulse generator employs transmission gate in glitch generator to achieve several advantages such as low power consumption and low ringing level. Secondly, the antipodal Vivaldi antenna is designed assuming FR4 dielectric substrate material, and developed antenna element (80 × 80 mm 2 ) features a -10 dB return loss and bandwidth ranges from 2.3 GHz to more than 11 GHz. Thirdly, the phantom breast can be modeled as a layer of skin, fat, and then tumor is inserted in this layer. Finally, subtract and add algorithm (SAD) is used as a calibration algorithm in tumor detection system. The proposed system suggested that horizontal antenna position with 90° between transmitting and receiving antennas is localized as a suitable antenna position with different rotating location and a 0.5 cm near to phantom. The mean advantages of this localization and tracking position around breast is a high received power signal approximately around mv as a higher recognized signal in tumor detection. Using our proposed system we can detect tumor in 5 mm diameter.

  2. Potential detection systems for monitoring UF6 releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, D.E.; Bostick, W.D.; Armstrong, D.P.; McNeely, J.R.; Stockdale, J.A.D.

    1994-09-01

    In the near future, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) will begin to regulate the gaseous diffusion plants. Them is a concern that the smoke detectors currently used for uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) release detection will not meet NRC safety system requirements such as high reliability and rapid response. The NRC's position is that licensees should utilize state-of-the-art equipment such as hydrogen fluoride (HF) detectors that would provide more dependable detection of a UF 6 release. A survey of the literature and current vendor information was undertaken to define the state-of-the-art and commercial availability of HF (or other appropriate) detection systems. For the purpose of this report, classification of the available HF detection systems is made on the basis of detection principle (e.g., calorimetric, electrochemical, separational, or optical). Emphasis is also placed on whether the device is primarily sensitive to response from a point source (e.g., outleakage in the immediate vicinity of a specific set of components), or whether the device is potentially applicable to remote sensing over a larger area. Traditional HF point source monitoring typically uses gas sampling tubes or coated paper tapes with color developing indicator, portable and small area HF monitors are often based upon electrochemical or extractive/separational systems; and remote sensing by optical systems holds promise for indoor and outdoor large area monitoring (including plant boundary/ambient air monitoring)

  3. Radial transport processes as a precursor to particle deposition in drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Thienen, P; Vreeburg, J H G; Blokker, E J M

    2011-02-01

    Various particle transport mechanisms play a role in the build-up of discoloration potential in drinking water distribution networks. In order to enhance our understanding of and ability to predict this build-up, it is essential to recognize and understand their role. Gravitational settling with drag has primarily been considered in this context. However, since flow in water distribution pipes is nearly always in the turbulent regime, turbulent processes should be considered also. In addition to these, single particle effects and forces may affect radial particle transport. In this work, we present an application of a previously published turbulent particle deposition theory to conditions relevant for drinking water distribution systems. We predict quantitatively under which conditions turbophoresis, including the virtual mass effect, the Saffman lift force, and the Magnus force may contribute significantly to sediment transport in radial direction and compare these results to experimental observations. The contribution of turbophoresis is mostly limited to large particles (>50 μm) in transport mains, and not expected to play a major role in distribution mains. The Saffman lift force may enhance this process to some degree. The Magnus force is not expected to play any significant role in drinking water distribution systems. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Embedded Sensor System for Early Pathology Detection in Building Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, Santiago J. Barro; Cascon, Carlos J. Escudero

    2009-01-01

    Structure pathology detection is an important security task in building construction, which is performed by an operator by looking manually for damages on the materials. This activity could be dangerous if the structure is hidden or difficult to reach. On the other hand, embedded devices and wireless sensor networks (WSN) are becoming popular and cheap, enabling the design of an alternative pathology detection system to monitor structures based on these technologies. This article introduces a...

  5. Telescope sipping the optimum fuel leak detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deleryd, R.

    1998-01-01

    The TELESCOPE Sipping technology is an evolutionary development from previous ABB fuel leak systems used in LWR reactors. The system utilizes the existing dynamics that cause numerous fission products to leak from a failed fuel rod when the fuel assembly is raised from a reactor core during core fuel alterations. The system can also be used by repair work in pool side inspection in order to detect leaking rods or to verify reconstituted assemblies as non leakers. (author)

  6. Traffic Congestion Detection System through Connected Vehicles and Big Data

    OpenAIRE

    C?rdenas-Ben?tez, N?stor; Aquino-Santos, Ra?l; Maga?a-Espinoza, Pedro; Aguilar-Velazco, Jos?; Edwards-Block, Arthur; Medina Cass, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the simulation and evaluation of a traffic congestion detection system which combines inter-vehicular communications, fixed roadside infrastructure and infrastructure-to-infrastructure connectivity and big data. The system discussed in this article permits drivers to identify traffic congestion and change their routes accordingly, thus reducing the total emissions of CO2 and decreasing travel time. This system monitors, processes and stores large amounts of data, which ...

  7. Detecting, Representing and Querying Collusion in Online Rating Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Allahbakhsh, Mohammad; Ignjatovic, Aleksandar; Benatallah, Boualem; Beheshti, Seyed-Mehdi-Reza; Foo, Norman; Bertino, Elisa

    2012-01-01

    Online rating systems are subject to malicious behaviors mainly by posting unfair rating scores. Users may try to individually or collaboratively promote or demote a product. Collaborating unfair rating 'collusion' is more damaging than individual unfair rating. Although collusion detection in general has been widely studied, identifying collusion groups in online rating systems is less studied and needs more investigation. In this paper, we study impact of collusion in online rating systems ...

  8. A Fusion of Multiagent Functionalities for Effective Intrusion Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanalakshmi Krishnan Sadhasivan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Provision of high security is one of the active research areas in the network applications. The failure in the centralized system based on the attacks provides less protection. Besides, the lack of update of new attacks arrival leads to the minimum accuracy of detection. The major focus of this paper is to improve the detection performance through the adaptive update of attacking information to the database. We propose an Adaptive Rule-Based Multiagent Intrusion Detection System (ARMA-IDS to detect the anomalies in the real-time datasets such as KDD and SCADA. Besides, the feedback loop provides the necessary update of attacks in the database that leads to the improvement in the detection accuracy. The combination of the rules and responsibilities for multiagents effectively detects the anomaly behavior, misuse of response, or relay reports of gas/water pipeline data in KDD and SCADA, respectively. The comparative analysis of the proposed ARMA-IDS with the various existing path mining methods, namely, random forest, JRip, a combination of AdaBoost/JRip, and common path mining on the SCADA dataset conveys that the effectiveness of the proposed ARMA-IDS in the real-time fault monitoring. Moreover, the proposed ARMA-IDS offers the higher detection rate in the SCADA and KDD cup 1999 datasets.

  9. On the lower of limit detection of radiometric systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamburov, H.; Boneva, S.

    1983-01-01

    The existing definitions of the quantity Asub(min), the lower detection limit, introduced as a characteristic of the sensitivity of radiometric systems are reviewed. A convenient way is found for comparing the different definitions by showing that each definition is connected with a specific value of the probability a of Type I error. The detection limits are calculated for a normal and Poisson distributions of the measured quantities. A criterion is proposed for the applicability of the normal distiribution to the problem of determining the lower detection limit

  10. Statistical Outlier Detection for Jury Based Grading Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Mary Kathryn; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Rosas, Harvey

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm that was developed to identify statistical outliers from the scores of grading jury members in a large project-based first year design course. The background and requirements for the outlier detection system are presented. The outlier detection algorithm...... and the follow-up procedures for score validation and appeals are described in detail. Finally, the impact of various elements of the outlier detection algorithm, their interactions, and the sensitivity of their numerical values are investigated. It is shown that the difference in the mean score produced...

  11. Evaluation of advanced and current leak detection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupperman, D.S.

    1988-01-01

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Guide 1.45 recommends the use of at least three different detection methods in reactors to detect leakage. Monitoring of both sump-flow and airborne particulate radioactivity is mandatory. A third method can involve either monitoring of condensate flow rate from air coolers or monitoring of airborne gaseous radioactivity. Although the methods currently used for leak detection reflect the state of the art, other techniques may be developed and used. Since the recommendations of Regulatory Guide 1.45 are not mandatory, Licensee Event Report Compilations have been reviewed to help establish actual capabilities for leak detection. The review of event reports, which had previously covered the period of June 1985 to August 1986 has been extended, and now covers events to June 1987. The total number of significant events is now 83. These reports have provided documented, sometimes detailed, summaries of reactor leaks. They have helped establish the capabilities of existing systems to detect and locate leaks. Differences between PWRs and BWRs with regard to leak detection have now been analyzed. With regard to detection methods, the greatest differences between reactor types are as follows: (a) The sump pump is reported as the detection method more frequently in BWRs than in PWRs (64% vs. 35%). (b) The radiation monitor is reported as the detection method (excluding false alarms) more frequently in PWRs. Current efforts at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to evaluate advanced acoustic leak detection methods are directed toward the generation and analysis of acoustic data from large (0.5 to 10 gal/min) leaks and modification of the software of the GARD/ANL advanced acoustic leak detection system. In order to reach the goal of 10 gal/min leaks, the Steam Generator Test Facility at ANL has been modified to carry out the leak testing. Tests were carried out with water at 525 deg. F and 1100 psi leaking through a fatigue crack in a 4-in

  12. Controlled deposition of functionalized silica coated zinc oxide nano-assemblies at the air/water interface for blood cancer detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, Chandra Mouli [Biomedical Instrumentation Section, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi 110012 (India); Nanobioelectronics Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Delhi Technological University, Delhi 110042 (India); Dewan, Srishti [Biomedical Instrumentation Section, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi 110012 (India); Biomedical Engineering Department, Deenbandhu Chhotu Ram University of Science & Technology, Haryana 131039 (India); Chawla, Seema [Biomedical Engineering Department, Deenbandhu Chhotu Ram University of Science & Technology, Haryana 131039 (India); Yadav, Birendra Kumar [Rajiv Gandhi Cancer Institute and Research Centre, Rohini, Delhi 110085 (India); Sumana, Gajjala, E-mail: sumanagajjala@gmail.com [Biomedical Instrumentation Section, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi 110012 (India); Malhotra, Bansi Dhar, E-mail: bansi.malhotra@gmail.com [Biomedical Instrumentation Section, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi 110012 (India); Nanobioelectronics Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Delhi Technological University, Delhi 110042 (India)

    2016-09-21

    We report results of the studies relating to controlled deposition of the amino-functionalized silica-coated zinc oxide (Am-Si@ZnO) nano-assemblies onto an indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate using Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique. The monolayers have been deposited by transferring the spread solution of Am-Si@ZnO stearic acid prepared in chloroform at the air-water interface, at optimized pressure (16 mN/m), concentration (10 mg/ml) and temperature (23 °C). The high-resolution transmission electron microscopic studies of the Am-Si@ZnO nanocomposite reveal that the nanoparticles have a microscopic structure comprising of hexagonal assemblies of ZnO with typical dimensions of 30 nm. The surface morphology of the LB multilayer observed by scanning electron microscopy shows uniform surface of the Am-Si@ZnO film in the nanometer range (<80 nm). These electrodes have been utilized for chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) detection by covalently immobilizing the amino-terminated oligonucleotide probe sequence via glutaraldehyde as a crosslinker. The response studies of these fabricated electrodes carried out using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy show that this Am-Si@ZnO LB film based nucleic acid sensor exhibits a linear response to complementary DNA (10{sup −6}–10{sup −16} M) with a detection limit of 1 × 10{sup −16} M. This fabricated platform is validated with clinical samples of CML positive patients and the results demonstrate its immense potential for clinical diagnosis. - Graphical abstract: Controlled deposition of functionalized silica coated zinc oxide nano-assemblies at the air/water interface for label free electrochemical detection of chronic myelogenous leukemia. - Highlights: • Stable and controlled deposition of Am-Si@ZnO nano-assemblies using LB technique. • Uniform monolayer deposition of the Am-Si@ZnO LB film within the nanometer range. • Am-Si@ZnO LB film shows enhanced electrochemical properties. • Fabricated

  13. Reacquisition of E-cadherin expression in metastatic deposits of signet-ring cell carcinoma of the upper gastrointestinal system: a potential anchor for metastatic deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yihong R; Siegal, Gene P; Wei, Shi

    2017-06-01

    To examine the expression of E-cadherin in paired primary and metastatic signet-ring cell carcinomas (SRCC) of various organ systems in order to explore the potential role of the molecule in metastatic dissemination of this unique tumour type. Thirty-seven consecutive cases of SRCC from various organs with paired primary and metastatic tumorous tissue available were retrieved. The intensity of membranous E-cadherin expression was semiquantitatively scored on a scale of 0-3+. Reduced E-cadherin expression was a distinct feature of primary SRCC and was observed in 78% of primary tumours. Interestingly, the E-cadherin reduction was less frequently seen in metastatic SRCC when compared with their primary counterparts, and was only found in 57% of tumours in lymph node metastases or at distant sites of relapse. Furthermore, the mean score of E-cadherin expression of primary SRCC was significantly lower than that of their metastatic counterparts (2.3 vs 1.8; p=0.008). When divided by organ systems, the reacquisition of E-cadherin expression in the metastatic deposits was most remarkable in the SRCC of upper gastrointestinal tract origin (2.3 vs 1.4; p=0.003), whereas no significant difference was observed in other organ systems. While the reduction of E-cadherin in primary SRCC supports its pivotal role in epithelial-mesenchymal transition, a process crucial in tumour progression and metastatic dissemination, the re-expression of this molecule in metastatic SRCC cells implies a reversal to their epithelial phenotype (thus mesenchymal-epithelial transition) which, in turn, theoretically helps tumour cells to anchor and form cohesive metastatic deposits. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. Quantitative TEM analysis of Al/Cu multilayer systems prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Haihua; Pryds, Nini; Schou, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    Thin films composed of alternating Al/Cu/Al layers were deposited on a (111) Si substrate using pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The thicknesses of the film and the individual layers, and the detailed internal structure within the layers were characterized by means of transmission electron microscopy...

  15. Effect of mineral water of Beryezovsky deposit on hematopoietic system of the irradiated animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Shestopalov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Effectiveness of radiomodifying action of natural mineral water (MW of Berezovsky deposit in comparison with MW “Naftusya” was studied. It is shown that MW Berezovsky deposits are characterized by mild radioprotective properties. With prolonged use, MW deregulates prooxidant-antioxidant ratio and inhibits the oxidative metabolism in the peripheral blood of the animals.

  16. Method for removing adhering or dust-like deposits in systems handling uranium hexafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacher, W.; Jacob, E.

    1984-01-01

    A process is claimed for removing adhering or dust-like deposits in an apparatus which handles uranium hexafluoride. The process includes the steps of: (a) reacting the deposits with a gaseous boron halogenide other than boron trifluoride, to form at least one uranium halogenide; and (b) reacting the at least one uranium halogenide with a fluorine containing substance to form uranium hexafluoride

  17. Evaluation of Uranium depositional system in sedimentary rocks of Sibolga formation, Tapanuli Tengah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I Gde Sukadana; Heri Syaeful

    2016-01-01

    Uranium in nature formed in various deposit type, depends on its sources, process, and depositional environments. Uranium occurrence in Sibolga, hosted in sedimentary rocks of Sibolga Formation, is properly potential to develop; nevertheless, the depositional pattern and uranium mineralization process so far had not been recognized. The research aim is to determine the rock distribution patterns and the existence of uranium grade anomalies based on surface geology and borehole log data. Mineralization occurrences from borehole log data distributed from basalt conglomerate unit (Kgl 1), sandstone 1 unit (Bp 1), conglomerate 2 unit (Kgl 2), and sandstone 2 unit (Bp 2) with their distribution and thickness are thinning to the top. Mineralization distribution in the eastern area, mainly on Kgl 1 unit, dominated by detritus materials from epi-genetic depositional in the form of monazite which is formed along with the formation of granite as its source rock. Meanwhile, mineralization on the upper rocks units formed a channel pattern trending northeast-southwest, which formed in syn-genetic process consist of uraninite, carnotite, and coffinite. Sibolga Formation deposition originated from east to west and uranium deposit formed because of the differences of depositional environment from oxidation in the east to the more reductive in the southwest. The increasing of organic materials in southwest basin caused the reduction condition of depositional environment. (author)

  18. Non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide detection at NiO nanoporous thin film- electrodes prepared by physical vapor deposition at oblique angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar, Pedro; Rico, Victor; González-Elipe, Agustín R.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A non-enzymatic sensor for H 2 O 2 detection based on nickel thin film is reported. • Nanostructured nickel thin films are prepared by physical vapor deposition at oblique angles. • Main analytical parameters were obtained under optimal operation conditions. • Sensors depict an outstanding selectivity and a high stability. • Sensors are successfully used to determine H 2 O 2 in antiseptic solutions. - Abstract: In this work we report a non-enzymatic sensor for hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) detection based on nanostructured nickel thin films prepared by physical vapor deposition at oblique angles. Porous thin films deposited on ITO substrates were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microcopy (SEMs), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electrochemical techniques such as Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) and Constant Potential Amperometry (CPA). The microstructure of the thin films consisted of inclined and separated Ni nanocolumns forming a porous thin layer of about 500 nm thickness. Prior to their use, the films surface was electrochemically modified and the chemical state studied by CV and XPS analysis. These techniques also showed that Ni 2+ /Ni 3+ species were involved in the electrochemical oxidation and detection of H 2 O 2 in alkaline medium. Main analytical parameters such as sensitivity (807 mA M −1 cm −2 ), limit of detection (3.22 μM) and linear range (0.011–2.4 mM) were obtained under optimal operation conditions. Sensors depicted an outstanding selectivity and a high stability and they were successfully used to determine H 2 O 2 concentration in commercial antiseptic solutions.

  19. Continuous Fraud Detection in Enterprise Systems through Audit Trail Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Best

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Enterprise systems, real time recording and real time reporting pose new and significant challenges to the accounting and auditing professions. This includes developing methods and tools for continuous assurance and fraud detection. In this paper we propose a methodology for continuous fraud detection that exploits security audit logs, changes in master records and accounting audit trails in enterprise systems. The steps in this process are: (1 threat monitoring-surveillance of security audit logs for ‘red flags’, (2 automated extraction and analysis of data from audit trails, and (3 using forensic investigation techniques to determine whether a fraud has actually occurred. We demonstrate how mySAP, an enterprise system, can be used for audit trail analysis in detecting financial frauds; afterwards we use a case study of a suspected fraud to illustrate how to implement the methodology.

  20. An Android malware detection system based on machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Long; Yu, Haiyang

    2017-08-01

    The Android smartphone, with its open source character and excellent performance, has attracted many users. However, the convenience of the Android platform also has motivated the development of malware. The traditional method which detects the malware based on the signature is unable to detect unknown applications. The article proposes a machine learning-based lightweight system that is capable of identifying malware on Android devices. In this system we extract features based on the static analysis and the dynamitic analysis, then a new feature selection approach based on principle component analysis (PCA) and relief are presented in the article to decrease the dimensions of the features. After that, a model will be constructed with support vector machine (SVM) for classification. Experimental results show that our system provides an effective method in Android malware detection.

  1. Design of Gear Defect Detection System Based on Machine Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Wu, Zhiheng; Duan, Xianyun; Tong, Jigang; Li, Ping; Chen, min; Lin, Qinglin

    2018-01-01

    In order to solve such problems as low efficiency, low quality and instability of gear surface defect detection, we designed a detection system based on machine vision, sensor coupling. By multisensory coupling, and then CCD camera image collection of gear products, using VS2010 to cooperate with Halcon library for a series of analysis and processing of images. At last, the results are fed back to the control end, and the rejected device is removed to the collecting box. The system has successfully identified defective gear. The test results show that this system can identify and eliminate the defects gear quickly and efficiently. It has reached the requirement of gear product defect detection line automation and has a certain application value.

  2. Stability of detecting system using NaI(Tl)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuo Yunshang; Lei Zhangyun; Zen Yu; Gong Hua

    1996-01-01

    A detecting system using NaI(Tl) is widely used in research and industry of nuclear science and other fields. For providing the high accuracy and working well under inclement environment, the stability of detecting system using NaI(Tl) is very important. The variation of environment temperature, the change of counting rate and long time continuous working of detector will cause un-negligible effect on the measurement. Three approaches were used. They are: 1) temperature control (It makes the effect of the variation of environment temperature on the measurement negligible.); 2) spectrum stabilizing (It adjust the peak position of the spectrum when the counting rate changes.); and 3) auto-checking and adjusting (It adjusts the drift of the NaI(Tl) detecting system when it works continuously)

  3. Lake Sturgeon, Lake Whitefish, and Walleye egg deposition patterns with response to fish spawning substrate restoration in the St. Clair–Detroit River system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Jason L.; Pritt, Jeremy J.; Roseman, Edward; Prichard, Carson G.; Craig, Jaquelyn M.; Kennedy, Gregory W.; Manny, Bruce A.

    2018-01-01

    Egg deposition and use of restored spawning substrates by lithophilic fishes (e.g., Lake Sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens, Lake Whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis, and Walleye Sander vitreus) were assessed throughout the St. Clair–Detroit River system from 2005 to 2016. Bayesian models were used to quantify egg abundance and presence/absence relative to site-specific variables (e.g., depth, velocity, and artificial spawning reef presence) and temperature to evaluate fish use of restored artificial spawning reefs and assess patterns in egg deposition. Lake Whitefish and Walleye egg abundance, probability of detection, and probability of occupancy were assessed with detection-adjusted methods; Lake Sturgeon egg abundance and probability of occurrence were assessed using delta-lognormal methods. The models indicated that the probability of Walleye eggs occupying a site increased with water velocity and that the rate of increase decreased with depth, whereas Lake Whitefish egg occupancy was not correlated with any of the attributes considered. Egg deposition by Lake Whitefish and Walleyes was greater at sites with high water velocities and was lower over artificial spawning reefs. Lake Sturgeon eggs were collected least frequently but were more likely to be collected over artificial spawning reefs and in greater abundances than elsewhere. Detection-adjusted egg abundances were not greater over artificial spawning reefs, indicating that these projects may not directly benefit spawning Walleyes and Lake Whitefish. However, 98% of the Lake Sturgeon eggs observed were collected over artificial spawning reefs, supporting the hypothesis that the reefs provided spawning sites for Lake Sturgeon and could mitigate historic losses of Lake Sturgeon spawning habitat.

  4. Energy detection UWB system based on pulse width modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Cui

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A new energy detection ultra-wideband system based on pulse width modulation is proposed. The bit error rate (BER performance of this new system is slightly worst than that of a pulse position modulation (PPM system in additive white Gaussian noise channels. In multipath channels, this system does not suffer from cross-modulation interference as PPM, so it can achieve better BER performance than PPM when cross-modulation interference occurs. In addition, when synchronisation errors occur, this system is more robust than PPM.

  5. The waveform correlation event detection system global prototype software design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiriger, J.I.; Moore, S.G.; Trujillo, J.R.; Young, C.J.

    1997-12-01

    The WCEDS prototype software system was developed to investigate the usefulness of waveform correlation methods for CTBT monitoring. The WCEDS prototype performs global seismic event detection and has been used in numerous experiments. This report documents the software system design, presenting an overview of the system operation, describing the system functions, tracing the information flow through the system, discussing the software structures, and describing the subsystem services and interactions. The effectiveness of the software design in meeting project objectives is considered, as well as opportunities for code refuse and lessons learned from the development process. The report concludes with recommendations for modifications and additions envisioned for regional waveform-correlation-based detector.

  6. ANOLE Portable Radiation Detection System Field Test and Evaluation Campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodge, Chris A.

    2007-01-01

    Handheld, backpack, and mobile sensors are elements of the Global Nuclear Detection System for the interdiction and control of illicit radiological and nuclear materials. They are used by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and other government agencies and organizations in various roles for border protection, law enforcement, and nonproliferation monitoring. In order to systematically document the operational performance of the common commercial off-the-shelf portable radiation detection systems, the DHS Domestic Nuclear Detection Office conducted a test and evaluation campaign conducted at the Nevada Test Site from January 18 to February 27, 2006. Named 'Anole', it was the first test of its kind in terms of technical design and test complexities. The Anole test results offer users information for selecting appropriate mission-specific portable radiation detection systems. The campaign also offered manufacturers the opportunity to submit their equipment for independent operationally relevant testing to subsequently improve their detector performance. This paper will present the design, execution, and methodologies of the DHS Anole portable radiation detection system test campaign

  7. A Multimodal Emotion Detection System during Human-Robot Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Martín, Fernando; Malfaz, María; Sequeira, João; Gorostiza, Javier F.; Salichs, Miguel A.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a multimodal user-emotion detection system for social robots is presented. This system is intended to be used during human–robot interaction, and it is integrated as part of the overall interaction system of the robot: the Robotics Dialog System (RDS). Two modes are used to detect emotions: the voice and face expression analysis. In order to analyze the voice of the user, a new component has been developed: Gender and Emotion Voice Analysis (GEVA), which is written using the Chuck language. For emotion detection in facial expressions, the system, Gender and Emotion Facial Analysis (GEFA), has been also developed. This last system integrates two third-party solutions: Sophisticated High-speed Object Recognition Engine (SHORE) and Computer Expression Recognition Toolbox (CERT). Once these new components (GEVA and GEFA) give their results, a decision rule is applied in order to combine the information given by both of them. The result of this rule, the detected emotion, is integrated into the dialog system through communicative acts. Hence, each communicative act gives, among other things, the detected emotion of the user to the RDS so it can adapt its strategy in order to get a greater satisfaction degree during the human–robot dialog. Each of the new components, GEVA and GEFA, can also be used individually. Moreover, they are integrated with the robotic control platform ROS (Robot Operating System). Several experiments with real users were performed to determine the accuracy of each component and to set the final decision rule. The results obtained from applying this decision rule in these experiments show a high success rate in automatic user emotion recognition, improving the results given by the two information channels (audio and visual) separately. PMID:24240598

  8. A Multimodal Emotion Detection System during Human–Robot Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Salichs

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a multimodal user-emotion detection system for social robots is presented. This system is intended to be used during human–robot interaction, and it is integrated as part of the overall interaction system of the robot: the Robotics Dialog System (RDS. Two modes are used to detect emotions: the voice and face expression analysis. In order to analyze the voice of the user, a new component has been developed: Gender and Emotion Voice Analysis (GEVA, which is written using the Chuck language. For emotion detection in facial expressions, the system, Gender and Emotion Facial Analysis (GEFA, has been also developed. This last system integrates two third-party solutions: Sophisticated High-speed Object Recognition Engine (SHORE and Computer Expression Recognition Toolbox (CERT. Once these new components (GEVA and GEFA give their results, a decision rule is applied in order to combine the information given by both of them. The result of this rule, the detected emotion, is integrated into the dialog system through communicative acts. Hence, each communicative act gives, among other things, the detected emotion of the user to the RDS so it can adapt its strategy in order to get a greater satisfaction degree during the human–robot dialog. Each of the new components, GEVA and GEFA, can also be used individually. Moreover, they are integrated with the robotic control platform ROS (Robot Operating System. Several experiments with real users were performed to determine the accuracy of each component and to set the final decision rule. The results obtained from applying this decision rule in these experiments show a high success rate in automatic user emotion recognition, improving the results given by the two information channels (audio and visual separately.

  9. A multimodal emotion detection system during human-robot interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Martín, Fernando; Malfaz, María; Sequeira, João; Gorostiza, Javier F; Salichs, Miguel A

    2013-11-14

    In this paper, a multimodal user-emotion detection system for social robots is presented. This system is intended to be used during human-robot interaction, and it is integrated as part of the overall interaction system of the robot: the Robotics Dialog System (RDS). Two modes are used to detect emotions: the voice and face expression analysis. In order to analyze the voice of the user, a new component has been developed: Gender and Emotion Voice Analysis (GEVA), which is written using the Chuck language. For emotion detection in facial expressions, the system, Gender and Emotion Facial Analysis (GEFA), has been also developed. This last system integrates two third-party solutions: Sophisticated High-speed Object Recognition Engine (SHORE) and Computer Expression Recognition Toolbox (CERT). Once these new components (GEVA and GEFA) give their results, a decision rule is applied in order to combine the information given by both of them. The result of this rule, the detected emotion, is integrated into the dialog system through communicative acts. Hence, each communicative act gives, among other things, the detected emotion of the user to the RDS so it can adapt its strategy in order to get a greater satisfaction degree during the human-robot dialog. Each of the new components, GEVA and GEFA, can also be used individually. Moreover, they are integrated with the robotic control platform ROS (Robot Operating System). Several experiments with real users were performed to determine the accuracy of each component and to set the final decision rule. The results obtained from applying this decision rule in these experiments show a high success rate in automatic user emotion recognition, improving the results given by the two information channels (audio and visual) separately.

  10. Flow system for optical activity detection of vegetable extracts employing molecular exclusion continuous chromatographic detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajer, V.; Rodríguez, C.; Naranjo, S.; Mesa, G.; Mora, W.; Arista, E.; Cepero, T.; Fernández, H.

    2006-02-01

    The combination of molecular exclusion chromatography and laser polarimetric detection has turned into a carbohydrate separation and quantification system for plant fluids of industrial value, making it possible the evaluation of the quality of sugarcane juices, agave juices and many other plant extracts. Some previous papers described a system where liquid chromatography separation and polarimetric detection using a LASERPOL 101M polarimeter with He-Ne light source allowed the collection and quantification of discrete samples for analytical purposes. In this paper, the authors are introducing a new improved system which accomplishes polarimetric measurements in a continuous flux. Chromatograms of several carbohydrates standard solutions were obtained as useful references to study juice quality of several sugarcane varieties under different physiological conditions. Results by either discrete or continuous flux systems were compared in order to test the validation of the new system. An application of the system to the diagnostics of scalded foliar is described. A computer program allowing the output of the chromatograms to a display on line and the possibility of digital storing, maxima detections, zone integration, and some other possibilities make this system very competitive and self-convincing.

  11. An artificial bioindicator system for network intrusion detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Christian; Lozano, José A; Davidson, Pedro Pinacho

    2015-01-01

    An artificial bioindicator system is developed in order to solve a network intrusion detection problem. The system, inspired by an ecological approach to biological immune systems, evolves a population of agents that learn to survive in their environment. An adaptation process allows the transformation of the agent population into a bioindicator that is capable of reacting to system anomalies. Two characteristics stand out in our proposal. On the one hand, it is able to discover new, previously unseen attacks, and on the other hand, contrary to most of the existing systems for network intrusion detection, it does not need any previous training. We experimentally compare our proposal with three state-of-the-art algorithms and show that it outperforms the competing approaches on widely used benchmark data.

  12. Microbial community diversity associated with moonmilk deposits in a karstic cave system in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, D.; Hutchens, E.; Clipson, Nick; McDermott, Frank

    2009-04-01

    has been unaltered by human disturbance or practices. The aim of this study was to examine microbial community diversity associated with moonmilk deposits at Ballynamintra Cave, Ireland using automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA). The results revealed considerable bacterial and fungal diversity associated with moonmilk in a karstic cave system, suggesting that the microbial community implicated in moonmilk formation may be more diverse than previously thought. These results suggest that microbes may have important functional roles in subterranean environments. Although the moonmilk in this study was largely comprised of calcite, microbial involvement in calcite precipitation could result in the bioavailability of a range of organic compounds for subsequent microbial metabolism. References: Baskar, S., Baskar, R., Mauclaire, L., and McKenzie, J.A. 2006. Microbially induced calcite precipitation in culture experiments: Possible origin for stalactites in Sahastradhara caves, Dehradun, India. Current Science 90: 58-64. Burford, E.P., Fomina, M., Gadd, G. 2003. Fungal involvement in bioweathering and biotrasformations of rocks and minerals. Min Mag 67(6):1172-1155. Engel, A.S., Stern, L.A., Bennett, P.C. 2004. Microbial contributions to cave formation: new insights into sulfuric acid speleogenesis. Geology 32(5): 369-372. Gadd, G.M. (2004). Mycotransformation of organic and inorganic substrates. Mycologist 18: 60-70. Northup, D., Barns, S.M., Yu, Laura, E., Spilde, M.N., Schelble, R.T., Dano, K.E., Crossey, L.J., Connolly, C.A., Boston, P.J., and Dahm, C.N. 2003. Diverse microbial communities inhabiting ferromanganese deposits in Lechuguilla and Spider Caves. Environmental Microbiology 5(11): 1071-1086.

  13. Carbonate deposition, Pyramid Lake subbasin, Nevada: 3. The use of87Sr values in carbonate deposits (tufas) to determine the hydrologic state of paleolake systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, L.; Peterman, Z.

    1996-01-01

    Sierran rivers that discharge to the Lahontan basin have much lower (???4.5%o) ??87Sr values than the Humboldt River which drains northeastern Nevada. The ??87Sr values of tufas deposited during the last lake cycle were used to determine when Humboldt derived Sr entered the Pyramid Lake subbasin. Prior to ~ 15,000 yr B.P., the Humboldt River flowed to the Smoke Creek-Black Rock Desert subbasin. During the recession of Lake Lahontan, the Humboldt River diverted to the Carson Desert subbasin. This study has demonstrated that 87Sr can be used to determine drainage histories of multi-basin lake systems if the ??87Sr values of rivers that discharge to the basins are sufficiently different. ?? 1995 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Combining Hyperechoic Aggregates and the Double-Contour Sign Increases the Sensitivity of Sonography for Detection of Monosodium Urate Deposits in Gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liang; Zheng, Shengzhou; Wang, Wenwen; Zhou, Qijing; Wu, Huaxiang

    2017-05-01

    To compare the sensitivities of individual and combined sonography of hyperechoic aggregates and the double-contour sign in detecting monosodium urate (MSU) crystal deposits in gouty joints. Monosodium urate crystal deposits in symptomatic and contralateral asymptomatic joints of 70 patients with acute gout were evaluated by sonography of hyperechoic aggregates and the double-contour sign individually and in combination. All patients with acute gout in this study had at least 1 symptomatic joint with MSU deposits determined by dual-energy computed tomography. Of 195 symptomatic joints (92 in the upper limbs and 103 in the lower limbs) and an equal number of asymptomatic joints: (1) 97.14% (68 of 70) of patients had hyperechoic aggregate/double-contour sign-positive joints versus 74.29% (52 of 70) with double-contour sign-positive and 63.89% (46 of 70) with hyperechoic aggregate-positive joints; (2) 86.96% (80 of 92) of the symptomatic upper limb joints were double-contour sign/hyperechoic aggregate positive versus 46.74% (43 of 92) that were double-contour sign positive and 70.65% (65 of 92) that were hyperechoic aggregate positive; and (3) 98.06% (101 of 103) of the symptomatic lower limb joints were double-contour sign/hyperechoic aggregate positive versus 92.23% (95 of 103) that were double-contour sign positive and 41.75% (43 of 103) that were hyperechoic aggregate positive. Hyperechoic aggregates and the double-contour sign in combination improve the investigative sensitivity of sonography than either hyperechoic aggregates or the double-contour sign individually for detecting MSU crystal deposits in gouty joints. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  15. First occurrence of the Salvador Formation in the Jatobá Basin (Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil): Facies characterization and depositional systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Bruno Ludovico Dihl; Melo Ferrer de Morais, Débora

    2016-12-01

    Fan deltas, constituting proximal depositional systems adjacent to boundary faults, are common features associated with rift basins. The Cretaceous fan delta systems of the Salvador Formation, deposited during the rift phase of the Recôncavo-Tucano-Jatobá Basin, were first reported in the Recôncavo Basin and later discovered in the Tucano Basin. Because of the absence of any outcrops in the Jatobá Basin until now, these alluvial fans were interpreted solely through seismic analysis. We report the first revealed outcrops of the Salvador Formation in that basin and characterize their depositional systems as interlayered with the lacustrine Candeias Formation. Based on facies and architecture, the alluvial system can be subdivided into three associations: (1) proximal fan delta, characterized by meter-scale conglomerate bodies with a predominance of boulders and cobbles with thin sandstone layers; (2) distal fan delta, characterized by sheet-like pebble conglomerate and sandstone layers with flame and load structures; and (3) lacustrine, further subdivided into shallow lake facies reddish shales and mudstones with oolitic limestones and deep lake facies grey to green shales with pyrite. Paleocurrent measurements for the proximal fan association show paleoflow direction varying from SW to SE, which is expected for the rift phase alluvial system. The Recôncavo-Tucano-Jatobá rift system has two conglomeratic units, namely the Salvador and Marizal Formations, the former a syn-rift and the latter a post-rift unit. The absence of sedimentary clasts in the conglomerates, very low maturity, the presence of giant clasts, and a visible relationship between boundary faults in the outcrop, define the syn-rift Salvador Formation characteristics. Based on the facies and paleocurrent analyses, the Salvador Formation deposits in Jatobá Basin were interpreted as a deposition of a debris flow-dominated fan delta, indicating the lacustrine setting represented by the Candeias

  16. A reinforced composite structure composed of polydiacetylene assemblies deposited on polystyrene microspheres and its application to H5N1 virus detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wenjie; Luo, Jing; He, Hongxuan; Jiang, Long

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we immobilized polydiacetylene vesicles (PDAVs) onto the surface of polystyrene (PS) microspheres (1 μm in diameter) by using both electrical charge and conjugated forces to form a reinforced composite structure. These reinforced complexes could be easily washed, separated by centrifugation, and resuspended by gentle agitation. After passing through a narrow 200 μm-diameter channel, the composite structures maintained their original shape, demonstrating their resilience and potential for use in microfluidic technologies. The number of PDAVs in the composite structure could be mediated by changing the extent of layer deposition, which affected the sensitivity of detection. It showed that PDAVs did not change their blue color after addition of detecting probes such as anti-H5N1, which was of great importance in the fabrication and modification of stable color-changeable biosensors based on PDAVs. By conjugating anti-H5N1 antibodies to the PS@PDAV via N -hydroxysuccinimide and 1-ethyl3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide chemistry, a stable blue complex, anti-H5N1 microsphere (PS@PDAV-anti-H5N1) was formed. A target antigen of H5N1 (HAQ [H5N1 strain A/ environment/Qinghai/1/2008{H5N1} in clade 0]) was detected by PS@PDAV-anti-H5N1. At an optimal PDAV deposition level of three layers, the limit of detection was determined to be approximately 3 0 ng/mL of HAQ by using optical spectrum measurement and visual inspection, meeting the needs of fast and simple color-changeable detection. However, a much lower limitation of detection (1 ng/mL) was able to be obtained using laser-scanning confocal microscopy, which could be compared with the results obtained with other sophisticated equipment.

  17. Mental Fatigue Monitoring Using a Wearable Transparent Eye Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kota Sampei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose mental fatigue measurement using a wearable eye detection system. The system is capable of acquiring movement of the pupil and blinking from the light reflected from the eye. The reflection is detected by dye-sensitized photovoltaic cells. Since these cells are patterned onto the eyeglass and do not require external input power, the system is notable for its lightweight and low power consumption and can be combined with other wearable devices, such as a head mounted display. We performed experiments to correlate information obtained by the eye detection system with the mental fatigue of the user. Since it is quite difficult to evaluate mental fatigue objectively and quantitatively, we assumed that the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index (NASA-TLX had a strong correlation with te mental fatigue. While a subject was requested to conduct calculation tasks, the eye detection system collected his/her information that included position, velocity and total movement of the eye, and amount and frequency of blinking. Multiple regression analyses revealed the correlation between NASA-TLX and the information obtained for 3 out of 5 subjects.

  18. Traffic Congestion Detection System through Connected Vehicles and Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Cárdenas-Benítez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the simulation and evaluation of a traffic congestion detection system which combines inter-vehicular communications, fixed roadside infrastructure and infrastructure-to-infrastructure connectivity and big data. The system discussed in this article permits drivers to identify traffic congestion and change their routes accordingly, thus reducing the total emissions of CO2 and decreasing travel time. This system monitors, processes and stores large amounts of data, which can detect traffic congestion in a precise way by means of a series of algorithms that reduces localized vehicular emission by rerouting vehicles. To simulate and evaluate the proposed system, a big data cluster was developed based on Cassandra, which was used in tandem with the OMNeT++ discreet event network simulator, coupled with the SUMO (Simulation of Urban MObility traffic simulator and the Veins vehicular network framework. The results validate the efficiency of the traffic detection system and its positive impact in detecting, reporting and rerouting traffic when traffic events occur.

  19. Modelling gaseous dry deposition in AURAMS: a unified regional air-quality modelling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, L.; Moran, M.D.; Makar, P.A.; Brook, J.R.; Gong, S.

    2002-01-01

    An upgraded parameterization scheme for gaseous dry-deposition velocities has been developed for a new regional air-quality model with a 91-species gas-phase chemistry mechanism, of which 48 species are ''transported'' species. The well-known resistance analogy to dry deposition is adopted in the present scheme, with both O 3 and SO 2 taken as base species. Stomatal resistances are calculated for all dry-depositing species using a ''sunlit/shaded big-leaf'' canopy stomatal resistance submodel. Dry-ground, wet-ground, dry-cuticle, and wet-cuticle resistances for O 3 and SO 2 , and parameters for calculating canopy stomatal resistance and aerodynamic resistance for these two base species are given as input parameters for each of the 15 land-use categories and/or five seasonal categories considered by the scheme. Dry-ground, wet-ground, dry-cuticle, and wet-cuticle resistances for the other 29 model species for which dry deposition is considered to be a significant process are scaled to the resistances of O 3 and SO 2 based on published measurements of their dry deposition and/or their aqueous solubility and oxidizing capacity. Mesophyll resistances are treated as dependent only on chemical species. Field experimental data have then been used to evaluate the scheme's performance for O 3 and SO 2 . Example sets of modelled dry-deposition velocities have also been calculated for all 31 dry-deposited species and 15 land-use categories for different environmental conditions. This new scheme incorporates updated information on dry-deposition measurements and is able to predict deposition velocities for 31 gaseous species for different land-use types, seasons, and meteorological conditions. (author)

  20. Investigation of the formation of deposits of calcium sulfate on a metallic wall: detection and growth initiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillermin, Roger

    1970-01-01

    Whereas the formation of calcium sulfate deposits on walls of (water desalination) heat exchanger tubes increases the load loss and decreases the heat exchange coefficient, measuring the load loss or measuring heat transfer in an exchanger could be a method to determine whether scaling occurs. In this research thesis, the author aims at a computational assessing of the sensitivity of such methods in conditions easily obtained in laboratory and allowing, if possible, the identification of the different steps of deposit formation. Then, the author considers some discontinuous methods, possibly more sensitive but more difficult to adjust, but which are not interesting in an industrial point of view: methods based on weighing, on chemical dosing, on radioactive measurements (tracers, auto-radiography, beta backscattering), optical methods and electric methods (piezoelectric quartz, conductivity measurements)

  1. Increasing detectivity of polarization modulation infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy for the study of ultrathin films deposited on various substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccani, J; Buffeteau, T; Desbat, B; Blaudez, D

    2003-10-01

    In this paper, we present a simple way to increase the sensitivity of polarization modulation infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS) for the study of ultrathin films deposited on dielectric and semiconductor substrates. The enhancement of the absorption band intensity is obtained by reducing the signal arising from the substrate. This is achieved by adding a polarizer after the sample in order to balance the polarized reflectivities of the sample. As a consequence, the contribution of the film to the PM-IRRAS signal is increased relative to that of the substrate. An enhancement factor of about 10 has been obtained for ultrathin organic films deposited on glass and spread at the air-water interface. This method has also allowed the study of the very thin native oxide layer present on silicon without the need for the reference spectrum of bare silicon.

  2. Rational Design of Hyperbranched Nanowire Systems for Tunable Superomniphobic Surfaces Enabled by Atomic Layer Deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bielinski, Ashley R.; Boban, Mathew; He, Yang; Kazyak, Eric; Lee, Duck H.; Wang, Chongmin; Tuteja, Anish; Dasgupta, Neil P.

    2017-01-24

    A method for tunable control of geometry in hyperbranched ZnO nanowire (NW) systems is reported, which enables the rational design and fabrication of superomniphobic surfaces. Branched NWs with tunable density and orientation were grown via a sequential hydrothermal process, in which atomic layer deposition (ALD) was used for NW seeding, disruption of epitaxy, and selective blocking of NW nucleation. This approach allows for the rational design and optimization of three-level hierarchical structures, in which the geometric parameters of each level of hierarchy can be individually controlled. We demonstrate the coupled relationships between geometry and contact angle for a variety of liquids, which is supported by mathematical models of structural superomniphobicity. The highest performing superomniphobic surface was designed with three levels of hierarchy and achieved the following advancing/receding contact angles, water: 172°/170°, hexadecane: 166°/156°, octane: 162°/145°, and heptane: 160°/130°. Low surface tension liquids were shown to bounce off the surface from a height of 7 cm without breaking through and wetting. This approach demonstrates the power of ALD as an enabling technique for hierarchical materials by design, spanning the macro, micro, and nano length scales.

  3. Studies on electrophoretically deposited nanostructured barium titanate systems and carrier transport phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, Manjit; Mohanta, Dambarudhar

    2016-06-01

    We report on the development of nanostructured barium titanate (BaTiO3, BT) films on ~200-μm-thick Ag substrates by employing a cathodic electrophoretic deposition (EPD) technique, where solid-state-derived BT nanoparticles are used as the starting material. Structural, morphological and compositional analyses of the as-synthesized BT nanoparticles and films were performed by X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy studies. The synthesized nano-BT system has an average crystallite size of ~8.1 nm and a tetragonality ( c/ a) value ~1.003. To reveal current transport mechanism, the BT films possessing microporous structures and surrounded by homogeneously grown islands were assessed in a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) conformation. The forward current conduction was observed to be purely thermionic up to respective voltages of ~1.4 and 2.2 V as for the fresh and 3-day aged samples. On the other hand, direct tunneling (DT)-mediated Ohmic feature was witnessed at a comparatively higher voltage, beyond which Fowler-Nordheim tunneling (FN) dominates in the respective MIM junctions. The magnitude of current accompanied by FN process was observed to be stronger in reverse biasing than that of forward biasing case. The use of microporous BT films can offer new insights as regards regulated tunneling events meant for miniaturized nanoelectronic elements/components.

  4. Non-deposit system option for waste management on small islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilms, Monica; Voronova, Viktoria

    2016-08-01

    This paper analyses waste management on small islands (on a global scale these are micro-islands). In the context of the paper, small islands are islands that have an area less than 50 km(2) The study presents an overview of the problems connected with waste transport from islands to the mainland. Waste generation on islands is very much related to tourists. If tourists do not handle waste properly, it will cause problems. Four small Estonian islands in the range of 3-19 km(2) are studied in detail. For these and other small islands, the main problem is the waste produced by tourists, or related to tourists and waste transport to the mainland. Currently, the local municipality has to arrange and finance waste transport. In fact, and based on the polluter-pays principle, the tourists should bear the cost of waste management. There are different tax options available in order to collect the money from tourists - waste tax, harbour tax, tourist tax, donations, environmental tax and others. The study results revealed that the best possible solution for Estonian islands may be a non-deposit system - including an additional charge on ferry ticket prices. The extra money should cover the costs of waste management and waste shipping. The tourists arriving in their own boats should pay a harbour tax, which includes a waste tax to compensate for the cost of waste management. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Noninvasive radioisotopic technique for detection of platelet deposition in mitral valve prostheses and quantitation of visceral microembolism in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewanjee, M.K.; Fuster, V.; Rao, S.A.; Forshaw, P.L.; Kaye, M.P.

    1983-01-01

    A noninvasive technique has been developed in the dog model for imaging, with a gamma camera, the platelet deposition on Bjoerk-Shiley mitral valve prostheses early postoperatively. At 25 hours after implantation of the prosthesis and 24 hours after intravenous administration of 400 to 500 microCi of platelets labeled with indium-111, the platelet deposition in the sewing ring and perivalvular cardiac tissue can be clearly delineated in a scintiphotograph. An in vitro technique was also developed for quantitation of visceral microemboli in brain, lungs, kidneys, and other tissues. Biodistribution of the labeled platelets was quantitated, and the tissue/blood radioactivity ratio was determined in 22 dogs in four groups: unoperated normal dogs, sham-operated dogs, prosthesis-implanted dogs, and prosthesis-implanted dogs treated with dipyridamole before and aspirin and dipyridamole immediately after operation. Fifteen to 20% of total platelets were consumed as a consequence of the surgical procedure. On quantitation, we found that platelet deposition on the components of the prostheses was significantly reduced in prosthesis-implanted animals treated with dipyridamole and aspirin when compared with prosthesis-implanted, untreated dogs. All prosthesis-implanted animals considered together had a twofold to fourfold increase in tissue/blood radioactivity ratio in comparison with unoperated and sham-operated animals, an indication that the viscera work as filters and trap platelet microemboli that are presumably produced in the region of the mitral valve prostheses. In the dog model, indium-111-labeled platelets thus provide a sensitive marker for noninvasive imaging of platelet deposition on mechanical mitral valve prostheses, in vitro evaluation of platelet microembolism in viscera, in vitro quantitation of surgical consumption of platelets, and evaluation of platelet-inhibitor drugs

  6. A Mathematical Model for Non-monotonic Deposition Profiles in Deep Bed Filtration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Hao; Shapiro, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    . The numerical modeling results highly agree with the experimental observations, which proves the ability of the model to catch a non-monotonic deposition profile in practice. An additional equation describing a mobile population behaving differently from the injected population seems to be a sufficient...... by advection and diffusion/dispersion. The proposed model is able to produce a nonmonotonic deposition profile. A set of methods for estimating the modeling parameters is provided in the case of minimal particle release. The estimation can be easily performed with available experimental information...... condition for producing non-monotonic deposition profiles. The described physics by the additional equation may be different in different experimental settings....

  7. The synchronous active neutron detection system for spent fuel assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickrell, M.M.; Kendall, P.K.

    1994-01-01

    The authors have begun to develop a novel technique for active neutron assay of fissile material in spent nuclear fuel. This approach will exploit the unique operating features of a 14-MeV neutron generator developed by Schlumberger. This generator and a novel detection system will be applied to the direct measurement of the fissile material content in spent fuel in place of the indirect measures used at present. The technique they are investigating is termed synchronous active neutron detection (SAND). It closely follows a method that has been used routinely in other branches of physics to detect very small signals in the presence of large backgrounds. Synchronous detection instruments are widely available commercially and are termed open-quotes lock-inclose quotes amplifiers. The authors have implemented a digital lock-in amplifier in conjunction with the Schlumberger neutron generator to explore the possibility of synchronous detection with active neutrons. This approach is possible because the Schlumberger system can operate at up to a 50% duty factor, in effect, a square wave of neutron yield. The results to date are preliminary but quite promising. The system is capable of resolving the fissile material contained in a small fraction of the fuel rods in a cold fuel assembly. It also appears to be quite resilient to background neutron interference. The interrogating neutrons appear to be nonthermal and penetrating. Although a significant amount of work remains to fully explore the relevant physics and optimize the instrument design, the underlying concept appears sound

  8. An object detection and tracking system for unmanned surface vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian; Xiao, Yang; Fang, Zhiwen; Zhang, Naiwen; Wang, Li; Li, Tao

    2017-10-01

    Object detection and tracking are critical parts of unmanned surface vehicles(USV) to achieve automatic obstacle avoidance. Off-the-shelf object detection methods have achieved impressive accuracy in public datasets, though they still meet bottlenecks in practice, such as high time consumption and low detection quality. In this paper, we propose a novel system for USV, which is able to locate the object more accurately while being fast and stable simultaneously. Firstly, we employ Faster R-CNN to acquire several initial raw bounding boxes. Secondly, the image is segmented to a few superpixels. For each initial box, the superpixels inside will be grouped into a whole according to a combination strategy, and a new box is thereafter generated as the circumscribed bounding box of the final superpixel. Thirdly, we utilize KCF to track these objects after several frames, Faster-RCNN is again used to re-detect objects inside tracked boxes to prevent tracking failure as well as remove empty boxes. Finally, we utilize Faster R-CNN to detect objects in the next image, and refine object boxes by repeating the second module of our system. The experimental results demonstrate that our system is fast, robust and accurate, which can be applied to USV in practice.

  9. Determining the lower limit of detection for personnel dosimetry systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, P L; Carlson, R D

    1992-01-01

    A simple method for determining the lower limit of detection (LLD) for personnel dosimetry systems is described. The method relies on the definition of a critical level and a detection level. The critical level is the signal level above which a result has a small probability of being due to a fluctuation of the background. All results below the critical level should not be reported as an indication of a positive result. The detection level is the net signal level (i.e., dose received) above which there is a high confidence that a true reading will be detected and reported as a qualitatively positive result. The detection level may be identified as the LLD. A simple formula is derived to allow the calculation of the LLD under various conditions. This type of formula is being used by the Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP) for personnel dosimetry. Participants in either the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP) for personnel dosimetry or DOELAP can use performance test results along with a measurement of background levels to estimate the LLDs for their dosimetry system. As long as they maintain their dosimetry system such that the LLDs are less than half the lower limit of the NVLAP or DOELAP test exposure ranges, dosimetry laboratories can avoid testing failures due to poor performance at very low exposures.

  10. Anomaly-Based Intrusion Detection Systems Utilizing System Call Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    2.1.1 Viruses The first use of the term “computer virus ” is attributed to Fred Cohen in 1983. Fred Cohen originally defined a computer virus as a...agents. Once compromised, these systems become part of what is known as a “zombie” network. 2.1.3 Trojans A Trojan horse is malware pretending to...be benign or useful software. When activated, Trojans perform unauthorized actions such as collecting, modifying, and forging data. Unlike viruses

  11. PRex: An Experiment to Investigate Detection of Near-field Particulate Deposition from a Simulated Underground Nuclear Weapons Test Vent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keillor, Martin E; Arrigo, Leah M; Baciak, James E; Chipman, Veraun; Detwiler, Rebecca S; Emer, Dudley F; Kernan, Warnick J; Kirkham, Randy R; MacDougall, Matthew R; Milbrath, Brian D; Rishel, Jeremy P; Seifert, Allen; Seifert, Carolyn E; Smart, John E

    2016-05-01

    A radioactive particulate release experiment to produce a near-field ground deposition representative of small-scale venting from an underground nuclear test was conducted to gather data in support of treaty capability development activities. For this experiment, a CO2-driven "air cannon" was used to inject (140)La, a radioisotope of lanthanum with 1.7-d half-life and strong gamma-ray emissions, into the lowest levels of the atmosphere at ambient temperatures. Witness plates and air samplers were laid out in an irregular grid covering the area where the plume was anticipated to deposit based on climatological wind records. This experiment was performed at the Nevada National Security Site, where existing infrastructure, radiological procedures, and support personnel facilitated planning and execution of the work. A vehicle-mounted NaI(Tl) spectrometer and a polyvinyl toluene-based backpack instrument were used to survey the deposited plume. Hand-held instruments, including NaI(Tl) and lanthanum bromide scintillators and high purity germanium spectrometers, were used to take in situ measurements. Additionally, three soil sampling techniques were investigated and compared. The relative sensitivity and utility of sampling and survey methods are discussed in the context of on-site inspection.

  12. Object detection system based on multimodel saliency maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ya'nan; Luo, Chongfan; Ma, Yide

    2017-03-01

    Detection of visually salient image regions is extensively applied in computer vision and computer graphics, such as object detection, adaptive compression, and object recognition, but any single model always has its limitations to various images, so in our work, we establish a method based on multimodel saliency maps to detect the object, which intelligently absorbs the merits of various individual saliency detection models to achieve promising results. The method can be roughly divided into three steps: in the first step, we propose a decision-making system to evaluate saliency maps obtained by seven competitive methods and merely select the three most valuable saliency maps; in the second step, we introduce heterogeneous PCNN algorithm to obtain three prime foregrounds; and then a self-designed nonlinear fusion method is proposed to merge these saliency maps; at last, the adaptive improved and simplified PCNN model is used to detect the object. Our proposed method can constitute an object detection system for different occasions, which requires no training, is simple, and highly efficient. The proposed saliency fusion technique shows better performance over a broad range of images and enriches the applicability range by fusing different individual saliency models, this proposed system is worthy enough to be called a strong model. Moreover, the proposed adaptive improved SPCNN model is stemmed from the Eckhorn's neuron model, which is skilled in image segmentation because of its biological background, and in which all the parameters are adaptive to image information. We extensively appraise our algorithm on classical salient object detection database, and the experimental results demonstrate that the aggregation of saliency maps outperforms the best saliency model in all cases, yielding highest precision of 89.90%, better recall rates of 98.20%, greatest F-measure of 91.20%, and lowest mean absolute error value of 0.057, the value of proposed saliency evaluation

  13. Sensor failure detection in dynamical systems by Kalman filtering methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciftcioglu, O.

    1991-03-01

    Design of a sensor failure detection system by Kalman filtering methodology is described. The method models the process systems in state-space form, the information on each state being provided by relevant sensors present in the process system. Since the measured states are usually subject to noise, the estimation of the states optimally is an essential requirement. To this end the detection system comprises Kalman estimation filters, the number of which is equal to the number of states concerned. The estimated state of a particular signal in each filter is compared with the corresponding measured signal and difference beyond a predetermined bound is identified as failure, the sensor being identified/isolated as faulty. (author). 19 refs.; 8 figs.; 1 tab

  14. Planetary Systems Detection, Formation and Habitability of Extrasolar Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Ollivier, Marc; Casoli, Fabienne; Encrenaz, Thérèse; Selsis, Franck

    2009-01-01

    Over the past ten years, the discovery of extrasolar planets has opened a new field of astronomy, and this area of research is rapidly growing, from both the observational and theoretical point of view. The presence of many giant exoplanets in the close vicinity of their star shows that these newly discovered planetary systems are very different from the solar system. New theoretical models are being developed in order to understand their formation scenarios, and new observational methods are being implemented to increase the sensitivity of exoplanet detections. In the present book, the authors address the question of planetary systems from all aspects. Starting from the facts (the detection of more than 300 extraterrestrial planets), they first describe the various methods used for these discoveries and propose a synthetic analysis of their global properties. They then consider the observations of young stars and circumstellar disks and address the case of the solar system as a specific example, different fr...

  15. Securing Cloud Computing from Different Attacks Using Intrusion Detection Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Achbarou

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a new way of integrating a set of old technologies to implement a new paradigm that creates an avenue for users to have access to shared and configurable resources through internet on-demand. This system has many common characteristics with distributed systems, hence, the cloud computing also uses the features of networking. Thus the security is the biggest issue of this system, because the services of cloud computing is based on the sharing. Thus, a cloud computing environment requires some intrusion detection systems (IDSs for protecting each machine against attacks. The aim of this work is to present a classification of attacks threatening the availability, confidentiality and integrity of cloud resources and services. Furthermore, we provide literature review of attacks related to the identified categories. Additionally, this paper also introduces related intrusion detection models to identify and prevent these types of attacks.

  16. Towards Improved Airborne Fire Detection Systems Using Beetle Inspired Infrared Detection and Fire Searching Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Bousack

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Every year forest fires cause severe financial losses in many countries of the world. Additionally, lives of humans as well as of countless animals are often lost. Due to global warming, the problem of wildfires is getting out of control; hence, the burning of thousands of hectares is obviously increasing. Most important, therefore, is the early detection of an emerging fire before its intensity becomes too high. More than ever, a need for early warning systems capable of detecting small fires from distances as large as possible exists. A look to nature shows that pyrophilous “fire beetles” of the genus Melanophila can be regarded as natural airborne fire detection systems because their larvae can only develop in the wood of fire-killed trees. There is evidence that Melanophila beetles can detect large fires from distances of more than 100 km by visual and infrared cues. In a biomimetic approach, a concept has been developed to use the surveying strategy of the “fire beetles” for the reliable detection of a smoke plume of a fire from large distances by means of a basal infrared emission zone. Future infrared sensors necessary for this ability are also inspired by the natural infrared receptors of Melanophila beetles.

  17. Statistical detection model for eddy-current systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, J.R.; Bahr, A.J.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter presents a detailed analysis of some measured noise data and the results of using those data with a probe-flaw interaction model to compute the surface-crack detection characteristics of two different air-core coil probes. The objective is to develop a statistical model for determining the probability of detecting a given flaw using an eddy-current system. The basis for developing a statistical detection model is a measurement model that relates the output voltage of the system to its various signal and noise components. Topics considered include statistics of the measured background voltage, calibration of the probe-flaw interaction model and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) definition, the operating characteristic, and a comparison of air-core probes

  18. Assessment of Radiation Background Variation for Moving Detection Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, James Christopher [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rennie, John Alan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Toevs, James Waldo [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wallace, Darrin J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Abhold, Mark Edward [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2015-07-13

    The introduction points out that radiation backgrounds fluctuate across very short distances: factors include geology, soil composition, altitude, building structures, topography, and other manmade structures; and asphalt and concrete can vary significantly over short distances. Brief descriptions are given of the detection system, experimental setup, and background variation measurements. It is concluded that positive and negative gradients can greatly reduce the detection sensitivity of an MDS: negative gradients create opportunities for false negatives (nondetection), and positive gradients create a potentially unacceptable FAR (above 1%); the location of use for mobile detection is important to understand; spectroscopic systems provide more information for screening out false alarms and may be preferred for mobile use; and mobile monitor testing at LANL accounts for expected variations in the background.

  19. Characteristics and geological significance of Re-Os isotopic system of evaporites in Mboukoumassi deposit, the Republic of Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xianfu; Wang, Zongqi; Liu, Chenglin; Li, Chao; Jiao, Pengcheng; Zhao, Yanjun; Zhang, Fan

    2018-02-01

    Evaporite dating has been an open problem. The study investigates the Re-Os isotopic system in the organic-rich sedimentary rocks to constrain the infilling of sedimentary basin and related geological events. In the Mboukoumassi potash deposit in the Republic of Congo (Congo-Brazzaville) in West Africa, several layers of organic-rich dark shale were found in the evaporite series. Through drilling core, the dark shale in the evaporite is found to satisfy the requirements of Re-Os isotope test. The result shows that the Re-Os isochron age of the dark shale in the study area ranges from 78.7 ± 1.1 to 96 ± 7 Ma, which is the first precise age of the Mboukoumassi potash deposit in the Republic of Congo (Congo-Brazzaville), West Africa. Therefore, the age of deposition of this set of evaporite may be Cenomanian-Turonian, which is younger than the age previously thought (around 113-125Ma, Aptian). The Re-Os isotopic dating technique used for the pioneering study on the precise dating of the Mboukoumassi potash deposit provides a new approach to the study of the sedimentary age of ancient evaporite deposits. The initial 187Os/188Os value decreasing from 2.02 ± 0.21 to 0.982 ± 0.03 for the core sample reflects the source rock chang along the core, and this is consistent with the geological evolution of the basin.

  20. Development of methods to predict agglomeration and deposition in fluidized-bed combustion systems (FBCS). Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, M.D.; Henderson, A.K.; Swanson, M.L.; Allan, S.E.

    1996-02-01

    The successful design and operation of advanced combustion systems require the ability to control and mitigate ash-related problems. The major ash-related problems are slag flow control, slag attack on the refractory, ash deposition on heat-transfer surfaces, corrosion and erosion of equipment materials, and emissions control. These problems are the result of physical and chemical interactions of the fuels, bed materials, and system components. The interactions that take place and ultimately control ash behavior in fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) systems are controlled by the abundance and association of the inorganic components in coal and by the system conditions. Because of the complexity of the materials and processes involved, the design and operations engineer often lacks the information needed to predict ash behavior and reduce ash-related problems. The deposition of ashes from the fluidized bed combustion of lignite and petroleum coke is described in this paper.