WorldWideScience

Sample records for dependent pac studies

  1. Evaluation of a PACS workstation for interpreting body CT studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franken, E.A.; Berbaum, K.S.; Honda, H.; McGuire, C.; Weis, R.R.; Barloon, T.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports conventional hard-copy images from 266 body CT studies compared with those provided by a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) workstation. PACS images were evaluated before and after use of various image processing features. Most cases were depicted equally well, but in about one-fourth of the cases, diagnostic features were shown more clearly on PACS images. When PACS images were viewed first, a change in diagnosis after subsequent hardcopy inspection was infrequent, but when hard-copy images were viewed first, the results were converse. The image processing features of PACS were critical for its superior performance. The ability of a PACS to provide both image display and manipulation results in the superiority of that system

  2. Study of Radiologic Technologists' Perceptions of Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) Competence and Educational Issues in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Daniel M; Trepp, Errol R; Ipaki, Maryam; Ng, Curtise K C

    2015-06-01

    Although the implementation of picture archiving and communication system (PACS) could increase productivity of radiology departments, this depends on factors such as the PACS competence of radiologic technologists (RTs). The purpose of this study was to investigate the RTs' perceptions of PACS competence and educational issues in Western Australia (WA). A hardcopy questionnaire was distributed to WA RTs for obtaining their perceptions of PACS competence and educational issues. Descriptive (percentage of frequency, mean and standard deviation) and inferential statistics (t test and analysis of variance) were used to analyze the responses of the multiple choice and five-point scale questions from the returned questionnaires. The questionnaire response rate was 57.7% (173 out of 300). The mean values of all PACS competence questions except questions 2e-g are in the range of 3.9-4.9, i.e., around competent to very competent. Participants indicated they received adequate PACS training (mean 3.8). Statistically significant variables influencing RTs' perceptions of their PACS competence and educational issues including the age (p education received (p system, and received adequate training. However, future PACS education programs should be tailored to different RTs' groups. For example, multiple training modules might be necessary to support the PACS competence development of older RTs and those with lower general computer literacy.

  3. Measuring viability of pacs during reform period in Maharashtra: A case study

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Deepak

    2007-01-01

    The study showed a reduction in the operational efficiency of the selected PACS during the post-economic reform period as against the pre-economic reform period. The operational efficiency was measured in respect of various liquidity ratio, profitability ratios and financial leverage ratios. Not only the selected societies showed a decline in their current ratio, rate of return on assets, return on owner’s equity and Marginal Efficiency of Capital (MEC) but also showed higher dependency on le...

  4. PACS for imaging centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, T J

    2003-01-01

    PACS can be a difficult and confusing decision for any radiology provider, but it can be an even more dynamic question for an outpatient imaging center. Every center represents a unique situation and requires a specialized solution. Typically, most of what is said and discussed about PACS concentrates on solutions and requirements for hospital radiology facilities. Administrators of imaging centers have different problems from hospital administrators, and they need different answers. For imaging centers, the financial justification for PACS may be less immediate than for hospitals. The first thing that must be understood is that no PAC system can make a typical imaging center completely filmless, at least not for quite a while. A hospital has the ability to dictate to its internal referring physicians how a radiological study is delivered, whereas in an imaging center environment, the roles are very much reversed. Once the justification are made for the financial viability of PACS in an imaging center, the next question is how to finance the acquisition of PACS. The decision will depend on how you cost justify your PACS, as well as the shape of your business model, and it will come to a decision between capital purchase or contracting with an application service provider, or ASP. Historically, in the hospital-dominated marketplace, PAC systems have been treated as capital acquisitions. However, for most imaging center, owning the system is more of a problem than a benefit. ASPs increasingly represent a successful alternative for imaging centers. One of the biggest things to consider with PACS is how to store all of those images. There are typically two options, on-site and off-site, with a new "hybrid" option surfacing more recently. Each option has benefits for the user, but the benefits of off-site storage are increasing as the technology advances. Some of the benefits are data security and access. Other issues to address are HIPAA compliance, standardized

  5. Impurity cluster interaction in fcc metals studied by PAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deicher, M.; Echt, O.; Recknagel, E.; Wichert, T.

    1981-01-01

    A defect configuration of high thermal stability has been observed by PAC in Au, showing the same properties as previously published configuration in Cu and Ni. We prove that these configurations cannot consist of any small defect complex with well-defined size; especially the observed influence of the damaging conditions on the thermal stability of the defects in Au and Cu would contradict such an assumption. It is shown that probe atoms trapped at large clusters of variable size can nevertheless experience a unique electric field gradient, and that in our case intrinsic stacking faults, formed by vacancies, can account for all the measured properties. (orig.)

  6. A study on reduction effect of processing wastewater by introduction of PACS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Shin Kwan; Yang, Han Jun; Han, Dong Kyoon; Kim, Wook Dong; Kang, Bung Sam

    2007-01-01

    There are some positive effects by the introduction of PACS (Picture Archiving Communication System). This study is to analyze the mutual relation between before and after of the introduction of PACS in terms of the environment effect. It is supposed to cause the reduction of developing and fixing wastewater according to the increase in the rate of a non-film. This study also show the amount of wastewater. Target places were the department of image medicine (diagnostic radiation) of the general hospitals in Seoul and Gyeonggido, which are equipped with full PACS. The authors examined questionnaires on the number of projection, the number of indirect projection, the amount of the film used, the number of radiation image CD loan, the amount of the developing and fixing solution used, the change of the amount of fixing wastewater. According to the analysis, we analyzed the change of the amount of developing and fixing solution per a film and the change of the amount of developing and fixing wastewater which is supposed to be reduced proportionally by the introduction of PACS. We got conclusion as below after analyzing 8 hospitals except the largest and the least amount of examination, film used, developing and fixing solution and the amount of developing and fixing wastewater in order to decrease the deviation from 10 general hospitals located in Seoul and Gyeonggido. We compared data one year before adopting PACS Versus 3 years after adopting PACS. The frequencies of examination increased to 7,357.7 cases per month but the amount of film used decreased to 90%, from 42,774.4 to 4,181.88 after adopting the PACS. 3 years after adopting PACS, monthly average amount of developing solution used decreased to 92% and the monthly average amount of fixing solution decreased to 86%. Monthly average amount of developing solution used per film increased to 1.49 times and fixing solution increased as much as three times. Monthly average wastewater for developing decreased to 88

  7. PAC study of ionic motion in silver compound superionic conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekata, M.; Seguchi, Y.

    1983-01-01

    Ionic motion in superionic conductors, Ag 2 S, Ag 2 Se and Ag 3 SI was investigated by γ-γ PAC on 111 Cd. Diffusion constant measurements showed that probe ions migrate almost as fast as Ag + ions above 500 K in Ag 2 S and Ag 2 Se and above 700 K in Ag 3 SI. Multivalent impurities were found to be unstable in AgI and Ag 2 Te. The correlation time of ionic motion was deduced from the observed relaxation rate together with the diffusion constants. The correlation time and its activation energy increase in order of Ag 2 S, Ag 2 Se and Ag 3 SI. The flight distance of Ag + ions remains almost constant in the measured temperature range. (Auth.)

  8. PAC research in biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chain, C. Y., E-mail: yamil@fisica.unlp.edu.ar [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, IFLP (Argentina); Ceolin, M. [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquimicas Teoricas y Aplicadas, Dto de Quimica, Fac. Cs. Exactas, UNLP (Argentina); Pasquevich, A. F. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, IFLP (Argentina)

    2008-01-15

    In this paper possible applications of the Perturbed Angular Correlations (PAC) technique in Biology are considered. Previous PAC experiments in biology are globally analyzed. All the work that appears in the literature has been grouped in a few research lines, just to make the analysis and discussion easy. The commonly used radioactive probes are listed and the experimental difficulties are analyzed. We also report applications of {sup 181}Hf and {sup 111}In isotopes in life sciences other than their use in PAC. The possibility of extending these studies using the PAC technique is discussed.

  9. THE ZN-SITE IN BOVINE COPPER, ZINC SUPEROXIDE-DISMUTASE STUDIED BY CD-111 PAC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofod, Pauli; Bjerrum, Morten J.; Bauer, Rogert

    1991-01-01

    The active site in bovine copper, zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu2. Zn2 SOD) has been studied by 111Cd time differential Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) on enzyme with Zn2+ replaced by excited 'Cd2+. The PAC spectra obtained for both the oxidized and the reduced form of Cu2Cd2SOD show...... no asymmetry between the two Zn-sites in the dimeric enzyme. The spectv further reveal that a significant change has taken place at the Zn-site in the reduced form compared to the oxidized form. Semi-empirical calculations based on the Angular Overlap Model (AOM) and coordinates from the crystal structure...... of the native enzyme are in agreement with the experimental PAC data of the oxidized enzyme. The results indicate that Cd2+ coordinates in the same manner as Zn2+ and that the crystal structure of SOD is valid for the enzyme in solution. The PAC spectrum of the reduced enzyme can be explained by extending...

  10. Study of hyperfine parameters in Co-doped tin dioxide using PAC spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Juliana M.; Carbonari, Artur W.; Martucci, Thiago; Costa, Messias S.; Saxena, Rajendra N.; Vianden, R.; Kessler, P.; Geruschke, T.; Steffens, M.

    2011-01-01

    PAC technique has been used to measure the hyperfine interactions in nano-structured powder samples of semiconducting SnO 2 doped with Co. The aim of this work is to compare the results of PAC measurements using two different techniques of introducing the radioactive 111 In probe nuclei in the sample of SnO 2 doped with Co. The perturbed gamma-gamma angular correlation (PAC) spectroscopy is used for the measurements of the magnetic hyperfine field (MHF) and the electric field gradient (EFG) at 111 Cd sites in SnO 2 doped with 1% and 2% Co. The measurement of EFG is used to study the defects introduced in the semiconductor material and also for the identification of different phases formed within the compound. The techniques utilized for introducing the radioactive 111 In in the sample are the ion-implantation using radioactive ion beam of 111 In and the chemical process in which 111 InCl 3 solution is added during the preparation of SnO 2 doped with Co using sol gel method. The ion-implantation of 111 In in SnO 2 doped with Co was carried out using the University of Bonn ion-implanter with beam energy of 160 keV. The PAC measurements were carried out with four BaF 2 detector gamma spectrometer in the temperature range of 10-295 K. The results show no significant difference in the values of hyperfine parameters. Both techniques show practically the same electric quadrupole interaction for the substitutional site. The results were compared with previous PAC and Moessbauer measurements of SnO 2 powder samples using 111 In- 111 Cd probe. (author)

  11. Study of hyperfine parameters in Co-doped tin dioxide using PAC spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Juliana M.; Carbonari, Artur W.; Martucci, Thiago; Costa, Messias S.; Saxena, Rajendra N. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Vianden, R.; Kessler, P.; Geruschke, T.; Steffens, M., E-mail: vianden@hiskp.uni-bonn.d [Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universitaet Bonn (HISKP- Bonn) (Germany). Helmholtz - Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik

    2011-07-01

    PAC technique has been used to measure the hyperfine interactions in nano-structured powder samples of semiconducting SnO{sub 2} doped with Co. The aim of this work is to compare the results of PAC measurements using two different techniques of introducing the radioactive {sup 111}In probe nuclei in the sample of SnO{sub 2} doped with Co. The perturbed gamma-gamma angular correlation (PAC) spectroscopy is used for the measurements of the magnetic hyperfine field (MHF) and the electric field gradient (EFG) at {sup 111}Cd sites in SnO{sub 2} doped with 1% and 2% Co. The measurement of EFG is used to study the defects introduced in the semiconductor material and also for the identification of different phases formed within the compound. The techniques utilized for introducing the radioactive {sup 111}In in the sample are the ion-implantation using radioactive ion beam of {sup 111}In and the chemical process in which {sup 111}InCl{sub 3} solution is added during the preparation of SnO{sub 2} doped with Co using sol gel method. The ion-implantation of {sup 111}In in SnO{sub 2} doped with Co was carried out using the University of Bonn ion-implanter with beam energy of 160 keV. The PAC measurements were carried out with four BaF{sub 2} detector gamma spectrometer in the temperature range of 10-295 K. The results show no significant difference in the values of hyperfine parameters. Both techniques show practically the same electric quadrupole interaction for the substitutional site. The results were compared with previous PAC and Moessbauer measurements of SnO{sub 2} powder samples using {sup 111}In-{sup 111}Cd probe. (author)

  12. Does use of a PACS increase the number of images per study? A case study in ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horii, Steven; Nisenbaum, Harvey; Farn, James; Coleman, Beverly; Rowling, Susan; Langer, Jill; Jacobs, Jill; Arger, Peter; Pinheiro, Lisa; Klein, Wendy; Reber, Michele; Iyoob, Christopher

    2002-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the use of a picture archiving and communications system (PACS) in ultrasonography increased the number of images acquired per examination. The hypothesis that such an increase does occur was based on anecdotal information; this study sought to test the hypothesis. A random sample of all ultrasound examination types was drawn from the period 1998 through 1999. The ultrasound PACS in use (ACCESS; Kodak Health Information Systems, Dallas, TX) records the number of grayscale and color images saved as part of each study. Each examination in the sample was checked in the ultrasound PACS database,.and the number of grayscale and color images was recorded. The comparison film-based sample was drawn from the period 1994 through 1995. The number of examinations of each type selected was based on the overall statistics of the section; that is, the sample was designed to represent the approximate frequency with which the various examination types are done. For film-based image counts, the jackets were retrieved, and the number of grayscale and color images were counted. The number of images obtained per examination (for most examinations) in ultrasound increased with PACS use. This was more evident with some examination types (eg, pelvis). This result, however, has to be examined for possible systematic biases because ultrasound practice has changed over the time since the authors stopped using film routinely. The use of PACS in ultrasonography was not associated with an increase in the number of images per examination based solely on the use of PACS, with the exception of neonatal head studies. Increases in the number of images per study was otherwise associated with examinations for which changes in protocols resulted in the increased image counts.

  13. 73Se, an unusual PAC probe applied to the study of semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vianden, R.

    1990-01-01

    The isotope 73 Se was produced by an (α,3n) reaction from 72 Ge in order to study the applicability of this probe to PAC defect studies in semiconductors. Measurements before and after annealing recoil implanted samples showed that the quadrupole interaction of the 66 keV state in the daughter isotope 73 As with the lattice damage created by the implantation is comparable to that found for 111 In in Ge. This indicates that 73 Se can be a suitable probe for defect studies in semiconductors with nuclear methods. (orig.)

  14. Study of molybdenum oxide by means of Perturbed Angular Correlations (PAC) and Mössbauer spectroscopy

    CERN Multimedia

    Among transition-metal oxides, the molybdenum oxide compounds are particularly attractive due to the structural (2D) anisotropy and to the ability of the molybdenum ion to change its oxidation state. These properties make it suitable for applications on, e.g., chemical sensors, solar cells, catalytic and optoelectronic devices. At ISOLDE we aim studying the incorporation of selected dopants by ion implantation, using the nuclear techniques of Perturbed Angular Correlations (PAC) and Mössbauer spectroscopy (MS). Both techniques make use of highly diluted radioactive probe nuclei, which interact – as atomic-sized tips – with the host atoms and defects. The objectives of this project are to study at the atomic scale the probe’s local environment, its electronic configuration and polarization, the probe’s lattice sites, point defects and its recombination dynamics. In the case of e-$\\gamma$ PAC, the electron mobility on the host can be further studied, e.g., as a function of temperature.

  15. PAC study in the HfO2-SiO2 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chain, C.Y.; Damonte, L.C.; Ferrari, S.; Munoz, E.; Torres, C. Rodriguez; Pasquevich, A.F.

    2010-01-01

    A high-k HfO 2 /SiO 2 gate stack is taking the place of SiO 2 as a gate dielectric in field effect transistors. This fact makes the study of the solid-state reaction between these oxides very important. Nanostructure characterization of a high-energy ball milled and post-annealed equimolar HfO 2 and amorphous SiO 2 powder mixture has been carried out by perturbed angular correlations (PAC) technique. The study was complemented with X-ray diffraction and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). The experimental results revealed that the ball milling of equimolar mixtures increases the defects concentration in hafnium oxide. No solid-state reaction occurred even after 8 h of milling. The formation of HfSiO 4 (hafnon) was observed in the milled blends annealed at high temperatures.The PAC results of the milled samples are compared with those obtained for pure m-ZrO 2 subjected to high-energy ball milling and with reported microstructure data for the system ZrO 2 -SiO 2 .

  16. PACS quality control and automatic problem notifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeyman-Buck, Janice C.; Jones, Douglas; Frost, Meryll M.; Staab, Edward V.

    1997-05-01

    One side effect of installing a clinical PACS Is that users become dependent upon the technology and in some cases it can be very difficult to revert back to a film based system if components fail. The nature of system failures range from slow deterioration of function as seen in the loss of monitor luminance through sudden catastrophic loss of the entire PACS networks. This paper describes the quality control procedures in place at the University of Florida and the automatic notification system that alerts PACS personnel when a failure has happened or is anticipated. The goal is to recover from a failure with a minimum of downtime and no data loss. Routine quality control is practiced on all aspects of PACS, from acquisition, through network routing, through display, and including archiving. Whenever possible, the system components perform self and between platform checks for active processes, file system status, errors in log files, and system uptime. When an error is detected or a exception occurs, an automatic page is sent to a pager with a diagnostic code. Documentation on each code, trouble shooting procedures, and repairs are kept on an intranet server accessible only to people involved in maintaining the PACS. In addition to the automatic paging system for error conditions, acquisition is assured by an automatic fax report sent on a daily basis to all technologists acquiring PACS images to be used as a cross check that all studies are archived prior to being removed from the acquisition systems. Daily quality control is preformed to assure that studies can be moved from each acquisition and contrast adjustment. The results of selected quality control reports will be presented. The intranet documentation server will be described with the automatic pager system. Monitor quality control reports will be described and the cost of quality control will be quantified. As PACS is accepted as a clinical tool, the same standards of quality control must be established

  17. Increase in productivity by implementation of RIS and PACS throughout a clinic: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nissen-Meyer, S.; Holzknecht, N.; Wieser, B.; Francke, M.; Kuettner, B.; Weber, J.; Reiser, M.; Adelhard, K.; Villain, S.

    2002-01-01

    Problem. How are improvements in productivity in connection with RIS/PACS to be defined? What do they cost? To limit the problem to the relevant topics, we first describe the objectives of a radiology department and the identified bottlenecks in the workflow. How to define and assess the improvements is discussed.Methods. The case in question for this study is the RIS/PACS project at the ''Klinikum der Universitaet Muenchen, Campus Grosshadern''. The goals of the project and its present status are reviewed. The project is not yet completed, so this is a ''midterm'' report.Results and discussion. We describe the status of the achieved and not yet achieved goals and of the eliminated bottlenecks. On the plus side, for example, nearly 100% of all digitally generated images (except mammogramms) are digitally archived. They are accessible to the same percentage in radiology via PACS and in the hospital via the webbased intranet image distribution system when needed. In some radiology areas, such as multislice CT, already the reporting can no longer be performed without softcopy image interpretation. However, the full elimination of hardcopy images is still not reality, since the distribution to DICOM viewers for selected requesters with demands for almost reporting quality, high cost image displays is still in the testphase. To reduce film costs, images are being printed on a high resolution paper printer in addition to the intranet distribution during this transition period. On the negative side, due to a lack of job positions in the transcription rooms, about 40% of the reports are still being handwritten by radiologists. Furthermore, the dictated and transcribed reports are usually still not available early enough in the RIS and thereby in the intranet report distribution of the hospital. Here only a speech recognition system can remedy the situation. As soon as this problem is solved and the image distribution to the DICOM viewers works routinely, the reports and

  18. PACS and its hospital-wide implementation: A case study at the Madigan Army Medical Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hyung Sik; Kim, Yong Min; Smith, Donald V.; Bender, Gregory N.

    1993-01-01

    PACS represents the future of radiology in modern hospitals. Workstations and databases can be developed to substantially increase clinician's productivity, improve diagnostic accuracy, and make a large amount of knowledge and patient information available on-line to the physician. Currently, there are several hospitals in the process of implementing a total PACS system. They include Madigan Army Medical Center (Tacoma, Washington), VA Hospital in Baltimore, and Hammersmith Hospital in London (1). In order to provide the radiologist, the clinicians, and other health personnel in Korea with the general concept of PACS and its up-to-date status report, we describe the MDIS system being implemented in MAMC (Madigan Army Medical Center) which is the first hospital-wide large-scale PACS in the world. The major PACS components in MAMC have been installed since March 1992 and the full system implementation will be completed by summer 1993. The goal of the MDIS system in MAMC is to increase to more than 90% filmless by the end of 1993. In this paper, we discuss the introduction and background of PACS and its potential benefits, the current status of PACS installation in MAMC and the future plan, and the flow of image data and text information in MAMC

  19. Current status and installation of dental PACS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chang Seo; Kim, Kee Deog; Park, Hyok; Jeong, Ho Gul

    2004-01-01

    Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) is difficult to implement in the best of situations, but evidence is growing that the benefits are significant. The aims of this study are to analyze the current status of full PACS and establish successful installation standard of dental PACS. Materials and Methods were based on the investigation of current working status and installation standard of PACS, and observation of variable issues to installation of dental PACS. By September 30, 2004, full PACS implementations in their facilities were 88.1% in specialized general hospitals (37 installations out of total 42 hospitals), 59.8% in general hospitals (144 installations out of total 241 hospitals), 12.3% in medical hospitals (116 installations out of total 941 hospitals) and 3.6% in dental hospitals (4 installations out of total 110 hospitals). Only 4 university dental hospitals currently have installed and are operating full PACS. Major obstacle to wide spread of dental PACS is initial high investments. Clinical environments of dental PACS differed from medical situation. Because of characteristic dental practice, the initial investments for dental PACS are generally much greater than those of medical PACS. Also new economic crisis makes users scruple. The best way to overcome these limitations is to establish an economic installation standard for dental PACS. Also the clear technical communication between the customer and the supplier before both sides are committed to the obstacles are critical to its success.

  20. PACS industry in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee-Joung

    2002-05-01

    PACS industry in Korea has been rapidly growing, since government had supported collaborative PACS project between industry and university hospital. In the beginning, PACS industry had focused on developing peripheral PACS solutions, while the Korea PACS society was being formed. A few companies had started developing and installing domestic large-scale full-PACS system for teaching hospitals. Several years later, many hospitals have installed full-PACS system with national policy of reimbursement for PACS exams in November 1999. Both experiences of full-PACS installation and national policy generated tremendous intellectual and technological expertise about PACS at all levels, clinical, hospital management, education, and industrial sectors. There are now more than 20 domestic PACS companies. They have enough experiences which are capable of installing a truly full-PACS system for large-scale teaching hospitals. As an example, a domestic company had installed more than 40 full-PACS systems within 2-3 years. Enough experiences of full-PACS installation in Korea lead PACS industry to start exporting their full-PACS solutions. However, further understanding and timely implementation of continuously evolving international standard and integrated healthcare enterprise concepts may be necessary for international leading of PACS technologies for the future.

  1. dicomPACS: PACS Leader in Germany - Kodak Partner

    OpenAIRE

    Maziyar Shakeri

    2007-01-01

    History of Distributor: We are PDP Co. (Pardazesh Danesh Pezeshki) founded in 1998 with more than 8 years Experiments in Diagnostic Medical Imaging Market .we launched our New Division in 2002 for Digital Imaging and Softcopy under name of PDP View . We studied our market demands and PACS Provider Companies for 2 years and finally we signed the Contract with the first leader German PACS Provider named dicomPACS ® ."nWe are the only company who their 3 engineers well trained in th...

  2. Overview of PACS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanden Brink, John A.

    1995-08-01

    Development of the DICOM standard and incremental developments in workstation, network, compression, archiving, and digital x-ray technology have produced cost effective image communication possibilities for selected medical applications. The emerging markets include modality PACS, mini PACS, and teleradiology. Military and VA programs lead the way in the move to adopt PACS technology. Commercial markets for PACS components and PAC systems are at LR400 million growing to LR500 million in 1996.

  3. Vendor neutral archive in PACS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Tapesh Kumar; Sanjeev

    2012-01-01

    An archive is a location containing a collection of records, documents, or other materials of historical importance. An integral part of Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) is archiving. When a hospital needs to migrate a PACS vendor, the complete earlier data need to be migrated in the format of the newly procured PACS. It is both time and money consuming. To address this issue, the new concept of vendor neutral archive (VNA) has emerged. A VNA simply decouples the PACS and workstations at the archival layer. This is achieved by developing an application engine that receives, integrates, and transmits the data using the different syntax of a Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) format. Transferring the data belonging to the old PACS to a new one is performed by a process called migration of data. In VNA, a number of different data migration techniques are available to facilitate transfer from the old PACS to the new one, the choice depending on the speed of migration and the importance of data. The techniques include simple DICOM migration, prefetch-based DICOM migration, medium migration, and the expensive non-DICOM migration. “Vendor neutral” may not be a suitable term, and “architecture neutral,” “PACS neutral,” “content neutral,” or “third-party neutral” are probably better and preferred terms. Notwithstanding this, the VNA acronym has come to stay in both the medical IT user terminology and in vendor nomenclature, and radiologists need to be aware of its impact in PACS across the globe

  4. Programa de Aceleração do Crescimento (PAC: um estudo descritivo sobre os desperdícios ativos e passivos = Growth Acceleration Program (PAC: a descriptive study of active and passive waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Silva Rodrigues

    2018-03-01

    water resources. This program, in its first phase (2007-2010, contributed in a decisive way to the increase in the supply of jobs and in the generation of income in Brazil. However, according to "Instituto Trata Brasil" 86% of the sanitary sewage works from the PAC were paralyzed, or delayed or not started until December 2012. Also, in 2008 and 2009, through the special edition of the Inspection Program by Public Sweepstakes, the Federal Comptroller General's Office found several irregularities in 110 Brazilian municipalities covered with PAC funds. In this context, the objective of the study was to analyze the irregularities verified by the CGU, in the application of the federal resources destined to the sanitation and housing areas of the Brazilian municipalities through the first stage of the PAC. The main source of data for the survey were CGU's reports from the PAC and Census 2000 data, made available by IBGE. The techniques of Content analysis were used to classify the irregularities, verified by the CGU, in active waste (corruption and passive (mismanagement. The Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the profile of irregularities and the municipalities audited. It was observed that the most frequent wastes in the municipalities audited are those classified as Overbilling and Fraudulent Bidding (classified as active waste; and “Bad Administration” and “Irregular Bidding”, in the form of passive waste.

  5. Defects in copper studied by PAC between 10 K and 800 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deicher, M.; Gruebel, G.; Minde, R.; Recknagel, E.; Wichert, Th.

    1982-01-01

    The perturbed angular correlation technique (PAC) is used to clarify the defect situation in copper between stage I and V. The experimental results obtained for selfinterstitials, vacancies and defect clusters under different damaging conditions are shown. Their microscopic interpretation within the scope of the results of complementary experimental methods is discussed. (author)

  6. A Benchmark Study on Error Assessment and Quality Control of CCS Reads Derived from the PacBio RS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Xiaoli; Zheng, Xin; Ma, Liang; Kutty, Geetha; Gogineni, Emile; Sun, Qiang; Sherman, Brad T; Hu, Xiaojun; Jones, Kristine; Raley, Castle; Tran, Bao; Munroe, David J; Stephens, Robert; Liang, Dun; Imamichi, Tomozumi; Kovacs, Joseph A; Lempicki, Richard A; Huang, Da Wei

    2013-07-31

    PacBio RS, a newly emerging third-generation DNA sequencing platform, is based on a real-time, single-molecule, nano-nitch sequencing technology that can generate very long reads (up to 20-kb) in contrast to the shorter reads produced by the first and second generation sequencing technologies. As a new platform, it is important to assess the sequencing error rate, as well as the quality control (QC) parameters associated with the PacBio sequence data. In this study, a mixture of 10 prior known, closely related DNA amplicons were sequenced using the PacBio RS sequencing platform. After aligning Circular Consensus Sequence (CCS) reads derived from the above sequencing experiment to the known reference sequences, we found that the median error rate was 2.5% without read QC, and improved to 1.3% with an SVM based multi-parameter QC method. In addition, a De Novo assembly was used as a downstream application to evaluate the effects of different QC approaches. This benchmark study indicates that even though CCS reads are post error-corrected it is still necessary to perform appropriate QC on CCS reads in order to produce successful downstream bioinformatics analytical results.

  7. Experimental Study of RailPAc Plasma Actuator for High-Authority Aerodynamic Flow Control in One Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Miles; Choi, Young-Joon; Raja, Laxminarayan; Sirohi, Jayant

    2014-10-01

    Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) actuators, a type of electrohydrodynamic (EHD) plasma actuator, have generated considerable interest in recent years. However, theoretical performance limitations hinder their application for high speed flows. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) plasma actuators with higher control authority circumvent these limitations, offering an excellent alternative. The rail plasma actuator (RailPAc) is an MHD actuator which uses Lorentz force to impart momentum to the surrounding air. RailPAc functions by generating a fast propagating arc column between two rail electrodes that accelerate the arc through J × B forces in a self-induced B-field. The arc column drags the surrounding air to induce aerodynamic flow motion. Our study of the RailPAc will include a description of the transient arc discharge structure through high-speed imaging and a description of the arc composition and temperature through time-resolved emission spectroscopy. Time-resolved force measurements quantify momentum transfer from the arc to the surrounding air and provides a direct measure of the actuator control authority.

  8. Tracking PACS usage with open source tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Todd L; Langer, Steve G

    2011-08-01

    A typical choice faced by Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) administrators is deciding how many PACS workstations are needed and where they should be sited. Oftentimes, the social consequences of having too few are severe enough to encourage oversupply and underutilization. This is costly, at best in terms of hardware and electricity, and at worst (depending on the PACS licensing and support model) in capital costs and maintenance fees. The PACS administrator needs tools to asses accurately the use to which her fleet is being subjected, and thus make informed choices before buying more workstations. Lacking a vended solution for this challenge, we developed our own.

  9. PACS in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Keon Wook

    2000-01-01

    PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication System) is being rapidly spread and installed in many hospitals, but most of the system do not include nuclear medicine field. Although additional costs of hardware for nuclear medicine PACS is low, the complexity in developing viewing software and little market have made the nuclear medicine PACS not popular. Most PACS utilize DICOM 3.0 as standard format, but standard format in nuclear medicine has been Interfile. Interfile should be converted into DICOM format if nuclear images are to be stored and visualized in most PACS. Nowadays, many vendors supply the DICOM option in gamma camera and PET. Several hospitals in Korea have already installed nucler PACS with DICOM, but only the screen captured images are supplied. Software for visualizing pseudo-color with color lookup tables and expressing with volume view should be developed to fulfill the demand of referring physicians and nuclear medicine physicians. PACS is going to integrate not only radiologic images but also endoscopic and pathologic images. Web and PC based PACS is now a trend and is much compatible with nuclear medicine PACS. Most important barrier for nuclear medicine PACS that we encounter is not a technical problem, but indifference of investor such as administrator of hospital or PACS. Now it is time to support and invest for the development of nuclear medicine PACS

  10. Rare earths in GaN and ZnO studied with the PAC method; Seltene Erden in GaN und ZnO untersucht mit der PAC-Methode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedelec, R.

    2007-07-01

    The present thesis deals with the implantation and annealing behaviour of two examples of large-band-gap semiconductors GaN and ZnO. The studies begin with the annealing behaviour of GaN after the implantation of {sup 172}Lu. For GaN the annealing process begins at low temperatures with the decreasing of the damping of the lattice frequency. At essentially higher temperatures finally the substitunial contribution increases. This behaviour is also observed for other probe nuclei in GaN. For ZnO the behaviour at low temperature is different. Both for {sup 172}Lu and for {sup 181}Hf the damping is already after the implantation very low. The increasement of the substitutional contribution occurs like in GaN at higher temperatures. Thereafter for GaN and ZnO PAC spectra were token up at different measurement temperatures between 25 and 873 K. For {sup 172}Lu in GaN and in ZnO a strong temperature dependence of the lattice field gradient was observed. Also for {sup 181}Hf in ZnO a strong temperature dependence is observed. For {sup 172}Lu by means of a model for the interaction of quadrupole moments of electronic shells with the nucleus a lattice field gradient of {+-}5.9.10{sup 15} Vcm{sup -2} could be determined. For {sup 172}Lu in ZnO the model yields at 293 K a lattice field gradient of +14.10{sup 15} Vcm{sup -2} respectively -13.10{sup 15} Vcm{sup -2}. The corrsponding measurement with {sup 181}Hf yields a lattice field gradient of {+-}5.7.10{sup 15} Vcm{sup -2}.

  11. PAC Experiments at ISOLDE

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The study of hyperfine interactions offers the possibility to use radioactive nuclei as probes in matter. The @g-@g perturbated angular correlation (PAC) technique following implantation has found widespread application in this field. At ISOLDE we have been investigating electric field gradients at impurities in non-cubic metals in an ongoing series of experiments. \\\\ \\\\ The small number of probe atoms necessary for these measurements make them also ideally suited for studies of surface problems like diffusion, structure and dynamics. Cd on a molybdenum O110? surface will be studied as first system. For this purpose 10|1|0~atoms of |1|1|1|mCd will be evaporated onto the clean surface and the electric field gradient for isolated adatoms on terrace sites will be determined by PAC. The UHV system constructed for such experiments at ISOLDE is shown in the schematic drawing. It is coupled to the beam line through differential pumping stations and contains standard surface treatment and analysis equipment.

  12. PACS on mobile devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Ashesh; Mehta, Nihal

    2015-03-01

    Recent advances in internet browser technologies makes it possible to incorporate advanced functionality of a traditional PACS for viewing DICOM medical images on standard web browsers without the need to pre-install any plug-ins, apps or software. We demonstrate some of the capabilities of standard web browsers setting the stage for a cloud-based PACS.

  13. Interpretation of digital breast tomosynthesis: preliminary study on comparison with picture archiving and communication system (PACS) and dedicated workstation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Seon; Chang, Jung Min; Yi, Ann; Shin, Sung Ui; Lee, Myung Eun; Kim, Won Hwa; Cho, Nariya; Moon, Woo Kyung

    2017-08-01

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy and efficiency in the interpretation of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) images using a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) and a dedicated workstation. 97 DBT images obtained for screening or diagnostic purposes were stored in both a workstation and a PACS and evaluated in combination with digital mammography by three independent radiologists retrospectively. Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System final assessments and likelihood of malignancy (%) were assigned and the interpretation time when using the workstation and PACS was recorded. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, sensitivities and specificities were compared with histopathological examination and follow-up data as a reference standard. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve values for cancer detection (0.839 vs 0.815, p = 0.6375) and sensitivity (81.8% vs 75.8%, p = 0.2188) showed no statistically significant differences between the workstation and PACS. However, specificity was significantly higher when analysing on the workstation than when using PACS (83.7% vs 76.9%, p = 0.009). When evaluating DBT images using PACS, only one case was deemed necessary to be reanalysed using the workstation. The mean time to interpret DBT images on PACS (1.68 min/case) was significantly longer than that to interpret on the workstation (1.35 min/case) (p < 0.0001). Interpretation of DBT images using PACS showed comparable diagnostic performance to a dedicated workstation, even though it required a longer reading time. Advances in knowledge: Interpretation of DBT images using PACS is an alternative to evaluate the images when a dedicated workstation is not available.

  14. PACS influence the radiographer's work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridell, Kent; Aspelin, Peter; Edgren, Lars; Lindskoeld, Lars; Lundberg, Nina

    2009-01-01

    Radiological departments are changing rapidly due to the implementation of digital images and PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication Systems). The introduction of new technology seems to dissolve boundaries between the professions in the work environment where the technology is introduced. This process tends to change the organization and its routines. The aim of this qualitative study is to explore changes in radiographers' work with regard to skills, work practice and technology. The study used open-ended interviews to explore the radiographers' perceptions of such changes, and to identify problems and solutions pertaining to work practice. Inspiration is taken from grounded theory to explain the changes in work that were found. Respondents were selected from a total of 133 potential participants as a theoretical or purposive sample. The changing trends within the professional role indicated that radiographers, as image producers, shifted their focus from the ability to set the optimal exposure parameters in order to obtain the optimal image for diagnosis to become expert in exposure parameters, projection techniques and diagnostic practice, having multifaceted skills, as being the jack of all trades. When implementing PACS there was an obvious change in image production. At the start there were visions of new routines, and therefore the radiographers became early adopters to the new technology; in practice the organization was stacked in old routines, as the routines were inflexible and PACS work was pushed into old work routines. Although inflexible, this does not mean that they cannot change, and obviously in 2006 new routines had been implemented making it possible for the radiographers in finding new ways for collaborating with colleagues. The new technology immediately created a vision of improved service to the clinicians. In order to optimize the service the radiographers developed an insight into the need for a more comprehensive change in work using

  15. The future of PACS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, Paul G.

    2007-01-01

    How will the future of picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) look, and how will this future affect the practice of radiology? We are currently experiencing disruptive innovations that will force an architectural redesign, making the majority of today’s commercial PACS obsolete as the field matures and expands to include imaging throughout the medical enterprise. The common architecture used for PACS cannot handle the massive amounts of data being generated by even current versions of computed tomography and magnetic resonance scanners. If a PACS cannot handle today’s technology, what will happen as the field expands to encompass pathology imaging, cone-beam reconstruction, and multispectral imaging? The ability of these new technologies to enhance research and clinical care will be impaired if PACS architectures are not prepared to support them. In attempting a structured approach to predictions about the future of PACS, we offer projections about the technologies underlying PACS as well as the evolution of standards development and the changing needs of a broad range of medical imaging. Simplified models of the history of the PACS industry are mined for the assumptions they provide about future innovations and trends. The physicist frequently participates in or directs technical assessments for medical equipment, and many physicists have extended these activities to include imaging informatics. It is hoped that by applying these speculative but experienced-based predictions, the interested medical physicist will be better able to take the lead in setting information technology strategies that will help facilities not only prepare for the future but continue to enjoy the benefits of technological innovations without disruptive, expensive, and unexpected changes in architecture. A good PACS strategy can help accelerate the time required for innovations to go from the drawing board to clinical implementation.

  16. Reliability issues in PACS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Ricky K.; Chan, Kelby K.; Stewart, Brent K.; Weinberg, Wolfram S.

    1991-07-01

    Reliability is an increasing concern when moving PACS from the experimental laboratory to the clinical environment. Any system downtime may seriously affect patient care. The authors report on the several classes of errors encountered during the pre-clinical release of the PACS during the past several months and present the solutions implemented to handle them. The reliability issues discussed include: (1) environmental precautions, (2) database backups, (3) monitor routines of critical resources and processes, (4) hardware redundancy (networks, archives), and (5) development of a PACS quality control program.

  17. Making the PACS workstation a browser of image processing software: a feasibility study using inter-process communication techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunliang; Ritter, Felix; Smedby, Orjan

    2010-07-01

    To enhance the functional expandability of a picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) workstation and to facilitate the integration of third-part image-processing modules, we propose a browser-server style method. In the proposed solution, the PACS workstation shows the front-end user interface defined in an XML file while the image processing software is running in the background as a server. Inter-process communication (IPC) techniques allow an efficient exchange of image data, parameters, and user input between the PACS workstation and stand-alone image-processing software. Using a predefined communication protocol, the PACS workstation developer or image processing software developer does not need detailed information about the other system, but will still be able to achieve seamless integration between the two systems and the IPC procedure is totally transparent to the final user. A browser-server style solution was built between OsiriX (PACS workstation software) and MeVisLab (Image-Processing Software). Ten example image-processing modules were easily added to OsiriX by converting existing MeVisLab image processing networks. Image data transfer using shared memory added communication based on IPC techniques is an appealing method that allows PACS workstation developers and image processing software developers to cooperate while focusing on different interests.

  18. PAC1- and VPAC2 receptors in light regulated behavior and physiology: Studies in single and double mutant mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Hannibal

    Full Text Available The two sister peptides, pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP and their receptors, the PAC1 -and the VPAC2 receptors, are involved in regulation of the circadian timing system. PACAP as a neurotransmitter in the retinohypothalamic tract (RHT and VIP as a neurotransmitter, involved in synchronization of SCN neurons. Behavior and physiology in VPAC2 deficient mice are strongly regulated by light most likely as a result of masking. Consequently, we used VPAC2 and PAC1/VPAC2 double mutant mice in comparison with PAC1 receptor deficient mice to further elucidate the role of PACAP in the light mediated regulation of behavior and physiology of the circadian system. We compared circadian rhythms in mice equipped with running wheels or implanted radio-transmitter measuring core body temperature kept in a full photoperiod ((FPP(12:12 h light dark-cycles (LD and skeleton photo periods (SPP at high and low light intensity. Furthermore, we examined the expression of PAC1- and VPAC2 receptors in the SCN of the different genotypes in combination with visualization of PACAP and VIP and determined whether compensatory changes in peptide and/or receptor expression in the reciprocal knockouts (KO (PAC1 and VPAC2 had occurred. Our data demonstrate that in although being closely related at both ligand and receptor structure/sequence, PACAP/PAC1 receptor signaling are independent of VIP/VPAC2 receptor signaling and vice versa. Furthermore, lack of either of the receptors does not result in compensatory changes at neither the physiological or anatomical level. PACAP/PAC1 signaling is important for light regulated behavior, VIP/VPAC2signaling for stable clock function and both signaling pathways may play a role in shaping diurnality versus nocturnality.

  19. The environmental impact of groundwater heat pump used for air conditioning. Feedback from the ImPAC Lyon study site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezelgues-Courtade, S.; Durst, P.; Garnier, F.; Ignatiadis, I.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the project ImPAC Lyon was to evaluate the thermal, physico-chemical and microbiological impacts potentially associated to a groundwater heat pump (GSHP). It is based on two experimental parts: one in laboratory and the other on land (8. district of Lyon). The main results indicate that: - on land, no physical and microbiological disturbances were revealed in the conditions of the study (range of temperature; 16-24 deg. C). Only thermal disturbances were observed; - the experimental approach of laboratory displayed in this study (range of temperature: 15-25 deg. C) indicates a certain influence of the temperature on the native bacterial microflora, but not enough to compromise the ecosystem balance, However, other environmental conditions have to be studied (T >25 deg. C and T< 15 deg. C, different redox conditions); - behaviour of pathogenic bacteria and organic pollutants in the presence of thermal modifications could not be observed in Lyon (no pollutions observed). It will also have to be studied in new projects; - the bad sizing of ta plant (which seems to be a significant practice in urban areas with little space) could lead to thermal disturbances and a progressive heating of the aquifer at an inter-annual scale. In these conditions, it seems necessary to pursue the works begun in Lyon by treating the other ranges of temperatures. (authors)

  20. PAC spectroscopy of electronic ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, J.A.; Wang, R.; Schwenker, R.; Sommers, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    Dilute indium dopants in cerium oxides and YBa 2 Cu 3 O x have been studied by 111 In/Cd Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) spectroscopy. By controlling oxygen vacancy concentration in the cerium oxides through doping or high-temperature vacuum annealing, we have found that indium always forms a defect complex unless the sample is doped to reduce greatly the oxygen vacancy concentration. Three different vacancy-associated complexes are found with concentrations that depend on doping and oxygen stoichiometry. Another defect complex occurs in samples having negligible vacancy concentration. At low temperatures, evidence is found of interaction with an electronic hole trapped by 111 Cd after the radioactive decay of the 111 In parent. In YBa 2 Cu 3 O x the indium substitutes preferentially at the Y site but has measurable probability of substitution in at least one of the two copper sites. A symmetry change near 650 C is consistent with the well-documented orthorhombic/tetragonal transition for samples in air or oxygen. (author). 23 refs, 10 figs

  1. Dental PACS development in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun Kyung

    2008-01-01

    Picture archiving and communication system (PACS) is an image information technology system for the transmission and storage of medical images. In Korea the first full PACS was installed at Samsung Medical Center in 1994, but, the rate of distribution was very slow. The government's approval for the medical insurance reimbursement for full PACS examinations in November 1999 became the turning point. Thereafter the number of hospitals with full PACS has steeply increased. In September of this year, PACS was installed at 906 medical institutes, including most of university hospitals and general hospitals. The first full dental PACS was installed at Wonkwang University Dental Hospital in 2002. Now ten out of eleven university dental hospitals implemented full dental PACS. The current status and technological factors of dental PACS in Korean university dental hospitals and the future perspectives of dental PACS are described.

  2. Trends in PACS architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellon, Erwin; Feron, Michel; Deprez, Tom; Reynders, Reinoud; Van den Bosch, Bart

    2011-01-01

    Radiological Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS) have only relatively recently become abundant. Many hospitals have made the transition to PACS about a decade ago. During that decade requirements and available technology have changed considerably. In this paper we look at factors that influence the design of tomorrow's systems, especially those in larger multidisciplinary hospitals. We discuss their impact on PACS architecture (a technological perspective) as well as their impact on radiology (a management perspective). We emphasize that many of these influencing factors originate outside radiology and that radiology has little impact on these factors. That makes it the more important for managers in radiology to be aware of architectural aspects and it may change cooperation of radiology with, among others, the hospital's central IT department.

  3. Mixed phase in cubic and hexagonal HoMn2111Cd PAC and 119Sn, 57Fe Moessbauer studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottenier, S.; Meersschaut, J.; Demuynck, S.; Swinnen, B.; Rots, M.

    1998-01-01

    Hyperfine parameters on 57 Fe, 119 Sn and 111 Cd substituted into the Mn sublattice were measured by Moessbauer and PAC spectroscopies. From these results it is tentatively concluded that C15 and C14 HoMn 2 are mixed-phase compounds. In C14 HoMn 2 there is no (or small) moment on the 2a site. (orig.)

  4. Second-generation PACS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattheus, R.; Osteaux, M.; Spruiyt, D.

    1989-01-01

    Purpose: In recent years, a gradual shift toward digital techniques has occurred in the field of medical imaging. The authors discuss how, with their approach, digital image management can be used in daily clinical routine. Instead of a centralized approach, we have taken a decentralized, multivendor, phase-expandable approach. The IMAC (image management and communication) architecture is a reflection of the organization of the imaging department. A section defined for each group of examinations (CT, MR imaging, DSA, emergency), has its own (dedicated) PACS environment, connected to the total PACS. Network management for controlling the image flow is based on patient appointments, scheduling of rooms, and work

  5. PACS: Concepts and Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandon, David; Ratib, Osman; Lovis, Christian; Geissbuhler, Antoine

    Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS) are becoming part of the core components of today's infrastructure for digital radiology. In modern setting they also extend to the whole medical enterprise and integrate into the patient medical record. While local architectures may vary significantly, the major features such as image archiving and retrieval, workflow management, workstations and image acquisition and quality control systems constitute the key elements of such systems. PACS has also vocation to extend beyond the radiological images to become the common platform for hospital wide management of all images. The wireless access can contribute to expand the scope of image distribution.

  6. MedPAC Data Book

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — MedPACs Data Book is the result of discussions with congressional staff members regarding ways that MedPAC can better support them. Some of the information it...

  7. PacCYP707A2 negatively regulates cherry fruit ripening while PacCYP707A1 mediates drought tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Chen, Pei; Dai, Shengjie; Sun, Yufei; Yuan, Bing; Kai, Wenbin; Pei, Yuelin; He, Suihuan; Liang, Bin; Zhang, Yushu; Leng, Ping

    2015-07-01

    Sweet cherry is a non-climacteric fruit and its ripening is regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) during fruit development. In this study, four cDNAs (PacCYP707A1-4) encoding 8'-hydroxylase, a key enzyme in the oxidative catabolism of ABA, were identified in sweet cherry fruits using tobacco rattle virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) and particle bombardment approaches. Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed significant down-regulation of target gene transcripts in VIGS-treated cherry fruits. In PacCYP707A2-RNAi-treated fruits, ripening and fruit colouring were promoted relative to control fruits, and both ABA accumulation and PacNCED1 transcript levels were up-regulated by 140%. Silencing of PacCYP707A2 by VIGS significantly altered the transcripts of both ABA-responsive and ripening-related genes, including the ABA metabolism-associated genes NCED and CYP707A, the anthocyanin synthesis genes PacCHS, PacCHI, PacF3H, PacDFR, PacANS, and PacUFGT, the ethylene biosynthesis gene PacACO1, and the transcription factor PacMYBA. The promoter of PacMYBA responded more strongly to PacCYP707A2-RNAi-treated fruits than to PacCYP707A1-RNAi-treated fruits. By contrast, silencing of PacCYP707A1 stimulated a slight increase in fruit colouring and enhanced resistance to dehydration stress compared with control fruits. These results suggest that PacCYP707A2 is a key regulator of ABA catabolism that functions as a negative regulator of fruit ripening, while PacCYP707A1 regulates ABA content in response to dehydration during fruit development. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  8. Shimadzu AI-PACS 'SAIPACS'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andoh, Minoru; Asai, Shigeya; Matsui, Norihisa; Nishida, Shinichiro; Horino, Masato

    1990-01-01

    The PACS-WS named SAIPACS-WS(workstation) has been developed as the first step of complete PACS. This SAIPACS-WS is different from other PACS-WS's, because this is including computer aided diagnostic reporting and computer aided diagnosis by using artificial intelligence technique. In this paper we will report detail of the SAIPACS-WS and discuss the future development of the total PACS setting the SAIPACS-WS in its center. (author)

  9. Black box integration of computer-aided diagnosis into PACS deserves a second chance: results of a usability study concerning bone age assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldermann, Ina; Grouls, Christoph; Kuhl, Christiane; Deserno, Thomas M; Spreckelsen, Cord

    2013-08-01

    Usability aspects of different integration concepts for picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) and computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) were inquired on the example of BoneXpert, a program determining the skeletal age from a left hand's radiograph. CAD-PACS integration was assessed according to its levels: data, function, presentation, and context integration focusing on usability aspects. A user-based study design was selected. Statements of seven experienced radiologists using two alternative types of integration provided by BoneXpert were acquired and analyzed using a mixed-methods approach based on think-aloud records and a questionnaire. In both variants, the CAD module (BoneXpert) was easily integrated in the workflow, found comprehensible and fitting in the conceptual framework of the radiologists. Weak points of the software integration referred to data and context integration. Surprisingly, visualization of intermediate image processing states (presentation integration) was found less important as compared to efficient handling and fast computation. Seamlessly integrating CAD into the PACS without additional work steps or unnecessary interrupts and without visualizing intermediate images may considerably improve software performance and user acceptance with efforts in time.

  10. A strategic PACS maturity approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Wetering, R.

    2011-01-01

    Finding the key determinants of Picture Archivingand Communication Systems (PACS)performance in hospitals has been a conundrumfor decades. This research provides a method toassess the strategic alignment of PACS in hospitalsin order to find these key determinants. PACS touches upon every single part

  11. A STUDY OF HEATING AND COOLING OF THE ISM IN NGC 1097 WITH HERSCHEL-PACS AND SPITZER-IRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beirão, P.; Armus, L.; Helou, G.; Appleton, P. N.; Smith, J.-D. T.; Croxall, K. V.; Murphy, E. J.; Dale, D. A.; Draine, B. T.; Aniano, G.; Wolfire, M. G.; Bolatto, A. D.; Sandstrom, K. M.; Groves, B.; Schinnerer, E.; Rix, H.-W.; Brandl, B. R.; Crocker, A. F.; Hinz, J. L.; Kennicutt, R. C.

    2012-01-01

    NGC 1097 is a nearby Seyfert 1 galaxy with a bright circumnuclear starburst ring, a strong large-scale bar, and an active nucleus. We present a detailed study of the spatial variation of the far-infrared (FIR) [C II]158 μm and [O I]63 μm lines and mid-infrared H 2 emission lines as tracers of gas cooling, and of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) bands as tracers of the photoelectric heating, using Herschel-PACS and Spitzer-IRS infrared spectral maps. We focus on the nucleus and the ring, and two star-forming regions (Enuc N and Enuc S). We estimated a photoelectric gas heating efficiency ([C II]158 μm+[O I]63 μm)/PAH in the ring about 50% lower than in Enuc N and S. The average 11.3/7.7 μm PAH ratio is also lower in the ring, which may suggest a larger fraction of ionized PAHs, but no clear correlation with [C II]158 μm/PAH(5.5-14 μm) is found. PAHs in the ring are responsible for a factor of two more [C II]158 μm and [O I]63 μm emission per unit mass than PAHs in the Enuc S. spectral energy distribution (SED) modeling indicates that at most 25% of the FIR power in the ring and Enuc S can come from high-intensity photodissociation regions (PDRs), in which case G 0 ∼ 10 2.3 and n H ∼ 10 3.5 cm –3 in the ring. For these values of G 0 and n H , PDR models cannot reproduce the observed H 2 emission. Much of the H 2 emission in the starburst ring could come from warm regions in the diffuse interstellar medium that are heated by turbulent dissipation or shocks.

  12. Baseline study of radiology services for the purpose of PACS evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mun, S.K.; Benson, H.; Welsh, C.; Elliott, L.P.; Davros, W.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports initial results of a radiology department baseline study of workload and data flow patterns for image generation, film library activities, report generation reporting activities at the film alternators and report transcription and validation. The authors analyze the film based operations prior to full implementation of the image management and communication system. The baseline study topics are examined

  13. The HERSCHEL/PACS early Data Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieprecht, E.; Wetzstein, M.; Huygen, R.; Vandenbussche, B.; De Meester, W.

    2006-07-01

    ESA's Herschel Space Observatory to be launched in 2007, is the first space observatory covering the full far-infrared and submillimeter wavelength range (60 - 670 microns). The Photodetector Array Camera & Spectrometer (PACS) is one of the three science instruments. It contains two Ge:Ga photoconductor arrays and two bolometer arrays to perform imaging line spectroscopy and imaging photometry in the 60 - 210 micron wavelength band. The HERSCHEL ground segment (Herschel Common Science System - HCSS) is implemented using JAVA technology and written in a common effort by the HERSCHEL Science Center and the three instrument teams. The PACS Common Software System (PCSS) is based on the HCSS and used for the online and offline analysis of PACS data. For telemetry bandwidth reasons PACS science data are partially processed on board, compressed, cut into telemetry packets and transmitted to the ground. These steps are instrument mode dependent. We will present the software model which allows to reverse the discrete on board processing steps and evaluate the data. After decompression and reconstruction the detector data and instrument status information are organized in two main PACS Products. The design of these JAVA classes considers the individual sampling rates, data formats, memory and performance optimization aspects and comfortable user interfaces.

  14. Site Occupation of In in RAg{sub 6}In{sub 6} Studied Using PAC Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruzel, M.; Krolas, K., E-mail: krolas@if.uj.edu.pl; Muszynski, L. [Jagiellonian University, Institute of Physics (Poland); Zaremba, V. I. [I. Franko National University of Lviv (Ukraine); Suski, W. [Polish Academy of Sciences (Poland)

    2004-11-15

    PAC measurements were performed for {sup 111}In in LaAg{sub 6}In{sub 6}, PrAg{sub 6}In{sub 6} and NdAg{sub 6}In{sub 6}. It appears that the probe atom occupy three available sites in the crystal lattice with quite a similar probability. There is a small preference for In atoms to occupy a selected lattice site which is not the same in different compounds.

  15. Archival storage solutions for PACS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunn, Timothy

    1997-05-01

    While they are many, one of the inhibitors to the wide spread diffusion of PACS systems has been robust, cost effective digital archive storage solutions. Moreover, an automated Nearline solution is key to a central, sharable data repository, enabling many applications such as PACS, telemedicine and teleradiology, and information warehousing and data mining for research such as patient outcome analysis. Selecting the right solution depends on a number of factors: capacity requirements, write and retrieval performance requirements, scaleability in capacity and performance, configuration architecture and flexibility, subsystem availability and reliability, security requirements, system cost, achievable benefits and cost savings, investment protection, strategic fit and more.This paper addresses many of these issues. It compares and positions optical disk and magnetic tape technologies, which are the predominant archive mediums today. Price and performance comparisons will be made at different archive capacities, plus the effect of file size on storage system throughput will be analyzed. The concept of automated migration of images from high performance, high cost storage devices to high capacity, low cost storage devices will be introduced as a viable way to minimize overall storage costs for an archive. The concept of access density will also be introduced and applied to the selection of the most cost effective archive solution.

  16. Can PACS make a radiology department more competitive?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strickland, Nicola H.

    1999-01-01

    One of the motives for putting in a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) is to improve efficiency and hence enhance the competitive strength of the radiology department. Many would argue that it is now negligent to consider installing an old fashioned conventional radiology department rather than a PACS. In considering the issue it is important to be clear about the nature of the competition facing radiologists. This varies depending on the country and upon whether the institution is public or private. PACS can potentially help to overcome this competition in two ways: by providing real-time radiology, and by enabling teleradiology. Success in these areas requires state-of-the-art implementations of PACS, particularly clinically relevant PACS software, and adequate staffing levels

  17. Introduction to PAC/PAD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahnke, H.E.

    1988-01-01

    Both methods, Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) utilizing radioactive probes and Perturbed Angular Distribution (PAD) following nuclear reactions measure hyperfine interaction parameters and allow to study magnetism on a rather local scale. While both techniques are based on the same theory the underlying concepts are quite different. Examples on local moments, influence of the nearest-neighbor to the magnetic field in ferromagnets, knight shift in nonmagnetic materials, and magnetism in high-temperature superconductors and related oxides illustrate the recent developments within the methods and the improvements in their sensitivity and resolution. (orig.)

  18. A STUDY OF HEATING AND COOLING OF THE ISM IN NGC 1097 WITH HERSCHEL-PACS AND SPITZER-IRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beirao, P.; Armus, L. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Helou, G. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Appleton, P. N. [NASA Herschel Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Smith, J.-D. T.; Croxall, K. V. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Mail Drop 111, University of Toledo, 2801 West Bancroft Street, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Murphy, E. J. [Carnegie Observatories, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Dale, D. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Draine, B. T.; Aniano, G. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Wolfire, M. G.; Bolatto, A. D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Sandstrom, K. M.; Groves, B.; Schinnerer, E.; Rix, H.-W. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Brandl, B. R. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Crocker, A. F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Hinz, J. L. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Kennicutt, R. C., E-mail: pedro@ipac.caltech.edu [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); and others

    2012-06-01

    NGC 1097 is a nearby Seyfert 1 galaxy with a bright circumnuclear starburst ring, a strong large-scale bar, and an active nucleus. We present a detailed study of the spatial variation of the far-infrared (FIR) [C II]158 {mu}m and [O I]63 {mu}m lines and mid-infrared H{sub 2} emission lines as tracers of gas cooling, and of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) bands as tracers of the photoelectric heating, using Herschel-PACS and Spitzer-IRS infrared spectral maps. We focus on the nucleus and the ring, and two star-forming regions (Enuc N and Enuc S). We estimated a photoelectric gas heating efficiency ([C II]158 {mu}m+[O I]63 {mu}m)/PAH in the ring about 50% lower than in Enuc N and S. The average 11.3/7.7 {mu}m PAH ratio is also lower in the ring, which may suggest a larger fraction of ionized PAHs, but no clear correlation with [C II]158 {mu}m/PAH(5.5-14 {mu}m) is found. PAHs in the ring are responsible for a factor of two more [C II]158 {mu}m and [O I]63 {mu}m emission per unit mass than PAHs in the Enuc S. spectral energy distribution (SED) modeling indicates that at most 25% of the FIR power in the ring and Enuc S can come from high-intensity photodissociation regions (PDRs), in which case G{sub 0} {approx} 10{sup 2.3} and n{sub H} {approx} 10{sup 3.5} cm{sup -3} in the ring. For these values of G{sub 0} and n{sub H}, PDR models cannot reproduce the observed H{sub 2} emission. Much of the H{sub 2} emission in the starburst ring could come from warm regions in the diffuse interstellar medium that are heated by turbulent dissipation or shocks.

  19. The Detector Physics and Applications Center—DePAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plothow-Besch, H.; Besch, H.-J.; Fiorini, C.; Grupen, C.; Hassard, J.; Longoni, A.; Walenta, A. H.

    2001-09-01

    A new project, the "Detector Physics and Applications Center (DePAC)", is presented. DePAC is a general detector and sensor database, which is not application specific, on the Internet. DePAC collects and explains the physics, the technology and the application of a wide range of radiation detectors. DePAC also collects and describes information about noise problems, front-end electronics, data transfer, processing and storage. DePAC provides short write-ups and source code of all sorts of detector related software depending on availability. DePAC collects useful constants and properties of materials in an exhaustive series of tables and graphs. DePAC also acts as a point of contact for researchers and industry in an interdisciplinary way, e.g. in biology, in medicine, in materials research and in high energy or nuclear physics. Last but not least, DePAC aims to develop also into a virtual lecturing school and serves as a tutorial for students and all interested scientists.

  20. The Detector Physics and Applications Center - DePAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plothow-Besch, H.; Besch, H.-J.; Fiorini, C.; Grupen, C.; Hassard, J.; Longoni, A.; Walenta, A.H.

    2001-01-01

    A new project, the 'Detector Physics and Applications Center (DePAC)', is presented. DePAC is a general detector and sensor database, which is not application specific, on the Internet. DePAC collects and explains the physics, the technology and the application of a wide range of radiation detectors. DePAC also collects and describes information about noise problems, front-end electronics, data transfer, processing and storage. DePAC provides short write-ups and source code of all sorts of detector related software depending on availability. DePAC collects useful constants and properties of materials in an exhaustive series of tables and graphs. DePAC also acts as a point of contact for researchers and industry in an interdisciplinary way, e.g. in biology, in medicine, in materials research and in high energy or nuclear physics. Last but not least, DePAC aims to develop also into a virtual lecturing school and serves as a tutorial for students and all interested scientists

  1. The Detector Physics and Applications Center - DePAC

    CERN Document Server

    Plothow-Besch, H; Fiorini, C; Grupen, C; Hassard, J; Longoni, A; Walenta, Albert H

    2001-01-01

    A new project, the 'Detector Physics and Applications Center (DePAC)', is presented. DePAC is a general detector and sensor database, which is not application specific, on the Internet. DePAC collects and explains the physics, the technology and the application of a wide range of radiation detectors. DePAC also collects and describes information about noise problems, front-end electronics, data transfer, processing and storage. DePAC provides short write-ups and source code of all sorts of detector related software depending on availability. DePAC collects useful constants and properties of materials in an exhaustive series of tables and graphs. DePAC also acts as a point of contact for researchers and industry in an interdisciplinary way, e.g. in biology, in medicine, in materials research and in high energy or nuclear physics. Last but not least, DePAC aims to develop also into a virtual lecturing school and serves as a tutorial for students and all interested scientists.

  2. Fusion breeder sphere - PAC blanket design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, J.D.; Palmer, B.J.F.

    1987-11-01

    There is a considerable world-wide effort directed toward the production of materials for fusion reactors. Many ceramic fabrication groups are working on making lithium ceramics in a variety of forms, to be incorporated into the tritium breeding blanket which will surround the fusion reactor. Current blanket designs include ceramic in either monolithic or packed sphere bed (sphere-pac) forms. The major thrust at AECL is the production of lithium aluminate spheres to be incorporated in a sphere-pac bed. Contemporary studies on breeder blanket design offer little insight into the requirements on the sizes of the spheres. This study examined the parameters which determine the properties of pressure drop and coolant requirements. It was determined that an optimised sphere-pac bed would be composed of two diameters of spheres: 75 weight % at 3 mm and 25 weight % at 0.3 mm

  3. Technical feasibility study of a low-cost hybrid PAC-UF system for wastewater reclamation and reuse: a focus on feedwater production for low-pressure boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amosa, Mutiu Kolade; Jami, Mohammed Saedi; Alkhatib, Ma'an Fahmi R; Majozi, Thokozani

    2016-11-01

    This study has applied the concept of the hybrid PAC-UF process in the treatment of the final effluent of the palm oil industry for reuse as feedwater for low-pressure boilers. In a bench-scale set-up, a low-cost empty fruit bunch-based powdered activated carbon (PAC) was employed for upstream adsorption of biotreated palm oil mill effluent (BPOME) with the process conditions: 60 g/L dose of PAC, 68 min of mixing time and 200 rpm of mixing speed, to reduce the feedwater strength, alleviate probable fouling of the membranes and thus improve the process flux (productivity). Three polyethersulfone ultrafiltration membranes of molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) of 1, 5 and 10 kDa were investigated in a cross-flow filtration mode, and under constant transmembrane pressures of 40, 80, and 120 kPa. The permeate qualities of the hybrid processes were evaluated, and it was found that the integrated process with the 1 kDa MWCO UF membrane yielded the best water quality that falls within the US EPA reuse standard for boiler-feed and cooling water. It was also observed that the permeate quality is fit for extended reuse as process water in the cement, petroleum and coal industries. In addition, the hybrid system's operation consumed 37.13 Wh m -3 of energy at the highest applied pressure of 120 kPa, which is far lesser than the typical energy requirement range (0.8-1.0 kWh m -3 ) for such wastewater reclamation.

  4. Integration Of An MR Image Network Into A Clinical PACS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratib, Osman M.; Mankovich, Nicholas J.; Taira, Ricky K.; Cho, Paul S.; Huang, H. K.

    1988-06-01

    A direct link between a clinical pediatric PACS module and a FONAR MRI image network was implemented. The original MR network combines together the MR scanner, a remote viewing station and a central archiving station. The pediatric PACS directly connects to the archiving unit through an Ethernet TCP-IP network adhering to FONAR's protocol. The PACS communication software developed supports the transfer of patient studies and the patient information directly from the MR archive database to the pediatric PACS. In the first phase of our project we developed a package to transfer data between a VAX-111750 and the IBM PC I AT-based MR archive database through the Ethernet network. This system served as a model for PACS-to-modality network communication. Once testing was complete on this research network, the software and network hardware was moved to the clinical pediatric VAX for full PACS integration. In parallel to the direct transmission of digital images to the Pediatric PACS, a broadband communication system in video format was developed for real-time broadcasting of images originating from the MR console to 8 remote viewing stations distributed in the radiology department. These analog viewing stations allow the radiologists to directly monitor patient positioning and to select the scan levels during a patient examination from remote locations in the radiology department. This paper reports (1) the technical details of this implementation, (2) the merits of this network development scheme, and (3) the performance statistics of the network-to-PACS interface.

  5. Data on performance of air stripping tower- PAC integrated system for removing of odor, taste, dye and organic materials from drinking water-A case study in Saqqez, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghdad Pirsaheb

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Unpleasant taste or smell are more importantly constituents of drinking-water, lead to complaints from consumers. Dye and organic matter as well change in disinfection practice may generate taste and an odorous compound in treated water. According to low efficiency of conventional methods to remove taste and odor compounds, present study was aimed to evaluate the performance of air stripping tower- Poly Aluminum Chloride (PAC integrated system to remove odor and taste, dye and organic materials from drinking water. Different air to water ratio and PAC doses were used to remove considered parameters in certain condition. The results of this study indicated that the maximum removal efficiency of 86.2, 76.47, 58.46 and 41.27% of taste and odor, dye, COD and TOC were achieved by the air stripping tower- PAC integrated system, respectively. However, the physico-chemical characteristics of water and adsorbent effect on the of substances removal efficiency considerably. It can be stated that the air striping tower - PAC integrated system is able to reduce the odor and taste-causing substances and organic matter to a level which is recommended by the Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran. Keywords: Air stripping tower, PAC, Odor and Taste, Dye, Organic materials, Drinking water, Saqqez city

  6. Sizing a PACS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Dennis L.; Glicksman, Robert A.

    1994-05-01

    A Picture Archiving and Communications System (PACS) must be able to support the image rate of the medical treatment facility. In addition the PACS must have adequate working storage and archive storage capacity required. The calculation of the number of images per minute and the capacity of working storage and of archiving storage is discussed. The calculation takes into account the distribution of images over the different size of radiological images, the distribution between inpatient and outpatient, and the distribution over plain film CR images and other modality images. The support of the indirect clinical image load is difficult to estimate and is considered in some detail. The result of the exercise for a particular hospital is an estimate of the average size of the images and exams on the system, of the number of gigabytes of working storage, of the number of images moved per minute, of the size of the archive in gigabytes, and of the number of images that are to be moved by the archive per minute. The types of storage required to support the image rates and the capacity required are discussed.

  7. REVIEW ARTICLE REVI REVI Talking PACS: Part 1 – What is PACS?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Image management is the administration of imaging examination requests, the performance of ... responsibility dependent on a long chain of human interaction that often fails. Within both ... This is an information system responsible for the storage, distribution .... This refers to a computer interface to gain access to the PACS.

  8. Effect of PAC dosage in a pilot-scale PAC-MBR treating micro-polluted surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jingyi; Shang, Ran; Deng, Huiping; Heijman, Sebastiaan G J; Rietveld, Luuk C

    2014-02-01

    To address the water scarcity issue and advance the traditional drinking water treatment technique, a powdered activated carbon-amended membrane bioreactor (PAC-MBR) is proposed for micro-polluted surface water treatment. A pilot-scale study was carried out by initially dosing different amounts of PAC into the MBR. Comparative results showed that 2g/L performed the best among 0, 1, 2 and 3g/L PAC-MBR regarding organic matter and ammonia removal as well as membrane flux sustainability. 1g/L PAC-MBR exhibited a marginal improvement in pollutant removal compared to the non-PAC system. The accumulation of organic matter in the bulk mixture of 3g/L PAC-MBR led to poorer organic removal and severer membrane fouling. Molecular weight distribution of the bulk liquid in 2g/L PAC-MBR revealed the synergistic effects of PAC adsorption/biodegradation and membrane rejection on organic matter removal. Additionally, a lower amount of soluble extracellular polymer substances in the bulk can be secured in 21 days operation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. PACS infrastructure supporting e-learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mildenberger, Peter; Brueggemann, Kerstin; Roesner, Freya; Koch, Katja; Ahlers, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Digital imaging is becoming predominant in radiology. This has implications for teaching support, because conventional film-based concepts are now obsolete. The IHE Teaching File and Clinical Study Export (TCE) profile provides an excellent platform to enhance PACS infrastructure with educational functionality. This can be supplemented with dedicated e-learning tools.

  10. PACS infrastructure supporting e-learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mildenberger, Peter, E-mail: milden@radiologie.klinik.uni-mainz.de [University Medicine Mainz, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Langenbeckstr 1, Mainz (Germany); Brueggemann, Kerstin; Roesner, Freya; Koch, Katja; Ahlers, Christopher [University Medicine Mainz, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Langenbeckstr 1, Mainz (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    Digital imaging is becoming predominant in radiology. This has implications for teaching support, because conventional film-based concepts are now obsolete. The IHE Teaching File and Clinical Study Export (TCE) profile provides an excellent platform to enhance PACS infrastructure with educational functionality. This can be supplemented with dedicated e-learning tools.

  11. Temperature dependence of the EFG at Cd-doped Lu2O3: How ab initio calculations can complement PAC experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Errico, L.A.; Renteria, M.; Bibiloni, A.G.; Darriba, G.N.

    2005-01-01

    We report an ab initio study of the temperature dependence of the electric-field gradient (EFG) tensor at Cd impurities replacing cations in Lu 2 O 3 . Calculations were performed with the Full-Potential Linearized-Augmented Plane Wave method that allows us to treat the electronic structure and the processes induced by the impurity in the host-lattice without the use of external parameters. In this new insight, the EFG thermal dependence arises from the ionization of an impurity acceptor level introduced in the band-gap of Lu 2 O 3 by Cd impurities, in good agreement with a previously proposed two state model. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. Temperature dependence of the EFG at Cd-doped Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3}: How ab initio calculations can complement PAC experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Errico, L.A.; Renteria, M.; Bibiloni, A.G.; Darriba, G.N. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC 67, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

    2005-08-01

    We report an ab initio study of the temperature dependence of the electric-field gradient (EFG) tensor at Cd impurities replacing cations in Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Calculations were performed with the Full-Potential Linearized-Augmented Plane Wave method that allows us to treat the electronic structure and the processes induced by the impurity in the host-lattice without the use of external parameters. In this new insight, the EFG thermal dependence arises from the ionization of an impurity acceptor level introduced in the band-gap of Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3} by Cd impurities, in good agreement with a previously proposed two state model. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. Pb(II) and Hg(II) binding to $\\textit{de novo}$ designed proteins studied by $^{204m}$Pb- and $^{199m}$Hg-Perturbed Angular Correlation of $\\gamma$-rays (PAC) spectroscopy : Clues to heavy metal toxicity

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    $\\textit{De novo}$ design of proteins combined with PAC spectroscopy offers a unique and powerful approach to the study of fundamental chemistry of heavy metal-protein interactions, and thus of the mechanisms underlying heavy metal toxicity. In this project we focus on Pb(II) and Hg(II) binding to designed three stranded coiled coil proteins with one or two binding sites, mimicking a variety of naturally occurring thiolate-rich metal ion binding sites in proteins. The $^{204m}$Pb- and $^{199m}$Hg-PAC experiments will complement data already recorded with EXAFS, NMR, UV-Vis and CD spectroscopies.

  14. History of PACS in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamura, Kiyonari; Kim, Jong Hyo

    2011-05-01

    First, history of PACS (picture archiving and communication system for medical use) in Japan is described in two parts: in part 1, the early stage of PACS development from 1984 to 2002, and in part 2 the matured stage from 2002 to 2010. PACS in Japan has been developed and installed by local manufacturers by their own technology and demand from domestic hospitals. Part 1 mainly focuses on quantitative growth and part 2 on qualitative change. In part 2, integration of PACS into RIS (radiology information system), HIS (hospital information system), EPR (electronic patient record), teleradiology and IHE (integrating healthcare enterprise) is reported. Interaction with other elements of technology such as moving picture network system and three dimensional display is also discussed. Present situation of main 4 large size hospitals is presented. Second, history of PACS in Korea is reported. Very acute climbing up of filmless PACS diffusion was observed from 1997 to 2000. The reasons for such evolution are described and discussed. Also changes of PACS installation and system integration with other systems such as HIS and role of them in radiological diagnoses in Korea since 2002 are described. Third, history in China is investigated by checking international academic journals in English and described as far as events are logically linked and consistently meaningful. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. History of PACS in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inamura, Kiyonari; Kim, Jong Hyo

    2011-01-01

    First, history of PACS (picture archiving and communication system for medical use) in Japan is described in two parts: in part 1, the early stage of PACS development from 1984 to 2002, and in part 2 the matured stage from 2002 to 2010. PACS in Japan has been developed and installed by local manufacturers by their own technology and demand from domestic hospitals. Part 1 mainly focuses on quantitative growth and part 2 on qualitative change. In part 2, integration of PACS into RIS (radiology information system), HIS (hospital information system), EPR (electronic patient record), teleradiology and IHE (integrating healthcare enterprise) is reported. Interaction with other elements of technology such as moving picture network system and three dimensional display is also discussed. Present situation of main 4 large size hospitals is presented. Second, history of PACS in Korea is reported. Very acute climbing up of filmless PACS diffusion was observed from 1997 to 2000. The reasons for such evolution are described and discussed. Also changes of PACS installation and system integration with other systems such as HIS and role of them in radiological diagnoses in Korea since 2002 are described. Third, history in China is investigated by checking international academic journals in English and described as far as events are logically linked and consistently meaningful.

  16. Incremental cost of PACS in a medical intensive care unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlotz, Curtis P.; Cleff, Bridget; Even-Shoshan, Orit; Bozzo, Mary T.; Redfern, Regina O.; Brikman, Inna; Seshadri, Sridhar B.; Horii, Steven C.; Kundel, Harold L.

    1995-05-01

    Our purpose is to determine the incremental costs (or savings) due to the introduction of picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) and computed radiology (CR) in a medical intensive care unit (MICU). Our economic analysis consists of three measurement methods. The first method is an assessment of the direct costs to the radiology department, implemented in a spreadsheet model. The second method consists of a series of brief observational studies to measure potential changes in personnel costs that might not be reflected in administrative claims. The third method (results not reported here) is a multivariate modeling technique which estimates the independent effect of PACS/CR on the cost of care (estimated from administrative claims data), while controlling for clinical case- mix variables. Our direct cost model shows no cost savings to the radiology department after the introduction of PACS in the medical intensive care unit. Savings in film supplies and film library personnel are offset by increases in capital equipment costs and PACS operation personnel. The results of observational studies to date demonstrate significant savings in clinician film-search time, but no significant change in technologist time or lost films. Our model suggests that direct radiology costs will increase after the limited introduction of PACS/CR in the MICU. Our observational studies show a small but significant effect on clinician film search time by the introduction of PACS/CR in the MICU, but no significant effect on other variables. The projected costs of a hospital-wide PACS are currently under study.

  17. The management and realizing of image data flow in PACS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Yonghao; Miao Jingtao

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To explore the management model and realizing of PACS image data-flow. Methods: Based on the implementing environment and management model of PACS image data-flow after full digital reengineering for radiology department in Shanghai First Hospital was completed, analysis on image data flow types, procedure, and achieving pattern were conducted. Results: Two kinds of image data-flow management were set up for the PACS of Shanghai First Hospital, which included image archiving procedure and image forward procedure. The former was implemented with central management model while the latter was achieved with a program that functionally acted as workflow management running on the central server. Conclusion: The image data-flow management pattern, as a key factor for PACS, has to be designed and implemented functionally and effectively depending on the performance environment, the tasks and requirements specified to particular user

  18. Fitting PAC spectra with stochastic models: PolyPacFit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacate, M. O., E-mail: zacatem1@nku.edu [Northern Kentucky University, Department of Physics and Geology (United States); Evenson, W. E. [Utah Valley University, College of Science and Health (United States); Newhouse, R.; Collins, G. S. [Washington State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy (United States)

    2010-04-15

    PolyPacFit is an advanced fitting program for time-differential perturbed angular correlation (PAC) spectroscopy. It incorporates stochastic models and provides robust options for customization of fits. Notable features of the program include platform independence and support for (1) fits to stochastic models of hyperfine interactions, (2) user-defined constraints among model parameters, (3) fits to multiple spectra simultaneously, and (4) any spin nuclear probe.

  19. Medical imaging, PACS, and imaging informatics: retrospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H K

    2014-01-01

    . (Konica-Minolta), Japan, in the 1980-1990s. Major support from the US National Institutes of Health and other federal agencies and private medical imaging industry are appreciated. The NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) Advanced Study Institute (ASI) sponsored the International PACS Conference at Evian, France, in 1990, the contents and presentations of which convinced a half dozen high-level US military healthcare personnel, including surgeons and radiologists, that PACS was feasible and would greatly streamline the current military healthcare services. The impact of the post-conference summary by these individuals to their superiors opened the doors for long-term support of PACS development by the US Military Healthcare Services. PACS and imaging informatics have thus emerged as a daily clinical necessity.

  20. Partners Against Crime (PAC) Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The Partners Against Crime (PAC) program promotes collaboration among police officers, Durham residents, and city and county government officials to find...

  1. Patriot PAC-2 Development and Deployment in The Gulf War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sherman, J

    2003-01-01

    .... Patriot PAC-2 is a case study in effective project management that resulted in the extraordinary acceleration in the final stages of development production and deployment in time to play a historic role in the Gulf War...

  2. PCaPAC 2006 Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavel Chevtsov; Matthew Bickley (Eds.)

    2007-03-30

    The 6-th international PCaPAC (Personal Computers and Particle Accelerator Controls) workshop was held at Jefferson Lab, Newport News, Virginia, from October 24-27, 2006. The main objectives of the conference were to discuss the most important issues of the use of PCs and modern IT technologies for controls of accelerators and to give scientists, engineers, and technicians a forum to exchange the ideas on control problems and their solutions. The workshop consisted of plenary sessions and poster sessions. No parallel sessions were held.Totally, more than seventy oral and poster presentations as well as tutorials were made during the conference, on the basis of which about fifty papers were submitted by the authors and included in this publication. This printed version of the PCaPAC 2006 Proceedings is published at Jefferson Lab according to the decision of the PCaPAC International Program Committee of October 26, 2006.

  3. [Economic and organizational evaluation of an imaging network (PACS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charvet-Protat, S; Thoral, F

    1998-12-01

    Over the last twenty years, imaging modalities featuring new image production methods (ultrasound, nuclear magnetic resonance, etc.) have appeared on the market. Nevertheless, conventional radiology still accounts for 70% of the image examinations carried out in most western countries, including France. The conventional radiological image is in the process of evolving from analog to digital form. Digitalization of radiology means that image acquisition, archiving and distribution functions that were previously carried out by hand can now be automated using a Picture Archiving and Communication System. Decision-makers are having to decide whether or not to promote the development of PACS which, while they considerably modernize the way in which images are managed, also require heavy capital outlays. A critical appraisal of the literature allowed us to evaluate the relative cost and the efficiency of these image networks in comparison with film-based archiving and communication systems. It is clear from the economic evaluation that a PACS strategy involves greater costs than a film system. While PACS systems do generate savings on film and on storage space and obviate the need for certain staff, these savings do not offset the extra equipment and maintenance costs. This situation is likely to persist for some years yet, even when future price reductions are taken into account. The objective of this new radiological information management method is to improve organizational efficiency and hospital productivity. However, the economic evaluations that have been published to date are cost studies which do not take the efficiency criterion into account. A number of potential organizational benefits such as the fact that medical decisions can be made more quickly or that the average length of hospital stays can be reduced, are often claimed for PACS. However, for methodological reasons, these results cannot be generalised to cover all PACS. It is difficult to compare PACS

  4. Integrated RIS-PACS system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishihara, Eitaro; Kura, Hiroyuki; Fukushima, Yuki

    1994-01-01

    We have developed an integrated RIS-PACS (radiology information system-picture archiving and communication system) system which supports examination, interpretation, and management in the diagnostic imaging department. The system was introduced in the Toshiba Hospital in May 1993, concurrently with the renewal of the hospital facilities. The integrated RIS-PACS system consists of a radiology information management system, and an image management system. The system supports wet (immediate) reading and chronological comparative reading using viewing workstation, enables routine operations to be performed in the diagnostic imaging department without film transportation, and contributes to the improvement of management efficiency in the department. (author)

  5. Effect of powdered activated carbon (PAC) on MBR performance and effluent trihalomethane formation: At the initial stage of PAC addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yue; Ma, Defang; Yue, Qinyan; Gao, Baoyu; Huang, Xia

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the MBR was used to treat municipal wastewater for reuse. Effects of powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition on MBR system in terms of effluent water quality, trihalomethane (THM) formation and membrane organic fouling tendency of MBR sludge supernatant at the initial stage of PAC addition were investigated. Effects of chlorine dose and contact time on THM formation and speciation were also studied. PAC addition enhanced the removal of organic matters, especially aromatic components, which improved the UV254 removal rate from 34% to 83%. PAC addition greatly reduced the membrane organic fouling tendency of MBR sludge supernatant. PAC addition reduced the MBR effluent trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) from 351.29 to 241.95μg/L, while increased THM formation reactivity by 42%. PAC addition enhanced the formation of higher toxic bromine-containing THMs. High chlorine dose and contact time resulted in higher THM formation but lower proportion of bromine-containing THMs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Design of the Prevention of Adult Caries Study (PACS: A randomized clinical trial assessing the effect of a chlorhexidine dental coating for the prevention of adult caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snyder John J

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental caries is one of the primary causes of tooth loss among adults. It is estimated to affect a majority of Americans aged 55 and older, with a disproportionately higher burden in disadvantaged populations. Although a number of treatments are currently in use for caries prevention in adults, evidence for their efficacy and effectiveness is limited. Methods/Design The Prevention of Adult Caries Study (PACS is a multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trial of the efficacy of a chlorhexidine (10% w/v dental coating in preventing adult caries. Participants (n = 983 were recruited from four different dental delivery systems serving four diverse communities, including one American Indian population, and were randomized to receive either chlorhexidine or a placebo treatment. The primary outcome is the net caries increment (including non-cavitated lesions from baseline to 13 months of follow-up. A cost-effectiveness analysis also will be considered. Discussion This new dental treatment, if efficacious and approved for use by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA, would become a new in-office, anti-microbial agent for the prevention of adult caries in the United States. Trial Registration Number NCT00357877

  7. PACS for the Developing World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey B. Mendel

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Digital imaging is now firmly ensconced in the developed world. Its widespread adoption has enabled instant access to images, remote viewing, remote consultation, and the end of lost or misplaced film. Unfortunately, the current paradigm of Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS, with advanced technology inseparable from high complexity, high purchase costs, and high maintenance costs, is not suited for the low-income developing world. Like the simple, easy to repair, 1950’s American cars still running on the streets of Havana, the developing world requires a PACS (DW-PACS that can perform basic functions and survive in a limited-resource environment. The purpose of this article is to more fully describe this concept and to present a blueprint for PACS tailored to the needs and resources of the developing world. This framework should assist both users looking for a vendor-supplied or open-source solutions and developers seeking to address the needs of this emerging market.

  8. PACS/IMAC technology assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Schilling, Ronald B.

    1997-01-01

    According to Peter Ogle of Digital Imaging (San Francisco, CA), “Radiologists should help identify common values for the use of information technology in medicine.” Achieving a set of common values often requires a framework for organizing the thought process involved. That is the focus of this article in addressing the subject of picture archiving and communication system (PACS) technology assessment.

  9. Project plan for PACS networking construction and cabling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Min; Wang Xiaolin; Luo Song; Lei Wenyong; Wang Xuejian; Wen Hongyue; Wu Hongxing

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To meet the networking requirement of the heave data flow, load balance, and potential networking storm during expanding the application of PACS. Methods: Intel Net Structure 480T Giga Switch was used as main switch and connected to each building by optical channel at 1 Giga speed to archive 100 MB/s to each port. At the same time, the in dependence of the original networking construction was physically kept. The layer 3 and 4 switchers was used as load balance to reduce the heavy load of the networking, and all the cabling for PACS used the super CAT5 along with the Intel Net Structure 1520 to prepare for the potential networking storm. Results: An advanced intranet was set up to fully meet the high standard requirement of PACS. The good foundation for upgrading the whole networking system to 1 Giga application was built for realized share and transmission of image, information, and patient data within the hospital. The base was established for the standardized management of the hospital. Conclusion: Good planning is the 1 st step in setting up PACS and the equipment are the platform to run PACS and all kinds of HIS. The networking construction is the foundation of e-hospitals

  10. Urological diagnosis using clinical PACS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Stephen F.; Spetz, Kevin S.; Dwyer, Samuel J., III

    1995-05-01

    Urological diagnosis using fluoroscopy images has traditionally been performed using radiographic films. Images are generally acquired in conjunction with the application of a contrast agent, processed to create analog films, and inspected to ensure satisfactory image quality prior to being provided to a radiologist for reading. In the case of errors the entire process must be repeated. In addition, the radiologist must then often go to a particular reading room, possibly in a remote part of the healthcare facility, to read the images. The integration of digital fluoroscopy modalities with clinical PACS has the potential to significantly improve the urological diagnosis process by providing high-speed access to images at a variety of locations within a healthcare facility without costly film processing. The PACS additionally provides a cost-effective and reliable means of long-term storage and allows several medical users to simultaneously view the same images at different locations. The installation of a digital data interface between the existing clinically operational PACS at the University of Virginia Health Sciences Center and a digital urology fluoroscope is described. Preliminary user interviews that have been conducted to determine the clinical effectiveness of PACS workstations for urological diagnosis are discussed. The specific suitability of the workstation medium is discussed, as are overall advantages and disadvantages of the hardcopy and softcopy media in terms of efficiency, timeliness and cost. Throughput metrics and some specific parameters of gray-scale viewing stations and the expected system impacts resulting from the integration of a urology fluoroscope with PACS are also discussed.

  11. PAC and μSr investigations of light interstitial diffusion in intermetallic hydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, P.; Baudry, A.

    1988-01-01

    Specific aspects of the Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) of gamma rays concerning its application to the study of atomic diffusion in solids are presented. PAC results recently obtained on the 181 Ta probe in several crystalline and amorphous phases of Zr 2 Ni hydrides are briefly summarized. Preliminary μSR results relative to these intermetallic hydrides are presented and compared to the PAC data

  12. Bioavailability of {sup 99m}Tc-paclitaxel-glucuronide ({sup 99m}Tc-PAC-G)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biber Muftuler, F.Z.; Demir, I.; Uenack, P.; Ichedef, C.; Yurt Kilcar, A. [Ege Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Nuclear Applications

    2011-07-01

    An antitumor agent paclitaxel (PAC) has been proved to be efficient in the treatment of breast and ovarian cancer. Glucuronic acid-derived paclitaxel compound (paclitaxel-glucuronide (PAC-G)) was enzymatically synthesized using microsome preparate separated from rat livers. The biodistribution mechanism of PAC-G in healthy female Albino Wistar rats has been investigated. The expected structure is confirmed according to LC/MS results, and the possible attachment is to C2-hydroxyl group. PAC-G was labeled with {sup 99m}Tc and the radiochemical yield of radiolabeled compound ({sup 99m}Tc-PAC-G) was 98.0 {+-} 02.74% (n=9). The range of the breast/blood and breast/muscle ratios is approximately between 3 and 35 in 240 min. All these experimental studies indicate that {sup 99m}Tc-PAC-G may potentially be used in breast tissue as an imaging agent. (orig.)

  13. PACS strategy for imaging centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedel, Victoria; Zdanowicz, Mark

    2004-01-01

    Picture archiving and communications systems (PACS) have been available in imaging centers for many years, but they often were less functional, were not well integrated into patient information systems, and lacked the network backbone to implement a system. As modalities are replaced and technology improves, the ability and time for an imaging center to acquire, integrate, and utilize PACS has arrived. However, each imaging center must determine why it should invest in PACS. A business plan is the fundamental need. Each imaging center must understand its target market, growth rate, and staffing plans. Additional considerations lie in current and future modality availability, the need for offsite delivery of images and reports, and the potential need for remote transmission of images. These issues must be identified and prioritized. A multidisciplinary team is essential. The most successful PACS implementation begins with complete involvement from all levels. The team should be comprised of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, set of performance goals, and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable. The team must jointly decide on the project's objectives. These objectives fall under 4 categories: clinical, service, financial, and performance. PACS must be considered a tool to help accomplish each objective. The imaging center must determine its top priorities, then translate them into a technology "wish list." The center can then list those pieces of technology that are most important and prioritize them. There are even more considerations for connecting multiple imaging centers. The team must create a comprehensive request for proposal (RFP) and determine the vendors that will receive the document. Once the RFP responses have been received and the vendor has been selected, an effective training plan must be executed. Training plans should be competency-based, ensuring comfort and competency among all staff. Upon

  14. Diagnostic image workstations ofr PACS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer-Ebrecht, D.; Fasel, B.; Dahm, M.; Kaupp, A.; Schilling, R.

    1990-01-01

    Image workstations will be the 'window' to the complex infrastructure of PACS with its intertwined image modalities (image sources, image data bases and image processing devices) and data processing modalities (patient data bases, departmental and hospital information systems). They will serve for user-to-system dialogues, image display and local processing of data as well as images. Their hardware and software structures have to be optimized towards an efficient throughput and processing of image data. (author). 10 refs

  15. A PACS archive architecture supported on cloud services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luís A Bastião; Costa, Carlos; Oliveira, José Luis

    2012-05-01

    Diagnostic imaging procedures have continuously increased over the last decade and this trend may continue in coming years, creating a great impact on storage and retrieval capabilities of current PACS. Moreover, many smaller centers do not have financial resources or requirements that justify the acquisition of a traditional infrastructure. Alternative solutions, such as cloud computing, may help address this emerging need. A tremendous amount of ubiquitous computational power, such as that provided by Google and Amazon, are used every day as a normal commodity. Taking advantage of this new paradigm, an architecture for a Cloud-based PACS archive that provides data privacy, integrity, and availability is proposed. The solution is independent from the cloud provider and the core modules were successfully instantiated in examples of two cloud computing providers. Operational metrics for several medical imaging modalities were tabulated and compared for Google Storage, Amazon S3, and LAN PACS. A PACS-as-a-Service archive that provides storage of medical studies using the Cloud was developed. The results show that the solution is robust and that it is possible to store, query, and retrieve all desired studies in a similar way as in a local PACS approach. Cloud computing is an emerging solution that promises high scalability of infrastructures, software, and applications, according to a "pay-as-you-go" business model. The presented architecture uses the cloud to setup medical data repositories and can have a significant impact on healthcare institutions by reducing IT infrastructures.

  16. PACS--and beyond. A journey to the digital promised land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viau, Mark A

    2004-01-01

    A successful picture archiving and communication system (PACS) integration depends on much more than the technology; marketing also plays a large role. This fact was evident from the inception of the PACS project at Boca Raton Community Hospital (BRCH). Strategic and effective marketing efforts should target technologists, nurses, physicians (including radiologists), administration, and colleagues in other departments. The buy-in of these users is critical to the project's success. BRCH's first marketing effort took place during the initial PACS presentation made to the hospital's board of directors. Once approval was given and a 6-month implementation target was set, a strategic and effective marketing/education plan commenced. Posters, brochures, t-shirts, and promotional items were distributed in a coordinated effort to target hospital staff and referring physician offices. Through its "Got PACS?" branding and other identity materials, BRCH implemented a marketing plan that informed, educated, and engaged PACS users.

  17. Web based emergency room PACS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Soon Joo; Cheon, Yong Kyung; Choi, Sung Woo Kim

    2005-01-01

    We wished to develop the web based Picture Archiving and Communication System in the emergency room for early decision making in emergency treatment planning at a full PACS Hospital. The program tools were Microsoft Visual Studio 6.0 - Visual C++ 6.0, and the Microsoft SQL 7.0 under the Microsoft Windows 2000 server operation system. The achievement of images was performed by an auto transport program installed in the ER and the radiology department. The average compression rates were 5:1 for CT and MR, and 20:1 for CR with JPEG 2000 lossy compression. All the images were stored on hard disk for 3 months. The patients' information was displayed for 2 weeks for reducing the security risk. For interdepartmental consultation, patient query by patient hospital number was available. Our Web based ER PACS could be useful system for early decision making for treatment planning in the emergency room because it reduces the risk factors for the security of the Web Paces by using a system independent from PACS in the hospital and minimizing the information patients

  18. Web based emergency room PACS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Soon Joo; Cheon, Yong Kyung; Choi, Sung Woo Kim [Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2005-07-15

    We wished to develop the web based Picture Archiving and Communication System in the emergency room for early decision making in emergency treatment planning at a full PACS Hospital. The program tools were Microsoft Visual Studio 6.0 - Visual C++ 6.0, and the Microsoft SQL 7.0 under the Microsoft Windows 2000 server operation system. The achievement of images was performed by an auto transport program installed in the ER and the radiology department. The average compression rates were 5:1 for CT and MR, and 20:1 for CR with JPEG 2000 lossy compression. All the images were stored on hard disk for 3 months. The patients' information was displayed for 2 weeks for reducing the security risk. For interdepartmental consultation, patient query by patient hospital number was available. Our Web based ER PACS could be useful system for early decision making for treatment planning in the emergency room because it reduces the risk factors for the security of the Web Paces by using a system independent from PACS in the hospital and minimizing the information patients.

  19. Role of transglutaminase 2 in PAC1 receptor mediated protection against hypoxia-induced cell death and neurite outgrowth in differentiating N2a neuroblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algarni, Alanood S; Hargreaves, Alan J; Dickenson, John M

    2017-03-15

    The PAC 1 receptor and tissue transglutaminase (TG2) play important roles in neurite outgrowth and modulation of neuronal cell survival. In this study, we investigated the regulation of TG2 activity by the PAC 1 receptor in retinoic acid-induced differentiating N2a neuroblastoma cells. TG2 transamidase activity was determined using an amine incorporation and a peptide cross linking assay. In situ TG2 activity was assessed by visualising the incorporation of biotin-X-cadaverine using confocal microscopy. TG2 phosphorylation was monitored via immunoprecipitation and Western blotting. The role of TG2 in PAC 1 receptor-induced cytoprotection and neurite outgrowth was investigated by monitoring hypoxia-induced cell death and appearance of axonal-like processes, respectively. The amine incorporation and protein crosslinking activity of TG2 increased in a time and concentration-dependent manner following stimulation with pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide-27 (PACAP-27). PACAP-27 mediated increases in TG2 activity were abolished by the TG2 inhibitors Z-DON and R283 and by pharmacological inhibition of protein kinase A (KT 5720 and Rp-cAMPs), protein kinase C (Ro 31-8220), MEK1/2 (PD 98059), and removal of extracellular Ca 2+ . Fluorescence microscopy demonstrated PACAP-27 induced in situ TG2 activity. TG2 inhibition blocked PACAP-27 induced attenuation of hypoxia-induced cell death and outgrowth of axon-like processes. TG2 activation and cytoprotection were also observed in human SH-SY5Y cells. Together, these results demonstrate that TG2 activity was stimulated downstream of the PAC 1 receptor via a multi protein kinase dependent pathway. Furthermore, PAC 1 receptor-induced cytoprotection and neurite outgrowth are dependent upon TG2. These results highlight the importance of TG2 in the cellular functions of the PAC 1 receptor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Java-based cryptosystem for PACS and tele-imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjandra, Donny; Wong, Stephen T. C.; Yu, Yuan-Pin

    1998-07-01

    Traditional PACS systems are based on two-tier client server architectures, and require the use of costly, high-end client workstations for image viewing. Consequently, PACS systems using the two-tier architecture do not scale well as data increases in size and complexity. Furthermore, use of dedicated viewing workstations incurs costs in deployment and maintenance. To address these issues, the use of digital library technologies, such as the World Wide Web, Java, and CORBA, is being explored to distribute PACS data to serve a broader range of healthcare providers in an economic and efficient manner. Integration of PACS systems with digital library technologies allows access to medical information through open networks such as the Internet. However, use of open networks to transmit medical data introduces problems with maintaining privacy and integrity of patient information. Cryptography and digital timestamping is used to protect sensitive information from unauthorized access or tampering. A major concern when using cryptography and digital timestamping is the performance degradation associated with the mathematical calculations needed to encrypt/decrypt an image dataset, or to calculate the hash value of an image. The performance issue is compounded by the extra layer associated with the CORBA middleware, and the use of programming languages interpreted at the client side, such as Java. This paper study the extent to which Java-based cryptography and digital timestamping affects performance in a PACS system integrated with digital library technologies.

  1. Clinical experience with PACS at Northwestern: year two

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channin, David S.; Hawkins, Rodney C.; Enzmann, Dieter R.

    2001-08-01

    We have previously described the PACS configuration at Northwestern Memorial Hospital (NMH). As opposed to an imaging modality, PACS is an evolving system that continuously grows and changes to meet the needs of the institution. The NMH PACS has grown significantly in the past year and has undergone significant architectural enhancements. This growth and evolutionary change will be described and discussed. The system now contains over 339,000 studies consisting of over 13 million images. There are now two short-term RAID storage units that provide for twice as much fast storage. There are also two magneto-optical disk jukeboxes providing long-term archive. We have deployed a redundant database to improve reliability of the system in the event of database failure. The number of modalities connected to the system has increased and will be summarized. Statistics describing utilization of the PACS will be shown. Lastly, we will discuss our plans for exploiting the application service provider model in our PACS environment.

  2. Mixed phase in cubic and hexagonal HoMn{sub 2} {sup 111}Cd PAC and {sup 119}Sn, {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottenier, S.; Meersschaut, J.; Demuynck, S.; Swinnen, B.; Rots, M. [Leuven Univ. (Belgium). Inst. voor Kern- en Stralingsfysika; Krop, K.; Marzec, J.; Zukrowski, J.; Przewoznik, J.; Japa, E. [Dept. of Solid State Physics, Univ. of Mining and Metallurgy, Krakow (Poland)

    1998-01-01

    Hyperfine parameters on {sup 57}Fe, {sup 119}Sn and {sup 111}Cd substituted into the Mn sublattice were measured by Moessbauer and PAC spectroscopies. From these results it is tentatively concluded that C15 and C14 HoMn{sub 2} are mixed-phase compounds. In C14 HoMn{sub 2} there is no (or small) moment on the 2a site. (orig.) 6 refs.

  3. Integrating CAD modules in a PACS environment using a wide computing infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Cuenca, Jorge J; Tilve, Amara; López, Ricardo; Ferro, Gonzalo; Quiles, Javier; Souto, Miguel

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe a project designed to achieve a total integration of different CAD algorithms into the PACS environment by using a wide computing infrastructure. The aim is to build a system for the entire region of Galicia, Spain, to make CAD accessible to multiple hospitals by employing different PACSs and clinical workstations. The new CAD model seeks to connect different devices (CAD systems, acquisition modalities, workstations and PACS) by means of networking based on a platform that will offer different CAD services. This paper describes some aspects related to the health services of the region where the project was developed, CAD algorithms that were either employed or selected for inclusion in the project, and several technical aspects and results. We have built a standard-based platform with which users can request a CAD service and receive the results in their local PACS. The process runs through a web interface that allows sending data to the different CAD services. A DICOM SR object is received with the results of the algorithms stored inside the original study in the proper folder with the original images. As a result, a homogeneous service to the different hospitals of the region will be offered. End users will benefit from a homogeneous workflow and a standardised integration model to request and obtain results from CAD systems in any modality, not dependant on commercial integration models. This new solution will foster the deployment of these technologies in the entire region of Galicia.

  4. Picture archiving and communications systems (PACS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.K.; Dwyer, S.J. III; Angus, W.M.; Capp, M.P.; Arenson, R.L.; Kangarloo, H.

    1987-01-01

    This special focus session discusses the current status of picture archiving and communication systems (PACS). The first presentation focuses on the technological advances in various PACS components. The second presentation concentrates on image archiving - what is required, what is available. The third talk is on the concept of a total digital radiology department in the past, the present, and the future. The fourth panelist discusses evaluating various imaging systems as PACS components for the intensive care unit. Finally, one hears about clinical experience with two operating PACS modules, one in pediatric radiology and the second in a coronary care unit

  5. Completion and Testing of PACS SWIR Channel

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — PACS SWIR has important technological innovations that will be necessary to meet the mission requirements for wide FOV, hyperangle capability, high polarimetric...

  6. Altered circadian food anticipatory activity rhythms in PACAP receptor 1 (PAC1) deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannibal, Jens; Georg, Birgitte; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    2016-01-01

    increase in amplitude compared to PAC1+/+ mice when placed in SPP at 300 lux. The same pattern of FAA was observed at 10 lux during both FPP and SPP. The present study indicates a role of PACAP/PAC1 signaling during light regulated FAA. Most likely, PACAP found in ipRGCs mediating non-image forming light...

  7. Evolutionistic or revolutionary paths? A PACS maturity model for strategic situational planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Wetering, Rogier; Batenburg, Ronald; Lederman, Reeva

    2010-07-01

    While many hospitals are re-evaluating their current Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS), few have a mature strategy for PACS deployment. Furthermore, strategies for implementation, strategic and situational planning methods for the evolution of PACS maturity are scarce in the scientific literature. Consequently, in this paper we propose a strategic planning method for PACS deployment. This method builds upon a PACS maturity model (PMM), based on the elaboration of the strategic alignment concept and the maturity growth path concept previously developed in the PACS domain. First, we review the literature on strategic planning for information systems and information technology and PACS maturity. Secondly, the PMM is extended by applying four different strategic perspectives of the Strategic Alignment Framework whereupon two types of growth paths (evolutionistic and revolutionary) are applied that focus on a roadmap for PMM. This roadmap builds a path to get from one level of maturity and evolve to the next. An extended method for PACS strategic planning is developed. This method defines eight distinctive strategies for PACS strategic situational planning that allow decision-makers in hospitals to decide which approach best suits their hospitals' current situation and future ambition and what in principle is needed to evolve through the different maturity levels. The proposed method allows hospitals to strategically plan for PACS maturation. It is situational in that the required investments and activities depend on the alignment between the hospital strategy and the selected growth path. The inclusion of both strategic alignment and maturity growth path concepts make the planning method rigorous, and provide a framework for further empirical research and clinical practice.

  8. Towards a theory of PACS deployment: an integrative PACS maturity framework.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetering, R. van de; Batenburg, R.

    2014-01-01

    Owing to large financial investments that go along with the picture archiving and communication system (PACS) deployments and inconsistent PACS performance evaluations, there is a pressing need for a better understanding of the implications of PACS deployment in hospitals. We claim that there is a

  9. Parents as Agents of Change (PAC in pediatric weight management: The protocol for the PAC randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ball Geoff D C

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an urgent need to develop and evaluate weight management interventions to address childhood obesity. Recent research suggests that interventions designed for parents exclusively, which have been named parents as agents of change (PAC approaches, have yielded positive outcomes for managing pediatric obesity. To date, no research has combined a PAC intervention approach with cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT to examine whether these combined elements enhance intervention effectiveness. This paper describes the protocol our team is using to examine two PAC-based interventions for pediatric weight management. We hypothesize that children with obesity whose parents complete a CBT-based PAC intervention will achieve greater reductions in adiposity and improvements in cardiometabolic risk factors, lifestyle behaviours, and psychosocial outcomes than children whose parents complete a psycho-education-based PAC intervention (PEP. Methods/Design This study is a pragmatic, two-armed, parallel, single-blinded, superiority, randomized clinical trial. The primary objective is to examine the differential effects of a CBT-based PAC vs PEP-based PAC intervention on children’s BMI z-score (primary outcome. Secondary objectives are to assess intervention-mediated changes in cardiometabolic, lifestyle, and psychosocial variables in children and parents. Both interventions are similar in frequency of contact, session duration, group facilitation, lifestyle behaviour goals, and educational content. However, the interventions differ insofar as the CBT-based intervention incorporates theory-based concepts to help parents link their thoughts, feelings, and behaviours; these cognitive activities are enabled by group leaders who possess formal training in CBT. Mothers and fathers of children (8–12 years of age; BMI ≥85th percentile are eligible to participate if they are proficient in English (written and spoken and agree for at least

  10. Altered Circadian Food Anticipatory Activity Rhythms in PACAP Receptor 1 (PAC1 Deficient Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Hannibal

    Full Text Available Light signals from intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs entrain the circadian clock and regulate negative masking. Two neurotransmitters, glutamate and Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Polypeptide (PACAP, found in the ipRGCs transmit light signals to the brain via glutamate receptors and the specific PACAP type 1 (PAC1 receptor. Light entrainment occurs during the twilight zones and has little effect on clock phase during daytime. When nocturnal animals have access to food only for a few hours during the resting phase at daytime, they adapt behavior to the restricted feeding (RF paradigm and show food anticipatory activity (FAA. A recent study in mice and rats demonstrating that light regulates FAA prompted us to investigate the role of PACAP/PAC1 signaling in the light mediated regulation of FAA. PAC1 receptor knock out (PAC1-/- and wild type (PAC1+/+ mice placed in running wheels were examined in a full photoperiod (FPP of 12:12 h light/dark (LD and a skeleton photoperiod (SPP 1:11:1:11 h L:DD:L:DD at 300 and 10 lux light intensity. Both PAC1-/- mice and PAC1+/+ littermates entrained to FPP and SPP at both light intensities. However, when placed in RF with access to food for 4-5 h during the subjective day, a significant change in behavior was observed in PAC1-/- mice compared to PAC1+/+ mice. While PAC1-/- mice showed similar FAA as PAC1+/+ animals in FPP at 300 lux, PAC1-/- mice demonstrated an advanced onset of FAA with a nearly 3-fold increase in amplitude compared to PAC1+/+ mice when placed in SPP at 300 lux. The same pattern of FAA was observed at 10 lux during both FPP and SPP. The present study indicates a role of PACAP/PAC1 signaling during light regulated FAA. Most likely, PACAP found in ipRGCs mediating non-image forming light information to the brain is involved.

  11. Short history of PACS. Part I: USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.K.

    2011-01-01

    This historical review covers the PACS development in the USA during the past 28 years from 1982 to 2010. General historical remarks of PACS and international scene in three stages from infancy, puberty to adolescence are presented. Early PACS development was mostly financed by the federal government including the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command. PACS evolution went through several stages. The earliest stages included the definition of large-scale PACS, establishment of the DICOM and other standards, the development of some early key PACS related technologies, and PACS implementation strategies. The later stages were in the concept of enterprise PACS, IHE (Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise) workflow profiles, and ePR with image distribution. The current most excited accomplishment is in the development of the new field in medical imaging informatics. This review goes through these stages and events in the USA during these 28 years, whenever an event involved participants from other countries, the contributors are cited.

  12. Short history of PACS. Part I: USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H K

    2011-05-01

    This historical review covers the PACS development in the USA during the past 28 years from 1982 to 2010. General historical remarks of PACS and international scene in three stages from infancy, puberty to adolescence are presented. Early PACS development was mostly financed by the federal government including the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command. PACS evolution went through several stages. The earliest stages included the definition of large-scale PACS, establishment of the DICOM and other standards, the development of some early key PACS related technologies, and PACS implementation strategies. The later stages were in the concept of enterprise PACS, IHE (Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise) workflow profiles, and ePR with image distribution. The current most excited accomplishment is in the development of the new field in medical imaging informatics. This review goes through these stages and events in the USA during these 28 years, whenever an event involved participants from other countries, the contributors are cited. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Short history of PACS. Part I: USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, H.K., E-mail: hkhuang@aol.com [Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Engineering, University of Southern California (United States); Hong Kong Polytechnic University (Hong Kong); Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China)

    2011-05-15

    This historical review covers the PACS development in the USA during the past 28 years from 1982 to 2010. General historical remarks of PACS and international scene in three stages from infancy, puberty to adolescence are presented. Early PACS development was mostly financed by the federal government including the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command. PACS evolution went through several stages. The earliest stages included the definition of large-scale PACS, establishment of the DICOM and other standards, the development of some early key PACS related technologies, and PACS implementation strategies. The later stages were in the concept of enterprise PACS, IHE (Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise) workflow profiles, and ePR with image distribution. The current most excited accomplishment is in the development of the new field in medical imaging informatics. This review goes through these stages and events in the USA during these 28 years, whenever an event involved participants from other countries, the contributors are cited.

  14. Enterprise imaging and multi-departmental PACS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergh, Bjoern

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this review is to present the status of digital image acquisition and archiving outside of radiology and to describe the technical concepts and possibilities of how a ''radiology'' Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) can become a multi-departmental (MD-)PACS. First the principles of system integration technology are explained and illustrated by the description of a typical radiology system integration. Then four types of modality integration approaches are defined: the direct modality integration (Type-I), the integration via DICOM acquisition software (Type-II) the integration via specialised systems either with (Type-III) or without PACS connection (Type-IV). The last section is dedicated to the presentation of the PACS requirements of selected interdisciplinary modality types [Endoscopy, Ultrasound and Electrocardiography (ECG)] and clinical disciplines (Pathology, Dermatology, Ophthalmology and Cardiology), which are then compared with the technical possibilities of a MD-PACS. (orig.)

  15. PAC study of dynamic hyperfine interactions at {sup 111}In-doped Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3} semiconductor and comparison with ab initio calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, E. L., E-mail: munoz@fisica.unlp.edu.ar; Richard, D. [Departamento de Fisica and Instituto de Fisica La Plata (IFLP, CCT La Plata, CONICET) (Argentina); Carbonari, A. W. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas y Nucleares-IPEN-CNEN/SP (Brazil); Errico, L. A.; Renteria, M. [Departamento de Fisica and Instituto de Fisica La Plata (IFLP, CCT La Plata, CONICET) (Argentina)

    2010-04-15

    Time-Differential {gamma}-{gamma} Perturbed-Angular-Correlation (PAC) measurements were performed in {sup 111}In-difussed Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3} polycrystals in order to characterize the electric-field-gradient tensor at {sup 111}Cd nuclei located at the two non-equivalent cation sites of the host lattice. The experimental data were compared with ab initio calculations performed using the Full-Potential Augmented Plane Wave plus local orbital (FP-APW+lo) method in the framework of the Density Functional Theory. The PAC experiments were carried out in air in the temperature range 10-900 K. The spectra present a strong damping below 650 K. This damping is associated with dynamic hyperfine interactions that were analyzed with the perturbation factor proposed by Baeverstam et al.. A model based in the population of impurity levels that are introduced by the Cd probes (supported by FP-APW+lo results) is proposed in order to explain the origin of the observed dynamic interactions.

  16. Towards a theory of PACS deployment: an integrative PACS maturity framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Wetering, Rogier; Batenburg, Ronald

    2014-06-01

    Owing to large financial investments that go along with the picture archiving and communication system (PACS) deployments and inconsistent PACS performance evaluations, there is a pressing need for a better understanding of the implications of PACS deployment in hospitals. We claim that there is a gap in the research field, both theoretically and empirically, to explain the success of the PACS deployment and maturity in hospitals. Theoretical principles are relevant to the PACS performance; maturity and alignment are reviewed from a system and complexity perspective. A conceptual model to explain the PACS performance and a set of testable hypotheses are then developed. Then, structural equation modeling (SEM), i.e. causal modeling, is applied to validate the model and hypotheses based on a research sample of 64 hospitals that use PACS, i.e. 70 % of all hospitals in the Netherlands. Outcomes of the SEM analyses substantiate that the measurements of all constructs are reliable and valid. The PACS alignment-modeled as a higher-order construct of five complementary organizational dimensions and maturity levels-has a significant positive impact on the PACS performance. This result is robust and stable for various sub-samples and segments. This paper presents a conceptual model that explains how alignment in deploying PACS in hospitals is positively related to the perceived performance of PACS. The conceptual model is extended with tools as checklists to systematically identify the improvement areas for hospitals in the PACS domain. The holistic approach towards PACS alignment and maturity provides a framework for clinical practice.

  17. A comparative cost analysis of picture archiving and communications systems (PACS versus conventional radiology in the private sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indres Moodley

    2015-03-01

    Aim: To undertake an incremental cost analysis of PACS compared with conventional radiology to determine productivity gains, if any, at two private hospitals in Durban. Method: An incremental cost analysis for chest radiographs, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging brain scans with and without contrast were performed. The overall incremental cost for PACS in comparison with a conventional radiology site was determined. The net present value was also determined to evaluate the capital budgeting requirements for both systems. Results: The incremental cost of both capital and the radiology information system for installing PACS shows an expected increase. The incremental PACS image cost shows a reduction. Conclusion: The study provides a benchmark for the cost incurred when implementing PACS. It also provides a decision framework for radiology departments that plan to introduce PACS and helps to determine the feasibility of its introduction.

  18. Improving the performance of an aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR) treating pharmaceutical wastewater with powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Yasemin; Bacaksiz, A Murat; Golebatmaz, Ugur; Vergili, Ilda; Gönder, Z Beril; Yilmaz, Gulsum

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the effects of organic loading rate (OLR) and the addition of powdered activated carbon (PAC) on the performance and membrane fouling of MBR were conducted to treat real pharmaceutical process wastewater. Over 145 days of operation, the MBR system was operated at OLRs ranging from 1 to 2 kg COD m(-3) day(-1) without sludge wasting. The addition of PAC provided an improvement in the flux, despite an increase in the OLR:PAC ratio. The results demonstrated that the hybrid PAC-MBR system maintained a reduced amount of membrane fouling and steadily increased the removal performance of etodolac. PAC addition reduced the deposition of extracellular polymeric substance and organic matter on the membrane surface and resulted an increase in COD removal even at higher OLRs with low PAC addition. Membrane fouling mechanisms were investigated using combined adsorption fouling models. Modified fouling index values and normalized mass transfer coefficient values indicated that predominant fouling mechanism was cake adsorption.

  19. PACS in the nuclear medicine service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitter, F.; Hellwig, D.; Weller, R.; Almasi, L.; Adam, W.E.

    1988-01-01

    A Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) is to be understood as a central system in a hospital spanning all services, interconnecting all imaging stations and allowing digital picture archivation. All data of a patient are prepared for direct access. A PAC system is made up of the following components: imaging equipment and data systems, viewing stations (image display), picture communication, storage, archive, connection to hospital information system. The authors explain the requirements to be met by a PACS, its set-up and mode of function, and they system the use. (orig./MG) [de

  20. Actual concepts of digital PAC-spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeder, J., E-mail: j.roeder@tu-bs.de; Herden, C., E-mail: cherden@viewplus.de [Braunschweig University of Technology, Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry (Germany); Gardner, J. A., E-mail: john.gardner@viewplus.com [Oregon State University (United States); Becker, K. D., E-mail: k-d.becker@tu-bs.de [Braunschweig University of Technology, Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry (Germany); Uhrmacher, M., E-mail: muhrmac@gwdg.de; Hofsaess, H., E-mail: hhofsae@uni-goettingen.de [University of Goettingen, II. Institute of Physics (Germany)

    2008-01-15

    In conventional perturbed angular correlation (PAC)-spectroscopy huge amounts of events are processed by fast electronics. Modern digital signal processing devices and the improvement in the computer technology in recent years allow today digital PAC-spectrometer setups capable to perform software-based data processing with all the benefits of storage, repeatable data analysis under different limits, and easy switching between different isotopes. In this paper we discuss experiences and concepts of a first realized digital PAC-spectrometer, which will be rebuild at ISOLDE/CERN/Geneva.

  1. Factors causing PAC cake fouling in PAC-MF (powdered activated carbon-microfiltration) water treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, P; Takizawa, S; Katayama, H; Ohgaki, S

    2005-01-01

    Two pilot-scale powdered activated carbon-microfiltration (PAC-MF) reactors were operated using river water pretreated by a biofilter. A high permeate flux (4 m/d) was maintained in two reactors with different particle sizes of PAC. High concentration (20 g/L) in the PAC adsorption zone demonstrated 60-80% of organic removal rates. Analysis on the PAC cake fouling demonstrated that attached metal ions play more important role than organic matter attached on PAC to the increase of PAC cake resistance. Effects of factors which may cause PAC cake fouling in PAC-MF process were investigated and evaluated by batch experiments, further revealing that small particulates and metal ions in raw water impose prominent influence on the PAC cake layer formation. Fe (II) precipitates after being oxidized to Fe (III) during PAC adsorption and thus Fe(ll) colloids display more significant effect than other metal ions. At a high flux, PAC cake layer demonstrated a higher resistance with larger PAC due to association among colloids, metals and PAC particles, and easy migration of small particles in raw water into the void space in the PAC cake layer. Larger PAC possesses much more non-uniform particle size distribution and larger void space, making it easier for small colloids to migrate into the voids and for metal ions to associate with PAC particles by bridge effect, hence speeding up and intensifying the of PAC cake fouling on membrane surface.

  2. Integration of a clinical trial database with a PACS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Herk, M

    2014-01-01

    Many clinical trials use Electronic Case Report Forms (ECRF), e.g., from OpenClinica. Trial data is augmented if DICOM scans, dose cubes, etc. from the Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) are included for data mining. Unfortunately, there is as yet no structured way to collect DICOM objects in trial databases. In this paper, we obtain a tight integration of ECRF and PACS using open source software. Methods: DICOM identifiers for selected images/series/studies are stored in associated ECRF events (e.g., baseline) as follows: 1) JavaScript added to OpenClinica communicates using HTML with a gateway server inside the hospitals firewall; 2) On this gateway, an open source DICOM server runs scripts to query and select the data, returning anonymized identifiers; 3) The scripts then collects, anonymizes, zips and transmits selected data to a central trial server; 4) Here data is stored in a DICOM archive which allows authorized ECRF users to view and download the anonymous images associated with each event. Results: All integration scripts are open source. The PACS administrator configures the anonymization script and decides to use the gateway in passive (receiving) mode or in an active mode going out to the PACS to gather data. Our ECRF centric approach supports automatic data mining by iterating over the cases in the ECRF database, providing the identifiers to load images and the clinical data to correlate with image analysis results. Conclusions: Using open source software and web technology, a tight integration has been achieved between PACS and ECRF.

  3. Does PACS improve diagnostic accuracy in chest radiograph interpretations in clinical practice?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurlen, Petter; Borthne, Arne; Dahl, Fredrik A.; Østbye, Truls; Gulbrandsen, Pål

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the impact of a Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) on the diagnostic accuracy of the interpretation of chest radiology examinations in a “real life” radiology setting. Materials and methods: During a period before PACS was introduced to radiologists, when images were still interpreted on film and reported on paper, images and reports were also digitally stored in an image database. The same database was used after the PACS introduction. This provided a unique opportunity to conduct a blinded retrospective study, comparing sensitivity (the main outcome parameter) in the pre and post-PACS periods. We selected 56 digitally stored chest radiograph examinations that were originally read and reported on film, and 66 examinations that were read and reported on screen 2 years after the PACS introduction. Each examination was assigned a random number, and both reports and images were scored independently for pathological findings. The blinded retrospective score for the original reports were then compared with the score for the images (the gold standard). Results: Sensitivity was improved after the PACS introduction. When both certain and uncertain findings were included, this improvement was statistically significant. There were no other statistically significant changes. Conclusion: The result is consistent with prospective studies concluding that diagnostic accuracy is at least not reduced after PACS introduction. The sensitivity may even be improved.

  4. Picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) for hospitals, a survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haar Romeny, B.M. ter; Graaf, C.N. de; Waes, P.F.G.M. van; Rijk, P.P. van; Helder, J.C.; Valk, J.P.J. de

    1985-01-01

    In this article a survey is given for Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS). Several aspects of PACS are treated, as image management, the introduction of the system, expenses etc. Special reference is made to the component parts of PACS: image stations, memory, network, software and coupling to the hospital information system. The introduction of PACS in Dutch hospitals is described. (Auth.)

  5. Current developments in departmental PACS for ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, L E; Eng, P

    1995-01-01

    1. INTRODUCTION TO DEPARTMENTAL PACS. Full or partial Departmental PACS is generally taken to mean an image management system focused on serving the needs of a specific modality or modality application. It will provide a modality specific means of image acquisition, specialized redisplay of images, distribution, and local long term storage of images. A Departmental PACS can be considered in isolation or as a component in a distributed Radiology PACS which consists of one or more departmental work groups on a back bone, potentially with shared resources. 2. DEPARTMENTAL PACS Issues Implementation of a Departmental PACS requires an in-depth knowledge of departmental clinical practice and work flow in all affected areas in the department, including patient intake, image collection, data routing, retrieval of previous image data, reporting, and long term data management and storage. Optimization of modality specific image display systems requires significant involvement from representative physician users. System architectures and user interfaces must be flexible enough to support the span of variation in clinical practice encountered in the site. A departmental PACS should offer a variety of "open" communications interfaces, both local and wide area, recognizing that outreach efforts are often driven by specific imaging departments. Interfaces to other departmental PAC systems and other information systems must be considered in order to facilitate institutions developing "Best of Breed" PACS systems. As hospitals move toward the integrated electronic medical record, means need to exist for a client process launched from a physician desktop to acquire images and/or reports from a departmental system. At minimum, HIS/RIS interfaces need to be considered to minimize re-keying of data and reduce data entry errors. 3. DESIGN OBJECTIVES FOR ALI ULTRAPACS. The key objectives were to design a product which could function either as a free standing PACS or as a departmental

  6. From PACS to Web-based ePR system with image distribution for enterprise-level filmless healthcare delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H K

    2011-07-01

    The concept of PACS (picture archiving and communication system) was initiated in 1982 during the SPIE medical imaging conference in New Port Beach, CA. Since then PACS has been matured to become an everyday clinical tool for image archiving, communication, display, and review. This paper follows the continuous development of PACS technology including Web-based PACS, PACS and ePR (electronic patient record), enterprise PACS to ePR with image distribution (ID). The concept of large-scale Web-based enterprise PACS and ePR with image distribution is presented along with its implementation, clinical deployment, and operation. The Hong Kong Hospital Authority's (HKHA) integration of its home-grown clinical management system (CMS) with PACS and ePR with image distribution is used as a case study. The current concept and design criteria of the HKHA enterprise integration of the CMS, PACS, and ePR-ID for filmless healthcare delivery are discussed, followed by its work-in-progress and current status.

  7. Status of the CP-PACS Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukawa, A.

    1995-01-01

    The CP-PACS Project, which started in April 1992, is a five-year plan to develop a massively parallel computer for carrying out research in computational physics with primary emphasis on lattice QCD. This article describes the architectural design of the CP-PACS computer, the entire computing system including the front end and mass storage, and results of benchmarks for the expected performance for lattice QCD applications. ((orig.))

  8. Making PACS the present, not the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, D

    1998-01-01

    Why haven't you moved forward with PACS? Have you just procrastinated or does your facility have legitimate reasons? Some say the technology is too confusing or too new, while others say the cost of PACS is too high. Many facilities say they haven't found a satisfactory way to deal with the conflicting opinions of their radiologists, IS department, administration, referring physicians and staff. Take time to compare the technology you do understand with something familiar such as your own PC or perhaps the current networks inside your facility. You'll soon begin to see that PACS is not a new technology, but rather a new methodology. To handle the perceived high cost of PACS, remember that every facility has different needs. Look at your work flow and then the many byproducts of PACS, such as marketing. If you are the first in your area to implement this new technology, you'll gain a marketing advantage in competing for referring physicians and managed care referral business. Follow the process you use to purchase other products, such as CT or MRI, as you investigate the vendors. Finally, make a plan! Determine departmental goals and gather information from vendors. Create a timeline, a financial plan and your marketing strategy. Together, these steps will help move PACS into the present for you.

  9. Chronic exposure of the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus to Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds (PACs): Bioavailability and effects on reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    León Paumen, M.; Stol, P.; ter Laak, T.L.; Kraak, M.H.S.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; Admiraal, W.

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to monitor PAC availability to the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus during 28 days of exposure to spiked sediments, in order to obtain reliable chronic effect concentrations for reproduction. Sediment toxicity tests were performed using three pairs of PAC isomers: two homocyclic

  10. Chronic exposure of the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus to polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs): bioavailability and effects on reproduction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leon Paumen, M.; Stol, P.; ter Laak, T.L.; Kraak, M.H.S.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; Admiraal, W.

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to monitor PAC availability to the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus during 28 days of exposure to spiked sediments, in order to obtain reliable chronic effect concentrations for reproduction. Sediment toxicity tests were performed using three pairs of PAC isomers: two homocyclic

  11. Reengineering the picture archiving and communication system (PACS) process for digital imaging networks PACS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, M C; Lewis, T E; Kinsey, T V

    1999-05-01

    Prior to June 1997, military picture archiving and communications systems (PACS) were planned, procured, and installed with key decisions on the system, equipment, and even funding sources made through a research and development office called Medical Diagnostic Imaging Systems (MDIS). Beginning in June 1997, the Joint Imaging Technology Project Office (JITPO) initiated a collaborative and consultative process for planning and implementing PACS into military treatment facilities through a new Department of Defense (DoD) contract vehicle called digital imaging networks (DIN)-PACS. The JITPO reengineered this process incorporating multiple organizations and politics. The reengineered PACS process administered through the JITPO transformed the decision process and accountability from a single office to a consultative method that increased end-user knowledge, responsibility, and ownership in PACS. The JITPO continues to provide information and services that assist multiple groups and users in rendering PACS planning and implementation decisions. Local site project managers are involved from the outset and this end-user collaboration has made the sometimes difficult transition to PACS an easier and more acceptable process for all involved. Corporately, this process saved DoD sites millions by having PACS plans developed within the government and proposed to vendors second, and then having vendors respond specifically to those plans. The integrity and efficiency of the process have reduced the opportunity for implementing nonstandard systems while sharing resources and reducing wasted government dollars. This presentation will describe the chronology of changes, encountered obstacles, and lessons learned within the reengineering of the PACS process for DIN-PACS.

  12. The impact of a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) upon an intensive care unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, Jessamy; Weatherburn, Gwyn; Bryan, Stirling

    2000-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to assess the effect of the introduction of PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication System) upon image availability in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and the consequent impact upon the behaviour of the ICU physicians, in terms of the initiation of image-based clinical actions. Design: A before and after study was used to compare the speed of image availability prior to, and following, the implementation of a hospital-wide PACS. Setting: The research was part of an economic evaluation of PACS at Hammersmith Hospital, West London. Patients and participants: All ICU patients who were X-rayed during two pre-PACS and one post-PACS data collection periods were included within the study. Measurements: The times of: the X-ray request; acquisition; availability on ICU; and of any image-based clinical action taken by the ICU physician were recorded by radiographers and ICU physicians. Results: PACS significantly reduced the time between request and image availability on ICU for routine X-rays but did not have any measurable impact upon the time clinical actions were initiated by ICU physicians. The data on non-routine images were statistically inconclusive. Conclusions: This study shows that PACS significantly improves the speed of delivery of routine images to the ICU, but it appears that the instigation of image-based clinical actions is determined by other organisational factors in ICU, such as ward rounds, rather than the availability of the image for viewing. Further work is required on non-routine X-rays to clarify the impact of PACS on physician behaviour in clinically urgent situations

  13. IHE profiles applied to regional PACS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Bayo, Josep

    2011-01-01

    PACS has been widely adopted as an image storage solution that perfectly fits the radiology department workflow and that can be easily extended to other hospital departments. Integrations with other hospital systems, like the Radiology Information System, the Hospital Information System and the Electronic Patient Record are fully achieved but still challenging aims. PACS also creates the perfect environment for teleradiology and teleworking setups. One step further is the regional PACS concept where different hospitals or health care enterprises share the images in an integrated Electronic Patient Record. Among the different solutions available to share images between different hospitals IHE (Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise) organization presents the Cross Enterprise Document Sharing profile (XDS) which allows sharing images from different hospitals even if they have different PACS vendors. Adopting XDS has multiple advantages, images do not need to be duplicated in a central archive to be shared among the different healthcare enterprises, they only need to be indexed and published in a central document registry. In the XDS profile IHE defines the mechanisms to publish and index the images in the central document registry. It also defines the mechanisms that each hospital will use to retrieve those images regardless on the Hospital PACS they are stored.

  14. PACS module image communication at UCLA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, B.K.; Taira, R.K.; Cho, P.S.; Mankovich, N.J.

    1987-01-01

    The advent of the ACR-NEMA digital and communication standard for PACS implementation between imaging, storage and display devices may simplify the networking problems inherent to PACS in the future. However, since the ACR-NEMA interface has not been implemented in manufactured products, the components of a PACS at the present time use various network interface designs, requiring substantial effort in the area of hardware and software integration. Many communication systems are used for the PACS implementation in Pediatric Radiology at UCLA, including baseband, broadband, as well as various parallel-line interface protocols, e.g. GP-IB. A VAX 11/750 minicomputer serves as the host computer for the UCLA Pediatric Radiology PACS system. Communication between the many peripherals take place through the host computer, which acts as the central node. Several communication links have been established, primarily: host computer to other local computers, image processors, various peripherals (digitizers, storage media, etc.) and, of course, to the 512, 1024 and 2048 viewing stations

  15. The future of PACS in healthcare enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faggioni, Lorenzo; Neri, Emanuele; Castellana, Carlo; Caramella, Davide; Bartolozzi, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS), which was originally designed as a tool for facilitating radiologists in interpreting images more efficiently, is evolving into a hospital-integrated system storing diagnostic imaging information that often reaches far beyond Radiology. The continuous evolution of PACS technology has led to a gradual broadening of its applications, ranging from teleradiology to CAD (Computer-Assisted Diagnosis) and multidimensional imaging, and is moving into the direction of providing access to image data outside the Radiology department, so to reach all the branches of the healthcare enterprise. New perspectives have been created thanks to new technologies (such as holographic media and GRID computing) that are likely due to expand PACS-based applications even further, improving patient care and enhancing overall productivity.

  16. PACS: Do clinical users benefit from it as a training adjunct?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J van Heerden

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Over the past four years, Steve Biko Academic Hospital has been in the process of implementing and refining the use of a picture archiving and communications system (PACS. As part of a post-implementation refining process, it is necessary to evaluate user-perceptions in order to improve on good system qualities and correct flaws. Aim. The aim of this study was to assess whether medical clinicians perceived PACS as a positive adjunct to training and teaching opportunities – specifically those opportunities related to radiological image viewing and interpretation as part of patient case discussions. Method. Standardised questionnaires with ‘free text’ and ‘option selection’ questions were distributed to clinicians who, as part of their training, rotated at Steve Biko Academic Hospital (where a PACS is in place as well as other teaching hospitals without a PACS. Between February 2009 and May 2009, approximately 400 questionnaires were distributed. As a result of constant academic rotations, leave schedules of medical staff and posts vacated, questionnaires could not be distributed to the entire target population that was estimated to be in the region of 550 medical clinicians (comprising senior medical students, interns, medical officers, registrars and consultants. Of the 400 questionnaires distributed, 189 completed questionnaires were returned. Completion of the questionnaires was voluntary and anonymous. Results and conclusion. Although a PACS relates specifically to the archiving and retrieval of radiological images and reports, it became clear from the feedback received from medical clinicians (who are ward-based, theatre-based or clinic-based users of a digital system that many other factors, such as lack of adequate hardware and sub-optimal personal IT proficiency, contributed to some of the negative PACS-related perceptions and ‘lost teaching opportunities’ reported. Negative comments specifically related to PACS

  17. Knowledge barriers to PACS adoption and implementation in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paré, Guy; Trudel, Marie-Claude

    2007-01-01

    Drawing on the classical theory of diffusion of innovations advanced by Rogers [E.M. Rogers, Diffusion of Innovations, 4th ed., Free Press, New York, NY, 1995] and on the theory of barriers to innovation [P. Attewell, Technology diffusion and organizational learning: the case of business computing. Organ. Sci. 3 (1992) 1-19; H. Tanriverdi, C.S. Iacono, Knowledge barriers to diffusion of telemedicine. Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Information Systems, Charlotte, NC, 1999, pp. 39-50; S. Nambisan, Y.-M. Wang, Roadblocks to web technology adoption? Commun. ACM, 42 (1) (1999) 98-101], this study seeks a better understanding of challenges faced in PACS implementations in hospitals and of the strategies required to ensure their success. To attain this objective, we describe and analyze the process used to adopt and implement PACS at two Canadian hospitals. Our findings clearly demonstrate the importance of treating any PACS deployment not simply as a rollout of new technology but as a project that will transform the organization. Proponents of these projects must not lose sight of the fact that, even if technological complexity represents a significant issue, it must not garner all the project team's attention. This situation is even more dangerous, inasmuch as the greatest risk to the implementation often lies elsewhere. It would also appear to be crucial to anticipate and address organizational and behavioral challenges from the very first phase of the innovation process, in order to ensure that all participants will be committed to the project. In order to maximize the likelihood of PACS success, it appears crucial to adopt a proactive implementation strategy, one that takes into consideration all the technical, economic, organizational, and human factors, and does so from the first phase of the innovation process.

  18. [PACS-based endoscope image acquisition workstation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J B; Zhuang, T G

    2001-01-01

    A practical PACS-based Endoscope Image Acquisition Workstation is here introduced. By a Multimedia Video Card, the endoscope video is digitized and captured dynamically or statically into computer. This workstation realizes a variety of functions such as the endoscope video's acquisition and display, as well as the editing, processing, managing, storage, printing, communication of related information. Together with other medical image workstation, it can make up the image sources of PACS for hospitals. In addition, it can also act as an independent endoscopy diagnostic system.

  19. Picture archiving and communications systems (PACS): an introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, L.H.

    2001-01-01

    Picture Archiving and Communications Systems (PACS) has revolutionized the practice of radiology. PACS consist of a variety of electronic/computer components, and the connectivity between these components. PACS is an efficient means to transmit, store, retrieve and digitally display medical images

  20. A strongly quasiconvex PAC-Bayesian bound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiemann, Niklas; Igel, Christian; Wintenberger, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    We propose a new PAC-Bayesian bound and a way of constructing a hypothesis space, so that the bound is convex in the posterior distribution and also convex in a trade-off parameter between empirical performance of the posterior distribution and its complexity. The complexity is measured by the Ku...

  1. A DICOM based PACS for nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lassmann, M.; Reiners, C.

    2002-01-01

    The installation of a radiology information system (RIS) connected to a hospital information system (HIS) and a picture archiving and communications system (PACS) seems mandatory for a nuclear medicine department in order to guarantee a high patient throughput. With these systems a fast transmission of reports, images to the in- and out-patients' wards and private practitioners is realized. Therefore, since April 2000, at the department of nuclear medicine of the university of Wuerzburg a completely DICOM based PACS has been implemented in addition to the RIS. With this system a DICOM based workflow is realized throughout the department of nuclear medicine for reporting and archiving. The PACS is connected to six gamma-cameras, a PET scanner, a bone densitometry system and an ultrasound device. The volume of image data archived per month is 4 GByte. Patient demographics are provided to the modalities via DICOM-Worklist. With these PACS components a department specific archive purely based on DICOM can be realized. During the installation process problems occurred mainly because of the complex DICOM standard for nuclear medicine. Related to that is the problem that most of the software implementations still contain bugs or are not adapted to the needs of a nuclear medicine department (particularly for PET). A communication software for the distribution of nuclear medicine reports and images based on techniques used for the worldwide web is currently tested. (orig.) [de

  2. PACS spectroscopy of OH/IR stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombaert, R.; de Vries, B.L.; Decin, L.; Blommaert, J.A.D.L.; Royer, Pierre; De Beck, E.; de Koter, A.; Waters, L.B.F.M.

    2011-01-01

    Observations of high-excitation molecular emission lines can greatly increase our understanding of AGB winds, as they trace the innermost regions of the circumstellar envelope. The PACS spectrometer on-board the Herschel Space Telescope1, provides for the first time the spectral resolution and

  3. Geometrical Acceptance Analysis for RPC PAC Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Seo, Eunsung

    2010-01-01

    The CMS(Compact Muon Solenoid) is one of the four experiments that will analyze the collision results of the protons accelerated by the Large Hardron Collider(LHC) at CERN(Conseil Europen pour la Recherche Nuclaire). In case of the CMS experiment, the trigger system is divided into two stages : The Level-1 Trigger and High Level Trigger. The RPC(Resistive Plate Chamber) PAC(PAttern Comparator) Trigger system, which is a subject of this thesis, is a part of the Level-1 Muon Trigger System. Main task of the PAC Trigger is to identify muons, measures transverse momenta and select the best muon candidates for each proton bunch collision occurring every 25 ns. To calculate the value of PAC Trigger efficiency for triggerable muon, two terms of different efficiencies are needed ; acceptance efficiency and chamber efficiency. Main goal of the works described in this thesis is obtaining the acceptance efficiency of the PAC Trigger in each logical cone. Acceptance efficiency is a convolution of the chambers geometry an...

  4. Merits of usability testing for PACS selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorritsma, Wiard; Cnossen, Fokie; van Ooijen, Peter M. A.

    Objectives: To compare the usability of different Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) workstations, determine whether a usability test has added value with respect to the traditional way of comparing PACSs based on functional requirements, and to evaluate the appropriateness of a

  5. Fitting PAC spectra with a hybrid algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, M. A., E-mail: mauro@sepn.org [Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco (Brazil); Carbonari, A. W., E-mail: carbonar@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (Brazil)

    2008-01-15

    A hybrid algorithm (HA) that blends features of genetic algorithms (GA) and simulated annealing (SA) was implemented for simultaneous fits of perturbed angular correlation (PAC) spectra. The main characteristic of the HA is the incorporation of a selection criterion based on SA into the basic structure of GA. The results obtained with the HA compare favorably with fits performed with conventional methods.

  6. Reengineering the picture archiving and communication system (PACS) process for digital imaging networks PACS

    OpenAIRE

    Horton, Maria C.; Lewis, Thomas E.; Kinsey, Thomas V.

    1999-01-01

    Prior to June 1997, military picture archiving and communications systems (PACS) were planned, procured, and installed with key decisions on the system, equipment, and even funding sources made through a research and development office called Medical Diagnostic Imaging Systems (MDIS). Beginning in June 1997, the Joint Imaging Technology Project Office (JITPO) initiated a collaborative and consultative process for planning and implementing PACS into military treatment facilities through a new ...

  7. A-Type Cranberry Proanthocyanidins Inhibit the RANKL-Dependent Differentiation and Function of Human Osteoclasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy B. Howell

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of A-type cranberry proanthocyanidins (AC-PACs on osteoclast formation and bone resorption activity. The differentiation of human pre-osteoclastic cells was assessed by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP staining, while the secretion of interleukin-8 (IL-8 and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs was measured by ELISA. Bone resorption activity was investigated by using a human bone plate coupled with an immunoassay that detected the release of collagen helical peptides. AC-PACs up to 100 µg/mL were atoxic for osteoclastic cells. TRAP staining evidenced a dose-dependent inhibition of osteoclastogenesis. More specifically, AC-PACs at 50 µg/mL caused a 95% inhibition of RANKL-dependent osteoclast differentiation. This concentration of AC-PACs also significantly increased the secretion of IL-8 (6-fold and inhibited the secretion of both MMP-2 and MMP-9. Lastly, AC-PACs (10, 25, 50 and 100 µg/ml affected bone degradation mediated by mature osteoclasts by significantly decreasing the release of collagen helical peptides. This study suggests that AC-PACs can interfere with osteoclastic cell maturation and physiology as well as prevent bone resorption. These compounds may be considered as therapeutic agents for the prevention and treatment of periodontitis.

  8. A PACS maturity model: a systematic meta-analytic review on maturation and evolvability of PACS in the hospital enterprise.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetering, R. van de; Batenburg, R.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: With PACS and medical imaging technology maturing, the importance of organizational maturity and effective deployment of PACS in the hospital enterprise are becoming significant. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper is twofold. Firstly, PACS literature on maturity and evolvability in

  9. Methodology development for quantitative optimization of security enhancement in medical information systems -Case study in a PACS and a multi-institutional radiotherapy database-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haneda, Kiyofumi; Umeda, Tokuo; Koyama, Tadashi; Harauchi, Hajime; Inamura, Kiyonari

    2002-01-01

    The target of our study is to establish the methodology for analyzing level of security requirements, for searching suitable security measures and for optimizing security distribution to every portion of medical practice. Quantitative expression must be introduced to our study as possible for the purpose of easy follow up of security procedures and easy evaluation of security outcomes or results. Results of system analysis by fault tree analysis (FTA) clarified that subdivided system elements in detail contribute to much more accurate analysis. Such subdivided composition factors very much depended on behavior of staff, interactive terminal devices, kinds of service, and routes of network. As conclusion, we found the methods to analyze levels of security requirements for each medical information systems employing FTA, basic events for each composition factor and combination of basic events. Methods for searching suitable security measures were found. Namely risk factors for each basic event, number of elements for each composition factor and candidates of security measure elements were found. Method to optimize the security measures for each medical information system was proposed. Namely optimum distribution of risk factors in terms of basic events were figured out, and comparison of them between each medical information systems became possible.

  10. In vivo biological evaluation of 131I radiolabeled-paclitaxel glucuronide (131I-PAC-G)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslan, O.; Biber Muftuler, F.Z.; Yurt Kilcar, A.; Ichedef, C.; Unak, P.

    2012-01-01

    Paclitaxel (PAC) is a natural occurring diterpene alkoloid originally isolated from the bark of Taxus Brevifolia. It is one of the most important antitumor agents for clinical treatment of ovarian, breast non-small cell lung and prostate cancers. It is known that these types of cancer cells have high β-glucuronidase enzyme which can catalyze the hydrolysis of glucuronides. This is why the synthesis compounds which undergo glucuronidation come into question in the imaging and therapy of these cancer cells. The aim of current study is conjugation of glucuronic acid (G) to the starting substance PAC, labeling with 131 I and to perform its in vivo biological evaluation. Glucuronic acid derived paclitaxel compound [paclitaxel-glucuronide (PAC-G)] was labeled with 131 I using iodogen method. According to thin layer radio chromatography (TLRC) method, the radiochemical yield of 131 I-PAC-G was 84.30 ± 7.40% (n=10). The biodistribution of 131 I-PAC-G in healthy female and male Wistar Albino rats has been investigated. Imaging studies on male Balb-C mice were performed by using the Kodak FX PRO in vivo Imaging System. The range of the breast/blood, breast/muscle; ovary/blood, ovary/muscle ratios is approximately between 1.29 and 11.34 in 240 min, and between 0.71 and 8.24 in 240 min for female rats. The prostate/blood and prostate/muscle ratio is between 1.94 and 6.95 in 30 min for male rats. All these experimental studies indicate that 131 I-PAC-G may potentially be used in breast, ovary and prostate tissues as an imaging agent. Also it is thought that 131 I-PAC-G bears a therapy potential because of the 131 I radionuclide and can be improved with further investigations. (orig.)

  11. Deletion of pH Regulator pac-3 Affects Cellulase and Xylanase Activity during Sugarcane Bagasse Degradation by Neurospora crassa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Cristina Campos Antoniêto

    Full Text Available Microorganisms play a vital role in bioethanol production whose usage as fuel energy is increasing worldwide. The filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa synthesize and secrete the major enzymes involved in plant cell wall deconstruction. The production of cellulases and hemicellulases is known to be affected by the environmental pH; however, the regulatory mechanisms of this process are still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the role of the pH regulator PAC-3 in N. crassa during their growth on sugarcane bagasse at different pH conditions. Our data indicate that secretion of cellulolytic enzymes is reduced in the mutant Δpac-3 at alkaline pH, whereas xylanases are positively regulated by PAC-3 in acidic (pH 5.0, neutral (pH 7.0, and alkaline (pH 10.0 medium. Gene expression profiles, evaluated by real-time qPCR, revealed that genes encoding cellulases and hemicellulases are also subject to PAC-3 control. Moreover, deletion of pac-3 affects the expression of transcription factor-encoding genes. Together, the results suggest that the regulation of holocellulase genes by PAC-3 can occur as directly as in indirect manner. Our study helps improve the understanding of holocellulolytic performance in response to PAC-3 and should thereby contribute to the better use of N. crassa in the biotechnology industry.

  12. PACS administrators' and radiologists' perspective on the importance of features for PACS selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Vivek; Narra, Vamsi R; Joshi, Kailash; Lee, Kyootai; Melson, David

    2014-08-01

    Picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) play a critical role in radiology. This paper presents the criteria important to PACS administrators for selecting a PACS. A set of criteria are identified and organized into an integrative hierarchical framework. Survey responses from 48 administrators are used to identify the relative weights of these criteria through an analytical hierarchy process. The five main dimensions for PACS selection in order of importance are system continuity and functionality, system performance and architecture, user interface for workflow management, user interface for image manipulation, and display quality. Among the subdimensions, the highest weights were assessed for security, backup, and continuity; tools for continuous performance monitoring; support for multispecialty images; and voice recognition/transcription. PACS administrators' preferences were generally in line with that of previously reported results for radiologists. Both groups assigned the highest priority to ensuring business continuity and preventing loss of data through features such as security, backup, downtime prevention, and tools for continuous PACS performance monitoring. PACS administrators' next high priorities were support for multispecialty images, image retrieval speeds from short-term and long-term storage, real-time monitoring, and architectural issues of compatibility and integration with other products. Thus, next to ensuring business continuity, administrators' focus was on issues that impact their ability to deliver services and support. On the other hand, radiologists gave high priorities to voice recognition, transcription, and reporting; structured reporting; and convenience and responsiveness in manipulation of images. Thus, radiologists' focus appears to be on issues that may impact their productivity, effort, and accuracy.

  13. PACS: Picture Archiving and Communication Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gell, G.; Schneider, G.H.; Becker, M.; Wiltgen, M.

    1988-01-01

    A growing number of medical imaging modalities produces images that are initially calculated and stored as digital information in a computer. For diagnosis, archiving and communication a hardcopy (usually on X-ray film) is produced from these data. It is estimated that in 1995 about 80% of all imaging procedures will generate digital images. This trend leads to the development of systems, where the X-ray film is not only replaced in his function as a radiation detector, but also in his other functions as the medium for image presentation, image communication and image archiving. In short, one wants a completely digital picture archiving and communication system (PACS). The rationale behind PACS efforts is to achieve better functionality and to save costs, mainly by reducing the consumption of expensive X-ray films and the need for storage space for film archives. 7 refs., 2 figs. (Author)

  14. Authenticity techniques for PACS images and records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Stephen T. C.; Abundo, Marco; Huang, H. K.

    1995-05-01

    Along with the digital radiology environment supported by picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) comes a new problem: How to establish trust in multimedia medical data that exist only in the easily altered memory of a computer. Trust is characterized in terms of integrity and privacy of digital data. Two major self-enforcing techniques can be used to assure the authenticity of electronic images and text -- key-based cryptography and digital time stamping. Key-based cryptography associates the content of an image with the originator using one or two distinct keys and prevents alteration of the document by anyone other than the originator. A digital time stamping algorithm generates a characteristic `digital fingerprint' for the original document using a mathematical hash function, and checks that it has not been modified. This paper discusses these cryptographic algorithms and their appropriateness for a PACS environment. It also presents experimental results of cryptographic algorithms on several imaging modalities.

  15. The Commercial Challenges Of Pacs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanden Brink, John A.

    1984-08-01

    The increasing use of digital imaging techniques create a need for improved methods of digital processing, communication and archiving. However, the commercial opportunity is dependent on the resolution of a number of issues. These issues include proof that digital processes are more cost effective than present techniques, implementation of information system support in the imaging activity, implementation of industry standards, conversion of analog images to digital formats, definition of clinical needs, the implications of the purchase decision and technology requirements. In spite of these obstacles, a market is emerging, served by new and existing companies, that may become a $500 million market (U.S.) by 1990 for equipment and supplies.

  16. Ethernet image communication performance in a multimodal PACS network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou, S.L.; Valentino, D.J.; Chan, K.K.; Huang, H.K.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have evaluated the performance of an Ethernet network in a multimodal picture archiving and communications system (PACS) environment. The study included measurements between Sun workstations and PC- AT computers running communication software at the TCP level. First they initiated image transfers between two workstations, a server and a client. Next, they successively added clients to transfer images to the server and they measured degradation in network performance. Finally, they initiated image transfers between pairs of workstations and again measured performance degradation. The results of the authors' experiments indicate that Ethernet is suitable for image communication only in limited network situations. They discuss how to maximize network performance given these constraints

  17. LANSCE personnel access control system (PACS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturrock, J.C.; Gallegos, F.R.; Hall, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    The Radiation Security System (RSS) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) provides personnel protection from prompt radiation due to accelerated beam. The Personnel Access Control System (PACS) is a component of the RSS that is designed to prevent personnel access to areas where prompt radiation is a hazard. PACS was designed to replace several older personnel safety systems (PSS) with a single modem unified design. Lessons learned from the operation over the last 20 years were incorporated into a redundant sensor, single-point failure safe, fault tolerant, and tamper-resistant system that prevents access to the beam areas by controlling the access keys and beam stoppers. PACS uses a layered philosophy to the physical and electronic design. The most critical assemblies are battery backed up, relay logic circuits; less critical devices use Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) for timing functions and communications. Outside reviewers have reviewed the operational safety of the design. The design philosophy, lessons learned, hardware design, software design, operation, and limitations of the device are described

  18. Investment alternative: the status quo or PACS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanden Brink, John A.; Cywinski, Jozef K.

    1990-08-01

    While the cost of Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS) can be substantial, the cost of continuing with present manual methods may become prohibitive in growing departments as the need for additional space and personnel (both technical and professional) to meet the increasing requirements for all image management activities continues to grow. This will occur simultaneously with increasing pressures on problems of the present system, i.e., lost films, lost revenues, delayed reporting and longer diagnostic cycle times. Present methods of image archiving communication and management i.e. the relationship of procedure volume to VFE requirements for professional and technical personnel, costs of film, film storage space, and other performance factors are analyzed based on the database created by the Technology Marketing Group (TMG) computerized cost analysis model applied to over 50 US hospitals. Also, the model is used to provide the projected cost of present methods of film management for an average US 400 +bed hospital based on ten year growth rate assumptions. TMG PACS Tracking data provides confirmation of staffmg pattern correlation to procedure volume. The data presented in the paper provides a basis for comparing the investment in maintaining the status quo to an investment in PACS.

  19. Strengthening your ties to referring physicians through RIS/PACS integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthy, Susan; Rounds, Karla C; Soloway, Connie B

    2003-01-01

    Many imaging centers are turning to technology solutions to increase refering physician satisfaction, implementing such enhancements as automated report distribution, picture archiving and communications system (PACS), radiology information systems (RIS), and web-based results access. However, without seamless integration, these technology investments don't address the challenge at its core: convenient and reliable, two-way communication and interaction with referring physicians. In an integrated RIS/PACS solution, patient tracking in the RIS and PACS study status are logged and available to users. The time of the patient's registration at the imaging center, the exam start and completion time, the patient's departure time from the imaging center, and results status are all tracked and logged. An integrated RIS/PACS solution provides additional support to the radiologist, a critical factor that can improve the turnaround time of results to referring physicians. The RIS/PACS enhances the interpretation by providing the patient's history, which gives the radiologist additional insight and decreases the likelihood of missing a diagnostic element. In a tightly integrated RIS/PACS solution, results information is more complete. Physicians can view reports with associated images selected by the radiologist. They will also have full order information and complete imaging history including prior reports and images. Referring physicians can access and view images and exam notes at the same time that the radiologist is interpreting the exam. Without the benefit of an integrated RIS/PACS system, the referring physician would have to wait for the signed transcription to be released. In a seamlessly integrated solution, film-tracking modules within the RIS are fused with digital imaging workflow in the PACS. Users can see at a glance if a historical exam is available on film and benefit when a complete study history--both film-based and digital--is presented with the current

  20. Effect of PAC addition on immersed ultrafiltration for the treatment of algal-rich water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yan, E-mail: zhang.yan113@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, 73 Huanghe Road, Nangang District, Harbin 150090 (China); Tian Jiayu; Nan Jun; Gao Shanshan; Liang Heng; Wang Meilian; Li Guibai [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, 73 Huanghe Road, Nangang District, Harbin 150090 (China)

    2011-02-28

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition on the treatment of algal-rich water by immersed ultrafiltration (UF), in terms of permeate quality and membrane fouling. Experiments were performed with a hollow-fiber polyvinyl chloride ultrafiltration membrane at a laboratory scale, 20-25 deg, C and 10 L/(m{sup 2} h) constant permeate flux. UF could achieve an absolute removal of Microcystis aeruginosa cells, but a poor removal of algogenic organic matter (AOM) released into water, contaminants responsible for severe membrane fouling. The addition of 4 g/L PAC to the immersed UF reactor significantly alleviated the development of trans-membrane pressure and enhanced the removal of dissovled organic carbon (by 10.9 {+-} 1.7%), UV{sub 254} (by 27.1 {+-} 1.7%), and microcystins (expressed as MC-LR{sub eq}, by 40.8 {+-} 4.2%). However, PAC had little effect on the rejection of hydrophilic high molecular weight AOM such as carbohydrates and proteins. It was also identified that PAC reduced the concentrations of carbohydrates and proteins in the reactor due to decreased light intensity, as well as the MC-LR{sub eq} concentration by PAC adsorption.

  1. Secure vendor environment (SVE) for PACS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeyman-Buck, Janice; Frost, Meryll

    2005-04-01

    A Secure Vendor Environment (SVE) was created to protect radiology modalities from network intrusion, worms, viruses, and other forms of damaging attacks. Many vendors do not attempt any form of network security and if an institution demands a non-standard and secure installation, a future system upgrade could and frequently does eliminate any security measures installed during the initial installation. The SVE isolates the vendor equipment behind a virtual firewall on a private network that is invisible to the outside world. All interactions must go though a device containing two network interface cards called an Application Processor that acts as a store-and forward router, performs DICOM repair, proxies modality worklist, and isolates the vendor modalities. A small VPN appliance can open the device temporarily for remote access by vendor engineers. Prior to the routine installation of the SVE, vendor equipment was often attacked by hostile network intruders and viruses or worms, sometimes rendering the equipment unusable until the vendor could reload the system. The resulted in considerable clinical downtime and loss of revenue. Since the relatively low cost SVE solution has routinely been installed with all new equipment, no intrusions have occurred, although our network sniffers and intrusion detectors indicate that we are constantly being scanned for vulnerability. Purpose: To provide a secure network for vendor equipment in a PACS environment while allowing vendor access for upgrades and system repairs. Method: The network administrators at our university believe that network security should be implemented at the machine level rather than relying on a firewall. A firewall solution could conceivably block unwanted intrusion from outside the university network, but would still allow literally thousands of potential network users to get through to the PACS network. All the PACS archive, display and routing systems are individually protected from intrusion, but

  2. A DICOM based PACS for nuclear medicine; Ein DICOM-basiertes PACS fuer die Nuklearmedizin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lassmann, M.; Reiners, C. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2002-02-01

    The installation of a radiology information system (RIS) connected to a hospital information system (HIS) and a picture archiving and communications system (PACS) seems mandatory for a nuclear medicine department in order to guarantee a high patient throughput. With these systems a fast transmission of reports, images to the in- and out-patients' wards and private practitioners is realized. Therefore, since April 2000, at the department of nuclear medicine of the university of Wuerzburg a completely DICOM based PACS has been implemented in addition to the RIS. With this system a DICOM based workflow is realized throughout the department of nuclear medicine for reporting and archiving. The PACS is connected to six gamma-cameras, a PET scanner, a bone densitometry system and an ultrasound device. The volume of image data archived per month is 4 GByte. Patient demographics are provided to the modalities via DICOM-Worklist. With these PACS components a department specific archive purely based on DICOM can be realized. During the installation process problems occurred mainly because of the complex DICOM standard for nuclear medicine. Related to that is the problem that most of the software implementations still contain bugs or are not adapted to the needs of a nuclear medicine department (particularly for PET). A communication software for the distribution of nuclear medicine reports and images based on techniques used for the worldwide web is currently tested. (orig.) [German] Fuer eine nuklearmedizinische Klinik ist ein Klinikinformationssystem (KIS) gekoppelt mit einem Radiologieinformationssystem (RIS) sowie einem Bildarchivierungs- und Verteilungssystem (PACS) unabdingbar, um einen schnellen Patientendurchsatz sowie die zeitnahe Uebermittlung von Befunden inklusive nuklearmedizinischen Bildern an zuweisende Stationen, Ambulanzen und externe Zuweiser zu gewaehrleisten. Daher wurde im April 2000 an der Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin der Universitaet

  3. Role of pacs in an integrated communication system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, B.G.; Creasy, J.L.; Johnston, R.E.; Parrish, D.; Scatliff, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    An integrated computer-based communications system uses multiple computers for the high speed transmission, storage, enhancement and display for medical information. Interconnected by a network such as coaxial and fiberoptic cables or microwave stations, the system would provide integrated communications throughout a satellite medical environment. As the availability of proven PACS components becomes a commercial reality, migratory expansion of PACS within the radiology clinical, educational and research areas will be possible. When the PACS is integrated with hospital, radiology and medical school information systems it provides the image component of a total medical information system. Current PACS efforts are on a research basis including the development of prototype systems. This paper provides an overview of implementation strategies. Issues to be discussed include PACS research objectives, typical implementation methods, and a review of interactions between PACS and radiology information systems (RIS) and hospital information systems

  4. Benchmark test of CP-PACS for lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshie, Tomoteru

    1996-01-01

    The CP-PACS is a massively parallel computer dedicated for calculations in computational physics and will be in operation in the spring of 1996 at Center for Computational Physics, University of Tsukuba. In this paper, we describe the architecture of the CP-PACS and report the results of the estimate of the performance of the CP-PACS for typical lattice QCD calculations. (author)

  5. Current status of the UCSF second-generation PACS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H. K.; Arenson, Ronald L.; Wong, Albert W. K.; Bazzill, Todd M.; Lou, Shyhliang A.; Andriole, Katherine P.; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Jianguo; Wong, Stephen T. C.

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes the current status of the second generation PACS at UCSF commenced in October 1992. The UCSF PACS is designed in-house as a hospital-integrated PACS based on an open architecture concept using industrial standards including UNIX operating system, C programming language, X-Window user interface, TCP/IP communication protocol, DICOM 3.0 image standard and HL7 health data format. Other manufacturer's PACS components which conform with these standards can be easily integrated into the system. Relevant data from HIS and RIS is automatically incorporated into the PACS using HL7 data format and TCP/IP communication protocol. The UCSF system also takes advantage of state-of-the-art communication, storage, and software technologies in ATM, multiple storage media, automatic programming, multilevel processes for a better cost-performance system. The primary PACS network is the 155 Mbits/sec OC3 ATM with the Ethernet as the back-up. The UCSF PACS also connects Mt. Zion Hospital and San Francisco VA Medical Center in the San Francisco Bay area via an ATM wide area network with a T1 line as the back-up. Currently, five MR and five CT scanners from multiple sites, two computed radiography systems, two film digitizers, one US PACS module, the hospital HIS and the department RIS have been connected to the PACS network. The image data is managed by a mirrored database (Sybase). The PACS controller, with its 1.3 terabyte optical disk library, acquires 2.5 gigabytes digital data daily. Four 2K, five, 1,600-line multiple monitor display workstations are on line in neuroradiology, pediatric radiology and intensive care units for clinical use. In addition, the PACS supports over 100 Macintosh users in the department and selected hospital sites for both images and textual retrieval through a client/server mechanism. We are also developing a computation and visualization node in the PACS network for advancing radiology research.

  6. A dynamic approach to dependability studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labeau, P.E.

    2008-01-01

    Dependability studies have now become an important part of the performance management of industrial plants. These last decades, several methods have been proposed and widely used for the analysis of systems of components subject to degradation and failure. These methods are based either on Boolean representations (for example, event trees/fault trees), or on discrete-state models (Markovian reliability, Petri nets, Bayesian networks...). However, the underlying, inherently continuous, physical processes have scarcely been accounted for, at least in an integrated fashion, in dependability studies. This paper first describes, through simple cases, the limitations of discrete approaches and the need of hybrid, discrete-continuous methods. It then summarizes the main concepts of dynamic reliability. Finally, some possible application domains are presented, as well as challenges that still need to be tackled to favour the diffusion of this approach among industrial circles. (author)

  7. Process development and fabrication for sphere-pac fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welty, R.K.; Campbell, M.H.

    1981-06-01

    Uranium fuel rods containing sphere-pac fuel have been fabricated for in-reactor tests and demonstrations. A process for the development, qualification, and fabrication of acceptable sphere-pac fuel rods is described. Special equipment to control fuel contamination with moisture or air and the equipment layout needed for rod fabrication is described and tests for assuring the uniformity of the fuel column are discussed. Fuel retainers required for sphere-pac fuel column stability and instrumentation to measure fuel column smear density are described. Results of sphere-pac fuel rod fabrication campaigns are reviewed and recommended improvements for high throughput production are noted

  8. Alternative Splicing of the Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide Receptor PAC1: Mechanisms of Fine Tuning of Brain Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janna eBlechman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Alternative splicing of the precursor mRNA encoding for the neuropeptide receptor PAC1/ADCYAP1R1 generates multiple protein products that exhibit pleiotropic activities. Recent studies in mammals and zebrafish have implicated some of these splice isoforms in control of both cellular and body homeostasis. Here, we review the regulation of PAC1 splice variants and their underlying signal transduction and physiological processes in the nervous system.

  9. The PAC-men revival : increasing need of PAC qualified colleagues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morren, J.; van der Heijden, S.

    2012-01-01

    More and more Protection, Automation, and Control (PAC) equipment is installed in the electricity (distribution) grid. For many employees of the network operators, the introduction of this equipment requires a change of mind, as this so-called secondary equipment is fundamentally different from the

  10. Design and implementation of disaster recovery and business continuity solution for radiology PACS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoori, Bahar; Rosipko, Beverly; Erhard, Karen K; Sunshine, Jeffrey L

    2014-02-01

    In the digital era of radiology, picture archiving and communication system (PACS) has a pivotal role in retrieving and storing the images. Integration of PACS with all the health care information systems e.g., health information system, radiology information system, and electronic medical record has greatly improved access to patient data at anytime and anywhere throughout the entire enterprise. In such an integrated setting, seamless operation depends critically on maintaining data integrity and continuous access for all. Any failure in hardware or software could interrupt the workflow or data and consequently, would risk serious impact to patient care. Thus, any large-scale PACS now have an indispensable requirement to include deployment of a disaster recovery plan to ensure secure sources of data. This paper presents our experience with designing and implementing a disaster recovery and business continuity plan. The selected architecture with two servers in each site (local and disaster recovery (DR) site) provides four different scenarios to continue running and maintain end user service. The implemented DR at University Hospitals Health System now permits continuous access to the PACS application and its contained images for radiologists, other clinicians, and patients alike.

  11. PACS: implementation in the U.S. Department of Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacko, Anna K.; Wider, Ronald; Romlein, John R.; Cawthon, Michael A.; Richardson, Ronald R., Jr.; Lollar, H. William; Cook, Jay F.; Timboe, Harold L.; Johnson, Thomas G.; Fellows, Douglas W.

    2000-05-01

    The Department of Defense has been a leader in Radiology re- engineering for the past decade. Efforts have included the development of two landmark PACS specifications (MDIS and DIN- PACS), respective vendor selection and implementation programs. A Tri-Service (Army, Navy and Air Force) Radiology re-engineering program was initiated which identified transitioning to digital imaging, PACS and teleradiology as key enabling technologies in a changing business scenario. Subsequently, the systematic adjustment of procurement process for radiological imaging equipment included a focus on specifying PACS-capable-digital imaging modalities and mini- PACS as stepping stones to make the hospitals and health clinics PACS-ready. The success of the PACS and teleradiology program in the DOD is evidenced by the near filmless operation of most Army and Air Force Medical Centers, several community hospitals and several operational teleradiology constellations. Additionally, the MDIS PACSystem has become the commercial PACS product for General Electric Medical Systems. The DOD continues to forge ahead in the PACS arena by implementing advanced configurations and operational concepts such as the VRE (Virtual Radiology Environment), the negotiation of Regional Archiving and Regional PACS Maintenance Programs. Newer regulations (HIPAA, the FDA approval of digital mammography) have been promulgated impacting the culture and conduct of our business. Incorporating their requirements at the very outset will enable us to streamline the delivery of radiology. The DOD community has embraced the information age at multiple levels. The Healthcare portion of this community with these initiatives is integrating itself into DOD's future. The future holds great possibilities, promises and challenges for the DOD PACS programs.

  12. Microscopic Studies of the Hydrogen Passivation in n-type Silicon A New Application of the 73As e--g PAC Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Correia, J G; Forkel-Wirth, Doris; Burchard, A; Magerle, R; Deicher, M

    1996-01-01

    The hydrogen passivation of As donors in Si was studied using the gamma-e- Perturbed Angular Correlation technique. The samples were doped with 73As by implanting the parent isotope 73Se at room temperature and 60 keV energy, to a dose of 2x1013 at/cm2. After removing the radiation damage, hydrogen was implanted with low energy (300eV), to a dose of 5x1015 at/cm2. Two electric field gradients were observed and assigned to H correlated complexes formed at the As donors. These complexes dissociate at temperatures lower than 1070 K.

  13. Photo-dynamics of the lyophilized photo-activated adenylate cyclase NgPAC2 from the amoeboflagellate Naegleria gruberi NEG-M strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penzkofer, A.; Tanwar, M.; Veetil, S.K.; Kateriya, S.; Stierl, M.; Hegemann, P.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Lyophilizing of NgPAC2 from Naegleria gruberi caused loss of BLUF domain activity. • Photo-induced tyrosine to flavin electron transfer in lyophilized NgPAC2. • Photo-induced Tyr–Tyr cross-linking to o,o′-dityrosine in lyophilized NgPAC2. • Photo-induced partial flavin cofactor reduction in lyophilized NgPAC2. • Two NgPAC2 conformations with fast and slow photo-induced electron transfer. - Abstract: The absorption and emission spectroscopic behavior of lyophilized photo-activated adenylate cyclase NgPAC2 from the amoeboflagellate Naegleria gruberi NEG-M strain consisting of a BLUF domain (BLUF = Blue Light sensor Using Flavin) and a cyclase homology domain was studied in the dark, during blue-light exposure and after blue-light exposure at a temperature of 4 °C. The BLUF domain photo-cycle dynamics observed for snap-frozen NgPAC2 was lost by lyophilization (no signaling state formation with flavin absorption red-shift). Instead, blue-light photo-excitation of lyophilized NgPAC2 caused sterically restricted Tyr–Tyr cross-linking (o,o′-ditysosine formation) and partial flavin cofactor reduction

  14. Photo-dynamics of the lyophilized photo-activated adenylate cyclase NgPAC2 from the amoeboflagellate Naegleria gruberi NEG-M strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penzkofer, A., E-mail: alfons.penzkofer@physik.uni-regensburg.de [Fakultät für Physik, Universität Regensburg, Universitätsstrasse 31, D-93053 Regensburg (Germany); Tanwar, M.; Veetil, S.K.; Kateriya, S. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Delhi South Campus, Benito Juarez Road, New Delhi 110021 (India); Stierl, M.; Hegemann, P. [Institut für Biologie/Experimentelle Biophysik, Humboldt Universität zu Berlin, Invalidenstrasse 42, D-10115 Berlin (Germany)

    2013-09-23

    Highlights: • Lyophilizing of NgPAC2 from Naegleria gruberi caused loss of BLUF domain activity. • Photo-induced tyrosine to flavin electron transfer in lyophilized NgPAC2. • Photo-induced Tyr–Tyr cross-linking to o,o′-dityrosine in lyophilized NgPAC2. • Photo-induced partial flavin cofactor reduction in lyophilized NgPAC2. • Two NgPAC2 conformations with fast and slow photo-induced electron transfer. - Abstract: The absorption and emission spectroscopic behavior of lyophilized photo-activated adenylate cyclase NgPAC2 from the amoeboflagellate Naegleria gruberi NEG-M strain consisting of a BLUF domain (BLUF = Blue Light sensor Using Flavin) and a cyclase homology domain was studied in the dark, during blue-light exposure and after blue-light exposure at a temperature of 4 °C. The BLUF domain photo-cycle dynamics observed for snap-frozen NgPAC2 was lost by lyophilization (no signaling state formation with flavin absorption red-shift). Instead, blue-light photo-excitation of lyophilized NgPAC2 caused sterically restricted Tyr–Tyr cross-linking (o,o′-ditysosine formation) and partial flavin cofactor reduction.

  15. Increased platelet activation in early symptomatic versus asymptomatic carotid stenosis and relationship with microembolic status: Results from the Platelets And Carotid Stenosis (PACS) Study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kinsella, Ja

    2013-04-26

    BACKGROUND: Cerebral microembolic signals (MES) may predict increased stroke risk in carotid stenosis. However, the relationship between platelet counts or platelet activation status and MES in symptomatic versus asymptomatic carotid stenosis has not been comprehensively assessed. SETTING: University teaching hospitals. METHODS: This prospective, pilot observational study assessed platelet counts and platelet activation status, and the relationship between platelet activation and MES in asymptomatic versus early (≤4 weeks after TIA\\/stroke) and late phase (≥3 months) symptomatic moderate or severe (≥50%) carotid stenosis patients. Full blood count measurements were performed, and whole blood flow cytometry was used to quantify platelet surface activation marker expression (CD62P and CD63) and circulating leucocyte-platelet complexes. Bilateral simultaneous transcranial Doppler ultrasound monitoring of the middle cerebral arteries was performed for 1 hour to classify patients as MES-positive or MES-negative. RESULTS: Data from 31 asymptomatic patients were compared with 46 symptomatic patients in the early phase, and 35 of these patients followed up to the late phase after symptom onset. The median platelet count (211 vs. 200 x 10(9) \\/L; p=0.03) and the median% lymphocyte-platelet complexes were higher in early symptomatic than asymptomatic patients (2.8 vs. 2.4%, p=0.001). The% lymphocyte-platelet complexes was higher in early symptomatic than asymptomatic patients with ≥70% carotid stenosis (p=0.0005), and in symptomatic patients recruited within 7 days of symptom onset (p=0.028). Complete TCD data were available in 25 asymptomatic and 31 early phase symptomatic, and 27 late phase symptomatic patients. 12% of asymptomatic versus 32% of early phase symptomatic (p=0.02) and 19% of late phase symptomatic patients (p=0.2) were MES-positive. Early symptomatic MES-negative patients had a higher% lymphocyte-platelet complexes than asymptomatic MES

  16. bond activation and catalysis by Ru -pac complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and their reactivity towards oxidation of a few organic compounds. Keywords. Kinetics; catalysis; -O–O- bond activation; Ru-pac complex; oxidation. 1. Introduction. Ru-pac complexes exhibit catalytic properties,1 in homogeneous conditions in the presence of oxygen atom donors, that mimic the biological enzymatic oxi-.

  17. Design and Implementation of PACS at Georgetown University Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, S. K.; Benson, H.. R.; Choyke, P.; Fahey, F. H.; Wang, P. C.; Zeman, R. K...; Elliott, L. P.

    1985-09-01

    During the preparation and planning phase of the PACS project at Georgetown University Hospital it was realized that PACS requires truly the state of the art technology in data communication, image processing and man machine interfacing. It was also realized that un-like many other technology intensive devices used in radiology, PACS cannot be seen as an independent system that will provide well defined services. PACS will be the backbone of the department operation in clinical, educational and managerial functions. It will indeed be the nerve center of the radiologic services affecting every aspect of the department. PACS will have to be designed to perform in a cost-effective manner to widely varying needs within the radiology departments. The integration of ever changing complex technology that will impact every aspect of a radiology service is not a trivial matter. This transition period going from current manual film based PACS to Digital PACS can be long, expansive and disruptive unless careful planning preceeds the implementation. PACS is still an emerging technology at its infancy. Performance monitoring and evaluation of diversified functions have to be also established so that improvement to the system can be efficiently implemented. Thus the evaluation criteria should be also established as early as possible.

  18. Cost-effective data storage/archival subsystem for functional PACS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. P.; Kim, Yongmin

    1993-09-01

    Not the least of the requirements of a workable PACS is the ability to store and archive vast amounts of information. A medium-size hospital will generate between 1 and 2 TBytes of data annually on a fully functional PACS. A high-speed image transmission network coupled with a comparably high-speed central data storage unit can make local memory and magnetic disks in the PACS workstations less critical and, in an extreme case, unnecessary. Under these circumstances, the capacity and performance of the central data storage subsystem and database is critical in determining the response time at the workstations, thus significantly affecting clinical acceptability. The central data storage subsystem not only needs to provide sufficient capacity to store about ten days worth of images (five days worth of new studies, and on the average, about one comparison study for each new study), but also supplies images to the requesting workstation in a timely fashion. The database must provide fast retrieval responses upon users' requests for images. This paper analyzes both advantages and disadvantages of multiple parallel transfer disks versus RAID disks for short-term central data storage subsystem, as well as optical disk jukebox versus digital recorder tape subsystem for long-term archive. Furthermore, an example high-performance cost-effective storage subsystem which integrates both the RAID disks and high-speed digital tape subsystem as a cost-effective PACS data storage/archival unit are presented.

  19. Effect of Poly Aluminium Chloride (PAC) on some blood constituents of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, H. M.; Agab, H.

    2006-01-01

    Poly aluminium chloride (PAC) is an urban drinking water purification substance that was introduced recently in Sudan and used to substitute polymer poly diallyl dimethyl aluminium chloride (DADMAC) and aluminium sulphate in water purification treatments. This study was conducted to determine its effects on fish health, which is is considered a biological indicator and an essential component of fresh water ecosystem. In this experiment, PAC was used in three different concentrations (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 ml/1) in experimental tanks to achieve the desirable doses for the study. The tanks were populated by Nile Tilapia fingerlings (Oreochromis niloticus) with an average weight ranging between 70 and 100 grams. Exposure of this fish to PAC resulted in an immediate signification reduction (P<0.01) in haemoglobin concentration, erythrocytes count, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration of experimental fingerlings blood. The degree of reduction in these parameters was directly proportional to the concentration of PAC used. (Author)

  20. Workflow optimization beyond RIS and PACS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treitl, M.; Wirth, S.; Lucke, A.; Nissen-Meyer, S.; Trumm, C.; Rieger, J.; Pfeifer, K.-J.; Reiser, M.; Villain, S.

    2005-01-01

    Technological progress and the rising cost pressure on the healthcare system have led to a drastic change in the work environment of radiologists today. The pervasive demand for workflow optimization and increased efficiency of its activities raises the question of whether by employment of electronic systems, such as RIS and PACS, the potentials of digital technology are sufficiently used to fulfil this demand. This report describes the tasks and structures in radiology departments, which so far are only insufficiently supported by commercially available electronic systems but are nevertheless substantial. We developed and employed a web-based, integrated workplace system, which simplifies many daily tasks of departmental organization and administration apart from well-established tasks of documentation. Furthermore, we analyzed the effects exerted on departmental workflow by employment of this system for 3 years. (orig.) [de

  1. Three-tiered integration of PACS and HIS toward next generation total hospital information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J H; Lee, D H; Choi, J W; Cho, H I; Kang, H S; Yeon, K M; Han, M C

    1998-01-01

    The Seoul National University Hospital (SNUH) started a project to innovate the hospital information facilities. This project includes installation of high speed hospital network, development of new HIS, OCS (order communication system), RIS and PACS. This project aims at the implementation of the first total hospital information system by seamlessly integrating these systems together. To achieve this goal, we took three-tiered systems integration approach: network level, database level, and workstation level integration. There are 3 loops of networks in SNUH: proprietary star network for host computer based HIS, Ethernet based hospital LAN for OCS and RIS, and ATM based network for PACS. They are linked together at the backbone level to allow high speed communication between these systems. We have developed special communication modules for each system that allow data interchange between different databases and computer platforms. We have also developed an integrated workstation in which both the OCS and PACS application programs run on a single computer in an integrated manner allowing the clinical users to access and display radiological images as well as textual clinical information within a single user environment. A study is in progress toward a total hospital information system in SNUH by seamlessly integrating the main hospital information resources such as HIS, OCS, and PACS. With the three-tiered systems integration approach, we could successfully integrate the systems from the network level to the user application level.

  2. Benefits of cloud computing for PACS and archiving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The goal of cloud-based services is to provide easy, scalable access to computing resources and IT services. The healthcare industry requires a private cloud that adheres to government mandates designed to ensure privacy and security of patient data while enabling access by authorized users. Cloud-based computing in the imaging market has evolved from a service that provided cost effective disaster recovery for archived data to fully featured PACS and vendor neutral archiving services that can address the needs of healthcare providers of all sizes. Healthcare providers worldwide are now using the cloud to distribute images to remote radiologists while supporting advanced reading tools, deliver radiology reports and imaging studies to referring physicians, and provide redundant data storage. Vendor managed cloud services eliminate large capital investments in equipment and maintenance, as well as staffing for the data center--creating a reduction in total cost of ownership for the healthcare provider.

  3. The Protective Role of PAC1-Receptor Agonist Maxadilan in BCCAO-Induced Retinal Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaczy, A; Reglodi, D; Somoskeoy, T; Kovacs, K; Lokos, E; Szabo, E; Tamas, A; Atlasz, T

    2016-10-01

    A number of studies have proven that pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is protective in neurodegenerative diseases. Permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) causes severe degeneration in the rat retina. In our previous studies, protective effects were observed with PACAP1-38, PACAP1-27, and VIP but not with their related peptides, glucagon, or secretin in BCCAO. All three PACAP receptors (PAC1, VPAC1, VPAC2) appear in the retina. Molecular and immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that the retinoprotective effects are most probably mainly mediated by the PAC1 receptor. The aim of the present study was to investigate the retinoprotective effects of a selective PAC1-receptor agonist maxadilan in BCCAO-induced retinopathy. Wistar rats were used in the experiment. After performing BCCAO, the right eye was treated with intravitreal maxadilan (0.1 or 1 μM), while the left eye was injected with vehicle. Sham-operated rats received the same treatment. Two weeks after the operation, retinas were processed for standard morphometric and molecular analysis. Intravitreal injection of 0.1 or 1 μM maxadilan caused significant protection in the thickness of most retinal layers and the number of cells in the GCL compared to the BCCAO-operated eyes. In addition, 1 μM maxadilan application was more effective than 0.1 μM maxadilan treatment in the ONL, INL, IPL, and the entire retina (OLM-ILM). Maxadilan treatment significantly decreased cytokine expression (CINC-1, IL-1α, and L-selectin) in ischemia. In summary, our histological and molecular analysis showed that maxadilan, a selective PAC1 receptor agonist, has a protective role in BCCAO-induced retinal degeneration, further supporting the role of PAC1 receptor conveying the retinoprotective effects of PACAP.

  4. In vivo biological evaluation of {sup 131}I radiolabeled-paclitaxel glucuronide ({sup 131}I-PAC-G)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aslan, O.; Biber Muftuler, F.Z.; Yurt Kilcar, A.; Ichedef, C.; Unak, P. [Ege Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Nuclear Applications

    2012-07-01

    Paclitaxel (PAC) is a natural occurring diterpene alkoloid originally isolated from the bark of Taxus Brevifolia. It is one of the most important antitumor agents for clinical treatment of ovarian, breast non-small cell lung and prostate cancers. It is known that these types of cancer cells have high {beta}-glucuronidase enzyme which can catalyze the hydrolysis of glucuronides. This is why the synthesis compounds which undergo glucuronidation come into question in the imaging and therapy of these cancer cells. The aim of current study is conjugation of glucuronic acid (G) to the starting substance PAC, labeling with {sup 131}I and to perform its in vivo biological evaluation. Glucuronic acid derived paclitaxel compound [paclitaxel-glucuronide (PAC-G)] was labeled with {sup 131}I using iodogen method. According to thin layer radio chromatography (TLRC) method, the radiochemical yield of {sup 131}I-PAC-G was 84.30 {+-} 7.40% (n=10). The biodistribution of {sup 131}I-PAC-G in healthy female and male Wistar Albino rats has been investigated. Imaging studies on male Balb-C mice were performed by using the Kodak FX PRO in vivo Imaging System. The range of the breast/blood, breast/muscle; ovary/blood, ovary/muscle ratios is approximately between 1.29 and 11.34 in 240 min, and between 0.71 and 8.24 in 240 min for female rats. The prostate/blood and prostate/muscle ratio is between 1.94 and 6.95 in 30 min for male rats. All these experimental studies indicate that {sup 131}I-PAC-G may potentially be used in breast, ovary and prostate tissues as an imaging agent. Also it is thought that {sup 131}I-PAC-G bears a therapy potential because of the {sup 131}I radionuclide and can be improved with further investigations. (orig.)

  5. Investigation on network utilization efficiency and image transmission time for the PACS network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawara, K.; Nishihara, E.; Komatsu, K.I.

    1987-01-01

    The authors investigated the following features of a PACS network: (1) network utilization efficiency and (2) image transmission time. They changed the following parameters, which the two items shown above depend on: (1) transfer rate between imaging equipment and network (10 kB/econd-8 MB/second), (2) network transmission speed (100 kB/second-50 MB/second), (3) packet length (10 kB-4 MB), and (4) message length (image data) (64 kB-4 MB). As a result, a conventional-type network cannot meet a need for PACS. To solve this problem, the authors propose a multiplexed network that consists of the high-speed network for image transmission and the conventional speed of control network for commands and shorter messages. If the packet length of the image network is designed to be variable, they can choose an optimum packet length for image transmission

  6. Affective Dependence and Aggression: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Petruccelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Emotionally dependent subjects may engage in controlling, restrictive, and aggressive behaviours, which limit their partner’s autonomy. The underlying causes of such behaviours are not solely based on levels of aggression, but act as a mean of maintaining the subject’s own sense of self-worth, identity, and general functioning. Objective. The aim of the paper is to explore the correlation between affective dependency and reactive/proactive aggression and to evaluate individual differences as predisposing factors for aggressive behaviour and emotional dependency. Methods. The Spouse-Specific Dependency Scale (SSDS and the Reactive Proactive Questionnaire (RPQ were administered to a sample of 3375 subjects. Results. In the whole sample, a positive correlation between emotional dependency and proactive aggression was identified. Differences with regard to sex, age group, and geographical distribution were evidenced for the scores of the different scales. Conclusion. A fundamental distinction between reactive and proactive aggression was observed, anchoring proactive aggression more strictly to emotional dependency. Sociocultural and demographical variables, together with the previous structuring of attachment styles, help to determine the scope, frequency, and intensity of the demands made to the partner, as well as to feed the fears of loss, abandonment, or betrayal.

  7. Affective dependence and aggression: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruccelli, Filippo; Diotaiuti, Pierluigi; Verrastro, Valeria; Petruccelli, Irene; Federico, Roberta; Martinotti, Giovanni; Fossati, Andrea; Di Giannantonio, Massimo; Janiri, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Emotionally dependent subjects may engage in controlling, restrictive, and aggressive behaviours, which limit their partner's autonomy. The underlying causes of such behaviours are not solely based on levels of aggression, but act as a mean of maintaining the subject's own sense of self-worth, identity, and general functioning. The aim of the paper is to explore the correlation between affective dependency and reactive/proactive aggression and to evaluate individual differences as predisposing factors for aggressive behaviour and emotional dependency. The Spouse-Specific Dependency Scale (SSDS) and the Reactive Proactive Questionnaire (RPQ) were administered to a sample of 3375 subjects. In the whole sample, a positive correlation between emotional dependency and proactive aggression was identified. Differences with regard to sex, age group, and geographical distribution were evidenced for the scores of the different scales. A fundamental distinction between reactive and proactive aggression was observed, anchoring proactive aggression more strictly to emotional dependency. Sociocultural and demographical variables, together with the previous structuring of attachment styles, help to determine the scope, frequency, and intensity of the demands made to the partner, as well as to feed the fears of loss, abandonment, or betrayal.

  8. Time-dependent micro-Raman scattering studies of polyvinyl ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-15

    Feb 15, 2014 ... Micro-Raman scattering; surface plasmons; silver nanoparticles; polyvinyl alcohol. PACS Nos 74.25.nd; ... as well as their characterization. Added .... 3.2 Surface plasmon absorption of thin films of PVA + AgNO3. The surface ...

  9. [Validation of the Physical Appearance Comparison Scale (PACS) in a German Sample: Psychometric Properties and Association with Eating Behavior, Body Image and Self-Esteem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claire Mölbert, Simone; Hautzinger, Martin; Karnath, Hans-Otto; Zipfel, Stephan; Giel, Katrin

    2017-02-01

    The Physical Appearance Comparison Scale (PACS [14]) is the most commonly used validated measure of body-related social comparison habits. Here we investigate reliability and construct validity of the PACS in a German sample. Participants (n=75 men, n=75 women and n=25 women with a confirmed diagnosis of anorexia nervosa) completed the PACS along with measures of eating disorder pathology, body image and self-esteem. Results show an adequate internal consistency of the PACS for the female subgroups and medium to high correlations with eating disorder pathology, body image and self-esteem. PACS total score differed significantly between groups, with men scoring lowest and women with anorexia nervosa scoring highest. We conclude that the PACS is a sufficiently reliable and valid measure of body-related social comparison habits in women. In men, it should only be used with special care. The PACS is generally suitable to promote patient studies testing the role of social comparisons for the patho-mechanisms of eating disorders. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. PacIOOS Nearshore Sensor 06 (NS06): Pohnpei, Micronesia

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The nearshore sensors are part of the Pacific Islands Ocean Observing System (PacIOOS) and are designed to measure a variety of ocean parameters at fixed point...

  11. PacIOOS Nearshore Sensor 08 (NS08): Koror, Palau

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The nearshore sensors are part of the Pacific Islands Ocean Observing System (PacIOOS) and are designed to measure a variety of ocean parameters at fixed point...

  12. PacIOOS Nearshore Sensor 11 (NS11): Saipan, CNMI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The nearshore sensors are part of the Pacific Islands Ocean Observing System (PacIOOS) and are designed to measure a variety of ocean parameters at fixed point...

  13. Reasons for Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tintswalo Brenda Mahlaola

    Background: The Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) has led to an in- ... incidents in which sensitive information was intentionally shared via social media. .... confidentiality of electronic data in terms of medical ethics,.

  14. The assessment of Picture Archiving and Communication System based on Canadian Infoway PACS Opinion Survey in Teaching Hospitals of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Bahador

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Today the use of information technology in accordance with the rapid environmental changes and flexibility acquisition is necessary and unavoidable. Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS is one of the medical information technology used in health facilities. PACS provides the images archive and transmission possibility electronically in different units of the teaching and treatment centers. This study aimed to assess the PACS system in teaching hospitals of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences based on a survey of Canadian Infoway. Method: This descriptive cross-sectional study was performed on 53 individuals selected through Two-Stage Stratified Random Sampling. The study population consisted of 156 PACS users in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences hospitals which were equipped with the PACS system in 2015. Data were collected by the valid and reliable customized questionnaire of Canadian Infoway. The reliability was measured by a pilot study on 25 PACS users; Cronbach’s Alpha was estimated 0.78. Data were analyzed using SPSS 18. Also, frequency, mean, standard deviation were used. Results: The results are presented in three sections: environment (Background Variables, benefits and challenges of PACS. As to the system availability, 20.8% of the users in the clinic, 75.5% in the diagnostic imaging department, only 3.8% in offices had access to the PACS. As to system accessibility, 49.1% of the users just had access to tests, 5.7% only to the reports, and 45.3% to both reports and tests. With respect to benefits of PACS, the mean was 4.16 (SD: 0.5 (five-point scale 1-5 estimated, and in challenges, the mean was 3.48(SD: 0.5 (five-point scale 1-5. Conclusion: The results showed that although PACS could eliminate many restrictions concerning the use of radiology images and films, there were challenges in this regard. Users are recommended to have access to PACS in all clinics, physicians’ offices, and diagnostic

  15. Why PACS is no longer a four-letter word.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, R M

    2000-01-01

    The real value of PACS is not realized until widespread adoption exists among physicians other than interpreting radiologists. Referring physicians at the office level, in the operating room and in other departments must be willing to embrace the reading of images on monitors. That takes time. The payoff for a PACS system is therefore not realized until sometime in the future. Given the huge up-front capital expenditure required of PACS solutions, it is no wonder that the decision has historically been a difficult one to make. Enter the application service provider (ASP). The marriage of the ASP model to PACS seems to be one of the true "killer apps" currently available in the healthcare technology space. An ASP can host and maintain the software inherent in PACS solutions. Images are centrally archived over the short-, medium-, and long-term timeframe, utilizing state-of-art data management facilities. Some ASPs also provide the necessary bandwidth to office sites and the small amount of hardware that is required onsite, such as viewing stations or monitors. Costs for Internet-based image management under the ASP model rely on a pay-as-you-go formula, which may include all software, support, required hardware and bandwidth as part of the service. There may be a minor up-front fee for installation. The ASP pricing model eliminates the huge gamble an organization takes on "big iron" PACS purchases. Those benefits rely on the first rule of finance: a dollar today is worth more than a dollar tomorrow. PACS and ASPs were made for one another. Because the financial benefits of PACS are realized over time, the timing of cash flows is extremely important. Other benefits inherent in the ASP model such as scalability, diminished need for IT personnel, software version integrity and better pricing because of economies of scale are attractive also.

  16. The sphere-PAC fuel code 'SPHERE-3'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallin, H.

    2000-01-01

    Sphere-PAC fuel is an advanced nuclear fuel, in which the cladding tube is filled with small fuel spheres instead of the more usual fuel pellets. At PSI, the irradiation behaviour of sphere-PAC fuel is calculated using the computer code SPHERE-3. The paper describes the present status of the SPHERE-3 code, and some results of the qualification process against experimental data. (author)

  17. The sphere-pac fuel code 'SPHERE-3'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallin, H.; Nordstroem, L.A.; Hellwig, C.

    2001-01-01

    Sphere-pac fuel is an advanced nuclear fuel, in which the cladding tube is filled with small fuel spheres instead of the more usual fuel pellets. At PSI, the irradiation behaviour of sphere-pac fuel is calculated using the computer code SPHERE-3. The paper describes the present status of the SPHERE-3 code, and some results of the qualification process against experimental data. (author)

  18. PAC1 receptor (ADCYAP1R1 genotype and problematic alcohol use in a sample of young women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan WŁ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Wojciech Łukasz Dragan,1 Piotr M Czerski,2 Małgorzata Dragan3 1The Interdisciplinary Center for Behavior Genetic Research, Faculty of Psychology, University of Warsaw, Warsaw, 2Laboratory of Psychiatric Genetics, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, 3Faculty of Psychology, University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland Background: Recent studies revealed the role of the PAC1 (ADCYAP1R1 gene variability in vulnerability to posttraumatic stress disorder in women. Due to the relatively high comorbidity of posttraumatic stress disorder and substance use disorder, we hypothesized about possible associations between PAC1 gene and problematic alcohol use. Method: The sample studied consisted of 491 women aged 18–28 years (mean age =21.76 years; SD =1.83 and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test was used to assess drinking problems. We successfully genotyped 17 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the PAC1 gene. Results: Single locus analysis revealed a significant (after correction for multiple testing association between intronic polymorphism rs2302475 and problematic alcohol use (P=0.00048; recessive model. This result was strengthened by the haplotype analysis (P=0.00379. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the PACAP/PAC1 signaling system is implicated in the development of problematic alcohol use in women. Keywords: problematic alcohol use, PAC1 gene, AUDIT, HPA axis

  19. PACS war room for global teleradiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Doris T.; Ho, Bruce K. T.; Chao, Woodrew; Taira, Ricky K.; Kangarloo, Hooshang

    1995-05-01

    UCLA is beginning teleradiology projects in Latin America, Asian Pacific, and the U.S. The UCLA teleradiology system communicates with remote imaging centers through a T1 based WAN and satellite technology. A network management center, i.e., PACS war room, with graphical user interface allows the system manager to monitor and control different elements of the system through various levels of abstraction from one location. The network manager software can monitor the activities of both hardware and software devices in the remote imaging centers, LAN and WAN performance, telearchiving and teleaccess pattern. Telearchiving can be monitored by graphically indicating large image movements between jukeboxes and over LAN or WAN. Once the teleradiology system is configured, the image flow pattern in a teleradiology center is predictable. Manual intervention of these teleradiology system functions is easily done through menu control in the war room display. A centralized network management with the global view of a teleradiology system has been developed. It can give commands to the elements of the system to tune the system for efficient utilization of the system resources. These managerial functions scale with the teleradiology system which is expandable to include many more potential remote imaging centers.

  20. Evaluation of the Users’ Continuous Intention to Use PACS Based on the Expectation Confirmation Model in Teaching Hospitals of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohtaram Nematolahi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Users’ behavioral intention to use the Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS is important in the systems’ success and is an indicator of the users’ satisfaction with commitment and dependence on information systems. The present study aimed to evaluate the users’ continuous intention to use PACS based on the expectation confirmation model in educational hospitals of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Nemazee and Shahid Faghihi hospitals, Shiraz, Iran in 2014. The subjects were 50 general practitioners, residents and specialists selected through stratified random sampling. The study data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire. The content validity of the questionnaire items was confirmed by five experts in health information management. To evaluate the accuracy of relationships among the measurement models, reliability criteria, including Cronbach’s alpha and composite reliability, convergent and divergent validity were used which showed acceptable reliability and validity. The data were entered into Smart PLS software, version 3.1.9 and analyzed through Structural Equation Modeling (SEM by using Partial Least Squares (PLS approach. Results: The results showed appropriate fitness of reliability indices (Cronbach’s alpha >0.7, composite reliability >0.7, loading >0.7, validity indices (AVE >0.5, structural model (redundancy =0.395, Q2CI=0.364, f2H5=0.524, R2CI=0.687, and the total model (GoF=0.518. Moreover, all the research hypotheses, except H1 (the relationship between expectation confirmation and perceived usefulness with T-value of 1.96. Conclusion: Expectation confirmation, perceived usefulness, and satisfaction were effective in continuous intention to use PACS. Thus, these factors should be considered by designers, developers, and managers while designing and implementing information systems to guarantee their success and improve the

  1. A Recurrent De Novo PACS2 Heterozygous Missense Variant Causes Neonatal-Onset Developmental Epileptic Encephalopathy, Facial Dysmorphism, and Cerebellar Dysgenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Heather E; Jean-Marçais, Nolwenn; Yang, Edward; Heron, Delphine; Tatton-Brown, Katrina; van der Zwaag, Paul A; Bijlsma, Emilia K; Krock, Bryan L; Backer, E; Kamsteeg, Erik-Jan; Sinnema, Margje; Reijnders, Margot R F; Bearden, David; Begtrup, Amber; Telegrafi, Aida; Lunsing, Roelineke J; Burglen, Lydie; Lesca, Gaetan; Cho, Megan T; Smith, Lacey A; Sheidley, Beth R; Moufawad El Achkar, Christelle; Pearl, Phillip L; Poduri, Annapurna; Skraban, Cara M; Tarpinian, Jennifer; Nesbitt, Addie I; Fransen van de Putte, Dietje E; Ruivenkamp, Claudia A L; Rump, Patrick; Chatron, Nicolas; Sabatier, Isabelle; De Bellescize, Julitta; Guibaud, Laurent; Sweetser, David A; Waxler, Jessica L; Wierenga, Klaas J; Donadieu, Jean; Narayanan, Vinodh; Ramsey, Keri M; Nava, Caroline; Rivière, Jean-Baptiste; Vitobello, Antonio; Tran Mau-Them, Frédéric; Philippe, Christophe; Bruel, Ange-Line; Duffourd, Yannis; Thomas, Laurel; Lelieveld, Stefan H; Schuurs-Hoeijmakers, Janneke; Brunner, Han G; Keren, Boris; Thevenon, Julien; Faivre, Laurence; Thomas, Gary; Thauvin-Robinet, Christel

    2018-05-03

    Developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEEs) represent a large clinical and genetic heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental diseases. The identification of pathogenic genetic variants in DEEs remains crucial for deciphering this complex group and for accurately caring for affected individuals (clinical diagnosis, genetic counseling, impacting medical, precision therapy, clinical trials, etc.). Whole-exome sequencing and intensive data sharing identified a recurrent de novo PACS2 heterozygous missense variant in 14 unrelated individuals. Their phenotype was characterized by epilepsy, global developmental delay with or without autism, common cerebellar dysgenesis, and facial dysmorphism. Mixed focal and generalized epilepsy occurred in the neonatal period, controlled with difficulty in the first year, but many improved in early childhood. PACS2 is an important PACS1 paralog and encodes a multifunctional sorting protein involved in nuclear gene expression and pathway traffic regulation. Both proteins harbor cargo(furin)-binding regions (FBRs) that bind cargo proteins, sorting adaptors, and cellular kinase. Compared to the defined PACS1 recurrent variant series, individuals with PACS2 variant have more consistently neonatal/early-infantile-onset epilepsy that can be challenging to control. Cerebellar abnormalities may be similar but PACS2 individuals exhibit a pattern of clear dysgenesis ranging from mild to severe. Functional studies demonstrated that the PACS2 recurrent variant reduces the ability of the predicted autoregulatory domain to modulate the interaction between the PACS2 FBR and client proteins, which may disturb cellular function. These findings support the causality of this recurrent de novo PACS2 heterozygous missense in DEEs with facial dysmorphim and cerebellar dysgenesis. Copyright © 2018 American Society of Human Genetics. All rights reserved.

  2. IHE, Solution for integration of information systems and PACS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Janghorban Lariche

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available PACS is used as a way to store images and matches well with the workflow in the radiology department and can spread to other parts of hospital. Integration with other PACS and other hospital systems like radiology information system (RIS, hospital information system (HIS, and electronic patient records has been completely done, but there are still problems. PACS also provide good conditions for setting up Tele-radiology. The next step for PACS is where hospitals and health care organizations share photos in integrated electronic patient record. Among the different ways for sharing photos between different hospitals, IHE (integrating the health care enterprise standard indexes the cross-enterprise document sharing profile (XDS and allows sharing photos from various hospitals even if their PACS has different brands and different vendors. Application of XDS is useful for sharing images between health care organizations without duplicating them in a central archive. Images need to be indexed in a central registry. In the XDS profile, IHE defines an indexing mechanism for printing and indexing images in the central document registry. IHE also defines mechanisms to be used by each hospital to retrieve images, regardless of storing them in hospital PACS.

  3. HyPac french platform on the hydrogen and fuel cells; HyPac plateforme francaise sur l'hydrogene et les piles a combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucchese, P. [N ' ERGY, 85 - Antigny (France)

    2008-07-01

    HyPac is a french platform on the hydrogen and fuel cells applications, created in 2008. the authors presents the opportunities of the french platform HyPac, the objectives, the participants and the budget. (A.L.B.)

  4. The role of metallic impurities in oxide semiconductors: first-principles calculations and PAC experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Errico, L.A.; Fabricius, G.; Renteria, M. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC 67, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

    2004-08-01

    We report an ab-initio comparative study of the electric-field-gradient tensor (EFG) and structural relaxations introduced by acceptor (Cd) and donor (Ta) impurities when they replace cations in a series of binary oxides: TiO{sub 2}, SnO{sub 2}, and In{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Calculations were performed with the Full-Potential Linearized-Augmented Plane Waves method that allows us to treat the electronic structure and the atomic relaxations in a fully self-consistent way. We considered different charge states for each impurity and studied the dependence on these charge states of the electronic properties and the structural relaxations. Our results are compared with available data coming from PAC experiments and previous calculations, allowing us to obtain a new insight on the role that metal impurities play in oxide semiconductors. It is clear from our results that simple models can not describe the measured EFGs at impurities in oxides even approximately. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. North by Northwestern: initial experience with PACS at Northwestern Memorial Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channin, David S.; Hawkins, Rodney C.; Enzmann, Dieter R.

    2000-05-01

    This paper describes the initial phases and configuration of the Picture Archive and Communication System (PACS) deployed at Northwestern Memorial Hospital. The primary goals of the project were to improve service to patients, improve service to referring physicians, and improve the process of radiology. Secondary goals were to enhance the academic mission, and modernize institutional information systems. The system consists of a large number of heterogeneous imaging modalities sending imaging studies via DICOM to a GE medical Systems PathSpeed PACS. The radiology department workflow is briefly described. The system is currently storing approximately 140,000 studies and over 5 million images, growing by approximately 600 studies and 25,000 images per day. Data reflecting use of the short term and long term storage is provided.

  6. PENURUNAN TOKSISITAS LEACHATE (AIR LINDI DARI TPAS PUTRI CEMPO MOJOSONGO SURAKARTA DENGAN PAC (POLY ALUMINUM CHLORIDE (Toxicity Reduction of Leachate from Putri Cempo Municipal Landfill (TPAS Mojosongo Surakarta with PAC (Poly Aluminium Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Astuti

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menetapkan persen penurunan toksisitas sesudah diperlakukan dengan PAC. Rancangan penelitian ini adalah eksperimen murni dengan pretest-posttest with control group design. Populasi dalam penelitian ini adalah air lindi yang berasal dari TPAS Putri Cempo MPAC: 25,06% (24 jam; 21,07% (48 jam; 17,49% (72 jam; dan 14,97% (96 jam. (2 Dengan perlakuan PAC: 89,44% (24 jam; 63,73% (48 jam; 49,99% (72 jam; dan 40,96% (96 jam. Sehingga persentase penurunan toksisitasnya adalah: 64,38% (24 jam, 42,66% (48 jam, 32,50% (72 jam, dan 25,99% (96 jam.    ABSTRACT The aims of the current study were to determine percentage of leachate toxicity reduction after treatment with PAC. The experimental design used was true experimental study with pretest-posttest with control group design. Population in this study was leachate from Putri Cempo Landfill (TPAS Putri Cempo Mojosongo Surakarta. The sample was 250 litres leachate obtained from the landfill outlet by quota sampling method. The results revealed the leachate toxicity based on LC50 24-96 hours were: (1 without PAC treatment: 25.06% (24 hours, 21.07% (48 hours, 17.49% (72 hours, and 14.97% (96 hours; (2 with PAC treatment: 89.44% (24 hours, 63.73% (48 hours, 49.99% (72 hours, and 40.96% (96 hours. Therefore, the toxicity reductions were: 64.38% (24 hours, 42.66% (48 hours, 32.50% (72 hours, and 25.99% (96 hours.

  7. Cardio-PACs: a new opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heupler, Frederick A., Jr.; Thomas, James D.; Blume, Hartwig R.; Cecil, Robert A.; Heisler, Mary

    2000-05-01

    It is now possible to replace film-based image management in the cardiac catheterization laboratory with a Cardiology Picture Archiving and Communication System (Cardio-PACS) based on digital imaging technology. The first step in the conversion process is installation of a digital image acquisition system that is capable of generating high-quality DICOM-compatible images. The next three steps, which are the subject of this presentation, involve image display, distribution, and storage. Clinical requirements and associated cost considerations for these three steps are listed below: Image display: (1) Image quality equal to film, with DICOM format, lossless compression, image processing, desktop PC-based with color monitor, and physician-friendly imaging software; (2) Performance specifications include: acquire 30 frames/sec; replay 15 frames/sec; access to file server 5 seconds, and to archive 5 minutes; (3) Compatibility of image file, transmission, and processing formats; (4) Image manipulation: brightness, contrast, gray scale, zoom, biplane display, and quantification; (5) User-friendly control of image review. Image distribution: (1) Standard IP-based network between cardiac catheterization laboratories, file server, long-term archive, review stations, and remote sites; (2) Non-proprietary formats; (3) Bidirectional distribution. Image storage: (1) CD-ROM vs disk vs tape; (2) Verification of data integrity; (3) User-designated storage capacity for catheterization laboratory, file server, long-term archive. Costs: (1) Image acquisition equipment, file server, long-term archive; (2) Network infrastructure; (3) Review stations and software; (4) Maintenance and administration; (5) Future upgrades and expansion; (6) Personnel.

  8. PACS project management utilizing web-based tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sunil; Levin, Brad; Gac, Robert J., Jr.; Harding, Douglas, Jr.; Chacko, Anna K.; Radvany, Martin; Romlein, John R.

    2000-05-01

    As Picture Archiving and Communications Systems (PACS) implementations become more widespread, the management of deploying large, multi-facility PACS will become a more frequent occurrence. The tools and usability of the World Wide Web to disseminate project management information obviates time, distance, participant availability, and data format constraints, allowing for the effective collection and dissemination of PACS planning, implementation information, for a potentially limitless number of concurrent PACS sites. This paper will speak to tools, such as (1) a topic specific discussion board, (2) a 'restricted' Intranet, within a 'project' Intranet. We will also discuss project specific methods currently in use in a leading edge, regional PACS implementation concerning the sharing of project schedules, physical drawings, images of implementations, site-specific data, point of contacts lists, project milestones, and a general project overview. The individual benefits realized for the end user from each tool will also be covered. These details will be presented, balanced with a spotlight on communication as a critical component of any project management undertaking. Using today's technology, the web arguably provides the most cost and resource effective vehicle to facilitate the broad based, interactive sharing of project information.

  9. Methodology Of PACS Effectiveness Evaluation As Part Of A Technology Assessment. The Dutch PACS Project Extrapolated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriessen, J. H. T. H.; van der Horst-Bruinsma, I. E.; ter Haar Romeny, B. M.

    1989-05-01

    The present phase of the clinical evaluation within the Dutch PACS project mainly focuses on the development and evaluation of a PACSystem for a few departments in the Utrecht University hospital (UUH). A report on the first clinical experiences and a detailed cost/savings analysis of the PACSystem in the UUH are presented elsewhere. However, an assessment of the wider fmancial and organizational implications for hospitals and for the health sector is also needed. To this end a model for (financial) cost assessment of PACSystems is being developed by BAZIS. Learning from the actual pilot implementation in UUH we realized that general Technology Assessment (TA) also calls for an extra-polation of the medical and organizational effects. After a short excursion into the various approaches towards TA, this paper discusses the (inter) organizational dimensions relevant to the development of the necessary exttapolationmodels.

  10. Preparation and study of thickness dependent electrical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    there are only a few reports on ZnS by CBD where the main objective is the study of ZnxCd1–xS thin films (Padam et al 1988; Lokhande 1991). Chemical deposition of ZnS thin films has been reported earlier using different zinc ion releasing sources such as zinc sulphate, zinc chloride etc. In the present case, ZnS films ...

  11. Potential time savings to radiology department personnel in a PACS-based environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarinen, Allan O.; Wilson, M. C.; Iverson, Scott C.; Loop, John W.

    1990-08-01

    A purported benefit of digital imaging and archiving of radiographic procedures is the presumption of time savings to radiologists, radiology technologists, and radiology departmentpersonnel involved with processingfilms and managing theflimfile room. As part of the University of Washington's evaluation of Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS)for the U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command, a study was performed which evaluated the current operationalpractices of the film-based radiology department at the University of Washington Medical Center (UWMC). Industrial engineering time and motion studies were conducted to document the length of time requiredforfilm processing in various modalities, the proportion of the total exam time usedforfilm processing, the amount of time radiologists spent searchingfor and looking at images, and the amount of time file room personnel spent collating reports, making loans, updatingfilm jacket information, and purging files. This evaluation showed that better than one-half of the tasks in the file room may be eliminated with PACS and radiologists may save easily 10 percent of the time they spend reading films by no longer having to searchforfilms. Radiology technologists may also save as much as 10 percent of their time with PACS, although this estimate is subject to significant patient mix aberrations and measurement error. Given that the UWMC radiology department operates efficiently, similar improvements are forecast for other radiology departments and larger improvements areforecastfor less efficient departments.

  12. Studies of vitamin K-dependent carboxylase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, G.M.

    1986-01-01

    Carboxylase was studied in detergent solubilized rat liver microsomes, using the peptide substrate Phe-Leu-[γ- 3 H]-Glu-Glu-Leu. Cleavage of the γ-C-H bond in Glu was measured as the release of 3 H from this peptide to water, carboxylation was measured as the incorporation of H 14 CO 3 -into the peptide, and KO formation was measured by an HPLC assay. All three products could be measured simultaneously, and this system was used to examine the effects of cyanide, manganese, tetrachloropyridinol, and Boc-SerP-SerP-Leu-OMe on the separate steps of the carboxylase reaction. Vitamin K-epoxide formation was studied separately from the other reactions, and it was found that in the absence of a Glu-containing substrate, carboxylase catalyzed the uncoupled formation of KO from KH 2 and O 2 . The stoichiometry of product formation (GLa, KO, and γ-protons) was measured, and the results obtained were all in agreement with the values predicted from the proposed mechanism. When all of the substrates were saturating, the stoichiometry of γ-C-H bond cleavage, carboxylation, and KO formation was 1:1:1

  13. Performance characteristics of the Mayo/IBM PACS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persons, Kenneth R.; Gehring, Dale G.; Pavicic, Mark J.; Ding, Yingjai

    1991-07-01

    The Mayo Clinic and IBM (at Rochester, Minnesota) have jointly developed a picture archiving system for use with Mayo's MRI and Neuro CT imaging modalities. The communications backbone of the PACS is a portion of the Mayo institutional network: a series of 4-Mbps token rings interconnected by bridges and fiber optic extensions. The performance characteristics of this system are important to understand because they affect the response time a PACS user can expect, and the response time for non-PACS users competing for resources on the institutional network. The performance characteristics of each component and the average load levels of the network were measured for various load distributions. These data were used to quantify the response characteristics of the existing system and to tune a model developed by North Dakota State University Department of Computer Science for predicting response times of more complex topologies.

  14. PACS-Based Computer-Aided Detection and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H. K. (Bernie); Liu, Brent J.; Le, Anh HongTu; Documet, Jorge

    The ultimate goal of Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS)-based Computer-Aided Detection and Diagnosis (CAD) is to integrate CAD results into daily clinical practice so that it becomes a second reader to aid the radiologist's diagnosis. Integration of CAD and Hospital Information System (HIS), Radiology Information System (RIS) or PACS requires certain basic ingredients from Health Level 7 (HL7) standard for textual data, Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) standard for images, and Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) workflow profiles in order to comply with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) requirements to be a healthcare information system. Among the DICOM standards and IHE workflow profiles, DICOM Structured Reporting (DICOM-SR); and IHE Key Image Note (KIN), Simple Image and Numeric Report (SINR) and Post-processing Work Flow (PWF) are utilized in CAD-HIS/RIS/PACS integration. These topics with examples are presented in this chapter.

  15. Modeling and simulation of control system for electron beam machine (EBM) using programmable automation controller (PAC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leo Kwee Wah; Lojius Lombigit; Abu Bakar Mhd Ghazali; Muhamad Zahidee Taat; Ayub Mohamed; Chong Foh Yoong

    2006-01-01

    An EBM electronic model is designed to simulate the control system of the Nissin EBM, which is located at Block 43, MINT complex of Jalan Dengkil with maximum output of 3 MeV, 30 mA using a Programmable Automation Controllers (PAC). This model operates likes a real EBM system where all the start-up, interlocking and stopping procedures are fully followed. It also involves formulating the mathematical models to relate certain output with the input parameters using data from actual operation on EB machine. The simulation involves a set of PAC system consisting of the digital and analogue input/output modules. The program code is written using Labview software (real-time version) on a PC and then downloaded into the PAC stand-alone memory. All the 23 interlocking signals required by the EB machine are manually controlled by mechanical switches and represented by LEDs. The EB parameters are manually controlled by potentiometers and displayed on analogue and digital meters. All these signals are then interfaced to the PC via a wifi wireless communication built-in at the PAC controller. The program is developed in accordance to the specifications and requirement of the original real EB system and displays them on the panel of the model and also on the PC monitor. All possible chances from human errors, hardware and software malfunctions, including the worst-case conditions will be tested, evaluated and modified. We hope that the performance of our model complies the requirements of operating the EB machine. It also hopes that this electronic model can replace the original PC interfacing being utilized in the Nissin EBM in the near future. The system can also be used to study the fault tolerance analysis and automatic re-configuration for advanced control of the EB system. (Author)

  16. Changes of workflow in a radiolocigal department with RIS, PACS and flatpanel detectors implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imhof, H.; Dirisamer, A.; Fischer, H.; Grampp, S.; Heiner, L.; Kaderk, M.; Krestan, C.; Kainberger, F.

    2002-01-01

    Implementation of radiological information systems (RIS) and picture archiving and communicating systems (PACS) results in significant changes of workflow in a radiological department. Additional connection with flatpanel detectors leads to a shortening of the work process. RIS and PACS implementation alone reduces the complete workflow by 21-80%. With flatpanel technology the image production process is further shortened by 25-30%. The workflow-steps are changed from original 17-12 with the implementation of RIS and PACS and to 5 with the integrated use of flatpanels.This clearly recognizable advantages in the workflow need an according financial investment. Several studies could show that the capitalisationfactor calculated over eight years is positive, with a gain range between 5-25%. Whether the additional implementation of flatpanel detectors results also in a positive capitalisation over the years, cannot be estimated exactly, at the moment, because the experiences are too short. Particuarly critical are the interfaces, which needs a constant quality control. Our flatpanel detector-system is fixed, special images - as we have them in about 3-5% of all cases - need still conventional filmscreen or phosphorplate-systems. Full-spine and long-leg examinations cannot be performed with sufficient exactness. Without any questions implementation of integrated RIS, PACS and flatpanel detector-system needs excellent training of the employees, because of the changes in workflow etc. The main profits of such an integrated implementation are an increase in quality in image and report datas, easier handling - there are almost no more cassettes necessary - and excessive shortening of workflow. (orig.) [de

  17. Numbering of vertebrae on MRI using a PACS cross-referencing tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paik, Nam Chull; Lim, Chun Soo; Jang, Ho Suk

    2012-01-01

    Background: For the detection and documentation of numeric variations on spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), different techniques have previously been introduced. However, these methods require additional special imaging algorithms, software, or devices. We intend to introduce a vertebral numbering method using the existing picture archiving and communication system (PACS) and MRI system. Purpose: To assess the accuracy of a method for numbering presacral vertebrae based on the cross-referencing of two sagittal MRI series. Material and Methods: This study was a retrospective review of 224 consecutive patients who underwent both lumbar MRI with cervicothoracic scan and whole spine radiographic examinations. A radiologist and a neurosurgeon independently counted the number of presacral vertebrae in a cranial-to-caudal approach with cross-referencing of cervicothoracic and lumbar MRI sagittal series on the PACS workstation. Radiographic numbering from the cervical through the thoracic to the lumbar vertebrae, as a reference standard, was completed independently by the two reviewers. An analysis of the inter-observer and intermodality agreements of radiography and MRI was done. Results: In all cases except one, concordant numbering existed between the two modalities of MRI cross-referencing and radiographs combination. Both observers agreed completely, with no inter-observer discordance. Conclusion: The number of vertebrae could be identified consistently by counting caudally from C2 with cross-referencing cervicothoracic and lumbosacral sagittal MRI scans on the PACS workstation

  18. Numbering of vertebrae on MRI using a PACS cross-referencing tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paik, Nam Chull [Dept. of Radiology, Arumdaun Wooldul Spine Hospital, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)], e-mail: srsna@freechal.com; Lim, Chun Soo; Jang, Ho Suk [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Arumdaun Wooldul Spine Hospital, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    Background: For the detection and documentation of numeric variations on spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), different techniques have previously been introduced. However, these methods require additional special imaging algorithms, software, or devices. We intend to introduce a vertebral numbering method using the existing picture archiving and communication system (PACS) and MRI system. Purpose: To assess the accuracy of a method for numbering presacral vertebrae based on the cross-referencing of two sagittal MRI series. Material and Methods: This study was a retrospective review of 224 consecutive patients who underwent both lumbar MRI with cervicothoracic scan and whole spine radiographic examinations. A radiologist and a neurosurgeon independently counted the number of presacral vertebrae in a cranial-to-caudal approach with cross-referencing of cervicothoracic and lumbar MRI sagittal series on the PACS workstation. Radiographic numbering from the cervical through the thoracic to the lumbar vertebrae, as a reference standard, was completed independently by the two reviewers. An analysis of the inter-observer and intermodality agreements of radiography and MRI was done. Results: In all cases except one, concordant numbering existed between the two modalities of MRI cross-referencing and radiographs combination. Both observers agreed completely, with no inter-observer discordance. Conclusion: The number of vertebrae could be identified consistently by counting caudally from C2 with cross-referencing cervicothoracic and lumbosacral sagittal MRI scans on the PACS workstation.

  19. Two year experience with Web connectivity to PACS at a community-based hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadley, Brian D.; Hayward, Ulrike; Trambert, Michael; Kywi, Alberto; Hartzman, Steven

    2002-05-01

    Referring physician web based access to a PACS is evaluated at a community-based hospital. Survey results show 100% perceived improvement in referring physician productivity, and 97% perceived improvement in patient care. Overall satisfaction and perception of ease of use is greater than 90%.Web connectivity to PACS is perceived by 97% to result in decreased visits and calls to the radiology department due to the availability of virtual results, with high value placed on the voice clip summary results by 94% of respondents (the voice clip is a recording made by the radiologist at the time of reading the exam, which summarizes the results of the study).The availability of exams and virtual results via web-based connectivity is perceived to result in increase referrals by 58% of respondents. Web log audit trails are analyzed to evaluate the use of the system by referring physicians. The gross number of cases retrieved over the web for a two-week period is assessed. The number of times a voice clip was played is also evaluated. The results overall show a very positive experience with web connectivity to PACS.

  20. Innovate pin design for Sphere-pac fuel in sodium cooled fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouchon, Manuel A.; Niceno, Bojan; Krepel, Jiri

    2011-01-01

    The paper discusses a new fuel element type, which combines a particle fuel concept, the Sphere-pac, with a new pin design which features internal cooling. Particle fuels are auspicious when considering a closed fuel cycle, where minor actinide containing fuels must be fabricated. The principle advantage lies in their production simplicity with much less maintenance intensive mechanical devices. Furthermore the Sphere-pac is usually produced by a wet and therefore powder-less route. Therefore the implementation in a remotely controlled and heavily shielded environment becomes easier to realize. Besides the advantages in the production process, the Sphere-pac bears one important disadvantage: the lower thermal conductivity of the particle arrangement, and the therefore higher peak temperatures in the fuel. Consequently a new fuel design is suggested in this paper. It offers an internal cooling channel and therefore smaller maximal fuel distances to the coolant. As the concept is new, the most important aspects are studied; these are the neutronics, the temperature profile in the fuel plus thermal-hydraulics aspects. (author)

  1. Effective Reuse of Electroplating Rinse Wastewater by Combining PAC with H2O2/UV Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Hsing Yuan; Kang, Shyh-Fang; Lin, Chen Pei

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated the performance of treating electroplating rinse wastewater by powder activated carbon (PAC) adsorption, H2O2/UV oxidation, and their combination to remove organic compounds and heavy metals. The results showed that neither the process of PAC adsorption nor H2O2/UV oxidation could reduce COD to 100 mg/L, as enforced by the Taiwan Environmental Protection Agency. On the other hand, the water sample treated by the combined approach of using PAC (5 g/L) pre-adsorption and H2O2/UV post-oxidation (UV of 64 W, H2O2 of 100 mg/L, oxidation time of 90 min), COD and DOC were reduced to 8.2 mg/L and 3.8 mg/L, respectively. Also, the combined approach reduced heavy metals to meet the effluent standards and to satisfy the in-house water reuse criteria for the electroplating factory. The reaction constant analysis indicated that the reaction proceeded much more rapidly for the combined process. Hence, it is a more efficient, economic and environmentally friendly process.

  2. PACS technologies and reliability: are we making things better or worse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horii, Steven C.; Redfern, Regina O.; Kundel, Harold L.; Nodine, Calvin F.

    2002-05-01

    In the process of installing picture archiving and communications (PACS) and speech recognition equipment, upgrading it, and working with previously stored digital image information, the authors encountered a number of problems. Examination of these difficulties illustrated the complex nature of our existing systems and how difficult it is, in many cases, to predict the behavior of these systems. This was found to be true even for our relatively small number of interconnected systems. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate some of the principles of understanding complex system interaction through examples from our experience. The work for this paper grew out of a number of studies we had carried out on our PACS over several years. The complex nature of our systems was evaluated through comparison of our operations with known examples of systems in other industries. Three scenarios: a network failure, a system software upgrade, and attempting to read media from an old archive showed that the major systems used in the radiology departments of many healthcare facilities (HIS, RIS, PACS, and speed recognition) are likely to interact in complex and often unpredictable ways. These interactions may be very difficult or impossible to predict, so that some plans should be made to overcome the negative aspects of the problems that result. Failures and problems, often unpredictable ones, are a likely side effect of having multiple information handling and processing systems interconnected and interoperating. Planning to avoid, or at least not be so vulnerable, to such difficulties is an important aspect of systems planning.

  3. PAC++: Object-oriented platform for accelerator codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malitsky, N.; Reshetov, A.; Bourianoff, G.

    1994-06-01

    Software packages in accelerator physics have relatively long life cycles. They had been developed and used for a wide range of accelerators in the past as well as for the current projects. For example, the basic algorithms written in the first accelerator Program TRANSPORT are actual for design of most magnet systems. Most of these packages had been implemented on Fortran. But this language is rather inconvenient as a basic language for large integrated projects that possibly could include real-time data acquisition, data base access, graphic riser interface modules (GUI), arid other features. Some later accelerator programs had been based on object-oriented tools (primarily, C++ language). These range from systems for advanced theoretical studies to control system software. For the new generations of accelerators it would be desirable to have an integrated platform in which all simulation and control tasks will be considered with one point of view. In this report the basic principles of an object-oriented platform for accelerator research software (PAC++) are suggested and analyzed. Primary objectives of this work are to enable efficient self-explaining realization of the accelerator concepts and to provide an integrated environment for the updating and the developing of the code

  4. Image acquisition for the pediatric radiology PACS module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, B.K.; Morioka, C.; Mankovich, N.J.; Stewart, B.; Huang, H.K.

    1987-01-01

    The prototype PACS module implemented at UCLA's pediatric radiology section has multi-modality access to image data from any of the three types of sources: digital modalities (i.e. CT, MR, and DSA), the Fuji Computed Radiography unit (FCR), and laser film digitizers. An interface unit was built to facilitate real-time data transfer from the FCR to the VAX11/750 which serves as the PACS host computer. The design of the interface unit, methods for linking to digital modalities, and characteristics of two film digitizers are described

  5. Influence map baserad Ms. Pac-Man och Ghost Kontroller

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, Johan

    2012-01-01

    This thesis will cover the use oftheinfluence map technique applied to the retro game Ms. Pac-Man. A game thatis easy to learn but hard to master. The Ms. Pac-Man controller is implemented with five main parameters that alters the behaviour of the controller while the Ghost controller have three parameters. The experimental results of the controllers is explored to using the alterations of the parameters to find its peak of performance. The conclusion from using the influence map for this gam...

  6. A comparative study of self-regulation in substance dependent and non-dependent individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshani, Nour Mohammad; Hosseinbor, Mohsen

    2013-08-05

    Several factors influence the beginning and maintenance of substance use. The purpose of this study was to examine as well as to compare 'self-regulation' in both substance dependent and non-substance dependent individuals. In a cross-sectional study 228 (118 substance dependent and 110 with no history of using substance) participants aged 16-55 were recruited. All of the participants were asked to complete the Self-Regulation Inventory (SRI-25) and a demographic characteristics data checklist. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics (frequency, mean and standard deviation) and the t-test. The results showed significant differences between substance dependent and non- substance dependent groups in all the scales of the self-regulation inventory including positive actions, controllability, expression of feelings and needs, assertiveness, and well-being seeking (p<0.01). Self-regulation and self-control skills in drug dependent individuals are lower than those without substance dependence individuals. It is concluded that substance use may related to a deficiency in self-control and regulation of feelings. Therefore, for prevention and treatment of substance dependence disorder, it is necessary to work out and exploit strategies that include the improvement of self-regulation.

  7. HyPac french platform on the hydrogen and fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucchese, P.

    2008-01-01

    HyPac is a french platform on the hydrogen and fuel cells applications, created in 2008. the authors presents the opportunities of the french platform HyPac, the objectives, the participants and the budget. (A.L.B.)

  8. PACS and SPIRE photometer maps of M33 : First results of the HERschel M33 Extended Survey (HERM33ES)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, C.; Buchbender, C.; Xilouris, E. M.; Boquien, M.; Braine, J.; Calzetti, D.; Lord, S.; Mookerjea, B.; Quintana-Lacaci, G.; Relano, M.; Stacey, G.; Tabatabaei, F. S.; Verley, S.; Aalto, S.; Akras, S.; Albrecht, M.; Anderl, S.; Beck, R.; Bertoldi, F.; Combes, F.; Dumke, M.; Garcia-Burillo, S.; Gonzalez, M.; Gratier, P.; Guesten, R.; Henkel, C.; Israel, F. P.; Koribalski, B.; Lundgren, A.; Martin-Pintado, J.; Roellig, M.; Rosolowsky, E.; Schuster, K. F.; Sheth, K.; Sievers, A.; Stutzki, J.; Tilanus, R.P.J.; van der Tak, F.; Wiedner, M. C.; van der Werf, Paul P.

    Context. Within the framework of the HERM33ES key program, we are studying the star forming interstellar medium in the nearby, metal-poor spiral galaxy M33, exploiting the high resolution and sensitivity of Herschel. Aims. We use PACS and SPIRE maps at 100, 160, 250, 350, and 500 mu m wavelength, to

  9. A reliability and utility study of the Care Dependency Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, A.; Buist, G.; Moorer, P.; Dassen, T.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and utility of the Care Dependency Scale (CDS). This 15-item scale has been developed recently for assessing the care dependency of demented or menially handicapped inpatients. Data for this study were collected from 153 demented and 139

  10. Context indexing of digital cardiac ultrasound records in PACS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobodzinski, S. Suave; Meszaros, Georg N.

    1998-07-01

    Recent wide adoption of the DICOM 3.0 standard by ultrasound equipment vendors created a need for practical clinical implementations of cardiac imaging study visualization, management and archiving, DICOM 3.0 defines only a logical and physical format for exchanging image data (still images, video, patient and study demographics). All DICOM compliant imaging studies must presently be archived on a 650 Mb recordable compact disk. This is a severe limitation for ultrasound applications where studies of 3 to 10 minutes long are a common practice. In addition, DICOM digital echocardiography objects require physiological signal indexing, content segmentation and characterization. Since DICOM 3.0 is an interchange standard only, it does not define how to database composite video objects. The goal of this research was therefore to address the issues of efficient storage, retrieval and management of DICOM compliant cardiac video studies in a distributed PACS environment. Our Web based implementation has the advantage of accommodating both DICOM defined entity-relation modules (equipment data, patient data, video format, etc.) in standard relational database tables and digital indexed video with its attributes in an object relational database. Object relational data model facilitates content indexing of full motion cardiac imaging studies through bi-directional hyperlink generation that tie searchable video attributes and related objects to individual video frames in the temporal domain. Benefits realized from use of bi-directionally hyperlinked data models in an object relational database include: (1) real time video indexing during image acquisition, (2) random access and frame accurate instant playback of previously recorded full motion imaging data, and (3) time savings from faster and more accurate access to data through multiple navigation mechanisms such as multidimensional queries on an index, queries on a hyperlink attribute, free search and browsing.

  11. 75 FR 80082 - State, Local, Tribal, And Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee (SLTPS-PAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-21

    ..., Tribal, And Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee (SLTPS-PAC) AGENCY: Information Security Oversight... State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee (SLTPS-PAC). The SLTPS-PAC will..., Tribal, and Private Sector Entities, as specified in Executive Order 13549 and its implementing directive...

  12. Operator interface design considerations for a PACS information management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinke, James E.; Nabijee, Kamal H.; Freeman, Rick H.; Prior, Fred W.

    1990-08-01

    As prototype PACS grow into fully digital departmental and hospital-wide systems, effective information storage and retrieval mechanisms become increasingly important. Thus far, designers of PACS workstations have concentrated on image communication and display functionality. The new challenge is to provide appropriate operator interface environments to facilitate information retrieval. The "Marburg Model" 1 provides a detailed analysis of the functions, control flows and data structures used in Radiology. It identifies a set of "actors" who perform information manipulation functions. Drawing on this model and its associated methodology it is possible to identify four modes of use of information systems in Radiology: Clinical Routine, Research, Consultation, and Administration. Each mode has its own specific access requirements and views of information. An operator interface strategy appropriate for each mode will be proposed. Clinical Routine mode is the principal concern of PACS primary diagnosis workstations. In a full PACS implementation, such workstations must provide a simple and consistent navigational aid for the on-line image database, a local work list of cases to be reviewed, and easy access to information from other hospital information systems. A hierarchical method of information access is preferred because it provides the ability to start at high-level entities and iteratively narrow the scope of information from which to select subsequent operations. An implementation using hierarchical, nested software windows which fulfills such requirements shall be examined.

  13. Internationalization of healthcare applications: a generic approach for PACS workstations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, R; Engelmann, U; Schroeter, A; Meinzer, H P

    2004-01-01

    Along with the revolution of information technology and the increasing use of computers world-wide, software providers recognize the emerging need for internationalized, or global, software applications. The importance of internationalization comes from its benefits such as addressing a broader audience, making the software applications more accessible, easier to use, more flexible to support and providing users with more consistent information. In addition, some governmental agencies, e.g., in Spain, accept only fully localized software. Although the healthcare communication standards, namely, Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) and Health Level Seven (HL7) support wide areas of internationalization, most of the implementers are still protective about supporting the complex languages. This paper describes a generic internationalization approach for Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) workstations. The Unicode standard is used to internationalize the application user interface. An encoding converter was developed to encode and decode the data between the rendering module (in Unicode encoding) and the DICOM data (in ISO 8859 encoding). An integration gateway was required to integrate the internationalized PACS components with the different PACS installations. To introduce a pragmatic example, the described approach was applied to the CHILI PACS workstation. The approach has enabled the application to handle the different internationalization aspects transparently, such as supporting complex languages, switching between different languages at runtime, and supporting multilingual clinical reports. In the healthcare enterprises, internationalized applications play an essential role in supporting a seamless flow of information between the heterogeneous multivendor information systems.

  14. Design and optimizing factors of PACS network architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Yonghao; Miao Jingtao

    2001-01-01

    Objective: Exploring the design and optimizing factors of picture archiving and communication system (PACS) network architecture. Methods: Based on the PACS of shanghai first hospital to performed the measurements and tests on the requirements of network bandwidth and transmitting rate for different PACS functions and procedures respectively in static and dynamic network traffic situation, utilizing the network monitoring tools which built-in workstations and provided by Windows NT. Results: No obvious difference between switch equipment and HUB when measurements and tests implemented in static situation except route which slow down the rate markedly. In dynamic environment Switch is able to provide higher bandwidth utilizing than HUB and local system scope communication achieved faster transmitting rate than global system. Conclusion: The primary optimizing factors of PACS network architecture design include concise network topology and disassemble tremendous global traffic to multiple distributed local scope network communication to reduce the traffic of network backbone. The most important issue is guarantee essential bandwidth for diagnosis procedure of medical imaging

  15. (PACS) data security breaches: Intentional versus non-intentional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) has led to an increase in breached health records and violation of patient confidentiality. The South African constitution makes provision for human dignity and privacy, virtues which confidentiality seeks to preserve. Confidentiality thus constitutes a ...

  16. Scientific programming on massively parallel processor CP-PACS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boku, Taisuke

    1998-01-01

    The massively parallel processor CP-PACS takes various problems of calculation physics as the object, and it has been designed so that its architecture has been devised to do various numerical processings. In this report, the outline of the CP-PACS and the example of programming in the Kernel CG benchmark in NAS Parallel Benchmarks, version 1, are shown, and the pseudo vector processing mechanism and the parallel processing tuning of scientific and technical computation utilizing the three-dimensional hyper crossbar net, which are two great features of the architecture of the CP-PACS are described. As for the CP-PACS, the PUs based on RISC processor and added with pseudo vector processor are used. Pseudo vector processing is realized as the loop processing by scalar command. The features of the connection net of PUs are explained. The algorithm of the NPB version 1 Kernel CG is shown. The part that takes the time for processing most in the main loop is the product of matrix and vector (matvec), and the parallel processing of the matvec is explained. The time for the computation by the CPU is determined. As the evaluation of the performance, the evaluation of the time for execution, the short vector processing of pseudo vector processor based on slide window, and the comparison with other parallel computers are reported. (K.I.)

  17. First results of Herschel-PACS observations of Neptune

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lellouch, E.; Hartogh, P.; Feuchtgruber, H.; Vandenbussche, B.; de Graauw, Th.; Moreno, R.; Jarchow, C.; Cavalie, T.; Orton, G.; Banaszkiewicz, M.; Blecka, M. I.; Bockelee-Morvan, D.; Crovisier, J.; Encrenaz, T.; Fulton, T.; Kueppers, M.; Lara, L. M.; Lis, D. C.; Medvedev, A. S.; Rengel, M.; Sagawa, H.; Swinyard, B.; Szutowicz, S.; Bensch, F.; Bergin, E.; Billebaud, F.; Biver, N.; Blake, G. A.; Blommaert, J. A. D. L.; Cernicharo, J.; Courtin, R.; Davis, G. R.; Decin, L.; Encrenaz, P.; Gonzalez, A.; Jehin, E.; Kidger, M.; Naylor, D.; Portyankina, G.; Schieder, R.; Sidher, S.; Thomas, N.; de Val-Borro, M.; Verdugo, E.; Waelkens, C.; Aarts, H.; Comito, C.; Kawamura, J. H.; Maestrini, A.; Peacocke, T.; Teipen, R.; Tils, T.; Wildeman, K.; Walker, H.; Blake, G.A.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the initial analysis of a Herschel-PACS full range spectrum of Neptune, covering the 51-220 mu m range with a mean resolving power of similar to 3000, and complemented by a dedicated observation of CH(4) at 120 mu m. Numerous spectral features due to HD (R(0) and R(1)), H(2)O, CH(4),

  18. PACS in Töölö hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, J; Pohjonen, H

    2001-07-01

    A 3-year PACS project was started in 1997 and completed in 1999 with filmless radiology and surgery. An efficient network for transferring images provides the infrastructure for integration of different distributed imaging systems and enables efficient handling of all patient-related information on one display station. Because of the need for high-speed communications and the massive amount of image data transferred in radiology, ATM (25, 155 Mbit/s) was chosen to be the main technology used. Both hardware and software redundancy of the system have been carefully planned. The size of the Dicom image library utilizing MO discs is currently 1.2 TB with 300 GB RAID capacity. For the increasing amount of teleradiologic consultations, a special Dicom gateway is planned. It allows a centralized and resilient handling and routing of received images around the hospital. Hospital-wide PACS has already improved the speed and quality of patient care by providing instant access to diagnostic information at multiple locations simultaneously. The benefits of PACS are considered from the viewpoint of the entire hospital: PACS offers a method for efficiently transporting patient-related images and reports to the referring physicians.

  19. PACS 2000: quality control using the task allocation chart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Gary S.; Romlein, John R.; Lyche, David K.; Richardson, Ronald R., Jr.

    2000-05-01

    Medical imaging's technological evolution in the next century will continue to include Picture Archive and Communication Systems (PACS) and teleradiology. It is difficult to predict radiology's future in the new millennium with both computed radiography and direct digital capture competing as the primary image acquisition methods for routine radiography. Changes in Computed Axial Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) continue to amaze the healthcare community. No matter how the acquisition, display, and archive functions change, Quality Control (QC) of the radiographic imaging chain will remain an important step in the imaging process. The Task Allocation Chart (TAC) is a tool that can be used in a medical facility's QC process to indicate the testing responsibilities of the image stakeholders and the medical informatics department. The TAC shows a grid of equipment to be serviced, tasks to be performed, and the organization assigned to perform each task. Additionally, skills, tasks, time, and references for each task can be provided. QC of the PACS must be stressed as a primary element of a PACS' implementation. The TAC can be used to clarify responsibilities during warranty and paid maintenance periods. Establishing a TAC a part of a PACS implementation has a positive affect on patient care and clinical acceptance.

  20. PACS and diagnostic imaging service delivery-A UK perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, Laurence N.

    2011-01-01

    This review sets out the current position with regard to the implementation of PACS throughout the United Kingdom and the impact this has had on improving patient care. In December 2007 England had implemented full hospital-wide PACS in all hospitals: a major achievement in the relatively short time period of three years. The different approaches used by each country of the UK to achieve full national PACS are described in addition to the current issues with the sharing of images and reports across different healthcare organisations with regard to technical solutions, clinical safety and governance. The review gives insight into the changing methods of service delivery to address increasing demand pressures on diagnostic imaging services and how the national PACS implementation, specifically in England, has made a significant contribution to measures to improve efficiencies. The role of Teleradiology is discussed in the context of supporting local patient services rather than undermining them and the concept of cross-healthcare reporting 'Grids' is described. Finally, in the summary it is recognised that the vast wealth of knowledge accumulated during the national implementations has placed the UK in a strong position to facilitate full national data sharing across all healthcare organisations to improve patient care.

  1. Impact of PAC Fines in Fouling of Polymeric and Ceramic Low-Pressure Membranes for Drinking Water Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oligny, Laurent; Bérubé, Pierre R; Barbeau, Benoit

    2016-07-07

    This study assessed the issue of membrane fouling in a Hybrid Membrane Process (HMP) due to the export of powdered activated carbon (PAC) fines from a pretreatment contactor. Two parallel pilot-scale ceramic and polymeric membranes were studied. Reversible and irreversible foulings were measured following three cleaning procedures: Physical backwashing (BW), chemically enhanced backwashing (CEB) and Clean-in-Place (CIP). The impacts on fouling of membrane type, operation flux increase and the presence/absence of the PAC pretreatment were investigated. Membranes without pretreatment were operated in parallel as a control. In addition, CIP washwaters samples were analyzed to measure organic and inorganic foulants removed from the membranes. It was observed that for the polymeric membranes, fouling generally increased with the presence of the PAC pretreatment because of the export of fines. On the contrary, the ceramic membranes were not significantly impacted by their presence. The analysis of CIP washwaters showed a greater total organic carbon (TOC) content on membranes with a PAC pretreatment while no similar conclusion could be made for inorganic foulants.

  2. Impact of PAC Fines in Fouling of Polymeric and Ceramic Low-Pressure Membranes for Drinking Water Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oligny, Laurent; Bérubé, Pierre R.; Barbeau, Benoit

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the issue of membrane fouling in a Hybrid Membrane Process (HMP) due to the export of powdered activated carbon (PAC) fines from a pretreatment contactor. Two parallel pilot-scale ceramic and polymeric membranes were studied. Reversible and irreversible foulings were measured following three cleaning procedures: Physical backwashing (BW), chemically enhanced backwashing (CEB) and Clean-in-Place (CIP). The impacts on fouling of membrane type, operation flux increase and the presence/absence of the PAC pretreatment were investigated. Membranes without pretreatment were operated in parallel as a control. In addition, CIP washwaters samples were analyzed to measure organic and inorganic foulants removed from the membranes. It was observed that for the polymeric membranes, fouling generally increased with the presence of the PAC pretreatment because of the export of fines. On the contrary, the ceramic membranes were not significantly impacted by their presence. The analysis of CIP washwaters showed a greater total organic carbon (TOC) content on membranes with a PAC pretreatment while no similar conclusion could be made for inorganic foulants. PMID:27399788

  3. Impact of PAC Fines in Fouling of Polymeric and Ceramic Low-Pressure Membranes for Drinking Water Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Oligny

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the issue of membrane fouling in a Hybrid Membrane Process (HMP due to the export of powdered activated carbon (PAC fines from a pretreatment contactor. Two parallel pilot-scale ceramic and polymeric membranes were studied. Reversible and irreversible foulings were measured following three cleaning procedures: Physical backwashing (BW, chemically enhanced backwashing (CEB and Clean-in-Place (CIP. The impacts on fouling of membrane type, operation flux increase and the presence/absence of the PAC pretreatment were investigated. Membranes without pretreatment were operated in parallel as a control. In addition, CIP washwaters samples were analyzed to measure organic and inorganic foulants removed from the membranes. It was observed that for the polymeric membranes, fouling generally increased with the presence of the PAC pretreatment because of the export of fines. On the contrary, the ceramic membranes were not significantly impacted by their presence. The analysis of CIP washwaters showed a greater total organic carbon (TOC content on membranes with a PAC pretreatment while no similar conclusion could be made for inorganic foulants.

  4. From shared data to sharing workflow: Merging PACS and teleradiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, Menashe; Aradi, Yinon; Shreiber, Reuven

    2010-01-01

    Due to a host of technological, interface, operational and workflow limitations, teleradiology and PACS/RIS were historically developed as separate systems serving different purposes. PACS/RIS handled local radiology storage and workflow management while teleradiology addressed remote access to images. Today advanced PACS/RIS support complete site radiology workflow for attending physicians, whether on-site or remote. In parallel, teleradiology has emerged into a service of providing remote, off-hours, coverage for emergency radiology and to a lesser extent subspecialty reading to subscribing sites and radiology groups. When attending radiologists use teleradiology for remote access to a site, they may share all relevant patient data and participate in the site's workflow like their on-site peers. The operation gets cumbersome and time consuming when these radiologists serve multi-sites, each requiring a different remote access, or when the sites do not employ the same PACS/RIS/Reporting Systems and do not share the same ownership. The least efficient operation is of teleradiology companies engaged in reading for multiple facilities. As these services typically employ non-local radiologists, they are allowed to share some of the available patient data necessary to provide an emergency report but, by enlarge, they do not share the workflow of the sites they serve. Radiology stakeholders usually prefer to have their own radiologists perform all radiology tasks including interpretation of off-hour examinations. It is possible with current technology to create a system that combines the benefits of local radiology services to multiple sites with the advantages offered by adding subspecialty and off-hours emergency services through teleradiology. Such a system increases efficiency for the radiology groups by enabling all users, regardless of location, to work 'local' and fully participate in the workflow of every site. We refer to such a system as SuperPACS.

  5. Physical and psychological nicotine dependence in Greeks: an epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaritis, Vasileios; Mamai-Homata, Eleni

    2010-01-01

    Smoking is the most widespread addictive behaviour in the world, as it causes physical and psychological dependence on nicotine. The objective of the present study was to discern the prevalence and the relative risks of nicotine dependence of adult people in Athens, Greece, as this country holds first place in cigarette consumption in the European Union. A random sample of 202 current smokers (82 men and 120 women) was drawn from residents aged v 18 years in Athens, the capital of Greece. A questionnaire on the physical (Fagerstrom Test of Nicotine Dependence) and psychological (American Psychiatric Association's diagnostic criteria of nicotine abuse) nicotine dependence was used. According to the results of the present study, 12.4% of the sample reported null physical nicotine dependence, and 31.7% had low, 25.7% had moderate and 30.2% had high nicotine dependence. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that younger people (aged 18 to 24 and 25 to 34, odds ratio [OR] = 0.047, P physical dependence. Women tended to be systematically less dependent than men (25% and 37.8% high dependence, respectively). Furthermore, 75.7% of the sample had psychological nicotine dependence. Binary logistic regression analysis and chi-square test revealed that younger people (18- to 24-year-olds, OR = 0.081, P dependence. In addition, women showed a higher percentage of withdrawal symptoms compared with men (80% and 68%, respectively). The results of the present study provided compelling evidence that physical and, in particular, psychological nicotine dependence of adult people in Athens, Greece, was significant, and this calls for a course of action that should be taken by public health policy-makers to reduce smoke consumption.

  6. Online gaming dependency: a preliminary study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wei; Liu, Ming

    2010-06-01

    Based on theories and previous studies on problematic Internet use, we propose a model to better understand the contributors to and consequences of online gaming dependency. A preliminary study was conducted through a survey of online gamers in China. The results of path analysis found that maladaptive cognitions, shyness, and depression are positively related to online gaming dependency. Online gaming dependency was also positively related to different types of negative life outcomes. The findings of this study have implications for the prevention and treatment of addictive online gaming.

  7. The Study of early maladaptive Schemas in Men Dependent on Drugs and those Not Dependent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Firoozi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Objectives of the Study Dependence on drugs is a prevalent problem throughout the world, in general and in Iran, in particular. Such a phenomenon is associated with numerous negative consequences. Given the changes in the consumption patterns in different countries, especially in Iran, and the abuse of drugs, identifying the factors which may pave the way for drug abuse is absolutely essential, which can be taken into account in setting the objectives of therapy programs. Cognizant of this, the present study has sought to study early maladaptive schemas in men dependent on drugs and those that are not. Materials and Method: The research design adopted in the present study was causal-comparative. The populaiton of interest was all the men dependent on drugs in the city of Yasouj, who had presented to recovery centers affiliated to welfare organization and Yasouj University of Medical Sciences in the year 2014 and were undergoing treatment. Using multi-stage cluster sampling, initially out of 23 centers for recovery programs, four centers were randomly chosen. Following that, out of each center, 20 and in total, 80 clients were chosen as the sample through convenience sampling. In addition, 80 men not dependent on drugs were chosen through matching with the sample dependent on drugs in terms of age, gender and locality. For the purpsoe of measuing early maladaptive schemas, we made use of the short version of Young’s early maladaptive Schemas Questionnaire. In order to determine the prevalent schemas in men dependent on drugs and those not dependent and the difference between the two groups, use was made of independent-sample t-test and effect size (d. Findings: The findings suggest that mean values of those dependent on drugs in all the schemas in quesiton were significantly higher than those of men not dependent. Although the difference in effect size of all schemas fell in the domain of the large effect, the largest

  8. Effect of PACS/CR on cost of care and length of stay in a medical intensive care unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlotz, Curtis P.; Kundel, Harold L.; Brikman, Inna; Pratt, Hugh M.; Redfern, Regina O.; Horii, Steven C.; Schwartz, J. Sanford

    1996-05-01

    Our purpose was to determine the economic effects associated with the introduction of PACS and computed radiology (CR) in a medical intensive care unit (MICU). Clinical and financial data were collected over a period of 6 months, both before and after the introduction of PACS/CR in our medical intensive care unit. Administrative claims data resulting from the MICU stay of each patient enrolled in our study were transferred online to our research database from the administrative databases of our hospital and its affiliated clinical practices. These data included all charge entries, sociodemographic data, admissions/discharge/transfer chronologies, ICD9 diagnostic and procedure codes, and diagnostic related groups. APACHE III scores and other case mix adjusters were computed from the diagnostic codes, and from the contemporaneous medical record. Departmental charge to cost ratios and the Medicare Resource-Based Relative Value Scale fee schedule were used to estimate costs from hospital and professional charges. Data were analyzed using both the patient and the exam as the unit of analysis. Univariate analyses by patient show that patients enrolled during the PACS periods were similar to those enrolled during the Film periods in age, sex, APACHE III score, and other measures of case mix. No significant differences in unadjusted median length of stay between the two Film and two PACS periods were detected. Likewise, no significant differences in unadjusted total hospital and professional costs were found between the Film and PACS periods. In our univariate analyses by exam, we focused on the subgroup of exams that had triggered primary clinical actions in any period. Those action-triggering exams were divided into two groups according to whether the referring clinician elected to obtain imaging results from the workstation or from the usual channels. Patients whose imaging results were obtain from the workstation had significantly lower professional costs in the 7 days

  9. Study of Cu-Al-Zn alloys hardness temperature dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurmanova, D.T.; Skakov, M.K.; Melikhov, V.D.

    2001-01-01

    In the paper the results of studies for the Cu-Al-Zn ternary alloys hardness temperature dependence are presented. The method of 'hot hardness' has been used during study of the solid state phase transformations and under determination of the hot stability boundaries. Due to the samples brittleness a hardness temperature dependence definition is possible only from 350-400 deg. C. Sensitivity of the 'hot hardness' method is decreasing within high plasticity range, so the measurements have been carried out only up to 700-800 deg. C. It is shown, that the alloys hardness dependence character from temperature is close to exponential one within the certain structure modification existence domain

  10. Analysis of dependent failures in the ORNL precursor study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballard, G.M.

    1985-01-01

    The study of dependent failures (or common cause/mode failures) in the safety assessment of potentially hazardous plant is one of the significant areas of uncertainty in performing probabilistic safety studies. One major reason for this uncertainty is that data on dependent failures is apparently not readily available in sufficient quantity to assist in the development and validation of models. The incident reports that were compiled for the ORNL study on Precursors to Severe Core Damage Accidents (NUREG/CR-2497) provide an opportunity to look at the importance of dependent failures in the most significant incidents of recent reactor operations, to look at the success of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methods in accounting for the contribution of dependent failures, and to look at the dependent failure incidents with the aim of identifying the most significant problem areas. In this paper an analysis has been made of the incidents compiled in NUREG/CR-2497 and events involving multiple failures which were not independent have been identified. From this analysis it is clear that dependent failures are a very significant contributor to the precursor incidents. The method of enumeration of accident frequency used in NUREG-2497 can be shown to take account of dependent failures and this may be a significant factor contributing to the apparent difference between the precursor accident frequency and typical PRA frequencies

  11. THE EXTRAORDINARY FAR-INFRARED VARIATION OF A PROTOSTAR: HERSCHEL/PACS OBSERVATIONS OF LRLL54361

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balog, Zoltan; Detre, Örs H.; Bouwmann, Jeroen; Nielbock, Markus; Klaas, Ulrich; Krause, Oliver; Henning, Thomas [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy Königstuhl 17, Heidelberg D-69117 (Germany); Muzerolle, James [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Flaherty, Kevin [Astronomy Department, Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT 06459 (United States); Furlan, Elise [Natinal Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Gutermuth, Rob [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Juhasz, Attila [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333-CA Leiden (Netherlands); Bally, John [CASA, University of Colorado, CB 389, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Marton, Gabor, E-mail: balog@mpia.de [Konkoly Observatory, Research Center for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Konkoly Thege 15-17, 1121 Budapest (Hungary)

    2014-07-10

    We report Herschel/Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) photometric observations at 70 μm and 160 μm of LRLL54361—a suspected binary protostar that exhibits periodic (P = 25.34 days) flux variations at shorter wavelengths (3.6 μm and 4.5 μm) thought to be due to pulsed accretion caused by binary motion. The PACS observations show unprecedented flux variation at these far-infrared wavelengths that are well correlated with the variations at shorter wavelengths. At 70 μm the object increases its flux by a factor of six while at 160 μm the change is about a factor of two, consistent with the wavelength dependence seen in the far-infrared spectra. The source is marginally resolved at 70 μm with varying FWHM. Deconvolved images of the sources show elongations exactly matching the outflow cavities traced by the scattered light observations. The spatial variations are anti-correlated with the flux variation, indicating that a light echo is responsible for the changes in FWHM. The observed far-infrared flux variability indicates that the disk and envelope of this source is periodically heated by the accretion pulses of the central source, and suggests that such long wavelength variability in general may provide a reasonable proxy for accretion variations in protostars.

  12. The effects of PACS on radiographer's work practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, W.; Aspelin, P.; Bergquist, M.; Hillergard, K.; Jacobsson, B.; Lindskoeld, L.; Wallberg, J.; Lundberg, N.

    2007-01-01

    This paper identifies and analyses the effects of picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) on radiographers' work practice. It shows that the introduction of PACS did not simply entail the transfer of data and information from the analogue world to the digital world, but it also led to the introduction of new ways of communicating, and new activities and responsibilities on the part of radiography staff. Radiographers are called upon to work increasingly independently, and individual practitioners require higher levels of professional expertise. In all, this paper demonstrates that new technical solutions sometimes lead to substantial changes in responsibilities in work. In this example, the radiographers' work practice has become more highly scientific and they are enjoying a higher level of prestige

  13. PACS and the digital storage of medical images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, J.R.; Johnston, R.E.; Pizer, S.M.; Lowendorf, D.D.; Rogers, D.C.; Thompson, B.C.; Parrish, D.M.; Brenton, B.C.; Staab, E.V.

    1986-01-01

    An application of computers in medicine is developing wherein large amounts of digital information in the form of images must be stored, retrieved, and displayed quickly. In radiology this application most commonly goes by the acronym PACS which stands for picture archival and communications system. Estimates of the storage requirements for radiologic images strongly suggest that we should think in terms of terabytes per year for a 150,000 procedure/year, 600 bed hospital. Transmission of patient image data files (a single X-ray image pair may be 12.6 Mbytes) arouses concern over transmission speeds, user waiting tolerances and a communications standard. An important accord is being reached between users and equipment manufacturers in radiology for a standard communications protocol, called the proposed ACR-NEMA standard. Features of PACS which require high speed computational abilities include a lexicon for report generation and image reconstruction, compression, enhancement and 3D display

  14. Incremental picture archiving and communication system (PACS) - an appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagle, K.

    2000-01-01

    Digital storage phosphor radiography is slowly being introduced in Australia with more sites making the conversion from film/screen to computed radiography or a fully integrated Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS). St Vincent's Hospital, Melbourne (SVHM) introduced partial PACS for general radiography in June 1996. This involved networking two Fuji CR Image Plate Readers and an existing Kodak KESPR400 Reader with viewing stations strategically placed in Medical Imaging, Casualty and the Intensive and Coronary Care units. No long-term storage device or archive facility was purchased. This installation coincided with the relocation of the Medical Imaging Department (MID) to a fully equipped new site as well as the introduction of the Kestral Radiology Management System. The transition has involved significant changes to the department's design, workflow and the radiographers' work practices. Copyright (1999) Australian Institute of Radiography

  15. Peligros del átomo pacífico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Zarco de Gea

    1962-07-01

    Full Text Available Expuestas en el artículo anterior las ventajas que el hombre puede obtener del uso de la energía atómica para fines pacíficos: industria, agricultura, medicina, investigación científica, etc., parece oportuno examinar ahora el reverso de la medalla y estudiar los inconvenientes de ese mismo uso pacífico de las fuerzas atómicas; inconvenientes, dicho sea de paso, que también existen en el aprovechamiento de otras fuerzas naturales, físicas o químicas, en las minas, fábricas, laboratorios y otras muchas empresas de toda índole; pero tratándose de las energías nucleares entran en juego factores nuevos y especiales, que llevan el asunto a terrenos diferentes: moral, político, de salud pública, etc.

  16. Is PACS feasible for a major department of radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bautz, W.; Kolbe, J.

    1986-01-01

    Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS) are getting more and more important for Departments of Radiology with the increasing spread of digital imaging methods. To determine the demands made on such systems, we calculated the digital image data volume for all examinations carried out in 1983 at the Department of Medical Radiology of the University of Tuebingen. 20.37% of all examinations were performed with digitalised equipment. Plain radiography takes the lion's share among the total number of image data. If digitalisation is based on a spatial resolution of 8 Lp/mm, the share is 98.4% of the total image data volume of 7123 GByte. This figure is far in excess of the estimates stated in literature. The possibilities of image data reduction and feasibility of a major PACS are discussed. (orig.) [de

  17. PACS or the future of the radiologist's working place

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer-Ebrecht, D.

    1988-01-01

    PACS (picture archiving and communication systems) is a synonym for the replacement of the traditional photographic film by means of technologies that will communicate and store images exclusively in digital form. Digital mass storage will replace the film archives and will be linked to all image sources by means of a data communication network. More significantly, PACS will also introduce a novel type of image-evaluation modality, the diagnostic image work station. Images will be displayed on TV monitors. In addition, a variety of support functions will become available for image handling and processing. The replacement of the light box by a digital work station will definitely cause dramatic changes in the radiologist's work. (orig.) [de

  18. Learning in clinical practice: findings from CT, MRI and PACS

    OpenAIRE

    Sinozic, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    This thesis explores learning in clinical practice in the cases of CT, MRI and PACS in\\ud UK hospitals. It asks the questions of how and why certain evolutionary features of\\ud technology condition learning and change in medical contexts.\\ud Using an evolutionary perspective of cognitive and social aspects of technological\\ud change, this thesis explores the relationships between technology and organisational\\ud learning processes of intuition, interpretation, integration and institutionalisa...

  19. Description and repair procedure for optical digitizers PAC-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayat, M.K.; Ahmad, M.S.; Beg, M.M.

    1982-06-01

    The optical digitizer type PAC-4 is an optical analogue-to-digital converter with parallel read out. The optical digitizer is intended for digital measurements of angular rotation of its shaft. In this application the control shaft of the digitizer is coupled to a wheel, which moves on the carriage of the respective spectrometer axes, and indicates its angular position. For accurate determination of the selected neutron energies, it is important to measure the diffraction angles very accurately. (orig./A.B.)

  20. Wilson and Domainwall Kernels on Oakforest-PACS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, Issaku; Matsufuru, Hideo

    2018-03-01

    We report the performance of Wilson and Domainwall Kernels on a new Intel Xeon Phi Knights Landing based machine named Oakforest-PACS, which is co-hosted by University of Tokyo and Tsukuba University and is currently fastest in Japan. This machine uses Intel Omni-Path for the internode network. We compare performance with several types of implementation including that makes use of the Grid library. The code is incorporated with the code set Bridge++.

  1. Minimally Clinically Important Change in the Activity Measure for Post-Acute Care (AM-PAC), a Generic Patient-Reported Outcome Tool, in People With Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Natalie; Thompson, Nicolas R; Passek, Sandra; Stilphen, Mary; Katzan, Irene L

    2017-11-01

    The Activity Measure for Post-Acute Care (AM-PAC) is a generic metric of patient-reported functional status. The minimal clinically important difference (MCID) in the AM-PAC score has not been determined. The study objective was to determine the MCID for AM-PAC in people with low back pain. This was a retrospective cohort study. Anchor-based and distribution-based methods were used to estimate the MCID. The Modified Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire was used as the anchor. Adults who had a primary ICD-9 code for low back pain in at least 1 outpatient physical therapist visit during an episode of care and who completed both the AM-PAC and the Modified Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire in at least 2 visits during the care episode were included. The MCID was calculated for the AM-PAC basic mobility version as well its adapted version, which the Cleveland Clinic uses for patients 65 years old or older. A total of 1,271 participants were eligible for study. For the AM-PAC basic mobility version, anchor-based methods yielded MCID estimates of between 3.4 and 5.1, whereas distribution-based methods yielded estimates of 1.7 to 4.2. The minimal detectable change (MDC) for the AM-PAC basic mobility version was 3.3. For the adapted AM-PAC basic mobility version, the MCID was estimated to be between 2.9 and 4.0 via anchor-based methods and between 1.2 to 3.5 via distribution-based methods. The MDC for the adapted AM-PAC basic mobility version was 3.5. The estimated MCID was designed for people with low back pain only. The MCID ranged from 3.3 to 5.1 for the AM-PAC basic mobility version and 3.5 to 4 for the adapted version, with the MDC as the lower limit. Changes in the AM-PAC for people with low back pain may be interpreted using the estimated MCID. Future studies are needed to determine the AM-PAC MCID for populations other than those with low back pain. © 2017 American Physical Therapy Association

  2. A comparison of the time required by radiologists for the preparation of clinico-radiological meetings when film and PACS are used

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weatherburn, G.; Bryan, S.; Cousins, C.

    2000-01-01

    The hypothesis was that when a hospital-wide Picture Archive and Communications System (PACS) is used, preparation for clinico-radiological meetings is faster, and more images are available, than when a conventional film system is used. This paper reports a study which compared the preparation time by radiologists when film was used with the time for the same activity when a hospital-wide PACS was used at Hammersmith Hospital for the preparation of the respiratory medicine and hepato-biliary meetings. It was found that when PACS was used the time per patient to prepare for the respiratory medicine session was reduced by 11.1 min and that similarly, 16 min per patient was saved in the preparation of the hepato-biliary sessions. The number of images which were unavailable for the session was reduced when PACS was in operation, but this reduction was not shown to be statistically significant. The introduction of PACS at Hammersmith Hospital has significantly reduced the time spent by radiologists in preparing for the two clinico-radiological sessions studied and, if this is extended to the other numerous sessions held each week, contributes to a considerable saving of staff time within the radiology department. (orig.)

  3. Impact of PACAP and PAC1 receptor deficiency on the neurochemical and behavioral effects of acute and chronic restraint stress in male C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Tomris; Jiang, Sunny Zhihong; Eiden, Adrian M; Weihe, Eberhard; Thistlethwaite, Ian; Eiden, Lee E

    2015-01-01

    Acute restraint stress (ARS) for 3 h causes corticosterone (CORT) elevation in venous blood, which is accompanied by Fos up-regulation in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of male C57BL/6 mice. CORT elevation by ARS is attenuated in PACAP-deficient mice, but unaffected in PAC1-deficient mice. Correspondingly, Fos up-regulation by ARS is greatly attenuated in PACAP-deficient mice, but much less so in PAC1-deficient animals. We noted that both PACAP- and PAC1-deficiency greatly attenuate CORT elevation after ARS when CORT measurements are performed on trunk blood following euthanasia by abrupt cervical separation: this latter observation is of critical importance in assessing the role of PACAP neurotransmission in ARS, based on previous reports in which serum CORT was sampled from trunk blood. Seven days of chronic restraint stress (CRS) induces non-habituating CORT elevation, and weight loss consequent to hypophagia, in wild-type male C57BL/6 mice. Both CORT elevation and weight loss following 7-day CRS are severely blunted in PACAP-deficient mice, but only slightly in PAC1-deficient mice. However, longer periods of daily restraint (14-21 days) resulted in sustained weight loss and elevated CORT in wild-type mice, and these effects of long-term chronic stress were attenuated or abolished in both PACAP- and PAC1-deficient mice. We conclude that while a PACAP receptor in addition to PAC1 may mediate some of the PACAP-dependent central effects of ARS and short-term (7 days) CRS.

  4. Fully automated processing of fMRI data in SPM: from MRI scanner to PACS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldjian, Joseph A; Baer, Aaron H; Kraft, Robert A; Laurienti, Paul J; Burdette, Jonathan H

    2009-01-01

    Here we describe the Wake Forest University Pipeline, a fully automated method for the processing of fMRI data using SPM. The method includes fully automated data transfer and archiving from the point of acquisition, real-time batch script generation, distributed grid processing, interface to SPM in MATLAB, error recovery and data provenance, DICOM conversion and PACS insertion. It has been used for automated processing of fMRI experiments, as well as for the clinical implementation of fMRI and spin-tag perfusion imaging. The pipeline requires no manual intervention, and can be extended to any studies requiring offline processing.

  5. Toshiba General Hospital PACS for routine in- and outpatient clinics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toshimitsu, Akihiro; Okazaki, Nobuo; Kura, Hiroyuki; Nishihara, Eitaro; Tsubura, Shinichi

    1996-05-01

    The Toshiba General Hospital introduced a departmental RIS/PACS (Radiology Information System/Picture Archiving and Communication System) in the radiology department in May, 1993. It has been used routinely since that time. In order to provide efficient means for clinicians to find and read many images, the system has been expanded to the neurosurgery and urology clinics and wards since May, 1995, and five image referring workstations now provide digital images to clinicians. In this paper we discuss an algorithm for image migration, one of the key issues to accomplish the expansion to outpatient clinics successfully, and propose the WYWIWYG (what you want is what you get) image transfer logic. This is the logic used to transfer images that physicians require refer without increasing the traffic between the image server and referring workstations. We accomplish the WYWIWYG logic by prioritizing exams the physicians have not yet viewed and by finding historical exams according to the modality, anatomy, and marking. Clinicians gave us comments from their first use of the system and suggested that the PACS enables clinicians to review images more efficiently compared to a film-based system. Our experience suggests that it is a key to the effective application of PACS in outpatient clinics to incorporate consideration patterns of clinicians on the migration algorithm.

  6. Protecting clinical data in PACS, teleradiology systems, and research environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Marion C.; Collmann, Jeff R.; Tohme, Walid G.; Mun, Seong K.

    1997-05-01

    As clinical data is more widely stored in electronic patient record management systems and transmitted over the Internet and telephone lines, it becomes more accessible and therefore more useful, but also more vulnerable. Computer systems such as PACS, telemedicine applications, and medical research networks must protect against accidental or deliberate modification, disclosure, and violation of patient confidentiality in order to be viable. Conventional wisdom in the medical field and among lawmakers legislating the use of electronic medical records suggests that, although it may improve access to information, an electronic medical record cannot be as secure as a traditional paper record. This is not the case. Information security is a well-developed field in the computer and communications industry. If medical information systems, such as PACS, telemedicine applications, and research networks, properly apply information security techniques, they can ensure the accuracy and confidentiality of their patient information and even improve the security of their data over a traditional paper record. This paper will elaborate on some of these techniques and discuss how they can be applied to medical information systems. The following systems will be used as examples for the analysis: a research laboratory at Georgetown University Medical Center, the Deployable Radiology system installed to support the US Army's peace- keeping operation in Bosnia, a kidney dialysis telemedicine system in Washington, D.C., and various experiences with implementing and integrating PACS.

  7. Automatically measuring brain ventricular volume within PACS using artificial intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yepes-Calderon, Fernando; Nelson, Marvin D; McComb, J Gordon

    2018-01-01

    The picture archiving and communications system (PACS) is currently the standard platform to manage medical images but lacks analytical capabilities. Staying within PACS, the authors have developed an automatic method to retrieve the medical data and access it at a voxel level, decrypted and uncompressed that allows analytical capabilities while not perturbing the system's daily operation. Additionally, the strategy is secure and vendor independent. Cerebral ventricular volume is important for the diagnosis and treatment of many neurological disorders. A significant change in ventricular volume is readily recognized, but subtle changes, especially over longer periods of time, may be difficult to discern. Clinical imaging protocols and parameters are often varied making it difficult to use a general solution with standard segmentation techniques. Presented is a segmentation strategy based on an algorithm that uses four features extracted from the medical images to create a statistical estimator capable of determining ventricular volume. When compared with manual segmentations, the correlation was 94% and holds promise for even better accuracy by incorporating the unlimited data available. The volume of any segmentable structure can be accurately determined utilizing the machine learning strategy presented and runs fully automatically within the PACS.

  8. Integration of implant planning workflows into the PACS infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessat, Michael; Strauß, Gero; Burgert, Oliver

    2008-03-01

    The integration of imaging devices, diagnostic workstations, and image servers into Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS) has had an enormous effect on the efficiency of radiology workflows. The standardization of the information exchange between the devices with the DICOM standard has been an essential precondition for that development. For surgical procedures, no such infrastructure exists. With the increasingly important role computerized planning and assistance systems play in the surgical domain, an infrastructure that unifies the communication between devices becomes necessary. In recent publications, the need for a modularized system design has been established. A reference architecture for a Therapy Imaging and Model Management System (TIMMS) has been proposed. It was accepted by the DICOM Working Group 6 as the reference architecture for DICOM developments for surgery. In this paper we propose the inclusion of implant planning systems into the PACS infrastructure. We propose a generic information model for the patient specific selection and positioning of implants from a repository according to patient image data. The information models are based on clinical workflows from ENT, cardiac, and orthopedic surgery as well as technical requirements derived from different use cases and systems. We show an exemplary implementation of the model for application in ENT surgery: the selection and positioning of an ossicular implant in the middle ear. An implant repository is stored in the PACS. It makes use of an experimental implementation of the Surface Mesh Module that is currently being developed as extension to the DICOM standard.

  9. Picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) in clinical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreno Pedemonte, J.C.; Piqueras Pardellans, J.; Lucaya Layret, J.

    1994-01-01

    Picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) were developed as a technological response to the complex management of the growing amount of information generated by the different diagnostic imaging methods. This article documents the process of the progressive implementation, starting in January 1991, of the first complete PACS installed in our country. The system installed in our center is composed of acquisition modules for all the imaging methods (computed radiography, ultrasound, computed tomography, digital fluoroscopy and magnetic resonance), a central processing unit, an automatic optical disk for storage and a network of image viewing and diagnostic stations. The preliminary results obtained with its implementation demonstrate that PACS provide a series of functional advantages, especially at the image storage and display levels. In spite of these conveniences, the present high costs of acquisition and maintenance, together with certain technical problems as a result of its complexity, will signify that its generalized application for all imaging methods will not become a reality at most centers in the near future

  10. Removal of a synthetic organic chemical by PAC-UF systems. II: Model application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Y; Colas, F; Yuasa, A

    2001-02-01

    This paper describes several application potentials with a recently developed model for predicting the synthetic organic chemical (SOC) removal by powdered activated carbon (PAC) adsorption during ultrafiltration (UF) and discusses the removal mechanism. The model was successfully applied, without any modification, to dead-end mode operation as well as to cross-flow mode operation, validating the assumption of the internal diffusion control mechanism and the continuously-stirred-tank-reactor (CSTR) concept. Even when UF was operated in a cross-flow mode, PAC added was re-circulating in suspension for only a short time. Then, solute uptake took place mostly by PAC immobilized in membrane tubes not only for dead-end operation but also for cross-flow operation. Therefore, cross-flow operation did not have any advantage regarding the SOC mass transfer on PAC in UF loop over dead-end operation. The model simulation implied that pulse PAC addition at the beginning of filtration cycle resulted better SOC removal than continuous PAC addition. However, for the pulse PAC addition mode, the model predicted somewhat lower effluent SOC concentration than the observed values, and the benefit of pulse PAC application in terms of reducing SOC over its continuous dosage was not confirmed. Longer detention time of PAC dosed in a pulse than continuously dosed PAC could possibly further decrease internal diffusivity.

  11. Acceptability of picture archiving and communication system (PACS) among hospital healthcare personnel based on a unified theory of acceptance and use of technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Maryam; Mehrabi, Nahid; Sheikhtaheri, Abbas; Sadeghi, Mojtaba

    2017-09-01

    The picture archiving and communication system (PACS) is a healthcare system technology which manages medical images and integrates equipment through a network. There are some theories about the use and acceptance of technology by people to describe the behavior and attitudes of end users towards information technologies. We investigated the influential factors on users' acceptance of PACS in the military hospitals of Tehran. In this applied analytical and cross-sectional study, 151 healthcare employees of military hospitals who had experience in using the PACS system were investigated. Participants were selected by census. The following variables were considered: performance expectancy, efforts expectancy, social influence, facilitating conditions and behavioral intention. Data were gathered using a questionnaire. Its validity and reliability were approved by a panel of experts and was piloted with 30 hospital healthcare staff (Cronbach's alpha =0.91). Spearman correlation coefficient and multiple linear regression analysis were used in analyzing the data. Expected performance, efforts expectancy, social impact and facilitating conditions had a significant relationship with behavioral intention. The multiple regression analysis indicated that only performance expectancy can predict the user's behavioral intentions to use PACS technology. Performance and effort expectancies are quite influential in accepting the use of PACS in hospitals. All healthcare personnel should become aware that using such technology is necessary in a hospital. Knowing the influencing factors that affect the acceptance of using new technology can help in improving its use, especially in a healthcare system. This can improve the offered healthcare services' quality.

  12. The PacC transcription factor regulates secondary metabolite production and stress response, but has only minor effects on virulence in the insect pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhibing; Ren, Hui; Mousa, Jarrod J; Rangel, Drauzio E N; Zhang, Yongjun; Bruner, Steven D; Keyhani, Nemat O

    2017-02-01

    The PacC transcription factor is an important component of the fungal ambient pH-responsive regulatory system. Loss of pacC in the insect pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana resulted in an alkaline pH-dependent decrease in growth and pH-dependent increased susceptibility to osmotic (salt, sorbitol) stress and SDS. Extreme susceptibility to Congo Red was noted irrespective of pH, and ΔBbpacC conidia showed subtle increases in UV susceptibility. The ΔBbPacC mutant showed a reduced ability to acidify media during growth due to failure to produce oxalic acid. The ΔBbPacC mutant also did not produce the insecticidal compound dipicolinic acid, however, production of a yellow-colored compound was noted. The compound, named bassianolone B, was purified and its structure determined. Despite defects in growth, stress resistance, and oxalate/insecticidal compound production, only a small decrease in virulence was seen for the ΔBbpacC strain in topical insect bioassays using larvae from the greater waxmoth, Galleria mellonella or adults of the beetle, Tenebrio molitor. However, slightly more pronounced decreases were seen in virulence via intrahemcoel injection assays (G. mellonella) and in assays using T. molitor larvae. These data suggest important roles for BbpacC in mediating growth at alkaline pH, regulating secondary metabolite production, and in targeting specific insect stages. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Perturbed-angular-correlation study of the electric-field gradient in 181Hf-doped and implanted indium sesquioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renteria, M.; Requejo, F.G.; Bibiloni, A.G.; Pasquevich, A.F.; Shitu, J.; Freitag, K.

    1997-01-01

    We studied the hyperfine interactions of 181 Ta in In 2 O 3 by means of perturbed-angular-correlation (PAC) measurements. We prepared thin films of indium sesquioxide with different degrees of initial amorphism and implanted them with 181 Hf. Chemically prepared indium-sesquioxide powder samples were also made starting from neutron-irradiated HfCl 4 , which provides the 181 Hf PAC probes. PAC experiments were performed on each sample at room temperature, after each step of annealing programs at increasing temperatures up to the full crystallization of the samples. The results indicate that the PAC probe occupies preferentially the axially symmetric cation site. Point-charge-model calculations were performed. The calculated asymmetry parameters η were compared with those obtained in 181 Hf PAC experiments performed also on other binary oxides, showing that the symmetry of the electric-field-gradient (EFG) tensor at 181 Ta cation sites in binary oxides is mainly determined by the nearest-neighbor oxygen-ion distribution around the probe. Comparisons of the experimental results in bixbyites obtained for both PAC probes, 111 Cd and 181 Ta, show that the local EFG in bixbyites, are strongly dependent on the geometry of the sites and the electronic configuration of the probes. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  14. Study of excitation energy dependence of nuclear level density parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanto, G.; Nayak, B.K.; Saxena, A.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we have populated CN by fusion reaction and excitation energy of the intermediate nuclei is determined after first chance α-emission to investigate excitation energy dependence of the NLD parameter. Evaporated neutron spectra were measured following alpha evaporation for obtaining NLD parameter for the reaction 11 B + 197 Au, populating CN 208 Po. This CN after evaporating an α-particle populates intermediate nucleus 204 Pb. The 204 Pb has magic number of Z=82. Our aim is to study the excitation energy dependence of NLD parameter for closed shell nuclei

  15. Treatment of coal gasification wastewater by membrane bioreactor hybrid powdered activated carbon (MBR–PAC) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Shengyong; Han, Hongjun; Hou, Baolin; Zhuang, Haifeng; Fang, Fang; Zhao, Qian

    2014-12-01

    A laboratory-scale membrane bioreactor hybrid powdered activated carbon (MBR–PAC) system was developed to treat coal gasification wastewater to enhance the COD, total phenols (TPh), NH4+ removals and migrate the membrane fouling. Since the MBR–PAC system operated with PAC dosage of 4 g L−1, the maximum removal efficiencies of COD, TPh and NH4+ reached 93%, 99% and 63%, respectively with the corresponding influent concentrations of 2.27 g L−1, 497 mg L−1 and 164 mg N L−1; the PAC extraction efficiencies of COD, TPh and NH4+ were 6%, 3% and 13%, respectively; the transmembrane pressure decreased 34% with PAC after 50 d operation. The results demonstrate that PAC played a key role in the enhancement of biodegradability and mitigation of membrane fouling.

  16. Persistent cannabis dependence and alcohol dependence represent risks for midlife economic and social problems: A longitudinal cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdá, Magdalena; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Meier, Madeline H.; Harrington, HonaLee; Houts, Renate; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Hogan, Sean; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing legalization of cannabis, understanding the consequences of cannabis use is particularly timely. We examined the association between cannabis use and dependence, prospectively assessed between ages 18–38, and economic and social problems at age 38. We studied participants in the Dunedin Longitudinal Study, a cohort (n=1,037) followed from birth to age 38. Study members with regular cannabis use and persistent dependence experienced downward socioeconomic mobility, more financial difficulties, workplace problems, and relationship conflict in early midlife. Cannabis dependence was not linked to traffic-related convictions. Associations were not explained by socioeconomic adversity, childhood psychopathology, achievement orientation, or family structure; cannabis-related criminal convictions; early onset of cannabis dependence; or comorbid substance dependence. Cannabis dependence was associated with more financial difficulties than alcohol dependence; no difference was found in risks for other economic or social problems. Cannabis dependence is not associated with fewer harmful economic and social problems than alcohol dependence. PMID:28008372

  17. Lessons learned from a whole hospital PACS installation. Picture Archiving and Communication System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilling, J R

    2002-09-01

    The Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital has incorporated a fully filmless Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) as part of a new hospital provision using PFI funding. The PACS project has been very successful and has met with unanimous acclaim from radiologists and clinicians. A project of this size cannot be achieved without learning some lessons from mistakes and recognising areas where attention to detail resulted in a successful implementation. This paper considers the successes and problems encountered in a large PACS installation.

  18. Study of nuclear level density parameter and its temperature dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasrabadi, M. N.; Behkami, A. N.

    2000-01-01

    The nuclear level density ρ is the basic ingredient required for theoretical studies of nuclear reaction and structure. It describes the statistical nuclear properties and is expressed as a function of various constants of motion such as number of particles, excitation energy and angular momentum. In this work the energy and spin dependence of nuclear level density will be presented and discussed. In addition the level density parameter α will be extracted from this level density information, and its temperature and mass dependence will be obtained

  19. Perturbed-angular-correlation study of the electric-field gradient in {sup 181}Hf-doped and implanted indium sesquioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renteria, M.; Requejo, F.G.; Bibiloni, A.G.; Pasquevich, A.F.; Shitu, J. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC N67, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Freitag, K. [Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik der Universitaet Bonn, Nussallee 14-16, 5300 Bonn (Germany)

    1997-06-01

    We studied the hyperfine interactions of {sup 181}Ta in In{sub 2}O{sub 3} by means of perturbed-angular-correlation (PAC) measurements. We prepared thin films of indium sesquioxide with different degrees of initial amorphism and implanted them with {sup 181}Hf. Chemically prepared indium-sesquioxide powder samples were also made starting from neutron-irradiated HfCl{sub 4}, which provides the {sup 181}Hf PAC probes. PAC experiments were performed on each sample at room temperature, after each step of annealing programs at increasing temperatures up to the full crystallization of the samples. The results indicate that the PAC probe occupies preferentially the axially symmetric cation site. Point-charge-model calculations were performed. The calculated asymmetry parameters {eta} were compared with those obtained in {sup 181}Hf PAC experiments performed also on other binary oxides, showing that the symmetry of the electric-field-gradient (EFG) tensor at {sup 181}Ta cation sites in binary oxides is mainly determined by the nearest-neighbor oxygen-ion distribution around the probe. Comparisons of the experimental results in bixbyites obtained for both PAC probes, {sup 111}Cd and {sup 181}Ta, show that the local EFG in bixbyites, are strongly dependent on the geometry of the sites and the electronic configuration of the probes. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  20. Time analysis for optimization of radiology workflow in conventional radiology during RIS-PACS-integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkensammer, Peter; Soegner, Peter I.; zur Nedden, Dieter

    2002-05-01

    The integration of RIS-PACS systems in radiology units are intended to reduce time consumption in radiology workflow and thus to increase radiologist productivity. Along with the RIS-PACS integration at the University Hospital Innsbruck we analyzed workflow from patient admission to release of final reports before implementation. The follow up study after six months of the implementation is currently in work. In this study we compared chest to skeletal x-ray examinations in 969 patients before the implementation. Drawing the admission-to-release-of-final-report period showed a two-peak diagram with the first peak corresponding to a release of final results on the same day and the second peak to a release on the following day. In the chest x-ray group, 57% were released the same day (mean value 4:02 hours) and 43% the next day (mean value 21:47 hours). Looking at the skeletal x-rays 40% were released the same day (mean value 3:58 hours) and 60% were released the next day (mean value 21:05 hours). Summarizing the results we should say, that the average chest x-ray requires less time than an skeletal x-ray, due to the fact that a greater percentage of reports is released the same day. The most important result is, that the most time consuming workstep is the exchange of data media between radiologist and secretary with at least 5 hours.

  1. How can the impact of PACS on inpatient length of hospital stay be established?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Stirling; Muris, Nicole; Keen, Justin; Weatherburn, Gwyneth C.; Buxton, Martin J.

    1994-05-01

    Many have argued that the introduction of a large-scale PACS system into a hospital will bring about reductions in the length of inpatient hospital stays. There is currently no convicting empirical evidence to support such claims. As part of the independent evaluation exercise being undertaken alongside the Hammersmith Hospital PACS implementation, an assessment is being made of the impact of PACS on length of stay for selected patient groups. This paper reports the general research methods being employed to undertake this assessment and provides some baseline results from the analysis of total hip replacement patients and total knee replacement patients treated prior to the introduction of PACS.

  2. Integration of computer-aided diagnosis/detection (CAD) results in a PACS environment using CAD-PACS toolkit and DICOM SR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, Anh H.T.; Liu, Brent; Huang, H.K.

    2009-01-01

    Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) is a mature technology in health care delivery for daily clinical imaging service and data management. Computer-aided detection and diagnosis (CAD) utilizes computer methods to obtain quantitative measurements from medical images and clinical information to assist clinicians to assess a patient's clinical state more objectively. CAD needs image input and related information from PACS to improve its accuracy; and PACS benefits from CAD results online and available at the PACS workstation as a second reader to assist physicians in the decision making process. Currently, these two technologies remain as two separate independent systems with only minimal system integration. This paper describes a universal method to integrate CAD results with PACS in its daily clinical environment. The method is based on Health Level 7 (HL7) and Digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) standards, and Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) workflow profiles. In addition, the integration method is Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) compliant. The paper presents (1) the clinical value and advantages of integrating CAD results in a PACS environment, (2) DICOM Structured Reporting formats and some important IHE workflow profiles utilized in the system integration, (3) the methodology using the CAD-PACS integration toolkit, and (4) clinical examples with step-by-step workflows of this integration. (orig.)

  3. Spin-Dependent Transport through Chiral Molecules Studied by Spin-Dependent Electrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Conspectus Molecular spintronics (spin + electronics), which aims to exploit both the spin degree of freedom and the electron charge in molecular devices, has recently received massive attention. Our recent experiments on molecular spintronics employ chiral molecules which have the unexpected property of acting as spin filters, by way of an effect we call “chiral-induced spin selectivity” (CISS). In this Account, we discuss new types of spin-dependent electrochemistry measurements and their use to probe the spin-dependent charge transport properties of nonmagnetic chiral conductive polymers and biomolecules, such as oligopeptides, L/D cysteine, cytochrome c, bacteriorhodopsin (bR), and oligopeptide-CdSe nanoparticles (NPs) hybrid structures. Spin-dependent electrochemical measurements were carried out by employing ferromagnetic electrodes modified with chiral molecules used as the working electrode. Redox probes were used either in solution or when directly attached to the ferromagnetic electrodes. During the electrochemical measurements, the ferromagnetic electrode was magnetized either with its magnetic moment pointing “UP” or “DOWN” using a permanent magnet (H = 0.5 T), placed underneath the chemically modified ferromagnetic electrodes. The spin polarization of the current was found to be in the range of 5–30%, even in the case of small chiral molecules. Chiral films of the l- and d-cysteine tethered with a redox-active dye, toludin blue O, show spin polarizarion that depends on the chirality. Because the nickel electrodes are susceptible to corrosion, we explored the effect of coating them with a thin gold overlayer. The effect of the gold layer on the spin polarization of the electrons ejected from the electrode was investigated. In addition, the role of the structure of the protein on the spin selective transport was also studied as a function of bias voltage and the effect of protein denaturation was revealed. In addition to

  4. Study of structural differences between stoichiometric and congruent lithium niobate

    CERN Document Server

    Kling, A; Correia, J G; Da Silva, M F A; Diéguez, E; Agulló-López, F; Soares, J C

    1996-01-01

    The structural differences between stoichiometric and congruent (lithium deficient) lithium niobate single crystals were studied by RBS- and NRA-channeling as well as perturbed angular correlation (PAC) measurements. The d-PAC111Cd-PAC investigations point out that a second Li site can be detected in congruent material, while only one is present in stoichiometric. Channeling studies of different axes and the comparison of the results with computer simulations corroborated former indications that this additional lattice site can be attributed to the formation of ilmenite type stacking faults. A comparative study of the energy dependence of the dechanneling showed that a remarkable disorder is also present in the Nb sublattice of the congruent crystals and that these defects have a point-like character.

  5. Pac-Rim LNG project : final project report specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    PAC-RIM LNG Inc. has submitted a proposal to the British Columbia Environmental Assessment Office, to develop a liquefied natural gas project which would purchase pipeline quality natural gas from sources in northeast British Columbia and Alberta and transport it via a dedicated pipeline system to a LNG processing plant on tidewater on the Pacific coast. The project would include storage and processing facilities and a marine loading terminal. This document sets out the final project report specifications prepared by the Project Committee on the basis of input received from the public, First Nations and federal, provincial and local governments

  6. PACS/information systems interoperability using Enterprise Communication Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    alSafadi, Y; Lord, W P; Mankovich, N J

    1998-06-01

    Interoperability among healthcare applications goes beyond connectivity to allow components to exchange structured information and work together in a predictable, coordinated fashion. To facilitate building an interoperability infrastructure, an Enterprise Communication Framework (ECF) was developed by the members of the Andover Working Group for Healthcare Interoperability (AWG-OHI). The ECF consists of four models: 1) Use Case Model, 2) Domain Information Model (DIM), 3) Interaction Model, and 4) Message Model. To realize this framework, a software component called the Enterprise Communicator (EC) is used. In this paper, we will demonstrate the use of the framework in interoperating a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) with a radiology information system (RIS).

  7. Ceramic sphere-pac breeder design for fusion blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gierszewski, P.J.; Sullivan, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    Randomly packed beds of ceramic spheres are a practical approach to surrounding fusion plasmas with tritium-breeding material. This paper examines the general properties of sphere-pac beds for application in fusion breeder blankets. The design considerations and models are reviewed for packing, tritium breeding and recovery, thermal conductivity, purge-gas pressure drop, mechanical behavior and fabrication. The design correlations are compared against available fusion ceramic data. Specific conclusions are that ternary (three-size) beds are not attractive for fusion blankets, and that the fusion spheres should be as large as possible subject primarily to packing constraints. (orig.)

  8. Research on a Valuation Standard and the Actual Condition About Security Management in PACS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Jae Ho; Son, Gi Gyeong; Kang, Hee Doo; Dong, Kyung Rae; Kweon, Dae Cheol; Kim, Hyun Soo

    2008-01-01

    This study is to prepare an evaluation standard about personal information protection and security management of a medical institution and to build up a grade standard of evaluation in PACS environment. We built up evaluation index based on 10 detailed items in four big categories (political security, technical security, data management security and physical security) by referring to ISO17799 (BS 7799), HIPPA (Health Insurance and Portability and Accountability Act of 1996) and domestic medical law. We have investigated at the thirty places where medical facility with the extracted security criteria and security evaluation index. Average score of physical security list, one of the big categories, was 18.5/20 (93%) at all medical institutions. Political security score was 18.5/30 (62%), data management security score was 12/20 (60%) and technical security score was 17.5/30 (58%). Therefore, security evaluation score was average 67 in 30 general hospitals, which was 4th level. The results showed that it is necessary to establish evaluation and management standard about personal information protection and security consciousness which are weak in PACS environment.

  9. Herschel-PACS photometry of faint stars for sensitivity performance assessment and establishment of faint FIR primary photometric standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaas, U.; Balog, Z.; Nielbock, M.; Müller, T. G.; Linz, H.; Kiss, Cs.

    2018-05-01

    Aims: Our aims are to determine flux densities and their photometric accuracy for a set of seventeen stars that range in flux from intermediately bright (≲2.5 Jy) to faint (≳5 mJy) in the far-infrared (FIR). We also aim to derive signal-to-noise dependence with flux and time, and compare the results with predictions from the Herschel exposure-time calculation tool. Methods: We obtain aperture photometry from Herschel-PACS high-pass-filtered scan maps and chop/nod observations of the faint stars. The issues of detection limits and sky confusion noise are addressed by comparison of the field-of-view at different wavelengths, by multi-aperture photometry, by special processing of the maps to preserve extended emission, and with the help of large-scale absolute sky brightness maps from AKARI. This photometry is compared with flux-density predictions based on photospheric models for these stars. We obtain a robust noise estimate by fitting the flux distribution per map pixel histogram for the area around the stars, scaling it for the applied aperture size and correcting for noise correlation. Results: For 15 stars we obtain reliable photometry in at least one PACS filter, and for 11 stars we achieve this in all three PACS filters (70, 100, 160 μm). Faintest fluxes, for which the photometry still has good quality, are about 10-20 mJy with scan map photometry. The photometry of seven stars is consistent with models or flux predictions for pure photospheric emission, making them good primary standard candidates. Two stars exhibit source-intrinsic far-infrared excess: β Gem (Pollux), being the host star of a confirmed Jupiter-size exoplanet, due to emission of an associated dust disk, and η Dra due to dust emission in a binary system with a K1 dwarf. The investigation of the 160 μm sky background and environment of four sources reveals significant sky confusion prohibiting the determination of an accurate stellar flux at this wavelength. As a good model

  10. Business Model for the Security of a Large-Scale PACS, Compliance with ISO/27002:2013 Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Martínez, Josefina; Núñez-Gaona, Marco Antonio; Aguirre-Meneses, Heriberto

    2015-08-01

    Data security is a critical issue in an organization; a proper information security management (ISM) is an ongoing process that seeks to build and maintain programs, policies, and controls for protecting information. A hospital is one of the most complex organizations, where patient information has not only legal and economic implications but, more importantly, an impact on the patient's health. Imaging studies include medical images, patient identification data, and proprietary information of the study; these data are contained in the storage device of a PACS. This system must preserve the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of patient information. There are techniques such as firewalls, encryption, and data encapsulation that contribute to the protection of information. In addition, the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) standard and the requirements of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) regulations are also used to protect the patient clinical data. However, these techniques are not systematically applied to the picture and archiving and communication system (PACS) in most cases and are not sufficient to ensure the integrity of the images and associated data during transmission. The ISO/IEC 27001:2013 standard has been developed to improve the ISM. Currently, health institutions lack effective ISM processes that enable reliable interorganizational activities. In this paper, we present a business model that accomplishes the controls of ISO/IEC 27002:2013 standard and criteria of security and privacy from DICOM and HIPAA to improve the ISM of a large-scale PACS. The methodology associated with the model can monitor the flow of data in a PACS, facilitating the detection of unauthorized access to images and other abnormal activities.

  11. EXECUTIVE DYSFUNCTION IN ALCOHOL DEPENDENT INDIVIDUALS: A CASE CONTROL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neethi Valsan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The use of alcohol is increasingly prevalent in our country. Being a neurotoxin, it tends to affect elective mental capacities. Frontal lobe is found to be most affected by chronic alcohol use. AIM To study the executive functions in alcohol dependent individuals and to determine any relationship with alcohol intake variables. MATERIALS AND METHODS 30 recently detoxified alcohol dependent individuals attending the De-addiction Clinic of Medical College, Kottayam, was compared to 30 controls on four tests of executive functions, namely, Controlled Word Association Test, Trail Making Test, Stroop Test, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Statistical analysis of the data has been done using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Windows version 10. RESULTS Executive function was significantly impaired in the alcohol dependent individuals when compared to normal controls in all the four tests. On analysing the effect of drinking variables on executive functioning, the performance of patients is seen to improve with abstinence in Stroop. Those with a positive family history of ADS in the first degree relatives produced fewer words in verbal fluency. CONCLUSION As the executive impairment remains more or less stable irrespective to the chronicity or amount of alcohol use, it could be assumed that the executive dysfunction observed is a trait marker rather than a state dependent variable.

  12. SPHERE: Irradiation of sphere-pac fuel of UPuO2−x containing 3% Americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D’Agata, E.; Hania, P.R.; McGinley, J.; Somers, J.; Sciolla, C.; Baas, P.J.; Kamer, S.; Okel, R.A.F.; Bobeldijk, I.; Delage, F.; Bejaoui, S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • SPHERE is designed to check the behaviour of MADF sphere-pac concept. • MADF sphere-pac are compared with MADF pellet. • Swelling, helium release and restructuring behaviour will be the main output of the experiment. • An experiment to check sphere-pac MABB fuel behaviour is now under design. - Abstract: Americium is a strong contributor to the long term radiotoxicity of high activity nuclear waste. Transmutation by irradiation in nuclear reactors of long-lived nuclides like 241 Am is therefore an option for the reduction of radiotoxicity of waste packages to be stored in a repository. The SPHERE irradiation experiment is the latest of a series of European experiments on americium transmutation (e.g. EFTTRA-T4, EFTTRA-T4bis, HELIOS, MARIOS) performed in the HFR (High Flux Reactor). The SPHERE experiment is carried out in the framework of the 4-year project FAIRFUELS of the EURATOM 7th Framework Programme (FP7). During the past years of experimental works in the field of transmutation and tests of innovative nuclear fuels, the release or trapping of helium as well as helium induced fuel swelling have been shown to be the key issues for the design of Am-bearing targets. The main objective of the SPHERE experiment is to study the in-pile behaviour of fuel containing 3% of americium and to compare the behaviour of sphere-pac fuel to pellet fuel, in particular the role of microstructure and temperature on fission gas release (mainly He) and on fuel swelling. The SPHERE experiment is being irradiated since September 2013 in the HFR in Petten (The Netherlands) and is expected to be terminated in spring 2015. The experiment has been designed to last up to 18 reactor cycles (corresponding to 18 months) but may reach its target earlier. This paper discusses the rationale and objective of the SPHERE experiment and provides a general description of its design

  13. Combined PACS and intranet information system in a University Hospital; Kombiniertes PACS und Intranet-Informationssystem an einem Universitaetsklinikum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiss, D.; Pfluger, T.; Pfeifer, K.J.; Hahn, K. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologische Diagnostik; Koenig, A.; Endres, S. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Medizinische Klinik Innenstadt

    2000-06-01

    Purpose: The Department of Radiology at the University Hospital Innenstadt Munich provides all clinical departments of a large university hospital with several radiology units at different locations. During the last four years all units have been fully digitalized with a stepwise installation of a PACS. The PACS also processes images from the Nuclear Medicine Department. Methods: As image modalities, archive systems and review workstations, we use devices from multiple vendors, which are integrated into a consistent system using the DICOM standard. The hospital has developed its own RIS and an intranet information system, which provides access to all reports and images from radiology for all clinical departments inside the hospital. Additionally, other clinical information such as laboratory results or ECG examinations are available through the system. Results: After one year of operation, the system succeeded in the clinical routine work as the primary source for radiological reports and images as well as for laboratory values. Conclusion: The advantages of digitalization were, besides reduction of film cost, especially optimizations of work flow with access to digital images from every where at any time. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Das Institut fuer Radiologische Diagnostik am Universitaetsklinikum Muenchen - Innenstadt versorgt mit mehreren, dezentral gelegenen Roentgenbereichen alle klinischen Abteilungen eines grossen Universitaetsklinikums. In einem Projekt der vergangenen vier Jahre wurden alle Bereiche durch die schrittweise Installation eines PACS vollstaendig digitalisiert. Dabei wurden auch nuklearmedizinische Bilddaten aus der Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin im System verarbeitet. Methoden: Eingesetzt wurden als Bilderzeuger, Archivsystem und Befundungsstationen Geraete unterschiedlicher Hersteller, die dank des DICOM Standards in einem einheitlichen System integriert sind. Neben dem PACS wurde von Mitarbeitern der Klinik ein RIS und ein Intranet

  14. Is there a relationship between Internet dependence and eating disorders? A comparison study of Internet dependents and non-Internet dependents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Z L; Liu, Y

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have examined the underlying psychopathology in overuse of the Internet, including depression, social anxiety, and substance dependence. A relationship between these psychological disorders appears to exist. No links have been established between Internet dependence and eating disorders. Fifty-four Internet dependents were compared with a control group concerning symptomatic aspects of eating disorders and psychological characteristics related to eating disorders. They all belonged to 1199 respondents of Chinese secondary school and college students between the ages of 12 and 25 years old. A Mann-Whitney U-test was used to determine the difference between Internet dependent groups and non-Internet dependent groups concerning Eating Attitudes Test and Eating Disorder Inventory scores. Females and male Internet dependents rated themselves with significantly higher symptomatic aspects of eating disorders than control groups. Female and male Internet dependents showed significantly higher psychological characteristics related to eating disorders than control groups. A relationship between Internet dependence and eating disorders appears to exist.

  15. C4. Pneumonia adquirida na comunidade (PAC: estudo retrospectivo num hospital central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Oliveira

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available A PAC é uma importante causa de morbilidade e mortalidade nos doentes hospitalizados. O objectivo deste estudo foi analisar a etiologia, factores de risco, tratamento e mortalidade da PAC no internamento. Procedemos a um estudo retrospectivo de 246 doentes, admitidos no nosso Departamento com o diagnóstico de PAC num período de 24 meses. A média etária foi de 58,9 anos e 61% eram do sexo masculino. Em 48,6% existiam comorbilidades. Na radiografia torácica havia envolvimento multilobar em 17,1%, padrão alveolar em 66,7% e derrame pleural em 18,3%.Os agentes etiológicos foram pesquisados em 195 doentes (75,9% e foram positivos em 57 (29,2%: 11% das hemoculturas (19/173; 30% dos exames culturais de expectoração (48/160 e 10.4% das serologias e antigenúria para Legionella (7/67 foram positivos. Nos doentes com etiologia bacteriana o agente etiológico mais frequente foi S. pneumoniae (47%, seguindo-se os Gram-negativos (26% e H. Influenza (18%.A amoxicilina/clavulanato (82,9% e macrólidos (68,1% foram os antibióticos mais usados. Houve associação de antibióticos em 61,6% dos doentes. A duração média do tratamento foi de 12 dias. Em 93% dos doentes assistiu-se a evolução favorável. A mortalidade foi de 5,1%.Concluimos que o S. pneumoniae continua a ser o agente etiológico mais frequente de PAC. A escolha terapêutica esteve de acordo com as guidelines internacionais e o regime terapêutico mostrou-se adequado tendo a maioria das PAC evolução favorável com baixa mortalidade. : CAP is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. The aim of this study was to analyze etiology, risk factors, treatment and mortality of CAP. We conducted a retrospective analysis of clinical data from 246 patients admitted to our Department with CAP diagnosis throughout an 24 month period.The patients were in average age 58,9 years old and 61% were male. In 48,6% significant co-morbidities were found. On chest X-ray there

  16. A step towards PACS: The DS-1000 traumatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, C.; Deininger, H.K.

    1989-01-01

    The development of new technologies is changing more and more the medical diagnostic. Analogous procedures are consistently making way for digital methods. 1980, the number of digital procedures amounted to 15%; 1990 according to general estimation, the number will already amount to 50%. It appears significant, within the framework of a new course, to promote the digitalisation not only in technical procedures but also in the organisation area. A central Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) is today considered an ideal solution, provided that the complete diagnostic imaging is carried out digitally. In the submitted is a report on a digital working unit for trauma patients. The initial results demonstrate that this concept is more than a promising attempt to replace conventional bone diagnostic in the future. The system presented is capable of demonstrations all clinically relevant changes of the traumatic skeleton, whereby the image quality corresponds approximately to a high-speed film-screen combination. Among the advantages, it should be emphasized in particular, the reduction in radiation, the rapid display of examination results and the integration in a Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) without any loos of information. (orig.) [de

  17. Combined PACS and intranet information system in a University Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiss, D.; Pfluger, T.; Pfeifer, K.J.; Hahn, K.; Koenig, A.; Endres, S.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: The Department of Radiology at the University Hospital Innenstadt Munich provides all clinical departments of a large university hospital with several radiology units at different locations. During the last four years all units have been fully digitalized with a stepwise installation of a PACS. The PACS also processes images from the Nuclear Medicine Department. Methods: As image modalities, archive systems and review workstations, we use devices from multiple vendors, which are integrated into a consistent system using the DICOM standard. The hospital has developed its own RIS and an intranet information system, which provides access to all reports and images from radiology for all clinical departments inside the hospital. Additionally, other clinical information such as laboratory results or ECG examinations are available through the system. Results: After one year of operation, the system succeeded in the clinical routine work as the primary source for radiological reports and images as well as for laboratory values. Conclusion: The advantages of digitalization were, besides reduction of film cost, especially optimizations of work flow with access to digital images from every where at any time. (orig.) [de

  18. KIS-RIS-PACS integration: the Marburg approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klose, K.J.; Schaefer, C.; Kail, S.; Roethke, M.; Zhang, L.

    2005-01-01

    When describing the development of data processing at the Department of Radiology at the Philipps University of Marburg, three phases can be identified covering the areas of patient care, education, and research as well as administrative and organizational aspects. The first phase (1987-1995) was centered on radiology and characterized by the early implementation of the radiology information system (RIS) and installation of a picture archiving and communication system (PACS). The experiences gained during this phase led to intensive discussion on application-oriented information processing. The second phase (1996-2000) describes the changes in the general framework brought by Internet technology and international standards. The course was set for the future of data processing in the hospital setting. The phase ended with implementation of a clinical workplace system (KAS) as the basis for a comprehensive electronic patient record and the switch in radiology to an integrated RIS solution. The third phase (2001-2006) addressed further implementation and development of clinical data management in which both regular documentation of patient data and information processing not related to patients are optimized by making use of Intranet/Internet technology. It includes the hospital wide implementation of PACS and the forthcoming phase of information processing increasingly shaped by workflow and decision support. (orig.) [de

  19. What Is A Picture Archiving And Communication System (PACS)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceau, Carla

    1982-01-01

    A PACS is a digital system for acquiring, storing, moving and displaying picture or image information. It is an alternative to film jackets that has been made possible by recent breakthroughs in computer technology: telecommunications, local area nets and optical disks. The fundamental concept of the digital representation of image information is introduced. It is shown that freeing images from a material representation on film or paper leads to a dramatic increase in flexibility in our use of the images. The ultimate goal of a medical PACS system is a radiology department without film jackets. The inherent nature of digital images and the power of the computer allow instant free "copies" of images to be made and thrown away. These copies can be transmitted to distant sites in seconds, without the "original" ever leaving the archives of the radiology department. The result is a radiology department with much freer access to patient images and greater protection against lost or misplaced image information. Finally, images in digital form can be treated as data for the computer in image processing, which includes enhancement, reconstruction and even computer-aided analysis.

  20. Conduction disturbances after TAVR: Electrophysiological studies and pacemaker dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makki, Nader; Dollery, Jenn; Jones, Danielle; Crestanello, Juan; Lilly, Scott

    Permanent pacemaker (PPM) placement occurs in 5-20% of patients after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Although predictors of pacemaker implantation have been established, features that predispose patients to pacemaker utilization on follow up have not been widely reported. We performed a retrospective review of patients undergoing commercial TAVR between 2011 and 2016. We collated patients that underwent in-hospital PPM implantation and had a follow up of at least 3months. Data abstraction was performed for electrophysiological studies (EPS), pacemaker indication, timing, and device interrogation for pacemaker dependency on follow up. A total of 24 patients received in-hospital PPM post-TAVR (14% of total cohort), and mean follow up was 22months. Indications for PPM included resting complete heart block (CHB; 15/24, 63%), left bundle branch block and abnormal electrophysiological study (EPS; 7/24, 29%), alternating bundle branch block (1/24, 4%) and tachy-brady syndrome (1/24, 4%). Pacemaker dependency (underlying ventricular asystole, complete heart block, or >50% pacing) occurred in 8/24 patients (33%) during follow-up, 7 of whom had resting CHB, and one with CHB invoked during EPS. Pacemaker dependency after TAVR is common among those that exhibited CHB, but not among those with a prolonged HV delay during EPS. Although preliminary, these observations are relevant to management of rhythm disturbances after TAVR, and may inform the practice of EPS-based PPM implantation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. PACS: Do clinical users benefit from it as a training adjunct? | van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although a PACS relates specifically to the archiving and retrieval of radiological images and reports, it became clear from the feedback received from medical clinicians (who ... The advantages of PACS as a positive training adjunct were highlighted in the areas of multi-site viewing and consultation, the possibility of image ...

  2. Implementation and Validation of PACS Integrated Peer Review for Discrepancy Recording of Radiology Reporting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, A. W.; van Ooijen, P. M. A.

    The purpose of this work is to demonstrate the possibility of implementation of a PACS-integrated peer review system based on RADPEER T classification providing a step-wise implementation plan utilizing features already present in the standard PACS implementation and without the requirement of

  3. Studying the Complex Expression Dependences between Sets of Coexpressed Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Huerta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Organisms simplify the orchestration of gene expression by coregulating genes whose products function together in the cell. The use of clustering methods to obtain sets of coexpressed genes from expression arrays is very common; nevertheless there are no appropriate tools to study the expression networks among these sets of coexpressed genes. The aim of the developed tools is to allow studying the complex expression dependences that exist between sets of coexpressed genes. For this purpose, we start detecting the nonlinear expression relationships between pairs of genes, plus the coexpressed genes. Next, we form networks among sets of coexpressed genes that maintain nonlinear expression dependences between all of them. The expression relationship between the sets of coexpressed genes is defined by the expression relationship between the skeletons of these sets, where this skeleton represents the coexpressed genes with a well-defined nonlinear expression relationship with the skeleton of the other sets. As a result, we can study the nonlinear expression relationships between a target gene and other sets of coexpressed genes, or start the study from the skeleton of the sets, to study the complex relationships of activation and deactivation between the sets of coexpressed genes that carry out the different cellular processes present in the expression experiments.

  4. Study of heavy quarkonium with energy dependent potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Pramila; Mehrotra, I

    2009-01-01

    It is well known that charmonium and bottonium states can be calculated by using a nonrelativistic Schrodinger equation. The basic reasons are: 1) the mass of charm and bottom quarks is much larger than QCD scale, which makes this system free of strong normalization effects and 2) the binding energy is small compared to the mass energy ψ and γ states in terms of nonrelativistic qq system governed by more or less phenomenological potentials. In the present work we have studied mass spectra of charmonium and bottonium using the following energy dependent model in the framework of nonrelativistic Schrodinger equation

  5. Structural study of surfactant-dependent interaction with protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehan, Sumit; Aswal, Vinod K., E-mail: vkaswal@barc.gov.in [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Kohlbrecher, Joachim [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 PSI Villigen (Switzerland)

    2015-06-24

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) has been used to study the complex structure of anionic BSA protein with three different (cationic DTAB, anionic SDS and non-ionic C12E10) surfactants. These systems form very different surfactant-dependent complexes. We show that the structure of protein-surfactant complex is initiated by the site-specific electrostatic interaction between the components, followed by the hydrophobic interaction at high surfactant concentrations. It is also found that hydrophobic interaction is preferred over the electrostatic interaction in deciding the resultant structure of protein-surfactant complexes.

  6. Dose-dependent transitions in mechanisms of toxicity: case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slikker, William; Andersen, Melvin E.; Bogdanffy, Matthew S.; Bus, James S.; Cohen, Steven D.; Conolly, Rory B.; David, Raymond M.; Doerrer, Nancy G.; Dorman, David C.; Gaylor, David W.; Hattis, Dale; Rogers, John M.; Setzer, R. Woodrow; Swenberg, James A.; Wallace, Kendall

    2004-01-01

    Experience with dose response and mechanisms of toxicity has shown that multiple mechanisms may exist for a single agent along the continuum of the full dose-response curve. It is highly likely that critical, limiting steps in any given mechanistic pathway may become overwhelmed with increasing exposures, signaling the emergence of new modalities of toxic tissue injury at these higher doses. Therefore, dose-dependent transitions in principal mechanisms of toxicity may occur, and could have significant impact on the interpretation of reference data sets for risk assessment. To illustrate the existence of dose-dependent transitions in mechanisms of toxicity, a group of academic, government, and industry scientists, formed under the leadership of the ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI), developed a series of case studies. These case studies included acetaminophen, butadiene, ethylene glycol, formaldehyde, manganese, methylene chloride, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), progesterone/hydroxyflutamide, propylene oxide, vinyl acetate, vinyl chloride, vinylidene chloride, and zinc. The case studies formed the basis for technical discourse at two scientific workshops in 2003

  7. DICOM-compliant PACS with CD-based image archival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Robert D.; Henri, Christopher J.; Rubin, Richard K.; Bret, Patrice M.

    1998-07-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a low- cost PACS conforming to the DICOM 3.0 standard. The goal was to provide an efficient image archival and management solution on a heterogeneous hospital network as a basis for filmless radiology. The system follows a distributed, client/server model and was implemented at a fraction of the cost of a commercial PACS. It provides reliable archiving on recordable CD and allows access to digital images throughout the hospital and on the Internet. Dedicated servers have been designed for short-term storage, CD-based archival, data retrieval and remote data access or teleradiology. The short-term storage devices provide DICOM storage and query/retrieve services to scanners and workstations and approximately twelve weeks of 'on-line' image data. The CD-based archival and data retrieval processes are fully automated with the exception of CD loading and unloading. The system employs lossless compression on both short- and long-term storage devices. All servers communicate via the DICOM protocol in conjunction with both local and 'master' SQL-patient databases. Records are transferred from the local to the master database independently, ensuring that storage devices will still function if the master database server cannot be reached. The system features rules-based work-flow management and WWW servers to provide multi-platform remote data access. The WWW server system is distributed on the storage, retrieval and teleradiology servers allowing viewing of locally stored image data directly in a WWW browser without the need for data transfer to a central WWW server. An independent system monitors disk usage, processes, network and CPU load on each server and reports errors to the image management team via email. The PACS was implemented using a combination of off-the-shelf hardware, freely available software and applications developed in-house. The system has enabled filmless operation in CT, MR and ultrasound within

  8. Teleradiology and PACS - strategy of the Innsbruck University Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogl, R.

    2005-01-01

    Systems for management of digital imaging data are very important and widespread at the Innsbruck University Hospital and constitute a central component of the IT strategies followed by the hospital operating company TILAK (Tyrolean public hospitals). The particular goal is to integrate all imaging data into the electronic medical records and make these available online to each of the approx. 2500 clinic workstations and ensure electronic data exchange with other healthcare services. Teleradiology connections have been established at the University Clinic for Radiology since 1995; these have been continually expanded and linked to the central PACS. An eHealth web portal was recently established to facilitate transfer of images and findings from TILAK hospitals to other healthcare organizations. Registered users can be cleared for a limited time to access all radiological imaging data via this web portal. (orig.) [de

  9. Report on the 2005 Particle Accelerator Conference (PAC05)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathy F. Rosenbalm

    2005-01-01

    The 21st Particle Accelerator Conference, PAC05, took place at the Knoxville Convention Center (KCC) from Monday through Friday, May 16-20, 2005. Sponsored by the American Physical Society (APS), the Institute of Electrics and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) with its subdivision of Nuclear and Plasma Sciences Society (NPSS), the conference was hosted by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) Project and Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab). The conference was chaired by Norbert Holtkamp, and the Local Organizing Committee was made up of staff from the ORNL SNS Project under the chairmanship of Stuart Henderson. The conference welcomed over 1400 delegates from the United States, Europe, Asia, the Middle East, South America and from as far away as Australia. Almost 1400 papers where processed during the conference and will be published on the Joint Accelerator Conferences Website (JACoW) page

  10. Proceedings of the 22nd Particle Accelerator Conference (PAC'07)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The twenty-second Particle Accelerator Conference, PAC'07, took place at the Albuquerque Convention Centre in Albuquerque, the largest city in New Mexico, from Monday to Friday, 2007 June 25 to 29. It was attended by over 1350 delegates from 25 different countries (63% North America, 24% Europe, 11% Asia and 2% Other), and was held under the auspices of the two professional societies that oversee and make holding this series of conferences possible, the Division of Physics of Beams within APS, and the Nuclear and Plasma Sciences Society within IEEE. As host of the conference, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is especially thanked for their many contributions and assistance both prior to and during the conference. The Convention Center was an ideal location for information sharing and discussions between the interdisciplinary aspects of the accelerator community, as well as for related meetings and ad-hoc 'rump' sessions.

  11. Spin-dependent Nucleon Structure Studies at MIT/Bates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botto, T.

    2005-01-01

    We present preliminary results from recent measurements of the proton, neutron and deuterium electro-magnetic form factors obtained by the BLAST collaboration at the MIT/Bates Linear Accelerator Facility. BLAST (Bates Large Acceptance Spectrometer Toroid) is a large-acceptance multi-purpose detector dedicated to studies of exclusive spin-dependent electron scattering from internal polarized targets. BLAST makes use of stored electron beam currents in excess of 150 mA with a 60-70% polarization. The electron beam is let through a 15 mm diameter, 60 cm long open-ended storage cell which is fed with ultra-pure, high-polarization H1,D1 gas from an Atomic Beam Source. The target polarization can be rapidly reversed between different vector and tensor target states, thus minimizing systematic uncertainties. The target spin can be oriented to any in-plane direction via a set of Helmholtz coils. Target polarizations in the storage cell of up to 80% (vector) and 70% (tensor) have been routinely achieved over a period of several months. Our data on the D-vector(e-vector,e'n) reaction off vector polarized deuterium allow for a unique extraction of the neutron charge form factor G E n . At same time, complementary measurements of G M n , T20 and the spin-dependent nucleon momentum distributions in deuterium are obtained via the D-vector(e-vector,e'), D (e-vector,e'd) and D (e-vector,e'p) reactions. In addition, BLAST data on vector polarized hydrogen will provide novel measurements of the GE/GM form-factor ratio on the proton as well as of the spin-dependent electro-excitation of the Δ(1232) resonance. Such comprehensive program on few body physics is now well underway and preliminary data will be presented

  12. A control study on treatment for benzodiazepine dependence with trazodone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Hong-ju

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective To determine the efficacy and safety of trazodone in the treatment of benzodiazepine dependence. Methods Forty insomnia patients who met the Classification and Diagnostic Criteria of Mental Disorders in China Third Edition (CCMD-3 of dependence syndrome due to benzodiazepine were involved in the study. Patients were randomly assigned to trazodone group and placebo group for 3 months. The efficacy were assessed by Withdrawal Symptoms Checklist, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA and polysomnography (PSG. Adverse events were assessed by Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale (TESS. Results The Withdrawal Symptoms Checklist of trazodone group was significantly lower after 7 d treatment than that of placebo group (P = 0.000, and HAMA score of the trazodone group was also significantly lower after 15 d treatment than that of placebo group (P = 0.000. There were no difference in Withdrawal Symptoms Checklist and HAMA of placebo group before and after treatment. Withdrawal Symptoms Checklist and HAMA of the trazodone group were decreased after treatment (P = 0.000. In comparison with placebo group, sleep parameters of the trazodone, including total sleep time (TST, sleep efficiency (SE, sleep latency (SL and slow wave sleep (SWS time presented improvement after 7 d treatment (P = 0.000, for all. After trazodone treatment, total sleep time, slow wave sleep time, sleep efficiency and sleep latency were improved (P = 0.000, for all. No obvious adverse reaction occurred. There were no significant differences in TESS scores between pre? and post?treatment in both groups (P > 0.05. Conclusion Trazodone is markedly effective and safe in the treatment for benzodiazepine dependence.

  13. Native oxy-PAHs, N-PACs, and PAHs in historically contaminated soils from Sweden, Belgium, and France: their soil-porewater partitioning behavior, bioaccumulation in Enchytraeus crypticus, and bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arp, Hans Peter H; Lundstedt, Staffan; Josefsson, Sarah; Cornelissen, Gerard; Enell, Anja; Allard, Ann-Sofie; Kleja, Dan Berggren

    2014-10-07

    Soil quality standards are based on partitioning and toxicity data for laboratory-spiked reference soils, instead of real world, historically contaminated soils, which would be more representative. Here 21 diverse historically contaminated soils from Sweden, Belgium, and France were obtained, and the soil-porewater partitioning along with the bioaccumulation in exposed worms (Enchytraeus crypticus) of native polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) were quantified. The native PACs investigated were polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and, for the first time to be included in such a study, oxygenated-PAHs (oxy-PAHs) and nitrogen containing heterocyclic PACs (N-PACs). The passive sampler polyoxymethylene (POM) was used to measure the equilibrium freely dissolved porewater concentration, Cpw, of all PACs. The obtained organic carbon normalized partitioning coefficients, KTOC, show that sorption of these native PACs is much stronger than observed in laboratory-spiked soils (typically by factors 10 to 100), which has been reported previously for PAHs but here for the first time for oxy-PAHs and N-PACs. A recently developed KTOC model for historically contaminated sediments predicted the 597 unique, native KTOC values in this study within a factor 30 for 100% of the data and a factor 3 for 58% of the data, without calibration. This model assumes that TOC in pyrogenic-impacted areas sorbs similarly to coal tar, rather than octanol as typically assumed. Black carbon (BC) inclusive partitioning models exhibited substantially poorer performance. Regarding bioaccumulation, Cpw combined with liposome-water partition coefficients corresponded better with measured worm lipid concentrations, Clipid (within a factor 10 for 85% of all PACs and soils), than Cpw combined with octanol-water partition coefficients (within a factor 10 for 76% of all PACs and soils). E. crypticus mortality and reproducibility were also quantified. No enhanced mortality was observed in the 21 historically

  14. Modeling the temperature dependence of thermophysical properties: Study on the effect of temperature dependence for RFA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hiroki; Kobayashi, Yo; Hashizume, Makoto; Fujie, Masakatsu G

    2009-01-01

    Radio frequency ablation (RFA) has increasingly been used over the past few years and RFA treatment is minimally invasive for patients. However, it is difficult for operators to control the precise formation of coagulation zones due to inadequate imaging modalities. With this in mind, an ablation system using numerical simulation to analyze the temperature distribution of the organ is needed to overcome this deficiency. The objective of our work is to develop a temperature dependent thermophysical liver model. First, an overview is given of the development of the thermophysical liver model. Second, a simulation to evaluate the effect of temperature dependence of the thermophysical properties of the liver is explained. Finally, the result of the simulation, which indicated that the temperature dependence of thermophysical properties accounts for temperature differences influencing the accuracy of RFA treatment is described.

  15. A neurosurgery/stereotactic radiotherapy dedicated PACS for conformal radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefkopoulos, D.; Bocquiault, P.; Levrier, M.; Merienne, L.; Schlienger, M.

    1995-01-01

    To realise conformal cerebral stereotactic irradiations we use a Neurosurgery/stereotactic dedicated PACS between two distant hospitals. It connects the stereotactic neurosurgery planification imaging system NEUROAXIS (Sopelem-Sofretec/Ste Anne Hospital) with the dosimetric TPS ARTEMIS-3D/Dosigray (Tenon Hospital). NEUROAXIS is a computer aided stereotactic biopsies and stereo-electroencephalographies, used by surgeons in operating room. The system determines the precise location data for Talairach radiological equipment (X ray source at 5 meters from film) and the geometry of scanner and MRI stereotactical referentials. It provides a full set of features for lesion localization, geometrical computations, surgical planifications, picture archiving, stereotactic angiography, CT and MRI image processing and networking. It sends images through the French public digital network ISDN (NUMERIS/France Telecom : 2x64 Kbits/s) from Ste Anne to Tenon Hospital. Stereotactic angiographic and CT images are reformatted into the DOSIGRAY image processing environment where 3-D dose distributions, displays and DVHs are computed to determine the optimal treatment. ARTEMIS-3D/Dosigray is a TPS for stereotactic radiotherapy devised by the Tenon Hospital for clinical methodology and 3D dose calculations, optimization software development and the Dosigray company for multimodality imaging, (2D(3D)) computer graphics for dose and anatomical representation and data networking. Communication within the radiation oncology department is provided by local area ETHERNET network, linking heterogeneous systems (Vaxstations-3200; Decstation (5000(240))) by means of different protocols. The works in progress are to send back via the same network the 3-D dose matrix to Neurosurgery department NEUROAXIS system. Our PACS is used since six months to treat patients. It has permitted to improve the treatment quality in comparison with our first version TPS ARTEMIS-3D

  16. Scale dependence of acoustic velocities. An experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gotusso, Angelamaria Pillitteri

    2001-06-01

    Reservoir and overburden data (e.g. seismic, sonic log and core data) are collected at different stages of field development, at different scales, and under different measurement conditions. A more precise reservoir characterization could be obtained by combining all the collected data. Reliable data may also be obtained from drill cuttings. This methodology can give data in quasi-real time, it is easily applicable, and cheap. It is then important, to understand the relationship between results obtained from measurements at different scales. In this Thesis acoustic velocities measured at several different laboratory scales are presented. This experimental study was made in order to give the base for the development of a model aiming to use/combine appropriately the data collected at different scales. The two main aspects analyzed are the experimental limitations due to the decrease in sample size and the significance of measurements in relation to material heterogeneities. Plexiglas, an isotropic, non-dispersive artificial material, with no expected scale effect, was used to evaluate the robustness of the measurement techniques. The results emphasize the importance of the wavelength used with respect to the sample length. If the sample length (L) is at least 5 time bigger than wavelength used ({lambda}), then the measured velocities do not depend on sample size. Leca stone, an artificial isotropic material containing spherical grains was used to evaluate the combined effects of technique, heterogeneities and sample length. The ratio between the scale of the heterogeneities and the sample length has to be taken in to account. In this case velocities increase with decreasing sample length when the ratio L/{lambda} is smaller than 10-15 and at the same time the ratio between sample length and grain size is greater than 10. Measurements on natural rocks demonstrate additional influence of grain mineralogy, shape and orientation. Firenzuola sandstone shows scale and

  17. Longitudinal Studies of Angiogenesis in Hormone-Dependent Shionogi Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor P. Wade

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Vessel size imaging was used to assess changes in the average vessel size of Shionogi tumors throughout the tumor growth cycle. Changes in R2 and R2* relaxivities caused by the injection of a superparamagnetic contrast agent (ferumoxtran-10 were measured using a 2.35-T animal magnetic resonance imaging system, and average vessel size index (VSI was calculated for each stage of tumor progression: growth, regression, and relapse. Statistical analysis using Spearman rank correlation test showed no dependence between vessel size and tumor volume at any stage of the tumor growth cycle. Paired Student's t test was used to assess the statistical significance of the differences in average vessel size for the three stages of the tumor growth cycle. The average VSI for regressing tumors (15.1 ± 6.6 wm was significantly lower than that for growing tumors (35.2 ± 25.5 μm; P < .01. Relapsing tumors also had an average VSI (45.4 ± 41.8 μm higher than that of regressing tumors, although the difference was not statistically significant (P = .067. This study shows that VSI imaging is a viable method for the noninvasive monitoring of angiogenesis during the progression of a Shionogi tumor from androgen dependence to androgen independence.

  18. Crystal structure of the PAC1R extracellular domain unifies a consensus fold for hormone recognition by class B G-protein coupled receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Kumar

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP is a member of the PACAP/glucagon family of peptide hormones, which controls many physiological functions in the immune, nervous, endocrine, and muscular systems. It activates adenylate cyclase by binding to its receptor, PAC1R, a member of class B G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR. Crystal structures of a number of Class B GPCR extracellular domains (ECD bound to their respective peptide hormones have revealed a consensus mechanism of hormone binding. However, the mechanism of how PACAP binds to its receptor remains controversial as an NMR structure of the PAC1R ECD/PACAP complex reveals a different topology of the ECD and a distinct mode of ligand recognition. Here we report a 1.9 Å crystal structure of the PAC1R ECD, which adopts the same fold as commonly observed for other members of Class B GPCR. Binding studies and cell-based assays with alanine-scanned peptides and mutated receptor support a model that PAC1R uses the same conserved fold of Class B GPCR ECD for PACAP binding, thus unifying the consensus mechanism of hormone binding for this family of receptors.

  19. Study of calculated and measured time dependent delayed neutron yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldo, R.W.

    1980-05-01

    Time-dependent delayed neutron emission is of interest in reactor design, reactor dynamics, and nuclear physics studies. The delayed neutrons from neutron-induced fission of 232 U, 237 Np, 238 Pu, 241 Am, /sup 242m/Am, 245 Cm, and 249 Cf were studied for the first time. The delayed neutron emission from 232 Th, 233 U, 235 U, 238 U, 239 Pu, 241 Pu, and 242 Pu were measured as well. The data were used to develop an empirical expression for the total delayed neutron yield. The expression gives accurate results for a large variety of nuclides from 232 Th to 252 Cf. The data measuring the decay of delayed neutrons with time were used to derive another empirical expression predicting the delayed neutron emission with time. It was found that nuclides with similar mass-to-charge ratios have similar decay patterns. Thus the relative decay pattern of one nuclide can be established by any measured nuclide with a similar mass-to-charge ratio. A simple fission product yield model was developed and applied to delayed neutron precursors. It accurately predicts observed yield and decay characteristics. In conclusion, it is possible to not only estimate the total delayed neutron yield for a given nuclide but the time-dependent nature of the delayed neutrons as well. Reactors utilizing recycled fuel or burning actinides are likely to have inventories of fissioning nuclides that have not been studied until now. The delayed neutrons from these nuclides can now be incorporated so that their influence on the stability and control of reactors can be delineated. 8 figures, 39 tables

  20. Study of the strategies and controls of fuel cell systems associated with traction; Etude des strategies et des structures de commande pour le pilotage des systemes energetiques a Pile a Combustible (PAC) destines a la traction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lachaize, J.

    2004-09-15

    This work falls into project COPPACE (Contribution to the Control of Embedded Fuel cell) carried out by ALSTOM in partnership with the LEEI-INPT and the CEA and supported by the ADEME. The study deals with the modelling and the control of a Fuel Cell system (flow, pressure, temperature) and the definition of the control laws for the static inverters associated with the traction of power train. We develop then a strategy of management of energy by taking into account the criteria of the hydrogen consumption or energy stored in the ultracaps. Each step is verified by total simulation according to a specific profile of mission and a precise model of fuel cells which has been simplified to reduce the computing time. The control of this system is defined by a separate treatment of the components, to finalize the total function objective. The results of simulations show that the system can follow the requested power while controlling the critical elements. (author)

  1. Estudio paleoetnobotánico en la Costa Pacífica Vallecaucana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero Picón Yuri

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available As part of the INCIVA's Archaeological Research Program in the Valle del Cauca region of the Pacilic coast, this study seeks to contribute, from the anthropological and ecological perspective of paleoethnobotany, elements that will aid in the reconstruction of the nutritional base of the prehispanic populations settled in the alluvial valleys of the San Juan and Calimarivers.Inscrito dentro del Programa de Investigaciones Arqueológicas que adelanta el INCIVA en la Costa Pacífica Vallecaucana, este estudio busca aportar desde un enfoque antropológico y ecológico de la Paleoetnobotánica, elementos que contribuyan a reconstruir la naturaleza de la base alimenticia de las poblaciones prehispánicas asentadas en la llanura aluvial de los ríos Calima y San Juan.

  2. Determination of the size of an imaging data storage device at a full PACS hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, S. J.; Kim, Y. H.; Hur, G.

    2000-01-01

    To determine the appropriate size of a short and long-term storage device, bearing in mind the design factors involved and the installation costs. The number of radiologic studies quoted is the number of these undertaken during a one-year period at a university hospital with 650 beds, and reflects the actual number of each type of examination performed at a full PACS hospital. The average daily number of outpatients was 1586, while that of inpatients was 639.5. The numbers of radiologic studies performed were as follows : 378 among 189 outpatients, and 165 among 41 inpatients. The average daily number of examinations was 543, comprising 460 CR, 30 ultrasonograms, 25 CT, 8 MRI, 20 others. The total amount of digital images was 17.4 GB per day, while the amount of short-term data with lossless compression was 6.7 GB per day. During 14 days short-term storage, the amount of image data was 93.7 GB in disk array. The amount of data stored mid term (1 year), with lossy compression, was 369.1 GB. The amount of data stored in the form of long-term cache and educational images was 38.7 GB and 30 GB, respectively, The total size of disk array was 531.5 GB. A device suitable for the long-term storage of images, for at least five years, requires a capacity of 1845.5 GB. At a full PACS hospital with 600 beds, the minimum disk space required for the short-and mid-term storage of image data in disk array is 540 GB. The capacity required for long term storage (at least five years) is 1900 GB. (author)

  3. Acquisition and analysis of throughput rates for an operational department-wide PACS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Brent K.; Taira, Ricky K.; Dwyer, Samuel J., III; Huang, H. K.

    1992-07-01

    The accurate prediction of image throughput is a critical issue in planning for and acquisition of any successful Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS). Bottlenecks or design flaws can render an expensive PACS implementation useless. This manuscript presents a method for accurately predicting and measuring image throughput of a PACS design. To create the simulation model of the planned or implemented PACS, it must first be decomposed into principal tasks. We have decomposed the entire PACS image management chain into eight subsystems. These subsystems include network transfers over three different networks (Ethernet, FDDI and UltraNet) and five software programs and/or queues: (1) transfer of image data from the imaging modality computer to the image acquisition/reformatting computer; (2) reformatting the image data into a standard image format; (3) transferring the image data from the acquisition/reformatting computer to the image archive computer; (4) updating a relational database management system over the network; (5) image processing-- rotation and optimal gray-scale lookup table calculation; (6) request that the image be archived; (7) image transfer from the image archive computer to a designated image display workstation; and (8) update the local database on the image display station, separate the image header from the image data and store the image data on a parallel disk array. Through development of an event logging facility and implementation of a network management package we have acquired throughput data for each subsystem in the PACS chain. In addition, from our PACS relational database management system, we have distilled the traffic generation patterns (temporal, file size and destination) of our imaging modality devices. This data has been input into a simulation modeling package (Block Oriented Network Simulator-- BONeS) to estimate the characteristics of the modeled PACS, e.g., the throughput rates and delay time. This simulation

  4. Teleradiology and PACS - strategy of the Innsbruck University Hospital; Teleradiologie und PACS - das Konzept des Universitaetsklinikums Innsbruck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogl, R. [HITT - Health Information Technologies Tirol, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2005-08-01

    Systems for management of digital imaging data are very important and widespread at the Innsbruck University Hospital and constitute a central component of the IT strategies followed by the hospital operating company TILAK (Tyrolean public hospitals). The particular goal is to integrate all imaging data into the electronic medical records and make these available online to each of the approx. 2500 clinic workstations and ensure electronic data exchange with other healthcare services. Teleradiology connections have been established at the University Clinic for Radiology since 1995; these have been continually expanded and linked to the central PACS. An eHealth web portal was recently established to facilitate transfer of images and findings from TILAK hospitals to other healthcare organizations. Registered users can be cleared for a limited time to access all radiological imaging data via this web portal. (orig.) [German] Die Systeme zum digitalen Bilddatenmanagement haben grosse Bedeutung und weite Verbreitung an der Universitaetsklinik Innsbruck und sind zentraler Bestandteil der IT-Strategie der Krankenhausbetreibergesellschaft TILAK (Tiroler Landeskrankenanstalten). Ziel dabei ist es insbesondere, saemtliche Bilddaten in die elektronische Krankengeschichte zu integrieren und von jedem der ca. 2500 klinischen Arbeitsplaetze aus online zugreifbar zu machen sowie den elektronischen Datenaustausch mit anderen Gesundheitsdiensteanbietern zu gewaehrleisten. Seit 1995 bestehen Teleradiologieverbindungen der Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiologie; diese wurden laufend ausgebaut und die Einbindung in das zentrale PACS hergestellt. Zur Kommunikation von Bild- und Befunddaten aus den Krankenhaeusern der TILAK an andere Gesundheitseinrichtungen wurde kuerzlich ein eHealth WebPortal geschaffen, ueber das saemtliche radiologischen Bilddaten durch zeitbefristete Freigaben fuer registrierte Benutzer zugaenglich gemacht werden koennen. (orig.)

  5. Evaluation of radiological workstations and web-browser-based image distribution clients for a PACS project in hands-on workshops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, Thomas; Handgraetinger, Oliver; Voellmy, Daniel R.; Marincek, Borut; Wildermuth, Simon; Link, Juergen; Ploner, Ricardo

    2004-01-01

    The methodology and outcome of a hands-on workshop for the evaluation of PACS (picture archiving and communication system) software for a multihospital PACS project are described. The following radiological workstations and web-browser-based image distribution software clients were evaluated as part of a multistep evaluation of PACS vendors in March 2001: Impax DS 3000 V 4.1/Impax Web1000 (Agfa-Gevaert, Mortsel, Belgium); PathSpeed V 8.0/PathSpeed Web (GE Medical Systems, Milwaukee, Wis., USA); ID Report/ID Web (Image Devices, Idstein, Germany); EasyVision DX/EasyWeb (Philips Medical Systems, Eindhoven, Netherlands); and MagicView 1000 VB33a/MagicWeb (Siemens Medical Systems, Erlangen, Germany). A set of anonymized DICOM test data was provided to enable direct image comparison. Radiologists (n=44) evaluated the radiological workstations and nonradiologists (n=53) evaluated the image distribution software clients using different questionnaires. One vendor was not able to import the provided DICOM data set. Another vendor had problems in displaying imported cross-sectional studies in the correct stack order. Three vendors (Agfa-Gevaert, GE, Philips) presented server-client solutions with web access. Two (Siemens, Image Devices) presented stand-alone solutions. The highest scores in the class of radiological workstations were achieved by ID Report from Image Devices (p<0.005). In the class of image distribution clients, the differences were statistically not significant. Questionnaire-based evaluation was shown to be useful for guaranteeing systematic assessment. The workshop was a great success in raising interest in the PACS project in a large group of future clinical users. The methodology used in the present study may be useful for other hospitals evaluating PACS. (orig.)

  6. Sphere-pac fuel development program. First semi-annual progress report, October 1979-March 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felt, R.E.

    1980-05-01

    Development of processes by Exxon Nuclear Company, Inc. for fabricating spherical particle nuclear fuel (sphere-pac) during October 1979 through March 1980 is reported. The program surveyed available technology to develop an initial flowsheet as a design basis for process development. An 0.1 ton/day pilot plant was built to develop and demonstrate the fabrication of sphere-pac fuel. Process and equipment efforts have been directed towards the demonstration of processes and equipment necessary to fabricate sphere-pac fuel on a commercial scale

  7. Introduction to PAC-experiments and hyperfine interaction measurements in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manasijevic, M.; Koicki, S.; Cekic, B.; Ivanovic, N.; Milosevic, Z.; Koteski, V.; Radisavljevic, I.; Cavor, J.; Marjanovic, D.

    2001-01-01

    Perturbed angular correlation (PAC) has for many years been a productive experimental technique for obtaining information about the static and dynamic behaviour of local and electronic structures of solids on a microscope scale, without changing the main properties of the material. This article contains an outline of the basic principles of PAC. A summary of the technique and experimental requirements is given, followed by a brief discussion of the parameters which can be extracted from the PAC measurements. Some examples then illustrate the recent developments in the applications to problems of interest for solid state physics nad materials science, performed in VINCA Institute. (author)

  8. Surgical PACS for the digital operating room. Systems engineering and specification of user requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korb, Werner; Bohn, Stefan; Burgert, Oliver; Dietz, Andreas; Jacobs, Stephan; Falk, Volkmar; Meixensberger, Jürgen; Strauss, Gero; Trantakis, Christos; Lemke, Heinz U

    2006-01-01

    For better integration of surgical assist systems into the operating room, a common communication and processing plattform that is based on the users needs is needed. The development of such a system, a Surgical Picture Aquisition and Communication System (S-PACS), according the systems engineering cycle is oulined in this paper. The first two steps (concept and specification) for the engineering of the S-PACS are discussed.A method for the systematic integration of the users needs', the Quality Function Deployment (QFD), is presented. The properties of QFD for the underlying problem and first results are discussed. Finally, this leads to a first definition of an S-PACS system.

  9. Sample holder for studying temperature dependent particle guiding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bereczky, R.J.; Toekesi, K.; Kowarik, G.; Aumayr, F.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The so called guiding effect is a complex process involving the interplay of a large number of charged particles with a solid. Although many research groups joined this field and carried out various experiments with insulator capillaries many details of the interactions are still unknown. We investigated the temperature dependence of the guiding since it opens new possibilities both for a fundamental understanding of the guiding phenomenon and for applications. For the temperature dependent guiding experiments a completely new heatable sample holder was designed. We developed and built such a heatable sample holder to make accurate and reproducible studies of the temperature dependence of the ion guiding effect possible. The target holder (for an exploded view see Fig. 1) consists of two main parts, the front and the back plates. The two plates of the sample holder, which function as an oven, are made of copper. These parts surround the capillary in order to guarantee a uniform temperature along the whole tube. The temperature of the copper parts is monitored by a K-Type thermocouple. Stainless steel coaxial heaters surrounding the oven are used for heating. The heating power up to a few watts is regulated by a PID controller. Cooling of the capillary is achieved by a copper feed-through connected to a liquid nitrogen bath outside the UHV chamber. This solution allows us to change the temperature of the sample from -30 deg C up to 90 deg C. Our experiments with this newly developed temperature regulated capillary holder show that the glass temperature (i.e. conductivity) can be used to control the guiding properties of the glass capillary and adjust the conditions from guiding at room temperature to simple geometrical transmission at elevated temperatures. This holds the promise to investigate the effect of conductivity on particle transport (build-up and removal of charge patches) through capillaries in more details

  10. Los manglares de Costa Rica: el Pacífico norte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Zamora-Trejos

    2009-09-01

    del Pacífico norte de Costa Rica, y del resto del país son necesarios y urgentes.Abstract: Costa Rica mangroves: the north Pacific. Costa Rica has mangrove forests on both the Caribbean and Pacific coasts. The Pacific side has 99% of the mangrove area of the country. In this review we compile available information on the mangroves of the north Pacific coast of Costa Rica, from Bahía Salinas, on the border with Nicaragua, to the tip of the Peninsula de Nicoya at Cabo Blanco. We provide information on the location of the mangroves and all available information for each mangrove forest. These mangrove communities are smaller in extension and tree sizes, and have lower diversity compared to the mangroves on the southern section of the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. The dominant species are Rhizophora mangle and Rhizophora racemosa along the canal edges, backed by Avicennia germinans, and farther inland Avicennia bicolor, Laguncularia racemosa and Conocarpus erectus. At Potrero Grande a healthy population of Pelliciera rhizophorae, a rare species, has been reported. We recognized 38 mangrove communities in this part of the country, based on the National Wetland Inventory, published papers, field observations, theses, technical reports, and the national topographic maps (1:50 000, Instituto Geográfico Nacional. Relatively detailed information could be found for only five mangrove forests, for 14 more only prelimary and incomplete lists of plants and in some cases of animal species are available, for nine there is even less information, and for nine more only their location is known, which in some cases was not correct. Detail mapping, characterization of the vegetation and fauna, physiological studies, analyses of biogeochemical and physical processes, economic valuations, and determination of the health status of the mangrove of the northern Pacific coast, as well as for the rest of Costa Rica, are neccesary and urgent. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (3: 473-488. Epub 2009

  11. Cloning and expression profiling of the PacSnRK2 and PacPP2C gene families during fruit development, ABA treatment, and dehydration stress in sweet cherry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xinjie; Guo, Xiao; Zhao, Di; Zhang, Qiang; Jiang, Yuzhuang; Wang, Yantao; Peng, Xiang; Wei, Yan; Zhai, Zefeng; Zhao, Wei; Li, Tianhong

    2017-10-01

    Plant SNF1-related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2) and protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) family members are core components of the ABA signal transduction pathway. SnRK2 and PP2C proteins have been suggested to play crucial roles in fruit ripening and improving plant tolerance to drought stress, but supporting genetic information has been lacking in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.). Here, we cloned six full-length SnRK2 genes and three full-length PP2C genes from sweet cherry cv. Hong Deng. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that PacSnRK2.2, PacSnRK2.3, PacSnRK2.6, and PacPP2C1-3 were negatively regulated in fruits in response to exogenous ABA treatment, PacSnRK2.4 and PacSnRK2.5 were upregulated, and PacSnRK2.1 expression was not affected. The ABA treatment also significantly promoted the accumulation of anthocyanins in sweet cherry fruit. The expression of all PacSnRK2 and PacPP2C genes was induced by dehydration stress, which also promoted the accumulation of drought stress signaling molecules in the sweet cherry fruits, including ABA, soluble sugars, and anthocyanin. Furthermore, a yeast two-hybrid analysis demonstrated that PacPP2C1 interacts with all six PacSnRK2s, while PacPP2C3 does not interact with PacSnRK2.5. PacPP2C2 does not interact with PacSnRK2.1 or PacSnRK2.4. These results indicate that PacSnRK2s and PacPP2Cs may play a variety of roles in the sweet cherry ABA signaling pathway and the fruit response to drought stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Atmospheric oxidation of N-PAC and nitro substituted N-PAC in water droplets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feilberg, A.; Holcman, J.; Nielsen, T.

    1999-01-01

    A pulse radiolysis technique was used to study the formation of OH-adducts of quinoline (Q) and 5-nitroquinoline (5NQ) and the subsequent reactions of the OH-adducts with O-2 in both acidic and alkaline aqueous solution. The rate constants in alkaline solution were: k(Q+OH) = (9.0+/-1.0)lozenge 10...... with OH in water droplets in the atmosphere is less than 1 hour. It is estimated that the degradation of Q is accelerated in the presence of aqueous droplets with comparable contributions from aqueous and gas phase chemistry at neutral pH. Under acidic conditions the aqueous phase degradation is predicted...

  13. PacIOOS Nearshore Sensor 16 (NS16): Wailupe, Oahu, Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The nearshore sensors are part of the Pacific Islands Ocean Observing System (PacIOOS) and are designed to measure a variety of ocean parameters at fixed point...

  14. PacIOOS Nearshore Sensor 10 (NS10): Maunalua Bay, Oahu, Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The nearshore sensors are part of the Pacific Islands Ocean Observing System (PacIOOS) and are designed to measure a variety of ocean parameters at fixed point...

  15. Radiology department design to accommodate the future introduction of global PACS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naylor, A.F.

    1992-01-01

    In the light of the continuing development of pictorial archiving and communication systems (PACS) and image management and communications (MACS) systems it is appropriate to consider the provision that should be made in the design of a new or renovated department of radiology to accommodate these new technologies at either an earlier or later date. This paper considers 3 particular aspects of the influence of PACS on future department design: 1) the requirement for either more or less total department gross square feet, 2) the provision for the specific allocation of spaces at certain locations for PACS equipment and functions, and 3) the provision for dedicated pathways for fiber optic communications among the many locations in the department where PACS components would be located. (author). 1 fig

  16. PacIOOS Ocean Gliders: SeaGlider 139: Mission 7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — As a part of PacIOOS, ocean gliders provide very detailed information about the physical and chemical condition of the waters around the Hawaiian Islands....

  17. PacIOOS Ocean Gliders: SeaGlider 114: Mission 4

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — As a part of PacIOOS, ocean gliders provide very detailed information about the physical and chemical condition of the waters around the Hawaiian Islands....

  18. PacIOOS Ocean Gliders: SeaGlider 139: Mission 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — As a part of PacIOOS, ocean gliders provide very detailed information about the physical and chemical condition of the waters around the Hawaiian Islands....

  19. Workshop for Open Source Universal Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tohme, Walid G

    2006-01-01

    .... The "Open Source Universal PACS Archive" workshop focused on current challenges of and open source solutions to the management of images and other clinical information in multi-center settings...

  20. PacIOOS Ocean Gliders: SeaGlider 139: Mission 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — As a part of PacIOOS, ocean gliders provide very detailed information about the physical and chemical condition of the waters around the Hawaiian Islands....

  1. PacIOOS Water Quality Buoy 04 (WQB-04): Hilo Bay, Big Island, Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The water quality buoys are part of the Pacific Islands Ocean Observing System (PacIOOS) and are designed to measure a variety of ocean parameters at fixed points....

  2. PacIOOS Nearshore Sensor 01 (NS01): Waikiki Yacht Club, Oahu, Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The nearshore sensors are part of the Pacific Islands Ocean Observing System (PacIOOS) and are designed to measure a variety of ocean parameters at fixed point...

  3. PacIOOS Nearshore Sensor 02 (NS02): Hawaii Yacht Club, Oahu, Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The nearshore sensors are part of the Pacific Islands Ocean Observing System (PacIOOS) and are designed to measure a variety of ocean parameters at fixed point...

  4. PacIOOS Nearshore Sensor 13 (NS13): Kahului, Maui, Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The nearshore sensors are part of the Pacific Islands Ocean Observing System (PacIOOS) and are designed to measure a variety of ocean parameters at fixed point...

  5. PacIOOS Water Quality Buoy KN (WQB-KN): Kilo Nalu, Oahu, Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The water quality buoys are part of the Pacific Islands Ocean Observing System (PacIOOS) and are designed to measure a variety of ocean parameters at fixed points....

  6. PacIOOS Nearshore Sensor 05 (NS05): Pago Pago, American Samoa

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The nearshore sensors are part of the Pacific Islands Ocean Observing System (PacIOOS) and are designed to measure a variety of ocean parameters at fixed point...

  7. PacIOOS Nearshore Sensor 09 (NS09): Cetti Bay, Guam

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The nearshore sensors are part of the Pacific Islands Ocean Observing System (PacIOOS) and are designed to measure a variety of ocean parameters at fixed point...

  8. PacIOOS Nearshore Sensor 15 (NS15): Pago Bay, Guam

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The nearshore sensors are part of the Pacific Islands Ocean Observing System (PacIOOS) and are designed to measure a variety of ocean parameters at fixed point...

  9. PacIOOS Nearshore Sensor 07 (NS07): Majuro, Marshall Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The nearshore sensors are part of the Pacific Islands Ocean Observing System (PacIOOS) and are designed to measure a variety of ocean parameters at fixed point...

  10. PacIOOS Nearshore Sensor 12 (NS12): Kalama Beach Park, Maui, Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The nearshore sensors are part of the Pacific Islands Ocean Observing System (PacIOOS) and are designed to measure a variety of ocean parameters at fixed point...

  11. PacIOOS Nearshore Sensor 04 (NS04): Waikiki Aquarium, Oahu, Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The nearshore sensors are part of the Pacific Islands Ocean Observing System (PacIOOS) and are designed to measure a variety of ocean parameters at fixed point...

  12. PacIOOS Ocean Gliders: SeaGlider 523: Mission 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — As a part of PacIOOS, ocean gliders provide very detailed information about the physical and chemical condition of the waters around the Hawaiian Islands....

  13. PacIOOS Ocean Gliders: SeaGlider 139: Mission 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — As a part of PacIOOS, ocean gliders provide very detailed information about the physical and chemical condition of the waters around the Hawaiian Islands....

  14. PacIOOS Ocean Gliders: SeaGlider 523: Mission 4

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — As a part of PacIOOS, ocean gliders provide very detailed information about the physical and chemical condition of the waters around the Hawaiian Islands....

  15. PacIOOS Ocean Gliders: SeaGlider 139: Mission 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — As a part of PacIOOS, ocean gliders provide very detailed information about the physical and chemical condition of the waters around the Hawaiian Islands....

  16. PacIOOS Ocean Gliders: SeaGlider 139: Mission 8

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — As a part of PacIOOS, ocean gliders provide very detailed information about the physical and chemical condition of the waters around the Hawaiian Islands....

  17. PacIOOS Nearshore Sensor 03 (NS03): Hilton Hawaiian Pier, Oahu, Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The nearshore sensors are part of the Pacific Islands Ocean Observing System (PacIOOS) and are designed to measure a variety of ocean parameters at fixed point...

  18. PacIOOS Water Quality Buoy 03 (WQB-03): Kiholo Bay, Big Island, Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The water quality buoys are part of the Pacific Islands Ocean Observing System (PacIOOS) and are designed to measure a variety of ocean parameters at fixed points....

  19. PacIOOS Water Quality Buoy AW (WQB-AW): Ala Wai, Oahu, Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The water quality buoys are part of the Pacific Islands Ocean Observing System (PacIOOS) and are designed to measure a variety of ocean parameters at fixed points....

  20. Medical Data Manager an Interface between PACS and the gLite Data Management System

    CERN Document Server

    Montagnat, Johan; Texier, Romain; Nienartowicz, Krzysztof; Baud, Jean-Philippe

    2008-01-01

    The medical imaging community uses the DICOM image format and protocol to store and exchange data. The Medical Data Manager (MDM) is an interface between DICOM compliant systems such as PACS and the EGEE Data Management System. It opens hospital imaging networks to the world scale Grid while protecting sensitive medical data. It can be accessed transparently from any gLite service. It is an important milestone towards adoption of Grid technologies in the medical imaging community. Hospitals continuously produce tremendous amounts of image data that is managed by local PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication Systems). These systems are often limited to a local network access although the community experiences a growing interest for data sharing and remote processing. Indeed, patient data is often spread out different medical data acquisition centers. Furthermore, researchers in the area often need to analyze large populations whose data can be gathered through federations of PACS. Opening PACS to the outer I...

  1. PacIOOS Ocean Gliders: SeaGlider 139: Mission 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — As a part of PacIOOS, ocean gliders provide very detailed information about the physical and chemical condition of the waters around the Hawaiian Islands....

  2. PacIOOS Ocean Gliders: SeaGlider 523: Mission 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — As a part of PacIOOS, ocean gliders provide very detailed information about the physical and chemical condition of the waters around the Hawaiian Islands....

  3. PacIOOS Ocean Gliders: SeaGlider 114: Mission 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — As a part of PacIOOS, ocean gliders provide very detailed information about the physical and chemical condition of the waters around the Hawaiian Islands....

  4. Abandonment of nicotine dependence treatment: A cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Muzzi Cardozo Pawlina

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Non-adherence to treatment is one of the hindering factors in the process of smoking cessation. This study aimed to compare sociodemographic characteristics, smoking status and motivation among smokers who maintained or abandoned treatment to stop smoking, and to analyze associations between sociodemographic factors and smoking. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cohort study on 216 smokers who were attended at healthcare units in Cuiabá, Mato Grosso. METHODS: The instruments used were the Fagerström, URICA and CAGE questionnaires. Data from the initial evaluation was analyzed using the two-proportion test (α < 0.05. The patients were monitored for six months and those who abandoned treatment were accounted for. Bivariate analysis was conducted, using crude prevalence ratios and 5% significance level (P < 0.05, with abandonment of treatment as the outcome variable. Associations with P < 0.20 were selected for multiple robust Poisson regression (RPa. RESULTS: The abandonment rate was 34.26%. Males and individuals in the 20-39 age group, in employment, with low motivation, with shorter time smoking and lower tobacco intake predominated in the dropout group. In the final model, gender (RPa 1.47; 95% CI: 1.03-2.10 and age group (RPa 3.77; 95% CI: 1.47-9.67 remained associated with abandonment. CONCLUSION: Males and individuals in the 20-39 age group, in employment, with low motivation, with shorter time smoking and lower tobacco intake more frequently abandoned the treatment. Male gender and younger age group were associated with abandonment of nicotine dependence treatment.

  5. Problems facing the radiologist tendering for a hospital wide PACS system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilling, John

    1999-01-01

    As PACS becomes a reality the practical difficulties of installing the new technology become evident. The practical issues of developing a strategy, understanding the market, writing a business case, and an outline based specification are considered. The complexities of European procurement, the evaluation of responses, the contracting process and the problems of implementation, training, assessing the benefits and foreseeing the problems are covered. Provided there is careful attention to detail a hospital can expect to implement a successful PACS system

  6. Poetry and cultural identity in F. T. Pacéré's writing: from identity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    My concern is the socio-cultural characteristics of F. T. Pacéré's poetry and their aesthetic and semantic structuring role. Pacéré's poetry is not just about identity affirmation; it is also about being open to the world, namely other people and other cultures. Through this, it seeks to achieve universal humanism. I conclude my ...

  7. The sphere-PAC fuel code 'SPHERE-3'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallin, H

    2000-07-01

    Sphere-PAC fuel is an advanced nuclear fuel, in which the cladding tube is filled with small fuel spheres instead of the more usual fuel pellets. At PSI, the irradiation behaviour of sphere-PAC fuel is calculated using the computer code SPHERE-3. The paper describes the present status of the SPHERE-3 code, and some results of the qualification process against experimental data. (author)

  8. Refinement of atomic position in purely ionic materials using PAC spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eslami, E.; Saramad, S.; Moussavi-Zarandi, A.

    2000-01-01

    In pure ionic solids by means of electric field gradients at substitutional radioactive probe the positions of all atoms in the unit cell can be determined by PAC method with an accuracy of 0.3 Pm which is typically 5 times better than the data available from X ray and neutron diffraction experiments. In the case of oxides where to our knowledge no diffraction analysis exists, the PAC analysis predicts the atomic parameters

  9. CT and MR imaging acquisition performance in a neuroradiology PACS module 1-year clinical experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou, S.L.; Loloyan, M.; Weinberg, W.S.; Valentino, D.J.; Lufkin, R.B.; Hanafee, W.N.; Bentson, J.; Jabour, B.A.; Huang, H.K.

    1990-01-01

    This paper analyzes the operational efficiency of our neuroradiology PACS compared with conventional film-based management systems. The authors neuroradiology PACS module has been in clinical evaluation for 6 months. Three SUN microcomputers, two PC/ATs, and an automated optical disk library are connected through Ethernet. Software implemented at the TCP/IP level is used to transfer images from MR imagers and CT scanners to a viewing station. Performance measurements include the time elapsed at each stage of the system

  10. Removal of radio N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA from drinking water by coagulation and Powdered Activated Carbon (PAC adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-K. Choi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The presence of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA in drinking water supplies has raised concern over its removal by common drinking water treatment processes. However, only limited studies have been examined to evaluate the potential removal of NDMA by numerous water treatment technologies within a realistic range (i.e., sub μg/L of NDMA levels in natural water due to analytical availability. In this study, a simple detection method based on scintillation spectroscopy has been used to quantify the concentration of 14C-labeled NDMA at various ratios of sample to scintillation liquid. Without sample pretreatment, the method detection limits are 0.91, 0.98, 1.23, and 1.45 ng/L of NDMA at scintillation intensity ratios of 10:10, 5:15, 15:5, and 2.5:17.5 (sample: scintillation liquid, respectively. The scintillation intensity in all cases is linear (R2>0.99 and is in the range of 0 to 100 ng/L of NDMA. In addition, because scintillation intensity is independent of solution pH, conductivity, and background electrolyte ion types, a separate calibration curve is unnecessary for NDMA samples at different solution conditions. Bench-scale experiments were performed to simulate individual treatment processes, which include coagulation and adsorption by powdered activated carbon (PAC, as used in a drinking water treatment plant, and biosorption, a technique used in biological treatment of waste water. The results show that coagulation and biosorption may not be appropriate mechanisms to remove NDMA (i.e., hydrophilic based on its low octanol-water partitioning coefficient, Log Kow=0.57. However, relatively high removal of NDMA (approximately 50% was obtained by PAC at high PAC dosages and longer contact times.

  11. Clinical evaluation of the JPEG2000 compression rate of CT and MR images for long term archiving in PACS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Soon Joo; Kim, Sung Hwan; Kim, Yong Hoon

    2006-01-01

    We wanted to evaluate an acceptable compression rate of JPEG2000 for long term archiving of CT and MR images in PACS. Nine CT images and 9 MR images that had small or minimal lesions were randomly selected from the PACS at our institute. All the images are compressed with rates of 5:1, 10:1, 20:1, 40:1 and 80:1 by the JPEG2000 compression protocol. Pairs of original and compressed images were compared by 9 radiologists who were working independently. We designed a JPEG2000 viewing program for comparing two images on one monitor system for performing easy and quick evaluation. All the observers performed the comparison study twice on 5 mega pixel grey scale LCD monitors and 2 mega pixel color LCD monitors, respectively. The PSNR (Peak Signal to Noise Ratio) values were calculated for making quantitative comparisions. On MR and CT, all the images with 5:1 compression images showed no difference from the original images by all 9 observers and only one observer could detect a image difference on one CT image for 10:1 compression on only the 5 mega pixel monitor. For the 20:1 compression rate, clinically significant image deterioration was found in 50% of the images on the 5M pixel monitor study, and in 30% of the images on the 2M pixel monitor. PSNR values larger than 44 dB were calculated for all the compressed images. The clinically acceptable image compression rate for long term archiving by the JPEG2000 compression protocol is 10:1 for MR and CT, and if this is applied to PACS, it would reduce the cost and responsibility of the system

  12. Superfine powdered activated carbon (S-PAC) coatings on microfiltration membranes: Effects of milling time on contaminant removal and flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Pauline; Partlan, Erin; Li, Mengfei; Lapolli, Flavio; Mefford, O Thompson; Karanfil, Tanju; Ladner, David A

    2016-09-01

    In microfiltration processes for drinking water treatment, one method of removing trace contaminants is to add powdered activated carbon (PAC). Recently, a version of PAC called superfine PAC (S-PAC) has been under development. S-PAC has a smaller particle size and thus faster adsorption kinetics than conventionally sized PAC. Membrane coating performance of various S-PAC samples was evaluated by measuring adsorption of atrazine, a model micropollutant. S-PACs were created in-house from PACs of three different materials: coal, wood, and coconut shell. Milling time was varied to produce S-PACs pulverized with different amounts of energy. These had different particles sizes, but other properties (e.g. oxygen content), also differed. In pure water the coal based S-PACs showed superior atrazine adsorption; all milled carbons had over 90% removal while the PAC had only 45% removal. With addition of calcium and/or NOM, removal rates decreased, but milled carbons still removed more atrazine than PAC. Oxygen content and specific external surface area (both of which increased with longer milling times) were the most significant predictors of atrazine removal. S-PAC coatings resulted in loss of filtration flux compared to an uncoated membrane and smaller particles caused more flux decline than larger particles; however, the data suggest that NOM fouling is still more of a concern than S-PAC fouling. The addition of calcium improved the flux, especially for the longer-milled carbons. Overall the data show that when milling S-PAC with different levels of energy there is a tradeoff: smaller particles adsorb contaminants better, but cause greater flux decline. Fortunately, an acceptable balance may be possible; for example, in these experiments the coal-based S-PAC after 30 min of milling achieved a fairly high atrazine removal (overall 80%) with a fairly low flux reduction (under 30%) even in the presence of NOM. This suggests that relatively short duration (low energy

  13. Java-based PACS and reporting system for nuclear medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slomka, Piotr J.; Elliott, Edward; Driedger, Albert A.

    2000-05-01

    In medical imaging practice, images and reports often need be reviewed and edited from many locations. We have designed and implemented a Java-based Remote Viewing and Reporting System (JaRRViS) for a nuclear medicine department, which is deployed as a web service, at the fraction of the cost dedicated PACS systems. The system can be extended to other imaging modalities. JaRRViS interfaces to the clinical patient databases of imaging workstations. Specialized nuclear medicine applets support interactive displays of data such as 3-D gated SPECT with all the necessary options such as cine, filtering, dynamic lookup tables, and reorientation. The reporting module is implemented as a separate applet using Java Foundation Classes (JFC) Swing Editor Kit and allows composition of multimedia reports after selection and annotation of appropriate images. The reports are stored on the server in the HTML format. JaRRViS uses Java Servlets for the preparation and storage of final reports. The http links to the reports or to the patient's raw images with applets can be obtained from JaRRViS by any Hospital Information System (HIS) via standard queries. Such links can be sent via e-mail or included as text fields in any HIS database, providing direct access to the patient reports and images via standard web browsers.

  14. Design criteria for a data base management system for a PACS at Georgetown University Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahey, F.H.; Wang, P.C.; Mun, S.K.; Choyke, P.L.; Benson, H.R.; Duerinckx, A.; Elliott, L.P.

    1986-01-01

    A major goal of a radiologic picture archival and communication system (PACS) is to increase the availability of the data to the users who require access to them. This is done by providing the data in a digital form which can be readily communicated and archived. In this manner, the PACS can be seen as a specific example of a data base managements system (DBMS). The PACS/DBMS should organize the data base in such a way as to provide its users with the data they require in a timely and efficient manner. The ability to integrate the variety of data into common data base should lead to a more complete and relevant representation of the available information. A PACS/DBMS is not only unique in the types of data contained in the data base and its different users but also in the volume of data that are entered into the system and transferred within the system each day. Consideration of these characteristics leads to the definition of functional criteria for the PACS/DBMS. This report discusses the criteria that will be used in the design of a DBMS for a PACS at Georgetown University Hospital. (Auth.)

  15. XDS-I Gateway Development for HIE Connectivity with Legacy PACS at Gil Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simalango, Mikael Fernandus; Kim, Youngchul; Seo, Young Tae; Choi, Young Hwan; Cho, Yong Kyun

    2013-12-01

    The ability to support healthcare document sharing is imperative in a health information exchange (HIE). Sharing imaging documents or images, however, can be challenging, especially when they are stored in a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) archive that does not support document sharing via standard HIE protocols. This research proposes a standard-compliant imaging gateway that enables connectivity between a legacy PACS and the entire HIE. Investigation of the PACS solutions used at Gil Hospital was conducted. An imaging gateway application was then developed using a Java technology stack. Imaging document sharing capability enabled by the gateway was tested by integrating it into Gil Hospital's order communication system and its HIE infrastructure. The gateway can acquire radiology images from a PACS storage system, provide and register the images to Gil Hospital's HIE for document sharing purposes, and make the images retrievable by a cross-enterprise document sharing document viewer. Development of an imaging gateway that mediates communication between a PACS and an HIE can be considered a viable option when the PACS does not support the standard protocol for cross-enterprise document sharing for imaging. Furthermore, the availability of common HIE standards expedites the development and integration of the imaging gateway with an HIE.

  16. Performance enhancement with powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) treating distillery effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satyawali, Yamini; Balakrishnan, Malini

    2009-01-01

    This work investigated the effect of powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition on the operation of a membrane bioreactor (MBR) treating sugarcane molasses based distillery wastewater (spentwash). The 8 L reactor was equipped with a submerged 30 μm nylon mesh filter with 0.05 m 2 filtration area. Detailed characterization of the commercial wood charcoal based PAC was performed before using it in the MBR. The MBR was operated over 200 days at organic loading rates (OLRs) varying from 4.2 to 6.9 kg m -3 d -1 . PAC addition controlled the reactor foaming during start up and enhanced the critical flux by around 23%; it also prolonged the duration between filter cleaning. Operation at higher loading rates was possible and for a given OLR, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was higher with PAC addition. However, biodegradation in the reactor was limited and the high molecular weight compounds were not affected by PAC supplementation. The functional groups on PAC appear to interact with the polysaccharide portion of the sludge, which may reduce its propensity to interact with the nylon mesh.

  17. Sequence-dependent DNA deformability studied using molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Satoshi; Kono, Hidetoshi; Takenaka, Shigeori; Go, Nobuhiro; Sarai, Akinori

    2007-01-01

    Proteins recognize specific DNA sequences not only through direct contact between amino acids and bases, but also indirectly based on the sequence-dependent conformation and deformability of the DNA (indirect readout). We used molecular dynamics simulations to analyze the sequence-dependent DNA conformations of all 136 possible tetrameric sequences sandwiched between CGCG sequences. The deformability of dimeric steps obtained by the simulations is consistent with that by the crystal structures. The simulation results further showed that the conformation and deformability of the tetramers can highly depend on the flanking base pairs. The conformations of xATx tetramers show the most rigidity and are not affected by the flanking base pairs and the xYRx show by contrast the greatest flexibility and change their conformations depending on the base pairs at both ends, suggesting tetramers with the same central dimer can show different deformabilities. These results suggest that analysis of dimeric steps alone may overlook some conformational features of DNA and provide insight into the mechanism of indirect readout during protein-DNA recognition. Moreover, the sequence dependence of DNA conformation and deformability may be used to estimate the contribution of indirect readout to the specificity of protein-DNA recognition as well as nucleosome positioning and large-scale behavior of nucleic acids.

  18. CO ICE PHOTODESORPTION: A WAVELENGTH-DEPENDENT STUDY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayolle, Edith C.; Linnartz, Harold; Bertin, Mathieu; Romanzin, Claire; Michaut, Xavier; Fillion, Jean-Hugues; Oeberg, Karin I.

    2011-01-01

    UV-induced photodesorption of ice is a non-thermal evaporation process that can explain the presence of cold molecular gas in a range of interstellar regions. Information on the average UV photodesorption yield of astrophysically important ices exists for broadband UV lamp experiments. UV fields around low-mass pre-main-sequence stars, around shocks and in many other astrophysical environments are however often dominated by discrete atomic and molecular emission lines. It is therefore crucial to consider the wavelength dependence of photodesorption yields and mechanisms. In this work, for the first time, the wavelength-dependent photodesorption of pure CO ice is explored between 90 and 170 nm. The experiments are performed under ultra high vacuum conditions using tunable synchrotron radiation. Ice photodesorption is simultaneously probed by infrared absorption spectroscopy in reflection mode of the ice and by quadrupole mass spectrometry of the gas phase. The experimental results for CO reveal a strong wavelength dependence directly linked to the vibronic transition strengths of CO ice, implying that photodesorption is induced by electronic transition (DIET). The observed dependence on the ice absorption spectra implies relatively low photodesorption yields at 121.6 nm (Lyα), where CO barely absorbs, compared to the high yields found at wavelengths coinciding with transitions into the first electronic state of CO (A 1 Π at 150 nm); the CO photodesorption rates depend strongly on the UV profiles encountered in different star formation environments.

  19. A dependence modelling study of extreme rainfall in Madeira Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia-Reis, Délia; Guerreiro Lopes, Luiz; Mendonça, Sandra

    2016-08-01

    The dependence between variables plays a central role in multivariate extremes. In this paper, spatial dependence of Madeira Island's rainfall data is addressed within an extreme value copula approach through an analysis of maximum annual data. The impact of altitude, slope orientation, distance between rain gauge stations and distance from the stations to the sea are investigated for two different periods of time. The results obtained highlight the influence of the island's complex topography on the spatial distribution of extreme rainfall in Madeira Island.

  20. A-dependence study of inclusive phi production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daum, C.; Rijk, G. de; Dijkstra, H.; Hardwick, C.; Hoogland, W.; Tiecke, H.; Wiggers, L.; Boehringer, T.; Bosman, M.; Chabaud, V.; Hyams, B.; Koetz, U.; Weilhammer, P.; Rozanska, M.; Rybicki, K.; Turala, M.; Belau, E.; Hajduk, Z.; Klanner, R.; Luetjens, G.; Lutz, G.; Maenner, W.; Neugebauer, E.; Seebrunner, H.; Stierlin, U.; Waltermann, G.; Wylie, A.; Zeludziewicz, T.; Bailey, R.; Damerell, C.; Gill, S.; Gillman, A.; Watts, S.; Wickens, F.

    1983-10-01

    The mass-number dependence of the inclusive phi-meson cross section is measured using two target materials, beryllium and tantalum, in the kinematic range 0 2 . Parametrizing the cross section with sigma(A) + and p-beams respectively. (Auth.)

  1. Dependence of Substorm Evolution on Solar Wind Condition: Simulation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiyoshikawa, N.; Ebihara, Y.; Tanaka, T.

    2017-12-01

    A substorm is one of the remarkable disturbances occurring in the magnetosphere. It is known that the substorm occurs frequently when IMF is southward and solar wind speed is high. However, the physical process to determine substorm scale is not well understood. We reproduced substorms by using global MHD simulation, calculated auroral electrojet (ionospheric Hall current) flowing in the ionosphere to investigate the dependence of substorm evolution on solar wind condition. Solar wind speed of 372.4 km/s and IMF Bz of 5.0 nT were imposed to, obtain the quasi-stationary state of the magnetosphere. Then the solar wind parameters were changed as a step function. For the solar wind speed, we assumed 300 km/s, 500 km/s and 700 km/s. For IMF, we assumed -1.0 nT, -3.0 nT, -5.0 nT, -7.0 nT and -9.0 nT. In total, 15 simulation runs were performed. In order to objectively evaluate the substorm, the onset was identified with the method based on the one proposed by Newell et al. (2011). This method uses the SME index that is an extension of the AE index. In this study, the geomagnetic variation induced by the ionospheric Hall current was obtained every 1 degree from the magnetic latitude 40 degrees to 80 degrees and in every 0.5 hours in the magnetic region direction. The upper and the lower envelopes of the geomagnetic variation are regarded as SMU index and SML index, respectively. The larger the solar wind speed, the larger the southward IMF, the more the onset tends to be faster. This tendency is consistent with the onset occurrence probability indicated by Newell et al. (2016). Moreover, the minimum value of the SML index within 30 minutes from the beginning of the onset tends to decrease with the solar wind speed and the magnitude of the southward IMF. A rapid decrease of the SML index can be explained by a rapid increase in the field-aligned currents flowing in and out of the nightside ionosphere. This means that electromagnetic energies flowing into the ionosphere

  2. Ghrelin system in alcohol-dependent subjects: role of plasma ghrelin levels in alcohol drinking and craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggio, Lorenzo; Ferrulli, Anna; Cardone, Silvia; Nesci, Antonio; Miceli, Antonio; Malandrino, Noemi; Capristo, Esmeralda; Canestrelli, Benedetta; Monteleone, Palmiero; Kenna, George A; Swift, Robert M; Addolorato, Giovanni

    2012-03-01

    Animal studies suggest that the gut-brain peptide ghrelin plays an important role in the neurobiology of alcohol dependence (AD). Human studies show an effect of alcohol on ghrelin levels and a correlation between ghrelin levels and alcohol craving in alcoholics. This investigation consisted of two studies. Study 1 was a 12-week study with alcohol-dependent subjects, where plasma ghrelin determinations were assessed four times (T0-T3) and related to alcohol intake and craving [Penn Alcohol Craving Score (PACS) and Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS)]. Serum growth hormone levels and assessment of the nutritional/metabolic status were also performed. Study 2 was a pilot case-control study to assess ghrelin gene polymorphisms (Arg51Gln and Leu72Met) in alcohol-dependent individuals. Study 1 showed no significant differences in ghrelin levels in the whole sample, while there was a statistical difference for ghrelin between non-abstinent and abstinent subjects. Baseline ghrelin levels were significantly and positively correlated with the PACS score at T1 and with all craving scores both at T2 and T3 (PACS, OCDS, obsessive and compulsive OCDS subscores). In Study 2, although there was a higher frequency of the Leu72Met ghrelin gene polymorphism in alcohol-dependent individuals, the distribution between healthy controls and alcohol dependent individuals was not statistically significant. This investigation suggests that ghrelin is potentially able to affect alcohol-seeking behaviors, such as alcohol drinking and craving, representing a new potential neuropharmacological target for AD. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  3. Impact of a PACS/RIS-integrated speech recognition system on radiology reporting time and report availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trumm, C.G.; Glaser, C.; Paasche, V.; Kuettner, B.; Francke, M.; Nissen-Meyer, S.; Reiser, M.; Crispin, A.; Popp, P.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Quantification of the impact of a PACS/RIS-integrated speech recognition system (SRS) on the time expenditure for radiology reporting and on hospital-wide report availability (RA) in a university institution. Material and Methods: In a prospective pilot study, the following parameters were assessed for 669 radiographic examinations (CR): 1. time requirement per report dictation (TED: dictation time (s)/number of images [examination] x number of words [report]) with either a combination of PACS/tape-based dictation (TD: analog dictation device/minicassette/transcription) or PACS/RIS/speech recognition system (RR: remote recognition/transcription and OR: online recognition/self-correction by radiologist), respectively, and 2. the Report Turnaround Time (RTT) as the time interval from the entry of the first image into the PACS to the available RIS/HIS report. Two equal time periods were chosen retrospectively from the RIS database: 11/2002-2/2003 (only TD) and 11/2003-2/2004 (only RR or OR with speech recognition system [SRS]). The midterm (≥24 h, 24 h intervals) and short-term (< 24 h, 1 h intervals), RA after examination completion were calculated for all modalities and for Cr, CT, MR and XA/DS separately. The relative increase in the mid-term RA (RIMRA: related to total number of examinations in each time period) and increase in the short-term RA (ISRA: ratio of available reports during the 1st to 24th hour) were calculated. Results: Prospectively, there was a significant difference between TD/RR/OR (n=151/257/261) regarding mean TED (0.44/0.54/0.62 s [per word and image]) and mean RTT (10.47/6.65/1.27 h), respectively. Retrospectively, 37 898/39 680 reports were computed from the RIS database for the time periods of 11/2002-2/2003 and 11/2003-2/2004. For CR/CT there was a shift of the short-term RA to the first 6 hours after examination completion (mean cumulative RA 20% higher) with a more than three-fold increase in the total number of available

  4. [Sewage sludge conditioning by bioleaching-dual PAC and PAM addition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang-Geng; Zhang, Pan-Yue; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Liu, Yong-Gang

    2010-09-01

    Bioleaching-dual polyaluminum chloride (PAC) and polyacrylamide (PAM) addition was used to condition sewage sludge. The results showed that FeSO4 x 7H2O addition improved the bioleaching rate obviously with a fixed sulfur power dosage of 3 g x L(-1); when the FeSO4 x 7H2O dosage was 8 g x L(-1), the bioleaching lasted 1.5 d to decrease the sludge pH below 2. Bioleaching improved the sludge dewaterability significantly with a specific resistance to filtration (SRF) reduction of 77.52% from 6.45 x 10(10)s2 x g(-10 to 1.45 x 10(10)s2 x g(-1), but the bioleached sludge was still difficult to be dewatered. After adjusting the bioleached sludge pH to 6, PAC and PAM were used to enhance conditioning of the bioleached sludge. The results indicated that the optimal dosage was 200 mg x L(-1) for PAC or 50 mg x L(-1) for PAM when single chemical was used. When PAC and PAM were dually used, the optimal dosages of PAC and PAM were 100 mg x L(-1) and 25 mg x L(-1), respectively; SRF and moisture of sludge cake reduced to 2.02 x 10(8) s2 x g(-1) and 74.81%, respectively, showing good dewaterability of the treated sludge. Compared with the single use of PAC and PAM, the dual use of PAC and PAM showed the advantages of lower cost and better conditioning effect.

  5. Predicting the transition from frequent cannabis use to cannabis dependence: a three-year prospective study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pol, P.; Liebregts, N.; de Graaf, R.; Korf, D.J.; van den Brink, W.; van Laar, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Frequent cannabis users are at high risk of dependence, still most (near) daily users are not dependent. It is unknown why some frequent users develop dependence, whereas others do not. This study aims to identify predictors of first-incidence DSM-IV cannabis dependence in frequent

  6. Predicting the transition from frequent cannabis use to cannabis dependence: a three-year prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pol, Peggy; Liebregts, Nienke; de Graaf, Ron; Korf, Dirk J.; van den Brink, Wim; van Laar, Margriet

    2013-01-01

    Frequent cannabis users are at high risk of dependence, still most (near) daily users are not dependent. It is unknown why some frequent users develop dependence, whereas others do not. This study aims to identify predictors of first-incidence DSM-IV cannabis dependence in frequent cannabis users. A

  7. Prescription Pain Reliever Abuse and Dependence among Adolescents: A Nationally Representative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Mannelli, Paolo; Patkar, Ashwin A.

    2008-01-01

    The study investigates the prevalence, patterns, and correlates of adolescents' abuse, sub-threshold dependence, and dependence on prescription pain relievers (PPRs) in a nationally representative sample. Results show dependence on PPRs can take place without abuse and that sub-threshold dependence could have implications for major diagnostic…

  8. Studies in the renormalization-prescription dependence of perturbative calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celmaster, W.; Sivers, D.

    1981-01-01

    Now that the quantitative testing of perturbative quantum chromodynamics (QCD) has become a major experimental and theoretical effort, it is important to understand the renormalization-prescription dependence of perturbative calculations. We stress the phenomenological importance of finding a definition of the QCD expansion parameter which reduces the magnitude of high-order corrections. We give explicit arguments suggesting that a choice of coupling based on momentum-space subtraction can be phenomenologically useful. Examples from QCD and QED are used to illustrate these arguments, and we also discuss possibilities for refining them

  9. Experimental study of angular dependence in double photon Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandhu, B.S.; Dewan, R.; Saddi, M.B.; Singh, B.; Ghumman, B.S.

    2000-01-01

    The collision differential cross-section and energy of one of the final photons for double photon Compton scattering have been measured as a function of scattering angle θ 1 . The incident photon energy is 0.662 MeV and thin aluminium foils are used as a scatterer. The two simultaneously emitted photons in this higher order process are detected in coincidence using two NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometers and 30 ns timing electronics. The measured values for energy and collision differential cross-section agree with theory within experimental estimated error. The present data provide information of angular dependence in this higher order process

  10. Development of an object-oriented software based on fuzzy-logic for controlling temperatures in PAC experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapolli, Andre L.; Yamagishi, Sueli; Domienikan, Claudio; Schoueri, Roberto M.; Carbonari, Artur W.; Saxena, Rajendra N.

    2009-01-01

    The Hyperfine Interaction Laboratory at Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN) has been using Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) technique for studying material science for more than 20 years. One of the important aspects of the research involves the study of the behavior of measured properties of samples as a function of temperature. For temperatures higher than room temperature a small resistance furnace is used to heat the sample. The need to carry out the PAC measurement at predefined temperatures steps in a programmed manner is obvious. The present work describes a procedure for the furnace temperature control and automatic data acquisition at different temperatures based on fuzzy logic. The procedure consists in determining the linguistic input (temp, Δtemp) and output (pow) variables and their pertinence functions. After defining the variables, an object.oriented program is written in Java language which is an interface between principal data acquisition program and electronic temperature controller of the mini furnace. In addition to the implementation of the class that involves the fuzzy logic and classes with strategic algorithms defined for each temperature range there are classes of communication between systems based on modbus protocol RTU (Remote Terminal Unit) connected to serial interface RS-488. In this manner the applied technology for the development of software permits higher software life requiring only small alterations or implementation of classes in the use with new equipment. (author)

  11. Improved efficiency in clinical workflow of reporting measured oncology lesions via PACS-integrated lesion tracking tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevenster, Merlijn; Travis, Adam R; Ganesh, Rajiv K; Liu, Peng; Kose, Ursula; Peters, Joost; Chang, Paul J

    2015-03-01

    OBJECTIVE. Imaging provides evidence for the response to oncology treatment by the serial measurement of reference lesions. Unfortunately, the identification, comparison, measurement, and documentation of several reference lesions can be an inefficient process. We tested the hypothesis that optimized workflow orchestration and tight integration of a lesion tracking tool into the PACS and speech recognition system can result in improvements in oncologic lesion measurement efficiency. SUBJECTS AND METHODS. A lesion management tool tightly integrated into the PACS workflow was developed. We evaluated the effect of the use of the tool on measurement reporting time by means of a prospective time-motion study on 86 body CT examinations with 241 measureable oncologic lesions with four radiologists. RESULTS. Aggregated measurement reporting time per lesion was 11.64 seconds in standard workflow, 16.67 seconds if readers had to register measurements de novo, and 6.36 seconds for each subsequent follow-up study. Differences were statistically significant (p workflow-integrated lesion management tool, especially for patients with multiple follow-up examinations, reversing the onetime efficiency penalty at baseline registration.

  12. Development of an object-oriented software based on fuzzy-logic for controlling temperatures in PAC experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapolli, Andre L.; Yamagishi, Sueli; Domienikan, Claudio; Schoueri, Roberto M.; Carbonari, Artur W.; Saxena, Rajendra N., E-mail: alapolli@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The Hyperfine Interaction Laboratory at Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN) has been using Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) technique for studying material science for more than 20 years. One of the important aspects of the research involves the study of the behavior of measured properties of samples as a function of temperature. For temperatures higher than room temperature a small resistance furnace is used to heat the sample. The need to carry out the PAC measurement at predefined temperatures steps in a programmed manner is obvious. The present work describes a procedure for the furnace temperature control and automatic data acquisition at different temperatures based on fuzzy logic. The procedure consists in determining the linguistic input (temp, DELTAtemp) and output (pow) variables and their pertinence functions. After defining the variables, an object.oriented program is written in Java language which is an interface between principal data acquisition program and electronic temperature controller of the mini furnace. In addition to the implementation of the class that involves the fuzzy logic and classes with strategic algorithms defined for each temperature range there are classes of communication between systems based on modbus protocol RTU (Remote Terminal Unit) connected to serial interface RS-488. In this manner the applied technology for the development of software permits higher software life requiring only small alterations or implementation of classes in the use with new equipment. (author)

  13. The sorting protein PACS-2 promotes ErbB signalling by regulating recycling of the metalloproteinase ADAM17

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dombernowsky, Sarah Louise; Samsøe-Petersen, Jacob; Petersen, Camilla Hansson

    2015-01-01

    The metalloproteinase ADAM17 activates ErbB signalling by releasing ligands from the cell surface, a key step underlying epithelial development, growth and tumour progression. However, mechanisms acutely controlling ADAM17 cell-surface availability to modulate the extent of ErbB ligand release....... PACS-2 co-localizes with ADAM17 on early endosomes and PACS-2 knockdown decreases the recycling and stability of internalized ADAM17. Hence, PACS-2 sustains ADAM17 cell-surface activity by diverting ADAM17 away from degradative pathways. Interestingly, Pacs2-deficient mice display significantly reduced...

  14. Determination of octanol-water partition coefficients of polar polycyclic aromatic compounds (N-PAC) by high performance liquid chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg, C.; Nielsen, T.; Hansen, P.E.

    1997-01-01

    Prediction of 1-octanol water partition coefficients for a range of polar N-PAC from HPLC capacity coefficients has been investigated. Two commercially available columns, an ODS column and a Diol column were tested with water-methanol eluents. The best prediction of log K-ow for N-PAC was achieve...... with size and log K-ow for N-PAC was 1.1-1.3 lower than log K-ow for the equivalent PAH. Shielding of the nitrogen atom in the N-PAC compounds caused an increase in log K-ow. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd....

  15. Fitoflagelados potencialmente tóxicos y nocivos de costas del Pacífico mexicano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Bravo-Sierra

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Los fitoflagelados son un grupo heterogéneo de flagelados autotróficos, heterotróficos y mixotróficos, con importancia ecológica para los niveles tróficos en diferentes ecosistemas. Los fitoflagelados en costas del Pacífico mexicano (y en Latinoamérica en términos generales son virtualmente desconocidos, sólo se tienen pocos registros. El estudio de los fitoflagelados requiere de métodos complicados de recolección y análisis. Esta es, probablemente, la causa de la escasez de conocimiento de este grupo en áreas tropicales y subtropicales. Material recientemente recolectado a lo largo del Pacífico mexicano sirvió para el estudio de fitoflagelados marinos, incluyendo algunos tóxicos y potencialmente tóxicos. Se usaron muestras de plancton filtradas por gravedad y con bomba de vacío utilizando diferentes métodos de fijación y análisis. Se registran aquellas especies presentes o con posibilidad de estarlo que son potencialmente nocivas para el ecosistema marino pertenecientes a los Phyla Euglenophyta, Heterokontophyta y Haptophyta. Estas especies están distribuidas en el plancton, en aguas oceánicas y costerasThe phytoflagellates are a heterogeneous group of autotrophic, heterotrophic and mixothrophic flagellates of trophic importance in several ecosystems. As in the rest of Latin America, the phytoflagellates that occur in the Mexican Pacific coasts are virtually unknown except for a few records. Their study require complicated collection and analysis methods, a probable cause for the scarce knowledge of this group in tropical and subtropical areas. Material recently collected from various localities along the Mexican Pacific coasts was used to study phytoflagellates, including toxic and potentially toxic species. Plankton samples were treated by gravity and pump filtration, using different methods for fixation and analysis. The phyla Euglenophyta, Heterokontophyta and Haptophyta were found. They occur as plankton in oceanic

  16. Development and practice for a PACS-based interactive teaching model for CT image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Junzhang; Jiang Guihua; Zheng Liyin; Wang Ling; Wenhua; Liang Lianbao

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To explore the interactive teaching model for CT imaging based on PACS, and provide the clinician and young radiologist with continued medical education. Methods: 100 M trunk net was adopted in PACS and 10 M was exchanged on desktop. Teaching model was installed in browse and diagnosis workstation. Teaching contents were classified according to region and managed according to branch model. Text data derived from authoritative textbooks, monograph, and periodicals. Imaging data derived from cases proved by pathology and clinic. The data were obtained through digital camera and scanner or from PACS. After edited and transformed into standard digital image through DICOM server, they were saved in HD of PACS image server with file form. Results: Teaching model for CT imaging provided kinds of cases of CT sign, clinic characteristics, pathology and distinguishing diagnosis. Normal section anatomy, typical image, and its notation could be browsed real time. Teaching model for CT imaging could provide reference to teaching, diagnosis and report. Conclusion: PACS-based teaching model for CT imaging could provide interactive teaching and scientific research tool and improve work quality and efficiency

  17. Implementation of MINI-PACS using the DICOM converter on the Web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Youn Sang

    2000-01-01

    In recent years, medical procedures have become more complex, while financial pressures for shortened hospital stays and increased efficiency in patient care have increased. As a result, several shortcomings of present film-based systems for managing medical images have become apparent. Maintaining film space is labor intensive and consumes valuable space. Because only single copies of radiological examinations exist, they are prone to being lost or misplaced, thereby consuming additional valuable time and expense. In this paper, MINI-PACS for image archiving, transmission, and viewing offers a solution to these problems. Proposed MINI-PACS consists of mainly four parts such as Web Module, Client-Server Module, Internal Module, Acquisition Module. In addition, MINI-PACS system includes DICOM Converter that Non-DICOM file format converts standard file format. In Client-Server Module case, Proposed system is combined both SCU(Service Class User: Client) part and SCP(Service Class Provider: Server) part therefore this system provides the high resolution image processing techniques based on windows platform. Because general PACS system is too expensive for Medium and Small hospitals to install and operate the full-PACS. Also, we constructed Web Module for database connection through the WWW.=20

  18. Integration of PACS and HIS info the workflow of a nuclear medicine department. Experience in Regensburg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maenner, P.; Fuchs, E.; Marienhagen, J.; Schoenberger, J.; Eilles, C.; Tege, B.; Reicherzer, H.G.; Kurz, M.; Boerner, W.

    2006-01-01

    Aim: the development of new diagnostic techniques and the implementation of a modern quality control management system requires the continuous adaptation of existing data processing tools to the nuclear medicine diagnostic workflow. Furthermore, PACS connected to HIS facilitates and enhances the transfer of data and pictures, and satisfies the legal requirements for data retention as regulated by law. Therefore, the aim of this work is to present the architecture, structure and results of such a system newly installed in a department of nuclear medicine. Methods: initially, the nuclear medicine workflow was carefully analyzed and each step was correlated to the corresponding module. The standard SAP R/3 and IS-H / IS-H*med based software used for patient administration at the University of Regensburg Hospital was adapted to the needs of the Nuclear Medicine Department. The networking of the imaging systems was done by integration of a PACS. Finally, the PACS was connected to the HIS to allow the attachment of images to the medical report. Results, conclusion: by connecting the HIS to the nuclear medicine PACS, the workflow was significantly improved. The data management sequence starting at the reception desk, continuing through the nuclear medical examination, to the physician's final written and image report is clearly structured. Although high demands exist on technical support and administration the integration of PACS and HIS into the nuclear medicine workflow leads to enhanced efficiency and reduction in hospital costs. Patient and data management are considerably improved in this way. (orig.)

  19. Effect of oxygen plasma treatment on adhesion improvement of Au deposited on Pa-c substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Hoon; Hwang, Kyo Seon; Kim, Tae Song; Seong, Jin Wook; Yoon, Ki Hyun; Ahn, Sae Young

    2004-01-01

    Adhesion of gold on parylene C (Pa-c) is a major hurdle in achieving reliable and durable performance for biosensor application due to the hydrophobicity of Pa-c. It is, therefore, imperative to put efforts to improve adhesion between Au and Pa-c. In this reseach, oxygen plasma treatment for adhesion improvement was performed on Pa-c surfaces at various plasma powers and times. To analyze the relation of surface energy and roughness to adhesion promotion, we used several techniques such as contact-angle, surface-energy, surface-roughness, and adhesion analyses. As the oxygen plasma power and time were increased, the surface roughness of Pa-c increased. Also, Au films had larger and more uniform grain sizes as the oxygen plasma power and time were increased. Untreated surfaces revealed a contact angle of 108 .deg. , but the contact angle drastically decreased in the initial stage of oxygen plasma treatment and slowly decreased with increasing power and time to values of 27.3 and 34, respectively. From the adhesion analysis, adhesion was improved as the plasma power or time was increased. The improvement of adhesion is related to an increase in roughness as well as carbonyl groups.

  20. Study of Time-Dependent Properties of Thermoplastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolchoun A.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Simple tests carried out with a common tension/compression testing machine are used to obtain timedependent properties of non-reinforced thermoplastics. These tests include ramp loadings as well as relaxation and creep tests. Two materials (PBT Celanex 2002-2 and POM Hostaform C9021, Ticona GmbH, Kelsterbach were taken for the experiments. The experiments show that an adequate description of the long-term material properties can be obtained from the short-time tests, namely from tests with constant traverse speed $L^.$. Below a model for the time-dependent mechanical behavior is presented and fitted to the obtained measured data. For the evaluation of the fitting quality long-term tests are used. Especially creep and relaxation tests with ”jumps”, i.e. rapid change of loading, are important for this purpose.

  1. Adoption and resistance: reflections on human, organizational, and information technologies in picture archive and communication systems (PACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sappington, Rodney W.

    2005-04-01

    In research conducted at academic and community hospitals in the United States since 2001, this paper examines complex human and technological relationships employed to renegotiate behavior within hospital administrative and clinical cultures. In the planning and implementation of PACS in a four-facility hospital we will enter into what can be described as processes of "adoption" and "resistance", seemingly opposite approaches to system implementation, which I argue are in fact key responses to planning, design, and customization of imaging and information systems in a context of convergence. In a larger context of convergence known as NBIC tools (nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, and cognitive sciences) it has become increasingly clear to leaders in the field that it is essential to redesign organizational technologies. A novel system has little chance of being fully utilized by conventional organizational structures in an era of system convergence. The challenge of embracing a larger systems perspective lies in opening untapped potential within the healthcare enterprise by preparing the ground for reflection on new approaches to training, and bridging specialized knowledge across computer engineering, clinical decision making, and organizational perspectives for the benefit of patient care. Case studies will demonstrate how organizational and system design technologies are crucial in insuring that PACS implementation strategies can encourage the emergence of new levels of quality for patient care. The goal is to provide successful design-build models that are true to organizational specificity, persons, and clinical practices undergoing change and uncertainty.

  2. Complete genome sequencing of the luminescent bacterium, Vibrio qinghaiensis sp. Q67 using PacBio technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Liang; Wu, Yu; Jian, Qijie; Yin, Chunxiao; Li, Taotao; Gupta, Vijai Kumar; Duan, Xuewu; Jiang, Yueming

    2018-01-01

    Vibrio qinghaiensis sp.-Q67 (Vqin-Q67) is a freshwater luminescent bacterium that continuously emits blue-green light (485 nm). The bacterium has been widely used for detecting toxic contaminants. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of Vqin-Q67, obtained using third-generation PacBio sequencing technology. Continuous long reads were attained from three PacBio sequencing runs and reads >500 bp with a quality value of >0.75 were merged together into a single dataset. This resultant highly-contiguous de novo assembly has no genome gaps, and comprises two chromosomes with substantial genetic information, including protein-coding genes, non-coding RNA, transposon and gene islands. Our dataset can be useful as a comparative genome for evolution and speciation studies, as well as for the analysis of protein-coding gene families, the pathogenicity of different Vibrio species in fish, the evolution of non-coding RNA and transposon, and the regulation of gene expression in relation to the bioluminescence of Vqin-Q67.

  3. Evaluation of Picture Archiving and Communication System (Pacs As A Process Improvement Sample (Sivas Numune Hospital Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rıza İnce

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available It is a realitythatthefirmsproducinggoods or services frequentlybenefited process improvementand similartechniques toachieve their objectives In today'scompetitive environment.Beingprocess-orientedmeans to give weight to the creation of quality but not to the control of quality. In this sense, process improvement is seen as an approach of Total Quality Management targeted. Hospital informationsystems are computer systems that collect andarchive all orthe majority of the hospitaldatafor use inthe assessment.It isa major problem that storage of visualdatawithout lossanddamage and also the being availableof these data as soon as possiblein this system.System that calledPACShas been developedto overcome this problem.PACS is an archiving system that archive the visual dataobtained fromimaging systems in different unitsin a spaceand, allows the transfer of these data to usersat different points when needed.In this study,efficiency of PACS asa process improvementtechniquewas examined by the application ofahospital.It is concluded that the system providea positive contributionto customers and hospitalas an example ofan importantprocess improvement at the evaluationof the results and implementation of the system.

  4. History-dependent friction and slow slip from time-dependent microscopic junction laws studied in a statistical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thøgersen, Kjetil; Trømborg, Jørgen Kjoshagen; Sveinsson, Henrik Andersen; Malthe-Sørenssen, Anders; Scheibert, Julien

    2014-05-01

    To study how macroscopic friction phenomena originate from microscopic junction laws, we introduce a general statistical framework describing the collective behavior of a large number of individual microjunctions forming a macroscopic frictional interface. Each microjunction can switch in time between two states: a pinned state characterized by a displacement-dependent force and a slipping state characterized by a time-dependent force. Instead of tracking each microjunction individually, the state of the interface is described by two coupled distributions for (i) the stretching of pinned junctions and (ii) the time spent in the slipping state. This framework allows for a whole family of microjunction behavior laws, and we show how it represents an overarching structure for many existing models found in the friction literature. We then use this framework to pinpoint the effects of the time scale that controls the duration of the slipping state. First, we show that the model reproduces a series of friction phenomena already observed experimentally. The macroscopic steady-state friction force is velocity dependent, either monotonic (strengthening or weakening) or nonmonotonic (weakening-strengthening), depending on the microscopic behavior of individual junctions. In addition, slow slip, which has been reported in a wide variety of systems, spontaneously occurs in the model if the friction contribution from junctions in the slipping state is time weakening. Next, we show that the model predicts a nontrivial history dependence of the macroscopic static friction force. In particular, the static friction coefficient at the onset of sliding is shown to increase with increasing deceleration during the final phases of the preceding sliding event. We suggest that this form of history dependence of static friction should be investigated in experiments, and we provide the acceleration range in which this effect is expected to be experimentally observable.

  5. Diffusion-weighted MRI of the prostate at 3.0 T: comparison of endorectal coil (ERC) MRI and phased-array coil (PAC) MRI-The impact of SNR on ADC measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaheri, Yousef; Vargas, H Alberto; Nyman, Gregory; Shukla-Dave, Amita; Akin, Oguz; Hricak, Hedvig

    2013-10-01

    To compare ADC values measured from diffusion-weighted MR (DW-MR) images of the prostate obtained with both endorectal and phased-array coils (ERC+PAC) to those from DW-MRI images obtained with an eight-channel torso phased-array coil (PAC) at 3.0 T. The institutional review board issued a waiver of informed consent for this HIPAA-compliant study. Twenty-five patients with biopsy-proven prostate cancer underwent standard 3-T MRI using 2 different coil arrangements (ERC+PAC and PAC only) in the same session. DW-MRI at five b-values (0, 600, 1000, 1200, and 1500 s/mm(2)) were acquired using both coil arrangements. On b=0 images, signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) were measured as the ratio of the mean signal from PZ and TZ ROIs to the standard deviation from the mean signal in an artifact-free ROI in the rectum. Matching regions-of-interest (ROIs) were identified in the peripheral zone and transition zone on ERC-MRI and PAC-MRI. For each ROI, mean ADC values for all zero and non-zero b-value combinations were computed. Mean SNR with ERC-MRI at PZ (66.33 ± 27.07) and TZ (32.69 ± 12.52) was 9.27 and 5.52 times higher than with PAC-MRI ((7.32 ± 2.30) and (6.13 ± 1.56), respectively) (PERC-MRI (PERC. To address these requirements, clinical MR systems should have image processing capabilities which incorporate the noise distribution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A multiwell platform for studying stiffness-dependent cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mih, Justin D; Sharif, Asma S; Liu, Fei; Marinkovic, Aleksandar; Symer, Matthew M; Tschumperlin, Daniel J

    2011-01-01

    Adherent cells are typically cultured on rigid substrates that are orders of magnitude stiffer than their tissue of origin. Here, we describe a method to rapidly fabricate 96 and 384 well platforms for routine screening of cells in tissue-relevant stiffness contexts. Briefly, polyacrylamide (PA) hydrogels are cast in glass-bottom plates, functionalized with collagen, and sterilized for cell culture. The Young's modulus of each substrate can be specified from 0.3 to 55 kPa, with collagen surface density held constant over the stiffness range. Using automated fluorescence microscopy, we captured the morphological variations of 7 cell types cultured across a physiological range of stiffness within a 384 well plate. We performed assays of cell number, proliferation, and apoptosis in 96 wells and resolved distinct profiles of cell growth as a function of stiffness among primary and immortalized cell lines. We found that the stiffness-dependent growth of normal human lung fibroblasts is largely invariant with collagen density, and that differences in their accumulation are amplified by increasing serum concentration. Further, we performed a screen of 18 bioactive small molecules and identified compounds with enhanced or reduced effects on soft versus rigid substrates, including blebbistatin, which abolished the suppression of lung fibroblast growth at 1 kPa. The ability to deploy PA gels in multiwell plates for high throughput analysis of cells in tissue-relevant environments opens new opportunities for the discovery of cellular responses that operate in specific stiffness regimes.

  7. A multiwell platform for studying stiffness-dependent cell biology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin D Mih

    Full Text Available Adherent cells are typically cultured on rigid substrates that are orders of magnitude stiffer than their tissue of origin. Here, we describe a method to rapidly fabricate 96 and 384 well platforms for routine screening of cells in tissue-relevant stiffness contexts. Briefly, polyacrylamide (PA hydrogels are cast in glass-bottom plates, functionalized with collagen, and sterilized for cell culture. The Young's modulus of each substrate can be specified from 0.3 to 55 kPa, with collagen surface density held constant over the stiffness range. Using automated fluorescence microscopy, we captured the morphological variations of 7 cell types cultured across a physiological range of stiffness within a 384 well plate. We performed assays of cell number, proliferation, and apoptosis in 96 wells and resolved distinct profiles of cell growth as a function of stiffness among primary and immortalized cell lines. We found that the stiffness-dependent growth of normal human lung fibroblasts is largely invariant with collagen density, and that differences in their accumulation are amplified by increasing serum concentration. Further, we performed a screen of 18 bioactive small molecules and identified compounds with enhanced or reduced effects on soft versus rigid substrates, including blebbistatin, which abolished the suppression of lung fibroblast growth at 1 kPa. The ability to deploy PA gels in multiwell plates for high throughput analysis of cells in tissue-relevant environments opens new opportunities for the discovery of cellular responses that operate in specific stiffness regimes.

  8. Social policy and drug dependence: an historical case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, C

    1985-11-01

    A detailed examination is presented of the background to the reports and policy developments concerning drug dependence which emerged in Britain during the 1960s. Analysis of documents and interviews with policy makers, officials and doctors involved in the events of the period, reveal that explanatory models in terms of 'moral panic' or 'power struggle' tend to oversimplify the complex processes involved. The role in policy formation of the media, government departments and groups within the medical profession is considered. The patterns of conflict and convergence are seen to overlap simple lines of 'interest'--we find conflict within the medical profession, convergence between the Home Office (legal) and elements of the medical professions (medical). The resulting legal and institutional framework involved only loose guidelines from the centre about treatment, and the shape of policy was determined by individual doctors in the new hospital treatment centres. The apparent re-run of the 1960s being staged in the 1980s will require detailed research in the future in order to avoid superficial comparisons.

  9. APPC - A new standardised coding system for trans-organisational PACS retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruehwald, F.; Lindner, A.; Mostbeck, G.; Hruby, W.; Fruehwald-Pallamar, J.

    2010-01-01

    As part of a general strategy to integrate the health care enterprise, Austria plans to connect the Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS) of all radiological institutions into a nationwide network. To facilitate the search for relevant correlative imaging data in the PACS of different organisations, a coding system was compiled for all radiological procedures and necessary anatomical details. This code, called the Austrian PACS Procedure Code (APPC), was granted the status of a standard under HL7. Examples are provided of effective coding and filtering when searching for relevant imaging material using the APPC, as well as the planned process for future adjustments of the APPC. The implementation and how the APPC will fit into the future electronic environment, which will include an electronic health act for all citizens in Austria, are discussed. A comparison to other nationwide electronic health record projects and coding systems is given. Limitations and possible use in physical storage media are contemplated. (orig.)

  10. Economic impact of an integrated RIS/PACS system in a university hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroeger, M.; Wetekam, V.; Nissen-Meyer, S.; Reiser, M.

    1999-01-01

    Problem: The goal of the current article is to demonstrate how qualitative and monetary effects resulting from an integrated RIS/PACS installation can be evaluated. Results: The sample analysis of a RIS/PACS solution specially designed for a university hospital demonstrates positive qualitative and monetary effects of the system. Under ideal conditions the payoff time of the investments is reached after 4 years of an assumed 8 years effective life of the system. Furthermore, under conservative assumptions, the risk analysis shows a probability of 0% for realising a negative net present value at the end of the payoff time period. Conclusion: It should be pointed out that the positive result of this sample analysis will not necessarily apply to other clinics or hospitals. However, the same methods may be used for the individual evaluation of the qualitative and monetary effects of a RIS/PACS installation in any clinic. (orig.) [de

  11. Application of Nano PAC on Mitigating Membrane Fouling by Surface Properties Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Hairong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Membrane material has been widely accepted owing to the ability in water treatment, but the membrane fouling problem in using process is seriously restricted the promotion of membrane technology. So in this research nano PAC flocculant is added into the raw water to reach the goals of strengthening treatment efficiency and mitigating membrane fouling. According to the TMP change, it results that the PAC dosage of 45mg/L can realize the purpose to mitigate membrane fouling best. Compared with MBR, the MCBR is 16 days tardiness at the change of TMP, 1/3 gel layer filtration resistance less and 3.5% C element content fewer. The sum of C, O and N elements content, in addition, in the gel layer pollutants is more than 95%. That means membrane pollution is mainly caused by organic matter and nano PAC has the effect on surface properties optimization and membrane fouling mitigating.

  12. Implementation, reliability, and feasibility test of an Open-Source PACS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeri, Gianluca; Zuccaccia, Matteo; Badaloni, Andrea; Ciriaci, Damiano; La Riccia, Luigi; Mazzoni, Giovanni; Maggi, Stefania; Giovagnoni, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    To implement a hardware and software system able to perform the major functions of an Open-Source PACS, and to analyze it in a simulated real-world environment. A small home network was implemented, and the Open-Source operating system Ubuntu 11.10 was installed in a laptop containing the Dcm4chee suite with the software devices needed. The Open-Source PACS implemented is compatible with Linux OS, Microsoft OS, and Mac OS X; furthermore, it was used with operating systems that guarantee the operation in portable devices (smartphone, tablet) Android and iOS. An OSS PACS is useful for making tutorials and workshops on post-processing techniques for educational and training purposes.

  13. A demanding web-based PACS supported by web services technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Carlos M. A.; Silva, Augusto; Oliveira, José L.; Ribeiro, Vasco G.; Ribeiro, José

    2006-03-01

    During the last years, the ubiquity of web interfaces have pushed practically all PACS suppliers to develop client applications in which clinical practitioners can receive and analyze medical images, using conventional personal computers and Web browsers. However, due to security and performance issues, the utilization of these software packages has been restricted to Intranets. Paradigmatically, one of the most important advantages of digital image systems is to simplify the widespread sharing and remote access of medical data between healthcare institutions. This paper analyses the traditional PACS drawbacks that contribute to their reduced usage in the Internet and describes a PACS based on Web Services technology that supports a customized DICOM encoding syntax and a specific compression scheme providing all historical patient data in a unique Web interface.

  14. Diffusion-weighted MRI of the prostate at 3.0 T: Comparison of endorectal coil (ERC) MRI and phased-array coil (PAC) MRI—The impact of SNR on ADC measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazaheri, Yousef; Vargas, H. Alberto; Nyman, Gregory; Shukla-Dave, Amita; Akin, Oguz; Hricak, Hedvig

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To compare ADC values measured from diffusion-weighted MR (DW-MR) images of the prostate obtained with both endorectal and phased-array coils (ERC + PAC) to those from DW-MRI images obtained with an eight-channel torso phased-array coil (PAC) at 3.0 T. Methods: The institutional review board issued a waiver of informed consent for this HIPAA-compliant study. Twenty-five patients with biopsy-proven prostate cancer underwent standard 3-T MRI using 2 different coil arrangements (ERC + PAC and PAC only) in the same session. DW-MRI at five b-values (0, 600, 1000, 1200, and 1500 s/mm 2 ) were acquired using both coil arrangements. On b = 0 images, signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) were measured as the ratio of the mean signal from PZ and TZ ROIs to the standard deviation from the mean signal in an artifact-free ROI in the rectum. Matching regions-of-interest (ROIs) were identified in the peripheral zone and transition zone on ERC-MRI and PAC-MRI. For each ROI, mean ADC values for all zero and non-zero b-value combinations were computed. Results: Mean SNR with ERC-MRI at PZ (66.33 ± 27.07) and TZ (32.69 ± 12.52) was 9.27 and 5.52 times higher than with PAC-MRI ((7.32 ± 2.30) and (6.13 ± 1.56), respectively) (P < 0.0001 for both). ADCs from DW-MR images obtained with all b-values in the PZ and TZ were significantly lower with PAC-MRI than with ERC-MRI (P < 0.001 for all). Conclusion: Lower SNR of DW-MR images of the prostate obtained with a PAC can significantly decrease ADC values at higher b-values compared to similar measurements obtained using the ERC. To address these requirements, clinical MR systems should have image processing capabilities which incorporate the noise distribution

  15. Report of the collaboration project for research and development of sphere-pac fuel among JNC-PSI-NRG (1). Planning, fuel design, pin fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morihira, Masayuki; Ozawa, Takayuki; Tomita, Yutaka; Suzuki, Masahiro; Kihara, Yoshiyuki; Shigetome, Yoshiaki; Kohno, Shusaku

    2004-07-01

    The collaboration project concerning sphere-pac fuel among JNC, Swiss PSI (Paul Scherrer Institut) and Dutch NRG (Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group) is in progress. Final target of the project is comparative irradiation tests of sphere-pac fuel in the HFR (High Flux Reactor) in Petten in the Netherlands with pellet type fuel and vipack fuel. Total 16 fuel segments (8 pins) of these three types of fuel are planned to be irradiated. Two sphere-pac fuel segments contain 5%Np in addition to 20%Pu-MOX. Other segments contain no Np. The objective of the irradiation tests is to obtain the restructuring data in the early beginning of life for SPF as well as power-to-melt test data for the potential study of SPF. At the same time introduction of modeling technique for irradiation performance analysis, fuel design, fuel fabrication is also important objective for JNC. Fabrication of irradiation test pins was completed till May 2003 in PSI. After transportation of the fuel pins to Petten, two times of irradiation were performed in January to March in 2004 and now post irradiation tests are in progress. Later two irradiations will be done till the autumn in 2004. This report summarized the basic plan, fuel design, and fabrication of irradiation test pins concerning this collaboration project. (author)

  16. Towards Better Precision Medicine: PacBio Single-Molecule Long Reads Resolve the Interpretation of HIV Drug Resistant Mutation Profiles at Explicit Quasispecies (Haplotype) Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Da Wei; Raley, Castle; Jiang, Min Kang; Zheng, Xin; Liang, Dun; Rehman, M Tauseef; Highbarger, Helene C; Jiao, Xiaoli; Sherman, Brad; Ma, Liang; Chen, Xiaofeng; Skelly, Thomas; Troyer, Jennifer; Stephens, Robert; Imamichi, Tomozumi; Pau, Alice; Lempicki, Richard A; Tran, Bao; Nissley, Dwight; Lane, H Clifford; Dewar, Robin L

    2016-01-01

    Development of HIV-1 drug resistance mutations (HDRMs) is one of the major reasons for the clinical failure of antiretroviral therapy. Treatment success rates can be improved by applying personalized anti-HIV regimens based on a patient's HDRM profile. However, the sensitivity and specificity of the HDRM profile is limited by the methods used for detection. Sanger-based sequencing technology has traditionally been used for determining HDRM profiles at the single nucleotide variant (SNV) level, but with a sensitivity of only ≥ 20% in the HIV population of a patient. Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies offer greater detection sensitivity (~ 1%) and larger scope (hundreds of samples per run). However, NGS technologies produce reads that are too short to enable the detection of the physical linkages of individual SNVs across the haplotype of each HIV strain present. In this article, we demonstrate that the single-molecule long reads generated using the Third Generation Sequencer (TGS), PacBio RS II, along with the appropriate bioinformatics analysis method, can resolve the HDRM profile at a more advanced quasispecies level. The case studies on patients' HIV samples showed that the quasispecies view produced using the PacBio method offered greater detection sensitivity and was more comprehensive for understanding HDRM situations, which is complement to both Sanger and NGS technologies. In conclusion, the PacBio method, providing a promising new quasispecies level of HDRM profiling, may effect an important change in the field of HIV drug resistance research.

  17. Removal of APIs and bacteria from hospital wastewater by MBR plus O(3), O(3) + H(2)O(2), PAC or ClO(2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, U; Hastrup, C; Klausen, M M; Pedersen, B M; Kristensen, G H; Jansen, J L C; Bak, S N; Tuerk, J

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study has been to develop technologies that can reduce the content of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and bacteria from hospital wastewater. The results from the laboratory- and pilot-scale testings showed that efficient removal of the vast majority of APIs could be achieved by a membrane bioreactor (MBR) followed by ozone, ozone + hydrogen peroxide or powdered activated carbon (PAC). Chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)) was significantly less effective. MBR + PAC (450 mg/l) was the most efficient technology, while the most cost-efficient technology was MBR + ozone (156 mg O(3)/l applied over 20 min). With MBR an efficient removal of Escherichia coli and enterococci was measured, and no antibiotic resistant bacteria were detected in the effluent. With MBR + ozone and MBR + PAC also the measured effluent concentrations of APIs (e.g. ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole and sulfamethizole) were below available predicted no-effect concentrations (PNEC) for the marine environment without dilution. Iodinated contrast media were also reduced significantly (80-99% for iohexol, iopromide and ioversol and 40-99% for amidotrizoateacid). A full-scale MBR treatment plant with ozone at a hospital with 900 beds is estimated to require an investment cost of €1.6 mill. and an operating cost of €1/m(3) of treated water.

  18. Thermomechanical analysis of solid breeders in sphere-pac, plate, and pellet configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, J.P.; Ghoniem, N.M.

    1986-02-01

    The first configuration studied is called sphere-pac. It features small breeder spheres of three different diameters, thus allowing efficient packing and minimal void fraction. The concept originated as an attempt to minimize thermal stresses in the breeder and improve the predictability of the breeder-structure interface heat conduction. In general the breeder is made as thin as possible, to maximize the breeding ratio, so the cladding's integrity will likely be the life-limiting issue of this concept. The third breeder configuration is in the form of pellets cladded by steel tubes. The major thermomechanical issue of the pin-type designs is cracking, which would impair the thermal performance of the blanket. Fortunately, the pins can be sized to prevent cracking under normal operation. In this report we have treated each blanket generically, dealing with basic issues rather than design specifics. Our basic philosophy is to avoid cracking of the breeder if at all possible. It can be argued that cracking could be allowed, but this would sacrifice predictability of the blanket thermal performance and tritium release characteristics. Proper design can and should minimize breeder cracking

  19. PACS for Bhutan: a cost effective open source architecture for emerging countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratib, Osman; Roduit, Nicolas; Nidup, Dechen; De Geer, Gerard; Rosset, Antoine; Geissbuhler, Antoine

    2016-10-01

    This paper reports the design and implementation of an innovative and cost-effective imaging management infrastructure suitable for radiology centres in emerging countries. It was implemented in the main referring hospital of Bhutan equipped with a CT, an MRI, digital radiology, and a suite of several ultrasound units. They lacked the necessary informatics infrastructure for image archiving and interpretation and needed a system for distribution of images to clinical wards. The solution developed for this project combines several open source software platforms in a robust and versatile archiving and communication system connected to analysis workstations equipped with a FDA-certified version of the highly popular Open-Source software. The whole system was implemented on standard off-the-shelf hardware. The system was installed in three days, and training of the radiologists as well as the technical and IT staff was provided onsite to ensure full ownership of the system by the local team. Radiologists were rapidly capable of reading and interpreting studies on the diagnostic workstations, which had a significant benefit on their workflow and ability to perform diagnostic tasks more efficiently. Furthermore, images were also made available to several clinical units on standard desktop computers through a web-based viewer. • Open source imaging informatics platforms can provide cost-effective alternatives for PACS • Robust and cost-effective open architecture can provide adequate solutions for emerging countries • Imaging informatics is often lacking in hospitals equipped with digital modalities.

  20. Estado del Medio Ambiente Marino y Costero del Pacífico Sudeste.

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade V., Héctor; Guitiérres S., Sixto; Andrade C., Héctor

    2014-01-01

    El presente documento contiene los antecedentes sistematizados sobre el Estado del Medio Ambiente Marino Costero del Pacífico Sudeste en base a los informes nacionales de consultoría elaborados entre 2011 y 2012 en Panamá, Colombia, Ecuador, Perú y Chile y cuya finalidad fue establecer un estado actualizado del medio marino a nivel regional, en el marco del Programa CONPACSE III de la Comisión Permanente de Pacífico Sur. Los principales contaminantes presentes en las aguas marinas costeras de...

  1. Manual sobre el desarrollo integral de la Cuenca Pacífica Colombiana

    OpenAIRE

    Cardona, Jose Gerardo

    2010-01-01

    En el presente documento nos ocupamos en trazar las pautas que consideramos deben seguirse para los trabajos de investigación científica y tecnológica, indispensables para los programas de desarrollo agroforestal y pecuario de la Cuenca del Pacífico Colombiano; advirtiendo que nuestras sugerencias no tienen carácter dogmático, sencillamente constituyen, a nuestro juicio, complemento al diagnóstico y propuestas consignados en el Manual Nº 1 El Litoral Pacífico Colombiano, referentes a los sect...

  2. CASE STUDY ON RE-ADJUSTMENTS DEPENDING ON PRICE MODIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cozma Ighian Diana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflationary moments, characterized by significant price rises, have proved that accountingsystems based on historical costs provide a distorted image of the reality: the elements ofthe balance sheet are under-valuated, and the stock-related expenses and amortization in theprofit and loss account are also under-valuated. Under these circumstances, the result isover-valuated, and its distribution leads to allotments from the company’s capital. In thispaper we draw up a case study with regards to the methods used for adjusting pricemodification, clearly outlining, through a comparative analysis, the main differencesbetween the accounting system based on historical cost and inflation accounting.

  3. Water Balance Study of a Groundwater-dependent Oak Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MÓRICZ, Norbert

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were (1 to estimate the water balance components of an oak standby calibrating a Hydrus 1-D model, (2 to determine the groundwater consumption by the water tablefluctuation method and (3 to compare the results of the modelling with a remote-sensing based estimation.Model simulation described the observed soil moisture and groundwater level relatively well, theroot mean square errors varied between 12.0 and 14.9% for the soil moisture measurements and 5.0%for the groundwater level. Groundwater consumption was estimated also by the water table fluctuationmethod, which provided slightly different groundwater consumption rates than estimated by theHydrus model simulation. The simulated evapotranspiration was compared with results of a remotesensingbased estimation using the surface temperature database of MODIS.According to the Hydrus model, the estimated evapotranspiration resulted from transpiration(73%, interception loss (23% and soil surface evaporation (4% in the two-year study period. Theproportion of groundwater consumption was 58% of the total transpiration. During the dry growingseason of 2007 the groundwater consumption was significant with 66% of the total transpiration.Water supply from groundwater was found to be less important in the wet growing season of 2008with 50%. The remote-sensing based estimation of evapotranspiration was about 4% lower than themodel based results of nearby comparable sites.

  4. Radial dependence of foreshock cavities: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Sibeck

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a case study of Geotail, Interball-1, IMP-8, and Wind observations of density and magnetic field strength cavities excavated by the enhanced pressures associated with bursts of energetic ions in the foreshock. Consistent with theoretical predictions, the pressure of the energetic ions diminishes rapidly with upstream distance due to a decrease in the flux of energetic ions and a transition from near-isotropic to streaming pitch angle distributions. Consequently, the cavities can only be observed immediately upstream from the bow shock. A comparison of conditions upstream from the pre- and post-noon bow shock demonstrates that foreshock cavities introduce perturbations into the oncoming solar wind flow with dimensions smaller than those of the magnetosphere. Dayside geosynchronous magnetic field strength variations observed by GOES-8 do not track the density variations seen by any of the spacecraft upstream from the bow shock in a one-to-one manner, indicating that none of these spacecraft observed the precise sequence of density variations that actually struck the subsolar magnetopause. Key words. Interplanetary physics (energetic particles; planetary bow shocks – Magnetospheric physics (solar wind-magnetosphere interactions

  5. Radial dependence of foreshock cavities: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Sibeck

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a case study of Geotail, Interball-1, IMP-8, and Wind observations of density and magnetic field strength cavities excavated by the enhanced pressures associated with bursts of energetic ions in the foreshock. Consistent with theoretical predictions, the pressure of the energetic ions diminishes rapidly with upstream distance due to a decrease in the flux of energetic ions and a transition from near-isotropic to streaming pitch angle distributions. Consequently, the cavities can only be observed immediately upstream from the bow shock. A comparison of conditions upstream from the pre- and post-noon bow shock demonstrates that foreshock cavities introduce perturbations into the oncoming solar wind flow with dimensions smaller than those of the magnetosphere. Dayside geosynchronous magnetic field strength variations observed by GOES-8 do not track the density variations seen by any of the spacecraft upstream from the bow shock in a one-to-one manner, indicating that none of these spacecraft observed the precise sequence of density variations that actually struck the subsolar magnetopause.

    Key words. Interplanetary physics (energetic particles; planetary bow shocks – Magnetospheric physics (solar wind-magnetosphere interactions

  6. Investigation of small scale sphere-pac fuel fabrication plant with external gelation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Kazuhiko; Yoshimura, Tadahiro; Kikuchi, Toshiaki; Hoshino, Yasushi; Munekata, Hideki; Shimizu, Makoto

    2005-02-01

    In feasibility studies on commercialized FBR cycle system, comprehensive system investigation and properties evaluation for candidate FBR cycle systems have been implemented through view point of safety, economics, environmental burden reduction, non-proliferation resistivity, etc. As part of these studies, an investigation of small scale sphere-pac fuel fabrication plant with external gelation process was conducted. Until last fiscal year, equipment layout in cells and overall layout design of the 200t-HM/y scale fuel fabrication plant were conducted as well as schematical design studies on main equipments in gelation and reagent recovery processes of the plant. System property data concerning economics and environmental burden reduction of fuel fabrication plant was also acquired. In this fiscal year, the processes from vibropacking to fuel assemblies storage were added to the investigation range, and a conceptual design of whole fuel fabrication plant was studied as well as deepening the design study on main equipments. The conceptual design study was mainly conducted for small 50t-HM/y scale plant and a revising investigation was done for 200t-HM/y scale plant. Taking the planed comparative evaluation with pellet fuel fabrication system into account, design of equipments which should be equivalent with pellet system, especially in post-vibropacking processes, were standardized in each system. Based on these design studies, system properties data concerning economics and environmental burden reduction of the plant was also acquired. In comparison with existing design, the cell height was lowered on condition that plug type pneumatic system was adopted and fuel fabrication building was downsized by applying rationalized layout design of pellet system to post-vibropacking processes. Reduction of reagent usage at gelation process and rationalization of sintering and O/M controlling processes etc., are foremost tasks. (author)

  7. EST-PAC a web package for EST annotation and protein sequence prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strahm Yvan

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With the decreasing cost of DNA sequencing technology and the vast diversity of biological resources, researchers increasingly face the basic challenge of annotating a larger number of expressed sequences tags (EST from a variety of species. This typically consists of a series of repetitive tasks, which should be automated and easy to use. The results of these annotation tasks need to be stored and organized in a consistent way. All these operations should be self-installing, platform independent, easy to customize and amenable to using distributed bioinformatics resources available on the Internet. In order to address these issues, we present EST-PAC a web oriented multi-platform software package for expressed sequences tag (EST annotation. EST-PAC provides a solution for the administration of EST and protein sequence annotations accessible through a web interface. Three aspects of EST annotation are automated: 1 searching local or remote biological databases for sequence similarities using Blast services, 2 predicting protein coding sequence from EST data and, 3 annotating predicted protein sequences with functional domain predictions. In practice, EST-PAC integrates the BLASTALL suite, EST-Scan2 and HMMER in a relational database system accessible through a simple web interface. EST-PAC also takes advantage of the relational database to allow consistent storage, powerful queries of results and, management of the annotation process. The system allows users to customize annotation strategies and provides an open-source data-management environment for research and education in bioinformatics.

  8. Application of gel microsphere processes to preparation of Sphere-Pac nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, P.A.; Notz, K.J.; Spence, R.D.

    1978-01-01

    Sphere-Pac fabrication of nuclear fuels using two or more sizes of oxide or carbide spheres is ideally suited to nonproliferation-fuel cycles and remote refabrication. The sizes and compositions of spheres necessary for such fuel cycles have not been commonly prepared; therefore, modifications of sol-gel processes to meet these requirements are being developed and demonstrated

  9. Clinical delineation of the PACS1-related syndrome--Report on 19 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurs-Hoeijmakers, J.H.M.; Landsverk, M.L.; Foulds, N.; Kukolich, M.K.; Gavrilova, R.H.; Greville-Heygate, S.; Hanson-Kahn, A.; Bernstein, J.A.; Glass, J.; Chitayat, D.; Burrow, T.A.; Husami, A.; Collins, K.; Wusik, K.; Aa, N. van der; Kooy, F.; Brown, K.T.; Gadzicki, D.; Kini, U.; Alvarez, S.; Fernandez-Jaen, A.; McGehee, F.; Selby, K.; Tarailo-Graovac, M.; Allen, M.; Karnebeek, C.D. van; Stavropoulos, D.J.; Marshall, C.R.; Merico, D.; Gregor, A.; Zweier, C.; Hopkin, R.J.; Chu, Y.W.; Chung, B.H.; Vries, B. de; Devriendt, K.; Hurles, M.E.; Brunner, H.G.

    2016-01-01

    We report on 19 individuals with a recurrent de novo c.607C>T mutation in PACS1. This specific mutation gives rise to a recognizable intellectual disability syndrome. There is a distinctive facial appearance (19/19), characterized by full and arched eyebrows, hypertelorism with downslanting

  10. Integration of radiology and hospital information systems (RIS, HIS) with PACS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosser, H.; Urban, M.; Hruby, W.; Duerr, M.; Rueger, W.

    1992-01-01

    PACS development has now reached a stage where it can clearly be stated that the technology for storage, networking and display in a fully digital environment is available. This is reflected by an already large and rapidly increasing number of PACS installations in USA, Western Europe and Japan. Such installations consist of a great variety of information systems, more or less interconnected, like PACS, HIS, RIS and other departmental systems, differing in both hardware and software. Various data -even if they only concern one person- are stored in different systems distributed in the hospital. The integration of all digital systems into a functional unit is determined by the radiologist's need of quick access to all relevant information regardless where it is stored. The interconnection and functional integration of all digital systems in the hospital determine the clinical benefits of PACS. This paper describes the radiologist's requirements concerning this integration, and presents some realistic solutions such as the Siemens ISI (Information System Interface), and a mobile viewing station for the wards (visitBox). (author). 9 refs., 4 figs

  11. Traffic and trend analysis of local- and wide-area networks for a distributed PACS implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gac, Robert J., Jr.; Harding, Douglas, Jr.; Weiser, John C.; Chacko, Anna K.; Radvany, Martin; Romlein, John R.

    2000-05-01

    Inductive Modeling Techniques (IMT) in a stand alone, distributed Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) or telemedicine environment can be utilized to monitor SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) enabled devices such as network switches, servers or workstations. A comprehensive approach using IMT is presented across the stages of the PACS lifecycle: Pre-PACS, Implementation, and Clinical Use. At each stage of the cycle, the results of IMT can be utilized to assist in assessing and forecasting future system loading. This loading represents a clinical trend analysis equating to the clinical workflow and delivery of services. Specific attention is directed to an understanding and thorough depiction of IMT methodology, focusing on the use of SNMP, the Management Information Base (MIB), and the data stream output that is mapped and placed in an object-oriented database and made available for web-based, real time, in-depth viewing and/or analysis. A thorough description of these outputs is presented, spotlighting potential report applications such as system failures; existing system, CPU, workstation, server and LAN/WAN link utilization; packet rates; application isolation; notification of system alarms; fault isolation; high/low bandwidth users; and data transfer rates. These types of data are increasingly required for programming LAN/WAN upgrades as digital imaging and PACS are implemented.

  12. 76 FR 80971 - State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee (SLTPS-PAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ..., Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee (SLTPS-PAC) AGENCY: National Archives and Records... made for the committee meeting of the State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory..., Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Entities. DATES: The meeting will be held on January 18, 2012, 10 a.m...

  13. 77 FR 41204 - State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee (SLTPS-PAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-12

    ..., Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee (SLTPS-PAC) AGENCY: Information Security Oversight..., announcement is made for the committee meeting of the State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory..., Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Entities. DATES: The meeting will be held on July 25, 2012, 10:00 a.m...

  14. 78 FR 75376 - State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee (SLTP-PAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ...] State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee (SLTP-PAC) AGENCY: National Archives... (NARA) announces a meeting of the State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee... Information Program for State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Entities. The meeting will be open to the...

  15. 76 FR 41826 - State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee (SLTPS-PAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee (SLTPS-PAC) AGENCY: National Archives and Records... Information Program for State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Entities. DATES: The meeting will be held on...

  16. Enterprise-wide PACS: beyond radiology, an architecture to manage all medical images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandon, David; Lovis, Christian; Geissbühler, Antoine; Vallée, Jean-Paul

    2005-08-01

    Picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) have the vocation to manage all medical images acquired within the hospital. To address the various situations encountered in the imaging specialties, the traditional architecture used for the radiology department has to evolve. We present our preliminarily results toward an enterprise-wide PACS intended to support all kind of image production in medicine, from biomolecular images to whole-body pictures. Our solution is based on an existing radiologic PACS system from which images are distributed through an electronic patient record to all care facilities. This platform is enriched with a flexible integration framework supporting digital image communication in medicine (DICOM) and DICOM-XML formats. In addition, a generic workflow engine highly customizable is used to drive work processes. Echocardiology; hematology; ear, nose, and throat; and dermatology, including wounds, follow-up is the first implemented extensions outside of radiology. We also propose a global strategy for further developments based on three possible architectures for an enterprise-wide PACS.

  17. Digital imaging and electronic patient records in pathology using an integrated department information system with PACS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinski, Thomas; Hofmann, Harald; Franke, Dagmar-Sybilla; Roessner, Albert

    2002-01-01

    Picture archiving and communication systems have been widely used in radiology thus far. Owing to the progress made in digital photo technology, their use in medicine opens up further opportunities. In the field of pathology, digital imaging offers new possiblities for the documentation of macroscopic and microscopic findings. Digital imaging has the advantage that the data is permanently and readily available, independent of conventional archives. In the past, PACS was a separate entity. Meanwhile, however, PACS has been integrated in DIS, the department information system, which was also run separately in former times. The combination of these two systems makes the administration of patient data, findings and images easier. Moreover, thanks to the introduction of special communication standards, a data exchange between different department information systems and hospital information systems (HIS) is possible. This provides the basis for a communication platform in medicine, constituting an electronic patient record (EPR) that permits an interdisciplinary treatment of patients by providing data of findings and images from clinics treating the same patient. As the pathologic diagnosis represents a central and often therapy-determining component, it is of utmost importance to add pathologic diagnoses to the EPR. Furthermore, the pathologist's work is considerably facilitated when he is able to retrieve additional data from the patient file. In this article, we describe our experience gained with the combined PACS and DIS systems recently installed at the Department of Pathology, University of Magdeburg. Moreover, we evaluate the current situation and future prospects for PACS in pathology.

  18. Communication of Unexpected and Significant Findings on Chest Radiographs With an Automated PACS Alert System.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hayes, Sara A

    2014-08-01

    An integral part of realizing the enormous potential of imaging in patient care is close communication between radiologists and referring physicians. One key element of this process is the communication of unexpected significant findings. The authors examined the performance of a PACS-based alert system in the appropriate communication of reports containing unexpected significant findings to referring physicians.

  19. Haematobia irritans dataset of raw sequence reads from Illumina and Pac Bio sequencing of genomic DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genome of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans, was sequenced using Illumina- and Pac Bio-based protocols. Following quality filtering, the raw reads have been deposited at NCBI under the BioProject and BioSample accession numbers PRJNA30967 and SAMN07830356, respectively. The Illumina reads are un...

  20. From international charity to value chain coordinator : The case of the Pueblos en Accion Comunitaria (PAC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.M. Gómez (Georgina)

    2011-01-01

    markdownabstractThis article describes the activities of The association Pueblos en Acción Comunitaria (PAC) as a model of value chain organization with an entrepreneurial vision and Christian inspiration and enquires in what ways it represents a new model to promote local development and poverty

  1. TNOs are Cool: Thermophysical modeling of a sample of 20 classical KBOs using Herschel/PACS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vilenius, E.; Müller, T.; Pal, A.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Rengel, M.; Hartogh, P.; Protopapa, S.; Mueller, M.; Mommert, M.; Stansberry, J.; Lellouch, E.; Böhnhardt, H.; Ortiz, J. L.; Thirouin, A.; Henry, F.; Delsanti, A.; Fornasier, S.; Hestroffer, D.; Dotto, E.

    2011-01-01

    We determine the sizes and albedos of 20 classical Kuiper belt objects. Our observations with the PACS instrument on-board Herschel Space Observatory cover the wavelength range where the thermal emission from trans-Neptunian objects has its maximum. We use a consistent method for data reduction and

  2. Ceramic Membrane combined with Powdered Activated Carbon (PAC) or Coagulation for Treatment of Impaired Quality Waters

    KAUST Repository

    Hamad, Juma Z.

    2013-01-01

    and adsorption can remove some organic matter but with a low removal of the biopolymers component which is responsible for fouling. Powdered activated carbon (PAC) accompanied with a LPM maintains good removal of TOrCs. However, enhanced removal of TOr

  3. Specification and evaluation of a regional PACS in the SaxTeleMed project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, Heinz U.; Niederlag, W.; Heuser, H.

    2002-05-01

    During the early development phase of PACS, its implementation was mainly a matter of the radiological department of a hospital. This is changing rapidly and PACS planning and realization is increasingly seen in the context of a hospital-wide approach. With a growth of networking amongst healthcare institutions and the growing relevance of teleradiological scenarios, new strategies must be followed which take not only local but also regional and global aspects of PACS into consideration. One such regional PACS project was initiated by the Ministry of Social Welfare of the Free State of Saxony in Germany. This 'reference model program for the digitization of imaging procedures and communication of images between hospitals in the free state of Saxony' (SaxTeleMed) covers seven regional projects distributed throughout Saxony. Each regional project is organized around so called lead hospitals, which network with other cooperating hospitals and medical practices. The regional reference projects are designed to be largely independent from one another. In some instances, however, a network connection between reference projects is also considered. Altogether, 39 hospitals and medical centers are involved in the model program. The aim of this program is to test the technical, organizational, legal and economic problems in the area of digitization and networking within the free State of Saxony. With the knowledge gained it is expected to improve future investment decisions in healthcare and above all to implement secure systems.

  4. Whole-slide imaging in pathology: the potential impact on PACS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horii, Steven C.

    2007-03-01

    Pathology, the medical specialty charged with the evaluation of macroscopic and microscopic aspects of disease, is increasingly turning to digital imaging. While the conventional tissue blocks and glass slides form an "archive" that pathology departments must maintain, digital images acquired from microscopes or digital slide scanners are increasingly used for telepathology, consultation, and intra-facility communication. Since many healthcare facilities are moving to "enterprise PACS" with departments in addition to radiology using the infrastructure of such systems, some understanding of the potential of whole-slide digital images is important. Network and storage designers, in particular, are very likely to be impacted if a significant number of such images are to be moved on, or stored (even temporarily) in, enterprise PACS. As an example, a typical commercial whole-slide imaging system typically generates 15 gigabytes per slide scanned (per focal plane). Many of these whole-slide scanners have a throughput of 1000 slides per day. If that full capacity is used and all the resulting digital data is moved to the enterprise PACS, it amounts to 15 terabytes per day; the amount of data a large radiology department might generate in a year or two. This paper will review both the clinical scenarios of whole-slide imaging as well as the resulting data volumes. The author will emphasize the potential PACS infrastructure impact of such huge data volumes.

  5. Genome sequencing of Deutsch strain of cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus microplus: Raw Pac Bio reads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pac Bio RS II whole genome shotgun sequencing technology was used to sequence the genome of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus. The DNA was derived from 14 day old eggs from the Deutsch Texas outbreak strain reared at the USDA-ARS Cattle Fever Tick Research Laboratory, Edinburg, TX. Each corre...

  6. La inserción al Asia-Pacífico, oportunidades y desafíos para el Valle del Cauca y la región pacífica colombiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Coutin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: El objetivo general del texto es brindar una aproximación a los retos y las oportunidades que representa, para el Valle del Cauca y la Región Pacífica colombiana, la inserción al Asia-Pacífico. Para lo cual se plantean tres objetivos específicos: primero, analizar someramente el contexto económico comercial del Asia-Pacífico y América Latina, con especial énfasis en Colombia y los demás países de la Alianza del Pacífico (AP; segundo, estudiar las oportunidades y los retos para el Valle del Cauca y la Región Pacífica colombiana que plantea la puesta en escena del bloque comercial denominado Alianza del Pacífico; y tercero, indagar sobre los retos de competitividad y productividad que enfrenta el Valle del Cauca y que afectan el ambiente de negocios. El documento concluye que Colombia se encuentra rezagada en su inserción con la cuenca del Asia-Pacífico; también se plantea la necesidad de abordar el tema de estudio desde un enfoque subnacional.

  7. Remote consultation and diagnosis in medical imaging using a global PACS backbone network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Ralph; Sutaria, Bijal N.; Kim, Jinman; Nam, Jiseung

    1993-10-01

    A Global PACS is a national network which interconnects several PACS networks at medical and hospital complexes using a national backbone network. A Global PACS environment enables new and beneficial operations between radiologists and physicians, when they are located in different geographical locations. One operation allows the radiologist to view the same image folder at both Local and Remote sites so that a diagnosis can be performed. The paper describes the user interface, database management, and network communication software which has been developed in the Computer Engineering Research Laboratory and Radiology Research Laboratory. Specifically, a design for a file management system in a distributed environment is presented. In the remote consultation and diagnosis operation, a set of images is requested from the database archive system and sent to the Local and Remote workstation sites on the Global PACS network. Viewing the same images, the radiologists use pointing overlay commands, or frames to point out features on the images. Each workstation transfers these frames, to the other workstation, so that an interactive session for diagnosis takes place. In this phase, we use fixed frames and variable size frames, used to outline an object. The data pockets for these frames traverses the national backbone in real-time. We accomplish this feature by using TCP/IP protocol sockets for communications. The remote consultation and diagnosis operation has been tested in real-time between the University Medical Center and the Bowman Gray School of Medicine at Wake Forest University, over the Internet. In this paper, we show the feasibility of the operation in a Global PACS environment. Future improvements to the system will include real-time voice and interactive compressed video scenarios.

  8. Reasons for Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS data security breaches: Intentional versus non-intentional breaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tintswalo B. Mahlaola

    2016-10-01

    Objective: The purpose of this article is to explore the nature of and reasons for confidentiality breaches by PACS users in a South African context. Methods: A closed-ended questionnaire was used to collect quantitative data from 115 health professionals employed in a private hospital setting, including its radiology department and a second independent radiology department. The questionnaire sought to explore the attitudes of participants towards confidentiality breeches and reasons for suchbehaviour. Results: Breach incidences were expressed as percentage compliance and classified according to the nature and reasons provided by Sarkar's breach classification. Cross tabulations indicated a statistical significance (p < 0.00 between the expected and observed confidentiality practices of participants and also the adequacy of training, system knowledge and policy awareness. Conclusion: Our study supports previous findings that, in the absence of guidelines, most security breaches were non-intentional acts committed due to ignorance. Of concern are incidents in which sensitive information was intentionally shared via social media.

  9. The guarantee of the consistency of patient information through modality worklist among PACS, RIS and imaging equipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Min; Peng Chenglin; Wang Xiaolin; Luo Song; Lei Wenyong; Wang Kang; Wang Xuejian; Wen Hongyu; Wu Hongxing

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To realize the consistency of patient information through modality worklist among picture archiving and communication system (PACS), radiology information systems (RIS), and imaging equipments. Methods: Many digital modalities including GE Signa 1.5 T MR system, digital mammography, Agfa digital radiography, computed radiography, GE CT, and etc were installed in our hospital. Since the GE PACS system was in English version, the images were saved and the information was managed to PACS without a truly worklist. Two months later, while still using the previous PACS, the consistency of patient information was resolved through modality worklist by adopting the international advanced approach to realize thread worklist of digital imaging and communication in medicine. The information in Chinese will be transformed into information in English in RIS system and saved as the English information to worklist. Results: After the implementation and integration of PACS and RIS was achieved in my hospital, the consistency of patient information was guaranteed through modality worklist between RIS and imaging equipments and the first-rate effect was acquired. The patient information could be checked, edited, and created by using the Chinese RIS system on all diagnostic workstations. Conclusion: The consistency of patient information through modality worklist was realized among PACS, RIS, and imaging equipments, yet at present, the question of guarantee the consistency of patient information must be thought over in PACS building

  10. Treatment of system dependencies and human interactions in PRA studies: a review and sensitivity study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orvis, D.D.; Joksimovich, V.; Worledge, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute sponsored the review and comparison of five PRA studies: Arkansas Nuclear One - Unit 1, Big Rock Point, Grand Gulf, Limerick, and Zion - Unit 1. The review has been conducted in two phases. The Phase I review may be characterized as a qualitative look into many aspects of a PRA study. The Phase II review was performed to quantify the extent that differences in analytical techniques or key assumptions in these areas affect the differences in study results. In each of the PRA studies reviewed, the general descriptions of analytical approaches and descriptions of the analyses of event tree, fault tree and human interaction analyses that affected the dominant core damage sequences were reviewed. When these descriptions aroused interest because of seeming inconsistencies within the study or with other studies, they were pursued in some depth. The approaches or assumptions were contrasted to similar elements from other studies, and sensitivity analyses were performed in many cases to test the significance of results to the analytical models or assumptions. Inferences were drawn from the results regarding significance of the item to plant-specific results and, where possible, were generalized to other PRAs. This paper describes the results of the review of system dependencies and human interactions

  11. Pulmonary Artery Catheter (PAC Accuracy and Efficacy Compared with Flow Probe and Transcutaneous Doppler (USCOM: An Ovine Cardiac Output Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Phillips

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The pulmonary artery catheter (PAC is an accepted clinical method of measuring cardiac output (CO despite no prior validation. The ultrasonic cardiac output monitor (USCOM is a noninvasive alternative to PAC using Doppler ultrasound (CW. We compared PAC and USCOM CO measurements against a gold standard, the aortic flow probe (FP, in sheep at varying outputs. Methods. Ten conscious sheep, with implanted FPs, had measurements of CO by FP, USCOM, and PAC, at rest and during intervention with inotropes and vasopressors. Results. CO measurements by FP, PAC, and USCOM were 4.0±1.2 L/min, 4.8±1.5 L/min, and 4.0±1.4 L/min, respectively, (=280, range 1.9 L/min to 11.7 L/min. Percentage bias and precision between FP and PAC, and FP and USCOM was −17 and 47%, and 1 and 36%, respectively. PAC under-measured Dobutamine-induced CO changes by 20% (relative 66% compared with FP, while USCOM measures varied from FP by 3% (relative 10%. PAC reliably detected −30% but not +40% CO changes, as measured by receiver operating characteristic area under the curve (AUC, while USCOM reliably detected ±5% changes in CO (AUC>0.70. Conclusions. PAC demonstrated poor accuracy and sensitivity as a measure of CO. USCOM provided equivalent measurements to FP across a sixfold range of outputs, reliably detecting ±5% changes.

  12. Study of energetic dependence of LiF TLDs for photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalieri, Tassio A.; Antunes, Paula C.G.; Paiva, Fabio; Branco, Isabela S.; Sena, Michelle K.S.; Siqueira, Paulo T.D.; Yoriyaz, Helio

    2015-01-01

    The LiF TLDs are widely used for photon dosimetry. However, in the most case the energetic dependence of these TLDs are not taken into account. This work is a preliminary study of energetic photon dependence in LiF TLD (TLD 700, enriched with 7 Li). For this study it was utilized a methodology already used in others works that seek understand the dependence energetic of TLD. It was utilized three different X-ray spectrum and a 137 Cs source; Beyond the calculus utilized in previous works, it was built the calibration curve for each spectrum to see the difference in dosimetry that the energetic dependence could cause. (author)

  13. One-year study of polycyclic aromatic compounds at an urban site in Grenoble (France): Seasonal variations, gas/particle partitioning and cancer risk estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomaz, Sophie [Institut National de l' Environnement industriel et des RISques (INERIS), Parc Technologique Alata BP2, 60550 Verneuil en Halatte (France); CNRS, EPOC, UMR 5805, F-33405 Talence Cedex (France); Université de Bordeaux, EPOC, UMR 5805, F-33405, Talence Cedex (France); Shahpoury, Pourya [Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Multiphase Chemistry Department, Mainz (Germany); Jaffrezo, Jean-Luc [Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Géophysiques de l' Environnement (LGGE), Université de Grenoble-Alpes/CNRS, Grenoble (France); Lammel, Gerhard [Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Multiphase Chemistry Department, Mainz (Germany); Masaryk University, Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment, Brno (Czech Republic); Perraudin, Emilie; Villenave, Eric [CNRS, EPOC, UMR 5805, F-33405 Talence Cedex (France); Université de Bordeaux, EPOC, UMR 5805, F-33405, Talence Cedex (France); Albinet, Alexandre, E-mail: alexandre.albinet@gmail.com [Institut National de l' Environnement industriel et des RISques (INERIS), Parc Technologique Alata BP2, 60550 Verneuil en Halatte (France)

    2016-09-15

    21 PAHs, 27 oxy-PAHs and 32 nitro-PAHs were measured every third day over a year in both gaseous (G) and particulate PM{sub 10} (P) phases in ambient air of Grenoble (France). Mean total concentrations (G + P) of PAHs and oxy-PAHs were in the same range and about 10 ng m{sup −3}. Nitro-PAHs were 50 to 100 times less concentrated averaging 100 pg m{sup −3}. Polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC) concentrations were 5 to 7 times higher in “cold” period (October to March) than in “warm” period (April to September). Seasonal variations may be explained by higher primary emissions from residential heating, especially biomass burning in “cold” season. Meteorological conditions and influence of the geomorphology around Grenoble, with the formation of thermal inversion layers leading to the stagnation of pollutants, were additional key parameters. Maximum individual PAC concentrations were observed during two PM{sub 10} pollution events in December and February–March. Chemical processes and secondary formation of oxy- and nitro-PAH were probably enhanced by the accumulation of the pollutants during these events. PAC gas/particle partitioning depended on compound molecular weight and vapour pressure. Gas/particle partitioning of oxy- and nitro-PAHs were evaluated using a multi-phase poly-parameter linear free energy relationship model. The PAC cancer risk was assessed using toxic equivalency factors available in the literature (19 PAHs, 10 nitro-PAHs and 1 oxy-PAH). Overall, particle-bound PACs contributed about 76% of the cancer risk. While PAHs accounted for most of the total PAC cancer risk, oxy- and nitro-PAHs could account for up to 24%. The risk quantification across substance classes is limited by toxicological data availability. - Highlights: • The most comprehensive study about PAH, nitro- and oxy-PAH in ambient air. • 80 species studied in gaseous and particle phases over a year at French urban site. • Concentration seasonality governed by

  14. Influence of depression and early adverse experiences on illicit drug dependence: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferigolo, Maristela; Stein, Airton T; Fuchs, Flavio D; Barros, Helena M T

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between depression and illicit drug dependence among a Latin-American population. illicit drug dependent patients (n = 137) and controls (n = 274) were interviewed using the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies, in order to detect lifetime and current depressive disorder and illicit (cocaine, cannabis or inhalants) substance dependence. A regression analysis was used to estimate the odds ratio for drug dependence according to the diagnosis of depression. The lifetime diagnosis of depression (p = 0.001; OR = 4.9; 95% CI, 1.9-12.7) predicts illegal drugs dependence. Sociodemographic variables such as male gender (p drug dependence. Additional influent factors detected were having parents (p = 0.006; OR = 18.9; 95% CI, 2.3-158) or friends (p illicit drugs dependents. although a causal relationship between dependence on illicit drugs and depression cannot be determined, comparison of the sequence of events point to the occurrence of depression later in life than dependence. It remains to be determined whether depression is a comorbidity of dependence, sharing etiological factors, or a consequence of drug abuse and/or abstinence.

  15. PACS for Bhutan: a cost effective open source architecture for emerging countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Ratib

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper reports the design and implementation of an innovative and cost-effective imaging management infrastructure suitable for radiology centres in emerging countries. It was implemented in the main referring hospital of Bhutan equipped with a CT, an MRI, digital radiology, and a suite of several ultrasound units. They lacked the necessary informatics infrastructure for image archiving and interpretation and needed a system for distribution of images to clinical wards. The solution developed for this project combines several open source software platforms in a robust and versatile archiving and communication system connected to analysis workstations equipped with a FDA-certified version of the highly popular Open-Source software. The whole system was implemented on standard off-the-shelf hardware. The system was installed in three days, and training of the radiologists as well as the technical and IT staff was provided onsite to ensure full ownership of the system by the local team. Radiologists were rapidly capable of reading and interpreting studies on the diagnostic workstations, which had a significant benefit on their workflow and ability to perform diagnostic tasks more efficiently. Furthermore, images were also made available to several clinical units on standard desktop computers through a web-based viewer. Messages/teaching points • Open source imaging informatics platforms can provide cost-effective alternatives for PACS • Robust and cost-effective open architecture can provide adequate solutions for emerging countries • Imaging informatics is often lacking in hospitals equipped with digital modalities

  16. Implementation of a PC based picture archival and communications system (PACS) in Nuclear Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, M.J.; Van Every, B.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear Medicine produces images with relatively low spatial resolution and very high contrast, which lend themselves more easily to digital acquisition, display, manipulation and storage than other forms of medical imaging. This poster describes improvements in Nuclear Medicine service delivery and efficiency which have resulted from an implementation of this technology over recent years. All 'save screen' data, gated blood pool scans and selected dynamic data from four gamma cameras of two vendors is automatically archived to a single Pentium 200 MHz PC for permanent hard disk archival. Two years of data is already stored on line throughout the PC network in a Microsoft Access ODBC 'Medvision' database, and accessible via modem using 'PC Anywhere' software. Images are exported as Bitmaps to be included in typed reports for printing or direct Fax transmission to wards or Dr's offices on the same day that a service is provided. For out of hours services, this system enables a typed report and image to go with the patient to the ward from Nuclear Medicine, with prior consultant review being provided by modem when not immediately available on site. Computer enhanced comparisons with all archived studies can be performed within 30 secs, for improved assessment of serial progress. As the hard disk storage cost of images is now less than 10% of film costs, and falling, transition to filmless reporting appears inevitable. 'Dicom' Software compatibility, currently available through a Unix workstation, should permit integration with a future Radiology PACS These changes assist in maintaining service quality, while both eliminating delays in providing reports and reducing costs

  17. [PACS: from project to reality. Report of experiences on full digitalisation of the radiology department of a major hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross-Fengels, W; Miedeck, C; Siemens, P; Appel, R; Mückner, K; Finsterbusch, J; Bonas, H

    2002-02-01

    To assess the time needed and the resulting effects of a complete digitalisation of a radiological department of a major hospital (856 beds, 28,000 in-patients, 35,000 out-patients/year) a pilot study was performed. This had to be done without interrupting routine services. After intensive preparations were performed and the hospital-network was completed, within a two year period all radiological functions (mammography excluded), reporting stations and archives were changed to a complete digital workflow. All modalities (provided by 3 different companies) are now connected by DICOM-work lists. The picture-files (4 GB/day) are automatically routed to the work-stations (n = 10), where the reporting and file shows are performed, to the digital archive and to the peripheral viewing-stations (n = 44). The distribution of the digital pictures takes place all over the hospital including the ORs and special units. We accomplished, to connect electronically the report and the image data. The clinical file shows are also performed completely digitally. The access to the data of the deep archive is possible by the dept. of radiology without any manual interaction. The film consumption was reduced to an amount of less than 10%, as compared to the prior PACS situation. Since PACS has been introduced the radiological productivity increased by more than 15% and throughput-time was clearly reduced. The complete digitalisation increases productivity and attractiveness of a hospital-radiology and helps to shorten diagnostic and therapeutic decision-making. The transfer from a conventional to a digital workflow is possible without interrupting the clinical services. Extensive preparations and ongoing assistance of such projects though are clearly needed.

  18. Corneal backscatter in insulin-dependent and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M Calvo-Maroto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To compare central corneal backscatter obtained from Scheimpflug images between patients with insulin-dependent and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM and NIDDM, respectively and healthy controls. Methods: Seven patients with IDDM (7 eyes, eleven patients with NIDDM (11 eyes, and sixteen healthy subjects (16 eyes were included in this pilot study. Scheimpflug imaging system (Pentacam, Oculus Inc., Germany was used to obtain optical sections of the cornea. Seven meridians were analyzed for each eye, oriented from 70° to 110°. Optical density values for the central 3-mm and 5-mm zones of the cornea were obtained by image analysis using external software. Results: Corneal backscatter was significantly higher in the diabetic patients than in the controls for the central 3-mm (p=0.016 and 5-mm (p=0.014 zones. No significant differences in corneal backscatter were found between the IDDM and NIDDM groups for either zone (both p>0.05. In the NIDDM group, significant correlations were observed for both central zones between corneal backscatter and age (3 mm: r=0.604, p=0.025; 5 mm: r=0.614, p=0.022 and central corneal thickness (3 mm: r=0.641, p=0.017; 5 mm: r=0.671, p=0.012; this was not found in the IDDM group (p>0.05. The presence of diabetes showed a significant effect on central corneal backscatter (Kruskal-Wallis test, p<0.001. Conclusions: Diabetic patients showed higher values of corneal light backscatter than healthy subjects. Corneal optical density analysis may be a useful tool for monitoring and assessing the ocular changes caused by diabetes.

  19. La inserción al Asia-Pacífico, oportunidades y desafíos para el Valle del Cauca y la región pacífica colombiana

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Coutin

    2014-01-01

    Resumen: El objetivo general del texto es brindar una aproximación a los retos y las oportunidades que representa, para el Valle del Cauca y la Región Pacífica colombiana, la inserción al Asia-Pacífico. Para lo cual se plantean tres objetivos específicos: primero, analizar someramente el contexto económico comercial del Asia-Pacífico y América Latina, con especial énfasis en Colombia y los demás países de la Alianza del Pacífico (AP); segundo, estudiar las oportunidades y los retos para el Va...

  20. La inserción al Asia-Pacífico, oportunidades y desafíos para el Valle del Cauca y la región pacífica colombiana

    OpenAIRE

    Countin, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo general del texto es brindar una aproximación a los retos y las oportunidades que representa, para el Valle del Cauca y la Región Pacífica colombiana, la inserción al Asia-Pacífico. Para lo cual se plantean tres objetivos específicos: primero, analizar someramente el contexto económico comercial del Asia-Pacífico y América Latina, con especial énfasis en Colombia y los demás países de la Alianza del Pacífico (AP); segundo, estudiar las oportunidades y los retos para el Valle del C...

  1. Demoralization in Opioid Dependent Patients: A Comparative Study with Cancer Patients and Community Subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, C.A.J. de; Kissane, D.W.; Geessink, R.J.; Velden, D. van der

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To study existential distress or demoralization expressed as meaninglessness and helplessness in opioid dependent patients. xxx Method: Comparison of existential distress between opioid dependent patients (n=131), patients with advanced cancer (n=100) and a community based sample without severe

  2. Change in Care Dependency of Stroke Patients: A Longitudinal and Multicenter Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nursiswati Nursiswati, MN

    2017-06-01

    Conclusions: Based on the findings of this study, we recommend that hospital-based and community-based services should include continual care dependence monitoring using this comprehensive instrument. Care dependency is subject to change over time, therefore nurses have to plan and tailor adequate nursing care measures to patient needs in the different stages, especially with respect to the aspect of mobility.

  3. Correlates of benzodiazepine dependence in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manthey, L.; Lohbeck, M.; Giltay, E.J.; van Veena, T.; Zitman, F.G.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: Benzodiazepines (BZDs) are effective in the short term against anxiety and insomnia. However, some BZD users develop BZD dependence after a relatively short period of time. Therefore, we aimed to identify the risk factors of BZD dependence. Design: An observational cohort study. Setting: The

  4. Vascular risk factor burden, atherosclerosis, and functional dependence in old age: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welmer, Anna-Karin; Liang, Yajun; Angleman, Sara; Santoni, Giola; Yan, Zhongrui; Cai, Chuanzhu; Qiu, Chengxuan

    2014-08-01

    Vascular risk factors such as hypertension and obesity have been associated with physical limitations among older adults. The purpose of this study is to examine whether individual and aggregated vascular risk factors (VRFs) are associated with functional dependence and to what extent carotid atherosclerosis (CAS) or peripheral artery disease (PAD) may mediate the possible associations of aggregated VRFs with functional dependence. This cross-sectional study included 1,451 community-living participants aged ≥60 years in the Confucius Hometown Aging Project of China. Data on demographic features, hypertension, high total cholesterol, obesity, smoking, physical inactivity, diabetes, CAS, PAD, and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) were collected through an interview, a clinical examination, and laboratory tests. Functional dependence was defined as being dependent in at least one activity in the personal or instrumental activities of daily living. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic models controlling for potential confounders. We used the mediation model to explore the potential mediating effect of CAS and PAD on the associations of aggregated VRFs with functional dependence. Of the 1,451 participants, 222 (15.3%) had functional dependence. The likelihood of functional dependence increased linearly with increasing number of VRFs (hypertension, high total cholesterol, abdominal obesity, and physical inactivity) (p for trend dependence with clustering VRFs was mediated by CAS and PAD. Aggregation of multiple VRFs is associated with an increased likelihood of functional dependence among Chinese older adults; the association is partially mediated by carotid and peripheral artery atherosclerosis independently of CVDs.

  5. Análisis Comparativo de Reglas de Origen en la Alianza Pacífico y en los TLC de los Países Miembros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Concha V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es comparar las reglas de origen entre el acuerdo de integración regional Alianza del Pacífico y los tratados de libre comercio de Colombia con Chile, la CAN y el G3, con el propósito de determinar si existen diferencias significativas entre estos. En el transcurso de la investigación, se encontró que sí existen diferencias en las reglas de origen entre estos acuerdos comerciales, que pueden generar incentivos al exportador para elegir un acuerdo en específico. La principal conclusión, es que no siempre la mejor opción para exportar a Chile, México o Perú es a través de la Alianza del Pacífico, como se esperaría siendo este el acuerdo pactado más reciente. La elección del acuerdo depende de la mercancía a exportar, por lo cual se recomienda buscar antes la subpartida arancelaria y analizar por cuál tratado sería más beneficioso hacerlo, de acuerdo a sus características y composición.

  6. Estimation of dose to the unborn child at diagnostic X-ray examinations based on data registered in RIS/PACS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helmrot, Ebba; Pettersson, Haakan; Sandborg, Michael; Alten, Jonas Nilsson

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine mean absorbed doses to the unborn child in common conventional X-ray and computed tomography (CT) examinations and to find an approach for estimating foetal dose based on data registered in the Radiological Information System/Picture Archive and Communication System (RIS/PACS). The kerma-area product (KAP) and CT dose index (CTDI vol ) in common examinations were registered using a human-shaped female dosimetry phantom. Foetal doses, D f , were measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters placed inside the phantom and compared with calculated values. Measured foetal doses were given in relation to the KAP and the CTDI vol values, respectively. Conversion factor D f /KAP varies between 0.01 and 3.8 mGy/Gycm 2 , depending on primary beam position, foetus age and beam quality (tube voltage and filtration). Conversion factors D f /CTDI vol are in the range 0.02 - 1.2 mGy/mGy, in which the foetus is outside or within the primary beam. We conclude that dose conversion factors based on KAP or CTDI vol values automatically generated by the RIS/PACS system can be used for rapid estimations of foetal dose for common examination techniques. (orig.)

  7. A cross-sectional study on tobacco use and dependence among women: Does menthol matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbloom, Judith; Rees, Vaughan W; Reid, Kathleen; Wong, Jeannie; Kinnunen, Taru

    2012-11-27

    The question of whether mentholation of cigarettes enhances tobacco dependence has generated conflicting findings. Potential mediating factors in a putative relationship between menthol use and tobacco dependence may include race and gender. While an association between menthol use and dependence is mixed, research on the role of race solely among women smokers is scarce. This study examined whether women menthol smokers have higher tobacco use and dependence than non-menthol smokers. Further, the study investigated differences between White and African American smokers. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 928 women seeking tobacco dependence treatment in Boston, Massachusetts. Measures obtained included preferred brand and menthol content, dependence markers (cigarettes per day (CPD); time to first cigarette in the morning; number of and longest previous quit attempts) and smoking history (age of initiation; years smoking; menthol or non-menthol cigarette preference). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to detect interactions between menthol preference by race for continuous variables, and Pearson's chi-squared test was used for analyses with dichotomous variables. A greater proportion of menthol smokers smoked their first cigarette within five minutes of waking (p preferences. However, African American smokers smoked fewer CPD (pbrand for longer (p= .04). Women menthol smokers showed signs of greater tobacco dependence than non-menthol smokers. African Americans smoked fewer CPD but nevertheless had evidence of greater dependence.

  8. New Methods for Landslide Identification and Mapping Using SAR Polarimetry Obtained During the PacRim 2000 Mission in Taiwan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Czuchlewski, Kristina R; Weissel, Jeffrey K; Lee, Jong-Sen

    2005-01-01

    We reanalyze PacRim 2000 L-band AIRSAR polarimetry collected over the western foothills of central Taiwan a year after the September 20, 1999 ChiChi earthquake, which produced more than 10,000 landslide...

  9. The Radar Correlation and Interpolation (C&I) Algorithms Deployed in the ASR-9 Processor Augmentation Card (9PAC)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elkin, G

    2001-01-01

    .... The increased processing speed and memory size of the 9PAC hardware made it possible for new surveillance algorithms to be developed in software in order to provide improved primary radar and beacon...

  10. Using an open-source PACS virtual machine for a digital angiography unit: methods and initial impressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagadis, George C; Alexakos, Christos; Langer, Steve G; French, Todd

    2012-02-01

    The productivity gains, diagnostic benefit, and enhanced data availability to clinicians enabled by picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) are no longer in doubt. However, commercial PACS offerings are often extremely expensive initially and require ongoing support contracts with vendors to maintain them. Recently, several open-source offerings have become available that put PACS within reach of more users. However, they can be resource-intensive to install and assure that they have room for future growth--both for computational and storage capacity. An alternate approach, which we describe herein, is to use PACS built on virtual machines which can be moved from smaller to larger hardware as needed in a just-in-time manner. This leverages the cost benefits of Moore's Law for both storage and compute costs. We describe the approach and current results in this paper.

  11. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Patient Assessment of Constipation-Symptoms (PAC-SYM) among patients with chronic constipation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neri, Luca; Conway, Paul Maurice; Basilisco, Guido

    2015-01-01

    the psychometric properties of PAC-SYM in patients with chronic constipation. METHODS: We enrolled 2,203 outpatients with chronic constipation in two waves. We used wave I sample to test the psychometric properties of the PAC-SYM and wave II sample to cross-validate its factor structure, to assess criterion...... validity, responsiveness to clinical change, and its minimal clinically important difference. RESULTS: Only a minority of patients reported any rectal tearing (38 %). Deletion of such item leads to a 11-item version (M:PAC-SYM). The remaining items in the rectal domain were moderately correlated.......28-0.45), discrimination across Rome III criteria for functional constipation and abdominal pain, and responsiveness to clinical change (β = -0.49; ω (2) = 0.25). M:PAC-SYM minimal clinically important difference was 0.24. CONCLUSION: Our analysis shows that the rectal domain may not represent a relevant cluster...

  12. Sphere-pac versus pellet UO2 fuel in de Dodewaard BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linde, A. van der.

    1989-04-01

    Comparative testing of UO 2 sphere-pac and pellet fuel rods under LWR conditions has been jointly performed by the Netherlands Utilities Research Centre (KEMA) in Arnhem, the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN) at Petten and the Netherlands Joint Nuclear Power Utility (GKN) at Dodewaard. This final report summarizes the highlights of this 1968-1988 program with strong emphasis on the fuel rods irradiated in the Dodewaard BWR. The conclusion reached is that under normal LWR conditions sphere-pac UO 2 in LWR fuel rods offers better resistance against stress corrosion cracking of the cladding, but that under fast, single step, power ramping conditions pellet UO 2 in LWR fuel rods has a better resistance against hoop stress failure of the cladding. 128 figs., 36 refs., 19 tabs

  13. Internacional : el Pacífico. Océano del siglo XXI (Coyuntura)

    OpenAIRE

    Salgado Tamayo, Wilma

    1997-01-01

    El impresionante crecimiento económico de los países del Pacífico asiático en los últimos veinte años, que contrasta con el lento crecimiento de los países industrializados, ha llevado a muchos autores a sostener que el centro de gravedad de la economía mundial se está desplazando desde la Cuenca del Atlántico hacia la Cuenca del Pacífico y en ese sentido convertirse en el Océano del Siglo XXI. Un análisis más detallado, muestra sin embargo que en la Cuenca del Pacifico confluyen países y reg...

  14. Light hadron spectrum from quenched lattice QCD. Results from the CP-PACS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshie, Tomoteru

    2001-01-01

    Deriving the light hadron spectrum from first principles of QCD has been a fundamental issue in elementary particle physics since the mid-1970s, when QCD was established. With this goal in mind, we have carried out large-scale simulations of lattice QCD on the CP-PACS computer. In this article, we present results for the light hadron spectrum derived in the quenched approximation to lattice QCD. We find that although the global structure of the observed spectrum is reproduced, the quenched spectrum systematically deviates from experiment when examined with an accuracy at better than a 10% level. Results for light quark masses are also reported. Another simulation of full QCD done recently (also on the CP-PACS computer) shows indications that the discrepancy observed in quenched QCD is significantly reduced by the introduction of two flavors of light dynamical quarks. (author)

  15. Phase quantification of mullite-zirconia and zircon commercial powders using PAC and XRD techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rendtorff, Nicolas M.; Conconi, Maria S.; Aglietti, Esteban F. [Centro de Tecnologia de Recursos Minerales y Ceramica (CETMIC: CONICET-CIC) (Argentina); Chain, Cecilia Y.; Pasquevich, Alberto F. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Departamento de Fisica, IFLP, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas (Argentina); Rivas, Patricia C. [CONICET (Argentina); Martinez, Jorge A., E-mail: toto@fisica.unlp.edu.ar; Caracoche, Maria C. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Departamento de Fisica, IFLP, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas (Argentina)

    2010-06-15

    The short range technique of the Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) and x-ray diffraction (Rietveld) methods have been employed to determine the phase content in commercial mullite-zirconia and zircon raw materials that are ordinarily used to produce ceramic materials. The PAC technique, which probes zirconium-containing compounds at nanoscopic level, showed that zircon contains crystalline ZrSiO{sub 4} and an important amount of a structurally distorted zircon, which is also observed accompanying monoclinic zirconia in mullite-zirconia. This particular zircon phase was not detected by the long range x-ray diffraction-Rietveld technique. After an annealing treatment, important changes in crystalline contents of the powders allow confirming, by the x-ray diffraction-Rietveld method, the preexistence of this particular zircon phase. This fact must be taken into account when preparing multicomposites based on the present raw materials.

  16. Canadian ceramic breeder sphere-pac technology: Capability and recent results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, J.D.; Brayman, C.L.; Verrall, R.A.; Miller, J.M.; Gierszewski, P.J.; Londry, F.; Slavin, A.

    1991-01-01

    Sphere-pac ceramic breeders have been under development in Canada for several years. The goal is to fabricate and characterize these materials for use in engineering test reactors and subsequent fusion power reactors. Practical application of sphere-pac beds requires close consideration of both properties and fabrication. The present emphasis of the program is on 1-3 mm diameter Li 2 ZrO 3 spheres, with the future development of binary beds planned. Litre quantities have been produced by methods that are applicable to high production rates. These spheres are being tested for measurement of bulk properties (e.g., thermal conductivity, gas permeability, packing density, tritium release, specific heat) and long-term irradiation exposure. This paper summarizes the status of the work. (orig.)

  17. EXP-PAC: providing comparative analysis and storage of next generation gene expression data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Philip C; Goscinski, Andrzej; Lefèvre, Christophe

    2012-07-01

    Microarrays and more recently RNA sequencing has led to an increase in available gene expression data. How to manage and store this data is becoming a key issue. In response we have developed EXP-PAC, a web based software package for storage, management and analysis of gene expression and sequence data. Unique to this package is SQL based querying of gene expression data sets, distributed normalization of raw gene expression data and analysis of gene expression data across experiments and species. This package has been populated with lactation data in the international milk genomic consortium web portal (http://milkgenomics.org/). Source code is also available which can be hosted on a Windows, Linux or Mac APACHE server connected to a private or public network (http://mamsap.it.deakin.edu.au/~pcc/Release/EXP_PAC.html). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Optimizing physicians' instruction of PACS through e-learning: cognitive load theory applied.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devolder, P; Pynoo, B; Voet, T; Adang, L; Vercruysse, J; Duyck, P

    2009-03-01

    This article outlines the strategy used by our hospital to maximize the knowledge transfer to referring physicians on using a picture archiving and communication system (PACS). We developed an e-learning platform underpinned by the cognitive load theory (CLT) so that in depth knowledge of PACS' abilities becomes attainable regardless of the user's prior experience with computers. The application of the techniques proposed by CLT optimizes the learning of the new actions necessary to obtain and manipulate radiological images. The application of cognitive load reducing techniques is explained with several examples. We discuss the need to safeguard the physicians' main mental processes to keep the patient's interests in focus. A holistic adoption of CLT techniques both in teaching and in configuration of information systems could be adopted to attain this goal. An overview of the advantages of this instruction method is given both on the individual and organizational level.

  19. Thermal performance of annular-coated and sphere-pac LWR fuel rod designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenther, R.J.; Hsieh, K.A.; Barner, J.O.; Freshley, M.D.

    1980-01-01

    Two FCI-resistant UO 2 fuel rod designs are being compared to a reference design in irradiation tests in the Halden Boiling Water Reactor (HBWR) as part of the DOE-sponsored Fuel Performance Improvement Program (FPIP). The primary fuel design (annular-coated-pressurized) incorporates annular pellets, a graphite coating on the inner surface of the Zircaloy cladding, and pressurized helium fill gas. Also being investigated is an 87% smear density sphere-pac design with pressurized helium fill gas. The solid pellet (reference) and annular-coated designs described had helium fill gas at approx. 100 kPa and the sphere-pac rods were pressurized at approx. 455 kPa

  20. Age at onset typology in opioid dependent men: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Biswajit; Mattoo, Surendra K; Basu, Debasish

    2002-04-01

    This study attempted to apply age at onset typology in ICD-10 diagnosed opioid dependence. The sample comprised 80 men seeking treatment at an addiction clinic. The measures included socio-demographic and clinical profile, Severity of Opioid Dependence Questionnaire, Modified Sensation Seeking Scale, Multiphasic Personality Questionnaire (MPQ) and Family History Assessment Module. A cut-off age of 20/21 years for an early-onset late-onset typology of opioid dependence was obtained using two methods - the modal age at onset method and one-third sample by age at onset method. The early onset group showed significant differences in terms of it being more often younger, urban, unmarried, wage earning or students, using oral opioids (not heroin or injectables), showing higher lifetime use and dependence of sedatives, earlier onset of use and dependence of sedatives and tobacco, and higher global psychopathology in terms of MPQ. The early onset group also showed statistically insignificant trends for lesser use and dependence of alcohol, higher severity of opioid dependence, more legal and less social complications, higher sensation seeking (except boredom susceptibility), and more frequent substance dependence in first degree relatives. The age at onset typology in opioid dependence appears to be feasible and having some similarities to similar typology in alcoholism.

  1. Gel-sphere-pac fuel for thermal reactors: assessment of fabrication technology and irradiation performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beatty, R.L. Norman, R.E.; Notz, K.J. (comps.)

    1979-11-01

    Recent interest in proliferation-resistant fuel cycles for light-water reactors has focused attention on spiked plutonium and /sup 233/U-Th fuels, requiring remote refabrication. The gel-sphere-pac process for fabricating metal-clad fuel elements has drawn special attention because it involves fewer steps. Gel-sphere-pac fabrication technology involves two major areas: the preparation of fuel spheres of high density and loading these spheres into rods in an efficiently packed geometry. Gel sphere preparation involves three major steps: preparation of a sol or of a special solution (broth), gelation of droplets of sol or broth to give semirigid spheres of controlled size, and drying and sintering these spheres to a high density. Gelation may be accomplished by water extraction (suitable only for sols) or ammonia gelation (suitable for both sols and broths but used almost exclusively with broths). Ammonia gelation can be accomplished either externally, via ammonia gas and ammonium hydroxide, or internally via an added ammonia generator such as hexamethylenetetramine. Sphere-pac fuel rod fabrication involves controlled blending and metering of three sizes of spheres into the rod and packing by low- to medium-energy vibration to achieve about 88% smear density; these sizes have diametral ratios of about 40:10:1 and are blended in size fraction amounts of about 60% coarse, 18% medium, and 22% fine. Irradiation test results indicate that sphere-pac fuel performs at least as well as pellet fuel, and may in fact offer an advantage in significantly reducing mechanical and chemical interaction between the fuel and cladding. The normal feed for gel sphere preparation, heavy metal nitrate solution, is the usual product of fuel reprocessing, so that fabrication of gel spheres performs all the functions performed by both conversion and pellet fabrication in the case of pellet technology.

  2. Elecciones: entre gamonalismo y civismo. El caso de Tumaco en la costa Pacífica

    OpenAIRE

    Helfrich, Linda

    2017-01-01

    Este artículo nace de un estudio de caso sobre las elecciones, el sistema de partidos y la cultura política en el municipio de Tumaco, en la costa Pacífica nariñense 1 En él se analizan las elecciones populares de alcaldes y las reformas en el marco de la nueva Constitución  de  1991.

  3. Gel-sphere-pac reactor fuel fabrication and its application to a variety of fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, A.R.; Judkins, R.R.

    1979-12-01

    The gel-sphere-pac fuel fabrication option was evaluated for its possible application to commercial scale fuel fabrication for 19 fuel element designs that use oxide fuel in metal clad rods. The dry gel spheres are prepared at the reprocessing plant and are then calcined, sintered, inspected, and loaded into fuel rods and packed by low-energy vibration. A fuel smear density of 83 to 88% theoretical can be obtained. All fuel fabrication process steps were defined and evaluated from fuel receiving to finished fuel element shipping. The evaluation also covers the feasibility of the process, the current status of technology, estimates of the required time and cost to develop the technology to commercial status, and the safety and licensability of commercial scale plants. The primary evaluation was for a Light-Water Reactor fuel element containing (U,Pu)O 2 fuel. The other 18 fuel element types - 3 for Light-Water Reactors, 1 for a Heavy-Water Reactor, 1 for a Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor, 7 for Liquid-Metal-Cooled Fast Breeder Reactors, and 3 pairs for Light-Water Prebreeder and Breeder Reactors - were compared with the Light-Water Reactor. The gel-sphere-pac option was found applicable to 17 of the 19 element types; the characteristics of a commercial scale plant were defined for these for making cost estimates for such plants. The evaluation clearly shows the gel-sphere-pac process to be a viable fuel fabrication option. Estimates indicate a significant potential fabrication cost advantage for the gel-sphere-pac process if a remotely operated and remotely maintained fuel fabrication plant is required

  4. Elecciones: entre gamonalismo y civismo. El caso de Tumaco en la costa Pacífica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Helfrich-Bernal

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo nace de un estudio de caso sobre las elecciones, el sistema de partidos y la cultura política en el municipio de Tumaco en la Costa Pacífica nariñense. En él se analizan las elecciónes populares de alcaldes y las reformas en el marco de la nueva Constitución de 1991.

  5. Gel-sphere-pac fuel for thermal reactors: assessment of fabrication technology and irradiation performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beatty, R.L.; Norman, R.E.; Notz, K.J.

    1979-11-01

    Recent interest in proliferation-resistant fuel cycles for light-water reactors has focused attention on spiked plutonium and 233 U-Th fuels, requiring remote refabrication. The gel-sphere-pac process for fabricating metal-clad fuel elements has drawn special attention because it involves fewer steps. Gel-sphere-pac fabrication technology involves two major areas: the preparation of fuel spheres of high density and loading these spheres into rods in an efficiently packed geometry. Gel sphere preparation involves three major steps: preparation of a sol or of a special solution (broth), gelation of droplets of sol or broth to give semirigid spheres of controlled size, and drying and sintering these spheres to a high density. Gelation may be accomplished by water extraction (suitable only for sols) or ammonia gelation (suitable for both sols and broths but used almost exclusively with broths). Ammonia gelation can be accomplished either externally, via ammonia gas and ammonium hydroxide, or internally via an added ammonia generator such as hexamethylenetetramine. Sphere-pac fuel rod fabrication involves controlled blending and metering of three sizes of spheres into the rod and packing by low- to medium-energy vibration to achieve about 88% smear density; these sizes have diametral ratios of about 40:10:1 and are blended in size fraction amounts of about 60% coarse, 18% medium, and 22% fine. Irradiation test results indicate that sphere-pac fuel performs at least as well as pellet fuel, and may in fact offer an advantage in significantly reducing mechanical and chemical interaction between the fuel and cladding. The normal feed for gel sphere preparation, heavy metal nitrate solution, is the usual product of fuel reprocessing, so that fabrication of gel spheres performs all the functions performed by both conversion and pellet fabrication in the case of pellet technology

  6. Cultural and semantic equivalence of the activity measure post-acute care (AM-PAC) after its translation into Mandarin Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Feng-Hang; Ni, Pengsheng; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Hou, Wen-Hsuan; Jette, Alan M

    2018-03-21

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the cultural and semantic equivalence of the Activity Measure Post-Acute Care (AM-PAC) outpatient short forms after they were translated from American English to Mandarin Chinese. This study was conducted with a composite sample of a group of 483 American adults (mean age 63.1 years, 42.4% males) and 553 Taiwanese adults (mean age 60.6 years, 47.2% males) who were undergoing home care or outpatient rehabilitation services. A confirmatory factor analysis tested the cultural equivalence of the AM-PAC dimensions between the US and Taiwanese samples. Semantic equivalence was tested through an item response theory-based differential item functioning (DFI) analysis. Results of the confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated good model-data fit of the AM-PAC in both the US and Taiwanese samples. Significant DFI was found for six Basic Mobility items, two Daily Activity items, and four Applied Cognition items. A DFI-adjusted conversion table was generated to transform the raw scores of the measure for comparisons between the two countries. This study provides evidence to support the conceptual equivalence of the AM-PAC when used in rehabilitation patients between American and Taiwanese cultural contexts. Some DFI items between the two groups were found, suggesting that some differences in semantic understanding of these items between cultures require cross-cultural adjustments. Implications for Rehabilitation Cultural equivalence needs to be tested before applying a clinical measure to another context. The findings of this study supported the three activity domains that the Activity Measure Post-Acute Care measures: Basic Mobility, Daily Activity, and Applied Cognition, which are all important rehabilitation outcomes that need to be assessed and monitored across rehabilitation settings. Differential item functioning was observed between the English and Chinese versions of the Activity Measure Post-Acute Care, indicating that

  7. Adoption of PACS by the Department of Veterans Affairs: the past, the present, and future plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Eliot L.; Reiner, Bruce I.; Kuzmak, Peter M.

    2000-05-01

    The diffusion of PACS technology within the Department of Veterans Affairs has followed the 'S' curve transition originally described by Ryan and Gross in 1943. They described a paradigm that describes the diffusion of a new technology into the community. However the rate of adoption of filmless radiology by the VA has been much higher than that of the general healthcare system. This is likely due to the fact that the VA and Department of Defense medical systems are somewhat isolated and independent from other health care systems and are subject to a different rate of diffusion of technology. The early introduction and success of PACS in the VA undoubtedly accelerated its acceptance throughout the system. An additional impetus to the growth of PACS in the VA has been the development of an image management system that has been incorporated into the electronic medical record. The universal use of the VISTA HIS and RIS system throughout the VA and the fact that it was developed 'in-house' as well as its extensive support for DICOM functionality have also played a major role in facilitating the acceptance of Picture Archival and Communication Systems throughout the VA.

  8. Discovering Multimodal Behavior in Ms. Pac-Man through Evolution of Modular Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrum, Jacob; Miikkulainen, Risto

    2016-03-12

    Ms. Pac-Man is a challenging video game in which multiple modes of behavior are required: Ms. Pac-Man must escape ghosts when they are threats and catch them when they are edible, in addition to eating all pills in each level. Past approaches to learning behavior in Ms. Pac-Man have treated the game as a single task to be learned using monolithic policy representations. In contrast, this paper uses a framework called Modular Multi-objective NEAT (MM-NEAT) to evolve modular neural networks. Each module defines a separate behavior. The modules are used at different times according to a policy that can be human-designed (i.e. Multitask) or discovered automatically by evolution. The appropriate number of modules can be fixed or discovered using a genetic operator called Module Mutation. Several versions of Module Mutation are evaluated in this paper. Both fixed modular networks and Module Mutation networks outperform monolithic networks and Multitask networks. Interestingly, the best networks dedicate modules to critical behaviors (such as escaping when surrounded after luring ghosts near a power pill) that do not follow the customary division of the game into chasing edible and escaping threat ghosts. The results demonstrate that MM-NEAT can discover interesting and effective behavior for agents in challenging games.

  9. Radiological reporting system developed with FileMakerPro. Cooperation with HIS, RIS, and PACS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Satoshi

    2004-01-01

    This article briefly describes our original radiological reporting system. This system was developed with the widely used database software FileMakerPro (ver 5.5). The reporting system can obtain information about patients and examinations from a radiology information system (RIS) by the Open DataBase Connectivity (ODBC) technique. By clicking the button on the reporting system, the corresponding Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images can be displayed on a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) workstation monitor. Reference images in JPEG format can be easily moved from PACS to the reporting system. Reports produced by the reporting system are distributed to the hospital information system (HIS) in Portable Document Format (PDF), through another web server. By utilizing the capacity of FileMakerPro, the human-machine interface of the system has been able to be improved easily. In addition, cooperation with HIS, RIS, and PACS could be constructed. Therefore, this original system would contribute to increasing the efficiency of radiological diagnosis. (author)

  10. FUJI - a comparative irradiation test with pellet, sphere-pac, and vipac fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellwig, C.; Bakker, K.; Ozawa, T.; Nakamura, M.; Kihara, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Particle fuels such as sphere-pac and vipac fuels have been considered as promising fuel systems for fast reactors, due to their inherent potential in remote operation, cost reduction and incineration of minor actinides or low-decontaminated plutonium. The FUJI test addresses the questions of fabrication of MOX particle fuels with high Pu content (20%) and its irradiation behaviour during the start-up phase. Four kinds of fuel, i.e. MOX sphere-pac, MOX vipac, MOX pellet and Np-MOX sphere-pac fuel, have been and will be simultaneously irradiated under identical conditions in the High Flux Reactor in Petten. First results show that the particle fuel undergoes a dramatic structure change already at the very beginning of the irradiation when the maximum power is reached. The structural changes, i.e. the formation of a central void and the densification of fuel, decrease the fuel central temperature. Thus the fast and strong restructuring helps to prevent central fuel melting at high power levels. (authors)

  11. The PAC-MAN model: Benchmark case for linear acoustics in computational physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegelwanger, Harald; Reiter, Paul

    2017-10-01

    Benchmark cases in the field of computational physics, on the one hand, have to contain a certain complexity to test numerical edge cases and, on the other hand, require the existence of an analytical solution, because an analytical solution allows the exact quantification of the accuracy of a numerical simulation method. This dilemma causes a need for analytical sound field formulations of complex acoustic problems. A well known example for such a benchmark case for harmonic linear acoustics is the ;Cat's Eye model;, which describes the three-dimensional sound field radiated from a sphere with a missing octant analytically. In this paper, a benchmark case for two-dimensional (2D) harmonic linear acoustic problems, viz., the ;PAC-MAN model;, is proposed. The PAC-MAN model describes the radiated and scattered sound field around an infinitely long cylinder with a cut out sector of variable angular width. While the analytical calculation of the 2D sound field allows different angular cut-out widths and arbitrarily positioned line sources, the computational cost associated with the solution of this problem is similar to a 1D problem because of a modal formulation of the sound field in the PAC-MAN model.

  12. Evaluation of video capture equipment for secondary image acquisition in the PACS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukenobu, Yoshiharu; Sasagaki, Michihiro; Hirabuki, Norio; Naito, Hiroaki; Narumi, Yoshifumi; Inamura, Kiyonari

    2002-01-01

    There are many cases in which picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) are built with old-type existing modalities with no DICOM output. One of the methods for interfacing them to the PACS is to implement video capture (/ frame grabber) equipment. This equipment takes analog video signal output from medical imaging modalities, and amplitude of the video signal is A/D converted and supplied to the PACS. In this report, we measured and evaluated the accuracy at which this video capture equipment could capture the image. From the physical evaluation, we found the pixel values of an original image and its captured image were almost equal in gray level from 20%-90%. The change in the pixel values of a captured image was +/-3 on average. The change of gray level concentration was acceptable and had an average standard deviation of around 0.63. As for resolution, the degradation was observed at the highest physical level. In a subjective evaluation, the evaluation value of the CT image had a grade of 2.81 on the average (the same quality for a reference image was set to a grade of 3.0). Abnormalities in heads, chests, and abdomens were judged not to influence diagnostic accuracy. Some small differences were seen when comparing captured and reference images, but they are recognized as having no influence on the diagnoses.

  13. Bibliographic database of PACS-related articles from the SPIE literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shile, Peter E.; Freiermuth, Jennifer

    1996-05-01

    Publications of the International Society of Optical Engineering (SPIE) contain much of the relevant literature on Picture Archiving and Communications Systems (PACS) and related topics. In fact, many PACS-related articles indexed by the National Library of Medicine contain references to articles published by SPIE. Unfortunately, SPIE publications themselves are not indexed by the National Library of Medicine and thus can not be identified through Medline. The lack of a convenient mechanism for searching the SPIE literature is problematic for researchers in medical imaging. With the recent introduction on SPIE's Internet server of their Abstracts Online service and their In-CiteTM title and author searching software, the SPIE literature has become more accessible. However, the searching process is still a cumbersome and time consuming process, and it is not possible to perform key word searches of manuscript abstracts. In this paper we present results of our work on developing a mechanism to more thoroughly search SPIE publications for PACS-related articles.

  14. HERSCHEL PACS OBSERVATIONS AND MODELING OF DEBRIS DISKS IN THE TUCANA-HOROLOGIUM ASSOCIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donaldson, J. K. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Roberge, A. [Exoplanets and Stellar Astrophysics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 667, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Chen, C. H. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Dr., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Augereau, J.-C.; Menard, F. [UJF - Grenoble 1/CNRS-INSU, Institut de Planetologie et d' Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG) UMR 5274, Grenoble, F-38041 (France); Dent, W. R. F. [ALMA, Avda Apoquindo 3846, Piso 19, Edificio Alsacia, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Eiroa, C.; Meeus, G. [Dpt. Fisica Teorica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Krivov, A. V. [Astrophysikalishes Institut, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Schillergaesschen 2-3, 07745 Jena (Germany); Mathews, G. S. [Institute for Astronomy (IfA), University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Dr., Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Riviere-Marichalar, P. [Centro de Astrobiologia Depto. Astrofisica (CSIC-INTA), POB 78, 28691 Villanueva de la Canada (Spain); Sandell, G., E-mail: jessd@astro.umd.edu [SOFIA-USRA, NASA Ames Research Center, Building N232, Rm. 146, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2012-07-10

    We present Herschel PACS photometry of 17 B- to M-type stars in the 30 Myr old Tucana-Horologium Association. This work is part of the Herschel Open Time Key Programme 'Gas in Protoplanetary Systems'. 6 of the 17 targets were found to have infrared excesses significantly greater than the expected stellar IR fluxes, including a previously unknown disk around HD30051. These six debris disks were fitted with single-temperature blackbody models to estimate the temperatures and abundances of the dust in the systems. For the five stars that show excess emission in the Herschel PACS photometry and also have Spitzer IRS spectra, we fit the data with models of optically thin debris disks with realistic grain properties in order to better estimate the disk parameters. The model is determined by a set of six parameters: surface density index, grain size distribution index, minimum and maximum grain sizes, and the inner and outer radii of the disk. The best-fitting parameters give us constraints on the geometry of the dust in these systems, as well as lower limits to the total dust masses. The HD105 disk was further constrained by fitting marginally resolved PACS 70 {mu}m imaging.

  15. Change in Care Dependency of Stroke Patients: A Longitudinal and Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nursiswati, Nursiswati; Halfens, Ruud J G; Lohrmann, Christa

    2017-06-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the change of care dependency in stroke patients from inpatient wards and outpatient units in Indonesia. This study is longitudinal and multicentered. One hundred and nine patients were included from four hospitals on the island of Java. Care dependency was assessed using the Indonesian version of the 15-item Care Dependency Scale (CDS) at five points in time: at inpatient wards for admission and discharge and at outpatient units after discharge in the 1st week, the 5th week, and the 13th week. Most of the patients were male (65.1%), and diagnosed with ischemic stroke (71.5%). The results showed that care dependency in stroke patients decreased significantly from admission to discharge, as well as from the 5th to the 13th week as measured by the CDS. At admission, 23.0% of the patients were completely dependent on care, and at the 13th week about 1.0% were. Patients' care dependency decreased significantly in all care dependency items of the CDS in the inpatient ward, but five care dependency items of the CDS did not significantly decrease in the outpatient unit. Based on the findings of this study, we recommend that hospital-based and community-based services should include continual care dependence monitoring using this comprehensive instrument. Care dependency is subject to change over time, therefore nurses have to plan and tailor adequate nursing care measures to patient needs in the different stages, especially with respect to the aspect of mobility. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Effect of powdered activated carbon dosage on sludge properties and membrane bioreactor performance in a hybrid MBR-PAC system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shi; Zuo, Xingtao; Xiong, Juan; Ma, Cong; Hu, Bo

    2017-12-22

    An improved insight into the effect of powdered activated carbon (PAC) on membrane fouling is crucial to the MBR performance. Sludge key property, soluble microbial products (SMP) and transmembrane pressure (TMP) were monitored. The membrane fouling rate in the MBRs was also analyzed based on TMP profile and resistance-in-series model. PAC reduced the membrane filtration resistance and significantly decreased the fouling rate. The sludge filterability was improved by extending the filtration time by almost twofold. PAC affected the SMP release and protein/polysaccharide (carbohydrate) was in a lower ratio. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis indicated that PAC decreased the impact of organic carbon, and reduced the proteins' and polysaccharides' absorption and deposition on the membrane surface and in the pores. The degree of reversible and irreversible fouling was related to the PAC content added into the MBRs. At the optimum dosage of 2 g/L, the results signified the PAC potential as a mitigation strategy of membrane fouling.

  17. Studies of frequency dependent C-V characteristics of neutron irradiated p+-n silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zheng; Kraner, H.W.

    1990-10-01

    Frequency-dependent capacitance-voltage fluence (C-V) characteristics of neutron irradiated high resistivity silicon p + -n detectors have been observed up to a fluence of 8.0 x 10 12 n/cm 2 . It has been found that frequency dependence of the deviation of the C-V characteristic (from its normal V -1/2 dependence), is strongly dependent on the ratio of the defect density and the effective doping density N t /N' d . As the defect density approaches the effective dopant density, or N t /N' d → 1, the junction capacitance eventually assumes the value of the detector geometry capacitance at high frequencies (f ≤ 10 5 Hz), independent of voltage. A two-trap-level model using the concept of quasi-fermi levels has been developed, which predicts both the effects of C-V frequency dependence and dopant compensation observed in this study

  18. Women, drug dependency and consequences: a study from a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajedaluee, Mohammad; Dadgarmoghaddam, Maliheh; Erfanian, Majidreza; Alipourtabrizi, Arash; Khadem-Rezaiyan, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Addiction in women can expose them to malnutrition, high blood pressure, cancer, and some other dangerous diseases like hepatitis, AIDS, or other sexual transmitted diseases. The aim of this study was to assess illegal sexual relations in three groups of women. Methods. This is a cross-sectional study that was done on 236 girls and young women aged 16-25 years in 2012 in three groups: vulnerable women who have substance dependency (crimes that had made women incarcerated were considered as vulnerability in this study), invulnerable women who have substance dependency (substance dependent women without a history of incarceration), and a control group (women with no history of substance dependency or being in prison). Results. 43.8% of vulnerable women who have substance dependency had extramarital sexual relations; this percentage was 55.8% in invulnerable women who have substance dependency and 1.4% in the control group. Crystal and methamphetamine abuse was higher in addicts who had extramarital sexual relations and alcohol abuse was correlated with unsafe sexual intercourse (r = 0.36, P = 0.001). There was a statistically significant difference in extramarital sexual relation based on marital status (P Poverty, drug dependency, divorce, and alcohol consumption make women prone to other high risk behaviors that need more attention.

  19. Women, Drug Dependency and Consequences: A Study from a Developing Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khajedaluee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Addiction in women can expose them to malnutrition, high blood pressure, cancer, and some other dangerous diseases like hepatitis, AIDS, or other sexual transmitted diseases. The aim of this study was to assess illegal sexual relations in three groups of women. Methods. This is a cross-sectional study that was done on 236 girls and young women aged 16–25 years in 2012 in three groups: vulnerable women who have substance dependency (crimes that had made women incarcerated were considered as vulnerability in this study, invulnerable women who have substance dependency (substance dependent women without a history of incarceration, and a control group (women with no history of substance dependency or being in prison. Results. 43.8% of vulnerable women who have substance dependency had extramarital sexual relations; this percentage was 55.8% in invulnerable women who have substance dependency and 1.4% in the control group. Crystal and methamphetamine abuse was higher in addicts who had extramarital sexual relations and alcohol abuse was correlated with unsafe sexual intercourse (r=;0.36, P=0.001. There was a statistically significant difference in extramarital sexual relation based on marital status (P<0.001. Conclusions. Poverty, drug dependency, divorce, and alcohol consumption make women prone to other high risk behaviors that need more attention.

  20. Cigarette smoking, nicotine dependence and anxiety disorders: a systematic review of population-based, epidemiological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moylan Steven

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple studies have demonstrated that rates of smoking and nicotine dependence are increased in individuals with anxiety disorders. However, significant variability exists in the epidemiological literature exploring this relationship, including study design (cross-sectional versus prospective, the population assessed (random sample versus clinical population and diagnostic instrument utilized. Methods We undertook a systematic review of population-based observational studies that utilized recognized structured clinical diagnostic criteria (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM or International Classification of Diseases (ICD for anxiety disorder diagnosis to investigate the relationship between cigarette smoking, nicotine dependence and anxiety disorders. Results In total, 47 studies met the predefined inclusion criteria, with 12 studies providing prospective information and 5 studies providing quasiprospective information. The available evidence suggests that some baseline anxiety disorders are a risk factor for initiation of smoking and nicotine dependence, although the evidence is heterogeneous and many studies did not control for the effect of comorbid substance use disorders. The identified evidence however appeared to more consistently support cigarette smoking and nicotine dependence as being a risk factor for development of some anxiety disorders (for example, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, although these findings were not replicated in all studies. A number of inconsistencies in the literature were identified. Conclusions Although many studies have demonstrated increased rates of smoking and nicotine dependence in individuals with anxiety disorders, there is a limited and heterogeneous literature that has prospectively examined this relationship in population studies using validated diagnostic criteria. The most consistent evidence supports smoking and nicotine dependence as