WorldWideScience

Sample records for dependent handicapped early

  1. Early Childhood Program for the Handicapped in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucman, Elisabeth

    1985-01-01

    Early intervention in France begins with compulsory screening of all infants at birth, nine months, and at two years. Problems remain, especially in the availability of adequate support and of services for the handicapped child. Interdisciplinary teams operate from "early medico-social activity centers" to provide a variety of…

  2. Nursing-care dependency : Development of an assessment scale for demented and mentally handicapped patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Ate; Buist, Girbe; Dassen, T

    1996-01-01

    This article describing the first phase in the development of an assessment scale of nursing-care dependency (NCD) for Dutch demented and mentally handicapped patients focuses on the background to the study and the content validation of the nursing-care dependency scale. The scale aims to

  3. Longitudinal Studies of the Effects and Costs of Early Intervention for Handicapped Children. Annual Report 1987-88.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utah State Univ., Logan. Early Intervention Research Inst.

    The 1987-88 annual report reviews progress on 17 longitudinal studies to determine the efficacy of early intervention with handicapped children. The overview chapter reviews previous research on this topic; considers ethical, practical, and scientific considerations of randomized experiments in early childhood special education; examines benefits…

  4. Siblings of Handicapped Children: Assessing the Need for and Impact of Their Early Education. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobato, Debra; Miller, Carol T.

    The project examined the psychosocial functioning of preschool-aged siblings of handicapped children in comparison to a matched control group of siblings of non-handicapped children. The project then examined the psychosocial effects of increasing sibling understanding of and involvement with the handicapped child via participation in a 6-week…

  5. The Norwegian Voice Handicap Index (VHI-N) patient scores are dependent on voice-related disease group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, Tom; Heimdal, John-Helge; Grieg, Anne Rita Hella; Aarstad, Hans Jørgen

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study is to determine to what extent the Voice Handicap Index-Norwegian (VHI-N) is scored depending on specific laryngological disease. In a multi-center study, 126 healthy subjects and 355 patients with different voice-related diseases answered the VHI-N. The VHI-N scores showed high Cronbach's alpha. Analyses of variance were performed with VHI-N dependent and specific voice-related disease as independent variable, and showed highly significant dependence by group allocation (F(7,461) = 28.0; p VHI-N scores. The VHI-N is a psychometrically well-functioning instrument, also at disease-specific levels and discriminates well between health and voice diseases, as well as between different voice-related diseases. The VHI-N may be recommended to be used when monitoring voice-related disease treatment.

  6. [Early childhood handicaps in French Guyana: an analysis of relationships between families and professionals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallibour, Eric

    2007-01-01

    The author reiterates that the transfer of public health policies to French Guyana has still not been able to fill in the gap related to delays in development of infrastructure and the lack of personnel in the social and medical establishments. The system of management for handicapped children in this French county is strongly influenced by the increasing immigrant population and by the vulnerability and instability of the administrative and socioeconomic situations of those families. Furthermore, the obstacles that the professionals from the socio-medical sector must confront in their daily practice and activities are described. An analysis of their portrayals and practices permit the author to show and outline their relationships with the immigrant families who are at risk, particularly that of maintaining and suffering from the general air of stigma to which they are objected to in the Guyanese society.

  7. Condition-dependence, pleiotropy and the handicap principle of sexual selection in melanin-based colouration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roulin, Alexandre

    2016-05-01

    The signalling function of melanin-based colouration is debated. Sexual selection theory states that ornaments should be costly to produce, maintain, wear or display to signal quality honestly to potential mates or competitors. An increasing number of studies supports the hypothesis that the degree of melanism covaries with aspects of body condition (e.g. body mass or immunity), which has contributed to change the initial perception that melanin-based colour ornaments entail no costs. Indeed, the expression of many (but not all) melanin-based colour traits is weakly sensitive to the environment but strongly heritable suggesting that these colour traits are relatively cheap to produce and maintain, thus raising the question of how such colour traits could signal quality honestly. Here I review the production, maintenance and wearing/displaying costs that can generate a correlation between melanin-based colouration and body condition, and consider other evolutionary mechanisms that can also lead to covariation between colour and body condition. Because genes controlling melanic traits can affect numerous phenotypic traits, pleiotropy could also explain a linkage between body condition and colouration. Pleiotropy may result in differently coloured individuals signalling different aspects of quality that are maintained by frequency-dependent selection or local adaptation. Colouration may therefore not signal absolute quality to potential mates or competitors (e.g. dark males may not achieve a higher fitness than pale males); otherwise genetic variation would be rapidly depleted by directional selection. As a consequence, selection on heritable melanin-based colouration may not always be directional, but mate choice may be conditional to environmental conditions (i.e. context-dependent sexual selection). Despite the interest of evolutionary biologists in the adaptive value of melanin-based colouration, its actual role in sexual selection is still poorly understood.

  8. [Hearing handicap in childhood--responsibilities of public health, early diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aust, G; Föll, U; Lutt, B; Schaffrath, R

    1989-01-01

    Serious congenital hearing impairment occur in 1 per 1,000 people. Hereditary disease, perinatal complications, and postnatal disease present particular risk factors. Children, who do not hear or are extremely hard of hearing are slow in their language development and thus become retarded in their mental growth if not given appropriate stimulation. The Counseling Center for the hearing impaired was stablished as a multidisciplinary institution of the Health Office of Berlin-Neukölln for early recognition of and therapy for hearing impaired children. The average age at initial diagnosis of children with hearing impairment in the Federal Republic of Germany is between 3.3-3.4 years according to statistics from 1981. An effort should be made, however, to use the time before the completion of the first year of on's life for an optimal early therapy. Statistics from the Counseling Center for the hearing impaired indicate that at the present time all children with distinct hearing impairments, born in the FRG and West-Berlin, are diagnosed before they reach 32 months of age and are then assigned to special education programs. The average age of recognizing hearing impairments is 13.4 months. This favorable, however not optimal result can be attributed to the situation of a metropolis and its population informed by special professional events for target groups including employees of theYouth Health Services, established pediatricians and ENT specialists, teachers, social workers, educators, and also to the model of the "Berlin-Neukölln Counseling Center" which has proven successful over the past 30 years.

  9. Calcineurin activity in children with Mental handicap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindu, L Hema; Rani, P Usha; Reddy, P P

    2007-09-01

    Calcineurin, a Ca(2+)-Calmodulin dependent protein phosphatase, is important for Ca(2+) mediated signal transduction. The main objective of this study was to examine the potential role of calcineurin in idiopathic mental handicap. Calcineurin levels were estimated in 20 children in the age group of 5-16 years with idiopathic mental handicap attending the Special. Education Centre for the Mentally Handicapped in Hyderabad. The results of the present study showed decreased activity of serum calcineurin in children with idiopathic mental handicap compared to those of normal subjects in the same age group. The observations thus suggest impaired calcineurin activity in children with mental handicap. Calcineurin that is involved in biosynthesis and release of neurotransmitters at the synaptic terminal brain is affected thereby causing brain damage and leading to mental handicap. Impaired calcineurin activity was already indicated in many human diseases such as Down's syndrome, Alzheimers, Brain ischemia, cardiac hypertrophy etc. It is therefore necessary to check the calcineurin levels in children with mental handicap to understand the role of calcineurin in the causation of Mental handicap.

  10. Associated handicaps in children with hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voutilainen, R; Jauhiainen, T; Linkola, H

    1988-01-01

    In the differential diagnosis as well as in the rehabilitation of hearing impaired children other disorders affecting language aquisition and speech development need to be taken into account. The rehabilitation programme is highly dependent on the early diagnosis of these additional disorders such as dysphasia, mental retardation of various degrees, cognitive disorders such as dyslexia and dysgraphia, dyspractic and dysarthric disorders of speech production, cleft palate and other anomalies of articulatory organs, autism and other abnormal features of psychic and personality development. In addition children with multiple disorders like malformations, visual disorders, epilepsy, CP and other diseases and handicaps, even though they may not influence language and speech development directly, may still be deprived of possibilities to aquire adequate verbal stimulation. The paper presents a material of 200 children whose hearing loss was diagnosed at the preschool age. Major associated handicaps were found in 35.5% of cases and in 26% they were complicating rehabilitation and development of the child. The frequency of associated disorders and their effect on language and speech development, learning ability and social development is being more closely analysed and discussed.

  11. Predictors of Choral Directors' Voice Handicap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Vocal demands of teaching are considerable and these challenges are greater for choral directors who depend on the voice as a musical and instructive instrument. The purpose of this study was to (1) examine choral directors' vocal condition using a modified Voice Handicap Index (VHI), and (2) determine the extent to which the major variables…

  12. Aids for Handicapped Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Div. for the Blind and Physically Handicapped.

    The reference circular provides information on approximately 50 reading and writing aids intended for physically or visually handicapped individuals. Described are low vision aids, aids for holding a book or turning pages, aids for reading in bed, handwriting aids, typewriters and accessories, braille writing equipment, sound reproducers, and aids…

  13. Handicap som risikofaktor?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøttcher, Louise; Dammeyer, Jesper Herup

    2010-01-01

    psykopatologi etableres. I artiklen vil vi præsentere en almen model til forståelse af mennesker med handicap og deres udviklingsmuligheder – en handicappsykologisk udviklingsmodel ud fra et dialektisk kultur-historisk perspektiv (Vygotsky, (1924-31) 1993). Ved hjælp af empiriske studier vil vi eksemplificere...

  14. Voice handicap in singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murry, Thomas; Zschommler, Anne; Prokop, Jan

    2009-05-01

    The study aimed to determine the differences in responses to the Voice Handicap Index (VHI-10) between singers and nonsingers and to evaluate the ranked order differences of the VHI-10 statements for both groups. The VHI-10 was modified to include statements related to the singing voice for comparison to the original VHI-10. Thirty-five nonsingers with documented voice disorders responded to the VHI-10. A second group, consisting of 35 singers with voice complaints, responded to the VHI-10 with three statements added specifically addressing the singing voice. Data from both groups were analyzed in terms of overall subject self-rating of voice handicap and the rank order of statements from least to most important. The difference between the mean VHI-10 for the singers and nonsingers was not statistically significant, thus, supporting the validity of the VHI-10. However, the 10 statements were ranked differently in terms of their importance by both groups. In addition, when three statements related specifically to the singing voice were substituted in the original VHI-10, the singers judged their voice problem to be more severe than when using the original VHI-10. The type of statements used to assess self-perception of voice handicap may be related to the subject population. Singers with voice problems do not rate their voices to be more handicapped than nonsingers unless statements related specifically to singing are included.

  15. Mainstreaming: Visually Handicapped Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Ernestine; And Others

    1978-01-01

    A research project at Florida State University developed teaching materials for secondary home economics teachers faced with teaching hand and machine sewing and other clothing construction skills to visually handicapped students. The article gives some suggestions for presenting instructions and adapting equipment for cutting and sewing garments.…

  16. EARLY DETECTION OF HANDICAPS OF PERSONS WITH TRISOMIA OF 21 CHROMOSOME IN THE CYTOGENETIC LABORATORY IN THE CENTER FOR MENTAL HEALTH FOR CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS IN SKOPJE

    OpenAIRE

    B. APOSTOLOSKI; M. KJAEVA-PEJKOVSKA; S. NIKOLOVA

    1997-01-01

    Factors which contribute the appearance of handicaps are numerous and complex. By their nature they are inherited or determined by factors of outer environment, mostly as a result of interaction of both. In the broad sense the genetic factors are located in 46 chromosomes in the human cell, before all in the female and male fertilized cell e.i. the genes located in the chromosomes which determine the function of the central nervous system. The chromosome aberrations e.i. the visible aberratio...

  17. Handicap, Architecture & Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1996-01-01

    Cd-rommen er et visuelt projekteringsværktøj for byggeriets parter. Den viser nogle af de problemer mennesker med handicap har ved at færdes i de fysiske omgivelser, men peger også mulige løsninger for at gøre omgivelserne tilgængelige for alle.......Cd-rommen er et visuelt projekteringsværktøj for byggeriets parter. Den viser nogle af de problemer mennesker med handicap har ved at færdes i de fysiske omgivelser, men peger også mulige løsninger for at gøre omgivelserne tilgængelige for alle....

  18. Benefits for handicapped children

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The introduction of long-term care benefits within the CERN Health Insurance Scheme requires the coordination of the benefits foreseen for handicapped children. Measures were adopted by the Management following the recommendation made by the Standing Concertation Committee on 26 March 2003. A document clarifying these measures is available on the Web at the following address: http://humanresources.web.cern.ch/humanresources/external/soc/Social_affairs/social_affairs.asp Social Affairs Service 74201

  19. 38 CFR 21.58 - Redetermination of employment handicap and serious employment handicap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... employment handicap and serious employment handicap. 21.58 Section 21.58 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans... of employment handicap and serious employment handicap. (a) Prior to induction into a program. A determination as to employment handicap, serious employment handicap, or eligibility for a program of...

  20. Measuring early or late dependence for bivariate lifetimes of twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheike, Thomas; Holst, Klaus K; Hjelmborg, Jacob B

    2015-01-01

    We consider data from the Danish twin registry and aim to study in detail how lifetimes for twin-pairs are correlated. We consider models where we specify the marginals using a regression structure, here Cox's regression model or the additive hazards model. The best known such model is the Clayton...... procedures are applied to Danish twin data to describe dependence in the lifetimes of the twins. Here we show that the early deaths are more correlated than the later deaths, and by comparing MZ and DZ associations we suggest that early deaths might be more driven by genetic factors. This conclusion requires...... models that are able to look at more local dependence measures. We further show that the dependence differs for MZ and DZ twins and appears to be the same for males and females, and that there are indications that the dependence increases over calendar time....

  1. Expectation Suppression in Early Visual Cortex Depends on Task Set

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    St. John-Saaltink, E.C.; Utzerath, C.; Kok, P.; Lau, H.C.; Lange, F.P. de

    2015-01-01

    Stimulus expectation can modulate neural responses in early sensory cortical regions, with expected stimuli often leading to a reduced neural response. However, it is unclear whether this expectation suppression is an automatic phenomenon or is instead dependent on the type of task a subject is enga

  2. EARLY DETECTION OF HANDICAPS OF PERSONS WITH TRISOMIA OF 21 CHROMOSOME IN THE CYTOGENETIC LABORATORY IN THE CENTER FOR MENTAL HEALTH FOR CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS IN SKOPJE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. APOSTOLOSKI

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Factors which contribute the appearance of handicaps are numerous and complex. By their nature they are inherited or determined by factors of outer environment, mostly as a result of interaction of both. In the broad sense the genetic factors are located in 46 chromosomes in the human cell, before all in the female and male fertilized cell e.i. the genes located in the chromosomes which determine the function of the central nervous system. The chromosome aberrations e.i. the visible aberrations of the chromosome structure presents the cause for the appearance of handicaps mostly together with some syndrome. That’s the case with Dawn’s syndrome( mongolism where we can find trisomy of 21 chromosome.Relatively, the great number of examinees (176 which we discovered in a period of 10 years from all the places of R. Macedonia confirm the need for further investigations. The newborns with this syndrome are children with prenatal development finished in not adequate way. The presence of different physical appearance on the birth and later on, more or less, speaks about indefinite mixture of pathological factors in the growth of the child and the difference. The symptoms that are discovered in these children indicate that they are retarded in their psychological and physical development from the normal children, and the further growth and development are on a lower level. The psychological, pediatrics and psychiatric researches show that the level of intelligence of our examinees is low, where as the social adjustment is far more better.The examination of our examinees was made up of taking an anamnesis from the parents, mostly from the mother. Every examine was under taken an caryological test. Ten of them showed an translocative type of Down’s syndrome where one of the parents is the carrier of the heterological balanced translocation. The heterological balanced translocations can be discovered only through affected newborn child. Our researches

  3. Expectation Suppression in Early Visual Cortex Depends on Task Set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St John-Saaltink, Elexa; Utzerath, Christian; Kok, Peter; Lau, Hakwan C; de Lange, Floris P

    2015-01-01

    Stimulus expectation can modulate neural responses in early sensory cortical regions, with expected stimuli often leading to a reduced neural response. However, it is unclear whether this expectation suppression is an automatic phenomenon or is instead dependent on the type of task a subject is engaged in. To investigate this, human subjects were presented with visual grating stimuli in the periphery that were either predictable or non-predictable while they performed three tasks that differently engaged cognitive resources. In two of the tasks, the predictable stimulus was task-irrelevant and spatial attention was engaged at fixation, with a high load on either perceptual or working memory resources. In the third task, the predictable stimulus was task-relevant, and therefore spatially attended. We observed that expectation suppression is dependent on the cognitive resources engaged by a subjects' current task. When the grating was task-irrelevant, expectation suppression for predictable items was visible in retinotopically specific areas of early visual cortex (V1-V3) during the perceptual task, but it was abolished when working memory was loaded. When the grating was task-relevant and spatially attended, there was no significant effect of expectation in early visual cortex. These results suggest that expectation suppression is not an automatic phenomenon, but dependent on attentional state and type of available cognitive resources.

  4. Making Facilities Accessible to the Physically Handicapped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    State Univ. Construction Fund, Albany, NY.

    Guidelines on performance criteria for the State University of New York consider two main types of handicapped: the ambulant and semi-ambulant, including some physically handicapped, the visually and aurally handicapped, and persons with cardiac conditions; and persons confined to wheel chairs. The handicapped and planning for them are discussed.…

  5. 29 CFR 779.409 - Handicapped workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Handicapped workers. 779.409 Section 779.409 Labor... Students, Learners, and Handicapped Workers § 779.409 Handicapped workers. Regulations have been issued... handicapped workers at wages lower than the minimum wage applicable under section 6 of the Act....

  6. Attention-dependent early cortical suppression contributes to crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan; He, Yingchen; Zhu, Ziyun; Zhou, Tiangang; Peng, Yujia; Zhang, Xilin; Fang, Fang

    2014-08-01

    Crowding, the identification difficulty for a target in the presence of nearby flankers, is ubiquitous in spatial vision and is considered a bottleneck of object recognition and visual awareness. Despite its significance, the neural mechanisms of crowding are still unclear. Here, we performed event-related potential and fMRI experiments to measure the cortical interaction between the target and flankers in human subjects. We found that the magnitude of the crowding effect was closely associated with an early suppressive cortical interaction. The cortical suppression was reflected in the earliest event-related potential component (C1), which originated in V1, and in the BOLD signal in V1, but not other higher cortical areas. Intriguingly, spatial attention played a critical role in the manifestation of the suppression. These findings provide direct and converging evidence that attention-dependent V1 suppression contributes to crowding at a very early stage of visual processing.

  7. The Handicapped Can Dance Too!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Marcia L.

    1978-01-01

    A program of dance therapy activities can offer handicapped individuals positive experiences in such areas as body image, spatial awareness, self-confidence, hand-eye/foot-eye coordination, visual focusing, balance and social relations. (Author/MJB)

  8. [The concept of handicap].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamonet, C; Magalhaes, T

    2003-11-01

    The notion of disability appears recently in the medical and medico-legal field. It is the origin of a fundamental discussion about the health, and an ethical debate about human person. Indeed it drives to identify among the health users a particular group: disabled persons for whom the methods used with success in the field of diseases are not convenient. For ethical point of view: it is the identity of the person in a situation of disability, its dignity, its self-esteem and the respect through the regard of others which are in question. The debate was amplified when the project of a classification of handicap, as consequences of diseases, (Wood, WHO) was published, in 1980. Two tendencies were in opposition: one of them is "medicinal", following the opinion of Wood, the second is "anthropological and social", supported by scientific and disabled associations. The first proposition of Wood, after a long discussion, is abandoned. It is replaced by a "Classification of functioning, disability and health", adopted by the Mondail assembly of WHO in May 2002. This device is a compromise between the precedent tendencies. This document is heavy, confusing, imprecise and very difficult to use. We suggest a definition with dimensions, separating clearly the body modifications, the universal functional capacities for a human person and the situations of life. The subjectivity is individualised as a special dimension of assessment.

  9. A Study on the Correlation Dependence of the College Academic Self-handicapping, Achievement Goal and Mental Health%大学生学业自我妨碍与成就目标、心理健康的相关研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔伟

    2014-01-01

    本研究主要检验了大学生学业自我妨碍与成就目标、心理健康的关系,主要意图是考察大学生学业自我妨碍的情况,验证前人学业自我妨碍的研究结论在中国高校背景下是否具有普适性。研究采用问卷调查法,以大学生作为被试,探求自我妨碍与成就目标、心理健康的关系。结果表明:大学生学业自我妨碍与回避型的成绩目标有显著正相关,大学生学业自我妨碍行为与掌握型的成绩目标有显著的负相关,而大学生学业自我妨碍行为与趋近型的成绩目标不存在显著相关;而心理健康状况中的除了敌对维度没有发现显著相关外,其他九项均与自我妨碍有显著相关。%This research mainly focused on the correlation dependence of the college academic self-handicapping and the achievement goal, the psychologically health. This research is going to realize the situation of college students academic self-handicapping, to testify whether this conclusion of academic self-handicapping from foreign countries could get universe meaning among different kinds of culture. The research has got 128 college students for subjects by the method of scale, which is designed for uncovering the relationship between self-handicapping and goal orientation and the psychologically health. The result has demonstrated that:The self-handicapping and the evasion achieving-goal are related, with grasp achie-vement goal the inverse correlation while the correlation between self-handicapping and the approaching achievement goal is not significant. When it comes to the correlation between self-handicapping and the psychologically health, it is significant in 9 items of SCL-90 except the factor hostility.

  10. A Family Oriented Enrichment Program for Handicapped Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuno, Setsu; O'Reilly, Kitty

    This report describes a program for handicapped infants which emphasizes early treatment as a prime means of preventing more serious physical and behavioral problems later in life. Also, the program focuses on the entire family of the developmentally disabled, including infant, parents, and siblings. Program objectives include (1) increased…

  11. Uses of the HOME Inventory for Families with Handicapped Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Robert H.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The usefulness and validity of the 3 versions (Infant-Toddler, Early Childhood, and Middle Childhood) of the HOME Inventory were studied with 261 children with cognitive, hearing, vision, or orthopedic handicaps. The Inventory in its original form and a modified form was subjected to analysis of reliability, construct validity, and criterion…

  12. Social acceptance of handicapped people in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jargalmaa Bayarsaikhan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The social integration of people with handicaps is an important social task. Their equal participation in social life cannot only be reached by law, but the acceptance of the social environment is an essential basic condition. Experiences, attitudes and behaviours of non-handicapped people towards people with handicaps are very important. The situation of people with handicaps has been confronted with a lack of understanding prejudices and refusal up to today. This study investigates how the mongolian citizens think about handicapped people. The adults were asked about subjects like social acceptance, refusal or even depreciation of people with handicaps.

  13. Handicap og ligebehandling i praksis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonfils, Inge Storgaard; Bengtsson, Steen; Olsen, Leif

    Handicap er et af de områder, hvor den sociale indsats har været stigende gennem mange år. Flere forskellige professionsgrupper, som socialrådgivere, pædagoger, ergoterapeuter og fysioterapeuter arbejder med området, og derfor er der behov for, at de fagprofessionelle – både igennem deres...... uddannelsesforløb og efterfølgende – opnår viden om emnet handicap og ligebehandling. Med denne antologi sætter vi fokus på ligebehandling. Undersøgelser har vist, at kun få af de offentligt ansatte, der har ansvaret for indsatsen i forhold til handicap, har viden om dansk handicappolitik og dens principper....

  14. Museums and Handicapped Students: Guidelines for Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. National Air And Space Museum.

    Presented are guidelines drawn from surveys of programs and services provided for handicapped persons in U.S. museums. An initial section which reviews literature on museum programs for handicapped visitors focuses on problems and misconceptions regarding blind, deaf, physically handicapped, learning disabled and emotionally disturbed, and…

  15. Protect Rights and Interests of the Handicapped

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG SHUIXIA; MENG BAOLIN

    2007-01-01

    @@ Yuncheng is a city in the southwestern part of North China's Shanxi Province. It has a handicapped population of 223,000 or 4.5% of the total population of 4.985 million. The city has made big progress in protecting the rights and interests of handicapped people since the handicapped associations were set up at the city and county levels.

  16. Innovative Methods for Serving Rural Handicapped Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Glenn; Burnham, Julia

    1985-01-01

    Some innovative methods of serving the rural handicapped population are described: volunteers; telecommunications for home instruction; SPECIALNET electronic mail; and resources for parents. Three cases involving Utah's Cooperative Extension Project for the Handicapped summarize services for handicapped and Indian students. (GDC)

  17. Ouderlijke mediasocialisatie : hulpbron of handicap?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notten, Natascha; kraaykamp, Gerbert; Ultee, Wout

    2008-01-01

    Summary Media socialization: help or handicap? A study of the long term effects of parental media socialization on children’s educational success In this article we analyzed the long term effects of parental media socialization on educational success. We employed information on 7838 individuals from

  18. Assessment Strategies for the Handicapped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidubaldi, John; And Others

    1979-01-01

    This review of assessment strategies for handicapped populations is intended to provide counselors with assessment perspectives as well as specific suggestions. The review emphasizes the counselor's role as a member of a diagnostic team and the need to consider a variety of information in formation of meaningful intervention strategies. (Author)

  19. The education of physically handicapped children in normal schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, C; Garvey, C; Byrne, M M

    1975-01-01

    This paper is based on our experience in the Central Remedial Clinic over a number of years that physically handicapped children do not in general do well in ordinary schools. An attempt is made to delineate some of the problems that may confront a handicapped child of generally average intelligence who attends a normal school. These problems are associated with the following conditions: specific learning difficulties, emotional problems, poor school attendance, large classes, limitations in ordinary teacher training and lack of remedial teachers and other special staff. The need for early and continued psychological and educational assessments is emphasized, and it is suggested that most young physically handicapped children of average intelligence would benefit from starting in a special assessment unit, to ensure as far as possible, correct school placement. This view is not currently held by a number of educational authorities who generally advise that physically handicapped children should go to ordinary schools if possible. We feel that this advice is not always in the best interests of the child. There is need for continuing friendly and informal communications between parents and members of the special school team.

  20. 28 CFR 41.32 - Qualified handicapped person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Qualified handicapped person. 41.32..., NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS Standards for Determining Who Are Handicapped Persons § 41.32 Qualified handicapped person. Qualified handicapped person means: (a) With...

  1. Minimum Competency Testing and the Handicapped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildemuth, Barbara M.

    This brief overview of minimum competency testing and disabled high school students discusses: the inclusion or exclusion of handicapped students in minimum competency testing programs; approaches to accommodating the individual needs of handicapped students; and legal issues. Surveys of states that have mandated minimum competency tests indicate…

  2. Euthanasia of Severely Handicapped Infants: Ethical Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Libby

    Ethical decisions are involved in life and death decisions for severely handicapped infants. Although it has become common practice for physicians not to treat severely handicapped infants, the ethical considerations involved in euthanasia are complex. A review of the literature reveals that concerns center around the quality of life of the…

  3. Educating the Handicapped in Biomedical Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbrier, Gilbert N.

    1974-01-01

    Handicapped community college students recruited for a one-year pilot career program (Biomedical Equipment Technology) proved that when architectual barriers are removed, educational and career fulfillment become possible. Innovations introduced to assist handicapped students now benifit every college student; new programs for paraplegics and the…

  4. The Handicapped Student: Problems and Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, J. Roger; Dudley, David H.

    1980-01-01

    Handicapped college students view the attitudes of the nonhandicapped as the major barrier facing them. Other concerns include finding a rewarding career, architectual barriers and financial need. Faculty and students need to be aware of both the problems and contributions of the handicapped. (JAC)

  5. Speech Handicapped - Research: Exceptional Child Bibliography Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council for Exceptional Children, Reston, VA. Information Center on Exceptional Children.

    The bibliography, which is one of a series of over 50 similar selected bibliographies dealing with handicapped and gifted children, contains 100 references selected from Exceptional Child Education Abstracts pertaining to research with speech handicapped children. Bibliographic data, availability information, indexing and retrieval terms, and…

  6. Aurally Handicapped - Programs: Exceptional Child Bibliography Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council for Exceptional Children, Reston, VA. Information Center on Exceptional Children.

    The bibliography, one in a series of over 50 similar listings related to handicapped and gifted children, contains 89 references selected from Exceptional Child Education Abstracts dealing with programs for the aurally handicapped. Bibliographic data, availability information, indexing and retrieval descriptors, and abstracts are given for all…

  7. Handicap i beskæftigelsesindsatsen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Lena; Amby, Finn

    2016-01-01

    Ledige med handicap er omfattet af de samme krav og tilbudsmuligheder som andre ledige. Først efter længere tids offentlig forsørgelse, kan særlige indsatser komme på tale. Det er overladt til de kommunale jobcentre, hvilken rolle handicap skal spille i beskæftigelsesindsatsen. Praksis på området...

  8. Teaching the Physically Handicapped to Swim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, William

    First principles of teaching swimming to the handicapped are reviewed; attention is given to children with cerebral palsy or muscular dystrophy, physical handicaps, blindness, and deafness. Swimming strokes, suggested exercises, group teaching, and a typical sequence of lessons and exercises are considered. Some case histories and a plan for a…

  9. Evaluating the non-English Speaking Handicapped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fineman, Carol A.; Ross, Amparo

    The project titled "Evaluating the non-English Speaking Handicapped" was established to research existing evaluation instruments in language other than English, validate the tests as well as additional translations where needed, and develop a procedural manual for distribution to utilize in evaluating non-English speaking handicapped students. The…

  10. Euthanasia of Severely Handicapped Infants: Ethical Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Libby

    Ethical decisions are involved in life and death decisions for severely handicapped infants. Although it has become common practice for physicians not to treat severely handicapped infants, the ethical considerations involved in euthanasia are complex. A review of the literature reveals that concerns center around the quality of life of the…

  11. 45 CFR 1151.12 - Qualified handicapped person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Qualified handicapped person. 1151.12 Section 1151... AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP Standards for Determining Who Are Handicapped Persons § 1151.12 Qualified handicapped person....

  12. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 609 - Elderly and Handicapped

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Elderly and Handicapped A Appendix A to Part 609..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRANSPORTATION FOR ELDERLY AND HANDICAPPED PERSONS Pt. 609, App. A Appendix A to Part 609—Elderly and Handicapped The definitions of the term elderly and handicapped as applied...

  13. The Gifted-Visually Handicapped Child: A Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shang-Ping; Sikka, Anjoo

    This literature review examines and integrates research addressing visual handicap and giftedness and provides suggestions for the identification and education of gifted students with visual handicaps. The review addresses definitions of visual handicap and giftedness, characteristics of the gifted visually handicapped child, the problem of…

  14. The Holland Theory: Implications for the Handicapped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Rhoda; Maddux, Cleborne D.

    1985-01-01

    The authors review John Holland's theory that career choice reflects individual personality and behavioral styles, as well as related research findings with nonhandicapped populations. They discuss implications of the theory's appropriateness for the handicapped. (SK)

  15. Preferential Education Policies for the Handicapped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Warren T.

    1981-01-01

    The author examines the issue of preferential education for the handicapped from the perspectives of ethics, civil rights, and theories of justice. This article is part of a theme issue on disabled persons. (SJL)

  16. Designing Instructional Activities for Young Handicapped Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, Louise A.; Dell, Amy Glasser

    1981-01-01

    Proposed are several new directions that encourage the variety and flexibility of haphazard teaching and the precision of one objective-one activity teaching in the design of activities for handicapped preschoolers. Journal availability: see EC 133 846. (Author)

  17. Should Museums Serve the Visually Handicapped?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, Dove

    1975-01-01

    The National Museum of Natural History of the Smithsonian Institution undertook a research project to determine what could be done to enable visually handicapped persons to benefit from the museum's resources. (Author)

  18. The Representation of the Handicapped in Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogamo, Hideo

    The paper summarizes results from an analysis of 276 Japanese literary works which include the handicapped. Works dealing with the blind and haiku written by a poet with cerebral palsy are described. (CL)

  19. Consumer Education for the Mentally Handicapped

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alperstein, Neil M.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses community placement of mentally handicapped people and remedial procedures for encouraging independent decision making and behavior. Intertwines this behavior change with an alternative method of consumer education. (Author/RK)

  20. The handicap process favors exaggerated, rather than reduced, sexual ornaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazzyman, Samuel J; Iwasa, Yoh; Pomiankowski, Andrew

    2014-09-01

    Why are traits that function as secondary sexual ornaments generally exaggerated in size compared to the naturally selected optimum, and not reduced? Because they deviate from the naturally selected optimum, traits that are reduced in size will handicap their bearer, and could thus provide an honest signal of quality to a potential mate. Thus if secondary sexual ornaments evolve via the handicap process, current theory suggests that reduced ornamentation should be as frequent as exaggerated ornamentation, but this is not the case. To try to explain this discrepancy, we analyze a simple model of the handicap process. Our analysis shows that asymmetries in costs of preference or ornament with regard to exaggeration and reduction cannot fully explain the imbalance. Rather, the bias toward exaggeration can be best explained if either the signaling efficacy or the condition dependence of a trait increases with size. Under these circumstances, evolution always leads to more extreme exaggeration than reduction: although the two should occur just as frequently, exaggerated secondary sexual ornaments are likely to be further removed from the naturally selected optimum than reduced ornaments.

  1. Early-Emerging Nicotine Dependence Has Lasting and Time-Varying Effects on Adolescent Smoking Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selya, Arielle S; Dierker, Lisa; Rose, Jennifer S; Hedeker, Donald; Mermelstein, Robin J

    2016-08-01

    Novice and light adolescent smokers can develop symptoms of nicotine dependence, which predicts smoking behavior several years into the future. However, little is known about how the association between these early - emerging symptoms and later smoker behaviors may change across time from early adolescence into young adulthood. Data were drawn from a 7-year longitudinal study of experimental (dependence (assessed at age 15 ± 2 years) and future smoking frequency through age 24, after controlling for concurrent smoking heaviness. Baseline smoking status, race, and sex were examined as potential moderators of this relationship. Nicotine dependence symptoms assessed at approximately age 15 significantly predicted smoking frequency through age 24, over and above concurrent smoking heaviness, though it showed declining trends at older ages. Predictive validity was weaker among experimenters at young ages (dependence was a stronger predictor of smoking frequency for white smokers around baseline (ages 14.5-16), relative to nonwhite smokers. Nicotine dependence assessed in mid-adolescence predicts smoking frequency well into early adulthood, over and above concurrent smoking heaviness, especially among novice smokers and nonwhite smokers. Early-emerging nicotine dependence is a promising marker for screening and interventions aimed at preventing smoking progression.

  2. Voice handicap index in Swedish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, Ann-Christine; Dotevall, Hans

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate a Swedish version of the voice handicap index questionnaire (Sw-VHI). A total of 57 adult, dysphonic patients and 15 healthy controls completed the Sw-VHI and rated the degree of vocal fatigue and hoarseness on visual analogue scales. A perceptual voice evaluation was also performed. Test-retest reliability was analyzed in 38 subjects without voice complaints. Sw-VHI distinguished between dysphonic subjects and controls (P 0.84) and test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient >0.75) were good. Only moderate or weak correlations were found between Sw-VHI and the subjective and perceptual voice ratings. The data indicate that a difference above 13 points for the total Sw-VHI score and above 6 points for the Sw-VHI subscales is significant for an individual when comparing two different occasions. In conclusion, the Sw-VHI appears to be a robust instrument for assessment of the psycho-social impact of a voice disorder. However, Sw-VHI seems to, at least partly, capture different aspects of voice function to the subjective voice ratings and the perceptual voice evaluation.

  3. Respiratory function in handicapped children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, C; Fujita, M; Umemoto, H; Taneda, M; Sanae, N; Tazaki, T

    1990-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate respiratory function of severely handicapped children. Tidal volumes and respiratory rates were determined in a total of 130 children with different clinical motor abilities. Tidal volume of non-sitters (n = 39) was significantly lower than ambulators (n = 49) or sitters (n = 42) (p less than 0.01). There was no difference in respiratory rate among the three groups. Among 45 children whose vital capacity could be determined, the tidal volumes showed a significant correlation with vital capacity (r = 0.56, p less than 0.001). Among four children whose tidal volume was less than 200 ml and respiratory rate was more than 30 cpm, blood gas analysis revealed hypoxia in three of them. The tidal volumes, therefore, would be a useful guide to estimate respiratory functions. It was concluded that the respiratory function in a non-sitter with reduced tidal volume is impaired, and that preventive measures must be taken against respiratory infection.

  4. Learning Handicapped and Nonlearning Handicapped Female Juvenile Offenders: Educational and Criminal Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fejes-Mendoza, Kathy E.; Rutherford, Robert B., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Interviews with 30 female juvenile offenders were conducted to (1) describe their educational and criminal backgrounds and (2) describe a subgroup of learning handicapped juvenile female offenders. Nearly one third had received special education services prior to their incarceration with additional offenders diagnosed as handicapped upon entry…

  5. Early surgical outcomes of coronary artery bypass grafting in patients with dialysis-dependent renal failure: Effects of early hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Yuan Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coronary artery disease occurs frequently and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic renal failure. Because the number of patients requiring dialysis for end-stage renal disease (ESRD has increased, the number of patients in this population who require coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG has increased. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of early hemodialysis (HD on the early surgical outcomes of ESRD patients undergoing CABG. Materials and Methods: Fifty-nine dialysis-dependent patients who underwent isolated CABG with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB were enrolled in this study. These patients were divided into two groups based on the timing of the first postoperation HD session. In the early HD group, HD was performed within 6 h postoperation; in the scheduled HD group, HD was performed >6 h postoperation. The preoperative characteristics, operative variables, and postoperative outcomes were retrospectively analyzed. Results: The time to first HD after CABG was 2.43 ± 1.58 h in the early HD group and 20.68 ± 6.98 h in the scheduled HD group (P < 0.001. There were no significant differences in the operative variables, namely duration of operation, CPB time, and aortic cross-clamp time, between the two groups. The incidence of postoperative pneumonia was higher in the scheduled HD group (31.8% than in the early HD group (2.7%. There was a trend of decreased incidence of postoperative pneumonia in the early HD group with marginal significance from the univariate analysis. The intensive care unit and hospital stay duration of both groups were similar. Nine patients died in the hospital, yielding an overall 30-day mortality of 8.47%. Conclusion: In dialysis-dependent patients who underwent CABG, the short-term outcomes and surgical mortality were acceptable. Dialysis-dependent renal failure should not be considered a contraindication for CABG. Early HD in the postoperative period demonstrated

  6. Vocal effort and voice handicap among teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Márcio Cardoso; dos Reis, Eduardo José Farias Borges; Carvalho, Fernando Martins; Porto, Lauro Antonio; Araújo, Tânia Maria

    2012-11-01

    The relationship between voice handicap and professional vocal effort was investigated among teachers in a cross-sectional study of census nature on 4496 teachers within the public elementary education network in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Voice handicap (the outcome of interest) was evaluated using the Voice Handicap Index 10. The main exposure, the lifetime vocal effort index, was obtained as the product of the number of years working as a teacher multiplied by the mean weekly working hours. The prevalence of voice handicap was 28.8% among teachers with high professional vocal effort and 21.3% among those with acceptable vocal effort, thus yielding a crude prevalence ratio (PR) of 1.36 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.14-1.61). In the final logistic model, the prevalence of voice handicap was statistically associated with the professional vocal effort index (PR=1.47; 95% CI=1.19-1.82), adjusted according to sex, microphone availability in the classroom, excessive noise, pressure from the school management, heartburn, and rhinitis.

  7. T-dependent B-cell activation is signalled by an early increase in potassium influx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, T; Kaplan, J G

    1982-01-01

    (previously demonstrated when B and T lymphocytes were separately stimulated) also occurs when B cells are stimulated through cooperation with mitogen-activated T cells, and is also detectable early in culture. T-dependent activation of B cells is therefore detectable considerably earlier than by conventional...

  8. T-dependent B-cell activation is signalled by an early increase in potassium influx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, T; Kaplan, J G

    1982-01-01

    (previously demonstrated when B and T lymphocytes were separately stimulated) also occurs when B cells are stimulated through cooperation with mitogen-activated T cells, and is also detectable early in culture. T-dependent activation of B cells is therefore detectable considerably earlier than by conventional...

  9. Jordanian teachers' perceptions of voice handicap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, Basem S; Natour, Yaser S; Haj-Tas, Maisa A

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate if Jordanian school teachers perceive their voice as handicapped using the Voice Handicap Index (VHI)-Arab. The effect of teachers' age, gender, years of teaching, class taught, and education level on VHI was examined. A total of 289 teachers and a control group of 100 participants took part in the study. The teachers' group differed significantly from the control group in the physical, emotional, and functional subscales and the total score of the VHI-Arab. There was no significant difference among teachers in any of the three VHI subscales or total regarding gender, age, years of teaching experience, education level, and classes taught. Jordanian teachers have a strong perception of voice handicap. Thus, preventive and treatment vocal programs are strongly advised.

  10. Handicapped Infants and Euthanasia: A Challenge to Our Advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. David

    1985-01-01

    The issue of pediatric euthanasia for handicapped newborns is examined and contrasting viewpoints emphasizing the quality and the sanctity of life are considered. The author asserts that advocacy for handicapped children involves decisions regarding the euthanasia question. (CL)

  11. Handicapped Infants and Euthanasia: A Challenge to Our Advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. David

    1985-01-01

    The issue of pediatric euthanasia for handicapped newborns is examined and contrasting viewpoints emphasizing the quality and the sanctity of life are considered. The author asserts that advocacy for handicapped children involves decisions regarding the euthanasia question. (CL)

  12. Low trait self-control predicts self-handicapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Ahmet; Knee, C Raymond

    2012-02-01

    Past research has shown that self-handicapping stems from uncertainty about one's ability and self-presentational concerns. The present studies suggest that low dispositional self-control is also associated with self-handicapping. In 3 studies (N = 289), the association between self-control and self-handicapping was tested. Self-control was operationalized as trait self-control, whereas self-handicapping was operationalized as trait self-handicapping in Study 1 (N = 160), self-reported self-handicapping in Study 2 (N = 74), and behavioral self-handicapping in Study 3 (N = 55). In all 3 studies, hierarchical regression analyses revealed that low self-control predicts self-handicapping, independent of self-esteem, self-doubt, social desirability, and gender. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Personality © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. An Age and Body Mass Handicap for the Marathon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderburgh, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    An age and body mass handicap has been previously developed and validated for the 5-kilometer (5K) run. The purpose of this study was to develop a similar handicap for the marathon but with a different age adjustment based on deviations from age group world best marathon times within each sex. The resulting handicap allowed finish time comparisons…

  14. 34 CFR 75.610 - Access by the handicapped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Access by the handicapped. 75.610 Section 75.610... by a Grantee? Construction § 75.610 Access by the handicapped. A grantee shall comply with the Federal regulations on access by the handicapped that apply to construction and alteration of...

  15. 38 CFR 21.51 - Determining employment handicap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... handicap. 21.51 Section 21.51 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS.... Chapter 31 Initial and Extended Evaluation § 21.51 Determining employment handicap. For the purposes of § 21.50, an employment handicap will be found to exist only if a CP or VRC determines that...

  16. 38 CFR 21.52 - Determining serious employment handicap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... employment handicap. 21.52 Section 21.52 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... 38 U.S.C. Chapter 31 Initial and Extended Evaluation § 21.52 Determining serious employment handicap. (a) Requirements for determining serious employment handicap. For each individual who is found...

  17. 36 CFR 910.34 - Accommodations for the physically handicapped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... physically handicapped. 910.34 Section 910.34 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE... § 910.34 Accommodations for the physically handicapped. (a) Every development shall incorporate features which will make the development accessible by the physically handicapped. The standards in the...

  18. Time-dependent Early-age Behaviors of Concrete under Restrained Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Xinwei; CAO Lixin; R D Hooton; H Lam; NIU Changren

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the early-age behaviors of concrete under a restrained condition, a set of apparatus was developed. In this way, the tensile creep and other early-age properties can be investigated in depth. By measuring the modulus of elasticity of concrete, synchronous shrinkage of concrete and steel rings and free shrinkage of concrete, the deformations of concrete ring can be quantified respectively. The experimental results show the tensile stress in concrete is time-dependent, and the stress at cracking is much lower than the tensile strength at that age; the tensile creep plays an important role in relaxing the tensile stress and postponing the cracking of concrete.

  19. Handbook for Teaching Emotionally Handicapped Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberman, Al

    The handbook is intended to assist school districts in Arizona establish effective educational programs for emotionally handicapped children. Information on policies for initiation, organization, and operation of programs is provided, as are recommendations for academic programing, use of ancillary personnel, and behavior management techniques.…

  20. Siblings of Handicapped Children: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobato, Debra

    1983-01-01

    Research is critically reviewed and evaluated to determine if the presence of a handicapped child in a family uniquely affects the nonhandicapped siblings and to identify factors mediating the nature and power of those effects. In addition, projects involving sibling therapy, education, and training are described. (Author/CL)

  1. Counseling Handicapped Students: A Cognitive Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Gerald A.

    1989-01-01

    Sees handicapped students as responsive to and appreciative of counseling assistance, noting these students share basic ambitions and dreams of nonhandicapped peers. Recommends school counselors can use cognitive counseling principles in a systematic fashion to help students begin to learn cognitive strategies and rational beliefs resulting in a…

  2. Career Education and the Handicapped Person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Kenneth B.

    The implications of career education are considered for handicapped persons. It is explained that career education consists of all experiences for learning about work; and basic definitions are given for "work", "career", "vocation", "occupation", "leisure" and "education". Work as a basic human need and human right is discussed; and economic,…

  3. Aurally Handicapped - Research: Exceptional Child Bibliography Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council for Exceptional Children, Reston, VA. Information Center on Exceptional Children.

    Eighty-nine references, including research reports, texts, journal articles, and other research-related literature, are included in the bibliography on research concerning aurally handicapped children (both the deaf and the hard of hearing). The bibliography, containing bibliographic data, availability information, indexing and retrieval terms,…

  4. Information Booklet for the Handicapped. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    University of Southern California, Los Angeles. Office of Handicapped Student Services.

    This handbook is prepared by the University of Southern California for its handicapped students. It contains a description of the facilities located on campus, including accessibility of buildings, restrooms, telephones, ramps, and designated parking spaces. Also included is a description of student services available and solutions to problems…

  5. Information Prosthetics for the Handicapped. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papert, Seymour A.

    The paper describes the successful use of the LOGO System (an interactive graphics, computer based learning environment) with 12 severely physically handicapped adolescents with cerebral palsy. Five goals were set forth concerning the opportunity to work with microcomputers in interesting ways, the assessment of the students' spatial competence,…

  6. Employment of Handicapped People in Leisure Occupations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, David M.; Vinton, Dennis A.

    In response to the need for up-to-date information on employment opportunities for handicapped people in the leisure occupations, a national survey was conducted to determine both existing levels of employment and employer practices. The survey was sent to 500 agencies and businesses representing four leisure occupational subclusters: travel,…

  7. Nicotine Dependence in Adolescence and Physical Health Symptoms in Early Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesler, Pamela C; Hu, Mei-Chen; Kandel, Denise B

    2016-05-01

    To examine the prospective associations of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders nicotine dependence (ND) and other individual and parental factors in adolescence on self-reported health symptoms in early adulthood. Multiethnic prospective longitudinal cohort of adolescents from grades 6-10 and a parent (N = 908) from the Chicago Public Schools. Adolescents were interviewed five times at 6-month intervals (Waves 1-5) and once 4.5 years later (Wave 6). Parents were interviewed annually three times (W1, W3, W5). Multivariate regressions estimated prospective associations of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders ND, other individual and familial risk factors in adolescence (mean age 16.6) on physical health symptoms in early adulthood (mean age 21.3), controlling for health symptoms in adolescence. Levels of health symptoms declined from adolescence to early adulthood, except among dependent smokers. Nicotine dependent adolescents reported more health symptoms as young adults than nonsmokers and nondependent smokers, especially if depressed. ND and health symptoms in adolescence were the strongest predictors of health in early adulthood. These two adolescent factors, depression, and the familial factors of parental ND, depression and health conditions, each independently predicted health symptoms in young adulthood. Females reported more symptoms than males. There is continuity of health status over time. ND, depression, and parental factors in adolescence contribute to poor health in early adulthood. The findings highlight not only the role of adolescent behavior, but the importance of the family in the development of young adult health. Reducing smoking, particularly ND, and depression among adolescents and parents will decrease physical health burden. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. More than a mere sequence: predictive processing of wh-dependencies in early bilinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kljajevic Vanja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to determine whether early bilingual Basque-Spanish speakers, who acquired Spanish by the age of 5, comprehend Spanish wh-dependences as effortlessly as native Spanish speakers. Given that Basque and Spanish are structurally different languages, we hypothesized that predictive processing strategies from the first language (L1 would interfere with predictive processing strategies in the second language (L2. More specifically, since Basque overtly marks the semantic role of agent/subject position, whereas Spanish overtly marks the role of patient/object position, we looked at whether the difference in overt marking of semantic roles would affect comprehension of subject vs. object quien “who” and qué “which” direct and embedded questions as well as subject vs. object relative clauses introduced by qué. The main finding of the study is that overall early Basque-Spanish bilinguals needed more time for the comprehension of wh-dependencies in Spanish compared to native Spanish speakers, as indicated by statistically significant group differences in response times in 9 out of 10 conditions. The results of this exploratory study indicate that a difference in overt marking of semantic roles between the two languages affects the ease of processing of Spanish wh-dependencies in early Basque-Spanish bilinguals, interfering with their ability to make native-like predictions in L2.

  9. More than a mere sequence: predictive processing of wh-dependencies in early bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kljajevic, Vanja

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of the present study was to determine whether early bilingual Basque-Spanish speakers, who acquired Spanish by the age of 5, comprehend Spanish wh-dependences as effortlessly as native Spanish speakers. Given that Basque and Spanish are structurally different languages, we hypothesized that predictive processing strategies from the first language (L1) would interfere with predictive processing strategies in the second language (L2). More specifically, since Basque overtly marks the semantic role of agent/subject position, whereas Spanish overtly marks the role of patient/object position, we looked at whether the difference in overt marking of semantic roles would affect comprehension of subject vs. object quien “who” and qué “which” direct and embedded questions as well as subject vs. object relative clauses introduced by qué. The main finding of the study is that overall early Basque-Spanish bilinguals needed more time for the comprehension of wh-dependencies in Spanish compared to native Spanish speakers, as indicated by statistically significant group differences in response times in 9 out of 10 conditions. The results of this exploratory study indicate that a difference in overt marking of semantic roles between the two languages affects the ease of processing of Spanish wh-dependencies in early Basque-Spanish bilinguals, interfering with their ability to make native-like predictions in L2. PMID:28123832

  10. Early emotional trauma in alcohol-dependent men: prevalence, associations and predictive value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Fortunata Donadon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have indicated that early emotional traumas (EET are highly prevalent in alcohol-dependent individuals, and that these traumas work as risk factors for the development of this disorder. Objective The aim of the current study is to evaluate the EET associations and predictive value regarding active alcohol dependence among male individuals from a developing country. Methods The sample consisted of two groups. The first was composed by adult male individuals diagnosed as alcohol dependents (AG, N = 110, and the second with no alcohol abuse and/or dependence diagnosis (CG, N = 110. Both groups were evaluated using Structured Clinical Interview based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders; Early Emotional Trauma Inventory; and a sociodemographic questionnaire. Results All trauma subtypes (general, physical, emotional and sexual were more prevalent among AG than CG. However, only traumas categorized as general and emotional worked as risk factor for alcoholism development and they increased the chances to develop this disorder by 1.45 and 1.23 times, respectively. Discussion EETs are important factors that should be taken into account in interventions that aim to prevent, minimize and/or treat this clinical condition and its impact and/or severity, especially in countries such as Brazil.

  11. Early continuous venovenous hemodialysis in dialysis-dependent patients after cardiac surgery: safety and efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakasuji, Masato; Nishi, Shinichi; Nakasuji, Kae; Hamaoka, Naoya; Ikeshita, Kazutoshi; Asada, Akira

    2007-06-01

    The present study assessed the safety and efficacy of continuous venovenous hemodialysis (CVVHD) early after cardiac surgery. Retrospective database and medical record review. University teaching hospital. Forty-five dialysis-dependent patients who underwent cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. CVVHD was begun postoperatively after confirmation of hemostasis, irrespective of circulatory status. In the last 5 patients, the ratio of extravascular lung water (EVLW) to intrathoracic blood volume (ITBV) was measured using a single-indicator thermodilution catheter and compared with patients of normal renal function undergoing cardiac surgery. CVVHD was started at 4 hours after ICU admission. The maximum decrease in blood pressure within 60 minutes after initiation of CVVHD was 11 +/- 9 mmHg in the unstable hemodynamics group (defined as patients who required continuous intravenous adrenaline or intra-aortic balloon pump on admission to the ICU [n = 15]) and 7 +/- 8 mmHg in the stable hemodynamics group (n = 30, not significant). Circulatory status and oxygenation improved significantly 12 hours after CVVHD initiation in the unstable hemodynamics group. Blood volume from the chest tube did not increase after CVVHD. Early mortality (2.2%) was lower than that reported previously. The EVLW/ITBV ratio after ICU admission in dialysis-dependent patients was significantly higher than in patients with normal renal function. Early CVVHD after cardiac surgery in dialysis-dependent patients was safe and effective. There was no associated increased postoperative bleeding or hemodynamic instability. Fluid removal improved respiratory status, particularly in patients requiring circulatory assistance, and overall early morality rates were lower that those previously published.

  12. Ethics of professional relations to functionally handicapped users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Griljc

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic purpose of 1ibrarianship code is to form and build librarian personality who can make possible the same opportunity to acquiring knowledge for all users, irrespective of their different demands or special needs.When we discuss the importance of building librarian personality the demanding work with users we confront the problem of ethical treatment very often. Ethics advises only general rules which are rarely simple and they are frequently opposite to each other.The process of reacting between the librarian and the user - as with general information needs as with special functional needs - is also dependent on librarian's professional relation which is formed on important elements such as professional qualification,experiences, creativeness and ethics.We are also interested in question where is the border between ethical and non - ethical action in key situations when the 1ibrarian meets functionally handicapped user. Opportunities for non - ethical reaction of professional workers are much more possible if the library's premises and the furniture don't offer suitable conditions for adaptable communication with the handicapped.But on the other side the 1ibrarian has just because of the bad arhitectural conditions better occasion to introduce himself as one of the best ethically formed personalies compared with other professions. With adaptable communication, creative work and with professional relation in offering help to disabled people, the librarian can contribute to more quality service and even more - he/she becomes an example to other professions - also in ethical sense.

  13. Prediction and set-dependent scaling of early postural responses in cerebellar patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmann, D; Horak, F B

    1997-02-01

    We reported previously that patients with cerebellar deficits were unable to scale the magnitude of their early automatic postural responses to the predicted amplitudes of surface translations based on central set from prior experience. The present study investigated whether this deficit in set-dependent amplitude scaling was based predominantly on the cerebellar patient's disability (i) to predict perturbation amplitudes on the basis of prior experience, (ii) to scale the gain or magnitude of upcoming postural responses or (iii) to habituate postural responses. The increase in size of the early postural response when a larger than actual platform amplitude was expected and decrease when a smaller one was expected was defined as a measure of set-dependent amplitude prediction. The suppression of the postural response when the same platform velocity was repeated was used as a measure of habituation. The correlation between the size of early postural responses and platform amplitudes when presented serially, but not randomly, tested the ability to scale the gain of postural responses based on prior experience. Results show that although cerebellar patients could predict perturbation amplitudes based on prior experience, they could not use this prediction to modify precisely the gain of responses. The ability to habituate the magnitude of postural responses was not affected by cerebellar lesions. Thus, the cerebellum might not be critical for predicting upcoming events or for habituating to repeated postural stimuli, although it is important for accurate tuning of response gain based on prediction.

  14. Influence of complaints and singing style in singers voice handicap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreti, Felipe; Ávila, Maria Emília Barros de; Rocha, Clara; Borrego, Maria Cristina de Menezes; Oliveira, Gisele; Behlau, Mara

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to verify whether the difference of singing styles and the presence of vocal complaints influence the perception of voice handicap of singers. One hundred eighteen singing voice handicap self-assessment protocols were selected: 17 popular singers with vocal complaints, 42 popular singers without complaints, 17 classic singers with complaints, and 42 classic singers without complaints. The groups were similar regarding age, gender and voice types. Both protocols used--Modern Singing Handicap Index (MSHI) and Classical Singing Handicap Index (CSHI)--have specific questions to their respective singing styles, and consist of 30 items equally divided into three subscales: disability (functional domain), handicap (emotional domain) and impairment (organic domain), answered according to the frequency of occurrence. Each subscale has a maximum of 40 points, and the total score is 120 points. The higher the score, the higher the singing voice handicap perceived. For statistical analysis, we used the ANOVA test, with 5% of significance. Classical and popular singers referred higher impairment, followed by disability and handicap. However, the degree of this perception varied according to the singing style and the presence of vocal complaints. The classical singers with vocal complaints showed higher voice handicap than popular singers with vocal complaints, while the classic singers without complaints reported lower handicap than popular singers without complaints. This evidences that classical singers have higher perception of their own voice, and that vocal disturbances in this group may cause greater voice handicap when compared to popular singers.

  15. Differences in Early Maladaptive Schemas in a Sample of Alcohol and Opioid Dependent Women: Do Schemas Vary Across Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Stuart, Gregory L.; Anderson, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that there may be differences between individuals diagnosed with alcohol dependence and individuals diagnosed with opioid dependence on co-morbid mental health problems (e.g., personality disorders, mood disorders, etc.). The current study examined whether there were differences in early maladaptive schemas, which are theorized to underlie mental health problems, among women diagnosed with alcohol dependence or opioid dependence who were seeking treatment for their substance use (N = 420). Results showed that opioid dependent women scored higher on 2 of the 18 early maladaptive schemas, particularly the schemas of dependence and punitiveness. Overall, these findings suggest that early maladaptive schemas may be largely consistent across women diagnosed with alcohol or opioid dependence. Implications of these findings for future research and treatment are discussed. PMID:23494129

  16. Gender Differences in Early Maladaptive Schemas in a Treatment-Seeking Sample of Alcohol-Dependent Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Anderson, Scott E.; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined early maladaptive schemas among alcohol-dependent men and women and sought to determine whether men and women differed in their early maladaptive schemas. Using preexisting patient records of adults diagnosed with alcohol dependence from a residential treatment center in the Southeastern United States, from 2005 to 2010 (N = 854), results showed that women scored significantly higher than men on 14 of the 18 early maladaptive schemas assessed. Both women and men endorsed having a number of early maladaptive schemas, with four schemas being particularly prevalent across gender. Study limitations are noted and implications of these findings for treatment and future research are discussed. PMID:22060801

  17. Examining the relationship between authenticity and self-handicapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Ahmet; Akin, Umran

    2014-12-01

    Self-handicapping includes strategies of externalization in which people excuse failure and internalize success, but which also prevents them from behaving in an authentic way. The goal was to investigate the relation of authenticity with self-handicapping. The study was conducted with 366 university students (176 men, 190 women; M age = 20.2 yr.). Participants completed the Turkish version of the Authenticity Scale and the Self-handicapping Scale. Self-handicapping was correlated positively with two factors of authenticity, accepting external influence and self-alienation, and negatively with the authentic living factor. A multiple regression analysis indicated that self-handicapping was predicted positively by self-alienation and accepting external influence and negatively by authentic living, accounting for 21% of the variance collectively. These results demonstrated the negative association of authenticity with self-handicapping.

  18. Age- and sex-dependent effects of early life stress on hippocampal neurogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manila eLoi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Early life stress is a well-documented risk factor for the development of psychopathology in genetically predisposed individuals. As it is hard to study how early life stress impacts human brain structure and function, various animal models have been developed to address this issue. The models discussed here reveal that perinatal stress in rodents exerts lasting effects on the stress system as well as on the structure and function of the brain. One of the structural parameters strongly affected by perinatal stress is adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Based on compiled literature data, we report that postnatal stress slightly enhances neurogenesis until the onset of puberty in male rats; when animals reach adulthood, neurogenesis is reduced as a consequence of perinatal stress. By contrast, female rats showed a prominent reduction in neurogenesis prior to the onset of puberty, but this effect subsides when animals reach young adulthood. We further present preliminary data that transient treatment with a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist can normalize cell proliferation in maternally deprived female rats, while the compound had no effect in non-deprived rats. Taken together, the data show that neurogenesis is affected by early life stress in an age-and sex-dependent manner and that normalization may be possible during critical stages of brain development.

  19. State-dependent modulation of functional connectivity in early blind individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelland, Maxime; Orban, Pierre; Dansereau, Christian; Lepore, Franco; Bellec, Pierre; Collignon, Olivier

    2017-02-15

    Resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) studies have provided strong evidences that visual deprivation influences the brain's functional architecture. In particular, reduced RSFC coupling between occipital (visual) and temporal (auditory) regions has been reliably observed in early blind individuals (EB) at rest. In contrast, task-dependent activation studies have repeatedly demonstrated enhanced co-activation and connectivity of occipital and temporal regions during auditory processing in EB. To investigate this apparent discrepancy, the functional coupling between temporal and occipital networks at rest was directly compared to that of an auditory task in both EB and sighted controls (SC). Functional brain clusters shared across groups and cognitive states (rest and auditory task) were defined. In EBs, we observed higher occipito-temporal correlations in activity during the task than at rest. The reverse pattern was observed in SC. We also observed higher temporal variability of occipito-temporal RSFC in EB suggesting that occipital regions in this population may play the role of a multiple demand system. Our study reveals how the connectivity profile of sighted and early blind people is differentially influenced by their cognitive state, bridging the gap between previous task-dependent and RSFC studies. Our results also highlight how inferring group-differences in functional brain architecture solely based on resting-state acquisition has to be considered with caution.

  20. Density-dependent coral recruitment displays divergent responses during distinct early life-history stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doropoulos, Christopher; Evensen, Nicolas R; Gómez-Lemos, Luis A; Babcock, Russell C

    2017-05-01

    Population growth involves demographic bottlenecks that regulate recruitment success during various early life-history stages. The success of each early life-history stage can vary in response to population density, interacting with intrinsic (e.g. behavioural) and environmental (e.g. competition, predation) factors. Here, we used the common reef-building coral Acropora millepora to investigate how density-dependence influences larval survival and settlement in laboratory experiments that isolated intrinsic effects, and post-settlement survival in a field experiment that examined interactions with environmental factors. Larval survival was exceptionally high (greater than 80%) and density-independent from 2.5 to 12 days following spawning. By contrast, there was a weak positive effect of larval density on settlement, driven by gregarious behaviour at the highest density. When larval supply was saturated, settlement was three times higher in crevices compared with exposed microhabitats, but a negative relationship between settler density and post-settlement survival in crevices and density-independent survival on exposed surfaces resulted in similar recruit densities just one month following settlement. Moreover, a negative relationship was found between turf algae and settler survival in crevices, whereas gregarious settlement improved settler survival on exposed surfaces. Overall, our findings reveal divergent responses by coral larvae and newly settled recruits to density-dependent regulation, mediated by intrinsic and environmental interactions.

  1. Early maternal deprivation in rats induces gender-dependent effects on developing hippocampal and cerebellar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorente, Ricardo; Gallardo, Meritxell López; Berzal, Alvaro Llorente; Prada, Carmen; Garcia-Segura, Luis Miguel; Viveros, María-Paz

    2009-05-01

    Adult animals submitted to a single prolonged episode of maternal deprivation [24h, postnatal day 9-10] show behavioral alterations that resemble specific symptoms of schizophrenia. According to the neurodevelopmental theory, these behavioral deficits might be mediated by detrimental neurodevelopmental processes that might be associated, at least partially, with stress-induced corticosterone responses. In order to address this hypothesis, we have focused on the hippocampus and cerebellar cortex, two brain regions that show high density of glucocorticoid receptors, and analyzed possible neuronal and glial alterations by immunohistochemical techniques. To evaluate the presence of degenerated neurons we used Fluoro-Jade-C (FJ-C) staining and for the study of astrocytes we employed glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Within control animals, females showed significantly more GFAP positive cells than males and a trend towards more FJ-C positive cells. Maternal deprivation induced neuronal degeneration and astroglial changes in the hippocampus and cerebellar cortex of neonatal rats that, in general, were more marked in males. This differential effect may be attributable to a greater vulnerability of males to this kind of early environmental insult and/or to sex-dependent differences in the onset and/or progression of the effects. The present experimental procedure may be instrumental in elucidating sex-dependent mechanisms of neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorders with a basis in early environmental insults.

  2. Major depressive disorder, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempt in twins discordant for cannabis dependence and early-onset cannabis use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynskey, Michael T; Glowinski, Anne L; Todorov, Alexandre A; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Madden, Pamela A F; Nelson, Elliot C; Statham, Dixie J; Martin, Nicholas G; Heath, Andrew C

    2004-10-01

    Previous research has reported both a moderate degree of comorbidity between cannabis dependence and major depressive disorder (MDD) and that early-onset cannabis use is associated with increased risks for MDD. To examine whether associations between both lifetime cannabis dependence and early cannabis use and measures of MDD, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempt persist after controlling for genetic and/or shared environmental influences. Cross-sectional survey of twin pairs discordant for lifetime cannabis dependence and those discordant for early cannabis use. General population sample of twins (median age, 30 years). Two hundred seventy-seven same-sex twin pairs discordant for cannabis dependence and 311 pairs discordant for early-onset cannabis use (before age 17 years). Self-report measures of DSM-IV-defined lifetime MDD, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempt. Individuals who were cannabis dependent had odds of suicidal ideation and suicide attempt that were 2.5 to 2.9 times higher than those of their non-cannabis-dependent co-twin. Additionally, cannabis dependence was associated with elevated risks of MDD in dizygotic but not in monozygotic twins. Those who initiated cannabis use before age 17 years had elevated rates of subsequent suicide attempt (odds ratio, 3.5 [95% confidence interval, 1.4-8.6]) but not of MDD or suicidal ideation. Early MDD and suicidal ideation were significantly associated with subsequent risks of cannabis dependence in discordant dizygotic pairs but not in discordant monozygotic pairs. Comorbidity between cannabis dependence and MDD likely arises through shared genetic and environmental vulnerabilities predisposing to both outcomes. In contrast, associations between cannabis dependence and suicidal behaviors cannot be entirely explained by common predisposing genetic and/or shared environmental predispositions. Previously reported associations between early-onset cannabis use and subsequent MDD likely reflect shared genetic and

  3. Adolescent Deviant Peer Clustering as an Amplifying Mechanism Underlying the Progression from Early Substance Use to Late Adolescent Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ryzin, Mark J.; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Early substance use co-occurs with youths' self-organization into deviant peer groups in which substance use is central to social interaction. We hypothesized that the social dynamics of deviant peer groups amplify the risk of progressing from early use to later dependence, and that this influence occurs over and above escalations…

  4. Distinct regulation of activity-dependent transcription of immediate early genes in cultured rat cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuchi, Mamoru; Sanabe, Tomofumi; Watanabe, Toshifumi; Kubota, Takane; Tabuchi, Akiko; Tsuda, Masaaki

    2017-08-26

    The activity-regulated expression of immediate early genes (IEGs) contributes to long-lasting neuronal functions underlying long-term memory. However, their response properties following neuronal activity are unique and remain poorly understood. To address this knowledge gap, here we further investigated the response properties of two representative IEGs, c-fos and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf). Treatment of cultured cortical cells with KCl produces a depolarization process that results in the increase of intracellular calcium concentration in a KCl concentration-dependent manner. Consistent with this increase, c-fos expression was induced in a KCl concentration-dependent manner. In contrast, however, Bdnf expression was optimally activated by both 25 and 50 mM concentration of KCl. Similar results were observed when the cells were treated with okadaic acid, which inhibits protein phosphatases and elicits the hyper-phosphorylation of signaling molecules. Thus, Bdnf expression is strictly regulated by a neuronal activity threshold in an all or nothing manner, whereas c-fos expression is activated in a neuronal activity-dependent manner. Our findings also suggest that these differential responses might be due to the presence or absence of a TATA box. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Early Maladaptive Schemas of an Opioid Dependent Sample of Treatment Seeking Young Adults: A Descriptive Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Stuart, Gregory L.; Anderson, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Opioid dependence is an increasingly prevalent problem throughout the world, particularly for young adults (e.g., ages 17–25). Opioid dependence is associated with a wealth of negative consequences and is often a chronic, relapsing condition. Research on factors that may contribute to the etiology of opioid dependence could result in improved treatment outcomes. Using pre-existing patient records, the current study examined the early maladaptive schemas among young adult opioid dependent residential treatment patients (N = 169), as it is theorized that early maladaptive schemas may underlie or maintain substance use. Results showed that all 18 early maladaptive schemas were endorsed at various levels among male and female patients, with insufficient self-control being the most prevalent schema. In addition, females scored significantly higher than males on 11 of the 18 schemas. Findings from the current study are discussed in terms of future research and implications for the treatment of opioid dependence. PMID:22014405

  6. Maryland Public Library Services for the Handicapped. A Survey for Handicapped Accessibility to Public Library Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore. Div. of Library Development and Services.

    Prepared as a part of an ongoing effort to make Maryland public libraries readily accessible to the handicapped, this directory identifies equipment, services, and facilities available to library users who are confined to wheel chairs and others who have difficulty with steps or stairs. Supplied by the administrators of Maryland's 24 public…

  7. Handicap som risikofaktor? Et udviklingspsykopatologisk perspektiv på børn med handicap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammeyer, Jesper Herup; Bøttcher, Louise

    2010-01-01

    psykopatologi etableres. I artiklen vil vi præsentere en almen model til forståelse af mennesker med handicap og deres udviklingsmuligheder – en handicappsykologisk udviklingsmodel ud fra et dialektisk kultur-historisk perspektiv (Vygotsky, (1924-31) 1993). Ved hjælp af empiriske studier vil vi eksemplificere...

  8. Noise-induced hearing impairment and handicap

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    A permanent, noise-induced hearing loss has doubly harmful effect on speech communications. First, the elevation in the threshold of hearing means that many speech sounds are too weak to be heard, and second, very intense speech sounds may appear to be distorted. The whole question of the impact of noise-induced hearing loss upon the impairments and handicaps experienced by people with such hearing losses was somewhat controversial partly because of the economic aspects of related practical noise control and workmen's compensation.

  9. Exercise as a provocative test in early renal disease in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Baker, L; Deckert, T

    1985-01-01

    The value of exercise as a provocative test for early renal disease in Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes was re-evaluated. Three carefully characterized groups of males were studied: 10 non-diabetic controls, 16 diabetic patients (group 1) with normal urinary albumin excretion (less than 15.......05). During exercise the urinary albumin excretion rate increased significantly in all three groups (normal subjects: 6 +/- 0.7 to 8 +/- 1.3 (microgram/min); group 1: 6 +/- 0.6 to 9 +/- 1 microgram/min and group 2: 48 +/- 10 to 113 +/- 23 micrograms/min), the relative increase being higher in group 2 (p less...... micrograms/min) and 14 Albustix-negative diabetics (group 2) with increased urinary albumin excretion (15-122 micrograms/min). Assignment to a study group was made on the basis of three 24-h urine collections, and the groups were well matched for age, weight, height, and serum creatinine concentration...

  10. Early diagnosis of pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy: video-EEG monitoring and biochemical and genetic investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ville, Dorothée; Ginguene, Carole; Marignier, Stéphanie; des Portes, Vincent; de Bellescize, Jullita

    2013-11-01

    Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy (PDE) is a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disease. A delay of treatment may affect outcome and early initiation of pyridoxine based on effective diagnosis is crucial to ensure good cognitive outcome in neonates. A consensus for the diagnosis of PDE is based on refractive seizures and responsiveness to pyridoxine, however, a growing body of evidence suggests that additional elements should be considered which include biochemical data, genetic screening, and EEG monitoring. We present a case study of a neonate with PDE, who presented with misleading clinical presentation and a novel mutation in the antiquitin (ALDH7A1) gene (A294V), and highlight important aspects in order to consider the definition of diagnosis and management of PDE in the light of more recent data.

  11. Oxytocin mediates early experience-dependent cross-modal plasticity in the sensory cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jing-Jing; Li, Shu-Jing; Zhang, Xiao-Di; Miao, Wan-Ying; Zhang, Dinghong; Yao, Haishan; Yu, Xiang

    2014-03-01

    Sensory experience is critical to development and plasticity of neural circuits. Here we report a new form of plasticity in neonatal mice, where early sensory experience cross-modally regulates development of all sensory cortices via oxytocin signaling. Unimodal sensory deprivation from birth through whisker deprivation or dark rearing reduced excitatory synaptic transmission in the correspondent sensory cortex and cross-modally in other sensory cortices. Sensory experience regulated synthesis and secretion of the neuropeptide oxytocin as well as its level in the cortex. Both in vivo oxytocin injection and increased sensory experience elevated excitatory synaptic transmission in multiple sensory cortices and significantly rescued the effects of sensory deprivation. Together, these results identify a new function for oxytocin in promoting cross-modal, experience-dependent cortical development. This link between sensory experience and oxytocin is particularly relevant to autism, where hypersensitivity or hyposensitivity to sensory inputs is prevalent and oxytocin is a hotly debated potential therapy.

  12. Interleukin 8 in progression of hormone-dependent early breast cancer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    JELENA MILOVANOVIĆ; NATAŠA TODOROVIĆ-RAKOVIĆ; TIJANA VUJASINOVIĆ; ZAKI ABU RABI

    2017-06-01

    The only way to perceive the real clinical course of disease and the prognostic significance of potential biomarkers is follow-up of patients who did not receive any kind of adjuvant therapy. Many studies have confirmed high levels ofinterleukin 8 (IL8) in HER2-enriched and basal-like (ER–) primary breast tumours, but less is known about thesignificance of IL8 in hormone-dependent breast cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of IL8 and clinicopathological parameters in hormone-dependent breast cancer, and to examine possible associations between them that might imply possible biological dependence. The study included 91 early-stage breastcancer patients with detectable levels of hormone receptors (ER>0, PR>0). None of the patients received adjuvanttherapy according to valid protocol at that time. HER2 status was determined on paraffin-embedded tumour tissue sections by CISH. IL8 levels were determined by ELISA in cytosol tumour extracts of 65 patients with long-term follow-up (144 months). Nonparametric statistical tests were used for data analyses. Patients with low IL8 levels(M<88.8 pg/mg) had significantly longer relapse-free survival (RFS) compared to patients with high IL8 levels(M≥88.82 pg/mg) (Log rank test, p=0.002). Patients with ERhighIL8low phenotype had significantly longer RFScompared to those with ERhighIL8high and ERlowIL8high phenotypes (p=0.04 and p=0.02, respectively); patientswith PRlowIL8low phenotype had significantly longer RFS compared to those with PRlowIL8high and PRhighIL8-high phenotypes (p=0.003 and p=0.02, respectively); patients with HER2-IL8low phenotype had significantly longerRFS compared to those with HER2-IL8high and HER2+IL8high phenotypes (p=0.01 and p=0.02, respectively). Ourresults indicate significant contribution of IL8 on survival of hormone-dependent early-stage breast cancer patientsand association with established parameters such as ER/PR and HER2.

  13. Kinetochore-Dependent Microtubule Rescue Ensures Their Efficient and Sustained Interactions in Early Mitosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Sapan R.; Gierliński, Marek; Mino, Akihisa; Tanaka, Kozo; Kitamura, Etsushi; Clayton, Lesley; Tanaka, Tomoyuki U.

    2011-01-01

    Summary How kinetochores regulate microtubule dynamics to ensure proper kinetochore-microtubule interactions is unknown. Here, we studied this during early mitosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. When a microtubule shrinks and its plus end reaches a kinetochore bound to its lateral surface, the microtubule end attempts to tether the kinetochore. This process often fails and, responding to this failure, microtubule rescue (conversion from shrinkage to growth) occurs, preventing kinetochore detachment from the microtubule end. This rescue is promoted by Stu2 transfer (ortholog of vertebrate XMAP215/ch-TOG) from the kinetochore to the microtubule end. Meanwhile, microtubule rescue distal to the kinetochore is also promoted by Stu2, which is transported by a kinesin-8 motor Kip3 along the microtubule from the kinetochore. Microtubule extension following rescue facilitates interaction with other widely scattered kinetochores, diminishing long delays in collecting the complete set of kinetochores by microtubules. Thus, kinetochore-dependent microtubule rescue ensures efficient and sustained kinetochore-microtubule interactions in early mitosis. PMID:22075150

  14. Early retinotopic responses to violations of emotion-location associations may depend on conscious awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herde, Laura; Rossi, Valentina; Pourtois, Gilles; Rauss, Karsten

    2017-06-28

    Reports of modulations of early visual processing suggest that retinotopic visual cortex may actively predict upcoming stimuli. We tested this idea by showing healthy human participants images of human faces at fixation, with different emotional expressions predicting stimuli in either the upper or the lower visual field. On infrequent test trials, emotional faces were followed by combined stimulation of upper and lower visual fields, thus violating previously established associations. Results showed no effects of such violations at the level of the retinotopic C1 of the visual evoked potential over the full sample. However, when separating participants who became aware of these associations from those who did not, we observed significant group differences during extrastriate processing of emotional faces, with inverse solution results indicating stronger activity in unaware subjects throughout the ventral visual stream. Moreover, within-group comparisons showed that the same peripheral stimuli elicited differential activity patterns during the C1 interval, depending on which stimulus elements were predictable. This effect was selectively observed in manipulation-aware subjects. Our results provide preliminary evidence for the notion that early visual processing stages implement predictions of upcoming events. They also point to conscious awareness as a moderator of predictive coding.

  15. Ethical Issues in Withholding Care from Severely Handicapped Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Libby

    1981-01-01

    Ethical issues are examined that involve withholding medical treatment from severely handicapped infants. Although current laws do not sanction euthanasia, severely handicapped infants are often assisted in dying. Discussion includes society's apparent acceptance of this practice and several solutions to the problems. (Author)

  16. "Euthanasia" of Persons with Severe Handicaps: Refuting the Rationalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusthaus, Evelyn

    1985-01-01

    The article examines two common rationalizations for euthanasia of persons with severe handicaps and presents arguments to refute them. The article calls for parents, professionals, and friends of persons with severe handicaps to be vocal in refuting euthanasia and its rationales. (Author/CL)

  17. Vocational Reintegration of Handicapped Workers with Assistive Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, N. E.

    1977-01-01

    Two approaches to vocational reintegration of handicapped workers are described: (1) adapting the disabled to the working environment through treatment, therapy, counseling, selective placement, and prostheses, and (2) adapting the working environment to particular handicaps, with the assistive device fitted to the machine or tool rather than to…

  18. Learning Experiences for Mentally Handicapped Students in a School Store.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Carol

    A supermarket chain supplies a small grocery store in an elementary school in Jefferson County, Kentucky. The store program seeks to provide learning experiences for students, as they make selections, spend their earnings, and save for later purchases. Students with multiple handicaps and students with severe/profound handicaps shop in the store…

  19. A Career Counseling Model for the Mentally Handicapped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solly, David C.

    1987-01-01

    A model for career counseling for the mentally handicapped is proposed that addresses goals, method, process, interview techniques, assessment, occupational information, and materials. The process is highly structured and directive, provides predictive and prescriptive information and involves the mentally handicapped individual's parents.…

  20. Handicapped Children and Day Care. Revised and Updated Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Ruth Barngrove

    This handbook offers guidance to parents and staff in developing day care programs which include handicapped children. In Section 1 of the handbook, terms commonly used to describe disabilities are defined. Section 2 presents a picture of the current situation in New York City regarding attitudes toward handicapped children and options for their…

  1. Singing voice handicap mapped by different self-assessment instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoliello, Karla; Oliveira, Gisele; Behlau, Mara

    2013-01-01

    To map voice handicap of popular singers with a general voice and two singing voice self-assessment questionnaires. Fifty singers, 25 male and 25 female, 23 with vocal complaint and 27 without vocal complaint answered randomly the questionnaires. For the comparison of data, the following statistical tests were performed: Mann-Whitney, Friedman, Wilcoxon, Spearman and Correlation. Data showed that the VHI yielded a smaller handicap when compared to the other two questionnaires (VHI x S-VHI - p=0.001; VHI x MSVH - p=0.004). The S-VHI and MSVH produced similar results (p=0.723). Singers with vocal complaint had a VHI total score of 17.5. The other two instruments showed more deviated scores (S-VHI - 24.9; MSVH - 25.2). There was no relationship between gender and singing style with the handicap perceived. A weak negative correlation between the perceived handicap and the time of singing experience was found (-37.7 to -13.10%), that is, the smaller the time of singing experience, the greater the handicap is. The questionnaires developed for the assessment of singing voice, S-VHI and MSVH, showed to be more specific and correspondent to each other for the evaluation of vocal handicap in singers. Findings showed that the more the time of singer's singing experience, the smaller the handicap is. Gender and singing styles did not influence the perception of the handicap.

  2. Epidemiological Study of Mental Health Problems among Handicapped School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadur Singh, Tej

    1988-01-01

    Indian teachers rating the prevalence of psychiatric problems in 79 school children with visual handicaps, 91 with hearing handicaps, and 105 nonhandicapped identified a higher prevalence than did psychiatrists. Although similar percentages of children in the 3 groups were diagnosed as having psychiatric problems, the types of problems experienced…

  3. Toy Libraries for the Handicapped: An International Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juul, Kristen D.

    A brief history of the toy library movement is offered. Programs for both handicapped and nonhandicapped children in 15 countries are described and the effectiveness of such programs is considered. Two types of toy library programs are defined--the Scandinavian model, or lekotek (designed exclusively for handicapped children and their families and…

  4. "Euthanasia" of Persons with Severe Handicaps: Refuting the Rationalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusthaus, Evelyn

    1985-01-01

    The article examines two common rationalizations for euthanasia of persons with severe handicaps and presents arguments to refute them. The article calls for parents, professionals, and friends of persons with severe handicaps to be vocal in refuting euthanasia and its rationales. (Author/CL)

  5. Applications of Environmental Psychology in Programming for Severely Handicapped Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Dixie Branner

    1980-01-01

    Theory and research from the field of environmental psychology are reviewed and implications regarding environmental programing for severely handicapped individuals are discussed. A challenge is issued to design for severely handicapped persons environments which are both manageable and consistent with normalization tenets. (Author)

  6. Counseling Special Students: An Activity Book for Encouraging Positive Interaction Between Non-Handicapped and Handicapped Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucks, Hazel

    The activity book is designed to assist school counselors in preparing nonhandicapped persons to interact in a positive manner with the handicapped. An introductory section defines the term handicapped, offers program management guidelines, considers needs assessment, and describes three counseling models (peer helper, classroom guidance, and…

  7. The Dance Within: A Pilot Project in Dance for the Handicapped and Teaching Dance for the Handicapped: A Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan Dance Association, Lansing.

    The Michigan Dance Association's Dance Project for the Handicapped is the subject of the two pamphlets that make up this document. The first pamphlet, "The Dance Within," describes the history, nature and goals of the Jackson Pilot Project, the first handicapped dance program in Michigan; it also offers suggestions on how to set up similar…

  8. Teaching Basic Discriminations to Handicapped and Non-Handicapped Individuals through a Dynamic Presentation of Intructional Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersten, Russel M.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Four studies compared static versus dynamic presentations of examples and nonexaples of the concepts "diagonal" and "conves," with nonhandicapped preschoolers, mildly handicapped primary students, and severely handicapped adults. Ss taught with a dynamic presentation learned the discrimination in significantly fewer trials, with performance either…

  9. Lawyers With Disabilities: L’Handicape C’est Nous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Bernstein

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available For having helped to make disability a twentieth-century civil rights issue in the United States, our profession deserves much credit. Lawyers have written, codified, and enforced several progressive initiatives. Inspired by the struggle for racial justice through law that culminated in Brown v. Board of Education, the disability rights movement was itself a civil rights inspiration even before the Brown decision, earning important early legislative advances for rehabilitation, vocational training, and integration of disabled persons in public life. The first national organization to focus on disability as such rather than one particular condition, the American Federation of the Physically Handicapped, took an early interest in fostering legal change and lobbied for employment-discrimination laws and new statutes to advance the interests of disabled Americans. The Rehabilitation Act of 19733 made federal law out of the radical yet sensible idea that societies construct disability at least as much as they reflect it and that prejudices and stereotypes, which are as potent as purely medical or anatomical facts, impede persons with disabilities.

  10. Genetic variants and early cigarette smoking and nicotine dependence phenotypes in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Loughlin, Jennifer; Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Labbe, Aurélie; Low, Nancy C; Roy-Gagnon, Marie-Hélène; Dugas, Erika N; Karp, Igor; Engert, James C

    2014-01-01

    While the heritability of cigarette smoking and nicotine dependence (ND) is well-documented, the contribution of specific genetic variants to specific phenotypes has not been closely examined. The objectives of this study were to test the associations between 321 tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that capture common genetic variation in 24 genes, and early smoking and ND phenotypes in novice adolescent smokers, and to assess if genetic predictors differ across these phenotypes. In a prospective study of 1294 adolescents aged 12-13 years recruited from ten Montreal-area secondary schools, 544 participants who had smoked at least once during the 7-8 year follow-up provided DNA. 321 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 24 candidate genes were tested for an association with number of cigarettes smoked in the past 3 months, and with five ND phenotypes (a modified version of the Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire, the ICD-10 and three clusters of ND symptoms representing withdrawal symptoms, use of nicotine for self-medication, and a general ND/craving symptom indicator). The pattern of SNP-gene associations differed across phenotypes. Sixteen SNPs in seven genes (ANKK1, CHRNA7, DDC, DRD2, COMT, OPRM1, SLC6A3 (also known as DAT1)) were associated with at least one phenotype with a p-value genetic predictors differ, specific cigarette smoking and ND phenotypes should be distinguished in genetic studies in adolescents. Fifteen of the 16 top-ranked SNPs identified in this study were from loci involved in dopaminergic pathways (ANKK1/DRD2, DDC, COMT, OPRM1, and SLC6A3). Dopaminergic pathways may be salient during early smoking and the development of ND.

  11. Early Schooling: The Handicap of Being Poor and Male

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entwisle, Doris R.; Alexander, Karl L.; Olson, Linda S.

    2007-01-01

    In trying to understand the origin of gender differences favoring girls in reading skills, analysts have examined mainly the performance of students who are in the same grade, with samples pooled across socioeconomic status (SES). Using a longitudinal sample in Baltimore, where all students in a randomly selected panel are the same age and are…

  12. Time dependent non-LTE calculations of ionisation in the early universe

    CERN Document Server

    Wehrse, R; Davé, R; Dav\\'e, Romeel

    2005-01-01

    We present a new implicit numerical algorithm for the calculation of the time dependent non-Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium of a gas in an external radiation field that is accurate, fast and unconditionally stable for all spatial and temporal increments. The method is presented as a backward difference scheme in 1-D but can be readily generalised to 3-D. We apply the method for calculating the evolution of ionisation domains in a hydrogen plasma with plane-parallel Gaussian density enhancements illuminated by sources of UV radiation. We calculate the speed of propagation of ionising fronts through different ambient densities and the interaction of such ionising fronts with density enhancements. We show that for a typical UV source that may be present in the early universe, the introduction of a density enhancement of a factor ~10 above an ambient density 10^{-4} atoms/cm^3 could delay the outward propagation of an ionisation front by millions of years. Our calculations show that within the lifetime of a singl...

  13. The early facilitatory effect of a peripheral spatially noninformative prime stimulus depends on target stimulus features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azevedo E.L.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the dependency of the early facilitatory effect of a prime stimulus (S1 on the physical characteristics of the target stimulus (S2. A go-no go reaction time paradigm was used. The S1 was a gray ring and the S2s were a white vertical line, a white horizontal line, a white cross and a white small ring, all inside a white ring with the same dimensions as the S1. S1 onset-S2 onset asynchrony was 100 ms. The stimuli appeared randomly in any one of the quadrants of a monitor screen. The S2 could occur at the same position as the S1 or at a different one. We observed a strong facilitatory effect when the vertical line or the horizontal line was the go stimulus and no effect when the cross was the go stimulus. These results show that the features of the target stimulus can be decisive for the appearance of the facilitatory effect of a peripheral spatially noninformative prime stimulus.

  14. The early facilitatory effect of a peripheral spatially noninformative prime stimulus depends on target stimulus features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, E L; Squella, S A; Ribeiro-do-Valle, L E

    2001-06-01

    We investigated the dependency of the early facilitatory effect of a prime stimulus (S1) on the physical characteristics of the target stimulus (S2). A go-no go reaction time paradigm was used. The S1 was a gray ring and the S2s were a white vertical line, a white horizontal line, a white cross and a white small ring, all inside a white ring with the same dimensions as the S1. S1 onset-S2 onset asynchrony was 100 ms. The stimuli appeared randomly in any one of the quadrants of a monitor screen. The S2 could occur at the same position as the S1 or at a different one. We observed a strong facilitatory effect when the vertical line or the horizontal line was the go stimulus and no effect when the cross was the go stimulus. These results show that the features of the target stimulus can be decisive for the appearance of the facilitatory effect of a peripheral spatially noninformative prime stimulus.

  15. Early diagnostics and incidence of diabetic nephropathy depending on type 1 diabetes mellitus duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Maslianko

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective — to establish the incidence of diabetic nephropathy (DN depending on duration of type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM, and also the content of cystatin С as a marker of early kidney damage. Materials and methods. Twenty eight patients with type 1 DM were enrolled in prospective study (11 men and 17 women aged 34.8 ± 7.2 years. Clinical and functional examination included the standard evaluation of renal function, and also the study of serum level of cystatin С. Results. In 17 out of 28 patients, the indexes of glomerular filtration rate calculated using the formulas of CKD-ЕРIcreat and CKD-ЕРIcys, indicated the different stages of chronic kidneys disease. Conclusions. Determination of cystatin C level and calculation of glomerular filtration rate using this index allows diagnosing the preclinical stages of kidney dysfunction in patients with type 1 DM in the normal creatinine level in the blood and without decline in glomerular filtration rate calculated using creatinine value. According to a retrospective study, the incidence and severity of DN in patients with type 1 DM increases with disease duration of more than 10 years.

  16. An Individual Based Model of Arctic cod ( Boreogadus saida) early life in Arctic polynyas: II. Length-dependent and growth-dependent mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanassekos, Stéphane; Robert, Dominique; Fortier, Louis

    2012-05-01

    A bioenergetics individual based model (IBM) of early growth is used to investigate the relative importance of length-dependent and growth-dependent mortality during the early life (0-45 d) of Arctic cod in the Northeast Water (NEW) in 1993 and the North Water (NOW) in 1998. In the model, individual growth is forced by the observed temperature and prey concentration histories as prescribed by the hatch date of a larva. The IBM reproduced well the observed length-at-age and revealed large ontogenetic and interregional fluctuations in instantaneous growth. Four mortality scenarios were compared for each population: (1) constant mortality (estimated from catch-at-age data); (2) length-dependent mortality; (3) growth-dependent mortality; and (4) combined length- and growth-dependent mortality. Scenarios 2, 3, and 4 were parameterized to achieve the final survival produced by the constant mortality rates estimated from observations (scenario 1). Scenario 2 accounted well for declining mortality with size but not for the large variations in growth-dependent mortality. Scenario 3 failed to capture the decreasing vulnerability of surviving larvae to predation. Only scenario 4 accounted for both the large fluctuations in growth-dependent mortality and the progressive shift in dominance from length-dependent to growth-dependent mortality as the survivors increased in size. Sub-sampling the model output to reproduce the limited temporal resolution of sampling at sea improved the fit between observed and modeled frequencies-at-age, and pointed to the under-sampling of the smallest larvae as a major sampling bias.

  17. Stereotypes concerning normal and handicapped children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, T S; Dyck, N; Kappes, B M

    1979-05-01

    Individuals' attitudes were assessed toward various groups of children. In study 1 the respondents were 65 male and female teachers from across the state of Kansas. In study 2 the respondents were 89 men and women in attendance at the 1978 International Conference of the Association for Children with Learning Disabilities. In both studies the evaluations of the labels "gifted children," "normal children," and "physically handicapped children" were found to be significantly more positive than the evaluations of the labels "mentally retarded children," "learning disabled children," and "emotionally disturbed children." These results seem to indicate that definite negative stereotypes are held toward the latter three groups of children. In study 1 these findings were found to occur generally regardless of the respondents' sex, age, educational level attained, and amount of previous mainstreaming experience.

  18. Early LPS-induced ERK activation in retinal pigment epithelium cells is dependent on PIP 2 -PLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, Melina V; Kamerbeek, Constanza B; Giusto, Norma M; Salvador, Gabriela A

    2016-06-01

    This article presents additional data regarding the study "The phospholipase D pathway mediates the inflammatory response of the retinal pigment epithelium" [1]. The new data presented here show that short exposure of RPE cells to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces an early and transient activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2). This early ERK1/2 activation is dependent on phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate-phospholipase C (PIP2-PLC). On the contrary, neither the phospholipase D 1 (PLD1) nor the PLD2 inhibition is able to modulate the early ERK1/2 activation induced by LPS in RPE cells.

  19. Analysis of Triwheeler for Handicapped Person

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onkar Wadkar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Solar plays a vital role in day to day life. In this project we have discussed that how solar tri-wheeler will help to reduce the eff ort of handicapped person. All the designs specification considered after analyzing the problems from the handicapped person. Comfort of the person in the tri-wheeler is an important and we have given importance to it. The main content of the tri-wheeler is Solar PV panel, Brushless PMDC motor, Charge controller and battery. In this project we have discuss about the main idea of this project and to get a larger picture on what is the problem in the current technologies, what that we want to achieve in this project and the area that will cover on this project. This project is divided into some categories that are project background to describe the reasons to do this project, problem statement to inform about the problem or weakness of the existing technology, objective to make sure what actually this project must achieve and scope of this project to specify what will be used in this project. In automobile sector, the need for alternative fuel as a replacement of conventional fossil fuel, due to its depletion and amount of emission has given way for new technologies like Electric vehicles. Still a lot of advancement has to take place in these technologies for commercialization. The gap between the current fossil fuel technology and zero emission vehicles can be bridged by this technology. The electrical power is used to achieve either better fuel economy than a conventional vehicle, better performance and it cause less pollution. Driving mode selectivity improves this system more economical, stable and more efficient

  20. Genetic variants and early cigarette smoking and nicotine dependence phenotypes in adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer O'Loughlin

    Full Text Available While the heritability of cigarette smoking and nicotine dependence (ND is well-documented, the contribution of specific genetic variants to specific phenotypes has not been closely examined. The objectives of this study were to test the associations between 321 tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that capture common genetic variation in 24 genes, and early smoking and ND phenotypes in novice adolescent smokers, and to assess if genetic predictors differ across these phenotypes.In a prospective study of 1294 adolescents aged 12-13 years recruited from ten Montreal-area secondary schools, 544 participants who had smoked at least once during the 7-8 year follow-up provided DNA. 321 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in 24 candidate genes were tested for an association with number of cigarettes smoked in the past 3 months, and with five ND phenotypes (a modified version of the Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire, the ICD-10 and three clusters of ND symptoms representing withdrawal symptoms, use of nicotine for self-medication, and a general ND/craving symptom indicator.The pattern of SNP-gene associations differed across phenotypes. Sixteen SNPs in seven genes (ANKK1, CHRNA7, DDC, DRD2, COMT, OPRM1, SLC6A3 (also known as DAT1 were associated with at least one phenotype with a p-value <0.01 using linear mixed models. After permutation and FDR adjustment, none of the associations remained statistically significant, although the p-values for the association between rs557748 in OPRM1 and the ND/craving and self-medication phenotypes were both 0.076.Because the genetic predictors differ, specific cigarette smoking and ND phenotypes should be distinguished in genetic studies in adolescents. Fifteen of the 16 top-ranked SNPs identified in this study were from loci involved in dopaminergic pathways (ANKK1/DRD2, DDC, COMT, OPRM1, and SLC6A3.Dopaminergic pathways may be salient during early smoking and the development of ND.

  1. Delivery dependence of early proximal bicarbonate reabsorption in the rat in respiratory acidosis and alkalosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santella, R N; Maddox, D A; Gennari, F J

    1991-01-01

    In the intact rat kidney, bicarbonate reabsorption in the early proximal tubule (EP) is strongly dependent on delivery. Independent of delivery, metabolic acidosis stimulates EP bicarbonate reabsorption. In this study, we investigated whether systemic pH changes induced by acute or chronic respiratory acid-base disorders also affect EP HCO3- reabsorption, independent of delivery (FLHCO3, filtered load of bicarbonate). Hypercapnia was induced in rats acutely (1-3 h) and chronically (4-5 d) by increasing inspired PCO2. Hypocapnia was induced acutely (1-3 h) by mechanical hyperventilation, and chronically (4-5 d) using hypoxemia to stimulate ventilation. When compared with normocapneic rats with similar FLHCO3, no stimulation of EP or overall proximal HCO3 reabsorption was found with either acute hypercapnia (PaCO2 = 74 mmHg, pH = 7.23) or chronic hypercapnia (PaCO2 = 84 mmHg, pH = 7.31). Acute hypocapnia (PaCO2 = 29 mmHg, pH = 7.56) did not suppress EP or overall HCO3 reabsorption. Chronic hypocapnia (PaCO2 = 26 mmHg, pH = 7.54) reduced proximal HCO3 reabsorption, but this effect was reversed when FLHCO3 was increased to levels comparable to euvolemic normocapneic rats. Thus, when delivery is accounted for, we could find no additional stimulation of proximal bicarbonate reabsorption in respiratory acidosis and, except at low delivery rates, no reduction in bicarbonate reabsorption in respiratory alkalosis. PMID:1991847

  2. Developing Spatial-Movement Concepts in Multiply Handicapped Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberti, Gina

    1984-01-01

    The article describes a group motor-route activity to help mulitply handicapped blind students develop a complete understanding of spatial-movement concepts and to increase their cognitive motor skills. (Author/CL)

  3. Use of Teacher Nonverbal Cues with Handicapped Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillison, John; Crunkilton, John R.

    1983-01-01

    Teachers can use nonverbal forms of communication (facial expression, gestures, space, eye contact, body orientation, tone of voice, and head nod/head shake) to enhance the communication process with their handicapped students. (CL)

  4. Handicaps for the large scale commercial application of micropropagation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierik, R.L.M.

    1988-01-01

    In the last 10 years micropropagation has shown a spectacular development. However, at present the widespread use of micropropagation is handicapped by the following facts: Frequently mutations occur, particularly when applying the adventitious bud technique and callus systems. Basic knowledge

  5. Horticulture for Secondary Level Handicapped Adolescents: The Cherokee County Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, Greg H.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The Cherokee County (Alabama) horticulture training program provides 40 mildly mentally retarded adolescents with vocational training in a marketable skills. The broad spectrum of vocational skills makes horticulture ideal for the handicapped. (DB)

  6. Epilepsy: Impact upon Severely and Profoundly Handicapped Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, Fred; Dykes, Mary K.

    1982-01-01

    The paper synthesizes information about epilepsy (definition and categories of seizures, types of seizures, and treatment) and notes its impact upon persons with severe/profound handicaps. The need for a transdisciplinary team in case management is cited. (CL)

  7. Early

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Abd Elaziz Mohamed

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: Early PDT is recommended for patients who require prolonged tracheal intubation in the ICU as outcomes like the duration of mechanical ventilation length of ICU stay and hospital stay were significantly shorter in early tracheostomy.

  8. Cognitive function during early abstinence from opioid dependence: a comparison to age, gender, and verbal intelligence matched controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kähkönen Seppo

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals with opioid dependence have cognitive deficits during abuse period in attention, working memory, episodic memory, and executive function. After protracted abstinence consistent cognitive deficit has been found only in executive function. However, few studies have explored cognitive function during first weeks of abstinence. The purpose of this study was to study cognitive function of individuals with opioid dependence during early abstinence. It was hypothesized that cognitive deficits are pronounced immediately after peak withdrawal symptoms have passed and then partially recover. Methods Fifteen patients with opioid dependence and fifteen controls matched for, age, gender, and verbal intelligence were tested with a cognitive test battery When patients performed worse than controls correlations between cognitive performance and days of withdrawal, duration of opioid abuse, duration of any substance abuse, or opioid withdrawal symptom inventory score (Short Opiate Withdrawal Scale were analyzed. Results Early abstinent opioid dependent patients performed statistically significantly worse than controls in tests measuring complex working memory, executive function, and fluid intelligence. Their complex working memory and fluid intelligence performances correlated statistically significantly with days of withdrawal. Conclusion The results indicate a rather general neurocognitive deficit in higher order cognition. It is suggested that cognitive deficit during early abstinence from opioid dependence is related to withdrawal induced neural dysregulation in the prefrontal cortex and is partly transient.

  9. Academic Goals and Self-Handicapping Strategies in University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferradás, María del Mar; Freire, Carlos; Valle, Antonio; Núñez, José Carlos

    2016-05-23

    In highly competitive settings like university, the fear of failure leads some students to protect their self-worth using self-handicapping strategies. The present investigation examines to what extent academic goals are related to those tactics in university students. Specifically, MANCOVA was applied to estimate statistical differences linked to behavioral and claimed self-handicapping strategies according to the level (high/medium/low) of four types of academic goal (achievement approach, achievement avoidance, mastery approach, and work avoidance). Degree, year in school, and gender were entered as covariates. 940 students (86.5% women) from University of A Coruña (M = 20.44; SD = 1.73) participated. Results show that: (a) both behavioral and claimed self-handicapping are promoted by ego-oriented goals (achievement avoidance, F(2, 937) = 23.56, p self-handicapping (F(2, 937) = 9.09, p self-handicapping; and (c) mastery approach goals are significantly, negatively related to both types of self-handicapping (F(2, 937) = 20.09, p < .001, η p 2 = .041). Psychological and educational implications of the findings are discussed.

  10. The community deals with the child who has a handicap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullard, I D; Dohnal, J T

    1984-06-01

    Exclusion messages, however subtle, are interwoven into the community of the child who is handicapped. The subsystems of family, religion, neighborhood, education, health care, and financial assistance agencies have good intentions but frequently communicate poorly with the child and the parents. What is meant as a help becomes a hindrance for the child who must adapt to a limitation while continuing to move toward self-esteem, self-sufficiency, and skills that will enhance productivity and employability. No one negative message will destroy a handicapped child: it is the "history of learned inferiority" that cripples the child who is handicapped. Only when able-bodied individuals within the subsystems recognize the cumulative effect of these messages will the community be responsive to the real needs of the child who has a handicap. Nurses, schooled in sensitivity for the person, should resolve to be in the vanguard in this movement, becoming ever more sensitive to the needs of the handicapped. Such a giant step will begin a fresh and long-needed approach toward understanding those needs central to the well-being of the child who resides in the community and is also handicapped.

  11. Self-Handicapping and Its Impact on Mental Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeter Sinem Uzar Ozcetin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Self handicapping is characterized by experiencing anxiety at succeeding a mission although the person has the capacity to fulfill the assignment or duty. It describes one's showing tendency to link own failures to problems in own performance instead of own abilities to protect oneself from the possibility of failure. When individuals care about performance much but doubt about success, they display self-handicapping strategies to protect their self. Self-handicappers try to protect their self by internalizing successes and externalizing failures. This strategies help them feel well in both successes and failures. Self-handicapping becomes a trait of personality in time and the individual begins to use it continuously as a negative coping mechanism to protect his/her self and to avoid failures. These actions eliminates the capability of rational thinking and prevents solution of the problems as a result of irrational interpretations. Self-handicapping causes the decrease of life satisfaction and motivation, and causes the increase of maladaptation, negative mood, somatic symptoms and alcohol-drug abuse. As a conclusion, self-handicapping hinders performance and this negative performance influences adaptation and psychological well-being. The most essential approach to prevent occurrence of self-handicapping behaviours is empowerment of the self. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(2: 145-154

  12. Comparing the Early Maladaptive Schemas, Attachment and Coping Styles in Opium and Stimulant Drugs Dependent Men in Kerman, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinifard, Seyed Mehdi; Kaviani, Narjes

    2015-01-01

    Today, the society's need to find the roots of a few thousand-year old substance abuse and the drugs addiction crisis has increased to the extent that it has become a problem within our country. The problem of substance dependence is not only about drug abuse, but it is actually the interrelationship of the person and the dependency on drugs. This study aimed to compare early maladaptive schemas, attachment styles, and coping styles in men dependent on opiates and stimulants in Kerman, Iran. This was a comparative descriptive study. The study population consisted of men dependent on opiates and stimulants who referred to addiction treatment clinics in Kerman. Therefore, 150 patients (75 opium addicted men and 75 men dependent on drugs) were selected. The participants completed the Young schema questionnaire-short form (YSQ-SF), adult attachment scale (AAS), and Young coping styles questionnaire (YCSQ). The research data were analyzed using independent t-test and SPSS software. Mean age of patients using opium was 27.9 ± 3.35 years and mean age of patients using stimulant drugs was 25.6 ± 3.41 years (18-60 years old). The results showed that there was no difference between the early maladaptive schemas and coping styles in men dependent on opium and stimulants. However, there was a significant difference between attachment styles in men dependent on opium and stimulants. The mean score of avoidant and ambivalent styles in men dependent on stimulants was higher. Knowledge on the distinctions of early maladaptive schemas, attachment styles, and coping styles in substance abuse patients helps the therapists to conduct more effective treatment strategies tailored to the type of substance used in order to provide behavior modification.

  13. Are childhood externalizing disorders the harbinger of early-onset alcohol dependence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Ghosh

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: Our study showed more EDs in alcohol dependent individuals compared to controls. Further, the association observed between EDs and EO alcohol dependence points towards a developmental continuum between these two conditions.

  14. Gastrointestinal problems in the handicapped child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, S K

    2001-10-01

    Gastrointestinal issues are a major chronic problem in 80 to 90% of children with cerebral palsy and in children with neurodevelopmental disabilities who are at special risk of developing malnutrition because of uncoordinated swallowing, gastroesophageal reflux, and constipation. In addition to poor linear growth, there is a decrease in muscle strength and coordination, impaired cerebral function leading to decreased motivation and energy. Significant neurodevelopmental progress can be achieved with improved nutritional status. A multidisciplinary approach, with input from neurologists, gastroenterologists, nurses, occupational therapists, and dieticians, can make a major contribution to the medical wellbeing and quality of life of these children. Different neurological diseases ( eg, spinal dysraphism, syringomyelia, tethered cord syndromes) can give rise to gastrointestinal dysfunction and symptoms that may need different gastrointestinal or surgical management. The introduction of new drugs, including proton pump inhibitors and innovative endoscopic and surgical techniques in the management of gastroesophageal reflux disease and constipation also may have an impact on the treatment of neurologically handicapped children in the future.

  15. Reduced albuminuria during early and aggressive antihypertensive treatment of insulin-dependent diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Andersen, A R; Smidt, U M

    1981-01-01

    nephropathy. Mean age of the patients was 30 yr. All patients had a diastolic blood pressure greater than or equal to 95 mm Hg. Metoprolol, hydralazine, and furosemide or thiazide were used as antihypertensives. During the 12-mo treatment period, BP decreased from 151/104 to 133/85 mm Hg (P less than 0...... hypertension is an early feature of diabetic nephropathy in young insulin-dependent patients. Early and aggressive treatment of that condition decreases albuminuria, probably due to reduced intraglomerular filtration pressure. Whether sustained reduction in arterial blood pressure to near-normal levels during...

  16. La Educacion Especial para Ninos con Impedimentos Desde Recien Nacidos Hasta Cinco Anos de Edad = Special Education for Handicapped Children Birth to Five.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept. Albany. Office for the Education of Children with Handicapping Conditions.

    The manual, in Spanish, describes programs and resources available for preschool handicapped children and their families in conjunction with the New York State Education Department. Section 1 on assistance in securing services, reviews the service provided by Early Childhood Direction Centers, and outlines the role of local Committees on the…

  17. La Educacion Especial para Ninos con Impedimentos Desde Recien Nacidos Hasta Cinco Anos de Edad = Special Education for Handicapped Children Birth to Five.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept. Albany. Office for the Education of Children with Handicapping Conditions.

    The manual, in Spanish, describes programs and resources available for preschool handicapped children and their families in conjunction with the New York State Education Department. Section 1 on assistance in securing services, reviews the service provided by Early Childhood Direction Centers, and outlines the role of local Committees on the…

  18. Hybrid Differential Evolution Optimisation for Earth Observation Satellite Scheduling with Time-Dependent Earliness-Tardiness Penalties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoliang Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the order acceptance and scheduling (OAS problem with time-dependent earliness-tardiness penalties in a single agile earth observation satellite environment where orders are defined by their release dates, available processing time windows ranging from earliest start date to deadline, processing times, due dates, sequence-dependent setup times, and revenues. The objective is to maximise total revenue, where the revenue from an order is a piecewise linear function of its earliness and tardiness with reference to its due date. We formulate this problem as a mixed integer linear programming model and develop a novel hybrid differential evolution (DE algorithm under self-adaptation framework to solve this problem. Compared with classical DE, hybrid DE employs two mutation operations, scaling factor adaptation and crossover probability adaptation. Computational tests indicate that the proposed algorithm outperforms classical DE in addition to two other variants of DE.

  19. Effects of early life trauma are dependent on genetic predisposition: a rat study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Vivienne A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trauma experienced early in life increases the risk of developing a number of psychological and/or behavioural disorders. It is unclear, however, how genetic predisposition to a behavioural disorder, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, modifies the long-term effects of early life trauma. There is substantial evidence from family and twin studies for susceptibility to ADHD being inherited, implying a strong genetic component to the disorder. In the present study we used an inbred animal model of ADHD, the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR, to investigate the long-term consequences of early life trauma on emotional behaviour in individuals predisposed to developing ADHD-like behaviour. Methods We applied a rodent model of early life trauma, maternal separation, to SHR and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY, the normotensive control strain from which SHR were originally derived. The effects of maternal separation (removal of pups from dam for 3 h/day during the first 2 weeks of life on anxiety-like behaviour (elevated-plus maze and depressive-like behaviour (forced swim test were assessed in prepubescent rats (postnatal day 28 and 31. Basal levels of plasma corticosterone were measured using radioimmunoassay. Results The effect of maternal separation on SHR and WKY differed in a number of behavioural measures. Similar to its reported effect in other rat strains, maternal separation increased the anxiety-like behaviour of WKY (decreased open arm entries but not SHR. Maternal separation increased the activity of SHR in the novel environment of the elevated plus-maze, while it decreased that of WKY. Overall, SHR showed a more active response in the elevated plus-maze and forced swim test than WKY, regardless of treatment, and were also found to have higher basal plasma corticosterone compared to WKY. Maternal separation increased basal levels of plasma corticosterone in SHR females only, possibly through adaptive

  20. Personality traits, age and sex as predictors for self-handicapping tendency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović Petar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-handicapping is one of the strategies people use when facing potential failure. Paper presents new scale for assessing self-handicapping tendency as relatively stable trait, as well as its relations with personality traits, sex and age. Self-handicapping questionnaire and shortened form of Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire were administered to 230 participants of both sexes, age 18 to 59. Confirmatory factor analysis shows that model with four latent dimensions, encompassed by a higher-order latent dimension, fits the data well. Those lower order dimensions correspond to originally created scales: External handicaps in interpersonal area, Internal handicaps in interpersonal area, Internal handicaps in achievement area and External handicaps in achievement area. Results of MANCOVA shows that Neuroticism is predictor of all dimensions of self- handicapping. Impulsive sensation seeking predicts choice of external handicaps in interpersonal area, as well as internal handicaps in achievement area. Latter is predicted also by low Activity. Younger subjects show significantly higher tendency to use internal handicaps, and men in general show more self-handicapping tendency than women, except in choosing internal handicaps in achievement area, where sex shows no significant effect.

  1. [Clinical Practice Guide for Early Detection, Diagnosis and Treatment of the Acute Intoxication Phase in Patients with Alcohol Abuse or Dependence: Part I: Screening, Early Detection and Risk Factors in Patients with Alcohol Abuse or Dependence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Espriella Guerrero, Ricardo; de la Hoz Bradford, Ana María; Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Zárate, Alina Uribe-Holguín; Menéndez, Miguel Cote; Barré, Michelle Cortés; Rentería, Ana María Cano; Hernández, Delia Cristina

    2012-12-01

    Worldwide, alcohol is the second most-used psychotropic substance and the third risk factor for early death and disability. Its noxious use is a world public health problem given its personal, labor, family, economic and social impact. 70 % of people under risk of having alcohol problems go undetected in medical practice, a fact that underlines the need for specific screening measures allowing early detection leading to timely treatment. This article presents evidence gathered by alcohol abuse and dependence screening as well as by risk factor identification and screening. It also presents evidence concerning withdrawal symptoms, delirium tremens and Wernicke's encephalopathy in order to promote early detection and timely treatment. Systematic revision of the evidence available together with an evaluation of pertinent guidelines found in literature so as to decide whether to adopt or adapt the existing recommendation for each question or to develop de novo recommendations. For de novo recommendations as well as those adapted, it was carried out an evidence synthesis, together with evidence tables and formulation of recommendations based on the evidence. Evidence was found and recommendations were made for the pertinent screening and search of risk factors, in order to perform a diagnosis and carry out a timely management of alcohol abuse, dependence and ensuing complications: withdrawal syndrome, delirium tremens and Wernicke's encephalopathy. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  2. Patterns of variability in early-life traits of fishes depend on spatial scale of analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Franco, Antonio; Guidetti, Paolo

    2011-06-23

    Estimates of early-life traits of fishes (e.g. pelagic larval duration (PLD) and spawning date) are essential for investigating and assessing patterns of population connectivity. Such estimates are available for a large number of both tropical and temperate fish species, but few studies have assessed their variability in space, especially across multiple scales. The present study, where a Mediterranean fish (i.e. the white seabream Diplodus sargus sargus) was used as a model, shows that spawning date and PLD are spatially more variable at a scale of kilometres than at a scale of tens to hundreds of kilometres. This study indicates the importance of considering spatial variability of early-life traits of fishes in order to properly delineate connectivity patterns at larval stages (e.g. by means of Lagrangian simulations), thus providing strategically useful information on connectivity and relevant management goals (e.g. the creation of networks of marine reserves).

  3. Characterisation of the fibroblast growth factor dependent transcriptome in early development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A Branney

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: FGF signaling has multiple roles in regulating processes in animal development, including the specification and patterning of the mesoderm. In addition, FGF signaling supports self renewal of human embryonic stem cells and is required for differentiation of murine embryonic stem cells into a number of lineages. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Given the importance of FGF signaling in regulating development and stem cell behaviour, we aimed to identify the transcriptional targets of FGF signalling during early development in the vertebrate model Xenopus laevis. We analysed the effects on gene expression in embryos in which FGF signaling was inhibited by dominant negative FGF receptors. 67 genes positively regulated by FGF signaling and 16 genes negatively regulated by FGF signaling were identified. FGF target genes are expressed in distinct waves during the late blastula to early gastrula phase. Many of these genes are expressed in the early mesoderm and dorsal ectoderm. A widespread requirement for FGF in regulating genes expressed in the Spemann organizer is revealed. The FGF targets MKP1 and DUSP5 are shown to be negative regulators of FGF signaling in early Xenopus tissues. FoxD3 and Lin28, which are involved in regulating pluripotency in ES cells are shown to be down regulated when FGF signaling is blocked. CONCLUSIONS: We have undertaken a detailed analysis of FGF target genes which has generated a robust, well validated data set. We have found a widespread role for FGF signaling in regulating the expression of genes mediating the function of the Spemann organizer. In addition, we have found that the FGF targets MKP1 and DUSP5 are likely to contribute to the complex feedback loops involved in modulating responses to FGF signaling. We also find a link between FGF signaling and the expression of known regulators of pluripotency.

  4. Early childhood experiences, parenting and the process of drug dependency among young people in Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirlashari, Jila; Demirkol, Apo; Salsali, Mahvash; Rafiey, Hassan; Jahanbani, Jahanfar

    2012-06-01

    Substance abuse has become a major public health problem in Iran. The process of developing an addiction is complex and multifaceted. Early childhood experiences are thought to be one of the important determinants of addictive behaviour. The aim of this qualitative study is to explore the early childhood experiences, especially the experiences within the immediate family, of current substance-using young adults in Iran. The study is qualitative in nature. In-depth interviews were conducted with 15 young men and women who were either in treatment for their addiction or were active drug users at the time of the interviews. Moreover, four interviews have been conducted with family members of participants. The majority of the participants experienced traumatic events during childhood and came from dysfunctional families. There appears to be a significant disconnect between these individuals and their families. An obedience-instilling parenting style and parents' knowledge and attitude toward drug using and prevention were also identified as important determinants of substance use. The results of this research point out the need for early interventions for at-risk families as well as at-risk individuals. © 2011 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  5. JUN dependency in distinct early and late BRAF inhibition adaptation states of melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titz, Bjoern; Lomova, Anastasia; Le, Allison; Hugo, Willy; Kong, Xiangju; ten Hoeve, Johanna; Friedman, Michael; Shi, Hubing; Moriceau, Gatien; Song, Chunying; Hong, Aayoung; Atefi, Mohammad; Li, Richard; Komisopoulou, Evangelia; Ribas, Antoni; Lo, Roger S; Graeber, Thomas G

    2016-01-01

    A prominent mechanism of acquired resistance to BRAF inhibitors in BRAFV600-mutant melanoma is associated with the upregulation of receptor tyrosine kinases. Evidences suggested that this resistance mechanism is part of a more complex cellular adaptation process. Using an integrative strategy, we found this mechanism to invoke extensive transcriptomic, (phospho-) proteomic and phenotypic alterations that accompany a cellular transition to a de-differentiated, mesenchymal and invasive state. Even short-term BRAF-inhibitor exposure leads to an early adaptive, differentiation state change—characterized by a slow-cycling, persistent state. The early persistent state is distinct from the late proliferative, resistant state. However, both differentiation states share common signaling alterations including JUN upregulation. Motivated by the similarities, we found that co-targeting of BRAF and JUN is synergistic in killing fully resistant cells; and when used up-front, co-targeting substantially impairs the formation of the persistent subpopulation. We confirmed that JUN upregulation is a common response to BRAF inhibitor treatment in clinically treated patient tumors. Our findings demonstrate that events shared between early- and late-adaptation states provide candidate up-front co-treatment targets. PMID:27648299

  6. [Dimensions of personality, attachment style and early maladaptive schemas in alcohol-dependent patients: Are there gender-specific differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camart, N; Cotte, M; Leignel, S; Bouvet, C; Limosin, F

    2016-12-01

    Literature reports particularities in certain psychological dimensions, such as personality traits, early maladaptive schemas and attachment styles among patients dependent on alcohol. Several international studies have also emphasized significant gender differences in psychological profiles. However, in France, only a few studies have dealt with this subject. Our aim was on the one hand to study the characteristics of alcohol-dependent patients in these variables, and on the other hand to search for gender differences. The personality dimensions were assessed with the French Big Five Inventory (Fr-BFI), the attachment style with Bartholomew's Relationship Scales Questionnaire (RSQ), and early maladaptive schemas with the short version of Young's questionnaire (YSQ-S1). Seventy-three subjects were included: 39 alcohol-dependent patients (19 men and 20 women) and 34 healthy control subjects (17 men and 17 women). The scores of alcohol-dependent patients were compared with those of a healthy control group (n=34, 17 men, 17 women) and available standards. We also compared the scores of men and women with alcohol dependence between them, and we compared the scores of men and women to those of the control group and those of the reference sample of the same sex. This is an ongoing study and we publish here the first results. Compared with control subjects, and the reference sample, alcohol-dependent patients showed significantly higher levels of neuroticism and lower levels of extraversion. Furthermore, differences in attachment styles were observed compared to the control group: alcohol-dependent patients presented a less secure attachment, seemed more fearful and detached, but the results remained within the normal standards. Compared to the control subjects, alcohol-dependent patients showed a significant increase in scores regarding many schemas: emotional deprivation, abandonment, abuse/mistrust, isolation, imperfection, dependence, symbiotic relationship

  7. Assessment of early renal allograft dysfunction with blood oxygenation level-dependent MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sung Yoon [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chan Kyo, E-mail: chankyokim@skku.edu [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Byung Kwan [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Ju; Lee, Sanghoon [Department of Surgery, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Huh, Wooseong [Department of Nephrology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • R2* and ADC in renal allografts are moderately correlated with eGFR. • R2* and ADC are lower in early allograft dysfunction than normal allograft function. • No significant difference between AR and ATN was found in both R2* and ADC. - Abstract: Purpose: To investigate blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) at 3 T for assessment of early renal allograft dysfunction. Materials and methods: 34 patients with a renal allograft (early dysfunction, 24; normal, 10) were prospectively enrolled. BOLD MRI and DWI were performed at 3 T. R2* and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were measured in cortex and medulla of the allografts. Correlation between R2* or ADC values and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was investigated. R2* or ADC values were compared among acute rejection (AR), acute tubular necrosis (ATN) and normal function. Results: In all renal allografts, cortical or medullary R2* and ADC values were moderately correlated with eGFR (P < 0.05). Early dysfunction group showed lower R2* and ADC values than normal function group (P < 0.05). AR or ATN had lower R2* values than normal allografts (P < 0.05), and ARs had lower cortical ADC values than normal allografts (P < 0.05). No significant difference of R2* or ADC values was found between AR and ATN (P > 0.05). Conclusion: BOLD MRI and DWI at 3 T may demonstrate early functional state of renal allografts, but may be limited in characterizing a cause of early renal allograft dysfunction. Further studies are needed.

  8. 老年人听力障碍筛查量表结合畸变产物耳声发射诊断早期老年性聋%Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly combined with Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emission testing in early diagnosis of presbycusis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷磊; 李剑挥; 王新; 李北成

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTo determine the value of the Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly (HHIE)-screening version and the Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions testing (DPOAE) in the diagnosis of early presbycusis. Methods Ninety-five elderly patients (51 males and 44 females, over 65 years old, with hearing loss for more than 1 year because of sensorineural hearing loss) admitted in the Hainan Branch of Chinese PLA General Hospital from May 2013 to October 2014 were enrolled in this study. The cohort underwent pure tone audiometry, acoustic impedance tests, DPOAE testing and was surveyed with hearing screening scale HHIE.Results For the 11 patients diagnosed as mild hearing loss by pure tone audiometry, their HHIE scored an average of (30.1±5.0) points, including 1 case≥43 points [as severe hearing impairment, accounting for 9.1% (1/11)], and the detection rate of DPOAE was 81.8%, with a threshold of (61.3±7.0) dB SPL. For the 23 patients of moderate hearing loss by pure tone audiometry, their HHIE scores were averagely (35.6±4.0) points, including 3 cases≥43 points [as severe hearing impairment, accounting for 13.0% (3/23)], and the detection rate of DPOAE was 78.3%, with a threshold of (68.3±5.0) dB SPL. For the 34 cases of moderately severe hearing loss by pure tone audiometry, their HHIE scored an average of (39.3±6.0) points, and 12 cases of them had≥43 points [as severe hearing impairment, accounting for 35.3% (12/34)], and their DPOAE detection rate was 52.9% with a threshold of (71.3±5.0) dB SPL. For the 18 cases of severe hearing loss by pure tone audiometry, their HHIE scored an average of (61.7±2.0) points, all of them were severe hearing impairment, and the DPOAE detection rate was 11.1% with a threshold of (80.4±3.0) dB SPL. For the 9 cases of extremely severe hearing loss by pure tone audiometry, their HHIE scores were (89.7±5.0) points in average, all of them were severe hearing impairment, and the DPOAE detection rate was 0

  9. Early Stimulation: A Joint Project Between Parents and Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Aminta J. Da Costa

    The coordinator of an early stimulation program for handicapped children in Curacao describes the program in terms of home teaching, use of the Portage Project curriculum, and the importance of parent-professional cooperation. (CL)

  10. Early Stimulation: A Joint Project Between Parents and Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Aminta J. Da Costa

    The coordinator of an early stimulation program for handicapped children in Curacao describes the program in terms of home teaching, use of the Portage Project curriculum, and the importance of parent-professional cooperation. (CL)

  11. Stage-dependent remodeling of the nuclear envelope and lamina during rabbit early embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popken, Jens; Schmid, Volker J; Strauss, Axel; Guengoer, Tuna; Wolf, Eckhard; Zakhartchenko, Valeri

    2016-04-22

    Utilizing 3D structured illumination microscopy, we investigated the quality and quantity of nuclear invaginations and the distribution of nuclear pores during rabbit early embryonic development and identified the exact time point of nucleoporin 153 (NUP153) association with chromatin during mitosis. Contrary to bovine early embryonic nuclei, featuring almost exclusively nuclear invaginations containing a small volume of cytoplasm, nuclei in rabbit early embryonic stages show additionally numerous invaginations containing a large volume of cytoplasm. Small-volume invaginations frequently emanated from large-volume nuclear invaginations but not vice versa, indicating a different underlying mechanism. Large- and small-volume nuclear envelope invaginations required the presence of chromatin, as they were restricted to chromatin-positive areas. The chromatin-free contact areas between nucleolar precursor bodies (NPBs) and large-volume invaginations were free of nuclear pores. Small-volume invaginations were not in contact with NPBs. The number of invaginations and isolated intranuclear vesicles per nucleus peaked at the 4-cell stage. At this stage, the nuclear surface showed highly concentrated clusters of nuclear pores surrounded by areas free of nuclear pores. Isolated intranuclear lamina vesicles were usually NUP153 negative. Cytoplasmic, randomly distributed NUP153-positive clusters were highly abundant at the zygote stage and decreased in number until they were almost absent at the 8-cell stage and later. These large NUP153 clusters may represent a maternally provided NUP153 deposit, but they were not visible as clusters during mitosis. Major genome activation at the 8- to 16-cell stage may mark the switch from a necessity for a deposit to on-demand production. NUP153 association with chromatin is initiated during metaphase before the initiation of the regeneration of the lamina. To our knowledge, the present study demonstrates for the first time major remodeling

  12. The Integration of the Handicapped into the Regular Classroom: Effects of Cooperative and Individualistic Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David W.; Johnson, Roger T.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of cooperative and individualistic learning experiences on interpersonal attraction between handicapped and nonhandicapped fourth graders were compared. Students were assigned to conditions on a stratified random basis controlling for handicap, ability, and sex. Cooperative experiences promoted more cross-handicapped interaction and…

  13. 13 CFR 113.3-3 - Structural accommodations for handicapped clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... handicapped clients. 113.3-3 Section 113.3-3 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION... ADMINISTRATOR General Provisions § 113.3-3 Structural accommodations for handicapped clients. (a) Existing... by handicapped clients. Where structural changes are necessary to make the recipient's goods...

  14. 48 CFR 552.238-70 - Identification of Electronic Office Equipment Providing Accessibility for the Handicapped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Electronic Office Equipment Providing Accessibility for the Handicapped. 552.238-70 Section 552.238-70... Equipment Providing Accessibility for the Handicapped. As prescribed in 538.273(a)(1), insert the following clause: Identification of Electronic Office Equipment Providing Accessibility for the Handicapped...

  15. 24 CFR 100.202 - General prohibitions against discrimination because of handicap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... discrimination because of handicap. 100.202 Section 100.202 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... Against Discrimination Because of Handicap § 100.202 General prohibitions against discrimination because of handicap. (a) It shall be unlawful to discriminate in the sale or rental, or to otherwise...

  16. 41 CFR 50-202.3 - Learners, student learners, apprentices, and handicapped workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Learners, student learners, apprentices, and handicapped workers. 50-202.3 Section 50-202.3 Public Contracts and Property... handicapped workers. Learners, student learners, apprentices, and handicapped workers may be employed at...

  17. 24 CFR 235.331 - Increased maximum mortgage amount for physically handicapped persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... for physically handicapped persons. 235.331 Section 235.331 Housing and Urban Development Regulations... maximum mortgage amount for physically handicapped persons. If the mortgage relates to a dwelling unit to be occupied by a handicapped person as defined in § 235.5(c)(2), the otherwise applicable...

  18. 38 CFR 17.152 - Devices to assist in overcoming the handicap of deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Devices to assist in overcoming the handicap of deafness. 17.152 Section 17.152 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT... in overcoming the handicap of deafness. Devices for assisting in overcoming the handicap of...

  19. Problems Faced by Physical Handicapped Students in Educational Institutions in District Kohat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Ishtiaq; Bashir, Muhammad; ud Din, Muhammad Naseer; Butt, Muhammad Naeem; Akhter, Shagufa; Inamullah, Hafiz

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore the problems faced by physical handicapped students in normal educational institutions and to find solutions to the problems faced by physical handicapped students. All the physical handicapped students studying in educational institutions in District Kohat constituted the population of the study. The study…

  20. Alcohol Dependence in Adult Children of Alcoholics: Longitudinal Evidence of Early Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennison, Karen M.; Johnson, Kenneth A.

    1998-01-01

    Investigates familial alcoholism effects and the comparative probability of risk that adult children of alcoholics have for alcohol dependence. Results, based on a national survey of 12,686 young adults over a five-year period, show that the risk for alcoholism is relatively greater for males than females. (MKA)

  1. ADHD as a Serious Risk Factor for Early Smoking and Nicotine Dependence in Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthies, Swantje; Holzner, Sebastian; Feige, Bernd; Scheel, Corinna; Perlov, Evgeniy; Ebert, Dieter; van Elst, Ludger Tebartz; Philipsen, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Tobacco smoking and ADHD frequently co-occur. So far, the bulk of research on the ADHD-smoking comorbidity has been done in children with ADHD and nonclinical adult samples. To assess smoking habits in adults with ADHD, the authors used the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND). Method: In 60 adult outpatients, with an ADHD…

  2. Provision of Early Intervention and Special Education Services to Eligible DoD Dependents. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-25

    This rule reissues the current regulations and: Establishes policy, assigns responsibilities, and implements the non-funding and non-reporting provisions in DoD for: Provision of early intervention services (EIS) to infants and toddlers with disabilities and their families, as well as special education and related services to children with disabilities entitled under this part to receive education services from the DoD; implementation of a comprehensive, multidisciplinary program of EIS for infants and toddlers with disabilities and their families who, but for age, are eligible to be enrolled in DoD schools; provision of a free appropriate public education (FAPE), including special education and related services, for children with disabilities, as specified in their individualized education programs (IEP), who are eligible to enroll in DoD schools; and monitoring of DoD programs providing EIS, and special education and related services for compliance with this part. This rule also establishes a DoD Coordinating Committee to recommend policies and provide compliance oversight for early intervention and special education.

  3. Experience-dependent hemispheric specialization of letters and numbers is revealed in early visual processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joonkoo; Chiang, Crystal; Brannon, Elizabeth M; Woldorff, Marty G

    2014-10-01

    Recent fMRI research has demonstrated that letters and numbers are preferentially processed in distinct regions and hemispheres in the visual cortex. In particular, the left visual cortex preferentially processes letters compared with numbers, whereas the right visual cortex preferentially processes numbers compared with letters. Because letters and numbers are cultural inventions and are otherwise physically arbitrary, such a double dissociation is strong evidence for experiential effects on neural architecture. Here, we use the high temporal resolution of ERPs to investigate the temporal dynamics of the neural dissociation between letters and numbers. We show that the divergence between ERP traces to letters and numbers emerges very early in processing. Letters evoked greater N1 waves (latencies 140-170 msec) than did numbers over left occipital channels, whereas numbers evoked greater N1s than letters over the right, suggesting letters and numbers are preferentially processed in opposite hemispheres early in visual encoding. Moreover, strings of letters, but not single letters, elicited greater P2 ERP waves (starting around 250 msec) than numbers did over the left hemisphere, suggesting that the visual cortex is tuned to selectively process combinations of letters, but not numbers, further along in the visual processing stream. Additionally, the processing of both of these culturally defined stimulus types differentiated from similar but unfamiliar visual stimulus forms (false fonts) even earlier in the processing stream (the P1 at 100 msec). These findings imply major cortical specialization processes within the visual system driven by experience with reading and mathematics.

  4. Tradeoff analysis for Dependable Real-Time Embedded Systems during the Early Design Phases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gan, Junhe

    Embedded systems are becoming increasingly complex and have tight competing constraints in terms of performance, cost, energy consumption, dependability, flexibility, security, etc. The objective of this thesis is to propose design methods and tools for supporting the tradeoff analysis of competing...... chance of being schedulable, considering the WCET uncertainties, whereas a flexible mapping has a high chance to successfully accommodate future functionality changes. We propose a Genetic Algorithm-based approach to solve this optimization problem. The proposed tradeoff analysis methods have been...

  5. Early PROMs following total knee arthroplasty--functional outcome dependent on patella resurfacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Paul N; Petheram, Timothy; Dowen, Daniel; Jameson, Simon S; Avery, Peter J; Reed, Mike R; Deehan, David J

    2014-02-01

    Patella resurfacing during primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) remains controversial. Variation in published results for patella resurfacing may potentially be explained by differences in design between TKA brands. We interrogated NJR-PROMs data to ascertain whether there is an early functional benefit to resurfacing the patella, both overall and for each of the five most popular primary knee designs through use of the Oxford Knee Score. A total of 8103 resurfaced TKAs and 15,290 nonresurfaced TKAs were studied. There was a large variation in the proportion of knees undergoing patella resurfacing by brand (Nexgen=16% versus Triathlon=52%). Patellar resurfacing did not significantly influence the magnitude of improvement in overall knee function or anterior knee-specific function irrespective of TKA brand or for cruciate retaining versus sacrificing designs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Sex-specific and strain-dependent effects of early life adversity on behavioral and epigenetic outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija eKundakovic

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Early life adversity can have a significant long-term impact with implications for the emergence of psychopathology. Disruption to mother-infant interactions is a form of early life adversity that may, in particular, have profound programming effects on the developing brain. However, despite converging evidence from human and animal studies, the precise mechanistic pathways underlying adversity-associated neurobehavioral changes has yet to be elucidated. One approach to the study of mechanism is exploration of epigenetic changes associated with early life experience. In the current study, we examined the effects of postnatal maternal separation in mice and assessed the behavioral, brain gene expression, and epigenetic effects of this manipulation in offspring. Importantly, we included two different mouse strains (B6 and Balb/c and both male and female offspring to determine strain- and/or sex-associated differential response to maternal separation. We found both strain-specific and sex-dependent effects of maternal separation in early adolescent offspring on measures on open-field exploration, sucrose preference, and social behavior. Analyses of cortical and hippocampal mRNA levels of the glucocorticoid receptor (Nr3c1 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf genes revealed decreased hippocampal Bdnf expression in maternally-separated B6 females and increased cortical Bdnf expression in maternally separated male and female Balb/c offspring. Analyses of Nr3c1and Bdnf (IV and IX CpG methylation indicated increased hippocampal Nr3c1 methylation in maternally separated B6 males and increased hippocampal Bdnf IX methylation in male and female maternally separated Balb/c mice. Overall, though effect sizes were modest, these findings suggest a complex interaction between early life adversity, genetic background, and sex in the determination of neurobehavioral and epigenetic outcomes that may account for differential vulnerability to later life

  7. Dairy calf pneumonia: Effective treatment depends on early and accurate diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panousis Nikolaos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Dairy calf pneumonia is one of the most economically important diseases of calves. A delayed diagnosis could result endemic herd problem, prolonged use of antibiotics, high recurrence rate, pulmonary abscessation and ear infections. The key for effective control is the early detection of pneumonia and the accurate diagnosis of the etiologic factor. For the early detection, a respiratory disease score was assigned based on rectal temperature, character of nasal discharge, eye discharge or ear appearance, and presence of a cough. Each clinical sign has a point scale from 0 (normal to 4 (severe. The respiratory disease score is the sum of points from the 4 categories of clinical signs, with increasing values representing progressive severity. The scoring system results in a minimum score of 0 and a maximum score of 12. Calves with score 5 or higher, having at least 2 clinical signs of respiratory disease, are considered sick and have to be treated. For the accurate diagnosis of the etiological agent the best tool in a live calf is bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid collection. Sampling of severely affected animals should be avoided. New acute cases are ideal. BAL is performed in sedated calves using a sterilized, flexible catheter with a 5-cc balloon cuff. The fresh BAL fluid sample is processed within 2 hours of collection or refrigerated until analysis. Part of the sample is used for microbiology and the remaining is submitted for cytology. BAL fluid that yields homogenous (>106 CFU/ml bacterial or positive Mycoplasma bovis culture is considered abnormal. A disproportionate lowering of macrophages (39% provides evidence of an inflammatory response with or without a positive culture. The ideal antibiotic selection would be based on the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of lung pathogens after BAL fluid culture.

  8. Dose-Dependent Early Life Stage Toxicities in Xenopus laevis Exposed In Ovo to Selenium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massé, Anita J; Muscatello, Jorgelina R; Janz, David M

    2015-11-17

    Selenium (Se) is a developmental toxicant in oviparous vertebrates. The adverse reproductive effects of Se toxicity have been predominantly investigated in fishes and birds with only a few studies focusing on amphibians. The objective of this study was to determine tissue-based toxicity thresholds for early life stage Se toxicities in Xenopus laevis as a consequence of in ovo exposure through maternal transfer of dietary Se. Following a 68-day dietary exposure to food augmented with l-selenomethionine (SeMet) at measured concentrations of 0.7 (control), 10.9, 30.4, or 94.2 μg Se/g dry mass (d.m.), adult female X. laevis were bred with untreated males, and resulting embryos were incubated until 5 days postfertilization (dpf). The measured Se concentrations in eggs were 1.6, 10.8, 28.1, and 81.7 μg Se/g d.m., respectively. No biologically significant effects were observed on fertilization success, hatchability, or mortality in offspring. Frequency and severity of morphological abnormalities were significantly greater in 5 dpf tadpoles from the highest exposure group when compared to the control, with eye lens abnormalities being the most prominent of all abnormalities. The estimated EC10 value for frequency of total early life stage abnormalities was 44.9 μg Se/g egg d.m., which suggests that this amphibian species is less sensitive to in ovo Se exposure than most of the fish species studied to date.

  9. CO2-level Dependent Effects of Ocean Acidification on Squid, Doryteuthis pealeii, Early Life History

    KAUST Repository

    Zakroff, Casey J.

    2013-12-01

    Ocean acidification is predicted to lead to global oceanic decreases in pH of up to 0.3 units within the next 100 years. However, those levels are already being reached currently in coastal regions due to natural CO2 variability. Squid are a vital component of the pelagic ecosystem, holding a unique niche as a highly active predatory invertebrate and major prey stock for upper trophic levels. This study examined the effects of a range of ocean acidification regimes on the early life history of a coastal squid species, the Atlantic longfin squid, Doryteuthis pealeii. Eggs were raised in a flow-through ocean acidification system at CO2 levels ranging from ambient (400ppm) to 2200ppm. Time to hatching, hatching efficiency, and hatchling mantle lengths, yolk sac sizes, and statoliths were all examined to elucidate stress effects. Delays in hatching time of at least a day were seen at exposures above 1300ppm in all trials under controlled conditions. Mantle lengths were significantly reduced at exposures above 1300 ppm. Yolk sac sizes varied between CO2 treatments, but no distinct pattern emerged. Statoliths were increasingly porous and malformed as CO2 exposures increased, and were significantly reduced in surface area at exposures above 1300ppm. Doryteuthis pealeii appears to be able to withstand acidosis stress without major effects up to 1300ppm, but is strongly impacted past that threshold. Since yolk consumption did not vary among treatments, it appears that during its early life stages, D. pealeii reallocates its available energy budget away from somatic growth and system development in order to mitigate the stress of acidosis.

  10. Psychosocial Characteristics of Preschool Siblings of Handicapped and Nonhandicapped Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobato, Debra; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The study examined psychosocial characteristics of 24 siblings of handicapped children (ages 3-7) in relation to a control group of 22 siblings of nonhandicapped children. Results indicated no statistically significant differences between groups on measures of perceived self-competence and acceptance, understanding of developmental disabilities,…

  11. A Model of Services for Young Handicapped Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelinek, Janis A.

    1985-01-01

    The paper describes a model of services for 38 infants and young children whose primary handicap was a communication disorder or for whom a communication disorder was a related problem. Data indicated that the model was effective in producing child growth in receptive and expressive language, as well as other developmental areas. (Author/CL)

  12. The Doman-Delacato Treatment of Neurologically Handicapped Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exceptional Parent, 1983

    1983-01-01

    The policy statement of the American Academy of Pediatrics on the Doman-Delacato approach to treating children with neurological handicaps cites lack of reseach support for the method and concludes that its demands may overburden families without achieving progress that would not be accounted for by growth and development. (CL)

  13. Signal modulation as a mechanism for handicap disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavassa, Sat; Silva, Ana C.; Gonzalez, Emmanuel; Stoddard, Philip K.

    2012-01-01

    Signal honesty may be compromised when heightened competition provides incentive for signal exaggeration. Some degree of honesty might be maintained by intrinsic handicap costs on signalling or through imposition of extrinsic costs, such as social punishment of low quality cheaters. Thus, theory predicts a delicate balance between signal enhancement and signal reliability that varies with degree of social competition, handicap cost, and social cost. We investigated whether male sexual signals of the electric fish Brachyhypopomus gauderio would become less reliable predictors of body length when competition provides incentives for males to boost electric signal amplitude. As expected, social competition under natural field conditions and in controlled lab experiments drove males to enhance their signals. However, signal enhancement improved the reliability of the information conveyed by the signal, as revealed in the tightening of the relationship between signal amplitude and body length. Signal augmentation in male B. gauderio was independent of body length, and thus appeared not to be curtailed through punishment of low quality (small) individuals. Rather, all individuals boosted their signals under high competition, but those whose signals were farthest from the predicted value under low competition boosted signal amplitude the most. By elimination, intrinsic handicap cost of signal production, rather than extrinsic social cost, appears to be the basis for the unexpected reinforcement of electric signal honesty under social competition. Signal modulation may provide its greatest advantage to the signaller as a mechanism for handicap disposal under low competition rather than as a mechanism for exaggeration of quality under high competition. PMID:22665940

  14. Teaching Moderately Handicapped Students to Play Tee-Ball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson-Pierce, Ann; Kohl, Frances L.

    1986-01-01

    A tee-ball training program was implemented in an integrated educational setting to provide two moderately handicapped elementary students with a wide range of age-appropriate leisure activities. Possible adaptations are described in terms of playing space, skill sequence, rules, and materials. (CL)

  15. Handicap, beskæftigelse og uddannelse i 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Malene Rode; Larsen, Mona

    Denne rapport afdækker, hvor stor en del af den danske befolkning i alderen 16 til 64 år, der har et handicap eller et længerevarende helbredsproblem. I forlængelse heraf undersøger rapporten en lang række forhold relateret til denne gruppes tilknytning til arbejdsmarkedet. Rapporten belyser for ...

  16. Demographic and audiological factors as predictors of hearing handicap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leposavić Ljubica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Currently available evidence reveals comparatively few studies of psychological effects of hearing impairments, in spite of the fact that clinicians have for a long time been aware of a connection between the acquired hearing impairment and mental disorders. They are focused on the investigation of dysfunction in general. Thus, three domains of the auditory imbalance may be distinguished: disorder, disability and handicap. 'Handicap', according to the definition of the World Health Organization, is a hindrance in an individual that results from an impairment or disability and represents psychological response of the individual to the impairment. OBJECTIVE Validation of acquired hearing impairment as a risk factor of psychical disorders as well as an analysis of relation of some demographic factors (sex, age, education and audiological factors (degree and duration of the impairment with the frequency of hearing handicap. METHOD MMPI-201 has been applied in 60 subjects affected with otosclerosis, potential candidates for stapedectomy, before and after the surgery. RESULTS Individuals with acquired hearing impairment manifest more frequent disorders of psychical functioning in comparison with general population, while demographic and audiometric parameters did not correlate with acquired hearing handicap. CONCLUSION It may be assumed that the very recognition of demographic and audio-logical factors can not help much in the understanding of the psychological stress associated with hearing impairment.

  17. Educable Mentally Handicapped - Programs: Exceptional Child Bibliography Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council for Exceptional Children, Reston, VA. Information Center on Exceptional Children.

    One in a series of over 50 similar listings relating to handicapped and gifted children, the bibliography contains 100 references selected from Exceptional Child Education Abstracts concerning programs for the educable mentally retarded. Bibliographic data, availability information, indexing and retrieval descriptors, and an abstract are included…

  18. Vocational Education of Handicapped Students: A Guide for Policy Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Sharon; Ward, Michael

    Designed to assist state and local educational agencies and intermeidate educational units in developing administrative policies for the vocational education of handicapped students, the manual address present policy areas and administrative concerns. Guidelines are presented for policy development in the following nine areas (examples of…

  19. Relaxation Techniques for Handicapped Children: A Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipkin, Dvora

    1985-01-01

    The paper discusses four major relaxation training approaches used with handicapped children: progressive muscle relaxation, biofeedback, yoga, and mental relaxation, which includes guided fantasy, imagery, and meditation. Descriptions of these techniques, the effects of their use with various populations, and reviews of recent studies of their…

  20. Employment Rights of Handicapped Individuals: Statutory and Judicial Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaro, Toni M.

    1978-01-01

    Analyzes existing legislation, regulations, and case law interpreting statutory mandates to provide a survey of the current status of employment rights for the handicapped. Suggests an administrative framework to alleviate weaknesses in existing governmental programs. Available from Marshall-Wythe School of Law of the College of William and Mary,…

  1. Synchronic Distance Education from the Perspective of a Handicapped Person

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karal, Hasan; Cebi, Ayca; Turgut, Yigit Emrah

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays knowledge and communication technologies are developing rapidly and changing people's lives. With the help of the developing technologies, people can access knowledge independent of time and place and distance education technologies offer handicapped students a range of opportunities in order that they may access a better level of…

  2. The Focus of Attention Is on the Handicapped College Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitsev, D. V.

    2010-01-01

    As a social institution, higher education constitutes one of the most important factors that enable an individual's mobility. In the past few years, both specialists and the broader public have been addressing the problem of how people with health limitations and handicaps can acquire an education. In part this is because society and the state…

  3. Some Personality Characteristics of Self-Handicapping Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levey, Cathy A.

    Based on a modification of Berglas and Jones' (1978) design, conditions of contingent and noncontingent success and failure were manipulated to determine when and why individuals choose to adopt self-handicapping strategies. Male undergraduates (N=76) were informed that they were participating in a study investigating the effects of music on…

  4. Classroom Centers for Multiple Handicapped Children 1972-1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigsby, Camilla

    The Classroom Centers for Multiple Handicapped Children were designed to provide profoundly retarded children with instructional programs meeting individual needs. In addition to the educational and training components of the program, speech and physical therapy services were also included. Seven classroom centers served approximately 56 children…

  5. Cognitive-Behavioral Training in Spelling for Learning Handicapped Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Michael M.; Hall, Robert J.

    1989-01-01

    Development of effective cognitive-behavioral training approaches for students with learning handicaps in academic domains, such as spelling, requires greater concern for teachers' knowledge of the academic domain, as well as their pedagogical expertise in finely and precisely adjusting their instructional use of language to communicate that…

  6. Orthopaedically Handicapped Students in Public and Private High Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, James F.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Orthopedically handicapped (OH, N=353) twelfth graders were compared to a control group. Blacks were under-represented in the OH cohort, and OH students had a higher incidence of other impairments. Academically the OH teenagers performed competitively with classmates, though they experienced difficulties in self-esteem, locus of contrtol, and…

  7. Exceptional Children Conference Papers: Education of the Educable Mentally Handicapped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council for Exceptional Children, Arlington, VA.

    Nine conference papers focus on education of educable mentally handicapped (EMH) children. A prototype evaluation of procedures for teaching reading comprehension involves assessment of 96 EMH or normal students' skills in identifying main and supporting ideas in connected discourse. Described is the Lincoln School's behavioral management system…

  8. Curricular Guidelines for Dental Hygiene Care for the Handicapped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1984

    1984-01-01

    The American Association of Dental Schools' guidelines for dental hygiene curriculum cover the scope and definitions of care for the handicapped, interrelationships between disciplines and courses, a curriculum overview, primary educational goals, prerequisites, a core content outline, specific behavioral objectives, sequencing, faculty, and…

  9. Swimming for the Handicapped: A Manual for the Aide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, Louise

    Presented is the American National Red Cross Swimming for the Handicapped Program manual designed for volunteer aides. The program's aims, scope, and value are described in the introduction. It is noted that the nonswimming aides can play a vital role in transportation, dressing room assistance, record keeping, and as safety assistants, while…

  10. Using Your Daily Newspaper to Teach the Mentally Handicapped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Mee Quai P.

    One of a series prepared by the Hawaii Newspaper Agency, this teaching guide offers suggestions on using the newspaper to teach the mentally handicapped. Classroom activities include the use of graffiti, pictures, comics, color, and charts, as well as speech activities, debate issues, history, creative or make up contests, anthropology,…

  11. The handicap principle and the argument of subversion from within

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baron, Christian

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the very disparate positions that various actors have taken towards the argument of subversion from within (a classical argument against the evolution of altruism by group selection) in a set of related debates on group selection, altruism and the handicap principle. Using thi...

  12. Educational Technology for the Severely Handicapped: A Comprehensive Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Debby, Comp.; And Others

    The bibliography presents approximately 650 references (1955-1975) on educational programs for the severely handicapped. Citations are listed alphabetically by author's name in the following areas: behavior management, curriculum guides, medico-prosthetic aids, motor development, parent training (including aspects of parent involvement in school…

  13. Sygemeldte og førtidspensionister med handicap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørslev, Mette Kirstine; Weibel, Kristina; Høgelund, Jan

    2010-01-01

    sygedagpengemodtagere og førtidspensionister med handicap igangsat af Vidensnetværket, som er forankret i Danske Handicaporganisationer. Arbejdspapiret er udarbejdet af forskningsassistent, cand.mag. (antropologi) Mette Kristine Tørslev, forskningsassistent, cand.scient.soc. Kristina Weibel og seniorforsker, cand...

  14. Voice-controlled Internet Browsing for Motor-handicapped Users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndsted, Tom; Aaskoven, Erik

    2006-01-01

    with an advisory board of motor-handicapped (potential) end-users and underlies a number of a priori defined design criteria: learnability and memorability rather than naturalness, minimal need for maintenance after release, support for "all" web standards (not just HTML conforming to certain "recommendations...

  15. Videophone to improve communication between intellectual handicapped and their relatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deverson, Melinda M.C.E.; Spil, Antonius A.M.; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the use of a videophone by people with an intellectual handicap and their relatives at a healthcare organisation in the Netherlands. A triangulation of methods is used. The first method was a questionnaire (pre-study) were 195 clients and 439 client

  16. Early survival factor deprivation in the olfactory epithelium enhances activity-dependent survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien eFrançois

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The neuronal olfactory epithelium undergoes permanent renewal because of environmental aggression. This renewal is partly regulated by factors modulating the level of neuronal apoptosis. Among them, we had previously characterized endothelin as neuroprotective. In this study, we explored the effect of cell survival factor deprivation in the olfactory epithelium by intranasal delivery of endothelin receptors antagonists to rat pups. This treatment induced an overall increase of apoptosis in the olfactory epithelium. The responses to odorants recorded by electroolfactogram were decreased in treated animal, a result consistent with a loss of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs. However, the treated animal performed better in an olfactory orientation test based on maternal odor compared to non-treated littermates. This improved performance could be due to activity-dependent neuronal survival of OSNs in the context of increased apoptosis level. In order to demonstrate it, we odorized pups with octanal, a known ligand for the rI7 olfactory receptor (Olr226. We quantified the number of OSN expressing rI7 by RT-qPCR and whole mount in situ hybridization. While this number was reduced by the survival factor removal treatment, this reduction was abolished by the presence of its ligand. This improved survival was optimal for low concentration of odorant and was specific for rI7-expressing OSNs. Meanwhile, the number of rI7-expressing OSNs was not affected by the odorization in non-treated littermates; showing that the activity-dependant survival of OSNs did not affect the OSN population during the 10 days of odorization in control conditions. Overall, our study shows that when apoptosis is promoted in the olfactory mucosa, the activity-dependent neuronal plasticity allows faster tuning of the olfactory sensory neuron population towards detection of environmental odorants.

  17. Cucumber seedling dependence on cotyledonary leaves for early growth Dependência das folhas cotiledonares para o crescimento inicial de pepino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilson Antônio Bisognin

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the dependence of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. seedlings on cotyledonary leaves for early growth and establishment. Sets of two uniform emerging seedlings were used to quantify the initial growth and dry matter accumulation, as well as the intensity and stage of cotyledon damage in seedling establishment and to determine cotyledon protein, amino acid and carbohydrate contributions to the growing seedling. Cucumber seedling establishment was found to be highly dependent on cotyledonary leaves. Root system establishment was highly dependent on the health of the aerial part. One cotyledon was enough to maintain aerial growth of seedlings after unfolding the first true leaf. Cucumber seedlings depended on both cotyledons to keep root system growth at least until leaf area was equivalent to cotyledon area. Covering one or both cotyledons of seedlings with one unfolded leaf increased carbohydrate content of uncovered cotyledon and leaves compared with control seedlings. Cucumber seedlings are highly dependent on cotyledonary leaves and aerial parts are less dependent than root system. Cotyledon damage at early stages of plant establishment would adversely impact crop yield by reducing plant density, an important yield component, or slowing down seedling growth and establishment.O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o desempenho das folhas cotiledonares no crescimento inicial e estabelecimento de plântulas de pepino (Cucumis sativus L.. Grupos de duas plântulas uniformemente emergidas foram utilizados para quantificar o crescimento inicial e acúmulo de matéria seca, o efeito da intensidade e época de remoção dos cotilédones sobre o estabelecimento da plântula, e a contribuição de proteínas, aminoácidos e carboidratos dos cotilédones para o crescimento inicial. O estabelecimento das plântulas de pepino foi altamente dependente das folhas cotiledonares. As folhas cotiledonares foram fundamentais

  18. Early predictors of narcotics-dependent patients in the emergency department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Che Lee

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available It is not unusual that narcotics-dependent patients fulfill their medical requirements in the emergency department (ED. The behavior of these patients varies, and their manifestations and predictors are still not fully studied. We performed this retrospective study by prospectively collecting data on patients with suspected drug dependence who were undiagnosed at first and then treated for some kind of reported pain at the ED. Patients who were confirmed to have narcotics dependence were compared with control patients in a ratio of 1:3 matching for age, gender, disease, and clinical diagnoses. From January 2006 to October 2009, 26 of 223 patients treated for pain were found to be drug dependent (12 males and 14 females. The average dose of narcotics used was higher than the control group [3.23 ± 1.14 vs. 1.12 ± 0.36, p < 0.001, confidence interval (CI: 1.648–2.583]. Numbers of patients making unscheduled returns to the ED within 24 hours were significant [24/26 vs. 8/78, p ≤ 0.001, odds ratio (OR 105.00, 95% CI 20.834–529.175]. In addition, patients showing aggressive attitudes were significant (17/26 vs. 2/78, p < 0.001, OR 71.78, 95% CI 14.206–362.663. In the case group, six of them told the physician that they were allergic to medicines other than the particular one they wanted, and three of the six presented injuries that were reported to be in the same (or repeated place for unscheduled returns, which were not found in the control group. In this study, some behaviors were commonly observed in the at-risk group. These patients were prone to manifest some types of symptoms and behaviors, such as uncontrolled pain with three doses of analgesics, aggressive attitude, returning to the ED within 24 hours with the complaint of the same severe pain, repeating the same injury, claiming allergy to other analgesics, and asking for certain analgesics. All these behaviors should alert the physician to suspect a drug-seeking problem.

  19. Early days of DNA repair: discovery of nucleotide excision repair and homology-dependent recombinational repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, W Dean

    2013-12-13

    The discovery of nucleotide excision repair in 1964 showed that DNA could be repaired by a mechanism that removed the damaged section of a strand and replaced it accurately by using the remaining intact strand as the template. This result showed that DNA could be actively metabolized in a process that had no precedent. In 1968, experiments describing postreplication repair, a process dependent on homologous recombination, were reported. The authors of these papers were either at Yale University or had prior Yale connections. Here we recount some of the events leading to these discoveries and consider the impact on further research at Yale and elsewhere.

  20. Regulation of cap-dependent translation initiation in the early stage porcine parthenotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susor, Andrej; Jelínková, Lucie; Karabínová, Pavla; Torner, Helmut; Tomek, Wolfgang; Kovárová, Hana; Kubelka, Michal

    2008-12-01

    The binding of mRNAs to ribosomes is mediated by the protein complex eIF4F in conjunction with eIF4B (eukaryotic initiation factor 4F and 4B). EIF4F is a three subunit complex consisting of eIF4A (RNA helicase), eIF4E (mRNA cap binding protein), and eIF4G (bridging protein). The crucial role is played by eIF4E, which directly binds the 5'-cap structure of the mRNA and facilitates the recruitment to the mRNA of other translation factors and the 40S ribosomal subunit. EIF4E binding to mRNA and to other initiation factors is regulated on several levels, including its phosphorylation on Ser-209, and association with its regulatory protein 4E-binding protein (4E-BP1). In this study we document that both the translation initiation factor eIF4E and its regulator 4E-BP1 become dephosphorylated in the early stage porcine zygotes already 8 hr post-activation. Similarly, the activities of ERK1/2 MAP and Mnk1 kinases, which are both involved in eIF4E phosphorylation, gradually decrease during this period with the timing similar to that of eIF4E dephosphorylation. The formation of an active eIF4F complex is also diminished after 9-15 hr post-activation, although substantial amounts of this complex have been detected also 24 hr post-activation (2-cell stage). The overall protein synthesis in the parthenotes decreases gradually from 12 hr post-activation reaching a minimum after 48 hr (4-cell stage). Although the translation is gradually decreasing during early preimplantation development, the eIF4F complex, which is temporarily formed, might be a premise for the translation of a small subset of mRNAs at this period of development.

  1. Context-dependent impact of presuppositions on early magnetic brain responses during speech perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertrich, Ingo; Kirsten, Mareike; Tiemann, Sonja; Beck, Sigrid; Wühle, Anja; Ackermann, Hermann; Rolke, Bettina

    2015-10-01

    Discourse structure enables us to generate expectations based upon linguistic material that has already been introduced. The present magnetoencephalography (MEG) study addresses auditory perception of test sentences in which discourse coherence was manipulated by using presuppositions (PSP) that either correspond or fail to correspond to items in preceding context sentences with respect to uniqueness and existence. Context violations yielded delayed auditory M50 and enhanced auditory M200 cross-correlation responses to syllable onsets within an analysis window of 1.5s following the PSP trigger words. Furthermore, discourse incoherence yielded suppression of spectral power within an expanded alpha band ranging from 6 to 16Hz. This effect showed a bimodal temporal distribution, being significant in an early time window of 0.0-0.5s following the PSP trigger and a late interval of 2.0-2.5s. These findings indicate anticipatory top-down mechanisms interacting with various aspects of bottom-up processing during speech perception.

  2. Helicobacter pylori cag-Pathogenicity island-dependent early immunological response triggers later precancerous gastric changes in Mongolian gerbils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Wiedemann

    Full Text Available Infection with Helicobacter pylori, carrying a functional cag type IV secretion system (cag-T4SS to inject the Cytotoxin associated antigen (CagA into gastric cells, is associated with an increased risk for severe gastric diseases in humans. Here we studied the pathomechanism of H. pylori and the role of the cag-pathogenicity island (cag-PAI for the induction of gastric ulcer and precancerous conditions over time (2-64 weeks using the Mongolian gerbil model. Animals were challenged with H. pylori B128 (WT, or an isogenic B128DeltacagY mutant-strain that produces CagA, but is unable to translocate it into gastric cells. H. pylori colonization density was quantified in antrum and corpus mucosa separately. Paraffin sections were graded for inflammation and histological changes verified by immunohistochemistry. Physiological and inflammatory markers were quantitated by RIA and RT-PCR, respectively. An early cag-T4SS-dependent inflammation of the corpus mucosa (4-8 weeks occurred only in WT-infected animals, resulting in a severe active and chronic gastritis with a significant increase of proinflammatory cytokines, mucous gland metaplasia, and atrophy of the parietal cells. At late time points only WT-infected animals developed hypochlorhydria and hypergastrinemia in parallel to gastric ulcers, gastritis cystica profunda, and focal dysplasia. The early cag-PAI-dependent immunological response triggers later physiological and histopathological alterations towards gastric malignancies.

  3. IL-4 receptor-alpha-dependent control of Cryptococcus neoformans in the early phase of pulmonary infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Grahnert

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that causes lung inflammation and meningoencephalitis in immunocompromised people. Previously we showed that mice succumb to intranasal infection by induction of pulmonary interleukin (IL-4Rα-dependent type 2 immune responses, whereas IL-12-dependent type 1 responses confer resistance. In the experiments presented here, IL-4Rα⁻/⁻ mice unexpectedly show decreased fungal control early upon infection with C. neoformans, whereas wild-type mice are able to control fungal growth accompanied by enhanced macrophage and dendritic cell recruitment to the site of infection. Lower pulmonary recruitment of macrophages and dendritic cells in IL-4Rα⁻/⁻ mice is associated with reduced pulmonary expression of CCL2 and CCL20 chemokines. Moreover, IFN-γ and nitric oxide production are diminished in IL-4Rα⁻/⁻ mice compared to wild-type mice. To directly study the potential mechanism(s responsible for reduced production of IFN-γ, conventional dendritic cells were stimulated with C. neoformans in the presence of IL-4 which results in increased IL-12 production and reduced IL-10 production. Together, a beneficial role of early IL-4Rα signaling is demonstrated in pulmonary cryptococcosis, which contrasts with the well-known IL-4Rα-mediated detrimental effects in the late phase.

  4. Self-Assessed Hearing Handicap in Older Adults with Poorer-than-Predicted Speech Recognition in Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Mark A.; Matthews, Lois J.; Dubno, Judy R.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Even older adults with relatively mild hearing loss report hearing handicap, suggesting that hearing handicap is not completely explained by reduced speech audibility. Method: We examined the extent to which self-assessed ratings of hearing handicap using the Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly (HHIE; Ventry & Weinstein, 1982)…

  5. Self-Assessed Hearing Handicap in Older Adults with Poorer-than-Predicted Speech Recognition in Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Mark A.; Matthews, Lois J.; Dubno, Judy R.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Even older adults with relatively mild hearing loss report hearing handicap, suggesting that hearing handicap is not completely explained by reduced speech audibility. Method: We examined the extent to which self-assessed ratings of hearing handicap using the Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly (HHIE; Ventry & Weinstein, 1982)…

  6. Metabolic plasticity during mammalian development is directionally dependent on early nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluckman, Peter D; Lillycrop, Karen A; Vickers, Mark H; Pleasants, Anthony B; Phillips, Emma S; Beedle, Alan S; Burdge, Graham C; Hanson, Mark A

    2007-07-31

    Developmental plasticity in response to environmental cues can take the form of polyphenism, as for the discrete morphs of some insects, or of an apparently continuous spectrum of phenotype, as for most mammalian traits. The metabolic phenotype of adult rats, including the propensity to obesity, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperphagia, shows plasticity in response to prenatal nutrition and to neonatal administration of the adipokine leptin. Here, we report that the effects of neonatal leptin on hepatic gene expression and epigenetic status in adulthood are directionally dependent on the animal's nutritional status in utero. These results demonstrate that, during mammalian development, the direction of the response to one cue can be determined by previous exposure to another, suggesting the potential for a discontinuous distribution of environmentally induced phenotypes, analogous to the phenomenon of polyphenism.

  7. COORDINATING SERVICES FOR HANDICAPPED CHILDREN, A REPORT OF THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE ON SERVICES FOR HANDICAPPED CHILDREN AND YOUTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KURREN, OSCAR; OBERMANN, C. ESCO

    THE REPORT AND ITS GUIDELINES SUMMARIZE VIEWS EXPRESSED IN SEVERAL PAPERS AND CONFERENCES SPONSORED BY THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE ON SERVICES FOR HANDICAPPED CHILDREN AND YOUTH. THE PURPOSES OF THE INSTITUTE ARE DEFINED. GUIDELINES DEVELOPED BY PRELIMINARY COMMITTEES AND REFINED BY CONFERENCES COVER FIVE AREAS--COOPERATION AMONG VOLUNTARY…

  8. An analysis of peak pelvis rotation speed, gluteus maximus and medius strength in high versus low handicap golfers during the golf swing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaway, Sarahann; Glaws, Kate; Mitchell, Melissa; Scerbo, Heather; Voight, Michael; Sells, Pat

    2012-06-01

    The kinematic sequence of the golf swing is an established principle that occurs in a proximal-to-distal pattern with power generation beginning with rotation of the pelvis. Few studies have correlated the influence of peak pelvis rotation to the skill level of the golfer. Furthermore, minimal research exists on the strength of the gluteal musculature and their ability to generate power during the swing. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between peak pelvis rotation, gluteus medius and gluteus maximus strength, and a golfer's handicap. 56 healthy subjects. Each subject was assessed using a hand-held dynamometry device per standardized protocol to determine gluteus maximus and medius strength. The K-vest was placed on the subject with electromagnetic sensors at the pelvis, upper torso, and gloved lead hand to measure the rotational speed at each segment in degrees/second. After K-vest calibration and 5 practice swings, each subject hit 5 golf balls during which time, the sensors measured pelvic rotation speed. A one-way ANOVA was performed to determine the relationships between peak pelvis rotation, gluteus medius and gluteus maximus strength, and golf handicap. A significant difference was found between the following dependent variables and golf handicap: peak pelvis rotation (p=0.000), gluteus medius strength (p=0.000), and gluteus maximus strength (p=0.000). Golfers with a low handicap are more likely to have increased pelvis rotation speed as well as increased gluteus maximus and medius strength when compared to high handicap golfers. The relationships between increased peak pelvis rotation and gluteus maximus and medius strength in low handicap golfers may have implications in designing golf training programs. Further research needs to be conducted in order to further explore these relationships.

  9. Dependence of Early and Late Chromosomal Aberrations on Radiation Quality and Cell Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tao; Zhang, Ye; Krieger, Stephanie; Yeshitla, Samrawit; Goss, Rosalin; Bowler, Deborah; Kadhim, Munira; Wilson, Bobby; Rohde, Larry; Wu, Honglu

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to radiation induces different types of DNA damage, increases mutation and chromosome aberration rates, and increases cellular transformation in vitro and in vivo. The susceptibility of cells to radiation depends on genetic background and growth condition of cells, as well as types of radiation. Mammalian cells of different tissue types and with different genetic background are known to have different survival rate and different mutation rate after cytogenetic insults. Genomic instability, induced by various genetic, metabolic, and environmental factors including radiation, is the driving force of tumorigenesis. Accurate measurements of the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) is important for estimating radiation-related risks. To further understand genomic instability induced by charged particles and their RBE, we exposed human lymphocytes ex vivo, human fibroblast AG1522, human mammary epithelial cells (CH184B5F5/M10), and bone marrow cells isolated from CBA/CaH(CBA) and C57BL/6 (C57) mice to high energy protons and Fe ions. Normal human fibroblasts AG1522 have apparently normal DNA damage response and repair mechanisms, while mammary epithelial cells (M10) are deficient in the repair of DNA DSBs. Mouse strain CBA is radio-sensitive while C57 is radio-resistant. Metaphase chromosomes at different cell divisions after radiation exposure were collected and chromosome aberrations were analyzed as RBE for different cell lines exposed to different radiations at various time points up to one month post irradiation.

  10. Recurrence quantification analysis and support vector machines for golf handicap and low back pain EMG classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luís; Vaz, João Rocha; Castro, Maria António; Serranho, Pedro; Cabri, Jan; Pezarat-Correia, Pedro

    2015-08-01

    The quantification of non-linear characteristics of electromyography (EMG) must contain information allowing to discriminate neuromuscular strategies during dynamic skills. There are a lack of studies about muscle coordination under motor constrains during dynamic contractions. In golf, both handicap (Hc) and low back pain (LBP) are the main factors associated with the occurrence of injuries. The aim of this study was to analyze the accuracy of support vector machines SVM on EMG-based classification to discriminate Hc (low and high handicap) and LBP (with and without LPB) in the main phases of golf swing. For this purpose recurrence quantification analysis (RQA) features of the trunk and the lower limb muscles were used to feed a SVM classifier. Recurrence rate (RR) and the ratio between determinism (DET) and RR showed a high discriminant power. The Hc accuracy for the swing, backswing, and downswing were 94.4±2.7%, 97.1±2.3%, and 95.3±2.6%, respectively. For LBP, the accuracy was 96.9±3.8% for the swing, and 99.7±0.4% in the backswing. External oblique (EO), biceps femoris (BF), semitendinosus (ST) and rectus femoris (RF) showed high accuracy depending on the laterality within the phase. RQA features and SVM showed a high muscle discriminant capacity within swing phases by Hc and by LBP. Low back pain golfers showed different neuromuscular coordination strategies when compared with asymptomatic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Comparability and conversion of Stimmstörungsindex (SSI) and Voice Handicap Index (VHI)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugatschka, M; Rechenmacher, J; Chibidziura, J; Friedrich, G

    2007-11-01

    The Voice Handicap Index (VHI) has been established internationally as a reliable tool for describing voice-dependent quality of life. Nawka developed a new score by using 12 questions out of the VHI, called SSI (Stimmstörungsindex) . The SSI has proven its role in daily clinical routine, main problem remains a lack of comparability of the SSI (range: 0 - 48) to the internationally established VHI (Voice Handicap Index) (range: 0 - 120). Aim of our study was to demonstrate that by a simple multiplication of SSI scores a statistically significant correlation with scores of the VHI can be achieved. 210 consecutive patients of the ENT University Hospital Graz were evaluated by the German version of VHI. We calculated total score of VHI as well as the score of the SSI. By multiplication of the SSI scores by 2.5 we calculated a new score, called "VHI-korr". This score was compared with the VHI. We can demonstrate that by simple multiplication of the SSI scores by 2.5 a statistically significant correlation to the VHI can be achieved (r = 0.98; p SSI- based "VHI-korr" provides good international comparability of voice disorders with VHI and allows to maintain the common use of SSI in daily clinical routine.

  12. Extensive complement-dependent enhancement of HIV-1 by autologous non-neutralising antibodies at early stages of infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Ian

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-neutralising antibodies to the envelope glycoprotein are elicited during acute HIV-1 infection and are abundant throughout the course of disease progression. Although these antibodies appear to have negligible effects on HIV-1 infection when assayed in standard neutralisation assays, they have the potential to exert either inhibitory or enhancing effects through interactions with complement and/or Fc receptors. Here we report that non-neutralising antibodies produced early in response to HIV-1 infection can enhance viral infectivity. Results We investigated this complement-mediated antibody-dependent enhancement (C'-ADE of early HIV infection by carrying out longitudinal studies with primary viruses and autologous sera derived sequentially from recently infected individuals, using a T cell line naturally expressing the complement receptor 2 (CR2; CD21. The C'-ADE was consistently observed and in some cases achieved infection-enhancing levels of greater than 350-fold, converting a low-level infection to a highly destructive one. C'-ADE activity declined as a neutralising response to the early virus emerged, but later virus isolates that had escaped the neutralising response demonstrated an increased capacity for enhanced infection by autologous antibodies. Moreover, sera with autologous enhancing activity were capable of C'ADE of heterologous viral isolates, suggesting the targeting of conserved epitopes on the envelope glycoprotein. Ectopic expression of CR2 on cell lines expressing HIV-1 receptors was sufficient to render them sensitive to C'ADE. Conclusions Taken together, these results suggest that non-neutralising antibodies to the HIV-1 envelope that arise during acute infection are not 'passive', but in concert with complement and complement receptors may have consequences for HIV-1 dissemination and pathogenesis.

  13. A rapid, membrane-dependent pathway directs furrow formation through RalA in the early Drosophila embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holly, Ryan M; Mavor, Lauren M; Zuo, Zhongyuan; Blankenship, J Todd

    2015-07-01

    Plasma membrane furrow formation is crucial in cell division and cytokinesis. Furrow formation in early syncytial Drosophila embryos is exceptionally rapid, with furrows forming in as little as 3.75 min. Here, we use 4D imaging to identify furrow formation, stabilization, and regression periods, and identify a rapid, membrane-dependent pathway that is essential for plasma membrane furrow formation in vivo. Myosin II function is thought to provide the ingression force for cytokinetic furrows, but the role of membrane trafficking pathways in guiding furrow formation is less clear. We demonstrate that a membrane trafficking pathway centered on Ras-like protein A (RalA) is required for fast furrow ingression in the early fly embryo. RalA function is absolutely required for furrow formation and initiation. In the absence of RalA and furrow function, chromosomal segregation is aberrant and polyploid nuclei are observed. RalA localizes to syncytial furrows, and mediates the movement of exocytic vesicles to the plasma membrane. Sec5, which is an exocyst complex subunit and localizes to ingressing furrows in wild-type embryos, becomes punctate and loses its cortical association in the absence of RalA function. Rab8 also fails to traffic to the plasma membrane and accumulates aberrantly in the cytoplasm in RalA disrupted embryos. RalA localization precedes F-actin recruitment to the furrow tip, suggesting that membrane trafficking might function upstream of cytoskeletal remodeling. These studies identify a pathway, which stretches from Rab8 to RalA and the exocyst complex, that mediates rapid furrow formation in early Drosophila embryos.

  14. Extensive complement-dependent enhancement of HIV-1 by autologous non-neutralising antibodies at early stages of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, Suzanne; Aasa-Chapman, Marlén M I; O'Farrell, Stephen; Pellegrino, Pierre; Williams, Ian; Weiss, Robin A; Neil, Stuart J D

    2011-03-14

    Non-neutralising antibodies to the envelope glycoprotein are elicited during acute HIV-1 infection and are abundant throughout the course of disease progression. Although these antibodies appear to have negligible effects on HIV-1 infection when assayed in standard neutralisation assays, they have the potential to exert either inhibitory or enhancing effects through interactions with complement and/or Fc receptors. Here we report that non-neutralising antibodies produced early in response to HIV-1 infection can enhance viral infectivity. We investigated this complement-mediated antibody-dependent enhancement (C'-ADE) of early HIV infection by carrying out longitudinal studies with primary viruses and autologous sera derived sequentially from recently infected individuals, using a T cell line naturally expressing the complement receptor 2 (CR2; CD21). The C'-ADE was consistently observed and in some cases achieved infection-enhancing levels of greater than 350-fold, converting a low-level infection to a highly destructive one. C'-ADE activity declined as a neutralising response to the early virus emerged, but later virus isolates that had escaped the neutralising response demonstrated an increased capacity for enhanced infection by autologous antibodies. Moreover, sera with autologous enhancing activity were capable of C'ADE of heterologous viral isolates, suggesting the targeting of conserved epitopes on the envelope glycoprotein. Ectopic expression of CR2 on cell lines expressing HIV-1 receptors was sufficient to render them sensitive to C'ADE. Taken together, these results suggest that non-neutralising antibodies to the HIV-1 envelope that arise during acute infection are not 'passive', but in concert with complement and complement receptors may have consequences for HIV-1 dissemination and pathogenesis.

  15. ACCURATE TIME-DEPENDENT WAVE PACKET STUDY OF THE H{sup +}+LiH REACTION AT EARLY UNIVERSE CONDITIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aslan, E.; Bulut, N. [Department of Physics, Firat University, 23169 Elazig (Turkey); Castillo, J. F.; Banares, L.; Aoiz, F. J. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica I, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas (Unidad Asociada CSIC), Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Roncero, O., E-mail: jfernand@quim.ucm.es [Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, CSIC, C/Serrano 123, E-28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-11-01

    The dynamics and kinetics of the H{sup +} + LiH reaction have been studied using a quantum reactive time-dependent wave packet (TDWP) coupled-channel quantum mechanical method on an ab initio potential energy surface at conditions of the early universe. The total reaction probabilities for the H{sup +} + LiH(v = 0, j = 0) {yields} H{sup +} {sub 2} + Li process have been calculated from 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} eV up to 1 eV for total angular momenta J from 0 to 110. Using a Langevin model, integral cross sections have been calculated in that range of collision energies and extrapolated for energies below 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} eV. The calculated rate constants are found to be nearly independent of temperature in the 10-1000 K interval with a value of Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -9} cm{sup 3} s{sup -1}, which is in good agreement with estimates used in evolutionary models of the early universe lithium chemistry.

  16. Voice-controlled Internet Browsing for Motor-handicapped Users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndsted, Tom; Aaskoven, Erik

    2006-01-01

    The public-funded project "Indtal" ("Speak-it") has succeeded in developing a Danish voice-controlled utility for internet browsing targeting motor-handicapped users having difficulties using a standard keyboard and/or a standard mouse. The system has been designed and implemented in collaboration...... with an advisory board of motor-handicapped (potential) end-users and underlies a number of a priori defined design criteria: learnability and memorability rather than naturalness, minimal need for maintenance after release, support for "all" web standards (not just HTML conforming to certain "recommendations......"), independency of the language on the websites being browsed, etc. These criteria have lead to a primarily message-driven system interacting with an existing browser on the end users' systems...

  17. The handicap principle and the argument of subversion from within.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Christian

    2013-09-01

    This paper examines the very disparate positions that various actors have taken towards the argument of subversion from within (a classical argument against the evolution of altruism by group selection) in a set of related debates on group selection, altruism and the handicap principle. Using this set of debates as a case study, this paper argues that different applications of epistemic values were one of the factors behind the disagreements between John Maynard Smith and Amotz Zahavi over a number of important evolutionary issues. The paper also argues that these different applications were connected to important epistemological differences related in part (but not solely) to their disciplinary background. Apart from conflicting evolutionary views concerning the theoretical feasibility of the handicap effect, these antagonists both differed in the confidence they ascribed to mathematical modeling and over the hereditary basis for altruistic behavior.

  18. Dental caries and periodontal status of mentally handicapped institutilized children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanki, Jitender; Gupta, Sarika; Arya, Astha

    2014-07-01

    Dental caries and periodontal disease are the most prevalent dental disease among mentally retarded children worldwide. A study was carried out in Jodhpur city of Rajasthan state of India to assess the Dental caries and periodontal Status of Mentally handicapped attending special schools children in Jodhpur city. A cross-sectional descriptive survey was conducted in 80 mentally handicapped subjects, attending a Special Needs school in Jodhpur City. Dental caries and Periodontal Status were recorded following the WHO basic oral health survey. None of the subject had healthy periodontal status, dental caries was found in 79.2% of the subjects, Lymphadenopathy was observed in highest number of subjects 55 (76.3%). Health professionals should therefore be aware of the impact of mental illness and its treatment on oral health, Health personnel should receive training to support and provide all possible services to this population.

  19. Do gender differences in depression remain after controlling for early maladaptive schemas? An examination in a sample of opioid dependent treatment seeking adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C; Stuart, Gregory L; Anderson, Scott

    2013-01-01

    The abuse of opioids is a serious and prevalent problem and research is needed on factors that may place individuals at risk for misusing opioids. Depression is a common co-morbid mental health problem among opioid users. Theory and research suggest that early maladaptive schemas may underlie mental health problems including depression and substance abuse. The current study sought to determine whether early maladaptive schemas were associated with depression among a treatment seeking sample of male and female opioid users (n = 194). We also examined whether depression, as assessed by the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, Second Edition, varied by gender and whether gender differences in depression remained after controlling for early maladaptive schemas. Results showed that women scored significantly higher than men on three of the five early maladaptive schema domains and that gender did not predict depression after controlling for schema domains. Early maladaptive schemas were also more strongly associated with depression for men than women. Implications of these findings for interventions and future research are discussed. Individuals with opioid dependence have a number of early maladaptive schemas that may be contributing to the onset and maintenance of substance use. Although there are generally broad gender differences in major depression, findings from the current study suggest that early maladaptive schemas are a better predictor of depressive symptoms than gender among opioid dependent adults. The treatment of opioid dependence, with or without co-morbid depressive symptoms, should target early maladaptive schemas. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Objective Voice Parameters and Self-Perceived Handicap in Dysphonia

    OpenAIRE

    Hummel, Christina; Scharf, Manuela; Schützenberger, Anne; Graessel, Elmar; Rosanowski, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study focuses on the relation between objective voice quality and the self-perception of a voice handicap. Patients and Methods: The study group consisted of 86 German-speaking patients (51 women, 35 men) suffering from benign dysphonia. The test persons completed the German version of the Voice-Related Quality of Life (V-RQOL) Questionnaire without prior information about their diagnosis and underwent voice analysis with the Dysphonia Severity Index (DSI) being the parameter ...

  1. Development of bladder control in mentally handicapped children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruschini Homero

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE:To analyze the role of mental handicap as a possible source of lack of development of bladder control and to find out the chance of continence to advise future patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The parents and relatives of 100 consecutive mentally handicapped patients were inquired by a personal interview. Questions included the age when they stopped using diapers, enuretic events, frequency, urgency and leakage episodes, urinary infections. Etiology of their mental problem was unknown in 34, perinatal anoxia in 17, Down syndrome in 15, phenylketonuria in 18 and others minors causes. The grade of mental deficiency were profound in 1, severe in 10, moderate in 39, mild in 33 and normal inferior value in 17. The age varied from 7 to 37 years old, with an average of 14 by the time of the interview, comprising 60 males and 40 females. RESULTS: All profound and severe patients presented leakage episodes regardless of the age. The mild and normal inferior value acquired progressive urinary control with aging, and 33% still remain with urinary symptoms above 16 years old. Urinary infection was similar in males and females, around 29%. The most committed group presented less urinary infections. The etiology of the mental handicap was not correlated to the incidence of urinary leakage. CONCLUSIONS: The lack of bladder control was correlated to the grade of mental handicap. In severe and profound groups, the expectancy of control is disappointing. In the less compromised groups, there is a delay in bladder training, with achievement of control in 2/3 after 16 years of age. Those in the normal inferior value have a chance of postponed urinary control, easily misdiagnosed by normal urological interviews.

  2. Recreational drug use and fluctuating asymmetry: testing the handicap principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkowska, Barbara; Pawlowski, Boguslaw

    2014-08-26

    Zahavi's handicap principle suggests that only organisms with good genetic quality can afford to engage in costly behaviors. Recreational drug use can be harmful to one's health and therefore might be viewed as a costly signal of one's genetic quality. One of the measurements of genetic quality is bodily symmetry assessed by fluctuating asymmetry. If unhealthy drug use is a behavioral example of Zahavi's handicap principle, then men who use different stimulants or recreational drugs should be more symmetrical than men who do not use them at all or use them only in low quantity. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between drug use and fluctuating asymmetry. The subjects were 190 young women and 202 young men. Six bilaterally symmetrical traits were measured: length of II-V digits, wrist breadth, and ear height. Questionnaires included questions about smoking, alcohol drinking, drug use, and designer drug use. There was no relationship between bodily symmetry and smoking frequency, alcohol drinking frequency, drug or designer drug use, total substance use, age of smoking initiation, or reason of this initiation. The results indicate that drug use does not reflect genetic quality and does not necessarily relate to the handicap hypothesis.

  3. Development of the Arabic Version of Dysphagia Handicap Index (DHI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahat, Mohamed; Malki, Khalid H; Mesallam, Tamer A; Bukhari, Manal; Alharethy, Sami

    2014-08-01

    The Dysphagia Handicap Index (DHI) is a 25-item self-administered questionnaire. It is a noninvasive tool for measuring the handicapping effect of dysphagia on the physical, functional, and emotional aspects of people's lives. The purposes of the present study were to develop an Arabic version of the DHI and to evaluate its validity, consistency, and reliability in the normal Arabic population with oropharyngeal dysphagia. This was a prospective study that was carried out at the Communication and Swallowing Disorders Unit, King Saud University. The generated Arabic DHI was administered to 94 patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia and 98 control subjects. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were evaluated. The results of the patients and the control group were compared. The Arabic DHI showed excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.95). Also, good test-retest reliability was found for the total scores of the Arabic DHI (r = 0.9, p = 0.001). There was a significant difference between the DHI scores of the control group and those of the oropharyngeal dysphagia group (p DHI is a valid tool for self-assessment of the handicapping effect of dysphagia on the physical, functional, and emotional aspects of patients and can be used by Arabic language speakers.

  4. Oxygen-sensitive regulation and neuroprotective effects of growth hormone-dependent growth factors during early postnatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Susan; Boie, Gudrun; Doerr, Helmuth-Guenther; Trollmann, Regina

    2017-04-01

    Perinatal hypoxia severely disrupts metabolic and somatotrophic development, as well as cerebral maturational programs. Hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs) represent the most important endogenous adaptive mechanisms to hypoxia, activating a broad spectrum of growth factors that contribute to cell survival and energy homeostasis. To analyze effects of systemic hypoxia and growth hormone (GH) therapy (rhGH) on HIF-dependent growth factors during early postnatal development, we compared protein (using ELISA) and mRNA (using quantitative RT PCR) levels of growth factors in plasma and brain between normoxic and hypoxic mice (8% O2, 6 h; postnatal day 7, P7) at P14. Exposure to hypoxia led to reduced body weight (P treatment increased cerebral IGF-1, IGF-2, IGFBP-2, and erythropoietin mRNA levels, resulting in significantly reduced apoptotic cell death in the hypoxic, developing mouse brain. These data indicate that rhGH may functionally restore hypoxia-induced systemic dysregulation of the GH/IGF-1 axis and induce upregulation of neuroprotective, HIF-dependent growth factors in the hypoxic developing brain.

  5. zCOSMOS 10k-bright spectroscopic sample: exploring mass and environment dependence in early-type galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Moresco, M; Cimatti, A; Zamorani, G; Mignoli, M; Di Cesare, S; Bolzonella, M; Zucca, E; Lilly, S; Kovac, K; Scodeggio, M; Cassata, P; Tasca, L; Vergani, D; Halliday, C; Carollo, M; Contini, T; Kneib, J -P; Le Fèvre, O; Mainieri, V; Renzini, A; Bardelli, S; Bongiorno, A; Caputi, K; Coppa, G; Cucciati, O; de la Torre, S; de Ravel, L; Franzetti, P; Garilli, B; Iovino, A; Kampczyk, P; Knobel, C; Lamareille, F; Le Borgne, J F; Le Brun, V; Maier, C; Pello, R; Peng, Y; Montero, E Perez; Ricciardelli, E; Silverman, J D; Tanaka, M; Tresse, L; Abbas, U; Bottini, D; Cappi, A; Guzzo, L; Koekemoer, A M; Leauthaud, A; Maccagni, D; Marinoni, C; McCracken, H J; Memeo, P; Meneux, B; Nair, P; Oesch, P; Porciani, C; Scaramella, R; Scarlata, C; Scoville, N

    2010-01-01

    We present the analysis of the U-V rest-frame color distribution and some spectral features as a function of mass and environment for two sample of early-type galaxies up to z=1 extracted from the zCOSMOS spectroscopic survey. The first sample ("red galaxies") is defined with a photometric classification, while the second ("ETGs") by combining morphological, photometric, and spectroscopic properties to obtain a more reliable sample. We find that the color distribution of red galaxies is not strongly dependent on environment for all mass bins, with galaxies in overdense regions redder than galaxies in underdense regions with a difference of 0.027\\pm0.008 mag. The dependence on mass is far more significant, with average colors of massive galaxies redder by 0.093\\pm0.007 mag than low-mass galaxies throughout the entire redshift range. We study the color-mass relation, finding a mean slope 0.12\\pm0.005, while the color-environment relation is flatter, with a slope always smaller than 0.04. The spectral analysis t...

  6. [The smokers voice self assessment based on Voice Handicap Index (VHI)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiskirska-Woźnica, Bozena; Wojnowski, Waldemar

    2009-01-01

    Complex voice assessment due to European Laryngeal Society proposals (2000) contains voice self estimation based on the Polish version of the Voice Handicap Index (VHI). This study focuses on the relation between voice handicap and smoking in dysphonic patients, who are using voice professionally. Thirty outpatient (25 female and 5 male, aged 40 to 55 years) voice department attendees suffering from professional dysphonia took part in this study. All patients after phoniatric examination completed the Polish version of the Voice Handicap Index (VHI). The questions concern functional, emotional and physical complains due to dysphonia. Most of smokers did not complain of dysphonia related problems comparing to non smokers. Even the scores of functional and emotional scales of VHI in smokers shown better results (less handicap) than in nonsmokers. Smoking does not affect patients handicap due to dysphonia measured in the Voice Handicap Index.

  7. Early maternal deprivation immunologically primes hippocampal synapses by redistributing interleukin-1 receptor type I in a sex dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viviani, Barbara; Boraso, Mariaserena; Valero, Manuel; Gardoni, Fabrizio; Marco, Eva Maria; Llorente, Ricardo; Corsini, Emanuela; Galli, Corrado Lodovico; Di Luca, Monica; Marinovich, Marina; López-Gallardo, Meritxell; Viveros, Maria-Paz

    2014-01-01

    Challenges experienced in early life cause an enduring phenotypical shift of immune cells towards a sensitised state that may lead to an exacerbated reaction later in life and contribute to increased vulnerability to neurological diseases. Peripheral and central inflammation may affect neuronal function through cytokines such as IL-1. The extent to which an early life challenge induces long-term alteration of immune receptors organization in neurons has not been shown. We investigated whether a single episode of maternal deprivation (MD) on post-natal day (PND) 9 affects: (i) the synapse distribution of IL-1RI together with subunits of NMDA and AMPA receptors; and (ii) the interactions between IL-1RI and the GluN2B subunit of the NMDAR in the long-term, at PND 45. MD increased IL-1RI levels and IL-1RI interactions with GluN2B at the synapse of male hippocampal neurons, without affecting the total number of IL-1RI or NMDAR subunits. Although GluN2B and GluN2A were slightly but not significantly changed at the synapse, their ratio was significantly decreased in the hippocampus of the male rats who had experienced MD; the levels of the GluA1 and GluA2 subunits of the AMPAR were also decreased. These changes were not observed immediately after the MD episode. None of the observed alterations occurred in the hippocampus of the females or in the prefrontal cortex of either sex. These data reveal a long-term, sex-dependent modification in receptor organisation at the hippocampal post-synapses following MD. We suggest that this effect might contribute to priming hippocampal synapses to the action of IL-1β.

  8. Differences in wrist mechanics during the golf swing based on golf handicap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorcik, Gregory G; Queen, Robin M; Abbey, Alicia N; Moorman, Claude T; Ruch, David S

    2012-05-01

    Variation in swing mechanics between golfers of different skill levels has been previously reported. To investigate if differences in three-dimensional wrist kinematics and the angle of golf club descent between low and high handicap golfers. A descriptive laboratory study was performed with twenty-eight male golfers divided into two groups, low handicap golfers (handicap = 0-5, n = 15) and high handicap golfers (handicap ≥ 10, n = 13). Bilateral peak three-dimensional wrist mechanics, bilateral wrist mechanics at ball contact (BC), peak angle of descent from the end of the backswing to ball contact, and the angle of descent when the forearm was parallel to the ground (DEC-PAR) were determined using an 8 camera motion capture system. Independent t-tests were completed for each study variable (α = 0.05). Pearson correlation coefficients were determined between golf handicap and each of the study variables. The peak lead arm radial deviation (5.7 degrees, p = 0.008), lead arm radial deviation at ball contact (7.1 degrees, p = 0.001), and DEC-PAR (15.8 degrees, p = 0.002) were significantly greater in the high handicap group. In comparison with golfers with a low handicap, golfers with a high handicap have increased radial deviation during the golf swing and at ball contact. Copyright © 2011 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. NOD2 dependent neutrophil recruitment is required for early protective immune responses against infectious Litomosoides sigmodontis L3 larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajendra, Jesuthas; Specht, Sabine; Ziewer, Sebastian; Schiefer, Andrea; Pfarr, Kenneth; Parčina, Marijo; Kufer, Thomas A.; Hoerauf, Achim; Hübner, Marc P.

    2016-01-01

    Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2) recognizes muramyl dipeptide (MDP) of bacterial cell walls, triggering NFκB-induced pro-inflammation. As most human pathogenic filariae contain Wolbachia endobacteria that synthesize the MDP-containing cell wall precursor lipid II, NOD2’s role during infection with the rodent filaria Litomosoides sigmodontis was investigated. In NFκB reporter-cells, worm-extract containing Wolbachia induced NOD2 and NOD1. NOD2-deficient mice infected with L. sigmodontis had significantly more worms than wildtype controls early in infection. Increased worm burden was not observed after subcutaneous infection, suggesting that protective NOD2-dependent immune responses occur within the skin. Flow cytometry demonstrated that neutrophil recruitment to the skin was impaired in NOD2−/− mice after intradermal injection of third stage larvae (L3), and blood neutrophil numbers were reduced after L. sigmodontis infection. PCR array supported the requirement of NOD2 for recruitment of neutrophils to the skin, as genes associated with neutrophil recruitment and activation were downregulated in NOD2−/− mice after intradermal L3 injection. Neutrophil depletion before L. sigmodontis infection increased worm recovery in wildtype mice, confirming that neutrophils are essential against invading L3 larvae. This study indicates that NOD-like receptors are implemented in first-line protective immune responses against filarial nematodes. PMID:28004792

  10. The Handicap Principle for Trust in Computer Security, the Semantic Web and Social Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhanshan (Sam); Krings, Axel W.; Hung, Chih-Cheng

    Communication is a fundamental function of life, and it exists in almost all living things: from single-cell bacteria to human beings. Communication, together with competition and cooperation,arethree fundamental processes in nature. Computer scientists are familiar with the study of competition or 'struggle for life' through Darwin's evolutionary theory, or even evolutionary computing. They may be equally familiar with the study of cooperation or altruism through the Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) game. However, they are likely to be less familiar with the theory of animal communication. The objective of this article is three-fold: (i) To suggest that the study of animal communication, especially the honesty (reliability) of animal communication, in which some significant advances in behavioral biology have been achieved in the last three decades, should be on the verge to spawn important cross-disciplinary research similar to that generated by the study of cooperation with the PD game. One of the far-reaching advances in the field is marked by the publication of "The Handicap Principle: a Missing Piece of Darwin's Puzzle" by Zahavi (1997). The 'Handicap' principle [34][35], which states that communication signals must be costly in some proper way to be reliable (honest), is best elucidated with evolutionary games, e.g., Sir Philip Sidney (SPS) game [23]. Accordingly, we suggest that the Handicap principle may serve as a fundamental paradigm for trust research in computer science. (ii) To suggest to computer scientists that their expertise in modeling computer networks may help behavioral biologists in their study of the reliability of animal communication networks. This is largely due to the historical reason that, until the last decade, animal communication was studied with the dyadic paradigm (sender-receiver) rather than with the network paradigm. (iii) To pose several open questions, the answers to which may bear some refreshing insights to trust research in

  11. [A study on thermal regulation disturbance in severely handicapped patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, M; Nishimura, S

    1991-05-01

    Forty-five severely handicapped patients were investigated on body temperature regulation. Poor regulation cases had CT scans showing severe third and lateral ventricle dilatation. Furthermore, in almost all poor regulation cases of perinatal and postnatal onset, CT scans showed extensive low density areas involving the frontal lobe. Electrophysiological studies (sSEP, ABR and blink reflex) could not show definite differences between poor regulation cases and good regulation cases. These findings suggest that hypothalamus, medial forebrain bundle and frontal lobe play important roles in body temperature regulation. On the other hand, perinatal or postnatal onset cases frequently had small body surface areas and low serum creatinine.

  12. The handicap principle and the argument of subversion from within

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baron, Christian

    2013-01-01

    connected to important epistemological differences related in part (but not solely) to their disciplinary background. Apart from conflicting evolutionary views concerning the theoretical feasibility of the handicap effect, these antagonists both differed in the confidence they ascribed to mathematical...... this set of debates as a case study, this paper argues that different applications of epistemic values were one of the factors behind the disagreements between John Maynard Smith and Amotz Zahavi over a number of important evolutionary issues. The paper also argues that these different applications were...

  13. Analysis of Lower Body Kinematic and Kinetic: Differences Between Age and Handicap in Golfers of Various Ages and Skill Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smilensky, Alexander

    The purpose of this thesis was to provide a preliminary analysis of lower body golf swing biomechanics. Fourteen golfers of various ages and handicaps performed 10 swings off a tee with their driver. This study focused on a number of dependent variables including lead knee joint flexion angles, internal/external rotations, valgus/varus angles, as well as ground reaction forces normalized to body weight (%BW), X-Factor angle and club head velocity. Dependent variables were analyzed at four specifically defined events (start, initiation of downswing, contact and swing termination). Simple linear regressions were performed using age and handicap as independent variables to see if patterns could be determined at any of the events. No significant trends or results were reported within our sample. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was then used to examine the effect of event on specific dependent variables. A number of differences were reported within each of the variables across the four events. This study hoped to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the movement patterns occurring at the lower body with special focus on the lead knee.

  14. Automatization of Mathematics Skills via Computer-Assisted Instruction among Students with Mild Mental Handicaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podell, David M.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This evaluation study with 94 elementary students (50 with mild mental handicap) compared computer-assisted instruction (CAI) and paper-and-pencil practices in promoting automatization of basic addition and subtraction skills. Findings suggested CAI was more effective but that the students with mental handicap required more practice than…

  15. Trait self-esteem and claimed self-handicapping motives in sports situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finez, Lucie; Berjot, Sophie; Rosnet, Elisabeth; Cleveland, Christena; Tice, Dianne M

    2012-12-01

    We examined the relationship between physical self-esteem and claimed self-handicapping among athletes by taking motives into consideration. In Study 1, 99 athletes were asked to report their tendency to engage in claimed self-handicapping for self-protective and self-enhancement motives (trait measures). Low self-esteem athletes reported a higher tendency to engage in claimed self-handicapping for these two motives compared with high self-esteem athletes. Neither low nor high self-esteem athletes reported a preference for one motive over the other. In Study 2, 107 athletes participated in a test that was ostensibly designed to assess high physical abilities - and thus to encourage self-handicapping for self-enhancement motives (success-meaningful condition) - or to assess low physical abilities, and thus to encourage self-handicapping for self-protective motives (failure-meaningful condition). Before starting the test, athletes were given the opportunity to claim handicaps that could impair their performance. Low self-esteem athletes claimed more handicaps than high self-esteem athletes in both conditions. Findings suggest that low physical self-esteem athletes engage more in claimed handicapping regardless of motives, relative to high physical self-esteem athletes.

  16. Preschool Siblings of Handicapped Children: Interactions with Mothers, Brothers, and Sisters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobato, Debra J.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This study, involving 40 young siblings of either handicapped or nonhandicapped children, found that siblings of handicapped children engaged in more parallel and social play and were more nurturing with their siblings than were control children. Mothers were more likely to deliver commands, directives, and reprimands to siblings of handicapped…

  17. Placing Handicapped Students in the Least Restrictive Environment: An Adapted Model for Decision Makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makuch, Gary; And Others

    Intended for local school district personnel, the document suggests a model for assisting decision makers in placing handicapped students in the least restrictive environment (LRE). Basic considerations of a multidisciplinary team in determining the appropriate placement for the handicapped students are listed (including the nature and degree of…

  18. Library Services for the Handicapped in Maine; A State-of-the-Art Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Patrick A.

    The purpose of this state-of-the-art report is to describe how handicapped readers in Maine receive their special library services as part of the national network. Handicapped readers are defined as those persons who are unable to read conventional print or handle conventionally printed materials because of some visual or physical impairment. The…

  19. Chronically Ill and Handicapped Children and Adolescents: Personality Studies in Relation to Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph

    1981-01-01

    Personality was studied in three groups of chronically ill (diabetic or hemophiliac) and physically handicapped children and adolescents (N=104, mean age 13 years) and compared to that of healthy control groups. Among physically handicapped children a pattern emerged indicating lack of emotional integration into environment without conflict.…

  20. Special Needs in Education (E241): Biology and Handicap, Unit 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, Patricia

    One of 16 booklets designed for use in an Open University course on the education of handicapped students in the United Kingdom, this document considers biological factors involved in handicapping conditions. An initial chapter examines the portrayal of disabled persons in drama, literature and film. Genetic involvement (autosomal dominant…

  1. A Comparative Study of Handicap-Free Life Expectancy of China in 1987 and 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Dejian

    2009-01-01

    After the first large scale national sampling survey on handicapped persons in 1987, China conducted its second national sampling survey in 2006. Using the data from these two surveys and the national life tables, we computed and compared the expected years of life free of handicapped condition by the Sullivan method. The expected years of life…

  2. 41 CFR 50-201.1102 - Tolerance for apprentices, student-learners, and handicapped workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., student-learners, and handicapped workers. 50-201.1102 Section 50-201.1102 Public Contracts and Property... REGULATIONS § 50-201.1102 Tolerance for apprentices, student-learners, and handicapped workers. (a... standards and procedures as are prescribed for the employment of apprentices, student-learners,...

  3. The double whammy of a work handicap (differential) effects of health on working conditions and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenbeek, Romy; Giesen, Femke B M; Ybema, Jan Fekke

    2009-08-01

    To determine the effect of health on working conditions and outcomes. Data were collected in the longitudinal Study on Health at Work (n = 1597 employees), using multiple regression analyses and focusing on three groups of employees: 1) healthy, 2) chronic health complaints without a work handicap, and 3) chronic health complaints with a work handicap. 1) Employees with a work handicap experienced less favorable working conditions and outcomes than other employees. 2) Employees with a work handicap experienced less favorable working conditions and outcomes over time. 3) Employees with chronic health complaints were more vulnerable to the influence of working conditions on outcomes, whereas employees with a work handicap, unexpectedly, benefited from high work pressure and low autonomy. 1) Employees with a work handicap differ considerably from employees with chronic health complaints. 2) Employees with a work handicap drift into less favorable working conditions and outcomes. 3) Healthy employees, employees with chronic health complaints, and employees with a work handicap, all are vulnerable to different working conditions.

  4. Handicap og beskæftigelse: Udviklingen mellem 2002 og 2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgelund, Jan; Mølgaard Miiller, Max; Pico Geerdsen, Peter

    Personer med handicap har en markant svagere tilknytning til arbejdsmarkedet end personer uden handicap. Den lave beskæftigelsesgrad blandt handicappede har flere negative konsekvenser både på det personlige og det samfundsmæssige plan. Denne rapport belyser udviklingen i beskæftigelsen af person...

  5. Academic Self-Handicapping: The Role of Self-Concept Clarity and Students' Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Cathy R.; Gadbois, Shannon A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Self-handicapping is linked to students' personal motivations, classroom goal structure, academic outcomes, global self-esteem and certainty of self-esteem. Academic self-handicapping has yet to be studied with respect to students' consistency in self-description and their description of themselves as learners. Aims: This study…

  6. The Origin of the Term Handicap in Games and Sports – History of a Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansen Jørn

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Words and concepts may change in time, and this has certainly been the case with the term handicap. From the establishment of modern sports in the middle of the 19th century and up until the middle of the 20th century, handicap had an entirely different meaning within sports. Thus, handicap was understood as a disadvantage imposed on talented contestants to make the competition more equal in sports. Later the term handicap became much closer related to the concepts invalid and crippled than to concept originally employed within sports, With the gradual introduction of the welfare state measures to the political agenda the politicians in Denmark also started to take an interest in invalids and cripples and in 1925 the National Association of the Crippled and Maimed was founded. By the end of the 20 century the term crippled was seen by many as outdated and in 1988 the name was changed to the Danish Association for the Disabled (Dansk Handicap Forbund and already in 1971 this organization helped to found The Danish Disabled Sports Association (Dansk Handicap Idræts-Forbund. The article tells the story of how the concept of handicap, which originally was an aim to provide equal opportunities, today has become a synonym for disability, while in the Paralympics and competitive disability sports, the original sports term handicap has been replaced by classification.

  7. Development and validation of the Dutch version of the London Handicap Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothuis-Oudshoorn, C.G.M.; Chorus, A.M.J.; Verrips, G.H.W.; Detmar, S.B.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The London Handicap Scale (LHS) was found to be a valid and reliable scale for measuring participation restrictions in adults. OBJECTIVE: This paper describes the development and assesses the construct-related validity of a Dutch version of the London Handicap Scale (DLHS). METHODS: The

  8. Resource Catalogue for Teachers of Severely Handicapped Students. Program Assistance Report No. 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenner, Lynette; And Others

    Intended for teachers and other personnel working with severely/multiply handicapped students, the catalogue lists books and journal articles (1975-1981) related to special education for severely/multiply handicapped students. Following an introduction discussing definitional issues, entries are alphabetized by title and arranged according to one…

  9. The Development of Concepts of Handicap in Adolescence: A Cross-Cultural Study-Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Jim; Obani, Tim

    1986-01-01

    Reports the results of quasi-experimental study of 155 Nigerian and 151 British boys' and girls' understanding of handicaps. Presents information regarding the content of the questionnaire, which posed both direct and indirect questions regarding causality, effects, rehabilitation and interaction of handicapped persons. (JDH)

  10. Electromyographic Analysis of the Lower Limb Muscles in Low- and High-Handicap Golfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marta, Sérgio; Silva, Luís; Vaz, João R.; Castro, Maria António; Reinaldo, Gustavo; Pezarat-Correia, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the electromyographic patterns of the lower limb muscles during a golf swing performed by low- and high-handicap golfers. Method: Ten golfers (5 low- and 5 high-handicap) performed 8 swings using a 7-iron. Surface electromyography (EMG) was recorded for the following lower limb muscles on both sides:…

  11. School-to-Work Transition for Handicapped Youth: Perspectives on Educational and Economic Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repetto, Jeanne B., Ed.

    This compilation of papers focuses on the economic and educational considerations required for planning transitional services for handicapped youth, and was developed from the second and third annual forums sponsored by the Transitional Programming for Handicapped Youth: Interdisciplinary Leadership Preparation Program at the University of…

  12. A Plan for Itinerant Educational Consultant Services for Preschool Visually Handicapped Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County Schools, Pittsburgh, PA.

    A demonstration project was conducted involving itinerant educational consultant services for preschool visually handicapped children with the objective of preventing social and sensory deprivation and of developing personal independence. Channels were established for referral of applicable visually handicapped preschool children to the program.…

  13. The natural environment and human development: implications for handicapped children in urban settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis A. Vinton; Donald E. Hawkins

    1977-01-01

    This review of literature is intended to promote awareness of the needs of the 15 percent of the nation's children and youth who are afflicted with some form of handicap. It is imperative that those who design children's programs that utilize natural environments understand the special problems of handicapped children.

  14. KI-Aikido for Handicapped Students at Leeward Community College: Theory and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGugan, Kirk

    In an effort to provide physical education instruction for handicapped students, Leeward Community College implemented, on a pilot basis, a non-credit course in KI-Aikido, an oriental martial art which combines theory and exercise toward the goal of controlling the body through the power of the mind. The course, offered to both handicapped and…

  15. FGFs and BMP4 induce both Msx1-independent and Msx1-dependent signaling pathways in early tooth development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bei, M; Maas, R

    1998-11-01

    During early tooth development, multiple signaling molecules are expressed in the dental lamina epithelium and induce the dental mesenchyme. One signal, BMP4, has been shown to induce morphologic changes in dental mesenchyme and mesenchymal gene expression via Msx1, but BMP4 cannot substitute for all the inductive functions of the dental epithelium. To investigate the role of FGFs during early tooth development, we examined the expression of epithelial and mesenchymal Fgfs in wild-type and Msx1 mutant tooth germs and tested the ability of FGFs to induce Fgf3 and Bmp4 expression in wild-type and Msx1 mutant dental mesenchymal explants. Fgf8 expression is preserved in Msx1 mutant epithelium while that of Fgf3 is not detected in Msx1 mutant dental mesenchyme. Moreover, dental epithelium as well as beads soaked in FGF1, FGF2 or FGF8 induce Fgf3 expression in dental mesenchyme in an Msx1-dependent manner. These results indicate that, like BMP4, FGF8 constitutes an epithelial inductive signal capable of inducing the expression of downstream signaling molecules in dental mesenchyme via Msx1. However, the BMP4 and FGF8 signaling pathways are distinct. BMP4 cannot induce Fgf3 nor can FGFs induce Bmp4 expression in dental mesenchyme, even though both signaling molecules can induce Msx1 and Msx1 is necessary for Fgf3 and Bmp4 expression in dental mesenchyme. In addition, we have investigated the effects of FGFs and BMP4 on the distal-less homeobox genes Dlx1 and Dlx2 and we have clarified the relationship between Msx and Dlx gene function in the developing tooth. Dlx1,Dlx2 double mutants exhibit a lamina stage arrest in maxillary molar tooth development (Thomas B. L., Tucker A. S., Qiu M. , Ferguson C. A., Hardcastle Z., Rubenstein J. L. R. and Sharpe P. T. (1997) Development 124, 4811-4818). Although the maintenance of molar mesenchymal Dlx2 expression at the bud stage is Msx1-dependent, both the maintenance of Dlx1 expression and the initial activation of mesenchymal Dlx1

  16. Heart Rate Variability for Early Detection of Cardiac Iron Deposition in Patients with Transfusion-Dependent Thalassemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvilairat, Suchaya; Charoenkwan, Pimlak; Saekho, Suwit; Tantiworawit, Adisak; Phrommintikul, Arintaya; Srichairatanakool, Somdet; Chattipakorn, Nipon

    2016-01-01

    Background Iron overload cardiomyopathy remains the major cause of death in patients with transfusion-dependent thalassemia. Cardiac T2* magnetic resonance imaging is costly yet effective in detecting cardiac iron accumulation in the heart. Heart rate variability (HRV) has been used to evaluate cardiac autonomic function and is depressed in cases of thalassemia. We evaluated whether HRV could be used as an indicator for early identification of cardiac iron deposition. Methods One hundred and one patients with transfusion-dependent thalassemia were enrolled in this study. The correlation between recorded HRV and hemoglobin, non-transferrin bound iron (NTBI), serum ferritin and cardiac T2* were evaluated. Results The median age was 18 years (range 8–59 years). The patient group with a 5-year mean serum ferritin >5,000 ng/mL included significantly more homozygous β-thalassemia and splenectomized patients, had lower hemoglobin levels, and had more cardiac iron deposit than all other groups. Anemia strongly influenced all domains of HRV. After adjusting for anemia, neither serum ferritin nor NTBI impacted the HRV. However cardiac T2* was an independent predictor of HRV, even after adjusting for anemia. For receiver operative characteristic (ROC) curve analysis of cardiac T2* ≤20 ms, only mean ferritin in the last 12 months and the average of the standard deviation of all R-R intervals for all five-minute segments in the 24-hour recording were predictors for cardiac T2* ≤20 ms, with area under the ROC curve of 0.961 (p<0.0001) and 0.701 (p = 0.05), respectively. Conclusions Hemoglobin and cardiac T2* as significant predictors for HRV indicate that anemia and cardiac iron deposition result in cardiac autonomic imbalance. The mean ferritin in the last 12 months could be useful as the best indicator for further evaluation of cardiac risk. The ability of serum ferritin to predict cardiac risk is stronger than observed in other thalassemia cohorts. HRV might be a

  17. pH-Dependent solubility and permeability criteria for provisional biopharmaceutics classification (BCS and BDDCS) in early drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Manthena V; Gardner, Iain; Steyn, Stefanus J; Nkansah, Paul; Rotter, Charles J; Whitney-Pickett, Carrie; Zhang, Hui; Di, Li; Cram, Michael; Fenner, Katherine S; El-Kattan, Ayman F

    2012-05-07

    pH-dependent permeability and solubility criteria that can be used to assign provisional biopharmaceutics class at early stage of the drug discovery process. Additionally, such a classification system will enable discovery scientists to assess the potential limiting factors to oral absorption, as well as help predict the drug disposition mechanisms and potential drug-drug interactions.

  18. Sex-dependent effects of an early life treatment in rats that increases maternal care: vulnerability or resilience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Sílvia; Daviu, Núria; Gagliano, Humberto; Garrido, Pedro; Zelena, Dóra; Monasterio, Nela; Armario, Antonio; Nadal, Roser

    2014-01-01

    Early life stress (ELS) in rodents has profound long-term effects that are partially mediated by changes in maternal care. ELS not only induces “detrimental” effects in adulthood, increasing psychopathology, but also promotes resilience to further stressors. In Long-Evans rats, we evaluated a combination of two procedures as a model of ELS: restriction of bedding during the first post-natal days and exposure to a “substitute” mother. The maternal care of biological and “substitute” mothers was measured. The male and female offspring were evaluated during adulthood in several contexts. Anxiety was measured by the elevated plus-maze (EPM), acoustic startle response (ASR) and forced swim test (FST). In other group of animals, novelty-seeking was measured (activity in an inescapable novel environment, preference for novel environments and exploration of novel objects). Plasmatic ACTH and corticosterone in basal conditions and in response to stress were also measured. Cognitive impulsivity was assessed by a delay-discounting paradigm, and impulsive action, attention and compulsive-like behavior by a five choice serial reaction time task (5CSRTT). ELS decreased pup body weight and increased the care of the biological mother; however, the “substitute” mother did not exhibit overt maltreatment. A mixture of “detrimental” and “beneficial” effects was shown. In the 5CSRTT, attention was impaired in both genders, and in females, ELS increased compulsive-like behavior. Novel object exploration was only increased by ELS in males, but the preference for novel spaces decreased in both genders. Baseline anxiety (EPM and ASR) and recognition memory were not affected. Unexpectedly, ELS decreased the ACTH response to novelty and swim stress and increased active coping in the FST in both genders. Cognitive impulsivity was decreased only in females, but impulsive action was not affected. The enhancement in maternal care may “buffer” the effects of ELS in a

  19. Sex-dependent effects of an early life treatment in rats that increases maternal care: vulnerability or resilience?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia eFuentes

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Early life stress (ELS in rodents has profound long-term effects that are partially mediated by changes in maternal care. ELS not only induces detrimental effects in adulthood, increasing psychopathology, but also promotes resilience to further stressors. In Long-Evans rats, we evaluated a combination of two procedures as a model of ELS: restriction of bedding during the first postnatal days and exposure to a substitute mother. The maternal care of biological and substitute mothers was measured. The male and female offspring were evaluated during adulthood in several contexts. Anxiety was measured by the elevated plus-maze (EPM, acoustic startle response (ASR and forced swim test (FST. In other group of animals, novelty-seeking was measured (activity in an inescapable novel environment, preference for novel environments and exploration of novel objects. Plasmatic ACTH and corticosterone in basal conditions and in response to stress were also measured. Cognitive impulsivity was assessed by a delay-discounting paradigm, and impulsive action, attention and compulsive-like behaviour by a five choice serial reaction time task (5CSRTT. ELS decreased pup body weight and increased the care of the biological mother; however, the substitute mother did not exhibit overt maltreatment. A mixture of detrimental and beneficial effects was shown. In the 5CSRTT, attention was impaired in both genders, and in females, ELS increased compulsive-like behaviour. Novel object exploration was only increased by ELS in males, but the preference for novel spaces decreased in both genders. Baseline anxiety (EPM and ASR and recognition memory were not affected. Unexpectedly, ELS decreased the ACTH response to novelty and swim stress and increased active coping in the FST in both genders. Cognitive impulsivity was decreased only in females, but impulsive action was not affected. The enhancement in maternal care may buffer the effects of ELS in a context-dependent manner.

  20. [Injury risk of competitive, handicapped cross-country skiers in training nd competition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, A; Hüring, H; Huber, G; Gösele, A; Hecker-Kube, H; Gruhn, O; Stinus, H; Birnesser, H; Keul, J

    1998-03-01

    Injuries caused by cross country skiing have been poorly investigated in handicapped athletes. The dynamic sliding shape of motion makes this sport to a suitable discipline for people with a deficit of locomotion. Visual handicapped people with a guide are able to improve their motoric skills, co-ordination, orientation and body self-consciousness in the track. Since handicapped athletes are performing in international competitions the training intensity to fulfill the requirements, but also the risk of overstrain induced injuries got increased, like in other high-performance sports. Our study examined injuries and overuse syndromes of the German National Team Ski Nordic during the Paralympics in Tignes/ Albertville (1992). Lillehammer (1994) and the training period in preparation for the Paralympics in Nagano (March 1998). The incidence and kind of injuries in the competitive handicapped cross country skier was comparable with non-handicapped athletes, but the injury pattern was different.

  1. 38 CFR 21.44 - Extension of the basic period of eligibility for a veteran with a serious employment handicap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... period of eligibility for a veteran with a serious employment handicap. 21.44 Section 21.44 Pensions... Extension of the basic period of eligibility for a veteran with a serious employment handicap. (a... extend the basic period of eligibility of a veteran with a serious employment handicap when the...

  2. Early mortality in multiple myeloma: the time-dependent impact of comorbidity: A population-based study in 621 real-life patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos-Tamayo, Rafael; Sáinz, Juan; Martínez-López, Joaquín; Puerta, José Manuel; Chang, Daysi-Yoe-Ling; Rodríguez, Teresa; Garrido, Pilar; de Veas, José Luís García; Romero, Antonio; Moratalla, Lucía; López-Fernández, Elisa; González, Pedro Antonio; Sánchez, María José; Jiménez-Moleón, José Juan; Jurado, Manuel; Lahuerta, Juan José

    2016-07-01

    Multiple myeloma is a heterogeneous disease with variable survival; this variability cannot be fully explained by the current systems of risk stratification. Early mortality remains a serious obstacle to further improve the trend toward increased survival demonstrated in recent years. However, the definition of early mortality is not standardized yet. Importantly, no study has focused on the impact of comorbidity on early mortality in multiple myeloma to date. Therefore, we analyzed the role of baseline comorbidity in a large population-based cohort of 621 real-life myeloma patients over a 31-year period. To evaluate early mortality, a sequential multivariate regression model at 2, 6, and 12 months from diagnosis was performed. It was demonstrated that comorbidity had an independent impact on early mortality, which is differential and time-dependent. Besides renal failure, respiratory disease at 2 months, liver disease at 6 months, and hepatitis virus C infection at 12 months, were, respectively, associated with early mortality, adjusting for other well-established prognostic factors. On the other hand, the long-term monitoring in our study points out a modest downward trend in early mortality over time. This is the first single institution population-based study aiming to assess the impact of comorbidity on early mortality in multiple myeloma. It is suggested that early mortality should be analyzed at three key time points (2, 6, and 12 months), in order to allow comparisons between studies. Comorbidity plays a critical role in the outcome of myeloma patients in terms of early mortality. Am. J. Hematol. 91:700-704, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Does Silent Reading Speed in Normal Adult Readers Depend on Early Visual Processes? Evidence from Event-Related Brain Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korinth, Sebastian Peter; Sommer, Werner; Breznitz, Zvia

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship of reading speed and early visual processes in normal readers. Here we examined the association of the early P1, N170 and late N1 component in visual event-related potentials (ERPs) with silent reading speed and a number of additional cognitive skills in a sample of 52 adult German readers utilizing a Lexical…

  4. STATE ANXIETY, SUBJECTIVE IMBALANCE AND HANDICAP IN VESTIBULAR SCHWANNOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yougan Saman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTEvidence is emerging of a significant clinical and neuro-anatomical relationship between balance and anxiety. Research has suggested a potentially priming effect with anxiety symptoms predicting a worsening of balance function in patients with underlying balance dysfunction. We propose to show that a vestibular stimulus is responsible for an increase in state anxiety and there is a relationship between increased state anxiety and worsening balance function. Aims1.To quantify state anxiety following a vestibular stimulus in patients with a chronic vestibular deficit.2.To determine if state anxiety during a vestibular stimulus would correlate with the severity of chronic balance symptoms and handicap. MethodsTwo separate cohorts Vestibular Schwannoma (VS patients underwent vestibular tests (electronystagmography, cervical and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials and caloric responses and questionnaire assessment (Vertigo handicap Questionnaire, Vertigo Symptom Scale, State Trait Anxiety InventoryFifteen post resection Vestibular schwannoma patients, with complete unilateral vestibular deafferentation, were assessed at a minimum of 6 months after surgery in Experiment 1 (Aim 1. Forty-five patients with VS in-situ and with preserved vestibular function formed the cohort for Experiment 2 (Aim 2. Experiment 1: VS subjects (N=15 with a complete post-resection unilateral vestibular deafferentation completed a State anxiety questionnaire before caloric assessment and again afterwards with the point of maximal vertigo as the reference (Aim 1. Experiment 2: State anxiety measured at the point of maximal vertigo following a caloric assessment was compared between two groups of presenting with balance symptoms (Group 1 N=26 and without balance symptoms (Group 2 N=11 (Aim 2. The presence of balance symptoms was defined as having a positive score on the VSS-VER.ResultsIn experiment 1, a significant difference (p<0.01 was found when comparing

  5. Sex-Specific and Strain-Dependent Effects of Early Life Adversity on Behavioral and Epigenetic Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Early life adversity can have a significant long-term impact with implications for the emergence of psychopathology. Disruption to mother-infant interactions is a form of early life adversity that may, in particular, have profound programing effects on the developing brain. However, despite converging evidence from human and animal studies, the precise mechanistic pathways underlying adversity-associated neurobehavioral changes have yet to be elucidated. One approach to the study of mechanism...

  6. Sex-specific and strain-dependent effects of early life adversity on behavioral and epigenetic outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Early life adversity can have a significant long-term impact with implications for the emergence of psychopathology. Disruption to mother-infant interactions is a form of early life adversity that may, in particular, have profound programming effects on the developing brain. However, despite converging evidence from human and animal studies, the precise mechanistic pathways underlying adversity-associated neurobehavioral changes has yet to be elucidated. One approach to the study of mechan...

  7. KCNJ6 is associated with adult alcohol dependence and involved in gene × early life stress interactions in adolescent alcohol drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Toni-Kim; Laucht, Manfred; Ridinger, Monika; Wodarz, Norbert; Rietschel, Marcella; Maier, Wolfgang; Lathrop, Mark; Lourdusamy, Anbarasu; Zimmermann, Ulrich S; Desrivieres, Sylvane; Schumann, Gunter

    2011-05-01

    Alcohol abuse and dependence have proven to be complex genetic traits that are influenced by environmental factors. Primate and human studies have shown that early life stress increases the propensity for alcohol abuse in later life. The reinforcing properties of alcohol are mediated by dopaminergic signaling; however, there is little evidence to indicate how stress alters alcohol reinforcement. KCNJ6 (the gene encoding G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium channel 2 (GIRK2)) is a brain expressed potassium channel with inhibitory effects on dopaminergic tone. The properties of GIRK2 have been shown to be enhanced by the stress peptide corticotrophin-releasing hormone. Therefore, we sought to examine the role of KCNJ6 polymorphisms in adult alcohol dependence and stress-related alcohol abuse in adolescents. We selected 11 SNPs in the promoter region of KCNJ6, which were genotyped in 1152 adult alcohol dependents and 1203 controls. One SNP, rs2836016, was found to be associated with alcohol dependence (p=0.01, false discovery rate). We then assessed rs2836016 in an adolescent sample of 261 subjects, which were characterized for early life stress and adolescent hazardous drinking, defined using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), to examine gene-environment interactions. In the adolescent sample, the risk genotype of rs2836016 was significantly associated with increased AUDIT scores, but only in those individuals exposed to high levels of psychosocial stress in early life (p=0.01). Our findings show that KCNJ6 is associated with alcohol dependence and may moderate the effect of early psychosocial stress on risky alcohol drinking in adolescents. We have identified a candidate gene for future studies investigating a possible functional link between the response to stress and alcohol reinforcement.

  8. Psychological distress longitudinally mediates the effect of vertigo symptoms on vertigo-related handicap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Thomas; Dinkel, Andreas; Schmid-Mühlbauer, Gabriele; Radziej, Katharina; Limburg, Karina; Pieh, Christoph; Lahmann, Claas

    2017-02-01

    Vertigo symptoms can lead to more or less vertigo-related handicap. This longitudinal study investigated whether depression, anxiety, and/or somatization mediate the relationship between vertigo symptoms and vertigo-related handicap. N=111 patients with vertigo/dizziness provided complete data on the following measures: Vertigo symptoms at baseline, depression at 6-month follow-up, anxiety at 6-month follow-up, somatization at 6-month follow-up, and vertigo handicap at 12-month follow-up. Mediation analyses with bootstrapping were performed to investigate the mediating role of anxiety, depression, and somatization in the relationship between vertigo symptoms and vertigo-related handicap. When the mediating role of anxiety, depression, and somatization was evaluated separately from each other in single mediation models, the effect vertigo symptoms at baseline exerted on vertigo-related handicap at 12-month follow-up was significantly mediated by depression at 6-month follow-up (pvertigo symptoms at baseline on vertigo-related handicap at 12-month follow-up (pvertigo symptoms lead to vertigo-related handicap. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Train in vain: the role of the self in claimed self-handicapping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finez, Lucie; Sherman, David K

    2012-10-01

    Two field studies investigate the role of self in the tendency of athletes to engage in claimed handicapping strategies during training (anticipatively claiming that handicaps may interfere with their performance). Study 1 tested the relationship between trait self-esteem and athletes' engagement in claimed self-handicapping. As hypothesized, low physical self-esteem athletes claimed more handicaps than high physical self-esteem athletes. For stronger evidence for the causal role of the self, Study 2 tested whether securing athletes' self-worth through self-affirmation would lead to decreased claimed self-handicapping by using a mixed model design that allows for both between-subjects (affirmation vs. control condition) and within-subject comparisons (before vs. after self-affirmation intervention). Self-affirmed athletes had decreased levels of claimed self-handicapping. Studies 1 and 2 also demonstrate that athletes engage in claimed self-handicapping during training, which could have deleterious effects on subsequent performance. Discussion centers on theoretical implications and applications for coaches, sport teachers, and sport psychologists.

  10. The role of the different aspects of academic motivation and competitiveness in explaining self-handicapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damjan Šimek

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present research on self-handicapping, the goal was to examine the role of different types of academic motivation according to the level of self-determination. Since the existing research on self-handicapping has examined only the role of interpersonal competition, we also aimed to explore the role of different kinds of competition, i.e., the role of the reasons that motivate people to participate in competition, and the role of the reasons for the avoidance of competition. 748 high school students participated in the study. Regarding the role of academic motivation in self-handicapping the prevailing role of amotivation stood out. Intrinsic motivation predicted self-handicapping negatively, but extrinsic motivation proved to be a positive predictor. The factor structure of the Academic Motivation Scale only enabled differentiation of the reasons for education on the level of three basic types. With regard to the role of the different dimensions of competitiveness in self-handicapping, results show that those denoted by fear of failure and self-worth protection proved to be more characteristic of self-handicapping than those defined by a high valuation of the importance of quality of task accomplishment. Among others, our research suggests that by diverting students away from hypercompetitive values, functionality of self-handicapping can be decreased.

  11. A new foam for support of the physically handicapped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koreska, J; Albisser, A M

    1975-02-01

    This article is intended to inform professionals in the fields of rehabilitation medicine and biomedical engineering of some of the more significant properities of Temper Foam, a new foam for support of the physically handicapped. The unique properties of this foam are explained in terms of its microstructure, illustrated by scanning electron micrographs and by mechanical tests using an Instron Materials Testing machine. Fourteen non-ambulatory patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy are using this foam in custom-fitted contoured support systems. Normally, these children show increasing signs of discomfort and skin breakdown due to their inability to alternate areas of weight bearing and high local pressure such as the ischial tuberosities. In our support systems lined with Temper Foam these problems have completely dissappeared. We find that Temper Foam types T-36, T-38 and -41 are ideally suited for patients weighing up to 35 kg. T-41 may be used for patients weighing up to 70 kg.

  12. Early age-dependent impairments of context-dependent extinction learning, object recognition, and object-place learning occur in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiescholleck, Valentina; Emma André, Marion Agnès; Manahan-Vaughan, Denise

    2014-03-01

    The hippocampus is vulnerable to age-dependent memory decline. Multiple forms of memory depend on adequate hippocampal function. Extinction learning comprises active inhibition of no longer relevant learned information concurrent with suppression of a previously learned reaction. It is highly dependent on context, and evidence exists that it requires hippocampal activation. In this study, we addressed whether context-based extinction as well as hippocampus-dependent tasks, such as object recognition and object-place recognition, are equally affected by moderate aging. Young (7-8 week old) and older (7-8 month old) Wistar rats were used. For the extinction study, animals learned that a particular floor context indicated that they should turn into one specific arm (e.g., left) to receive a food reward. On the day after reaching the learning criterion of 80% correct choices, the floor context was changed, no reward was given and animals were expected to extinguish the learned response. Both, young and older rats managed this first extinction trial in the new context with older rats showing a faster extinction performance. One day later, animals were returned to the T-maze with the original floor context and renewal effects were assessed. In this case, only young but not older rats showed the expected renewal effect (lower extinction ratio as compared to the day before). To assess general memory abilities, animals were tested in the standard object recognition and object-place memory tasks. Evaluations were made at 5 min, 1 h and 7 day intervals. Object recognition memory was poor at short-term and intermediate time-points in older but not young rats. Object-place memory performance was unaffected at 5 min, but impaired at 1 h in older but not young rats. Both groups were impaired at 7 days. These findings support that not only aspects of general memory, but also context-dependent extinction learning, are affected by moderate aging. This may reflect less flexibility in

  13. Adaptation and validation of the Malayalam pediatric voice handicap index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devadas, Usha; Dhanya, M; Gunjawate, Dhanshree

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to adapt and validate the English version of pediatric voice handicap index (pVHI) into Malayalam language. The English version of pediatric voice handicap index was translated into Malayalam language using parallel back translation. The translated version was content validated by three qualified speech language pathologists. The content familiarity was carried out by 10 parents of children with voice problems. This was distributed to 136 parents (57 parents of children with dysphonia, 79 parents of children with no voice problems). The internal consistency and test--retest reliability was determined using Cronbach's alpha and intraclass correlation coefficient. Independent sample t-test was used to assess the difference in means. Kappa coefficient was used to determine the correlation between overall severity of the problem and total pVHI. Discriminant analysis was used to identify thresholds for differentiating between normal and dysphonic participants. The results obtained revealed that the Malayalam version of pVHI has an excellent internal consistency; total (α=0.974), functional (α=0.922), physical (α=0.953), and emotional (α=0.923). There was an excellent test-retest reliability; total (r=0.937), functional (r=0.954), physical (r=0.95), and emotional (r=0.929). The prediction probability of the dysphonics is 98.2% using the discriminant score function. The translated and validated pVHI tool can be effectively used in the assessment of children with voice problems. It can provide a better insight into the parents' perception of their child's voice problems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. An Evolutionary Comparison of the Handicap Principle and Hybrid Equilibrium Theories of Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Patrick; Zollman, Kevin J S

    2015-01-01

    The handicap principle has come under significant challenge both from empirical studies and from theoretical work. As a result, a number of alternative explanations for honest signaling have been proposed. This paper compares the evolutionary plausibility of one such alternative, the "hybrid equilibrium," to the handicap principle. We utilize computer simulations to compare these two theories as they are instantiated in Maynard Smith's Sir Philip Sidney game. We conclude that, when both types of communication are possible, evolution is unlikely to lead to handicap signaling and is far more likely to result in the partially honest signaling predicted by hybrid equilibrium theory.

  15. Handicap og beskæftigelse: Udviklingen mellem 2005 og 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgelund, Jan; Larsen, Brian

    Denne rapport præsenterer de seneste udviklingstræk i beskæftigelsen for personer med et handicap eller længerevarende sygdom og følger op på tidligere analyser af udviklingen siden 2002. Rapporten viser, at andelen af personer med et handicap eller længerevarende sygdom, som arbejder mere end 15...... timer om ugen, er vokset fra 50,6 pct. til 54,8 pct. i perioden 2005-2006. Andelen af personer uden handicap, som arbejder mere end 15 timer om ugen, har derimod ikke ændret sig i samme periode....

  16. [Psychosocial adjustment of the handicapped child--possibilities and problems of rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eulitz, R

    1989-01-01

    A successful childhood is to be striven after particularly for a handicapped child. Habilitation and rehabilitation, only carefully adapted to one another referring to medical specialties in colaboration with the family, may rise to the demand of the individuality of every one handicapped child. On prior conditions children with chiefly physical handicaps may be integrated into the polytechnical secondary school providing general education in the home town. The total-body examination of these children remains to be the basis for all paediatric actions.

  17. Early lenalidomide treatment for low and intermediate-1 International Prognostic Scoring System risk myelodysplastic syndromes with del(5q) before transfusion dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Esther N; Lauseker, Michael; Aloe Spiriti, Maria Antonietta; Poloni, Antonella; Cortelezzi, Agostino; Palumbo, Giuseppe A; Balleari, Enrico; Sanpaolo, Grazia; Volpe, Antonio; Ricco, Alessandra; Ronco, Francesca; Alati, Caterina; D'Errigo, Maria Grazia; Santacaterina, Irene; Kündgen, Andrea; Germing, Ulrich; Latagliata, Roberto

    2015-12-01

    Lenalidomide is approved for the treatment of transfusion-dependent (TD) del(5q) myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). However, few data are available in patients with transfusion-independent (TI) del(5q) MDS. In the first, observational, part of this 2-part study, we assessed the impact of transfusion dependence on overall survival (OS) and non-leukemic death in untreated del(5q) MDS patients who were TD (n = 136), TI with hemoglobin (Hb) ≥10 mg/dL (n = 88), or TI with Hb lenalidomide (10 mg/day) in 12 patients with TI del(5q) MDS and Hb lenalidomide (+12.5; P = 0.020). Evaluable TI patients experienced early increases in Hb levels, and all attained an erythroid response. Our findings suggest that TI patients with moderate anemia may benefit from early treatment with lenalidomide.

  18. KCNJ6 is Associated with Adult Alcohol Dependence and Involved in Gene × Early Life Stress Interactions in Adolescent Alcohol Drinking

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, Toni-Kim; Laucht, Manfred; Ridinger, Monika; Wodarz, Norbert; Rietschel, Marcella; Maier, Wolfgang; Lathrop, Mark; Lourdusamy, Anbarasu; Zimmermann, Ulrich S.; Desrivieres, Sylvane,; Schumann, Gunter

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol abuse and dependence have proven to be complex genetic traits that are influenced by environmental factors. Primate and human studies have shown that early life stress increases the propensity for alcohol abuse in later life. The reinforcing properties of alcohol are mediated by dopaminergic signaling; however, there is little evidence to indicate how stress alters alcohol reinforcement. KCNJ6 (the gene encoding G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium channel 2 (GIRK2)) is a b...

  19. The empirical metallicity dependence of the mass-loss rate of O- and early B-type stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mokiem, M.R.; de Koter, A.; Vink, J.S.; Puls, J.; Evans, C.J.; Smartt, S.J.; Crowther, P.A.; Herrero, A.; Langer, N.; Lennon, D.J.; Najarro, F.; Villamariz, M.R.

    2007-01-01

    Abridged] We present a comprehensive study of the metallicity dependence of the mass-loss rates in stationary stellar winds of hot massive stars. Assuming a power-law dependence of mass loss on metallicity, Mdot \\propto Z^{m}, and adopting a theoretical relation between the terminal velocity and met

  20. Effect of early rehabilitation intervention on nerve function rehabilitation of cerebral hemorrhage patients in recovery stage%脑出血患者早期康复介入对恢复期神经功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪兴海; 李大军; 王军

    2002-01-01

    @@ Background: Incidence, mortality and handicapping rate are very high. Early, proper and active rehabilitation therapy can decrease handicapping rate, improve function recovery and living quality. We study and analyze rehabilitation methods and curative effects of 84 cerebral hemorrhage cases, results as follow.

  1. Seroepidemiology of hepatitis A and B and vaccination status in staff at German schools for the handicapped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claus, Matthias; Kimbel, Renate; Schöne, Klaus; Letzel, Stephan; Rose, Dirk-Matthias

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to assess serostatus and vaccination status of hepatitis A and B among staff at schools for the handicapped. We also wanted to investigate factors associated with serostatus, number of infections with hepatitis A/hepatitis B at work, and factors influencing being vaccinated or not. The cross-sectional study was carried out between August 2010 and August 2012 at 13 German schools for severely handicapped. Data were analyzed using blood samples, vaccination documents, and questionnaires. A total of 395 persons participated in our study (response: 59.7%), information on 367 could be used for analysis. Two respondents have been infected with HAV at work, 53.4% were anti-HAV seropositive. Vaccination against hepatitis A was influenced by information about infectious diseases before starting to work, level of education, and marital status. One person got infected with hepatitis B during work, 53.2% were anti-HBs-seropositive. Vaccination against hepatitis B depended on perceived burden by nursing activities, and vaccination costs being paid by employer. Immunity to hepatitis A and B in our sample is insufficient and does not correspond to the infectious risks. Two persons got infected with hepatitis A and one person with hepatitis B during work at school, indicating an urgent need for preventive actions. J. Med. Virol. 89:825-833, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Time dependence of biomarkers: Non-proportional effects of immunohistochemical panels predicting relapse risk in early breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Stephen; G. Murray; D.A. Cameron (David); J. Thomas; I. Kunkler (Ian); W. Jack (W.); G.R. Kerr; M.D. Piper; C.L. Brookes (Cassandra); D.W. Rea; C.J.H. van de Velde (Cornelis); A. Hasenburg (Annette); C. Markopoulos; L.Y. Dirix (Luc); C.M. Seynaeve (Caroline); J.M.S. Bartlett (John)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground:We investigated the impact of follow-up duration to determine whether two immunohistochemical prognostic panels, IHC4 and Mammostrat, provide information on the risk of early or late distant recurrence using the Edinburgh Breast Conservation Series and the Tamoxifen vs Exemest

  3. Consequences of self-handicapping: effects on coping, academic performance, and adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, M; Kieffer, S C; Knee, C R

    1998-06-01

    Self-handicappers erect impediments to performance to protect their self-esteem. The impediments may interfere with the ability to do well and, as such, may result in poor adjustment. Using a longitudinal design, the present studies examined prospective effects of self-handicapping on coping, academic performance, and several adjustment-related variables (e.g., self-esteem). It was found that, compared to low self-handicappers, high self-handicappers reported higher usage of coping strategies implying withdrawal and negative focus. High self-handicappers performed less well academically, an effect that was mediated in part by poor study habits. Finally, high self-handicapping resulted in poorer adjustment over time, and poorer adjustment resulted in higher self-handicapping over time. These relations are consistent with the idea of a vicious cycle in which self-handicapping and poor adjustment reinforce one another.

  4. Noise exposure in gold miners: utilising audiogram configuration to determine hearing handicap

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vermaas, RL

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available controlled study, Audiology. 1988;27:164. 2. Schow, R. L., & Gatehouse, S. Fundamental Issues in Self-Assessment of Hearing, Ear & Hearing. 1990;11(5) Supplement. 3. Ringdahl, A., Eriksson-Mangold, M. & Andersson, G. Psychometric Evaluation.../American Academy of Otolaryngology Formula for Determination of Hearing Handicap. Audiology.1983; 22:313. 29. Newman, C. W., Weinstein, B. E., Jacobson, G. P. & Hug, G. A. The Hearing Handicap Inventory for Adults: Psychometric Adequacy and Audiometric...

  5. Handicap, beskæftigelse og uddannelse i 2016 - Regionale forskelle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Malene Rode; Larsen, Mona

    Formålet med denne rapport er at belyse, om der er regionale forskelle, når det gælder beskæftigelsessituationen for personer med handicap. Rapporten skal ses i sammenhæng med rapporten ”Handicap, beskæftigelse og uddannelse i 2016” (SFI-rapport 17:15), som belyser beskæftigelsessituationen...

  6. The Knowledge of Nurses and Midwives Related to Mentally-Handicapped Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Yildirim Sari

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM/BACKGROUND: The purpose of this research is to determine the knowledge of nurses and midwives who are working at primary health care services. METHODS: The information regarding the research has been given to the nurses and midwives working at primary health centers of Manisa, and 70 nurses and midwives have accepted to attend the research. In collecting the data, two questionnaire forms prepared by the researchers have been used and these forms are composed of two parts. In the first part of the questionnaire, there are questions about the sociodemografhic characteristics of midwives and nurses; in the second one the questions are related to the symptoms and causes of mental-handicap and the attempts regarding the mentally-handicapped child and his family. RESULTS: The nurses and midwives have stated that the most important cause of mental handicap is marriages among relatives (92.9%. and that in a situation of not being able to fullfill mental motor skills in relation to age, they suspect mental handicap (90%. They have also stated that they mostly have or can have difficulty in communucating with the mentally-handicapped child (64%. CONCLUSION: As a result, the nurses and midwives have adequate knowledge about the causes and symptoms of mental handicap. On the other hand, their knowledge regarding the services to be planned in care of mentally-handicapped children is limited. At the primary health care services, educational studies can be planned in order to give better health service for mentally-handicapped individuals. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(2.000: 127-132

  7. ATM-dependent E2F1 accumulation in the nucleolus is an indicator of ribosomal stress in early response to DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ya-Qiong; An, Guo-Shun; Ni, Ju-Hua; Li, Shu-Yan; Jia, Hong-Ti

    2014-01-01

    The nucleolus plays a major role in ribosome biogenesis. Most genotoxic agents disrupt nucleolar structure and function, which results in the stabilization/activation of p53, inducing cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. Likewise, transcription factor E2F1 as a DNA damage responsive protein also plays roles in cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, or apoptosis in response to DNA damage through transcriptional response and protein-protein interaction. Furthermore, E2F1 is known to be involved in regulating rRNA transcription. However, how E2F1 displays in coordinating DNA damage and nucleolar stress is unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that ATM-dependent E2F1 accumulation in the nucleolus is a characteristic feature of nucleolar stress in early response to DNA damage. We found that at the early stage of DNA damage, E2F1 accumulation in the nucleolus was an ATM-dependent and a common event in p53-suficient and -deficient cells. Increased nucleolar E2F1 was sequestered by the nucleolar protein p14ARF, which repressed E2F1-dependent rRNA transcription initiation, and was coupled with S phase. Our data indicate that early accumulation of E2F1 in the nucleolus is an indicator for nucleolar stress and a component of ATM pathway, which presumably buffers elevation of E2F1 in the nucleoplasm and coordinates the diversifying mechanisms of E2F1 acts in cell cycle progression and apoptosis in early response to DNA damage.

  8. Functional characterization of mannose-binding lectin in zebrafish: implication for a lectin-dependent complement system in early embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lili; Bu, Lingzhen; Sun, Weiwei; Hu, Lili; Zhang, Shicui

    2014-10-01

    The lectin pathway involves recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns by mannose-binding lectin (MBL), and the subsequent activation of associated enzymes, termed MBL-associated serine proteases (MASPs). In this study, we demonstrate that the transcript of MBL gene is present in the early embryo of zebrafish, and MBL protein is also present in the embryo. In addition, we show that recombinant zebrafish MBL was able to bind the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli and the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, and rMBL was able to promote the phagocytosis of E. coli and S. aureus by macrophages, indicating that like mammalian MBL, zebrafish MBL performs a dual function in both pattern recognition and opsonization. Importantly, we show that microinjection of anti-MBL antibody into the early developing embryos resulted in a significantly increased mortality in the embryos challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila (pathogenic to zebrafish); and injection of rMBL into the embryos (resulting in increase in MBL in the embryo) markedly promoted their resistance to A. hydrophila; and this promoted bacterial resistance was significantly reduced by the co-injection of anti-MBL antibody with rMBL but not by the injection of anti-actin antibody with rMBL. These suggest that the lectin pathway may be already functional in the early embryos in zebrafish before their immune system is fully matured, protecting the developing embryos from microbial infection. This work provides a new angle to understand the immune role of the lectin pathway in early development of animals.

  9. The oxidative cost of reproduction depends on early development oxidative stress and sex in a bird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Haro, A A; Sorci, G; Alonso-Alvarez, C

    2016-06-29

    In the early 2000s, a new component of the cost of reproduction was proposed: oxidative stress. Since then the oxidative cost of reproduction hypothesis has, however, received mixed support. Different arguments have been provided to explain this. Among them, the lack of a life-history perspective on most experimental tests was suggested. We manipulated the levels of a key intracellular antioxidant (glutathione) in captive zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) during a short period of early life and subsequently tested the oxidative cost of reproduction. Birds were allowed to mate freely in an outdoor aviary for several months. We repeatedly enlarged or reduced their broods to increase or reduce, respectively, breeding effort. Birds whose glutathione levels were reduced during growth showed higher erythrocyte resistance to free radical-induced haemolysis when forced to rear enlarged broods. This supports the hypothesis predicting the occurrence of developing programmes matching early and adult environmental conditions to improve fitness. Moreover, adult males rearing enlarged broods endured higher plasma levels of lipid oxidative damage than control males, whereas adult females showed the opposite trend. As most previous studies reporting non-significant or opposite results used females only, we also discuss some sex-related particularities that may contribute to explain unexpected results.

  10. Voice handicap and health-related quality of life after treatment for small laryngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killguss, Helen; Gottwald, Frank; Haderlein, Tino; Maier, Andreas; Rosanowski, Frank; Iro, Heinrich; Psychogios, Georgios; Schuster, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Treatment of small carcinoma of the larynx may lead to voice handicap and restricted quality of life. The relationship between the two is revealed. Sixty-five patients aged 62.1 ± 10.0 years rated their voice handicap and quality of life after treatment of T1 (n = 35) or T2 (n = 30) laryngeal carcinoma during regular out-patient examinations. For the self-assessment of the voice, the Voice Handicap Index (VHI) and the disease-independent Short Form-36 Health Survery (SF-36) questionnaires were used. Voice handicap (total score 38.9 ± 26.0) did not differ in the two tested groups, T1 and T2, and the data of SF-36 (physical score 43.0 ± 10.7; mental score 50.2 ± 9.1) showed significant differences for the mental score. Patients rated their voice handicap worse than healthy persons did after treatment of laryngeal carcinoma. VHI and SF-36 data were strongly correlated. Voice handicap is significantly related to the quality of life, especially affecting the mental domain. Thus, the rehabilitation of voice disorders should have a beneficial impact on quality of life.

  11. Exploratory factor analysis of the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (German version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Bruin Eling D

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI is a validated, self-report questionnaire which is widely used as an outcome measure. Previous studies supported the multidimensionality of the DHI, but not the original subscale structure. The objectives of this survey were to explore the dimensions of the Dizziness Handicap Inventory - German version, and to investigate the associations of the retained factors with items assessing functional disability and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Secondly we aimed to explore the retained factors according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF. Methods Patients were recruited from a tertiary centre for vertigo, dizziness or balance disorders. They filled in two questionnaires: (1 The DHI assesses precipitating physical factors associated with dizziness/unsteadiness and functional/emotional consequences of symptoms. (2 The HADS assesses non-somatic symptoms of anxiety and depression. In addition, patients answered the third question of the University of California Los Angeles-Dizziness Questionnaire which covers the impact of dizziness and unsteadiness on everyday activities. Principal component analysis (PCA was performed to explore the dimensions of the DHI. Associations were estimated by Spearman correlation coefficients. Results One hundred ninety-four patients with dizziness or unsteadiness associated with a vestibular disorder, mean age (standard deviation of 50.6 (13.6 years, participated. Based on eigenvalues greater one respectively the scree plot we analysed diverse factor solutions. The 3-factor solution seems to be reliable, clinically relevant and can partly be explained with the ICF. It explains 49.2% of the variance. Factor 1 comprises the effect of dizziness and unsteadiness on emotion and participation, factor 2 informs about specific activities or effort provoking dizziness and unsteadiness, and factor 3 focuses on self

  12. Early apoptosis and cell death induced by ATX-S10Na ( Ⅱ)-mediated photodynamic therapy are Bax- and p53-dependent in human colon cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Makoto Mitsunaga; Akihito Tsubota; Kohichi Nariai; Yoshihisa Namiki; Makoto Sumi; Tetsuya Yoshikawa; Kiyotaka Fujise

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the roles of Bax and p53 proteins in photosensitivity of human colon cancer cells by using lysosome-localizing photosensitizer, ATX-S10Na (Ⅱ).METHODS: HCT116 human colon cancer cells and Bax-null or p53-null isogenic derivatives were irradiated with a diode laser. Early apoptosis and cell death in response to photodynamic therapy were determined by MTT assays, annexin V assays, transmission electron microscopy assays, caspase assays and western blotting.RESULTS: Induction of early apoptosis and cell death was Bax- and p53-dependent. Bax and p53 were required for caspase-dependent apoptosis. The levels of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins, Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL,were decreased in Bax- and p53-independent manner.CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that early apoptosis and cell death of human colon cancer cells induced by photodynamic therapy with lysosome-localizingphotosensitizer ATX-S10Na (Ⅱ) are mediated by p53-Bax network and Iow levels of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL proteins.Our results might help in formulating new therapeutic approaches in photedynamic therapy.

  13. Emancipation trough the Artistic Experience and the Meaning of Handicap as Instance of Otherness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robi Kroflič

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The key hypothesis of the article is that successful inter-mediation of art to vulnerable groups of people (including children depends on the correct identification of the nature of an artistic act and on the meaning that handicap—as an instance of otherness—has in the life of artists and spectators. A just access to the artistic experience is basically not the question of the distribution of artistic production (since if artistic object is principally accessible to all people, it will not reach vulnerable groups of spectators, but of ensuring artistic creativity and presentation. This presupposes a spectator as a competent being who is able to interact with the artistic object without our interpretative explanation and who is sensible to the instance of otherness (handicap is merely a specific form of otherness. The theory of emancipation from J. Ranciere, the theory of recognition from A. Honneth, and the theory of narration from P. Ricoeur and R. Kearney, as well as our experiences with a comprehensive inductive approach and artistic experience as one of its basic educational methods offer us a theoretical framework for such a model of art inter-mediation.

  14. Mosaic variegated aneuploidy associated with a dysmorphic syndrome and mental handicap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, L.; Babu, A.; Willner, J. [Sount Sinai Sachool of Medicine, New York, NY (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    A 41-year-old woman was evaluated for dysmorphic features and mental handicap. Prior karyotyping had revealed 7% mosaicism for trisomy 18 in skin fibroblasts with normal blood chromosomes. Clinical features consisted of short stature, mild mental retardation, sensorineural deafness and the following dysmorphic features: short, broad neck, low posterior hairline, small palpebral fissures with iris coloboma on the right, epicanthic folds, small mouth, high palate and prominent mandible, short metacarpals and digits, particularly the fifth, with bilateral simian creases. Medical problems included non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, hypertension, oligomenorrhea and recent onset of diabetic neuropathy and retinal exudates. Head size and brain MRI were within normal limits. Peripheral blood chromosomes revealed: 46,XX (45 cells), 46,XX,t(7;16)(q21;q21) in 1 cell, 45,X (1 cell), 48,XXXX (1 cell), 47,XX,+mar (1 cell), 48,XX,+mar,+mar (1 cell). Skin fibroblasts revealed the following karyotypes: 46,XX (25 cells), 45,X (14 cells), 47,XX,+2 (10 cells) and 47,X,+2,+7 (1 cell). Previously reported cases of mosaic variegated aneuploidy include microcephaly as a prominent feature. Chromosomes involved in the abnormality are variable. Clinical presentations in such patients are not consistent and do not appear to correlate with specific chromosome defects. This patient represents an interesting example of probable mitotic instability disrupting normal developmental processes.

  15. Features of the Humoral Immune Response in School-age Children with Early-Onset Bronchial Asthma Depending on Acetylation Polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U.I. Marusyk

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the work was to study the individual indicators of the humoral immune system in school-age children with early-onset bronchial asthma (BA, considering acetylation phenotypes to improve treatment outcomes. There has been carried out a comprehensive examination of 34 school-age children with early-onset BA (disease first manifested at an early age. Depending on the course of the disease, patients were divided into two clinical groups. The first clinical group included 16 patients with slow acetylation (average content of acetylated sulfadimine in urine was less than 75.0 %. The second clinical group consisted of 18 pupils with fast acetylation (average level of acetylated sulfadimine in urine was over 75.0 %. All children underwent immunological blood test of II–III levels. The studies found that slow acetylation in patients with early-onset asthma increases the risk of reduction in the amount of interleukin-8 in blood serum < 5.3 pg/ml with odds ratio (OR 4.5 (95% confident interval (CI: 2.3–8.9, as well as the risk of higher concentration of IL-4 more than 4.0 pg/ml (OR = 1.9 that is associated with atopic inflammation of the body and allows you to personalize treatment tactics in these patients.

  16. High throughput screening for antibody induced complement-dependent cytotoxicity in early antibody discovery using homogeneous macroconfocal fluorescence imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, Arnout F.; Bosch, Martijn; de Weers, Michel; van de Winkel, Jan G. J.; Parren, Paul W. H. I.

    2010-01-01

    Complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) represents an important Fc-mediated effector function of antibodies and is a quality often sought in candidates for therapeutic antibody development in cancer. Antibodies inducing potent CDC are relatively rare as the ability to induce CDC is strongly dependen

  17. Early postnatal nicotine exposure causes hippocampus-dependent memory impairments in adolescent mice: Association with altered nicotinic cholinergic modulation of LTP, but not impaired LTP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakauchi, Sakura; Malvaez, Melissa; Su, Hailing; Kleeman, Elise; Dang, Richard; Wood, Marcelo A; Sumikawa, Katumi

    2015-02-01

    Fetal nicotine exposure from smoking during pregnancy causes long-lasting cognitive impairments in offspring, yet little is known about the mechanisms that underlie this effect. Here we demonstrate that early postnatal exposure of mouse pups to nicotine via maternal milk impairs long-term, but not short-term, hippocampus-dependent memory during adolescence. At the Schaffer collateral (SC) pathway, the most widely studied synapses for a cellular correlate of hippocampus-dependent memory, the induction of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-dependent transient long-term potentiation (LTP) and protein synthesis-dependent long-lasting LTP are not diminished by nicotine exposure, but rather unexpectedly the threshold for LTP induction becomes lower after nicotine treatment. Using voltage sensitive dye to visualize hippocampal activity, we found that early postnatal nicotine exposure also results in enhanced CA1 depolarization and hyperpolarization after SC stimulation. Furthermore, we show that postnatal nicotine exposure induces pervasive changes to the nicotinic modulation of CA1 activity: activation of nicotinic receptors no longer increases CA1 network depolarization, acute nicotine inhibits rather than facilitates the induction of LTP at the SC pathway by recruiting an additional nicotinic receptor subtype, and acute nicotine no longer blocks LTP induction at the temporoammonic pathway. These findings reflect the pervasive impact of nicotine exposure during hippocampal development, and demonstrate an association of hippocampal memory impairments with altered nicotinic cholinergic modulation of LTP, but not impaired LTP. The implication of our results is that nicotinic cholinergic-dependent plasticity is required for long-term memory formation and that postnatal nicotine exposure disrupts this form of plasticity.

  18. Serum, liver, and lung levels of the major extracellular matrix components at the early stage of BCG-induced granulomatosis depending on the infection route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, L B; Shkurupy, V A; Putyatina, A N

    2015-01-01

    Experiments on the model of mouse BCG-induced granulomatous showed that the content of glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans in the extracellular matrix of the liver and lungs are changed at the early stages of inflammation (days 3 and 30 postinfection) before cell destruction in the organs begins. This is related to degradation of extracellular matrix structures. Their high content in the blood and interstitium probably contributes to the formation of granulomas, fibroblast proliferation and organ fibrosis. These processes depend on the infection route that determines different conditions for generalization of the inflammation process. Intravenous method of vaccine injection is preferable to use when designing the experiments simulating tuberculosis granulomatosis, especially for the analysis of its early stages.

  19. Validation of the Italian Voice Handicap Index-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forti, Stella; Amico, Marianna; Zambarbieri, Annamaria; Ciabatta, Annaclara; Assi, Cristiana; Pignataro, Lorenzo; Cantarella, Giovanna

    2014-03-01

    Time consuming is an important aspect in assessing dysphonic patients. So, the English version of the Voice Handicap Index (VHI-30), a self-administered questionnaire consisting of 30 items used to evaluate patients' self-perception of voice problems, was reduced to 10 items (VHI-10) for clinical purposes. In 2010, an Italian version of VHI-30 was validated, now the aims of this study were to analyze the psychometric properties of an Italian version of VHI-10 and to evaluate its validity in a cohort of patients affected by organic or functional dysphonia. Cross-sectional study. The Italian version of the VHI-30 was submitted to 372 dysphonic participants and 120 healthy control subjects and was conducted again 2 weeks later. The 10 items constituting the VHI-10 were extracted from the VHI-30. For 73 dysphonic patients, the questionnaire was also administered after treatment. The scores of the control group were significantly lower with respect to all diagnostic subgroups (PItalian VHI-10. The ratio of the VHI-10 and VHI-30 scores was higher than 0.333 in all subgroups. This study demonstrated that the Italian VHI-10 is a robust tool that can adequately represent and replace the VHI-30. The reported results support the use of the VHI-10 for the Italian population in clinical settings owing to its validity and rapid and simple use. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Adaptation and validation of the Italian Pediatric Voice Handicap Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Antonio; Tiddia, Cristiana; Ghidelli, Chiara; Nerone, Vincenza; Albera, Roberto; Ottaviani, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the internal consistency, reliability and clinical validity of the Italian version of the Pediatric Voice Handicap Index (pVHI). The parents of 30 children with dysphonia and 43 asymptomatic children were included in the study. Each parent was asked to complete the Italian pVHI autonomously. The voice of each child was assessed perceptually through the GRB parameters of the GRBAS scale. Internal consistency was analyzed through Cronbach's α coefficient. For test-retest reliability analysis, the Italian pVHI was filled twice, with a 2-week interval, and the scores obtained were compared through the Pearson correlation test. Clinical validity was assessed comparing the scores obtained in the pathological and the control group using the Mann-Whitney test. Finally, the correlation between pVHI and the perceptual parameters was assessed. All of the parents filled in the entire questionnaire autonomously. An optimal internal consistency was found (α = 0.95); the test-retest reliability in the parents of both groups of children was high (r > 0.88). The control group scored significantly lower than the pathological group (p = 0.0001). The pVHI scores positively correlated with perceptual assessment of voice disorders. The Italian pVHI is easily administered, highly reproducible, and exhibits excellent clinical validity. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Image and Video Processing for Visually Handicapped People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Tzovaras

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the state of the art in the field of assistive devices for sight-handicapped people. It concentrates in particular on systems that use image and video processing for converting visual data into an alternate rendering modality that will be appropriate for a blind user. Such alternate modalities can be auditory, haptic, or a combination of both. There is thus the need for modality conversion, from the visual modality to another one; this is where image and video processing plays a crucial role. The possible alternate sensory channels are examined with the purpose of using them to present visual information to totally blind persons. Aids that are either already existing or still under development are then presented, where a distinction is made according to the final output channel. Haptic encoding is the most often used by means of either tactile or combined tactile/kinesthetic encoding of the visual data. Auditory encoding may lead to low-cost devices, but there is need to handle high information loss incurred when transforming visual data to auditory one. Despite a higher technical complexity, audio/haptic encoding has the advantage of making use of all available user's sensory channels.

  2. Image and Video Processing for Visually Handicapped People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bologna Guido

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the state of the art in the field of assistive devices for sight-handicapped people. It concentrates in particular on systems that use image and video processing for converting visual data into an alternate rendering modality that will be appropriate for a blind user. Such alternate modalities can be auditory, haptic, or a combination of both. There is thus the need for modality conversion, from the visual modality to another one; this is where image and video processing plays a crucial role. The possible alternate sensory channels are examined with the purpose of using them to present visual information to totally blind persons. Aids that are either already existing or still under development are then presented, where a distinction is made according to the final output channel. Haptic encoding is the most often used by means of either tactile or combined tactile/kinesthetic encoding of the visual data. Auditory encoding may lead to low-cost devices, but there is need to handle high information loss incurred when transforming visual data to auditory one. Despite a higher technical complexity, audio/haptic encoding has the advantage of making use of all available user's sensory channels.

  3. Documenting handicap situations and eliminations through Universal Design patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Heylighen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available According to contemporary academic and social insights,human functional limitations and handicaps are not exclusively the result of the physical and / or mental characteristics of the individual (medical model, but theycan just as well be a consequence of a maladjustment of the social and physical environment (conflict / social model.This radical reversal of focus from person to environment,or in other words, from the assessment that the person isimpeded to the insight that the physical and socialenvironment is an impediment, has far-reaching consequences for the designing of human-made environments.The recent Universal Design paradigm extends beyond accommodating ‘modal’ users and aims to include the realdiversity of user populations, including those with physical and / or mental impairments and functional limitations. To achieve this, a large amount of design information in connection with human dis-abilities (limitations andpossibilities is required.Together with prescriptive laws and regulations, designers need descriptive information about; on the one hand,CONFLICTS between users and built environments, and onthe other hand, empirically evident design RESOLUTIONS. In response to this need, the paper advances the development of specific Universal Design Patterns (UD Patterns in order to collect and organise this information for decision makers and for designers.

  4. Sensory deprivation during early development causes an increased exploratory behavior in a whisker-dependent decision task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, Stylianos; Brigham, Leeann; Krieger, Patrik

    2013-01-01

    Stimulation of sensory pathways is important for the normal development of cortical sensory areas, and impairments in the normal development can have long-lasting effect on animal's behavior. In particular, disturbances that occur early in development can cause permanent changes in brain structure and function. The behavioral effect of early sensory deprivation was studied in the mouse whisker system using a protocol to induce a 1-week sensory deprivation immediately after birth. Only two rows of whiskers were spared (C and D rows), and the rest were deprived, to create a situation where an unbalanced sensory input, rather than a complete loss of input, causes a reorganization of the sensory map. Sensory deprivation increased the barrel size ratio of the spared CD rows compared with the deprived AB rows; thus, the map reorganization is likely due, at least in part, to a rewiring of thalamocortical projections. The behavioral effect of such a map reorganization was investigated in the gap-crossing task, where the animals used a whisker that was spared during the sensory deprivation. Animals that had been sensory deprived performed equally well with the control animals in the gap-crossing task, but were more active in exploring the gap area and consequently made more approaches to the gap - approaches that on average were of shorter duration. A restricted sensory deprivation of only some whiskers, although it does not seem to affect the overall performance of the animals, does have an effect on their behavioral strategy on executing the gap-crossing task.

  5. Expression of CD86 and increased infiltration of NK cells are associated with Helicobacter pylori-dependent state of early stage high-grade gastric MALT lymphoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sung-Hsin Kuo; Jaw-Town Lin; Ann-Lii Cheng; Li-Tzong Chen; Chi-Long Chen; Shin-Lian Doong; Kun-Huei Yeh; Ming-Shiang Wu; Tsui-Lien Mao; Hui-Chen Hsu; Hsiu-Po Wang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: A high percentage of early-stage high-grade gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas remain Helicobacter pylori(H pylori)-dependent. However,unlike their low-grade counterparts, high-grade gastric MALT lymphomas may progress rapidly if unresponsive to H pylori eradication. It is mandatory to identify markers that may predict the H pylori-dependent status of these tumors. Proliferation of MALT lymphoma cells depends on cognate help and cell-to-cell contact of H pylori-specific intratumoral T-cells. To examine whether the expression of co-stimulatory marker CD86 (B7.2) and the infiltration of CD56 (+) natural killer (NK) cells can be useful markers to predict Hpylori-dependent status of high-grade gastric MALT lymphoma.METHODS: Lymphoma biopsies from 26 patients who had participated in a prospective study of H pylori-eradication for stage IE high-grade gastric MALT lymphomas were evaluated. Tumors that resolved to Wotherspoon grade Ⅱ or less after H pylorieradication were classified as H pyloridependent; others were classified as H pylori-independent.The infiltration of NK cells and the expression of CD86 in pre-treatment paraffin-embedded lymphoma tissues were determined by immunohistochemistry.RESULTS: There were 16 H pylori-dependent and 10H pylori-independent cases. CD86 expression was detected in 11 (68.8%) of 16 Hpyiori-dependent cases but in none of 10 Hpylori-independent cases (P = 0.001).H pylori-dependent high-grade gastric MALT lymphomas contained significantly higher numbers of CD56 (+) NK cells than H pylori-independent cases (2.8±1.4% vs 1.1±0.8%; P = 0.003). CD86 positive MALT lymphomas also showed significantly increased infiltration of CD56 (+)NK cells compared to CD86-negative cases (2.9±1.1% vs1.4±1.3%; P= 0.005).CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the expression of co-stimulatory marker CD86 and the increased infiltration of NK cells are associated with H pylori-dependent state of early-stage high-grade gastric MALT

  6. Drosophila S2 cells are non-permissive for vaccinia virus DNA replication following entry via low pH-dependent endocytosis and early transcription.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zain Bengali

    Full Text Available Vaccinia virus (VACV, a member of the chordopox subfamily of the Poxviridae, abortively infects insect cells. We have investigated VACV infection of Drosophila S2 cells, which are useful for protein expression and genome-wide RNAi screening. Biochemical and electron microscopic analyses indicated that VACV entry into Drosophila S2 cells depended on the VACV multiprotein entry-fusion complex but appeared to occur exclusively by a low pH-dependent endocytic mechanism, in contrast to both neutral and low pH entry pathways used in mammalian cells. Deep RNA sequencing revealed that the entire VACV early transcriptome, comprising 118 open reading frames, was robustly expressed but neither intermediate nor late mRNAs were made. Nor was viral late protein synthesis or inhibition of host protein synthesis detected by pulse-labeling with radioactive amino acids. Some reduction in viral early proteins was noted by Western blotting. Nevertheless, synthesis of the multitude of early proteins needed for intermediate gene expression was demonstrated by transfection of a plasmid containing a reporter gene regulated by an intermediate promoter. In addition, expression of a reporter gene with a late promoter was achieved by cotransfection of intermediate genes encoding the late transcription factors. The requirement for transfection of DNA templates for intermediate and late gene expression indicated a defect in viral genome replication in VACV-infected S2 cells, which was confirmed by direct analysis. Furthermore, VACV-infected S2 cells did not support the replication of a transfected plasmid, which occurs in mammalian cells and is dependent on all known viral replication proteins, indicating a primary restriction of DNA synthesis.

  7. Three LIF-dependent signatures and gene clusters with atypical expression profiles, identified by transcriptome studies in mouse ES cells and early derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hummel Oliver

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mouse embryonic stem (ES cells remain pluripotent in vitro when grown in the presence of the cytokine Leukaemia Inhibitory Factor (LIF. Identification of LIF targets and of genes regulating the transition between pluripotent and early differentiated cells is a critical step for understanding the control of ES cell pluripotency. Results By gene profiling studies carried out with mRNAs from ES cells and their early derivatives treated or not with LIF, we have identified i LIF-dependent genes, highly expressed in pluripotent cells, whose expression level decreases sharply upon LIF withdrawal [Pluri genes], ii LIF induced genes [Lifind genes] whose expression is differentially regulated depending upon cell context and iii genes specific to the reversible or irreversible committed states. In addition, by hierarchical gene clustering, we have identified, among eight independent gene clusters, two atypical groups of genes, whose expression level was highly modulated in committed cells only. Computer based analyses led to the characterization of different sub-types of Pluri and Lifind genes, and revealed their differential modulation by Oct4 or Nanog master genes. Individual knock down of a selection of Pluri and Lifind genes leads to weak changes in the expression of early differentiation markers, in cell growth conditions in which these master genes are still expressed. Conclusion We have identified different sets of LIF-regulated genes depending upon the cell state (reversible or irreversible commitment, which allowed us to present a novel global view of LIF responses. We are also reporting on the identification of genes whose expression is strictly regulated during the commitment step. Furthermore, our studies identify sub-networks of genes with a restricted expression in pluripotent ES cells, whose down regulation occurs while the master knot (composed of OCT4, SOX2 and NANOG is still expressed and which might be down

  8. Self-esteem, self-conscious emotions, resilience, trait anxiety and their relation to self-handicapping tendencies

    OpenAIRE

    Török, Lilla; Szabó, Zsolt Péter; Boda-Ujlaky, Judit

    2014-01-01

    Jones and Berglas (1978) define self-handicapping as any action or choice of performance setting that enhances the opportunity to externalize (or excuse) failure and to internalize (reasonably accept credit for) success (p. 406). The present study examined the role of potential precursors in the self-handicapping process. A total of 626 undergraduates from various Hungarian universities completed measures of dispositional self-handicapping, self-esteem, self-conscious emotions, trait anxiety,...

  9. The Canadian Human Rights Act. Physical Handicap and Employment = Loi canadienne sur les droits de la personne. Le handicap physique et l'emploi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Human Rights Commission, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This booklet presents administrative criteria for implementation of the Canadian Human Rights Act to be used by the Canadian Human Rights Commission to evaluate employment decisions affecting physically handicapped individuals. They are of value to employers who need to know how the Commission will analyze employer arguments that they have not…

  10. The Marriott Philosophy at Work: A Study of Corporate Success with the Handicapped. Project TROPHY. Transition Research on Problems of Handicapped Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Charles; Zhu, Guangli

    This monograph examines the Marriott Corporation, which has won numerous awards for its involvement in creating employment situations for the handicapped. Part 1 examines the Marriott Corporation in its wider economic, political, and religious contexts, including its founding by a Mormon family. Part 2 addresses central features of the Marriott…

  11. Horticultural therapy--aspects of land use for the mentally handicapped. A system of planning for the requirements of the mentally handicapped gardener.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurgeon, T; Underhill, C

    1979-01-01

    An increasing number of facilities for the mentally handicapped use horticulture, agriculture and gardening in their training programmes. This paper contains a review of: (1) some aspects of land use as a medium for leisure, rehabilitation, therapy and training for the mentally handicapped, (2) employment, both sheltered and open, in land use as reflected in a recent survey, (3) the variety of knowledge available through the medium of land use. The main emphasis of the paper deals with: (1) the need for planning, (2) a suggested planning system that assists the instructor in understanding the requirements of the mentally handicapped gardener when he approaches a given job, (3) some problems peculiar to land use work with the mentally handicapped. In conclusion the authors briefly examine: (1) the need for assessment, (2) the need to distinguish between production and training, (3) suggestions towards an expansion of the planning system to take in other areas of the horticultural unit than were originally described, (4) social activities connected with the horticultural activities described, (5) the hierarchy identified through the use of a particular planning system.

  12. The Effect of Colour Psychodynamic Environment on the Psychophysiological and Behavioural Reactions of Severely Handicapped Children. Effects of Colour/Light Changes on Severely Handicapped Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlfarth, H.; Sam, C.

    The effects of varied lighting and coloring in the classroom environment were examined on the behavior of seven severely handicapped 8 to 11 year olds with behavior problems. Analysis of changes in systolic blood pressure indicated that Ss were more comfortable and relaxed in the experimental room (in which the fluorescent lights were replaced by…

  13. The functional half-life of an mRNA depends on the ribosome spacing in an early coding region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Margit; Nissen, Søren; Mitarai, Namiko;

    2011-01-01

    . Here, we characterize a determinant of the functional stability of an mRNA, which is located in the early coding region. Using literature values for the mRNA half-lives of variant lacZ mRNAs in Escherichia coli, we modeled how the ribosome spacing is affected by the translation rate of the individual...... of slowly translated codons before codon 20 or after codon 45 should shorten or prolong, respectively, the functional mRNA half-life by altering the ribosome density in the important region. These predictions were tested on eight new lacZ variants, and their experimentally determined mRNA half-lives all...

  14. Natural killer function following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Very early reemergence but strong dependence of cytomegalovirus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hokland, M; Jacobsen, N; Ellegaard, J

    1988-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cell function was followed sequentially after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) using three approaches: (1) chromium-release assay with purified mononuclear effector cells, (2) chromium-release assay with whole blood effectors, and 3) enumeration of lymphocytes...... bearing the NK-associated antigen NKH-1 (N901). The two latter methods enabled us to demonstrate a very early reappearance (at day 4 posttransplant) of pre-NK cells, which after interferon-alpha enhancement effectively lysed K562 cells and carried the NKH-1 antigen. During the first month NK function...... steadily increased, and at day 28 activated NK cells, which lysed the otherwise resistant P815 cell line, could be demonstrated concomittant with a substantial over-shoot in the proportion of NKH-1+ cells. Furthermore, the increase in NK lysis was more pronounced in patients with cytomegalovirus (CMV...

  15. Granulocytic Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells Increased in Early Phases of Primary HIV Infection Depending on TRAIL Plasma Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumino, Nicola; Bilotta, Maria T; Pinnetti, Carmela; Ammassari, Adriana; Antinori, Andrea; Turchi, Federica; Agrati, Chiara; Casetti, Rita; Bordoni, Veronica; Cimini, Eleonora; Abbate, Isabella; Capobianchi, Maria R; Martini, Federico; Sacchi, Alessandra

    2017-04-15

    It has been demonstrated that myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are expanded in HIV-1-infected individuals and correlated with disease progression. The phase of HIV infection during which MDSC expansion occurs, and the mechanisms that regulate this expansion remain to be established. In this study, we evaluated the frequency of MDSC in patients during primary HIV infection (PHI) and factors involved in MDSC control. Patients with PHI and chronic HIV infection (CHI) were enrolled. PHI staging was performed according to Fiebig classification, and circulating MDSC frequency and function were evaluated by flow cytometry. Cytokine levels were evaluated by Luminex technology. We found that granulocytic MDSC (Gr-MDSC) frequency was higher in patients with PHI compared with healthy donors, but lower than that in patients with CHI. Interestingly, Gr-MDSC expansion was observed in the early phases of HIV infection (Fiebig II/III), but it was not associated with HIV viral load and CD4 T-cell count. Interestingly, in PHI, Gr-MDSC frequency was inversely correlated with plasmatic level of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), although a direct correlation was observed in CHI. Furthermore, lower level of Granulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF) was observed in PHI compared with that in CHI. In vitro experiments demonstrated that, differently from CHI, recombinant TRAIL-induced apoptosis of Gr-MDSC from PHI, an effect that can be abrogated by GM-CSF. We found that Gr-MDSC are expanded early during PHI and may be regulated by TRAIL and GM-CSF levels. These findings shed light on the fine mechanisms regulating the immune system during HIV infection and open new perspectives for immune-based strategies.

  16. Future high school teachers' difficulties and alternatives found to planning electromagnetism activities designed for visual handicapped students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eder Pires de Camargo

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available We report here partial outcomes of a study aimed to verify future High School teachers' performance when, during the development of a called "Teaching Practice" undergraduate course, were asked to plan, elaborate and teach, in classroom situations, electromagnetism topics to a students class which included visual handicapped pupils. Data analyzed show that the main difficulties presented by the future Physics High School teachers are related to the approach to know physics phenomena as dependent of vision and to break with some elements of the traditional pedagogy. By other hand, as alternatives, future teachers showed creativity in order to surpass passive aptitudes related to this educational problem, working out methodological strategies deprived of the relation knowing/seeing, as well as, the work with orality in a physics education context.

  17. Vocal Hygiene Habits and Vocal Handicap Among Conservatory Students of Classical Singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achey, Meredith A; He, Mike Z; Akst, Lee M

    2016-03-01

    This study sought to assess classical singing students' compliance with vocal hygiene practices identified in the literature and to explore the relationship between self-reported vocal hygiene practice and self-reported singing voice handicap in this population. The primary hypothesis was that increased attention to commonly recommended vocal hygiene practices would correlate with reduced singing voice handicap. This is a cross-sectional, survey-based study. An anonymous survey assessing demographics, attention to 11 common vocal hygiene recommendations in both performance and nonperformance periods, and the Singing Voice Handicap Index 10 (SVHI-10) was distributed to classical singing teachers to be administered to their students at two major schools of music. Of the 215 surveys distributed, 108 were returned (50.2%), of which 4 were incomplete and discarded from analysis. Conservatory students of classical singing reported a moderate degree of vocal handicap (mean SVHI-10, 12; range, 0-29). Singers reported considering all 11 vocal hygiene factors more frequently when preparing for performances than when not preparing for performances. Of these, significant correlations with increased handicap were identified for consideration of stress reduction in nonperformance (P = 0.01) and performance periods (P = 0.02) and with decreased handicap for consideration of singing voice use in performance periods alone (P = 0.02). Conservatory students of classical singing report more assiduous attention to vocal hygiene practices when preparing for performances and report moderate degrees of vocal handicap overall. These students may have elevated risk for dysphonia and voice disorders which is not effectively addressed through common vocal hygiene recommendations alone. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Attention problems among children with a positive family history of alcohol abuse or dependence and controls. Prevalence and course for the period from preteen to early teen years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnow, Sven; Schuckit, Marc; Smith, Tom; Spitzer, Carsten; Freyberger, Harald-J

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the scope and course of attention problems over a period of time from preteen (ages 7-12 years) to early teen years (ages 13-17 years). We compared symptoms in subjects with and without a family history (FH) of alcohol abuse or dependence from among families without evidence of antisocial personality disorder. Evaluations of attention problems for the offspring were based on the Child Behavior Checklist and a validated semistructured interview carried out with the mother. The findings indicate no higher risk for attention problems and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like symptoms in the children of families with an alcohol use disorder. Regarding the course of problems, the ADHD symptom count tended to decrease over time, especially for children without a FH of alcohol abuse or dependence. Further research will be needed to determine whether results can be replicated with families from different social strata and including subjects with the antisocial personality disorder.

  19. Increasing incidence of early onset type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus: a study of Danish male birth cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, A; Andersen, P K; Svendsen, Anders Jørgen

    1992-01-01

    To provide information of the incidence trends of Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus we performed a cohort study of a series of Danish male birth cohorts. All male livebirths in Denmark between 1 January 1949 and 31 December 1964, were investigated regarding the development of Type 1...... diabetes during the first 20 years of life using the files of the Danish Conscript Board, supplemented by a search in the Danish National Registry of Deaths. Diagnosis was verified and clinical information obtained from medical records. The material is estimated to be more than 95% complete. A total...

  20. Early life inflammatory pain induces long-lasting deficits in hippocampal-dependent spatial memory in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Yoko O; Victoria, Nicole C; Inoue, Kiyoshi; Murphy, Anne Z; Parent, Marise B

    2015-02-01

    The present experiment tested the hypothesis that neonatal injury disrupts adult hippocampal functioning and that normal aging or chronic stress during adulthood, which are known to have a negative impact on hippocampal function, exacerbate these effects. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were given an intraplantar injection of the inflammatory agent carrageenan (1%) on the day of birth and their memory was tested in the hippocampal-dependent spatial water maze in adulthood and again in middle age. We found that neonatal injury impaired hippocampal-dependent memory in adulthood, that the effects of injury on memory were more pronounced in middle-aged male rats, and that chronic stress accelerated the onset of these memory deficits. Neonatal injury also decreased glucocorticoid receptor mRNA in the dorsal CA1 area of middle-aged rats, a brain region critical for spatial memory. Morphine administration at the time of injury completely reversed injury-induced memory deficits, but neonatal morphine treatments in the absence of injury produced significant memory impairments in adulthood. Collectively, these findings are consistent with our hypothesis that neonatal injury produces long-lasting disruption in adult hippocampal functioning.

  1. DNA compaction in the early part of the SOS response is dependent on RecN and RecA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odsbu, Ingvild; Skarstad, Kirsten

    2014-05-01

    The nucleoids of undamaged Escherichia coli cells have a characteristic shape and number, which is dependent on the growth medium. Upon induction of the SOS response by a low dose of UV irradiation an extensive reorganization of the nucleoids occurred. Two distinct phases were observed by fluorescence microscopy. First, the nucleoids were found to change shape and fuse into compact structures at midcell. The compaction of the nucleoids lasted for 10-20 min and was followed by a phase where the DNA was dispersed throughout the cells. This second phase lasted for ~1 h. The compaction was found to be dependent on the recombination proteins RecA, RecO and RecR as well as the SOS-inducible, SMC (structural maintenance of chromosomes)-like protein RecN. RecN protein is produced in high amounts during the first part of the SOS response. It is possible that the RecN-mediated 'compact DNA' stage at the beginning of the SOS response serves to stabilize damaged DNA prior to recombination and repair.

  2. Increased myocardial SERCA expression in early type 2 diabetes mellitus is insulin dependent: In vivo and in vitro data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredersdorf Sabine

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Calcium (Ca2+ handling proteins are known to play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of cardiomyopathy. However little is known about early changes in the diabetic heart and the impact of insulin treatment (Ins. Methods Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats treated with or without insulin (ZDF ± Ins, n = 13 and lean littermates (controls, n = 7 were sacrificed at the age of 19 weeks. ZDF + Ins (n = 6 were treated with insulin for the last 6 weeks of life. Gene expression of Ca2+ ATPase in the cardiac sarcoplasmatic reticulum (SERCA2a, further abbreviated as SERCA and phospholamban (PLB were determined by northern blotting. Ca2+ transport of the sarcoplasmatic reticulum (SR was assessed by oxalate-facilitated 45Ca-uptake in left ventricular homogenates. In addition, isolated neonatal cardiomyocytes were stimulated in cell culture with insulin, glucose or triiodthyronine (T3, positive control. mRNA expression of SERCA and PLB were measured by Taqman PCR. Furthermore, effects of insulin treatment on force of contraction and relaxation were evaluated by cardiomyocytes grown in a three-dimensional collagen matrix (engineered heart tissue, EHT stimulated for 5 days by insulin. By western blot phosphorylations status of Akt was determed and the influence of wortmannin. Results SERCA levels increased in both ZDF and ZDF + Ins compared to control (control 100 ± 6.2 vs. ZDF 152 ± 26.6* vs. ZDF + Ins 212 ± 18.5*# % of control, *p  Conclusion The current data demonstrate that early type 2 diabetes is associated with an increase in the SERCA/PLB ratio and that insulin directly stimulates SERCA expression and relaxation velocity. These results underline the important role of insulin and calcium handling proteins in the cardiac adaptation process of type 2 diabetes mellitus contributing to cardiac remodeling and show the important role of PI3-kinase-Akt-SERCA2a signaling cascade.

  3. The Development of Self-Criticism and Dependency in Early Adolescence and Their Role in the Development of Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C; Zuroff, David C; Hankin, Benjamin L; Abela, John R Z

    2015-08-01

    According to Blatt and others (e.g., A. T. Beck), self-definition, or one's sense of self, and one's sense of relatedness to others represent core lifespan developmental tasks. This study examined the role of events pertaining to self-definition or relatedness in the development of personality traits from each domain (self-criticism and dependency), and their relationship to the development of depressive and anxiety symptoms. Two hundred seventy-six early adolescents completed a measure of self-criticism and dependency at baseline and again 24 months later, along with measures of depressive and anxiety symptoms. Every 3 months, participants completed a measure of life events, which were coded as self-definitional or relatedness oriented (80% rater agreement, kappa = .70). Structural equation models showed that self-definitional events predicted increases in self-criticism, which in turn predicted increases in depressive symptoms, whereas relatedness events predicted increases in dependency, although dependency was unrelated to change in symptoms.

  4. The functional half-life of an mRNA depends on the ribosome spacing in an early coding region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Margit; Nissen, Søren; Mitarai, Namiko

    2011-01-01

    supported the model. We thus suggest that translation-rate-mediated differences in the spacing between ribosomes in this early coding region is a parameter that determines the mRNAs functional half-life. We present a model that is in accordance with many earlier observations and that allows a prediction...... codons. When comparing the ribosome spacing at various segments of the mRNA to its functional half-life, we found a clear correlation between the functional mRNA half-life and the ribosome spacing in the mRNA region approximately between codon 20 and codon 45. From this finding, we predicted that inserts......Bacterial mRNAs are translated by closely spaced ribosomes and degraded from the 5'-end, with half-lives of around 2 min at 37 °C in most cases. Ribosome-free or "naked" mRNA is known to be readily degraded, but the initial event that inactivates the mRNA functionally has not been fully described...

  5. Marker-dependent associations among oxidative stress, growth and survival during early life in a wild mammal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selman, Colin; Blount, Jonathan D.; Pilkington, Jill G.; Watt, Kathryn A.; Pemberton, Josephine M.; Reid, Jane M.

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) is hypothesized to be a key physiological mechanism mediating life-history trade-offs, but evidence from wild populations experiencing natural environmental variation is limited. We tested the hypotheses that increased early life growth rate increases OS, and that increased OS reduces first-winter survival, in wild Soay sheep (Ovis aries) lambs. We measured growth rate and first-winter survival for four consecutive cohorts, and measured two markers of oxidative damage (malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyls (PC)) and two markers of antioxidant (AOX) protection (total AOX capacity (TAC), superoxide dismutase (SOD)) from blood samples. Faster lamb growth was weakly associated with increased MDA, but not associated with variation in the other three markers. Lambs with higher SOD activity were more likely to survive their first winter, as were male but not female lambs with lower PC concentrations. Survival did not vary with MDA or total TAC. Key predictions relating OS to growth and survival were therefore supported in some OS markers, but not others. This suggests that different markers capture different aspects of the complex relationships between individual oxidative state, physiology and fitness, and that overarching hypotheses relating OS to life-history variation cannot be supported or refuted by studying individual markers. PMID:27733545

  6. The microbiome-gut-brain axis during early life regulates the hippocampal serotonergic system in a sex-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, G; Grenham, S; Scully, P; Fitzgerald, P; Moloney, R D; Shanahan, F; Dinan, T G; Cryan, J F

    2013-06-01

    Bacterial colonisation of the intestine has a major role in the post-natal development and maturation of the immune and endocrine systems. These processes are key factors underpinning central nervous system (CNS) signalling. Regulation of the microbiome-gut-brain axis is essential for maintaining homeostasis, including that of the CNS. However, there is a paucity of data pertaining to the influence of microbiome on the serotonergic system. Germ-free (GF) animals represent an effective preclinical tool to investigate such phenomena. Here we show that male GF animals have a significant elevation in the hippocampal concentration of 5-hydroxytryptamine and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, its main metabolite, compared with conventionally colonised control animals. Moreover, this alteration is sex specific in contrast with the immunological and neuroendocrine effects which are evident in both sexes. Concentrations of tryptophan, the precursor of serotonin, are increased in the plasma of male GF animals, suggesting a humoral route through which the microbiota can influence CNS serotonergic neurotransmission. Interestingly, colonisation of the GF animals post weaning is insufficient to reverse the CNS neurochemical consequences in adulthood of an absent microbiota in early life despite the peripheral availability of tryptophan being restored to baseline values. In addition, reduced anxiety in GF animals is also normalised following restoration of the intestinal microbiota. These results demonstrate that CNS neurotransmission can be profoundly disturbed by the absence of a normal gut microbiota and that this aberrant neurochemical, but not behavioural, profile is resistant to restoration of a normal gut flora in later life.

  7. Marker-dependent associations among oxidative stress, growth and survival during early life in a wild mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Louise L; Selman, Colin; Blount, Jonathan D; Pilkington, Jill G; Watt, Kathryn A; Pemberton, Josephine M; Reid, Jane M; Nussey, Daniel H

    2016-10-12

    Oxidative stress (OS) is hypothesized to be a key physiological mechanism mediating life-history trade-offs, but evidence from wild populations experiencing natural environmental variation is limited. We tested the hypotheses that increased early life growth rate increases OS, and that increased OS reduces first-winter survival, in wild Soay sheep (Ovis aries) lambs. We measured growth rate and first-winter survival for four consecutive cohorts, and measured two markers of oxidative damage (malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyls (PC)) and two markers of antioxidant (AOX) protection (total AOX capacity (TAC), superoxide dismutase (SOD)) from blood samples. Faster lamb growth was weakly associated with increased MDA, but not associated with variation in the other three markers. Lambs with higher SOD activity were more likely to survive their first winter, as were male but not female lambs with lower PC concentrations. Survival did not vary with MDA or total TAC. Key predictions relating OS to growth and survival were therefore supported in some OS markers, but not others. This suggests that different markers capture different aspects of the complex relationships between individual oxidative state, physiology and fitness, and that overarching hypotheses relating OS to life-history variation cannot be supported or refuted by studying individual markers.

  8. Achados oftalmológicos em pacientes com múltiplas deficiências Ophthalmologic findings in multiple handicapped patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecília Remígio

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relatar os achados oftalmológicos em portadores de múltiplas deficiências. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 274 usuários do Sistema Único de Saúde atendidos no Departamento de Oftalmologia Pediátrica e Estrabismo da Fundação Altino Ventura (FAV, no período de junho a setembro de 2004. RESULTADOS: A freqüência dos pacientes quanto ao gênero foi de 58,5% para o masculino e 41,5% para o feminino. A variação das idades foi de 0,1 a 20 anos com mediana de 5. A maioria (61,3% dos pacientes apresentava boa acuidade visual, contudo 38,7% apresentava baixa de visão (PURPOSE: To report the visual findings in patients with multiple handicaps. METHODS: Two hundred and seventy-four patients cared for at the Pediatric and Strabismus Ophthalmology Department of the "Fundação Altino Ventura" - Brazilian National Health System, were examined from June to September 2004. Age varied from 0.1 to 20 years with a median of 5. RESULTS: The majority of the patients (61.3% presented good visual acuity; however low visual acuity (< 20/80 was observed in 38.7% of the patients. Heterotropias were observed in 66 patients (24.0%; astigmatism (53.2% and hyperopia (29.0% were more frequent. CONCLUSION: Children with multiple handicaps need an early ophthalmologic diagnosis and treatment for better global development. The integration of a multidisciplinary team with pediatricians, pediatric ophthalmologists and specialists in low vision, may assure a better visual rehabilitation.

  9. IFN-gamma treatment at early stages of influenza virus infection protects mice from death in a NK cell-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Ido D; Wald, Ori; Wald, Hanna; Beider, Katia; Abraham, Michal; Galun, Eithan; Nagler, Arnon; Peled, Amnon

    2010-06-01

    Influenza pandemics are imminent and represent a major world health concern. Since vaccinations are expected to be less efficient in the coming years due to newly emerging influenza virus strains, novel antiviral therapies are urgently needed. Here, we show that influenza-infected mice, capable of clearing the virus in the early stages of infection, failed to control inflammation and death. Sequential administration of Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) at early stage of the infection protected infected mice from death in a NK cell-dependent manner. IFN-gamma treatment stimulated NK cell proliferation and function and increased their number in the bone marrow, blood, spleen, and infected lungs, keeping viral clearance intact. In parallel, IFN-gamma treatment significantly reduced the number of T cells and NKT cells in the lungs at the inflammatory phase following infection. Thus, rapidly clearing the virus and reducing inflammation by shaping the cellular and cytokine profiles in the early stages of infection may favorably change the fate of influenza pathogenesis.

  10. Microarray analysis of prostate cancer progression to reduced androgen dependence: studies in unique models contrasts early and late molecular events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirotnak, F M; She, Yuhong; Khokhar, Nushmia Z; Hayes, Paula; Gerald, William; Scher, Howard I

    2004-11-01

    Three unique variants of the CWR22 human prostate cancer xenograft model (CWR22LD1, LD2, and LD3) with a decrease in dependence on androgens were selected under noncastrate conditions, i.e., by outgrowth after transplantation into male NCR (AT) nu mice without testosterone supplementation. These variants were unable to grow in castrated male mice. For comparison, a second set of variants with even less dependence on androgens (castrate-resistant) were derived following outgrowth from CWR22 (CWR22Rv1 and RC) or CWRLD1 (CWR22RS) after transplantion in castrated male mice. The androgen receptor (AR) gene in the CWR22LD variants was transcriptionally active and was neither mutated nor significantly overexpressed compared to CWR22. Oligonucleotide microarray analysis showed distinctly different profiles of dysregulated gene expression among the CWR22LD variants. Groups of only 26-41 genes were dysregulated greater than threefold with a different proportion of up versus downregulated genes in each variant. Only one of the castrate-resistant variants (CWR22Rv1) had a highly overexpressed AR gene but AR in this variant and the two other castrate-resistant variants, CWR22 RS and RC, was not mutated beyond that seen in CWR22. In contrast to the CWR22LD variants, a total of 342, 295, and 222 genes were dysregulated at least threefold in CWR22Rv1, CWR22RS, and CWR22RC, respectively, differing as well in the proportion of up versus downregulated genes. Many of the genes dysregulated in CWR22LD1, LD2, and LD3 were further dysregulated in CWR22Rv1, RC, or RS. The most downregulated gene was microseminoprotein beta (MSPB). Along with cyclin D1, the most upregulated gene by an order of magnitude compared to other upregulated genes was hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) (scatter factor). These results suggest that the onset in the loss of androgen dependence in CWR22 proceeds through multiple pathways and does not require any direct change in the status of AR. However, upregulation of

  11. A mutation in the cytosolic O-acetylserine (thiol lyase induces a genome-dependent early leaf death phenotype in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schippers Jos HM

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cysteine is a component in organic compounds including glutathione that have been implicated in the adaptation of plants to stresses. O-acetylserine (thiol lyase (OAS-TL catalyses the final step of cysteine biosynthesis. OAS-TL enzyme isoforms are localised in the cytoplasm, the plastids and mitochondria but the contribution of individual OAS-TL isoforms to plant sulphur metabolism has not yet been fully clarified. Results The seedling lethal phenotype of the Arabidopsis onset of leaf death3-1 (old3-1 mutant is due to a point mutation in the OAS-A1 gene, encoding the cytosolic OAS-TL. The mutation causes a single amino acid substitution from Gly162 to Glu162, abolishing old3-1 OAS-TL activity in vitro. The old3-1 mutation segregates as a monogenic semi-dominant trait when backcrossed to its wild type accession Landsberg erecta (Ler-0 and the Di-2 accession. Consistent with its semi-dominant behaviour, wild type Ler-0 plants transformed with the mutated old3-1 gene, displayed the early leaf death phenotype. However, the old3-1 mutation segregates in an 11:4:1 (wild type: semi-dominant: mutant ratio when backcrossed to the Colombia-0 and Wassilewskija accessions. Thus, the early leaf death phenotype depends on two semi-dominant loci. The second locus that determines the old3-1 early leaf death phenotype is referred to as odd-ler (for old3 determinant in the Ler accession and is located on chromosome 3. The early leaf death phenotype is temperature dependent and is associated with increased expression of defence-response and oxidative-stress marker genes. Independent of the presence of the odd-ler gene, OAS-A1 is involved in maintaining sulphur and thiol levels and is required for resistance against cadmium stress. Conclusions The cytosolic OAS-TL is involved in maintaining organic sulphur levels. The old3-1 mutation causes genome-dependent and independent phenotypes and uncovers a novel function for the mutated OAS-TL in cell

  12. Singing voice handicap and videostrobolaryngoscopy in healthy professional singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelblanco, Liliana; Habib, Michael; Stein, Daniel J; de Quadros, André; Cohen, Seth M; Noordzij, Jacob Pieter

    2014-09-01

    This study correlates the Singing Voice Handicap Index (SVHI) scores with videostrobolaryngoscopy in healthy professional singers as a measure of self-perceived vocal health versus actual pathology seen on examination. The objective was to measure the strength of self-assessment among professional singers and determine if there is a benefit of combining SVHI and videostrobolaryngoscopy for routine assessment of singers without an obvious singing voice problem. Prospective cross-sectional study. Forty-seven singers were included in the study. Singers produced spoken and sung pitches during videostrobolaryngoscopy. Examinations were blindly rated by two independent fellowship-trained laryngologists who assessed vocal fold appearance and function. The correlation between SVHI scores and total pathologic findings seen on videostrobolaryngoscopy was analyzed using linear regression and serial t tests. SVHI scores (mean of 22.45/144) were as expected for healthy singers. However, although all singers self-identified as healthy, laryngeal abnormalities were relatively common. The interrater reliability of total pathologic findings between two laryngologists was 71% (P = 0.006). Linear regression found no significant correlation (P = 0.9602) between SVHI scores and videostrobolaryngoscopy findings. Greater than expected laryngeal pathology was seen in these professional singers, who identified themselves as healthy, which possibly indicates a minimal impact on their singing voice and/or perception of vocal health. These findings demonstrate that laryngeal appearance alone does not dictate nor fully explain the sound or apparent health of a professional singer. Sustaining good vocal health is complex, and even experienced singers may not reliably assess the presence of pathology. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Oogenesis, fertilisation and early embryonic development in rats. II: Dose-dependent effects of human chorionic gonadotrophin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, H H; Yang, X F; Tain, C F; Liew, L P; Ratnam, S S

    1992-07-01

    A total of 950 female Wistar rats in 81 groups were involved in this study. Different groups of rats were stimulated with PMSG (0, 10 & 20 IU) at diestrus followed, 48-52 hr later, by different doses of HCG (0, 10, 20, 30 & 40) for ovulation induction. The dose-dependent effects of HCG, either with or without the use of PMSG for stimulation of multiple follicular development, on the quality of oocytes and their in vitro fertilisability, quality of Day 2-embryos, viability of pregnancy and status of embryos retrieved on Day 2, 3, 4 or 5 of pregnancy in different subgroups of rats were examined. Results showed that more oocytes and embryos fertilised in vivo were retrieved from rats supraphysiologically stimulated with 20 IU of PMSG. The addition of HCG did not increase the number of ovulated oocytes or Day-2 embryos. In other words, the number of oocytes or embryos produced is dependent on the dose of PMSG administered during diestrus rather than on the dose of HCG given for ovulation induction. Hence, no increase in the amount of HCG is required to effectively ovulate bigger cohort of preovulatory follicles in supraphysiologically stimulated rats. As was shown earlier, in vitro and in vivo fertilisation rates were reduced when higher doses of PMSG were used. Similarly, these rates were reduced when increasing doses of HCG were used in rats not previously stimulated with PMSG. When higher doses of HCG were used in rats stimulated earlier with PMSG (10 and 20 IU), the in vitro but not the in vivo fertilisation rates were further reduced.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Early restriction of alphavirus replication and dissemination contributes to age-dependent attenuation of systemic hyperinflammatory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryman, Kate D; Gardner, Christina L; Meier, Kathryn C; Biron, Christine A; Johnston, Robert E; Klimstra, William B

    2007-02-01

    Severity of alphavirus infection in humans tends to be strongly age-dependent and several studies using laboratory-adapted Sindbis virus (SB) AR339 strains have indicated that SB-induced disease in mice is similarly contingent upon host developmental status. In the current studies, the consensus wild-type SB, TR339, and in vivo imaging technology have been utilized to examine virus replication and disease manifestations in mice infected subcutaneously at 5 days of age (5D) vs 11D. Initial virulence studies with TR339 indicated that this age range is coincident with rapid transition from fatal to non-fatal outcome. Fatal infection of 5D mice is characterized by high-titre serum viraemia, extensive virus replication in skin, fibroblast connective tissue, muscle and brain, and hyperinflammatory cytokine induction. In contrast, 11D-infected mice experience more limited virus replication and tissue damage and develop mild, immune-mediated pathologies including encephalitis. These results further establish the linkage between hyperinflammatory cytokine induction and fatal outcome of infection. In vivo imaging using luciferase-expressing viruses and non-propagative replicons revealed that host development results in a restriction of virus replication within individual infected cells that is manifested as a delay in reduction of virus replication in the younger mice. Thus, an important contributing factor in age-dependent resistance to alphavirus infection is restriction of replication within first infected cells in peripheral tissues, which may augment other developmentally regulated attenuating effects, such as increasing neuronal resistance to virus infection and apoptotic death.

  15. ATTITUDES OF HEALTHY CHILDREN PARENTS TOWARDS HANDICAPPED CHILDREN AT THE PRE-SCHOOL AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruzica KERAMICIEVA

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1970-ties, in the USA and Western and Eastern Europe, the model of segregated education has been abandoned, and nowadays the handicapped children attend regular schools all together with other healthy pupils. This , so called Integrative Pedagogy, proceeds from the mental hygiene aspects according to which the restrictive environment in special schools has not been a favorable one for the development of those children.The integrational process of these children in preschool institutions and schools has rather been difficult due to a number of reasons. As one of them, already mentioned and found in literature , has been the negative attitude of non-handicapped children parents towards those handicapped in their development.The problem of this research is to check and test the attitude of healthy children parents towards handicapped children at preschool age. This research shall also tend to analyze the origin of the such attitudes i. e. , whether they have been a result of an insufficient information and ignorance of the obstacles during development, or been produced by imitation of the environment, or due to an empathy, or even because of the fear that “ such a thing better never enter their home”, etc.We sincerely believe that, revealing the above parents’ attitudes and their origin, would certainly bring finding ways of their successful socialization and making the integrational process of handicapped children with their normal mates in preschool institutions easier.

  16. Assessment of auditory and psychosocial handicap associated with unilateral hearing loss among Indian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, Ann Mary; Chrysolyte, Shipra B; Thenmozhi, K; Rupa, V

    2013-04-01

    In order to assess psychosocial and auditory handicap in Indian patients with unilateral sensorineural hearing loss (USNHL), a prospective study was conducted on 50 adults with USNHL in the ENT Outpatient clinic of a tertiary care centre. The hearing handicap inventory for adults (HHIA) as well as speech in noise and sound localization tests were administered to patients with USNHL. An equal number of age-matched, normal controls also underwent the speech and sound localization tests. The results showed that HHIA scores ranged from 0 to 60 (mean 20.7). Most patients (84.8 %) had either mild to moderate or no handicap. Emotional subscale scores were higher than social subscale scores (p = 0.01). When the effect of sociodemographic factors on HHIA scores was analysed, educated individuals were found to have higher social subscale scores (p = 0.04). Age, sex, side and duration of hearing loss, occupation and income did not affect HHIA scores. Speech in noise and sound localization were significantly poorer in cases compared to controls (p handicap. When present, the handicap is more emotional than social. USNHL significantly affects sound localization and speech in noise. Yet, affected patients seldom seek a rehabilitative device.

  17. Severely handicapped infants with life-threatening conditions: federal intrusions into the decision not to treat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huefner, D S

    1986-01-01

    In recent years the federal government has attempted to intervene in certain family-medical decisions to withhold treatment from seriously handicapped newborns with life-threatening conditions. Invoking section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, which prohibits discrimination against "otherwise qualified handicapped" individuals, the Reagan Administration promulgated regulations allowing federal government investigations of such decisions. Recently, the U.S. Supreme Court upheld lower court decisions invalidating these "Baby Doe" regulations. The federal government's fall-back position is reflected in the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Amendments of 1984, requiring states accepting funds under the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act to establish and maintain procedures to assure that cases of medical neglect of handicapped infants are investigated by the states. Although the primary oversight of parental decision-making has been returned to the states where it has traditionally belonged, the federal government's definition of medical neglect of handicapped infants with life-threatening conditions is an ethically inadequate response to the complex needs of the handicapped child, the family, the medical profession, and society as a whole. After examining the relevance of Kantian, utilitarian, and Rawlsian ethical positions, the author contends that an effective governmental policy, capable of enforcement and acceptance by the public, must utilize the strengths of each philosophy and reflect the pragmatism of American society.

  18. Early Childhood Special Educators and the Hospital Ethics Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenthal, Barbara

    1989-01-01

    The paper discusses issues of concern to early childhood special educators serving on hospital ethics committees to assist families with seriously ill and handicapped infants in neonatal intensive care units. Issues include infant euthanasia and the right to life, child abuse legislation, and possible effects on families. (Author/JDD)

  19. Preschool and Early Childhood: Exceptional Child Bibliography Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council for Exceptional Children, Reston, VA. Information Center on Exceptional Children.

    The bibliography cites 67 items relating to preschool and early childhood selected from "Exceptional Child Education Abstracts." Bibliographical data, availability information, indexing and retrieval descriptors, and abstracts are provided for each entry. One in a series of over 50 similar selected listings in the area of handicapped and gifted…

  20. A Description of the Hawthorn Center Early Intervention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glovinsky, Ira; Keller, Jackie

    An early intervention project for preschool handicapped children is described. Specific program goals (including improved functioning in social, emotional, communication, and preacademic areas) are listed, and roles of the interdisciplinary staff members are considered. Among evaluation approaches discussed are psychological measures, family…

  1. Voice in early glottic cancer compared to benign voice pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Gogh, C. D. L.; Mahieu, H. F.; Kuik, D. J.; Rinkel, R. N. P. M.; Langendijk, J. A.; Verdonck-de Leeuw, I. M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare (Dutch) Voice Handicap Index (VHIvumc) scores from a selected group of patients with voice problems after treatment for early glottic cancer with patients with benign voice disorders and subjects from the normal population. The study included a group of 35 pat

  2. Federal Early Childhood Special Education Policy: A Model for the Improvement of Services for Children with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebbeler, Kathleen M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews the evolution and the accomplishments of federal education policy in early childhood for children with disabilities. The review covers the period from 1968 to 1990, including the development of the Handicapped Children's Early Education Program, the Early Childhood Research Institutes, and Part H of Public Law 99-457.…

  3. Ultra-faint dwarf galaxies as a test of early enrichment and metallicity-dependent star formation

    CERN Document Server

    Tassis, Konstantinos; Kravtsov, Andrey V

    2011-01-01

    The tight relation of star formation with molecular gas indicated by observations and assumed in recent models implies that the efficiency with which galaxies convert their gas into stars depends on gas metallicity. This is because the abundance of molecular hydrogen is sensitive to the abundance of dust, which catalyzes the formation of H_2 and helps to shield it from dissociating radiation. In this study we point out that in the absence of significant pre-enrichment by Population III stars forming out of zero metallicity gas, such H_2-based star formation is expected to leave an imprint in the form of bi-modality in the metallicity distribution among dwarf galaxies and in the metallicity distribution of stars within individual galaxies. The bi-modality arises because when gas metallicity (and dust abundance) is low, formation of molecular gas is inefficient, the gas consumption time scale is long, and star formation and metal enrichment proceed slowly. When metallicity reaches a critical threshold value sta...

  4. Sox17-dependent gene expression and early heart and gut development in Sox17-deficient mouse embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Sabine; Jones, Vanessa J; Power, Melinda; Truisi, Germaine L; Khoo, Poh-Lynn; Steiner, Kirsten A; Kanai-Azuma, Masami; Kanai, Yoshiakira; Tam, Patrick P L; Loebel, David A F

    2011-01-01

    Sox17 is a transcription factor that is required for maintenance of the definitive endoderm in mouse embryos. By expression profiling of wild-type and mutant embryos and Sox17-overexpressing hepatoma cells, we identified genes with Sox17-dependent expression. Among the genes that were up-regulated in Sox17-null embryos and down-regulated by Sox17 expressing HepG2 cells is a set of genes that are expressed in the developing liver, suggesting that one function of Sox17 is the repression of liver gene expression, which is compatible with a role for Sox17 in maintaining the definitive endoderm in a progenitor state. Consistent with these findings, Sox17(-/-) cells display a diminished capacity to contribute to the definitive endoderm when transplanted into wild-type hosts. Analysis of gene ontology further revealed that many genes related to heart development were downregulated in Sox17-null embryos. This is associated with the defective development of the heart in the mutant embryos, which is accompanied by localised loss of Myocd-expressing cardiogenic progenitors and the malformation of the anterior intestinal portal.

  5. Early-type galaxies at z~1.3. II. Masses and ages of early-type galaxies in different environments and their dependence on stellar population model assumptions

    CERN Document Server

    Raichoor, A; Nakata, F; Stanford, S A; Holden, B P; Rettura, A; Huertas-Company, M; Postman, M; Rosati, P; Blakeslee, J P; Demarco, R; Eisenhardt, P; Illingworth, G; Jee, M J; Kodama, T; Tanaka, M; White, R L

    2011-01-01

    We have derived masses and ages for 79 early-type galaxies (ETGs) in different environments at z~1.3 in the Lynx supercluster and in the GOODS/CDF-S field using multiwavelength (0.6-4.5 $\\mu$m; KPNO, Palomar, Keck, HST, Spitzer) datasets. At this redshift the contribution of the TP-AGB phase is important for ETGs, and the mass and age estimates depend on the choice of the stellar population model used in the spectral energy distribution fits. We describe in detail the differences among model predictions for a large range of galaxy ages, showing the dependence of these differences on age. Current models still yield large uncertainties. While recent models from Maraston and Charlot & Bruzual offer better modeling of the TP-AGB phase with respect to less recent Bruzual & Charlot models, their predictions do not often match. The modeling of this TP-AGB phase has a significant impact on the derived parameters for galaxies observed at high-redshift. Some of our results do not depend on the choice of the mod...

  6. Early CT perfusion mismatch in acute stroke is not time-dependent but relies on collateralization grade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgarten, Louisa von; Straube, Andreas [University of Munich Hospitals, Department of Neurology, Munich (Germany); Thierfelder, Kolja M.; Beyer, Sebastian E.; Baumann, Alena B.; Bollwein, Christine; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Sommer, Wieland H. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Janssen, Hendrik [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Department of Neuroradiology, Munich (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    Factors that determine the extent of the penumbra in the initial diagnostic workup using whole brain CT Perfusion (WB-CTP) remain unclear. The purpose of the current study was to determine a possible dependency of the initial mismatch size between cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral blood volume (CBV) from time after symptom onset, leptomeningeal collateralization, and occlusion localization in acute middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarctions. Out of an existing cohort of 992 consecutive patients receiving multiparametric CT scans including WB-CTP due to suspected stroke, we included patients who had (1) a witnessed time of symptom onset, (2) an infarction of the MCA territory as documented by follow-up imaging, and (3) an initial CBF volume of >10 ml. CBF and CBV lesion sizes, collateralization grade, and the site of occlusion were determined. We included 103 patients. Univariate analysis showed that time from symptom onset (168 +/- 91.2 min) did not correlate with relative or absolute mismatch volumes (p = 0.458 and p = 0.921). Higher collateralization gradings were associated with small absolute mismatch volumes (p = 0.004 and p < 0.001). Internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusions were associated with large absolute mismatch volumes (p = 0.004). Multivariate analysis confirmed that ICA occlusion was associated with large absolute mismatch volumes (p = 0.005), and high collateral grade was associated with small absolute mismatch volumes (p = 0.017). There is no significant correlation between initial CTP mismatch and time after symptom onset. Predictors of mismatch size include the extent of the collaterals and a proximal location of the occlusion. (orig.)

  7. Providing a more appropriate education for severely handicapped persons: increasing and validating functional classroom tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, D H; Parsons, M B; McCarn, J E; Green, C W; Phillips, J F; Schepis, M M

    1985-01-01

    We evaluated a teacher training and supervision program for increasing the involvement of severely handicapped adolescents and adults in functional educational tasks. The program, consisting of a brief in-service followed by supervisory prompts and feedback, was accompanied by large increases in functional tasks in three classrooms. In addition, generalized increases occurred during nontargeted times in the classroom and the changes during both the targeted and nontargeted times were maintained over a 44-45 week period. In two subsequent experiments, surveys provided social validation for the criteria for functional versus nonfunctional tasks in that: (a) relevant individuals reliably categorized functional tasks as representing typical living, work, social, and leisure situations and (b) experienced clinicians consistently rated tasks previously categorized as functional as being more useful for severely handicapped persons than tasks categorized as nonfunctional. Results are discussed in terms of the relationship of functional classroom tasks in the overall provision of appropriate educational services for severely handicapped students.

  8. L'Impact économique du handicap sur le secteur du tourisme

    OpenAIRE

    Zeghni, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    Afin de mieux comprendre l'importance de ce marché pour les années à venir, il nous paraît utile dans un premier temps de définir ces populations et leur importance, puis dans un second temps, de nous intéresser aux pratiques des populations handicapées quant à leurs vacances. Dans un troisième temps, nous nous intéresserons aux labels existants et à la nécessaire territorialisation de l'offre. Poids du handicap. Le nombre d'individus handicapés soit dès leur naissance, soit au cours de leur ...

  9. Glucocorticoids facilitate the transcription from the human cytomegalovirus major immediate early promoter in glucocorticoid receptor- and nuclear factor-I-like protein-dependent manner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue-Toyoda, Maki [Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba 305-8575 (Japan); Kato, Kohsuke [Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba 305-8575 (Japan); Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba 305-8575 (Japan); Nagata, Kyosuke, E-mail: knagata@md.tsukuba.ac.jp [University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba 305-8575 (Japan); Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki [Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba 305-8575 (Japan); Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba 305-8575 (Japan)

    2015-02-27

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a common and usually asymptomatic virus agent in healthy individuals. Initiation of HCMV productive infection depends on expression of the major immediate early (MIE) genes. The transcription of HCMV MIE genes is regulated by a diverse set of transcription factors. It was previously reported that productive HCMV infection is triggered probably by elevation of the plasma hydroxycorticoid level. However, it is poorly understood whether the transcription of MIE genes is directly regulated by glucocorticoid. Here, we found that the dexamethasone (DEX), a synthetic glucocorticoid, facilitates the transcription of HCMV MIE genes through the MIE promoter and enhancer in a glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-dependent manner. By competitive EMSA and reporter assays, we revealed that an NF-I like protein is involved in DEX-mediated transcriptional activation of the MIE promoter. Thus, this study supports a notion that the increased level of hydroxycorticoid in the third trimester of pregnancy reactivates HCMV virus production from the latent state. - Highlights: • DEX facilitates the transcription from the HCMV MIE promoter. • GR is involved in DEX-dependent transcription from the HCMV MIE promoter. • A 17 bp repeat is responsible for the HCMV MIE promoter activation by DEX. • An NF-I-like protein is involved in the HCMV MIE promoter activation by DEX.

  10. Integrating Severely Adaptively Handicapped Seventh-Grade Students into Constructive Relationships with Nonhandicapped Peers in Science Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Roger; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Forty-eight suburban seventh-grade science students (41 nonhandicapped, nine severely adaptively handicapped) were assigned to cooperative learning (CL) and individual learning (IL) conditions. Among results were that the CL condition favored more interaction and interpersonal attraction between the handicapped and nonhandicapped children.…

  11. The Effect of Biological Movement Variability on the Performance of the Golf Swing in High- and Low-Handicapped Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Elizabeth J.; Keogh, Justin W. L.; Hume, Patria A.; Maulder, Peter S.; Nortje, Jacques; Marnewick, Michel

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of neuromotor noise on golf swing performance in high- and low-handicap players. Selected two-dimensional kinematic measures of 20 male golfers (n = 10 per high- or low-handicap group) performing 10 golf swings with a 5-iron club was obtained through video analysis. Neuromotor noise was calculated…

  12. The Effect of Biological Movement Variability on the Performance of the Golf Swing in High- and Low-Handicapped Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Elizabeth J.; Keogh, Justin W. L.; Hume, Patria A.; Maulder, Peter S.; Nortje, Jacques; Marnewick, Michel

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of neuromotor noise on golf swing performance in high- and low-handicap players. Selected two-dimensional kinematic measures of 20 male golfers (n = 10 per high- or low-handicap group) performing 10 golf swings with a 5-iron club was obtained through video analysis. Neuromotor noise was calculated…

  13. 26 CFR 1.190-1 - Expenditures to remove architectural and transportation barriers to the handicapped and elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Expenditures to remove architectural and transportation barriers to the handicapped and elderly. 1.190-1 Section 1.190-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... transportation barriers to the handicapped and elderly. (a) In general. Under section 190 of the Internal...

  14. "A Sense of Pride." Establishing a Foxfire Adapted Model of Experientially Based Career Education for Handicapped Youth. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institutional Development and Economic Affairs Service, Inc. Nederland, CO.

    The progress and achievements are detailed of three sites that implemented a modified Foxfire approach (a community-based experiential learning model invloving students in community research, interviewing, writing, publishing, and marketing their own magazine). Handicapped high schoolers interviewed and photographed successful handicapped adults,…

  15. The relation of vocal fold lesions and voice quality to voice handicap and psychosomatic well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, R.; Marres, H.A.; Jong, F. de

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Voice disorders have a multifactorial genesis and may be present in various ways. They can cause a significant communication handicap and impaired quality of life. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of vocal fold lesions and voice quality on voice handicap and psychosomatic well-being. METH

  16. Vascular Steal Explains Early Paradoxical Blood Oxygen Level-Dependent Cerebrovascular Response in Brain Regions with Delayed Arterial Transit Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Poublanc

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD magnetic resonance imaging (MRI during manipulation of inhaled carbon dioxide (CO2 can be used to measure cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR and map regions of exhausted cerebrovascular reserve. These regions exhibit a reduced or negative BOLD response to inhaled CO2. In this study, we sought to clarify the mechanism behind the negative BOLD response by investigating its time delay (TD. Dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC MRI with the injection of a contrast agent was used as the gold standard in order to provide measurement of the blood arrival time to which CVR TD could be compared. We hypothesize that if negative BOLD responses are the result of a steal phenomenon, they should be synchronized with positive BOLD responses from healthy brain tissue, even though the blood arrival time would be delayed. Methods: On a 3-tesla MRI system, BOLD CVR and DSC images were collected in a group of 19 patients with steno-occlusive cerebrovascular disease. For each patient, we generated a CVR magnitude map by regressing the BOLD signal with the end-tidal partial pressure of CO2 (PETCO2, and a CVR TD map by extracting the time of maximum cross-correlation between the BOLD signal and PETCO2. In addition, a blood arrival time map was generated by fitting the DSC signal with a gamma variate function. ROI masks corresponding to varying degrees of reactivity were constructed. Within these masks, the mean CVR magnitude, CVR TD and DSC blood arrival time were extracted and averaged over the 19 patients. CVR magnitude and CVR TD were then plotted against DSC blood arrival time. Results: The results show that CVR magnitude is highly correlated to DSC blood arrival time. As expected, the most compromised tissues with the longest blood arrival time have the lowest (most negative CVR magnitude. However, CVR TD shows a noncontinuous relationship with DSC blood arrival time. CVR TD is well correlated to DSC blood arrival time

  17. Reliability and validity of the Dutch pediatric Voice Handicap Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veder, Laura; Pullens, Bas; Timmerman, Marieke; Hoeve, Hans; Joosten, Koen; Hakkesteegt, Marieke

    2017-05-01

    The pediatric voice handicap index (pVHI) has been developed to provide a better insight into the parents' perception of their child's voice related quality of life. The purpose of the present study was to validate the Dutch pVHI by evaluating its internal consistency and reliability. Furthermore, we determined the optimal cut-off point for a normal pVHI score. All items of the English pVHI were translated into Dutch. Parents of children in our dysphonic and control group were asked to fill out the questionnaire. For the test re-test analysis we used a different study group who filled out the pVHI twice as part of a large follow up study. Internal consistency was analyzed through Cronbach's α coefficient. The test-retest reliability was assessed by determining Pearson's correlation coefficient. Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the scores of the questionnaire of the control group with the dysphonic group. By calculating receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, sensitivity and specificity we were able to set a cut-off point. We obtained data from 122 asymptomatic children and from 79 dysphonic children. The scores of the questionnaire significantly differed between both groups. The internal consistency showed an overall Cronbach α coefficient of 0.96 and an excellent test-retest reliability of the total pVHI questionnaire with a Pearson's correlation coefficient of 0.90. A cut-off point for the total pVHI questionnaire was set at 7 points with a specificity of 85% and sensitivity of 100%. A cut-off point for the VAS score was set at 13 with a specificity of 93% and sensitivity of 97%. The Dutch pVHI is a valid and reliable tool for the assessment of children with voice problems. By setting a cut-off point for the score of the total pVHI questionnaire of 7 points and the VAS score of 13, the pVHI might be used as a screening tool to assess dysphonic complaints and the pVHI might be a useful and complementary tool to identify children with dysphonia

  18. Quelle autodétermination pour les personnes en situation de handicap en institution ?

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Cette recherche a pour thème principal l’autodétermination des personnes en situation de handicap. Elle s’intéresse plus particulièrement aux moyens permettant de favoriser l’autodétermination de ces personnes en institution. Elle est composée de plusieurs parties distinctes. Tout d’abord, sont expliquées la question de recherche ainsi que les principales hypothèses qui guident ce travail. Ensuite, une partie théorique traitant des thèmes de l’autodétermination, du handicap, de l’accompagneme...

  19. The development of a nursing assessment instrument for the mentally handicapped individual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily van Rhyn

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Because mental handicap is a lifelong condition, mentally handicapped individuals and their families experience unique needs and problems, which require sound assessment by the nurse to enable her to intervene effectively.

    Opsomming
    Vanwee die feit dat geestesgestremdheid 'n lewenslange toestand is, ervaar geestesgestremde persone en hul families unieke behoeftes en probleme wat deeglike beraming deur verpleegkundiges vereis, ten einde effektiewe ingn'ping te verseker. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  20. Relative contributions of self-efficacy, self-regulation, and self-handicapping in predicting student procrastination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunk, Kamden K; Steele, Misty R

    2011-12-01

    The relative contributions of self-efficacy, self-regulation, and self-handicapping student procrastination were explored. College undergraduate participants (N = 138; 40 men, 97 women, one not reporting sex) filled out the Procrastination Scale, the Self-Handicapping Scale-Short Form, and the Self-regulation and Self-handicapping scales of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire. A hierarchical regression of the above measures indicated that self-efficacy, self-regulation, and self-handicapping all predicted scores on the Procrastination Scale, but self-regulation fully accounted for the predictive power of self-efficacy. The results suggested self-regulation and self-handicapping predict procrastination independently. These findings are discussed in relation to the literature on the concept of "self-efficacy for self-regulation" and its use in the field of procrastination research.

  1. Integrating severely adaptive handicapped seventh-grade students into constructive relationships with nonhandicapped peers in science class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R; Johnson, D W; DeWeerdt, N; Lyons, V; Zaidman, B

    1983-05-01

    The effects of cooperative and individualistic learning experiences were compared on interactions and relationships between severely adaptive handicapped (not adapting to regular classroom demands) and nonhandicapped seventh-grade students in science classes. We investigated the predictions that (a) requiring cooperation between the two groups of students would result in increased rejection of the severely adaptive handicapped students and (b) cooperation would promote increased interpersonal attraction regardless of the heterogeneity of the students. Forty-eight suburban junior-high-school, seventh-grade students (41 nonhandicapped, 9 severely adaptive handicapped) were assigned to conditions on a stratified random basis controlling for handicap, sex, and ability level. They participated in the study for 10 days, 55 minutes per day. Results indicated that cooperative learning procedures, compared with individualistic ones, promoted more interaction and interpersonal attraction between severely adaptive handicapped and nonhandicapped students.

  2. The EU Offshore Safety Directive and its potential effects. Opportunity or handicap?; Die EU Offshore Safety Directive und ihre moeglichen Auswirkungen. Chance oder Handicap?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwiederowski, Claudia [RWE Dea AG, Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of the EU Offshore Safety Directive, which took effect on 18 July 2013, is to define minimum requirements for the prevention of severe accidents in connection with offshore crude oil or natural gas activities of any kind and the containment of the follow-on effects of such accidents. This is without question a logical consequence of the offshore incidents seen around the globe over the past decades. An interesting question in this context is for whom the EU Offshore Safety Directive has become an opportunity and for whom a handicap. [German] Ziel der am 18. Juli 2013 in Kraft getretenen EU Offshore Safety Direktive ist die Festlegung von Mindestanforderungen fuer die Verhinderung schwerer Unfaelle bei Offshore-Erdoel- bzw. - Erdgasaktivitaeten und die Begrenzung etwaiger Unfallfolgen. Nach den weltweiten Offshore- Ereignissen der vergangenen Jahrzehnte ist dies ohne Zweifel eine logische Entwicklung. Nun stellt sich die Frage: Fuer wen entwickelt sich die EU Offshore Safety Directive zur Chance, fuer wen zum Handicap?.

  3. Thyroid hormone-dependent development of early cortical networks: Temporal specificity and the contribution of trkB and mTOR pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sören eWesterholz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Early in neocortical network development, triiodothyronine (T3 promotes GABAergic neurons’ population increase, their somatic growth and the formation of GABAergic synapses. In the presence of T3, GABAergic interneurons form longer axons and conspicuous axonal arborizations, with an increased number of putative synaptic boutons. Here we show that the increased GABAergic axonal growth is positively correlated with the proximity to non-GABAergic neurons. A differential innervation emerges from a T3-dependent decrease of axonal length in fields with low density of neuronal cell bodies, combined with an increased bouton formation in fields with high density of neuronal somata. T3 addition to deprived networks after the first two weeks of development did not rescue deficits in the GABAergic synaptic bouton distribution, or in the frequency and duration of spontaneous bursts. During the critical two-week-period, GABAergic signaling is depolarizing as revealed by calcium imaging experiments. Interestingly, T3 enhanced the expression of the potassium-chloride cotransporter 2 (KCC2, and accelerated the developmental shift from depolarizing to hyperpolarizing GABAergic signaling in non-GABAergic neurons.The T3-related increase of spontaneous network activity was remarkably reduced after blockade of either tropomyosin-receptor kinase B (trkB or mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR pathways. T3-dependent increase in GABAergic neurons’ soma size was mediated mainly by mTOR signaling. Conversely, the T3-dependent selective increase of GABAergic boutons near non-GABAergic cell bodies is mediated by trkB signaling only. Both trkB and mTOR signaling mediate T3-dependent reduction of the GABAergic axon extension. The circuitry context is relevant for the interaction between T3 and trkB signaling, but not for the interactions between T3 and mTOR signaling.

  4. Microbe-dependent CD11b+ IgA+ plasma cells mediate robust early-phase intestinal IgA responses in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunisawa, Jun; Gohda, Masashi; Hashimoto, Eri; Ishikawa, Izumi; Higuchi, Morio; Suzuki, Yuji; Goto, Yoshiyuki; Panea, Casandra; Ivanov, Ivaylo I.; Sumiya, Risa; Aayam, Lamichhane; Wake, Taichi; Tajiri, So; Kurashima, Yosuke; Shikata, Shiori; Akira, Shizuo; Takeda, Kiyoshi; Kiyono, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Intestinal plasma cells predominantly produce immunoglobulin (Ig) A, however, their functional diversity remains poorly characterized. Here we show that murine intestinal IgA plasma cells can be newly classified into two populations on the basis of CD11b expression, which cannot be discriminated by currently known criteria such as general plasma cell markers, B cell origin and T cell dependence. CD11b+ IgA+ plasma cells require the lymphoid structure of Peyer’s patches, produce more IgA than CD11b− IgA+ plasma cells, proliferate vigorously, and require microbial stimulation and IL-10 for their development and maintenance. These features allow CD11b+ IgA+ plasma cells to mediate early-phase antigen-specific intestinal IgA responses induced by oral immunization with protein antigen. These findings reveal the functional diversity of IgA+ plasma cells in the murine intestine. PMID:23612313

  5. Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel 2 of Arabidopsis thaliana (AtVDAC2 Is Involved in ABA-Mediated Early Seedling Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xufeng Li

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC is the major transport protein in the outer membrane of mitochondria and plays crucial roles in energy metabolism, apoptosis, and metabolites transport. In plants, the expression of VDACs can be affected by different stresses, including drought, salinity and pathogen defense. In this study, we investigated the expression pattern of AtVDAC2 in A. thaliana and found ABA suppressed the accumulation of AtVDAC2 transcripts. Further, phenotype analysis of this VDAC deregulated-expression transgenic Arabidopsis plants indicated that AtVDAC2 anti-sense line showed an ABA-insensitivity phenotype during the early seedling development under ABA treatment. The results suggested that AtVDAC2 might be involved in ABA signaling in A. thaliana.

  6. He Will Lift Up His Head: A Report to the Developmental Disabilities Office on the Situation of Handicapped Navajos and the Implications Thereof for All Native Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins, James S.; Stifle, J. M.

    Issues involved in education of handicapped Navajo children are examined. Background sections contrast the history of treatment for the handicapped in America with the treatment received by handicapped Navajos. Unemployment, substandard housing, lack of accessibility within the reservation, overpopulation, language barriers, and the relationship…

  7. The X-Ray Luminosity Functions of Field Low-Mass X-Ray Binaries in Early-Type Galaxies: Evidence for a Stellar Age Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmer, B. D.; Berkeley, M.; Zezas, A.; Alexander, D. M.; Basu-Zych, A.; Bauer, F. E.; Brandt, W. N.; Fragos, T.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Kalogera, V.; Ptak, A.; Sivakoff, G. R.; Tzanavaris, P.; Yukita, M.

    2014-01-01

    We present direct constraints on how the formation of low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) populations in galactic fields depends on stellar age. In this pilot study, we utilize Chandra and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) data to detect and characterize the X-ray point source populations of three nearby early-type galaxies: NGC 3115, 3379, and 3384. The luminosity-weighted stellar ages of our sample span approximately equal to 3-10 Gyr. X-ray binary population synthesis models predict that the field LMXBs associated with younger stellar populations should be more numerous and luminous per unit stellar mass than older populations due to the evolution of LMXB donor star masses. Crucially, the combination of deep Chandra and HST observations allows us to test directly this prediction by identifying and removing counterparts to X-ray point sources that are unrelated to the field LMXB populations, including LMXBs that are formed dynamically in globular clusters, Galactic stars, and background AGN/galaxies. We find that the "young" early-type galaxy NGC 3384 (approximately equals 2-5 Gyr) has an excess of luminous field LMXBs (L(sub x) approximately greater than (5-10) × 10(exp 37) erg s(exp -1)) per unit K-band luminosity (L(sub K); a proxy for stellar mass) than the "old" early-type galaxies NGC 3115 and 3379 (approximately equals 8-10 Gyr), which results in a factor of 2-3 excess of L(sub X)/L(sub K) for NGC 3384. This result is consistent with the X-ray binary population synthesis model predictions; however, our small galaxy sample size does not allow us to draw definitive conclusions on the evolution field LMXBs in general. We discuss how future surveys of larger galaxy samples that combine deep Chandra and HST data could provide a powerful new benchmark for calibrating X-ray binary population synthesis models.

  8. Programmed cell death 2 protein induces gastric cancer cell growth arrest at the early S phase of the cell cycle and apoptosis in a p53-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Wei, Wei; Jin, Hui-Cheng; Ying, Rong-Chao; Zhu, A-Kao; Zhang, Fang-Jie

    2015-01-01

    Programmed cell death 2 (PDCD2) is a highly conserved nuclear protein, and aberrant PDCD2 expression alters cell apoptosis. The present study aimed to investigate PDCD2 expression in gastric cancer. Tissue specimens from 34 gastric cancer patients were collected for analysis of PDCD2 expression using immunohistochemistry, western blotting and qRT-PCR. Gastric cancer cell lines (a p53-mutated MKN28 line and a wild-type p53 MKN45 line) were used to assess the effects of PDCD2 overexpression. p53-/- nude mice were used to investigate the effect of PDCD2 on ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced skin carcinogenesis. The data showed that PDCD2 expression was reduced in gastric cancer tissue specimens, and loss of PDCD2 expression was associated with the poor survival of patients. PDCD2 expression induced gastric cancer cell growth arrest at the early S phase of the cell cycle and apoptosis. The antitumor effects of PDCD2 expression were dependent on p53 expression in gastric cancer cells. Moreover, PDCD2 expression inhibited activity of the ATM/Chk1/2/p53 signaling pathway. In addition, PDCD2 expression suppressed UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis in p53+/+ nude mice, but not in p53-/- mice. The data from the present study demonstrated that loss of PDCD2 expression could contribute to gastric cancer development and progression and that PDCD2-induced gastric cancer cell growth arrest at the early S phase of the cell cycle and apoptosis are p53-dependent.

  9. Early-Type galaxies at z ~ 1.3. III. On the dependence of Formation Epochs and Star Formation Histories on Stellar Mass and Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Rettura, Alessandro; Stanford, S A; Raichoor, A; Moran, S; Holden, B; Rosati, P; Ellis, R; Nakata, F; Nonino, M; Treu1, T; Blakeslee1, J P; Demarco, R; Eisenhardt, P; Ford, H C; Fosbury, R A E; Illingworth, G; Huertas-Company, M; Jee, M J; Kodama, T; Postman, M; Tanaka, M; White, R L

    2011-01-01

    We study the environmental dependence of stellar population properties at z ~ 1.3. We derive galaxy properties (stellar masses, ages and star formation histories) for samples of massive, red, passive early-type galaxies in two high-redshift clusters, RXJ0849+4452 and RXJ0848+4453 (with redshifts of z = 1.26 and 1.27, respectively), and compare them with those measured for the RDCS1252.9-2927 cluster at z=1.24 and with those measured for a similarly mass-selected sample of field contemporaries drawn from the GOODS-South Field. Robust estimates of the aforementioned parameters have been obtained by comparing a large grid of composite stellar population models with extensive 8-10 band photometric coverage, from the rest-frame far-ultraviolet to the infrared. We find no variations of the overall stellar population properties among the different samples of cluster early-type galaxies. However, when comparing cluster versus field stellar population properties we find that, even if the (star formation weighted) ages...

  10. The X-ray Luminosity Functions of Field Low Mass X-ray Binaries in Early-Type Galaxies: Evidence for a Stellar Age Dependence

    CERN Document Server

    Lehmer, B D; Zezas, A; Alexander, D M; Basu-Zych, A; Bauer, F E; Brandt, W N; Fragos, T; Hornschemeier, A E; Kalogera, V; Ptak, A; Sivakoff, G R; Tzanavaris, P; Yukita, M

    2014-01-01

    We present direct constraints on how the formation of low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) populations in galactic fields depends on stellar age. In this pilot study, we utilize Chandra and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) data to detect and characterize the X-ray point source populations of three nearby early-type galaxies: NGC 3115, 3379, and 3384. The luminosity-weighted stellar ages of our sample span 3-10 Gyr. X-ray binary population synthesis models predict that the field LMXBs associated with younger stellar populations should be more numerous and luminous per unit stellar mass than older populations due to the evolution of LMXB donor star masses. Crucially, the combination of deep Chandra and HST observations allows us to test directly this prediction by identifying and removing counterparts to X-ray point sources that are unrelated to the field LMXB populations, including LMXBs that are formed dynamically in globular clusters, Galactic stars, and background AGN/galaxies. We find that the "young" early-type galax...

  11. [Can age-dependent cognitive functions be measured? P300 potentials--concept of brain aging--early diagnosis of dementia processes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kügler, C

    1996-10-10

    Event related P300 potentials as the electrophysiological substrate of cognitive functions, such as the stimulus processing time (P300 latencies) and visual attention capacity (P300 amplitudes) are suitable for the analysis of age-related changes in cognitive human brain functions. P300 investigations carried out in a total of 330 test subjects aged between 18 and 98 years, showed an overall slight prolongation of the P300 latencies by 10 ms for each decade, as well as a discrete reduction in the P300 amplitudes of 1 microV. To describe the relationship between the P300 parameters and chronological age, polynomial regression models are more suitable than linear functions. This means that in middle-age, P300 potentials change only slightly while, from about the age of 60 upwards, a noticeable acceleration in the P300 changes takes place. An interesting observation was the fact that the acceleration in the P300 latency increase occurred some 10 years earlier in women than in men, beginning in the early postmenopausal period. The polynomial course of the regression function for the age-dependence of P300 potentials might reflect the positive influence of socio-cultural factors on the aging of cognitive functions. The true extent of the age-related changes in cognitive functions, however, can be determined only with the aid of intra-individual longitudinal studies. This is of considerable importance for the early diagnosis of both metabolic and primarily degenerative encephalopathies.

  12. Happy and sad judgements in dependence on mode and note density in patients with mild cognitive impairment and early-stage Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerer, Manuela; Marksteiner, Josef; Hinterhuber, Hartmann; Kemmler, Georg; Bliem, Harald R; Weiss, Elisabeth M

    2014-01-01

    In Western cultures it has often been assumed that the experience of happy or sad emotions while listening to music is clearly correlated to the key (mode) and the tempo of the musical piece. Recent studies point towards more complex dependencies, but knowledge in this line of research is still very limited, especially regarding the experience of music for persons with memory-related disorders such as dementia. This pilot study explores the emotional content of music for patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early-stage Alzheimer's disease (AD) and compares them to healthy subjects. A new test was specifically designed for this study and presented to 10 patients with MCI diagnosis, 10 with AD diagnosis and 23 controls. The test comprised musical stimuli consisting of chords and short musical pieces in major and minor mode with variable note density (number of notes per second). In the current study no significant correlation between key and the attribution of 'happy' or 'sad' judgements to a musical piece could be found in all groups. Note density, however, was shown to exhibit a strong influence on happy/sad judgements in all groups. Our findings indicate that the note density of a musical piece is much more important for happy/sad judgements than the key. Furthermore, the diagnosis MCI and early AD had no influence on the attribution of emotional expressions to musical pieces, corroborating recent findings of spared memory for music in these patient groups.

  13. Parvalbumin expression in visual cortical interneurons depends on neuronal activity and TrkB ligands during an Early period of postnatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patz, Silke; Grabert, Jochen; Gorba, Thorsten; Wirth, Marcus J; Wahle, Petra

    2004-03-01

    The differentiation of cortical interneurons is controlled by environmental factors. Here, we describe the role of activity and neurotrophins in regulating parvalbumin (PARV) expression using organotypic cultures (OTC) of rat visual cortex as model system. In OTC, PARV expression was dramatically delayed. The organotypic proportion of approximately 6% PARV neurons was not established before 50-70 DIV, whereas in vivo all neurons are present until P20. Thalamic afferents increased cortical PARV mRNA in OTC, but not to the age-matched in vivo level. During the first 10 DIV, BDNF and NT-4 accelerated PARV mRNA expression in a Trk receptor and MEK2 dependent manner. The BDNF action required PI3 kinase signalling. PARV expression required activity. The proportion of neurons which managed to up-regulate PARV was inversely related to the duration of early transient periods of activity deprivation. Long-term activity-deprived OTC completely failed to up-regulate PARV mRNA. Both TrkB ligands failed to promote PARV expression in activity-deprived OTC. However, a few basket and chandelier neurons were observed, suggesting that the development of class-specific morphological features is activity-independent. Once established, PARV expression became resistant to late-onset activity deprivation. In conclusion, PARV expression depended on activity and TrkB ligands which appear to prime the PARV expression already before its developmental onset.

  14. Effect of sucrose concentration on sucrose-dependent adhesion and glucosyltransferase expression of S. mutans in children with severe early-childhood caries (S-ECC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Li, Wenqing; Lin, Jiacheng; Chen, Zhuoyu; Yu, Dongsheng

    2014-09-09

    Sucrose, extracellular polysaccharide, and glucosyltransferases (GTFs) are key factors in sucrose-dependent adhesion and play important roles in the process of severe early-childhood caries (S-ECC). However, whether sucrose concentration regulates gtf expression, extracellular polysaccharide synthesis, and sucrose-dependent adhesion is related to the different genotypes of S. mutans isolated from ECC in children and still needs to be investigated. In this study, 52 strains of S. mutans were isolated from children with S-ECC and caries-free (CF) children. Water-insoluble glucan (WIG) synthesis was detected by the anthrone method, adhesion capacity by the turbidimetric method, and expression of gtf by RT-PCR in an in vitro model containing 1%-20% sucrose. The genotypes of S. mutans were analyzed by AP-PCR. The results showed that WIG synthesis, adhesion capacity, and gtf expression increased significantly when the sucrose concentration was from 1% to 10%. WIG synthesis and gtfB as well as gtfC expression of the 1% and 5% groups were significantly lower than those of the 10% and 20% groups (p S. mutans detected from individuals in the S-ECC group exhibited a significant difference in diversity compared with those from CF individuals (p S. mutans, and the 10% sucrose level can be seen as a "turning point" and essential factor for the prevention of S-ECC.

  15. Short-term inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis has no effect on the elevated glomerular filtration rate of early insulin-dependent diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, J S; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Parving, H H

    1985-01-01

    Glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow (constant infusion technique using 125I-iothalamate and 131I-hippuran) were measured twice within a 1-week interval in nine young males with insulin-dependent diabetes of short duration (2-5 years). The study was performed in a randomized double......-blind design, with the patients receiving either indomethacin (150 mg/day) or placebo for 3 days before the study. Measures of metabolic control did not change. No differences were found in glomerular filtration rate (144 +/- 9 versus 144 +/- 9 ml/min X 1.73 m2, mean +/- S.E.M.) or renal plasma flow (579...... +/- 43 versus 560 +/- 52 ml/min X 1.73 m2), when measured during placebo or indomethacin treatment, respectively. It is concluded that the steady-state enhancement of glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow found in early insulin-dependent diabetes is not due to an excessive activity...

  16. The Role of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics in Early Drug Development with reference to the Cyclin-dependent Kinase (Cdk) Inhibitor - Roscovitine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Moustapha; Sallam, Hatem; Hassan, Zuzana

    2011-05-01

    Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and pharmacogenetics play an important role in drug discovery and contribute to treatment success. This is an essential issue in cancer treatment due to its high toxicity. During the last decade, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors were recognised as a new class of compounds that was introduced for the treatment of several diseases including cancer. Cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) play a key role in the regulation of cell cycle progression and ribonucleic acid transcription. Deregulation of Cdks has been associated with several malignancies, neurodegenerative disorders, viral and protozoa infections, glomerulonephritis and inflammatory diseases. (R)-roscovitine is a synthetic tri-substituted purine that inhibits selectively Cdk1, 2, 5, 7 and 9. Roscovitine has shown promising cytotoxicity in cell lines and tumor xenografts. In this paper, we present several aspects of pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of roscovitine. We present also some of our investigations including bioanalysis, haematotoxicity, age dependent kinetics, PK and effects on Cdks in the brain. Unfavourable kinetic parameters in combination with poor distribution to the bone marrow compartment could explain the absence of myelosuppression in vivo despite the efficacy in vitro. Higher plasma and brain exposure and longer elimination half-life found in rat pups compared to adult rats may indicate that roscovitine can be a potential candidate for the treatment of brain tumours in children. Cdk5 inhibition and Erk1/2 activation that was detected in brain of rat pups may suggest the use of roscovitine in neurodegenerative diseases. Early pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic studies are important issues in drug discovery and may affect further development of promising drug candidates.

  17. Effect of Sucrose Concentration on Sucrose-Dependent Adhesion and Glucosyltransferase Expression of S. mutans in Children with Severe Early-Childhood Caries (S-ECC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sucrose, extracellular polysaccharide, and glucosyltransferases (GTFs are key factors in sucrose-dependent adhesion and play important roles in the process of severe early-childhood caries (S-ECC. However, whether sucrose concentration regulates gtf expression, extracellular polysaccharide synthesis, and sucrose-dependent adhesion is related to the different genotypes of S. mutans isolated from ECC in children and still needs to be investigated. In this study, 52 strains of S. mutans were isolated from children with S-ECC and caries-free (CF children. Water-insoluble glucan (WIG synthesis was detected by the anthrone method, adhesion capacity by the turbidimetric method, and expression of gtf by RT-PCR in an in vitro model containing 1%–20% sucrose. The genotypes of S. mutans were analyzed by AP-PCR. The results showed that WIG synthesis, adhesion capacity, and gtf expression increased significantly when the sucrose concentration was from 1% to 10%. WIG synthesis and gtfB as well as gtfC expression of the 1% and 5% groups were significantly lower than those of the 10% and 20% groups (p < 0.05. There were no significant differences between the 10% and 20% groups. The fingerprints of S. mutans detected from individuals in the S-ECC group exhibited a significant difference in diversity compared with those from CF individuals (p < 0.05. Further, the expression of gtfB and gtfC in the S-ECC group was significantly different among the 1- to 5-genotype groups (p < 0.05. It can be concluded that sucrose-dependent adhesion might be related to the diversity of genotypes of S. mutans, and the 10% sucrose level can be seen as a “turning point” and essential factor for the prevention of S-ECC.

  18. Estimating the Costs of Educating Handicapped Children: A Resource-Cost Model Approach-Summary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, William T.

    1981-01-01

    The resource cost model approach makes the programmatic aspects of special education explicit and links these with associated costs. It facilitates planning for education of handicapped children. An effective cost estimation plan was necessary because of recent political and legal mandates which established the educational rights of the…

  19. Estimating the Costs of Educating Handicapped Children: A Resource-Cost Model Approach. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, William T.

    The research described in this report attempts to estimate the costs of providing an appropriate education to all school-aged handicapped children by 1980-81. The study begins by addressing the aspects of special education that will help to predict future costs--patterns of growth to the present, legal and political mandates, the nature of various…

  20. Factorial Validity of the Chedoke-McMaster Attitudes towards Children with Handicaps Scale (CATCH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossaert, Goele; Petry, Katja

    2013-01-01

    The Chedoke-McMaster Attitudes towards Children with Handicaps Scale (CATCH) has been developed to measure the attitudes of children toward peers with disabilities. The present study aims to evaluate the factorial validity of the CATCH in a sample of 2396 students in 7th grade, including 179 students with disabilities and 2217 typically developing…

  1. Treatment or Involuntary Euthanasia for Severely Handicapped Newborns: Issues of Philosophy and Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, T. Hennessy; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Recent reports have indicated that parents and/or physicians occasionally decide not to provide life-sustaining treatment (referred to as involuntary euthanasia), thus ensuring that the severely handicapped newborn will die. The issues involved relative to treatment or involuntary euthanasia are reviewed from two opposing perspectives…

  2. 45 CFR 84.55 - Procedures relating to health care for handicapped infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... disability organization, a practicing nurse, and other individuals. A suggested model ICRC is set forth in..., Welfare, and Social Services § 84.55 Procedures relating to health care for handicapped infants. (a... action to be taken to effect compliance, and its continuing opportunity to comply voluntarily. (f) Model...

  3. Reevaluation of the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap Using Item Response Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hospers, J. Mirjam Boeschen; Smits, Niels; Smits, Cas; Stam, Mariska; Terwee, Caroline B.; Kramer, Sophia E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: We reevaluated the psychometric properties of the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap (AIADH; Kramer, Kapteyn, Festen, & Tobi, 1995) using item response theory. Item response theory describes item functioning along an ability continuum. Method: Cross-sectional data from 2,352 adults with and without hearing…

  4. Treatment or Involuntary Euthanasia for Severely Handicapped Newborns: Issues of Philosophy and Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, T. Hennessy; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Recent reports have indicated that parents and/or physicians occasionally decide not to provide life-sustaining treatment (referred to as involuntary euthanasia), thus ensuring that the severely handicapped newborn will die. The issues involved relative to treatment or involuntary euthanasia are reviewed from two opposing perspectives…

  5. Design Guidelines: Study of Handicapped Accessibility in South Carolina State Parks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina State Dept. of Parks, Recreation, and Tourism, Columbia. Div. of Engineering and Planning.

    The publication provides guidelines for the design of new facilities or rehabilitation of existing facilities to accommodate physically handicapped persons in the South Carolina State Parks system. The guidelines are also recommended for use in regional, special district, county, and municipal parks within the state. The guidelines were developed…

  6. 36 CFR 701.6 - Loans of library materials for blind and other physically handicapped persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... consultation with persons, organizations, and agencies engaged in work for the blind and for other physically... for blind and other physically handicapped persons. 701.6 Section 701.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property LIBRARY OF CONGRESS PROCEDURES AND SERVICES § 701.6 Loans of library materials for blind and...

  7. Relation between change of hearing and (modified) Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap Score

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, AGW; Wit, HP; Albers, FWJ

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates the test-retest distributions and the interval for true score change of the (modified) Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap [(m)AIAD], when the latter is used to measure the effect of an intervention. In a previous study the reliability and validity of the

  8. Outdoor Recreation for the Physically Handicapped. A Handbook of Design Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Council on Parks and Outdoor Recreation, Albany.

    Public outdoor recreational facilities and the needs of the physically handicapped are overviewed with guidelines to develop such facilities. Circulation and access provisions for wheel chairs and the semi-ambulatory are emphasized, including requirements for parking lots, pathways, resting areas and public bathrooms. Standard dimensions and…

  9. Air-Puff Conditioning Audiometry: Extending Its Applicability with Multiply Handicapped Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancioni, G. E.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This study examined the use of air-puff conditioning audiometry in the hearing assessment of 12 multiply handicapped (including severe/profound mental retardation) subjects, ages 9-32. Ten subjects reached criterion conditioning and then completed the hearing assessment with the air-puff procedure while one reached criterion with a modified…

  10. Behavioral Assessment and Treatment of Chronic Food Refusal in Handicapped Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riordan, Mary M.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Chronic food refusal of four handicapped children (one-three years old) was modified by a procedure involving the delivery of reinforcement (social praise, access to preferred foods, brief toy play periods) contingent upon consumption of a targeted food item. (CL)

  11. Selecting Toys and Gifts for Severely Mentally and Physically Handicapped People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgia Learning Resources System/Child Serve, Scottdale.

    Suggestions are given regarding selection of gifts and toys for severely handicapped persons. General principles (such as safety and durability) are followed by specific suggestions about clothes, food, toys (including musical instruments and balls), books and records, and various types of equipment (such as blenders for food preparation, tape…

  12. Curricula and Instruction for Young Handicapped Children: A Guideline for Selection and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBose, Rebecca; Kelley, Jean

    The paper examines the theoretical constructs that underlie currently used curricula for young handicapped children and suggests guidelines for selecting and evaluating curricula. Three developmental perspectives are reviewed: the age related developmental milestones identified by A. Gesell and adhered to by diagnostic prescriptive advocates, the…

  13. A Classical Conditioning Procedure for the Hearing Assessment of Multiply Handicapped Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Hearing assessments of multiply handicapped children/adolescents were conducted using classical conditioning (with an air puff as unconditioned stimulus) and operant conditioning (with a modified visual reinforcement audiometry procedure or edible reinforcement). Findings indicate that classical conditioning was successful with 21 of the 23…

  14. An Instructional Playground for the Handicapped Using Tires as Inexpensive Playground Equipment: Activity and Construction Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Special Education Instructional Materials Center.

    The manual explains how special education students in an occupational program used tires to construct an inexpensive instructional playground for handicapped elementary school pupils. Presented in two sections with accompanying pictures or diagrams are activity ideas for using the tires in a variety of configurations (Part 1) and construction and…

  15. The Professional Education of Handicapped People in Moscow: Opportunities and Obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadova, T. A.

    2014-01-01

    In Moscow, one priority area of urban social policy has focused on the formation of equal opportunities for handicapped people and those with impaired health in the process of their integration into all spheres of life and activity, including professional education. The year 2009 was declared to be the Year of Equal Opportunities. The…

  16. Det skal ikke være dyrt at have et handicap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jydebjerg, Camilla Sabroe

    2007-01-01

    Det skal ikke koste den enkelte ekstra at have et handicap. Det følger meget klart af de handicappolitiske grundprincipper. Derfor er det bekymrende, at Ankestyrelsen i nogle afgørelser har lavet en meget snæver fortolkning af, hvem der har ret til at få dækket merudgifter efter serviceloven....

  17. Kontanthjælpsloft og handicap det hænger ikke sammen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amby, Finn

    2016-01-01

    Den nye regel om vurdering af arbejdsevne i forhold til det ordinære arbejdsmarked rejser flere spørgsmål, end den besvarer. Derfor er der stor risiko for, at den nye reform kommer til at ramme ledige med alvorlige handicap eller helbredsproblemer på en måde, som Folketingets flertal forhåbentlig...

  18. Mental and Behavioral Symptoms of Person's with Asperger's Syndrome: Relationships with Social Isolation and Handicaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Masayuki; Kanai, Chieko; Ota, Haruhisa; Yamada, Takashi; Watanabe, Hiromi; Yokoi, Hideki; Takayama, Yuko; Ono, Taisei; Hashimoto, Ryuichiro; Kato, Nobumasa; Iwanami, Akira

    2012-01-01

    People with Asperger's syndrome (AS) experience mental comorbidities, and behavioral symptoms that can deepen social isolation and handicaps. We compared the frequency of mental and behavioral symptoms, motor abnormality, and life history between adults with AS and those with no mental disorders but with disturbance of social functions and…

  19. Reevaluation of the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap Using Item Response Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hospers, J. Mirjam Boeschen; Smits, Niels; Smits, Cas; Stam, Mariska; Terwee, Caroline B.; Kramer, Sophia E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: We reevaluated the psychometric properties of the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap (AIADH; Kramer, Kapteyn, Festen, & Tobi, 1995) using item response theory. Item response theory describes item functioning along an ability continuum. Method: Cross-sectional data from 2,352 adults with and without hearing…

  20. Vocational Education for the Handicapped: A Model for Appropriate Placement and Effective Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arko, Carl; And Others

    Three papers discuss issues in providing vocational education services to handicapped children. In the first, "Vocational Education Speaks to Special Education," G. Rackliffe and N. Pearson consider aspects of appropriate placement and describe a handbook produced to address vocational issues for special educators. The handbook covers such topics…

  1. Administrative Action to End Discrimination Based on Handicap: HEW's Section 504 Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engebretson, Mark F.

    1979-01-01

    Examines the drafting of regulations under Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, which prohibits discrimination against handicapped persons by recipients of federal funds. Available from Harvard Legislative Research Bureau, Langdell Hall, Harvard Law School, Cambridge, MA 02138; single copy $4.00. (Author/IRT)

  2. Drug Treatment with Children in Programs for the Trainable Mentally Handicapped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadow, Kenneth D.

    In order to describe the extent of drug treatment with mentally retarded children in public schools and the involvement of teachers in the drug regimen, a study was designed to survey teachers of the trainable mentally handicapped by mail about psychotropic and anticonvulsant drug use with the children they were teaching. The study was divided…

  3. Materials on Creative Arts (Arts, Crafts, Dance, Drama, Music, Bibliotherapy) for Persons with Handicapping Conditions. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC. Information and Research Utilization Center.

    Intended as a resource guide for persons who include such subjects as arts, crafts, dance, and music in programs for the handicapped, resources are listed for printed materials, audiovisual materials, resource persons and organizations, and material and equipment suppliers. Brief literature reviews sum up the state of the art in the specific art…

  4. Training Pragmatic Language Skills through Alternate Strategies with a Blind Multiply Handicapped Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, C. J.; Johnson, C. J.

    1988-01-01

    A blind multiply handicapped preschooler was taught to respond appropriately to two adjacency pair types ("where question-answer" and "comment-acknowledgement"). The two alternative language acquisition strategies available to blind children were encouraged: echolalia to maintain communicative interactions and manual searching…

  5. Minimum Competency Testing Programs and Handicapped Students: Perspectives on Policy and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosewater, Ann

    Intended for federal, state, and local policymakers, the document looks at the actual policies and practices of local and state education agencies in carrying out their minimum competency requirements, with particular emphasis on the mandates of P.L. 94-142 (the Education for All Handicapped Children Act) and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act…

  6. Audiological assessment modalities in children with multiple handicaps and parents′ perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noorain Alam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Children with multiple disabilities have combination of various disabilities. Accurate hearing evaluation is difficult in this population. Audiologists, generally employ a test battery approach, which includes combining findings of parent impression with behavior observation audiometry (BOA as well as auditory brainstem evoked responses (ABR findings. This study was carried out to find if there exists a correlation among various steps in the test battery for children with multiple handicaps as well as to find out, which disability is the most common among this population. Methodology: A total of 103 numbers of children with multiple handicaps were chosen at random who were referred to C U Shah Institute of Audiology and Speech Therapy for audiological assessment. The three steps involved in assessment that is parental impression, BOA and ABR findings were taken into account. The relationship was obtained using data analysis. Results: It was found that among children with multiple handicaps referred for audiological assessment, mental retardation was the most common (32.03%. Furthermore, it was found that there were more contradictory findings between parent impression and ABR (48% when compared with parent impression with BOA (38%. In between BOA and ABR contradictory findings were found in 41% of cases. Conclusion: There are wide contradictions among various steps involved in assessment of children with multiple handicaps. Implication: Audiologist should use a test battery approach to assess hearing ability of this population and audiologists should interpret findings carefully at each level.

  7. The Three Bears and Other Plays: Six Easy Plays Especially Written for Educationally Handicapped Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassie, Dhyan

    This booklet contains six easy plays written for educationally handicapped children. The plays are brief, use few characters and simple language and plots, and are based on fairy tales. Titles are: (1) "The Three Bears'" (2) "The Gingerbread Boy'" (3) "Little Red Riding Hood'" (4) "The Three Billy Goats Gruff'" (5) "Hansel and Gretel'" and (6)…

  8. Workshops on Communication Networks That Promote Opportunities in Postsecondary Education for the Handicapped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutcher, Bertha N., Ed.; Shworles, Thomas R., Ed.

    The book contains the major addresses, workshop findings, and materials from a 2 day workshop on communication networks designed to promote opportunities for the handicapped in higher education. The book is arranged in sections following the format of the conference program, with each segment prefaced by a brief introduction indicating the content…

  9. Entry to Exit. Identification, Monitoring and Tracking of Handicapped and Disadvantaged Students. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primavera, Joanne M.

    In view of new federal guidelines, a project sought to write a procedure for identifying disadvantaged, handicapped, and/or nontraditional students and set up a monitoring system in the Renton Vocational Technical Institute. A literature review showed no practical tracking system had been published. The identification procedure developed included…

  10. A Pilot Study of Language Facilitation for Bilingual, Language-Handicapped Children: Theoretical and Intervention Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perozzi, Joseph A.

    1985-01-01

    A within-subject design involving three Spanish speaking and three English speaking preschoolers with language handicaps provided support for the practice of initial language intervention in the native language when bilingualism is a goal and for transference/facilitation theories of second language learning. (CL)

  11. Arte en la Clase para Personas Incapacitadas (Art in the Classroom for Handicapped Persons).

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Committee, Arts for the Handicapped, Washington, DC.

    The Spanish translation contains a collection of arts strategies intended to stimulate, motivate, and teach basic skills to handicapped children. The lessons involve one or more of the basic art forms (movement, music, drama, and art) and are further divided into five levels of aesthetic development: awareness, imitation, self-initiation, skill…

  12. Item reduction of the Voice Handicap Index (VHI) based on European translations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nawka, T.; Leeuw, de I.M.; DeBodt, M.; Guimaraes, I.; Holmberg, E.B.; Schindler, A.; Woisard, V.; Whurr, R.; Konerding, U.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Constructing an internationally applicable short-scale of the Voice Handicap Index (VHI). Methods: Subjects were 1,052 patients with 5 different types of voice disorder groups from Belgium, France, Sweden, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Portugal, and the USA. Different 9- and 12-item su

  13. Change of Voice Handicap Index after treatment of benign laryngeal disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuut, Marijn; Gi, Robin E. A. Tjon Pian; Dikkers, Frederik G.

    2014-01-01

    Voice disorders can have major impact on quality of life. Problems caused by these disorders can be experienced in different domains. The Voice Handicap Index (VHI) is a well-known voice-related quality of life instrument to measure physical, emotional and functional complaints. VHI change after tre

  14. A Practicum-Based Teacher Training Program for Preschool Handicapped Children. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colarusso, Ronald P.

    Described in the final report is a 3-year project which prepared 25 teachers at Master's degree level in a practicum based teacher training program for preschool handicapped children. Stressed are the program's objective of developing effective teachers able to cope with behavioral and educational problems irrespective of purported etiologies or…

  15. Taking Charge: Coordinating Clinical and Educational Information About Your Handicapped Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Learning Resource Center of Pennsylvania, King of Prussia.

    Intended for parents of handicapped children, the workbook provides forms for keeping track of children's progress. Nine forms are included for recording the following information: identifying information, birth history, developmental history, medical history, family background, educational history, psychological information, special services…

  16. The Education of the Handicapped Adolescent: The Transition from School to Working Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.

    This report is the second to appear in a series of studies carried out by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development's Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI) during the past 5 years. The first report concerned the integration of handicapped young people into ordinary schools. The present report deals with what happens…

  17. Arte en la Clase para Personas Incapacitadas (Art in the Classroom for Handicapped Persons).

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Committee, Arts for the Handicapped, Washington, DC.

    The Spanish translation contains a collection of arts strategies intended to stimulate, motivate, and teach basic skills to handicapped children. The lessons involve one or more of the basic art forms (movement, music, drama, and art) and are further divided into five levels of aesthetic development: awareness, imitation, self-initiation, skill…

  18. Economic analysis of chromosome testing in couples with recurrent miscarriage to prevent handicapped offspring.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, M. van; Vansenne, F.; Korevaar, J.C.; Veen, F. van der; Goddijn, M.; Mol, B.W.J.

    2013-01-01

    Study Question: Which strategy is least expensive to prevent the birth of a handicapped child in couples with recurrent miscarriage (RM); parental chromosome analysis followed by amniocentesis in case of carrier status of one of the parents, or amniocentesis in all ongoing pregnancies without the

  19. Sygemeldte og førtidspensionister med handicap: Jobcentermedarbejderes perspektiver på jobcentrenes indsats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgelund, Jan; Tørslev, Mette Kirstine; Weibel, Kristina

    Denne rapport belyser udvalgte jobcentermedarbejderes syn på beskæftigelsesindsatsen over for sygedagpengemodtagere og førtidspensionister med handicap. Rapporten bygger på kvalitative interviews med medarbejdere og ledelsesrepræsentanter i tre jobcentre. Der er gennemført interview med i alt 12 ...

  20. Intrinsic Motivation and Learning Performance: Implications for Individual Educational Programming for Learners with Mild Handicaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzky, Harvey N.; Schultz, Geoffrey F.

    1988-01-01

    The implications of current theories of intrinsic motivation for educational practices for mildly handicapped learners are reviewed. The interaction of classroom demand environments, the effects of teacher reward and punishment, and individual differences in intrinsic motivation are discussed in relation to behavioral effectiveness and to academic…

  1. Economic analysis of chromosome testing in couples with recurrent miscarriage to prevent handicapped offspring.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, M. van; Vansenne, F.; Korevaar, J.C.; Veen, F. van der; Goddijn, M.; Mol, B.W.J.

    2013-01-01

    Study Question: Which strategy is least expensive to prevent the birth of a handicapped child in couples with recurrent miscarriage (RM); parental chromosome analysis followed by amniocentesis in case of carrier status of one of the parents, or amniocentesis in all ongoing pregnancies without the kn

  2. Investigating the Relationship between Self-Handicapping Tendencies, Self-Esteem and Cognitive Distortions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuzer, Yasemin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between cognitive distortions, self-handicapping tendencies, and self-esteem in a sample of students studying in a school of education. The sample of the study was comprised of 507 volunteer students chosen through random sampling from a total of 4,720 students who were studying teaching at…

  3. Claudius, the handicapped Caesar (41-54 A.D.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois P. Retief

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Claudius, fourth Caesar of the Roman Empire, proved himself an able administrator, but physically and emotionally handicapped from birth. His parents, members of the imperial family, considered him mentally deficient and he was isolated from the general public and put in the care of an uneducated tutor who firmly disciplined the youngster. The historians report that he had a weak constitution caused by frequent illness, and when he appeared in public he was muffled in a protective cloak. To avoid possible embarrassment the ceremony of the toga virilis, at approximately 14 years of age, was a secretive affair held at midnight and devoid of the traditional procession. His grandfather, Augustus Caesar, had some sympathy for the young lad, but did not consider him capable of managing any position of public office appropriate for his age and position. This would also be the approach of the succeeding emperor, Tiberius. Claudius spent the fi rst four decades of his life in relative idleness, isolated from his family and upper class Romans, consorting with the lower classes, playing dice and revelling in excessive eating and drinking. He did, however, also involve himself seriously in a study of the sciences, literature, Greek and history – his role model in the latter being Livy. During his life time he published quite extensively, including dramas, an autobiography, a work in defence of Cicero, histories of Rome, Carthage and Etruria, and a book on dice. His first public office (besides an augurship under Augustus was at the age of 47 years when the new emperor, Gaius (Caligula made him a consul for two months. The Knights and a section of Senate now warmed towards Claudius, but Gaius and the majority of aristocratic Romans still despised him as dull-witted. After the assassination of Gaius, the Praetorian Guard in an extraordinary step, proclaimed a protesting Claudius (50 years old as emperor, and convinced an astounded Senate to endorse

  4. [Combined hepatitis A/B vaccination: evaluation of a vaccination schedule in facilities for handicapped people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, B; Müller, T; Ross, R S; Kundt, R; Roggendorf, M; Roggendorf, H

    2014-02-01

    People with mental and physical disabilities have a higher risk of infection with hepatitis viruses. Studies conducted so far show contradictory results on the success of vaccination in this population. These people live and work under special conditions and sometimes have immune defects. We investigated the antibody response after combined vaccination against hepatitis A and B in facilities for handicapped people in the city of Essen/Germany. Antibodies were determined in people with disabilities (n=949) and also in social workers taking care of handicapped people (n=115). Protective antibodies against hepatitis A were detected in 98.9% in people with disabilities and social workers. The seroconversion rate against hepatitis B in handicapped people was 90.2% and was comparable to the seroconversion rate in social workers (91.3%). Re-vaccinations were offered to all people with anti-HBs titres below 100 IU/L (28% of handicapped and 23.5% of social workers). In the group of low responders in handicapped people about 50% developed anti-HBs concentration above 100 IU/L. Non-responders showed 30-40% seroconversion rate after re-vaccination. Based on this study we would recommend serological tests about 4-8 weeks after vaccination to confirm seroconversion. By this procedure people who need a booster vaccination will be recognized and non-responders should be offered another HBV vaccination. In about 20% of the non-responders included in this study HBs antigen was detected. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Enhanced p62 Is Responsible for Mitochondrial Pathway-Dependent Apoptosis and Interleukin-1β Production at the Early Phase by Monosodium Urate Crystals in Murine Macrophage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Kyu; Choe, Jung-Yoon; Park, Ki-Yeun

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the role of p62-dependent mitochondrial apoptosis in the initiation of monosodium urate (MSU) crystal-induced inflammation in macrophages. The induction of mitochondrial apoptosis in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages by MSU crystals was measured using western blotting and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for Bax, caspase-3, caspase-9, or PARP1, and by flow cytometric analysis. Immunoprecipitation and western blotting was applied to detect ubiquitination of p62, TRAF6, and caspase-9. Mitochondrial apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and cell proliferation were assessed in cells transfected with p62 small interfering RNA (siRNA). Treatment of RAW 264.7 cells with MSU crystals induced activation of Bax, caspase-3, caspase-9, and PARP1 at the early phase, in addition to enhancing IL-1β expression, but these findings were attenuated at the late phase. MSU crystals induced ubiquitination of p62, followed by ubiquitination of TRAF6 and caspase-9, which were significantly reversed by ascorbic acid. RAW 264.7 cells transfected with p62 siRNA showed attenuated expression of Bax, caspase-3, caspase-9, and PARP1, decreased ROS and IL-1β production, and increased cell proliferation, compared to controls. The antioxidant ascorbic acid inhibited p62, caspase-9, and IL-1β expression increased by MSU crystals. p62 may be a crucial mediator for the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway in MSU crystal-induced inflammation, which is linked to the acute inflammatory response during the early phase of gout.

  6. Early impact of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act on insurance among young adults with cancer: Analysis of the dependent insurance provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Helen M; Schmidt, Susanne; Tenner, Laura L; Bang, Heejung; Keegan, Theresa H M

    2016-06-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) included provisions to extend dependent health care coverage up to the age of 26 years in 2010. The authors examined the early impact of the ACA (before the implementation of insurance exchanges in 2014) on insurance rates in young adults with cancer, a historically underinsured group. Using National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data for 18 cancer registries, the authors examined insurance rates before (pre) (January 2007-September 2010) versus after (post) (October 2010-December 2012) dependent insurance provisions among young adults aged 18 to 29 years when diagnosed with cancer during 2007 through 2012. Using multivariate generalized mixed effect models, the authors conducted difference-in-differences analysis to examine changes in overall and Medicaid insurance after the ACA among young adults who were eligible (those aged 18-25 years) and ineligible (those aged 26-29 years) for policy changes. Among 39,632 young adult cancer survivors, the authors found an increase in overall insurance rates in those aged 18 to 25 years after the dependent provisions (83.5% for pre-ACA vs 85.4% for post-ACA; P<.01), but not among individuals aged 26 to 29 years (83.4% for pre-ACA vs 82.9% for post-ACA; P = .38). After adjusting for patient sociodemographics and cancer characteristics, the authors found that those aged 18 to 25 years had a 3.1% increase in being insured compared with individuals aged 26 to 29 years (P<.01); however, there were no significant changes noted in Medicaid enrollment (P = .17). The findings of the current study identify an increase in insurance rates for young adults aged 18 to 25 years compared with those aged 26 to 29 years (1.9% vs -0.5%) that was not due to increases in Medicaid enrollment, thereby demonstrating a positive impact of the ACA dependent care provisions on insurance rates in this population. Cancer 2016;122:1766-73. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  7. The Varicella-Zoster Virus Immediate-Early 63 protein affects chromatin controlled gene transcription in a cell-type dependent manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bontems Sébastien

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Varicella Zoster Virus Immediate Early 63 protein (IE63 has been shown to be essential for VZV replication, and critical for latency establishment. The activity of the protein as a transcriptional regulator is not fully clear yet. Using transient transfection assays, IE63 has been shown to repress viral and cellular promoters containing typical TATA boxes by interacting with general transcription factors. Results In this paper, IE63 regulation properties on endogenous gene expression were evaluated using an oligonucleotide-based micro-array approach. We found that IE63 modulates the transcription of only a few genes in HeLa cells including genes implicated in transcription or immunity. Furthermore, we showed that this effect is mediated by a modification of RNA POL II binding on the promoters tested and that IE63 phosphorylation was essential for these effects. In MeWo cells, the number of genes whose transcription was modified by IE63 was somewhat higher, including genes implicated in signal transduction, transcription, immunity, and heat-shock signalling. While IE63 did not modify the basal expression of several NF-κB dependent genes such as IL-8, ICAM-1, and IκBα, it modulates transcription of these genes upon TNFα induction. This effect was obviously correlated with the amount of p65 binding to the promoter of these genes and with histone H3 acetylation and HDAC-3 removal. Conclusion While IE63 only affected transcription of a small number of cellular genes, it interfered with the TNF-inducibility of several NF-κB dependent genes by the accelerated resynthesis of the inhibitor IκBα.

  8. Significant long-term, but not short-term, hippocampal-dependent memory impairment in adult rats exposed to alcohol in early postnatal life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodfellow, Molly J; Lindquist, Derick H

    2014-09-01

    In rodents, ethanol exposure in early postnatal life is known to induce structural and functional impairments throughout the brain, including the hippocampus. Herein, rat pups were administered one of three ethanol doses over postnatal days (PD) 4-9, a period of brain development comparable to the third trimester of human pregnancy. As adults, control and ethanol rats were trained and tested in a variant of hippocampal-dependent one-trial context fear conditioning. In Experiment 1, subjects were placed into a novel context and presented with an immediate footshock (i.e., within ∼8 sec). When re-exposed to the same context 24 hr later low levels of conditioned freezing were observed. Context pre-exposure 24 hr prior to the immediate shock reversed the deficit in sham-intubated and unintubated control rats, enhancing freezing behavior during the context retention test. Even with context pre-exposure, however, significant dose-dependent reductions in contextual freezing were seen in ethanol rats. In Experiment 2, the interval between context pre-exposure and the immediate shock was shortened to 2 hr, in addition to the standard 24 hr. Ethanol rats trained with the 2 hr, but not 24 hr, interval displayed retention test freezing levels roughly equal to controls. Results suggest the ethanol rats can encode a short-term context memory and associate it with the aversive footshock 2 hr later. In the 24 hr ethanol rats the short-term context memory is poorly transferred or consolidated into long-term memory, we propose, impeding the memory's subsequent retrieval and association with shock.

  9. Desvantagem vocal em cantores de igreja Vocal handicap of church singers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Prestes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a desvantagem vocal de cantores amadores de coros de igreja. MÉTODO: participaram 42 cantores de coros amadores de igrejas, sendo 20 homens e 22 mulheres, com idades entre 18 e 59 anos. Todos responderam a um questionário contendo perguntas sobre autopercepção vocal e práticas de canto, e ao protocolo Índice de Desvantagem para o Canto Moderno (IDCM, composto por 30 questões referentes às subescalas incapacidade, desvantagem e defeito. Foi realizada triagem perceptivo-auditiva para classificação das vozes em adaptadas ou alteradas e mensuração dos graus De alteração. RESULTADOS: a pontuação total média obtida no IDCM foi 23 pontos. Os maiores escores foram obtidos na subescala "defeito" (10,9, seguido por "incapacidade" (7,6 e "desvantagem" (4,5, com diferença entre elas (p= 0,001. Cantores que nunca realizaram aula de canto apresentaram maiores escores no domínio "desvantagem" (p=0,003. À medida que o escore total do IDCM aumentou, a nota atribuída pelo cantor em relação à própria voz diminuiu (p= 0,046. Participantes com qualidade vocal alterada apresentaram maiores escores nas subescalas incapacidade e desvantagem e no domínio total do IDCM quando comparados aos que apresentavam qualidade vocal adaptada (p=0,012, p=0,049 e p=0,015, respectivamente. Além disso, quanto maior o grau de alteração vocal, maiores foram os escores referentes à subescala incapacidade (p=0,022. CONCLUSÃO: cantores de igreja apresentam desvantagem vocal importante. Quando apresentam alterações vocais, esta desvantagem é ainda maior. Quanto maior o grau de alteração vocal, maiores as limitações referentes à voz cantada. Aulas de canto parecem minimizar a desvantagem vocal nessa população.PURPOSE: to evaluate the vocal handicap of amateur singers of church choirs. METHOD: we interviewed 42 amateur singers from church choirs, 20 men, and 22 women, between 18 and 59 year old. Everybody answered a questionnaire

  10. Parapatric Speciation in the Evolution of Early Intervention for Infants and Toddlers with Disabilities and Their Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunst, Carl J.

    2012-01-01

    The term parapatric speciation, borrowed from biogeography, is used as a metaphor for describing and illustrating a little acknowledged change in the field of early intervention that occurred at the time of the passage of the Education of the Handicapped Act Part H early intervention legislation. The term refers to the formation of a new species…

  11. Host-dependent control of early regulatory and effector T-cell differentiation underlies the genetic susceptibility of RAG2-deficient mouse strains to transfer colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valatas, V; He, J; Rivollier, A; Kolios, G; Kitamura, K; Kelsall, B L

    2013-05-01

    De novo differentiation of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (induced (i) Tregs) occurs preferentially in the gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT). We addressed the contribution of background genetic factors in affecting the balance of iTreg, T helper type 1 (Th1), and Th17 cell differentiation in GALT in vivo following the transfer of naive CD4(+)CD45RB(high) T cells to strains of RAG2-deficient mice with differential susceptibility to inflammatory colitis. iTregs represented up to 5% of CD4(+) T cells in mesenteric lymph nodes of less-susceptible C57BL/6 RAG2(-/-) mice compared with <1% in highly susceptible C57BL/10 RAG2(-/-) mice 2 weeks following T-cell transfer before the onset of colitis. Early Treg induction was correlated inversely with effector cell expansion and the severity of colitis development, was controlled primarily by host and not T-cell-dependent factors, and was strongly associated with interleukin-12 (IL-12)/23 production by host CD11c(+)CD103(+) dendritic cells. These data highlight the importance of genetic factors regulating IL-12/23 production in controlling the balance between iTreg differentiation and effector-pathogenic CD4(+) T-cell expansion in lymphopenic mice and indicate a direct role for iTregs in the regulation of colonic inflammation in vivo.

  12. Interconnection of salt-induced hydrophobic compaction and secondary structure formation depends on solution conditions: revisiting early events of protein folding at single molecule resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, Shubhasis; Chattopadhyay, Krishnananda

    2012-03-30

    What happens in the early stage of protein folding remains an interesting unsolved problem. Rapid kinetics measurements with cytochrome c using submillisecond continuous flow mixing devices suggest simultaneous formation of a compact collapsed state and secondary structure. These data seem to indicate that collapse formation is guided by specific short and long range interactions (heteropolymer collapse). A contrasting interpretation also has been proposed, which suggests that the collapse formation is rapid, nonspecific, and a trivial solvent related compaction, which could as well be observed by a homopolymer (homopolymer collapse). We address this controversy using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), which enables us to monitor the salt-induced compaction accompanying collapse formation and the associated time constant directly at single molecule resolution. In addition, we follow the formation of secondary structure using far UV CD. The data presented here suggest that both these models (homopolymer and heteropolymer) could be applicable depending on the solution conditions. For example, the formation of secondary structure and compact state is not simultaneous in aqueous buffer. In aqueous buffer, formation of the compact state occurs through a two-state co-operative transition following heteropolymer formalism, whereas secondary structure formation takes place gradually. In contrast, in the presence of urea, a compaction of the protein radius occurs gradually over an extended range of salt concentration following homopolymer formalism. The salt-induced compaction and the formation of secondary structure take place simultaneously in the presence of urea.

  13. A criterion-related validity study of the nursing-care dependency (NCD) scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, A.; Buist, G.; Dassen, Th.W.N.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine some aspects of the criterion-related validity of the Nursing-Care Dependency (NCD) scale. This 15-item counting scale has recently been developed for assessing the care dependency of demented or mentally handicapped in-patients. Its criterion-related validit

  14. Sex-dependent effects of early maternal deprivation on MDMA-induced conditioned place preference in adolescent rats: possible neurochemical correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorente-Berzal, Alvaro; Manzanedo, Carmen; Daza-Losada, Manuel; Valero, Manuel; López-Gallardo, Meritxell; Aguilar, María A; Rodríguez-Arias, Marta; Miñarro, José; Viveros, Maria-Paz

    2013-09-01

    The early neonatal stage constitutes a sensitive period during which exposure to adverse events can increase the risk of neuropsychiatric disorders. Maternal deprivation (MD) is a model of early life stress that induces long-term behavioural and physiological alterations, including susceptibility to different drugs of abuse. In the present study we have used the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm to address the influence of MD on the rewarding effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymetamphetamine (MDMA) in adolescent animals of both sexes. We have previously observed in adolescent rats that MD induces modifications in the serotonergic and endocannabinoid systems, which play a role in the rewarding effects of MDMA. In light of this evidence, we hypothesized that MD would alter the psychobiological consequences of exposure to MDMA. Neonatal Wistar rats underwent MD (24h, on PND 9) or were left undisturbed (controls). The animals were conditioned with 2.5mg/kg MDMA during the periadolescent period (PND 34-PND 43) and were tested in the open-field test at the end of adolescence (PND 60). Animals were sacrificed on PND 68-75 and levels of serotonin (5-HT) and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid were measured in the striatum, hippocampus and cortex, while the expression of hippocampal CB1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1R) and circulating levels of corticosterone and leptin were also measured. Control males showed CPP after administration of MDMA. However, no MDMA-induced CPP was detected in control females or MD males, and MD had no effect on open field activity in any group. A reduction in striatal and cortical 5-HT levels, increased expression of hippocampal CB1R and a marked trend towards higher circulating leptin levels were observed in MDMA-treated MD males. Our results demonstrate for the first time that MD reduces the rewarding effects of MDMA in a sex-dependent manner. We propose that this effect is related, at least in part, with alterations of the serotonergic

  15. Early life stress and post-weaning high fat diet alter tyrosine hydroxylase regulation and AT1 receptor expression in the adrenal gland in a sex dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrovskaya, Larisa; Maniam, Jayanthi; Ong, Lin Kooi; Dunkley, Peter R; Morris, Margaret J

    2013-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that early life stress induced by maternal separation or non-handling can lead to behavioural deficits in rats and that these deficits can be alleviated by providing palatable cafeteria high-fat diet (HFD). In these studies we investigated the effects of maternal separation or non-handling and HFD on tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) protein and TH phosphorylation at Ser40 (pSer40TH) and the expression of angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1R) protein in the adrenal gland as markers of sympatho-adrenomedullary activation. After littering, Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to short maternal separation, S15 (15 min), prolonged maternal separation, S180 (180 min) daily from postnatal days 2-14 or were non-handled (NH) until weaning. Siblings were exposed to HFD or chow from day 21 until 19 weeks when adrenals were harvested. Maternal separation and non-handling had no effects on adrenal TH protein in both sexes. We found an effect of HFD only in the females; HFD significantly increased TH levels in NH rats and pSer40TH in S180 rats (relative to corresponding chow-fed groups), but had no effect on AT1R expression in any group. In contrast, in male rats HFD had no effect on TH protein levels, but significantly increased pSer40TH across all treatment groups. There was no effect of HFD on AT1R expression in male rats; however, maternal separation (for 15 or 180 min) caused significant increases in AT1R expression (relative to NH group regardless of diet). This is the first study to report that early life stress and diet modulate TH protein, pSer40TH and AT1R protein levels in the adrenal gland in a sex dependent manner. These results are interpreted in respect to the potential adverse effects that these changes in the adrenal gland may have in males and females in adult life.

  16. [Handicaps due to perinatal causes in Trento newborn infants (1979-1988)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nisi, G; Ghersini, L

    1992-01-01

    A survey on perinatal handicaps must follow some standards: a) homogeneous population; b) univoc method of evaluation; c) 7 years follow-up; d) case control study. From ethnic and geographical point of view, Trentino is in a favorable condition; all pathologic cases come in the only 3th Level Center (Trento), and all neurological evaluations were made from the same specialist up to primary school. Now case control survey is starting. In district of Trento neonates without congenital malformations have risk for severe residual handicaps of 0.08%; under 1500 g the risk is 6.5% while in the group 1500-2499 the risk is 0.53%. A better prevention program during pregnancy and in Intensive Care Unity may reduce the severe outcome in the 1500-2499 group of neonates.

  17. Increasing handicapped preschoolers' peer social interactions: cross-setting and component analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Odom, S L; Hoyson, M; Jamieson, B.(University of Winnipeg, Department of Physics, Winnipeg, MB, Canada); Strain, P S

    1985-01-01

    The purposes of our study were: (a) to train a set of observationally determined social behaviors via peer initiation; (b) to determine if effects generalized across classroom settings and to directly intervene if generalization did not occur; and (c) to analyze components of the peer-initiation intervention. After baseline, nonhandicapped preschool children (confederates) were taught to direct social initiations to the three handicapped preschool-aged students. Teachers prompted the confeder...

  18. Anxiety of Parents of Mentally Handicapped Children and Affects of Informing on Anxiety Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Kocak Uyaroglu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study was aimed to determine effect of education on anxiety level in the parents with mentally handicapped children. METHOD: The quasi-experimental field study was performed on parents of 91 mentally handicapped children who are between 6-15 ages and live in the center of Karaman. State and Trait Anxiety Scale was applied before and after informing. RESULTS: Average age of mothers was 36.5±7.2, average state anxiety point was 47.2±13.4 and average trait anxiety point was 51.9±10.1; their father’s average age was 40.2±8.6, average state anxiety point was 35.9±6.5 and average trait anxiety point was 41.3±6.2. Anxiety points of mothers are higher. Mothers who are graduated from primary school, younger than 35 age, have a boy or child younger than 12 age, have social assurance, do not take institutional service, have low family income, and whose first or last child is mentally handicapped, whose husband do not help with caring child have significant decrease in anxiety points after informing. In the fathers, only a decrease in the trait anxiety level was significant. CONCLUSION: Education decreases the parents’ anxiety level. Institutional services have to contain all of the mentally handicapped children and should be educated the parents by nurses periodically to decrease their anxiety. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(5.000: 405-412

  19. The Correlation of the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory with Depression and Anxiety in Veterans with Tinnitus

    OpenAIRE

    Jinwei Hu; Jane Xu; Matthew Streelman; Helen Xu; O’neil Guthrie

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The mechanisms of tinnitus are known to alter neuronal circuits in the brainstem and cortex, which are common to several comorbid conditions. This study examines the relationship between tinnitus and anxiety/depression. Subjects and Methods. Ninety-one male veterans with subjective tinnitus were enrolled in a Veterans Affairs Tinnitus Clinic. The Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) was used to assess tinnitus severity. ICD-9 codes for anxiety/depression were used to determine their p...

  20. Behavioral and physiological responses to male handicap in chick-rearing black-legged kittiwakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclaire, S.; Bourret, V.; Wagner, R.H.; Hatch, Shyla A.; Helfenstein, F.; Chastel, O.; Danchin, E.

    2011-01-01

    Parental investment entails a trade-off between the benefits of effort in current offspring and the costs to future reproduction. Long-lived species are predicted to be reluctant to increase parental effort to avoid affecting their survival. We tested this hypothesis in black-legged kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla by clipping flight feathers of experimental males at the beginning of the chick-rearing period. We analyzed the consequences of this handicap on feeding and attendance behavior, body condition, integument coloration, and circulating levels of corticosterone and prolactin in handicapped males and their mates in comparison to unmanipulated controls. Chicks in both groups were compared in terms of aggressive behavior, growth, and mortality. Handicapped males lost more mass, had less bright integuments, and attended the nest less often than controls. Nevertheless, they fed their chicks at the same rate and had similar corticosterone and prolactin levels. Compared with control females, females mated with handicapped males showed a lower provisioning rate and higher nest attendance in the first days after manipulation. Their lower feeding rate probably triggered the increased sibling aggression and mortality observed in experimental broods. Our findings suggest that experimental females adaptively adjusted their effort to their mate's perceived quality or that their provisioning was constrained by their higher nest attendance. Overall, our results suggest that kittiwake males can decrease their condition for the sake of their chicks, which seems to contradict the hypothesis that kittiwakes should be reluctant to increase parental effort to avoid affecting their survival. ?? 2011 The Author. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology. All rights reserved.

  1. [Complex voice assessment--Polish version of the Voice Handicap Index (VHI)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruszewicz, Antoni; Obrebowski, Andrzej; Wiskirska-Woźnica, Bozena; Wojnowski, Waldemar

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this work was to present own modification of Jacobson's The Voice Handicap Index, the self-estimation scale of the voice as a one part of the complex voice evaluation. The VHI contains three groups of questions of physical, emotional and functional subscales, which specify complaints during phonation scored in 4 points (0-4). The presented our own modification of the VHI may be useful in everyday clinical practice.

  2. Relation between Voice Handicap Index (VHI) and disease severity in Iranian patients with Parkinson's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Majdinasab, Fatemeh; Karkheiran, Siamak; Moradi, Negin; Shahidi, Gholam Ali; Salehi, Masoud

    2012-01-01

    Background One third of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have mentioned “dysphonia” as their most debilitating communication deficit. Patient-based measurements, such as Voice Handicap Index (VHI) add necessary supplementary information to clinical and physiological assessment. There are a few studies about relation between VHI and disease severity in PD, although none of them showed any significant correlation. The goal of this study was to find correlation between these variables in I...

  3. Changes in Genetic and Environmental Influences on the Development of Nicotine Dependence and Major Depressive Disorder from Middle Adolescence to Early Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Erin C.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study used a representative community sample of same-sex twins (485 MZ pairs, 271 DZ pairs) to study longitudinal changes in genetic and environmental influences on nicotine dependence (NicD) symptoms and major depressive disorder (MDD) symptoms and the longitudinal relationships between NicD and MDD symptoms at three relatively discrete ages spanning middle adolescence to early adulthood (ages 15, 18, and 21). Clinical interviews were used to assess NicD and MDD symptoms lifetime at age 15 and during the previous three years at the two subsequent assessments. Biometric models revealed similar patterns of findings for NicD and MDD. Heritability increased with age, particularly between ages 15 and 18. Shared environmental influences were small, and the proportion of variance attributed to shared environmental influences decreased with age. Nonshared environmental influences were moderate to large in magnitude and were entirely age-specific. Both NicD and MDD symptoms showed considerable stability from age 15 to 21, and at each age those with one disorder showed elevated rates of the other. However, a cross-lagged model revealed no longitudinal predictive relationships between MDD symptoms and NicD symptoms after accounting for stability of symptoms within disorders. In summary, the transition between middle and late adolescence is a critical period for developmental shifts in the magnitudes of genetic and environmental influences on both MDD and NicD symptoms. Despite similarities in the development of genetic and environmental influences for the two phenotypes, the association between NicD and MDD reflects concurrent covariation rather than one phenotype being an antecedent influence on the subsequent development of the other. PMID:20883585

  4. Early maternal deprivation induces gender-dependent changes on the expression of hippocampal CB(1) and CB(2) cannabinoid receptors of neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Juan; Llorente, Ricardo; Romero-Zerbo, Silvana Y; Mateos, Beatriz; Bermúdez-Silva, Francisco J; de Fonseca, Fernando Rodríguez; Viveros, María-Paz

    2009-07-01

    Early maternal deprivation (MD) in rats (24 h, postnatal day 9-10) is a model for neurodevelopmental stress. There are some data proving that MD affects the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in a gender-dependent manner, and that these changes may account for the proposed schizophrenia-like phenotype of MD rats. The impact of MD on cannabinoid receptor distribution in the hippocampus is unknown. The aim of this study is to evaluate the expression of CB(1) and CB(2) receptors in diverse relevant subregions (DG, CA1, and CA3) of the hippocampus in 13-day-old rats by immunohistochemistry and densitometry. MD induced a significant decrease in CB(1) immunoreactivity (more marked in males than in females), which was mainly associated with fibers in the strata pyramidale and radiatum of CA1 and in the strata oriens, pyramidale, and radiatum of CA3. In contrast, MD males and females showed a significant increase in CB(2) immunoreactivity in the three hippocampal areas analyzed that was detected in neuropil and puncta in the stratum oriens of CA1 and CA3, and in the polymorphic cell layer of the dentate gyrus. A marked sex dimorphism was observed in CA3, with females exhibiting higher CB(1) immunoreactivity than males, and in dentate gyrus, with females exhibiting lower CB(2) immunoreactivity than males. These results point to a clear association between developmental stress and dysregulation of the ECS. The present MD procedure may provide an interesting experimental model to further address the role of the ECS in neurodevelopmental mental illnesses such as schizophrenia.

  5. Voltage-dependent anion channels (VDACs) promote mitophagy to protect neuron from death in an early brain injury following a subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Lu, Jianfei; Mi, Yongjie; Shi, Zhao; Chen, Chunhua; Riley, John; Zhou, Changman

    2014-07-21

    The term mitophagy is coined to describe the selective removal of mitochondria by autophagy but the process itself is still contentious, especially in the early period following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). In the present study, we investigated the role of mitophagy following 48h after SAH injury in rats. Specifically evaluating whether mitophagy, through voltage dependant anion channels (VDACs) interacting with microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3, could orchestrate the induction of apoptotic and necrotic cell death in neurons, a VDAC1siRNA and an activitor Rapamycian (RAPA), were engaged. One hundred and twelve male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: Sham, SAH, SAH+VDAC1siRNA, and SAH+RAPA. Outcomes measured included mortality rate, brain edema, BBB disruption, and neurobehavioral testing. We also used western blotting techniques to analyze the expressions of key mitophagic/autophagic proteins and pro-apoptotic protein such as ROS, VDAC1, LC-3II and Caspase-3. Rapamycin treatment significantly improved the mortality rate, cerebral edema, and neurobehavioral deficits; apoptotic and necrotic cell death in neurons were reduced by Rapamycin following SAH injury. However, VDAC1siRNA worsened the brain injury following SAH. Immunohistochemical staining and western blot analysis demonstrated a decreased expression of VDAC1, LC3II, and an increase of ROS and Caspase-3 followed by VDAC1siRNA administration. In conclusion, mitophagy induced by VDAC1 following SAH injury may in fact play a significant role in neuroprotection, the mechanism which may be through the attenuation of the apoptosic and necrosic molecular pathways. This translates a preservation of functional integrity and an improvement in mortality.

  6. [Affective dependency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

    2013-01-01

    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy.

  7. [Partnership and role of the psychiatrist beside the mentally handicapped persons and their families].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecuyer, R

    1995-01-01

    Partnership and role of the psychiatrist beside the mentally handicapped persons and their families. The author analyses his 35 years long collaboration with parents and their associations, and the follow up of mentally handicapped persons themselves. The author questions:--the generalisation of debatable theories without enough explicativity, which makes difficult the "therapeutic alliance" with the parents--the deficiency of educative projects--the doubtful reactions from the responsibles of parents associations in the scientifical spheres, and their refusal to make up their mind with some incomplete results of education. However, the collaboration with most of the parents is usually efficient and pleasant. It seems difficult to manage the psychopedagogy with the toddlers and the polyhandicapped persons without them. Finally, the author insists on the necessity of a patient psychological preparing of the handicapped person, in order he becomes conscience of his difference. Argument for a reflexion about each one role and responsibility, for a real partner-ship, with harmony and complementarity.

  8. [Handicapped patients and leisure sports--a chance for social integration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, U

    2000-10-01

    Organizing leisure time in an active way with lots of experiences is getting more and more important in western society. Accordingly, sports activities and travelling as well as their combination, holiday sports activities, are in great demand. A general idea of the literature in that field with regard to the possibilities and difficulties of handicapped persons is that holiday sports activities are considered apt to offer outstanding prerequisites for handicapped and nonhandicapped people getting closer to each other. Starting out on this basis, this survey is mainly dedicated to the following questions: What is the situation for handicapped persons in holiday sports activities? Is holiday sporting in a position to meet the expectations of social integration, and to what extent? A questionnaire about these items was answered by wheelchair users, making it clear, on the one hand, that there are hardly any offers for disabled people to take part in holiday sporting activities. On the other hand, the survey confirms that holiday sports activities are well suited to answer major demands of the integration issue, i.e., communication and interaction as well as other factors conducive to social integration. Subsequently, the author formulates the request that access to and participation in holiday sporting activities be made easier for disabled people so that greater use can be made of these special opportunities for social integration.

  9. The social representation about handicapped students in inclusive education: the view of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Mendonça Vasconcellos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Historically excluded, handicapped people have been socially included through new standards guided by egalitarian principles. The Social Representation Theory, which studies how the common sense builds “theories” about relevant objects, was used to answer how this situation affects children socially and psychologically in inclusive schools. We use a multimethodological approach with free associations, drawings and focus groups to study the social representations of 39 third and fourth grade students about their handicapped colleagues, all the children being from a state school in Recife, Pernambuco. The data were submitted to content analysis and analysis using the EVOC software, and the results indicate that handicapped children are seen as people limited by a temporary or permanent shortage or disability; they learn differently from others and disrupt classes; they require constant care and protection; they are allowed to join the group, but not to be part of it. The group seems to be outlining the contours of otherness, which shows a representation under construction.

  10. Tendency to self-handicapping in the situation of expected failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smederevac-Stokić Snežana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic objective of this research is to determine what type of self-handicapping strategies subjects will use when they face potential failure, under the condition that they have the possibility of strategy choice. Another research objective is directed to the research of relation between the selected self-handicapping strategy and personality characteristics. 120 student of the second and third year of the Department of psychology, University of Novi Sad has been taken into sample. In the first research stage, all students administrated a series of personality self-report tests. In the second experiment stage, the participants were divided into four groups, on the basis of two criteria: the solvability of intelligence test tasks and the presence of hampering factors during task solving. The research results show that there are at least two types of self-handicapping strategies. One type is used by the majority of people when found in the situation where potential failure is expected. It refers to searching for alibis in external circumstances and it is probably the reflection of sound tendencies of facing possible consequences of information on one’s own incompetence. Another type of strategies presents consistent behaviour pattern, determined by the higher degree of adverse affectivity and negative image of oneself, and it is manifested in the use of poor psychophysical condition as the alibi for failure.

  11. Research on the relationship between field cognition style and self-handicapping of medical students%医学生场认知方式与自我妨碍的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李妮娜; 徐华华; 吉峰; 冯玉; 解卫功

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between field cognitive style and self-handicapping of medical students.Methods 124 medical students were measured by embedded figure test (EFT) and self-handicapping questionnaire (SHS).Results ①The scores of self-handicapping questionnaire were significantly different in whether they like their major or not(33.61±5.21,35.94±5.16,t=-0.218,P=0.031).Differences were also found in whether they could obtain the scholarships (33.20±6.19,35.12±4.12,t=-0.247,P=0.043),and in whether they were in a relationship(35.35±5.48,33.39±5.01,t=2.063,P=0.041).②Compared with field-independent cognitive style students,Field-dependent cognitive style students ' self-handicapping score was higher (35.69±3.91,32.63±6.08,t=3.303,P=0.001).③Field-dependent cognitive style,dislike their major and be in a relationship were the significant predictors of self-handicapping.Conclusion Correlation exists between field cognitive style and self-handicapping of the medical students.Students who belong to field-dependent cognitive style are more prone to self-handicapping than field-independent cognitive style students.%目的 探讨场认知方式与医学生自我妨碍的相关性.方法 采用镶嵌图形测验(EFT)、自我妨碍问卷(SHS)对某医学院124名医学生展开问卷调查.结果 ①医学生自我妨碍得分在是否喜欢所学专业方面差异有统计学意义,喜欢所学专业者自我妨碍得分低于不喜欢者[(33.61±5.21)分,(35.94±5.16)分,t=-0.218,P=0.031];获得奖学金者自我妨碍得分低于未获得者[(33.20±6.19)分,(35.12±4.12)分,t=-0.247,P=0.043];有男(女)朋友自我妨碍得分高于对照组[(35.35±5.48)分,(33.39±5.01)分,t=2.063,P=0.041].②场依存认知方式的医学生群体其自我妨碍得分高于场独立认知方式群体[(35.69±3.91)分,(32.63±6.08)分,t=3.303,P=0.001].③场依存认知方式、不喜欢所学专业、有男(女)朋友成绩对医学生学业自我妨碍有

  12. Notable signs observed in the growth process of “siblings" of handicapped children : their cause and mother's care of ""siblings"

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate anxiety symptoms (hereafter referred to as “signs") observed in the growth process of brothers and sisters of handicapped children (hereafter referred to as “siblings"), their cause, and the special attention of the mother in bringing up the siblings by interviewing handicapped children's mothers and “siblings". The results of the investigation revealed that 12 of 32 siblings of handicapped children brought up by 20 mothers showed some signs, and 10 ...

  13. A comparison of sources of nursing stress and job satisfaction among mental handicap and hospice nursing staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, K G; Sharp, G R

    1988-11-01

    This study compares sources of nursing stress and job satisfaction among 181 mental handicap and 24 hospice nurses. It was hypothesized that nursing stress varies as a consequence of nursing specialty. Analysis of variance revealed differing features of nursing stress between the two specialties. Hospice nurses reported stress as primarily associated with death and dying and inadequate preparation to meet the emotional needs of patients and their families, while mental handicap nurses reported stress related to workload, conflict with other nurses and nursing environment. The results suggest that two additional factors that did not differ between specialties require further examination, namely patient behaviour and purposelessness of nursing care. Job satisfaction also differed between specialties with hospice nurses reporting higher satisfaction with supervision, co-workers, and pay, and lower satisfaction with promotion in comparison to mental handicap nurses. Within the mental handicap groups nursing stress correlated with job satisfaction, state-trait anxiety and non-psychotic psychiatric disturbance in predicted directions. Analysis of the above variables with respect to mental handicap nursing grade was also undertaken. Overall results indicate the importance of nursing specialty as a major factor influencing nursing stress.

  14. Hand-eye dominance in a population with mental handicaps: prevalence and a comparison of methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, S E; Block, S S; Boudreaux, J D; Flora, R J

    1999-09-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate hand-eye dominance in a population with mental handicaps and how the distribution compared with the general population. In addition, this study investigated the correlation between two methods of hand-eye dominance testing. Two methods were used to determine eye dominance: the hole-in-the-hand method and the eye dominance wand. Hand dominance was determined by the subject's choice of accepting hand. The sample was comprised of a population of 421 athletes participating in the 1997 Special Olympic Games in Toronto. All subjects unable to give a dominant hand or unable to perform either of the ocular dominance tests were eliminated from analysis. Athletes who demonstrated strabismus or a difference in visual acuity between the two eyes of greater than 1 line were separated in the analysis, reducing the sample population to 191. The hole-in-the-hand method of eye dominance showed that 40.3% of this population exhibited crossed dominance. The eye dominance wand found crossed dominance in 36.6% of this population. The eye dominance wand demonstrated moderate agreement with the hole-in-the-hand method; however, there was some crossover of eye dominance between tests, when the tests were compared on a case-by-case basis. The prevalence rate of this population of persons with mental handicaps agrees with the prevalence rates found by Robison et al., in which 41% of a general nonhandicapped population demonstrated crossed dominance. The results suggest that persons with mental handicaps have prevalence rates of crossed dominance similar to those found in the general population.

  15. Interruption of env gene expression depending on the length of the SV40 early region used for the polyA signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakawa, Kei; Takase-Yoden, Sayaka; Watanabe, Rihito

    2005-12-01

    In order to invent a screening system to check in vivo gene function and the efficiency of gene transfer mediated by a retroviral vector system, we established a novel packaging cell, PacNIH/A8, based on the neuropathogenic retrovirus A8-V. To construct the expression vector, pA8(Psi-), which expresses the genes gag, pol and env derived from A8-V, the SV40 early region was used for the polyadenylation signal (polyA signal). When a 0.85 kbp fragment in the SV40 early region was employed for the expression vector (pA8(Psi-)beta), env expression was abolished. This abolition was rescued by shortening the SV40 early region to 0.14 kbp (pA8(Psi-)delta). The NHI3T3 cells transfected with pA8(Psi-)delta showed expressions of both env and gag genes.

  16. Parental factors in cognitive outcome of non-handicapped low birthweight infants.

    OpenAIRE

    Sommerfelt, K.; Ellertsen, B; Markestad, T.

    1995-01-01

    A population based cohort of 144 children weighing less than 2000 g who were without major handicap, and a random control sample of 163 children born at term and weighing over 3000 g were investigated. The aim was to assess the relative importance for cognitive development at 5 years of age, of birthweight, parental demographic factors, and factors related to the environment in which the child was reared. The mean non-verbal IQ was 6.1 points lower (95% CI, 2.3 to 10) for the low birthweight ...

  17. The Philosophy behind a (Danish) Voice-controlled Interface to Internet Browsing for motor-handicapped

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndsted, Tom

    2005-01-01

    The public-funded project "Indtal" ("Speak-it") has succeeded in developing a Danish voice-controlled utility for internet browsing targeting motor-handicapped users having difficulties using a standard keyboard and/or a standard mouse. The system underlies a number of a priori defined design...... criteria: learnability and memorability rather than naturalness, minimal need for maintenance after release, support for "all" web standards (not just HTML conforming to certain "recommendations"), independency of the language on the websites being browsed, allowance for multimodal control along...

  18. Test performance of language-handicapped children with familiar and unfamiliar examiners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, D; Fuchs, L S; Garwick, D R; Featherstone, N

    1983-05-01

    The importance of examiner familiarity to children's performance on tasks requiring high or low levels of symbolic mediation was investigated. Thirty-four handicapped preschool children were examined within a repeated measures crossover design, once by one of two familiar classroom teachers and once by one of four strange teachers. Subjects performed significantly better with familiar than with unfamiliar examiners on high symbolic mediation tasks; no such differential performance was obtained on low symbolic mediation items. Findings are related to current efforts to identify procedural and situational variables in assessment, uncontrolled by present standard test administrations, that may preclude children's optimal performance.

  19. Home teaching for pre-school handicapped children - a cognitive approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidmore, R

    1982-01-01

    A case study was carried out to investigate and evaluate a home-teaching scheme, with a cognitive bias, for parents of pre-school handicapped children. The scheme linked teaching at the pre-school assessment unit with teaching by the parents in the home. A speech therapist, acting as home-teacher, demonstrated activities to the parents of a Down's syndrome child during weekly visits. The follow-up assessment areas of development. As a result of this study the scheme is to be extended and finance sought.

  20. [Autism: An early neurodevelopmental disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet-Brilhault, F

    2017-02-27

    With approximately 67 million individuals affected worldwide, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is the fastest growing neurodevelopmental disorder (United Nations, 2011), with a prevalence estimated to be 1/100. In France ASD affects approximately 600,000 individuals (from childhood to adulthood, half of whom are also mentally retarded), who thus have a major handicap in communication and in adapting to daily life, which leads autism to be recognized as a national public health priority. ASD is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects several domains (i.e., socio-emotional, language, sensori-motor, executive functioning). These disorders are expressed early in life with an age of onset around 18 months. Despite evidence suggesting a strong genetic link with ASD, the genetic determinant remains unclear. The clinical picture is characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication and the presence of restrictive and repetitive behaviors (DSM-5, ICD-10). However, in addition to these two main dimensions there is significant comorbidity between ASD and other neurodevelopmental disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or with genetic and medical conditions. One of the diagnostic features of ASD is its early emergence: symptoms must begin in early childhood for a diagnosis to be given. Due to brain plasticity, early interventions are essential to facilitate clinical improvement. Therefore, general practitioners and pediatricians are on the front line to detect early signs of ASD and to guide both medical explorations and early rehabilitation.

  1. Mixité sociale : les handicapés dans la société britannique 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Hélène Adveille

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Depuis la seconde moitié du XXe siècle le regard porté sur la place des handicapés dans la société, a changé de manière significative. Les personnes en situation de handicap qui n’étaient souvent vues auparavant que comme les bénéficiaires d’une aide charitable, ont acquis, grâce à l’action de nombreuses organisations, le droit d’être reconnues comme des individus devant jouir des mêmes droits que les personnes ordinaires. Cependant, bien que des changements aient été opérés dans la perception que les valides ont des handicapés, il n’en demeure pas moins que les personnes en situation de handicap sont toujours confrontées à de nombreux problèmes dans leur vie de tous les jours. La société a fait des progrès pour ce qui est des aides qu’elle apporte aux handicapés moteurs, en instituant par exemple qu’ils puissent avoir accès aux bâtiments publics ainsi qu’aux moyens de transport urbain, ferroviaire, aérien. Les difficultés des handicapés sensoriels (vue, ouie sont prises en compte, avec la mise en place, par exemple, des signaux sonores dans la cité, en favorisant la présence de chiens d’aveugle. Cependant l’accès aux droits fondamentaux de ceux qui présentent des handicaps mentaux (intellectuels et/ou psychiques est encore peu développé. C’est donc sur la politique d’intégration et d’inclusion dans la vie ordinaire des personnes présentant des handicaps intellectuels que portera principalement cette étude. Nous aborderons en premier lieu la législation mise en œuvre pour favoriser leur insertion dans la société britannique, puis nous étudierons la façon dont les enfants sont intégrés dans le système scolaire. Enfin, les arguments qui soulignent l’intérêt que peut revêtir une intégration réussie pour l’adulte et pour la société seront examinés.The way in which the disabled were viewed underwent significant changes in the second half of the 20th century

  2. Evolution in the structural properties of early-type Brightest Cluster Galaxies at small lookback time and dependence on the environment

    CERN Document Server

    Bernardi, M

    2009-01-01

    At the present time, SDSS early-type BCGs have larger Re than early-type galaxies of similar L, whether these other objects are in the field, or are satellites in clusters (Re ~ L for BCGs). At fixed M* and formation time, BCGs at lower z are larger and have smaller velocity dispersions, i.e. Re increases and sigma decreases with age. As a result, at z~0.25, corresponding to a lookback time of order 3 Gyrs, BCGs are smaller than their lower z counterparts by as much as 70% for the brightest BCGs: Re evolves as (1+z)^{0.85(Mr+21)}. Qualitatively similar but weaker evolution in the sizes is also seen in the bulk of the early-type population: at Mr-22 the evolution is approximately (1+z)^{-0.7}, independent of Mr. The sigma-L correlation also evolves: (1+z)^{-0.2(Mr+21)} at Mr < -22 (as for the BCGs) and (1+z)^{0.2} for fainter galaxies. The Re- and sigma-M* correlations yield consistent results. These trends are most easily understood if early-type BCGs grew from many dry minor mergers rather than a few majo...

  3. Late onset polio sequelae : Disabilities and handicaps in a population-based cohort of the 1956 poliomyelitis outbreak in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanyi, Barbara; Nollet, E; Redekop, WK; De Haan, R; Wohlgemuht, M; van Wijngaarden, JK; de Visser, Marianne

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of new neuromuscular symptoms, disabilities, and handicaps in a group of polio survivors. Design: A self-constructed health questionnaire about neuromuscular complaints and disability and handicap levels during the stable period after recovery from polio and

  4. Nutritional Needs of the Child with a Handicap or Chronic Illness. Manual II: Clinical Nutrition. Presentations from a National Interdisciplinary Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekvall, Shirley M.; Wheby, Elizabeth A.

    The following papers were presented at a symposium on clinical nutrition for the child who is chronically ill or handicapped: (1) "Food Allergy"; (2) "Anemia and the Chronically Ill or Handicapped Child"; (3) "Nutrition and Neurotransmitters--Clinical Implications"; (4) "The Importance of Lipid Type in the Diet after Burn Injury"; (5) "Advances of…

  5. Mobility of people and goods in the urban environment: mobility of the handicapped and elderly. Second year final report. [Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcocchio, J.; Santimataneedol, S.; Horwitz, L.; Stephanis, B.

    1976-09-01

    An evaluation methodology for the analysis of alternative transportation improvements for the handicapped and elderly is proposed. The approach is based on the ability to incorporate the qualitative attributes of transportation systems which are particularly significant to the handicapped and elderly groups. These attributes include comfort and convenience, security and safety, and accessibility. In addition, this study addresses the issues of demonstration projects planning and offers guidelines for the design of demonstration experiments which can produce results that are capable of objective analytical interpretation.

  6. A multi-center, randomized controlled trial of a group psychological intervention for psychosis with comorbid cannabis dependence over the early course of illness.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Madigan, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Patients who experience the onset of psychotic illness with a comorbid diagnosis of cannabis dependence experience poor clinical outcomes. Few studies have identified interventions that reduce cannabis use and improve clinical outcome in this population.

  7. Self-handicapping prior to academic-oriented tasks in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): medication effects and comparisons with controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waschbusch, Daniel A; Craig, Rebecca; Pelham, William E; King, Sara

    2007-04-01

    Examined self-handicapping prior to academic-oriented tasks in children with and without ADHD and examined whether stimulant medication influenced self-handicapping. Participants were 61 children ages 6 to 13, including 22 children with ADHD tested after taking a placebo, 21 children with ADHD tested after taking stimulant medication, and 18 non-ADHD controls. Participants completed three measures of self handicapping and also completed self-evaluations of their performance. Results showed greater self handicapping and more positive self-evaluations in children with ADHD than in controls regardless of medication condition. Findings suggest children with ADHD may use self handicapping to ameliorate the effects of experiencing high rates of academic failure.

  8. Effects of antenatal corticosteroid administration on mortality and long-term morbidity in early preterm, growth-restricted infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap, AH; Wolf, H; Bruinse, HW; Smolders-De Haas, H; Van Ertbruggen, [No Value; Treffers, PE

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of antenatal corticosteroids on mortality, morbidity, and disability or handicap rate in early preterm, growth-restricted infants. Methods: This case-control study in two tertiary care centers included all live-born singleton infants with growth-restriction due to

  9. Relationships between Gross Motor Abilities and Problematic Behaviors of Handicapped Children in Different Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uesugi, Masayuki; Araki, Tomoko; Fujii, Shun; Itotani, Keisuke; Otani, Yoshitaka; Seiichi, Takemasa

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] In this study, we examined problematic behaviors of independent-walking and non-independent-walking handicapped children in the infant, school child and adolescent development phases, using the Japanese version of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC-J) to determine if such behaviors relate to their gross motor abilities. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 86 handicapped children who were receiving physical therapy. The subjects were classified into three groups by age. Using the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), each group was further divided into an independent-walking group and non-independent-walking group. Thirteen physical therapists and 8 occupational therapists, who were treating the subject children, rated the subjects using the ABC-J. [Results] Significant differences were observed between the independent-walking and the non-independent-walking groups in the stereotypy and lethargy scores of infants. [Conclusion] For schoolchildren and adolescents, no significant differences were observed between the independent-walking and the non-independent-walking groups in their problematic behavior scores.

  10. Validation and Adaptation of the Singing Voice Handicap Index for Egyptian Singing Voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Elsaad, Tamer; Baz, Hemmat; Afsah, Omayma; Abo-Elsoud, Hend

    2017-01-01

    Measuring the severity of a voice disorder is difficult. This can be achieved by both subjective and objective measures. The Voice Handicap Index is the most known and used self-rating tool for voice disorders. The Classical Singing Handicap Index (CSHI) is a self-administered questionnaire measuring the impact of vocal deviation on the quality of life of singers. The objective of this study was to develop an Arabic version of the CSHI and to test its validity and reliability in Egyptian singers with different singing styles with normal voice and with voice disorders. The interpreted version was administered to 70 Egyptian singers including artistic singers (classical and popular) and specialized singers (Quran reciters and priests) who were divided into 40 asymptomatic singers (control group) and 30 singers with voice disorders. Participants' responses were statistically analyzed to assess the validity and reliability, and to compare the patient group with the control group. Quran reciters, patients with no previous professional training, and patients with vocal fold lesions demonstrated the highest scores. The Arabic version of CSHI is found to be a reliable, valid, and sensitive self-assessment tool that can be used in the clinical practice for the evaluation of the impact of voice disorders on singing voice. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Carotenoid maintenance handicap and the physiology of carotenoid-based signalisation of health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinkler, Michal; Albrecht, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Despite a reasonable scientific interest in sexual selection, the general principles of health signalisation via ornamental traits remain still unresolved in many aspects. This is also true for the mechanism preserving honesty of carotenoid-based signals. Although it is widely accepted that this type of ornamentation reflects an allocation trade-off between the physiological utilisation of carotenoids (mainly in antioxidative processes) and their deposition in ornaments, some recent evidence suggests more complex interactions. Here, we further develop the models currently proposed to explain the honesty of carotenoid-based signalisation of heath status by adding the handicap principle concept regulated by testosterone. We propose that under certain circumstances carotenoids may be dangerous for the organism because they easily transform into toxic cleavage products. When reserves of other protective antioxidants are insufficient, physiological trade-offs may exist between maintenance of carotenoids for ornament expression and their removal from the body. Furthermore, we suggest that testosterone which enhances ornamentation by increasing carotenoid bioavailability may also promote oxidative stress and hence lower antioxidant reserves. The presence of high levels of carotenoids required for high-quality ornament expression may therefore represent a handicap and only individuals in prime health could afford to produce elaborate colourful ornaments. Although further testing is needed, this ‘carotenoid maintenance handicap’ hypothesis may offer a new insight into the physiological aspects of the relationship between carotenoid function, immunity and ornamentation.

  12. A research on the anxiety levels of parents who have mentally handicapped children

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    Selahattin Avşaroğlu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research, it is aimed to specify the anxiety levels of parents who have mentally handicapped children. For this purpose, the state anxiety levels of parents with mentally handicapped children that the parents will have when they spend time with their children in social environments (visiting neighbours, shopping centres, restaurants and communication in terms of reactions and the anxiety levels they always have are studied. In this study Spielberger’s “Trait-state Anxiety Inventory” and the Identity Survey developed by the researchers are used as data gathering devices. 264 mothers and 51 fathers, totally 315 parents, whose children attend a special education institution in Meram, Karatay and Selçuklu, the central districts of Konya, and Akşehir, Yunak, Ilgın, Doğanhisar and Kadınhanı, districts of Konya, form the sample of this study. According to the findings, it is seen that, state and trait anxiety levels of mothers are significantly higher than fathers’. In relation to the levels of education, there is a significant differentiation in level of state anxiety whereas there is not a significant difference in trait anxiety levels, in relation to the levels of income, there is a significant difference in trait anxiety and state anxiety.

  13. Comparison of Acoustic and Stroboscopic Findings and Voice Handicap Index between Allergic Rhinitis Patients and Controls

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    Koç, Eltaf Ayça Özbal; Koç, Bülent; Erbek, Selim

    2014-01-01

    Background: In our experience Allergic Rhinitis (AR) patients suffer from voice problems more than health subjects. Aims: To investigate the acoustic analysis of voice, stroscopic findings of larynx and Voice Handicap Index scores in allergic rhinitis patients compared with healthy controls. Study Design: Case-control study. Methods: Thirty adult patients diagnosed with perennial allergic rhinitis were compared with 30 age- and sex-matched healthy controls without allergy. All assessments were performed in the speech physiology laboratory and the testing sequence was as follows: 1. Voice Handicap Index (VHI) questionnaire, 2. Laryngovideostroboscopy, 3. Acoustic analyses. Results: No difference was observed between the allergic rhinitis and control groups regarding mean Maximum Phonation Time (MPT) values, Fo values, and stroboscopic assessment (p>0.05). On the other hand, mean VHI score (p=0.001) and s/z ratio (p=0.011) were significantly higher in the allergic rhinitis group than in controls. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the presence of allergies could have effects on laryngeal dysfunction and voice-related quality of life. PMID:25667789

  14. Detection of benign proliferative lesions on vocal cords with voice handicap index.

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    Huang, Xuekun; Zhang, Gehua; Liu, Xiujin; Wang, Tao; Zhu, Ling

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the significance and practical applicability of the voice handicap index (VHI) in the diagnosis of benign proliferative lesions of the vocal cords (BLVCs). The detection of VHI included the calculation of functional (F), physical (P) and emotional (E) domains, and the score of each domain and total score (TVH). The VHI was scored in patients with BLVCs and healthy controls. Eighty-four patients with BLVCs and 27 healthy controls were enrolled in the present study. The F, P, E and TVH scores were 10.40±7.84, 19.88±8.81, 9.39±8.49 and 39.37±21.83, respectively, in the BLVC group and 0.78±0.97, 0.85±1.06, 0.26±0.72 and 1.89±2.31, respectively, in the control group. A significant difference was found between the two groups (PVHI score in BLVC patients (P>0.05). There was no marked difference in the VHI score between voice-consuming and non-voice consuming occupations (P>0.05) or between males and females (P>0.05). In BLVC patients, VHI may subjectively express the voice handicap, while daily duration of speech, course of BLVC, occupation and gender have no impact on VHI.

  15. [Do elderly individuals with a cognitive handicap have worse oral health?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Raquel Conceição; Vargas, Andréa Maria Duarte; Fernandes, Neuma Carla Neves; Souza, João Gabriel Silva; Sá, Maria Aparecida Barbosa de; Oliveira, Lorenna Fonseca Braga de; Martins, Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima

    2014-08-01

    A comparison of the oral health of elderly people with and without a cognitive handicap was assessed. The cognitive condition, the indices of decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT), decayed, filled roots (DFR), the need for dental treatment, the presence of plaque (P), calculus (C), the community periodontal index (CPI), the rate of periodontal attachment loss (PAL), edentulism, prosthetic use and the need for prosthetics were evaluated in a complex probabilistic sample by conglomerates of the elderly (65-74 years). PASW(r) 17.0 was used for the statistical analyses with correction for the design effect, applying the Mann Whitney and chi-square test with 95% reliability. A total of 736 elderly individuals were interviewed and examined. Those with cognitive impairment had higher average DMFT, DFR and lower average healthy sextant CPI, a lower prevalence of sextants without plaque/calculus, use of prosthetics and higher prevalence of edentulism and need for prosthetics. Elderly individuals with a cognitive handicap had poorer oral health.

  16. Nitric oxide-induced eosinophil apoptosis is dependent on mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT, JNK and oxidative stress: apoptosis is preceded but not mediated by early mPT-dependent JNK activation

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    Ilmarinen-Salo Pinja

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eosinophils are critically involved in the pathogenesis of asthma. Nitric oxide (NO is produced in high amounts in asthmatic lungs and has an important role as a regulator of lung inflammation. NO was previously shown to induce eosinophil apoptosis mediated via c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK and caspases. Our aim was to clarify the cascade of events leading to NO-induced apoptosis in granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF-treated human eosinophils concentrating on the role of mitochondria, reactive oxygen species (ROS and JNK. Methods Apoptosis was determined by flow cytometric analysis of relative DNA content, by Annexin-V labelling and/or morphological analysis. Immunoblotting was used to study phospho-JNK (pJNK expression. Mitochondrial membrane potential was assessed by JC-1-staining and mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT by loading cells with calcein acetoxymethyl ester (AM and CoCl2 after which flow cytometric analysis was conducted. Statistical significance was calculated by repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA or paired t-test. Results NO-donor S-nitroso-N-acetyl-D,L-penicillamine (SNAP induced late apoptosis in GM-CSF-treated eosinophils. SNAP-induced apoptosis was suppressed by inhibitor of mPT bongkrekic acid (BA, inhibitor of JNK SP600125 and superoxide dismutase-mimetic AEOL 10150. Treatment with SNAP led to late loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Additionally, we found that SNAP induces early partial mPT (1 h that was followed by a strong increase in pJNK levels (2 h. Both events were prevented by BA. However, these events were not related to apoptosis because SNAP-induced apoptosis was prevented as efficiently when BA was added 16 h after SNAP. In addition to the early and strong rise, pJNK levels were less prominently increased at 20–30 h. Conclusions Here we demonstrated that NO-induced eosinophil apoptosis is mediated via ROS, JNK and late mPT. Additionally

  17. Le Droit de Votre Enfant a une Education: Un Guide pour les Parents d'Enfants Handicapes de l'Etat de New York (Your Child's Right to an Education: A Guide for Parents of Handicapped Children in New York).

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept. Albany. Office for the Education of Children with Handicapping Conditions.

    The handbook is a French translation of "Your Child's Right to an Education" published by the New York State Education Department, Office for Education of Children with Handicapping Conditions. The following topics are among those considered: eligibility for special education, program types, alternative placements (such as residential settings),…

  18. Le Droit de Votre Enfant a une Education: Un Guide pour les Parents d'Enfants Handicapes de l'Etat de New York (Your Child's Right to an Education: A Guide for Parents of Handicapped Children in New York).

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept. Albany. Office for the Education of Children with Handicapping Conditions.

    The handbook is a French translation of "Your Child's Right to an Education" published by the New York State Education Department, Office for Education of Children with Handicapping Conditions. The following topics are among those considered: eligibility for special education, program types, alternative placements (such as residential…

  19. In vivo CNS infection model of Acanthamoeba genotype T4: the early stages of infection lack presence of host inflammatory response and are a slow and contact-dependent process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omaña-Molina, Maritza; Hernandez-Martinez, Dolores; Sanchez-Rocha, Raquel; Cardenas-Lemus, Ulises; Salinas-Lara, Citlaltepetl; Mendez-Cruz, Adolfo Rene; Colin-Barenque, Laura; Aley-Medina, Patricia; Espinosa-Villanueva, Jesus; Moreno-Fierros, Leticia; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2017-02-01

    This study was developed in order to describe the early morphological events observed during the invasion of two pathogenic strains of Acanthamoeba (genotype T4); A. castellanii and A. culbertsoni, at the olfactory meatus and cerebral, pulmonary, renal, hepatic and splenic tissues levels, an in vivo invasion study. Histological and immunohistochemical description of the events at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h postintranasal inoculations of BALB/c mice was performed. A. castellanii showed a higher invasion rate than A. culbertsoni, which was only able to reach lung and brain tissue in the in vivo model. The current study supports previous evidence of lack of inflammatory response during the early stages of infection. Acanthamoeba invasion of the CNS and other organs is a slow and contact-dependent process. The early morphological events during the invasion of amoebae include the penetration of trophozoites into different epithelia: olfactory, respiratory, alveolar space, and renal tubule, which resemble the process of amoebae invasion described in corneal tissue. The data suggest that after reaching the nasal epithelium, trophozoites continued invasion, separating and lifting the most superficial cells, then migrating and penetrating between the cell junctions without causing a cytolytic effect on adjacent cells. These results reaffirm the idea that contact-dependent mechanisms are relevant for amoebae of Acanthamoeba genus regardless of the invasion site.

  20. Direction of associations between added sugar intake in early childhood and body mass index at age 7 years may depend on intake levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Antje; Diethelm, Katharina; Cheng, Guo; Alexy, Ute; Icks, Andrea; Buyken, Anette E

    2011-07-01

    Dietary factors, especially during early childhood, have been discussed as potentially critical for the development of childhood overweight. This study evaluated associations between added sugar intake during early childhood and BMI and body fat at age 7 y. Analysis was based on data from 216 participants of the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) Study. Life-course plots were constructed to evaluate the association between added sugar intake at different ages (0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 y) and BMI SD score (BMI-SDS) and % body fat (%BF) at age 7 y. Multivariable analyses were performed for the periods identified as critical for later BMI and body fat. Added sugar intake at age 1 y and the change in intake levels during the second year of life emerged as potentially critical. At age 1 y, a higher total added sugar intake was related to a lower BMI-SDS at age 7 y [adjusted β ± SE: -0.116 ± 0.057 BMI-SDS/percent energy (%En) added sugar; P = 0.04]. Conversely, an increase in total added sugar in the second year of life (Δ%En between age 1 and 2 y) tended to be associated with a higher BMI-SDS (adjusted β ± SE: 0.074 ± 0.043 BMI-SDS/Δ%En added sugar; P = 0.09). No associations were observed with %BF. In conclusion, added sugar intake at low intake levels during early childhood does not appear to be critical for BMI and body fat at age 7 y. However, detrimental effects on BMI development may emerge when added sugar intakes are increased to higher levels.