WorldWideScience

Sample records for dependent children afdc

  1. Welfare: Income and Relative Poverty Status of AFDC (Aid to Families with Dependent Children) Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-04

    spending pat- terns of the poor . Also, some researchers believe that valuing medical care in determining incomes can distort recipients’ relative poverty ...faster than the overall cost of living, and recent surveys have found low - income fami- lies spend less than one-third of their income on food. The poverty ...AR9 995 NFARE: INCOME AND RELATIVE POVERTY STATUS OF AFDC i/ (AIDMON FA IIS11H U EN R CONIG OFWASHINGTO DC HUMN RESOURCES DIV. S4 MOV 67

  2. Aid to Families with Dependent Children Quality Control Review Panel Decisions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Decisions issued by the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) Quality Control Review Panel of the Departmental Appeals Board concerning the AFDC program...

  3. Participation Rates in the Aid to Families with Dependent Children Program: Trends for 1967 through 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Patricia; Michel, Richard C.

    This report examines participation rates in the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program. TRIM2, a microsimulation model that simulated the eligibility and benefit rules of the AFDC program on a state-by-state basis, showed that there had been a dramatic decline after 1981 in the rate at which AFDC families were applying for and…

  4. The Price of Welfare Dependency: Children Pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rebecca M.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses child poverty, the causes of high poverty rates among children, and proposals and programs aimed at reforming Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC). Proposes another approach to providing cash benefits to children in the form of a children's allowance or refundable tax credit similar to programs in other industrialized nations.…

  5. Race, Ethnicity and Nativity, Family Structure, Socioeconomic Status and Welfare Dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Hiromi; Becerra, Rosina M.

    2000-01-01

    Examined whether immigrant welfare recipients from particular racial and ethnic subgroups were more likely to depend on Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) than native-born recipients from other racial and ethnic subgroups. Results did not indicate that foreign-born racial and ethnic subgroups were more likely to depend on AFDC than…

  6. Administration of the AFDC Program; Hearings Before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Government Operations, House of Representatives, Ninety-Fifth Congress, First Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U. S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Government Operations.

    In this text of hearings held before a congressional committee on the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program are statements from a number of specialists regarding the administration of public assistance, and relevant information on low income families. Specific data and the more general theory of social welfare and reform are…

  7. Findings on Current AFDC Work Programs and Implications for Pending Legislation. Statement of Joseph F. Delfico, Senior Associate Director, Human Resources Division. Testimony before the Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

    A study of work programs for Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) recipients in 38 states showed that these programs serve a minority of the recipients. They are providing mainly low cost services minority of the recipients. They are providing low cost services such as job search assistance to those people who need the least help in…

  8. The Life Circumstances and Development of Children in Welfare Families: A Profile Based on National Survey Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zill, Nicholas; And Others

    The study described in this paper used data from two national samples of families with children to describe the home environments in which welfare children are being raised and to identify the children's health, learning, and behavior problems. The study compared children whose families had received Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC)…

  9. 45 CFR 400.45 - Requirements for the operation of an AFDC-type RCA program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for the operation of an AFDC-type RCA... RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Refugee Cash Assistance § 400.45 Requirements for the operation of an AFDC-type RCA program. This section applies to a State's RCA program that follows the State's rules under the Aid...

  10. Dependent Children and Suicide of Married Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Conrad M.; Gibbs, James O.

    1979-01-01

    Single suicides and married suicides with dependent children were compared to similar groups in the general population. Married people with dependent children experienced the lowest average suicide rate, but had a larger mean number of children than the population as a whole. (Author)

  11. Infliximab dependency in children with Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duricova, D; Pedersen, N; Lenicek, M

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently, infliximab dependency has been described. AIM: To assess frequency of ID in 82 consecutive Crohn's disease children treated with infliximab 2000-2006 and to describe clinical and genetic predictors of long-term infliximab response. METHODS: A phenotype model of infliximab...

  12. 45 CFR 233.31 - Budgeting methods for AFDC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COVERAGE AND CONDITIONS OF... agency's reasonable expectation and knowledge of current, past or future circumstances. (2)...

  13. 45 CFR 233.90 - Factors specific to AFDC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... physical or mental injury, sexual abuse or exploitation, or negligent treatment or maltreatment of such child, under circumstances which indicate the child's health or welfare is threatened, the State or...), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COVERAGE AND CONDITIONS...

  14. 45 CFR 233.34 - Computing the assistance payment in the initial one or two months (AFDC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Computing the assistance payment in the initial... § 233.34 Computing the assistance payment in the initial one or two months (AFDC). A State shall compute.... (d) A State may suspend, rather than terminate, assistance when: (1) The agency has knowledge of,...

  15. 5 CFR 2634.309 - Spouses and dependent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... a spouse or dependent child. (c) Divorce and separation. A reporting individual need not report any... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spouses and dependent children. 2634.309....309 Spouses and dependent children. (a) Special disclosure rules. Each report required by...

  16. Defining technology dependence in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spratling, Regena

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this review was to identify current terms and definitions used to identify and describe children and adolescents who require technology. A total of 400 articles published from January 2000 through May 2012 were reviewed; 26 articles met the inclusion criteria. The review included only primary research studies that focused on a child and adolescent sample (birth to 18 years old) who required technology. Current terms and definitions used to describe children and adolescents who require technology include technology and complex care. Technology is a constant in both terminology and definitions, and it differentiates this population from the general population of children with chronic illness and special health care needs. This review highlights the need for better, more detailed descriptions of the population of children and adolescents who require technology in their daily lives. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. The impact of technology dependence on children and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesman, Glenn R; Kuo, Dennis Z; Carroll, John L; Ward, Wendy L

    2013-01-01

    Advances in medical care and technologies have prolonged life for many children with medical complexity. These advances and their effects reinforce the need for further research to determine how children and their families are being affected by technology dependence and their quality of life. A review of the literature suggests that children, as well as their family members, are negatively affected by technology dependence in a variety of psychosocial domains. Implications for clinical care and future research of this population are discussed. Copyright © 2013 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Fostering Financial Independence Self-Efficacy in AFDC Recipients Participating in a Vocational Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, Rick; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Developed motivation training program which systematically employed four methods for changing self-efficacy (performance accomplishment, verbal persuasion, emotional arousal, vicarious learning/modeling) among 183 recipients of Aid to Families with Dependent Children who were referred to Hawaii's Job Opportunities and Basic Skills Programs.…

  19. Planning an outing from hospital for ventilator-dependent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilgoff, I S; Helgren, J

    1992-10-01

    Returning ventilator-dependent children to the home environment has become a well-accepted occurrence. The success of a home program depends on careful pre-discharge planning in order to ensure the child's medical safety, and adequate preparation to ensure the child's and family's adjustment to an active community life after discharge. To achieve this, involvement in community activities must begin while the child is still in hospital. As part of a complete rehabilitation program, nine ventilator-dependent children were taken on an inpatient outing to Disneyland. The planning and goals of the outing are described.

  20. Role development of nurses for technology-dependent children attending mainstream schools in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Fumie; Suzuki, Machiko

    2015-04-01

    To describe the role development of nurses caring for medical technology-dependent children attending Japanese mainstream schools. Semi-structured interviews with 21 nurses caring for technology-dependent children were conducted and analyzed using the modified grounded theory approach. Nurses developed roles centered on maintaining technology-dependent children's physical health to support children's learning with each other, through building relationships, learning how to interact with children, understanding the children and the school community, and realizing the meaning of supporting technology-dependent children. These findings support nurses to build relationships of mutual trust with teachers and children, and learn on the job in mainstream schools. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. A longitudinal study of families with technology-dependent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toly, Valerie Boebel; Musil, Carol M; Carl, John C

    2012-02-01

    Few researchers have longitudinally examined families caring for technology-dependent children at home. We tested a theoretically and empirically based conceptual model by examining family functioning and normalization in 82 mothers (female primary caregivers) twice over 12 months. Time 1 and Time 2 cross-sectional findings were consistent; the only predictor of family functioning was mothers' depressive symptoms. Contrary to the proposed model, normalization, caregiving duration, and home nursing hours were not directly related to family functioning. Baseline family functioning significantly predicted future family functioning. Also, mothers whose children were no longer technology-dependent at Time 2 reported significant improvements in family functioning and normalization. An intervention to address high levels of depressive symptoms of these mothers is essential to optimizing family functioning.

  2. Ataxia rating scales are age-dependent in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandsma, Rick; Spits, Anne H; Kuiper, Marieke J; Lunsing, Roelinka J; Burger, Huibert; Kremer, Hubertus P; Sival, Deborah A

    2014-06-01

    To investigate ataxia rating scales in children for reliability and the effect of age and sex. Three independent neuropaediatric observers cross-sectionally scored a set of paediatric ataxia rating scales in a group of 52 healthy children (26 males, 26 females) aged 4 to 16 years (mean age 10y 5mo SD 3y 11mo). The investigated scales involved the commonly applied International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (ICARS), the Scale for Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA), the Brief Ataxia Rating Scale (BARS), and PEG-board tests. We investigated the interrelatedness between individual ataxia scales, the influence of age and sex, inter- and intra-observer agreement, and test-retest reliability. Spearman's rank correlations revealed strong correlations between ICARS, SARA BARS, and PEG-board test (all pataxia rating scales are reliable, but should include age-dependent interpretation in children up to 12 years of age. To enable longitudinal interpretation of quantitative ataxia rating scales in children, European paediatric normative values are necessary. © 2014 Mac Keith Press.

  3. Dependence of gait parameters on height in typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, Valentina; Nascimbeni, Alberto; Di Nardo, Francesco; Fioretti, Sandro; Burattini, Laura; Knaflitz, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In clinical gait analysis is fundamental to have access to normative data, to be used as a reference in the interpretation of pathological walking. In a paediatric population this may be complicated by the dependence of gait parameters on child growth. The aim of this work is to provide the correlations of spatial-temporal gait parameters with children's height. We obtained the regression lines of cadence, double support, and gait phases, with respect to height, from a sample of 85 normally typically developing children aged 6 to 11. Our analysis of gait phases was not limited to the traditional analysis of stance and swing, but rather focused on the sub-phases of stance - heel contact, flat foot contact, push off - which proved to be an innovative approach to gait analysis. Heel contact decreased, flat foot contact increased and push off remained essentially unchanged with respect to children's height. These results may be useful in the interpretation of gait data in developing children, and the regression lines obtained may be used to normalize their gait parameters.

  4. Physical growth in children with transfusion-dependent thalassemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish K Pemde

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Harish K Pemde, Jagdish Chandra, Divya Gupta, Varinder Singh, Rajni Sharma, AK DuttaDepartment of Pediatrics, Lady Hardinge Medical College, Kalawati Saran Children's Hospital, New Delhi, IndiaObjective: To describe physical growth and related factors in transfusion-dependent thalassemia patients.Methods: This is a cross-sectional analysis of the records of the patients registered at and being followed up by the Thalassemia Day Care Center (TDCC at Kalawati Saran Children's Hospital, New Delhi, India. Clinical and laboratory parameters were recorded on a spreadsheet for analysis. Clinical parameters included weight, height, sexual maturity ratings, and general and systemic physical examination. Laboratory parameters included pretransfusion hemoglobin (Hb, periodic serum ferritin, and tests for viral markers of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and hepatitis B and C. Z-scores for weight, height, and body mass index (BMI were calculated using World Health Organization reference data. Statistical analysis was carried out using Microsoft Excel® and Stata® software.Results: Out of 214 patients registered at the TDCC since 2001, 154 were included in this study. The mean age of patients was 9.19 years (range 0.5–20 years. Pretransfusion Hb was well maintained (mean 9.21 g/dL; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.06–9.36, but the mean serum ferritin levels were approximately three times (3112 ng/mL the desired value despite the patients being on deferiprone (72% or deferasirox (25%. One-third (33.11% of the patients had short stature, 13% were thin, and 10.82% were very thin (BMI z-score <-3. No patient was overweight or obese. Linear regression coefficient showed that for every 1-year increase in age, the mean ferritin value increased by 186.21 pg/mL (95% CI: 143.31–228.27. Height z-scores had significant correlation with mean ferritin levels, whereas correlation with mean pretransfusion Hb was not significant statistically. Mean ferritin levels

  5. How Women Can Earn a Living Wage: The Effects of Pay Equity Remedies and a Higher Minimum Wage. Research-in-Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figart, Deborah M.; Lapidus, June

    Efforts to shift women from welfare into the labor market will not necessarily move women out of poverty because the wages they are likely to earn are so low. According to research tracking Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) recipients over a 2-year period, 43% of AFDC recipients combine welfare with a substantial amount of paid…

  6. [Family Health Program and children palliative care: listening the relatives of technology dependent children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabello, Cláudia Azevedo Ferreira Guimarães; Rodrigues, Paulo Henrique de Almeida

    2010-03-01

    This study discusses the creation of a new children palliative care program based on the Family Health Program, considering the level of care at home and yielding to family requests. The study focused on eighteen members of nine families of technology dependent children (TDC) who were hospital patients at Instituto Fernandes Figueira (IFF): four who are being assisted by its palliative care program Programa de Assistência Domiciliar Interdisciplinar (PADI); three who were inpatients waiting for inclusion in the Program, and finally two inpatients already included in PADI. PADI was chosen because it is the only child palliative care program in Brazil. The results are positive in regards to the connection established between the families and the health care team, the reception of the children, the explanation to the family concerning the disease, and the functional dynamics between the PADI and IFF. As negative points, difficulties arose as a result of the implementation of the program, from its continuity to the worsening or illness of the entire family. In conclusion, although the PADI is the IFF's way of discharging patients, the domiciliary cares taken by the Family Health Program, well articulated with the healthcare system, would be ideal for being the adequate assistance for such.

  7. Children of men with alcohol dependence: Psychopathology, neurodevelopment and family environment

    OpenAIRE

    Raman, Vijaya; Prasad, Suveera; Appaya, M. Prakash

    2010-01-01

    Background: Children of people with alcohol dependence (COAs) are at high risk for behavioral and cognitive problems. Aim: Aim of this study was to compare the nature and extent of these problems in children of men with and without alcohol dependence. Materials and Methods: 32 children (17 in study group and 15 controls) were evaluated for psychopathology, neurodevelopment, cognitive functioning and family environment. Tools used were: Socio-demographic data sheet, Malin’s Intelligence Scale ...

  8. Rehabilitation Considerations for Children Dependent on Long-Term Mechanical Ventilation

    OpenAIRE

    Dumas, Helene M.

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of this paper are as follows (1) to describe the prevalence, etiology, and care settings for children dependent on long-term mechanical ventilation (MV); (2) to provide a brief introduction to MV and weaning; (3) to explore health care utilization and cost of care; and, primarily, (4) to discuss the rehabilitation needs of children dependent on long-term MV including activities of daily living, mobility, communication, psychosocial needs, and recreation and leisure. Children with...

  9. Ataxia rating scales are age-dependent in healthy children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandsma, Rick; Spits, Anne H.; Kuiper, Marieke J.; Lunsing, Roelinka J.; Burger, Huibert; Kremer, Hubertus P.; Sival, Deborah A.

    AIM: To investigate ataxia rating scales in children for reliability and the effect of age and sex. METHOD: Three independent neuropaediatric observers cross-sectionally scored a set of paediatric ataxia rating scales in a group of 52 healthy children (26 males, 26 females) aged 4 to 16 years (mean

  10. Ataxia rating scales are age-dependent in healthy children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandsma, Rick; Spits, Anne H.; Kuiper, Marieke J.; Lunsing, Roelinka J.; Burger, Huibert; Kremer, Hubertus P.; Sival, Deborah A.

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate ataxia rating scales in children for reliability and the effect of age and sex. METHOD: Three independent neuropaediatric observers cross-sectionally scored a set of paediatric ataxia rating scales in a group of 52 healthy children (26 males, 26 females) aged 4 to 16 years (mean

  11. The clinical implication of drug dependency in children and adults with inflammatory bowel disease: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duricova, Dana; Pedersen, Natalia; Lenicek, Martin

    2011-01-01

    cessation or dose decrease. However, a quick restoration of remission and sustained response is achieved when the therapy is re-introduced or dose increased. Population-based studies have demonstrated that 22-36% of adults and 14-50% of children become corticosteroid dependent. Approximately 1......Drug dependency in adult and paediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is described and the significance of this response pattern in clinical practice discussed in this review. Dependent patients maintain remission while on the treatment, but they relapse shortly after drug...... corticosteroid dependency. Infliximab dependency was described in 42-66% of children and 29% of adults with Crohn's disease. The risk of surgery 50 and 40 months after treatment start was 10% and 23% in infliximab dependent children and adults, respectively. Maintenance of infliximab in dependent patients...

  12. Cognitive Functioning and Academic Achievement in Children with Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Clarissa S.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Consistent evidence relates insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) to lower intellectual functioning in children, although performance is still in the average range. Children with IDDM have received specialized classroom assistance at school. Boys with diabetes appear at greater risk for learning problems than girls. Evidence suggests both…

  13. The Development of Recipient-Dependent Sharing Behavior and Sharing Expectations in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Markus; Moore, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the development of sharing expectations and sharing behavior in 3 groups of 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children. We examined (a) whether preschool children expect a person to share more with a friend than with a disliked peer and (b) whether their expectation about others' sharing behavior depends on whether there is a cost or…

  14. Parent perceived quality of life is age-dependent in children with food allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassenberg, Jacqueline; Cochard, Marie-Madeleine; DunnGalvin, Audrey; Ballabeni, Pierluigi; Flokstra-de Blok, Bertine M. J.; Newman, Christopher J.; Hofer, Michael; Eigenmann, Philippe A.

    2012-01-01

    To cite this article: Wassenberg J, Cochard M-M, DunnGalvin A, Ballabeni P, Flokstra-de Blok BMJ, Newman CJ, Hofer M, Eigenmann PA. Parent perceived quality of life is age-dependent in children with food allergy. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2012: 23: 412419. Abstract Background: Food allergy in children

  15. Impact of Father Absence on Psychopathology of Military Dependent Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    father will never return to the family as a regular member. In fact , children of divorce keep the fantasy that their parents will reunite very close...Femininity Complex in Men." International Journal of Psychoanalysis 11: 444-69. Bronfenbrenner, U. 1960. " Freudian Theories of Identification and Their...of father absence. In fact , educational level might tend to enhance parental coping ability and problem resolution. It is for this reason that a more

  16. [The diagnosis of insulin dependent diabetes in children and teenagers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocaboy, Claudette; Lebrun, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    The conditions of the announcement of the diagnosis of diabetes in children and teenagers are key to helping them live as best as possible with the constraints of this chronic disease. The psychologist works as a mediator in order that the suffering of the child and their family is listened to and contained within the nursing team. This support facilitates the adaptation and reorganisation of their day-to-day life.

  17. Reminder: extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 20 to 25

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 20 to 25 (or reaching 20 during the 2013/2014 school year), for whom an allowance for dependent children is currently paid, are invited to provide the Education Fees service with a SCHOOL CERTIFICATE.   Unless we receive, by October 31, 2013 at the latest, a school certificate or similar written proof (contract of work placement, sandwich course or apprenticeship) covering your child / children for the school year 2013/2014, we will be obliged to stop payment of the allowance for dependent children as well as affiliation to the health insurance at the appropriate date and retroactively if necessary.   Education fees service HR/CB-B Mailbox C20000 schoolfees.service@cern.ch Tel.: 72862 / 71421

  18. Reminder - Extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 20 to 25

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 20 to 25 (or reaching 20 during the 2011/2012 school year), for whom an allowance for dependent children is currently paid, are invited to provide the Education Fees Service with a: SCHOOL CERTIFICATE Unless we receive, by 31 October 2011 at the latest, a school certificate or similar written proof (contract of work placement, sandwich courses or apprenticeship) covering your child / children for the school year 2011/2012, we will be obliged to stop payment of the allowance for dependent children as well as affiliation to the health insurance at the appropriate date and retroactively if necessary. Education Fees Service Mailbox C20000 schoolfees.service@cern.ch Tel. 72862 / 71421

  19. REMINDER - Extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 20 to 25

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 20 to 25 (or reaching 20 during the 2010/2011 school year), for whom an allowance for dependent children is currently paid, are invited to provide the Education Fees Service with a: SCHOOL CERTIFICATE Unless we receive, by 31 October 2010 at the latest, a school certificate or similar written proof (work placement contract, evidence of sandwich courses or apprenticeship) covering your child / children for the school year 2010/2011, we will be obliged to stop payment of the allowance for dependent children as well as membership of the health insurance scheme at the appropriate date, retroactively if necessary. Education Fees Service HR/SPS-SER Tel. 72862 / 71421

  20. REMINDER - Extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 20 to 25

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 20 to 25 (or reaching 20 during the 2010/2011 school year), for whom an allowance for dependent children is currently paid, are invited to provide the Education fees service with a: SCHOOL CERTIFICATE Unless we receive, by October 31, 2010 at the latest, a school certificate or similar written proof (contract of work placement, sandwich courses or apprenticeship) covering your child / children for the school year 2010/2011, we will be obliged to stop payment of the allowance for dependent children as well as affiliation to the health insurance at the appropriate date and retroactively if necessary. Education fees service HR/SPS-SER Tel. 72862 / 71421

  1. REMINDER: Extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 20 to 25

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 20 to 25 (or reaching 20 during the 2012/2013 school year), for whom an allowance for dependent children is currently paid, are invited to provide the Education fees service with a   SCHOOL CERTIFICATE.   Unless we receive, by October 31, 2012 at the latest, a school certificate or similar written proof (contract of work placement, sandwich courses or apprenticeship) covering your child / children for the school year 2012/2013, we will be obliged to stop payment of the allowance for dependent children as well as affiliation to the health insurance at the appropriate date and retroactively if necessary.   Education fees service HR/CB-B Mailbox C20000 schoolfees.service@cern.ch Tel. 72862 / 71421

  2. Final reminder - Extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 20 to 25

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 20 to 25 (or reaching 20 during the 2007/2008 school year), for whom an allowance for dependent children is paid, must provide the School fees service as soon as possible with a: SCHOOL CERTIFICATE Unless we receive, by November 30, 2007 at the latest, a school certificate or similar written proof (contract of work placement, sandwich courses or apprenticeship) covering your child / children for the school year 2007/2008, we will be obliged to stop payment of the allowance for dependent children as well as affiliation to the health insurance retroactively as of July 1, 2007. School fees service (33-1-017) HR/SPS-SER Tel. 72862

  3. REMINDER - extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 20 to 25

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 20 to 25 (or reaching 20 during the 2008/2009 school year), for whom an allowance for dependent children is paid, must provide the School fees service with a: SCHOOL CERTIFICATE Unless we receive, by 31 October 2008 at the latest, a school certificate or similar written proof (contract of work placement, sandwich courses or apprenticeship) covering your child / children for the school year 2008/2009, we will be obliged to stop payment of the allowance for dependent children as well as affiliation to the health insurance retroactively as of 1 July 2008. School fees service (33-1-017) HR/SPS-SER Tel. 72862

  4. Final reminder - Extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 20 to 25

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 20 to 25 (or reaching 20 during the 2007/2008 school year), for whom an allowance for dependent children is paid, must provide the School Fees service as soon as possible with a: SCHOOL CERTIFICATE Unless we receive, by November 30, 2007 at the latest, a school certificate or similar written proof (contract of work placement, sandwich courses or apprenticeship) covering your child / children for the school year 2007/2008, we will be obliged to stop payment of the allowance for dependent children as well as affiliation to the health insurance scheme retroactively as of 1 July 2007. School Fees service (33-1-017) HR/SPS-SER Tel. 72862

  5. REMINDER - Extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 20 to 25

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 20 to 25 (or reaching 20 during the 2008/2009 school year), for whom an allowance for dependent children is paid, must provide the School Fees service with a: SCHOOL CERTIFICATE Unless we receive, by 31 October, 2008 at the latest, a school certificate or similar written proof (contract of work placement, sandwich course or apprenticeship) covering your child / children for the school year 2008/2009, we will be obliged to stop payment of the allowance for dependent children as well as affiliation to the health insurance scheme retroactively as of1st July 2008. School fees service (33-1-017) HR/SPS-SER Tel. 72862

  6. The uneven patterning of welfare benefits at the twilight of AFDC: assessing the influence of institutions, race, and citizen preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kail, Ben Lennox; Dixon, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Scholars have been slow to test welfare state theories on the extensive subnational variation in the United States during the recent period of retrenchment. We assess institutional politics theories, literature on race and social policy, and public opinion arguments relative to levels of support in states' Aid to Families Dependent Children programs from 1982 until its elimination in 1996. Pooled time-series results demonstrate that the determinants of spending during retrenchment are mostly similar to those driving development and expansion. Pro-spending actors and professionalized state institutions limit benefit curtailment, while jurisdictions with larger African- American populations have lower benefits. Additionally, liberal citizens positively impact support and strengthen the effects of state institutions, but this effect is attenuated in states with larger African-American populations.

  7. Does Aid to Families with Dependent Children Displace Familial Assistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-07-01

    analyzed alternative to altruism (Kotlikoff and Spivak , 1981; Cox, 1987; Bernheim et al, 1985; Cox and Rank, 1992; Cox and Jakubson, 1994). The basic...Marital Search," American Economic Review 69(3): 369-379. Kotlikoff, Laurence J., and Avia Spivak (1981). "The Family as an Incomplete Annuities...Simultaneous- Equation Model with Limited Dependent Variables," Econometrica 19(3):695-709. O’Neil, June A., Laurie J. Bassi and Michael T. Hannan

  8. Diagnostic perspective of saliva in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus children: An in vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. S. Deepa Lakshmi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The absence, destruction, or loss ofβ-cells of pancreas results in type 1 diabetes (insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus [IDDM]. Presently, diagnosis and periodic monitoring of diabetes is achieved by evaluating blood glucose levels as it is relatively invasive and dreaded by children. In the light of this, present study was planned to compare salivary glucose values with blood glucose values and the biochemical characteristics of saliva in IDDM children were evaluated and obtained results were compared with the salivary parameters of normal children. Materials and Methods: Thirty IDDM children and 30 healthy children were selected for the study. Fasting blood sample and unstimulated salivary sample were collected from all the subjects and were subjected for analysis. Results: A weak positive correlation was noticed between fasting blood glucose and salivary glucose values in IDDM children. But a mean average of salivary glucose was high in IDDM children when compared with healthy children. The biochemical parameters like acid phosphatase, total protein count, and α-amylase were increased, whereas salivary urea did not show significant variation between the groups.Conclusion: With presently used diagnostic armamentarium, estimation of salivary glucose cannot replace the standard method of estimation of glucose in diabetic mellitus children. The established relationship was very weak with many variations.

  9. An integrative review of communication between parents and nurses of hospitalized technology-dependent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giambra, Barbara K; Stiffler, Deborah; Broome, Marion E

    2014-12-01

    With advances in health care, the population of children who are technology-dependent is increasing and, therefore, the need for nurses to understand how best to engage in communication with the parents of these children is critical. Shared communication between the parents of hospitalized technology-dependent children and their nurses is essential to provide optimal care for the child. The components and behaviors of the parent-nurse communication process that improve mutual understanding of optimal care for the child had not previously been examined. Among parents of hospitalized technology-dependent children and their nurses, what communication behaviors, components, concepts, or processes improve mutual understanding of optimal care for the child? An integrative review of both qualitative and quantitative studies was conducted. Key words including communication, hospitalized, nurse, parent, pediatric, and technology-dependent were used to search databases such as Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health and Medline for years 2000-2014. The data regarding the process of parent-nurse communication were extracted as they related to the mutual understanding of optimal care for the child. The data were grouped into themes and compared across studies, designs, populations, and settings. Six articles were identified that provided information regarding the processes of shared communication among the parents of hospitalized technology-dependent children and their nurses. Providing clear information, involving parents in care decisions, trust and respect for each other's expertise, caring attitudes, advocacy, and role negotiation were all found to be important factors in shared parent-nurse communication. The results of this integrative review inform our understanding of the parent-nurse communication process. The findings provide nurses with an understanding of strategies to better engage in respectful, engaging, and intentional communication with parents of

  10. Technology-dependency among patients discharged from a children's hospital: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharp Virginia

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advances in medical technology may be increasing the population of children who are technology-dependent (TD. We assessed the proportion of children discharged from a children's hospital who are judged to be TD, and determined the most common devices and number of prescription medications at the time of discharge. Methods Chart review of 100 randomly selected patients from all services discharged from a children's hospital during the year 2000. Data were reviewed independently by 4 investigators who classified the cases as TD if the failure or withdrawal of the technology would likely have adverse health consequences sufficient to require hospitalization. Only those cases where 3 or 4 raters agreed were classified as TD. Results Among the 100 randomly sampled patients, the median age was 7 years (range: 1 day to 24 years old, 52% were male, 86% primarily spoke English, and 54% were privately insured. The median length of stay was 3 days (range: 1 to 103 days. No diagnosis accounted for more than 5% of cases. 41% were deemed to be technology dependent, with 20% dependent upon devices, 32% dependent upon medications, and 11% dependent upon both devices and medications. Devices at the time of discharge included gastrostomy and jejeunostomy tubes (10%, central venous catheters (7%, and tracheotomies (1%. The median number of prescription medications was 2 (range: 0–13, with 12% of cases having 5 or more medications. Home care services were planned for 7% of cases. Conclusion Technology-dependency is common among children discharged from a children's hospital.

  11. FINAL REMINDER - Extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 18 to 25

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    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 18 to 25 (or reaching 18 during the 2006/2007 school year), for whom an allowance for dependent children is paid, must provide the School fees service as soon as possible with a: SCHOOL CERTIFICATE If we have not received this certificate by November 30, 2006 at the latest, the child allowance will be withdrawn retroactively as from July 1, 2006. School fees service (33-1-017) Organization, Procedures and Services Human Resources Department Tel. 72862

  12. Partnership With Parents of Technology-Dependent Children: Clarification of the Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Michele A

    2016-01-01

    A strategy based on the Hybrid Model of Concept Development was used to integrate previous concept analyses and research with data from interviews with parents and nurses caring for children dependent on technology to clarify the concept. Partnership was generally described positively in the literature, but some cautions were noted. Six characteristics of partnering were identified from the fieldwork data: respect, flexibility, caring professionalism, communication, acknowledgment of parental control, and support for parents. The concept of participation is clarified and extended to a unique area of nursing practice, the care of children dependent on technology in the home.

  13. Multiplex ligation-dependant probe amplification study of children with idiopathic mental retardation in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Neetha; Rajasekhar, Moka; Girisha, Katta Mohan; Sharma, Podila Satya Venkata Narasimha; Gopinath, Puthiya Mundyat

    2013-04-01

    Mental retardation (MR) is a heterogeneous dysfunction of the central nervous system exhibiting complex phenotypes and has an estimated prevalence of 1-3% in the general population. However, in about 50% of the children diagnosed with any form of intellectual disability or developmental delay the cause goes undetected contributing to idiopathic intellectual disability. A total of 122 children with developmental delay/MR were studied to identify the microscopic and submicroscopic chromosome rearrangements by using the conventional cytogenetics and multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analysis using SALSA MLPA kits from Microbiology Research Centre Holland [MRC] Holland. All the recruited children were selected for this study, after thorough clinical assessment and metaphases prepared were analyzed by using automated karyotyping system. None was found to have chromosomal abnormality; MLPA analysis was carried out in all subjects and identified in 11 (9%) patients. Karyotype analysis in combination with MLPA assays for submicroscopic micro-deletions may be recommended for children with idiopathic MR.

  14. Extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 18 and above - REMINDER

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    Social and Statutory conditions

    2004-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 18 or above (or reaching 18 during the 2004/2005 school year) have received a QUESTIONNAIRE in July. If this questionnaire has not been completed and returned yet, they are requested to do so WITHOUT DELAY. The deadline was 10 September. Social and Statutory conditions Human Resources Department Tel. 72862-74474

  15. REMINDER EXTENSION/SUPPRESSION OF ALLOWANCE FOR DEPENDENT CHILDREN AGED 18 AND ABOVE

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    Social and Statutory conditions; Tel. 72862-74474

    2001-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 18 or above (or reaching 18 during the 2001/2002 school year) have received a QUESTIONNAIRE in July. If this questionnaire has not been completed and returned yet, they are requested to do so IMMEDIATELY.

  16. Reminder EXTENSION/SUPPRESSION OF ALLOWANCE FOR DEPENDENT CHILDREN AGED 18 AND ABOVE

    CERN Multimedia

    Conditions Sociales et Statutaires; Tél. 72862-74474; Social and Statutory conditions; Human Resources Division; Tel. 72862-74474

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 18 or above (or reaching 18 during the 2000/2001 school year) have received a QUESTIONNAIRE in July . If this questionnaire has not been completed and returned, they are requested to do so IMMEDIATELY.

  17. REMINDER EXTENSION/SUPPRESSION OF ALLOWANCE FOR DEPENDENT CHILDREN AGED 18 AND ABOVE

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 18 or above (or reaching 18 during the 2002/2003 school year) received a QUESTIONNAIRE in July. If this questionnaire has not been completed and returned yet, they are requested to do so WITHOUT DELAY. The deadline was 13 September.   Human Resources Division Tel. 72862-74474

  18. REMINDER: Extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 18 and above

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 18 or above (or reaching 18 during the 2003/2004 school year) received a QUESTIONNAIRE in July. If this questionnaire has not yet been completed and returned, they are requested to do so without delay. The deadline was 12 September. Human Resources Division Tel. 72862-74474

  19. Extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 18 and above

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    Human Resources Department

    2004-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 18 or above (or reaching 18 during the 2004/2005 school year) who have not yet provided a SCHOOL CERTIFICATE must do so before 12 November 2004, for secondary schools as well as for universities. Human Resources Department Tel. 72862-74474

  20. REMINDER EXTENSION/SUPPRESSION OF ALLOWANCE FOR DEPENDENT CHILDREN AGED 18 AND ABOVE

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 18 or above (or reaching 18 during the 2001/2002 school year) who have not yet provided a school certificate must do so: as soon as possible for secondary schools before 13 November 2001 for universities.

  1. EXTENSION/SUPPRESSION OF ALLOWANCE FOR DEPENDENT CHILDREN AGED 18 AND ABOVE

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    REMINDER Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 18 or above (or reaching 18 during the 2002/2003 school year) who have not yet provided a SCHOOL CERTIFICATE must do so as soon as possible for secondary schools before 8 November for universities. Tel. 72862/74474 Human Resources Division

  2. REMINDER: Extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 18 and above

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 18 or above (or reaching 18 during the 2003/2004 school year) who have not yet provided a SCHOOL CERTIFICATE must do so• as soon as possible for secondary schools• before 7 November 2003 for universities. Human Resources Division Tel. 72862-74474

  3. Alcohol Dependence in Adult Children of Alcoholics: Longitudinal Evidence of Early Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennison, Karen M.; Johnson, Kenneth A.

    1998-01-01

    Investigates familial alcoholism effects and the comparative probability of risk that adult children of alcoholics have for alcohol dependence. Results, based on a national survey of 12,686 young adults over a five-year period, show that the risk for alcoholism is relatively greater for males than females. (MKA)

  4. Some parental characteristics and habits of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šipetić Sandra B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this case-control study conducted in Belgrade during 1994-1997 was to investigate whether parental demographic characteristics and habits are associated with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM. Case group comprised 105 children up to 16 years old with IDDM and control group comprised 210 children with skin diseases. Cases and controls were individually matched by age (± one year, sex and place of residence (Belgrade. According to %l test results, children with IDDM significantly had five or more family members and they also significantly more frequently had poor socio-economic status than their controls. Higher education of fathers was significantly more frequently reported in diabetic children, in comparison with their controls. Parents of diabetic children were significantly more frequently occupationally exposed to radiation petroleum, and its derivates, organic solvents, dyes and lacquers. During pregnancy mothers of diabetic children significantly more frequently smoked cigarettes and consumed coffee, coca-cola, alcohol and foods containing nitrosamines. Fathers of diabetic children more frequently consumed alcohol.

  5. Nonadjacent Dependency Learning in Cantonese-Speaking Children with and without a History of Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iao, Lai-Sang; Ng, Lai Yan; Wong, Anita Mei Yin; Lee, Oi Ting

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated nonadjacent dependency learning in Cantonese-speaking children with and without a history of specific language impairment (SLI) in an artificial linguistic context. Method: Sixteen Cantonese-speaking children with a history of SLI and 16 Cantonese-speaking children with typical language development (TLD) were…

  6. Reminder - Extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 20 to 25

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 20 to 25 (or reaching 20 during the 2009/2010 school year), for whom a dependent child’s allowance is currently paid, are invited to provide the Education Fees service with a: SCHOOL CERTIFICATE Unless we receive, by October 31, 2009 at the latest, a school certificate or similar written proof (contract of work placement, sandwich course or apprenticeship) covering your child / children for the 2009/2010 school year, we will be obliged to stop payment of the dependent child’s allowance as well as membership of the health insurance scheme at the appropriate date, retroactively if necessary. Education Fees service (33-1-017) HR Department - Tel. 72862

  7. Age-Dependent Fecal Bacterial Correlation to Inflammatory Bowel Disease for Newly Diagnosed Untreated Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Chinweije Nwosu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge about correlation patterns between the fecal microbiota and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD—comprising the two subforms Crohn's disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC—for newly diagnosed untreated children is limited. To address this knowledge gap, a selection of faecal specimens (CD, n=27 and UC, n=16 and non-IBD controls (n=30 children (age < 18 years was analysed utilising bacterial small subunit (SSU rRNA. We found, surprising age dependence for the fecal microbiota correlating to IBD. The most pronounced patterns were that E. coli was positively (R2=0.16, P=0.05 and Bacteroidetes, negatively (R2=0.15, P=0.05 correlated to age for CD patients. For UC, we found an apparent opposite age-related disease correlation for both Bacteroides and Escherichia. In addition, there was an overrepresentation of Haemophilus for the UC children. From our, results we propose a model where the aetiology of IBD is related to an on-going immunological development in children requiring different age-dependent bacterial stimuli. The impact of our findings could be a better age stratification for understanding and treating IBD in children.

  8. Recurrent headache in military-dependent children and the impact of parent deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swedean, Sandra K; Gonzales, Monica V; Zickefoose, Betty A; Bush, Anneke C; Davis, Jessica M; Elrod, Diane C; Hsieh, David T

    2013-03-01

    Our objective is to determine the prevalence of recurrent headaches in military-dependent children and to study the changes in headache frequency, severity, and duration during a parental deployment. Recurrent headaches are common in children and are often intensified by stressful life events. Military-dependent children are subjected to unique stressors, most significantly parental wartime deployment. No studies have evaluated the effect of deployment on somatic complaints, to include headaches. We conducted a parental, cross-sectional questionnaire-based study in patients aged 5 to 17 years who were seen in the pediatric or adolescent clinics at a regional military medical center. The overall prevalence of recurrent headaches in the preceding 12 months was 30%. Almost half reported headache worsening in frequency, severity, or duration over the previous 12 months, whether a parent was deployed or not. For children who had experienced parental deployment, younger children and females were affected more often. Younger females had the highest rates of headache worsening. This trend may indicate a more detrimental effect of parental deployment on childhood headache in certain populations. Reprint & Copyright © 2013 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  9. Differences in pediatric dental services under general anesthesia for Medicaid and military dependent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M B; Cappelli, D P; Bradshaw, B S; Mabry, J C

    2010-01-01

    This study's purpose was to compare pediatric dental services provided for Medicaid and military dependent children to determine if differences in dental treatment choices exist based on site and payment method. Subjects included 120 Medicaid patients at the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio and 120 military dependents at Lackland Air Force Base, Texas. Demographic data and treatment information were abstracted for children younger than 6 years old receiving dental treatment under general anesthesia between 2002 and 2006. Data was analyzed using Wilcoxon rank sum, Kruskal-Wallis, and Fisher's exact tests. The Medicaid recipients were younger (40.2 vs 49.8 months, P<.001) and more likely to be Hispanic (78% vs 30%, P<.001). The means of decayed teeth, fillings, and stainless steel crowns did not differ between sites. Medicaid children received more composite fillings (P<.001), fewer amalgam fillings (P<.001), fewer pulp therapies (P<.001), more extractions (P=.01), and fewer sealants (P<.001). Age and gender did not affect decay rates, but those of Hispanic ethnicity did experience more decay than non-Hispanics (9.5 vs 8.6, P=.02). This study found no difference in the number of less conservative, albeit more costly, procedures performed with Medicaid children at a university compared to military dependents at a military base.

  10. PREVENTION OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS AMONG CHILDREN WITH THE INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Tarasova

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available 20 children with the insulin dependent diabetes have been vaccinated with pneumo 23 against pneumococcal infection during the two week prevention course by immunomodulating spray IRS 19. Topical lysate was prescribed on the day of vaccination in the season, immediately preceding the flu epidemy. Before application of topical lysate, as well as in a month and in 3 months after the pre vention course was over, the researchers evaluated the biocenose indices of nasal and fauces cavity mucosa. Alongside, otorhinolaryngologist examined the children. IRS 19 prescription helped to avoid the emergence of intercurrent diseases during the post vaccinal period, in the meantime, it led to the reduction of pathogenic flora sowing, intensity of the inflammatory changes in the nasal pharynx and fauces. Vaccination against pneumococcal infection and combined application of Pneumo 23 with IRS 19 among children with the insulin-dependent diabetes contributed to the reduction of frequency and severity of the respiratory ingections if compared with the similar indices of 43 patients with diabetes, who did not receive immunization.Key words: children, insulin dependent diabetes, chronic tonsillitis, tissue immunity, immunoregulatory spray, vaccine against pneumococcal infection.

  11. Sleep-Dependent Consolidation of Procedural Motor Memories in Children and Adults: The Pre-Sleep Level of Performance Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Ines; Metzkow-Meszaros, Maila; Knapp, Susanne; Born, Jan

    2012-01-01

    In striking contrast to adults, in children sleep following training a motor task did not induce the expected (offline) gain in motor skill performance in previous studies. Children normally perform at distinctly lower levels than adults. Moreover, evidence in adults suggests that sleep dependent offline gains in skill essentially depend on the…

  12. Sleep-Dependent Consolidation of Procedural Motor Memories in Children and Adults: The Pre-Sleep Level of Performance Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Ines; Metzkow-Meszaros, Maila; Knapp, Susanne; Born, Jan

    2012-01-01

    In striking contrast to adults, in children sleep following training a motor task did not induce the expected (offline) gain in motor skill performance in previous studies. Children normally perform at distinctly lower levels than adults. Moreover, evidence in adults suggests that sleep dependent offline gains in skill essentially depend on the…

  13. Nonadjacent Dependency Learning in Cantonese-Speaking Children With and Without a History of Specific Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iao, Lai-Sang; Ng, Lai Yan; Wong, Anita Mei Yin; Lee, Oi Ting

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated nonadjacent dependency learning in Cantonese-speaking children with and without a history of specific language impairment (SLI) in an artificial linguistic context. Sixteen Cantonese-speaking children with a history of SLI and 16 Cantonese-speaking children with typical language development (TLD) were tested with a nonadjacent dependency learning task using artificial languages that mimic Cantonese. Children with TLD performed above chance and were able to discriminate between trained and untrained nonadjacent dependencies. However, children with a history of SLI performed at chance and were not able to differentiate trained versus untrained nonadjacent dependencies. These findings, together with previous findings from English-speaking adults and adolescents with language impairments, suggest that individuals with atypical language development, regardless of age, diagnostic status, language, and culture, show difficulties in learning nonadjacent dependencies. This study provides evidence for early impairments to statistical learning in individuals with atypical language development.

  14. REMINDER: Extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 18 and above

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 18 or above (or reaching 18 during the 2006/2007 school year) received an email in July inviting them to fill in a declaration of situation for dependent children in EDH. If this declaration has not yet been completed, you are requested to do so (one declaration for each child concerned) WITHOUT DELAY, by using the following link: https://edh.cern.ch/Document/ChildAllowance/ The deadline was September 30. If no declaration is sent to our service by October 13, 2006, the child allowance, as well as automatic health insurance membership, will cease on the first day of the month following the end of the last school year (according to the school certificate in our possession or, in the absence of precise information, on July 1, 2006). School fees Service Organization, Procedures and Services Human Resources Department Schoolfees.service@cern.ch Tel. 72862

  15. REMINDER: Extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 18 and above

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 18 or above (or reaching 18 during the 2006/2007 school year) received an email in July inviting them to fill in a declaration of situation for dependent children in EDH. If this declaration has not yet been completed, you are requested to do so (one declaration for each child concerned) WITHOUT DELAY, by using the following link: https://edh.cern.ch/Document/ChildAllowance/ The deadline was September 30. If no declaration is sent to our service by October 13, 2006, the child allowance, as well as automatic health insurance membership, will cease on the first day of the month following the end of the last school year (according to the school certificate in our possession or, in the absence of precise information, on July 1, 2006). School fees Service Organization, Procedures and Services Human Resources Department Schoolfees.service@cern.ch Tel. 72862

  16. FEATURES OF ETIOLOGIC SPECTRUM OF ALERGIC RINITY FOR CHILDREN DEPENDING ON SEX AND AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asheulov OM

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work there are presented the results of allergy testings of children suffering from alergic rinity. The aim of this study was the specification of casually significant allergen depending on sex and age. Results of testing are processed by a method of the mathematiical analysis, raised in nomograms according to which, considering the nosological entity of disease, sex and age of a patient, it is possible to define causally significant allergen.

  17. EXTENSION/SUPPRESSION OF ALLOWANCE FOR DEPENDENT CHILDREN AGED 18 AND ABOVE

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    FINAL REMINDER Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 18 or above (or reaching 18 during the 2002/2003 school year) who have not yet provided a SCHOOL CERTIFICATE must do so as soon as possible. If we have not received this certificate by November 29 at the latest, the child allowance will be withdrawn retroactively as from September 1, 2002. Human Resources Division Tel. 72862-74474

  18. FINAL REMINDER: EXTENSION/SUPPRESSION OF ALLOWANCE FOR DEPENDENT CHILDREN AGED 18 AND ABOVE

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 18 or above (or reaching 18 during the 2003/2004 school year) who have not yet provided a SCHOOL CERTIFICATE must do so as soon as possible. If we have not received this certificate by November 21, 2003 at the latest, the child allowance will be withdrawn retroactively as from September 1, 2003. Human Resources Division Tel. 72862-74474

  19. FINAL REMINDER - Extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 18 and above

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2004-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 18 or above (or reaching 18 during the 2004/2005 school year) who have not yet provided a SCHOOL CERTIFICATE must do so as soon as possible. If we have not received this certificate by 3 December 2004 at the latest, the child allowance will be withdrawn retroactively as from 1 September 2004. Human Resources Department Tel. 72862-74474

  20. Parents' descriptions of ideal home nursing care for their technology-dependent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Michele A

    2013-01-01

    Home care for technology-dependent children is one of the fastest growing segments of the U.S. health care industry, but nursing literature lacks clear directions to guide home care nurses in planning a family-centered practice. The purpose of this study was to address this gap in the literature by eliciting descriptions of ideal home nursing care for technology-dependent children from the perspective of their parents. A qualitative, descriptive design with formal, semi-structured interviews was used. Seven participants (three couples and one mother) were interviewed. Data analysis revealed four components of ideal home nursing care: 1) competence in technical, assessment, clinical decision-making, and problem-solving skills; 2) a caring manner; 3) relinquishing control of the child's care to the parents; and 4) fitting in with the family and their routines. These findings have implications for both home care nurses and the care managers who supervise the care of children who are technology dependent and their families.

  1. Transient Elastography-Based Liver Stiffness Age-Dependently Increases in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuhara, Daisuke; Cho, Yuki; Shintaku, Haruo

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Pediatric use of liver transient elastography (TE) is attractive for its non-invasiveness, but reference values have not been established. We aimed to determine reference values for TE in children. Methods In pediatric patients (1 to 18 years), TE (FibroScan®) with an M probe was used for both liver stiffness measurement (LSM) and measurement of hepatic fat deposition by using a controlled attenuation parameter (CAP). The patients were divided into three relevant age groups: preschoolers (1 to 5 years), elementary school children (6 to 11 years), and adolescents (12 to 18 years). Overweight or obese patients or those with known liver disease, elevated serum liver enzymes, or hepatic echogenic abnormality were excluded from the study. Results Among 139 children, 123 (88.5%; 62 male; median age, 11.7 years; age range, 1.3 to 17.2 years) were successfully subjected to M-probe TE without anesthesia. Median LSM increased with age: it was 3.4 kPa (2.3 to 4.6 kPa, 5th to 95th percentiles) at ages 1 to 5 years; 3.8 (2.5 to 6.1) kPa at ages 6 to 11; and 4.1 (3.3 to 7.9) kPa at ages 12 to 18 (P = 0.001). Median CAP was not age dependent: it was 183 (112 to 242) for ages 1 to 18 years. Conclusions M-probe TE is suitable in a wide age range of children from age 1 year up. In children without evidence of liver disease, LSM has an age-dependent increase, whereas CAP does not differ between ages 1 and 18. PMID:27861607

  2. Impact of Reminders on Children's Cognitive Flexibility, Intrinsic Motivation, and Mood Depends on Who Provides the Reminders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Li; Ong, Jing Y

    2015-01-01

    Reminding children to think about alternatives is a strategy adults often use to promote children's cognitive flexibility, as well as children's engagement in and enjoyment of the task. The current study investigated whether the impacts of reminders on kindergarten children's cognitive flexibility, intrinsic motivation, and mood are moderated by who provides the reminders. Eighty-three healthy 5-year-old kindergarten children were randomly assigned to 2 (Reminder: no reminders vs. Reminders) × 2 (Agent: Tester vs. Partner) conditions. Children's cognitive flexibility was measured via the Block Sorting Task (Garton and Pratt, 2001; Fawcett and Garton, 2005). Children reported their motivation and mood before Block Sorting, after practicing for Block Sorting, and after the actual Block Sorting. Children's intrinsic motivation was measured by evaluating children's choices during a period of free play after Block Sorting. The results revealed that, depending on who provides the reminders, reminding children of alternatives can influence kindergarten children's performance on Block Sorting, children's intrinsic motivation, and children's self-reported mood.

  3. Nutrition Education intervention in dyslipidemic children and adolescent with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmaa m. Abdallah*, Zainab B* and Mohamed M. A. Shahat

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is the most common endocrine metabolic disorder of childhood and adolescence with important consequences for physical and emotional development. Aim of the study: This study was designed to detect the effect of diet therapy (through nutrition education program on lipid profile and blood glucose level in diabetic children. Subjects and Methods: The study was carried on 45 diabetic children aged between 8-15 years old at diabetic nutrition clinic of nutrition institute in Cairo from 2003-2005. Children included in the study were divided into two groups: insulin dependent dyslipidemic group (IDDM (diet control/ group and insulin dependent non dyslipidemic (control group. All were subjected to full dietetic history by the 24 hour recall for 3 days, thorough clinical examination, they were evaluated for plasma lipids, lipoproteins, fasting blood glucose (FBG and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c levels. The dyslipidemic were measured after three months for the previously measured parameters. The nutrition education process was performed and continued on weekly intervals for three months. Results: There was significant decrease in serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the study group after the program, and insignificant increase in serum HDL and decrease in serum LDL. Also, there was insignificant decrease in FBG but there was statistically significant decrease in HbA1 after the program. These changes occurred in parallel with increases in intakes of protein and total calories with adequate carbohydrate and sometimes a reduction in intakes of total fat. Conclusion: Nutrition therapy for children with IDDM is essential to improve measures of glycemic control and lipoprotein mediated risk for dyslipidemia. More innovative approaches to achieve lifestyle changes are required to meet current recommendations which are likely to produce greater beneficial changes than those observed in this study

  4. Long-term outcome after cyclophosphamide treatment in children with steroid-dependent and frequently relapsing minimal change nephrotic syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kyrieleis, H.A.; Levtchenko, E.N.; Wetzels, J.F.M.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Seventy percent of children with minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) have a steroid-dependent or frequent relapsing course of the disease, and most are treated with cyclophosphamide. We describe the clinical course of children with biopsy-proven MCNS treated with cyclophosphamide fo

  5. Self-Management Training With Families of Insulin-Dependent Diabetic Children: A Controlled Long-Term Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Alan M.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Insulin-dependent diabetic children and their parents were trained in behavioral self management and conducted behavior change projects designed to enhance compliance with the medical regimen and reduce diabetes-related conflicts. Participating families experienced fewer arguments concerning diabetes, and the children displayed an increase in…

  6. Hospital discharge of respiratory-technology-dependent children: role of a dedicated respiratory care discharge coordinator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tearl, Donna K; Cox, Timothy J; Hertzog, James H

    2006-07-01

    Preparation of respiratory-technology-dependent children for hospital discharge presents many challenges. Adequate training and education of parental caregivers, discharge planning, and coordination with the durable-medical-equipment and home-nursing companies must be completed. A process using multiple respiratory therapists (RTs) to achieve this may not be efficient. We evaluated our model, in which a dedicated RT discharge coordinator provides education and coordinates discharge planning of respiratory-technology-dependent pediatric patients. This system provides a single contact for caregivers and outside agencies, a single respiratory-care educator for the caregivers, and a clinical pathway that involves the entire multidisciplinary team. Patient length of stay and customer satisfaction were evaluated before and after implementation of the discharge-coordinator program. Our dedicated-RT-discharge-coordinator model was associated with rapid initiation of frequent family-training sessions. Durable-medical-equipment-company personnel reported that they had increased satisfaction with the quality of training of the family caregivers. The members of the hospital multidisciplinary team had increased satisfaction with the discharge process. Patient length of stay nonsignificantly decreased after the implementation of the discharge-coordinator program. There are several advantages to using a dedicated RT-discharge-coordinator system for home-discharge preparation of respiratory-technology-dependent children.

  7. Changes in Mothers' Psychosocial Perceptions of Technology-dependent Children and Adolescents at Home in Japan: Acknowledgement of Children's Autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishigaki, Kaori; Kanamori, Yutaka; Ikeda, Mari; Sugiyama, Masahiko; Minowa, Hideko; Kamibeppu, Kiyoko

    2016-06-01

    This research was conducted to reveal Japanese mothers' changing perceptions towards their technology-dependent children in the home care setting. Fourteen Japanese mothers participated in semi-structured interviews, which were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. "Degree of preoccupation with the child" emerged as the category representing the mothers' perceptions towards their child. Three categories emerged that represented the progression of maternal perceptions over time: "accepting the child's conditions", "mastering the management of care in various conditions", and "considering social participation for the child". First, mothers gradually accepted the conditions of their child after his/her disease and disability were known. Second, others managed technology-required care and concurrently considered the social participation of their child through daily care at home. Third, the level of preoccupation with the child was affected by the mothers' management of care and their attitude towards the social participation of their child in home care. In this study, as is widely alleged in historical recognition of Japan, mothers provided daily care almost without help from other family members. Additionally, they thought it natural and good for their children. Above all, especially in Japan, professional support for mothers are necessary so that they can take breaks from care. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Aspirin is an Enhancing Factor for Food-dependent Exercise-induced Anaphylaxis in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motomura, Chikako; Matsuzaki, Hiroshi; Ono, Rintaro; Iwata, Mihoko; Okabe, Koki; Akamine, Yuko; Wakatsuki, Masatoshi; Murakami, Yoko; Taba, Naohiko; Odajima, Hiroshi

    2017-09-11

    Food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA) is typified by the onset of anaphylaxis during or soon after exercise preceded by the ingestion of a causal food. In Japan, a questionnaire-based prevalence study of 76,247 junior high-school students revealed an FDEIA prevalence of 0.017%. (1) Physical activity is beneficial for children, with positive outcomes pertaining to both mental and physical well-being. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Factors Related to Depressive Symptoms in Mothers of Technology-Dependent Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toly, Valerie Boebel; Musil, Carol M

    2015-07-01

    Mothers caring for technology-dependent children at home often suffer clinically significant and unrecognized depressive symptoms. The study aim was to determine factors related to elevated depressive symptoms and provide information to target interventions that assists mothers in self-management of their mental health. Secondary data analysis from a descriptive, correlational study of 75 mothers was performed. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis results indicate that younger, unpartnered mothers with lower normalization efforts and personal resourcefulness, and less care hours, had increased depressive symptoms. The importance of personal resourcefulness and the potential for a resourcefulness training intervention to reduce depressive symptoms are discussed.

  10. Clinical manifestations of syncope in children depending on the type of cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Tonkikh

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Syncope in children is a topical multidisciplinary medical and social problem all over the world. Syncope occurrence in children population is about 15%. Despite modern equipment of European clinics it is not possible to determine the cause of syncope in about 1/3 of cases. Our objective was to determine special features in clinical presentation of cardiovascular syncope in children. The study was conducted on 144 children (80 females, 64 males from 2 to 18 years with diagnosed syncope of cardiovascular origin. Methods of vibrational and alternative statistics were used to perform research data analysis using licensed program package “MedStat” (serial number MS 000065 Structure of cardiovascular syncope causes was the following: prevalence of vasovagal syncope was 72,9±3,7 %, prevalence of heart rate and conduction abnormalities was 22,2±3,5 %, prevalence of structural heart pathology was 4,9±1,8%. In all patients cardiovascular disease was diagnosed first time in their life. This indicates insufficient awareness level of physicians about differential diagnostic algorithm of pathology which cause syncope in children. The length of syncopal anamnesis in children was varied from 1 month to 6 years. Only 16,7±3,1 % of cardiovascular pathology was diagnosed within first 6 months after first syncope episode, 47,9±4,2 % of cardiovascular pathology was diagnosed after 3 and more years. In 82,6±3,2 % of patients cause of syncope was established after few years. Prevalent cause of late diagnosed syncope in children with cardiovascular pathology was vasovagal syncope: in 55,2±4,9 % of patients after 3 years and more from the first syncope episode. Nonetheless, according to European cardiologist association (2009 year guidelines vasovagal syncope has benign prognosis, our analysis demonstrate that in 16,0±3,1 % of cases vasovagal syncope occurs during swimming, bicycle ride, road crossing, standing near open sewer manhole, that means, in this

  11. Families' concerns about the care of children with technology-dependent special health care needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce de Souza Esteves

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective.To identify concerns of family members of Children with Special Health Care Needs (CSHCN as far as care related to using technology, and to discuss nurses' performance in the face of these concerns. Methodology. Qualitative descriptive research, developed through February and March 2014, through semi-structured interviews with six family members, caregivers of technology-dependent CSHCN who are followed at a University Hospital in Rio de Janeiro. The setting chosen was the family members' home. Data were submitted to content analysis. Results. Concerns were distributed in a timeframe, divided between those occurring the moment the family members received the information about the technological device needed, then those which arose while accompanying the child during hospitalization, and finally those that remained after the hospital discharge. Conclusion. The family needs information and support from nurses, because different concerns emerge throughout the treatment and accompaniment of a technology-dependent child.

  12. Use of Rituximab in Children with Steroid- and Calcineurin-Inhibitor-Dependent Idiopathic Nephrotic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravani, Pietro; Ponticelli, Alessandro; Siciliano, Chiara; Fornoni, Alessia; Magnasco, Alberto; Sica, Felice; Bodria, Monica; Caridi, Gianluca; Wei, Changli; Belingheri, Mirco; Ghio, Luciana; Merscher-Gomez, Sandra; Edefonti, Alberto; Pasini, Andrea; Montini, Giovanni; Murtas, Corrado; Wang, Xiangyu; Muruve, Daniel; Vaglio, Augusto; Martorana, Davide; Pani, Antonello; Scolari, Francesco; Reiser, Jochen; Ghiggeri, Gian Marco

    2013-01-01

    In children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome rituximab can maintain short-term remission with withdrawal of prednisone and calcineurin-inhibitors. Long-term effects including number of repeated infusions to maintain remission are unknown. We treated with rituximab 46 consecutive children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome lasting for at least one year (6.3±4.1 years), who were maintained in remission with oral prednisone and calcineurin inhibitors. They received 1–5 rituximab courses during a median follow-up of three years (range 1–5). Oral agents were tapered after each infusion, and completely withdrawn within 45 days. Rituximab was well tolerated. Six-month probabilities of remission were 48% after the first infusion and 37% after subsequent infusions. One- and two-year-remission probabilities were respectively 20% and 10%. Median time intervals between complete oral-agent withdrawal and relapse were 5.6 and 8.5 months respectively following the first and subsequent courses. Time to reconstitution of CD20 cells correlated with the duration of remission, but was not associated with variation in FcyR, CD20 or SMPDL-3B polymorphisms. Podocyte Src phosphorylation was normal. Rituximab can be safely and repeatedly used as prednisone and calcineurin-inhibitor-sparing therapy in a considerable proportion of children with dependent forms of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome. Further research is needed to identify patients who will benefit most from rituximab therapy. PMID:23739238

  13. WELFARE AND THE CHILDREN OF IMMIGRANTS: TRANSMISSION OF DEPENDENCE OR INVESTMENT IN THE FUTURE?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balistreri, Kelly Stamper

    2011-01-01

    The public concern that immigrant families might be using a disproportionate share of social benefits and transmitting some form of public dependency to their children, combined with the rising levels of immigrants entering the country, fueled the passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act in 1996, which limited public assistance to many immigrant families. This paper uses the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 to explore the association between exposure to welfare and young adult outcomes of high school graduation, college enrollment and labor force participation with a focus on parental nativity status as well as broad country of origin group. Results indicate a persistent negative association between welfare legacy and high school graduation; a negative association that is most pronounced for children of natives. Results also show the largest positive effect of welfare receipt among the most disadvantaged group, the young adult children of immigrants from Mexican and Central American countries. The main finding of this study suggests that the negative impacts of welfare receipt might be lessened and in some cases reversed among the young adults from immigrant families. Such findings challenge the common notion that immigrant families use welfare as a crutch across generations and raise serious concern about U.S. immigration and welfare policies. PMID:22010037

  14. Families with children who are technology dependent: normalization and family functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toly, Valerie Boebel; Musil, Carol M; Carl, John C

    2012-02-01

    This cross-sectional study examined family functioning and normalization in 103 mothers of children ≤16 years of age dependent on medical technology (mechanical ventilation, intravenous nutrition/medication, respiratory/nutritional support) following initiation of home care. Differences in outcomes (mother's depressive symptoms, normalization, family functioning), based on the type of technology used, were also examined. Participants were interviewed face-to-face using the Demographic Characteristics Questionnaire, the Functional Status II-Revised Scale, the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale, a Normalization Scale subscale, and the Feetham Family Functioning Survey. Thirty-five percent of the variance in family functioning was explained primarily by the mothers' level of depressive symptoms. Several variables were significant predictors of normalization. Analysis of variance revealed no significant difference in outcomes based on the type of technology used. Mothers of technology-dependent children are at high risk for clinical depression that may affect family functioning. This article concludes with clinical practice and policy implications.

  15. Pyridoxine-dependent convulsions among children with refractory seizures: A 3-year follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadanandavalli Retnaswami Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Epilepsy accounts for 1% of the global disease burden and about 8–10 million epilepsy patients live in India. About 30–40% of these patients become drug-resistant and land up with palliative or disease-modifying surgeries. This is a situation causing great concern in view of the psychosocial and economic burden on the patient and the family apart from severe cognitive and motor consequences, especially in children. Therefore, it is mandatory to have an insight into the wide spectrum of causes with reference to refractoriness to antiepileptic medications in children with epilepsy. Patients and Methods: Children admitted under our team with refractory epilepsy as per the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE criteria in the last 3 years were included in the study. Results: Refractory epilepsy constituted 13.3% of inpatients in the pediatric group. Males dominated with 68.9% of these patients. Nearly 34.4% of these patients were found to suffer from various neurometabolic diseases. Almost 3.5% were due to pyridoxine-dependent convulsions. This group of patients showed an excellent response to dietary manipulation, disease-modifying treatment for the metabolic disorder, and supportive small-dose anticonvulsants. During follow-up, they showed very good response with reference to global development and seizure control. Conclusion: Pyridoxine-dependent convulsions are relatively rare forming about 3.5% of refractory epilepsies in this series. With initiation of appropriate therapy, results with reference to seizure control as well as neurodevelopment became evident within 2 weeks, and at 1-year follow-up, complete independence for majority of the needed activities is achieved with minimum cost, almost zero side effects, and absolute elimination of the need for palliative surgery.

  16. Urine volume dependency of specific dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and cortisol metabolites in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lijie; Wudy, Stefan A; Maser-Gluth, Christiane; Hartmann, Michaela F; Remer, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Urine volume should be considered as a confounder when using urinary free cortisol (UFF) and cortisone (UFE) to assess glucocorticoid (GC) status. We aimed to examine whether adrenal androgen (AA) metabolites may be also affected by urine volume in healthy children. To compare the flow dependence of GC and AA metabolites, specific GC metabolites were examined. In 24-h urine samples of 120 (60 boys) healthy children (4-10 yr), steroid profiles were determined by GC-MS analysis, UFF and UFE by radioimmunoassay. To assess daily AA and GC secretion rates, 7 quantitatively most important AA (∑C19) and GC (∑C21) metabolites were summed. Sum of DHEA and its 16α-hydroxylated metabolites were denoted as DHEA&M. Association of urine volume with AA (∑C19, DHEA&M, DHEA, 16α-hydroxy-DHEA, 3β,16α,17β-androstenetriol) and GC (∑C21, UFF, UFE, 6β-hydroxycortisol, 20α-dihydrocortisol) were examined in linear regression models. Among the examined AA metabolites, 16α-hydroxy-DHEA (β=0.56, pDHEA (β=0.43, p=0.05) showed relatively strong association with urine volume. A trend was seen for ∑C19 (β=0.23, p=0.08), but not for DHEA&M (p>0.1). Regarding GC metabolites, urine volume showed a stronger association with cortisol's direct metabolites, i.e., cortisone, 6β-hydroxycortisol and 20α-dihydrocortisol (β=0.4-0.6, pDHEA, 16α-hydroxy-DHEA, 6β-hydroxycortisol, and 20α-dihydrocortisol may also depend on urine volume. The intrarenal production of the latter three and cortisone might explain their relative strong water-flow-dependency. Total AA or GC secretion marker appears not to be relevantly confounded by urine volume. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Occurrence of microalbuminuria among children and adolescents with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmoein E Al-Agha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microalbuminuria precedes the onset of diabetic nephropathy in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM pediatric patients. Its prevention is among the most important challenges in managing IDDM. We attempted to determine the occurrence of microalbuminuria among IDDM Saudi children and adolescents and its associated risk factors. This is a retrospective cross-sectional study conducted on 409 IDDM children and adolescents attending the pediatric clinic at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital from 2006 to 2010. Their ages ranged from 1 to 18 years and the mean ± standard deviation (mean ± SD was 12.3 ± 4.1 years. Twenty-four-hour urinary albumin excretion (on two separate occasions or more, 3 - 6 months apart each, HbA1c, duration of IDDM, Tanner staging and body mass index (BMI were reviewed. Prevalence of microalbuminuria in our cohort was 11.3%. IDDM duration was ≥2 years in 55.8% of our patients; of them, 15.6% had microalbuminuria while 45.2% had IDDM duration <2 years (6% had microalbuminuria (P <0.01. The prevalence of microalbuminuria was higher among the post-pubertal subjects (50% than that among the pre-pubertal (8.7% and pubertal (41.5% subjects. Furthermore, microalbuminuria was present in 16.7% of those with elevated blood pressure, but only in 8.5% among those with normal blood pressure (P <0.05. The enrolled overweight and obese subjects showed a higher prevalence of microalbuminuria (14% when compared with that among those with a normal BMI (6.6% (P <0.05. In our cohort, duration of IDDM, pubertal status, hypertension and BMI affected the prevalence of microalbuminuria. Annual screening for microalbuminuria in IDDM children and adolescents is imperative.

  18. Occurrence of microalbuminuria among children and adolescents with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Agha, Abdulmoein E; Ocheltree, Ali; Hakeem, Amr

    2013-11-01

    Microalbuminuria precedes the onset of diabetic nephropathy in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) pediatric patients. Its prevention is among the most important challenges in managing IDDM. We attempted to determine the occurrence of microalbuminuria among IDDM Saudi children and adolescents and its associated risk factors. This is a retrospective cross-sectional study conducted on 409 IDDM children and adolescents attending the pediatric clinic at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital from 2006 to 2010. Their ages ranged from 1 to 18 years and the mean ± standard deviation (mean ± SD) was 12.3 ± 4.1 years. Twenty-four-hour urinary albumin excretion (on two separate occasions or more, 3 - 6 months apart each), HbA1c, duration of IDDM, Tanner staging and body mass index (BMI) were reviewed. Prevalence of microalbuminuria in our cohort was 11.3%. IDDM duration was ≥2 years in 55.8% of our patients; of them, 15.6% had microalbuminuria while 45.2% had IDDM duration microalbuminuria) (P microalbuminuria was higher among the post-pubertal subjects (50%) than that among the pre-pubertal (8.7%) and pubertal (41.5%) subjects. Furthermore, microalbuminuria was present in 16.7% of those with elevated blood pressure, but only in 8.5% among those with normal blood pressure (P microalbuminuria (14%) when compared with that among those with a normal BMI (6.6%) (P microalbuminuria. Annual screening for microalbuminuria in IDDM children and adolescents is imperative.

  19. Interactions between parents of technology-dependent children and providers: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jachimiec, Jennifer A; Obrecht, Jennifer; Kavanaugh, Karen

    2015-03-01

    This article is a review of the literature on the experiences of parents and their interactions with healthcare providers while caring for their technology-dependent child(ren) in their homes. Results are presented in the following themes: information needs, respect and partnership with healthcare providers, care coordination, and experiences with home healthcare nurses. Parents needed information and guidance and felt supported when providers recognized parents' expertise with the child's care, and offered reassurance and confirmation about their practices. Home healthcare clinicians provided supportive care in the home, but their presence created challenges for the family. By acknowledging and valuing the parents' expertise, healthcare providers can empower parents to confidently care for their child.

  20. New EDH declaration form concerning dependent children aged 18 to 25

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    As part of the ongoing simplification of procedures and rationalisation of administrative formalities, the HR and IT Departments have designed and developed a new EDH form for declaring the situation of dependent children aged 18 to 25. This new electronic form, which will be brought on line during the month of July, will make it easier for members of the personnel to enter and send data as well as allowing the HR Department to optimise its administrative follow-up. Members of the personnel required to complete a declaration form will receive an individual e-mail notification containing a link to the EDH form and useful information on the procedure to be followed. Human Resources Department, Organisation, Procedures and Services Group, School Fees Service Information Technology Department, AIS (Administrative Information Services)

  1. New EDH declaration form concerning dependent children aged 18 to 25

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    As part of the ongoing simplification of procedures and rationalisation of administrative formalities, the HR and IT Departments have designed and developed a new EDH form for declaring the situation of dependent children aged 18 to 25. This new electronic form, which will be brought on line during the month of July, will make it easier for members of the personnel to enter and send data as well as allowing the HR Department to optimise its administrative follow-up. Members of the personnel required to complete a declaration will receive an individual e-mail notification containing a link to the EDH form and useful information on the procedure to be followed. Human Resources Department, Organisation, Procedures and Services Group, School Fees ServiceInformation Technology Department, AIS (Administrative Information Services)

  2. [Family health and infant palliative care: listening the relatives of technology dependent children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabello, Claudia Azevedo Ferreira Guimarães; Rodrigues, Paulo Henrique de Almeida

    2010-10-01

    This study discusses the creation of a new child palliative care program based on the Family Health Program, considering the level of care at home and yielding to family requests. Eighteen members of nine families of technology dependent children (TDC) who were hospital patients in the Instituto Fernandes Figueira (IFF) participated on the study. From those four were being assisted by its palliative care program Programa de Assistência Domiciliar Interdisciplinar (PADI); three were inpatients waiting for inclusion in the program, and finally two inpatients already included in PADI. PADI was chosen because it is the only child palliative care program in Brazil. The results are positive in regards to the connection established between the families and the health care team, the reception of the children, the explanation to the family concerning the disease, and the functional dynamics between the PADI and the IFF. As negative points, difficulties arose as a result of the implementation of the program, from its continuity to the worsening or illness of the entire family. In conclusion, although the PADI is the IFF's way of discharging patients, the domiciliary care provided by the Family Health Program, well articulated with the healthcare system, would be ideal for being the adequate assistance for it.

  3. Task- and age-dependent effects of visual stimulus properties on children's explicit numerosity judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defever, Emmy; Reynvoet, Bert; Gebuis, Titia

    2013-10-01

    Researchers investigating numerosity processing manipulate the visual stimulus properties (e.g., surface). This is done to control for the confound between numerosity and its visual properties and should allow the examination of pure number processes. Nevertheless, several studies have shown that, despite different visual controls, visual cues remained to exert their influence on numerosity judgments. This study, therefore, investigated whether the impact of the visual stimulus manipulations on numerosity judgments is dependent on the task at hand (comparison task vs. same-different task) and whether this impact changes throughout development. In addition, we examined whether the influence of visual stimulus manipulations on numerosity judgments plays a role in the relation between performance on numerosity tasks and mathematics achievement. Our findings confirmed that the visual stimulus manipulations affect numerosity judgments; more important, we found that these influences changed with increasing age and differed between the comparison and the same-different tasks. Consequently, direct comparisons between numerosity studies using different tasks and age groups are difficult. No meaningful relationship between the performance on the comparison and same-different tasks and mathematics achievement was found in typically developing children, nor did we find consistent differences between children with and without mathematical learning disability (MLD).

  4. Care for technology dependent children and their relationship with the health care systems1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okido, Aline Cristiane Cavicchioli; Zago, Márcia Maria Fontão; de Lima, Regina Aparecida Garcia

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to understand the experience of care delivery to technology dependent children based on the mothers' experience. METHOD: exploratory study with qualitative approach, based on the theoretical framework of medical anthropology and the narrative method. Twelve mothers participated and, as the technique to obtain the narratives, open interviews were held at the participants' homes. RESULTS: the narratives were organized into three thematic categories: the family system, identifying the care forms, the association between popular and scientific knowledge and the participation of the social network; the professional system, which discusses the relations between professionals and family, the hegemony of the biomedical model and the role of nursing; and the popular system, presenting popular care practices like spirituality and religiosity. CONCLUSION: the study provided support for a health care project that takes into account the families' moral and symbolic values and beliefs in view of the illness of a technology-dependent child. The results found can contribute towards changes in the health work process, so that its foundation is guided not only by the biomedical model, allowing the integration of the sociocultural dimensions into the health care movement. PMID:26039300

  5. Teachers' perceptions of the role of nurses: caring for children who are technology-dependent in mainstream schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Fumie; Katsuda, Hitomi

    2015-01-01

    This study explored special education teachers' perceptions of the role of nurses who specialize in providing nursing care to children who are technology-dependent in mainstream schools. Semistructured interviews with 11 teachers were conducted, and data were analyzed using inductive content analysis. The teachers surveyed thought that the most important role of nurses was to maintain good health and safety, as well as to support children's education as members of the educational team. Teachers desired that nurses give advice based on their professional knowledge to maintain the children's good health and safety. In supporting education, nurses were required to support the children's autonomy and education, and to act as members of the educational team. Study findings suggest that, for an optimal relationship with teachers, nurses who provide nursing care for children who are technology-dependent in mainstream schools need not only fulfill medical functions, but also support the education of children as members of the educational team. © 2014 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2014 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  6. Enteric-coated, pH-dependent peppermint oil capsules for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, R M; Kline, J J; Di Palma J; Barbero, G J

    2001-01-01

    In a randomized, double-blind controlled trial, 42 children with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) were given pH-dependent, enteric-coated peppermint oil capsules or placebo. After 2 weeks, 75% of those receiving peppermint oil had reduced severity of pain associated with IBS. Peppermint oil may be used as a therapeutic agent during the symptomatic phase of IBS.

  7. [Field Independence-Dependence, Reflection-Impulsivity, and Problem-Solving Styles of Preschool Children.] Interim Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Barbara

    Two Masters' theses, by Andrea Weiss and Melinda Welles, pursuing related questions were synthesized into a final report, "Field Independence-Dependence, Reflection-Impulsivity, and Problem-Solving Styles of Preschool Children," of which this interim report is a summary. The major purposes of both investigations were to determine: (1)…

  8. 77 FR 40524 - Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Payable to a Surviving Spouse With One or More Children...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ... statutory change was incorporated as 38 CFR 3.10(e)(4). See 71 FR 44915, Aug. 8, 2006. However, because 38 U... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 3 RIN 2900-AO38 Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Payable to a Surviving Spouse... to a surviving spouse with one or more children below the age of 18. The Veterans' Compensation...

  9. A Prospective Study of Age-dependent Changes in Propofol-induced Electroencephalogram Oscillations in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Johanna M; Akeju, Oluwaseun; Terzakis, Kristina; Pavone, Kara J; Deng, Hao; Houle, Timothy T; Firth, Paul G; Shank, Erik S; Brown, Emery N; Purdon, Patrick L

    2017-08-01

    In adults, frontal electroencephalogram patterns observed during propofol-induced unconsciousness consist of slow oscillations (0.1 to 1 Hz) and coherent alpha oscillations (8 to 13 Hz). Given that the nervous system undergoes significant changes during development, anesthesia-induced electroencephalogram oscillations in children may differ from those observed in adults. Therefore, we investigated age-related changes in frontal electroencephalogram power spectra and coherence during propofol-induced unconsciousness. We analyzed electroencephalogram data recorded during propofol-induced unconsciousness in patients between 0 and 21 yr of age (n = 97), using multitaper spectral and coherence methods. We characterized power and coherence as a function of age using multiple linear regression analysis and within four age groups: 4 months to 1 yr old (n = 4), greater than 1 to 7 yr old (n = 16), greater than 7 to 14 yr old (n = 30), and greater than 14 to 21 yr old (n = 47). Total electroencephalogram power (0.1 to 40 Hz) peaked at approximately 8 yr old and subsequently declined with increasing age. For patients greater than 1 yr old, the propofol-induced electroencephalogram structure was qualitatively similar regardless of age, featuring slow and coherent alpha oscillations. For patients under 1 yr of age, frontal alpha oscillations were not coherent. Neurodevelopmental processes that occur throughout childhood, including thalamocortical development, may underlie age-dependent changes in electroencephalogram power and coherence during anesthesia. These age-dependent anesthesia-induced electroencephalogram oscillations suggest a more principled approach to monitoring brain states in pediatric patients.

  10. Differential effects of film on preschool children's behaviour dependent on editing pace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyrka-Allchorne, Katarzyna; Cooper, Nicholas R; Gossmann, Anna Maria; Barber, Katy J; Simpson, Andrew

    2017-05-01

    Evidence on how the pace of television and film editing affects children's behaviour and attention is inconclusive. We examined whether a fast-paced film affected how preschool-aged children interacted with toys. The study comprised 70 children (36 girls) aged two to four-and-a-half years who attended preschools in Essex, United Kingdom. The children were paired up and tested with either a fast- or a slow-paced film of a narrator reading a children's story. The fast-paced version had 102 camera cuts and 16 still images, and the slow-paced version had 22 camera cuts and four still images. Each dyad took part in two video-recorded free-play sessions, before and after they watched one of the specially edited four-minute films. The number of toys the children played with before and after the film sessions was recorded. Before they watched the films, the children's behaviour did not differ between the groups. However, after watching the film, the children in the fast-paced group shifted their attention between toys more frequently than the children who watched the slow-paced film. Even a brief exposure to differently paced films had an immediate effect on how the children interacted with their toys. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Abnormal Size-Dependent Modulation of Motion Perception in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sysoeva, Olga V; Galuta, Ilia A; Davletshina, Maria S; Orekhova, Elena V; Stroganova, Tatiana A

    2017-01-01

    Excitation/Inhibition (E/I) imbalance in neural networks is now considered among the core neural underpinnings of autism psychopathology. In motion perception at least two phenomena critically depend on E/I balance in visual cortex: spatial suppression (SS), and spatial facilitation (SF) corresponding to impoverished or improved motion perception with increasing stimuli size, respectively. While SS is dominant at high contrast, SF is evident for low contrast stimuli, due to the prevalence of inhibitory contextual modulations in the former, and excitatory ones in the latter case. Only one previous study (Foss-Feig et al., 2013) investigated SS and SF in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Our study aimed to replicate previous findings, and to explore the putative contribution of deficient inhibitory influences into an enhanced SF index in ASD-a cornerstone for interpretation proposed by Foss-Feig et al. (2013). The SS and SF were examined in 40 boys with ASD, broad spectrum of intellectual abilities (63 ASD. The presence of abnormally enhanced SF in children with ASD was the only consistent finding between our study and that of Foss-Feig et al. While the SS and SF indexes were strongly interrelated in TD participants, this correlation was absent in their peers with ASD. In addition, the SF index but not the SS index correlated with the severity of autism and the poor registration abilities. The pattern of results is partially consistent with the idea of hypofunctional inhibitory transmission in visual areas in ASD. Nonetheless, the absence of correlation between SF and SS indexes paired with a strong direct link between abnormally enhanced SF and autism symptoms in our ASD sample emphasizes the role of the enhanced excitatory influences by themselves in the observed abnormalities in low-level visual phenomena found in ASD.

  12. Young Children Enforce Social Norms Selectively Depending on the Violator's Group Affiliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Marco F. H.; Rakoczy, Hannes; Tomasello, Michael

    2012-01-01

    To become cooperative members of their cultural groups, developing children must follow their group's social norms. But young children are not just blind norm followers, they are also active norm enforcers, for example, protesting and correcting when someone plays a conventional game the "wrong" way. In two studies, we asked whether young children…

  13. Assessment of health care by children and adolescents depends on when they respond to the questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hanne Irene; Ammentorp, Jette; Kofoed, Poul-Erik

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the assessments and priorities by children and adolescents of health care in a paediatric outpatient clinic, to examine the influence of the time factor on the assessments and priorities by children and adolescents of health care, and to determine their prefer...

  14. Blocking in children's causal learning depends on working memory and reasoning abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Teresa; Simms, Victoria; McGourty, Jemma; Beckers, Tom

    2013-07-01

    A sample of 99 children completed a causal learning task that was an analogue of the food allergy paradigm used with adults. The cue competition effects of blocking and unovershadowing were assessed under forward and backward presentation conditions. Children also answered questions probing their ability to make the inference posited to be necessary for blocking by a reasoning account of cue competition. For the first time, children's working memory and general verbal ability were also measured alongside their causal learning. The magnitude of blocking and unovershadowing effects increased with age. However, analyses showed that the best predictor of both blocking and unovershadowing effects was children's performance on the reasoning questions. The magnitude of the blocking effect was also predicted by children's working memory abilities. These findings provide new evidence that cue competition effects such as blocking are underpinned by effortful reasoning processes.

  15. A Case Control Study on School Dropouts in Children of Alcohol-Dependent Males Versus that in Abstainers/Social Drinkers′ Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violet N Pinto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study and compare in the children of alcohol-dependent males versus those in a socio-demographically similar control group, the occurrence of school dropouts, and to examine the link between certain factors like parental education and socioeconomic status on school dropout. Materials and Methods: This was a community-based case control study. The participants were 107 family units in both study group (alcohol-dependent male, wife, at least one child less than 14 years of age and control group (abstainer/social drinker, wife, at least one child less than 14 years of age. It was conducted in an urban slum community in Mumbai. Interview technique was used for data collection. The study was conducted for a period of 1 year. Statistical Analysis: Using software SPSS version 17.0, percentages, Chi-square test. Results and Conclusion: The number of school dropouts was significantly higher (45.31%, P < 0.001 in the children of alcohol-dependent males as compared to 22.47% in the abstainers/social drinkers′ children. In the study group, there was higher number of school dropouts among boys (52.73%, P < 0.05 as compared to girls (35.37%. There was a statistically significant association between parental illiteracy and school dropout in children in both the groups. In the control group, significantly higher number of school dropouts of socioeconomic class IV and V had dropped out as compared to those of socioeconomic class III and II.

  16. An Evaluation of a Continuing Education Program for Family Caregivers of Ventilator-Dependent Children with Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah S. Boroughs

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Until 25 years ago, there were limited options for long-term mechanical ventilation of children, and the majority of children were cared for in hospitals. However, with improving technology, the pediatric intensive care unit has moved from the hospital to a home setting, as children with increasingly complex healthcare needs are now often cared for by family members. One of the most complex care conditions involves ventilator and tracheostomy support. Advanced respiratory technologies that augment natural respiratory function prolong the lives of children with respiratory compromise; however, this care often comes with serious risks, including respiratory muscle impairment, respiratory failure, and chronic pulmonary disease. Both non-invasive assisted ventilation and assisted ventilation via tracheostomy can prolong survival into adulthood in many cases; however, mechanical ventilation in the home is a high-stakes, high risk intervention. Increasing complexity of care over time requires perpetual skill training of family caregivers that is delivered and supported by professional caregivers; yet, opportunities for additional training outside of the hospital rarely exist. Recent data has confirmed that repetitive caregiver education is essential for retention of memory and skills in adult learners. This study analyzes the use of continued education and training in the community for family caregivers of ventilator-dependent children diagnosed with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA.

  17. Decreased sensitivity to long-distance dependencies in children with a history of specific language impairment: electrophysiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, J D; Leonard, Laurence B; Weber-Fox, Christine; Kaganovich, Natalya

    2014-06-01

    One possible source of tense and agreement limitations in children with specific language impairment (SLI) is a weakness in appreciating structural dependencies that occur in many sentences in the input. This possibility was tested in the present study. Children with a history of SLI (H-SLI; n = 12; M = 9;7 [years;months]) and typically developing same-age peers (TD; n = 12; M = 9;7) listened to and made grammaticality judgments about grammatical and ungrammatical sentences involving either a local agreement error (e.g., "Every night they talks on the phone") or a long-distance finiteness error (e.g., "He makes the quiet boy talks a little louder"). Electrophysiological (ERP) and behavioral (accuracy) measures were obtained. Local agreement errors elicited the expected anterior negativity and P600 components in both groups of children. However, relative to the TD group, the P600 effect for the long-distance finiteness errors was delayed, reduced in amplitude, and shorter in duration for the H-SLI group. The children's grammaticality judgments were consistent with the ERP findings. Children with H-SLI seem to be relatively insensitive to the finiteness constraints that matrix verbs place on subject-verb clauses that appear later in the sentence.

  18. An Evaluation of a Continuing Education Program for Family Caregivers of Ventilator-Dependent Children with Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroughs, Deborah S

    2017-04-29

    Until 25 years ago, there were limited options for long-term mechanical ventilation of children, and the majority of children were cared for in hospitals. However, with improving technology, the pediatric intensive care unit has moved from the hospital to a home setting, as children with increasingly complex healthcare needs are now often cared for by family members. One of the most complex care conditions involves ventilator and tracheostomy support. Advanced respiratory technologies that augment natural respiratory function prolong the lives of children with respiratory compromise; however, this care often comes with serious risks, including respiratory muscle impairment, respiratory failure, and chronic pulmonary disease. Both non-invasive assisted ventilation and assisted ventilation via tracheostomy can prolong survival into adulthood in many cases; however, mechanical ventilation in the home is a high-stakes, high risk intervention. Increasing complexity of care over time requires perpetual skill training of family caregivers that is delivered and supported by professional caregivers; yet, opportunities for additional training outside of the hospital rarely exist. Recent data has confirmed that repetitive caregiver education is essential for retention of memory and skills in adult learners. This study analyzes the use of continued education and training in the community for family caregivers of ventilator-dependent children diagnosed with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA).

  19. Violence-related injury of children in Israel: age-dependent pattern

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rozenfeld, Michael; Peleg, Kobi

    2009-01-01

    To characterize the population of children hospitalized as a result of violence. This retrospective study used data from the Israeli National Trauma Registry on patients aged 0-17 years hospitalized for trauma during 1998-2006...

  20. Akt-dependent enhanced migratory capacity of Th17 cells from children with lupus nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kshirsagar, Sudhir; Riedl, Magdalena; Billing, Heiko; Tönshoff, Burkhard; Thangavadivel, Shanmugapriya; Steuber, Christian; Staude, Hagen; Wechselberger, Gottfried; Edelbauer, Monika

    2014-11-15

    Th17 cells infiltrate the kidneys of patients with lupus nephritis (LN) and are critical for the pathogenesis of this disease. In this study, we show that enhanced activity of Stat3 in CD4(+)CD45RA(-)Foxp3(-) and Foxp3(low) effector T cells from children with LN correlates with increased frequencies of IL-17-producing cells within these T cell populations. The levels of retinoic acid-related orphan receptor c and IL-17 mRNA are significantly higher in PBMCs from children with LN than in those from controls. Mammalian target of rapamycin inhibition by rapamycin reduces both Stat3 activation in effector T cells and the frequency of IL-17-producing T cells in lupus patients. Complement factor C5a slightly increases the expression of IL-17 and induces activation of Akt in anti-CD3-activated lupus effector T cells. Th17 cells from children with LN exhibit high Akt activity and enhanced migratory capacity. Inhibition of the Akt signaling pathway significantly decreases Th17 cell migration. These findings indicate that the Akt signaling pathway plays a significant role in the migratory activity of Th17 cells from children with LN and suggest that therapeutic modulation of the Akt activity may inhibit Th17 cell trafficking to sites of inflammation and thus suppress chronic inflammatory processes in children with LN.

  1. Cultivation of Children's Self-dependence Ability%浅谈学生自理能力的培养

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓静

    2011-01-01

    Self-care ability is the embodiment of the self service ability and plays an important role in children's growth.Based on the analysis of the infants' ability of self-dependence, the paper puts forward some cultivating methods of ability of self-dependence.The practice proves that this method can effectively improve their ability of self-dependence, establish confidence, and cultivate perfect personality.%自理能力是自我服务能力的体现,对幼儿的成长有着重要作用.本文通过对幼儿自理能力的分析,提出了一些培养幼儿自理能力的方法.经实践证明,这些方法能够有效提高幼儿自理能力,树立自信心,培养健全人格.

  2. Verbal short-term memory span in children: long-term modality dependent effects of intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geva, R; Eshel, R; Leitner, Y; Fattal-Valevski, A; Harel, S

    2008-12-01

    Recent reports showed that children born with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are at greater risk of experiencing verbal short-term memory span (STM) deficits that may impede their learning capacities at school. It is still unknown whether these deficits are modality dependent. This long-term, prospective design study examined modality-dependent verbal STM functions in children who were diagnosed at birth with IUGR (n = 138) and a control group (n = 64). Their STM skills were evaluated individually at 9 years of age with four conditions of the Visual-Aural Digit Span Test (VADS; Koppitz, 1981): auditory-oral, auditory-written, visuospatial-oral and visuospatial-written. Cognitive competence was evaluated with the short form of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children--revised (WISC-R95; Wechsler, 1998). We found IUGR-related specific auditory-oral STM deficits (p long-term relationship between prenatal aberrant head growth and auditory verbal STM deficits by the end of the first decade of life. Empirical, clinical and educational implications are presented.

  3. SOMATOTYPE PROFILES AND CHANGES DEPENDING ON TREADMILL EXERCISE IN CHILDREN WITH CEREBRAL PALSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazmi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The postponement of the brain development as a result of brain lesion causes some functional inabilities affecting the whole body of the children with cerebral palsy compared to their peers. In this study, it was aimed to investigate the effects of the treadmill exercise on somatotype profiles and some variables in disabled children diagnosed with cerebral palsy. Methods. The subjects of the study were 37 children with cerebral palsy whose ages range from 7 to 15 and they were taking regular physical therapy in a private education and rehabilitation center. The experimental group and the control group consists of 20 children (8 girls and 12 boys and 17 children (10 girls and 7 boys, respectively. The subjects of the experimental group were performed treadmill exercise under the supervision of a physical therapist twice a week for three months (totally 24 walking exercises while their treatments in the center were continuing. The initial and final speeds, duration of the exercise, the distance covered and the calories burnt were recorded and the somatotypical characteristics of the subjects were evaluated before and after the study. Results. It was encountered that the initial and final pace of the exercise, the duration of the use of the treadmill, the distance covered and the calories burnt increased significantly. No remarkable changes in the pulse rates were determined before and after the exercise. During the comparison of the experimental and control groups before and after the exercise, some noteworthy variations in ectomorphy and ponderal index were confirmed after the exercise even though no considerable differences in mesomorphy, endomorphy and body fat percentage were determined. Conclusion. We are of the opinion that the treadmill exercise will positively affect the pace of the exercise, the distance covered, the calories burnt by the children with cerebral palsy, moving more freely, controlled walking and body type.

  4. Infliximab Dependency in a National Cohort of Children with Crohn's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, Anne Vibeke; Riis, L; Vind, Ida

    2006-01-01

    AIM: The aim was to evaluate the pattern of responsiveness and to monitor side effects of episodic administration of infliximab in children with active Crohn's disease (CD) treated in Denmark from 1999 to 2003. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The National Danish Crohn Colitis Database of infliximab was used...... of symptoms requiring reinfusions of infliximab to regain CR or PR, and 6 (25%) had NR. Six (25%) patients needed surgery during or after treatment with infliximab. Side effects were seen in four (17%) patients. No serious events were noted. CONCLUSION: Seventy-one percent of the children appeared to benefit...

  5. Changes in Mothers' Psychosocial Perceptions of Technology-dependent Children and Adolescents at Home in Japan: Acknowledgement of Children's Autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Nishigaki, RN, PHN, PhD

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: First, mothers gradually accepted the conditions of their child after his/her disease and disability were known. Second, others managed technology-required care and concurrently considered the social participation of their child through daily care at home. Third, the level of preoccupation with the child was affected by the mothers' management of care and their attitude towards the social participation of their child in home care. In this study, as is widely alleged in historical recognition of Japan, mothers provided daily care almost without help from other family members. Additionally, they thought it natural and good for their children. Above all, especially in Japan, professional support for mothers are necessary so that they can take breaks from care.

  6. Interpretation of Anaphoric Dependencies in Russian-speaking Children with and without Developmental Language Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornilov, Sergey A.; Reich, Jodi; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2015-01-01

    We examined anaphora resolution in children with and without Developmental Language Disorder (DLD) to clarify whether 1) DLD is best understood as missing knowledge of certain linguistic operations/elements or as unreliable performance and 2) if comprehension of sentences with anaphoric expressions as objects and exceptionally case marked (ECM) subjects supports a particular theoretical account of anaphora. Fifty-four native-Russian-speaking children (age M = 7;6, SD = 1;9) were tested on a picture selection task. Children with DLD (n=18) underperformed overall, but displayed similar patterns to the typically developing (TD) group with respect to the extra difficulty of the ECM relative to the transitive and ECM pronouns relative to all other conditions. However, whereas pronouns were more difficult than reflexives for the TD children, this effect was not significant for the DLD group, whose reduced accuracy on reflexives washed out the effect of pronouns in that group. These results are consistent with performance-level vulnerability in DLD, arguably related to weaknesses in lexical processing and with the Reflexivity framework of Binding phenomena. PMID:26640354

  7. Dynamical Methods for Evaluating the Time-Dependent Unfolding of Social Coordination in Children with Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula eFitzpatrick

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD suffer from numerous impairments in social interaction that affect both their mental and bodily coordination with others. We explored here whether interpersonal motor coordination may be an important key for understanding the profound social problems of children with ASD. We employed a set of experimental techniques to evaluate not only traditional cognitive measures of social competence but also the dynamical structure of social coordination by using dynamical measures of social motor coordination and analyzing the time series records of behavior. Preliminary findings suggest that children with ASD were equivalent to typically developing children on many social performance outcome measures. However, significant relationships were found between cognitive social measures (e.g., intentionality and dynamical social motor measures. In addition, we found that more perceptually-based measures of social coordination were not associated with social motor coordination. These findings suggest that social coordination may not be a unitary construct and point to the promise of this multi-method and process-oriented approach to analyzing social coordination as an important pathway for understanding ASD-specific social deficits.

  8. Grip Force Control Is Dependent on Task Constraints in Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Sui-Heung; Lo, Sing Kai; Chow, Susanna; Cheing, Gladys L.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Excessive grip force (GF) is often found in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). However, their GF control may vary when task constraints are imposed upon their motor performance. This study aimed to investigate how their GF control changes in response to task demands, and to examine their tactile sensitivity. Twenty-one…

  9. Neural Differences in Bilingual Children's Arithmetic Processing Depending on Language of Instruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mondt, K.; Struys, E.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Balériaux, D.; Metens, T.; Paquier, P.; Craen, P. van de; Bosch, M.P.C.; Denolin, V.

    2011-01-01

    Many children in bilingual regions follow lessons in a language at school (school-language) that they hardly ever speak at home or in other informal settings. What are the neural effects of this phenomenon? This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigates the effects of using sch

  10. Dependence of P-wave dispersion on mean arterial pressure as an independent hemodynamic variable in school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elibet Chávez González

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:The relationship between diastolic dysfunction and P-wave dispersion (PWD in the electrocardiogram has been studied for some time. In this regard, echocardiography is emerging as a diagnostic tool to improve risk stratification for mild hypertension.Objective:To determine the dependence of PWD on the electrocardiogram and on echocardiographic variables in a pediatric population.Methods: Five hundred and fifteen children from three elementary schools were studiedfrom a total of 565 children. Those whose parents did not want them to take part in the study, as well as those with known congenital diseases, were excluded. Tests including 12-lead surface ECGs and 4 blood pressure (BP measurements were performed. Maximum and minimum P-values were measured, and the PWD on the electrocardiogram was calculated. Echocardiography for structural measurements and the pulsed Doppler of mitral flow were also performed.Results: A significant correlation in statistical variables was found between PWD and mean BP for pre-hypertensive and hypertensive children, i.e., r= 0.32, p <0.01 and r= 0.33, p <0.01, respectively. There was a significant correlation found between PWD and the left atrial area (r= 0.45 and p <0.01.Conclusions: We highlight the dependency between PWD, the electrocardiogram and  mean  blood pressure. We also draw attention to the dependence of PWD on the left atrial area.  This result provides an explanation for earlier changes in atrial electrophysiological and hemodynamic characteristics in pediatric patients.

  11. The theory of shared communication: how parents of technology-dependent children communicate with nurses on the inpatient unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giambra, Barbara K; Sabourin, Teresa; Broome, Marion E; Buelow, Janice

    2014-01-01

    Care may be compromised for hospitalized technology-dependent children if nurses do not communicate with parents to include their knowledge in the child's plan of care. A qualitative study using grounded theory methodology was undertaken to identify parental perceptions and experiences of communication with nurses. The Theory of Shared Communication was the result of this study and includes questioning, listening, explaining, advocating, verifying understanding and negotiating roles to achieve the outcome of mutual understanding of the child's plan of care. Nurses should be aware of parent perceptions about communication when working with families to optimize the care they provide.

  12. Infliximab Dependency in a National Cohort of Children with Crohn's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, Anne Vibeke; Riis, L; Vind, Ida;

    2006-01-01

    AIM: The aim was to evaluate the pattern of responsiveness and to monitor side effects of episodic administration of infliximab in children with active Crohn's disease (CD) treated in Denmark from 1999 to 2003. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The National Danish Crohn Colitis Database of infliximab was used...... to identify all Danish CD patients treated at pediatric departments with infliximab. The clinical outcome was assessed by pattern recognition of the disease course 30 days after the first infliximab infusion and 90 days after intended end of treatment. RESULTS: During a 3 year period, infliximab was given...... of symptoms requiring reinfusions of infliximab to regain CR or PR, and 6 (25%) had NR. Six (25%) patients needed surgery during or after treatment with infliximab. Side effects were seen in four (17%) patients. No serious events were noted. CONCLUSION: Seventy-one percent of the children appeared to benefit...

  13. Symptom monitoring and dependent care during cancer treatment in children: pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Phoebe D; Schmideskamp, Jami; Ridder, E Lavonne; Williams, Arthur R

    2006-01-01

    Symptom monitoring by parents/caregivers of children with cancer and what the caregiver and child did to help alleviate symptoms during chemotherapy were studied. The Therapy-Related Symptom Checklist (TRSC) child version was administered to parents/caregivers of 11 children and adolescents (mean age, 10.4 years; SD, 6.1 years; range, 2-18 years; 45% were boys). The Karnofsky scale was completed by clinicians to rate the child's functional status. The TRSC child version and functional status scores were inversely related. All children experienced nausea; the most frequent symptoms reported were in TRSC subscales: fatigue, nausea, eating, fever, oropharynx, pain, and hair loss. Care strategies that helped were distraction, massage, mouth rinses, and vitamins; some reported that their child received medications for pain, nausea, and vomiting. Using complementary medicine categories, the care strategies were diet/nutrition/lifestyle change (eg, more high-fat, high-calorie foods; new foods; any food the child likes; and much sleep and rest); mind/body control (eg, play, video games, television, reading, activity puzzle, breathing exercises, relaxation methods, and prayer); manual healing method (massage and skin-to-skin contact); and biologic treatments (vitamins). The first 2 categories were the most used. Systematic assessment with a self-report checklist enables the provider to identify and prioritize (according to reported severity) those symptoms needing intervention.

  14. Transabdominal ultrasound measurement of rectal diameter is dependent on time to defecation in constipated children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modin, Line; Dalby, Kasper; Walsted, Anne-Mette;

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To study whether diurnal variations and time in relation to defecation has to be taken into account when measurements of rectal diameter are used to determine faecal impaction in constipated children. METHODS: Repeated ultrasound measures of rectal diameter were performed in 28 children (14...... constipated/14 healthy, aged between 4 and 12 years) every third hour during 24 h. After defecation, three additional scans were performed at 1-h intervals. RESULTS: No diurnal variation in rectal diameter was found in the healthy group. In the constipated group, mean rectal diameter was significantly larger...... at 2 pm (P = 0.038) and 5 pm (P = 0.006). There were significant differences between rectal diameter in the healthy group and the constipated group at 2 pm (P = 0.016) and 5 pm (P = 0.027). When we omitted the rectal diameter of five constipated children who had their first bowel movement after 5 pm...

  15. Violence-related injury of children in Israel: age-dependent pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenfeld, Michael; Peleg, Kobi

    2009-05-01

    To characterize the population of children hospitalized as a result of violence. This retrospective study used data from the Israeli National Trauma Registry on patients aged 0-17 years hospitalized for trauma during 1998-2006. Of 65,430 patients, 2060 (3.1%) had violence-related injuries. Descriptive statistics and bivariate analysis were used to characterize injury patterns and multivariate analysis was used to identify factors associated with severe injury. Half the victims of violence Violence-related trauma occurred more often than other trauma in the street, at school or in a public place or leisure facility, but less often at home. Unarmed brawling and stabbing were the most common types of violence. Brawling affected Jewish children more, while non-Jewish children were more often injured by firearms. The boundaries of age groups with different injury rates corresponded to the 'institutional' childhood stages of the Israeli educational system: the violence-related injury rate dropped after the first year of life, stayed low during kindergarten, rose slightly during elementary school and rose steeply during secondary and high school. The percentage of males increased with each age group. The street became more dangerous with age, while school and home became safer. Adolescents aged 15-17 years, newborn infants and those injured by firearms had the highest risk of severe injury. Age and type of violence were the most important predictors of violence frequency and severity. Ethnicity lost importance when adjusted by these factors. Further research on their influence on violence-related injury is needed.

  16. Infliximab dependency in a national cohort of children with Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wever, Anne Vibeke; Riis, Lene; Vind, Ida

    2006-01-01

    to 24 CD patients (9 male/15 female) aged median 15.4 (range 9.8-18.6) years with a median disease duration of 26 (range 0.7-93) months and a median number of infusions of 6 (range 2-11). Five milligrams of infliximab per kilogram infusions were given intravenously. Immediate response was as follows: 8...... of symptoms requiring reinfusions of infliximab to regain CR or PR, and 6 (25%) had NR. Six (25%) patients needed surgery during or after treatment with infliximab. Side effects were seen in four (17%) patients. No serious events were noted. CONCLUSION: Seventy-one percent of the children appeared to benefit...

  17. Prevalence and related risk-factors of peripheral neuropathy in children with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasibeh Hasani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM is a common metabolic disorder that can cause various complications including, peripheral neuropathy (PNP. Some possible risk-factors such as blood glucose level, hyperglycemia, duration of diabetes, and lipid profiles are assumed to be important in diabetic PNP incidence. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence and possible risk-factors of PNP in children with insulin dependent DM. Materials and Methods: Among diabetic children, 146 patients (up to 18-years old were evaluated in this cross-sectional study. All patients were examined for signs and symptoms of neuropathy and nerve conduction studies were performed. Blood level of glucose and lipid profiles were also tested. The relation between variables was compared by independent t-test and logistic regression test. Results: The mean age of diabetic children was 11.9 ± 3.3 years whereas mean diabetes duration was 3.8 ± 2.9 years. PNP was detected in 40 patients (27.4% that 62.5% of them have subclinical and 37.5% have clinical neuropathy. According to logistic regression analysis, duration of diabetes was the most important factor in prevalence of PNP (5.7 ± 3.5 and 3.1 ± 2.5 years in patients with and without neuropathy respectively, P < 0.001, 95% confidence interval [1.15-1.54]. Conclusion: As most of the patients had subclinical PN, neurological assessment is recommended to detect subclinical neuropathy in asymptomatic type 1 diabetic children and it seems that the best way to prevent this complication is still rigid blood glucose control and periodic evaluations.

  18. Glycemic index and glycemic load of thirteen year old children whose waist circumference (WC ≥ 90 percentile dependent on BMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzanna Goluch-Koniuszy

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. One of the reasons for the accumulation of fat tissue (including visceral fat tissue in the body is an unbalanced diet in respect of the amount and the structure of carbohydrates and the value of the glycemic index (GI and the glycemic load (GL. The research describing the dependence between the BMI (Body Mass Index, WC (Waist Circumference, WHtR (Waist-to-Height Ratio, and GI and GL indexes in adults exists but only a limited number of works discuss children during the pubertal spurt. Therefore the objective of this research is the evaluation of the state of nutrition of 13-year-old children with waist circumference ≥ 90 percentile with various BMI, taking into consideration GL and GL of their meals. Material and methods.The state of nutrition (BMI, WC, WHtR of 871 thirteen-year-old children of both sexes was evaluated and 230 children with WC ≥ 90 percentile were selected (26.4% of the total number examined and divided into three groups regarding the BMI. In 71 children (30.9% of the selected group the method of nutrition, energy and nutritive value of menus, structure of consumption of food groups and GI and GL value were evaluated, on the basis of the analysis of their three day menus, which had been documented. Results.Significantly higher values of BMI and WC were ascertained in boys than in girls. No essential differences in values of WHtR index were ascertained between boys and girls. The analysis of children’s menus, in both sexes with a waist circumference ≥ 90 percentile showed, regardless of BMI value, a low realisation of recommended energetic value of the diet and low realisation of recommended supply of: dietary fibre, fat, mineral components (K, Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, vitamins (E, B1, PP and liquids with simultaneous occurrence of protein in general and animal protein, sodium and vitamins (A, B2, B6 supply. A significantly higher supply of the most of aforementioned ingredients was ascertained in the

  19. Infliximab dependency in a national cohort of children with Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, Anne Vibeke; Riis, Lene; Vind, Ida

    2006-01-01

    AIM: The aim was to evaluate the pattern of responsiveness and to monitor side effects of episodic administration of infliximab in children with active Crohn's disease (CD) treated in Denmark from 1999 to 2003. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The National Danish Crohn Colitis Database of infliximab was used...... to identify all Danish CD patients treated at pediatric departments with infliximab. The clinical outcome was assessed by pattern recognition of the disease course 30 days after the first infliximab infusion and 90 days after intended end of treatment. RESULTS: During a 3 year period, infliximab was given...... to 24 CD patients (9 male/15 female) aged median 15.4 (range 9.8-18.6) years with a median disease duration of 26 (range 0.7-93) months and a median number of infusions of 6 (range 2-11). Five milligrams of infliximab per kilogram infusions were given intravenously. Immediate response was as follows: 8...

  20. Postexercise Dietary Protein Ingestion Increases Whole-Body Leucine Balance in a Dose-Dependent Manner in Healthy Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volterman, Kimberly A; Moore, Daniel R; Breithaupt, Peter; Godin, Jean-Philippe; Karagounis, Leonidas G; Offord, Elizabeth A; Timmons, Brian W

    2017-05-01

    Background: Protein ingestion is important in enhancing whole-body protein balance in children. The effect of discrete bolus protein ingestion on acute postexercise recovery has yet to be determined.Objective: This study determined the effect of increasing doses of ingested protein on postexercise whole-body leucine balance in healthy, active children.Methods: Thirty-five children (26 boys, 9 girls; age range: 9-13 y; weight mean ± SD: 44.9 ± 10.6 kg) underwent a 5-d adaptation diet (0.95 g protein ⋅ kg(-1) ⋅ d(-1)) before performing 20 min of cycling 3 times with a concurrent, primed, constant infusion of [(13)C]leucine. After exercise, participants consumed an isoenergetic beverage (140 kcal) containing variable amounts of bovine skim-milk protein and carbohydrates (sucrose) (0, 5, 10, and 15 g protein made up with 35, 30, 25, and 20 g carbohydrates, respectively). Blood and breath samples were taken over the 3 h of recovery to determine non-steady state whole-body leucine oxidation (LeuOX) and net leucine balance (LeuBAL).Results: LeuOX (secondary outcome) peaked 60 min after beverage ingestion and demonstrated a relative dose-response over the 3 h of recovery (15 g = 10 > 5 > 0 g; P 10 g (11.6 ± 4.3 mg/kg) > 5 g (5.7 ± 1.9 mg/kg) > 0 g (-3.0 ± 1.7 mg/kg); all P ingestion alone; however, the co-ingestion of carbohydrates and 5 g high-quality dietary protein was sufficient to promote a positive postexercise whole-body protein balance in healthy, active children. Moreover, LeuBAL increased in a dose-dependent manner within the protein range studied. Children should consider consuming a source of dietary protein after physical activity to enhance whole-body anabolism. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01598935. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. The occurrence of calcium in pharyngeal tonsils of children dependent on gender, living place and influence of passive smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Nogaj

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The characteristic of occurrence calcium content in pharyngeal tonsils from 60 girls and 90 boys living in 9 region of Upper Silesia is presented in this article. Analysis of content of Ca in pharyngheal tonsils was observed in four groups of children: girls and boys exposed to tobacco smoke and unexposed to tabacco smoke, influence parameters environments on contents Ca in tissue tonsil and the cross-correlation analysis between content of ion Ca and other metals Al, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Mg, Ba, showed repeating co-dependences between Ca in girls from Cd, Al., Zn, Ni, Pb. In case of boys colective dependence was been dependence Ca in Mg, Cd, Zn. Arithmetic mean of calcium in pharyngeal tonsils from exposed girls was 1345.00 µg/g, in comparison to unexposed girls 1292.88 µg/g, in exposed to tobacco smoke boys- 1832.63 µg/g and unexposed boys 565.05 µg/g. It turned out that gender perform important part in absorbed calcium and here noticeable was been big ability to concentrate toxic metals in girls

  2. Home discharge of technology-dependent children: evaluation of a respiratory-therapist driven family education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tearl, Donna K; Hertzog, James H

    2007-02-01

    Initial hospital discharge to home of technology-dependent children requires extensive training and education of the family caregivers. Education of adult family members should promote positive interactions in a nonthreatening manner while facilitating the development of the knowledge and skills to competently and independently provide all aspects of the medical care. We utilize a training program for adult family members of children who have undergone tracheostomy to facilitate long-term mechanical ventilatory support and who are being prepared for their initial discharge from the hospital to home. A dedicated respiratory therapist family educator directs this program. Multiple teaching tools, activities, and training sessions, based on adult learning theory, are utilized to develop appropriate clinical skills to manage children with tracheostomies and the associated technological supports. We evaluated the effectiveness of our program by administering a written test to caregivers, at the start and the conclusion of their training. We also surveyed the caregivers about their satisfaction with the educational program and the respiratory therapist family educator's performance. We also surveyed employees of the durable medical equipment companies used by the families, regarding the caregivers' knowledge and competency in the home one month following discharge. Our program was associated with a statistically significant improvement in caregiver test performance, and the caregivers expressed a high degree of satisfaction with the program. The employees of the durable medical equipment companies perceived a high degree of knowledge and competence on the part of the home caregivers. Our training program appears to have a positive impact on the educational preparation of caregivers.

  3. Learning of a simple grapho-motor task by young children and adults: Similar acquisition but age-dependent retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona eJulius

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Many new skills are acquired during early childhood. Typical laboratory skill learning tasks are not applicable for developmental studies that involve children younger than 8 years of age. It is not clear whether young children and adults share a basic underlying skill learning mechanism. In the present study, the learning and retention of a simple grapho-motor pattern were studied in three age groups: 5-6 years, 7-8 years, and 19-29 years. Each block of the task consists of identical patterns arranged in a spaced writing array. Progression across the block involves on-page movements while producing the pattern, and off-page movements between patterns. The participants practiced the production of the pattern using a digitizing tablet and were tested at 24 hours and two weeks post-practice. All age groups produced the task blocks more quickly with practice, and the learning rate was inversely related to the initial production time across and within the groups. All groups exhibited additional gains 24 hours post-practice that were well retained 2 weeks later. The accuracy of the participants was maintained throughout the two-week period. These findings suggest that young children and young adults use a similar mechanism when learning the task. A separate analysis of the on-page and off-page movement times per block indicated that during retention testing, the 6-year-olds spent more time off-page than when tested at 24 hours post-practice, thus supporting the notion that an age advantage may exists in the long-term retention of skills due to planning-dependent aspects.

  4. Patterns of hospital use, family history and co-existing conditions among urban African-American and Hispanic-American children with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, R B

    1996-10-01

    Little information is available about insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) when it occurs among US minorities. The incidence of IDDM among African-American and Hispanic children Diabetes among the first degree relatives of children from both ethnic groups was common, and the most frequently listed co-morbid conditions were asthma and obesity. The risk for IDDM in Chicago is among the highest for both African-origin and Hispanic children worldwide. The prevalence of asthma and obesity parallels the high prevalence of these conditions among non-diabetic children in Chicago. The ongoing epidemic of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) among African-Americans and US Hispanics is likely to be the reason for the large number of minority IDDM patients who have a first-degree relative with diabetes.

  5. Age and gender dependent development of theory of mind in 6 to 8-years old children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Ines Calero

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability to attribute different mental states to distinct individuals, or Theory of Mind (ToM, is widely believed to be developed mostly during preschool years. How different factors such as gender, number of siblings or coarse personality traits affect this development is not entirely agreed upon. Here, we introduce a computerized version of the scaled ToM suite of tasks introduced by Wellman and Liu (2004, which allows us to meaningfully test ToM development on children 6 to 8-years old. We find that kids this age are still not entirely proficient in all ToM tasks, and continue to show a progression of performance with age. By testing this age range, too, we are able to observe a significant advantage of girls over boys in ToM performance. Other factors such as number of siblings, birth order, and coarse personality traits show no significant relation with the ToM task results. Finally, we introduce a novel way to quantify the scaling property of the suite involving a sequence of set inclusions and also, a comparison between specially tailored sets of logistic models. These measures confirm the validity of the scale in the 6 to 8-years old range.

  6. Functional characterization of IgA-targeted bacterial taxa from malnourished Malawian children that produce diet-dependent enteropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kau, Andrew L.; Planer, Joseph D.; Liu, Jie; Rao, Sindhuja; Yatsunenko, Tanya; Trehan, Indi; Manary, Mark J.; Liu, Ta-Chiang; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S.; Maleta, Kenneth M.; Ashorn, Per; Dewey, Kathryn G.; Houpt, Eric R.; Hsieh, Chyi-Song; Gordon, Jeffrey I.

    2015-01-01

    To gain insights into the interrelationships among childhood undernutrition, the gut microbiota, and gut mucosal immune/barrier function, we purified bacterial strains targeted by IgA from the fecal microbiota of two cohorts of Malawian infants and children. IgA responses to several bacterial taxa, including Enterobacteriaceae, correlated with anthropometric measurements of nutritional status in longitudinal studies. The relationship between IgA responses and growth was further explained by enteropathogen burden. Gnotobiotic mouse recipients of an IgA+-bacterial consortium purified from the gut microbiota of undernourished children exhibited a diet-dependent enteropathy characterized by rapid disruption of the small intestinal and colonic epithelial barrier, weight loss and sepsis that could be prevented by administering two IgA-targeted bacterial species from a healthy microbiota. Dissection of a culture collection of 11 IgA-targeted strains from an undernourished donor, sufficient to transmit these phenotypes, disclosed that Enterobacteriaceae interacted with other consortium members to produce enteropathy. These findings indicate that bacterial targets of IgA responses have etiologic, diagnostic, and therapeutic implications for childhood undernutrition. PMID:25717097

  7. Benefits of once-daily administration of cyclosporine a for children with steroid-dependent, relapsing nephrotic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Koichi; Oki, Eishin; Tsuruga, Kazushi; Aizawa-Yashiro, Tomomi; Ito, Etsuro; Tanaka, Hiroshi

    2010-03-01

    Cyclosporine A (CsA) is an effective steroid-sparing agent for patients with steroid-dependent, relapsing nephrotic syndrome (SDRNS). The efficacy and safety of single-daily dose administration (SDD protocol) of CsA in selected patients with SDRNS has been reported. However, the efficacy of initial CsA treatment for children with SDRNS using the SDD protocol remains to be elucidated. The SDD protocol might be associated with lower clinical toxicity, compared to the conventional twice-daily dose administration (TDD protocol). Here we evaluated the efficacy and safety of the SDD protocol versus the TDD protocol in patients with SDRNS. The data from 19 patients (9.9 +/- 4.2 years old) were retrospectively collected and analyzed. Ten patients treated according to the SDD protocol for a mean of 27 months (SDD group), while 9 patients treated with the TDD protocol for a mean of 35 months (TDD group) as an initial CsA treatment. Although the mean daily CsA dose was significantly lower in the SDD group (1.5 +/- 0.4 mg/kg/day vs. 3.7 +/- 0.7 mg/kg/day, P SDD group showed nephrotoxicity. Despite a small number of patients, this study may support that the SDD protocol is at least as effective as the conventional TDD protocol, and is more cost-effective for selected children with SDRNS.

  8. Symmetrical Dose-Dependent DNA-Methylation Profiles in Children with Deletion or Duplication of 7q11.23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Emma; Butcher, Darci T; Singhania, Rajat; Mervis, Carolyn B; Morris, Colleen A; De Carvalho, Daniel; Weksberg, Rosanna; Osborne, Lucy R

    2015-08-06

    Epigenetic dysfunction has been implicated in a growing list of disorders that include cancer, neurodevelopmental disorders, and neurodegeneration. Williams syndrome (WS) and 7q11.23 duplication syndrome (Dup7) are rare neurodevelopmental disorders with broad phenotypic spectra caused by deletion and duplication, respectively, of a 1.5-Mb region that includes several genes with a role in epigenetic regulation. We have identified striking differences in DNA methylation across the genome between blood cells from children with WS or Dup7 and blood cells from typically developing (TD) children. Notably, regions that were differentially methylated in both WS and Dup7 displayed a significant and symmetrical gene-dose-dependent effect, such that WS typically showed increased and Dup7 showed decreased DNA methylation. Differentially methylated genes were significantly enriched with genes in pathways involved in neurodevelopment, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) candidate genes, and imprinted genes. Using alignment with ENCODE data, we also found the differentially methylated regions to be enriched with CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) binding sites. These findings suggest that gene(s) within 7q11.23 alter DNA methylation at specific sites across the genome and result in dose-dependent DNA-methylation profiles in WS and Dup7. Given the extent of DNA-methylation changes and the potential impact on CTCF binding and chromatin regulation, epigenetic mechanisms most likely contribute to the complex neurological phenotypes of WS and Dup7. Our findings highlight the importance of DNA methylation in the pathogenesis of WS and Dup7 and provide molecular mechanisms that are potentially shared by WS, Dup7, and ASD. Copyright © 2015 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Study on Job Training for Welfare Recipients Has Only Limited Implications for Welfare Reform Debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, Washington, DC.

    A study used data on the characteristics, Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) program activities, and quarterly earnings of about 6,500 adult female Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) recipients who enrolled in JTPA programs in 11 states during Program Year 1986. The study tracked the experiences of the women in the JTPA programs and…

  10. Experiments in Social Welfare: An Empirical Evaluation of the "Mississippi Project". Mississippi State University, Social Science Research Center Report 38.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Kenneth P.; Ross, Peggy J.

    Focusing on a 2-county rural area of Mississippi, 230 female Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) recipients were divided into 4 groups to ascertain the differential effects that additions of higher levels of financial assistance and/or services over a period of a year (1967-68) would have on life styles and potentials for upward…

  11. 45 CFR 95.605 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., IV, X, XIV, XVI(AABD), XIX or XXI of the Social Security Act. System specifications means information.... For Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) Family Assistance Management Information System..., (2) Systems Development, (3) Site Preparation, (4) Data Entry, and (5) Personal services related to...

  12. "Fighting the system": Families caring for ventilator-dependent children and adults with complex health care needs at home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nielsen Erik W

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increasing number of individuals with complex health care needs now receive life-long and life-prolonging ventilatory support at home. Family members often take on the role of primary caregivers. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of families giving advanced care to family members dependent on home mechanical ventilation. Methods Using qualitative research methods, a Grounded Theory influenced approach was used to explore the families' experiences. A total of 15 family members with 11 ventilator-dependent individuals (three children and eight adults were recruited for 10 in-depth interviews. Results The core category, "fighting the system," became the central theme as family members were asked to describe their experiences. In addition, we identified three subcategories, "lack of competence and continuity", "being indispensable" and "worth fighting for". This study revealed no major differences in the families' experiences that were dependent on whether the ventilator-dependent individual was a child or an adult. Conclusions These findings show that there is a large gap between family members' expectations and what the community health care services are able to provide, even when almost unlimited resources are available. A number of measures are needed to reduce the burden on these family members and to make hospital care at home possible. In the future, the gap between what the health care can potentially provide and what they can provide in real life will rapidly increase. New proposals to limit the extremely costly provision of home mechanical ventilation in Norway will trigger new ethical dilemmas that should be studied further.

  13. Acute chest syndrome after laparoscopic splenectomy in children with sickle cell disease: operative time dependent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnard, A; Masmoudi, M; Boimond, B; Capito, C; Holvoet, L; Skhiri, A; El Ghoneimi, A

    2014-11-01

    Laparoscopic splenectomy remains a technically demanding procedure. On patients with sickle cell disease (SCD), a post operative acute chest syndrome (ACS) can occur. The aim of the study was to look for predictive factors of post operative ACS. It's a retrospective study on patients with SCD, who underwent a laparoscopic splenectomy in Robert Debré hospital, Paris, France, between March 2008 and December 2013. Diagnosis of ACS was done if the patient developed hypoxemia associated with fever above 38.5 °C and an infiltrate on chest x ray during the post operative course. Pre-, post- and operative factors were studied. Descriptive statistics were compared using the Mann-Whitney test or the exact Fisher test. A p inferior to 0.05 was considered as significant. 52 patients with SCD underwent a laparoscopic splenectomy. Twelve patients presented a post operative ACS (23%) (mean age at surgery 4 years old) while forty did not (mean age 5.25 years old). Neither previous episode of ACS nor any factors reflecting SCD severity were significant. The shorter the operative time was, the greater the risk of developing an ACS (p post operative management, in the absence of predictive factors for ACS, should be carefully followed in a high dependency unit at least for 48 h for all patients.

  14. Parental modelling and prompting effects on acceptance of a novel fruit in 2-4-year-old children are dependent on children's food responsiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blissett, Jackie; Bennett, Carmel; Fogel, Anna; Harris, Gillian; Higgs, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Few children consume the recommended portions of fruit or vegetables. This study examined the effects of parental physical prompting and parental modelling in children's acceptance of a novel fruit (NF...

  15. Clinical and genetic analysis of three Korean children with pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Sook Hyun; Kwon, Min-Jung; Lee, Jeehun; Lee, Cha Gon; Yu, Hee Joon; Ki, Chang-Seok; Lee, Munhyang

    2012-01-01

    Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy (PDE) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder that causes intractable seizures, especially in neonates and infants. Patients are typically resistant to typical antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) but respond dramatically to pyridoxine. Mutations in the ALDH7A1 gene are associated with the pathogenesis of PDE. Herein, we report the clinical phenotypes and disease-causative mutations in the ALDH7A1 gene in three Korean patients with PDE. We reviewed the medical records, electroencephalography (EEG), brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, and the results of molecular genetic tests for the patients who were diagnosed with PDE in our institution between Jan. 1996 and Dec. 2010. In all patients, the first seizures began during the first week of life. The seizures were not fully controlled with multiple AEDs, but disappeared immediately after administration of pyridoxine and returned after it was transiently discontinued. Before the use of pyridoxine, interictal EEGs showed multifocal epileptiform discharges, which became normalized with pyridoxine. Direct sequencing analyses revealed two mutant alleles in all three patients. Patient 1 was compound heterozygous with two different missense mutations, c.1061A>G (p.Y354C) and c.1232C>T (p.P411L). Patient 2 was homozygous for a missense mutation, c.1279G>C (p.E427Q). Patient 3 was compound heterozygous for two different missense mutations, c.1061A>G (p.Y354C) and c.1279G>C (p.E427Q), and her parents and younger brother were heterozygous carriers of each one of the mutations. All three mutations had not previously been reported. Herein, we report three Korean patients with three novel mutations who presented with PDE.

  16. Domain-specific perceptual causality in children depends on the spatio-temporal configuration, not motion onset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne eSchlottmann

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Humans, even babies, perceive causality when one shape moves briefly and linearly after another. Motion timing is crucial in this and causal impressions disappear with short delays between motions. However, the role of temporal information is more complex: It is both a cue to causality and a factor that constrains processing. It affects ability to distinguish causality from non-causality, and social from mechanical causality. Here we study both issues with 3- to 7-year-olds and adults who saw two computer-animated squares and chose if a picture of mechanical, social or non-causality fit each event best. Prior work fit with the standard view that early in development, the distinction between the social and physical domains depends mainly on whether or not the agents make contact, and that this reflects concern with domain-specific motion onset, in particular, whether the motion is self-initiated or not. The present experiments challenge both parts of this position. In Experiments 1 and 2, we showed that not just spatial, but also animacy and temporal information affect how children distinguish between physical and social causality. In Experiments 3 and 4 we showed that children do not seem to use spatio-temporal information in perceptual causality to make inferences about self- or other-initiated motion onset. Overall, spatial contact may be developmentally primary in domain-specific perceptual causality in that it is processed easily and is dominant over competing cues, but it is not the only cue used early on and it is not used to infer motion onset. Instead, domain-specific causal impressions may be automatic reactions to specific perceptual configurations, with a complex role for temporal information.

  17. Domain-specific perceptual causality in children depends on the spatio-temporal configuration, not motion onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlottmann, Anne; Cole, Katy; Watts, Rhianna; White, Marina

    2013-01-01

    Humans, even babies, perceive causality when one shape moves briefly and linearly after another. Motion timing is crucial in this and causal impressions disappear with short delays between motions. However, the role of temporal information is more complex: it is both a cue to causality and a factor that constrains processing. It affects ability to distinguish causality from non-causality, and social from mechanical causality. Here we study both issues with 3- to 7-year-olds and adults who saw two computer-animated squares and chose if a picture of mechanical, social or non-causality fit each event best. Prior work fit with the standard view that early in development, the distinction between the social and physical domains depends mainly on whether or not the agents make contact, and that this reflects concern with domain-specific motion onset, in particular, whether the motion is self-initiated or not. The present experiments challenge both parts of this position. In Experiments 1 and 2, we showed that not just spatial, but also animacy and temporal information affect how children distinguish between physical and social causality. In Experiments 3 and 4 we showed that children do not seem to use spatio-temporal information in perceptual causality to make inferences about self- or other-initiated motion onset. Overall, spatial contact may be developmentally primary in domain-specific perceptual causality in that it is processed easily and is dominant over competing cues, but it is not the only cue used early on and it is not used to infer motion onset. Instead, domain-specific causal impressions may be automatic reactions to specific perceptual configurations, with a complex role for temporal information.

  18. The Dependence of the Teeth Caries on the Level of the Mouth Cavity Hygiene of the First Form Children of Nizhny Novgorod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krivulina G.V.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The dependence of the caries sicr rate of temporary and constant teeth on the level of the mouth cavity hygiene of the schoolchildren of the first form of the city of Nizhny Novgorod has been studied. The conclusions have been made concerning the dependence of the temporary teeth sick rate on the individual mouth cavity hygiene and the necessity in the pre-school age of the instruction and education of children of the mouth cavity care

  19. Alcoholics Anonymous attendance following 12-step treatment participation as a link between alcohol-dependent fathers' treatment involvement and their children's externalizing problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreas, Jasmina Burdzovic; O'Farrell, Timothy J

    2009-01-01

    We investigated longitudinal associations between alcohol-dependent fathers' 12-step treatment involvement and their children's internalizing and externalizing problems (N = 125, M(age) = 9.8 +/- 3.1), testing the hypotheses that fathers' greater treatment involvement would benefit later child behavior and that this effect would be mediated by fathers' posttreatment behaviors. The initial association was established between fathers' treatment involvement and children's externalizing problems only, whereas Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) results supported mediating hypotheses. Fathers' greater treatment involvement predicted children's lower externalizing problems 12 months later, and fathers' posttreatment behaviors mediated this association: Greater treatment involvement predicted greater posttreatment Alcoholics Anonymous attendance, which in turn predicted greater abstinence. Finally, fathers' abstinence was associated with lower externalizing problems in children. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  20. Order Effects of Learning with Modeling and Simulation Software on Field-Dependent and Field-Independent Children's Cognitive Performance: An Interaction Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeli, Charoula; Valanides, Nicos; Polemitou, Eirini; Fraggoulidou, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The study examined the interaction between field dependence-independence (FD/I) and learning with modeling software and simulations, and their effect on children's performance. Participants were randomly assigned into two groups. Group A first learned with a modeling tool and then with simulations. Group B learned first with simulations and then…

  1. Incomplete gastric metaplasia in children with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and celiac disease. An ultrastructural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinelli Leonardo

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM and celiac disease (CD has been widely reported in children but the relationship between the two conditions is incompletely understood. Moreover, specific studies on intestinal biopsies of patients with the association of the two diseases are still lacking. Methods We studied the ultrastructure of the duodenal mucosa in 12 patients with both IDDM and CD. Results All patients had either total or partial atrophy of duodenal mucosa. In seven subjects, an accumulation of electrondense granules in the apical cytoplasm of groups of enterocytes was found. In four of them, a double population of granules existed (mean diameter: 400-800 nm and 100-200 nm respectively showing a biphasic pattern. In the other three patients, only smaller granules (100- 200 nm were found in the enterocytes. Conclusions The present work suggests that patients with IDDM/CD may represent a subgroup in the context of the CD population. Intestinal biopsies of such individuals often show accumulation of electrondense granules in the apical cytoplasm of enterocytes that can be interpreted as incomplete gastric metaplasia.

  2. Age-dependent lower or higher levels of hair mercury in autistic children than in healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewska, Maria Dorota; Urbanowicz, Ewa; Rok-Bujko, Paulina; Namyslowska, Irena; Mierzejewski, Paweł

    2010-01-01

    An association between autism and early life exposure to mercury is a hotly debated issue. In this study, 91 autistic Polish children, male and female, 3-4 and 7-9 years old, were compared to 75 age- and sex-matched healthy children with respect to: demographic, perinatal, clinical and developmental measures, parental age, birth order, morphometric measures, vaccination history, and hair mercury content. In demographic and perinatal measures there were no consistent differences between the autistic and control groups. Autistic children had a significantly greater prevalence of adverse reactions after vaccinations and abnormal development than controls. Between 45 and 80% of autistic children experienced developmental regress. Autistic children significantly differed from healthy peers in the concentrations of mercury in hair: younger autistics had lower levels, while older - higher levels than their respective controls. The results suggest that autistic children differ from healthy children in metabolism of mercury, which seems to change with age.

  3. The impact of BCG vaccination on tuberculin skin test responses in children is age dependent: evidence to be considered when screening children for tuberculosis infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, James A; Paton, James; Nademi, Zohreh; Keane, Denis; Williams, Bhanu; Williams, Amanda; Welch, Steven B; Liebeschutz, Sue; Riddell, Anna; Bernatoniene, Jolanta; Patel, Sanjay; Martinez-Alier, Nuria; McMaster, Paddy; Kampmann, Beate

    2016-01-01

    Background Following exposure to TB, contacts are screened to target preventive treatment at those at high risk of developing TB. The UK has recently revised its recommendations for screening and now advises a 5 mm tuberculin skin test (TST) cut-off irrespective of age or BCG status. We sought to evaluate the impact of BCG on TST responses in UK children exposed to TB and the performance of different TST cut-offs to predict interferon γ release assay (IGRA) positivity. Methods Children vaccination on TST positivity was evaluated in IGRA-negative children, as was the performance of different TST cut-offs to predict IGRA positivity. Results Of 422 children recruited (median age 69 months; IQR: 32–113 months), 300 (71%) had been vaccinated with BCG. BCG vaccination affected the TST response in IGRA-negative children less than 5 years old but not in older children. A 5 mm TST cut-off demonstrated good sensitivity and specificity in BCG-unvaccinated children, and an excellent negative predictive value but was associated with low specificity (62.7%; 95% CI 56.1% to 69.0%) in BCG-vaccinated children. For BCG-vaccinated children, a 10 mm cut-off provided a high negative predictive value (97.7%; 95% CI 94.2% to 99.4%) with the positive predictive value increasing with increasing age of the child. Discussion BCG vaccination had little impact on TST size in children over 5 years of age. The revised TST cut-off recommended in the recent revision to the UK TB guidelines demonstrates good sensitivity but is associated with impaired specificity in BCG-vaccinated children. PMID:27335104

  4. Age- and sex-dependent association between FTO rs9939609 and obesity-related traits in Chinese children and adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meixian Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The associations between common variants in the fat mass- and obesity-associated (FTO gene and obesity-related traits may be age-dependent and may differ by sex. The present study aimed to assess the association of FTO rs9939609 with body mass index (BMI and the risk of obesity from childhood to adolescence, and to determine the age at which the association becomes evident. METHODS: Totally 757 obese and 2,746 non-obese Chinese children aged 6-18 years were genotyped for FTO rs9939609. Of these, a young sub-cohort (n = 777 aged 6-11 years was reexamined 6 years later. Obesity was defined using the sex- and age-specific BMI cut-offs recommended by the International Obesity Task Force. RESULTS: The associations of FTO rs9939609 with BMI and obesity did not appear until children reached 12-14 years. The variant was associated with an increased BMI in boys (β = 1.50, P = 0.004 and girls (β = 0.97, P = 0.018, respectively. Thereafter, the magnitude of association increased in girls at ages 15-18 years (β = 2.02, P0.05. Age was found to interact with the variant on BMI (P<0.001 and obesity (P = 0.042 only in girls. In the sub-cohort, the associations of FTO rs9939609 with BMI (β = 1.07, P = 0.008 and obesity (OR = 2.09, 95% CI: 1.12, 3.91 were only observed 6 years later (ages 12-18 years in girls, even after adjusting for baseline BMI. CONCLUSIONS: The association between FTO rs9939609 and obesity-related traits may change from childhood to adolescence in Chinese individuals, and the association may start as early as age 12 years, especially in girls.

  5. Deficits in Upper Limb Position Sense of Children with Spastic Hemiparetic Cerebral Palsy Are Distance-Dependent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smorenburg, Ana R. P.; Ledebt, Annick; Deconinck, Frederik J. A.; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the arm position sense in children with Spastic Hemiparetic Cerebral Palsy (SHCP) and typically developing children (TD) by means of a contralateral matching task. This task required participants to match the position of one arm with the position of the other arm for different target distances and from different starting…

  6. Food branding influences ad libitum intake differently in children depending on weight status. Results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Jamie; Halford, Jason C G; Summe, Heather; MacDougall, Megan; Keller, Kathleen L

    2009-08-01

    Environmental changes have facilitated the rapid increase in childhood obesity. One such change is increased presence of food marketing which promotes intake of high-fat, energy-dense foods. This study tested the hypotheses that overweight (OW) children are more sensitive to the intake-enhancing effects of food branding than non-OW children, and that the relationship between weight status and intake of branded foods is mediated by level of food brand awareness. Forty-three non-OW (n = 23) and OW (n = 20) children from diverse ethnic backgrounds participated in four dinnertime visits to test their intake of meals where food brands were present ("branded") or absent ("unbranded"). Food brand awareness was assessed by testing children's abilities to match food brand logos with correct foods and name specific brands from recall. Weight and height were measured on the first visit to determine BMI z-score and weight status. OW children consumed significantly more energy per meal than non-OW. Child age and brand awareness were positively associated. OW children consumed an additional 40 kcal in branded vs. unbranded meals whereas non-OW children consumed 45 kcal less in branded meals. Overweight children showed greater responsiveness to food branding, and they may be at risk in environments that are highly inundated with messages about food.

  7. The impact of BCG vaccination on tuberculin skin test responses in children is age dependent: evidence to be considered when screening children for tuberculosis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, James A; Paton, James; Nademi, Zohreh; Keane, Denis; Williams, Bhanu; Williams, Amanda; Welch, Steven B; Liebeschutz, Sue; Riddell, Anna; Bernatoniene, Jolanta; Patel, Sanjay; Martinez-Alier, Nuria; McMaster, Paddy; Kampmann, Beate

    2016-10-01

    Following exposure to TB, contacts are screened to target preventive treatment at those at high risk of developing TB. The UK has recently revised its recommendations for screening and now advises a 5 mm tuberculin skin test (TST) cut-off irrespective of age or BCG status. We sought to evaluate the impact of BCG on TST responses in UK children exposed to TB and the performance of different TST cut-offs to predict interferon γ release assay (IGRA) positivity. Children <15 years old were recruited from 11 sites in the UK between January 2011 and December 2014 if exposed in their home to a source case with sputum smear or culture positive TB. Demographic details were collected and TST and IGRA undertaken. The impact of BCG vaccination on TST positivity was evaluated in IGRA-negative children, as was the performance of different TST cut-offs to predict IGRA positivity. Of 422 children recruited (median age 69 months; IQR: 32-113 months), 300 (71%) had been vaccinated with BCG. BCG vaccination affected the TST response in IGRA-negative children less than 5 years old but not in older children. A 5 mm TST cut-off demonstrated good sensitivity and specificity in BCG-unvaccinated children, and an excellent negative predictive value but was associated with low specificity (62.7%; 95% CI 56.1% to 69.0%) in BCG-vaccinated children. For BCG-vaccinated children, a 10 mm cut-off provided a high negative predictive value (97.7%; 95% CI 94.2% to 99.4%) with the positive predictive value increasing with increasing age of the child. BCG vaccination had little impact on TST size in children over 5 years of age. The revised TST cut-off recommended in the recent revision to the UK TB guidelines demonstrates good sensitivity but is associated with impaired specificity in BCG-vaccinated children. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Attention problems among children with a positive family history of alcohol abuse or dependence and controls. Prevalence and course for the period from preteen to early teen years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnow, Sven; Schuckit, Marc; Smith, Tom; Spitzer, Carsten; Freyberger, Harald-J

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the scope and course of attention problems over a period of time from preteen (ages 7-12 years) to early teen years (ages 13-17 years). We compared symptoms in subjects with and without a family history (FH) of alcohol abuse or dependence from among families without evidence of antisocial personality disorder. Evaluations of attention problems for the offspring were based on the Child Behavior Checklist and a validated semistructured interview carried out with the mother. The findings indicate no higher risk for attention problems and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like symptoms in the children of families with an alcohol use disorder. Regarding the course of problems, the ADHD symptom count tended to decrease over time, especially for children without a FH of alcohol abuse or dependence. Further research will be needed to determine whether results can be replicated with families from different social strata and including subjects with the antisocial personality disorder.

  9. Impact, meaning and need for help and support: The experience of parents caring for children with disabilities, life-limiting/life-threatening illness or technology dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Mark

    2013-03-01

    Parenting a child with complex needs or disabilities is a challenging proposition. This study, which drew upon of the experiences of the parents of 34 children (in 33 families), set out to explore the themes of impact, need for help and support and meaning/sense-making as they were related by parents. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews, and an emerging theoretical framework was validated through the use of a series of mind-maps(®) which were presented to individual parents as the basis for a second round (verificational) interview. Parents were nominated into the study by health care professions who were asked to identify the subject children to one of three separate sub-groups: children with a disability; children with a life-limiting/life-threatening illness or children with a technology dependence. Comparisons were made between the three study sub-groups in order to identify areas of consistency and of inconsistency. A fourth study theme - 'battleground' emerged from entirely within the data set. Sense-making occupied a central position within the overall theoretical framework for the study and parental perception of 'battleground' presented as significant element of parental sense-making, particularly in the context of their relationships with professional staff.

  10. THE CONTENT OF MICROELEMENTS IN BLOOD SERUM AND ERYTHROCYTES IN CHILDREN WITH DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE I DEPENDING ON LEVEL OF GLYCEMIC CONTROL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluschenko, N; Vasylyshyn, Kh; Roschupkin, A; Lekishvili, S; Gladchenko, O

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the content of chromium, cobalt and nickel in serum and erythrocytes in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus, depending on the level of glycemic control. The study was conducted on 68 children with type 1 diabetes mellitus. The patients were divided into four groups based on glycemic control. Group I was composed of 9 children with optimal level of glycemic control. Group II - 25 children with suboptimal level of glycemic control. Group III - 34 children with a high risk to life level of glycemic control. Group IV (control group) consisted of 30 healthy children. Compensation state of type 1 diabetes was evaluated according to ISPAD (Consensus for the Management of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Children and Adolescens 2000). The content of trace elements in biological agents was determined by atomic absorbtion spectrophotometry method with C-115M1 mass-spectrophotometer, manufactured by «Selmi» enterprise (Ukraine). It is found that there is a decrease in serum concentrations of chromium and erythrocyte content of cobalt in patients with optimal level of glycemic control. The deficiency of chromium is accompanied by the deficiency of cobalt in patients with suboptimal level of glycemic control. The lower levels of cobalt and nickel are recorded simultaneously, but there is theexcess of chromium in the erythrocytes of these patients. Patients, who suffer from 1 type diabetes mellitus and high risk for life level of glycemic control have considerable polideficiency of cobalt, nickel and chromium in serum.The increasing level of chromium was recorded only in the erythrocytes. The level of glycemic control and the duration of 1 type diabetes mellitus are important in the forecasting of the development of chronic diabetic complications. It is found that the duration of 1 type diabetes mellitus influences the levels of cobalt and nickel in serum mostly, while the level of glycemic control influences the chromium content.

  11. Population pharmacokinetics of intravenous busulfan in children: revised body weight-dependent NONMEM® model to optimize dosing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diestelhorst, Christian; Boos, Joachim; McCune, Jeannine S; Hempel, Georg

    2014-07-01

    We developed a new population pharmacokinetic (PopPK) model for intravenous (i.v.) busulfan in children to evaluate the optimal method to personalize its dosing without concentration-time data. PopPK analyses were done with NONMEM® 7.2. First, a model from Trame et al. was evaluated using an external dataset consisting of 24 children. Second, a revised model was built in a separate dataset of 82 children. Model evaluation was performed by using a standardized visual predictive check (SVPC) procedure and a bootstrap analysis (internal evaluation) and by comparison to an external dataset (external validation). The final model included body surface area (BSA) as an exponential function on volume of distribution (V) and actual body weight (ABW) as an allometric function on clearance (CL). The dosing nomogram for every 6 h administration derived from the final model is: dose[mg]=target AUC[mg×h/L]×3.04L/h×(ABW/16.1)0.797. Compared to other dosing strategies, differences were observed for the very small and obese patients. We revised our prior dosing nomogram after validation in a separate cohort of children. This dosing nomogram can be used to personalize i.v. busulfan doses without concentration-time data, but an additional prospective evaluation in the very small and obese children is needed.

  12. Effect of sucrose concentration on sucrose-dependent adhesion and glucosyltransferase expression of S. mutans in children with severe early-childhood caries (S-ECC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Li, Wenqing; Lin, Jiacheng; Chen, Zhuoyu; Yu, Dongsheng

    2014-09-09

    Sucrose, extracellular polysaccharide, and glucosyltransferases (GTFs) are key factors in sucrose-dependent adhesion and play important roles in the process of severe early-childhood caries (S-ECC). However, whether sucrose concentration regulates gtf expression, extracellular polysaccharide synthesis, and sucrose-dependent adhesion is related to the different genotypes of S. mutans isolated from ECC in children and still needs to be investigated. In this study, 52 strains of S. mutans were isolated from children with S-ECC and caries-free (CF) children. Water-insoluble glucan (WIG) synthesis was detected by the anthrone method, adhesion capacity by the turbidimetric method, and expression of gtf by RT-PCR in an in vitro model containing 1%-20% sucrose. The genotypes of S. mutans were analyzed by AP-PCR. The results showed that WIG synthesis, adhesion capacity, and gtf expression increased significantly when the sucrose concentration was from 1% to 10%. WIG synthesis and gtfB as well as gtfC expression of the 1% and 5% groups were significantly lower than those of the 10% and 20% groups (p S. mutans detected from individuals in the S-ECC group exhibited a significant difference in diversity compared with those from CF individuals (p S. mutans, and the 10% sucrose level can be seen as a "turning point" and essential factor for the prevention of S-ECC.

  13. A longitudinal study of environmental tobacco smoke exposure in children: Parental self reports versus age dependent biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunyer Jordi

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Awareness of the negative effects of smoking on children's health prompted a decrease in the self-reporting of parental tobacco use in periodic surveys from most industrialized countries. Our aim is to assess changes between ETS exposure at the end of pregnancy and at 4 years of age determined by the parents' self-report and measurement of cotinine in age related biological matrices. Methods The prospective birth cohort included 487 infants from Barcelona city (Spain. Mothers were asked about maternal and household smoking habit. Cord serum and children's urinary cotinine were analyzed in duplicate using a double antibody radioimmunoassay. Results At 4 years of age, the median urinary cotinine level in children increased 1.4 or 3.5 times when father or mother smoked, respectively. Cotinine levels in children's urine statistically differentiated children from smoking mothers (Geometric Mean (GM 19.7 ng/ml; 95% CI 16.83–23.01 and exposed homes (GM 7.1 ng/ml; 95% CI 5.61–8.99 compared with non-exposed homes (GM 4.5 ng/ml; 95% CI 3.71–5.48. Maternal self-reported ETS exposure in homes declined in the four year span between the two time periods from 42.2% to 31.0% (p Conclusion We concluded that cotinine levels determined in cord blood and urine, respectively, were useful for categorizing the children exposed to smoking and showed that a certain increase in ETS exposure during the 4-year follow-up period occurred.

  14. Neurological outcome and risk of recurrence depending on the anterior vs. posterior arterial distribution in children with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touré, A; Chabrier, S; Plagne, M D; Presles, E; des Portes, V; Rousselle, C

    2009-06-01

    We report the outcome of 46 previously healthy children with arterial ischemic stroke. After a mean follow-up of 26 months, five (11%) children suffered a recurrence and 28 (61%) were left with sequelae. The prevalence and the severity of the sequelae were similar irrespective of whether the localization of the accident was anterior or posterior. However, a recurrence was significantly more frequent in the posterior than in the anterior group (4/14 vs. 1/32; p=0.025). These observations may lead to the establishment of therapeutic guidelines according to the localization of the infarct.

  15. Theory of mind depends on domain-general executive functions of working memory and cognitive inhibition in children with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Maureen; Agostino, Alba; Roncadin, Caroline; Levin, Harvey

    2009-10-01

    Relations among theory of mind (ToM), the executive functions of working memory and cognitive inhibition, and frontal lesions were studied using path analysis in 43 school-aged children with traumatic brain injury. The relation between cognitive inhibition and ToM involved a single mediated path, such that cognitive inhibition predicted ToM through working memory. Frontal injury had a direct impact on working memory, which then separately determined ToM performance, the direct single paths between frontal injury and ToM being nonsignificant. The expression of ToM in school-age children with traumatic brain injury is not domain specific, but instead depends on the domain-general functions of working memory and cognitive inhibition.

  16. FoxP3 Tregs Response to Sublingual Allergen Specific Immunotherapy in Children Depends on the Manifestation of Allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Stelmaszczyk-Emmel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades allergic diseases has become a major health problem worldwide. The only specific treatment to date is allergen specific immunotherapy (ASIT. Although it was shown that ASIT generates allergen-tolerant T cells, detailed mechanism underlying its activity is still unclear and there is no reliable method to monitor its effectiveness. The aim of our study was to evaluate ASIT influence on the frequency of forkhead box P3 (FoxP3 Tregs in allergic children with various clinical manifestations. The relative number of FoxP3 Tregs in 32 blood samples from allergic children at baseline and/or after 1 year of ASIT was assessed by flow cytometry. In the entire studied group, the percentage of FoxP3 Tregs did not increase 1 year after ASIT. Nevertheless, the percentage of FoxP3 Tregs after ASIT significantly increased in children with respiratory allergy (conjunctivitis, asthma, and rhinitis coexisting with nonrespiratory manifestations (food allergy and/or atopic dermatitis, whereas, in patients with respiratory allergy only, the percentage of FoxP3 Tregs decreased. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report showing various differential FoxP3 Tregs response to ASIT in allergic children. FoxP3 Tregs number could be useful in treatment monitoring. Further studies are warranted to confirm these observations.

  17. Influenza virus A(H1N1)2009 antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity in young children prior to the H1N1 pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesman, Annelies W; Westerhuis, Brenda M; Ten Hulscher, Hinke I; Jacobi, Ronald H; de Bruin, Erwin; van Beek, Josine; Buisman, Annemarie M; Koopmans, Marion P; van Binnendijk, Robert S

    2016-09-01

    Pre-existing immunity played a significant role in protection during the latest influenza A virus H1N1 pandemic, especially in older age groups. Structural similarities were found between A(H1N1)2009 and older H1N1 virus strains to which humans had already been exposed. Broadly cross-reactive antibodies capable of neutralizing the A(H1N1)2009 virus have been implicated in this immune protection in adults. We investigated the serological profile of a group of young children aged 9 years (n=55), from whom paired blood samples were available, just prior to the pandemic wave (March 2009) and shortly thereafter (March 2010). On the basis of A(H1N1)2009 seroconversion, 27 of the 55 children (49 %) were confirmed to be infected between these two time points. Within the non-infected group of 28 children (51 %), high levels of seasonal antibodies to H1 and H3 HA1 antigens were detected prior to pandemic exposure, reflecting past infection with H1N1 and H3N2, both of which had circulated in The Netherlands prior to the pandemic. In some children, this reactivity coincided with specific antibody reactivity against A(H1N1)2009. While these antibodies were not able to neutralize the A(H1N1)2009 virus, they were able to mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in vitro upon interaction with the A(H1N1)2009 virus. This finding suggests that cross-reactive antibodies could contribute to immune protection in children via ADCC.

  18. Effect of Sucrose Concentration on Sucrose-Dependent Adhesion and Glucosyltransferase Expression of S. mutans in Children with Severe Early-Childhood Caries (S-ECC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sucrose, extracellular polysaccharide, and glucosyltransferases (GTFs are key factors in sucrose-dependent adhesion and play important roles in the process of severe early-childhood caries (S-ECC. However, whether sucrose concentration regulates gtf expression, extracellular polysaccharide synthesis, and sucrose-dependent adhesion is related to the different genotypes of S. mutans isolated from ECC in children and still needs to be investigated. In this study, 52 strains of S. mutans were isolated from children with S-ECC and caries-free (CF children. Water-insoluble glucan (WIG synthesis was detected by the anthrone method, adhesion capacity by the turbidimetric method, and expression of gtf by RT-PCR in an in vitro model containing 1%–20% sucrose. The genotypes of S. mutans were analyzed by AP-PCR. The results showed that WIG synthesis, adhesion capacity, and gtf expression increased significantly when the sucrose concentration was from 1% to 10%. WIG synthesis and gtfB as well as gtfC expression of the 1% and 5% groups were significantly lower than those of the 10% and 20% groups (p < 0.05. There were no significant differences between the 10% and 20% groups. The fingerprints of S. mutans detected from individuals in the S-ECC group exhibited a significant difference in diversity compared with those from CF individuals (p < 0.05. Further, the expression of gtfB and gtfC in the S-ECC group was significantly different among the 1- to 5-genotype groups (p < 0.05. It can be concluded that sucrose-dependent adhesion might be related to the diversity of genotypes of S. mutans, and the 10% sucrose level can be seen as a “turning point” and essential factor for the prevention of S-ECC.

  19. Association of particulate air pollution and secondhand smoke on endothelium-dependent brachial artery dilation in healthy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hashemi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to determine the association of particulate matters with endothelial function, measured by flow mediated dilation (FMD of brachial artery, in children with or without exposure to secondhand smoke. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from January to March 2011 in Isfahan, which is the second large and air-polluted city in Iran. The areas of the city with lowest and highest air pollution were determined, and in each area, 25 prepubescent boys with or without exposure to daily tobacco smoke in home were selected, i.e. 100 children were studied in total. Results: FMD was significantly smaller in those living in high-polluted area and those exposed to secondhand smoke. Multiple linear regression analysis, adjusted for age and body mass index, showed that both passive smoking status and living area in terms of particulate air pollution were effective determinants of the brachial artery diameter. The standardized coefficient of passive smoking status was –0.36 (SD = 0.09, P < 0.0001 showing negative association with percent increase in FMD. Likewise, the percent increase in brachial artery diameter was lower in passive smoker children. Similar relationship was documented for PM 10 concentration with a regression coefficient of –0.32 (SD = 0.04, P < 0.0001. Without considering passive smoking variable, PM 10 concentration has significant independent effect on FMD level. Conclusion: Our findings provide evidence on the association of environmental factors on endothelial dysfunction from early life. Studying such associations among healthy children may help identify the underlying mechanisms. The clinical implications of environmental factors on early stages of atherosclerosis should be confirmed in longitudinal studies.

  20. [Somatotype-dependent cardiorespiratory system adaption in children and adolsescents in the north-east of Russia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartosh, O P; Sokolov, A Ia

    2006-01-01

    The authors have revealed the tension of cardiovascular performance in 11-14-year-old children and adolescents with the macrosomatotype (MaS) and a lower bronchial patency in 13-14-year-old adolescents in the winter-spring period. This points to the decreased reserves of the cardiorespiratory system in the teenagers with MaS during their adaptation the environment of the north-east of Russia.

  1. The Reproducibility and Absolute Values of Echocardiographic Measurements of Left Ventricular Size and Function in Children are Algorithm Dependent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margossian, Renee; Chen, Shan; Sleeper, Lynn A.; Tani, Lloyd Y.; Shirali, Girish; Golding, Fraser; Tierney, Elif Seda Selamet; Altmann, Karen; Campbell, Michael J.; Szwast, Anita; Sharkey, Angela; Radojewski, Elizabeth; Colan, Steven D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Several quantification algorithms for measuring left ventricular (LV) size and function are used in clinical and research settings. We investigated the effect of the measurement algorithm and beat averaging on the reproducibility of measurements of the LV and assessed the magnitude of agreement among the algorithms in children with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Methods Echocardiograms were obtained on 169 children from 8 clinical centers. Inter- and intra-reader reproducibility were assessed on measurements of LV volumes using biplane Simpson, modified Simpson (MS), and 5/6 x area x length (5/6AL) algorithms. Percent error (%error) was calculated as the inter- or intra-reader difference / mean x 100. Single beat measurements and the 3-beat average (3BA) were compared. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated to assess agreement. Results Single beat inter-reader reproducibility was lowest (%error was highest) using biplane Simpson; 5/6AL and MS were similar but significantly better than biplane Simpson (p 0.95 across measures, although absolute volume and mass values were systematically lower for biplane Simpson compared to MS and to 5/6AL. Conclusions The reproducibility of LV size and function measurements in children with DCM is highest using the 5/6AL algorithm, and can be further improved by using 3BA. However, values derived from different algorithms are not interchangeable. PMID:25728351

  2. Developmental stage-dependent influence of environmental factors on growth of rural Sundanese children in West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiyama, Makiko; Roosita, Katrin; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the growth trajectories and the relative relevance levels of nutrition, disease, and hormonal status at various developmental stages among children in adverse environments to provide population-based empirical evidence for the life history theory. Three years of longitudinal anthropometric data in 1-year intervals were obtained from 418 boys and girls aged 0 to 12 years at recruitment. Following the final measurement, the main survey, which included blood and feces sampling, 3-h interval food consumption recall surveys for energy and nutrient intakes and anthropometry, was performed. Blood and feces were used for detecting, respectively, anemia and hormonal (IGF-I and IGFBP-3) levels as well as intestinal helminthiasis (Ascaris, Trichuris, and hookworm). The major findings of this study are summarized as follows: 1) the growth velocity of the subject children lagged behind international standards during childhood and juvenility but caught up during early adolescence; 2) diseases, both intestinal helminths and anemia, had significant effects on growth in childhood but not at older ages; and 3) hormonal status significantly affected growth in the children, with its highest significance in early adolescence. A larger growth than international standards in early adolescence likely follows programmed hormonal mechanisms after the onset of puberty. The onset of puberty might be associated with adequate amounts of nutrient intake and be mediated by hormonal function, because the IGF-IZ score was significantly correlated with energy and protein intakes at the transitional period from juvenility to adolescence, when puberty occurs.

  3. Age- and Sex-Dependent Values of the Distribution of Body Composition Parameters Among Chinese Children Using the Hattori Chart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Bin; Hu, Li; Wu, Qiulian; Gong, Jian; Xu, Hao

    This study aimed to examine the relationship between the fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM) and between the fat-free mass index (FFMI) and fat mass index (FMI) in Chinese children using the Hattori chart and to compare the changing pattern with Korean counterparts. In this study, 1541 (764 girls) children and adolescents aged 5-19 yr were recruited from southern China. The subjects' body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The relationship between FFM and FM and between FFMI and FMI were delineated using the Hattori chart. Between 5 and 12 yr, a concurrent increase in FFM and FM and in FFMI and FMI was found in both sexes. After 12 yr, the age-related changing patterns are generally characterized by a sharp increase in FM, with a relatively small increase in FFM for girls, and a sharp increase in FFM, with a relatively little fluctuation in FM for boys. The increase in weight and BMI with age for this stage is largely due to the increase in FFM and FFMI in boys and in both the FFM and FM and FFMI and FMI components in girls. Sex differences in the patterns of body composition were found in Chinese children and adolescents.

  4. Measures of Heart Rate Variability in 24-h ECGs Depend on Age but Not Gender of Healthy Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Bobkowski

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Many methods computing heart rate variability (HRV have been applied in studies in children. Not all of these methods have a comprehensive physiological interpretation, and not all of studies are in agreement with the Task Force Standards on HRV from 1996, and the New Joint Position Statement on the advances of HRV from 2015. The study aim was to analyse HRV in the 24-h ECGs of healthy children by the Poincare plots and Lomb-Scargle periodograms, and to follow proper HRV recommendations. Additionally, we investigated the associations between age, children's sex and measured HRV indices. One hundred healthy children, aged 3–18 underwent 24-h ECG Holter monitoring. HRV was analyzed by the Poincaré plots and spectral by Lomb-Scargle periodograms of RR intervals. The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare sex differences in HRV, the van Elteren's test was used to correct for the age-gender interaction, and non-parametric Spearman correlation was applied to analyse the association between age and HRV indices. None of the HRV measures differed significantly between boys and girls. None of the HRV indices was modified by the age-gender interaction. There were statistically significant associations of age with measures of ultra-low (rho = 0.42; p < 0.0001, very low (rho = 0.35; p = 00004 and low (rho = 0.30; p = 0.0028 frequency powers, the ratio of the low to high frequency power (rho = 0.38; p = 0.0001, indices of long-term (SD2; rho = 0.37; p = 0.0002 and total (SDNN; rho = 0.33; p = 0.0008 HRV, and the contribution of the long-term HRV to total HRV (CL; rho = 0.32; p = 0.0012. In general, HRV parameters derived from the analyses of Poincaré plots and Lomb-Scargle periodograms appear not to be affected by gender, however, most of them increase with age in the 24-h ECG recordings in healthy children.

  5. Features of the Humoral Immune Response in School-age Children with Early-Onset Bronchial Asthma Depending on Acetylation Polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U.I. Marusyk

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the work was to study the individual indicators of the humoral immune system in school-age children with early-onset bronchial asthma (BA, considering acetylation phenotypes to improve treatment outcomes. There has been carried out a comprehensive examination of 34 school-age children with early-onset BA (disease first manifested at an early age. Depending on the course of the disease, patients were divided into two clinical groups. The first clinical group included 16 patients with slow acetylation (average content of acetylated sulfadimine in urine was less than 75.0 %. The second clinical group consisted of 18 pupils with fast acetylation (average level of acetylated sulfadimine in urine was over 75.0 %. All children underwent immunological blood test of II–III levels. The studies found that slow acetylation in patients with early-onset asthma increases the risk of reduction in the amount of interleukin-8 in blood serum < 5.3 pg/ml with odds ratio (OR 4.5 (95% confident interval (CI: 2.3–8.9, as well as the risk of higher concentration of IL-4 more than 4.0 pg/ml (OR = 1.9 that is associated with atopic inflammation of the body and allows you to personalize treatment tactics in these patients.

  6. High frequency of HLA-DQB1 non-Asp(57) alleles in Kuwaiti children with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, M Z; Shaltout, A; Alsaeid, K; Al-Khawari, M; Dorman, J S

    2000-01-01

    The prevalence of polymorphic amino acids at position 57 of the HLA DQB1 in Kuwaiti children with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and nondiabetic controls has been determined using a polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) method. Using this approach, 34/55 (62%) IDDM children were found to be homozygous Ala/Ala and 19/55 (35%) were heterozygous with various combinations. Amongst the IDDM children with heterozygous genotype at codon 57 of HLA DQB1, 6/55 (11%) had Asp/Ala, 8/55 (15%) had Ala/Val, 4/55 (7%) had Ala/Ser and 1/55 had Asp/Val allelic combinations. When considered collectively, the nonaspartate (NA) alleles were represented in 87% of the IDDM cases and only 13% cases had Asp(57) allele in different heterozygous combinations, while none of the IDDM subjects had a homozygous Asp genotype. In nondiabetic controls, homozygous non-Asp (NA) alleles were represented in 44% subjects, 37% of the controls were heterozygous (NA/A) and 19% had a homozygous (A/A) genotype. These differences between the IDDM group and the control group were found to be statistically significant. Our data report one of the highest frequency of NA/NA residues at this locus compared with that from different world populations (Sardinians, Norwegians, US Caucasians, US Blacks and Chinese).

  7. A dose-dependent relationship between mercury exposure from dental amalgams and urinary mercury levels: a further assessment of the Casa Pia Children's Dental Amalgam Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, D A; Carmody, T; Kern, J K; King, P G; Geier, Mark R

    2012-01-01

    Dental amalgams are a commonly used dental restorative material, and amalgams are about 50% mercury (Hg). In our study, urinary Hg levels was examined in children of age 8-18 years, with and without dental amalgam fillings, from a completed clinical trial (parent study) that was designed to evaluate the potential health consequences of prolonged exposure to Hg from dental amalgam fillings. Our study was designed to determine whether there was a significant dose-dependent correlation between increasing Hg exposure from dental amalgams and urinary Hg levels. Hg exposure depends on the size and number of teeth with dental amalgams. Overall, consistent with the results observed in the parent study, there was a statistically significant dose-dependent correlation between cumulative exposure to Hg from dental amalgams and urinary Hg levels, after covariate adjustment. Further, it was observed that urinary Hg levels increased by 18% to 52% among 8 to 18 year old individuals, respectively, with an average exposure to amalgams, in comparison to study subjects with no exposure to amalgams. The results of our study suggest that dental amalgams contribute to ongoing Hg exposure in a dose-dependent fashion.

  8. It depends: conditional correlation between frequency of storybook reading and emergent literacy skills in children with language impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrill, Stephen A; Logan, Jessica A R; Sawyer, Brook E; Justice, Laura M

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the association between frequency of storybook reading and emergent literacy in 212 children at risk for language impairment, assessed during the fall semester of kindergarten. Measures included parent-reported storybook reading, as well as direct assessments of print knowledge, letter awareness, and expressive vocabulary. Results suggested nonsignificant to moderate (r = .11 to .25) correlations between frequency of storybook reading and child emergent literacy across the entire range of environment and ability. Quantile regression results suggested that the association was highest at low frequency of storybook reading, particularly for print knowledge, approaching r = .50. Moreover, the association between frequency of storybook reading and emergent literacy was highest at higher levels of emergent literacy for print knowledge, but particularly for letter naming, approaching r = .80. These results suggest that in children with language difficulties, the relationship between aspects of the home environment and emergent literacy is conditional on the quality of the home environment as well as the child's proficiency in emergent literacy skills. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2012.

  9. Age- and stereovision-dependent eye-hand coordination deficits in children with amblyopia and abnormal binocularity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Simon; Suttle, Catherine; Melmoth, Dean R; Conway, Miriam L; Sloper, John J

    2014-08-05

    To examine factors contributing to eye-hand coordination deficits in children with amblyopia and impaired stereovision. Participants were 55 anisometropic or strabismic children aged 5.0 to 9.25 years with different degrees of amblyopia and abnormal binocularity, along with 28 age-matched visually-normal controls. Pilot data were obtained from four additional patients studied longitudinally at different treatment stages. Movements of the preferred hand were recorded using a 3D motion-capture system while subjects reached-to-precision grasp objects (two sizes, three locations) under binocular, dominant eye, and amblyopic/nonsighting eye conditions. Kinematic and "error" performance measures were quantified and compared by viewing condition and subject group using ANOVA, stepwise regression, and correlation analyses. Movements of the younger amblyopes (age 5-6 years; n = 30) were much slower, particularly in the final approach to the objects, and contained more spatial errors in reaching (∼×1.25-1.75) and grasping (∼×1.75-2.25) under all three views (P stereovision a secondary factor and the unique determinant of their increased error-rates. Older amblyopes (age 7-9 years; n = 25) spent longer contacting the objects before lifting them (P = 0.015) compared with their matched controls (n = 15), with absence of stereovision still solely related to increases in reach and grasp errors, although these occurred less frequently than in younger patients. Pilot prospective data supported these findings by showing positive treatment-related associations between improved stereovision and reach-to-grasp performance. Strategies that children with amblyopia and abnormal binocularity use for reach-to-precision grasping change with age, from emphasis on visual feedback during the "in-flight" approach at ages 5 to 6 years to more reliance on tactile/kinesthetic feedback from object contact at ages 7 to 9 years. However, recovery of binocularity confers increasing benefits for

  10. Age- and Stereovision-Dependent Eye–Hand Coordination Deficits in Children With Amblyopia and Abnormal Binocularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Simon; Suttle, Catherine; Melmoth, Dean R.; Conway, Miriam L.; Sloper, John J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To examine factors contributing to eye–hand coordination deficits in children with amblyopia and impaired stereovision. Methods. Participants were 55 anisometropic or strabismic children aged 5.0 to 9.25 years with different degrees of amblyopia and abnormal binocularity, along with 28 age-matched visually-normal controls. Pilot data were obtained from four additional patients studied longitudinally at different treatment stages. Movements of the preferred hand were recorded using a 3D motion-capture system while subjects reached-to-precision grasp objects (two sizes, three locations) under binocular, dominant eye, and amblyopic/nonsighting eye conditions. Kinematic and “error” performance measures were quantified and compared by viewing condition and subject group using ANOVA, stepwise regression, and correlation analyses. Results. Movements of the younger amblyopes (age 5–6 years; n = 30) were much slower, particularly in the final approach to the objects, and contained more spatial errors in reaching (∼×1.25–1.75) and grasping (∼×1.75–2.25) under all three views (P Amblyopia severity was the main contributor to their slower movements with absent stereovision a secondary factor and the unique determinant of their increased error-rates. Older amblyopes (age 7–9 years; n = 25) spent longer contacting the objects before lifting them (P = 0.015) compared with their matched controls (n = 15), with absence of stereovision still solely related to increases in reach and grasp errors, although these occurred less frequently than in younger patients. Pilot prospective data supported these findings by showing positive treatment-related associations between improved stereovision and reach-to-grasp performance. Conclusions. Strategies that children with amblyopia and abnormal binocularity use for reach-to-precision grasping change with age, from emphasis on visual feedback during the “in-flight” approach at ages 5 to 6 years to more reliance

  11. Deceit and facial expression in children: the enabling role of the "poker face" child and the dependent personality of the detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadea, Marien; Aliño, Marta; Espert, Raúl; Salvador, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the relation between the facial expression of a group of children when they told a lie and the accuracy in detecting the lie by a sample of adults. To evaluate the intensity and type of emotional content of the children's faces, we applied an automated method capable of analyzing the facial information from the video recordings (FaceReader 5.0 software). The program classified videos as showing a neutral facial expression or an emotional one. There was a significant higher mean of hits for the emotional than for the neutral videos, and a significant negative correlation between the intensity of the neutral expression and the number of hits from the detectors. The lies expressed with emotional facial expression were more easily recognized by adults than the lies expressed with a "poker face"; thus, the less expressive the child the harder it was to guess. The accuracy of the lie detectors was then correlated with their subclinical traits of personality disorders, to find that participants scoring higher in the dependent personality were significantly better lie detectors. A non-significant tendency for women to discriminate better was also found, whereas men tended to be more suspicious than women when judging the children's veracity. This study is the first to automatically decode the facial information of the lying child and relate these results with personality characteristics of the lie detectors in the context of deceptive behavior research. Implications for forensic psychology were suggested: to explore whether the induction of an emotion in a child during an interview could be useful to evaluate the testimony during legal trials.

  12. Eating habits of children and adolescents from rural regions depending on gender, education, and economic status of parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołłątaj, Witold; Sygit, Katarzyna; Sygit, Marian; Karwat, Irena Dorota; Kołłątaj, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    The proper lifestyle of a child, including proper eating habits, should be monitored to ensure proper physical and psychological development. This applies particularly to rural areas which are economically, socially and educationally backward. The study included 1,341 rural schoolchildren and adolescents aged 9-13 years (734 females, 607 males). The representative survey research was conducted in 2008, making use of an original survey questionnaire. The results showed that the majority of respondents eat improperly. 83.2% of them have regular breakfast, and 62.6% have regular light lunch. Most respondents do not eat more than 4 meals a day (usually 3-4). It is worrying that the consumption of sweets is high (34.9% of the surveyed group eat them regularly), whereas fruit and vegetable consumption is low. In this study, relationships between types of diet and such descriptive variables as gender, parents' educational status, and economic situation of the households are described. In families where the parents have a higher education and the household situation is good, the eating habits are much better. The list of poor dietary habits of pupils from rural schools includes skipping breakfast and/or light lunch, high consumption of sweets and low consumption of fruit and vegetables. There are correlations between improper dietary habits and gender of the children and adolescents, educational status of parents, economic situation of households, and housing conditions.

  13. A predictive model of Health Related Quality of life of parents of chronically ill children: the importance of care-dependency of their child and their support system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heymans Hugo SA

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents of chronically ill children are at risk for a lower Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL. Insight in the dynamics of factors influencing parental HRQoL is necessary for development of interventions. Aim of the present study was to explore the influence of demographic and disease related factors on parental HRQoL, mediated by employment, income, leisure time, holiday and emotional support in a comprehensive model. Methods In a cross-sectional design, 543 parents of chronically ill children completed questionnaires. A conceptual model of parental HRQoL was developed. Structural equation modeling was performed to explore the relations in the conceptual model, and to test if the model fitted the data. Results The model fitted the data closely (CHISQ(14 = 11.37, p = 0.66; RMSEA = 0.0, 90%CI [0.00;0.034]. The effect of socio-demographic and medical data on HRQoL was mediated by days on holiday (MCS: β = .21 and emotional support (PCS: β = .14; MCS: β = .28. Also, female gender (β = -.10, age (β = .10, being chronically ill as a parent (β = -.34, and care dependency of the child (β = -.14; β = -.15 were directly related to parental HRQoL. Conclusion The final model was slightly different from the conceptual model. Main factors explaining parental HRQoL seemed to be emotional support, care dependency, days on holiday and being chronically ill as a parent. Holiday and emotional support mediated the effect of demographic and disease-related factors on HRQoL. Hours of employment, leisure time and household income did not mediate between background characteristics and HRQoL, contrasting the hypotheses.

  14. Atypical age-dependency of executive function and white matter microstructure in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Kenia; Merchán-Naranjo, Jessica; Pina-Camacho, Laura; Alemán-Gómez, Yasser; Boada, Leticia; Fraguas, David; Moreno, Carmen; Arango, Celso; Janssen, Joost; Parellada, Mara

    2017-04-26

    Executive function (EF) performance is associated with measurements of white matter microstructure (WMS) in typical individuals. Impaired EF is a hallmark symptom of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) but it is unclear how impaired EF relates to variability in WMS. Twenty-one male youth (8-18 years) with ASD and without intellectual disability and twenty-one typical male participants (TP) matched for age, intelligence quotient, handedness, race and parental socioeconomic status were recruited. Five EF domains were assessed and several DTI-based measurements of WMS [fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD) and radial diffusivity (RD)] were estimated for eighteen white matter tracts. The ASD group had lower scores for attention (F = 8.37, p = 0.006) and response inhibition (F = 13.09, p = 0.001). Age-dependent changes of EF performance and WMS measurements were present in TP but attenuated in the ASD group. The strongest diagnosis-by-age effect was found for forceps minor, left anterior thalamic radiation and left cingulum angular bundle (all p's ≤ 0.002). In these tracts subjects with ASD tended to have equal or increased FA and/or reduced MD and/or RD at younger ages while controls had increased FA and/or reduced MD and/or RD thereafter. Only for TP individuals, increased FA in the left anterior thalamic radiation was associated with better response inhibition, while reduced RD in forceps minor and left cingulum angular bundle was related to better problem solving and working memory performance respectively. These findings provide novel insight into the age-dependency of EF performance and WMS in ASD, which can be instructive to cognitive training programs.

  15. A significant dose-dependent relationship between mercury exposure from dental amalgams and kidney integrity biomarkers: a further assessment of the Casa Pia children's dental amalgam trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, D A; Carmody, T; Kern, J K; King, P G; Geier, M R

    2013-04-01

    Dental amalgams are a commonly used dental restorative material. Amalgams are about 50% mercury (Hg), and Hg is known to significantly accumulate in the kidney. It was hypothesized that because Hg accumulates in the proximal tubules (PTs), glutathione-S-transferases (GST)-α (suggestive of kidney damage at the level of PT) would be expected to be more related to Hg exposure than GST-π (suggestive of kidney damage at the level of the distal tubules). Urinary biomarkers of kidney integrity were examined in children of 8-18 years old, with and without dental amalgam fillings, from a completed clinical trial (parent study). Our study determined whether there was a significant dose-dependent correlation between increasing Hg exposure from dental amalgams and GST-α and GST-π as biomarkers of kidney integrity. Overall, the present study, using a different and more sensitive statistical model than the parent study, revealed a statistically significant dose-dependent correlation between cumulative exposure to Hg from dental amalgams and urinary levels of GST-α, after covariate adjustment; where as, a nonsignificant relationship was observed with urinary levels of GST-π. Furthermore, it was observed that urinary GST-α levels increased by about 10% over the 8-year course of the study among individuals with an average exposure to amalgams among the study subjects from the amalgam group, in comparison with study subjects with no exposure to dental amalgams. The results of our study suggest that dental amalgams contribute to ongoing kidney damage at the level of the PTs in a dose-dependent fashion.

  16. Fractal Analysis of Brain Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) Signals from Children with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dona, Olga; DeMatteo, Carol; Connolly, John F.

    2017-01-01

    Background Conventional imaging techniques are unable to detect abnormalities in the brain following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Yet patients with mTBI typically show delayed response on neuropsychological evaluation. Because fractal geometry represents complexity, we explored its utility in measuring temporal fluctuations of brain resting state blood oxygen level dependent (rs-BOLD) signal. We hypothesized that there could be a detectable difference in rs-BOLD signal complexity between healthy subjects and mTBI patients based on previous studies that associated reduction in signal complexity with disease. Methods Fifteen subjects (13.4 ± 2.3 y/o) and 56 age-matched (13.5 ± 2.34 y/o) healthy controls were scanned using a GE Discovery MR750 3T MRI and 32-channel RF-coil. Axial FSPGR-3D images were used to prescribe rs-BOLD (TE/TR = 35/2000ms), acquired over 6 minutes. Motion correction was performed and anatomical and functional images were aligned and spatially warped to the N27 standard atlas. Fractal analysis, performed on grey matter, was done by estimating the Hurst exponent using de-trended fluctuation analysis and signal summation conversion methods. Results and Conclusions Voxel-wise fractal dimension (FD) was calculated for every subject in the control group to generate mean and standard deviation maps for regional Z-score analysis. Voxel-wise validation of FD normality across controls was confirmed, and non-Gaussian voxels (3.05% over the brain) were eliminated from subsequent analysis. For each mTBI patient, regions where Z-score values were at least 2 standard deviations away from the mean (i.e. where |Z| > 2.0) were identified. In individual patients the frequently affected regions were amygdala (p = 0.02), vermis(p = 0.03), caudate head (p = 0.04), hippocampus(p = 0.03), and hypothalamus(p = 0.04), all previously reported as dysfunctional after mTBI, but based on group analysis. It is well known that the brain is best modeled as a complex

  17. Deceit and facial expression in children: the enabling role of the poker face child and the dependent personality of the detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marien eGadea

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the relation between the facial expression of a group of children when they told a lie and the accuracy in detecting the lie by a sample of adults. To evaluate the intensity and type of emotional content of the children’s faces, we applied an automated method capable of analysing the facial information from the video recordings (FaceReader 5.0 software. The program classified videos as showing a neutral facial expression or an emotional one. There was a significant higher mean of hits for the emotional than for the neutral videos, and a significant negative correlation between the intensity of the neutral expression and the number of hits from the judges. The lies expressed with emotional facial expression were more easily recognized by adults than the lies expressed with a poker face; thus, the less expressive was the child the harder was to guess. The accuracy of the lie detectors was then correlated with their subclinical traits of personality disorders, to find that participants scoring higher in the dependent personality were significantly better lie detectors. A non-significant tendency for women to discriminate better was also found, whereas men tending to be more suspicious than women when judging the children’s veracity. This study is the first to automatically decoding the facial information of the liar child and relating the results with personality characteristics of the lie detectors in the context of deceptive behavior research. Implications for forensic psychology were suggested: to explore whether the induction of an emotion in a child during an interview could be useful to evaluate the testimony during legal trials.

  18. Mathematical formulae for the prediction of the residual beta cell function during the first two years of disease in children and adolescents with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klipper-Aurbach, Y; Wasserman, M; Braunspiegel-Weintrob, N; Borstein, D; Peleg, S; Assa, S; Karp, M; Benjamini, Y; Hochberg, Y; Laron, Z

    1995-11-01

    On the basis of a retrospective study of 71 children followed for 24 months after diagnosis of type I insulin dependent diabetes a fitted mathematical model was constructed for the prediction of the course of beta cell function from the time of diagnosis. Two equations were derived, one for the maximal basal (B-max) and the other for the maximal i.v. glucagon stimulated peak C-peptide (P-max) levels reached during the remission period. The prognostic variables selected for analysis were: peak C-peptide levels at diagnosis (Po), age sex, degree of obesity, pubertal rating, the presence of islet cell antibodies (ICA) and levels of GHb. Multivariate analysis of the data showed that Po (p = 0.0006), puberty (p = 0.041). obesity (p = 0.0021), sex (p = 0.031), ICA (p = 0.0045) and GHb(p = 0.0066) significantly contributed to the prediction formula obtained for B-max whereas the contribution of the above variables for P-max were: Po (p = 0.0019), puberty (p = 0.0187), obesity (p = 0.0058), sex (p = 0.0598), ICA (p = 0.0187) and GHb (p = 0.0027). The residuals of the observed values from the values fitted by the predicted equations served to define two separate groups demonstrating distinct differences in the natural course of beta cell function in type I diabetes. This fitted model may thus be useful in distinguishing between newly diagnosed young patients who will undergo remission, requiring lower insulin doses, and those who have little chance for remission. It might also be helpful in the selection of patients most likely to benefit from immunosuppression or modulation, to maximize the benefit to risk ratio for such patients.

  19. Randomized Video-Feedback Intervention in Home-Based Childcare: Improvement of Children's Wellbeing Dependent on Time Spent with Trusted Caregiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groeneveld, Marleen G.; Vermeer, Harriet J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Linting, Mariëlle

    2016-01-01

    Background: The childcare environment offers a wide array of developmental opportunities for children. Providing children with a feeling of security to explore this environment is one of the most fundamental goals of childcare. Objective: In the current study the effectiveness of Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting-Child Care…

  20. Serum leptin levels in children and adolescents with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in relation to metabolic control and body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiess, W; Anil, M; Blum, W F;

    1998-01-01

    . It is unclear at present whether this insulin action is a direct or an indirect effect. To investigate whether leptin concentrations in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes (IDDM) were related to metabolic status, body weight, body mass index and insulin treatment, we have measured leptin...... compared with normative data that were derived from a large cohort of healthy children and adolescents. Serum from children with newly diagnosed diabetes had significantly lower levels of leptin (mean 1.28+/-1.60 ng/ml, range 0.14-6.13 ng/ml) compared with healthy children (n=710) (mean 2.2 ng/ml, range 0.......26-14.4ng/ml) and compared with insulin-treated children and adolescents (mean 5.18+/-5.48 ng/ml, range 0.26-29.77 ng/ml) (P...

  1. Serum leptin levels in children and adolescents with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in relation to metabolic control and body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiess, W; Anil, M; Blum, W F

    1998-01-01

    The ob protein, termed leptin, is produced by adipocytes and is thought to act as an afferent satiety signal regulating weight through suppressing appetite and stimulating energy expenditure in humans and/or rodents. Insulin has been found to be a potent stimulator of leptin expression in rodents....... It is unclear at present whether this insulin action is a direct or an indirect effect. To investigate whether leptin concentrations in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes (IDDM) were related to metabolic status, body weight, body mass index and insulin treatment, we have measured leptin...... compared with normative data that were derived from a large cohort of healthy children and adolescents. Serum from children with newly diagnosed diabetes had significantly lower levels of leptin (mean 1.28+/-1.60 ng/ml, range 0.14-6.13 ng/ml) compared with healthy children (n=710) (mean 2.2 ng/ml, range 0...

  2. Age-Dependent Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup C Class-Specific Antibody Concentrations and Bactericidal Titers in Sera from Young Children from Montana Immunized with a Licensed Polysaccharide Vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Maslanka, Susan E; Tappero, Jordan W.; Plikaytis, Brian D.; Brumberg, Robert S.; Dykes, Janet K.; Gheesling, Linda L.; Donaldson, Kimberley B. J.; Schuchat, Anne; Pullman, John; Jones, Maryann; Bushmaker, Julie; Carlone, George M.

    1998-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C bactericidal titers and class-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) antibody concentrations were measured in sera from 173 children (1 to 5 years old) before and 6 weeks and 7 months following vaccination with a quadrivalent (A/C/Y/W-135) polysaccharide vaccine. The immune responses of the children were compared with those of 40 adults 6 weeks postvaccination. Both bactericidal titers and ELISA antibody concentrations were significantly higher i...

  3. Overseas Assignment of Sponsors who have Children with Disabilities Who Are Space-Required Students in the Department of Defense Dependents Schools (DoDDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    PO Staff are available to evaluate and provide services for children who have a diagnosis of autism , pervasive developmental delay, or similar severe...training (i.e., cane or guide dog ). c. Staff and Eguipment Available for Orthonedicallv Impaired Students (1) 01 Classrooms and building are fitted so as...are available to serve children with a diagnosis of autism , pervasive developmental delay, or with many behavioral features of autism . Class size is

  4. Endocarditis - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valve infection - children; Staphylococcus aureus - endocarditis - children; Enterococcus - endocarditis- children; Streptococcus viridians - endocarditis - children; Candida - endocarditis - children; Bacterial endocarditis - children; Infective ...

  5. The interpretation of exhaled nitric oxide values in children with asthma depends on the degree of bronchoconstriction and the levels of asthma severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzelewski, Tomasz; Majak, Paweł; Jerzyńska, Joanna; Stelmach, Włodzimierz; Stelmach, Rafał; Janas, Anna; Grzelewska, Aleksandra; Witkowski, Konrad; Makandjou-Ola, Eusebio; Stelmach, Iwona

    2014-09-01

    The clinical implications of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (F(ENO)) measurements in childhood asthma are unclear. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between the level of exhaled nitric oxide and pre-bronchodilator FEV1 and the change in FEV1 after bronchodilator in children with asthma. This was a retrospective, cross-sectional study. We evaluated data from medical documentation of children with asthma with special attention to F(ENO) results, asthma severity, FEV1 (% predicted), and bronchial reversibility test. Four hundred and five subjects (age 6-18 y) completed the study. Median levels of F(ENO) increased linearly with subjects' age (P = .03). We found a nonlinear trend of pre-bronchodilator FEV1 across 4 quartiles of F(ENO) in episodic and mild asthma; we observed lower pre-bronchodilator FEV1 in children with higher F(ENO), but only up to the F(ENO) value of 35.4 ppb; in children with F(ENO) value > 35.4 ppb, pre-bronchodilator FEV1 was increased. We found a linear increasing trend of change from baseline (after 400 μg of salbutamol) in FEV1 across F(ENO) categories in children with moderate asthma. Our results suggest a need to measure F(ENO) before as well as after spirometry. Consequently, in children with asthma with bronchial obstruction, we suggest assessing F(ENO) after short-acting β2 agonists as well. (ClinicalTrials.gov registration NCT00815984.). Copyright © 2014 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  6. Nicotine Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicotine dependence Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Nicotine dependence ― also called tobacco dependence ― is an addiction to tobacco products caused by the drug nicotine. Nicotine dependence means you can't stop using the substance, ...

  7. Antibody-dependent cellular inhibition is associated with reduced risk against febrile malaria in a longitudinal cohort study involving Ghanaian children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiendrebeogo, Regis W; Adu, Bright; Singh, Susheel K;

    2015-01-01

    studies (LCS). We investigated the relationship between ADCI activity of immunoglobulin G before malaria season and risk of malaria in a LCS involving Ghanaian children. High ADCI activity was significantly associated with reduced risk against malaria. Findings here suggest a potential usefulness...

  8. A predictive model of Health Related Quality of life of parents of chronically ill children: the importance of care-dependency of their child and their support system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hatzmann, J.; Maurice-Stam, H.; Heymans, H.S.A.; Grootenhuis, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Parents of chronically ill children are at risk for a lower Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL). Insight in the dynamics of factors influencing parental HRQoL is necessary for development of interventions. Aim of the present study was to explore the influence of demographic and diseas

  9. Age-dependent decrease of anti-HBs titers and effect of booster doses using 2 different vaccines in Palestinian children vaccinated in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qawasmi, Mohammad; Samuh, Monjed; Glebe, Dieter; Gerlich, Wolfram H; Azzeh, Maysa

    2015-01-01

    Immunization against hepatitis B virus (HBV) has proven to be highly effective and led to significant reduction of new infections worldwide. However, protective immunity measured by anti-HBs titers may decrease to critical levels in the years after basal immunization, particularly in case of exposure to HBV variants different from the vaccine strain. We tested 400 Palestinian children between one and 19 years of age for their anti-HBs titer, challenged the immune memory of those with low or absent anti-HBs with 2 types of hepatitis B vaccines and determined thereafter the anti-HBs titer. At the age of one, 92.2% of the children presented with protective anti-HBs titers (≥ 10 mIU/ml) with the majority having ≥ 100 mIU/ml. Protective immunity was still high at ages 2 (87.5%) and 4 (95%), declining by age 5 and 6 (from 69.2% to 66.7%) and down to an average of 39.8% between the ages of 7 and 19. 160 children with a nonprotective or low immune response challenged with either the yeast-derived Engerix-B or the mammalian cell-derived preS1-containing Sci-B-Vac vaccine showed an anamnestic immune response. 92.4% and 85.9% of the children challenged with one dose Sci-B-Vac and Engerix-B presented with anti-HBs titers >100 mIU/ml respectively. Our results reveal that vaccine-induced protective anti-HBs titers against HBV decrease rapidly beyond the age of 6 in Palestinian children, but can be strongly enhanced with a single booster vaccine dose, independent of brand and antigen composition. Our data suggest that a booster vaccine dose against HBV during school years may be useful.

  10. Disease-associated QT-shortage versus quinine associated QT-prolongation: age dependent ECG-effects in Ghanaian children with severe malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background While several anti-malarials are known to affect the electric conduction system of the heart, less is known on the direct effects of Plasmodium falciparum infection. Some earlier studies point to a direct impact of Plasmodium falciparum infection on the electric conduction system of the heart. The aim of this study was to analyse infection- and drug-induced effects on the electric conduction system. Methods Children aged 12 months to 108 months with severe malaria were included in Kumasi, Ghana. In addition to basic demographic, clinical, biochemical and parasitological, biochemical data were measured data upon hospitalization (day 0) and 12-lead electrocardiograms were recorded before (day 0) and after (day 1) initiation of quinine therapy as well as after 42 (±3) days. Results A total of 180 children were included. Most children were tachycardic on day 0 but heart rate declined on day 1 and during follow up. The corrected QT intervals were longest on day 1 and shortest on day 0. Comparison of QT intervals with day 42 (healthy status) after stratification for age demonstrated that in the youngest (<24 months) this was mainly due to a QT shortage on day 0 while a QT prolongation on day 1 was most pronounced in the oldest (≥48 months). Nearly one third of the participating children had measurable 4-aminoquinoline levels upon admission, but no direct effect on the corrected QT intervals could be shown. Conclusion Severe P. falciparum infection itself can provoke changes in the electrophysiology of the heart, independent of anti-malarial therapy. Especially in young - thus non immune - children the effect of acute disease associated pre-treatment QT-shortage is more pronounced than quinine associated QT-prolongation after therapy. Nevertheless, neither malaria nor anti-malarial induced effects on the electrophysiology of the heart were associated with clinically relevant arrhythmias in the present study population. PMID:24902591

  11. Revisiting syntactic development in deaf and hearing children from a dependency approach. Comment on "Dependency distance: a new perspective on syntactic patterns in natural languages" by Haitao Liu et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jingqi

    2017-07-01

    Linguists are always endeavoring to discover universal rules to explain the language phenomena and interrelations [1]. Through a handful of corpus-based studies and a vast body of supporting evidence from psychological experiments, Liu, Xu and Liang [2] arrive at a conclusion on a general tendency toward dependency distance minimization (DDM) and relate this linguistic universal to the constraints of memory. Dependency distance (DD) is hereby introduced as a linguistic property, with quantitative features of frequency, and profound cognitive grounding as well. However, since the authors do not include language development, in this comment, I would like to discuss some future prospects from this perspective.

  12. 失依儿童家庭寄养的现状、问题与对策——基于对广西A儿童福利院的考察%Current Situation, Problems and Countermeasures: Affairs of Family Foster Care for Dependent Children --Based on investigation of a welfare home for children in Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗德红; 谢敏慧

    2012-01-01

    儿童福利院家庭寄养的现状表明,家庭寄养尚未成为主流,其解决问题的核心理念是“儿童福利社会化”,具体对策是:扩大家庭寄养儿童的对象,配合八部委“城市街面力争实现无流浪未成年人”的工作;提高百姓对家庭寄养的知晓度和参与度;构建多级多元管理体系,建立社区失依儿童接收点;创立公开透明的网络以联结多元多级管理体系。%The investigation of the current situation of A Welfare Home for Children in Guangxi shows that family foster care hasn't been the mainstream to care for dependent children. The core idea used to solve it is to embrace the idea of socialization of children welfare. The concrete measures are the following: expand the range of dependent children in family foster care, and coordinate the efforts of the eight ministries and commissions to find homes for every immature wanderer; increase the degree of people's knowledge and participation to family foster care; construct the multileveled and muhiagency administration system; set up acceptance points for dependent children in communities; establish open and transparent internet websites for the multileveled and multiagency administration system.

  13. Cuidados paliativos no domicílio: desafios aos cuidados de crianças dependentes de tecnologia Home-based palliative care: challenges in the care of technology-dependent children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro A. Floriani

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Conceituar cuidados paliativos e suas indicações em Pediatria; descrever as dificuldades para operacionalizar esses cuidados em domicílio para crianças dependentes de tecnologia; e analisar, sob uma perspectiva bioética, conflitos de natureza moral com esta modalidade assistencial. FONTES DOS DADOS: Revisão da literatura sobre cuidados paliativos para crianças dependentes de tecnologia e análise bioética dos conflitos de natureza moral. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Há vários obstáculos aos cuidados paliativos para crianças dependentes de tecnologia: dificuldades estruturais dos domicílios; isolamento social da criança e da família; atitude de descrença dos profissionais de saúde em relação a este tipo de cuidado; excessiva medicalização do domicílio; incerteza do prognóstico de terminalidade; sobrecarga física, emocional, social, material e financeira dos pais e dos demais familiares; mudanças na organização familiar para a convivência com estas crianças; relações paternalistas entre os profissionais da equipe e a família; redefinição dos papéis familiares, com reconfiguração do papel do cuidador. CONCLUSÕES: É fundamental a construção de uma agenda que tenha como premissa que o suporte tecnológico para crianças dependentes irá transformar o domicílio, e que essa transformação poderá fazer parte dos problemas a serem enfrentados pelos que nele convivem. É a partir deste pressuposto que ações em uma geografia distinta da hospitalar poderão ter um caráter de fato protetor à criança e a sua família, amparando-os nas suas variadas necessidades e construindo um modelo de cuidados que proponha intervenções nos distintos níveis de sobrecarga a estes atores vulnerados e desprotegidos.OBJECTIVES: To conceptualize palliative care and its indications in Pediatrics; to describe the difficulties involved in the delivery of such care at home for technology-dependent children; and to analyze, from a

  14. FADS single-nucleotide polymorphisms are associated with behavioral outcomes in children, and the effect varies between sexes and is dependent on PPAR genetype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Maria Søgaard; AR Jensen, Heidi; BS Harsløf, Laurine

    2014-01-01

    , whereas those with minor alleles of rs174448 and rs174575 had decreased DHA (effect size around 0.5%-point per allele).Design: At 36 months we assessed psychomotor development by the Ages & Stages Questionnaire (n258) and physical activity by accelerometric recordings (n=231) in children from the SKOT.......2-10.7;0.2 and for problem solving most pronounced in homozygotes (boys=11.9-0.6;24.3 and girls=-8.7-17.1;-0.2). Some associations were also seen for fine motor development, but none for physical activity.Conclusion: FADS SNPs seem to have an independent and gender-specific effect on behavior in children, possibly...

  15. Dependence of radiation dose on the behavioral patterns among school children: a retrospective analysis 18 to 20 months following the 2011 Fukushima nuclear incident in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Shuhei; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Furutani, Tomoyuki; Hayano, Ryugo S; Kami, Masahiro; Kanazawa, Yukio; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi

    2016-01-01

    After radioactive incidents, the exposure risk in daily activities among children is a major public concern. However, there are limited methods available for evaluation of this risk, which is essential to future health risk management. To this end, this study assessed the relationship between behavioral patterns of school children and radiation exposure for a period of 18-20 months following the 2011 Fukushima nuclear incident. The assessed population comprised 520 school children from Minamisoma city, located 20 km north of the nuclear plant. Data for the doses were obtained using individual dosimeters and from results of a behavior survey administered by the City Office. The mean value of the doses in the study period was 0.34 mSv, with a standard deviation of 0.14 mSv, indicating an annual dose of ∼1.36 mSv, which includes doses from natural sources. Our results showed that behavior with respect to outdoor activities had no statistically significant relationship to the dose. A 0.1 μSv/h increase in the air dose rate at home was associated with a 10% increase in the dose; however, a 0.01 μSv/h increase in the air dose rate on the school grounds was associated with a 2% increase in the dose. This study indicates that the air contamination levels at the places where children spend most of their day are the significant predictors of the dose, as opposed to the levels at those outdoor locations in which short periods of time spent. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  16. Dose-dependent relationship between prenatal exposure to fine particulates and exhaled carbon monoxide in non-asthmatic children. A population-based birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jędrychowski, Wiesław A; Maugeri, Umberto; Spengler, John; Mróz, Elżbieta; Flak, Elżbieta; Klimaszewska-Rembiasz, Maria; Jacek, Ryszard; Sowa, Agata

    2013-03-01

    The main goal of the study was to assess possible association between fetal exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO) measured in non-asthmatic children. The subjects include 118 children taking part in an ongoing population-based birth cohort study in Kraków. Personal samplers of PM2.5 were used to measure fine particle mass in the fetal period and carbon monoxide (CO) in exhaled breath from a single exhalation effort at the age of 7. In the statistical analysis of the effect of prenatal PM2.5 exposure on eCO, a set of potential confounders, such as environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), city residence area, sensitization to house dust allergens and the occurrence of respiratory symptoms monitored over the seven-year follow-up was considered. The level of eCO did not correlate with the self-reported ETS exposure recorded over the follow-up, however, there was a positive significant relationship with the prenatal PM2.5 exposure (non-parametric trend p = 0.042). The eCO mean level was higher in atopic children (geometric mean = 2.06 ppm, 95% CI: 1.58-2.66 ppm) than in non-atopic ones (geometric mean = 1.57 ppm, 95% CI: 1.47-1.73 ppm) and the difference was statistically significant (p = 0.036). As for the respiratory symptoms, eCO values were associated positively only with the cough severity score recorded in the follow-up (nonparametric trend p = 0.057). In the nested multivariable linear regression model, only the effects of prenatal PM2.5 and cough severity recorded in the follow-up were related to eCO level. The prenatal PM2.5 exposure represented 5.1%, while children's cough represented only 2.6% of the eCO variability. Our study suggests that elevated eCO in non-asthmatic children may result from oxidative stress experienced in the fetal period and that heme oxygenase (HO) activity in body tissues may be programmed in the fetal period by the exposure to fine particulate matter.

  17. Child poverty can be reduced.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnick, R D

    1997-01-01

    Child poverty can be reduced by policies that help families earn more and supplement earned income with other sources of cash. A comprehensive antipoverty strategy could use a combination of these approaches. This article reviews recent U.S. experience with these broad approaches to reducing child poverty and discusses lessons from abroad for U.S. policymakers. The evidence reviewed suggests that, although policies to increase earned incomes among low-wage workers can help, these earnings gains will not be sufficient to reduce child poverty substantially. Government income support programs, tax policy, and child support payments from absent parents can be used to supplement earned incomes of poor families with children. Until recently, Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) was the main government assistance program for low-income families with children. Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) has recently replaced AFDC. This article explains why TANF benefits are likely to be less than AFDC benefits. The article also examines the effects of Social Security and Supplemental Security Income on child poverty. The most encouraging recent development in antipoverty policy has been the decline in the federal tax burden on poor families, primarily as a result of the expansion of the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC), now the largest cash assistance program for families with children. In 1995, government transfer programs (including the value of cash, food, housing, medical care, and taxes) decreased child poverty by 38% (from 24.2% to 14.2% of children under 18). Child poverty may also be reduced by policies that increase contributions from absent single parents to support their children. Overall, evidence from the United States and other developed countries suggests that a variety of approaches to reducing child poverty are feasible. Implementation of effective programs will depend, however, on the nation's political willingness to devote more resources to

  18. Dose-dependent relationship between prenatal exposure to fine particulates and exhaled carbon monoxide in non-asthmatic children. A population-based birth cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław A. Jędrychowski

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The main goal of the study was to assess possible association between fetal exposure to fi ne particulate matter (PM2.5 and exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO measured in non-asthmatic children. Material and Methods: The subjects include 118 children taking part in an ongoing population-based birth cohort study in Kraków. Personal samplers of PM2.5 were used to measure fi ne particle mass in the fetal period and carbon monoxide (CO in exhaled breath from a single exhalation effort at the age of 7. In the statistical analysis of the effect of prenatal PM2.5 exposure on eCO, a set of potential confounders, such as environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, city residence area, sensitization to house dust allergens and the occurrence of respiratory symptoms monitored over the seven-year follow-up was considered. Results: The level of eCO did not correlate with the self-reported ETS exposure recorded over the follow-up, however, there was a positive signifi cant relationship with the prenatal PM2.5 exposure (non-parametric trend p = 0.042. The eCO mean level was higher in atopic children (geometric mean = 2.06 ppm, 95% CI: 1.58–2.66 ppm than in non-atopic ones (geometric mean = 1.57 ppm, 95% CI: 1.47–1.73 ppm and the difference was statistically signifi cant (p = 0.036. As for the respiratory symptoms, eCO values were associated positively only with the cough severity score recorded in the follow-up (nonparametric trend p = 0.057. In the nested multivariable linear regression model, only the effects of prenatal PM2.5 and cough severity recorded in the follow-up were related to eCO level. The prenatal PM2.5 exposure represented 5.1%, while children’s cough represented only 2.6% of the eCO variability. Conclusion: Our study suggests that elevated eCO in non-asthmatic children may result from oxidative stress experienced in the fetal period and that heme oxygenase (HO activity in body tissues may be programmed in the fetal period by the exposure to

  19. Age-Dependent Association among Helicobacter pylori Infection, Serum Pepsinogen Levels and Immune Response of Children to Live Oral Cholera Vaccine CVD 103-HgR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhsen, Khitam; Lagos, Rosanna; Reymann, Mardi K.; Graham, David Y.; Pasetti, Marcela F.; Levine, Myron M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Through its effects on gastric secretion, we hypothesized that Helicobacter pylori infection may influence oral immunization. Accordingly, we examined the association between H. pylori infection, serum pepsinogen (PG) (measures for H. pylori gastritis) and vibriocidal antibody (a correlate of protection) seroconversion following oral immunization with CVD 103-HgR live cholera vaccine among children of different ages. Methods Sera from 422 Chilean children who were vaccinated with a single dose of CVD 103-HgR were tested by ELISA for serum IgG antibodies to H. pylori, PG I and PG II levels and antibodies to Shigella flexneri 2a lipopolysaccharide and hepatitis A virus (as markers of low socioeconomic status and exposure to enteric pathogens). Results The likelihood of vibriocidal antibody seroconversion following vaccination with CVD 103-HgR was significantly decreased in H. pylori-seropositive children age 6 months to 4 years with PG II>8 µg/L (adjusted OR 0.14 (95% CI 0.03–0.61; P = 0.009), and also in H. pylori seropositives with lower PG II level (adjusted OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.14–0.83; P = 0.017), compared to H. pylori-seronegatives. H. pylori-seropositive children aged 5–9 years with serum PG I>30 µg/L (indicating more severe gastritis) had higher odds of vibriocidal seroconversion than those with lower PG I levels (adjusted OR 4.41, 95%CI 1.26–15.38; P = 0.02). There was no significant association between exposures to S. flexneri 2a or hepatitis A virus and vibriocidal seroconversion. Conclusions As H. pylori gastritis progresses with increasing pediatric age in developing country venues, changes in gastric secretion ensue that we believe explain the observed differences in age-related immune responses to immunization with live oral cholera vaccine. The effect of H. pylori and changes of gastric acid secretion on the immunogenicity of various oral vaccines should be studied in different developing, transitional and industrialized

  20. The Relationship between Neighbourhood Green Space and Child Mental Wellbeing Depends upon Whom You Ask: Multilevel Evidence from 3083 Children Aged 12-13 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaoqi; Astell-Burt, Thomas

    2017-02-27

    Recent reviews of the rapidly growing scientific literature on neighbourhood green space and health show strong evidence for protective and restorative effects on mental wellbeing. However, multiple informants are common when reporting mental wellbeing in studies of children. Do different informants lead to different results? This study utilised nationally representative data on Goodman's 25-item Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire reported by 3083 children (aged 12-13 years old), and their parents and teachers. Multilevel models were used to investigate whether similar associations between child mental wellbeing (as measured using the total difficulties score and the internalising and externalising subscales) and neighbourhood green space quantity and quality are obtained regardless of the informant. After adjustment for confounders, higher green space quantity and quality were associated with consistently more favourable child mental wellbeing on all three measures, regardless of the informant. However, associations with green space quantity were statistically significant (p space quality were consistently observed for both parent- and child-reported outcomes. Teacher-reported outcomes were not significantly associated with green space exposure. Future studies of green space and child health should acknowledge when different informants of outcomes could lead to different conclusions.

  1. Path Dependency

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Setterfield

    2015-01-01

    Path dependency is defined, and three different specific concepts of path dependency – cumulative causation, lock in, and hysteresis – are analyzed. The relationships between path dependency and equilibrium, and path dependency and fundamental uncertainty are also discussed. Finally, a typology of dynamical systems is developed to clarify these relationships.

  2. Evaluation of Jump into Action: A Program to Reduce the Risk of Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus in School Children on the Texas-Mexico Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, J. David; Lira, Juanita; Kingery, Paul M.; Smith, D. W.; Lane, Dorothy; Goodway, Jackie

    1998-01-01

    Evaluated Jump into Action, a non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM)-prevention program that encouraged students to eat well and exercise regularly to reduce NIDDM risks. Surveys of predominantly Hispanic fifth graders and their teachers at Texas-Mexico border schools indicated that the program increased NIDDM-prevention knowledge and…

  3. Children of Divorce--A Forgotten Constituency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spain, Eugene T.

    1981-01-01

    Explores the negative effects of divorce on children and suggests that a restructuring of marriage and divorce laws (which would prohibit divorce in marriages with dependent children) might be justified in addressing this injustice against children. (DB)

  4. Dependency between pneumonia MP infection and children bronchial asthma%肺炎支原体感染与儿童哮喘的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张梅; 陈晓华

    2012-01-01

    To explore the relationship between children bronchial asthma and pneumonia MP infection,in order to provide the data for the treatment of children bronchial asthma at the acute stage. Methods Take SO cases of bracbycranic bronchial asthma and SO comparative cases of upper respiratory tract infection, Mycoplasma-IgM in peripheral blood was detected, and the positive rats of MP-IgM were compared between the two groups. The children in asthma group were divided into two groups , one group were determined as MP-IgM positive, and the other group were determined as MP-IgM negagtive. The count of eosino-phil in peripheral blood were compared between the two groups. Croup of conventional therapy is not only treated with antibiotic, hormone and bronchodilators.but also with additional azithromycin. Results Asthma group has 21 positive cases, 42% positive; comparative group has 8 positives cases, 16% positive, difference is obvious (P<0.01) ;EOS counts in the patiants positive by the MP-IgM test at the acute stage were higher than that negative by the MP-IgM test . the difference was obvious (P < 0.01). Conclusion MP infection is closely related with children asthma, MP infection shall be considered for stage of attack of asthma. Pneumonia MP inspect shall be carried out. Effectiveness of macroli'des antibiotic treatment is assured.%目的 探讨儿童支气管哮喘与肺炎支原体(MP)感染的关系,为儿童哮喘急性发作期的治疗提供依据.方法 50例支气管哮喘急性发作期患儿为观察组,50例上呼吸道感染患儿为对照组,检测两组患儿外周血支原体抗体(MP-IgM),比较两组MP-IgM阳性率;比较观察组MP-IgM阳性患儿与MP-IgM阴性患儿的外周血嗜酸性粒细胞计数(EOS).MP-IgM阳性组常规给予抗生素、激素及支气管扩张剂治疗基础上加阿奇霉素治疗.结果 观察组阳性率42%(21例)显著高于对照组16%(8例),差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);MP-IgM阳性患儿的EOS显著高于MP

  5. Active dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, R F

    1995-02-01

    Although dependency has long been associated with passivity, weakness, and submissiveness, a review of the empirical literature reveals that, in certain situations and settings, dependent persons actually exhibit a variety of active, assertive behaviors. In this article, I: a) trace the historical roots of the dependency-passivity link; b) review empirical studies from developmental, social, and clinical psychology which indicate that, in certain circumstances, dependency is associated with active, assertive behavior on the part of the dependent person; c) offer an alternative conceptual model of dependency that accounts for the entire range of behaviors-both passive and active-that are exhibited by the dependent person; and d) discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic implications of this alternative conceptual model of dependency.

  6. Parity of Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Women in Brazil: Does the Reported Number of Children Born Depend upon Who Answers National Census Questions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura Santos, Ricardo; Luiz Bastos, João; Gonçalves Cruz, Oswaldo; de Barros Longo, Luciene Aparecida Ferreira; Flowers, Nancy May; de Oliveira Martins Pereira, Nilza

    2015-01-01

    Taking parity as the main analytic variable, the objective of this study is to investigate whether the patterns of response to national census questions in Brazil differ when Indigenous and non-Indigenous women are compared, taking into consideration whether the information was provided by the women directly or by a proxy respondent (another household member or a non-resident). We use data on children ever born to Indigenous and non-Indigenous women from two Brazilian regions, the Northeast and the North. Data on the number of household members, total household rooms, interviewee’s color/race, educational attainment, age, parity, and type of respondent were obtained from the 2010 Brazilian census. The relation between color/race and reported parity, as well as the impact of the type of respondent on this association were assessed with the Zero-inflated Negative Binomial regression, stratified by region (North and Northeast) and urban/rural status. Just over half of census interviewees answered directly the census questions (51.2% in the North and 54.4% in the Northeast). Indigenous women in the North region had the highest percentage of interviews carried out with a non-resident (12.7% total; 15.0% and 3.0% in rural and urban areas, respectively). Regardless of color/race, parity means were considerably higher when the question was answered by the woman directly (93.5%-101.4% and 15.6%-21.7% higher, compared co-resident and non-resident based answers, respectively). Parity underreporting was particularly strong in Indigenous women living in the rural North (16.0% less in comparison to White women). Proxy respondents tend to underestimate the count of children, particularly among Indigenous women from the North. The implementation of certain methodological alternatives in the Brazilian national censuses, such as the selection and training of census takers to work specifically in Indigenous territories, might be a productive means to improve data collection. PMID

  7. Age-Dependent Effects of Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) Gene Val158Met Polymorphism on Language Function in Developing Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Lisa; Toyota, Tomoko; Matsuba-Kurita, Hiroko; Iwayama, Yoshimi; Mazuka, Reiko; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Hagiwara, Hiroko

    2016-11-30

    The genetic basis controlling language development remains elusive. Previous studies of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val(158)Met genotype and cognition have focused on prefrontally guided executive functions involving dopamine. However, COMT may further influence posterior cortical regions implicated in language perception. We investigated whether COMT influences language ability and cortical language processing involving the posterior language regions in 246 children aged 6-10 years. We assessed language ability using a language test and cortical responses recorded during language processing using a word repetition task and functional near-infrared spectroscopy. The COMT genotype had significant effects on language performance and processing. Importantly, Met carriers outperformed Val homozygotes in language ability during the early elementary school years (6-8 years), whereas Val homozygotes exhibited significant language development during the later elementary school years. Both genotype groups exhibited equal language performance at approximately 10 years of age. Val homozygotes exhibited significantly less cortical activation compared with Met carriers during word processing, particularly at older ages. These findings regarding dopamine transmission efficacy may be explained by a hypothetical inverted U-shaped curve. Our findings indicate that the effects of the COMT genotype on language ability and cortical language processing may change in a narrow age window of 6-10 years.

  8. Dependent Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasiunas, Vaidas; Mezini, Mira; Ostermann, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    Virtual classes allow nested classes to be refined in subclasses. In this way nested classes can be seen as dependent abstractions of the objects of the enclosing classes. Expressing dependency via nesting, however, has two limitations: Abstractions that depend on more than one object cannot...... be modeled and a class must know all classes that depend on its objects. This paper presents dependent classes, a generalization of virtual classes that expresses similar semantics by parameterization rather than by nesting. This increases expressivity of class variations as well as the flexibility...... of their modularization. Besides, dependent classes complement multi-methods in scenarios where multi-dispatched abstractions rather than multi-dispatched method are needed. They can also be used to express more precise signatures of multi-methods and even extend their dispatch semantics. We present a formal semantics...

  9. Dependency Parsing

    CERN Document Server

    Kubler, Sandra; Nivre, Joakim

    2009-01-01

    Dependency-based methods for syntactic parsing have become increasingly popular in natural language processing in recent years. This book gives a thorough introduction to the methods that are most widely used today. After an introduction to dependency grammar and dependency parsing, followed by a formal characterization of the dependency parsing problem, the book surveys the three major classes of parsing models that are in current use: transition-based, graph-based, and grammar-based models. It continues with a chapter on evaluation and one on the comparison of different methods, and it close

  10. Abused and Neglected Children in Court: Knowledge and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Stephanie D.; Oran, Howard; Oran, Diane; Baumrind, Nikki; Goodman, Gail S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: After maltreated children are taken into protective custody, dependency courts determine the children's placements. Many, if not most, maltreated children never attend their dependency court hearings. We had the rare opportunity to interview children in a jurisdiction where children regularly attend their detention hearings in…

  11. Abused and Neglected Children in Court: Knowledge and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Stephanie D.; Oran, Howard; Oran, Diane; Baumrind, Nikki; Goodman, Gail S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: After maltreated children are taken into protective custody, dependency courts determine the children's placements. Many, if not most, maltreated children never attend their dependency court hearings. We had the rare opportunity to interview children in a jurisdiction where children regularly attend their detention hearings in…

  12. [Affective dependency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

    2013-01-01

    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy.

  13. Children in Risk Society

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming; Zhao

    2015-01-01

    <正>According to WilliamCorsaro,children do not only interpret adults’culture,but also create their own culture(40).However,how children interpret adults’culture and create their own culture to a large extent depends on adults,so adults influence the way children perceive the world and themselves.In Corsaro’s Orb Web Model,both social institutions and

  14. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine ... physicians diagnose and evaluate medical conditions. These imaging scans use radioactive materials called radiopharmaceuticals or radiotracers . Depending ...

  15. [Children, television and violence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zann, M

    2000-03-01

    The relationships between children and television are a source of heated debate. Several studies, mainly conducted in North America, have found a correlation between television violence viewing and aggressive behavior, preadolescents appearing as the most vulnerable. However, in France opinions are more nuanced and one generally considers that television-induced violence in children mainly depends upon individual and educative socio-familial factors.

  16. Path Dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mogens Ove

    Begrebet Path Dependence blev oprindelig udviklet inden for New Institutionel Economics af bl.a. David, Arthur og North. Begrebet har spredt sig vidt i samfundsvidenskaberne og undergået en udvikling. Dette paper propagerer for at der er sket så en så omfattende udvikling af begrebet, at man nu kan...... tale om 1. og 2. generation af Path Dependence begrebet. Den nyeste udvikling af begrebet har relevans for metodologi-diskusionerne i relation til Keynes...

  17. Children and Adolescent Obesity Associates with Pressure-Dependent and Age-Related Increase in Carotid and Femoral Arteries’ Stiffness and Not in Brachial Artery, Indicative of Nonintrinsic Arterial Wall Alteration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria García-Espinosa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To analyze if childhood obesity associates with changes in elastic, transitional, and/or muscular arteries’ stiffness. Methods. 221 subjects (4–15 years, 92 females were assigned to normal weight (NW, n=137 or obesity (OB, n=84 groups, considering their body mass index z-score. Age groups were defined: 4–8; 8–12; 12–15 years old. Carotid, femoral, and brachial artery local stiffness was determined through systodiastolic pressure-diameter and stress-strain relationships. To this end, arterial diameter and peripheral and aortic blood pressure (BP levels and waveforms were recorded. Carotid-femoral, femoropedal, and carotid-radial pulse wave velocities were determined to evaluate aortic, lower-limb, and upper-limb regional arterial stiffness, respectively. Correlation analysis between stiffness parameters and BP was done. Results. Compared to NW, OB subjects showed higher peripheral and central BP and carotid and femoral stiffness, reaching statistical significance in subjects aged 12 and older. Arterial stiffness differences disappeared when levels were normalized for BP. There were no differences in intrinsic arterial wall stiffness (elastic modulus, BP stiffness relationships, and regional stiffness parameters. Conclusion. OB associates with BP-dependent and age-related increase in carotid and femoral (but not brachial stiffness. Stiffness changes would not be explained by intrinsic arterial wall alterations but could be associated with the higher BP levels observed in obese children.

  18. Children and Adolescent Obesity Associates with Pressure-Dependent and Age-Related Increase in Carotid and Femoral Arteries' Stiffness and Not in Brachial Artery, Indicative of Nonintrinsic Arterial Wall Alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Espinosa, Victoria; Curcio, Santiago; Castro, Juan Manuel; Arana, Maite; Giachetto, Gustavo; Chiesa, Pedro; Zócalo, Yanina

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To analyze if childhood obesity associates with changes in elastic, transitional, and/or muscular arteries' stiffness. Methods. 221 subjects (4–15 years, 92 females) were assigned to normal weight (NW, n = 137) or obesity (OB, n = 84) groups, considering their body mass index z-score. Age groups were defined: 4–8; 8–12; 12–15 years old. Carotid, femoral, and brachial artery local stiffness was determined through systodiastolic pressure-diameter and stress-strain relationships. To this end, arterial diameter and peripheral and aortic blood pressure (BP) levels and waveforms were recorded. Carotid-femoral, femoropedal, and carotid-radial pulse wave velocities were determined to evaluate aortic, lower-limb, and upper-limb regional arterial stiffness, respectively. Correlation analysis between stiffness parameters and BP was done. Results. Compared to NW, OB subjects showed higher peripheral and central BP and carotid and femoral stiffness, reaching statistical significance in subjects aged 12 and older. Arterial stiffness differences disappeared when levels were normalized for BP. There were no differences in intrinsic arterial wall stiffness (elastic modulus), BP stiffness relationships, and regional stiffness parameters. Conclusion. OB associates with BP-dependent and age-related increase in carotid and femoral (but not brachial) stiffness. Stiffness changes would not be explained by intrinsic arterial wall alterations but could be associated with the higher BP levels observed in obese children. PMID:27066273

  19. Crohn disease - children - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inflammatory bowel disease in children - Crohn disease; IBD in children - Crohn disease; Regional enteritis - children; Ileitis - children; Granulomatous ileocolitis - children; Colitis in children; CD - children

  20. JOURNEY EXPENSES FOR DEPENDENT CHILDREN - SCHOOL FEES

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    Human Resources Division wishes to remind members of the personnel of Article R IV 1.24 of the Staff Regulations according to which 'Three times per period of two years the Organization shall reimburse the journey expenses in respect of each child covered by the provisions of Article R A 8.01 a) [concerning the amount of the reimbursement of education fees]. The reimbursement shall be equivalent to the journey expenses for the return trip between the duty station of the member of the personnel and the educational establishment'. It should be noted that Article R IV 1.40 related to the subsistence indemnity does not apply to this type of journey. This rule will be strictly applied as from September 1, 2001.

  1. Media and Children's Aggression, Fear, and Altruism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Barbara J.

    2008-01-01

    Noting that the social and emotional experiences of American children today often heavily involve electronic media, Barbara Wilson takes a close look at how exposure to screen media affects children's well-being and development. She concludes that media influence on children depends more on the type of content that children find attractive than on…

  2. Extracting Credible Dependencies for Averaged One-Dependence Estimator Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LiMin Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Of the numerous proposals to improve the accuracy of naive Bayes (NB by weakening the conditional independence assumption, averaged one-dependence estimator (AODE demonstrates remarkable zero-one loss performance. However, indiscriminate superparent attributes will bring both considerable computational cost and negative effect on classification accuracy. In this paper, to extract the most credible dependencies we present a new type of seminaive Bayesian operation, which selects superparent attributes by building maximum weighted spanning tree and removes highly correlated children attributes by functional dependency and canonical cover analysis. Our extensive experimental comparison on UCI data sets shows that this operation efficiently identifies possible superparent attributes at training time and eliminates redundant children attributes at classification time.

  3. Children of alcoholics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Oravecz

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The author briefly interprets the research – results, referring to the phenomenon of children of alcoholics, especially the psychological and psychopathological characteristics of children of alcoholics in adolescence and young adulthood. The author presents a screening study of adolescents. The sample contains 200 high school students at age 18. The aim of the survey was to discover the relationship between alcohol consumption of parents, PTSD - related psychopathological symptoms and reported life quality of their children. The study confirmed the hypothesis about a substantial correlation between high alcohol consumption of parents, higher psychopathological symptom - expression and lower reported life quality score of their children. Higher PTSD-related symptomatology in children of alcoholics is probably resulted by home violence, which is very often present in family of alcoholics. The article also evaluated the results regarding suicide ideation of children of alcoholics, which is definitely more frequent and more intense than in their peers living in non alcohol – dependent families.

  4. Children at the Front: A Different View of the War on Alcohol and Drugs. The CWLA North American Commission on Chemical Dependency and Child Welfare. Final Report and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Welfare League of America, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This report explores the impact of alcohol and drug problems on the children and families served by the child welfare system and outlines a comprehensive strategy to better respond to their needs. It contains more than 100 policy and action recommendations to enhance services to children and families affected by alcohol and other drugs (AOD), to…

  5. [Peculiarities of brain mechanisms of compensation of oxygen-dependent energy deficit, organization of emotions and cognitive activity at delayed consequences of perinatal lesion of CNS of the hypoxic-ischemic genesis in children of 3-6 years with delay of psychic development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyukhina, V A; Matveev, Yu K; Ivanova, T B; Koshulko, M A; Nurok, M Yu

    2014-01-01

    There are summarized results of studies on peculiarities of formation of compensatory-adaptive mechanisms of brain circulation and respiration at oxygen-dependent energy deficit in the 3-6-year old children with delayed consequences of perinatal CNS lesion of the hypoxic-ischemic genesis and delay of psychic development (DPD) with use of the systemic-integrative approach and of parameters of superslow information-control systems of brain and of organism. In the examined contingent of children, differences have been revealed in development of emotional sphere and the higher psychic functions depending on character of disorganization of regulatory CNS functions and of the type of formed compensatory-adaptive mechanisms of autoregulation of cerebral circulation and of the system of external respiration.

  6. Evacuation dynamics of children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larusdottir, Aldis Run; Dederichs, Anne

    2010-01-01

    higher walking speeds in spiral stairs when the children are familiar with the evacuation path. Higher per-son densities and faster flow through doors were obtained among the children than found in literature on adults. Children in the younger age group are generally slower than the older children......The purpose of this study is to deliver new data and to bring attention to the subject of evacuation of children. Evacuation characteristics such as flow, densities and walking speeds are in focus. Currently literature on evacuation com-prehends mostly studies on adults. Ten Danish daycare centers...... participated in full scale evacuation experiments where the age groups 0-2 years and 3-6 years were analyzed separately. The work had the following overall finding. Flows through doors, walking speeds and densities are age-dependent and differ strongly from the data in existing literature. The results show...

  7. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Ultrasound - Abdomen Children’s (pediatric) ultrasound imaging ... depends on the type of examination. For some scans, your doctor may ask you to withhold food ...

  8. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... particularly valuable for evaluating abdominal, pelvic or scrotal pain in children. Preparation will depend on the type ... help a physician determine the source of abdominal pain, such as gallstones, kidney stones, abscesses or an ...

  9. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... valuable for evaluating abdominal, pelvic or scrotal pain in children. Preparation will depend on the type of ... examinations do not use ionizing radiation (as used in x-rays ), thus there is no radiation exposure ...

  10. [Head injuries in infants and children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laparra, Violaine; Duigou, Anne-Laure; Seizeur, Romuald

    2012-01-01

    Head injuries in children are frequent reasons for visits to emergency departments. Depending on age, the causes are different: falls for younger infants and accidents for older children. Those treating children, especially in cases of serious injury, must be aware of the specificities of paediatric anatomy and physiology. As with adults, the initial assessment and surveillance help to prevent the condition from worsening.

  11. Children and Television Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Timothy P.

    1973-01-01

    The question of whether violence depicted on television causes viewers to act aggressively is meaningless because it implies a simple "yes" or "no" response. Effects of mass media depend on the types of viewers and content as well as the conditions of message reception. Television violence can affect the behavior of children on some occasions.…

  12. Children and Television Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Timothy P.

    1973-01-01

    The question of whether violence depicted on television causes viewers to act aggressively is meaningless because it implies a simple "yes" or "no" response. Effects of mass media depend on the types of viewers and content as well as the conditions of message reception. Television violence can affect the behavior of children on some occasions.…

  13. 38 CFR 3.403 - Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Children. 3.403 Section 3..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Effective Dates § 3.403 Children. (a) Awards of pension, compensation, or dependency and indemnity compensation to or for a child, or to or for a veteran or surviving...

  14. Children Teaching Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Pia

    2007-01-01

    This study describes children's awareness of what it means to teach a game to a peer where the act of teaching becomes expression of the child's possible awareness. Awareness is defined as the attention to different aspects of the teaching process shown by the teaching child, sometimes through their own verbal reflection. This implies an…

  15. Hypercalcemic Disorders in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Victoria J; Nielsen, Morten F; Hannan, Fadil M; Thakker, Rajesh V

    2017-09-15

    Hypercalcemia is defined as a serum calcium concentration that is greater than 2 standard deviations above the normal mean, which in children may vary with age and sex, reflecting changes in the normal physiology at each developmental stage. Hypercalcemic disorders in children may present with hypotonia, poor feeding, vomiting, constipation, abdominal pain, lethargy, polyuria, dehydration, failure to thrive and seizures. In severe cases renal failure, pancreatitis and reduced consciousness may also occur and older children and adolescents may present with psychiatric symptoms. The causes of hypercalcemia in children can be classified as parathyroid hormone (PTH)-dependent or PTH-independent, and may be congenital or acquired. PTH-independent hypercalcemia, i.e. hypercalcemia associated with a suppressed PTH, is commoner in children than PTH-dependent hypercalcemia. Acquired causes of PTH-independent hypercalcemia in children include hypervitaminosis; granulomatous disorders and endocrinopathies. Congenital syndromes associated with PTH-independent hypercalcemia include idiopathic infantile hypercalcemia (IIH); William's syndrome; and inborn errors of metabolism. PTH-dependent hypercalcemia is usually caused by parathyroid tumors, which may give rise to primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) or tertiary hyperparathyroidism, which usually arises in association with chronic renal failure and in the treatment of hypophosphatemic rickets. Acquired causes of PTH-dependent hypercalcemia in neonates include maternal hypocalcemia and extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation. PHPT usually occurs as an isolated non-syndromic and non-hereditary endocrinopathy, but may also occur as a hereditary hypercalcemic disorder such as familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia, neonatal severe primary hyperparathyroidism, and familial isolated primary hyperparathyroidism, and less commonly, as part of inherited complex syndromic disorders such as multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN). Advances in

  16. Effects of Domestic Violence on Children's Behavior Problems and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Kathleen J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Parents and children completed measures that assessed children's behavior problems and depression. Children had experienced abuse, witnessed spouse abuse, experienced and witnessed abuse, or experienced no domestic violence. Reports of effects of domestic violence on children varied, depending on the type of violence and the person reporting it.…

  17. National Science Resources Center Project to Improve Science Teaching in Elementary Schools with Special Emphasis on Department of Defense Dependents Schools and Other Schools Serving Children of Military Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-01

    educaion reform, and an Education -vital, L)wirtmensi ts represetting a numriber of disci- fect was striking. Children who under other Committee has been... Paz ) said Doug Lapp, the NSRC’s Elementary Science Education in the United States: executive director. How Scientists Can Help Over the course of the...Scientists, and engineers during the working conference. (Photo by Robert Paz ) bring about systemic reforms in sci- cnce education. It also skas

  18. Family factors and social support in the developmental outcomes of very low-birth weight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, D P; Park, J M

    2000-06-01

    the major risk factors for a baby of very low birth weight. When perinatologists first encounter a new patient who is of very low birth weight they often see an infant who is minority, in poverty, and in a single-parent household. Although such children did more poorly in development and function by age 3, the major effects of these variables were through the selectivity of such children into very low birth weight; the direct impact of these factors on development is somewhat muted. This research suggests there are a number of policies that can reduce development delays and functional limitations among children in the United States. Programs that are targeted to a mother and child (such as WIC, AFDC, health insurance coverage, and possibly the more recent TANF programs) significantly reduced the risk an infant will be of very low birth weight. Access and use of adequate prenatal care are essential. Programs designed to combat maternal behaviors that place the fetus at risk (smoking, alcohol, and illegal drug use) can be very successful in reducing the likelihood an infant will be of very low birth weight. An additional payoff from such programs comes after the birth, because even taking into account birth weight, these variables negatively impact on early childhood development and function. Single-parent family structure, race and ethnic minority status, and poverty status also are known to impact on kindergarten readiness, so that we expect a delayed impact of these variables on the child. The strength of this article is the use of normative population data to assess the role of birth weight in child outcome. We examined prenatal risk factors for a baby of very low birth weight, traced the manner by which these selective risks are reflected in the composition of very low-birth weight babies, demonstrated how a very low birth weight was fundamental to delays in development, and identified risk factors and potential buffers in this process. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED)

  19. Children's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your child's health includes physical, mental and social well-being. Most parents know the basics of keeping children healthy, like offering ... for children to get regular checkups with their health care provider. These visits are a chance to ...

  20. Wednesday's Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Katherine

    1986-01-01

    The author of "Jacob Have I Loved" and "Come Sing, Jimmy Jo" describes the characters in books she has written who are like "Wednesday's children"--full of woe. Discusses dealing with tragedy in children's books. (EL)

  1. Interviewing Children versus Tossing Coins: Accurately Assessing the Diagnosticity of Children's Disclosures of Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Thomas D.; Ahern, Elizabeth C.; Scurich, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    We describe a Bayesian approach to evaluating children's abuse disclosures and review research demonstrating that children's disclosure of genital touch can be highly probative of sexual abuse, with the probative value depending on disclosure spontaneity and children's age. We discuss how some commentators understate the probative value of…

  2. Children with Asthma and Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selda Yuzer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is one of the chronic diseases which have are widely seen among the children. The disease has recently been in the increase all over the world and affects many children. In a study conducted with International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC method, it was found out that prevalence of childhood asthma was 17.1%. Participation in sportive activities by the children with asthma, which is today considered as a part of asthma treatment program, makes contributions to their physical, mental and psychological development and increases their quality of life. The most recommended sports for the children with asthma are swimming and water sports. Sports like tennis and volleyball are too advised. Choice of sports depends on severity of asthma, child and #8217;s choice and whether or not asthma is kept under control. Nursing approaches for the children with asthma include correction of symptoms, training of children and their families, assistance with disease adaptation, continuing asthma care at home and interventions to make children lead healthy activities of daily life of children. With protective measures to be taken by families and children; children should be encourage for sportive activities. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(3.000: 241-244

  3. Children in Conflict Zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, A N; Prasad, P L

    2009-04-01

    The nature of war has changed dramatically. Today's conflicts happen where people live and they take a brutal toll on children. Heavy bombardment and destruction in war creates a humanitarian crisis where there is lack of adequate food, clean water and medicine. The consequences of war can have major impact on the health of children for years to come. Traumatic events can have a profound and lasting impact on the emotional, cognitive, behavioral and physiological functioning of an individual. Depending on the circumstances, the psychosocial impacts of disasters can range from mild stress reactions to problems such as anxiety, depression, substance abuse and post traumatic stress disorders (PTSD).

  4. Assessing the acidity and total sugar content of four different commercially available beverages commonly consumed by children and its time-dependent effect on plaque and salivary pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Jha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sugared beverages such as cola, packaged juice, are known for cariogenicity their intake leads to the immediate drop in plaque and salivary pH, which can be an etiologic factor for dental caries. Objective: The objective was to assess the endogenous acidity and total sugar content of four commercially available beverages commonly consumed by children in India and its effect on salivary and plaque pH. Materials and Methods: A crossover controlled trial was conducted. 60 randomly selected school children from school at south Bangalore, who were meeting the inclusion criteria, were asked to refrain from oral hygiene practices for 24 h till the sample collection. Children were divided into four groups and for each group test drink was given. Plaque and salivary sample were collected at the time of 2, 5, 10, 20, and 30 min and were sent for pH estimation. 7 days of washout time was given for each cross-over and 3 such cross-over was done during the study and the drinks were interchanged. Results: Sweet lassi was found to be having maximum total sugar content of and Coca-Cola had the lowest pH 5.3. Milk showed least sugar content and highest pH (6.7. Study showed a significant drop in pH after consumption of all the test drinks (P = 0. 05. Carbonated beverage, that is, Coca-Cola Showed the maximum drop of pH, followed by Pulpy orange in both the plaque as well as saliva. Coca-Cola showed the drop of plaque pH below the critical level, 5.44 (0.134. Conclusion: Sweet lassi showed the maximum inherent total sugar content, lowest inherent pH and maximum fall in plaque and salivary pH, was found with Coca-Cola.

  5. Time-dependent heart rate variability in the head-up tilt test in children with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome%儿童体位性心动过速综合征直立倾斜试验中时间依赖性的心率变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冉静; 王成; 邹润梅; 吴礼嘉; 林萍; 李芳; 许毅

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTo study the time-dependent heart rate (HR) variability in the head-up tilt test (HUTT) in children with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) and to explore the HR diagnostic criteria for POTS in children.MethodsA retrospective analysis was performed on the clinical data of 105 children diagnosed with POTS with HR ≥120 beats per minute (bpm) within the ifrst 10 minutes of HUTT between January 2007 and December 2014. Their HR variability within the first 10 minutes of HUTT was analyzed.ResultsThe HR of children with POTS increased gradually from the supine position to a 60° head-up tilt position, and the increase in HR was 24±12 bpm at the beginning of HUTT, 30±14 bpm at 3 minutes of HUTT, 32±13 bpm at 5 minutes of HUTT, and 38±12 bpm at 10 minutes of HUTT. The average maximal HR increase within the ifrst 10 minutes of HUTT was 43±10 bpm.ConclusionsIn children with POTS, the HR variability gradually increases with time, and therefore, it is suggested that HR increase ≥40 bpm is more suitable for diagnosis of POTS in children.%目的:分析体位性心动过速综合征(POTS)儿童在直立倾斜试验(HUTT)过程中时间依赖性的心率变化,探讨儿童POTS的心率诊断标准。方法回顾性研究2007年1月至2014年12月的HUTT 10 min内最大心率≥120次/min诊断为POTS儿童105例,分析其在HUTT 10 min内心率的变化。结果POTS儿童由平卧位变为倾斜60°体位时心率逐渐增加,在HUTT即刻心率增加24±12次/min,HUTT 后3 min心率增加30±14次/min,5 min时增加32±13次/min,10 min时增加38±12次/min。10 min内HUTT最大心率增加值平均为43±10次/min。结论POTS儿童HUTT 10 min内心率变化随时间延长而增加,建议儿童POTS诊断标准中心率增加≥40次/min较为适合。

  6. Dietary adequacy of rural school children among bambara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dietary adequacy of rural school children among bambara groundnut growing ... wasting levels is a problem that is being addressed through school feeding programs. The nutritional status of school going children is dependent on household ...

  7. Credits and Exemptions for Children. Tax Facts from the Tax Policy Center. Tax Notes[R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maag, Elaine

    2009-01-01

    The Earned Income Tax Credit, Child Tax Credit (CTC), Additional Child Tax Credit (ACTC), and the dependent exemption all provide benefits to families with children. In 2009, a single mom (or dad) with two children can receive benefits ranging from $0 to about $7,500--depending on her income, age of the children, and where the children live. While…

  8. Likeable children, uneasy children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Sally Dean

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on fieldwork in small-town schools with children of Muslim background whose families came to Denmark as United Nation refugees, the chapter explores how pedagogical ideologies of school-based peer sociability inflect children’s experiences of ‘being Muslim.’ Danish provincial schools......, with their permanent classes, emphasis on class-based sociability, and particular understandings of what constitutes religion, represent a particular context for children’s school experiences. An analysis of two contrasting cases reveals that participation in peer sociability in and beyond school tends to erase...

  9. Study protocol for a randomised controlled double-blinded trial of the dose-dependent efficacy and safety of primaquine for clearance of gametocytes in children with uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eziefula, A.C.; Staedke, S.G.; Yeung, S.; Webb, E.; Kamya, M.; White, N.J.; Bousema, T.; Drakeley, C.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: For the purpose of blocking transmission of Plasmodium falciparum malaria from humans to mosquitoes, a single dose of primaquine is recommended by the WHO as an addition to artemisinin combination therapy. Primaquine clears gametocytes but causes dose-dependent haemolysis in individuals

  10. Hypercalcemic Disorders in Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokes, Victoria J; Nielsen, Morten F; Hannan, Fadil M

    2017-01-01

    , and familial isolated primary hyperparathyroidism, and less commonly, as part of inherited complex syndromic disorders such as multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN). Advances in identifying the genetic causes have resulted in increased understanding of the underlying biological pathways and improvements......Hypercalcemia is defined as a serum calcium concentration that is greater than 2 standard deviations above the normal mean, which in children may vary with age and sex, reflecting changes in the normal physiology at each developmental stage. Hypercalcemic disorders in children may present......-independent hypercalcemia in children include hypervitaminosis; granulomatous disorders and endocrinopathies. Congenital syndromes associated with PTH-independent hypercalcemia include idiopathic infantile hypercalcemia (IIH); William's syndrome; and inborn errors of metabolism. PTH-dependent hypercalcemia is usually...

  11. Definition of a Dependent Child

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    The Department of Human Resources wishes to remind members of the personnel that, under the provisions of § 6 of Administrative Circular No. 5 “Dependent child”, in the case of a child over 18 years of age the status of dependent child comes to an end once a course of studies is completed. Consequently, the payment of the dependent child allowance and the child's membership of the CERN Health Insurance Scheme terminate with effect from the last day of the month in which the course of study concerned ends. In this connection, members of the personnel are reminded that children who are no longer dependent according to the Staff Rules and Regulations and who are less than 26 years of age can nevertheless opt for membership of the normal health insurance under the terms and conditions laid down in the CERN Health Insurance Rules. The Department of Human Resources also wishes to remind members of the personnel that, pursuant to Article R IV 1.17 of the Staff Regulations, a member of the personnel is requ...

  12. 42 CFR Appendix to Subpart F of... - Required Consent Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... received information about sterilization from (doctor or clinic). When I first asked for the information, I... A.F.D.C. or Medicaid that I am now getting or for which I may become eligible. I understand that the... pregnant, bear children or father children. I was told about those temporary methods of birth control that...

  13. Handwriting in children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langmaid, Rebecca A; Papadopoulos, Nicole; Johnson, Beth P; Phillips, James G; Rinehart, Nicole J

    2014-08-01

    Children with ADHD-combined type (ADHD-CT) display fine and gross motor problems, often expressed as handwriting difficulties. This study aimed to kinematically characterize the handwriting of children with ADHD using a cursive letter l's task. In all, 28 boys (7-12 years), 14 ADHD-CT and 14 typically developing (TD), without developmental coordination disorder (DCD) or comorbid autism, wrote a series of four cursive letter l's using a graphics tablet and stylus. Children with ADHD-CT had more inconsistent writing size than did TD controls. In addition, ADHD-CT symptom severity, specifically inattention, predicted poorer handwriting outcomes. In a sample of children with ADHD-CT who do not have DCD or autism, subtle handwriting differences were evident. It was concluded that handwriting might be impaired in children with ADHD in a manner dependent on symptom severity. This may reflect reports of underlying motor impairment in ADHD. © 2011 SAGE Publications.

  14. [Respecting rights of hospitalized children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroczek, Bozena

    2004-01-01

    , place of employment and seniority. The dependence of awareness level upon questioned nurses' education has not been proved. The scale of upholding of children's right to respect has been defined on the basis of assumed indices conditioning the respect at an average level. It does not prove that children rights are respected in hospitals, as some of the rights are respected only to a small extent, causing menace to children existence. To change the existing situation, regular assessment of respecting children rights by all medical personnel shall be conducted regularly. Legal issues shall be included in the list of obligatory subjects of nursing studies and of all external forms of additional nurse training. These and other activities shall ensure existential safety for children in the hospital and increase the prestige of a nurse as a job.

  15. Brain tumor - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children; Neuroglioma - children; Oligodendroglioma - children; Meningioma - children; Cancer - brain tumor (children) ... The cause of primary brain tumors is unknown. Primary brain tumors may ... (spread to nearby areas) Cancerous (malignant) Brain tumors ...

  16. Dependency Tree Annotation Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    select and open a .conll file from existing files. It then draws the parent -child relationships depicted in the opened .conll file. o “Open...words into a single token. Once this has been clicked, the file will automatically be saved as a .sconll file. o “Unsplit word” recombines split...its children . Note: When a node’s children are collapsed, its border will become thicker and it will become darker. (Default is selected.) o When

  17. The Female Image in Children's TV Commercials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verna, Mary Ellen

    1975-01-01

    An analysis of advertising on children's television programs shows that more than half were male-dominant ads and fewer than one-seventh were female dominated. Female roles were almost entirely dependent and passive. (LS)

  18. Community Services and Residential Institutions for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gula, Martin

    1974-01-01

    Describes constructive "deinstitutionalization", the movement away from the establishment of large, custodial public residential institutions for dependent, delinquent, retarded or emotionally disturbed children, to more decentralized, informal community services. (CS)

  19. 38 CFR 3.503 - Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Children. 3.503 Section 3..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Reductions and Discontinuances § 3.503 Children. (a... compensation to or for a child, or to or for a veteran or surviving spouse on behalf of such child, will be the...

  20. Children's Participation in Foster Care Hearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, Vicky; Wingrove, Twila; Beal, Sarah J.; Faith-Slaker, April

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Empirical research regarding potential risks and benefits of children's participation in the legal system generally, and in the child dependency legal system in particular, is sparse and mostly characterized by small studies without comparison groups. The current study was designed to address the following questions regarding children's…

  1. The Development of Temporal Coordination in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jacqueline C.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to learn temporal patterns in sequenced actions was investigated in elementary-school age children. Temporal learning depends upon a process of integrating timing patterns with action sequences. Children ages 6-13 and young adults performed a serial response time task in which a response and a timing sequence were presented repeatedly…

  2. Study on the treatment of children dependent on network game of psychological intervention combined with drug%心理干预联合药物对网络游戏依赖儿童的疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东平; 卫世强; 詹合琴

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the curative effect of psychological intervention combined with drug treatment of children addicted to the network game.Methods One hundred and twelve children addicted to the network game were selected,who were admitted to the outpatient department of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Xinxiang Medical University from Feb.2009 to Oct.2013 were selected,according to the admission time sequence,they were randomly divided into drug treatment group,psychological intervention group(as control group) and psychological intervention combined with drug therapy group(test group).Each of the control groups had 38 cases of patients,while treatment group had 36 cases.Drug treatment group was treated with oral Fluoxetine Hydrochloride Capsules 10 mg,1 time/d; the psychological intervention group was given the general psychological conversation,until discharged from the hospital; the test group adopted the cognitive restructuring,imagine the debate,self suggestion,remind yourself of cognitive therapy and behavior contract,behavior reinforcement,behavior extinction,aversive stimulus,self-regulation of behavior therapy combined with drug therapy.Respectively,before treatment,2 weeks,4 weeks and 8 weeks after the end of the treatment,Chinese Internet Addiction Scale,Coping Style Questionnaire (CSQ) and symptom checklist 90 (SCL-90) of each factor were evaluated.Results By the end of the 2 weeks and 8 weeks after the treatment,CIAS scores in the treatment group were significantly lower than that in drug therapy and psychological intervention group,the differences were statistically significant (t =2.49,2.03,all P < 0.05 ; t =2.72,2.72,all P < 0.01) ; scores of 3 factors of fantasy,self accusation and retreat in CSQ group in coping style questiennaire in the coping style questionnaire in the treatment group were lower than those in control groups,the differences were statistically significant (t =3.99,3.78,2.15,all P < 0.05; t=2.64,4.20,3.72,all P < 0

  3. Street children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rončević Nevenka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available According to UNICEF, street child is any child under the age of 18 for whom the street has become home and/or source of income and which is not adequately protected or supervised by adult, responsible person. It has been estimated that there are between 100 and 150 million street children worldwide. Life and work on the street have long term and far-reaching consequences for development and health of these children. By living and working in the street, these children face the highest level of risk. Street children more often suffer from the acute illness, injuries, infection, especially gastrointestinal, acute respiratory infections and sexually transmitted diseases, inadequate nutrition, mental disorders, and drug abuse. They are more often victims of abuse, sexual exploitation, trafficking; they have higher rate of adolescent pregnancy than their peers from poor families. Street children and youth have higher rates of hospitalization and longer hospital stay due to seriousness of illness and delayed health care. Street children/youth are reluctant to seek health care, and when they try, they face many barriers. Street children are invisible to the state and their number in Serbia is unknown. Recently, some non­governmental organizations from Belgrade, Novi Sad and Nis have recognized this problem and tried to offer some help to street children, by opening drop­in centers, but this is not enough. To solve this problem, an engagement of the state and the whole community is necessary, and primary responsibility lies in health, social and educational sector. The best interests of the child must serve as a basic guideline in all activities aimed at improving health, quality of life and rights of children involved in the life and work in the street.

  4. Vulnerability to Violence of "Talibe" Children in Mauritania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballet, Jerome; Bhukuth, Augendra; Hamzetta, Bilal

    2012-01-01

    "Talibe" children are children sent to Quranic schools (daaras), where they are completely dependent on a master, known as a marabout. This is a very common system of education in formerly French-speaking countries in West Africa. In the last 10 years or so, numerous cases of violence towards "talibe" children have been…

  5. Prosocial Tendencies Predict Friendship Quality, But Not for Popular Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorthuis, Astrid M. G.; Thomaes, Sander; Denissen, Jaap J. A.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; de Castro, Bram Orobio

    2012-01-01

    Is prosocial behavior a prerequisite for having good-quality friendships? This study (N=477, mean age=12.2 years) examined whether the link between children's prosocial tendencies and their perceived friendship quality was dependent on children's level of popularity in the peer group. Children's prosocial tendencies were assessed both as observed…

  6. LDF (Lag Dependence Functions)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    LDF (Lag Dependence Functions) is an S-PLUS library for identification of non-linear dependencies in univariate time series. The methods can be considered generalizations of the tools applicable for linear time series.......LDF (Lag Dependence Functions) is an S-PLUS library for identification of non-linear dependencies in univariate time series. The methods can be considered generalizations of the tools applicable for linear time series....

  7. [Evaluating tobacco dependance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etter, Jean-François

    2006-11-29

    Good science needs good measurement instruments, and this is also true for the study of tobacco dependence. In this paper, we present and criticize the most frequently used instrument, the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence. This test, published 28 years ago, does not reflect current definitions of dependence. Several alternative approaches to the measurement of tobacco dependence are discussed, and more recent instruments are presented.

  8. LDF (Lag Dependence Functions)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    LDF (Lag Dependence Functions) is an S-PLUS library for identification of non-linear dependencies in univariate time series. The methods can be considered generalizations of the tools applicable for linear time series.......LDF (Lag Dependence Functions) is an S-PLUS library for identification of non-linear dependencies in univariate time series. The methods can be considered generalizations of the tools applicable for linear time series....

  9. Hierarchies in Dependence Logic

    CERN Document Server

    Durand, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    We study fragments of dependence logic defined either by restricting the number k of universal quantifiers or the width of dependence atoms in formulas. We find the sublogics of existential second-order logic corresponding to these fragments of dependence logic. We also show that these both ways of defining fragments of dependence logic give rise to a hierarchy in expressive power with respect to k.

  10. Preparing children for the operating room: psychological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, T

    1994-11-01

    Children respond psychologically to the prospect of surgery in a variable and age-dependent manner. This review summarizes the psychoanalytic, cognitive, behavioural and family system models of child development. It then reviews studies of hospitalization and anaesthesia in children. These studies suggest that younger children, children previously anaesthetized, and children who experience turbulent anaesthetic inductions are at particular risk for postoperative behavioural disturbances. Strategies of dealing with children and their parents during the perioperative period are discussed. Such strategies include: allowing a parent to be present during induction of anaesthesia, administering sedative premedication, creating a supportive environment, educating children and parents (verbal descriptions, tours, books, videos), and establishing rapport with children and their parents. Age-specific techniques of establishing rapport with children are discussed. If children are less anxious during the perioperative period, not only will they often exhibit less behavioural disturbances postoperatively, but they may face subsequent medical care more easily.

  11. Utilização de serviços de reabilitação pelas crianças e adolescentes dependentes de tecnologia de um hospital materno-infantil no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Use of rehabilitation services by technology-dependent children and adolescents in a maternal and child hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Zornoff Gavazza

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo é caracterizar descritivamente a dependência tecnológica e a utilização de serviços de reabilitação pela população de crianças e adolescentes de um hospital materno-infantil do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. O estudo transversal descreveu as características demográficas da criança e sócio-econômicas do cuidador e família, como também o tipo de dependência tecnológica e a utilização de serviços de reabilitação. A população do estudo é composta de pré-escolares (56,3%, do sexo masculino (58,3%, residentes na região metropolitana do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (89,6%. São oriundos de famílias com rendimentos mensais até dois salários mínimos (70,9%, cuidados sobretudo por suas mãe (93,8%, que possuem escolaridade menor ou igual ao ensino fundamental (54,2% e não trabalham (89,6%. Dos entrevistados, um total de 22,9% depende de três tipos diferentes de tecnologias, sendo o suporte medicamentoso (87,5% a mais utilizada. O tratamento de reabilitação é financiado preponderantemente pelo Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS e instituições filantrópicas, sendo o fisioterapeuta motor (60,4% o profissional de maior demanda nesse tratamento. O hospital estudado concentra todos os atendimentos médicos especializados e a maior parte dos tratamentos em reabilitação.The objective of this study was to describe the dependence on technology and use of rehabilitation services by children and adolescents in a maternal and child hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Using a cross-sectional design, the following variables were analyzed: gender and age of the children and adolescents, socioeconomic characteristics of the family, technology dependence, and use of rehabilitation services. The majority of the study population consisted of preschoolers (56.3%, boys (58.3%, residing in Greater Metropolitan Rio de Janeiro (89.3%, from low-income families (70.9%, and cared for mainly by their mothers (93.8%, who in turn have

  12. 45 CFR 233.37 - How monthly reports are treated and what notices are required (AFDC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COVERAGE AND CONDITIONS OF ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS... or her right to a fair hearing and his or her right to have assistance reinstated. A recipient has 10... definition of timeliness related to the filing of a monthly report and the number of days an individual has...

  13. 45 CFR 233.106 - Denial of AFDC benefits to strikers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to strikers. (a) Condition for plan approval. A State plan under title IV-A of the Social Security... month, participating in a strike; and (ii) Provide that no individual's needs shall be included in... month, such individual is participating in a strike. (b) Definitions. (1) The State must define “strike...

  14. 45 CFR 233.53 - Support and maintenance assistance (including home energy assistance) in AFDC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... assistance. In kind assistance means assistance furnished in any form except direct cash payments to an... which are convertible to cash. Private, nonprofit organization means a religious, charitable.... (Actual tax exempt certification by IRS is not necessary). Rate-of-return entity means an entity...

  15. Children's Bureau

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Initiatives & Issues For the Press Focus Areas Adoption Child Abuse & Neglect Child Welfare Services Foster Care Guardianship Tribes ... of children and families through programs that reduce child abuse and neglect, increase the number of adoptions, and ...

  16. Children's Bureau

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about the Administration on Children, Youth and Families' anti-trafficking strategy and resources about preventing, identifying, and responding ... Laws Technical Bulletins Policy Resources Monitoring AFCARS Assessment Reviews Child & Family Services Reviews NYTD Reviews SACWIS Assessment ...

  17. Pyridoxine-dependent seizures: 10-year follow-up of eight cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koul, Roshan

    2009-01-01

    Eight children with pyridoxine-dependent seizures (PDS) were seen over a period of 10 years. Of those children, 6 are on regular follow-up. Four of the children were seen in one family. All the patients presented with refractory seizures, mainly neonatal status epilepticus. Though PDS is a rare condition, it must be considered in all cases with refractory seizures, particularly in children younger than 3 years. When confirming a diagnosis, oral pyridoxine is as effective as intravenous pyridoxine.

  18. Pyridoxine-dependent seizures: 10-year follow-up of eight cases

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Eight children with pyridoxine-dependent seizures (PDS) were seen over a period of 10 years. Of those children, 6 are on regular follow-up. Four of the children were seen in one family. All the patients presented with refractory seizures, mainly neonatal status epilepticus. Though PDS is a rare condition, it must be considered in all cases with refractory seizures, particularly in childrens younger than 3 years. When confirming a diagnosis, oral pyridoxine is as effective as intravenous pyrid...

  19. [Dependence disorders in psychopathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, L; Sztulman, H

    1999-01-01

    Research concerning the psychopathological aspects of dependence implicates a wide range of behaviors reassembled under the term of "dependence behaviors": sexual, medical, alcoholic and tobacco dependencies. Speech samples of dependent subjects show that encountering the object of dependence (product, element, ...) introduces a particular form of organized psychological processes. According to several authors, psychopathological dependence can be attributed to: early personality development; failures in the separation-individuation processes; disorders in mother-infant interactions; and a deficit in the psychological functioning of the subjects. For psychopathology, the dependence cannot be reduced to physiological dependence on the product but is understood rather in terms of a complex process indicative of either specific or non-specific suffering which is addressed by abused substance that represents a solution--the effects of which constitute the addictive process. Understanding this process requires an analysis of the psychopathological dependence from a triple meta-psychological viewpoint (topographical, dynamic, economic). Such analysis allows for a psychoanalytical theoretical interpretation of dependence based on three models: pleasure, narcissism and stress reduction. At the same time, the analysis extends the examination of psychopathological dependence towards issues concerning the body. Such body issues are critically placed between the biological and the psychological processes.

  20. Children's rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Demartini

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The theme of children's rights is of paramount importance in the face of social and economic context in which it is the Brazilian society and as a result of childhood. Speaking in childhood can not think of a single child, because it reflects the variations of human culture and in the same society are built different childhoods. The variation of social conditions the children live is the main factor of heterogeneity in the constitution of childhood.

  1. Quality of relationships between preschool children and their divorced mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argyrakouli Ε.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available It was the purpose of the present study to investigate the consequences of parental divorce on preschool children aged 2,5 to 6,5 years old. More specifically, conflict, dependence and positive aspects of relationship were investigated. A total of 29 divorced mothers and their preschool children and 29 matched control married mothers and their children were ascertained from a general population. Mothers completed the Parent-Child Relationship Scale (PCRS developed by Pianta (1992. Mother –reported PCRS scores showed no differences on dependence and positive aspects of relationship, but conflict scale was significantly lower in children of divorce than in controls. However, younger children of divorced mothers (2,5 -4 years had significantly higher dependence on their mothers than the older ones (4-6,5. Additionally, mothers’ higher education was related to children less dependence and less conflict.

  2. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) ... depend on the type of examination. Ask your doctor if there are specific instructions for eating and ...

  3. Environmental Health Ethics in Study of Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, L. E.; Hansen, P. W.; Pedersen, M.;

    2017-01-01

    and lactating child may be exposed to environmental pollutants that depend on the maternal exposures. Also children are exposed to different levels of environmental agents because of the size and developmental stage. Children may experience different sources of exposure because of behavior, for example, eating......Children are not small adults in relation to exposure and vulnerability. Rapid growth, development, and anatomical and physiological changes in various organs and organ systems differentiate children from adults in relation to exposure and vulnerability to environmental exposures. The unborn child...

  4. [Specific disturbances of psychomotor development in children with thymomegaly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignat'eva, O N; Kuz'menko, L G; Kozlovskaia, G V; Kliushnik, T P

    2008-01-01

    Ninety children, aged from 2 month to 3 years, with thymomegaly and 25 aged-matched controls were studied. Most children with thymomegaly had disturbances of psychomotor development. Depending on their types, the cohort of children was stratified into 4 subgroups: 1st - 36 patients (40%) with schizotypal signs; 2nd - 30 hyperactive children (33%); 3rd - 19 children with hyperthymia signs (21%); 4th - 5 normal children (6%). The deviations of locomotion and psychiatric development were correlated with the extent of thymus enlargement and activation of innate and adaptive immunity.

  5. Children's Reading Ability in Early Primary Schooling: Challenges for a Kenyan Rural Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwoma, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    School outcomes and good performance in different subjects depends on children's ability to read. Thus teaching children on how to read during early grades is critical in promoting learning to read. More advanced skills acquired in later grades depend on early grade learning, so children who do not acquire these reading skills in their early…

  6. Cognitive Development Masks Support for Attributional Style Models of Depression in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitlauf, Amy S.; Cole, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Attributional style models of depression in adults (Abramson et al. 1989, 1978) have been adapted for use with children; however, most applications do not consider that children's understanding of causal relations may be qualitatively different from that of adults. If children's causal attributions depend on children's level of cognitive…

  7. Cognitive Development Masks Support for Attributional Style Models of Depression in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitlauf, Amy S.; Cole, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Attributional style models of depression in adults (Abramson et al. 1989, 1978) have been adapted for use with children; however, most applications do not consider that children's understanding of causal relations may be qualitatively different from that of adults. If children's causal attributions depend on children's level of cognitive…

  8. Verbal and Spatial Analogical Reasoning in Deaf and Hearing Children: The Role of Grammar and Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lindsey; Figueras, Berta; Mellanby, Jane; Langdon, Dawn

    2011-01-01

    The extent to which cognitive development and abilities are dependent on language remains controversial. In this study, the analogical reasoning skills of deaf and hard of hearing children are explored. Two groups of children (deaf and hard of hearing children with either cochlear implants or hearing aids and hearing children) completed tests of…

  9. Systems dependability assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Aubry, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    Presents recent developments of probabilistic assessment of systems dependability based on stochastic models, including graph theory, finite state automaton and language theory, for both dynamic and hybrid contexts.

  10. Swiss children's moral and psychological judgments about inclusion and exclusion of children with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, Luciano; Malti, Tina; Buholzer, Alois

    2014-01-01

    Children's judgments about inclusion and exclusion of children with disabilities were investigated in a Swiss sample of 6-, 9-, and 12-year-old children from inclusive and noninclusive classrooms (N = 422). Overall, the majority of children judged it as morally wrong to exclude children with disabilities. Yet, participants were less likely to expect the inclusion of children with mental or physical disabilities in academic and athletic contexts compared to social contexts. Moreover, older children more consistently coordinated disability type with context of exclusion. There were also significant differences depending on the type of classroom. The findings extend existing research on exclusion by investigating exclusion based on disability across different age groups and educational settings.

  11. Children and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Subscribe Translate Text Size Print Children Children and HIV Most HIV-positive children under the age of ... Frequently Asked Questions How long do children with HIV typically live? Because effective treatments are relatively new ...

  12. Hodgkin lymphoma - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lymphoma - Hodgkin - children; Hodgkin disease - children; Cancer - Hodgkin lymphoma - children; Childhood Hodgkin lymphoma ... In children, Hodgkin lymphoma is more likely to occur between ages 15 to 19 years. The cause of this type of ...

  13. Field dependence-independence (FDI) cognitive style: an analysis of attentional functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guisande, M Adelina; Páramo, M Fernanda; Tinajero, Carolina; Almeida, Leandro S

    2007-11-01

    Previous research has indicated that field-dependent children display poorer performance than field-independent children in almost all academic subjects and cognitive tasks. However, the processes underlying this poorer performance remain unclear. The present study aimed to assess whether children with different FDI cognitive styles show differences in performance of tasks measuring aspects of attentional functioning. Specifically, 149 children aged 8 - 11 years were classified according to FDI cognitive style (field-dependent, intermediate, or field-independent), and to storage capacity (Digits Forward Test), verbal working memory (Digits Backward Test), capacity to focus, shift, and maintain attention (Digit Symbol Test), and capacity for sustained attention (Visual Search and Attention Test). Field-independent children displayed better performance than intermediate and field-dependent children on all tests except the Digits Forward Test. Theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed.

  14. Difficult Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Else

    The purpose of this paper is to put focus on families and children who have had contact to the social service department because of problems related children’s well-being, health or development. Problems that are recognized by the families themselves and by the authorities as problems that put...... the family in a poor position regarding the children’s well-being, health and development, but not so severe that the child is to be placed out of home. The paper concentrates attention on differences between families with and without contact to the social service department for reasons related to the child....... Especially on children and their development in social relations to children at the same age, on how the mothers experience their child and on the parent’s resources concerning health, education and job situation. The paper presents results from the first two data collections (1996 and 1999) in a prospective...

  15. Difficult Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Else

    The purpose of this paper is to put focus on families and children who have had contact to the social service department because of problems related children’s well-being, health or development. Problems that are recognized by the families themselves and by the authorities as problems that put...... the family in a poor position regarding the children’s well-being, health and development, but not so severe that the child is to be placed out of home. The paper concentrates attention on differences between families with and without contact to the social service department for reasons related to the child....... Especially on children and their development in social relations to children at the same age, on how the mothers experience their child and on the parent’s resources concerning health, education and job situation. The paper presents results from the first two data collections (1996 and 1999) in a prospective...

  16. Dependent Probability Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, William F.; Shiflett, Ray C.; Shultz, Harris

    2008-01-01

    The mathematical model used to describe independence between two events in probability has a non-intuitive consequence called dependent spaces. The paper begins with a very brief history of the development of probability, then defines dependent spaces, and reviews what is known about finite spaces with uniform probability. The study of finite…

  17. Decisions Concerning Directional Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Eye, Alexander; DeShon, Richard P.

    2012-01-01

    In this rejoinder, von Eye and DeShon discuss the decision strategies proposed in their original article ("Directional Dependence in Developmental Research," this issue), as well as the ones proposed by the authors of the commentary (Pornprasertmanit and Little, "Determining Directional Dependency in Causal Associations," this issue). In addition,…

  18. The Politics of Dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cockburn, Patrick Joseph

    The central claim of this book is that thinking about ‘dependence’ should be at the core of political theory principally because it helps us to think about issues of economic justice. Unlike political theories that either condemn or celebrate dependence, the book argues that dependence is an ines...

  19. Interactive Visualization of Dependencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Camilo Arango; Bischof, Walter F.; Hoover, H. James

    2012-01-01

    We present an interactive tool for browsing course requisites as a case study of dependency visualization. This tool uses multiple interactive visualizations to allow the user to explore the dependencies between courses. A usability study revealed that the proposed browser provides significant advantages over traditional methods, in terms of…

  20. Multidimensional extremal dependence coefficients

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    Extreme values modeling has attracting the attention of researchers in diverse areas such as the environment, engineering, or finance. Multivariate extreme value distributions are particularly suitable to model the tails of multidimensional phenomena. The analysis of the dependence among multivariate maxima is useful to evaluate risk. Here we present new multivariate extreme value models, as well as, coefficients to assess multivariate extremal dependence.

  1. Interactive Visualization of Dependencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Camilo Arango; Bischof, Walter F.; Hoover, H. James

    2012-01-01

    We present an interactive tool for browsing course requisites as a case study of dependency visualization. This tool uses multiple interactive visualizations to allow the user to explore the dependencies between courses. A usability study revealed that the proposed browser provides significant advantages over traditional methods, in terms of…

  2. Dependence and Fundamentality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Zylstra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available I argue that dependence is neither necessary nor sufficient for relative fundamentality. I then introduce the notion of 'likeness in nature' and provide an account of relative fundamentality in terms of it and the notion of dependence. Finally, I discuss some puzzles that arise in Aristotle's Categories, to which the theory developed is applied.

  3. Gradle dependency management

    CERN Document Server

    Ikkink, Hubert Klein

    2015-01-01

    If you work on Java projects, use Gradle as a build automation tool, and you use dependencies in your project, this is the book for you. Additionally, if you want to deploy your project artifacts as dependencies for other developers using Gradle, you've found the right book.

  4. Adam Smith and dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozler, Sule

    2012-06-01

    The focus of this paper is the works and life of Adam Smith, who is widely recognized as the father and founder of contemporary economics. Latent content analysis is applied to his seminal text in economics, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776). The results reveal that Smith considers dependence on others a problem and sees the solution to this problem in impersonalized interdependence. In addition, his views on social dependency and personal dependency, reflected in his Lectures on Jurisprudence (1963) and The Theory of Moral Sentiments (1759), are analyzed. This analysis suggests a central tension between dependence and independence in Smith's writings. The personal dependency patterns he exhibited in his life, which also suggest a tension between dependence and independence, are identified through a reading of his biographies. Based on insights from psychoanalytic literature, this paper proposes that developing the ideas in the Wealth of Nations was part of Smith's creative solution to this tension. In particular, his solution to one individual's dependence on another was through a system of impersonalized interdependence. In other words, Smith defended against his personal dependence through his economic theorizing.

  5. Children and TV Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and War: How to Talk to Children Movies, Media, and Children Internet Use in Children WatchingTV/Screen Time and Children Child and Adolescent Psychiatrists Video Games and Children: Playing with Violence Music and Music Videos Violent Behavior in Children ...

  6. Children and Firearms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... they can watch TV, movies, and videos with children; restrict violent video games; limit TV; and disapprove of the ... and Children TV Violence and Children Home Alone Children Music and Music Videos Teen Suicide Violent Behavior in Children and Adolescents Threats by Children: ...

  7. Visual dependence and BPPV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, K; Bronstein, A M; Faldon, M E; Mandalà, M; Murray, K; Silove, Y

    2012-06-01

    The increased visual dependence noted in some vestibular patients may be secondary to their vertigo. We examine whether a single, brief vertigo attack, such as in benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), modifies visual dependency. Visual dependency was measured before and after the Hallpike manoeuvre with (a) the Rod and Frame and the Rod and Disc techniques whilst seated and (b) the postural sway induced by visual roll-motion stimulation. Three subject groups were studied: 20 patients with BPPV (history and positive Hallpike manoeuvre; PosH group), 20 control patients (history of BPPV but negative Hallpike manoeuvre; NegH group) and 20 normal controls. Our findings show that while both patient groups showed enhanced visual dependency, the PosH and the normal control group decreased visual dependency on repetition of the visual tasks after the Hallpike manoeuvre. NegH patients differed from PosH patients in that their high visual dependency did not diminish on repetition of the visual stimuli; they scored higher on the situational characteristic questionnaire ('visual vertigo' symptoms) and showed higher incidence of migraine. We conclude that long term vestibular symptoms increase visual dependence but a single BPPV attack does not increase it further. Repetitive visual motion stimulation induces adaptation in visual dependence in peripheral vestibular disorders such as BPPV. A positional form of vestibular migraine may underlie the symptoms of some patients with a history of BPPV but negative Hallpike manoeuvre. The finding that they have non adaptable increased visual dependency may explain visuo-vestibular symptoms in this group and, perhaps more widely, in patients with migraine.

  8. Improving Loop Dependence Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Nicklas Bo; Karlsson, Sven

    2017-01-01

    Programmers can no longer depend on new processors to have significantly improved single-thread performance. Instead, gains have to come from other sources such as the compiler and its optimization passes. Advanced passes make use of information on the dependencies related to loops. We improve...... the quality of that information by reusing the information given by the programmer for parallelization. We have implemented a prototype based on GCC into which we also add a new optimization pass. Our approach improves the amount of correctly classified dependencies resulting in 46% average improvement...

  9. Dependencies in Formal Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Alama, Jesse; Urban, Josef

    2011-01-01

    Dependencies in formal mathematical texts, large coherent formal libraries and proof assistants are introduced as an emerging research topic, analyzed from foundational, semantic, computational, and pragmatic perspectives, and put to practical use in computer-assisted mathematics. Two different approaches to dependency computation are implemented over two major proof assistants with different type disciplines, and a large-scale experimental comparison is provided based on large Coq and Mizar formal libraries. Apart from theoretical discussions, importance of dependency analysis for advanced automation of computer-assisted reasoning, and for efficient proof analysis and theory refactoring in substantial mathematical domains are experimentally demonstrated.

  10. [Violence against children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegenhain, Ute; Künster, Anne Katrin; Besier, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Violence against children is a widespread phenomenon. Interpersonal violence within the family context is typical in childhood, whereas violence occurs more frequently in the leisure and peer context during adolescence, often involving new media. The risk for experiencing violence is associated with many different factors, for example the age, psychosocial context, and cultural background of a child. Data on the prevalence of violence vary by country, depending on the available documentation systems. It is estimated that the number of unreported cases is high. Meta-analyses comprising mainly retrospective self-report studies indicate prevalence estimates between 12 and 19% for neglect, physical, and sexual abuse. Emotional child abuse is reported far more often, with a prevalence as high as 36.3%. German studies, however, weren't able to replicate these international findings. Here, child emotional abuse is reported less often. Violence against children has many negative consequences for physical, emotional, and psychosocial development. Violence prevention therefore comprises different international and national programs and strategies, which are able to successfully reduce violence against children. Programs focusing on the promotion of adequate parenting behavior show especially promising results.

  11. Invisible children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodpasture, Meggan; Everett, V Denise; Gagliano, Martha; Narayan, Aditee P; Sinal, Sara

    2013-01-01

    A series of severe child abuse cases in the state, all involving children who were reportedly homeschooled, are cause for concern. We review 4 such cases and the regulations regarding homeschooling in the state of North Carolina, exploring potential deficits in the system and suggesting ways of addressing them.

  12. Security of Dependable Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Naveed; Jensen, Christian D.

    2011-01-01

    Security and dependability are crucial for designing trustworthy systems. The approach “security as an add-on” is not satisfactory, yet the integration of security in the development process is still an open problem. Especially, a common framework for specifying dependability and security is very...... much needed. There are many pressing challenges however; here, we address some of them. Firstly, security for dependable systems is a broad concept and traditional view of security, e.g., in terms of confidentiality, integrity and availability, does not suffice. Secondly, a clear definition of security...... in the dependability context is not agreed upon. Thirdly, security attacks cannot be modeled as a stochastic process, because the adversary’s strategy is often carefully planned. In this chapter, we explore these challenges and provide some directions toward their solutions....

  13. Apache Maven dependency management

    CERN Document Server

    Lalou, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    An easy-to-follow, tutorial-based guide with chapters progressing from basic to advanced dependency management.If you are working with Java or Java EE projects and you want to take advantage of Maven dependency management, then this book is ideal for you. This book is also particularly useful if you are a developer or an architect. You should be well versed with Maven and its basic functionalities if you wish to get the most out of this book.

  14. Saving, dependency and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, A C; Schmidt, R M

    1996-01-01

    This study examines the impact of dependency on savings between 65 less developed countries (LDCs) and 23 developed countries over time and cross-sectionally since 1960. The study tests a modified Leff model and the Mason life-cycle framework. Empirical estimates address potential simultaneity between savings and output growth. The price indices of Summers and Heston are used because each country's national accounts are converted from nominal into purchasing-power variables. This eliminates the problems with using exchange rates which vary systematically by level of development with a "true" index of purchasing power. Savings (S/Y) is the percentage share of gross national saving in gross domestic product. Ygr is the growth of per capita income. Y/N gr is the growth in the per capita gross domestic product. Analysis is based on ordinary least squares (OLS) and two-stage least squares techniques, treatment for heteroscedascity, aggregation periods, several definitions of savings, different country samples, and aged dependency and youth dependency. Findings support the Mason variable-growth life-cycle framework that shows that changes in demographic factors accounted for a large part of savings. The relationships in the modified Leff-type model were weak, with the exception of the mildly negative youth and elderly dependency impact in the 1980s. The rate of growth of youth dependency was negative and significant in all cross-sections for the full sample, all panel estimates for both LDCs and the full sample, and in the 1980s for LDCs. In the OLS model, life-cycle effects were weaker, but direct dependency effects were stronger. S/Y over time became slightly more sensitive to changes in life cycle impacts but less sensitive to youth dependency. Demography's impact on savings over time is attributed to the increase in the pace of youth dependency decline and secondarily to its increasing sensitivity to life-cycle effects.

  15. 45 CFR 233.100 - Dependent children of unemployed parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...: (a) That there was a definite offer of employment at wages meeting any applicable minimum wage... both parents of such child are living, earned the greater amount of income in the 24-month period the... relative specified in section 406(a)(1) of the Act with whom such child is living, (i) If and for so long...

  16. 45 CFR 233.101 - Dependent children of unemployed parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the following factors must be resolved: (A) That there was a definite offer of employment at wages meeting any applicable minimum wage requirements and which are customary for such work in the community... any child, whichever parent, in a home in which both parents of such child are living, earned the...

  17. Children's Stereotypes of Overweight Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penny, Helen; Haddock, Geoffrey

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the content, favourability and generality of perceptions held about overweight children. The research also addressed whether anti-fat biases change with age and whether they result from a strong association between overweight and bad behaviour, a weak association between overweight and good behaviour or…

  18. The Negative Influence of the Technical Means on Children's Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Luparenko

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The negative impact of the technical means (computer, TV on children's development is characterized. This negative impact means damage of physical and mental health; lack of positive moral-ethic influence, forming a soulless, spiritless person; children's detachment from real life and their impossibility to realize themselves; increased aggressiveness; disappearance of the components of children subculture; availability (in virtual world of the information which can influence child's development negatively; children's dependence on computer games, Internet-addiction, etc. The recommendations for parents to reduce the negative influence of technical means on children are given.

  19. 75 FR 27121 - Interim Final Rules for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Relating to Dependent...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ... Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Relating to Dependent Coverage of Children to Age 26 Under the... and Health Insurance Issuers Relating to Dependent Coverage of Children to Age 26 Under the Patient... implementing the requirements for group health plans and health insurance issuers in the group and individual...

  20. Loperamide dependence and abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Ryan; Heiner, Jason; Villarreal, Joshua; Strote, Jared

    2015-05-02

    Loperamide is a common over-the-counter antidiarrheal considered safe in a broad range of dosages and thought devoid of abuse potential. We describe the first case of a patient with loperamide dependence due to misuse of its opiate-like effects achieved by chronic massive oral ingestions. A 26-year-old man who was taking 800 mg of loperamide per day presented requesting detoxification referral. Loperamide has potential for euphoric effects and information on how to facilitate such effects is easily available. It is important for physicians to be aware of the potential for misuse of and dependence on loperamide, with symptoms mimicking opiate use.

  1. Anticonvulsants for cocaine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minozzi, Silvia; Cinquini, Michela; Amato, Laura; Davoli, Marina; Farrell, Michael F; Pani, Pier Paolo; Vecchi, Simona

    2015-04-17

    Cocaine dependence is a major public health problem that is characterised by recidivism and a host of medical and psychosocial complications. Although effective pharmacotherapy is available for alcohol and heroin dependence, none is currently available for cocaine dependence, despite two decades of clinical trials primarily involving antidepressant, anticonvulsivant and dopaminergic medications. Extensive consideration has been given to optimal pharmacological approaches to the treatment of individuals with cocaine dependence, and both dopamine antagonists and agonists have been considered. Anticonvulsants have been candidates for use in the treatment of addiction based on the hypothesis that seizure kindling-like mechanisms contribute to addiction. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of anticonvulsants for individuals with cocaine dependence. We searched the Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group Trials Register (June 2014), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2014, Issue 6), MEDLINE (1966 to June 2014), EMBASE (1988 to June 2014), the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (1982 to June 2014), Web of Science (1991 to June 2014) and the reference lists of eligible articles. All randomised controlled trials and controlled clinical trials that focus on the use of anticonvulsant medications to treat individuals with cocaine dependence. We used the standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. We included a total of 20 studies with 2068 participants. We studied the anticonvulsant drugs carbamazepine, gabapentin, lamotrigine, phenytoin, tiagabine, topiramate and vigabatrin. All studies compared anticonvulsants versus placebo. Only one study had one arm by which the anticonvulsant was compared with the antidepressant desipramine. Upon comparison of anticonvulsant versus placebo, we found no significant differences for any of the efficacy and safety measures. Dropouts: risk ratio (RR) 0.95, 95

  2. Influenza vaccination coverage among Spanish children, 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-de-Andres, Ana; Hernández-Barrera, Valentín; Carrasco-Garrido, Pilar; Gil-de-Miguel, Angel; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo

    2009-07-01

    Traditionally, influenza is not considered to be a serious disease in healthy children. However, for vulnerable populations, such as young children and those with chronic medical conditions, influenza can lead to serious complications and even death. This study aimed to assess vaccination coverage among Spanish children under 16 years of age in 2006, and to describe the factors associated with vaccination. Cross-sectional survey. In total, 8851 records of children included in the Spanish National Health Survey for 2006 were analysed. The reply ('yes' or 'no') to the question: 'Did you have a flu shot in the latest campaign?' was used as a dependent variable. Influenza vaccine coverage was calculated as the percentage of individuals aged 6 months to 16 years whose parents reported that they had been vaccinated against influenza in the most recent campaign. The influence of sociodemographic variables on vaccination and the presence of associated chronic diseases (asthma and/or diabetes) were also analysed. Vaccination coverage among Spanish children in 2006 was 6.82%: 19.43% in children with associated conditions (asthma and/or diabetes), and 5.81% in healthy children. The only factor significantly associated with influenza vaccination in children with associated conditions was household income; children with a lower household monthly income were more likely to have been vaccinated against influenza than children with a higher household monthly income (odds ratio 1.96). In children for whom vaccination is not indicated, the probability of being vaccinated against influenza was greater in those whose parents were not university graduates. Influenza vaccination coverage in Spanish children is low. Socio-economic inequalities continue to be a factor at the time of vaccination.

  3. The definition and epidemiology of non-transfusion-dependent thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherall, David J

    2012-04-01

    Inherited hemoglobin-related disorders, which include the structural variants (hemoglobin S, C, and E) and the alpha (α)- and beta (β)-thalassemias, affect more than 300,000 children annually, particularly in malaria-endemic regions stretching from sub-Saharan Africa and the Mediterranean to Southeast Asia. Screening for carriers of these traits is important to provide prenatal genetic counseling and to accurately estimate the true prevalence and public health burden of these disorders. The clinical course of thalassemias, which affect nearly 70,000 children annually, is highly variable depending on the mixture of inherited alleles. The primary forms of non-transfusion-dependent thalassemia include β-thalassemia intermedia, hemoglobin E β-thalassemia, and hemoglobin H disease. Early clinical recognition of these disorders is essential to prevent affected children from being mistakenly placed on life-long transfusion therapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. State Dependence in Unemployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Nisar

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the extent state dependence among unemployed immigrants in a dynamic discrete choice framework. Three alternative methodologies are employed to control for the problem of the initial condition. The empirical findings show that there is a considerable correlation between the un...

  5. Path dependence and creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garud, Raghu; Karnøe, Peter

    the place of agency in these theories that take history so seriously. In the end, they are as interested in path creation and destruction as they are in path dependence. This book is compiled of both theoretical and empirical writing. It shows relatively well-known industries such as the automobile...

  6. The Alpino Dependency Treebank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Beek, L; Bouma, G; Malouf, R; van Noord, G; Theune, M; Nijholt, A; Hondorp, H

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we present the Alpino Dependency Treebank and the tools that we have developed to facilitate the annotation process. Annotation typically starts with parsing a sentence with the Alpino parser, a wide coverage parser of Dutch text, The number of parses that is generated is reduced throu

  7. Measurement dependent locality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pütz, Gilles; Gisin, Nicolas

    2016-05-01

    The demonstration and use of Bell-nonlocality, a concept that is fundamentally striking and is at the core of applications in device independent quantum information processing, relies heavily on the assumption of measurement independence, also called the assumption of free choice. The latter cannot be verified or guaranteed. In this paper, we consider a relaxation of the measurement independence assumption. We briefly review the results of Pütz et al (2014 Phys. Rev. Lett. 113 190402), which show that with our relaxation, the set of so-called measurement dependent local (MDL) correlations is a polytope, i.e. it can be fully described using a finite set of linear inequalities. Here we analyze this polytope, first in the simplest case of two parties with binary inputs and outputs, for which we give a full characterization. We show that partially entangled states are preferable to the maximally entangled state when dealing with measurement dependence in this scenario. We further present a method which transforms any Bell-inequality into an MDL inequality and give valid inequalities for the case of arbitrary number of parties as well as one for arbitrary number of inputs. We introduce the assumption of independent sources in the measurement dependence scenario and give a full analysis for the bipartite scenario with binary inputs and outputs. Finally, we establish a link between measurement dependence and another strong hindrance in certifying nonlocal correlations: nondetection events.

  8. Reference-Dependent Sympathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Deborah A.

    2010-01-01

    Natural disasters and other traumatic events often draw a greater charitable response than do ongoing misfortunes, even those that may cause even more widespread misery, such as famine or malaria. Why is the response disproportionate to need? The notion of reference dependence critical to Prospect Theory (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979) maintains that…

  9. Reference-Dependent Sympathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Deborah A.

    2010-01-01

    Natural disasters and other traumatic events often draw a greater charitable response than do ongoing misfortunes, even those that may cause even more widespread misery, such as famine or malaria. Why is the response disproportionate to need? The notion of reference dependence critical to Prospect Theory (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979) maintains that…

  10. Aspects, Dependencies, and Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chitchyan, R; Fabry, J.; Bergmans, Lodewijk; Südholt, M.; Consel, C.

    2007-01-01

    For Aspect-Oriented Software Development (AOSD) the topic of Aspects, Dependencies and Interactions is of high importance across the whole range of development activities – from requirements engineering through to language design. Aspect interactions must be adequately addressed all across the softw

  11. State Dependence in Unemployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Nisar

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the extent state dependence among unemployed immigrants in a dynamic discrete choice framework. Three alternative methodologies are employed to control for the problem of the initial condition. The empirical findings show that there is a considerable correlation between...

  12. Fungal infections of the lung in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toma, Paolo; Colafati, Giovanna Stefania; D' Andrea, Maria Luisa [IRCCS Bambino Gesu Children' s Hospital, Department of Imaging, Rome (Italy); Bertaina, Alice; Mastronuzzi, Angela [IRCCS Bambino Gesu Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology and Transfusion Medicine, Rome (Italy); Castagnola, Elio [IRCCS Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Department of Infective Diseases, Genoa (Italy); Finocchi, Andrea [IRCCS Bambino Gesu Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Rome (Italy); Lucidi, Vincenzina [IRCCS Bambino Gesu Children' s Hospital, Cystic Fibrosis Center, Rome (Italy); Granata, Claudio [IRCCS Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Genoa (Italy)

    2016-12-15

    Fungal infections of the lungs are relatively common and potentially life-threatening conditions in immunocompromised children. The role of imaging in children with lung mycosis is to delineate the extension of pulmonary involvement, to assess response to therapy, and to monitor for adverse sequelae such as bronchiectasis and cavitation. The aim of this paper is to show imaging findings in a series of patients with fungal pneumonia from two tertiary children's hospitals, to discuss differential diagnoses and to show how imaging findings can vary depending on the host immune response. (orig.)

  13. REMINDER - Extension/suppression of allowance for dependent child

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 18 or above (or reaching 18 during the 2005/2006 school year) have received a QUESTIONNAIRE in July. If this questionnaire has not been completed and returned yet, they are requested to do so WITHOUT DELAY. (The deadline was 9 September.) Human Resources Department Tel. 72862

  14. REMINDER - Extension/suppression of allowance for dependent child

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 18 or above (or reaching 18 during the 2005/2006 school year) have received a QUESTIONNAIRE in July. If this questionnaire has not been completed and returned yet, they are requested to do so WITHOUT DELAY. (The deadline was 9 September.) Human Resources Department Tel. 72862

  15. Mutations in antiquitin in individuals with pyridoxine-dependent seizures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mills, P.B.; Struys, E.A.; Jakobs, C.; Plecko, B.; Baxter, P.; Baumgartner, M.; Willemsen, M.A.A.P.; Omran, H.; Tacke, U.; Uhlenberg, B.; Weschke, B.; Clayton, P.T.

    2006-01-01

    We show here that children with pyridoxine-dependent seizures (PDS) have mutations in the ALDH7A1 gene, which encodes antiquitin; these mutations abolish the activity of antiquitin as a delta1-piperideine-6-carboxylate (P6C)-alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde (alpha-AASA) dehydrogenase. The accumulating

  16. Sleep enhances memory consolidation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, Anna; Hill, Catherine M; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Dimitriou, Dagmara

    2014-06-01

    Sleep is an active state that plays an important role in the consolidation of memory. It has been found to enhance explicit memories in both adults and children. However, in contrast to adults, children do not always show a sleep-related improvement in implicit learning. The majority of research on sleep-dependent memory consolidation focuses on adults; hence, the current study examined sleep-related effects on two tasks in children. Thirty-three typically developing children aged 6-12 years took part in the study. Actigraphy was used to monitor sleep. Sleep-dependent memory consolidation was assessed using a novel non-word learning task and the Tower of Hanoi cognitive puzzle, which involves discovering an underlying rule to aid completion. Children were trained on the two tasks and retested following approximately equal retention intervals of both wake and sleep. After sleep, children showed significant improvements in performance of 14% on the non-word learning task and 25% on the Tower of Hanoi task, but no significant change in score following the wake retention interval. Improved performance on the Tower of Hanoi may have been due to children consolidating explicit aspects of the task, for example rule-learning or memory of previous sequences; thus, we propose that sleep is necessary for consolidation of explicit memory in children. Sleep quality and duration were not related to children's task performance. If such experimental sleep-related learning enhancement is generalizable to everyday life, then it is clear that sleep plays a vital role in children's educational attainment.

  17. Benzodiazepine dependence: focus on withdrawal syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Authier, N; Balayssac, D; Sautereau, M; Zangarelli, A; Courty, P; Somogyi, A A; Vennat, B; Llorca, P-M; Eschalier, A

    2009-11-01

    Benzodiazepines are potentially addictive drugs: psychological and physical dependence can develop within a few weeks or years of regular or repeated use. The socioeconomic costs of the present high level of long-term benzodiazepine use are considerable. These consequences could be minimised if prescriptions for long-term benzodiazepines were decreased. However, many physicians continue to prescribe benzodiazepines and patients wishing to withdraw receive little advice or support. Particular care should be taken in prescribing benzodiazepines for vulnerable patients such as elderly persons, pregnant women, children, alcohol- or drug-dependent patients and patients with comorbid psychiatric disorders. The following update gives recent research results on the withdrawal pathophysiology and practical information in order to treat or prevent benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome.

  18. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small ... of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical ...

  19. Asthma in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have asthma. Nearly 9 million of them are children. Children have smaller airways than adults, which makes asthma especially serious for them. Children with asthma may experience wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, ...

  20. Treating Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Children and Adolescents Go Back Treating Children and Adolescents Email Print + Share For the most part, the ... tailored, based upon the child's weight. Children and adolescents are moving through a period of physical and ...

  1. Chronic Pancreatitis in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information > Children/Pediatric > Chronic Pancreatitis in Children test Chronic Pancreatitis in Children What symptoms would my child ... pancreatitis will develop diabetes in adolescence. Who gets chronic pancreatitis? Those at risk for chronic pancreatitis are ...

  2. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging ... the limitations of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch ...

  3. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small ... of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical ...

  4. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses ... limitations of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of ...

  5. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts ... Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  6. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts ... Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  7. Comparing dependent robust correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Rand R

    2016-11-01

    Let r1 and r2 be two dependent estimates of Pearson's correlation. There is a substantial literature on testing H0  : ρ1  = ρ2 , the hypothesis that the population correlation coefficients are equal. However, it is well known that Pearson's correlation is not robust. Even a single outlier can have a substantial impact on Pearson's correlation, resulting in a misleading understanding about the strength of the association among the bulk of the points. A way of mitigating this concern is to use a correlation coefficient that guards against outliers, many of which have been proposed. But apparently there are no results on how to compare dependent robust correlation coefficients when there is heteroscedasicity. Extant results suggest that a basic percentile bootstrap will perform reasonably well. This paper reports simulation results indicating the extent to which this is true when using Spearman's rho, a Winsorized correlation or a skipped correlation.

  8. Observer dependent geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Hohmann, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    From general relativity we have learned the principles of general covariance and local Lorentz invariance, which follow from the fact that we consider observables as tensors on a spacetime manifold whose geometry is modeled by a Lorentzian metric. Approaches to quantum gravity, however, hint towards a breaking of these symmetries and the possible existence of more general, non-tensorial geometric structures. Possible implications of these approaches are non-tensorial transformation laws between different observers and an observer-dependent notion of geometry. In this work we review two different frameworks for observer dependent geometries, which may provide hints towards a quantization of gravity and possible explanations for so far unexplained phenomena: Finsler spacetimes and Cartan geometry on observer space. We discuss their definitions, properties and applications to observers, field theories and gravity.

  9. Myofilament length dependent activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Tombe, Pieter P.; Mateja, Ryan D.; Tachampa, Kittipong; Mou, Younss Ait; Farman, Gerrie P.; Irving, Thomas C. (IIT); (Loyola)

    2010-05-25

    The Frank-Starling law of the heart describes the interrelationship between end-diastolic volume and cardiac ejection volume, a regulatory system that operates on a beat-to-beat basis. The main cellular mechanism that underlies this phenomenon is an increase in the responsiveness of cardiac myofilaments to activating Ca{sup 2+} ions at a longer sarcomere length, commonly referred to as myofilament length-dependent activation. This review focuses on what molecular mechanisms may underlie myofilament length dependency. Specifically, the roles of inter-filament spacing, thick and thin filament based regulation, as well as sarcomeric regulatory proteins are discussed. Although the 'Frank-Starling law of the heart' constitutes a fundamental cardiac property that has been appreciated for well over a century, it is still not known in muscle how the contractile apparatus transduces the information concerning sarcomere length to modulate ventricular pressure development.

  10. Cyber Network Mission Dependencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-18

    Technology applications 12 5 VMs allow one host to belong to multiple VLANs 14 6 Asset recommendation system mockup 15 7 Perturbative mapping may...extended list of critical assets based on communications patterns and software dependencies. Once vulnerabilities have been assessed, AMMO produces a...status of not just network machines, but also software tools, network connections, server room conditions, and many other mission parameters. From this

  11. ARL Arabic Dependency Treebank

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-10

    Detection for Modern Standard Arabic to English MT” (Tratz, 2014). The LDC is one of the foremost sources of annotated data used in computational... vowel diacritic—the typical indicator of genitive case—was not written, the DET label would appear on one line with the Al definite determiner, the... English dependency label scheme (de Marneffe & Manning, 2008). However, this is to not to say that they may always be interpreted identically. Also

  12. Dependence, Risk, and Vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    B2 has a great deal. The measurement strategy outlined here will gauge A’s import depen- dence on B2 as greater than A’s import dependence on B1 . One...pp 25 Doctrines: One More Time." 43 pp., Jan 1960. Glee. Devid V.; Hsoi. Ih-Chses: Nu,n, Welter A. AD AOIl 192 PP 283 mnd Penn, David A.. "A Clas of

  13. MEASURING PATH DEPENDENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Juhasz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available While risk management gained popularity during the last decades even some of the basic risk types are still far out of focus. One of these is path dependency that refers to the uncertainty of how we reach a certain level of total performance over time. While decision makers are careful in accessing how their position will look like the end of certain periods, little attention is given how they will get there through the period. The uncertainty of how a process will develop across a shorter period of time is often “eliminated” by simply choosing a longer planning time interval, what makes path dependency is one of the most often overlooked business risk types. After reviewing the origin of the problem we propose and compare seven risk measures to access path. Traditional risk measures like standard deviation of sub period cash flows fail to capture this risk type. We conclude that in most cases considering the distribution of the expected cash flow effect caused by the path dependency may offer the best method, but we may need to use several measures at the same time to include all the optimisation limits of the given firm

  14. Wuxia's Children Shoes sole: Touching Children's Heart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Wuxia Children shoes sole company, founded in 1998, is the first professional children shoes sole business in Wenzhou city. It is located in Huanglong Commercial Center,Wenzhou city, Zhejiang province.

  15. FATIGUE AND FAULTY POSTURE CONNECTION AMONG CHILDREN, DIAGNOSED WITH DYSARTHRIA

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Purpose : To analyze spastic dysarthria form in children population dependency of fatigue and faulty posture relationship. Methods: Research performed with the permission of the bioethics committee (RE-BK-063). The Dutch Fatigue Scale (DUFS). Posture in standing was assessed by Hoeger and Kendall. Research subjects n=40. n=20 children diagnosed with spastic dysarthria and n=20 of children without dysarthria. Their age was 10±2.1years. Boys were n=20 and girls - n=20.Results were statistically...

  16. A STUDY ON PREVALENCE OF REFRACTIVE ERRORS IN SCHOOL CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Kolli Sree Karuna

    2014-01-01

    ‘’Sarvendriya nam nayanam pradhanam” Of all the organs in the body, eyes are the most important. The blindness or defect in vision decreases the productivity of the nation in addition to increased dependability. The refractive errors in the school children throw them in to defective future. Nutrition deficiency, mental strain, wrong reading habits etc are some of the causes for this defect in these children. Vision is essential for all the children, for the academic and overal...

  17. Epidemiology of pyridoxine dependent and pyridoxine responsive seizures in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To study the epidemiology of pyridoxine dependent seizures and other forms of pyridoxine responsive seizures.
DESIGN—Monthly notifications to the British Paediatric Surveillance Unit over two years. Questionnaire follow up.
SETTING—UK and the Republic of Ireland.
PATIENTS—Children aged 15 years or younger whose seizures respond to pyridoxine.
INTERVENTIONS—None.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Numbers of children with definite, probable, and possible pyridoxine depende...

  18. Parent training in nonviolent resistance for adult entitled dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebowitz, Eli; Dolberger, Dan; Nortov, Efi; Omer, Haim

    2012-03-01

    "Adult entitled dependence" is a condition characterized by the extreme dependence of grown children on their family and by levels of dysfunction, seemingly excessive in light of their apparent capacity to function. The family and the dependent adult become involved in an interaction in which the very attempts to alleviate the problem may aggravate it. Parent-training in nonviolent resistance (NVR) is an intervention that has been shown to be helpful to parents of behaviorally disturbed youth. Parent training in NVR offers parents means to shift away from a stance of helplessness toward realistic goals that are accomplishable without the collaboration of their offspring. We report on the parents of 27 entitled dependent grown children who participated in parent training in NVR. Additionally, we present 2 detailed case studies that exemplify the problem and the therapeutic process. Before treatment, the dependent adults were not working or studying, drew heavily on parental services (financial or otherwise), and were resistant to parental attempts to change the situation. Most parents succeeded in overcoming their helplessness and reducing the provision of parental services. In a considerable proportion of cases, the grown children started working or studying or moved to independent lodgings. © FPI, Inc.

  19. Trajectories of maltreatment re-reports from ages 4 to 12:: evidence for persistent risk after early exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Laura J; Aarons, Gregory A; Dubowitz, Howard; English, Diana J; Lewis, Terri; Thompson, Richard; Hussey, Jon M; Litrownik, Alan J; Roesch, Scott C

    2012-08-01

    This study identified trajectories of maltreatment re-reports between ages 4 and 12 for children first referred to Child Protective Services (CPS) for maltreatment prior to age 4 and either removed from the home or assessed by a CPS intake worker as moderately or highly likely to be abused/neglected in the future, absent intervention. Participants (n = 501) were children from the Southwest and Northwest sites of the Consortium for Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN). During the 8-year follow-up period, 67% of children were re-reported. Growth mixture modeling identified four trajectory classes: No re-report (33%), Continuous re-reports (10%), Intermittent re-reports (37%), and Early re-reports (20%). Membership in classes with relatively more re-reports was predicted by several factors assessed at age 4, including physical abuse; living with a biological/stepparent; caregiver alcohol abuse, depression, and lack of social support; receipt of Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); and number of children in the home. For a subpopulation of high-risk children first reported in early childhood, risk for maltreatment re-reporting may persist longer than previously documented, continuing 8 to 12 years after the first report.

  20. Neglect subtypes, race, and poverty: individual, family, and service characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Drake, Brett; Zhou, Pan

    2013-02-01

    Recent child maltreatment research has highlighted the very different context of poverty for Black and White children. Neglect is the most common form of maltreatment and strongly associated with poverty. Neglect is, however, not a unitary construct. We lack an understanding of whether reporting of and responding to different types of neglect may vary by poverty, race, or the intersection of the two. Administrative census, child welfare, welfare, health, and education data were used to examine how family and community poverty factors associate with various subtypes of neglect and subsequent case dispositions for Black and White children. Black children reported to child welfare reside in far poorer communities than Whites, even after taking into account family income (Aid to Families with Dependent Children [AFDC]/Temporary Aid to Needy Families [TANF]). Black children were more commonly reported and substantiated for severe and basic needs neglect. Community poverty indicators had a different relationship to report disposition for Black as compared to White children after controlling for neglect subtypes, child and family characteristics. Implications for practice and policy are discussed.

  1. Hydrocephalus in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekate, Harold L; Blitz, Ari M

    2016-01-01

    Imaging of hydrocephalus in utero, in infants and children is critically dependent on an understanding of the pathophysiology and treatment options for this condition in this age spectrum. For this reason, this chapter deals not only with the imaging modalities used to study hydrocephalus and how they are applied but also reviews key aspects of the pathophysiology and treatment of hydrocephalus in children. Imaging techniques to establish the diagnosis of chronic hydrocephalus fall into two categories: (1) tracer-type techniques that require an injection and observation of the transit of an injected substance through the ventricular system or subarachnoid space and (2) cross-sectional imaging, which allows for direct visualization of a point of obstruction within the ventricular system or subarachnoid space. For cross-sectional imaging, both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography can be used, but MRI is usually preferred. Nomenclature has obscured the description of imaging findings in hydrocephalus. We suggest that most hydrocephalus is obstructive and propose to designate ventriculomegaly, the condition in which the ventricles are large on imaging, but there is no true obstruction to the outflow of cerebrospinal fluid.

  2. Tuberculosis in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca-Santos, Jose [Servico de Imagiologia Geral, Hospital de Santa Maria. Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Egas Moniz, Lisbon 1649-035 (Portugal)]. E-mail: jfonsecasantos@netcabo.pt

    2005-08-01

    Epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) in childhood is closely related to TB in adults. Serious manifestations are often observed in children with TB. Immunological immaturity and social dependence facilitate the spread of infection. Paediatricians account in practise both primary TB, with hilar lymphadenopathy, and subacute or chronic pulmonary complications, in TB disease. Children appear to have a higher risk of having extrapulmonary TB involving any organ. The diagnosis of tuberculosis reactivation/re-infection, is based in the isolation of the agent in the sputum [7]. Primary TB is difficult to diagnose, usually established by indirect signs of low epidemiological specificity, symptoms, chest radiography and the intracutaneous tuberculin test. In this context, one can understand the importance of correct interpretation of the chest radiograph. Chest CT is recommended if the chest radiograph is equivocal. In addition, an overview of extrapulmonary cases of TB - of the spine, bone and lymph nodes - including the role of other imaging modalities (Us and MR) will be presented [1,3].

  3. What Proportion of Preschool-Aged Children Consume Sweetened Beverages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickelson, Jen; Lawrence, Jeannine C.; Parton, Jason M.; Knowlden, Adam P.; McDermott, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Obesity affects nearly 17% of US children and youth 2-19?years old and 10% of infants and toddlers under the age of 2?years. One strategy for addressing obesity is to discourage sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption. Compared with their older school-aged counterparts, children =5?years depend largely on parents for the purchase…

  4. The Emergence of Flexible Spatial Strategies in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waismeyer, Anna S.; Jacobs, Lucia F.

    2013-01-01

    The development of spatial navigation in children depends not only on remembering which landmarks lead to a goal location but also on developing strategies to deal with changes in the environment or imperfections in memory. Using cue combination methods, the authors examined 3- and 4-year-old children's memory for different types of spatial cues…

  5. Guide to Children Affected by Parental Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Leah

    2010-01-01

    A conservative estimate is that one in six children in school today has a parent dependent on or addicted to alcohol or other drugs. This places these students at high risk for social and emotional problems, as well as for school failure, drug use, and delinquency. Schools, however, are a logical place to reach them. Identifying children of those…

  6. Self-Control in School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Gendler, Tamar Szabó; Gross, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Conflicts between immediately rewarding activities and more enduringly valued goals abound in the lives of school-age children. Such conflicts call upon children to exercise self-control, a competence that depends in part on the mastery of metacognitive, prospective strategies. The "process model of self-control" organizes these…

  7. What Proportion of Preschool-Aged Children Consume Sweetened Beverages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickelson, Jen; Lawrence, Jeannine C.; Parton, Jason M.; Knowlden, Adam P.; McDermott, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Obesity affects nearly 17% of US children and youth 2-19?years old and 10% of infants and toddlers under the age of 2?years. One strategy for addressing obesity is to discourage sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption. Compared with their older school-aged counterparts, children =5?years depend largely on parents for the purchase…

  8. INTRODUCTION The term street children has many definitions in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    supervision and street influence on them. These children also form a .... area of Nigeria: Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 2003; 00: 1-8. 6. A Civil ... Neighborhood: Street Children and the Public. Space.” Childhood ... for adolescents. Journal of ...

  9. Evacuation of children - movement on stairs and on Horizontal Plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larusdottir, Aldis Run; Dederichs, Anne

    2012-01-01

    in full scale evacuation experiments where two age groups 0-2 years and 3-6 years were analyzed separately. It was found that flow through doors, walking speeds and densities were age-dependent and differed strongly from the data in existing literature. The results showed higher walking speeds in spiral...... stairs when the children were familiar with the evacuation path. Higher person densities and faster flow through doors were obtained among the children than found in the current literature on adults. Children in the younger age group were generally slower than the older children. The children walked......Little is known on the evacuation characteristics of children. Current literature on evacuation is based mostly on studies on adults. The aim of this study is to investigate the movement of children during evacuation, focusing on flow, densities and walking. Ten Danish daycare centers participated...

  10. Dependent rational providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, Kyle B

    2011-04-01

    Provider claims to conscientious objection have generated a great deal of heated debate in recent years. However, the conflicts that arise when providers make claims to the "conscience" are only a subset of the more fundamental challenges that arise in health care practice when patients and providers come into conflict. In this piece, the author provides an account of patient-provider conflict from within the moral tradition of St. Thomas Aquinas. He argues that the practice of health care providers should be understood as a form of practical reasoning and that this practical reasoning must necessarily incorporate both "moral" and "professional" commitments. In order to understand how the practical reasoning of provider should account for the needs and commitments of the patient and vice versa, he explores the account of dependence provided by Alasdair MacIntyre in his book Dependent Rational Animals. MacIntyre argues that St. Thomas' account of practical reasoning should be extended and adapted to account for the embodied vulnerability of all humans. In light of this insight, providers must view patients not only as the subjects of their moral reflection but also as fellow humans upon whom the provider depends for feedback on the effectiveness and relevance of her practical reasoning. The author argues that this account precludes responsive providers from adopting either moral or professional conclusions on the appropriateness of interventions outside the individual circumstances that arise in particular situations. The adoption of this orientation toward patients will neither eradicate provider-patient conflict nor compel providers to perform interventions to which they object. But this account does require that providers attend meaningfully to the suffering of patients and seek feedback on whether their intervention has effectively addressed that suffering.

  11. Inhalant Dependence and its Medical Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Hamid Boztaş

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The term of inhalants is used for matters easily vapors. Inhalants are preferred for rapid, positive reinforcement and mild high effects. Products including inhalants are cheap, accessible, legal substances and are prevalently used in community. The prevalence of inhalant use in secondary schools in Turkey is about 5.1%. Inhalant substance dependence is generally observed within 14-15 age group. Age at first use could be as low as 5 to 6 years of age. Substance dependence is more probable in adults working in substance existing places. Inhalant usage is common in disadvantaged groups, children living in street, people with history of crimes, prison, depression, suicide, antisocial attitudes and conflict of family, history of abuse, violence and any other drug dependence and isolated populations. Inhalants are absorbed from lungs, after performing their quick and short effect metabolized by cytochrom P450 enzyme system except inhalant nitrites group which has a depressing effect like alcohol. In chronic use general atrophy, ventricular dilatation and wide sulcus were shown in cerebrum, cerebellum and pons by monitoring brain. Defects are mostly in periventricular, subcortical regions and in white matter. Demyelinization, hyperintensity, callosal slimming and wearing off in white and gray matter margins was also found. Ravages of brain shown by brain monitorisation are more and serious in inhalant dependence than in other dependences. It is important to decrease use of inhalants. Different approaches should be used for subcultures and groups in prevention. Prohibiting all the matters including inhalant is not practical as there are too many substances including inhalants. Etiquettes showing harmful materials can be used but this approach can also lead the children and adolescents recognize these substances easily.. Despite determintal effects of inhalant dependence, there are not yet sufficient number of studies conducted on prevention and

  12. [Pyridoxine dependent seizures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, K N; Ostergaard, J R; Møller, S M

    1994-10-17

    Pyridoxine dependent seizures is a rare autosomal recessive disorder. Its manifestations are intractable epilepsy leading to death in status epilepticus. Treatment with pyridoxine prevents the seizures and normalizes the EEG. Early diagnosis is important for the intellectual outcome. In Denmark, the disease has occurred in a child of healthy Tamil immigrants, who are first cousins. The child's case story is described and points to awareness of increased occurrence of rare autosomal recessive disorders in immigrants from cultures with traditional consanguinity. We suggest giving a pyridoxine test dosis to all cases of severe epilepsy and status epilepticus in infants younger than 18 months.

  13. Environmental tobacco smoke and children`s health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Hyun Hwang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Passive exposure to tobacco smoke significantly contributes to morbidity and mortality in children. Children, in particular, seem to be the most susceptible population to the harmful effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS. Paternal smoking inside the home leads to significant maternal and fetal exposure to ETS and may subsequently affect fetal health. ETS has been associated with adverse effects on pediatric health, including preterm birth, intrauterine growth retardation, perinatal mortality, respiratory illness, neurobehavioral problems, and decreased performance in school. A valid estimation of the risks associated with tobacco exposure depends on accurate measurement. Nicotine and its major metabolite, cotinine, are commonly used as smoking biomarkers, and their levels can be determined in various biological specimens such as blood, saliva, and urine. Recently, hair analysis was found to be a convenient, noninvasive technique for detecting the presence of nicotine exposure. Because nicotine/cotinine accumulates in hair during hair growth, it is a unique measure of longterm, cumulative exposure to tobacco smoke. Although smoking ban policies result in considerable reductions in ETS exposure, children are still exposed significantly to tobacco smoke not only in their homes but also in schools, restaurants, child-care settings, cars, buses, and other public places. Therefore, more effective strategies and public policies to protect preschool children from ETS should be consolidated.

  14. Megadose bromazepam dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastide, Anaïs; de Codt, Aloïse; Monhonval, Pauline; Bongaerts, Xavier; Tecco, Juan Martin

    2016-09-01

    Benzodiazepines (BZDs) are among the most widely prescribed drugs in developed countries. Since BZDs can produce tolerance and dependence even in a short time, their use is recommended for a very limited time. However, these recommendations have been largely disregarded. The chronic use of BZDs causes a number of serious side effects, i.e. cognitive impairment, falls, traffic accidents, dependence and tolerance. We present the case of a 37 years old woman taking daily doses of 220 mg of bromazepam. The patient's anxiety, depression and cognitive status were evaluated with a battery of questionnaires. A sleep laboratory test was performed in search of sleep apneas and sleepiness during the day. A Cerebral PET SCAN was executed in search of altered cerebral metabolism. Blood concentrations of bromazepam reached 7800 μg/L. Questionnaire evaluations showed significant depression and anxiety but only moderate cognitive impairment. Oxygen saturation was normal throughout the Sleep lab test, respiratory events were very few and sleepiness was moderate with an average latency of 9 minutes. Brain cortical glucose consumption was homogeneously slightly reduced. With doses of bromazepan reaching 15 times the toxic dose, anxiety remained high. Cognition, sleepiness, respiratory sleep events and brain metabolism remained remarkably close to normal.

  15. Velocity dependant splash behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlett, C. A. E.; Shirtcliffe, N. J.; McHale, G.; Ahn, S.; Doerr, S. H.; Bryant, R.; Newton, M. I.

    2012-04-01

    Extreme soil water repellency can occur in nature via condensation of volatile organic compounds released during wildfires and can lead to increased erosion rate. Such extreme water repellent soil can be classified as superhydrophobic and shares similar chemical and topographical features to specifically designed superhydrophobic surfaces. Previous studies using high speed videography to investigate single droplet impact behaviour on artificial superhydrophobic have revealed three distinct modes of splash behaviour (rebound, pinned and fragmentation) which are dependent on the impact velocity of the droplet. In our studies, using high-speed videography, we show that such splash behaviour can be replicated on fixed 'model' water repellent soils (hydrophobic glass beads/particles). We show that the type of splash behaviour is dependent on both the size and chemical nature of the fixed particles. The particle shape also influences the splash behaviour as shown by drop impact experiments on fixed sand samples. We have also studied soil samples, as collected from the field, which shows that the type of droplet splash behaviour can lead to enhanced soil particle transport.

  16. Using Behavioral Interventions to Assist Children with Type 1 Diabetes Manage Blood Glucose Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasecki, Kim; Olympia, Daniel; Clark, Elaine; Jenson, William; Heathfield, Lora Tuesday

    2008-01-01

    Treatment and management of chronic disease processes on children occurs across multiple settings, placing demands for consultation and expertise on school personnel, including school psychologists. One such chronic condition in children is type I diabetes. Children with type I insulin dependent diabetes mellitus exhibit high rates of…

  17. Working with Parents of Aggressive Children: A Description of Their Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordock, John B.

    1988-01-01

    Parents of aggressive children often act in ways which contribute to and maintain their children's aggression. Common characteristics of parents of aggressive children include: unfulfilled dependency needs, low self-esteem, bonding failure, disturbed identity formation, cognitive immaturity, denied affects, chaotic lifestyle, and social isolation.…

  18. Social Competencies and Difficulties of Gifted Children Compared to Nongifted Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechtman, Zipora; Silektor, Anat

    2012-01-01

    This study, conducted in Israel, examined the social and emotional difficulties of gifted children, in comparison with nongifted children. The gifted children were further compared in two educational settings: segregated classes and pull-out programs. The 974 participants were from the fifth to twelfth grades. The dependent variables included…

  19. Parental Reports on the Use of Treatments and Therapies for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goin-Kochel, Robin P.; Myers, Barbara J.; Mackintosh, Virginia H.

    2007-01-01

    Parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD; N = 479) reported via web-based survey what pharmacological (drug), diet, and behavioral/educational/alternative therapies they had "tried" and were "using now" in the treatment of their children with ASD. Depending on type of ASD, children had tried, on average, between seven and nine…

  20. The Impact of Foreign Housemaids on the Children of Working Mothers: A Case Study from Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbar, Sinaria Kamil Abdel

    2014-01-01

    The role of grandparents and other close relatives in caring for the children of working mothers has been diminishing in modern societies everywhere including Jordan. Concurrently, the dependence on housemaids to care for the children of working mothers has been on the rise. The impact of housemaids on young Jordanian children (4-5 years old) was…

  1. Bullying and Violence Issues in Children's Lives: Examining the Issues and Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlin, Rebecca P.

    2008-01-01

    Today's children may be exposed to violence in their environment, through the media, at home, and in school. Some children live in countries at war, while others survive in neighborhoods where street gangs prevail. Most parents and children used to assume they could depend upon schools to be safe places, free from abuse and violence. Now it seems…

  2. The Effects of Three Years of Piano Instruction on Children's Cognitive Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Giomi, Eugenia

    1999-01-01

    Examines the effects of 3 years of piano instruction on children's cognitive abilities. Finds that children's general cognitive and spatial abilities improved significantly, but those improvements were only temporary. Believes that the positive effects on the children's cognitive abilities were dependent upon their dedication to learning the…

  3. Social Competencies and Difficulties of Gifted Children Compared to Nongifted Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechtman, Zipora; Silektor, Anat

    2012-01-01

    This study, conducted in Israel, examined the social and emotional difficulties of gifted children, in comparison with nongifted children. The gifted children were further compared in two educational settings: segregated classes and pull-out programs. The 974 participants were from the fifth to twelfth grades. The dependent variables included…

  4. The Impact of Teachers and Families on Young Children's Eating Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliassen, Erin K.

    2011-01-01

    Young children depend on their families and teachers to support their well-being and promote positive development, including eating behaviors. Children's food preferences and willingness to try new foods are influenced by the people around them. The eating behaviors children practice early in life affect their health and nutrition--significant…

  5. A comparison of the function, activity and participation and quality of life between down syndrome children and typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hee-Kyoung; Chung, EunJung; Lee, Byoung-Hee

    2017-08-01

    [Purpose] To compare function, activity, participation, and quality of life of Down syndrome children and typically developing children according to age. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 16 Down syndrome children and 20 children with typical development were included as subjects for this study. International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) Child and Youth version (CY) developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) and a questionnaire were used to measure children's functioning, activity, and participation. To measure quality of life, KIDSCREEN 52-HRQOL questionnaire was used in this study. [Results] ICF-CY function, activity, participation, and quality of life showed statistically significant differences between Down syndrome children and typically developing children. Down syndrome children with higher functions showed higher activities and participation. Higher function, activity and participation features were correlated with better quality of life. Higher function resulted in better quality of life. [Conclusion] Function, activity, participation, quality of life, and several common factors of Down syndrome children depend on the ability of children. Function of Down syndrome children affects their activity, participation, and quality of life. Activities and participations also affect quality of life. Therefore, children's functional aspect is the foundation for quality of life.

  6. Thromboembolism in Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO Cheng-xin

    2006-01-01

    @@ Thromboembotic events are being increasingly diagnosed in children. The incidence of symptomatic thrombolic events is 0.07%/10 000 children , 5.3/10 000hospital admissions of children and 2.4/1 000 admissions of newborns to intensive care units in west, but the incidence of thromboembotic events in children in China is an unknow now.

  7. Children Solve Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bono, Edward

    A group of children were presented with several tasks, including the invention of a sleep machine and a machine to weigh elephants. The tasks were chosen to involve the children in coping with problems of a distinct character. A study of the children's drawings and interpretations shows that children's thinking ability is not very different from…

  8. The relationship between moral judgment and cooperation in children with high-functioning autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Zhu, Liqi; Gummerum, Michaela

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated moral judgment in children with high-functioning autism and their cooperation in prisoner's dilemma game with partners of different moralities. Thirty-eight 6- to 12-year-old high-functioning autistic (HFA) children and 31 typically developing (TD) children were recruited. Children were asked to judge story protagonists' morality. After making this moral judgment correctly, they were asked to play with the morally nice and the morally naughty child in a repeated prisoner's dilemma game. Results showed that both HFA and TD children made correct moral judgments, and that HFA children might even have more rigid criteria for what constitutes morally naughty acts. HFA children's cooperation did not differ depending on the morality of the interaction partner, while TD children showed higher cooperation when interacting with the morally nice than the morally naughty child did. Thus, partner's morality did influence TD children's but not HFA children's subsequent cooperation. PMID:24603775

  9. How children change their minds: strategy change can be gradual or abrupt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibali, M W

    1999-01-01

    This study investigated patterns of change in children's strategies for solving mathematical equivalence problems. The strategies children expressed in speech and in gesture were assessed both before and after an instructional intervention. In the intervention, children received either no input, accuracy feedback, or feedback plus instruction about a principle, an analogy, or a procedure. From pretest to posttest, many children changed both the variability of their strategy use and the content of their strategy repertoires. Patterns of change depended on type of instruction and on children's initial level of variability. Children who received instruction were especially likely to generate new strategies, and children with high variability were especially likely to abandon prior strategies. Gradual change was most common; however, many children modified their repertoires abruptly. Abrupt strategy change was especially prevalent among children who received procedure-based instruction and among children with low initial variability.

  10. Pyridoxine-dependent seizures: 10-year follow-up of eight cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koul Roshan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight children with pyridoxine-dependent seizures (PDS were seen over a period of 10 years. Of those children, 6 are on regular follow-up. Four of the children were seen in one family. All the patients presented with refractory seizures, mainly neonatal status epilepticus. Though PDS is a rare condition, it must be considered in all cases with refractory seizures, particularly in childrens younger than 3 years. When confirming a diagnosis, oral pyridoxine is as effective as intravenous pyridoxine.

  11. Strong near-epoch dependence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Zhengyan

    2004-01-01

    We introduce a new class of dependent sequences of random variables, which is a subclass of near-epoch dependent sequences, but can also be approximated by mixing sequences. For this kind of sequences of random variables, we call them strong nearepoch dependent sequences, a p-order, p > 2, (maximum) moment inequality is established under weaker dependence sizes.

  12. Poverty and program participation among immigrant children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borjas, George J

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have long known that poverty in childhood is linked with a range of negative adult socioeconomic outcomes, from lower educational achievement and behavioral problems to lower earnings in the labor market. But few researchers have explored whether exposure to a disadvantaged background affects immigrant children and native children differently. George Borjas uses Current Population Survey (CPS) data on two specific indicators of poverty-the poverty rate and the rate of participation in public assistance programs-to begin answering that question. He finds that immigrant children have significantly higher rates both of poverty and of program participation than do native children. Nearly half of immigrant children are being raised in households that receive some type of public assistance, compared with roughly one-third of native children. Although the shares of immigrant and native children living in poverty are lower, the rate for immigrant children is nonetheless about 15 percentage points higher than that for native children-about the same as the gap in public assistance. Poverty and program participation rates among different groups of immigrant children also vary widely, depending in part on place of birth (foreign- or U.S.-born), parents (immigrant or native), and national origin. According to the CPS data, these native-immigrant differences persist into young adulthood. In particular, the program participation and poverty status of immigrant children is strongly correlated with their program participation and poverty status when they become young adults. But it is not possible, says Borjas, to tell whether the link results from a set of permanent factors associated with specific individuals or groups that tends to lead to "good" or "bad" outcomes systematically over time or from exposure during childhood to adverse socioeconomic outcomes, such as poverty or welfare dependency. Future research must explore the causal impact of childhood poverty on

  13. [Frequency dependance of compliance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayrard, P

    1975-01-01

    Resistance of peripheral or "small" airways is only a small part of the total pulmonary resistance (Raw). Even considerable obstruction in these airways will have little effect on total resistance. Conversely this will lead to inequality in the time constants of units in parallel, and dynamic lung compliance (C dyn) shall fall as respiratory frequence increases. C dyn is measured from simultaneous recordings of transpulmonary pressure (esophageal balloon) and volume obtained from a volume displacement plethysmograph. If Raw and static compliance are found to be normal, the frequency dependance of compliance will result from peripheral airway obstruction only. Early stages of chronic airway obstruction can be established by this method. However this appear not suitable for wide-scale studies.

  14. Helicity dependent parton distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Scopetta, Sergio; 10.4249/scholarpedia.10226

    2011-01-01

    The helicity dependent parton distributions describe the number density of partons with given longitudinal momentum x and given polarization in a hadron polarized longitudinally with respect to its motion. After the discovery, more than 70 years ago, that the proton is not elementary, the observation of Bjorken scaling in the late 1960s lead to the idea of hadrons containing almost pointlike constituents, the partons. Since then, Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) has played a crucial role in our understanding of hadron structure. Through DIS experiments it has been possible to link the partons to the quarks, and to unveil the presence of other pointlike constituents, the gluons, which lead into a dynamical theory of quarks and gluons - quantum chromodynamics (QCD). Polarized DIS, i.e. the collision of a longitudinally polarized lepton beam on a polarized target (either longitudinally or transversely polarized), provides a complementary information regarding the structure of the nucleon. Whereas ordinary DIS pro...

  15. Chemical Dependence and Personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Sancineto da Silva Nunes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relationships between chemical dependency and personalitystructure in a Brazilian sample. Participants were college students (n=35 and patients of a drug recovery center (n= 48. Two personality scales based on the Big-5 Model were used to measure Extraversion and Agreeableness. A semi-structured interview was used to identify events in the patients' life histories that might support specific classifications. Participants' scores were also compared to Brazilian normative samples. The results showed significant differences between clinical and non-clinical groups in Agreeableness, but not in Extraversion. Logistic regression analyses were conducted using scales and interview aspects for predicting group membership. The model showed 92.1% general predictive power. Results pointed to the advantage of using both interview and objective techniques to assess individuals with antisocial personality symptoms.

  16. Torture in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, Jose

    2009-01-01

    This is a review article that studies the problem of torture in children. Torture in children is a significant worldwide problem, but there are no official or reliable independent statistics to measure the magnitude of the problem. The definition of torture in the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment applies to adults and children. The Convention on the Rights of the Child defines children as "every human being below the age of eighteen years". Torture in children happens during peace times and during political violence and war conflicts. The majority of torture victims happen during peace times. The high-risk groups are impoverished children living in the street, children deprived of parental care, children in conflict with the law, and children in detention. During political violence and war the high risk children are the children detained during political violence, child soldiers, children internally displaced in refugee camps, detained children during the war against terrorism and children tortured by peacekeeping forces. The perpetrators of torture in children are the members of the same forces that torture adults, generally the police, civil police, security guards trained by police, prison guards, and military forces. The paper identifies some preventive measure and develops recommendations for action at the local, national and international level.

  17. Emotional Mood and Memory in Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, James C.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Two experiments examined affect-dependent memory in preschool/kindergarten and third-grade children. A two-list intentional learning procedure was used to assess the effects of the congruent versus incongruent relationship between happy versus sad affect during initial list learning and happy versus sad affect during a delayed-recall test.…

  18. Young Children's Understanding of Cultural Common Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebal, Kristin; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Human social interaction depends on individuals identifying the common ground they have with others, based both on personally shared experiences and on cultural common ground that all members of the group share. We introduced 3- and 5-year-old children to a culturally well-known object and a novel object. An experimenter then entered and asked,…

  19. Violence and Young Children's Development. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallach, Lorraine B.

    This digest examines the developmental consequences for children who are the victims of or witnesses to family and community violence. A baby's ability to trust depends upon the family's ability to provide consistent caregiving, which is compromised when the infant's family lives in a community racked by violence. When they reach toddlerhood,…

  20. Young Blind Children: Towards Assessment for Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Iain F. W. K.; Simmons, Joyce Nesker

    1992-01-01

    This article addresses the unique assessment needs of young blind children and discourages dependence on standardized tests for this population. Principles of one assessment approach (involving observation; clinical examination of mobility, language, play, socioemotional development, and academic skills; and interviews with mother and social…

  1. DEHYDRATION IN CHILDREN WITH ACUTE DIARRHEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Khaliullina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the main issues of the regulation of water-electrolyte metabolism in children, possible variants of its disorder in acute diarrhoeal diseases. The clinical features of dehydration depending on the severity and qualitative component of losses are described, recommendations on laboratory diagnosis and treatment are provided. 

  2. Paternal Attachment, Parenting Beliefs and Children's Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Kimberly S.

    2010-01-01

    Relationships between fathers' romantic attachment style, parenting beliefs and father-child attachment security and dependence were examined in a diverse sample of 72 fathers of young children. Paternal romantic attachment style was coded based on fathers' endorsement of a particular style represented in the Hazan and Shaver Three-Category…

  3. Indicators of Sexual Abuse in Children's Rorschach Responses: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billingsley, Ralph C.

    1995-01-01

    Rorschach protocols of 18 sexually-abused children were compared to protocols of 18 clinical controls. Dependent variables included responses with overt sexual contents, sexual symbols, and near-sexual content. Results suggested that the dependent variables, in combination, could differentiate sexually abused children from other groups. Other…

  4. Relationship Between Parents and Preschool Children

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    Nilgun Ongider

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Parents play a key role in the emotional development of child especially in preschool age. There are many related factors in the relationship of child and parent. It is important to understand children’s subjective experiences with their parents. Temperamental characteristics of the mother have an important role to play in the quality of this relationship. Most parents desire to have deep, intimate relationships between their children. Also, children need emo-tional closeness, safety and security. Attachment is the strong emotional bond that develops between child and primary caregiver. The secure attachment style increases the emotional development of child positively and it may serve as a protective factor for psychological well-being. Children’s well-being often depends on how children perceive or interpret their parents behaviors. Poor parenting practices represent some of the most risk factors for psychological problems in childhood. There are many research results show that correlation between the parental negative attitudes and the psychopathology of the children. The present study aimed to review the relationship between parent and preschool children.

  5. Word Learning Deficits in Children With Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Mary; Hogan, Tiffany; Green, Samuel; Gray, Shelley; Cabbage, Kathryn; Cowan, Nelson

    2017-04-14

    The purpose of this study is to investigate word learning in children with dyslexia to ascertain their strengths and weaknesses during the configuration stage of word learning. Children with typical development (N = 116) and dyslexia (N = 68) participated in computer-based word learning games that assessed word learning in 4 sets of games that manipulated phonological or visuospatial demands. All children were monolingual English-speaking 2nd graders without oral language impairment. The word learning games measured children's ability to link novel names with novel objects, to make decisions about the accuracy of those names and objects, to recognize the semantic features of the objects, and to produce the names of the novel words. Accuracy data were analyzed using analyses of covariance with nonverbal intelligence scores as a covariate. Word learning deficits were evident for children with dyslexia across every type of manipulation and on 3 of 5 tasks, but not for every combination of task/manipulation. Deficits were more common when task demands taxed phonology. Visuospatial manipulations led to both disadvantages and advantages for children with dyslexia. Children with dyslexia evidence spoken word learning deficits, but their performance is highly dependent on manipulations and task demand, suggesting a processing trade-off between visuospatial and phonological demands.

  6. Loneliness in Chinese children across contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinyin; Wang, Li; Li, Dan; Liu, Junsheng

    2014-10-01

    This study examined loneliness and its associations with social functioning in children across different historical times and contexts in China. We collected data from urban and rural groups of school-age children (N = 2,588; M age = 10 years) using self-reports and peer assessments. The results indicated that children in 2002 and 2005 urban groups had lower scores on loneliness than did children in 1992 and 1998 urban groups, suggesting that as urban China became a more modernized, self-oriented society, children tended to report lower levels of loneliness. Consistent with this trend, urban children reported lower levels of loneliness than did their rural counterparts in recent years. The analysis of associations between social functioning and loneliness revealed that across groups, sociability was negatively associated with loneliness, and aggression was positively associated with loneliness. The association between shyness and loneliness differed among the groups; it was negative in the 1992 urban group, positive in the 2002 and 2005 urban groups, and nonsignificant in the 1998 urban and 2007 rural groups. The different associations suggest that whether shy children feel lonely might depend on context.

  7. Regression analysis using dependent Polya trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schörgendorfer, Angela; Branscum, Adam J

    2013-11-30

    Many commonly used models for linear regression analysis force overly simplistic shape and scale constraints on the residual structure of data. We propose a semiparametric Bayesian model for regression analysis that produces data-driven inference by using a new type of dependent Polya tree prior to model arbitrary residual distributions that are allowed to evolve across increasing levels of an ordinal covariate (e.g., time, in repeated measurement studies). By modeling residual distributions at consecutive covariate levels or time points using separate, but dependent Polya tree priors, distributional information is pooled while allowing for broad pliability to accommodate many types of changing residual distributions. We can use the proposed dependent residual structure in a wide range of regression settings, including fixed-effects and mixed-effects linear and nonlinear models for cross-sectional, prospective, and repeated measurement data. A simulation study illustrates the flexibility of our novel semiparametric regression model to accurately capture evolving residual distributions. In an application to immune development data on immunoglobulin G antibodies in children, our new model outperforms several contemporary semiparametric regression models based on a predictive model selection criterion. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. The development of theory of mind in deaf children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, P A; Hosie, J A; Gray, C D; Scott, C; Hunter, N; Banks, J S; Macaulay, M C

    1998-09-01

    Deaf children aged 4 to 16 years were given a false-belief test of theory of mind. Although the children experienced difficulty with the test, relative to hearing children, confirming a report by Peterson and Siegal (1995), performance was age-related, with a significantly higher proportion of 13- to 16-year-olds passing the test. It was concluded that deaf children raised in a spoken language environment show a developmental delay in theory of mind acquisition. This delay is consistent with the assumption that their early opportunities for learning about mental states are relatively restricted and that the normal development of theory of mind is dependent upon such opportunities.

  9. [Community acquired pneumonia in children: an update for outpatients management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Noémie; Gehri, Mario; Gervaix, Alain; Guinan, Stéphane; Barazzone-Argiroffo, Constance

    2016-02-17

    Pneumonia should be considered in febrile children with tachypnea and/or chest recession. Virus are the most common cause of pneumonia in children under 5 years old. Streptococcus pneumonia can be found at any age. Mycoplasma pneumonia is more frequent in older children. Systematic chest radiograph is not necessary but must be obtained in patients with hypoventilation and in those with failed initial antibiotic therapy. Mycoplasma pneumonia should be tested according to patient age and response to initial antibiotic. First line antibiotherapy is amoxicilline. Antibiotic treatment is frequently not necessary in children under 5 but should be considered depending on clinical presentation and C reactive protein value.

  10. Anticonvulsants for alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pani, Pier Paolo; Trogu, Emanuela; Pacini, Matteo; Maremmani, Icro

    2014-02-13

    Alcohol dependence is a major public health problem that is characterised by recidivism and a host of medical and psychosocial complications. Besides psychosocial interventions, different pharmacological interventions have been or currently are under investigation through Cochrane systematic reviews. The primary aim of the review is to assess the benefits/risks of anticonvulsants for the treatment of alcohol dependence. We searched the Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group Trials Register (October 2013), PubMed (1966 to October 2013), EMBASE (1974 to October 2013) and CINAHL (1982 to October 2013). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) comparing anticonvulsants alone or in association with other drugs and/or psychosocial interventions versus placebo, no treatment and other pharmacological or psychosocial interventions. We used standard methodological procedures as expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. A total of 25 studies were included in the review (2641 participants). Most participants were male, with an average age of 44 years. Anticonvulsants were compared with placebo (17 studies), other medications (seven studies) and no medication (two studies). The mean duration of the trials was 17 weeks (range four to 52 weeks). The studies took place in the USA, Europe, South America, India and Thailand. Variation was reported in the characteristics of the studies, including their design and the rating instruments used. For many key outcomes, the risk of bias associated with unclear or unconcealed allocation and lack of blinding affected the quality of the evidence.Anticonvulsants versus placebo: For dropouts (16 studies, 1675 participants, risk ratio (RR) 0.94, 95% confidence interval (Cl) 0.74 to 1.19, moderate-quality evidence) and continuous abstinence (eight studies, 634 participants, RR 1.21, 95% Cl 95% 0.97 to 1.52, moderate-quality evidence), results showed no evidence of differences. Moderate-quality evidence suggested that

  11. Children's Learning from Touch Screens: A Dual Representation Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Kelly J; Uttal, David H

    2016-01-01

    Parents and educators often expect that children will learn from touch screen devices, such as during joint e-book reading. Therefore an essential question is whether young children understand that the touch screen can be a symbolic medium - that entities represented on the touch screen can refer to entities in the real world. Research on symbolic development suggests that symbolic understanding requires that children develop dual representational abilities, meaning children need to appreciate that a symbol is an object in itself (i.e., picture of a dog) while also being a representation of something else (i.e., the real dog). Drawing on classic research on symbols and new research on children's learning from touch screens, we offer the perspective that children's ability to learn from the touch screen as a symbolic medium depends on the effect of interactivity on children's developing dual representational abilities. Although previous research on dual representation suggests the interactive nature of the touch screen might make it difficult for young children to use as a symbolic medium, the unique interactive affordances may help alleviate this difficulty. More research needs to investigate how the interactivity of the touch screen affects children's ability to connect the symbols on the screen to the real world. Given the interactive nature of the touch screen, researchers and educators should consider both the affordances of the touch screen as well as young children's cognitive abilities when assessing whether young children can learn from it as a symbolic medium.

  12. Acamprosate for alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Rösner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alcohol dependence is among the main leading health risk factors in most developed and developing countries. Therapeutic success of psychosocial programs for relapse prevention is moderate, but could potentially be increased by an adjuvant treatment with the glutamate antagonist acamprosate. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness and tolerability of acamprosate in comparison to placebo and other pharmacological agents. CRITERIA FOR CONSIDERING STUDIES FOR THIS REVIEW: We searched the Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group (CDAG Specialized Register, PubMed, Embase and CINAHL in January 2009 and inquired manufacturers and researchers for unpublished trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: All double-blind randomised controlled trials (RCTs which compare the effects of acamprosate with placebo or active control on drinking-related outcomes. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently extracted data. Trial quality was assessed by one author and cross-checked by a second author. Individual patient data (IPD meta-analyses were used to verify the primary effectiveness outcomes. MAIN RESULTS: 24 RCTs with 6915 participants fulfilled the criteria of inclusion and were included in the review. Compared to placebo, acamprosate was shown to significantly reduce the risk of any drinking RR 0.86 (95% CI 0.81 to 0.91; NNT 9.09 (95% CI 6.66 to 14.28 and to significantly increase the cumulative abstinence duration MD 10.94 (95% CI 5.08 to 16.81, while secondary outcomes (gamma-glutamyltransferase, heavy drinking did not reach statistical significance. Diarrhea was the only side effect that was more frequently reported under acamprosate than placebo RD 0.11 (95% 0.09 to 0.13; NNTB 9.09 (95% CI 7.69 to 11.11. Effects of industry-sponsored trials RR 0.88 (95% 0.80 to 0.97 did not significantly differ from those of non-profit funded trials RR 0.88 (95% CI 0.81 to 0.96. In addition, the linear regression test did not indicate a significant risk of

  13. THE IMPACT ON PSYCHOPATHOLOGY AND NEURODEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN’S OF ALCOHOL DEPENDENT FATHER

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    Koustubh R.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Children of parents with alcohol dependence syndrome are particularly at high risk of emotional and behavioral problems such as learning disability, hyperactivity, psychomotor delays, somatic symptoms and emotional problems. Neuropsychological functions in these children have been the focus of attention over the last decade. AIM: Aim of this study was to compare the nature and extent of behavioral and cognitive problems in children of men with and without alcohol dependence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Children of patients with Alcohol Dependence Syndrome, with no known psychiatric illness; aged between 5 and 10 years (B oth male & female; with mother having GHQ scores less than 4, formed the study group and control group formed by the children of normal. 108 such Children (54 in Study group and 54 in Control group were evaluated for psychopathology, neuro development and cognitive functioning. Tools used were: DSM IV criteria for diagnosis of Alcohol Dependence Syndrome, Severity of Alcohol Dependence Questionnaire, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ - 28, and Socio - demographic data sheet, Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children – IV (WISC - IV, Trail Making Test (TMT and Neurodevelopment Scale. RESULTS: Behavioral, emotional difficulties and Neuro developmental deficits are commonly seen in children of alcohol - dependent parents as they scored statistically significant high scores on Neurodevelopmental Scale, Externalizing subscale and a marginal high score on Internalizing Subscale of CBCL. On the WISC - IV , there was a statistically significant difference in various subtests and indices including verbal comprehension, perceptual reasoning, working memory, processing speed and total intellectual quotient ; indicating a global dysfunction. On the TMT, children of alcohol - dependent parents took as much time to do the task as the control group but tended to make more errors and this difference is

  14. Analysis of the Functional State of the Gastrointestinal Tract in Children with Bronchopulmonary Dyspasia

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    H.S. Senatorova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The features of the functional state of the gastrointestinal tract in children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia have been analyzed. It has been shown that children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia have significantly lower indicators of physical development than apparently healthy children. The dependence between hypoproteinemia in the blood serum and pathological changes in stool test of children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia was established that should be taken into account during the clinical management of these patients.

  15. Density dependent neurodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halnes, Geir; Liljenström, Hans; Arhem, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The dynamics of a neural network depends on density parameters at (at least) two different levels: the subcellular density of ion channels in single neurons, and the density of cells and synapses at a network level. For the Frankenhaeuser-Huxley (FH) neural model, the density of sodium (Na) and potassium (K) channels determines the behaviour of a single neuron when exposed to an external stimulus. The features of the onset of single neuron oscillations vary qualitatively among different regions in the channel density plane. At a network level, the density of neurons is reflected in the global connectivity. We study the relation between the two density levels in a network of oscillatory FH neurons, by qualitatively distinguishing between three regions, where the mean network activity is (1) spiking, (2) oscillating with enveloped frequencies, and (3) bursting, respectively. We demonstrate that the global activity can be shifted between regions by changing either the density of ion channels at the subcellular level, or the connectivity at the network level, suggesting that different underlying mechanisms can explain similar global phenomena. Finally, we model a possible effect of anaesthesia by blocking specific inhibitory ion channels.

  16. Nicotine dependance among adult male smokers in rural Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gad, Rita R; El-Setouhy, Maged; Haroun, Amany; Gadalla, Shahinaz; Abdel-Aziz, Fatma; Aboul-Fotouh, Aisha; Mohamed, Mostafa K; Mikhail, Nabiel; Israel, Ebenezer

    2003-12-01

    Nicotine dependence is a significant public health problem. This study describes the nicotine dependence status among male adults in rural communities in Egypt. A survey was carried out in five rural villages in Egypt to study the smoking prevalence. A total of 938 current smokers were identified and their nicotine dependence status was studied. About 9% of all smokers in the studied villages were found to have heavy dependence to nicotine. Heavy dependence was associated with younger age of smoking initiation (p<0.05) and more smoking in the first hours of the day (p<0.001). Heavy dependent smokers are less likely to quit smoking (p<0.001), lack the confidence to quit by themselves (p<0.001) and less likely to have tried to quit earlier (p<0.001). Dependent smokers are more likely to smoke in the presence of their children (p<0.001). Reasons for smoking included the habit of smoking helping them to keep them going when tired, to make them alert and not knowing what to do with their hands without a cigarette. The main reasons they identified for restarting smoking after quitting were the signs of withdrawal namely headaches, irritability and difficulty in concentration. Nicotine dependence status and attributes were comparable to studies reported in other countries around the world. Enhanced behavioral and medical intervention strategies are needed to motivate helping both low and heavy nicotine dependent smokers to increase the number and effectiveness of quit attempts.

  17. Narrative processing in typically developing children and children with early unilateral brain injury: seeing gesture matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Özlem Ece; Fisher, Joan A; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Levine, Susan C

    2014-03-01

    Narrative skill in kindergarteners has been shown to be a reliable predictor of later reading comprehension and school achievement. However, we know little about how to scaffold children's narrative skill. Here we examine whether the quality of kindergarten children's narrative retellings depends on the kind of narrative elicitation they are given. We asked this question with respect to typically developing (TD) kindergarten children and children with pre- or perinatal unilateral brain injury (PL), a group that has been shown to have difficulty with narrative production. We compared children's skill in retelling stories originally presented to them in 4 different elicitation formats: (a) wordless cartoons, (b) stories told by a narrator through the auditory modality, (c) stories told by a narrator through the audiovisual modality without co-speech gestures, and (e) stories told by a narrator in the audiovisual modality with co-speech gestures. We found that children told better structured narratives in response to the audiovisual + gesture elicitation format than in response to the other 3 elicitation formats, consistent with findings that co-speech gestures can scaffold other aspects of language and memory. The audiovisual + gesture elicitation format was particularly beneficial for children who had the most difficulty telling a well-structured narrative, a group that included children with larger lesions associated with cerebrovascular infarcts.

  18. Crowded visual search in children with normal vision and children with visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huurneman, Bianca; Cox, Ralf F A; Vlaskamp, Björn N S; Boonstra, F Nienke

    2014-03-01

    This study investigates the influence of oculomotor control, crowding, and attentional factors on visual search in children with normal vision ([NV], n=11), children with visual impairment without nystagmus ([VI-nys], n=11), and children with VI with accompanying nystagmus ([VI+nys], n=26). Exclusion criteria for children with VI were: multiple impairments and visual acuity poorer than 20/400 or better than 20/50. Three search conditions were presented: a row with homogeneous distractors, a matrix with homogeneous distractors, and a matrix with heterogeneous distractors. Element spacing was manipulated in 5 steps from 2 to 32 minutes of arc. Symbols were sized 2 times the threshold acuity to guarantee visibility for the VI groups. During simple row and matrix search with homogeneous distractors children in the VI+nys group were less accurate than children with NV at smaller spacings. Group differences were even more pronounced during matrix search with heterogeneous distractors. Search times were longer in children with VI compared to children with NV. The more extended impairments during serial search reveal greater dependence on oculomotor control during serial compared to parallel search. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Drug Dependence in Adolescents: Changing Trends at a De-Addiction Centre in North India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Sandeep; Basu, Debasish; Mattoo, Surendra Kumar

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: There is scarcity of Indian data on substance dependence in children and adolescents. Methods: Case records of 85 adolescents with the final diagnosis of substance dependence were analyzed (out of 115 registrations during 1978-2003). Results: Time trends showed an increase in individuals with good social support and higher family…

  20. PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN WITH PATHOLOGY OF TONSILS AND ADENOIDS

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    Татьяна Александровна Нагаева

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available There was conducted a study of the physical development of 85 4-6 year old preschool children with pathology of the tonsils and adenoids. Chronic diseases of adenotonsillar system (chronic tonsillitis, chronic adenoids were observed in 40 children, functional pathology (adenoid hypertrophy, hypertrophy of the tonsils – 45 children. Analysis of the parameters of physical development of the examined preschool children showed that 39,2 % of preschool children with diseases of the tonsils and adenoids manifest developmental disabilities, the severity of which depends on the nature of the pathology. Children with chronic diseases of tonsils and adenoids significantly more often have low values of height and weight. Children with functional disorders of adenotonsillar system oftener have high growth parameters, at the same time deviations of mass index of multidirectional nature are equally represented with deficiency (35,6 % and abundant (37,8 % of body weight. There was determined disharmonious physical development among majority of pre-school children (70 % with the pathology of the tonsils and adenoids. The survey results demonstrate the need for a differentiated approach to the assessment of physical development in children with tonsils and adenoids pathology depending on the form of defeat of epipharynx.

  1. FATIGUE AND FAULTY POSTURE CONNECTION AMONG CHILDREN, DIAGNOSED WITH DYSARTHRIA

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    Andrejeva Julija

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To analyze spastic dysarthria form in children population dependency of fatigue and faulty posture relationship. Methods: Research performed with the permission of the bioethics committee (RE-BK-063. The Dutch Fatigue Scale (DUFS. Posture in standing was assessed by Hoeger and Kendall. Research subjects n=40. n=20 children diagnosed with spastic dysarthria and n=20 of children without dysarthria. Their age was 10±2.1years. Boys were n=20 and girls - n=20.Results were statistically significant at p<0.05. Microsoft Office 2013, Excel package were used to count a research results. Results: For children with dysarthria fatigue level is more significant that for children without dysarthria; results were statistically significant, p<0.05. Posture disorder for children with dysarthria was statistically significant higher than among children without dysarthria, p<0.05. Conclusions: For children with dysarthria fatigue level is higher than for healthy children, thus for the girls fatigue level is higher than for the boys. Spastic form dysarthria has an impact to a child posture, by creating a direct dependency between posture deformation and skeletal muscle system disease, which decreases muscle power and increasing fatigue for a child. To correct faulty posture thus to decrease fatigue the tight collaboration needed between rehabilitation team members.

  2. Children's rights in pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streuli, Jürg C; Michel, Margot; Vayena, Effy

    2011-01-01

    The United Nations Convention of Children's Rights (UNCRC) introduced in 1989 has generated a global movement for the protection of children's rights and has brought about a paradigm change in how children are perceived. Pediatric healthcare professionals are interacting with children and therefore with children's rights on a daily basis. However, although at least 18 of the 54 articles are relevant for pediatric practice, there is limited systematic training on how pediatricians can support children's rights in the clinical setting. This article discusses the principles and aims of the UNCRC and proposes a comprehensive checklist of rights vis-à-vis issues that arise in clinical practice.

  3. Context-dependent generalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jordan A; Ivry, Richard B

    2013-01-01

    The pattern of generalization following motor learning can provide a probe on the neural mechanisms underlying learning. For example, the breadth of generalization to untrained regions of space after visuomotor adaptation to targets in a restricted region of space has been attributed to the directional tuning properties of neurons in the motor system. Building on this idea, the effect of different types of perturbations on generalization (e.g., rotation vs. visual translation) have been attributed to the selection of differentially tuned populations. Overlooked in this discussion is consideration of how the context of the training environment may constrain generalization. Here, we explore the role of context by having participants learn a visuomotor rotation or a translational shift in two different contexts, one in which the array of targets were presented in a circular arrangement and the other in which they were presented in a rectilinear arrangement. The perturbation and environments were either consistent (e.g., rotation with circular arrangement) or inconsistent (e.g., rotation with rectilinear arrangement). The pattern of generalization across the workspace was much more dependent on the context of the environment than on the perturbation, with broad generalization for the rectilinear arrangement for both types of perturbations. Moreover, the generalization pattern for this context was evident, even when the perturbation was introduced in a gradual manner, precluding the use of an explicit strategy. We describe how current models of generalization might be modified to incorporate these results, building on the idea that context provides a strong bias for how the motor system infers the nature of the visuomotor perturbation and, in turn, how this information influences the pattern of generalization.

  4. Context-dependent Generalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan A Taylor

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The pattern of generalization following motor learning can provide a probe on the neural mechanisms underlying learning. For example, the breadth of generalization to untrained regions of space after visuomotor adaptation to targets in a restricted region of space has been attributed to the directional tuning properties of neurons in the motor system. Building on this idea, the effect of different types of perturbations on generalization (e.g., rotation versus visual translation have been attributed to the selection of differentially tuned populations. Overlooked in this discussion is consideration of how the context of the training environment may constrain generalization. Here, we explore the role of context by having participants learn a visuomotor rotation or a translational shift in two different contexts, one in which the array of targets were presented in a circular arrangement and the other in which they were presented in a rectilinear arrangement. The perturbation and environments were either consistent (e.g., rotation with circular arrangement or inconsistent (e.g., rotation with rectilinear arrangement. The pattern of generalization across the workspace was much more dependent on the context of the environment than on the perturbation, with broad generalization for the rectilinear arrangement for both types of perturbations. Moreover, the generalization pattern for this context was evident, even when the perturbation was introduced in a gradual manner, precluding the use of an explicit strategy. We describe how current models of generalization might be modified to incorporate these results, building on the idea that context provides a strong bias for how the motor system infers the nature of the visuomotor perturbation and, in turn, how this information influences the pattern of generalization.

  5. Small Talk: Children's Everyday `Molecule' Ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakab, Cheryl

    2013-08-01

    This paper reports on 6-11-year-old children's `sayings and doings' (Harré 2002) as they explore molecule artefacts in dialectical-interactive teaching interviews (Fleer, Cultural Studies of Science Education 3:781-786, 2008; Hedegaard et al. 2008). This sociocultural study was designed to explore children's everyday awareness of and meaning-making with cultural molecular artefacts. Our everyday world is populated with an ever increasing range of molecular or nanoworld words, symbols, images, and games. What do children today say about these artefacts that are used to represent molecular world entities? What are the material and social resources that can influence a child's everyday and developing scientific ideas about `molecules'? How do children interact with these cognitive tools when given expert assistance? What meaning-making is afforded when children are socially and materially assisted in using molecular tools in early chemical and nanoworld thinking? Tool-dependent discursive studies show that provision of cultural artefacts can assist and direct developmental thinking across many domains of science (Schoultz et al., Human Development 44:103-118, 2001; Siegal 2008). Young children's use of molecular artefacts as cognitive tools has not received much attention to date (Jakab 2009a, b). This study shows 6-11-year-old children expressing everyday ideas of molecular artefacts and raising their own questions about the artefacts. They are seen beginning to domesticate (Erneling 2010) the words, symbols, and images to their own purposes when given the opportunity to interact with such artefacts in supported activity. Discursive analysis supports the notion that using `molecules' as cultural tools can help young children to begin `putting on molecular spectacles' (Kind 2004). Playing with an interactive game (ICT) is shown to be particularly helpful in assisting children's early meaning-making with representations of molecules, atoms, and their chemical symbols.

  6. Texting Dependence, iPod Dependence, and Delay Discounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, F Richard; Weatherly, Jeffrey N

    2016-01-01

    We gave 127 undergraduates questionnaires about their iPod and texting dependence and 2 hypothetical delay discounting scenarios related to free downloaded songs and free texting for life. Using regression analyses we found that when iPod dependence was the dependent variable, Text2-excessive use, Text4-psychological and behavioral symptoms, iPod2-excessive use, and iPod3-relationship disruption were significant predictors of discounting. When texting dependence was the dependent variable, Text4-psychological and behavioral symptoms and iPod3-relationship disruption were significant predictors of discounting. These are the first data to show that delay discounting relates to certain aspects of social media, namely iPod and texting dependence. These data also show that across these 2 dependencies, both psychological and behavioral symptoms and relationship disruptions are affected.

  7. Nutritional standard for children with orofacial clefts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowicka, Grażyna; Weker, Halina

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of children with orofacial clefts is a multi-stage process, usually extending over many years and requiring intervention of numerous specialists. Most of the problems in such children before the tissue reconstruction surgery are related to feeding and airway protection during swallowing. Feeding of children with orofacial clefts is the more difficult the more severe the defect is. Such children are at an increased risk of body weight deficit and malnutrition. The aim of the study is to present the nutritional standard for children with orofacial clefts. Feeding principles for children with orofacial clefts: If the clinical state of the child and the emotional state of the mother allow, children with orofacial clefts should be breastfed or bottle-fed with breast milk. If feeding with breast milk is not possible, children should receive appropriate formulas for infants. Their diet can usually be expanded at the same time as in healthy infants and should comply with the nutritional model or standard for children aged 6-12 months. Various feeding techniques are used in children with orofacial clefts, depending not only on the type of the defect, but also the experience of the institution taking care of the child. Such children may require a diet with higher calories due to their increased energy expenditure related to eating. In the case of body weight deficit and/or malnutrition resulting from inadequate diet, a change of the feeding technique should be considered, and, subsequently, a diet modification. The modification may mean an extra formula feeding (in children fed with breast milk) or earlier introduction of supplementary foods. Sometimes a different feeding method than oral feeding must be used, e.g. through a naso-gastric tube or, in extreme cases, a feeding stoma. It is of utmost importance that infants with the said defects gain the optimal body weight before the planned operation, since malnutrition may be a significant reason for delaying the

  8. Use of budesonide Turbuhaler in young children suspected of asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Pedersen, S; Nikander, K

    1994-01-01

    The question addressed in this study was the ability of young children to use a dry-powder inhaler, Turbuhaler. One hundred and sixty five children suspected of asthma, equally distributed in one year age-groups from 6 months to 8 yrs, inhaled from a Pulmicort Turbuhaler, 200 micrograms budesonide......-dose-1, through a filter. The amount of drug trapped by the filter was used as a measure of drug released to the patient. None of the children had prior experience in the use of a Turbuhaler, but they were instructed carefully, together with their parents, in the clinic. The median dose released revealed...... an age-dependent increase, with a considerable scatter. Accordingly, the dose delivered could not be predicted in these young children. The limitation to effective use in young children appeared to be lack of sufficient co-operation, rather than physical limitations, as even some very young children...

  9. Use of budesonide Turbuhaler in young children suspected of asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Pedersen, S; Nikander, K

    1994-01-01

    The question addressed in this study was the ability of young children to use a dry-powder inhaler, Turbuhaler. One hundred and sixty five children suspected of asthma, equally distributed in one year age-groups from 6 months to 8 yrs, inhaled from a Pulmicort Turbuhaler, 200 micrograms budesonide......-dose-1, through a filter. The amount of drug trapped by the filter was used as a measure of drug released to the patient. None of the children had prior experience in the use of a Turbuhaler, but they were instructed carefully, together with their parents, in the clinic. The median dose released revealed...... an age-dependent increase, with a considerable scatter. Accordingly, the dose delivered could not be predicted in these young children. The limitation to effective use in young children appeared to be lack of sufficient co-operation, rather than physical limitations, as even some very young children...

  10. Headache in school children: is the prevalence increasing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Lucia; von Kries, Rüdiger; Heinen, Florian; Straube, Andreas

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this systematic review were to examine age dependency of headache prevalence in school age children and to assess secular trends of headache prevalence in the last decade, gender and regional differences. A literature search was performed in MEDLINE to identify all prevalence studies in children and adolescents. Five hundred seventy studies were found, of which 37 studies could be included for this review. Headache prevalence in school children increases with their age as demonstrated in cohorts of identical children and cross-sectional surveys covering different age groups of children in one population. Regarding a potential general increase in the prevalence of headache in children and adolescents in the last decade, there are four studies which all show some increase of headache prevalence; however, the degree of increase is varying. Prevalence of headache in girls appears to be higher than in boys. There were no clear regional differences in the prevalence of headache.

  11. FINAL REMINDER: Extension/suppression of allowance for dependent child

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 18 or above (or reaching 18 during the 2005/2006 school year) who have not yet provided a SCHOOL CERTIFICATE must do so as soon as possible. If we have not received this certificate by 2 December 2005 at the latest, the child allowance will be withdrawn retroactively as from 1 September 2005. Human Resources Department Tel. 72862

  12. [Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longchong Ramos, M; Castillo Otero, E; Hernández Amador, G; Marinello Vidaurreta, Z

    1980-01-01

    A retrospective study of 85 children with non-Hodgkin' s lymphoma diagnosed and treated in the period of 1963-1974 was undertaken to asses clinical characteristics, pronostic factors and survival. This malignancy was more frequent in males between ages 3 and 4. The histopathologic diagnosis revealed a lymphosarcoma lymphoblastic predominance (77.6%). The clinical extent at diagnosis was 14% for stage I disease, 48% for stage II, 10.6% for stage III and 38.4% for stage IV. The sites of origen were gastrointestinal tract, peripheral lymph nodes, mediastinum, Waldeyer's ring and extralymphatic sites. Leukemic picture developed in 20 children (23.5%) and central nervous system involvement occurred in 19 (23.3%). Survival was not dependant on age or sex. The prognostic value of the histologic type could not be clearly established in the present series. Survival was correlated with clinical stage and anatopmic presentation. The overall 5-year survival was 29%; survival prior to 1968 was 9% compared with 41% for children treated from 1968 to 1974. We conclude that the survival improvement in recent years is dependant on an aggressive multimodal therapeutic approach. Survival of children treated with this procedure reached 52%, compared to 25% for children who received a single agent therapy.

  13. Treating Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Children and Adolescents Go Back Treating Children and Adolescents Email Print + Share For the most part, the ... side effects. Side effects from sulfasalazine may include headache, sun sensitivity rash, or other signs of sulfa ...

  14. Healthy Lifestyle: Children's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Children's health You want your child to eat healthy foods, but do you know which nutrients ... 16, 2016 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/childrens-health/in-depth/nutrition-for-kids/art- ...

  15. Medicines and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medication has been studied for its effects on children. It also tells you what ages have been ... counter products haven't actually been studied in children for effectiveness, safety, or dosing. When you give ...

  16. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are the limitations of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a ... of your child's body. top of page How is the procedure performed? Nuclear medicine imaging is usually ...

  17. Fecal Incontinence in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children and teens in our Learning Center . FAQs Prevalence Causes of Incontinence Childbirth and Delivery Neurologic Disease or Injury Colorectal Cancer Other Contributing Factors Fecal Incontinence in Children Reporter's ...

  18. Cancer immunotherapy in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    More often than not, cancer immunotherapies that work in adults are used in modified ways in children. Seldom are new therapies developed just for children, primarily because of the small number of pediatric patients relative to the adult cancer patient

  19. Separation anxiety in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001542.htm Separation anxiety in children To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Separation anxiety in children is a developmental stage in which ...

  20. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the body. jaundice in newborns and older children. epilepsy . location, anatomy and function of the thyroid gland. ... are most often used in children with cancer, epilepsy and back pain. top of page What does ...

  1. A Children's Rights Movement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    USA Today, 1984

    1984-01-01

    A survey shows that, although no occupational group tested so far approves of all of the proposed laws protecting children, the most accepting were the people who professionally work most closely with children; the least accepting were lawmakers. (RM)

  2. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... used in children with cancer, epilepsy and back pain. top of page What does the equipment look ... being recorded. Though nuclear imaging itself causes no pain, children may experience some discomfort from having to ...

  3. Children's hospice care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong-Dailey, A

    1990-01-01

    Facing the inevitable death of a child is a difficult reality for many parents and health care providers as well. Children's Hospice International offers a variety of information and education services to support the provision of children's hospice care.

  4. Airway reconstruction in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Sanjay

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Background : Airway anomalies are infrequent but potentially life threatening in children. A program to care for these difficult children was set up at our institution, and this paper summarizes our experience. Methods: A total of 34 children were enrolled in the program over a period of three years. These children were evaluated as per the standard protocols. Treatment was individualized. Results: Of these 34 children, 28 had their airways restored and are doing well. Four children continue to remain on tracheostomy and two will require long term tracheostomy. There were two deaths. All children are under surveillance as there is a risk of recurrence. Conclusions: Airway anomalies are complex problems with significant morbidity and mortality. Current therapeutic modalities allow for good results. Most children were successfully decannulated and did well.

  5. Reflux in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... could be GERD. What causes reflux and GERD in children? There is a muscle (the lower esophageal ... contents don't flow back into the esophagus. In children who have reflux and GERD, this muscle ...

  6. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... jaundice in newborns and older children. epilepsy . location, anatomy and function of the thyroid gland. top of ... full size with caption Related Articles and Media General Nuclear Medicine Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography) Epilepsy ...

  7. Children, Time, and Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkind, David; Rinaldi, Carla; Flemmert Jensen, Anne;

    Proceedings from the conference "Children, Time, and Play". Danish University of Education, January 30th 2003.......Proceedings from the conference "Children, Time, and Play". Danish University of Education, January 30th 2003....

  8. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the body. jaundice in newborns and older children. epilepsy . location, anatomy and function of the thyroid gland. ... are most often used in children with cancer, epilepsy and back pain. top of page What does ...

  9. Secondhand Smoke and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Secondhand Smoke and Children Secondhand Smoke and Children Patient Health ... in homes with at least one adult smoker. Smoke’s effect on…... The fetus and newborn Maternal, fetal, ...

  10. Giving Medication to Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Giving Medication to Children Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... the upper limit. back to top Q: Are medications that are intended for children clinically tested on ...

  11. ADHD in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips ADHD in Young Children Use recommended treatment first Language: ... The recommended first treatment for young children with ADHD is underused. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends ...

  12. Children and Facial Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You Children and Facial Trauma Children and Facial Trauma Patient Health Information News ... staff at newsroom@entnet.org . What is facial trauma? The term facial trauma means any injury to ...

  13. Children Teach Children: Learning by Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartner, Alan; And Others

    This book describes current educational programs in which young people have been tutoring younger students; the programs are based on the assumption that children learn more from teaching other children. To the degree that they offer a chance to enact an adult role, teaching tasks can provide reassurance and confidence for many youths. Strategies…

  14. SLOVAK CHILDREN''S LITERATURE IN TRANSLATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KNIAZKOVA V.S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the main milestones of Slovak children's literature and how it is represented in the translation into foreign languages. The work of writers who have contributed to the development of children's literature most of all is analyzed in the article, as well as the work of the translators who have contributed to the promotion of Slovak literature abroad.

  15. SLOVAK CHILDREN''S LITERATURE IN TRANSLATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kniazkova V.S.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the main milestones of Slovak children's literature and how it is represented in the translation into foreign languages. The work of writers who have contributed to the development of children's literature most of all is analyzed in the article, as well as the work of the translators who have contributed to the promotion of Slovak literature abroad.

  16. Cholecystectomy in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ainsworth, Alan Patrick; Axelsen, Anne Reiss; Rasmussen, Lars

    2010-01-01

    It is recommended that children with typical clinical signs of biliary colic should be offered surgery if gallstones are present. The aim of this study was to describe a population of children having undergone cholecystectomy.......It is recommended that children with typical clinical signs of biliary colic should be offered surgery if gallstones are present. The aim of this study was to describe a population of children having undergone cholecystectomy....

  17. Cholecystectomy in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ainsworth, Alan Patrick; Axelsen, Anne Reiss; Rasmussen, Lars

    2010-01-01

    It is recommended that children with typical clinical signs of biliary colic should be offered surgery if gallstones are present. The aim of this study was to describe a population of children having undergone cholecystectomy.......It is recommended that children with typical clinical signs of biliary colic should be offered surgery if gallstones are present. The aim of this study was to describe a population of children having undergone cholecystectomy....

  18. Psychological violence against children

    OpenAIRE

    Jurkovič, Sabina

    2012-01-01

    The topic of my thesis is a study of how parents and primary school teachers perceive and identify psychological abuse of children. Psychological abuse is an especially sensitive area because children do not perceive interpersonal relations and activities in their environment in the same way as adults. Children also do not possess the physical or psychological power required to withstand or defend themselves against different forms of violence, abuse and harassment. Children who are the victi...

  19. Relation between Socioeconomic Status of Parents and Health of Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Zulkifle

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The wealth of country in terms of man power totally depends upon the children, the future citizen. Apart from this, children also determine the socio-cultural values of the future. Physical, mental and social well beings of the children are closely related to the socioeconomic well beings of the parents. To know the Relationship between socioeconomic status of parents and health of children of Government primary school of Bangalore, a one-time observational cross sectional study was conducted in the three primary schools of Kottigepalya. 456 children were included in the study. A complete physical examination of the children was done and deviations from normal were recorded. A large number, 319 (69.96%, school children were found to be sick, in which 39 (12.23% children were belonging to SES lower middle (III, 239 (74.92% were to SES upper lower (IV and 41 (12.85% children were to SES lower (V. This results show that the SES of parents is truly affects the health of children.

  20. Treating Children Fairly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Barbara L.

    1991-01-01

    Examines whether children are receiving less than their share of public resources, considering (1) how the economic situations of children and the elderly have changed; (2) effects of insufficient resources and causes of disparities in treatment of young people; and (3) proposals for increasing society's investment in children. (SLD)

  1. Cow's milk and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milk and children; Cow’s milk allergy - children; Lactose intolerance - children ... You may have heard that cow's milk should not be given to babies younger than 1 year old. This is because cow's milk doesn't provide enough of certain ...

  2. Helping Children Understand Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allers, Robert D.

    1980-01-01

    Children of divorced parents may bring many problems along when they come to school. Teachers can recognize these troubles and help children learn to handle them. They may be able to help children better understand their feelings about their parents' divorce. (CJ)

  3. Ptosis - infants and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blepharoptosis-children; Congenital ptosis; Eyelid drooping-children; Eyelid drooping-amblyopia; Eyelid drooping-astigmatism ... Ptosis in infants and children is often due to a problem with the muscle that raises the eyelid. A nerve problem in the eyelid can ...

  4. Literature with Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Monroe D., Ed.

    Articles concerning the teaching of literature to children are presented. "Providing Balanced Contacts with Literature for Children" covers the potential of literature in the curriculum. In "The Classics in Children's Literature," a classic is defined as a book or story or poem that usually has long outlived its author. "Fostering Lifetime Reading…

  5. Canadian Children's Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Libraries in Canada, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Includes 15 articles that relate to Canadian children's literature, including the power of literature; using Canadian literature in Canada; the principal's role in promoting literacy; Canadian Children's Book Centre; the National Library of Canada's children's literature collection; book promotion; selection guide; publisher's perspective; and…

  6. Children's Empowerment in Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, Natalie

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the level of empowerment and autonomy children can create in their play experiences. It examines the play discourses that children build and maintain and considers the importance of play contexts in supporting children's emotional and social development. These aspects of play are often unseen or misunderstood by the adult…

  7. Children Worldwide, 1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejeune, Genevieve, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    Each of the three journal issues comprising volume 19 (1992) of "Children Worldwide" focuses on a specific theme. Issue 1 contains six articles about refugee children, including essays about a community self-help approach in Pakistan, unaccompanied minors in Hong Kong, and refugee families raising children in a new culture; guidelines…

  8. Children's Theories of Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurland, Suzanne T.; Glowacky, Victoria C.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate children's theories of motivation, we asked 166 children (8-12 years of age) to rate the effect of various motivational strategies on task interest, over the short and long terms, in activities described as appealing or unappealing. Children viewed the rewards strategy as resulting in greatest interest except when implemented over…

  9. Parenting Young Gifted Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Linda Kreger

    1986-01-01

    Provides information on the following for parents and care-givers of gifted children: (1) recognizing giftedness; (2) dealing with nongifted children in the family; (3) effect of chronic early ear infection on IQ; (4) introversion; (5) "normalizing" gifted children; (6) need for gifted peers; and (7) responsive parenting. A list of guidelines for…

  10. Nordic Children's Foodscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Barbro; Mäkelä, Johanna; Roos, Gun

    2009-01-01

    A study of the different food messages that children encounter and their own reflections of these messages was carried out among fifty-nine children from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden.The children took photos of their "foodscapes," including school, home, shops, streets, cafés and restauran...

  11. Children's Theories of Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurland, Suzanne T.; Glowacky, Victoria C.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate children's theories of motivation, we asked 166 children (8-12 years of age) to rate the effect of various motivational strategies on task interest, over the short and long terms, in activities described as appealing or unappealing. Children viewed the rewards strategy as resulting in greatest interest except when implemented over…

  12. Counseling with Exceptional Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarver-Behring, Shari; Spagna, Michael E.

    2004-01-01

    Children and adolescents with disabilities are an extremely heterogeneous group of diverse learners, each with unique learning strengths and needs. Often misunderstood and frequently less served by the counseling profession, these children and adolescents need counseling services just as much as, if not more than, other children. Federal…

  13. Literature for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomone, Ronald E., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    The 15 articles in this journal issue deal with children's literature. Among the topics and titles discussed are (1) Virginia Hamilton's books, (2) the new realism in children's literature, (3) gender bias in children's books, (4) teaching "Where the Wild Things Are" to adults, (5) language use in "Alice in Wonderland," (6) "Mom, the Wolf Man and…

  14. On Japanese Children's Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanare, Shigeo

    This report, given at a special meeting held in Tehran, presents data and facts concerning yearly publications (books, magazines, and textbooks), translations, and illustrations of Japanese children's literature. The report then discusses at length recent trends in children's literature and library activities for children in the past, present, and…

  15. Bullying among Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Janis R.

    2002-01-01

    Notes that teachers have differing views toward children who bully. Addresses characteristics of bullies and their victims, incidences of bullying among children, the effects of bullying on children, and recommendations for teachers' support, including school-wide, classroom, and individual interventions. (DLH)

  16. Bad Air For Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Dorothy Noyes

    1976-01-01

    Children are especially sensitive to air pollution and consequences to them maybe of longer duration than to adults. The effects of low-level pollution on children are the concern of this article. The need for research on the threat of air pollution to childrens' health is emphasized. (BT)

  17. On Children Writing Poetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, John

    1983-01-01

    Discusses two approaches to teaching poetry writing to children: a method approach that molds children's creativity into acceptable forms, and an experimental approach that allows children to try out personal feelings and different forms, which is more conducive to their perceptions, creativity, and developing sense of self. (HTH)

  18. Prehension in young children with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, K; Gentile, A M

    2003-01-01

    Prehension was examined in 3-year old children with Down syndrome (DS, n = 3) and in typically-developing children matched in chronological age (3-year olds; n = 3) or mental age and motor experience (2-year olds; n = 3). The task required reaching to grasp dowels. Video-based movement analysis yielded temporal and kinematic measures. Children with DS were hypothesized to have deficits in feedback-dependent components of prehension (anticipatory grip-closure and deceleration of reach), whereas feedforward components (reach's acceleration phase; grasp's preshaping) were assumed to be unimpaired [Latash, 1993, Control of human movement, pp. 283-292; Latash, 1994, What is clumsiness? In: Motor Control and Down Syndrome II Proceedings of the second international conference, pp. 68-71]. The findings supported these hypotheses. In comparison to control groups, children with DS had significantly: (a) less time in deceleration of reaching, (b) fewer anticipatory grip-closures, and (c) longer movement times for dowel-lift. Young children with DS appeared to use dowel-contact to decelerate the limb and initiate grip-closure. In contrast, reach-acceleration time and grasp-preshaping did not differ across groups. These findings suggest that children with DS display qualitative differences in motor capabilities rather than simply a delayed rate of typical developmental progression.

  19. Open systems dependability dependability engineering for ever-changing systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tokoro, Mario

    2015-01-01

    The book describes a fundamentally new approach to software dependability, considering a software system as an ever-changing system due to changes in service objectives, users' requirements, standards and regulations, and to advances in technology. Such a system is viewed as an Open System since its functions, structures, and boundaries are constantly changing. Thus, the approach to dependability is called Open Systems Dependability. The DEOS technology realizes Open Systems Dependability. It puts more emphasis on stakeholders' agreement and accountability achievement for business/service cont

  20. [ESRD in children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harambat, J; Hogan, J; Macher, M-Al; Couchoud, C

    2013-09-01

    This chapter provides indicators to describe the specificity of End Stage Renal Disease in children in France and to study these patients'outcome and the choices of treatment modalities. In 2011, the incidence and the prevalence of ESRD among patients under 20 years old remained stable at 8 and 53 pmp respectively. The first causes of ESDR remain uropathies and hypodysplasia followed by glomerulonephritis and genetic diseases. Considering the initial treatment, we found a high rate of hemodialysis and a low rate of peritoneal dialysis that is mainly used in younger children. In 2011, 31 preemptive transplantations were performed accounting for 27.7% of new patients. Finally, survival analysis confirm that younger children (under 4 years old) have the highest risk of death (88% survival rate at 2 years vs. 98% in patients over 4 years old) and that the treatment of choice remains the renal transplantation since it increases the expected remaining lifetime of 20 to 40 years depending on the considered age. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.